Middle English Dictionary Entry

with prep.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. forth-with prep., for-with prep., mid prep.(1).
Directly opposite to (sth.) in space or location, facing over against; face ~ face, mouth ~ mouth, neb ~ neb, face to face; fighten honde ~ honde, to fight hand to hand, fight in close combat.
(a) Against (sb. or sth., God, the soul, etc.), in opposition to, with hostile intent toward; fighten (haven ado, striven, etc.) ~; haven unsaught ~, to have strife with (sb., a country), engage in hostilities against; helpen ~, help (sb.) in a struggle against (an enemy); (b) with expressions of arguing, debating, disputing, etc.: against (sb.), with; also, with expressions of passing judgment: against (sb.), upon; chiden (fliten) ~, to berate (sb., oneself); (c) with expressions of defending, protecting, resisting, warning, etc.: against (sb. or sth., an action, a natural phenomenon, etc.), from; (d) with expressions of anger, hostility, envy, etc.: against (sb., oneself, or sth.), at, toward [the precise gloss is highly contextual]; (e) med. & veter. as a remedy for (a pathological condition, disease, etc.), against, for; (f) in contrast to (sth.), over against, as opposed to.
(a) With expressions of concealing: from (sb.); (b) with expressions of separating, delivering, refraining: from (sb. or sth.); clensen ~, to rid (a church) of (mice); isteren ~, restrain (oneself) from (sin), refrain from; parten ~, part from (sb.); also, part with (sth.), give up; (c) dispensen ~, eccl. to grant release from (a law, rules), grant dispensation from; dispensacioun ~.
(a) In physical proximity to (sb. or sth., an animal, etc.), near, close to, beside, alongside; even ~, abreast of (sb.), even with; forkerven ~ the ground, to cut (a tree) down to the ground, cut off at or near ground level; sheren ~ the shulderes, strike off the head of (sb.) at the shoulders; (b) upon (the earth, sea bottom), on; ben direct ~, of the moon: to shine directly upon (sth.); lighten ~, of God’s help: descend upon (sb.), alight upon; stiken (picchen togeder) ~, impale (sb.) against or upon (a wall, the ground); roughen ~, cough against or on (one’s shoulder); (c) physically within (a part of the body), inside of; ben ~, of qualities, characteristics, virtues, etc.: to be in or inherent in (sb. or sth.); (d) with verbs of motion: into the presence of (sb., God), to; (e) in phrases with noun or pron. in the gen. plus ward: ~ here (thas shrafes, thas sterres) ward, toward or in the direction of them (the cave or star); (f) in the same direction as (sb. or sth.); ~ the flod (stremes, the wind), in the same direction as the tide (current, wind) is moving; ben ~, of the current or tide: to be moving in the same direction as (sb.), be with (sb.); haven the wind ~, have the wind with (oneself) or going (one’s) way; (g) naut. ?in the direction of (a place); ?by way of (a place).
(a) In phrases expressing association in space or location, accompaniment, connection, etc.: in the company of (sb., God, etc.), together with (sb. or sth.); among (persons, animals), in the midst of; also, present with (sb.), in the presence of; with verbs of motion, sending, etc.: accompanied by (sb. or sth.); also in fig. contexts; comen ~ him to in, to come to visit him at (his) lodgings; haven dwellinge ~ the world, live in the world, live by the world’s values; holden fot ~, keep pace with (sb.), keep up with; medlen ech ~ other, refl. stick together, stay with one another; (b) at the dwelling of (sb.), in the house of; in the household of (sb.), in service to, in the retinue of; also, in attendance upon (a patient, an invalid), at the bedside of; (c) in pious declarations and phrases of asseveration, benediction, cursing, etc.: ben ~, of God, Jesus, etc.: to be with (sb.), attend; of a blessing: be upon (sb.); the lord ~ the, the lord be with thee; (d) with (sb., a creature) for safekeeping, in the keeping of, in the custody or charge of, in the care of, in the possession of [sometimes difficult to distinguish from (a)]; in kepinge ~, in the personal possession of (sb.).
(a) With expressions of meeting, encounter, etc.: with (sb. or sth.); fallen ~, to come upon (a place) in due course; meten ~ [see also meten v.(4) 1.(b), 2.(a), 2.(d), et passim]; (b) with expressions of verbal or mental communication: with (sb., oneself), to; thinken ~, to think to (oneself); (c) with expressions of dancing, playing, etc.: with (sb. or sth.); pleien ~, to play with (sb. or sth.); also, toy with (sb.); torment (sb.) [see also pleien v.(1) 1a.(e), 1a.(f)]; (d) with expressions of fastening, physical attachment, etc.: with (sth.), to; (e) in phrases implying mixture, combination, blending, etc.: mixed together with (sth.), in combination with, blended with; also, with verbs or ppls. of mixing, entangling, etc.: with (sth.); ben medled ~, to be mixed with (sth.); of flesh: be interspersed with (muscles, ligaments); of a muscle: be entangled or intertwined with (a ligament); (f) with verbs of marrying: with (sb.), to; also in fig. context; (g) with verbs and verbal expressions of sexual relations, copulation, etc.: with (sb.); (h) with expressions of dealing, behaving: with (sb. or sth., a creature), toward; ben ~, to act toward (sb.); delen (don, haven ado, haven to don, usen, etc.) ~; also in elliptical constr. with obj. of the prep. unexpressed: frendli (perilous) to delen ~, friendly (dangerous) to deal with; (i) with expressions of sharing: with (sb., God); among (persons); parten ~, to share (sth.) with (sb., God); give a share (of sth.) to (sb.) [see also parten v. 6.(c)]; (j) with expressions of interchanging or exchanging: with (sb. or sth.).
In phrases: ~ child (lomb, whelp, etc.), of a female: pregnant; gret ~ child, ~ child gret (fer gon), in an advanced stage of pregnancy; ben ~ childre two, to be pregnant with twins; ben ~ a ded child, carry a dead fetus; gon ~ child, of a woman or female animal: be pregnant; of soil or turf: produce plant life; gon ~ child in gomme, of a tree: ooze or exude gum.
In phrases expressing the unity of persons of the Trinity: in coexistence with (God, Christ, or the Holy Spirit); also, in phrases expressing spiritual or mystical union between God and humanity, the human soul and Christ, etc.: united with (mankind); ben made at on ~, ben on (oned) ~, etc., to be (made) one with (humanity, Christ, etc.).
(a) With expressions of accord, assent, confirmation, consent, reconciliation, sympathy, etc.: with (sb., oneself, sth., or Christ), to (sb. or sth.); ben ~, to be in agreement with (sb.); haven pes ~, be peacefully inclined toward (sb.); folwen ~, be supportive toward (sb.); (b) construen ~, gram. of a specified word or form: to construe with (a certain case), take; (c) with expressions of acquaintance, familiarity, or kinship: with (sb. or sth.); to (sb.); (d) fallen ~, to belong or come in classification with (sth.).
In phrases with a superlative as obj.: in the rank of (the best, highest, largest, etc.), among; not ~ the leste of stature, not among the shortest in (her) stature; kepen ~ the best, to keep (a lady) most excellently.
On the side of (sb., God, a virtue, vice, etc.), with the party of, in sympathy with; holden ~, to hold with (sb. or sth.), side with [see also holden v.(1) 24.(b)]; holden ~ hound and (~) hare, take both sides; seuen ~, be followers of (Jesus); stonden ~, stand for (justice), uphold.
(a) In expressions of comparison: compared to (sb.), compared with; liken ~, to compare (oneself) with (sb.); (b) in expressions of similarity or identity: like (sb. or sth.), as; lik ~, the same (…) ~; fals ~, false like (the fiend); also, in phrases introducing a direct quotation or a paraphrase: seien ~, to say as (sb., a text) says (certain specified words); maken objeccioun ~ galenes wordes, make an objection citing Galen’s words (to the effect that sth. is so); (c) in expressions of equality: to (sb. or sth.), with; even ~, equal to (sb. or sth.); also, equivalent to (an action), tantamount to; evening (per) ~, an) equal to (God, a person of the Trinity, an apostle); comparen ~, to be equal to (sb.); comparisounen ~, make (sb.) equal to (sb. else), treat as equal to.
In temporal phrases expressing immediate or simultaneous action: (a) ~ this crie (noise), at this cry (noise), as soon as this cry (noise) was raised; ~ this (that) word, with this (that) word, as soon as this (that) word was spoken; sterven forth ~ tale, to die as soon as (one’s) tale is told; (b) with demonstrative pron. as obj.: ~ this (that), ~ this (that) ilke, ~ than, at this (that), at this (that) very moment, hereupon, thereupon, then, at once; (c) in phrases implying, somewhat elliptically, both simultaneous action and causality: ~ him (the quene), at the same time as someone’s (the queen’s) coming, along with someone (the queen); paien ~ everi crop, to pay (a certain sum) at the time of every crop, pay with the harvest of every crop.
In temporal phrases expressing duration of time: within (a short time), in the course of (a few years).
(a) With respect to (sb. or sth.), in regard to, as regards, concerning; as far as (sb. or sth.) is concerned; hou hit is ~, how it fares with (sb.), how (sb.) is; what chere ~ the?, how are you?; what is ~ the?, what is the matter with you?; (b) hurkelen doun ~ hed, to bend (one’s) head down, hang (one’s) head.
In elliptical constructions: (a) with adverb or adverbial phrase, in phrases used absolutely, perh. for vividness, in contexts where a verb is to be understood: an-on oute ~ a knif, at once out with a knife, he at once drew a knife; he of ~ his clothes, he took off his clothes; he oute ~ a sword, he drew a sword; that ech a man up ~ the hed, that every man hold up his head; ~ hire oute of min eie-sight, out of my sight with her, take her away; etc.; (b) following a modal auxiliary and adverb in contexts where an inf. is to be understood: shal doun ~ pride, shall have (their) pride humbled, shall be brought down in (their) pride; wille ye of ~ his hed, will you behead him.
(a) In constructions expressing the relationship between certain nouns or adjectives and the person or persons to whom their application is limited: to (sb.), for, toward, with [the precise gloss is highly contextual]; (b) in constructions with selected verbs and verb phrases: to (sb.), for (sth.), with (sth.) [the precise gloss is highly contextual]; chargen ~, to entrust (sb.) with (sth., an office); also, charge (sb.) with (the performance of sth.); also, accuse (sb.) of (sth.), bring a charge of [quot. a1425 Ben.Rule(1)]; dispensen (maken dispensacioun) ~, eccl. make dispensation to (sb.) by granting exemption from law, rule, vows, etc. or by mitigation of penalties for infractions of such rules; also, make dispensation for (one’s sins) [quot. a1449]; don merci ~, be merciful to (sb.).
(a) In the estimation of (sb., God), in the opinion of; ben wel ~, to be in the good graces of (sb.); (b) in the experience of (sb.), by the custom of (one or more persons), among.
(a) In phrases expressing addition or conjunction: in addition to (sb. or sth.), besides, as well as, in conjunction with; also, with negative: except [1st quot.]; also, as quasi-conjunction: and also, and in addition; (b) inclusive of (sb. or sth.), including; (c) in the number of (shires); (d) ~ more, moreover, in addition.
In adj. phrases modifying a possessor, controller, bearer, container, etc.: in possession of (sth.), possessed of; in control of (sth.); in charge of (sth.); bearing (sb. or sth.), containing, having; bok ~ evaungeles, a book containing the Gospels.
In adj. phrases of description: (a) characterized by (an internal quality, a state or condition), having (spiritual hunger, a gentle heart, etc.); ~ ord and bouten ende, having a beginning and without an end; also, in phrases equivalent to a simple adj.: ~ skil (wit), reasonable; ~ the (his) lif, alive; ~ wel muchel sorinesse, very sorry, very sad; also, in phrase equivalent to a participial adj.: ~ mischef, injured, wounded; (b) characterized by (an external feature), having (sth. as a constituent part, distinguishing feature or characteristic, etc.), marked by; (c) in descriptive epithets: blaunchefleur ~ the whit side, the king ~ the hundred knightes, etc.; (d) chiefly med. characterized by (a symptom), accompanied by (a characteristic morbid condition or action); (e) med. characterized by (a therapeutic property).
In adv. phrases expressing manner: (a) with (an attendant posture, gesture, look, manner of speaking, etc.); (b) with (an attendant emotion, mental state, frame of mind, attitude, demeanor); also, with (sth. as a manifestation of emotion); ~ god (laughinge) herte, ~ herte blithe, with a cheerful heart, cheerfully, merrily; ~ tere(s, tearfully, with tears; (c) in selected phrases, freq. equivalent to a simple adv.: ~ bodi and ~ soule, in body and soul; also, with weakened force: completely; ~ bost, arrogantly; ~ diligence, diligently; ~ equalite, equally; ~ folie, foolishly; ~ force, stoutly, forcefully; ~ haste (randoun, rape, spede), with haste, speedily; ~ herte, eagerly, earnestly, heartily; ~ hole herte, wholeheartedly; ~ holhede, fully; ~ main (might, violence), violently; ~ menske, honorably; ~ mesure (temperament, temperaunce), in moderation, to a moderate degree, moderately; ~ peine, with effort; ~ pes, peaceably; ~ purpos, on purpose, deliberately; ~ a ren, at a run; ~ resoun (right), with reason (right), reasonably, rightly; also, justly; properly; naturally; ~ no resoun, by no means; ~ on (unite), unanimously, all together; ~ shine, brilliantly; ~ silence, in silence, silently; ~ skil, capably, with skill, skillfully; ~ unright (wo, wrong), wrongly, wrongfully; unjustly; ~ so gret blindnesse (hou gret ignoraunce, etc.), so blindly (how ignorantly, etc.); ~ unskil, unprofitably; ~ (ful) wille, very) willingly; willfully; ~ god wille, gladly; ~ worshipe, honorably, without disgrace; (d) ~ al might (strengthes, etc.), ~ might(es (main), with all (one’s) might, to the best of (one’s) ability; (e) ~ nede (peine), scarcely, barely; also, ?hardly ever [last quot.].
In adv. phrases expressing attendant actions, freq. with gerund as obj.: with (an attendant or a concurrent action, sound, cry, etc.), amid; also, with (an implied action, the result of an action); ~ processioun, in procession; bisi ~, busy doing (work), busy with; finden (taken) ~, to catch (sb.) in (an act, a falsehood); todrauen ~ fom (frothe), refl. suffer convulsions with foaming at the mouth.
In adv. phrases expressing an attendant circumstance, condition, state, etc.: in (a form); also, in (pain, a state of pain, sorrow, joy, etc.); with (certain conditions obtaining); ~ assent, with (someone’s) assent; ~ ille, with injurious effect; ~ no ille, without injury; ~ litel, with small effect; ~ pride (nobleie, realte), with ceremony, pomp, or magnificence; also, with ostentation; ~ gret quantite, in great quantity; seien ~ answere, to say in answer.
In phrases denoting agency: by (sb., God, a spirit, an animal, a personified abstraction, etc.), at the hands of, by the agency of.
(a) By means of (sth., an act, a speech, etc.), by the use of (sth., a part of the body, a faculty, etc.), by the exercise of (power, force, witchcraft, one’s will, etc.), through the action of (a natural phenomenon, pestilence, etc.); with (sth.) as instrument, by; (b) in misc. phrases: ~ fot, on foot, by foot; ~ hot and cold (neshe and hard), ~ hard…~ neshe, by all means, in every way; ~ menes of, by means of (sth.); ~ no-thing (nought), by no means; ~ skil, by argument [see also skil n. 5.(c)]; ~ strengthe, by force [see also strength(e n. 1.(f)]; ~ tonge, with (one’s) tongue, in words [see also tong(e n.(2) 2a.]; bien ~ blod, theol. of Christ: to redeem (sb., mankind) by (his) blood sacrifice on the cross; of saints: redeem (Rome) by (their) martyrdom; hepen ~, multiply (sth.) by (a number); liven ~ bodi, live by means of (one’s) body, prostitute oneself; sen ~ sighte(s, see with one’s own eyes; stonden wel ~, be thickened by (a substance); wenden ~ other wei, go by another way; (c) in phrases with expressions of clothing, feeding, rewarding, serving, etc.: with (sth.), by; also in fig. contexts; ~ what, as noun: the means, the wherewithal; feden ~ tales, fig. to feed (sb.) on gossip; liven ~, live on (a food, sth. as a source of nourishment); liven ~ the wind, live on thin air; stonden ~, subsist on (a regimen of milk), stay with or on; (d) with expressions of appeasing, contentment, pleasing, displeasing, etc.: with (sb. or sth., oneself); also, with inf. as obj.: quemen ~ to leten swingen him, to appease (God) by letting himself be scourged; (e) with verbs of adorning, coloring, covering, smearing, trimming, etc.: with (sth., a material, substance, etc.); inlappen ~, to envelop (oneself) with (worldly concerns); (f) with verbs of planting and sowing: with (vines, seed, salt, etc.); grouen ~, overgrown with (flowers); ben shadwed ~, to be shaded by (trees); (g) with expressions of endowing, equipping, filling, loading, supplying, stuffing, etc.: with (personnel, equipment, sth. immaterial, etc.); with expressions of burdening: with (sth., a condition, etc.), by; chargen ~ [see also chargen v. 1.(a) & 2b.(b)]; flouen ~, fig. to flow with (milk and honey), abound in (good things); laden ~ [see also laden v. 1.(b)]; stuffen ~ [see also stuffen v.(1) 1.(a), 1.(b), 2.(a), 2.(b), & 2.(c)]; ben taken ~, be imbued with (flavor); (h) with verbs of beginning and ending: with (sth. in a narration, an event, certain specified words in a text, etc.).
Because of (sth., circumstances, a state or condition, an action, etc.), on account of, as a result of, by reason of, owing to [occas. difficult to distinguish from sense 14b.(a)]; ~ chaunce, by chance, accidentally; ~ (no) skil, for that (no) reason; what ~, in consequence of (sth.), what with.
In misc. phrases: (a) what ~, what with (one faction and another, one thing and another, etc.), in view of, in consideration of, considering; also, by (one means and another); (b) ~ worshipe of, in honor of (sth.); (c) ~ the grace of god (help of jesu), ~ goddes grace, by God’s (Jesus’) help; also, with diminished force, as an expression of pious hope: if God wills it, God willing; ~ oure lord merci, by the mercy of God, pray God’s mercy; (d) ~ leve, as polite expression: by (someone’s) leave, with (someone’s) permission, if (sb.) pleases.
Out of (a material), of, from; founden ~, to build (a city) out of (stone); maken ~, manufacture (clay) from (materials), build (walls) of (gold).
In accordance with (God’s law, someone’s wishes, etc.).
In exchange for (sth.), in return for, for [sometimes difficult to distinguish from sense 14b.(a)]; ~ the, in return for that.
In phrase: ~ than, in spite of that.
Subject to (a condition); on (condition that sb. do sth.).
In conjunctive phrases introducing subordinate clauses: (a) ~ than the, ~ that (if, ~ that the, in case that, if; (b) ~ so (that, ~ than, ~ than that (the), ~ that (that, ~ the (that, ~ the nones (that, provided that, on condition that, so long as; ~ than on that, provided only that; ~ this (that, on this condition (that, provided (that; (c) ~ than that, so that, in order that; ~ that…ne, so that…not, lest.
With inf. phrase as obj. (with inf. preceded by to), rendering L ad plus the gerundive and expressing purpose: ~ wormes to aquellen, etc., in order to kill worms, etc.
In imprecatory and exclamatory phrases, freq. used as expletives: ~ hard grace (misaventure, sorwe), ~ (a) mischaunce, confound it (you, him, etc.), alas, curses, with good riddance [see also mischaunce n. 1.(d), sorwe n. 5.(d)].
Introducing a specific set of words used as a refrain, cry, tag, etc.: with (certain specified words).
Gram. The preposition ‘with’.