Middle English Dictionary Entry

rennen v.(1)
Quotations: Show all Hide all

Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

(a) Of humans: to run, move quickly on foot; also of angels, centaurs, devils, monopodes, etc.; ~ and (other) rennen, go on foot and (or) ride; (b) comen ~, comen (gon) renninge, to come (go) running; ben runnen, to have run or gone; (c) used fig. or in fig. context, esp. of humans; of the mind, thought: shift its direction, direct attention (to sth.); gon renninge; also, ppl. renninge as adj.: wandering; (d) to run in contest or sport, race on foot; also fig.; ?also, play; ~ at the bal, play hockey; (e) in proverbs and prov. phrases.
(a) Of an animal: to run, go; of a serpent: slither, glide; of a bird: hop; of a horse: gallop; ~ over, of a horse: trample (sb.); leten ~, send out (the scapegoat), let loose (foxes); also, gallop (a horse); don (maken) ~, gallop (a horse); also, ppl. renninge as adj.; (b) used fig.; (c) hunt. of a hunting dog: to run in pursuit of game; renninge hound, any of several breeds of hound, hunting by scent in packs; also, one such hound; ~ (in) countre, follow a scent the wrong way; also in fig. context; leten ~, let slip (a hound) to pursue game.
In selected phrases with adverbs: (a) ~ abouten, to run here and there, run wildly or helter-skelter; also fig.; also, go about one's business; also, crowd hastily around [quot.: a1450]; also, keep changing occupations [quot.: c1400(a1376)]; also, dance in a ring; (b) ~ abak, to draw back; ~ after, give chase; ~ atwen, intervene, interpose; ~ biforen (toforen), run ahead, precede; (c) ~ awei, to run away, flee; also fig.; (d) ~ hider(ward and thider(ward, ~ overal, ~ to and fro, ~ up and doun, to run wildly or aimlessly about; (e) ~ in, to run inside; ~ oute, run outside; also, go out, go about the streets; also, fig. depart (from a rule); (f) ~ on biforen, to run on ahead; ~ to, run forward, run up; ~ togeder, hasten into a group, flock together; ~ togederes (ifere), join combat; ~ upon, charge.
In selected phrases with prepositions: (a) ~ abouten, to crowd around (sb., a place); also, attend (sb.), accompany; (b) ~ after, to pursue (sb. or sth.); also fig.; also, follow (sb. or sth.), accompany; also, run to fetch (sb. or sth.); ~ at, pursue (game); ~ for, run to get (sb. or sth.); (c) ~ aye, to bump into (sb.), jostle; ~ ayen, run to meet (sb.); also, bump into (sth.), stumble on (a stone); ~ ayenes, run to meet (sb.); also, run at (sb.), attack, threaten, oppose; ~ in-to, run toward (someone's approach); ~ onyen (ovenon), run to meet (sb.); ~ toyenes, run to greet (sb.); also, run up to (sth.); (d) ~ on, to attack (sb.), war upon (sb., a country); also fig. of a temptation; of sickness, age: befall (sb.); ~ in, of evil: take hold of (sb.), ~ to, run to (sb.), meet; also, run at (sb.), attack, meet in battle; also, pursue (game); also, of famine: befall (sb.); ~ til, charge at (sb.); ~ toward (forn to), hasten toward (sb.); (e) ~ upon, to fall on (one's sword); also, attack (sb., a country, wall, etc.); also, abuse (sb.), disparage; of some evil, loss, etc.: beset (sb.), befall, oppress; also, of time: press on (sb.); ~ up, attack (sb.); (f) ~ with, to keep company with (sb.); also fig.
(a) To run or go about without governance of reason, or in a riotous or disorderly manner; run wild as a result of madness or rebelliousness; also fig. of wits; (b) ~ wod (horn-wod, mad), to run wild, wander about in a deranged state; go mad; (c) of an animal: to run free, run without restraint.
To travel, esp. hurriedly, for some distance.
(a) To flee; ~ from (of), run from (sb. or sth.); also fig.; (b) ~ to (in-to, til), to flee to (a place, God, prayer) for refuge; also, with Apocalyptic ref., of clouds; ~ to the erthe, ?flee to the ends of the earth.
(a) To ride on horseback, esp. at a gallop; also, ride in a chariot; riden and ~, ~ and riden, travel, go; also, ride fast, gallop; ~ after, pursue (sb.) in a chariot; (b) to ride or go (through an area) so as to pillage or plunder; ~ over, oppress (the poor); riden and ~ over, vanquish (a people); ~ with, ride off with (sth.); (c) ~ ayen (on, to, unto, upon), to charge on horseback at (sb.), tilt; ~ to, ride forward, charge; ~ togeder(es, charge at one another.
With inanimate subjects: (a) to move in various ways; move quickly; also fig.; be propelled; of dice: roll; of a wheel: turn, revolve; of a point on the rete of an astrolabe: revolve; ~ abouten, move here and there; ~ in, of fire: come in contact with (gunpowder); ~ togeder, collide; ~ to, strike (the body); rappen and ~, of the pupils of the eyes: dart; ppl. renninge as adj.: moving, circling; (b) to ascend; ~ of, fall from (someone's back); (c) of a ship or its passengers: to sail, sail rapidly; ~ up, come ashore, land; (d) ~ over, of a vehicle: knock (sb.) down and roll over him or her; to kno(e) of a heavenly body: to move in the sky; move through (the zodiac, its path through the sky); ~ abouten, of the celestial sphere: revolve; ppl. renninge as adj.: moving; (f) to be free to move in a restricted track; (g) ~ thurgh(out, of a spear, nail, blade, etc.: to pierce through (sb. or sth.); also fig.; ~ in-to (to, unto, upon), stab or pierce so as to penetrate to or into (the heart, brain, etc.); (h) ppl. renninge as adj.: movable, portable; renninge bed, a movable bed; renninge ground line, a nonstationary line used in bottom fishing; renninge knotte, a slip knot [cp. riden v.8.(b)]; renninge lid, ?a sliding lid; renninge quartere, a stroke in fencing; renninge tie, naut. a heavy rope for hoisting or hauling, esp. for raising the yards.
(a) To hasten (to sth. or an activity, to do sth.), betake oneself eagerly; ppl. renninge as adj.: rapid, hasty; (b) to have recourse to (Jesus, the sword, medicine, etc.), resort to; ~ to mouth, have recourse to (one's) mouth, shout; (c) ~ to armes, to arm oneself quickly.
(a) Of water, oil, mercury, etc.: to flow; ~ cler, flow without turbidity; ~ forth (oute), drain out, issue forth; ~ over, overflow; overflow (a vessel); ~ abrode (on brod), flow so as to spread out, flow about widely; ~ abouten, coat (meat on a spit); (b) of blood: to flow; also, course within the body; also, flow from a body; ~ oute; also, fig. in phrase: blod ran, people were wounded; (c) of tears, sweat: to flow; of spittle: drivel, drool; ~ adoun; ~bi cheke, ~ o(n chekes; (d) of a bodily humor, sap, brain matter, etc.: to exude; also, move within the body; (e) of smoke, fire: to issue, burst out; (f) ~ togeder, to crumble together, fall together; ~ togederes, of metals: amalgamate, form an alloy.
Ppl. renninge: (a) fluid; of stews, etc.: not thick or congealed; (b) of water: flowing; not standing or stagnant; pure; of tears: flowing, gushing; (c) of a bodily humor, discharge, etc.: flowing, discharging; current, present; (d) ~ fist, cursive script.
(a) Of a river, stream, brook, etc.: to flow along a course or channel, take its course; also fig.; ~ on baften, flow against the stream; ~ oute (outright), issue; ~ in (of, with), flow with (blood, etc.); ppl. renninge, flowing, running; (b) of large bodies of water, the tide: to flow, stream; also, extend; ~ in turn, part; ~ over, overflow (banks); (c) of waves: to roll; (d) of the Deluge, a torrent: to flow; rush; ~ over, inundate (the world).
(a) Of a well, spring, spout, etc.: to pour forth, emit a stream of liquid; also, gush; ~ of (with), gush forth (wine, milk, etc.); ppl. renninge, pouring forth, gushing; (b) of a vessel: to overflow; ppl. renninge as adj.: leaking, ?slopping over; (c) of a person, a wound: to bleed; (d) of a sore, an infected place: to discharge fluid, suppurate; of the eyes: discharge rheum; (e) of the body: to void fluids; of the eyes: produce tears, weep; (f) surg. to produce a discharge.
In phrases: (a) ~ of (o, on, mid), to flow or be covered with (blood, purulent matter); ~ ablode; ~ awatre, drip with water; (b) ~ ablode (blodi), ~ in (o, of, on, with) blod, of a person, body, part of the body, etc.: to run with blood, bleed; -- also in impers. constructions; (c) ~ ful of blod, of a vein: to be full of blood.
(a) To proceed in time, continue, carry on, be operative; proceed in a sequence or in an activity; of one's destiny: draw toward a crisis; ~ amis, act improperly or sinfully; ~ arrere, fail; ~ bi cours, of an aposteme: proceed in its course of development; ~ bi five, be composed or arranged to contain five corresponding elements; ~ for chaunce, operate for (someone's) good fortune [for pun cp. 6.(a)]; ~ upon a whele, go on continuously in an activity; ppl. renninge, pertaining [quot.: c1400(?a1387)]; (b) to occur; of a plea: be brought; renninge bi yer, recurring every year; ~ to, occur, be encountered; (c) to exist; (d) to move or change in time; ~ in (on, in-to), move into (a condition), advance in (age); ~ of, proceed from (sb.), descend from; ppl. renninge as adj.: changeable; ppl. runnen, advanced (in age); of age five yeres runnen, five years old.
In phrases denoting a proceeding in time or in an activity: (a) ~ ayen, to refer (to a previous discussion); ~ bi, consider (many things); also, of something written: pass under (the eye); ~ thurgh, examine (a list); (b) ~ ayenes (upon), of a legal action: to proceed against (sb.); ~ ayenes, of a penalty: be inflicted upon (sb.); (c) ~ on, to discourse on (a subject), talk about; (d) ~ upon, to study (a topic), examine; of a text: treat (a subject); of a prohibition, act of will, etc.: be directed toward (a particular act or subject), concern; ~ thurgh, of a book: treat in succession (several topics); (e) ~ with, to accompany (sth.), be consistent with; (f) ~ togeder(es, to occur together; coincide; proceed together, fall together.
In phrases denoting the encountering of something evil or unfavorable: (a) ~ in (in-to, under), to incur (displeasure, debt, a penalty, fine, etc.); ~ in-to (under), incur (censure, calumny); ~ in-to, be guilty of (a crime); (b) ~ in (in-to), to encounter (difficulty, loss, misfortune), suffer; (c) ~ in (in-to), to contract (an illness), suffer; (d) ~ in (in-to, unto), to commit (a blunder, an error, a sin, etc.); fall into (a sinful practice); (e) ~ in-to, of a practice: to result in (physical affliction).
To pursue with zeal a Christian course of life.
Of time, a period of time, specified day: to pass, elapse; ~ oute; ~ over, be past (a time).
(a) To extend in space, spread; move through space, pass; renninge orfrais, continuous ornamental embroidery used as a border on garments; (b) of a plant: to grow, spread; also fig. of plant-like decoration; (c) of a morbid condition: to spread through the body; ~ abouten (bi), spread through (the body, parts of the body); ppl. renninge, spreading; (d) of a report, sound, written text, etc.: to be transmitted from one person to another, spread widely; (e) to extend in time; (f) of a cloth: to be laid or spread (upon a table); (g) of color: to suffuse.
(a) Of an opinion, a report, rumor: to be current; (b) of a practice, condition: to be or become current; ~ in, be common among (people); ~ oute thurgh, come to be observed throughout (an area); ~ over, become current among (a people); renninge to and fro, strongly prevalent; (c) of a school of physicians: to be currently practicing; (d) of a disease: to be prevalent (in a land).
(a) Of a law, tax, writ, etc.: to be in effect, be valid; of arrearage: remain collectable; (b) of money, merchandise: to be in circulation, have currency; of a price: be current; ~ for, be current at (a certain value).
(a) Of a thought, an impression, an emotion: to be present (in one's mind); ~ in thought (minde, remembraunce); (b) in impers. constructions; (c) ~ in (to) herte, of pity, Christian faith: to be present or inspired in (one's) heart.
(a) Of a sum, wages: to mount up; also, be accounted for; also, of a sum: have value (as part of a larger amount), count; ~ on, of a year: amount to (a certain number), reach; ~ up, be accounted for; (b) ~ to, of money: be applied to (a payment), contribute to; ~ upon, of a sum, fee: to be levied upon (land, wine, exports, etc.).
(a) To coagulate, congeal; also, of batter: form into small pieces when deep-fried; ppl. runnen, congealed, run together; also fig. of close-grained or mottled-grained wood [last quot.]; (b) to dry up; of the womb: cease flowing; ~ togederes, of flowers: shrivel up.
Misc. intr. senses: (a) Ppl. renninge as adj., of leather: supple, flexible; (b) error for remitten v.
(a) Refl. To betake oneself, run; (b) to run (a course, distance), traverse, travel; also in fig.context; (c) of a heavenly body: to complete (all or some of its track through the heavens); ~ marke, of the sun: set; (d) of a wheel: to complete (a revolution); turn in (a circular course); (e) ~ cours, to ride a pass in a joust; also, run (toward sb.); (f) ~ hare, to hunt a hare.
(a) Refl. Of a river: to flow; (b) to flow in or along (a course, channel); (c) to discharge (a liquid); flow with (wine, honey, etc.); (d) of eyes: discharge (fluid); (e) ~ blod, to bleed.
(a) Of a period of time, a period leading to a specified day: to run (its course); ~ cours under the time, of temporal things: exist for an allotted portion of time; (b) of (from) time that no minde renneth, since a time to which no memory extends, longer than anyone remembers.
(a) To pierce (sb.); ~ in, ?penetrate (armor); ~ thurgh, run (sb.) through; also, pierce through (someone's heart); (b) to skewer (fruit, etc. on a spit); also, impale (oneself on a sword); (c) to hit (a ball); propel (a projectile).
Misc. trans. senses: (a) to incur (debt, ill health); (b) ~ to harm, to harm (sb.); (c) to cause (sth.) to congeal or coagulate; (d) rapen and ~ [cp. rappen and ~ in 6.(a) & rapen v.(2) (e)], ?repen and ~ [?confused form of repen and rinen], to seize and make off with (sth.).

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • (1462) Will York in Sur.Soc.30257 : I wille that myn executours have the reule of my sone and surplus of my livelode during the nonage of my said sone, and also the surplus of the saide xx l. whan the yeres of cc marc are ronne.
  • Note: New phrase for sense 19.(a).
    Note: Gloss: ben runnen, ?of a time span: to be expired, be past, run out.--notes per MLL