Middle English Dictionary Entry

casten v.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

1.
(a) To throw (sth.) to a distance, fling, hurl; pour or sprinkle (water); (b) sift (sand); (c) scatter (seed), sow; (d) throw at (sb.).
2.
(a) To hurl missiles with a siege engine; cast (stones, fire, etc.) with an engine; (b) cast (with a sling); (c) shoot (an arrow); of a bow or an archer: shoot; (d) of a hedgehog: shoot (quills).
3.
(a) To throw (a stone, etc.) in sport; ~ cast, make a cast with a stone; ~ the (axel) tre, ~ the ston; (b) ~ in canevas, toss (sb.) in a sheet or blanket; (c) ~ atte cok, throw (sth.) at a cock or an object called `the cock'; fig. throw away, neglect; (d) hawk. toss (one's hawk) into the air; esp., let (the hawk) fly at the game.
4.
(a) To cast lots; ~ cavel(es, ~ lot(es, cast lots; with for, of, on, upon: to cast lots for (sth.); al is cast on a cast, all is risked on one throw; (b) to throw (dice); throw (a certain number or point); ~ ambes-as, throw a double ace (with two dice); fig. be unfortunate, fail; ~ chaunce, try (one's) luck (at dice); also, throw a number.
5.
(a) To throw (sb.) in wrestling; (b) knock (sth.) to the ground; break down or uproot (a tree); ~ (a)doun, ~ to the ground, topple (sth.), overturn, throw to the ground, raze (a wall, a building); (c) overcome (sb.), overpower, defeat, refute; get the better of (sth.); refl. defeat oneself, contradict oneself; ~ (a)doun, ~ nether, ~ under, overcome, defeat, subdue; (d) med. ~ abak, to repel (humors), reduce (swelling).
6.
(a) To get rid of (sth.); discard (sth.), reject, abandon; cast child, an abandoned child; (b) ~ awei, throw (sth.) away, get rid of; as noun: something thrown away, a worthless thing; (c) ~ awei, ~ aside, fig. get rid of (hunger, sorrow, stench, etc.), abandon (sin, etc.), give up (sth.); refl. destroy oneself.
7.
(a) To shed (horns, teeth, etc.), lose; ~ of; (b) lose (one's color); ~ colour, turn pale; (c) ~ awei, lose (sth.).
8.
(a) To emit (flame, beams), shed (light); (b) cast (a shadow), give (shade); of a shadow: be cast; (c) send forth (an odor); ~ up; (d) hunt. ~ of, unleash (a hunting dog), uncouple, send off.
9.
Of waves or the sea: to drive (sb., a ship), drive (to a place), toss (a ship); ~ out, force (water) out (of its place or channel); ~ up, wash (sth.) up (on shore).
10.
Drive out, expel, banish; ~ fro, ~ from, ~ of, ~ out, ~ out of: (a) Drive (sb.) out of (a place); evict from (one's house); cast out, a banished man, an exile; (b) expel (sth.) from (someone's body, a wound, etc.); (c) cast out (devils), exorcize; (d) fig. banish (sb.) from (grace, favor); drive out (sin, evil thoughts, old age); put (ideas) out of (one's mind); drive (joy) away from (sb.).
11.
(a) Of the body, a person, an animal, etc.: to expel (sth.), eject, excrete; ~ out; (b) abort (a fetus); ~ out; (c) vomit; regurgitate (sth.); ~ blod, vomit (?also, spit) blood; ~ gorge, of a hawk: to empty the crop, vomit; ~ out, ~ up; (d) belch (fire), spew forth (flames); (e) of a pot: spew (hot water); of a liquid: throw off (scum).
12.
(a) To utter (a cry, complaint, threat, etc.); heave (a sigh); -- often with up; ~ cavillacioun, raise an objection; ~ forth japes, make jests; (b) interpret (a dream), expound (a law); ~ cause, propound a question (of law); (c) ~ chalenge, bring an accusation against (sb.); (d) ~ at, ~ to, utter (sth.) against (sb.), speak against; ~ ayen(es, advance (an argument) against (sb.), bring (an accusation) against, object to (sth.), denounce (sb.); (e) ~ unto, speak to (sb.), address.
13.
(a) To let go one end of (sth.); extend (a rope to sb.), cast (a fishing net), cast out (a lure for a hawk); (b) ~ anker, throw out an anchor, drop anchor; (c) cast (a fishhook); (d) fig. put forth (branches); ~ out.
14.
(a) To place (sth.), put; ~ bakwardes, draw or comb (the hair) back; ~ hond to purs, put one's hand in one's purse; ~ in clei, put into clay, bury; ~ out, bring out, draw forth; ~ upright, lay (a woman) on her back; (b) spread (a cloth, a garment); (c) ~ in, inject; (d) ~ in feuter, place a lance in rest; (e) ~ thurgh, force (sth.) through (a strainer); (f) ~ up, lift (sth.).
15.
(a) To take off (one's clothes, a garment); (b) ~ of, remove (one's clothing, one's garment); remove (clothing) from (sb.); ~ of couples, cast off the leashes (of hounds); (c) ~ on, put on (a garment, armor, etc.), don; put (armor, etc.) on (oneself, one's back, etc.); ~ umbe, put (a collar) about (one's neck); ~ upon, put (a garment) on (sb.); (d) ~ on, transfer (one's own appearance) to (sb.); cast a (spell) on (sb.).
16.
(a) To place (sb.) forcibly; ~ in, ~ into, put (sb.) in (prison, bonds, fetters, fire, etc.); ~ out of, rescue (sb.) from (a place); (b) fig. ~ in, ~ into, ~ til, ~ to, bring (sb.) into (a state, a condition); ~ in care, make sorrowful; ~ to deth, doom to death; ~ from, ~ of, ~ out of, deliver (sb.) from (care, servitude, etc.).
17.
(a) To move (part of the body) suddenly, turn quickly; wave (the arms), wiggle (the shoulders); ~ (a)doun, drop (one's head, face, brows); ~ up(ward), raise or toss (the head), lift (one's eyebrow); ~ ere, turn (one's) ear, listen; ~ heved, turn (one's) head; also, roll (one's) head violently; ~ hond, wave the hand (at sb.), point accusingly; (b) ~ eie(n, ~ chere, ~ lok, ~ loking, ~ sight, turn the eyes (sight, etc.), look (up, down, at, etc.); ~ a lok, cast a (certain kind of) look, look (in a certain way); (c) brandish (weapons); (d) refl. turn oneself, turn; (e) hunt. ~ chavel, lower the jaw [a sign that the deer is nearing exhaustion].
18.
To move quickly, rush, dash, leap; of water: splash; of the sea: dash, surge; ~ about, turn around.
19.
(a) To add (sth.); ~ to, add (sth.) to (sth.), add (one number) to (another); also, give (sth.) additional to (sb.), give something extra; ~ togeder, add together (numbers, etc.), add up; (b) give (sth.), bestow (sth. on sb.); (c) ~ to, give or devote (oneself) to (sb.); ~ bisines into, give attention to; ~ hate to, hate (sb.); ~ herte (love, affeccioun) on (into, to, unto, upon), give (one's) heart to (sb.), love (sb.); ~ lif to, dedicate (one's) life to (sb.); ~ thought to, turn (one's) thoughts to.
20.
(a) To calculate, reckon; find (a number, date, etc.) by reckoning, solve (a problem), chart (a course); (b) ~ (ac)countes, ~ in countes, cast accounts, make a reckoning; also fig.; ~ amountment (som), add up a sum or total; ~ bok, audit an account book; ~ noumbre, perform arithmetical operations; (c) estimate, judge, guess, suppose.
21.
To take thought, deliberate, reflect; think about (sth.), consider, ponder; ~ in herte (thought, wit).
22.
(a) To perceive (sth.), notice; ~ aforen, ~ biforen, foresee; (b) conceive of (sth.), imagine.
23a.
(a) To incline (sb. to sth.), dispose; prepare (sb. to do sth.); ben cast ayen, be opposed to (sth.); (b) ~ herte, set (one's) heart (on doing sth.); ~ wit(es, put (one's) mind to work, set (one's) mind (to a task, on a problem), consider (how sth. may be done).
23b.
Refl. uses: (a) ~ to, apply oneself to (an occupation, etc.), devote oneself to (sth.), practice (alchemy, etc.), seek for (gifts); (b) with infin.: set oneself (to do sth.), plan, prepare, decide, expect, intend; (c) ~ for, plot (sth.); ~ of, contrive (sth.) for oneself.
24.
(a) To foreordain (sth.), destine, predetermine; arrange (sth.), decide upon, plan, plot; ~ chaunce, determine the fate (of sb.); (b) plan (to do sth.), plot; intend; (c) ~ for, plot (the death of sb.); (d) decide (that sth. shall be or happen), determine, plan.
25.
(a) To make (sth.), build, construct; write or compose (a document), concoct (a medicine), make (the sign of the Cross); ~ skies, cause clouds to form; (b) mold (wax, clay); cast (metal); (c) make (sth. immaterial), devise; ~ turn, perform (a wrestler's trick); ~ wile, devise a stratagem; cast tresoun, premeditated treachery; (d) arrange (sth. in a certain way); make (a building circular, etc.), decorate (a building with colors); divide (life into three parts); make (a cord project).
26.
(a) ~ enchesoun, to find a pretext for doing something; (b) law ~ essoine, offer an excuse for delay; also, make or find excuses.