Middle English Dictionary Entry

rennen v.(1)
Quotations: Show all Hide all

Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

(a) Of humans: to run, move quickly on foot; also of angels, centaurs, devils, monopodes, etc.; ~ and (other) rennen, go on foot and (or) ride; (b) comen ~, comen (gon) renninge, to come (go) running; ben runnen, to have run or gone; (c) used fig. or in fig. context, esp. of humans; of the mind, thought: shift its direction, direct attention (to sth.); gon renninge; also, ppl. renninge as adj.: wandering; (d) to run in contest or sport, race on foot; also fig.; ?also, play; ~ at the bal, play hockey; (e) in proverbs and prov. phrases.
(a) Of an animal: to run, go; of a serpent: slither, glide; of a bird: hop; of a horse: gallop; ~ over, of a horse: trample (sb.); leten ~, send out (the scapegoat), let loose (foxes); also, gallop (a horse); don (maken) ~, gallop (a horse); also, ppl. renninge as adj.; (b) used fig.; (c) hunt. of a hunting dog: to run in pursuit of game; renninge hound, any of several breeds of hound, hunting by scent in packs; also, one such hound; ~ (in) countre, follow a scent the wrong way; also in fig. context; leten ~, let slip (a hound) to pursue game.
In selected phrases with adverbs: (a) ~ abouten, to run here and there, run wildly or helter-skelter; also fig.; also, go about one's business; also, crowd hastily around [quot.: a1450]; also, keep changing occupations [quot.: c1400(a1376)]; also, dance in a ring; (b) ~ abak, to draw back; ~ after, give chase; ~ atwen, intervene, interpose; ~ biforen (toforen), run ahead, precede; (c) ~ awei, to run away, flee; also fig.; (d) ~ hider(ward and thider(ward, ~ overal, ~ to and fro, ~ up and doun, to run wildly or aimlessly about; (e) ~ in, to run inside; ~ oute, run outside; also, go out, go about the streets; also, fig. depart (from a rule); (f) ~ on biforen, to run on ahead; ~ to, run forward, run up; ~ togeder, hasten into a group, flock together; ~ togederes (ifere), join combat; ~ upon, charge.
In selected phrases with prepositions: (a) ~ abouten, to crowd around (sb., a place); also, attend (sb.), accompany; (b) ~ after, to pursue (sb. or sth.); also fig.; also, follow (sb. or sth.), accompany; also, run to fetch (sb. or sth.); ~ at, pursue (game); ~ for, run to get (sb. or sth.); (c) ~ aye, to bump into (sb.), jostle; ~ ayen, run to meet (sb.); also, bump into (sth.), stumble on (a stone); ~ ayenes, run to meet (sb.); also, run at (sb.), attack, threaten, oppose; ~ in-to, run toward (someone's approach); ~ onyen (ovenon), run to meet (sb.); ~ toyenes, run to greet (sb.); also, run up to (sth.); (d) ~ on, to attack (sb.), war upon (sb., a country); also fig. of a temptation; of sickness, age: befall (sb.); ~ in, of evil: take hold of (sb.), ~ to, run to (sb.), meet; also, run at (sb.), attack, meet in battle; also, pursue (game); also, of famine: befall (sb.); ~ til, charge at (sb.); ~ toward (forn to), hasten toward (sb.); (e) ~ upon, to fall on (one's sword); also, attack (sb., a country, wall, etc.); also, abuse (sb.), disparage; of some evil, loss, etc.: beset (sb.), befall, oppress; also, of time: press on (sb.); ~ up, attack (sb.); (f) ~ with, to keep company with (sb.); also fig.
(a) To run or go about without governance of reason, or in a riotous or disorderly manner; run wild as a result of madness or rebelliousness; also fig. of wits; (b) ~ wod (horn-wod, mad), to run wild, wander about in a deranged state; go mad; (c) of an animal: to run free, run without restraint.
To travel, esp. hurriedly, for some distance.
(a) To flee; ~ from (of), run from (sb. or sth.); also fig.; (b) ~ to (in-to, til), to flee to (a place, God, prayer) for refuge; also, with Apocalyptic ref., of clouds; ~ to the erthe, ?flee to the ends of the earth.
(a) To ride on horseback, esp. at a gallop; also, ride in a chariot; riden and ~, ~ and riden, travel, go; also, ride fast, gallop; ~ after, pursue (sb.) in a chariot; (b) to ride or go (through an area) so as to pillage or plunder; ~ over, oppress (the poor); riden and ~ over, vanquish (a people); ~ with, ride off with (sth.); (c) ~ ayen (on, to, unto, upon), to charge on horseback at (sb.), tilt; ~ to, ride forward, charge; ~ togeder(es, charge at one another.
With inanimate subjects: (a) to move in various ways; move quickly; also fig.; be propelled; of dice: roll; of a wheel: turn, revolve; of a point on the rete of an astrolabe: revolve; ~ abouten, move here and there; ~ in, of fire: come in contact with (gunpowder); ~ togeder, collide; ~ to, strike (the body); rappen and ~, of the pupils of the eyes: dart; ppl. renninge as adj.: moving, circling; (b) to ascend; ~ of, fall from (someone's back); (c) of a ship or its passengers: to sail, sail rapidly; ~ up, come ashore, land; (d) of a heavenly body: to move in the sky; move through (the zodiac, its path through the sky); ~ abouten, of the celestial sphere: revolve; ppl. renninge as adj.: moving; (e) to be free to move in a restricted track; (f) ~ thurgh(out, of a spear, nail, blade, etc.: to pierce through (sb. or sth.); also fig.; ~ in-to (to, unto, upon), stab or pierce so as to penetrate to or into (the heart, brain, etc.); (g) ppl. renninge as adj.: movable, portable; renninge bed, a movable bed; renninge ground line, a nonstationary line used in bottom fishing; renninge knotte, a slip knot [cp. riden v.8.(b)]; renninge lid, ?a sliding lid; renninge quartere, a stroke in fencing; renninge tie, naut. a heavy rope for hoisting or hauling, esp. for raising the yards.
(a) To hasten (to sth. or an activity, to do sth.), betake oneself eagerly; ppl. renninge as adj.: rapid, hasty; (b) to have recourse to (Jesus, the sword, medicine, etc.), resort to; ~ to mouth, have recourse to (one's) mouth, shout; (c) ~ to armes, to arm oneself quickly.
(a) Of water, oil, mercury, etc.: to flow; ~ cler, flow without turbidity; ~ forth (oute), drain out, issue forth; ~ over, overflow; overflow (a vessel); ~ abrode (on brod), flow so as to spread out, flow about widely; ~ abouten, coat (meat on a spit); (b) of blood: to flow; also, course within the body; also, flow from a body; ~ oute; also, fig. in phrase: blod ran, people were wounded; (c) of tears, sweat: to flow; of spittle: drivel, drool; ~ adoun; ~bi cheke, ~ o(n chekes; (d) of a bodily humor, sap, brain matter, etc.: to exude; also, move within the body; (e) of smoke, fire: to issue, burst out; (f) ~ togeder, to crumble together, fall together; ~ togederes, of metals: amalgamate, form an alloy.
Ppl. renninge: (a) fluid; of stews, etc.: not thick or congealed; (b) of water: flowing; not standing or stagnant; pure; of tears: flowing, gushing; (c) of a bodily humor, discharge, etc.: flowing, discharging; current, present; (d) ~ fist, cursive script.
(a) Of a river, stream, brook, etc.: to flow along a course or channel, take its course; also fig.; ~ on baften, flow against the stream; ~ oute (outright), issue; ~ in (of, with), flow with (blood, etc.); ppl. renninge, flowing, running; (b) of large bodies of water, the tide: to flow, stream; also, extend; ~ in turn, part; ~ over, overflow (banks); (c) of waves: to roll; (d) of the Deluge, a torrent: to flow; rush; ~ over, inundate (the world).
(a) Of a well, spring, spout, etc.: to pour forth, emit a stream of liquid; also, gush; ~ of (with), gush forth (wine, milk, etc.); ppl. renninge, pouring forth, gushing; (b) of a vessel: to overflow; ppl. renninge as adj.: leaking, ?slopping over; (c) of a person, a wound: to bleed; (d) of a sore, an infected place: to discharge fluid, suppurate; of the eyes: discharge rheum; (e) of the body: to void fluids; of the eyes: produce tears, weep; (f) surg. to produce a discharge.
In phrases: (a) ~ of (o, on, mid), to flow or be covered with (blood, purulent matter); ~ ablode; ~ awatre, drip with water; (b) ~ ablode (blodi), ~ in (o, of, on, with) blod, of a person, body, part of the body, etc.: to run with blood, bleed; -- also in impers. constructions; (c) ~ ful of blod, of a vein: to be full of blood.
(a) To proceed in time, continue, carry on, be operative; proceed in a sequence or in an activity; of one's destiny: draw toward a crisis; ~ amis, act improperly or sinfully; ~ arrere, fail; ~ bi cours, of an aposteme: proceed in its course of development; ~ bi five, be composed or arranged to contain five corresponding elements; ~ for chaunce, operate for (someone's) good fortune [for pun cp. 6.(a)]; ~ upon a whele, go on continuously in an activity; ppl. renninge, pertaining [quot.: c1400(?a1387)]; (b) to occur; of a plea: be brought; renninge bi yer, recurring every year; ~ to, occur, be encountered; (c) to exist; (d) to move or change in time; ~ in (on, in-to), move into (a condition), advance in (age); ~ of, proceed from (sb.), descend from; ppl. renninge as adj.: changeable; ppl. runnen, advanced (in age); of age five yeres runnen, five years old.
In phrases denoting a proceeding in time or in an activity: (a) ~ ayen, to refer (to a previous discussion); ~ bi, consider (many things); also, of something written: pass under (the eye); ~ thurgh, examine (a list); (b) ~ ayenes (upon), of a legal action: to proceed against (sb.); ~ ayenes, of a penalty: be inflicted upon (sb.); (c) ~ on, to discourse on (a subject), talk about; (d) ~ upon, to study (a topic), examine; of a text: treat (a subject); of a prohibition, act of will, etc.: be directed toward (a particular act or subject), concern; ~ thurgh, of a book: treat in succession (several topics); (e) ~ with, to accompany (sth.), be consistent with; (f) ~ togeder(es, to occur together; coincide; proceed together, fall together.
In phrases denoting the encountering of something evil or unfavorable: (a) ~ in (in-to, under), to incur (displeasure, debt, a penalty, fine, etc.); ~ in-to (under), incur (censure, calumny); ~ in-to, be guilty of (a crime); (b) ~ in (in-to), to encounter (difficulty, loss, misfortune), suffer; (c) ~ in (in-to), to contract (an illness), suffer; (d) ~ in (in-to, unto), to commit (a blunder, an error, a sin, etc.); fall into (a sinful practice); (e) ~ in-to, of a practice: to result in (physical affliction).
To pursue with zeal a Christian course of life.
Of time, a period of time, specified day: to pass, elapse; ~ oute; ~ over, be past (a time).
(a) To extend in space, spread; move through space, pass; renninge orfrais, continuous ornamental embroidery used as a border on garments; (b) of a plant: to grow, spread; also fig. of plant-like decoration; (c) of a morbid condition: to spread through the body; ~ abouten (bi), spread through (the body, parts of the body); ppl. renninge, spreading; (d) of a report, sound, written text, etc.: to be transmitted from one person to another, spread widely; (e) to extend in time; (f) of a cloth: to be laid or spread (upon a table); (g) of color: to suffuse.
(a) Of an opinion, a report, rumor: to be current; (b) of a practice, condition: to be or become current; ~ in, be common among (people); ~ oute thurgh, come to be observed throughout (an area); ~ over, become current among (a people); renninge to and fro, strongly prevalent; (c) of a school of physicians: to be currently practicing; (d) of a disease: to be prevalent (in a land).
(a) Of a law, tax, writ, etc.: to be in effect, be valid; of arrearage: remain collectable; (b) of money, merchandise: to be in circulation, have currency; of a price: be current; ~ for, be current at (a certain value).
(a) Of a thought, an impression, an emotion: to be present (in one's mind); ~ in thought (minde, remembraunce); (b) in impers. constructions; (c) ~ in (to) herte, of pity, Christian faith: to be present or inspired in (one's) heart.
(a) Of a sum, wages: to mount up; also, be accounted for; also, of a sum: have value (as part of a larger amount), count; ~ on, of a year: amount to (a certain number), reach; ~ up, be accounted for; (b) ~ upon, of a sum, fee: to be levied upon (land, wine).
(a) To coagulate, congeal; also, of batter: form into small pieces when deep-fried; ppl. runnen, congealed, run together; also fig. of close-grained or mottled-grained wood [last quot.]; (b) to dry up; of the womb: cease flowing; ~ togederes, of flowers: shrivel up.
Misc. intr. senses: (a) Ppl. renninge as adj., of leather: supple, flexible; (b) error for remitten v.
(a) Refl. To betake oneself, run; (b) to run (a course, distance), traverse, travel; also in fig.context; (c) of a heavenly body: to complete (all or some of its track through the heavens); ~ marke, of the sun: set; (d) of a wheel: to complete (a revolution); turn in (a circular course); (e) ~ cours, to ride a pass in a joust; also, run (toward sb.); (f) ~ hare, to hunt a hare.
(a) Refl. Of a river: to flow; (b) to flow in or along (a course, channel); (c) to discharge (a liquid); flow with (wine, honey, etc.); (d) of eyes: discharge (fluid); (e) ~ blod, to bleed.
(a) Of a period of time, a period leading to a specified day: to run (its course); ~ cours under the time, of temporal things: exist for an allotted portion of time; (b) of (from) time that no minde renneth, since a time to which no memory extends, longer than anyone remembers.
(a) To pierce (sb.); ~ in, ?penetrate (armor); ~ thurgh, run (sb.) through; also, pierce through (someone's heart); (b) to skewer (fruit, etc. on a spit); also, impale (oneself on a sword); (c) to hit (a ball); propel (a projectile).
Misc. trans. senses: (a) to incur (debt, ill health); (b) ~ to harm, to harm (sb.); (c) to cause (sth.) to congeal or coagulate; (d) rapen and ~ [cp. rappen and ~ in 6.(a) & rapen v.(2) (e)], ?repen and ~ [?confused form of repen and rinen], to seize and make off with (sth.).