Middle English Dictionary Entry

tọ̄̆ prep.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

1a.
In phrases with verbs of motion expressed or implied: (a) onward to and into (a place, structure, the body or a part of the body, etc.); also with adv. or clause as obj. [quots. c1275 (2nd) & ?c1425]; entren ~, to enter into (a country, place, etc.); gon ~ than ale, frequent a tavern; wainen from lond ~ lond, fig. of the gospel: bear (Christ) from land to land; (b) in contexts expressing or implying upward or downward motion: up or down to and into (a place, structure, etc.); also, with adverbs: adoun (doun, up) ~; in adjectival phrase: the flit from..~, the going from (the floor) down into (the grove); (c) onward to and onto (a hill, structure, etc.); (d) in contexts expressing or implying upward or downward motion: up or down to and onto (sth., a hill, the shore, etc.); also, with adverbs: adoun (doun, up, up-ward) ~; (e) onward as far as (a structure, an object, etc.), up to but not into or onto; also in fig. phrases; with verbs of arriving: at (a place); approchen ~, to draw near to (sth., a country), approach; bicomen ~ lond, of a ship: make landfall; also, with adv.: climben up ~, climb up to (a bird in a tree, a hanging crucifix in a church); (f) with obj. which is formally a phenomenon or a state, but which implies a definite place in which such a phenomenon or state obtains: to (the eternal fire, hell-pain, the light of heaven, etc.); (g) with obj. which is formally an action or activity, but which implies a definite place in which such action or activity is carried on: to (an athletic contest, jousts, plays, a religious service, etc.); gon ~ offringe, to go up to the rail to make one's offering during the mass; yede ~ offringe; (h) into (a container, the earth, etc.); bringen ~ erthe (ground), to bury (sb., the dead); helpen ~ the ground, help bury (a body); putten ~ pote, put (sth.) into a pot; also, fig. slay (sb.) [quot. c1330]; (i) into the presence of (sb., God, the Virgin Mary, etc.), before (sb., the face of God, the presence of God, etc.), face to face with; into the midst of (a group of persons); approchen ~, to come into the presence of (sb., God), draw near to; also fig. and in fig. context; also, have sexual intercourse with (a woman) [quots. a1382 (1st) & c1390]; ben ~, be gone to (sb.); also, in iron. phrase: climben ~ god, be hanged; his iwone was ~, his habitual resort was to (sb.), he regularly went to (sb.); (j) toward (sb. or sth., a direction, place, etc.), in the direction of; against (an opponent in combat); with verbs of shooting, striking, throwing, etc.: at (sb. or sth., an animal); also in fig. context; after (prey), in pursuit of; with verbs of grasping, snatching, etc.: at (sth.), for; with verb of reaching: toward (sth.), for; also, in hortatory phrase with ellipsis of verb: nou hem ~!, now at them!; (k) in phrases with noun or pron. obj. in comb. with ward or wardes: toward (sb. or sth., oneself, a place, an activity, etc.), in the direction of; against (a foe), at; also, with obj. in comb. with ward or wardes where the combining element has little or no force: to (battle, court, dinner, a place); also, in elliptical constructions where motion is implied: going toward (a place), on the way to [quots. c1330(?a1300), c1387-95, & c1395]; gon on pilgrimage ~ heven ward in the world, to strive toward heaven while in this world; willen ~ latona ward, desire to go toward Latona; (l) with verbs of gathering: to (sb., a place); into (a configuration, mass); ben gadered ~ faderes (peple), to be gathered to (one's) forebears, die; med. gaderen ~ a hed, of a sore or abcess: come to a head, fester, suppurate; igadered ~ aposteme, of a morbid humor: accumulated into an aposteme; (m) with verbs of attracting, enticing, summoning, inviting, etc., implying motion: attracten ~, to attract (stones) to (oneself), cause to come to; bicherren ~, entice (a mouse) to come into (a trap); callen (clepen, somnen, etc.) ~, summon (sb., a spirit) to come to (oneself, a place, an activity, mass, etc.), invite (sb.) to come to (a meal, wedding feast); law summon (sb.) to come to (court); drauen ~, of a magnetic stone: draw (sth.) to (itself); luren ~, lure (sb.) to (sth.); also, in elliptical constructions: blouen ~ bataille, blow (trumpets) to summon men to come to battle; heren knillen (ringen) ~ messe, hear the bells ring summoning persons to come to mass; heren the belles ~ messe (matines, etc.), hear the bells that summon persons to come to mass (matins, etc.); ringen ~ messe, ring bells to summon persons to come to mass; (n) with verbs of sending, implying motion: asenden (senden) ~, to send (sb., a devil, an angel, etc.) to (sb., an assembly, mankind), cause or direct (sb.) to go to (sb.); send (sb. or sth.) to (a place), cause to go or be conveyed to; also, with prep. phrase as obj.: techen ~ bisides the cros, deliver (sth.) to beside the cross; also, with pron. obj. in comb. with ward: senden ~ me ward, send (messengers) to me; also, with verbs of commanding: beden (commaunden) ~, bid (sb.) to go to (a place), cause (sb.) to be conveyed to (prison); (o) with modal auxiliary and ellipsis of the inf. expressing motion: moten (mouen, shulen, etc.) ~, must (may, shall, etc.) go to (sb. or sth., a place); also, in hortatory expressions without verb: ~ armes (harneis)!, to arms!; ~ hors!, to horse!, mount up!; (p) in selected generalizing phrases with verbs of motion having weakened force [see also gon v. 11a.(c)]; ben comen ~ reste, to have retired; ben (set) ~ reste, gon (wenden) ~ reste, of the sun: be set (set); bringen (don) ~ bed, put (sb.) to bed; also, consummate a marriage; bringen (fecchen) ~ hous, bring home (a wife); bringen ~ ship, bring (sb.) on board ship; comen ~ lond, come ashore; don ~ ship (shippinge), refl. go aboard a ship; drauen ~ reste, of the sun: set; also, of a flower: close up for the night; gon ~ bataille, go into battle; gon (yede) ~ bed, go (went) to bed, retire (retired); also, engage (engaged) in sexual intercourse [quots. a1400(c1303) (2nd) & a1438]; gon ~ bord, sit down to a meal, eat; gon ~ chaumbre (prive), gon (wenden) ~ sege, use a privy; void the bowels or bladder; gon (nimen, etc.) ~ chirche, go to church, attend religious services; gon ~ gras, graze; gon (hien, wenden) ~ hors-bak, lepen ~ hors (hors-bak), mount up; gon ~ plough, engage in plowing; gon ~ housel, take communion; gon (wenden) ~ scole, attend school (university); nimen ~ flod, of a ship: put out to sea, get under way; passen (wenden) ~ pilgrimage, go on a pilgrimage, join a pilgrimage; yede ~ ship, went aboard ship, embarked; yede ~ a universite, attended a university; (q) in prov. expression.
1b.
(a) In misc. phrases: comen (icomen) ~, of a season, day: to come to (sb.); of tidings, rumor, etc.: come to (sb., someone's ears, a place); also, with pron. obj. in comb. with wardes: ben coming ~ him wardes, of heavenly bliss: be going to come to him; springen ~, of tidings, report, the news of an event: come to (sb., someone's ears, a place); wenden from mouth ~ mouth, of rumor: spread from person to person; (b) gon (rennen) ~, to have recourse to (sb. as an authority, sth.), resort to; also in fig. contexts; rennen ~ medicine, hasten to the practice of medicine; rennen ~ mouth, have recourse to (one's) mouth, shout; (c) gon ~ the effect, wenden ~ the pointe, to get to the point (in a discourse); also, in parenthetical inf. phrases: ~ the pointe for to gon, nou to comen ayen ~ my matere, etc.; also, in parenthetical phrases without inf.: but ~ the pointe; but nou ~ purpos.
2.
In phrases expressing extension in space: (a) as far as (a town, river, place, etc. used as a landmark or boundary); all the way to (a place, topographical feature, etc.); also, all the way to (a point on an object); from est ~ west, from the eastern border to the western border; also, with obj. in comb. with ward: west ~ constantinople ward, west as far as Constantinople; breken ~ hondes, to shatter (spears) up to the point where they are grasped; heren ~, hear (sth., sb. doing sth.) all the way to (a place), hear clear to; narwen ~ the narwenesse of, narrow to the width of (six hundred paces); (b) clear up to (the sky, a part of the body, the top of an object, etc.), all the way up to; also, with adv.: up ~; also, in adjectival phrase: laddere ~ heven, a ladder extending up to heaven; neighen ~, of the height of a structure: to extend nearly up to (heaven); (c) all the way down to (the ground, a part of the body); also, with adv.: doun ~; in adjectival phrase: kirtel ~ fot, a cloak extending down to (someone's) foot, a foot-length cloak; (d) ~ kne, to the depth of the knee, knee-deep; also, with adverbs: doun ~ the kne, up ~ hire knes; (e) inward (outward) as far as (a part of the body); all the way to or into (an organ or a part of the body, the bottom of a wound, etc.); also in fig. phrases; with verbs of gnawing, piercing, penetrating, etc.: to (the bone, heart, root, etc.); also, in adjectival phrases: bite ~ the bon, fig. a cut to the quick; rote doun ~ the ground, a root extending down into the ground; wound ~ herte; eten ~ the bon, to devour (a creature) right down to the bone; (f) casten of ~ serke, to cast off (all one's clothing) down to (one's) shirt, strip to (one's) shirt; despoilen ~ shirte, renden of ~ bar shirte, strip (sb.) down to (his) shirt, strip (sb.) of (his) outer garments; leven naked ~ the bar skin, leave (sb.) naked to the skin or bare naked; rasen ~ the tos, slash (shoes) to the toes; strepen naked ~ flesh and bon, strip (sb.) bare naked; strepen of ~ bar lich, strip off (one's clothes) to (one's) bare skin; toteren ~ smok, refl. strip oneself down to (one's) smock.
3.
In phrases expressing spatial orientation or direction: (a) toward (sb. or sth., a direction, etc.), in the direction of; face ~ face, mouth ~ mouth, neb ~ neb, face to face, directly, personally; leien ~ the sonne, of a continent: to lie toward the east; leien def ere ~, turn a deaf ear to (someone's speech); turnen ~, turn one's body in the direction of (sb. or sth.), face toward; (b) with verbs of looking, gazing, casting the eyes, etc.: toward (sb. or sth., a place, etc.), on, at; ben ~, of the eyes: to be fixed on (the Lord); also, with noun or pron. obj. in comb. with ward: loken ~ the ground ward (helle ward, etc.), look at the ground (toward hell, etc.); (c) laughen (maken laughinge) ~, to smile at (sb.), look fondly on; look favorably on (sb.); whistlen ~, whistle at (sb.); (d) in adjectival phrases with gate, path, wei, etc.: toward (sth., a place, God, a state or condition, etc.), leading to; also in fig. contexts; also, with noun obj. in comb. with ward: heigh wei ~ heven ward, the highway leading to heaven; wei ~ perfeccioun ward (troie ward), the way to perfection (Troy); (e) ~ right, straight ahead.
4a.
In phrases expressing physical proximity in place or space: (a) at (a place, gathering, joust, council, etc.); ben itaught ~ a lithere scole, fig. to be ill-taught; finden ~ scole, support (sb.) at school; haven ~ banere, have (a number of knights) under (one's) banner, lead; kepen (sustenen) ~, support (sb.) at (court, school); (b) in selected phrases: holden ~ bord, to entertain (guests) at one's table; setten ~ sopere, seat (sb.) at supper; also, refl. sit at supper; sitten ~ bord, sit at (someone's) table, sit down to eat with (sb.); sitten (doun) ~ mete, sitten ~ sopere, sit down to a meal (supper), sit at a meal (supper); (c) at (a part of the body), beside, by; with verbs of bowing, kneeling, standing: before (sb., God), at (someone's, the Lord's, feet); fallen ~ fet, fallen adoun (doun) ~ fet, etc., to fall at (someone's) feet, kneel or prostrate oneself before (sb.); fallen him ~ fot, fall at his foot; fallen ~ kne, kneel at (someone's) knee; throuen doun ~, refl. prostrate oneself before (the Lord); (d) out in (sunlight); in adjectival phrase: ~ wind, exposed to the wind, streaming in the wind; (e) within the confines of (heaven, hell, etc.), in; also, within (oneself), internally; (f) ?across from (sth.), opposite to; (g) near (a place), in the vicinity of, adjacent to; close to (a part of the body), beside; also, with obj. in comb. with ward: ~ jeuerie ward, near Judea; (h) in combs. with adjectives and adverbs denoting proximity in space: clos (ner, nexte) ~, close (near, next) to (sb. or sth., a place, etc.); also used fig. [quot. c1475]; neigh ~, q.v.; (i) ~ honde, at hand, close by; pressen ~ honde, to come close within range; also, in generalizing expressions: bothe ~ honde and ~ fot, in all respects; serven ~ fot and honde, serven from and ~ fot, serven from fot ~ honde, etc.: wait on (sb.) hand and foot, serve (sb.) in all respects.
4b.
In phrases expressing physical association: (a) in company with (sb., God), together with; among (persons); ~ processioun, in procession; also, with obj. in comb. with wardes: ~ barlaam wardes, with Barlaam; approchen ~ his presence, to associate with him; maken a compaignie ~, keep company with (God in heaven); (b) medlen ~, to mix (a bodily humor) with (another humor); meten ~, meet with (sb.), fall in with; (c) in adjectival phrase: knight ~ armes, a knight at arms, an armed knight.
4c.
In phrases expressing physical contact: (a) on (sb. or sth.), upon; in adjectival phrases: resting upon (sth.), supported on; also, located on (the head) [quot. c1460]; putten ~ fir, to put (sth.) on the fire to cook; putten yok ~, fig. lay a burden on (sb.); stonden ~, of a house: rest upon (pillars); (b) onto (one's body); touching on (sb. or sth.), up against, in contact with; with verb of leaning: against (sth.), on; also in fig. phrases; honde ~ honde, hand to hand, in close combat; roughe ~ the honde, hairy to the touch, shaggy under the hand; also in proverbs and prov. expressions; (c) don (leien, putten, etc.) ~, to apply (a substance, medicament, etc.) to (sb., a part of the body, wound, etc.); pour (a liquid substance) over (angleworms in a pot); (d) with verbs of affixing or attaching: to (sth.), onto, on; also used pleonastically [quot. ?a1425 (1st), 2nd occurrence]; with verbs of joining or being joined: to (sb. or sth., a structure, field, the sea, etc.); (e) putten (setten) sele ~, to affix a seal to (a document) in confirmation, set (one's) seal to; also, with verb and to adv.(1): putten to sele ~, set (one's) seal to (a document); (f) with verbs of adhering, clinging, sticking, etc.: to (sb. or sth.); cook. brennen ~, of a heated mixture: to burn onto (the bottom of a pan); sitten ~, stick to (the pot); (g) around (sb. or sth., a part of the body), about.
5a.
In phrases expressing nonspatial direction, development, etc.: (a) to (a state, condition, rank, plight, state of knowledge, etc.); ben boren (iboren)~, to be born into (servitude, the human condition, good fortune, etc.); bringen (yeven) ~ mariage, give (sb.) in marriage, marry off; comen (neighen) ~ the nede, be necessary or unavoidable; fallen (fon) ~ slep, fall asleep; haven ~ mariage, have (sb.) in marriage, wed (sb.); ishapen (maken, werken) ~ man, create (sb.) in human form; (b) in selected phrases: tocome ~ this lif, (Christ's) coming into this world; areren ~ lim and lif, awecchen ~ lif (and lim, reisen ~ lif, to raise (sb., the dead) to life; arisen (comen, risen) ~ lif, arise to life; bien from deth ~ lif, redeem (mankind) from death to life; comen ~ this lif, of Christ: come into this world, take human form on earth; driven (wenden) ~ deth, die; hasten ~ deth, be near death, be going to die soon; holden ~ lif, save the life of (sb.); (c) to (an emotion, emotional state, a desire, will); also, to (a faith, belief); stiren ~; (d) to (an age, legal age); atteinen ~ mannes age, comen ~ (ful, pleine) age, to come of age, attain one's majority; bicomen ~ elde, reach an age; fallen ~ age, grow old; (e) to (an act or activity, a course of action, practice, sphere of activity, way of life, etc.); callen (clepen) ~ counseil, to call (sb.) into consultation, confer with; comen ~ ded-bote, make amends; gon ~ bote, passen ~ penaunce, do penance; nimen ~ red, refl. consult, deliberate; also, adopt a plan; putten ~ flight, put (sb. or sth.) to flight, cause to flee; also, refl. take to flight; putten up ~ flight, flush (a pheasant); putten ~ norishinge, put (a child) to be fostered; rennen ~ armes, hasten to arm oneself; taken ~ boistous garnementes (venerie), refl. take up the wearing of rough clothing (hunting); taken ~ counseil, refl. adopt a plan; taken ~ penaunce, refl. undertake or accept penance; taken ~ red, hold consultation, consult;—also refl.; wenden ~ counseil, confer; (f) to (a vice, sin, virtue, etc.); stiren ~; seminge ~ sinne ward, ?tempting to sin; (g) to (an occupation, a craft, study or field of study, etc.); also, into (a monastic community, religious order); idon (putten, setten, etc.) ~ scole, to put (sb.) to school, educate; isetten ~ lore, putten (setten) ~ bok, setten ~ lettre, teach (sb.), instruct; (h) to (oneself, one's heart, mind, memory, knowledge, etc.); taken ~; taken herte ~, to take courage to (oneself), take heart; taken world ~ entente, be well disposed to (worldly things); taken ~ herte, take (sth.) to heart, feel deeply about (sth.); (i) to (a conclusion, an end, the end); tellen tales ~ the ende, to tell tales in full detail; ~ what ende thei shal comen, what outcome they shall have; (j) for (rent, sale); isetten ~ gavel, leten (putten, etc.) ~ ferme, setten ~ hire, etc., to rent out (sth.), grant the use of revenues from (sth.) in return for a fixed payment [see also ferme n.(2) 3.(a), (b), (c)]; (k) in misc. phrases [the precise gloss is highly contextual]; beren ~, to bring (peace) to (sb.); comen (drauen) ~, of temptation, vice, sorrow, etc.: come upon (sb., one's heart); comen ~ the ward, come over thee; ileden ~ deth, of a way of life: lead (sb.) to death; kennen (techen) ~, direct (sb.) to (sb. else, sth., a place) [see also techen v. 12.(c)]; repairen ~, take refuge in (God's love), repair to; (l) in phrases expressing succession or sequence: from..~, from (one person, item, act, etc.) to (another) in order or sequence [see also from prep. 3.(a), (b)]; also in generalizing expression of inclusiveness [quot. c1400]; also with adverbs, in genealogical contexts: doun (doun-ward, upward) ~, down (back) to (sb.) in a genealogy.
5b.
In phrases expressing nonspatial extension, with clause as obj.: ~ as fer as she mai strecchen, in everything she is able to reach, in all she touches, in everything with which she is concerned; also, in emphatic phrase followed by clause: ~ so muchel, to such an extent (that sb. did sth.), so much so (that sb. thought sth.); ~ than swithe, to the extent (that sb. did sth., sth. was so, etc.), so much (that sth. happened).
5c.
In phrases expressing nonspatial inclination: (a) ben ~ god ward, of hope: to be directed toward God, be in God; entenden ~, incline to (an act), focus on; haven ~, have (one's thoughts) directed toward (God); haven corage ~, have an inclination or desire for (learning); lenen ~ entente, refl. be inclined to an intention; wenden ~, incline toward (desires); (b) with verbs or verb phrases expressing emotion, attitude, etc.: toward (sb., oneself), at, with; heven (sparen, wrethen, etc.) ~; beren onde ~, kepen pacience ~.
5d.
In selected combs. with adjectives and adverbs denoting nonspatial proximity: (a) nerre (nexte) ~, nerre..~, of a color: closer (closest) to (another color) in the spectrum; (b) nexte ~, closest in kinship to (sb., oneself); the most nexte ~, the closest spiritually to (God); (c) nexte ~, immediately following (sb. or sth.) in rank or quality; (d) nexte ~ curs, in greatest danger of being cursed, most accursed; (e) drauen nexte ~, to resemble (sth.) most; (f) ner-honde ~, nearly amounting to (a specified value); (g) neigh ~, q.v.
5e.
In phrases expressing nonphysical association: with (sb. or sth.); alliaunce (communing, etc.) ~; joinen (fallen, medlen, mengen) ~; a cas ~, gram. a case used in conjunction with (a particular grammatical construction); allien ~, to form an alliance with (sb.); also used pleonastically [quot. ?a1400].
5f.
In phrase: ~ hep: (a) together, in proximity; in union, into a union; (b) in one group or crowd, in a body; also, in great quantity; (c) as a group, as a whole, collectively, en masse; also, ?mutually [transl. of L invicem]; (d) bringen ~ hep, to bring (sth.) about; comen ~ hep, come to pass.
6.
With expressions of commitment, devotion, etc.: to (sb. or sth., God, Christ, a religion, etc.).
7.
With verbs expressing or implying a change or alteration: (a) into (sb. or sth. else), to (a different form, name, condition, state, etc.); gon ~ blaknesse ward, of an ulcer: to turn blackish, darken in color; (b) with selected verbs: braien (grinden, etc.) ~, to crush or grind (sth.) to (powder); brennen (forbrennen) ~, burn to (coals); also, burn (sb. or sth.) to (ashes, powder, etc.); dashen ~, shatter (sb.) to (shards); dingen ~, pound (sb.) to (dust), pulverize (sb.); fallen ~, crumble to (dust); formolsnen ~, decay to (dust); gnauen ~, gnaw (sb.) to (pieces); hakken (heuen, etc.) ~, hack (sb. or sth.) to (pieces), cut to (bits); knokken ~, knock (sb.) to (pieces); melten ~, melt away to (mist, water); also, of treasures: crumble to (dust), disintegrate: torenden ~, tear (sb.) to (pieces); (c) with expressions of reduction or diminution: to (a lesser number or quantity); boillen (sethen) ~, to boil (a substance or mixture) down to (a lesser quantity or volume), reduce to (a lesser amount) by boiling or simmering; maken two ~ on, make two into one, cause two to become one; sethen ~ the waste of half, boil (sth.) down to half its volume; sethen ~ wastinge of jus, boil (a mixture) down until the liquid is evaporated; (d) with verbs of translating: into (a different language).
8.
In temporal senses: (a) continually until (a specified time, day, an event, etc.), up to the time of (an occurrence); until (a specified time, day, etc.), up to; until the achievement of (old age); half-wei ~ non (prime), halfway between nones (prime) and the preceding canonical hour, halfway to nones (prime); also, with adv. as quasi-noun obj.: ~ eft-sones (thanne), until afterward (then); (b) in selected phrases: from dai ~ dai, from one day to the next, day after day; day by day; from night ~ night, night by night; from time ~ time, from time to time, at intervals; from yer ~ yer, from one year to the next, year after year; time ~ time, time after time; (c) in contexts with a negative: never (not)..~, never (not)..before (the time sb. does sth.); also, with adv. as quasi-noun obj.: never ~ thanne, never before then; (d) toward (a time of the day, the end of one's life, etc.); ~ bed ward (wardes), toward bedtime, about bedtime; drauen ~ ded (deth ward), to be dying; (e) on (a certain day, a specified feast day, etc.); ~ even, last evening, yesterday evening; (f) at (a certain time, a particular time of day or night); ~ late, at last; ~ mid-dai, ~ (the) mid-night, etc.; ~ nede, at time of need, in an emergency or a crisis; ~ speche-time, at the time appointed for audiences; (g) on the occasion of (a baptism, christening); (h) during (a season, an extended holiday period, a year, lifetime, etc.), in, over the term of; within (a specified span of time), by (the second or third day); ~ the neue yer, in the season of the New Year, around the New Year; (i) for (a period of time); ~ long daies, for a long time; ~ time (world), forever; (j) in elliptical phrases: until the time of (sb.), until the coming of; from..~, from the time of (sb.) until the time of (sb. else); also, from (the beginning of the world, etc.) until the coming of (sb., Christ); (k) with adj.: boun ~ endinge, near (one's) death, at the end of (one's) life.
9.
(a) In subordination to (sb. or sth.), subject to, under;— used with verbs or verbal expressions of submitting: benden (bouen, lighten, stonden, etc.) ~, to submit to (sb. or sth., a rite, a belief or faith, etc.), become subject to (sb.), accept the authority of (sb. or sth.) [see also bouen v.(1) 2.(c), (d) and stonden v.(1) 8.(a)];—sometimes refl.; beren loue ~, ed-meden (milden) ~, refl. humble oneself before (sb., God); stonden ~ peril, be at (one's own) risk; (b) ~ honde, under control; under (someone's) control, into (someone's) power; (c) with verbs of subjecting, obligating, etc.: to (sb. or sth.); ben holden ~, to be beholden to (sb. or sth.), be indebted to; be bound by (an oath, commandments), be held to [see also holden v.(1) 14b.(b)]; bringen ~ bismare, driven ~ hething (scorn, etc.), tuken ~ bale (bismare), subject (sb.) to ridicule, hold up to scorn; putten ~, subject (sb.) to (sth.), make (sb.) undergo (sth.), put (sb.) on (oath) [see also putten v. 21.(b)]; putten ~ bok oth, refl. swear on the Bible; (d) with verbs of condemning, sentencing, etc.: to (a penalty, death); dampnen (demen, jugen, etc.) ~ [see also dampnen v. 2.(b) & demen v. 3.(b)]; forjuggen ~ dragoun, to sentence (sb. to be offered) to a dragon; (e) bringen (don, dighten, etc.) ~ deth, putten (don) ~ ded, etc., to put (sb., a creature) to death, kill; also, cause (sb.) to be executed, have (sb.) killed; putten mi-self ~ the deth, fig. do my utmost.
10.
(a) In the possession of (sb.); abiden ~, to remain in the possession of (sb., the crown), be in (someone's) possession; haven (holden) ~, haven and holden ~, etc., have (sth., property) in the possession of (sb., oneself, a guild); (b) into the possession of (sb.); fallen (gon) ~; taken ~, to take (sth.) to (oneself), get possession of (sth.) for (oneself); (c) into possession of (sth.); fon (taken) ~, to come into possession of (a kingdom), succeed to (a throne, the papacy); also, fig. inherit (slavery) [quot. a1200]; (d) ~ honde, with possessive pron. or dat. of pers. pron.: into (someone's) possession; (e) to the possession of (sth.); claimen (maken claim) ~; haven right (title) ~; boren ~, born to possess (sth.).
11.
(a) For the benefit of (sb. or sth.), on behalf of, for the sake of; in favor of (a people) [quot. a1382]; in expressions of bequest: for the benefit of (sth., church works, an altar, etc.); ~ honour of, in honor of (God); ~ thin honour, out of respect for thee; liven ~, to live for (oneself); maken wei ~, fig. make a path for (the issuance of divine anger); (b) for the use of (sb., a creature, a church); also, for use in, on, or with (sth., a structure, fire), for; maken ~; ther is gold ~ the ward, there is gold for thee; (c) in provision for (a future event), against; ~ the mariage ward, in provision for the marriage (of sb.).
12a.
(a) In accordance with (sth.), according to, after; ~ honour, to (one's) credit; ~ treuth, truly, accurately; (b) in selected phrases: as) ~ mi devis, ~ mi thinkinge, in my opinion; ~ manere of, after the manner of (sb. or sth.), in the manner of; ~ might (pouere), according to (one's, someone's) power, to the best of (one's, someone's) ability, to the extent of (one's, someone's) power [see also pouer(e n. 1.(c)]; ~ paie, to (someone's, Christ's, God's) satisfaction; also, satisfactorily [see also paie n. 1.(a), (b)]; ~ right(es, in accord with right, as it should be; in the best manner [see also right n. 8.(f)]; also, directly [quot. c1325]; plesen ~ paie, to please (sb.) well; if hit were ~ me ward, if it were up to me; (c) in phrases followed by that clause: ~ that fore-ward that, on condition that (sb. do sth., sth. be done), with the understanding that (sth. be done;—also without that [quot. a1325]; also, with whether clause as obj.: ~ whether, according to whether (sth. is the case); (d) in phrases used parenthetically: ~ sighte, as it seems; ~ min (oure) sighte, to my (our) sight; ~ min (the worldes) eie, in my (the world's) view, as it appears to me (the world); ~ mannes sighte, apparently, seemingly, as far as one could tell; ~ the sighte of, in the sight of (God), in (God's) view.
12b.
In response to (a call, command, etc.), at; comen ~.
13.
(a) Conducing to (someone's or one's own benefit, profit, advantage, etc.), for (someone's or one's own use, benefit, etc.); ~ availe (bihofþe, bote, frame, note, profite, etc.) [see also bihofþe n. 1. & note n.(2) 1.(a)]; ~ avauntage, for the pecuniary profit (of sb.); brouken ~ nutte, to use (sth.) to advantage; comen ~ availe, result in advantage or gain; stonden ~ availe, be of benefit (to sb.); (b) in adjectival phrases: ~ note (nuttes), of use, useful; thou might ~ note, thou might become useful; (c) ~ than, for that purpose; ~ effect (entente), for a purpose; ~ purpos, to the purpose, appropriate [see also purpos n. 3.(b)]; ~ this (oure) purpos, apropos of this (our) subject, relevant to this (our) matter; ~ (what) fin, to this (what) purpose; fallen ~ purpos, to be relevant; serven ~ the purpos of, be relevant to (sb. or sth.).
14.
(a) As (sb. or sth.), in the role or capacity of, for; ileven (wenen) ~ soth, to take (sth.) as the truth, believe (sth.) to be true; taken ~ grevaunce (ivel, etc.), take (sth.) amiss; taken ~ pine (spite, etc.), take offense; (b) in selected phrases: blessen (halwen, ihalwen, etc.) ~, to consecrate (sb.) as (archbishop, king, etc.); chesen (ichesen) ~, choose (sb.) as (abbot, apostle, king, lover, mother, etc.); drauen godes (taken god) ~ witnesse, call (one's) gods (God) as witness; haven (nimen) ~ quene, of a king: take (a woman) for (one's) queen, make (a woman) one's queen, marry (a woman); hoden (ordeinen) ~, ordain (sb.) as (priest); taken (haven) ~ hous-bond (spouse, wif), taken ~ mariage (mate), nimen (biwedden, inimen, wedden) ~ wif, holden ~ wif, take (sb.) as husband (spouse, wife, etc.), have (sb.) as husband (wife, etc.), marry (sb.), get married to (sb.); willen ~ wif, want (a woman) for (one's) wife, wish to marry (a woman); (c) in somewhat elliptical constructions: haven aunte ~ abbesse (nonne), to have an aunt who is an abbess (a nun); preven (putten in preve) ~, prove (sth.) to be (sth.); understonden ~, understand (sb.) to be (a merchant of Flanders); (d) ben (ben ajoined, ben called, hoten) ~ name, to be called by name (a certain name), be given (a certain name) as a name.
15.
(a) For the purpose of (sth., an act, repair or maintenance of sth., etc.), with the aim of, in order for; also, in somewhat elliptical phrases: in order to attend (a religious service), in order to produce (sth.), in order to provide or purchase (sth.); as ~, so as to inflict (sth.); ~ helpinge ward, in order to provide for (someone's) support; abiden reperes ~, to obtain reapers for (one's grain); baken (breuen) ~ sale, maken ~ sale, bake (brew) for the purpose of selling, manufacture (sth.) commercially; ben ~ clothing, of sheep: serve to provide clothing; (b) maken ~, to create (the earth) for (human toil); shapen ~, ordain (a season) for (snow, rain, etc.); suffisen ~, suffice for the purpose of providing (sth.), be adequate for performing (offices), be sufficient for (atonement, salvation, etc.); werken ~, create (mankind) for (eternal bliss); (c) in phrases following selected adjectives: god (unprofitable) ~, good (not good) for the purpose of (food, medicine); suffisaunt ~, sufficient for (confirmation of sth.); worthi ~, good for the purpose of (pasture); (d) in conjunctive phrases: ~ than (that) that, ~ than (the)..that, so that (sth. might occur), in order that [see also than pron.(1) 3.(b)].
16.
With the result of (sth.), resulting in; also, so as to cause (sth.); ~ nought, for nothing; ~ peine, on pain (of a specified penalty); fallen ~, to result in (food for the soul).
17.
(a) To the point of (sth.), even unto; ~ brenninge, ~ the (tho) deth, ~ (the) outraunce, ~ the shedinge of blod; (b) in phrases with ded or deth and selected verbs: bleden ~ deth, to bleed to death, die from bleeding; brennen (pinen, purseuen, riden, tormenten) ~ deth, choppen (stonen) ~ ded (deth), burn (torture, chop, etc.) (sb., the body, an animal) to death; dashen (smiten) ~ deth, kill (sb., a creature) with a blow or blows; sauen (sheten) ~ deth, kill (sb.) by sawing (shooting); (c) laughen ~ bismare (game, hethinge, scorn, etc.), to laugh (sb.) to scorn, ridicule (sb.) [see also laughen v. 2.(e) & scorn n. 2.(b)]; (d) at the point of (death); lien ~ deth; (e) in adverbial phrases: ~ (the) deth, ~ the ded, ~ forth-for, mortally, deathly; also, in phrases with somewhat weakened force: adred ~ the deth, mortally afraid, scared to death; haten ~ the deth, hate (sb.) mortally, have a deadly hatred of; (f) eccl. sinne ~ (the) deth, a mortal sin; sinnen ~ (the) deth, to commit mortal sin.
18.
(a) With (a certain manner, disposition); ~ even hie, with equal speed, at equal speed; (b) in selected adverbial phrases: ~ soth, in truth, truly, indeed [see also soth n. 3.(g)]; ~ the fulle, in full, fully, thoroughly; ~ wis (ful iwis), for certain, (very) certainly; ~ wonder, scandalously.
19.
(a) Regarding (sb. or sth.), with respect to; as far as (sb. or sth.) is concerned;—sometimes with obj. in comb. with ward; as ~, as regards (sth.); in soth ~ me, as far as I am concerned; serven ~, to be effective with respect to (the ear, eye); (b) ben ~ meninge, to mean (sth.); that is ~ meninge, that is to say, which means; (c) about (sb. or sth.), concerning, of; lernen and techen ~ use of, to instruct (sb.) in the use of (sth.); tellen lightli (wel) ~, think little (well) of (sb. or sth.); (d) considering ~, in consideration of (sth.).
20.
With expressions of asking, hoping, longing, desiring, needing: for (sb. or sth., Christ, etc.), of; asken (hopen, longen, neden, etc.) ~, haven appetit (longinge, nede, talent) ~, etc.
21.
To the achievement of (sth., a state or rank, etc.); atteinen (winnen) ~, to attain to (sth., a state, state of knowledge, etc.), get access to, achieve; helpen ~, help (sb.) to attain (sth.), aid (sb.) in the achievement of.
22.
(a) In comparison with (sb. or sth.), compared to; (b) in relationship to (sth.); (c) equal to (sb. or sth.) in some respect; ~ the lengthe of o cubite, equal to the length of a cubit, a cubit long; casten ~ him bi two yerdes, to match him within two yards in casting (the lance, the stone); (d) similar to (a god, devils), resembling, like; (e) in proportion to (sth., a number).
23.
Following a comparative: than (sb.).
24.
(a) Against (sb. or sth., God), in opposition to; leien ~, to lay into (sb.), attack; piken querele ~, pick a quarrel with (sb.); also in fig. phrases: shitten ~, shut (the gate of the will) against (sth.); speren ~, bar (the heart) against (the devil); withstonden ~, of bodily members: withstand (the strength of a caustic substance); (b) in phrases following nouns: blasfemie ~, blasphemy against (God); offense ~, a transgression against (God); rebel ~, a rebel against (God, reason, the body); (c) connen ~, to know (sth.) against (sb.); (d) med. against (a morbid condition), for the relief or curation of (a sufferer, an afflicted part of the body, a wound, etc.); medicine ~, a remedy against (all manner of sickness);—used fig.
25.
(a) Denoting agency: by (sb.); ben in opinioun ~, to be held in esteem by (sb.); (b) denoting instrument or means: by means of (sth., a faculty, one's voice), with; ~ apprest, on credit; ~ chaunce, by chance, accidentally; ~ fot, on foot; fasten ~, to fast on (bread, water, etc.); holden ~ ferme, hold (property) on lease; singen ~, play on (a musical instrument), make music with.
26.
With expressions of ruling, dominating, superintending, etc.: over (sb. or sth., creatures, a nation, etc.); lordshipen ~.
27.
For (a price, a specified sum of money), at; ~ cost, at (greater, little) cost; also, at the expense (of sb.).
28.
(a) In expressions of concealing, removing: from (sb.); (b) in expressions of asking, desiring, seeking, etc.: from (sb., God, an idol), of.
29.
In partitive constructions: muchel ~ god, a great quantity of goods; also, a great deal of good, much good [4th quot.]; muchel ~ harm, a great deal of harm or damage; part ~, part of (a region).
30.
(a) In expressions of celebration or dedication: in honor of (sb., a pagan deity), to the honor or glory of (God, Christ, a saint); blessen ~ the lord, to ascribe glory to the Lord, extol the Lord; drinken ~, drink to the health of (sb.), toast; (b) ~ knouleche, in acknowledgment (of a saint); ~ lof, in praise (of Christ, a saint), to the glory (of the Virgin Mary); ~ worthing (worthment, worthship), to the glory (of God, Christ); (c) halwen ~ name of, to consecrate (a baptistry) with the name of (a saint); (d) ben halwed (ihalwed, sacred) ~, of a bird, gem, tree: to be sacred to (a pagan deity, the moon); of a specified period: be dedicated to (an act of worship, a celebration).
31a.
In misc. senses: (a) behind (oneself); (b) ?in (sth.); suffisen ~, ?to be present in (a substance); (c) ~ fot, ?on (one's) feet: winnen ~ fot, ?to get (sb.) on his feet, get (sb.) up and moving; (d) for each (container, unit), per; also in proverb; (e) pleien ~, to play at (a game), play (a game); (f) with (sth.); suffisaunt (apaied) ~, satisfied with (sth.); suffisen ~, to be content with (sth.); (g) totaling (a specified number of persons, an amount of money); ~ the somme of, in the amount of (a specified sum); (h) out of (a material); forgen ~, to construct (sth.) out of (wood, stone); (i) in addition to (a certain number of persons, items, etc.); (j) on account of (sb. or sth.); (k) in exchange for (sth.); (l) in return for (a misdeed or an injury); (m) appropriate for (sth.), suited to; (n) indicative of (sth.); token ~ lepre; (o) susceptible to (sth.).
31b.
In misc. adverbial phrases: (a) ~ avauntage (bote), in addition, to boot; (b) ~ neue, anew; (c) ~ preve, in fact.
31c.
Gram. (a) In phrase: serven ~, to be followed by (a certain grammatical case, mood), require or take (a case, mood) [see also serven v.(1) 20.]; (b) the preposition 'to' as the sign of the dative case; also, the preposition 'to' as an element of in-to prep. [2nd quot.].
32.
In constructions expressing the indirect object or other dative relationship: (a) with verbs and verb phrases of giving, offering, bequething, paying, selling, renting, delivering, providing, sending, etc.: to (sb., a fund, God, the Church, etc.), into (someone's hands); also, with verbs and verb phrases of distributing, apportioning, etc.: among (persons, ships); also used pleonastically [quot. a1400(c1303)]; also, with gerund: in yevinge ~, in giving (sth.) to (sb.); ben sen ~ of, to be provided for with (bedding, clothing); (b) with verbs and verb phrases of saying, speaking, telling, praying, preaching, singing, accusing, etc.: to (sb. or sth., oneself, God, Christ, etc.); also, with gerund: in preiinge ~, in praying to (God for sth.); (c) with verbs and verb phrases of interceding, advocating: with (sb., God, Christ), to; ben ~..for, to be an advocate with (sb.) for (sb. else); ben thingere (a mene) ~, be an intercessor with (sb., God, Christ, etc.); (d) with verbs of showing, presenting, revealing, demonstrating, recalling, making known, etc.: to (sb., the mind, a sensory organ, etc.);—sometimes in impers. constructions; (e) with verbs of belonging, pertaining, befalling, etc.: to (sb. or sth., a part of the body, a church, etc.); ben ~, to belong to (sb.); (f) with verbs of befitting, behooving, etc.: to (sb.), for;—freq. in impers. constructions; (g) with verbs of adding: to (sth., a number, text, etc.); amounten ~, to amount to (a sum of money, a specified sum), add up to; (h) with verbs and verb phrases of comparing, analogizing, equalling, likening, etc.: to (sb. or sth., God, etc.); (i) with verb or verb phrase of proportioning: in relation to (sth.); proporciounen (maken proporcional) ~; (j) with verbs and verb phrases of behaving, intending, etc.: toward (sb. or sth.), to, unto; don (misdon) ~; entenden ~, to aim at (destruction, profit); haven ~ sinneres (god ward), refl. behave toward sinners (God); (k) with verbs and verb phrases of pleasing, being agreeable or acceptable, etc.: to (sb., God); also, with expressions of welcome: to (sb. or sth., a place); also, in formula of greeting without verb: welcom ~, be welcome to (sth., a feast); (l) with verbs of assisting, availing, benefitting, satisfying, ministering, profiting, etc.: to (sb. or sth.), for; satisfien ~, to satisfy (sb., a desire); serven ~ maumetrie, worship idols; (m) with verbs of appropriating, arrogating, preserving, reserving: to (oneself), for (oneself, God, sth.); with verbs of ascribing, attributing, imputing, etc.: to (sb. or sth.); ~ him-self ward (me ward), to himself (me); (n) with verbs of buying, choosing, obtaining, etc.: for (sb., oneself, a country, etc.); ben chosen (ichosen) ~, to be chosen for (sb.); also, eccl. of a soul: be elect to (God, Christ, heaven, etc.); (o) with verbs and verb phrases of listening, heeding, paying attention, etc.: to (sb. or sth., someone's words, tale, etc.); also, with gerund: hed takinge ~, the act of paying heed to (sth.); (p) with verbs and verb phrases of caring, attending, etc.: for (sb. or sth.), to, about; (q) with verbs of seeming: to (sb., someone's sight, the general observation or judgment, etc.);—freq. impers.; (r) with verbs and verb phrases of believing, hoping, trusting, etc.: in (sb. or sth., God, heaven, etc.), on, to; ~ him ward, to him; ben ~, of someone's hope: to be in (Christ); (s) in asseverations and exclamations: hopen (vouen, willen, wishen) ~, to hope (vow, wish, etc.) to (God); also, in prophetic utterances, denunciations, etc.: wo (be) ~, weilawei ~, woe (be) to (sb.); (t) with verbs of betrothing, marrying, etc.: to (sb.), with;—sometimes in fig. usages; (u) with verbs and verb phrases of assenting, consenting: to (sb., an act, argument, a request, sin, etc.); with verbs and verb phrases of according, agreeing: with (sb. or sth.); to (sth.); with verbs and verb phrases of approving: of (sth.); also, with verbs and verb phrases of conniving: with (a wrongdoer), at (a sin, wrong, etc.); (v) with verbs of compelling, constraining: to (sth., an office, hell-pain, etc.); (w) with verbs of forgiving, remitting: to (sb.); for (sth.); foryeven ~, to forgive (sth.) to (sb.); also, forgive (guilt, sin), grant forgiveness for; also, extend to (sb.) forgiveness of (debts, an obligation, etc.), excuse (sb.) from payment or fulfillment of; (x) with misc. verbs and verb phrases: agraithen ~, to prepare (sth.) for (sb.); anoien (noien) ~, do harm to (sb. or sth.); answeren ~, be held accountable to (sb., God); aspien ~, lie in wait for (sth.); ben (menen) ~, signify to (sb.), mean to; ben notified ~, be confirmed for (sb.); beren ~, bear a child to (a man); breuen ~, fig. brew (a bitter drink) for (the soul); don harm (ivel, reverence, solas, worshipe, wrong) ~, do harm (reverence, comfort, worship, wrong) to (sb. or sth.); dressen ~, prepare for (an action); refl. get ready for (battle); haven (kepen) treuth ~, keep faith with (sb.); leven ~, leave (sth.) up to (sb.) to determine; maken amendement (amendes) ~, nimen bote ~, make amends to (sb., God, Christ); maken redi ~, refl. prepare oneself for (sth.); nourishen ~, fig. give nourishment to (evils); obeien (obeishen) ~, be obedient to (sb., a command, God, etc.) [see also obeien v. 1.(b) and obeishen v. 1.(b)]; also, do obeisance to (sb.) [see also obeien v. 2.(b)]; openen ~, open the door to (sb.), permit to enter [see also openen v. 1a.(b)]; rebounden (redounden) ~, result in (sth.); also, increase for (sb.) [quot. 1447]; satisfien ~, atone to (God); scornen ~, scorn (sb.); shapen ~, prepare (an adventure, death, a reward) for (sb.); shinen ~ the wardes, in fig. context: shine upon you; willen gref ~, wish harm to (sb.); (y) in formal salutations and dedicatory inscriptions without verb: to (sb., a deity).