Middle English Dictionary Entry

hā̆ven v.
Quotations: Show all Hide all

Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

1a.
(a) To possess (sth.), own; nadda non, she had none; we havt, we have it; ppl. havand, wealthy; (b) to possess (land, an estate or inheritance, a city, town, manor, etc.); -- also used fig.; (c) to rule (a kingdom or part of a kingdom); (d) to inhabit (a country, house, temple, etc.); (e) ~ in (on, an) hond, ~ in governaunce (governinge, possessioun, weldinge), ~ on anwald (anwealdnesse, weld, aughte, baillie), to have (sth.) in (one's) possession or under (one's) control; -- with or without gen. denoting possessor; ~ in heritage, possess (land) by hereditary right; ~ in havendes (awends), have (sth.) in (one's) possession or keeping; (f) in legal phrases: to ~ and to holden, to possess and retain possession; to ~ and to holden to, to be had and retained by (sb.); for to ~ to, to be possessed by (sb.); to ~ and enjoien (rejoicen), to ~ usen and holden, etc.; (g) in proverbs: ppl. havande, wealth.
1b.
(a) To have (sb. or sth. somewhere); have (sth. in a position or direction); ~ mid, have (sb.) with (one); ~ to (til) hond, have (sth.) at hand; (b) to have (sth. in a book or document).
1c.
With object and infinitive: to possess (sth. together with the capacity to do sth. with it); ~ to yeven, have (sth.) to give, etc.; -- also with obj. unexpressed.
1d.
(a) To have (sb. or sth. in a state or condition); ~ in blis, have (sb.) in bliss; ~ in custume (usage, wone), be in the habit of (doing sth.), be accustomed (to do sth.), do (sth.) habitually; ~ in doute, fear or dread (sth.); ~ in meditacioun, meditate upon (sth.); ~ in mouth, have (sth.) in one's speech, talk about (sb. or sth.); ~ in propre, have personal possessions; ~ in worshipe, worship (God); ~ on use, be accustomed to say (a word); (b) ~ in (on) hond, ~ in ward, ~ under cure, to have charge of (sb. or sth.); (c) ~ in (on) hond, to be concerned with (sb. or sth.), be busy about, pay attention to.
2.
(a) Of living things: to be provided with (a part, an organ); have (a part or an organ of a certain kind); have (a soul, body); have (a growth on some part of the body); (b) in fig. phrases: ~ herte, to have the heart (to do sth.), bear (to do sth.); have a desire (to do sth.); ~ on herte, be in agreement, be of one mind; ~ gret (hol, mannes, reuful) herte; ~ tonge, be able to speak; have a tongue (able to say sth.); ~ eie, ~ fot, ~ hond; -- also in prov.; (c) to wear (clothing, armor); ~ on (upon), have on (a garment, etc.); ~ on hond, wear (a ring) on one's hand; (d) of a house, wagon, city, coin, etc: to be furnished with (sth.); of a country: have (rivers); of a pot: contain (sth.); of a roast goose: be accompanied by (wine); of a Gospel passage: be provided with (an exposition).
3.
(a) To have (sb.) under one; have (a servant, slave, attendant, soldier, subordinate); command (an army or part of an army); ~ and holden, ~ under; (b) to have (sb.) in custody; hold (a prisoner); of devils: have power over (sb.); of disease: grip (sb.); ~ on hond; (c) to have (sb. in a certain relationship); have (a debtor, friend, physician, king, comrade, teacher, an enemy, etc.); have (God, the Holy Ghost, a god); ~ to ifere, have (sb.) as a companion; ~ to maister, have (sb.) as a teacher; (d) to have (a father, mother, son, daughter, husband, wife, etc.); ~ to doughter, have (sb.) for a daughter; ~ to quene, ~ to sone; ~ to (unto) wif, be married to (a woman); (e) ~ evening (felaue, per), to have an equal; (f) ~ on fore-ward, refl. to be bound by an agreement.
4a.
To have (an abstraction): (a) to enjoy (a right or privilege), have (the right to possess sth.); have (power, jurisdiction, authority); hold (an office); have (leave or license to do sth.); ~ titel, have a just claim to something; (b) ~ name (note), to have a name; also, have a (certain kind of) reputation; (c) ~ charge (cure, hed, ward), to have charge (of sth.); ~ correccioun, have power to punish or discipline; (d) to have (witness, testimony, evidence, proof, an example); (e) to have (a law, commandment); be bound by (an oath); have (an agreement with sb.); havinge a vou on hem, being under a vow; (f) to have (time, a certain amount of time, enough time, a short time); ~ time, ~ space, ~ while; ~ tom (leiser), have leisure; ~ houre, have a fixed time; ~ time and stede, have an appropriate time and place; (g) ~ cure, of a disease: to have a cure or treatment; ~ hevi cariage, of a cart: be hard to pull; ~ place, of a medicine: have a proper time to be used; ~ times, of a disease: have stages; (h) ~ part in (on), ~ ani thing in, to have power over (sb. or sth.); ~ part (parti) of, have anything to do with (sb. or sth.).
4b.
To be in a state or condition: (a) to have (happiness, freedom, honor, salvation, grief, hardship, need, strife, etc.); ~ scarsete, be scarce; ~ respect to, be connected with, have a relationship to; (b) to have (a disease, vermin), suffer (pain, harm, a blow, a wound); be possessed by (devils); of a gem: have (a blemish); ~ cold, be cold; (c) to have (cause or reason), have (reason to do sth.); have (a complaint or grievance against sb.); (d) ~ nede of (to), to need (sth.); ~ nede that, need or require that (sth. be or happen); (e) ~ nede, to be needy, be in want; (f) ~ nede, to need (to do sth.); be under compulsion, be in trouble, need help; (g) ~ inough, to have enough, call it quits; with inf.: be barely able (to do sth.); ~ inough to don (beren, turnen); (h) what hast thou, what is the matter with you?
4c.
To possess a quality or attribute: (a) to have (a nature, quality, characteristic, etc.); ~ kinde, have the nature (of sth.); ~ token, have a characteristic; ~ tokeninge (bitokninge), have a significance; ~ wit, have intelligence; ~ minde, ~ wille, etc.; (b) to be endowed with (a physical quality); have (beauty, size, brightness, heat, a color, taste, voice, etc.); (c) to have (a function, power, etc.); ~ lif, have life, be alive; ~ sight, be able to see; ~ strengthe, have strength; also, have a medicinal property; (d) to have (a moral or spiritual quality); have (a virtue, vice); have (a certain kind of manners or bearing); ~ sinne (gilt), have sin (guilt), be sinful (guilty); (e) to show (a quality); ~ merci of (on, upon, to), ~ milce of, ~ ore of, ~ pite of (on, upon), ~ reuth of (on), show mercy to (sb. or sth.), take pity on; ta merci, to have mercy; (f) to be of (a certain age), be (a certain number of years old); ~ fifti yer, be fifty years old; ~ age, be of age; ~ non age, be too young; (g) ~ right, to be right, be in the right; ~ wrong (unright, wough), be wrong, be in the wrong, be mistaken; (h) ~ English, to have the ability to express (sth.) in English.
4d.
To have (an emotion, idea, etc.), have (sth.) in the mind or heart: (a) to experience (a feeling, fear, pleasure, wonder, joy, etc.); have (will, desire, envy, etc.); ~ pite, feel pity; (b) to have (an idea, a thought), have (knowledge, etc.); know (a name, terms, that sth. will happen); nede (=ne hadde he), he had nothing, he knew of nothing [quot.: a1325]; (c) ~ minde, to remember (sth.), consider; ~ remembraunce, remember (to do sth.); ~ iminde of, have interest in (sth.); ~ minde of (on, upon), ~ minning o, remember (sb. or sth.); be mindful of, consider; ~ remembraunce of, remember (sth.); (d) ~ reward to (unto, at), ~ biholding to, ~ resport to, ~ ward o, to take thought of (sth.), have regard for; (e) ~ in herte (wit), to feel (sth.) in the heart (mind); ~ in minde, ~ on herte, intend or desire (sth.) in the mind (heart); ~ in knouleche, know (sth.); ~ in wille, intend (to do sth.).
5a.
(a) To hold (sth.), keep, grasp; retain (one's food); ~ in (on), hold (sth.) in (one's mouth, one's hand or hands); ~ on, keep (sth.) on (one's person); ~ abouten, ~ bi the throte, ~ mid; (b) to keep (an idea, emotion, a memory) in (one's mind, heart), have (sb.) in (one's mind or heart), remember (sb. or sth.); ~ in minde (herte, thank, thought); ~ in memorie, remember (sb. or sth.); (c) to have (a habit or custom), follow (a practice); (d) to preserve (sb. or sth.), save; keep (life, limbs); protect (sb. from sth.); God have you, God keep you, etc.; ~ and holden; (e) refl. to maintain oneself, conduct oneself, behave; of the stomach: behave, react; (f) ~ pes, to hold (one's) peace, be silent.
5b.
(a) To keep (sb. or sth. in a place); fig. ~ with him, have (sth.) in his favor; (b) to keep (sb. or sth. in a state or condition); ~ redi (yare), keep (sb. or sth.) in readiness; ~ clene, keep (one's body) clean; (c) to direct (sth.), incline; ~ on, keep (one's thoughts) on (sb.), have (one's heart) in (an activity); ~ to (til), keep (one's eye) on (sth.), incline (one's heart) to (sb.), fix (one's hope) on (sth.); ~ toward, direct (the eye) toward (sth.); ~ upwardes, direct (one's eyes) upwards.
6a.
(a) To regard (sb. or sth. in a certain way), consider; ~ dere, hold (sb. or sth.) dear, regard highly; ~ suspect, suspect (sb.); (b) ~ excused, to excuse (sb.), forgive, pardon; (c) ~ in, to hold (sb. or sth.) in (a certain estimation); ~ in hate, hate (sb.); ~ in suspect, be suspicious of (sth.); -- with noun; ~ as for nought, regard (sb.) as nothing, hold in contempt; ~ on imis, take (sth.) amiss, misunderstand; ~ to hate, hate (sb.); ~ to hosp, blaspheme (the Holy Ghost); ~ as, regard (sb. or sth.) as; -- with noun or adj.; ~ for, regard (sb.) as; -- with adj.
6b.
In expressions of comparison or preference: (a) ~ as lef..as, would as willingly have (sth.) as (sth. else); would as soon (be or suffer sth.) as (do, be, or suffer sth. else); ~ as lef, would be as well pleased (if sb. did sth.); -- with noun, inf., or clause; (b) ~ lever..than, would rather have (sb. or sth.) than (sth.else); would rather have (sth.) than (be, have, or suffer sth.); -- also refl.; (c) ~ lever..than, would rather (do or suffer sth.) than (sth. else); ~ lever, would rather (do, have, or suffer sth.), would prefer; -- also refl.; (d) ~ lever..than, would rather (that sth. happened or were true) than (sth.); (e) ~ levest, would most prefer; -- with inf.; (f) ~ rather, would prefer (to do or have sth., that sth. should happen), would rather have (done sth.); -- with inf., ppl., or clause.
7a.
(a) To obtain (sth.), take, get, receive; ~ up, have all of (sth.); hant, have it; [see also onyen ~]; (b) to capture (a city, castle), conquer (territory, a country); (c) to get (sth. to eat or drink); also, eat or drink (sth.); ~ to drinken, ~ at eten; (d) to obtain (a wind, a smell, hell, heaven, rain, a maidenhead, etc.); ~ eft banke, regain the bank; ~ the feld, be victorious; ~ the tour of London, be sent to the Tower.
7b.
(a) To receive (a freed prisoner); rescue (a prisoner); bring (sb.) in for questioning; (b) to have (a woman) as wife or mistress; ~ to (in, a) bed, marry (a woman), have intercourse with (a woman); ~ and holden; also, to have (a man) as husband; (c) ~ to (unto, as, for), to accept or receive (sb.) as (one's king, lord, superior); take (sb.) as (a witness, companion, wife); ~ and holden; -- also refl.; (d) to have (a child); give birth to (a child); beget (a child, an heir); ~ upon, beget (a child) on (a woman).
7c.
To get (an abstraction); be the recipient of (an action): (a) to obtain (help, peace, mercy, favor, victory, etc.); receive (an answer); get (one's will), get (leave, permission); ~ sight, see (sb.), catch sight of (sth.); houwe, ?have we, ?may we have; -- also refl.; (b) to receive (harm, sorrow, punishment, a curse, etc.); ~ deth, die; ~ vengaunce, be punished by an avenger; ~ while, have a time of punishment; (c) to learn (sth.), find out, discover; comprehend (sth.), understand; (d) to receive (a blow, wound); have that, take that!; (e) to have (a beginning, an end, an origin); have (an ending of a certain kind); (f) in proverbs.
7d.
In phrases, etc.: (a) ~ the bettre (ende, ~ the heigher (over) hond, ~ the bataille, to get the upper hand, be victorious, gain supremacy; ~ the bettre of, ~ heigher hond of, get the better of (sb.), overcome; ~ the wors (ende, ~ the worst, be overcome, be defeated; (b) ~ god dai, good-bye [see god dai]; (c) ~ her mi feith (hond, trouth), ~ herof mi herte blod, etc., I give you my word, etc.; (d) the devel (fend) have, the Devil take (sb. or sth.); Crist (God, our Lord) have, may Christ (God, our Lord) receive (someone's soul); (e) what woldest thou ~, what do you want?
8.
(a) To pick up (sth.), take; (b) ~ awei, to take (sb. or sth.) away, drive away (an ache); ~ doun, knock or drag (sb.) to the ground; ~ in, bring in (hay), ?get in a stock of groceries; ~ of, take off (a helmet); ~ out, take (sb.) out of a place, remove (sth.), drive (sb.) out; ~ up, lift (sth.) up, hoist (a sail); ~ forth, ~ her, ~ hom, ~ thider, ~ togeder; (c) ~ at, to put (sth.) beside (sth.); ~ awei from, remove (sth.) from (sb.); ~ fro, take (sb.) from (sb.), remove (the head) from (the shoulders); ~ in, put (sb.) in (prison); ~ into, bring (sb.) into (a place); ~ into place, put (sth.) in place; ben had into, of a number: multiply (another number); ~ of, bring (sth.) from (a place); ~ out of, bring or carry (sb. or sth.) out of (a place); ben had out of place, be displaced; ~ over, put (sth.) over (sth.) as a cover; ~ to, bring or send (sb. or sth.) to (a person or place), invite (sb.) to (a meal, a feast); ~ to ground, topple (sth.) to the ground; ~ unto, ~ up to, bring (sb. or sth.) to (a place); (d) ~ mid (with), to take (sb. or sth.) with (one); ~ on, take (sth.) on (a journey).
9.
(a) To have or take (action); ~ craft, practice a trade; ~ daunce, dance; ~ langage (speche), speak, talk; ~ mong, mingle; ~ mot, meet; ~ plaie, play; ~ wordes, speak words; etc.; (b) ~ to don, ~ at do, ~ ado, to have something to do, have business, be busy, be concerned; ~ nought to don, have nothing to do, have no business or concern; ~ to don (ado) with, have to do with (sth.), be concerned with, have dealings with (sb.); ~ nought to don of (with), ~ not to don of, ~ nothing at do of, have nothing to do with; (c) ~ to don, to do battle, fight; ~ ado with, fight with (sb.); (d) ~ to don mid (with), ~ at do (ado) with, to have intercourse with (a woman); (e) ~ in commaundement, to be commanded; ~ in examinacioun, question (sb.); ~ in oth, swear by (sth.); ~ in sight, see (sth.); ~ in speche, talk about (sth.); (f) in commands and exclamations: ~ at, to shoot at (sth.), strike at, attack; also, strike, attack, go to it; ~ at the (you), let me at you, here goes, let us fight; (g) ~ don, to finish; ?also, do away with (sb.); ~ don with, be finished with (sth.); in commands: finish; also, hurry, get on with it!
10.
(a) To cause (sth.) to be (done), have (sth. done); have (sb. do sth.); -- usually with p.ppl.; -- also with inf. or clause; (b) to get (sb. or sth. into a state or condition); ~ ded, have (sb.) dead, kill; ~ iler, get (streets) cleared; (c) to cause (sb.) to be (somewhere, in a place or position, with sb.); -- also refl.; (d) to make (sth.), provide; have (sth.) made; (e) to allow (sth.), permit; (f) to suppose (sth.), assume.
11.
(a) To have (sth. in order to do sth. with it); have (sb. or sth. to look after or attend to), have (sth. to say or write), have (a field to plow), etc.; (b) to be under obligation (to do sth.), have (to do sth.); ~ to don, ~ to gon, etc.; ~ to don of (with), be under the necessity of dealing with (sb.); (c) to have occasion (to do sth.).
12a.
Finite verb as auxiliary: (a) immediately after p.ppl.; (b) after p.ppl. & separated from it by subject; (c) immediately before p.ppl.; yave graunted, you have granted; (d) before p.ppl. & separated from it by subject (or subject & other elements of the clause); havi, I have; hefdich, had I, if I had; haddich, I would have; nabbich, I have not; nefdich, had I not; hastou, havestu, hast thou, thou hast; haddestou, haddest thou; (e) before p.ppl. & separated from it by an object or objects (or object & other elements of the clause); (f) before p.ppl. & separated from it by adverb(s or adv. phrases.
12b.
Finite verb with ppl. ben or haved: (a) ~ ben, have existed, have been; -- often with neg.; (b) with adv., complement, or another ppl.; hath ben thus, has been thus; han ben taken, have been taken; hath ben had, has been had; etc.; (c) ~ haved, have had (sth.); -- in various senses.
12c.
Infinitive as auxiliary or quasi-aux.: (a) to- or forto-inf. with p.ppl.; to ~ ben hongen, to be hanged; had to have ben, had been; taben, to have been; taclipsed, to have eclipsed; tadaued [see adauen], to have awakened; tadwelled, to have dwelt; tafallen, to have fallen; talived, to have lived; tan touched, to have touched; tave holden, to have held; (b) inf. without to: had ~ ben, had been; ~ had ronnen, to have run; (c) with modal & p.ppl.: wolde ~ don, sholde ~ sen, couthe ~ boren, mighte ~ don, etc.; (d) mighte ~ ben, mighte ~ haved; -- also with second p.ppl.
13.
As a substitute for another verb, or with another verb (ben, dien, don, dwellen, wenden, etc.) implied.