Middle English Dictionary Entry

tāken v.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. ataken v., bitaken v., itaken v., oftaken v., ontaken v., outtaken v., overtaken v., undertaken v., uptaken v., withtaken v.
1a.
(a) To grip, take hold; ~ to, clutch at (sb.), hold tight to; also, grasp [transl. of L adprehendere]; (b) to take hold of (sb. or sth.), grasp with the hand(s, grab; pick (sb. or sth.) up, lift up; also fig. & in fig. context; ~ bridel with teth, fig. take the bit between one's teeth (to do sth.); ~ in (on) honde, grasp (sth.) in one's hand, hold in one's hand; also, with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ to (unto), take (sb. or sth.) to oneself, hold close; fig. take to oneself (that which may conduce to malice or heaviness of heart), embrace (equity, wisdom); (c) ~ abouten the nekke (swire), to embrace (sb.) about the neck; ~ bi honde, take (sb.) by the hand or hands; ~ bi the bridel, get control of (a horse) by grasping its bridle; also, hold (a horseman) by grasping the bridle of his horse; ~ bi the helm, grab (sb.) by the helmet; ~ bi the kne, clasp (sb.) by the knee; ~ bi the nose, interrupt (sb.); ~ bi the reine, take hold of (a horse) by grasping its reins; ~ bi the sleve, hold (sb.) by the sleeve, pluck (someone's) sleeve to engage his or her attention; ~ bi the tail, grab (Antichrist) by the tail; ~ bi the temples, grab (sb.) about the temples; ~ bi the top, grab (sb., oneself) by the hair; ~ honde bi honde, refl. join hands; ~ in (on) armes, embrace (sb., a statue, etc.); ~ in honde, take (sb.) by the hand, take hold of (sb.) with (one's) hand, shake hands with (sb.) [cp. OI taka i hendr]; also, take (sb.) in one's company [quot. a1325]; ~ in lappe, take (a bird) into (one's lap); ~ in-to armes, take (an infant) into (one's) arms, hold; ~ in winges, of a bird: enfold (another bird) in its wings, embrace; ~ inwith armes, encircle (sth.) with (one's) arms; ~ to (with) honde, take hold of (sb.) with the hand;—used fig.; (d) with selected adverbs: ~ adoun, to pull down (a wall); ~ doun, help (sb.) dismount from a horse, lift down; take (sb.) down from a cross; lower or take down (a sail, mast, etc.); dismantle (a structure), tear down; ~ to, lift up (someone's spirit); take into one's hand (a stick) [quot. c1384, 1st]; ~ up, lift up (sb. or sth.), pick up; pull up (a sapling, tent); dig up (bones), disinter (a corpse); raise (sb., an idol) to a standing position; raise (one's hand); ben taken awei from, ben taken up of, be lifted up from (the earth); (e) ~ armes (sword, wepenes), ~ armures until us, to take up arms (a sword, weapons), join battle; ~ armure, take arms; also, enter military service [quot. a1398]; also fig. & in fig. context; ~ crois, ~ cros on honde, become a bishop or an archbishop; (f) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the chief semantic sense [sometimes difficult to distinguish from (a)]: to take something (and do sth. else); take (sth. and do sth. to it or perform some operation with it); cook. & med. take (an ingredient or an amount of sth. and do sth. to or with it); (g) in proverbs.
1b.
(a) To pick up and put or place (sb. or sth. on oneself, one's back, etc.), take up in order to carry; also fig.; ~ in bosom (sleve), put (stones) into (one's) bosom (the sleeve of one's garment) in order to carry them concealed; ~ in nekke, hang (a cudgel) around one's neck; (b) to touch (sb. or sth.), lay the hand on; also in fig. context; (c) with inf.: to put (sth. in a place to do sth.); (d) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb: to take (one's finger and do sth. with it); (e) ~ on honde in, to plant (sth.) in (a trench), place, set.
1c.
(a) To penetrate, pierce; penetrate and stick (in a surface); ~ in-to, of a sword's pomel: stick in (the earth); of a blade: stick in (the flesh); ~ until, of a swordpoint: pierce to (the throat); (b) of a portion of a shield: to receive (a thrusting spear), catch; (c) of a surface: to receive (painted figures).
1d.
Fig. Of a person: to be grasping, be greedy.
2a.
(a) To seize someone by force; take someone into custody, make an arrest; seize (sb., a soul, etc.), take with force; apprehend (sb.), arrest; capture (sb.), take (sb.) prisoner; also, have (sb.) seized; also fig.; bring (a woman) forcibly into one's household [quot. a1325(c1250)]; in partitive construction with of phrase: seize some of (our knights); ~ hostages, take hostages; ~ plegge, take (sb.) hostage; ~ prisoner, take a prisoner; also, take (sb.) prisoner; with adverbs: ~ awei, capture (sb.); ~ bitwene, intercept and seize (sb.); ~ up, seize (sb.), arrest; also, with selected prep. phrases: ~ bi bodi, seize (sb.) bodily; ~ in (in-to, to) hostage, ~ to baille, take (sb.) into (one's) custody by putting up bail, go bail for (sb.); ~ to plegge, take (sb.) into custody as a hostage, take (sb.) hostage; ben taken in baille to, be taken into (someone's) custody on bail put up by (that person), be held on bond to (sb.); ben taken in honde, be made captive; (b) to catch (sb.) in wrongdoing, discover or detect (sb. doing sth. illegal, sinful, etc.); ~ at (in, with), catch (sb.) in (a wrongful act, falsehood, etc.); convict (sb.) of (a crime, heresy); ~ in tale (wordes), catch (sb.) making an inconsistent or improper remark; taken of insuspecioun, of the eyes: detected or caught out indulging in secret suspicions; traitour taken and preved, a detected and proven traitor; (c) ~ til, to impute responsibility to (sb.), hold accountable; (d) to find (sb.), discover; recover (a friend), find again; as he is taken, as he finds himself, according to his circumstances; (e) ben taken, game. of a person: to have one's game piece or pieces captured, lose one's piece;—in fig. context; (f) in proverbs.
2b.
(a) To prevail; of love, sickness: take hold, afflict someone; ~ on, take effect on (sb.); ~ over, prevail over (one's resolve), overcome; (b) of death, sleep, etc.: to overcome (sb.); of a sickness, pain, etc.: afflict (sb., the body); of venom: infect or poison (sb.); of drink: overcome (the brain), intoxicate; also, with adv.: ~ up, of sudden death: take (a household), overwhelm; ben taken, be oppressed with thirst; ben taken in (with), be afflicted with (a condition, sickness, etc.); ben taken with disposicioun toward, be disposed to (a pathological condition); (c) of the devil, an evil spirit, elf, etc.: to take control of (sb., a soul), possess (sb.); of God: take custody of (sb.); of divine anger, a curse, temptation, etc.: overpower (sb.), overwhelm; ben taken of (with), be possessed by (the devil, an evil spirit, etc.); (d) of an emotion, a fit of weeping, desire, sloth, etc.: to overcome (sb.); of someone's person or attributes: cause (sb.) to be overcome with desire, captivate; of a development, an event: overwhelm (sb.); taken upon, overcome by grief; (e) to win over (sb., a soul by trickery), hoodwink, deceive.
2c.
Fig. To seize (one's advantage); ~ time, take advantage of (one's) opportunity.
3a.
(a) To take possession of something, esp. selfishly, wrongfully, or forcibly; steal; also, in partitive construction with of phrase: ~ to hem of, appropriate to themselves some of (Holy Church's goods); finden litel to ~ to, find little to appropriate, find little to plunder; (b) to seize (a castle, ship, city, etc.) by military action, capture; take possession of (sth.) by force; confiscate (goods, money), take (spoils); arrest (a ship); steal (sth.); also fig.; also, appropriate (sth. for one's own use); with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (to), appropriate (sth.) to (oneself); ~ preie, seize booty, steal an object [see also preie n.(2) 1.(b)]; also, with adverbs: ~ awei (up), seize (sth.) by force, arrest (a ship); ~ in, appropriate (a piece of land) wrongfully, encroach on illegally; (c) to accede (to rulership) [1st quot.]; gain rulership over (a kingdom); ~ coroune, take the crown, become ruler; ~ ever-lasting lif, fig. lay hold upon everlasting life, seize the eternal life; ~ possessioun, acquire territory, get control of a piece of property; gain a kingdom; also, gain possession (of sth.); ~ seisine (seisinge), take seizin, take possession or control; establish one's authority [quot. a1425 Siege Troy(1)]; ~ to (upon), take to (oneself rulership of an empire or a kingdom); (d) ~ in (in-to) honde (possessioun), to take (sth., a country) into one's possession, seize, take control of; confiscate (goods); (e) chess to capture (a piece) in chess; ~ up.
3b.
(a) To appropriate (a right); ~ upon hem-self licence, take to themselves license (to do sth.); (b) ~ place, to take (someone's) place, replace (sb.);—used fig.
4.
(a) To capture prey [quot. ?c1450]; capture and kill (an animal) in a hunt, hunt (prey) to kill, get (meat, venison) by hunting; catch (fish, a bird, etc.); also, capture alive (wild horses); seize (an animal) in order to slaughter it; of an animal, a bird of prey, spider: catch (prey), seize (another animal, bird, etc.); of a net: take (a fish, bird), ensnare; of a cobweb: catch (an insect); also in conventional comparisons and proverbs; ~ nede of, catch a needed amount of (fish); also, with adv.: ~ up, seize and slaughter (a horse as meat for hawks); ppl. taken as adj., in phrase: huntinge taken, prey which is caught, the spoils of the hunt; (b) fig. to hunt and catch (sb.), snare (sb., someone's foot), fish for and catch (a soul, the devil), pursue (a shadow).
5.
(a) To strike a blow, smite; make an attack; strike (sb.); attack (sb.) in battle; defeat (sb.) in combat, overthrow; strike (sb.) dead, kill; also, fig. of a sword: overtake (sb.), strike (sb.) down; ~ a stroke, deal (sb.) a blow; ben taken with dint of ded, die; (b) to spur (a horse); also, pat (a horse on the hindquarters) [quot. c1405]; ~ with spores, kick or strike (a horse) with the spurs; (c) ~ bite, of a spear: to strike a blow, hit; ~ honde with, ?attack against (sb.).
6a.
(a) To obtain (sth.), get; gain (victory), win (a prize); (b) to ask for and obtain (permission to leave); also fig.; ~ conge, ask for and obtain permission to leave; take (one's) leave, depart; ~ conge of (to), ~ conge and licence of, request permission to go from (sb.); take (one's) leave of (sb.); ~ leve, ask for and obtain permission to go, take (one's) leave; bid farewell; depart; also, abandon (sth.), quit [quot. c1475 (?a1440)]; die [quots. 1372 & ?a1400(a1338)]; ~ leve at (from, of, on), take leave of (sb. or sth.), bid farewell to (sb. or sth.); leave or abandon (sb. or sth.) [see also leve n.(2) 2.(b), (c)]; (c) in phrase with inf.: ~ leve, to ask for and obtain permission (to go, depart, etc.); (d) ~ avis (avisement, counseil), to obtain advice, get counsel; ~ red, get advice; also, with hou clause: get advice how (one might do sth.); (e) to procure (temporary lodgings on behalf of oneself or another person), hire; ~ (on) in, ~ up logginge; ~ hostel to his lordes honde, procure lodgings for his lord's use; (f) to rent (property), take a lease on, gain the use of in return for a fixed payment; ~ to ferme, law procure the use of or revenues from (a piece of property, tenement, town, etc.) in return for a fixed payment.
6b.
(a) To have a share, participate, partake; ~ of, partake of (earthly things, sexual gratification, etc.); participate in (virtuous acts); (b) ~ part, to have a share, participate; ~ part of, have a share in (sth., the Holy Spirit), partake of; also, participate in (the life of grace); take part in (the church).
6c.
To acquire (a habit), fall into.
7.
(a) To lead or bring (sb., an animal) to or from a place, bring (sb.) somewhere; bring (sb.) along, escort (sb.); with inf.: carry (Christ) off (to suffer death), lead away; also, with indirect obj.: take (sb. with oneself), take (sb. in one's company) [quot. c1300]; fig. of discretion: guide (sb. in a matter) [quot. 1460]; ~ apart (bisides, on side), take (sb.) aside; ~ awei, lead (sb.) away; ~ bodi to religioun, take (one's) body to the religious life, enter a religious order; ~ forth, to lead (sb.) forth; to receive (sb.) in a place of honor [cp. sense 8.], push to the fore; ~ in, bring (sb.) inside; ~ in a counseil, bring (sb.) before a council; ~ in privete, take (sb.) aside privately; ~ oute, lead (sb.) out of a place; ~ over, transfer (sb. to a place), bring or carry away; ~ til (to), as prep.: carry off (a soul) to (hell); escort (sb.) to (sb.); lead or bring (sb.) to (prison); ~ to, as adv.: take (sb.) along (to a place) [quot. a1500(?a1325)]; ~ until, transport (Jesus' earthly flesh) to (God); (b) to lead (a band of troops, an army, etc.) in an action; assemble (an army, a group, etc.) prior to an action; ~ the first ward (the fore-warde), lead the first division, take the vanguard; with adverbs: ~ to, assemble or lead (a number of troops); ~ up, levy (troops); (c) to go and get (sb. or sth.), fetch; have (sb.) brought before one, summon (sb.); also, with indirect obj.: summon (sb. to oneself) [quot. c1440]; (d) to bring (sth.), carry (sth.) along; also fig.; take (sth. to a place); transport (a load); with adverbs: ~ in, bring (a captured ship) to port; ~ mid, bring (sth.) along, bring with one; (e) to bring (sb.) forward, produce (sb. in assertion of a claim); show (sth.), present; offer (sth.); also, with indirect obj.: show (sb. sth.), present (sth. to sb.); ~ forth (oute), bring (sth.) forward, present; bring (sth.) out, get out for use; ~ hider hondes and fet, offer (one's) hands and feet (to be bound); ~ oute of tonge, fig. put forth (what one has in one's heart) by means of (one's) tongue, speak out; (f) of a finger: to guide (a loop of silk thread through another loop) in lacemaking; of a road: convey (sb.); —used fig.; ~ to eres, make (a text) accessible to (someone's) ears; (g) of someone's inclinations: to conduce (to sth.); (h) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the chief semantic notion: to take or get (sb. and do sth. else).
8.
(a) To receive (sb.) into one's company, care, etc.; take (a city) under one's protection; admit (sb.) to a guild, religious house, etc.; accept (sb.) to one's employ, tutelage, or service; accept (sb.) as a suitor of one's daughter [2nd quot.]; of God, Christ: receive (someone's soul), take (sb.) to himself, take (sb.) under his protection; of the earth: receive (sb.) in burial; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ to (until), take (sb.) to (oneself), take (sb.) under (one's) protection; with adverbs: ~ in, receive (sb.) into one's household or service; also, of a grave: receive (a body), take in; ~ ner, become familiar or intimate with (sb.); ~ to, receive (sb.) into one's company; of God: take (sb.) to himself; ~ up, protect (sb.); (b) ~ at the font-ston, to receive (a child) at the baptismal font, stand as sponsor to; ~ in bondehede (theinhede), receive (sb.) into servitude; ~ in cure, ~ in (in-til, until) kepinge, ~ in ward, take (sb.) under one's care or protection, look after (sb.); ~ in-to (to) felaushipe, accept (sb.) as an associate; ~ in-to frendshipe, take (sb.) for a friend, enter into friendship with (sb.); ~ in-to lore, take (sb.) under one's tutelage; ~ in-to (to) servise, receive (sb.) into one's service or employ; ~ on honde, take (sb.) on as a patient, give medical care to; ~ to covenaunt, receive (sb.) into one's service or employ under legal contract; ~ to gest, receive (sb.) as a guest; ~ to lef, take (sb.) as (one's) lover; (c) ~ in-to pite, to be merciful to (sb.); ~ to (unto) grace, be merciful to (sb.); receive (sb.) with good will, grant one's good will to; of God: receive (sb.) into (his) grace; ~ to (unto) merci, pardon or forgive (sb.), be merciful to (a city); have mercy on (a lover), give (a lover) his desire; also, of God: receive (one who has died) into (his) presence [quots. c1450 & 1458]; ~ up to grace, accept (sb.) with love, love (sb.); (d) ~ to, to take on (an apprentice), take into one's employment; ~ with, look after (sb.), take care of; also, of God: receive (sb. who turns to him); (e) ~ til (to) herte, to take (sb.) to one's heart, hold (sb.) dear; (f) to take dominion over (animals), subjugate; (g) ppl. takinge as adj., in phrase: takinge gate, ?receiving gate, admitting gate [prob. from misunderstanding of L capenus adj. as if from capere; could also be construed as taking(e ger.].
9a.
(a) To be given something, receive; receive grain for grinding [quot. c1390]; receive reward, compensation, alms, wages, etc.; also, receive a customs payment [quot. 1399]; make money by charging interest [quot. c1425]; takinge side, the side that receives; (b) to receive (sth., money, tithes, wages, etc.), be given (sth.); receive (profit, emoluments, etc.); also, in selected phrases: ~ availe (avauntage, benefice), receive a benefit (an advantage); law receive a legal advantage or specific privilege deriving from one's legal status; (c) to be given (a blessing, promise, forgiveness, etc.); receive (love, honor, homage, etc.); receive (understanding of Holy Writ, God's grace, the Holy Spirit, an animating spirit, a soul); also, take on (original sin or the stain of original sin from Adam), derive; of Moses: be given (God's law, the Commandments); of God: be given (glory, worship, etc.); ~ heven to mede, receive heaven as (one's) reward, be rewarded with salvation; ~ lessoun, receive a lesson, be taught a lesson; ~ place of biriinge, be buried; ~ terme unto, be granted time until (a certain date); (d) to collect (sth., money, a rent, tax, etc.); gather (herbs, sap, etc.); ~ togeder, gather (things) together, assemble; ~ up, gather up (grain, supplies), collect (fines); (e) to exact (tribute, tithes, etc.); ~ feute(s, exact a public acknowledgment of fealty; ~ homage(s (servises), exact homage (allegiance); ~ rente, fig. of the devil: exact (his) due; (f) in phrases: ~ assuraunce, to exact or receive a pledge; ~ feith, exact or receive a formal pledge of fealty; ~ man-reden (oth), exact or receive a pledge of service (an oath); also, witness (someone's) sworn statement as to the veracity of a claim [last quot.]; (g) ~ birthe, to receive (one's) birth, be born; ~ bote, receive remedy or relief [quot. a1400(a1325), 1st]; also, receive a cure, be cured [2nd quot.]; ~ consolidacioun, of a wound: close up, heal; ~ hele (helthe, stat of helthe), regain health, be cured; ~ hele at, be cured by (sb.); ~ lif, be born; ~ memorie, receive (good) memory; ~ sighte, recover (one's) sight; (h) to receive (a penance assigned by a confessor); ~ bapteme (baptist), receive baptism, be baptized; ~ circumcisioun, be circumcised; ~ rites, receive the last rites of the church; ~ sacrament, receive the sacrament of baptism or matrimony; ~ stat of penaunce, be penitent; (i) to make a purchase, buy; also, purchase (sth.); ~ bi taille, buy on credit; ~ to the verrei valeu, purchase (sth.) at a price reflecting its true value, buy at a fair price; ~ up, buy up (sth.); (j) to receive (a name); ~ of, derive (a name) from (sth.); also, fig. ?derive (one's life) from (the mystical body which is the church); (k) ~ of, of a woman: to conceive (a child) by (sb.); of a man: have (a son) by (sb.); (l) of a ship: to take on a load (of sth.); ~ charge, of a cart: receive or take on a load, load up; (m) to take (a university degree), be awarded; (n) in proverbs and prov. expressions.
9b.
(a) To accept (sth., money, a gift, bribe, etc.); take (goods, land, etc. as security or for ransom); of God: accept (a sacrificial offering, tithe); also in proverbs; also, accept something [quot. c1450 Abyde I hope]; ~ at worth (to queme), accept (sth., a sacrifice) graciously, accept with good will; ~ in (to) gre, accept (offerings, someone's service) with good will; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ til (to), take (sth.) to (oneself), accept; also, keep (sth.) for (oneself); also fig.; (b) ~ borwing, to take a loan, borrow; ~ oker (okeringe, usure), accept interest on money or goods loaned; also fig.; (c) to accept (God's grace); ~ herte (pleie), accept (someone's love, amorous advances); ~ in gre (worth), accept (what God sends, Fortune's conditions) with good grace; ~ treuth, accept (a woman's consent to marriage); (d) to accept (a penance assigned by a confessor), acquiesce in; ~ at (in) gre, accept (a judgment) with good will; (e) ~ for answere, to accept (sth.) as (a final) answer; ~ for seurte, accept (a promise, someone's word) as surety.
10a.
(a) To put on (a garment, clothing, etc.), don; wear (a kind of clothing); fig. of Christ: put on (the clothing of humanity), become incarnate; of law: wear (a double face), be two-sided; ~ habit, put on a religious habit, enter a religious house, become a monk, nun, etc. [see also habit n. 1.(c)]; ~ monk his (palmeres) wede, adopt a monk's (pilgrim's) dress, become a monk (pilgrim); ~ religious clothing, put on religious costume, ?become a hermit; ~ the mantel and the ring (weren, of a married woman or widow: assume a robe and ring upon formal profession of perpetual chastity; vow chastity;—also used of a pagan goddess [last quot.]; ~ veil, take the veil, become a nun; (b) with prep. phrases: ~ on, to put (clothing) on (oneself); ~ upon, fig. of a zodiacal sign: wear (stars) upon (its head); with adverbs: ~ on, put on (a garment, vestments, etc.), don; ~ to, put on (a garment) [transl. of L assumere]; ~ up (upon), take up (a fashion of clothing), adopt, take to wearing; (c) to receive (a mark upon a part of the body); ~ crois, ~ (the signe of the) cros, don the cross, go on a crusade; ~ tonsure, receive the tonsure, be tonsured; (d) of God, Christ: to assume (mortal kind, human nature, a human body, etc.), receive (human flesh, blood, etc.), take (incarnation); ~ flesh (man-kinde) upon, take human flesh (human nature) upon (himself), become incarnate; ~ the kinde of, assume the nature of (angels); (e) of a creature: to be given (a particular nature), receive; of a tree, fruit, etc.: derive (its nature from its root or the earth); ~ an other nature, of blood: assume a different condition.
10b.
(a) To assume (a form, likeness); assume (the figure, likeness, shape, etc. of sb. or sth.); take on (the color of sth.), turn (a specified color); acquire (a flavor or an odor); ~ forme, of Lucifer: assume the form (of a serpent); also, with adv.: ~ up, take on (a color); (b) ~ bere, to take (one's) manner, conduct oneself; (c) ~ fir, to catch fire; also fig.; ~ fir and leie, of a precious stone: become fiery; (d) to acquire (value).
11a.
(a) To select (sb.), choose (sb. for a position, duty, etc.); elect (sb. to an office); choose (sb.) by lot;—also refl.; also in proverbs; ~ a wif to min sone, choose a wife for my son; ~ for, take (sb.) for (an ally, a queen, etc.); ~ sondes-man of, choose a messenger from (persons); ~ to him on sones stede, take (sb.) to himself in a son's place, adopt (sb.) as a son; ~ to honour, select (sb.) for an honor or high position; also, with adv.: ~ oute, pick out (knights for a mission), select, choose; (b) ~ part, to take the side (of sb.); ~ part with, side with (sb.); ~ partie, choose a side in a conflict; ~ stat, choose a way of life, choose one's state; (c) with obj. plus noun complement: to choose (sb. as or for sth.); ~ hous-bonde (lord, wif, etc.), take (sb.) as a husband (lord, wife, etc.); ~ spouse (spousesse), fig. take (wisdom) as a spouse, espouse (wisdom); (d) to marry (with sb.); take (sb.) as one's spouse, marry, wed; also, take (a new love); fig. take (Christ) as a spiritual spouse; of an animal: take (another) as a mate; ~ for, take (sb.) for (one's husband or lord); ~ for spouse, fig. of St. Francis: espouse (poverty); ~ in, take (sb.) in (a moral or proper love-relationship, marriage); ~ til spouse, fig. of Christ: espouse (sb.) spiritually; ~ to, take (sb.) as (a lover, husband, wife, etc.); ~ to lord, fig. of a woman: take (Christ to oneself) as a spiritual bridegroom; ~ to mariage, fig. of Christ: wed (sb.) in a spiritual union; ~ to spouse, take (sb.) as a spouse, wed (sb.); also, fig. of Christ: espouse (a devout soul); ~ unto make, take (sb.) for a mate, marry; also in proverbs; (e) to wed (a husband, wife);—also refl.; also in proverbs; wed illegally or irregularly (someone else's wife); take (a mate); of concubines ~ as mani as, take as many concubines as (one can govern); (f) to have sexual relations with (sb., an animal); also, ravish (a woman, someone else's wife), take by force; of a bull: mount (a cow), mate with; ~ with, have sexual intercourse with (sb.); (g) ~ togeder, to cohabit, live together as man and wife.
11b.
To select (sth. in order to make some calculation with it).
12.
(a) To consume food or drink; partake (of food or drink, of a vessel of drink); ingest (sth.), eat, drink; also fig.; partake of (an amount or portion of food, drink, etc.); have (a meal), take (a drink); of a fetus: take (nourishment through the maternal blood); also, ingest (poison, medicine, etc.); take and hold (an amount of some substance in one's mouth); ~ and eten, take and eat (sth.); ~ assai of, take a ceremonial taste of (sth.); ~ bi mouth, take (medicine) by mouth, take orally; ~ crommes, take (one's) crumbs, eat heartily; ~ outrake o, partake of excess of (food, drink); ~ refeccioun, take nourishment; also fig.; ~ taste of, swallow some of (a drink); ~ tiring, of a hawk: pull or tear at a tough morsel of food; with prep.: ~ with, eat (food); with adverbs: ~ in, ingest (sth.); also fig.; ~ to, eat (food) [transl. of L assumere]; ~ within, take (a medicine) internally; (b) Bibl. & eccl. to partake (of the cup of wine at the Last Supper, of Christ's flesh and blood); partake of (the eucharistic elements, Christ's body, etc.); in phrase: ~ and eten, partake of the body of Christ; ~ and eten o, partake of (the bread at the Last Supper); ~ the sacrament, of Judas: partake of the bread and wine at the Last Supper; of a Christian: receive the sacrament of the Eucharist, take communion; with prep.: ~ with, partake of (the eucharistic food); (c) fig. to receive (the cup of health, cup of penance), partake of.
13.
(a) To undergo (sth.); be subjected to (sth.), suffer; ~ carping, suffer (someone's) rebuke; ~ chastiinge (discipline, etc.), suffer castigation (penitential chastisement, etc.); ~ chaunginge of, be subject to alteration by (sth.), be altered by; ~ damage (wrong), suffer injury, be damaged; suffer a loss; ~ ded (deth, ende, laste endinge, fin), suffer death, die; ~ dom (sentence), receive a sentence; ~ eclipse, undergo eclipse; also fig.; ~ harm, sustain an injury, be injured or damaged, suffer harm; ~ harm of nakedhede, suffer nakedness; ~ juwise, suffer a penalty; ~ lordshipe, astrol. of the moon: be subjected to the domination (of other planets); ~ no defoule, of water: suffer no pollution, be unpolluted; ~ part, suffer a fortune or lot in life; ~ part with, suffer fortune with (sb.), share (someone's) lot; (b) to be dealt (a blow), receive (a stroke); also in proverbs; ~ tripet, be tripped up; ~ wound, fig. suffer a wound of love; (c) to become ill (with melancholy), be overcome; contract (a disease), catch; be afflicted with (an illness or a pathological condition, thirst), suffer, incur; also fig.;—also impers.; ~ (a) cold, catch a chill, become pathologically cold or chilled; ~ corrupcioun, become infected; ~ siknesse with, catch a sickness from (sth.); ~ universel hete, grow hot all over, become overheated; (d) of a transgression: to receive (punishment); (e) to undergo (some physical process); ~ a swete, alch. undergo a process of dehumidification; ~ souringe, of dough: to undergo leavening, be leavened.
14a.
(a) To endure; ~ in pacience, ~ pacientli, be patient; with prep.: ~ with, accept (a misfortune), submit to; (b) to accept (a development, misfortune, lot, etc.); submit to (sb. or sth.); endure (pain, bodily infirmity, etc.); cope with (a difficulty) [quot. c1425]; also, with that clause: accept (that sb. does sth.); ~ at (in) gre, endure (sth.) with good will; ~ aventure, take (one's) chances, accept (one's) fate [see also aventure n. 1.(b)]; ~ aworth, endure (pain, persecution, etc.) with forbearance; also, bear (a rebuke) patiently; ~ chaunce (eure, part, etc.), submit to (one's) fate, accept (one's) lot; ~ in mirthe, bear (sth.) cheerfully; ~ in pacience (tholemodnesse), bear (sth.) patiently; with inf.: suffer with equanimity (to live or die); (c) in proverbs and prov. expressions.
14b.
To agree to something, accept an arrangement; ~ to the fight, accept a combat, agree to.
14c.
With prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (upon), take (blame, suffering, etc.) upon (oneself), assume, incur.
15a.
(a) To hear [quot. c1400]; hear (sth., a word, confession, etc.); pay attention to (sth.); of the ear: receive (a sound); of God: hearken to (a prayer); ~ at herte, take (someone's prayer) to heart, hear favorably; ~ a word to werre, hear a dubious rumor; ~ in (to) eres, listen to (sth.), give ear to; (b) to behold, perceive visually; see (sth.); of God: perceive (the tears of a petitioner); ~ heven, behold the heavens;—used in fig. context; ~ sighte of, get a view of (sth.); ~ to, look at (sth.); ~ up, of a glance: take in (persons), survey; (c) of the brain or its faculties: to receive (impressions from the senses), accept, recognize; ~ impressioun, of a person: receive a mental image or an emotional impression; (d) of a vein: to receive (blood from another vein); of a nerve: ?receive (matter), absorb; ppl. takinge as adj., of a bodily organ: structured to receive or hold something, receptive; receiving bodily fluid; (e) in phrases: ~ ayen, to recover (consciousness); ~ breth (onde, wind), catch (one's) breath, take a breath; ~ in, inhale (air).
15b.
(a) With adv.: ~ with, of the earth: to receive (the seed), be sown; (b) of the moon: to receive (light), derive; ~ of, of the moon, moonlight: take (light, brightness) from (the sun); of a fallen angel: receive (light) from (the air); astrol. of a planet: receive (strength, comfort) from (another planet); of a star: receive (a quality, characteristic) from (Mars), derive; (c) of a person: to receive (heat from the sun); of the earth: take in (sth.); ~ to, of the sun: take back (light, heat) to (itself), recover; (d) of a river: to have (its source in a place); ~ in-to (to), receive (tributaries flowing) into (itself); (e) ben taken, of a wind: to be located (in relationship to another wind); (f) to admit (sunlight directed toward a part of an instrument).
15c.
In phrases: ~ the air, of a person: to take in the fresh air, expose oneself to the fresh air, go outdoors for refreshment or recreation; of an object: be exposed to the air [see also air n.(1) 3.(b)]; ~ the wind, expose oneself to the wind, go out in the wind.
16.
(a) To incline emotionally or mentally; ~ to (til), take to (an emotion, state of mind), feel; ~ to pride, be arrogant; (b) to be filled with (an emotion), have (a feeling), be in (a mental or an emotional state);—in selected phrases: ~ aue of, be respectful of (God); ~ boldnesse (hardiment), be emboldened; ~ bourde for, be amused at (sth.), be entertained by; ~ chere more comfortabli, assume a more cheerful frame of mind; ~ chere on honde, become cheerful; ~ comfort, take comfort, be comforted; ~ delectacioun (delite) of, ~ plesire(s in, ~ plesire of, take pleasure from (sth.); ~ disese, be unhappy, feel upset; ~ displesaunce ayenes (of), take offense at (sb. or sth.), feel rancor toward, be offended by; ~ displesir with, be angry with (sb.); ~ drede in (of), feel apprehension about (sth.), be worried about; ~ gladinge, enjoy oneself; ~ gladnesse of, derive (one's) happiness from (sth.); ~ herte, take heart, gain or regain courage, pluck up one's courage; ~ hevinesse, take offense; also, feel sorrow; ~ hope, have hope, be hopeful; ~ hope of, hope for (sth.); ~ ire for, be angered by (sth.); ~ joie, be delighted, take pleasure; also, take (one's) pleasure; ~ love of (to), fall in love with (sb.); ~ lust of (toward), be filled with desire for (sth.), take pleasure in (sth.); ~ modiȝleȝc of, be arrogant on account of (sth.); ~ mon for, be anxious about (sth.); ~ nith til (with, yen), ~ wrath til (yen), be hostile toward (sb.), be resentful of; ~ offense of, take offense at (sth.), be offended by; ~ parcialte ayen, be prejudiced against (sb.); ~ pite of, take pity on (sb. or sth.); ~ pride ayenes, feel arrogant toward (sb.); ~ repentaunce, feel remorse, be contrite; ~ savour in, take delight in (sth.); ~ sorwe (thought), feel sorrow, be sad; ~ trust, take courage; ~ trust of, trust (sb.); ~ wonder of, be shocked or surprised at (sth.); (c) in phrases with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ boldhede (herte) to, ~ corage upon, to take boldness (courage) to (oneself), be emboldened, take heart; ~ comfort to, take to (oneself) comfort, be comforted; ~ hope to, take to (oneself) hope, feel hopeful; ~ lighter chere to, ~ sorwe to, take better cheer (sorrow) to (oneself), feel more cheerful (sorrowful); ~ mon to, take to (oneself) anxiety, worry; ~ spirit unto, get hold of oneself, control one's emotions, take one's courage in hand; (d) ~ at (neigh to, til, to) herte, to take (sth.) to heart, be moved by, feel keenly about; ~ world to entente, embrace the world, be well disposed to worldly things.
17a.
(a) To assent, accede; pursue a course, apply oneself, commit oneself; with prep. phrases: ~ til (to), commit oneself to (a religion, rite, that which is good, etc.), assent to, follow, pursue; also, refl. take oneself to (the wearing of coarse clothing, hunting, etc.), resort to; commit oneself to (poverty, a penance, the points of a religious rule, etc.), devote oneself to (an activity, a way of life, etc.); put credence in (Holy Writ); ~ to assent, with inf.: come to an agreement (to do sth.); ~ unto, refl. commit oneself to (religion); ~ with, believe in (Christ, Christ's teachings, God's word, etc.), assent to (penance); also, with inf.: consent (to do sth.), assent; (b) to accept (a god); accept (a religious faith, tenets, doctrine, etc.), assent to; convert to (a religion); adopt (a way of life, a life of virtue, poverty, etc.), pursue (good as opposed to evil); avail oneself of (the privileges of marriage); agree with (a manner of medical treatment); ~ pacience, adopt a patient manner, be patient; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ to, take (Christ) to (oneself), accept (Christ); (c) in phrases with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ abstinence (charite, meknesse, pacience) to, to take abstinence (charity, meekness, patience) to (oneself), practice in (one's) life; ~ compassioun (obedience, tirannie) upon, take upon (oneself) compassion (obedience, sternness), be compassionate (obedient, unmerciful); (d) to accept (testimony) as true; also, with inf.: acknowledge (sb. to be rightful heir); ~ counseil til (to) paie, accept counsel willingly; (e) ~ credence (feith), to have faith.
17b.
(a) To follow (someone's advice, one's own counsel); also in proverbs; ~ avis (counseil, red); ~ discrecioun, follow the discretion or judgment (of sb.); ~ resoun (skil), follow reason, act reasonably; ~ to counseil, refl. betake oneself to (someone's) counsel, heed (someone's) advice; (b) to adopt (a course of action, plan, etc.); ~ avising, refl. with inf.: decide (to do sth.); ~ conclusioun, with that clause: decide (that one will do sth.); ~ counseil, make a plan; also, with inf.: decide (to do sth.); ~ on wei or other, follow one course or another, take one way or another; ~ purpos, resolve on a course of action, make a plan, adopt a course of action; also, with inf. or that clause: resolve (to do sth., that one do sth.) [see also purpos n. 1.(f)]; ~ red, adopt a course of action; make a decision; with inf. or that clause: resolve (to do sth., that one do sth.) [see also red n.(1) 2a.(b)]; (c) ~ til red, refl. adopt a plan; ~ to red, usu. refl. adopt a course of action, make a plan; with inf. or that clause: decide (to do sth., that sth. occur) [see also red n.(1) 2a.(c)]; (d) to heed (God's word), follow; honor (a truce), observe.
18.
(a) To assume (an office, a position, duty, etc.); also fig.; accept (a challenge); take up (a craft); also, assume responsibility for the truthfulness of (a book) [quot. a1400(a1325), 1st]; ~ a reule as for capitain, assume command of a ship; ~ charge (cark), assume an obligation or a responsibility, vouch [see also charge n. 3a.(b)]; ~ honour, assume an exalted position; ~ ordre(s, take holy orders, be ordained;—also iron. [2nd quot.]; also, assume the role of an apostle [quot. ?a1450] [see also ordre n. 7.(c)]; ~ ordre of knight, ~ ordre and degre of knighthode, become a knight; ~ ordre of prest, ~ ordre (testament) of presthede, be ordained priest; ~ ordre of widwehede, vow to remain a widow; ~ pouere, assume authority; ~ religioun, join a religious order; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (to, upon), take to (oneself responsibility, mastery, authority, etc.); take up (the practice of medicine) [quot. 1421]; ~ up him, to take it upon oneself (to do something), undertake, volunteer; ~ upon hire the office for to speken, take upon herself the responsibility to speak; also, with adv.: ~ on charge, take on responsibility; ~ to the craft, take to the craft, take up the craft; (b) to incur the blame or guilt for (wickedness); ~ curs of laue in flesh, of Jesus: take the curse of God's law on (his) flesh, incur guilt (for mankind); with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ on (unto), take upon (oneself a sin, care, etc.); with adv.: ~ to, incur the blame for (someone's wickedness) [transl. of L assumere].
19.
(a) To conceive (a desire, a sorrow); take (a notion); with inf.: ~ a devocioun, desire (to do sth.); ~ herte (talent), take a notion (to do sth.), form a desire (to do sth.); (b) in selected phrases: ~ avis (avisement, counseil, thought), to take thought, ponder, reflect; ~ ground upon, base an argument upon (certain words); also, of an undertaking: be based upon (sth.); ~ kithinge with, recognize (sb.); ~ knouleche of (unto), recognize (sb. or sth.); also, remember (sb. or sth.) [quot. a1500]; ~ minde of, turn (one's) mind to (Jesus), be mindful of; ~ no doute, have no doubt, rest assured; ~ wit, with that clause: deduce (that sth. is so); (c) to take (counsel) together; in selected phrases: ~ avis (deliberacioun), ~ counseil (togeder, confer together, consult with others, take counsel, deliberate together; ~ rath bitwene, ~ red bitwixen, take counsel among (themselves); ~ red with, take counsel with (sb.), consult with; (d) ~ to counseil, to take (sb.) to counsel, consult with (sb.); also, refl. take counsel; ~ to red, consult;—also refl.
20.
(a) To derive (sth., a quality), draw; draw (a narrative from a source); ~ of, derive (sth.) from (sth.); med. elicit (information, evidence) from (the pulse); (b) to derive (spiritual understanding from prophecy); ~ bisne at (bi, o, of), ~ bisning bi (o), ~ fore-bisne of, learn a lesson from (sb. or sth.), take example from; ~ ensaumple, take example, learn a lesson; with inf.: take something as a precedent (to do sth.); ~ ensaumple at (of), learn a lesson from (sb. or sth.); also, follow the example of (sb.); with inf.: take example from (sb. to do sth.); ~ ensaumple bi, learn a lesson from (sb. or sth.); also, interpret (sth.) as a sign [quot. a1400(a1325), 3rd]; ~ gostli wit of, derive spiritual understanding from (a literal prophecy); ~ the moralite, draw the moral, elicit the spiritual significance of something; (c) to infer (sth.); ~ bi, infer (sth.) from (a text); ~ of, with inf. or that clause: infer from (a reported fact that there is justification to do sth.), take the notion from (a text that one will do sth.); (d) gram. ~ of, of a relative: to take (its gender) from (a preceding noun), derive from; ~ part (partie) of, of a participle: take some features or characteristics from (another part of speech).
21.
(a) To distinguish (sth., a difference between things or classes of things); ~ difference (diversite), make a distinction, distinguish; (b) ~ difference, of types of a condition: to be differentiated (with regard to sth.); ~ diversite, of surgical aids: differ (according to the end for which they are made).
22.
(a) To understand, comprehend; understand (sth.), take the meaning of; also, understand (sth.) in a certain way, interpret, construe; also fig.; with obj. and noun complement: interpret (sth. as sth. else); ~ to understondinges, understand (names) according to (two) interpretations, take (names) in (two) senses; with adverbs: ~ amis (wrong), understand (sth.) wrongly, misinterpret; ~ a-right (proprelie), interpret (sth.) aright (properly); (b) in selected phrases: ~ for, to understand (sb. or sth.) to signify or stand for (sb. or sth. else), interpret to mean; also, understand (sth.) to be (sth.); also, recognize (sb.) as (sth.) [quot. c1400(?c1380)]; ~ in, fig. see (sb.) in (sth. else), understand (sb.) to be meant by (sth.); ~ in-to, understand (sth.) to be (sth.); ben taken in reprevinge of, be construed as a reproof of (sb.); (c) ~ for, to mistake (sb. or sth.) for (sb. or sth. else), confuse (sb. or sth.) with (sb. or sth. else); also in proverbs; (d) to learn by observation.
23.
(a) To consider, take thought (in one's mind); also, turn one's attention to (sth.); think on (sth.), consider; take (sth. into one's mind, thought, remembrance), mark (sth.), take note of; ~ afore, anticipate (that sth. is the case); ~ biforen, imagine (sth.) [transl. of L praesumere]; with prep. and refl.pron.: ~ upon, think to (oneself) about (sth.), consider (sth.); (b) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the chief semantic notion: take (sb. or sth.) as an example (and do sth.), consider the case of, note (sth. and do sth. else); (c) to believe (sth.); also, assume (sth.), suppose; with that clause: be of the opinion (that sth. is so), hold (that sth. is the case), assume; ~ and holden; ~ untreu, believe (someone's word) untrue; (d) in selected phrases: ~ as, to regard (sb.) as (a kind of person), consider (sth.) to be (part of sth. else); ~ biforen, regard (sb.) as superior to (sb. else); ~ for (as for, to), consider (sb. or sth.) as (God), regard (sb.) as (a type of person), perceive to be; also, regard (sth.) as (folly, truth, etc.); consider (sth.) to be (certain, efficacious); also in proverbs; ~ hit so that, deem it thus that (sth. is the case), be of the opinion that; ~ in gret worshipe, hold (sb.) in great esteem; (e) ~ for god, to take (what sb. says) to be for (one's own) good, consider to be for (one's) good; ~ for (as for) reule, take (sth.) as a rule, consider to be a rule; (f) ~ to-gederes, to regard (things) all together as a unit, combine for a certain purpose; taken togeder, considered or reckoned together, all told.
24.
(a) To have or make an emotional or a mental response to someone or something, a circumstance, remark, etc.; react to something in a certain way;—used with selected adverbs: ~ agre, take something in good part; ~ agref, take umbrage, be annoyed; ~ agref of, be annoyed at (sth.); ~ hevili, be indignant, take umbrage; ~ lighte of, fail to take (sb.) seriously, take (sb.) lightly; also, with selected prep. phrases: ~ in despit (gref, grevinge), ~ to ille (pine, spite, etc.), take offense, be resentful; (b) to react to (a letter) in some manner; (c) with selected adverbs: ~ agame, to take (sth.) as a joke, take lightly; ~ agre, receive (someone's views) favorably; ~ agref (amis), take (sth., a remark) amiss, resent (sth.); ~ aworth, accept (someone's actions, the fact of having a lowly position, etc.) with good will; with that clause: take in good part (the fact that sb. does sth.); also, take (someone's words) at their proper value; take (tidings) for what they are worth; ~ godli, take (what sb. writes) in a goodly manner; ~ hevili (harde), be displeased at (a demand, an act); ~ ivel til herte, take (a remark) with ill grace; ~ sor (at stomak), to take (sth.) ill, take offense at; ~ lighte (wisli, etc.), take (sth.) lightly (wisely, etc.); ~ pensili, receive (tidings) with sorrow, be made sad by; ~ sadli, take (sth.) seriously; (d) with selected prep. phrases: ~ at (in, to) gref, to take (sth.) amiss, take umbrage at, take offense at [see also gref n. 3.(b)]; ~ at (in a, on) scorn, take (sth.) as an insult or as mockery; ~ at worth, take (someone's words) at their proper value; ~ for the best, take (sth.) for the best, accept good-naturedly, make the best of; ~ in bourde (game, pleie), take (sth.) as a jest, take lightly; ~ in despit (disdeine), be disdainful of (sth.); take (sth.) amiss; ~ in (to) displesaunce, resent (sth.), be displeased with; ~ in ernest, take (sth.) seriously; ~ in (to) reputacioun, hold (sb. or sth.) in esteem; ~ in-to (til, to) ille, ~ for (to) ivel, take (sth.) amiss; ~ on aue, regard (sth.) with fear; ~ on idel (unnit), ~ in vein, take (sth.) lightly, fail to appreciate; ~ to hevinesse, regard (sth.) with vexation, be vexed at; ~ to presumpcioun, regard (words) as presumptuous; ~ to thank, take (sth.) favorably, be gratified by; ~ to wrath, be angry at (sth.); ~ with ivel wille, take (a warning) amiss, resent; ~ with treuth, believe (sth.).
25.
To pay (heed, attention), take (notice, note);—in selected phrases: (a) ~ entente, to pay attention [see also entente n. 6.(a)]; ~ gome, take notice [see also gome n.(4) 1.(a)]; ~ hed, take heed, take note, notice [see also hed n.(2) 1.(a)]; ~ his marke, take his measure, take note of him; ~ kep, pay attention, take note [see also kep n. 1.(a)]; ~ markes, ?be vigilant; ~ reward, take heed, pay attention [see also reward n. 3.(d)]; ~ tente (yeme), take note, pay attention; (b) followed by selected prepositions: ~ attendaunce (attente, taste, tene) to, ~ consideracioun of (unto), ~ charge (garde, gete, marke, remembraunce, yeme) of, ~ respecte unto, ~ tente on (til, to, unto), to take notice of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to, observe; ~ cure of, take note of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to [see also cure n.(1) 1.(a)]; ~ entente to, pay attention to (sb. or sth.) [see also entente n. 6.(a)]; ~ gome of, take notice of (sb. or sth.) [see also gome n.(4) 1.(b)]; ~ hed at (of, on, til, to, unto, upon), pay heed to (sb. or sth.), take note of [see also hed n.(2) 1.(a)]; ~ kep of (to), take notice of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to [see also kep n. 1.(c)]; ~ reward at (of, to), take notice of (sb. or sth.), pay attention to [see also reward n. 3.(d)]; (c) followed by hou, if, that, what, etc. clause: ~ entente (gome, hed, kep, tente) hou, to take note how (sb. does sth.); ~ hed if, take heed if (sb. does sth., sth. is the case), notice if; ~ hed (kep, tene) that, take note that (sb. does sth., sth. is the case, etc.); ~ hed whan, note when (sb. does sth.); ~ hed (kep, remembraunce, tente) what, take note what (sb. does, sth. is, etc.); ~ hed (kep) whether, take note whether (sb. does sth., sth. is the case); ~ marke who, take note who (is in a certain place); also, followed by clause introduced by interrog.adj.: ~ consideraunce what man, pay attention to what man (does sth.); ~ entente what sondes, note what messengers (are sent); ~ yeme what thinges, take note what things (are promised); also, followed by prep. and obj.clause: ~ hed abouten what (ayenes whom, of that, etc.), ~ kep in what time (in which place), ~ yeme with hou gret smel; (d) in proverbs.
26.
(a) To have a capacity; ~ with, contain (a number of measures);—used fig.; ppl. takinge, capacious; (b) to contain (sth., a measure, etc.), hold; also fig.; of a nerve or tendon: surround (a joint).
27.
(a) To include (sth.); also, include (a country) with others in a discussion, throw in [1st quot.]; (b) to encompass (human speech).