Middle English Dictionary Entry

tāken v.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. ataken v., bitaken v., itaken v., oftaken v., ontaken v., outtaken v., overtaken v., undertaken v., uptaken v., withtaken v.
1a.
(a) To grip, take hold; ~ to, clutch at (sb.), hold tight to; also, grasp [transl. of L adprehendere]; (b) to take hold of (sb. or sth.), grasp with the hand(s, grab; pick (sb. or sth.) up, lift up; also fig. & in fig. context; ~ bridel with teth, fig. take the bit between one's teeth (to do sth.); ~ in (on) honde, grasp (sth.) in one's hand, hold in one's hand; also, with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ to (unto), take (sb. or sth.) to oneself, hold close; fig. take to oneself (that which may conduce to malice or heaviness of heart), embrace (equity, wisdom); (c) ~ abouten the nekke (swire), to embrace (sb.) about the neck; ~ bi honde, take (sb.) by the hand or hands; ~ bi the bridel, get control of (a horse) by grasping its bridle; also, hold (a horseman) by grasping the bridle of his horse; ~ bi the helm, grab (sb.) by the helmet; ~ bi the kne, clasp (sb.) by the knee; ~ bi the nose, interrupt (sb.); ~ bi the reine, take hold of (a horse) by grasping its reins; ~ bi the sleve, hold (sb.) by the sleeve, pluck (someone's) sleeve to engage his or her attention; ~ bi the tail, grab (Antichrist) by the tail; ~ bi the temples, grab (sb.) about the temples; ~ bi the top, grab (sb., oneself) by the hair; ~ honde bi honde, refl. join hands; ~ in (on) armes, embrace (sb., a statue, etc.); ~ in honde, take (sb.) by the hand, take hold of (sb.) with (one's) hand, shake hands with (sb.) [cp. OI taka i hendr]; also, take (sb.) in one's company [quot. a1325]; ~ in lappe, take (a bird) into (one's lap); ~ in-to armes, take (an infant) into (one's) arms, hold; ~ in winges, of a bird: enfold (another bird) in its wings, embrace; ~ inwith armes, encircle (sth.) with (one's) arms; ~ to (with) honde, take hold of (sb.) with the hand;—used fig.; (d) with selected adverbs: ~ adoun, to pull down (a wall); ~ doun, help (sb.) dismount from a horse, lift down; take (sb.) down from a cross; lower or take down (a sail, mast, etc.); dismantle (a structure), tear down; ~ to, lift up (someone's spirit); take into one's hand (a stick) [quot. c1384, 1st]; ~ up, lift up (sb. or sth.), pick up; pull up (a sapling, tent); dig up (bones), disinter (a corpse); raise (sb., an idol) to a standing position; raise (one's hand); ben taken awei from, ben taken up of, be lifted up from (the earth); (e) ~ armes (sword, wepenes), ~ armures until us, to take up arms (a sword, weapons), join battle; ~ armure, take arms; also, enter military service [quot. a1398]; also fig. & in fig. context; ~ crois, ~ cros on honde, become a bishop or an archbishop; (f) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the chief semantic sense [sometimes difficult to distinguish from (a)]: to take something (and do sth. else); take (sth. and do sth. to it or perform some operation with it); cook. & med. take (an ingredient or an amount of sth. and do sth. to or with it); (g) in proverbs.
1b.
(a) To pick up and put or place (sb. or sth. on oneself, one's back, etc.), take up in order to carry; also fig.; ~ in bosom (sleve), put (stones) into (one's) bosom (the sleeve of one's garment) in order to carry them concealed; ~ in nekke, hang (a cudgel) around one's neck; (b) to touch (sb. or sth.), lay the hand on; also in fig. context; (c) with inf.: to put (sth. in a place to do sth.); (d) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb: to take (one's finger and do sth. with it); (e) ~ on honde in, to plant (sth.) in (a trench), place, set.
1c.
(a) To penetrate, pierce; penetrate and stick (in a surface); ~ in-to, of a sword's pomel: stick in (the earth); of a blade: stick in (the flesh); ~ until, of a swordpoint: pierce to (the throat); (b) of a portion of a shield: to receive (a thrusting spear), catch; (c) of a surface: to receive (painted figures).
1d.
Fig. Of a person: to be grasping, be greedy.
2a.
(a) To seize someone by force; take someone into custody, make an arrest; seize (sb., a soul, etc.), take with force; apprehend (sb.), arrest; capture (sb.), take (sb.) prisoner; also, have (sb.) seized; also fig.; bring (a woman) forcibly into one's household [quot. a1325(c1250)]; in partitive construction with of phrase: seize some of (our knights); ~ hostages, take hostages; ~ plegge, take (sb.) hostage; ~ prisoner, take a prisoner; also, take (sb.) prisoner; with adverbs: ~ awei, capture (sb.); ~ bitwene, intercept and seize (sb.); ~ up, seize (sb.), arrest; also, with selected prep. phrases: ~ bi bodi, seize (sb.) bodily; ~ in (in-to, to) hostage, ~ to baille, take (sb.) into (one's) custody by putting up bail, go bail for (sb.); ~ to plegge, take (sb.) into custody as a hostage, take (sb.) hostage; ben taken in baille to, be taken into (someone's) custody on bail put up by (that person), be held on bond to (sb.); ben taken in honde, be made captive; (b) to catch (sb.) in wrongdoing, discover or detect (sb. doing sth. illegal, sinful, etc.); ~ at (in, with), catch (sb.) in (a wrongful act, falsehood, etc.); convict (sb.) of (a crime, heresy); ~ in tale (wordes), catch (sb.) making an inconsistent or improper remark; taken of insuspecioun, of the eyes: detected or caught out indulging in secret suspicions; traitour taken and preved, a detected and proven traitor; (c) ~ til, to impute responsibility to (sb.), hold accountable; (d) to find (sb.), discover; recover (a friend), find again; as he is taken, as he finds himself, according to his circumstances; (e) ben taken, game. of a person: to have one's game piece or pieces captured, lose one's piece;—in fig. context; (f) in proverbs.
2b.
(a) To prevail; of love, sickness: take hold, afflict someone; ~ on, take effect on (sb.); ~ over, prevail over (one's resolve), overcome; (b) of death, sleep, etc.: to overcome (sb.); of a sickness, pain, etc.: afflict (sb., the body); of venom: infect or poison (sb.); of drink: overcome (the brain), intoxicate; also, with adv.: ~ up, of sudden death: take (a household), overwhelm; ben taken, be oppressed with thirst; ben taken in (with), be afflicted with (a condition, sickness, etc.); ben taken with disposicioun toward, be disposed to (a pathological condition); (c) of the devil, an evil spirit, elf, etc.: to take control of (sb., a soul), possess (sb.); of God: take custody of (sb.); of divine anger, a curse, temptation, etc.: overpower (sb.), overwhelm; ben taken of (with), be possessed by (the devil, an evil spirit, etc.); (d) of an emotion, a fit of weeping, desire, sloth, etc.: to overcome (sb.); of someone's person or attributes: cause (sb.) to be overcome with desire, captivate; of a development, an event: overwhelm (sb.); taken upon, overcome by grief; (e) to win over (sb., a soul by trickery), hoodwink, deceive.
2c.
Fig. To seize (one's advantage); ~ time, take advantage of (one's) opportunity.
3a.
(a) To take possession of something, esp. selfishly, wrongfully, or forcibly; steal; also, in partitive construction with of phrase: ~ to hem of, appropriate to themselves some of (Holy Church's goods); finden litel to ~ to, find little to appropriate, find little to plunder; (b) to seize (a castle, ship, city, etc.) by military action, capture; take possession of (sth.) by force; confiscate (goods, money), take (spoils); arrest (a ship); steal (sth.); also fig.; also, appropriate (sth. for one's own use); with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (to), appropriate (sth.) to (oneself); ~ preie, seize booty, steal an object [see also preie n.(2) 1.(b)]; also, with adverbs: ~ awei (up), seize (sth.) by force, arrest (a ship); ~ in, appropriate (a piece of land) wrongfully, encroach on illegally; (c) to accede (to rulership) [1st quot.]; gain rulership over (a kingdom); ~ coroune, take the crown, become ruler; ~ ever-lasting lif, fig. lay hold upon everlasting life, seize the eternal life; ~ possessioun, acquire territory, get control of a piece of property; gain a kingdom; also, gain possession (of sth.); ~ seisine (seisinge), take seizin, take possession or control; establish one's authority [quot. a1425 Siege Troy(1)]; ~ to (upon), take to (oneself rulership of an empire or a kingdom); (d) ~ in (in-to) honde (possessioun), to take (sth., a country) into one's possession, seize, take control of; confiscate (goods); (e) chess to capture (a piece) in chess; ~ up.
3b.
(a) To appropriate (a right); ~ upon hem-self licence, take to themselves license (to do sth.); (b) ~ place, to take (someone's) place, replace (sb.);—used fig.
4.
(a) To capture prey [quot. ?c1450]; capture and kill (an animal) in a hunt, hunt (prey) to kill, get (meat, venison) by hunting; catch (fish, a bird, etc.); also, capture alive (wild horses); seize (an animal) in order to slaughter it; of an animal, a bird of prey, spider: catch (prey), seize (another animal, bird, etc.); of a net: take (a fish, bird), ensnare; of a cobweb: catch (an insect); also in conventional comparisons and proverbs; ~ nede of, catch a needed amount of (fish); also, with adv.: ~ up, seize and slaughter (a horse as meat for hawks); ppl. taken as adj., in phrase: huntinge taken, prey which is caught, the spoils of the hunt; (b) fig. to hunt and catch (sb.), snare (sb., someone's foot), fish for and catch (a soul, the devil), pursue (a shadow).
5.
(a) To strike a blow, smite; make an attack; strike (sb.); attack (sb.) in battle; defeat (sb.) in combat, overthrow; strike (sb.) dead, kill; also, fig. of a sword: overtake (sb.), strike (sb.) down; ~ a stroke, deal (sb.) a blow; ben taken with dint of ded, die; (b) to spur (a horse); also, pat (a horse on the hindquarters) [quot. c1405]; ~ with spores, kick or strike (a horse) with the spurs; (c) ~ bite, of a spear: to strike a blow, hit; ~ honde with, ?attack against (sb.).
6a.
(a) To obtain (sth.), get; gain (victory), win (a prize); (b) to ask for and obtain (permission to leave); also fig.; ~ conge, ask for and obtain permission to leave; take (one's) leave, depart; ~ conge of (to), ~ conge and licence of, request permission to go from (sb.); take (one's) leave of (sb.); ~ leve, ask for and obtain permission to go, take (one's) leave; bid farewell; depart; also, abandon (sth.), quit [quot. c1475 (?a1440)]; die [quots. 1372 & ?a1400(a1338)]; ~ leve at (from, of, on), take leave of (sb. or sth.), bid farewell to (sb. or sth.); leave or abandon (sb. or sth.) [see also leve n.(2) 2.(b), (c)]; (c) in phrase with inf.: ~ leve, to ask for and obtain permission (to go, depart, etc.); (d) ~ avis (avisement, counseil), to obtain advice, get counsel; ~ red, get advice; also, with hou clause: get advice how (one might do sth.); (e) to procure (temporary lodgings on behalf of oneself or another person), hire; ~ (on) in, ~ up logginge; ~ hostel to his lordes honde, procure lodgings for his lord's use; (f) to rent (property), take a lease on, gain the use of in return for a fixed payment; ~ to ferme, law procure the use of or revenues from (a piece of property, tenement, town, etc.) in return for a fixed payment.
6b.
(a) To have a share, participate, partake; ~ of, partake of (earthly things, sexual gratification, etc.); participate in (virtuous acts); (b) ~ part, to have a share, participate; ~ part of, have a share in (sth., the Holy Spirit), partake of; also, participate in (the life of grace); take part in (the church).
6c.
To acquire (a habit), fall into.
7.
(a) To lead or bring (sb., an animal) to or from a place, bring (sb.) somewhere; bring (sb.) along, escort (sb.); with inf.: carry (Christ) off (to suffer death), lead away; also, with indirect obj.: take (sb. with oneself), take (sb. in one's company) [quot. c1300]; fig. of discretion: guide (sb. in a matter) [quot. 1460]; ~ apart (bisides, on side), take (sb.) aside; ~ awei (forth), lead (sb.) away (forth); ~ bodi to religioun, take (one's) body to the religious life, enter a religious order; ~ in, bring (sb.) inside; ~ in a counseil, bring (sb.) before a council; ~ in privete, take (sb.) aside privately; ~ oute, lead (sb.) out of a place; ~ over, transfer (sb. to a place), bring or carry away; ~ til (to), as prep.: carry off (a soul) to (hell); escort (sb.) to (sb.); lead or bring (sb.) to (prison); ~ to, as adv.: take (sb.) along (to a place) [quot. a1500(?a1325)]; ~ until, transport (Jesus' earthly flesh) to (God); (b) to lead (a band of troops, an army, etc.) in an action; assemble (an army, a group, etc.) prior to an action; ~ the first ward (the fore-warde), lead the first division, take the vanguard; with adverbs: ~ to, assemble or lead (a number of troops); ~ up, levy (troops); (c) to go and get (sb. or sth.), fetch; have (sb.) brought before one, summon (sb.); also, with indirect obj.: summon (sb. to oneself) [quot. c1440]; (d) to bring (sth.), carry (sth.) along; also fig.; take (sth. to a place); transport (a load); with adverbs: ~ in, bring (a captured ship) to port; ~ mid, bring (sth.) along, bring with one; (e) to bring (sb.) forward, produce (sb. in assertion of a claim); show (sth.), present; offer (sth.); also, with indirect obj.: show (sb. sth.), present (sth. to sb.); ~ forth (oute), bring (sth.) forward, present; bring (sth.) out, get out for use; ~ hider hondes and fet, offer (one's) hands and feet (to be bound); ~ oute of tonge, fig. put forth (what one has in one's heart) by means of (one's) tongue, speak out; (f) of a finger: to guide (a loop of silk thread through another loop) in lacemaking; of a road: convey (sb.); —used fig.; ~ to eres, make (a text) accessible to (someone's) ears; (g) of someone's inclinations: to conduce (to sth.); (h) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the chief semantic notion: to take or get (sb. and do sth. else).
8.
(a) To receive (sb.) into one's company, care, etc.; take (a city) under one's protection; admit (sb.) to a guild, religious house, etc.; accept (sb.) to one's employ, tutelage, or service; accept (sb.) as a suitor of one's daughter [2nd quot.]; of God, Christ: receive (someone's soul), take (sb.) to himself, take (sb.) under his protection; of the earth: receive (sb.) in burial; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ to (until), take (sb.) to (oneself), take (sb.) under (one's) protection; with adverbs: ~ in, receive (sb.) into one's household or service; also, of a grave: receive (a body), take in; ~ ner, become familiar or intimate with (sb.); ~ to, receive (sb.) into one's company; of God: take (sb.) to himself; ~ up, protect (sb.); (b) ~ at the font-ston, to receive (a child) at the baptismal font, stand as sponsor to; ~ in bondehede (theinhede), receive (sb.) into servitude; ~ in cure, ~ in (in-til, until) kepinge, ~ in ward, take (sb.) under one's care or protection, look after (sb.); ~ in-to (to) felaushipe, accept (sb.) as an associate; ~ in-to frendshipe, take (sb.) for a friend, enter into friendship with (sb.); ~ in-to lore, take (sb.) under one's tutelage; ~ in-to (to) servise, receive (sb.) into one's service or employ; ~ on honde, take (sb.) on as a patient, give medical care to; ~ to covenaunt, receive (sb.) into one's service or employ under legal contract; ~ to gest, receive (sb.) as a guest; ~ to lef, take (sb.) as (one's) lover; (c) ~ in-to pite, to be merciful to (sb.); ~ to (unto) grace, be merciful to (sb.); receive (sb.) with good will, grant one's good will to; of God: receive (sb.) into (his) grace; ~ to (unto) merci, pardon or forgive (sb.), be merciful to (a city); have mercy on (a lover), give (a lover) his desire; also, of God: receive (one who has died) into (his) presence [quots. c1450 & 1458]; ~ up to grace, accept (sb.) with love, love (sb.); (d) ~ to, to take on (an apprentice), take into one's employment; ~ with, look after (sb.), take care of; also, of God: receive (sb. who turns to him); (e) ~ til (to) herte, to take (sb.) to one's heart, hold (sb.) dear; (f) to take dominion over (animals), subjugate; (g) ppl. takinge as adj., in phrase: takinge gate, ?receiving gate, admitting gate [prob. from misunderstanding of L capenus adj. as if from capere; could also be construed as taking(e ger.].
9a.
(a) To be given something, receive; receive grain for grinding [quot. c1390]; receive reward, compensation, alms, wages, etc.; also, receive a customs payment [quot. 1399]; make money by charging interest [quot. c1425]; takinge side, the side that receives; (b) to receive (sth., money, tithes, wages, etc.), be given (sth.); receive (profit, emoluments, etc.); also, in selected phrases: ~ availe (avauntage, benefice), receive a benefit (an advantage); law receive a legal advantage or specific privilege deriving from one's legal status; (c) to be given (a blessing, promise, forgiveness, etc.); receive (love, honor, homage, etc.); receive (understanding of Holy Writ, God's grace, the Holy Spirit, an animating spirit, a soul); also, take on (original sin or the stain of original sin from Adam), derive; of Moses: be given (God's law, the Commandments); of God: be given (glory, worship, etc.); ~ heven to mede, receive heaven as (one's) reward, be rewarded with salvation; ~ lessoun, receive a lesson, be taught a lesson; ~ place of biriinge, be buried; ~ terme unto, be granted time until (a certain date); (d) to collect (sth., money, a rent, tax, etc.); gather (herbs, sap, etc.); ~ togeder, gather (things) together, assemble; ~ up, gather up (grain, supplies), collect (fines); (e) to exact (tribute, tithes, etc.); ~ feute(s, exact a public acknowledgment of fealty; ~ homage(s (servises), exact homage (allegiance); ~ rente, fig. of the devil: exact (his) due; (f) in phrases: ~ assuraunce, to exact or receive a pledge; ~ feith, exact or receive a formal pledge of fealty; ~ man-reden (oth), exact or receive a pledge of service (an oath); also, witness (someone's) sworn statement as to the veracity of a claim [last quot.]; (g) ~ birthe, to receive (one's) birth, be born; ~ bote, receive remedy or relief [quot. a1400(a1325), 1st]; also, receive a cure, be cured [2nd quot.]; ~ consolidacioun, of a wound: close up, heal; ~ hele (helthe, stat of helthe), regain health, be cured; ~ hele at, be cured by (sb.); ~ lif, be born; ~ memorie, receive (good) memory; ~ sighte, recover (one's) sight; (h) to receive (a penance assigned by a confessor); ~ bapteme (baptist), receive baptism, be baptized; ~ circumcisioun, be circumcised; ~ rites, receive the last rites of the church; ~ sacrament, receive the sacrament of baptism or matrimony; ~ stat of penaunce, be penitent; (i) to make a purchase, buy; also, purchase (sth.); ~ bi taille, buy on credit; ~ to the verrei valeu, purchase (sth.) at a price reflecting its true value, buy at a fair price; ~ up, buy up (sth.); (j) to receive (a name); ~ of, derive (a name) from (sth.); also, fig. ?derive (one's life) from (the mystical body which is the church); (k) ~ of, of a woman: to conceive (a child) by (sb.); of a man: have (a son) by (sb.); (l) of a ship: to take on a load (of sth.); ~ charge, of a cart: receive or take on a load, load up; (m) to take (a university degree), be awarded; (n) in proverbs and prov. expressions.
9b.
(a) To accept (sth., money, a gift, bribe, etc.); take (goods, land, etc. as security or for ransom); of God: accept (a sacrificial offering, tithe); also in proverbs; also, accept something [quot. c1450 Abyde I hope]; ~ at worth (to queme), accept (sth., a sacrifice) graciously, accept with good will; ~ in (to) gre, accept (offerings, someone's service) with good will; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ til (to), take (sth.) to (oneself), accept; also, keep (sth.) for (oneself); also fig.; (b) ~ borwing, to take a loan, borrow; ~ oker (okeringe, usure), accept interest on money or goods loaned; also fig.; (c) to accept (God's grace); ~ herte (pleie), accept (someone's love, amorous advances); ~ in gre (worth), accept (what God sends, Fortune's conditions) with good grace; ~ treuth, accept (a woman's consent to marriage); (d) to accept (a penance assigned by a confessor), acquiesce in; ~ at (in) gre, accept (a judgment) with good will; (e) ~ for answere, to accept (sth.) as (a final) answer; ~ for seurte, accept (a promise, someone's word) as surety.
10a.
(a) To put on (a garment, clothing, etc.), don; wear (a kind of clothing); fig. of Christ: put on (the clothing of humanity), become incarnate; of law: wear (a double face), be two-sided; ~ habit, put on a religious habit, enter a religious house, become a monk, nun, etc. [see also habit n. 1.(c)]; ~ monk his (palmeres) wede, adopt a monk's (pilgrim's) dress, become a monk (pilgrim); ~ religious clothing, put on religious costume, ?become a hermit; ~ the mantel and the ring (weren, of a married woman or widow: assume a robe and ring upon formal profession of perpetual chastity; vow chastity;—also used of a pagan goddess [last quot.]; ~ veil, take the veil, become a nun; (b) with prep. phrases: ~ on, to put (clothing) on (oneself); ~ upon, fig. of a zodiacal sign: wear (stars) upon (its head); with adverbs: ~ on, put on (a garment, vestments, etc.), don; ~ to, put on (a garment) [transl. of L assumere]; ~ up (upon), take up (a fashion of clothing), adopt, take to wearing; (c) to receive (a mark upon a part of the body); ~ crois, ~ (the signe of the) cros, don the cross, go on a crusade; ~ tonsure, receive the tonsure, be tonsured; (d) of God, Christ: to assume (mortal kind, human nature, a human body, etc.), receive (human flesh, blood, etc.), take (incarnation); ~ flesh (man-kinde) upon, take human flesh (human nature) upon (himself), become incarnate; ~ the kinde of, assume the nature of (angels); (e) of a creature: to be given (a particular nature), receive; of a tree, fruit, etc.: derive (its nature from its root or the earth); ~ an other nature, of blood: assume a different condition.
10b.
(a) To assume (a form, likeness); assume (the figure, likeness, shape, etc. of sb. or sth.); take on (the color of sth.), turn (a specified color); acquire (a flavor or an odor); ~ forme, of Lucifer: assume the form (of a serpent); also, with adv.: ~ up, take on (a color); (b) ~ bere, to take (one's) manner, conduct oneself; (c) ~ fir, to catch fire; also fig.; ~ fir and leie, of a precious stone: become fiery; (d) to acquire (value).
11a.
(a) To select (sb.), choose (sb. for a position, duty, etc.); elect (sb. to an office); choose (sb.) by lot;—also refl.; also in proverbs; ~ a wif to min sone, choose a wife for my son; ~ for, take (sb.) for (an ally, a queen, etc.); ~ sondes-man of, choose a messenger from (persons); ~ to him on sones stede, take (sb.) to himself in a son's place, adopt (sb.) as a son; ~ to honour, select (sb.) for an honor or high position; also, with adv.: ~ oute, pick out (knights for a mission), select, choose; (b) ~ part, to take the side (of sb.); ~ part with, side with (sb.); ~ partie, choose a side in a conflict; ~ stat, choose a way of life, choose one's state; (c) with obj. plus noun complement: to choose (sb. as or for sth.); ~ hous-bonde (lord, wif, etc.), take (sb.) as a husband (lord, wife, etc.); ~ spouse (spousesse), fig. take (wisdom) as a spouse, espouse (wisdom); (d) to marry (with sb.); take (sb.) as one's spouse, marry, wed; also, take (a new love); fig. take (Christ) as a spiritual spouse; of an animal: take (another) as a mate; ~ for, take (sb.) for (one's husband or lord); ~ for spouse, fig. of St. Francis: espouse (poverty); ~ in, take (sb.) in (a moral or proper love-relationship, marriage); ~ til spouse, fig. of Christ: espouse (sb.) spiritually; ~ to, take (sb.) as (a lover, husband, wife, etc.); ~ to lord, fig. of a woman: take (Christ to oneself) as a spiritual bridegroom; ~ to mariage, fig. of Christ: wed (sb.) in a spiritual union; ~ to spouse, take (sb.) as a spouse, wed (sb.); also, fig. of Christ: espouse (a devout soul); ~ unto make, take (sb.) for a mate, marry; also in proverbs; (e) to wed (a husband, wife);—also refl.; also in proverbs; wed illegally or irregularly (someone else's wife); take (a mate); of concubines ~ as mani as, take as many concubines as (one can govern); (f) to have sexual relations with (sb., an animal); also, ravish (a woman, someone else's wife), take by force; of a bull: mount (a cow), mate with; ~ with, have sexual intercourse with (sb.); (g) ~ togeder, to cohabit, live together as man and wife.
11b.
To select (sth. in order to make some calculation with it).
12.
(a) To consume food or drink; partake (of food or drink, of a vessel of drink); ingest (sth.), eat, drink; also fig.; partake of (an amount or portion of food, drink, etc.); have (a meal), take (a drink); of a fetus: take (nourishment through the maternal blood); also, ingest (poison, medicine, etc.); take and hold (an amount of some substance in one's mouth); ~ and eten, take and eat (sth.); ~ assai of, take a ceremonial taste of (sth.); ~ bi mouth, take (medicine) by mouth, take orally; ~ crommes, take (one's) crumbs, eat heartily; ~ outrake o, partake of excess of (food, drink); ~ refeccioun, take nourishment; also fig.; ~ taste of, swallow some of (a drink); ~ tiring, of a hawk: pull or tear at a tough morsel of food; with prep.: ~ with, eat (food); with adverbs: ~ in, ingest (sth.); also fig.; ~ to, eat (food) [transl. of L assumere]; ~ within, take (a medicine) internally; (b) Bibl. & eccl. to partake (of the cup of wine at the Last Supper, of Christ's flesh and blood); partake of (the eucharistic elements, Christ's body, etc.); in phrase: ~ and eten, partake of the body of Christ; ~ and eten o, partake of (the bread at the Last Supper); ~ the sacrament, of Judas: partake of the bread and wine at the Last Supper; of a Christian: receive the sacrament of the Eucharist, take communion; with prep.: ~ with, partake of (the eucharistic food); (c) fig. to receive (the cup of health, cup of penance), partake of.
13.
(a) To undergo (sth.); be subjected to (sth.), suffer; ~ carping, suffer (someone's) rebuke; ~ chastiinge (discipline, etc.), suffer castigation (penitential chastisement, etc.); ~ chaunginge of, be subject to alteration by (sth.), be altered by; ~ damage (wrong), suffer injury, be damaged; suffer a loss; ~ ded (deth, ende, laste endinge, fin), suffer death, die; ~ dom (sentence), receive a sentence; ~ eclipse, undergo eclipse; also fig.; ~ harm, sustain an injury, be injured or damaged, suffer harm; ~ harm of nakedhede, suffer nakedness; ~ juwise, suffer a penalty; ~ lordshipe, astrol. of the moon: be subjected to the domination (of other planets); ~ no defoule, of water: suffer no pollution, be unpolluted; ~ part, suffer a fortune or lot in life; ~ part with, suffer fortune with (sb.), share (someone's) lot; (b) to be dealt (a blow), receive (a stroke); also in proverbs; ~ tripet, be tripped up; ~ wound, fig. suffer a wound of love; (c) to become ill (with melancholy), be overcome; contract (a disease), catch; be afflicted with (an illness or a pathological condition, thirst), suffer, incur; also fig.;—also impers.; ~ (a) cold, catch a chill, become pathologically cold or chilled; ~ corrupcioun, become infected; ~ siknesse with, catch a sickness from (sth.); ~ universel hete, grow hot all over, become overheated; (d) of a transgression: to receive (punishment); (e) to undergo (some physical process); ~ a swete, alch. undergo a process of dehumidification; ~ souringe, of dough: to undergo leavening, be leavened.
14a.
(a) To endure; ~ in pacience, ~ pacientli, be patient; with prep.: ~ with, accept (a misfortune), submit to; (b) to accept (a development, misfortune, lot, etc.); submit to (sb. or sth.); endure (pain, bodily infirmity, etc.); cope with (a difficulty) [quot. c1425]; also, with that clause: accept (that sb. does sth.); ~ at (in) gre, endure (sth.) with good will; ~ aventure, take (one's) chances, accept (one's) fate [see also aventure n. 1.(b)]; ~ aworth, endure (pain, persecution, etc.) with forbearance; also, bear (a rebuke) patiently; ~ chaunce (eure, part, etc.), submit to (one's) fate, accept (one's) lot; ~ in mirthe, bear (sth.) cheerfully; ~ in pacience (tholemodnesse), bear (sth.) patiently; with inf.: suffer with equanimity (to live or die); (c) in proverbs and prov. expressions.
14b.
To agree to something, accept an arrangement; ~ to the fight, accept a combat, agree to.
14c.
With prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (upon), take (blame, suffering, etc.) upon (oneself), assume, incur.
15a.
(a) To hear [quot. c1400]; hear (sth., a word, confession, etc.); pay attention to (sth.); of the ear: receive (a sound); of God: hearken to (a prayer); ~ at herte, take (someone's prayer) to heart, hear favorably; ~ a word to werre, hear a dubious rumor; ~ in (to) eres, listen to (sth.), give ear to; (b) to behold, perceive visually; see (sth.); of God: perceive (the tears of a petitioner); ~ heven, behold the heavens;—used in fig. context; ~ sighte of, get a view of (sth.); ~ to, look at (sth.); ~ up, of a glance: take in (persons), survey; (c) of the brain or its faculties: to receive (impressions from the senses), accept, recognize; ~ impressioun, of a person: receive a mental image or an emotional impression; (d) of a vein: to receive (blood from another vein); of a nerve: ?receive (matter), absorb; ppl. takinge as adj., of a bodily organ: structured to receive or hold something, receptive; receiving bodily fluid; (e) in phrases: ~ ayen, to recover (consciousness); ~ breth (onde, wind), catch (one's) breath, take a breath; ~ in, inhale (air).
15b.
(a) With adv.: ~ with, of the earth: to receive (the seed), be sown; (b) of the moon: to receive (light), derive; ~ of, of the moon, moonlight: take (light, brightness) from (the sun); of a fallen angel: receive (light) from (the air); astrol. of a planet: receive (strength, comfort) from (another planet); of a star: receive (a quality, characteristic) from (Mars), derive; (c) of a person: to receive (heat from the sun); of the earth: take in (sth.); ~ to, of the sun: take back (light, heat) to (itself), recover; (d) of a river: to have (its source in a place); ~ in-to (to), receive (tributaries flowing) into (itself); (e) ben taken, of a wind: to be located (in relationship to another wind); (f) to admit (sunlight directed toward a part of an instrument).
15c.
In phrases: ~ the air, of a person: to take in the fresh air, expose oneself to the fresh air, go outdoors for refreshment or recreation; of an object: be exposed to the air [see also air n.(1) 3.(b)]; ~ the wind, expose oneself to the wind, go out in the wind.
16.
(a) To incline emotionally or mentally; ~ to (til), take to (an emotion, state of mind), feel; ~ to pride, be arrogant; (b) to be filled with (an emotion), have (a feeling), be in (a mental or an emotional state);—in selected phrases: ~ aue of, be respectful of (God); ~ boldnesse (hardiment), be emboldened; ~ bourde for, be amused at (sth.), be entertained by; ~ chere more comfortabli, assume a more cheerful frame of mind; ~ chere on honde, become cheerful; ~ comfort, take comfort, be comforted; ~ delectacioun (delite) of, ~ plesire(s in, ~ plesire of, take pleasure from (sth.); ~ disese, be unhappy, feel upset; ~ displesaunce ayenes (of), take offense at (sb. or sth.), feel rancor toward, be offended by; ~ displesir with, be angry with (sb.); ~ drede in (of), feel apprehension about (sth.), be worried about; ~ gladinge, enjoy oneself; ~ gladnesse of, derive (one's) happiness from (sth.); ~ herte, take heart, gain or regain courage, pluck up one's courage; ~ hevinesse, take offense; also, feel sorrow; ~ hope, have hope, be hopeful; ~ hope of, hope for (sth.); ~ ire for, be angered by (sth.); ~ joie, be delighted, take pleasure; also, take (one's) pleasure; ~ love of (to), fall in love with (sb.); ~ lust of (toward), be filled with desire for (sth.), take pleasure in (sth.); ~ modiʒleʒc of, be arrogant on account of (sth.); ~ mon for, be anxious about (sth.); ~ nith til (with, yen), ~ wrath til (yen), be hostile toward (sb.), be resentful of; ~ offense of, take offense at (sth.), be offended by; ~ parcialte ayen, be prejudiced against (sb.); ~ pite of, take pity on (sb. or sth.); ~ pride ayenes, feel arrogant toward (sb.); ~ repentaunce, feel remorse, be contrite; ~ savour in, take delight in (sth.); ~ sorwe (thought), feel sorrow, be sad; ~ trust, take courage; ~ trust of, trust (sb.); ~ wonder of, be shocked or surprised at (sth.); (c) in phrases with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ boldhede (herte) to, ~ corage upon, to take boldness (courage) to (oneself), be emboldened, take heart; ~ comfort to, take to (oneself) comfort, be comforted; ~ hope to, take to (oneself) hope, feel hopeful; ~ lighter chere to, ~ sorwe to, take better cheer (sorrow) to (oneself), feel more cheerful (sorrowful); ~ mon to, take to (oneself) anxiety, worry; ~ spirit unto, get hold of oneself, control one's emotions, take one's courage in hand; (d) ~ at (neigh to, til, to) herte, to take (sth.) to heart, be moved by, feel keenly about; ~ world to entente, embrace the world, be well disposed to worldly things.
17a.
(a) To assent, accede; pursue a course, apply oneself, commit oneself; with prep. phrases: ~ til (to), commit oneself to (a religion, rite, that which is good, etc.), assent to, follow, pursue; also, refl. take oneself to (the wearing of coarse clothing, hunting, etc.), resort to; commit oneself to (poverty, a penance, the points of a religious rule, etc.), devote oneself to (an activity, a way of life, etc.); put credence in (Holy Writ); ~ to assent, with inf.: come to an agreement (to do sth.); ~ unto, refl. commit oneself to (religion); ~ with, believe in (Christ, Christ's teachings, God's word, etc.), assent to (penance); also, with inf.: consent (to do sth.), assent; (b) to accept (a god); accept (a religious faith, tenets, doctrine, etc.), assent to; convert to (a religion); adopt (a way of life, a life of virtue, poverty, etc.), pursue (good as opposed to evil); avail oneself of (the privileges of marriage); agree with (a manner of medical treatment); ~ pacience, adopt a patient manner, be patient; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ to, take (Christ) to (oneself), accept (Christ); (c) in phrases with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ abstinence (charite, meknesse, pacience) to, to take abstinence (charity, meekness, patience) to (oneself), practice in (one's) life; ~ compassioun (obedience, tirannie) upon, take upon (oneself) compassion (obedience, sternness), be compassionate (obedient, unmerciful); (d) to accept (testimony) as true; also, with inf.: acknowledge (sb. to be rightful heir); ~ counseil til (to) paie, accept counsel willingly; (e) ~ credence (feith), to have faith.
17b.
(a) To follow (someone's advice, one's own counsel); also in proverbs; ~ avis (counseil, red); ~ discrecioun, follow the discretion or judgment (of sb.); ~ resoun (skil), follow reason, act reasonably; ~ to counseil, refl. betake oneself to (someone's) counsel, heed (someone's) advice; (b) to adopt (a course of action, plan, etc.); ~ avising, refl. with inf.: decide (to do sth.); ~ conclusioun, with that clause: decide (that one will do sth.); ~ counseil, make a plan; also, with inf.: decide (to do sth.); ~ on wei or other, follow one course or another, take one way or another; ~ purpos, resolve on a course of action, make a plan, adopt a course of action; also, with inf. or that clause: resolve (to do sth., that one do sth.) [see also purpos n. 1.(f)]; ~ red, adopt a course of action; make a decision; with inf. or that clause: resolve (to do sth., that one do sth.) [see also red n.(1) 2a.(b)]; (c) ~ til red, refl. adopt a plan; ~ to red, usu. refl. adopt a course of action, make a plan; with inf. or that clause: decide (to do sth., that sth. occur) [see also red n.(1) 2a.(c)]; (d) to heed (God's word), follow; honor (a truce), observe.
18.
(a) To assume (an office, a position, duty, etc.); also fig.; accept (a challenge); take up (a craft); also, assume responsibility for the truthfulness of (a book) [quot. a1400(a1325), 1st]; ~ a reule as for capitain, assume command of a ship; ~ charge (cark), assume an obligation or a responsibility, vouch [see also charge n. 3a.(b)]; ~ honour, assume an exalted position; ~ ordre(s, take holy orders, be ordained;—also iron. [2nd quot.]; also, assume the role of an apostle [quot. ?a1450] [see also ordre n. 7.(c)]; ~ ordre of knight, ~ ordre and degre of knighthode, become a knight; ~ ordre of prest, ~ ordre (testament) of presthede, be ordained priest; ~ ordre of widwehede, vow to remain a widow; ~ pouere, assume authority; ~ religioun, join a religious order; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (to, upon), take to (oneself responsibility, mastery, authority, etc.); take up (the practice of medicine) [quot. 1421]; ~ upon hire the office for to speken, take upon herself the responsibility to speak; also, with adv.: ~ on charge, take on responsibility; ~ to the craft, take to the craft, take up the craft; (b) to incur the blame or guilt for (wickedness); ~ curs of laue in flesh, of Jesus: take the curse of God's law on (his) flesh, incur guilt (for mankind); with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (unto), take upon (oneself a sin, care, etc.); with adv.: ~ to, incur the blame for (someone's wickedness) [transl. of L assumere].
19.
(a) To conceive (a desire, a sorrow); take (a notion); with inf.: ~ a devocioun, desire (to do sth.); ~ herte (talent), take a notion (to do sth.), form a desire (to do sth.); (b) in selected phrases: ~ avis (avisement, counseil, thought), to take thought, ponder, reflect; ~ ground upon, base an argument upon (certain words); also, of an undertaking: be based upon (sth.); ~ kithinge with, recognize (sb.); ~ knouleche of (unto), recognize (sb. or sth.); also, remember (sb. or sth.) [quot. a1500]; ~ minde of, turn (one's) mind to (Jesus), be mindful of; ~ no doute, have no doubt, rest assured; ~ wit, with that clause: deduce (that sth. is so); (c) to take (counsel) together; in selected phrases: ~ avis (deliberacioun), ~ counseil (togeder, confer together, consult with others, take counsel, deliberate together; ~ rath bitwene, ~ red bitwixen, take counsel among (themselves); ~ red with, take counsel with (sb.), consult with; (d) ~ to counseil, to take (sb.) to counsel, consult with (sb.); also, refl. take counsel; ~ to red, consult;—also refl.
20.
(a) To derive (sth., a quality), draw; draw (a narrative from a source); ~ of, derive (sth.) from (sth.); med. elicit (information, evidence) from (the pulse); (b) to derive (spiritual understanding from prophecy); ~ bisne at (bi, o, of), ~ bisning bi (o), ~ fore-bisne of, learn a lesson from (sb. or sth.), take example from; ~ ensaumple, take example, learn a lesson; with inf.: take something as a precedent (to do sth.); ~ ensaumple at (of), learn a lesson from (sb. or sth.); also, follow the example of (sb.); with inf.: take example from (sb. to do sth.); ~ ensaumple bi, learn a lesson from (sb. or sth.); also, interpret (sth.) as a sign [quot. a1400(a1325), 3rd]; ~ gostli wit of, derive spiritual understanding from (a literal prophecy); ~ the moralite, draw the moral, elicit the spiritual significance of something; (c) to infer (sth.); ~ bi, infer (sth.) from (a text); ~ of, with inf. or that clause: infer from (a reported fact that there is justification to do sth.), take the notion from (a text that one will do sth.); (d) gram. ~ of, of a relative: to take (its gender) from (a preceding noun), derive from; ~ part (partie) of, of a participle: take some features or characteristics from (another part of speech).
21.
(a) To distinguish (sth., a difference between things or classes of things); ~ difference (diversite), make a distinction, distinguish; (b) ~ difference, of types of a condition: to be differentiated (with regard to sth.); ~ diversite, of surgical aids: differ (according to the end for which they are made).
22.
(a) To understand, comprehend; understand (sth.), take the meaning of; also, understand (sth.) in a certain way, interpret, construe; also fig.; with obj. and noun complement: interpret (sth. as sth. else); ~ to understondinges, understand (names) according to (two) interpretations, take (names) in (two) senses; with adverbs: ~ amis (wrong), understand (sth.) wrongly, misinterpret; ~ a-right (proprelie), interpret (sth.) aright (properly); (b) in selected phrases: ~ for, to understand (sb. or sth.) to signify or stand for (sb. or sth. else), interpret to mean; also, understand (sth.) to be (sth.); also, recognize (sb.) as (sth.) [quot. c1400(?c1380)]; ~ in, fig. see (sb.) in (sth. else), understand (sb.) to be meant by (sth.); ~ in-to, understand (sth.) to be (sth.); ben taken in reprevinge of, be construed as a reproof of (sb.); (c) ~ for, to mistake (sb. or sth.) for (sb. or sth. else), confuse (sb. or sth.) with (sb. or sth. else); also in proverbs; (d) to learn by observation.
23.
(a) To consider, take thought (in one's mind); also, turn one's attention to (sth.); think on (sth.), consider; take (sth. into one's mind, thought, remembrance), mark (sth.), take note of; ~ afore, anticipate (that sth. is the case); ~ biforen, imagine (sth.) [transl. of L praesumere]; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ upon, think to (oneself) about (sth.), consider (sth.); (b) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the chief semantic notion: take (sb. or sth.) as an example (and do sth.), consider the case of, note (sth. and do sth. else); (c) to believe (sth.); also, assume (sth.), suppose; with that clause: be of the opinion (that sth. is so), hold (that sth. is the case), assume; ~ and holden; ~ untreu, believe (someone's word) untrue; (d) in selected phrases: ~ as, to regard (sb.) as (a kind of person), consider (sth.) to be (part of sth. else); ~ biforen, regard (sb.) as superior to (sb. else); ~ for (as for, to), consider (sb. or sth.) as (God), regard (sb.) as (a type of person), perceive to be; also, regard (sth.) as (folly, truth, etc.); consider (sth.) to be (certain, efficacious); also in proverbs; ~ hit so that, deem it thus that (sth. is the case), be of the opinion that; ~ in gret worshipe, hold (sb.) in great esteem; (e) ~ for god, to take (what sb. says) to be for (one's own) good, consider to be for (one's) good; ~ for (as for) reule, take (sth.) as a rule, consider to be a rule; (f) ~ to-gederes, to regard (things) all together as a unit, combine for a certain purpose; taken togeder, considered or reckoned together, all told.
24.
(a) To have or make an emotional or a mental response to someone or something, a circumstance, remark, etc.; react to something in a certain way;—used with selected adverbs: ~ agre, take something in good part; ~ agref, take umbrage, be annoyed; ~ agref of, be annoyed at (sth.); ~ hevili, be indignant, take umbrage; ~ lighte of, fail to take (sb.) seriously, take (sb.) lightly; also, with selected prep. phrases: ~ in despit (gref, grevinge), ~ to ille (pine, spite, etc.), take offense, be resentful; (b) to react to (a letter) in some manner; (c) with selected adverbs: ~ agame, to take (sth.) as a joke, take lightly; ~ agre, receive (someone's views) favorably; ~ agref (amis), take (sth., a remark) amiss, resent (sth.); ~ aworth, accept (someone's actions, the fact of having a lowly position, etc.) with good will; with that clause: take in good part (the fact that sb. does sth.); also, take (someone's words) at their proper value; take (tidings) for what they are worth; ~ godli, take (what sb. writes) in a goodly manner; ~ hevili (harde), be displeased at (a demand, an act); ~ ivel til herte, take (a remark) with ill grace; ~ lighte (wisli, etc.), take (sth.) lightly (wisely, etc.); ~ pensili, receive (tidings) with sorrow, be made sad by; ~ sadli, take (sth.) seriously; (d) with selected prep. phrases: ~ at (in, to) gref, to take (sth.) amiss, take umbrage at, take offense at [see also gref n. 3.(b)]; ~ at (in a, on) scorn, take (sth.) as an insult or as mockery; ~ at worth, take (someone's words) at their proper value; ~ for the best, take (sth.) for the best, accept good-naturedly, make the best of; ~ in bourde (game, pleie), take (sth.) as a jest, take lightly; ~ in despit (disdeine), be disdainful of (sth.); take (sth.) amiss; ~ in (to) displesaunce, resent (sth.), be displeased with; ~ in ernest, take (sth.) seriously; ~ in (to) reputacioun, hold (sb. or sth.) in esteem; ~ in-to (til, to) ille, ~ for (to) ivel, take (sth.) amiss; ~ on aue, regard (sth.) with fear; ~ on idel (unnit), ~ in vein, take (sth.) lightly, fail to appreciate; ~ to hevinesse, regard (sth.) with vexation, be vexed at; ~ to presumpcioun, regard (words) as presumptuous; ~ to thank, take (sth.) favorably, be gratified by; ~ to wrath, be angry at (sth.); ~ with ivel wille, take (a warning) amiss, resent; ~ with treuth, believe (sth.).
25.
To pay (heed, attention), take (notice, note);—in selected phrases: (a) ~ entente, to pay attention [see also entente n. 6.(a)]; ~ gome, take notice [see also gome n.(4) 1.(a)]; ~ hed, take heed, take note, notice [see also hed n.(2) 1.(a)]; ~ his marke, take his measure, take note of him; ~ kep, pay attention, take note [see also kep n. 1.(a)]; ~ markes, ?be vigilant; ~ reward, take heed, pay attention [see also reward n. 3.(d)]; ~ tente (yeme), take note, pay attention; (b) followed by selected prepositions: ~ attendaunce (attente, taste, tene) to, ~ consideracioun of (unto), ~ charge (garde, gete, marke, remembraunce, yeme) of, ~ respecte unto, ~ tente on (til, to, unto), to take notice of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to, observe; ~ cure of, take note of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to [see also cure n.(1) 1.(a)]; ~ entente to, pay attention to (sb. or sth.) [see also entente n. 6.(a)]; ~ gome of, take notice of (sb. or sth.) [see also gome n.(4) 1.(b)]; ~ hed at (of, on, til, to, unto, upon), pay heed to (sb. or sth.), take note of [see also hed n.(2) 1.(a)]; ~ kep of (to), take notice of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to [see also kep n. 1.(c)]; ~ reward at (of, to), take notice of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to [see also reward n. 3.(d)]; (c) followed by hou, if, that, what, etc. clause: ~ entente (gome, hed, kep, tente) hou, to take note how (sb. does sth.); ~ hed if, take heed if (sb. does sth., sth. is the case), notice if; ~ hed (kep, tene) that, take note that (sb. does sth., sth. is the case, etc.); ~ hed whan, note when (sb. does sth.); ~ hed (kep, remembraunce, tente) what, take note what (sb. does, sth. is, etc.); ~ hed (kep) whether, take note whether (sb. does sth., sth. is the case); ~ marke who, take note who (is in a certain place); also, followed by clause introduced by interrog.adj.: ~ consideraunce what man, pay attention to what man (does sth.); ~ entente what sondes, note what messengers (are sent); ~ yeme what thinges, take note what things (are promised); also, followed by prep. and obj.clause: ~ hed abouten what (ayenes whom, of that, etc.), ~ kep in what time (in which place), ~ yeme with hou gret smel; (d) in proverbs.
26.
(a) To have a capacity; ~ with, contain (a number of measures);—used fig.; ppl. takinge, capacious; (b) to contain (sth., a measure, etc.), hold; also fig.; of a nerve or tendon: surround (a joint).
27.
(a) To include (sth.); also, include (a country) with others in a discussion, throw in [1st quot.]; (b) to encompass (human speech).
28.
To require (a period of time), require (effort or time for building).
29.
(a) To take down (an account from sb. of his days of service), make record of; (b) ?to review (reeve rolls), examine.