Middle English Dictionary Entry

warnen v.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. awarnien v.
(a) To give notice of some existing circumstance or a past or coincident event, make something known; (b) to inform (sb., sb. of sth.), notify, advise; (c) to announce (sth. to sb.), proclaim, divulge; ben warnede, of an assignment of duties: be proclaimed;—with extraposition of subj.; (d) with noun clause as obj.: to declare (that sth. is so, what is to occur), announce; inform (sb. that sth. is the case, why or how sth. occurs, is so, etc.), apprise; assure (sb. that sth. is so) [quot. c1395]; also, explain (what sth. might be) [quot. a1325]; (e) in parenthetical expressions in direct address: ich warne the (you), ich warne the (you) wel, etc.: I assure you, I’ll have you know, believe you me; also, I’m telling you, you must know.
(a) To give (sb.) notice of an imminent event or approaching condition, circumstance, etc.; provide (sb.) advance notice (of sth.); also, predict (sth.), foretell; ?prefigure (sth.) [quot. c1450]; make (sb.) a prediction (of sth.); (b) with noun clause as obj.: to give notice (that sth. will occur), foretell (what will take place); announce (to sb.) or give (sb.) notice (that sth. will occur, where or how sth. is to take place, etc.); make a prediction (to sb. that sth. will occur, what will happen, how sth. will be, etc.), foretell; also with extraposition of subj. [quot. c1430]; also with inf. as obj. [quot. c1450]; (c) in parenthetical expressions in direct address: ich warne the (you), etc.; I’m giving you notice, you can be sure; ich warne the that, ich warne you this, you can be sure of that (this).
(a) To give forewarning of an imminent unfortunate event, circumstance, etc., issue a precaution; (b) to alert (sb.) to a disturbing or dangerous situation, caution; give (sb., the church) forewarning (of some approaching misfortune); also, caution (sb. about a potential hazard, possible danger, etc.); (c) with clause as obj.: to give (sb.) forewarning (that sth. bad is to occur, etc.); (d) to issue (soldiers) a precautionary order (to take up arms, that they be prepared for an attack, etc.); (e) in proverbs and prov. expressions [occas. difficult to distinguish from sense 2.(a)]; (f) in direct address, usu. in parenthetical expressions: ich warne the (you), etc.: I’m giving you fair warning, you’d better be aware, etc.
(a) To deliver an exhortation or admonition [quots. c1384 & 1435]; admonish or exhort (sb., sb. against sth., sb. to do or not to do sth.); make (sb.) aware (that he should or should not do sth.); also, teach (sb. about sth., sb. how he should behave); also, refl. learn a lesson [1st quot.]; (b) with that clause: to admonish (sb. that he or she should or should not do sth.); state strongly (that sth. should not occur) [quot. c1450]; also, admonish (sb. so that he may be happy, not do sth., etc.); (c) with diminished force: to direct (sb., the west wind, to do sth., that sb. do or avoid doing sth., etc.), charge; invite (sb. to do sth.) [quot. c1390]; also, direct or govern (sb.) [quot. c1450]; also, issue a summons [quot. a1500(?c1450)]; summon (sb.); law convene (a session of court), order (a court to be held); (d) in parenthetical expressions in direct address: ich warne, ich warne the (you), etc.: I exhort you, I urge you; also, I enjoin you, I command you.
To give (sb.) admonitory notice of his or her past misdeed, error, sin, etc., with ref. or implied ref. to its negative consequences; take (sb., oneself) to task, reproach; reproach (sb. for sth.).
(a) To give (sb.) threatening notice of the negative results of a potential action or failure to act, impress upon (sb.) the dire consequences of an act; issue (sb.) a stern warning (about impending punishment, etc.); also, compel obedience, deference, etc. from (sb.) by means of a cautionary example, provide with a warning by example; ?also, discharge (sb.) for malfeasance [quot. a1475]; ppl. warninge, of a bird’s cry: threatening to (other birds); (b) with clause as obj.: to issue (sb.) a stern warning (that retribution will befall one, etc.); warn (sb.) of (how God will exact vengeance); (c) to give (sb.) an order conveying an explicit threat of penalties for noncompliance [could also be construed as sense 4.(a)]; (d) in direct address, usu. in parenthetical expressions: ich warne the, etc.: I’m warning you, you’d better beware, etc.
(a) To be on guard (against sth.); (b) to provide (sb., oneself, a place) with protection, defend (sb., oneself); defend (sb. against foes), afford (sb.) protection (from sth.); also in fig. context; also, put (sb., oneself) on guard (against sth.) [occas. difficult to distinguish from sense 3.(a)]; ben) warnede, be) fortified, be) strengthened;—used fig. or in fig. context; also, ?be protectively covered or insulated [quot. ?a1425]; (c) ppl. warnede, provided or supplied (with sth.);— ?error for warnestoren v. (d).