SHE is the daughter of Iupiter and Latona, the goddesse of Virginity and Chastity. In the heaven she is called Luna, the Moon; in the earth, Diana; in Hell or amongst the Infernals, Pros•erpina: of which three-fold power, she is called Triformis and Triula. The places sacred to her, were (as Valerius Flaccus affirms) Parthenius, a flood of Pa∣phlagonia. She with her brother Apollo, was born in Cin∣thus, a mountain hanging over Delos; of whom Statius saith, they are both called Cinthii. In Ephesus, a City of Io∣nia, or Lydia, she had a magnificent Temple numbred a∣mongst the seven wonders of the world. In Bauron, a City of Attica, she was likewise honoured. And as Lucan testates, in Taurus, a mountain in Sicily; and as Virgil, in Delos,
Page 21Horace reports her to have two mountains in Italy de∣dicated to her deity, Aventinus and Algidus. In her sacri∣fices, a Hart was stall offered at her Altar; and dogs or hounds, as Ovid writes;
The S•baeans and the Thessalians inhabiting the snowie mountain Haemus, used dogs in their oblations. Of her Temple at Ephesus, it shall not be amiss to speak a word or two by the way. Plutarch in his book De vitando Aere alieno, saith, that the Temple of Diana was a Sanctuary, wherein all debtors were safe from their creditors. As the Vestals of Rome had the time of their service distinguished into three parts; in the first to learn the mysteries of Vesta; in the second to do the ceremonies; and in the third, to instruct others that were ignorant: So amongst the Priests of Diana in Ephesus, the first order of them gave them the name of Melieres, that is, to be capable of the Priesthood, but not admitted; the second was Hieres, that was in present office; the third Parieres, that was dead from the service. This stately and magnificent structure was first erected by the Amazons, so beautifull and sacred, that when Xerxes had with sword and fire wasted and demolisht all the Tem∣ples of Asia, he spared only that, as the richest jewell of the world. It is reported of one Herostratus, a wicked and de∣bauch'd fellow, who finding in himselfe nothing good to preserve his memory, and willing that his name should live to posterity, set this Temple on fire, for no other pur∣pose, but that he would be talkt on: the Ephesians under∣standing this his malicious ambition, they made it death once to name him. Cornelius Nepos writes, that the same night that this famous structure was ruin'd and defaced by fire, Alexander was born in Pella, in the three hundred and eighth yeare after the building of Rome: so that at the extinguishing of one light of the world, another was kind∣led. It being demanded of one of Diana's Priests, Why Diana being a goddess, would suffer her Temple to be ut∣terly destroied? and what she was a doing the while? It was answered again, That it was done unawares to the goddess, for she was that night at the labour of Olympias, and busied about bringing Alexander into the world. Not∣withstanding this great ruine, the people of Ephesus cau∣sed it to be re-erected, and made both richer and more Page 22 beautifull than before: of which work Dinocrates an Ar∣chitectour of Macedonia was chiefe.*Diana (as Plutarch in his Symposaicon saith) is called Elitheia, or •ucina, as also Locheia, as goddess• of child-birth: she is called also Di∣ctiana. And in his Solertia animalium, that Apollo would be called Lycoconos; and Diana, Multicida Elaphibolos: The one for killing so many wolves; the other, Harts. Amongst the Aegyptians she is called Bubastis: she is celebrated (witnesse Herodotus) amongst the Thressae, and the Peloni∣ates: amongst the Bizantians she hath the name of Diana Orthosia.
The Poets fain that she is continually exercised in hun∣ting, for no other reason but to instruct and incourage all such as professe virginity to shun sloath and idlenesse: so Ovid,
Diana and Phoebus, were therefore said to be the children of Latona, because in that, the ancient Poets would signifie the beginning of the world: so▪ when the matter whereof it was made, was a meer confused Masse, and without shape, because all things were obscure and hid: that darknesse is signified in Latona; and whereas they make Iupiter their Father, it imperts as much as if they should fetch Iupiter out of this darknesse called the Sun and the Moon. More plainly, the Spirit of the Lord said, Let there be light; of which light. Ap••llo and Diana, the one by day, and the other by night, are the greatest: by this inferring, that the ge∣neration of the world began first from Light.