Middle English Dictionary Entry

stoppen v.
Quotations: Show all Hide all

Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. forstoppen v., estoppen v., & istoppen v.
(a) To obstruct (a street, lane, passage, an entrance, etc.) with a physical barrier, block; close (a port), prevent access to; blockade (the sea), close to traffic; block (someone's way); also fig.; also, close (a road) by prohibiting passage; also, with ind.obj.: bar (the way to sb.), block (sb. from the way); ~ in (oute, up); (b) to block (a stream, channel, watercourse, etc.), dam up; prevent (water, filth) from flowing or finding an outlet, obstruct the flow of; -- also without obj.; hold back (the sea); (c) to block out (light); keep (wind from sth.); (d) to close (a gate, floodgate); also fig.; (e) fig. to hold back (tears), restrain.
Med. & physiol. (a) To close the pores, restrain matter from rising to the surface of the body; ppl. stoppinge, of a medicine: having the power to close the pores, having the power to restrain matter from rising to the surface of the body; (b) to obstruct (a duct, nerve, bodily organ, etc.), stop up (pores); also, obstruct the nerves of (a limb); (c) ben stopped, to be afflicted with an obstruction or an obstructed condition; be congested; have an obstructed womb, be unable to deliver a child [quots. a1450 & last]; also, be choked [1st quot.]; ppl. stopped, of the head: congested; (d) to cause constipation; constipate (a hawk, the intestines, belly); ppl. stoppinge, costive, inducing constipation.
(a) To stop (an ear, the ears), plug; cover (the ears) in order to avoid hearing; also fig.; of a morbid growth: obstruct (the ear); (b) to cover (someone's mouth); stop up (the mouths of lions) to keep them from devouring prey; fig. stop up (one's own or someone else's mouth), silence (sb.); plug (someone's mouth with silver or a reward), bribe (sb.) to keep silent; ~ mouth of mani thinges, stop up (someone's) mouth to keep him from saying many things; (c) to hold (the nose) in order to avoid smelling; plug (the nose, nostrils); also, of the nose: ?be obstructed [last quot.]; (d) to obstruct (someone's vision), blind (someone's eyes); also fig.
(a) To cut off (someone's breath), obstruct (the vital breath), suffocate (sb.); also, of the breath: be cut off, cease; (b) to stop the bleeding of (a wound, vein, etc.); stanch (the flow of blood, bleeding); stop up (a surgical opening, wound, wormhole in a hawk's body); ben stopped, of a fistula: be kept from exuding pus; of a hole in a tooth: be stopped up; of a wound: be clogged (with pus); also, fig. be closed, be healed [quot. a1382].
(a) To fill in (a hole in a wall, crack in a ship's hull, etc.), plug up; block up (a doorway, gate, etc.) by filling it in or covering it over; also fig. [quot. a1450, 1st]; block off (a window), obstruct so as to cut off light or a view; fig. clog (the understanding) [quot. c1460, 2nd occurrence]; ~ up; ben stopped ful of, fig. be filled full of (sth.); (b) to fill in or close the mouth of (a pit, well, etc.), block up (a cave); to close up the gaps in (a wall); (c) to fill in (a gap in a phalanx).
(a) To fill (a bolster, sack, dummy, etc.) full of some material, stuff, pack; cram (a receptacle full of sth.); load (a gun or cannon with sth.); (b) cook. to fill (the cavity of a fish or fowl) with herbs, fruit, etc. preparatory to cooking, stuff; also, fill (a cored quince) with sugar or spices; ppl. stopped as adj.: stuffed.
(a) To shut (sb. or sth. inside sth.), put; confine (sb. in sth.); enclose (sb. or sth.); ~ in breth, hold in (one's) breath; ~ up, shut (sb.) up in a coffin or tomb; ppl. stopped, shut up; stopped in, enclosed, confined; (b) to thrust (sth. into sth. else), stuff; (c) fig. ~ oute, to keep (sth.) out; ~ oute of, shut (sth.) out of (sth.), keep from; (d) ben stopped, to be incorporated, be contained.
(a) To cover tightly or seal (a vessel); seal (the mouth or opening of a vessel), close with a stopper; seal (a hole in the bottom of a vessel, the opening of a hollowed-out coal, vine, or hollow rod); ppl. stopped, sealed; wel stopped; (b) to seal (sth.) up in a vessel; ?also, error for stepen v. [1st quot.]; stopped up, sealed up in a container; wel stopped, in a well-sealed container.
(a) To cease moving or going; cause (sb.) to stop advancing or traveling, bring to a halt; stop (an animal) from moving; ppl. stoppinge as noun, in phrase: stoppinge in age, old age; -- ?error for stoupinge, ppl. of stoupen v. 2.(a) [cp. steppen v. 3.(d)]; (b) ~ tonge(s, fig. to cause (a tongue, tongues) to stop wagging, silence (sb.).
(a) To put a stop to (sth., a practice, behavior), make an end of, cause to cease; ~ from, stop (a part of the body) from (doing sth.); ~ smellinge of nose, stop the nose's smelling, keep (one's) nose from the act of smelling; (b) to cause (sb.) to desist in an argument or a discussion; (c) to extinguish (a fire), get rid of (fiery breath); (d) to prevent (conception).
To block legal action [quot. c1475]; obstruct (a policy), hinder; thwart (pride, righteousness, etc.); with inf.: hinder (sb. from doing sth.).
?To reduce (a debt, a fine); ~ in, ?make a reduction in (a debt, a required payment).

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • a1525 BodEMus.52 Artist.Recipes (BodEMus 52) 192/32 : Karve þe golde or syluer with a scharpe knyffe, upon a cowche made of a calffes skyne raysyde and stoppede with flokes or els unstoppede.
  • Note: Postdates sense 6.(a).
  • a1500 Add.21431 Artist.Recipes (Add 21431) 327/22 : Carfe with a sharp knyf vpon a code of calfys ledur rasyd [and] stapyd with flax.
  • Note: Sense 6.(a). New spelling (ppl.) = stapid.

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • a1500 Dc.45 Artist.Recipes (Dc 45) 153/9,11 : Take an erdyn potte, and many clowtys oolde, and..stoppe hyt wel and putte hyt yn a dungehelle, and hwan dow wylt wryte, owȝte a cloþe and wrynge ynto a schelle and put yn aȝen þe clowtes and stappe hyt as hyt was byfore.
  • Note: Additional quot., prob. sense 8.(a). New spelling (stappe).

Supplemental Materials (draft)

Note: We should probably cp. the Mdu. stoppen in the etymology since there is an overlap in virtually all the senses and there exist MDu. forms stuppen and stopen. The latter is treated a a separate word, but it has the same sense.--per MG