Middle English Dictionary Entry

yẹ̄lden v.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. ayelden v., ayen-yelden v. (s.v. ayen- pref. 4.(b)), foryelden v., iyelden v. (Suppl.), toyelden v., yenyelden v.
1a.
(a) To relinquish (sb. or sth.) voluntarily, give up; also, surrender (an office, a token of office) willingly; also, forego (sth.), lay aside; ~ up; (b) to entrust (oneself) to the care of God or Christ; entrust (sb., one’s body, oneself to the care of God, Christ, etc.), commit; throw (oneself on someone’s mercy); also, commit (oneself to sth.), i.e., accept (sth.) at face value [quot. c1440]; ~ creaunt (plighti, recreaunt); (c) to submit (one’s body, one’s heart, oneself, one’s will, etc.) to another, another’s direction or rule, etc.; relinquish control over (oneself, one’s soul, etc. to God, death, religion, etc.), submit; also, make (oneself) submissive as (a monk, prisoner, etc.); also, lay (one’s hands in another’s) as a gesture of submission; ppl. yolden, having submitted, submissive; (d) to turn over (sb. or sth.); hand over (sb. or sth. to sb., a religious institution, etc.); ~ up; ~ oute, exchange (sb. for sb. else); (e) refl. to betake oneself, repair; (f) to release (one’s soul, spirit, life, etc.) at death; ~ up; (g) to open (a gate).
1b.
(a) To surrender to a foe; ~ up; (b) to surrender (sb., sth., oneself); hand over (sb., sth., oneself to a foe), surrender [a few exx. in the passive could also be construed as (c)]; ~ up; (c) ben yolden, to have surrendered; also in mixed construction [1st quot.]; also, surrender [quots. a1470 (1st) & a1500 Chartier]; ppl. yolden, having surrendered; also, submissive; yolden man, a prisoner of war.
2a.
(a) To pay (tax, tribute, tithes, etc.) under an imposed obligation; also fig.; also iron.; (b) to pay (money, rent, etc.) under contractual obligation or in exchange for some consideration; (c) to pay (an amount promised or required by moral obligation); carry out (actions promised); ~ up.
2b.
(a) To fulfill an obligation; perform a vow; ppl. yeldinge, obliged, indebted; (b) to pay (a debt, money owed); fulfill (an obligation); also fig.; also, render (to someone his or her due); fig. fulfill (the requirements of nature), i.e., die; also, perform (one’s conjugal obligation); (c) to fulfill (a promise), perform (a vow); (d) to comply with (a custom, the demands of justice).
3a.
(a) To make repayment; ppl. yeldinge as adj.: generous in reward or recompense; (b) to make requital, take vengeance, or give rewards; ~ ayen.
3b.
(a) To bestow (a reward); give, provide, or bestow (sth.) as a reward or compensation; mete out (pain) as punishment; also, give (sth.) in lieu of something lost or given up; (b) to award (sb. to sb.), hand over by judicial decision; (c) to make (amends).
3c.
(a) To requite (an action); reward (a good deed), punish (wrongdoing); also, compensate (someone’s effort, time, etc.); ~ ayen; (b) to offset (a loss, an injury, etc.), make good; reimburse (an expense); atone for (a wrong); also, make up a shortage in (a payment); pay for (sth. received); (c) to reply to (a greeting), return; ~ ayen.
3d.
(a) To reward (sb.); repay (sb.), compensate; ~ ayen; (b) to take vengeance on (sb.), punish; (c) to reply to (sb.); also, thank (sb., God).
3e.
(a) To reciprocate with (an action, a kind of action); return (good for evil, evil for good, etc.); also, wreak (retribution); ~ ayen; ppl. yeldinge as noun: one reciprocating with (evil) [quot. a1500(c1340), 1st]; (b) to reply with (words, a riposte, etc.); respond with (speech in answer to another’s).
4.
(a) To make restitution; (b) to give back (sb. or sth.), restore; cause (sb.) to be restored; also in allegorical name [quot. c1400(?a1387)]; ~ ayen (up); (c) to restore (a condition, health, etc.); ~ ayen; (d) to convey (a bodily fluid to an organ); ~ ayen.
5.
(a) To grant a request, consent [quots. a1382 (1st) & 1591]; grant or bestow (sth., a benefit, etc.); (b) to give away, be generous in giving [1st 2 quots.]; give (sth.), contribute, dispense; (c) to offer (sth.), present as an honorific or a penitential offering; also, make an offering of (experiences); ~ up.
6.
(a) To be productive, fruitful, or profitable; (b) to yield (sth.) as a result of a natural process: bear (fruit); produce (a crop, children, olive oil, etc.); also fig.; ~ ayen, produce an amount of (seed) equal to that used; (c) to sell for (a certain amount); (d) to emit (sth.), put forth, exude; ~ oute.
7.
(a) To cause (sb. or sth.) to become (sth.), make, render; also, make someone (invisible) [quot. c1450]; (b) to turn out to be (sth.), prove [1st quot.]; refl. become (sth.); (c) to impart (a quality).
8.
(a) To give (battle); deal (a blow); (b) to direct (love, reverence, etc. toward sb., oneself, God, etc.); (c) to conduct oneself (toward sb.);—also refl.; also, conduct oneself toward (sb.), treat [2nd quot.].
9.
(a) To issue (a judicial decision); also, communicate (a pledge); ~ oute; (b) to present (an account, a defense, etc.) for examination and approval, offer; also, provide (testimony); (c) to offer (advice, prayers, etc.); express (a greeting, reproof); also, deliver (a speech).
10.
(a) To bring out (sb. or sth.) to be examined, present to view, exhibit; also, display (an appearance); (b) refl. to acknowledge oneself to be (guilty); acknowledge oneself (worthy to do sth.).
11.
To ascribe (an action, a benefit, etc. to sb. or oneself), attribute.
12.
(a) To soften, melt, congeal;—?error for gelen v.(2); (b) ?to go; ?error for sense 1a.(e) or perh. 1a.(c).
13.
In surname and in ship name.