Middle English Dictionary Entry

sẹ̄then v.(1)
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. forsethen v., samsoden adj.
(a) Of a liquid, a substance: to be heated to the boiling point, boil, seethe; of solid food: be boiled in a liquid; of a person: be immersed in a boiling substance; of a vessel: be heated until the contents boil, be filled with a boiling substance; ~ up, well up in boiling, bubble up; ppl. sethinge, extremely hot, boiling; sethinge hot; (b) to boil (a liquid), heat to the boiling point; also, boil (a pot); also, ppl. soden as adj.; (c) to boil (sth., a substance) in a liquid, make a decoction of (sth.) by boiling or seething; also fig.; ~ up, boil (sth.) until the liquid rises; -- also without obj.; (d) to prepare food by boiling or stewing; (e) to cook (food) by boiling or stewing; -- also without obj.; also fig.; also, boil (human flesh, a bodily part, substances) for use as food; ~ up; ppl. soden as adj.: boiled or stewed; also, as noun: boiled food [last quot.]; neshe soden, lightly or partially cooked; (f) ~ hard, to hard-boil (an egg); ~ neshe, soft-boil (an egg); half soden eiren, soft-boiled eggs; hard) soden eiren, eiren (hard) soden, eiren soden hard, hard-boiled eggs; (g) to boil (bones, a part of the body) until the flesh is removed; ~ awei flesh, ~ flesh from the bon, boil flesh from the bone; (h) to reduce (a liquid) by boiling, boil away, cook down by boiling; ~ awei (in); ~ to the halven-dele (thridde part, etc.), boil (sth.) down to one half (one third, etc.); ~ unto the half; ppl. soden as adj.: boiled down; (i) to torture (sb., the consecrated Host, a soul in Purgatory) by boiling; boil (sb.) to death; (j) to prepare or produce (sth.) by boiling; also, ppl. soden as adj.; (k) fig. of a person: to be tossed about in turbulent water; of a liquid: bubble or foam as if by boiling.
(a) To be very hot; (b) to fire (tile), burn (a mineral); ppl. soden, fired, baked; burned; (c) to cook with dry heat; cook (sth.) with dry heat, bake, roast; also fig.; half-soden, half-baked; (d) fig. to refine (sb. or sth.) by heat, purify; ~ oute.
Physiol. (a) Of the stomach: to carry on the process of digestion; of food in the stomach: be digested; (b) to digest (food); (c) to heat (blood in the body); transform (blood) by means of heat; also fig.

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • (a1398) *Trev.Barth.(Add 27944)307 a/b : Þis chaungynge of colour comeþ of…hete of þe sonne þat seþeþ þe substance of fruyte in dyvers maner wise.
  • Note: This sense doesn't seem to be attested in sẹ̄then v.(1) per MG
  • a1425 *Treat.Uroscopy (Wel 225)66/340 : For þe membris not parfytle soþin ne digest, þe fode ne turnys not into þare substance, into þare kynd, as þai suld do.
  • a1425 *Treat.Uroscopy (Wel 225)96/975 : For of lede þat is cald of kynd be moltyn, or lyle þat is hat & moyst in kynd be sodyn or bakyn or rostyd, it is bod þe violence of oþer thyngys fra withowtward.
  • c1450 Bk.GGrace (Eg 2006)605/3-4 : Sche was kyndelede with so grete a fervour þat here face and here handdys semede of coulour chaungede in manere of a sodeyn crabbe whiche chaunges coloure whn itt es sodyne or bakyne.
  • Note: Additional quote(s)

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • c1400 Harv.lat.235 Artist.Recipes (Harv lat.235) 293/2 : Temper it with strong lighe, and let it sede a god lange wyle.
  • Note: Additional quot., prob. sense 1.(c). Example of listed spelling.
  • a1500 Sln.122 Artist.Recipes (Sln 122) 117/21 : Take a potel of reed vynegre, and an vnce of brasil..and seethe hem with vynegre in an erthen pot.
  • c1400 Harv.lat.235 Artist.Recipes (Harv lat.235) 293/7 : Forto make blak colour, take þe drastes of ynke and pute alum þerinne, and set ham togedere a god wyle, and drawe it þour a clod, and do awey þe drastes.
  • Note: New spellings (seethe & set).
  • a1400 Roy.17.A.3 Artist.Recipes (Roy 17.A.3) 237/22 : Take a lytil quantite of gallis and grynde it wel togider, and..put it into water and sette it ouer þe fier til it be sew.
  • Note: = 'seethed'. New spelling (ppl. adj.) sew.