Middle English Dictionary Entry

shẹ̄ten v.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

1.
(a) To hasten from one place to another, move swiftly, rush; also fig.; plunge (into a river); duck (under a shield); refl. rush (into a ship); of a ship: sail swiftly; of an arrow: fly forth from a bow; of shame: come (over sb.); ~ brode, ?walk abroad; ~ forth (oute), rush forth; also, of a bird: fly swiftly; ~ on, rush upon (sb.), attack; ~ to, attack [quot.: Lay.Brut]; (b) of the eyes: to fly (out of one's head); of a foot: give way, slip; (c) of tears: well up; also, flow; of blood, an odor: rush; of phlegm: course (through the body); ~ up, well up; also, well up to overflowing; (d) ~ on fir, to catch fire, be consumed with fire; (e) ~ him, to fall to one's lot, happen to someone; (f) ~ to, fig. to refer to (sth.), appeal to; also, trust in (sth.).
2.
(a) To thrust forward, extend in some direction; thrust forth (an arm, the head); stick out (the tongue); cause (the bowels) to protrude from the rectum; ~ oute; shoten forth (oute), extended, protruding; shoten togeder, ?extended in length, stretched out; (b) of grain, a branch: to sprout forth; ~ oute; ben shoten.
3.
(a) To push (sb.) aside; eject (sb.); ~ forth, rush (sb.) along; ~ oute, eject (sb.); also, exile (sb.); ~ over hors, unhorse (sb.); shoten awei, scattered; (b) to launch (a ship); cast away (a shield, table, goblet); ~ awei; ~ bihinde, push (a shield) back; ~ doun, cast down (money); ~ forth, launch (a ship); ~ oute, cast forth (gold) for display or counting; ~ togeder, run (ships) together, ram; ~ up, raise or open (a window); (c) to cast (sb. or images into a vessel, sth. into a fire); shove (heads into straw); throw (sb. into the sea); put (sth. in a cloth); add (sth. to a pot or to a mixture); -- also without obj.; (d) to discharge (venom, fire); pour (lead and brimstone); (e) to give off (light); (f) to produce (sounds); ~ forth, speak (a word); (g) ~ shankes, ?to kick; ?maneuver the legs in an attempt to trip one's opponent.
4a.
(a) To shoot an arrow from a bow or an arbalest; discharge a missile from a sling, catapult, cannon, sprin-gal, etc.; also, reach with an arrow [quot.: Mandev.(4)]; (b) ~ at (to), to shoot an arrow at (sb. or sth., an animal, a bird); also, shoot an arrow as far as (the top of a tree); ~ in-to, shoot a cannon into (a castle); (c) to shoot (an arrow, a rock, shot, etc.) from a bow, discharge (a missile) from a catapult, etc.; -- also without obj.; shoot (a stone, shot) from a cannon or gun; ~ fetherles bolt, engage in futile action; ppl. shetinge, shooting (an arrow, etc.); also, capable of shooting (a certain kind of stone); also, ppl. shoten as adj.; (d) to shoot (a cannon); (e) fig. & in fig. contexts; ~ arwes of tribulacioun (foul defamacioun, god wille, shef of othes, etc.); (f) in proverb: bolt is shoten; foles (sotes, wommanes, etc.) bolt is sone shoten [see also bolt n.1.(b)]; (g) to engage in the practice of archery; learn how to shoot; shoot effectively; ~ short of ame, fail, fall short of an objective; ~ to, aim at (a target); (h) to hunt; ~ after (with), hunt (an animal).
4b.
(a) To shoot (sb., oneself, an animal, a bird) with an arrow, hit; also fig.; -- also without obj.; hunt (an animal); wound (sb., a bodily member); hit (a target); ~ a peni, shoot for a penny wager; (b) to shoot (sb., an animal) to death, kill; execute (sb.) by shooting arrows; ~ thurghout; ~ to deth; (c) ~ oute, of an arrow: to knock out (someone's eye).
5.
(a) To throw a spear; cast or throw (a spear, javelin); also fig.; ~ oute; ~ at, cast a spear or a reed at (sth.); also fig.; ~ til (to), cast a spear at (a monster, an animal); also fig. [quot.: Mirk Fest.]; also, cast (a spear) at (sb.) [1st quot.]; ~ with, cast (a spear); (b) ?to hit (sb.) with a spear; ~ with, hit (sb., an animal) with (a spear, stone).
6.
(a) To thrust (a beam, hot iron); -- also without obj.; push (a bolt) into its fastenings, ben shoten in, of a head: be securely fixed to (one's body); (b) ~ thurgh, to pierce (sth.); also fig.; ~ to the herte, pierce (Christ) to the heart; shoten ful of, shot full of (spikes); blod shoten, bloodshot; -- used fig.; (c) of a bone: to catch (in the throat), lodge; ben shoten; (d) to afflict, cause pain; trouble (sb.), afflict (the world).
7.
In cpds. & combs.: shoten cloth, ?linen sheet-cloth; shot fish, shoten (shetinge) hering, ?fish (herring) that have spawned; shot net, a kind of fishing net [cp. shove net, s.v. shouven v.1.(b)]; shoten tin, stannum shoten, tin pellets formed by dropping molten tin into cold water.
8.
In misc. senses: (a) ?to melt and mold (lead); ?cast (brass); (b) ~ oute, to destroy (sb.), overcome; -- ?error for shaken oute [see shaken v.5.(a)].
9.

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • a1400 Lament Berkeley (Mid Mi O1)76 : Sodeynli assailled him a sekenes smert, A sselly shoite, bi my saule, shot vnder his side, Þat bi(re)ued him his rest, oright he moght not ride.
  • Note: AQ
    Note: Perhaps this quot. belongs in sense 1.(c), with its own gloss.
    Note: See OED shoot v.--"of a pain: to pass along the nerves in sudden paroxysm, dart."