The generall history of vvomen containing the lives of the most holy and prophane, the most famous and infamous in all ages, exactly described not only from poeticall fictions, but from the most ancient, modern, and admired historians, to our times
Heywood, Thomas, d. 1641.

The first Book which is CLIO, treating of the Goddesses Coelestiall, Terrestriall, Marine, and Infernall.

BEfore we enter into a particular tractare of these Goddesses, it shall not be amisse to speak something of the opinions set∣led in sundry Nations, concerning them Who were their first Adorers and Wor∣shippers; the multiplicity of their gods; and what several Rights, and Customs, Observations and Ceremonies they used in their Oblations and Sacrifices. The Aethiopians are said to be the most ancient, and first beginners of Divine adoration, as Diodorus is of opinion; Imagining in them∣selves, and verily beleeving some of their gods to be ever∣lasting, and others to participate of a mortall and corrup∣tible nature. The Phoenicians, they delivered admirable and strange things concerning their gods, and the first be∣ginning and Creation of things: above all others, having in Divine worship, Dagona and Chamas. The Atlantides (a Page  2 people of Affrica) they are confident that the generation of the gods proceeded from them, and the first that reig∣ned amongst them they called Coelum, which is heaven. The Augitae another Nation (in the Affrick Continent) acknow∣ledged no other Deities, then the Ghosts of such Noble persons as were deceased, to whose Sepulchres they usually repaired to demand answers of al such things wherein they doubted. The Theology of the Phrygians was not much different from theirs. The Persians neither erected Statues nor Altars, they worshipped the Heaens, which they called Jupiter; the Sun, by the name of 〈◊〉 the Moon Venus; the Fire, the Earth, the Winds, and the Water. Isiodorus saith, the Graecians first honoured 〈◊〉 whom they stiled Jupiter, and were the first devisrs 〈◊〉 Images, erecters of Altars▪ and offerers of Sacrifice. The Jewes as Cornelius Tacitus relates, apprehended but one divine power, and that onely they acknowledged. The German of old (as the same Author affirms) were of opinion, That the gods could not be comprehended within wals, not have any humane shape appropriated unto them, measuring the•• incompre∣hensible power, by the magnitude of the heavens. Now concerning the divers opinions of men, what this supreme Deity should be; some held it the universe or the globe of the world: of which opinion was Origenes in his fifth book against C••sus. The Stoicks held it to be the first world; the Platonists, a second world; and divers other Sctsts of Greece, to be a third world. Thales Mlesius cal∣led God, a Mind, that fashioned all creatures out of the water, that knew o beginning, and was not capable of end. Anaximander, he ascribed a Deity to the Stars and the Pla∣nets, and these coelestill bodies, attributing no honour to that Mind, of which Thales dreamed. Anaximenes thought it to be Infinite 〈◊〉, to which he attributed the Origi∣nall of all causes, and derived the birth of the gods from thence; for so Saint Augustine and Cicero affirms. Demo∣critus Abderites (as Cicero and Arnobius testifie of him) was of opinion, that it was a Mind of fire, and the soule of the world. Plutarch in the 〈◊〉 of Numa, sets down Pythagoras his opinion concerning this godhead, and thus defines it: A Mind still travelling, never out of motion, but dispers'd and diffus'd through all the parts of the world, and things naturall, 〈◊〉 which all creatures whatsoever that are born, take life, ysis and Philolaus, call it an unspeakable Page  3 number, or a summity of the greatest or smalest number, for so Origenes saith. Archelaus Physicus would have all things to be created of earth, and (as Epiphanius testates of him) the beginning of all things to proceed from thence. Phrecidas taught, that the earth was before all other things, and therefore to that he appropriated a divinity. Heraclius E∣phesius, contested the gods to be made of 〈◊〉; so Varro writes of him: of the same beleefe was Hippasus Meta∣pontinus (witnesse Simplicius.) Anaxagors Claz••en called his god, Homoeomeria, that is, L••••esse of parte; and that a divine thought was the producter of all things whatso∣ever: So Augustine reports of him; others, that he held an infinite mind to be the first mover. Prodicus Coeus, as Epi∣phaenius tels us, plac'd his god in the foure Elements: like∣wise in the Sun and the Moon; in which two Planets there existed a living vertue. Diogenes Apollonaites, derived his god from the Air, as the matter from whence all things had their reality, as likewise that it did participate of divine reason, without which nothing could be created. Cleanthes Assius would have his god of the Firmament, as divers o∣thers of the Stoicks. And as Arnobius witnesseth of him, sometimes he call'd him the Will; now the Minde; then that part of the aire which is above the fire: and some∣times again, the reason. Straton made Nature his sum∣mum bonum. Antisthenes Atheniensis, he taught that there were many popular gods, but one onely Architector of the fabricke of the world. Chrysippus Silix the Stoick, hee taught that God was a naturall power endued with divine reason; and then again, he called him a Divine necessity. Zeno Citteieus, called him a divine and naturall Law; and sometimes the Firmament. Zenophanes Collophonius, cal∣led him, Whatsoever was infinite in a conjoined mind, or one universall and every thing that (as Theophrastus saith of him) he imagined to be God. Parmenides Eliates, cal∣led him atame, or an apprehension of an Imaginary thing, something resembling a Crown; which the Greeks call 〈◊〉 conteining within it a fiery light, an orb, or girdle 〈◊〉 compasseth and embraceth the heavens: ad∣hering to his fantasie, were Cicero and Simplicius. Empedo∣cles Agrigentinus, he would have four natures of which all things should subsist, and these he taught to be divine: as also, that they had birth, and should see end; for so Cicero writes in his book de natura deorum. Theodorus and Epipha∣niusPage  4 speak of one Theodorus, sirnamed Atheos, the Atheist: He affirmed the gods to be meer ioies, and not worthy of divine honours, that would perswade men by their exam∣ples, to theft, perjury, and rapine. Protagoras Abderita was of opinion, That it was not lawfull to enquire con∣cerning the gods, whether they were or were not, or of what nature and quality. Xenocrates Chalcedonius, made eight gods; in the wandring stars the number of five, in the whole number of the Planets, one, a seventh in the Sun, an eighth in the Moon. Plato Atheniensis went more divinely to work; who taught that it is neither the aire, nor reason, nor nature, but that there is one only God, by whom alone the world was fashioned, and made perfect, and miracu∣lous. Zenophon Socraticus held argument, That the form of the true God, was not visible, and therefore his essence nor lawfull to be sought into. Ariston the Soick affimed, than God might be comprehended within his own substance. Aristotle proposed, That one Mind governed the whole world, and that it was the prime and principall cause of all things. Spesippus constituted a naturall living power, by which all things were governed, and that he stil'd a Deity, for so Arnob. in his eighth book reports. Almaeon Crotonia∣tes did attribute a Deity to the Sun, Moon, and the rest of the Planets; in his ignorance (as Cicero speaks of him) gi∣ving immortality to things meerly mortall. Ecphantus Siracusanus, as Erigines relates of him, imagined the divi∣nity to exist in the mind and soule. Brachmanae, (who were the Indian wise men, or Sophoi) called it the Light; but not as the splendour of the Sun, or Air, but the light of rea∣son; by which wise and understanding men might enquire into the dark and mysticall secrets of nature. Lactantius and Cicero say, that it was the opinion of the Stoicks, for the most part, That this instrumentall power was a divine substance, intelligible and airy, but wanting form; yet to be transhap'd, or made like to whatsoever it best pleased it selfe. The same Philosophers attributed a god-hood to the stars, and all other coelestiall bodies. Heraclides Ponticus, thought the World and the Mind both divine, and was of opinion, that this form of the Deity was mutable, reducing the earth and the heavens within the compasse of God∣head. Epicurus Atheniensis, he made him gods of Atomes or Mats, allowing them bodies differing from men, but bea∣ing humane form. M. Terentius Varro, supposed him to be Page  5 the soule of the world, and the world it selfe to be god. Cicero defines him thus, a certaine pure and free mind, se∣parate from all mortall commixtion, ever moving, and all things knowing; and Origenes adhering to the opinion of Exilneus, concludes that the gods are eve during, not sub∣ject to corruption, and yet altogether without providence. But lest I should grow tedious in the search of so many di∣vers opinions, which to some may appear impertinent to the tractate in hand, yet not altogether unnecessary o such who have not travelled in the search of these Antiquities; I will come neerer to the matter, and to speak of the goddesses, as we promised▪ Hesiod hath left to memory, that there are no lesse then thirty thousand gods within the compass of the world, and every one have several predominance over men, beasts, fish, fouls, and al other creatures vegetative and sen∣sitive. Tertullian speaks of three hundred Joves or Jupiters counted by M. Varro. Therefore it was not permitted a∣mongst the Romans, to adore any other gods or goddesses, then such as were approved and allowed by the Senate. In the books of the high Priest, it was thus written: Let no man bring in an innovation of any new gods, or aliens, to be privately adored, unlesse they be publickly approved; on∣ly such as have from antiquity been held coelestiall, and unto whom Temples and Altars have been consecrated; let none else have divine worship. The Heathen of old amongst their goddesses, counted these Pudicitia, Concordia, Mens, Spes, Honor, Clementia, and Fides; that is, Bashful∣nesse, Concord, the Mind, Hope, Honour, Clemency, and Faith. Pliny writes of a Temple in Rome, dedicated to Honor. Certaine living creatures, and other things, were in the old time reverenced as gods. The Trogloditae (as the same author testifies) worshipped a Tortoise. The Aegyp∣tians had in honour, Garlick and Onyons; they have the Crocodile likewise in divine adoration, to whom they offer Sacrifice: But the Ombytae, chiefly a people of that Coun∣try, by whom he is held most sacred; and if it so happen that their children be by him devoured, the parents rejoice, imagining they are specially beloved of the gods, that are thought worthy to beget food to please their appetites. Serpents are honoured by the Phoenicians. In Gadeta a City of Spain, two Temples were erected; the one to Age, the other to Death: to one as the Mistresse of Experience; to the other, as a quiet harbor or cessation from all miseries Page  6 and calamities. In other Cities were the like instituted to Poverty, and to Fortune; lest the one should afflict them, and that the other should favour them, Floods likewise and Rivers, were esteemed as deities, some portrai'd in the figure of men, and others in the semblance of beasts. A∣mongst the Lacedemonians as Plutarch relates, Temples were edified, one to Feare, another to Laughter, a third to Death. The Aegyptians worshipped the Sun and Moon, the goddesse Ibis, a Cat, an Eagle, and a Goat. The Syrians adored a Dove: The Romans a Goose, by reason that by the cackling of Geese, the Capitoll was preserved from the sack. Amongst the Th••alians it was held an offence Capitall, to kill a Stork. These that inhabite the Island Syen, 〈◊〉 the fish called Phaos. Those that dwell in M••tis, the fish Oxiringus: In Ambracia, a Lyonesse, because in times past a Lyonesse seised upon a Tyrant, and tore him to pieces; by which they were restored to their anci∣ent liberties. Those that live by Delphos, a Wolfe, who by scraping up the earth, discovered a great quantity of gold buried, and till then concealed. The men of Samos, a Sheep; the Argives a Serpent; the Islanders of Tenedos, a Cow with Calfe; after whose conception, they tender her as much service, as to a woman young with child. A Dragon in Al∣b (a grove just opposite against Juno's Temple) was ho∣noured by the Spa••ane virgins: to which at certain times they went, and fed him from their hands. The Aegyptians had Asps likewise in great worship, which they fostered and brought up together with their children. The Thebans honoured a Sea Lmprey. There were gods called Mediox∣um dei, or middle gods: or which Plautus in his Cistellaria, makes mention, Isa me dei deaeque superi, & inferi, & medio∣rum; as the gods and goddesses supernall or infernall, or those betwixt them both, &c. He speaks likewise of Dii potel∣larii, such as had power over the dishes that were used in Sacrifices: to which Ovid hath reference in this verse, 〈◊〉. Missos Vestae pura paella cibos; The clean platter pre∣sents those cates sent to Vesta. And Plautus in another place, Dii me omnes, magni, minuti, & patellarii, &c. There be others called Semones; who have domination over as much as lies open from the middle Region of the air to the earth, and they are called by us semi-dei, or halfe-gods: Fulgen∣•••• cals those Semones, that for the poverty of their desert, are not worthy a place in the heavens: Amongst whom he Page  7 reckons Priapus, Hippo, and Vertumnus. In Italy there were divers others called Dii municipales, as belonging to private men in Cities, not called into any publike office; as amongst the Crustuminians, Delventnus; amongst the Narnienses, Viridiarius; amongst the Astrulanians, Ancha∣ria; amongst the Volcinienses, Nortia. But now of the Goddesses in order.

Of the Goddesses Coelestiall: and first of JUNO.

IVNO is the daughter of Saturn, the Queen of the gds, and chiefe of those that are called Coelestiall, The wife and sister of Jupiter, goddesse of Power and Riches, and soveraignesse of marriage, and all conjugall contracts. The Festivals kept in her honour, were called Herea, which was a name appropriated to her own person▪ so Enneus saith, as Cicero cites him in his first book of offi∣ces, Vos ne velit an me regnar Hera? Will the Mistresse have you to raign, or me? where some take Herae for For∣tune. One of her Priests, as Virgil testates, was Calibe, of whom he thus speaks;

Fit Calibe Junonis anus templique sacerdos.

The old woman Calibe, was Priest in Juno's Temple. O∣vid in his second book Metamorph. nominates Alcinoe.

Ante tamen cunctos Junonis Templa colebat,
Proque viro (qui nullus erat) veniebat ad Aras.
Alcinoe before the rest, did Juno's Temple grace:
And for a man, (for men were none) had at her Altar place,

She was honoured most in the City of Carthage, the chiefe City of Affrica: of which Virgil in his first book Aeneīad. thus speaks:

Quam Juno fertur terris magis omnibus unam
Posthabita Coluisse, Samo—

Which only (saith he) Juno is reported to prefer before all other Countries, even Samos it selfe. Statius in his first book Theb. saith that she was much honoured in the City called Prosimna: but in Samos (an Island compast in with the Icarian sea) she was chiefly celebrated, as said to be there noursed in her infancy. In Argos and Mcene, two chiefe Cities of Achia, she was likewise much honoured, as their Queen and Patronesse, for so Horace affirms, lib. 1▪ Page  8 Carmin. Ovid in his 6. book De fastis saith, that the people called Phalisci, have her in great adoration, calling them Junonicoli, as those that honour Juno. Of ther chastity, majesty, her brawling and chiding with Iupiter, her re∣venge upon his strumpets and bastards, divers things have been diversely commented, of which I will insist upon some few. Iuno having in suspition, Semele the daughter of Cad∣mus and Hermione, to have been often prostituted by Iupi∣ter, she changed her selfe into the shape of her Nurse Be∣roe, perswading her that she should beg of him, That he would grace her so much, as to lie with her in the same state and majesty, with which he bedded Iuno; that as his power and potency was great above all, so her 〈…〉 wantonnings, might be remarkable above others: which he unwillingly granting, and she as unfortunately obtai∣ning, was the occasion that she with her Pallace, were both consumed in 〈…〉 and thunders.

It is related of Iuno further, that when she and her hus∣band being reconciled and pleasantly discoursing, held argument betwixt themselves, Whether in the act of ge∣neration, men or women took the greatest delight? and that by joint consent, their controversie was to be determi∣ned by Tyesias (one that had been of both Sects) Tyesias giving up his censure, That women were by nature the most wanton; her sport turned into spleen, and her mirth into such madnesse, that she instantly berevd him of his sight, and strook him blind: to recompence which losse, Iupiter inspired him with the spirit of Divination and Pro∣phesie; to which her continued anger further added, That howsoever he truly prophesied, yet his presages should ne∣ver be beleeved.

Alomena too, growing great of Hercules, and ready to be delivered, she taking on her the shape of a Beldame, sate her down before her own Altar, with her knees crossed, and her hands clutched, by which charme she stopped the pas∣sage of her child-birth; which Gallantis espying, and ap∣prehending (as it was indeed) that to be the occasion why her Lady could not be delivered, she bethought her of a craft to prevent the others cunning; for leaving Alomena in the middest of her throwes, she assumes a counterfet joy, and with a glad countenance approcheth the Altar, to thank the gods for her Ladies safe delivery. Which Iunoo sooner heard, but up she riseth, and casts her armes Page  9 abroad; her knees were no sooner uncrost, and her fin∣gers open, but Alomena was cased, and Hercules found free passage into the world. Gallantis at this laughing, and Iuno chasing to be thus deluded, she afflicted her with an un∣heard of punishment, by transhaping her into a Weesill, whose natiue is to kindle at the mouth; that from the same jawes with which she had lied to the gods about Alomena's child be 〈◊〉 she should ever after bring forth her young.

No lesse was her hatred to all the posterity of Cadmus; for when Agave had lost Penthaeus; and Antinoe, Actaeon, and Smele had been consumed by Ioves thunders; and there remained onely two, Athames and Ino, she possest them both with such madnesse, that he being on hunting, transpierc'd his sonne L•••chus, mistaking him for the game he chased; and Ino snatcht up young Melicertes, and with him cast her sele down headlong into the Sea, from the top of an high promontory. But at the intercession of Venus, who was born of the waves, Neptune was pleased to rank them in the num∣ber of the Sea-gods, so that Melicertes is called Palaemon; and Ino, Iaeucothoe. I could further relate of many other poeticall Fables, as of Ixion, who enterteined and feasted by Iupiter, attempted to strumpet Iuno, and adulterate the bed of Iu∣piter; which to prevent, and shun the violence of a rape, she fashioned a Cloud into her own similitude and sem∣blance, which Ixion mistaking for Iuno, of that begot the Centaurs. As also the birth of her son Vulcan, and her daughter Eccho; he lame, and she so deformed, that being ashamed to shew her selfe, or appear to the eies of any, she hath so conceal'd her selfe in thick woods and hollow vaults and caverns, that never any part of her could ever yet be discovered more then her voice.

Yet 〈◊〉 shew that in all these seeming Fables, golden meanings were intended, I wil briefly thus illustrate them: Iuno was therefore called the daughter of Saturn, because the world was created by God, the great work-master of Nature. Then, in his course was Time born; from thence, 〈◊〉, which is, whatsoever is above the Element of Fire, the Firmament, or the Sy, and next that, the Elements: The highest 〈◊〉Iupiter is Aër, namely Iuno, the mode∣ratresse of the life of man, by whom the treasures of rain and ball are disposed and governed: of the air waxing hot are generated creatures, trees and plants, &c. whose tempera∣ture hath an influence in the bodies and minds of reasona∣ble Page  10 creatures: therefore when from water Aer is next be∣got, she is said to be nourisht by Oceanus and Thetis; when the force of the Element works with the Aer in the pro∣creation of creatures, she is then said to be the wife of Iu∣piter when shee is changed into fire, then she brings forth Vulcan: when the benignity of the air hath coopera∣tion with such things as are generated, she is then stiled the goddesse of marriage. So likewise it is said of Ixion, that for attempting the bed of Iupiter, he was from heaven cast down into hell; which some would bring within the com∣passe of history: But that he is there tortured upon a wheel incessantly turning round, must needs include mo∣rality. Most probable it is that Ixion disgrac'd and banisht from the Court of that King, whose wife he had sought to adulterate, was thereby made of all men the most wretched and miserable, as one excruciated with perpetuall ambition and envy: for such as under the imaginary Idea of ver∣tue, apprehend the reality of vain glory, they can attempt nothing good, nothing sincere or laudable, but all their actions are criminall, irregular and meerly absurd, impor∣ting thus much, That their estates can have no continu∣ance, that by sinister and indirect courses, seek to climb to the height and crown of glory.


SHE is the wife of Saturne, and is called the mother of the gods. Her Chariot is drawn with Lions. To her, Ida and Dindymus (two mountains of Phrygia) were sacred, whereupon Virgil saith,

Alma parens, Idaea deûm cui Dindyma sacer.
From that place she is called Dindymene, by Martial.
Non per mystica sacra Dindymenes.
Not by the mysticall oblations of Cybele.

In Phrygia the Ministers of this goddesse, called Galli, kept certain feast daies in her honour, after the manner of Fencers or Gladiators, contending amongst themselves even to the shedding of much blood; which when they saw to flow plentifully about their heads and faces, they ran to a certain flood not far thence, sacred to the goddesse, and in that washt both their wounds and weapons: the like did the Romans in Almo, a River neer to Rome, the eleventh of the Calends of April, which Valerius Flaccus remem∣bers.

Page  11
Sic Vbi Migdonios Planctus sacer abluit Almo:
Letaque jam Cybele—
Where Almo, the Migdonian knocks laves off,
And Cybele now rejoyceth—

Reate (as Sylius saith) a City in Umbria, is sacred to her, so is Berecinthus a mountain in Phrygia, of whom shee takes the name of Berecynthia Apuleius, lib. 11. cals her Pesi∣nuntica of Pesinuntium a City among the Phrygians: Ovid in his Metamorph. amongst her Priests, reckons up Alphitus: and Virgil in his 11. book, Choreus. Melissa was a woman Priest, of whom all that succeeded her, were called Me∣lssae. Plutarch in Mar. nominates one Barthabaces, Perea tempora, &c. About thoe times came Barthabaces Priest to the great mother of the gods, saying, she had spoken to him in her Temple, and predicted victory. This Cybele is likewise called Vesta, and Rea. The rights of her sacrifices perfor∣med in her honour, Ovid in his Fastis thus expresseth:

Of old with tinckling sounds, did Ida ring,
But weakly, as young Infants cry or sing.
Some beat their Bucklers, some their empty casks;
(For this, of Cybeles Priests, the labour asks)
The myster's conceall'd: yet still remains
An imitation of those ancient straines.
Cymbals for Helms; for Targets, Timbrils play,
The Phrygian Pipe still sounds, as at that day.

Her Priests were called Curetes, and Corybantes; as also Idaei Dactili, who like mad-men wagging their heads and playing on Cimbals ran about the streets, provoking o∣thers to do the like: They came from Ida in Phrygia into Creet, in which Island they call'd a hill by the name of Ida.

The Poets (who in their Fables hid all the mysteries of learning, as the Aegyptians in their Hieroglyphicks) by the mother of the gods, would have us thus much understand, That when they meant to signifie to our apprehensions, that the earth, as the stability of the world, and firmament of all naturall bodies, from whence all things born had beginning; they therefore Cybele or Vesta, the mother of the gods, and to her sacrifices brought all the first fruits of the earth as due to her. Further to expresse the nature of the earth, many things have from antiquity been remembred touching her: for Rhea signifies the force or strength of the earth, who passeth and shifteth, piercing into the gene∣ration of things.

Page  12


SOme report her to be born of the Nymph Dione, daugh∣ter to Oceanue and Thetis: Others, that she was borne of the foam or froth of the sea. She is the goddesse of Love, the wife of Vulcan, the sweet heart of Mars, the mo∣ther of Cupid and the Graces. She goes armed with Tor∣ches, and bound about with a marriage girdle. Her chari∣ot is drawn by Swans, as Juno's with Peacocks, as Ovid in his tenth book Metamorph.

—Iunctisque per Aëa Cign••
Carpit iter—
With yoaked Swans she travels through the aire.

The like witnesseth Horace, Statius, Silvius, and others. The places to her most sacred, were Amathus, an Isle in the Sea Aegeum, of which she took the name of Amathusa or Amathusis. She was honoured in Cyprus; and especially in Paphos, a City of that Isle: likewise in Memphis where she had a Temple: of Cyprus she had the denomination of Cy∣pria, Cypris, and Cyprigena; of Paphos, Paphia; of Gnydos, Gnydia. Pliny reports, that Praxitiles was nobilitated for his graving of Marble, but especially for the Statue of Gni∣dian Venus. The Idalian woods, the Ciclides, and the hill Cythera were to her sacred. Of Erix a mountain in Sicilia, she was called Erecina; as Horat. Carmin. lib. 1.

Sive tu mavis Erecina ridens.

Concerning her love to Mars, and his mutuall affecti∣on to her, it is frequent amongst the Poets; only I will in∣troduce Ovid in his second book de arte amandi.

Fabula narratur toto notissima Coelo,
Mulciberi capti Marsque, Venusque dolis, &c.
This Tale is known to all and spoken still,
Of Mars and Venus took by Vulcans skill:
The god of war doth in his brow discover,
No more a frowning souldier, but a lover.
To his demands what could the Queen oppose?
Cruel, or hard? alas, she's none of those.
How oft the wanton would deride his trade
Polt-foot, and hard-hand, black with Cole-dust made.
He's pleas'd to see her imitate his pace;
hat e'r she doth, her beauty seems to grace:
Page  13 At first their meetings they conceal'd with shame,
None to their bashfull sins could scarce give name.
The tel-tale Sun (who can deceive his sight?)
Sees, and to Vulcan doth of all give light.
Oh Sun, what bad example hast thou lent?
Ask her a bribe; she hath to give content,
So thou wilt secret be. Vulcan down sits,
And his obscure wires to the place he fits:
The work so fine, that it beguiles the eye,
About their bed he plac'd them, low and high.
He makes as if to Lemnos he would scoure,
The Lovers keep appointment just at th' houre;
And catcht together in his wiery snare,
Naked and fast bound Mars and Venus are.
He cals the gods to witnesse, they are spi'd;
Soft hearted Venus scarce her tears can hide:
Their hands to vaile their cheeks they cannot git,
Or shadow that which to behold's unfit.
One of the gods said smiling, If they be
Tedious, good Mars, bestow thy bonds on me.
Scarce at thy prayers, Oh Neptune, th' are unti'd;
Mars hasts to Creet, to Paphos Venus hi'd:
What by this gott'st thou Vulcan? what they two
Before with shame did, now they boldly do.
Their lusts it did encourage, not asswage;
And thou hast since repented of thy rage.

Of her love to Adonis, the incestuous issue of Mirrha, and her father Cyniras; how he was slain of the boar, and how his blood was turned into a purple flower by the power of the goddesse: her doating upon Anchises, the father of Aneas; it might appear superfluous to insist upon. There∣fore to avoid all prolixity, I will briefly come to the myste∣ries included.

Because some creatures are born of corruption,* and others by copulation, the Poets by Venus would illustrate what is requisite and convenient to both: To those which are bred of corruption, the mediocrity of heat, and cle∣mency of the heaven is very necessary to their breeding. Againe, to those that are begot by conjunction, male with female, most convenient is the temperature of the aire, for the matter of generation being of the most subtile part of the blood, it acquires a moderate heat, which is chiefly hel∣ped by the Spring: for the temperature of the Spring is Page  14 called the baud to all procreation: and therefore the an∣cient writers, to expresse the matter of the seed, and mode∣ration of the air (both necessarily to meet in the appetite of generation) have fabulated, That Venus was born of the generative parts of heaven, as also of the Sea: For these parts, are the mediocrity of heat by motion, which is usefull and necessitous in the begetting of all creatures whatso∣ever.


SHE is likewise called Pallas, born of the brain of Iupi∣ter; she is the goddesse of Wisdome, Discipline, and Arms, and therefore called Bellona, and therefore translated into the number of the gods, because the invention of arts and sciences are attributed to her. The places ce∣lebrated to her deity, were Ithinas, a hill neer to Athens, where she had a Temple erected; the mountain P••eas, in Attica; in Aracinthus, a place in Aetolia, from which (as Statius writes) she was called Aracinthia. Pliny saith, that Nea, one of the Islands called Cyclades, was pecu∣liar to her. But Athens was her place of most honour, which City she is said to have built. From thence she hath the name of Athnaea, Attica, Cecropia, and Mosopia, Horace Carm. lib. 1. The great City called Alcomeneum, scituate in Boeotia, hath likewise by the Testament of the first founder submitted it selfe to her patronage. Of Scira, a Prophet of Elucina, she was called Sciras. The solemni∣zation of her festivals, were called Panathenea. There were certaine wrestling contentions, which Theseus in A∣thens, first instituted to this goddesse, as Plutarch hath de∣livered. She had likewise her Quinquatria yearly celebra∣ted, which were kept sacred five daies after the black day, (and therefore so called) the black day was immediately after the Ides: In her sacrifices it was their custome to offer a Goat, because as Pliny hath left recorded, The biting of the Goat is prejudiciall to the Olive tree, whose fruit Mi∣nerva best loveth; the very licking of the rind with their tongues makes it barren. She slew the beast Alcida, a mon∣ster that from his mouth and nostrils breathed fire. Aelianus writes, that when Alexander brought his army against The∣bes (amongst many other prodigies) that the image of Mi∣nerva, sirnamed Atalcomineides was burnt by a voluntary flame, no fire being neer it. At Assessum she had two Tem∣ples: Page  15 from that place she was called Minerva Assessia. From other places where she was worshipped, she took the name of Pallenides and Pedasia: Alea from her Temple amongst the Tegeates. Tutelaris she was called by the inhabitants of Chios, and honoured as an Oracle amongst the Aegyp∣tians; she had only a poch amongst the Scians. In some places her statues were covered with gold, in others they were of plain stone. She had a Temple in Sige∣um: three others, Siadis, Aegis, and Crastiae: she was by some called Minerva Vrbana, and Minerva Isliadi. Herodo∣tus writeth, that when Xerxes transported his army into Greece, passing by Troy, and being perusing the antiqui∣ties thereof; and upon his departure thence, at the Altar of Minerva, he sacrificed a thousand oxen one day. Many things are fabled of her by Poets, as of her contention in weaving, with Arachne, which I purposely refer to her story as it fals in course. She is the Hieroglyphick of Wisdome, and therefore the Poet Martianus writes that she was born without a mother, because that in women there is scarce any wisedom to be found; in a Hymn upon Pallas he is thus read:

Hanc de patreferum, sine matris saedere natam;
Provida cosilia, quod nescit curia matrum.
Of father therefore, without mother born;
Because learn'd Courts, the womens counsell scorn.

The Maclies and the Auses, are two nations that border upon the spacious Fen Tritonides: Their virgins in the yearly feast of Minerva, in celebrations of their rights to the goddesse, divide themselves into two armies, and fight one part against the other, with stones, clubs, and other weapons of hostility: such as perish in the conflict, they hold to be no true and perfect Virgins, because not pro∣tected by the goddess: But she that hath born her selfe the most valiant in the conflict, is by common consent of the rest▪ ••ichly adorned, and beautified with the best armour, according to the manner of the Greeks, her head beauti∣fied with a Corinthian crest or plume, and seated in a Cha∣rio dawn through the Tritonian Fen. They have it by tradition, that Minerva was the daughter of Neptune, and the Fen before named, and being reproved by her father, she ••ok it in such scorn, that she utterly rejected him and gave he selfe to Iupiter, who adopted her his daughter. Zaleucus when e commended his lawes to the Locrenses, to make them the better observed by the people, told them, Page  16Minerva had appeared to him, and did dictate and pro∣pose to him whatsoever he had delivered to them. The most famous of Poets, Homer, he mad Minerva a compani∣on of Vlysses in his travels; in whom he personated the most wise man amongst the Grecians, who freed him from all dangers, labours, and ship-wrecks, and brought him in safety to his Country, Parents, Queen, Sonne, and Subjects: thereby intimating, That by Wisedome and Knowledge, all difficult things may be easily undergone. This is that win∣ged horse Pegasus, by which Perseus subdued so many mon∣sters. This is that shield of Pallas, to which the Gorgons head being fastned, turns the beholders to stone, amazing the ignorant and unlearned. Agreeable to this is Homers first book of his Odyssae, the argument I give you thus in English:

Pallas by Joves command, from heaven descends,
And of the Paphian Mentor takes the shape,
In which she to Telemachus commends
Such Greeks as from revenging Hellens rage
Were home return'd, Nestor amongst the rest,
And Menelaus; urging him to enquire
Of them, who in the wars at Troy did best?
And whose heroick acts did most aspire?
But of Ulysses, chiefly to learn newes,
What course he takes, or what attempt pursues.
Again, in the second Book.
Vnknown to fierce Antinous and his mates,
Telemachus from Court in secret steals,
On him Joves daughter, bright Minerva waits,
And taking Mentors shape her selfe conceals.
He by the goddesse Urgence, straight prepares
For such a voiage, instantly providing
All needfull helps, apt for such great affairs.
Their ship made ready: unto Pallas guiding▪
He trusts himselfe, by help of saile and oare,
They put to sea, and lose the sight of shore.

Vlysses suffering ship-wreck,* and cast naked upon the shore of Pheacus, he was assisted further by her, as followes in the sixt and seventh arguments.

The wearied Greek all naked steps on shore,
Whether Nausiaca descends to play,
With other Virgins, as it was before
Their custome: up the Greek starts, spying day,
Page  17 With a fair slock of Ladies him beside;
Vp by the roots he tears the herbs, and grasse,
Thinking with them his nakednesse to hide;
And so proceeds unto the queenlike lasse.
Pallas his patronesse, moves her to pity,
She gives him both her chariot and attire,
So to Minervas Temple, neer the City,
He's proudly drawn, guarded by many a squire:
Thus in her altars sight, being lodg'd that night
Ne sives with incense Pallas to requite.
Minerva takes a virgins shape upon her,*
And to the City first Ulysses brings.
But after, to aspire him to more honour,
Into the Pallace (th' ancient seat of Kings.)
Arete wife to Alcinous, first demands,
Where he receiv'd those garments, and what fate
Brought him that way? the Princesse understands
The utmost that Ulysses can relate.
Therefore the Queen accepts him as her guest,
The night perswades, they part to severall rest.

In all his negotiations and travels, Pallas was still his assistant, for Wisedome never forsakes any man in ne∣cessities: insomuch, that after he had freed his Court of his wives unruly utors, having slain them all, and was now peaceably possest of his Kingdome, she was still constant to him in all his extremities. Which I will conclude with the foure and twentieth argument of Homers Odysse, and the last book.

Tartaream vocat in sedem Cillenius umbras.
The mutinous Ghosts of the sad woers slain
Mercury forceth to the vaults below,
What Time th' heroick spirits, thronging complain,
That Agamemnon should be murd'red so,
These being young men of chiefe beauty, and age,
Why they so presse in heaps demands the cause;
And are resolv'd, 'mongst whom Ulysses sage,
And chast Penelope, gain much applause;
Especially from Agamemnons ghost▪
Who had to him a fate much contrary;
Yet whom in lfe he had respected most.
Mean time Ulysses (that 〈◊〉 lng'd to see
His Father, old Laetes)〈…〉
His fortunes, dangers, travels, misery,
Page  18 Both forrein and domestick; what strange spels,
Witchcrafts, and shipwracks, had so long detein'd him
From his grave Father, and his constant Queen,
And to what dire exigents constrein'd him,
In what strange coasts and climats he had been.
By this, the Fathers of the sutors dead,
(Grieving their sons should so untimely fall)
Take counsell, and 'gainst th' Ithacan make head:
These he opposes, and repels them all;
But gathering new supplies, by Joves command,
Pallas from descends t' at tone these ars,
To free all forrein forces from the land,
And by her wisedome compromise these wars.
By his decrees, and her own wisedome guided,
Arms are surceast, all difference is decided.

Pallas hath been often invocated by the Poets, but a∣mongst infinite I will only instance one; and that for the elegancy. Homer in his long peregrination through Greece and other Countries, sometimes by sea, and sometimes by land, and by the reason of his blindnesse grooping his way, he hapned to passe by a place where Potters were at work, and setting such things as they had newly moulded into their furnace; who finding by his harp (for he seldome tra∣velled without it, being one of the best means he had to get his living) that he had some skill in Musick, intreated him that he would play them a fit of mith, and sing them a fine song; which if he would do, they would give him so many small pots and necessary drinking cups for his la∣bour, vailes that belonged to their trade. The conditions were accepted; and he presently to his harp sung this ex∣temporall ditty, called Caminus, or Fornax.

Oh Potters, if you'll give to me that hire
Which you have promis'd, thus to you I'll sing:
Descend O Pallas, and their brains inspire,
And to their trade thy best assistance bring,
That their soft chaices may harden well,
And their moist cups of clay wax brown and dry;
This being done, they may with profit sell,
And customers from all parts come to buy,
Not to the market onely, but even here
Where they be forg'd and burnt: so shall it be
When I am pleas'd, and you have sold them der
Profit to you, and covenant with me.
Page  19 But if you mock me, and my meed deny,
All hideous mischifes to this furnace throng,
May those grosse plagues that thicken in the skie▪
Meet at this forge, to witnesse this my wrong.
Hither rush Smaragus, and with him bring
Asbetes, and Sabactes: quench their fire,
Oh Pallas, 'bout their rooms their models flng,
On Oven, Shop and Furnace vent thine ire:
Else let Omodomas with too much heat
Crack all their vessels, and their art confound,
Bash all their works to mammocks, I intreat;
Pull furnace, forge, harth, house, and all to ground,
That they may bruise together in their fall,
(Whilst all the Potters quake) with such a ruine,
As when huge masts are split and crackt withall,
The warring winds, the seamans wrack pursuing.
In such a tempest let the Chimnies shatter,
And the vast frame within its basses sink:
Whilst 'bout their cars the tiles and rafters clatter,
That all their pipkins, stea, and pots for drink,
And other uses, may be crusht to pouder;
And so convert again into that mire,
Whence they were forg'd. Or if a horror lowder
May be devis'd, here vent thy worst of ire.
Else let that* Witch that cals Apollo father,
Who can from hell the blackest furies call,
And her infectious drugs and poisons gather,
And sprinkle them on work-men, work and all.
Let Chiron to this forge his Centaurs bring,
(All that survived the battell, 'gainst Jove's son)
That they these pots against the wals may ding,
And all their labours into ruine run,
Till what they see, he nothing; and these here
Spectators of this wrack, may howl and yell,
And their great losse lament with many a teare,
Whilst I may laugh aloofe, and say 'twas well.
And to conclude, that he that next aspires
But to come nere the furnace where they stand,
May be the fuel to these raging fires,
And be consum'd to ashes out of hand:
So may the rest that shall escape this danger,
Be warn'd by these, how to deride a stranger.

That the former writers might demonstrate unto us, Page  20 That humane actions are not altogether so governed by the force coelestiall, but that there is some place left open for mans prudence, and wisedome; and besides, to deliver unto us, how acceptable the knowledge of good things is to him who is the giver of all graces: they therefore left this expression to posterity, that Wisedome was the daugh∣ter of Jupiter, and born without a mother, since God is on∣ly wise, and men not so, but meerly in a similitude or sha∣dow. Therefore to manifest the power of Wisdome, they feigned her to come into the world armed, because the wise man respects not the injuries of Fortune, nor puts his trust in any worldly felicity, further then by counsell and pati∣ence to subdue the one, and moderate the other; stil pla∣cing his hopes in that fountaine from whence she first pro∣ceeded. Next, because the feare of the Lord is the be∣ginning of Wisedome, she is said to have combated Giants, the sonnes of the earth: such as in that Gigomantichia, would have pluckt Jupiter out of his throne; by which are intended the presumptions of nature, and the insolencies of men; who, all service and adoration to the divine powers neglected, are not affraid to make insurrection a∣gainst heaven it selfe. I may therefore conclude, that all humane wisedome different against the divine will, is vain and contemptible, since the good man is onely wise, and in the grace and favour or his Maker.


SHE is the daughter of Iupiter and Latona, the goddesse of Virginity and Chastity. In the heaven she is called Luna, the Moon; in the earth, Diana; in Hell or amongst the Infernals, Proserpina: of which three-fold power, she is called Triformis and Triula. The places sacred to her, were (as Valerius Flaccus affirms) Parthenius, a flood of Pa∣phlagonia. She with her brother Apollo, was born in Cin∣thus, a mountain hanging over Delos; of whom Statius saith, they are both called Cinthii. In Ephesus, a City of Io∣nia, or Lydia, she had a magnificent Temple numbred a∣mongst the seven wonders of the world. In Bauron, a City of Attica, she was likewise honoured. And as Lucan testates, in Taurus, a mountain in Sicily; and as Virgil, in Delos,

Notior ut canibus non jam sit Delia nostris.
Not Delia to our dogs is better known.

Page  21Horace reports her to have two mountains in Italy de∣dicated to her deity, Aventinus and Algidus. In her sacri∣fices, a Hart was stall offered at her Altar; and dogs or hounds, as Ovid writes;

Extra canum Triviae vidi mactare Sabaeos:
Et quicunque tuas accolit Haeme Nyves.

The Sbaeans and the Thessalians inhabiting the snowie mountain Haemus, used dogs in their oblations. Of her Temple at Ephesus, it shall not be amiss to speak a word or two by the way. Plutarch in his book De vitando Aere alieno, saith, that the Temple of Diana was a Sanctuary, wherein all debtors were safe from their creditors. As the Vestals of Rome had the time of their service distinguished into three parts; in the first to learn the mysteries of Vesta; in the second to do the ceremonies; and in the third, to instruct others that were ignorant: So amongst the Priests of Diana in Ephesus, the first order of them gave them the name of Melieres, that is, to be capable of the Priesthood, but not admitted; the second was Hieres, that was in present office; the third Parieres, that was dead from the service. This stately and magnificent structure was first erected by the Amazons, so beautifull and sacred, that when Xerxes had with sword and fire wasted and demolisht all the Tem∣ples of Asia, he spared only that, as the richest jewell of the world. It is reported of one Herostratus, a wicked and de∣bauch'd fellow, who finding in himselfe nothing good to preserve his memory, and willing that his name should live to posterity, set this Temple on fire, for no other pur∣pose, but that he would be talkt on: the Ephesians under∣standing this his malicious ambition, they made it death once to name him. Cornelius Nepos writes, that the same night that this famous structure was ruin'd and defaced by fire, Alexander was born in Pella, in the three hundred and eighth yeare after the building of Rome: so that at the extinguishing of one light of the world, another was kind∣led. It being demanded of one of Diana's Priests, Why Diana being a goddess, would suffer her Temple to be ut∣terly destroied? and what she was a doing the while? It was answered again, That it was done unawares to the goddess, for she was that night at the labour of Olympias, and busied about bringing Alexander into the world. Not∣withstanding this great ruine, the people of Ephesus cau∣sed it to be re-erected, and made both richer and more Page  22 beautifull than before: of which work Dinocrates an Ar∣chitectour of Macedonia was chiefe.*Diana (as Plutarch in his Symposaicon saith) is called Elitheia, or ucina, as also Locheia, as goddess of child-birth: she is called also Di∣ctiana. And in his Solertia animalium, that Apollo would be called Lycoconos; and Diana, Multicida Elaphibolos: The one for killing so many wolves; the other, Harts. Amongst the Aegyptians she is called Bubastis: she is celebrated (witnesse Herodotus) amongst the Thressae, and the Peloni∣ates: amongst the Bizantians she hath the name of Diana Orthosia.

The Poets fain that she is continually exercised in hun∣ting, for no other reason but to instruct and incourage all such as professe virginity to shun sloath and idlenesse: so Ovid,

Otia si tollas periere cupidinis areus▪
Take sloth away, and Cupids how unbends;
His brands •••inguish, and his false fire spends.

Diana and Phoebus, were therefore said to be the children of Latona, because in that, the ancient Poets would signifie the beginning of the world: so▪ when the matter whereof it was made, was a meer confused Masse, and without shape, because all things were obscure and hid: that darknesse is signified in Latona; and whereas they make Iupiter their Father, it imperts as much as if they should fetch Iupiter out of this darknesse called the Sun and the Moon. More plainly, the Spirit of the Lord said, Let there be light; of which light. Ap••llo and Diana, the one by day, and the other by night, are the greatest: by this inferring, that the ge∣neration of the world began first from Light.


THE Goddesse of fruits and grain, and daughter to Saturn and Ops, a Law-giver to the Sicilians: there∣fore by Virgil called Segifera. In Eleusis, a City of Artica, she had divine worship; because she there taught planta∣tion and agriculture; and of that place had the name of lusina; she was honoured in the mount Aetna: in Aeona and Catana, two Cities of Cicily, From whence, as Claudian••lates, she had the name of Aetnaea, Aennaea, and Catanensis the like doth Selius, &c. Lactantius reports, that into these her Temples erected in these Cities, it was not lawfull o Page  23 any man to enter. The manner of the rights among the Philagenses were, that no sacrifices should be slain, only the fruits of planted trees, Honycombs, and new shorn wool, were laid upon the Altar, and sprinkled with sweet oile, and were set a fire, burnt and offered: these Customes were privately and publickly observed yearly, as Pausanias left recorded. The Argives sacrifice to this goddesse by the name of Ceres Clithonia, upon certain set daies in the Summer, after this manner: Their sacrificial pomp is atten∣ded by the chiefe Magistrats of the City: after which com∣pany, the women and children next followed, the boies all in white robes with chaplers about their browes of Hyacin∣thes interwoven: and in the lag end of the same troop were driven a certain number of faire and goodly Oxen, but bound in the strict bands, and drag'd towards the Tem∣ple: being thither come, one of these beasts with his cords loosed was driven in, the rest of the people standing with∣out the gates, and looking on; who, no sooner see him en∣tred, but shut the gates upon him: within the Temple, are four old women Priests with hatches and knives, by whom he is slain, and one of them hath by lot the office to cut off the head of the sacrifice. This done, the doors are againe set open, and the rest, one by one forc'd in, and so in order by the same women slain and offered. In a book of the scituation of Sicily, composed by Cl. Marius Aretius, a Patritian, and of Syracula: Intituled Charographia Siciliae; In the City Aenna saith he (as Strabo consenting with him) were born Ceres, and her daughter Libera, whom some call Proscrpina; From which place she was rapt, and therefore is this City to her sacred. Neer to this City is a river of an infinite depth, whose mouth lieth towards the North, from whence it is said Dis or Pluto; with his chariot made ascent, and hurrying the virgin thence, to have penetrated the earth againe not far from Syracusa. This is that most an∣cient Ceres, whom not Sicilia only, but all other nations whatsoever celebrated. Most certain it is, that she was Queen of the Sicilians, and gave them lawes, taught them the use of illage and husbandry; and that her daughter Libera, was transported thither by Ocus, or Dis, King of the Molossians. In her Temple (part of which, not many years since was standing) were two statues of Marble; one sa∣cred to her, another to Proserpina; another of brasse, beau∣tifull and faire, but wondrous ancient. At the entrance into Page  24 the Church in an open place without, were two other faire portraictures; one of her, another of Triptolemus, large, and of exquisite workmanship: In Ceres right hand was the image of victory most curiously forged. This History with many other, is with much nimble and dextrous with fabula∣ted by Ovid;* to whose Metamorphosis I refer you.

In Ceres is figured to us, an exhortation to all men to be carefull in the manuring and illing of the earth, since Ceres is taken for the Earth, the treasuress of all riches whatsoever; and just is that usury, and commendable, which ariseth from thence: for the fertility that growes that way, is begot by the temperature of the weather, and the industry of mans labours. She is therefore said to wan∣der round about the earth, and over the spacious Universe, because of the obliquity of the sign-bearing circle, and the progress of the Sun beneath that, by which Summer is in some parts of the world at all seasons of the year, and elsewhere, when not here. Besides, from hence this mora∣lity may be collected, No man unpunished can despise the gods: for miseries are the hand-maids of dishonesty, there∣fore of force, a wicked and irreligions man is subject and incident to fall into many distresses and casualties: there∣fore Piety towards heaven, Wisdome in managing our af∣fairs, and Thri•••〈◊〉 in the disposing of our private for∣tunes, me all requisite in an honest, religious, a parsimo∣nious, and well disposed man.


THE daughter of Iupiter and Ceres, she was honoured in Sicily, of which Province she was called Sicula, of whom Seneca thus speaks,

Vdisti Siculae regna Proserpinae?

Hast thou seen the Kingdomes of Sicilian Proserpine? She is likewise called by Lucan, Ennaea, of the City Enna.

Eloquar 〈◊〉 terrae sub pondere, quae te
Contineant Ennaea dapes?—
Shall I, 〈…〉, discover on what dainties thou seedest
Beneath the huge waight of the Massie earth?

Many f••les of Proserpina have been introduc'd for our better instruction, by the ancient Poets; which is onely to express to us the nature of the seeds and plants; for Proser∣pina, by whom is signified the Moon, shining to us one halfe Page  25 of the month, and lying the other halfe in the arms of her husband Pluto, that i being halfe the year in Heaven, and the other in Hell, six months beneath 〈…〉, and as ma∣ny above: so is it 〈…〉, whose 〈◊〉 for six months space, is by 〈…〉 cold, forc'd and 〈◊〉 upword 〈…〉 and branches: agine, by the extremity of the Winters upper cold, it is compulsively driven back downward into the oot, beneath the earth: for so doth nature 〈◊〉 her power and ver∣tue to all creatures and naturall bdies whatsoever, that th•• may observe a mutuality (if I may tearm it so) in their cooperation. After the like manner i the day sorted out for our labours and affairs, the ight for our rest and repose. So likewise in explicating the power of Luna, or the Moon: some call her the daughter of Hperion, or the Sun, because she being Corpus diaphanes, that is, a body christalln, like reflective glass, transfers the light recei∣ved from her father, upon the earth to us, for which cause she is called also the sister of the Sun; by the swiftness of her course her proper motions are declared. To express her nature alwaies appearing to us greater, or lesser, is to signifie her strength and multiplicity of working, there∣fore they allot her a garment of divers and sundry colors. In attributing to her the double sexes of male and female (as some have commented) the reason is, in that as she is woman, she inuseth an humour necessary and profitable to the 〈◊〉 of all creatures: in respect of her virile nature she allowes a moderate and sensible heat, much available to increase; for without this heat, in vain were her opera•••n, which is easily proved in all creatures that are pegnat and briging forth therefore, she is called 〈◊〉, as the goddess that bings creatures to light. She is likewise operative to 〈◊〉, which is the reason that sik men and such as are troubled with any grievous mlady, are most in danger of death in the criticall daies of the Moon.


SHE is the goddess of Revene and Wrath, and 〈◊〉 of the proud and vain-glorious, She had a Temple in Rmnus, a Town in Ar••ca, 〈◊〉 which she took the name of Rhamnusia. Aristotle, by the passion of Indignation, Page  26 and affection of Commiseration, saith Nemesis is figured; and both of these took in the better part: Indignation when good men are troubled and vexed to see bad men use good things ill: Commiseration, to see honest and just men crost with the disasters of the world. Plutarch in his book de capienda ex hostibus utilitate, speaking how ridicu∣lous it is for any man to reprove another of that vice, of which he is himselfe guilty, or taint any man for the least deformity unto which he is subject himselfe, bring in Leo Bizantius a croked back'd fellow, gybing at him, because he had a weaknesse and infirmity falne into his eies: to him he thus answered, Why dost thou mock me for this mischance by fortune, when thou thy selfe carriest Nemesis upon thy back by nature. O what power this Nemesis was, and how honoured, many authors as well amongst the Greeks, as the Latines, have laboured industriously to make manifest, I will insist on few: Ausonius from the Greek interpreted this Epigram;

Me lapidem quondam Persae advexore trophaeum,
Vt fierem bello: nunc ego sum Nemesis.
Ac sicut Graecis victorius asto trophaeum,
Punio sic Persas vaniloquos Nemesis.
The Persians took me hence long since,
From Greece a stone: and vow
To make me a wars-Trophy stand,
But Nemesis I am now.
But as I to the victor Greeks
A Trophy now appear,
The prating Persians Nemesis,
I punish with my feare.

The History from which both Epigrams are derived, Pau∣sanias recites much after this manner: From Marathon (saith he) some threescore leagues distant is Rhamnus, a City bordering upon the Sea, just in the way to Oroxus: by which stands the Temple of Nemesis, a goddesse, who is the inevitable revenger of such men as are haughty, proud, and contumelious. It seems the barbarous Persians under the name of Nemesis, do comprehend Indignatio: for com∣ming towards Marathon, and despising the Athenians, are not able to interpose their incursions. They took a stone of white Marble, as if they had already obtained the victory: of which stone Phidias (the excellent statuary) made the portraicture of Nemesis: A faire Crown upon her head, Page  27 with forrest Harts carved about it, and smal Imageries pour∣traying Victory, in her right hand a golden cup, in which the Aethiopians were figured. Some think her the daughter of Oceanus, some of Jupiter▪ others of justice Ammanus Marcellanus in his book of the deeds of the Emperour Gal∣lus, speaks to this effect: These and such like things (saith he) 〈◊〉 (under whose name by a double signification, we understand Nemesis) oft times works in 〈◊〉 being a certaine sublime law of some high and power effectuall in the 〈…〉, and plac'd, or having residence about the 〈◊〉 circle, who suppressth the lofty necks of the proud, and from the lowest of despaire erects the minds of the humble. For when the wise and understanding men would illustrate to us, nothing to be more acceptable to heaven, of more commodious to the life of man, than a mo∣deration of the mind, as well in prosperity as adversity; they devised many fables, to exhort mn nobly to indure the miseries and afflictions of this life, with constant suffe∣rance and resolved patience. And because many had by such examples yeelded their submissive shoulders to the burden of disasters, but in prosperity, and in the superabundance both of Wealth and Honour, knew not how well to behave themselves; they therefore introduc'd Nemesis the daugh∣ter of Justice (a most grave and severe goodesse) to see pu∣nishment inflicted upon such, that in the excesse of their fe∣licity, and height of their authority prove over other men Tyrants, and therefore intollerable.


SHE was honoured in Delos,* as there being delivered of Apollo and Diana, to illustrate whose history the better I will give you a taste out of Lucians dialogues, the interlo∣cutors are Juno and Laonae. You have brought to Jupiter two beautifull 〈◊〉 saith Iuno. To whom she replied, We cannot 〈◊〉 cannot all, indeed, be the mothers of such sweet babes as Vulcan, Iuno replies, Though he be Iame, as falling from the upper region down to the earth, by the negligence of his father, yet is he profitable and usefull both to gods and men; for Iupiter, he provides thunders; for men, armour, and weapons,: when on the contrary, thy daughter Diana imploies her selfe onely in hunting, and unnecessary pastime, an extravagant huntresse, never sa∣tiate Page  28 with the blood of innocent beasts: Thy beautifull son pretending to know all things, to be an exquisite Archer, a cunning Musitian, a Poet, a Physitian, and a Prophet: and not of these alone the professor, but the Patron. To this purpose hath he set up Temples, and Oracles, here in Del∣phos, there in Catos, and Dydimus: by his dilemmaes and oblique answers to questions demanded (such as which way soever they be taken, must necessarily fall out true) deluding and mocking all such as come rather to be resol∣ved of their doubts and fears, or to know things future: by these illusions, raising an infinite gain and riches to him∣selfe, to the losse and discommodity of others; his foreknow∣ledge meerly consisting of legerdemain and jugling. Nor is it concealed from the wise, how in his predictions, he di∣ctates false things as often as true. For could he exactly and punctually presage all things to come, why did he not foresee the death or his Minion, and know before that he was to perish by his own hand? why did he not predict, that his love Daphne (so fair hair'd and beautiful) should flie and shun him as a monster hated and scorned? these with infinite others considered, I see no reason thou shouldst think thy selfe more happy in thy children than the most unfortunate Niobe. To whom Latona replyed: I well per∣ceive (great goddess) wherein this many killing and much gadding daughter, and this lying and false prophesying son of mine offends you, namely, that they are still in your eie glorious, numbered amongst the gods, and of them estee∣med the most beautifull: yet can you not deny but that he is most skilfull in the Voice and the Harp, exceeding whatsoever can be upon the earth, and equalling if not pre∣ceding that of the Sphears in heaven. I cannot chuse but smile saith Iuno: Is it possible his skill in musick should beget the least admiration? when poor Marsias (had the Muses not been partial, but judged indifferently of his side) had gain'd of him priority: but he alas by their unjust sentence, lost not only his honour in being best, but being vanquished, he most tyrannously had his skin flead off for his ambition: and this your fair Daughter and Virgin, is of such absolute feature and beauty, that being espi'd na∣ked by Actaeon (bathing her selfe in the fountaine) she transform'd him into a Hart, and caus'd him by his own dogs to be torn in pieces, lest the young man should sur∣vive to blaze her deformities. Besides, I see no reason why Page  29 to women in labour and travell in child-birth, she should shew her selfe so carefull and common a mid-wife every where, and to all, if she were as she still pretends to be a Virgin. With her Latona thus concluded: You are there∣fore of this haughty and arrogant spirit, because you are the sister and wife of Iupiter, and rain with him together, which makes you to us your inferiors so contumelious and harsh: but I fear I shall see you shortly again weeping, when your husband leaving the heavens for the earth, in the shape of a Bul, an Eagle, a golden shower or such like, shall pursue his adulterate pleasures. Ovid in his sixth book Metamor. and his third fable saith, That Niobe the daughter of Tantalus, born in Sypilera City of Lydia, having by Am∣phion, six brave sons and as many daughters, though she were forewarned by the daughter of Tyresias to be present with the Thebans at their sacrifice to Latona and her chil∣dren, yet she contemptuously denied it, preferring her selfe in power and majesty before the goddesse; and her own beautifull issue, before the others: at which contempt the goddesse much inraged complained to Apollo and Diana, in whose revenge, he slew all the young men, and she the virgins; with griefe whereof, Amphion slew himselfe, and Niobe hurst her heart with sorrow.*Latona is by interpreta∣tion Chaos, it was beleeved that all naturall bodies and seeds of things, mixt and confused, lay buried in darknesse. Some take Latona for the earth, and therefore Juno did op∣pose the birth of the Sun and Moon▪ by reason of the fre∣quent fogs and damps arising, by which the sight of these two glorious planets, are shadowed and kept from our eies; for when by the thicknesse and tenebrosity of the clouds, the Sun is weakned and made of lesse force, oft∣times there proceeds a pestilent aire, with many pests and diseases prejudiciall both to sensible creatures and to plants: but when the Sun resumes his vertue and vigour, then by the purifying of the air, all these infections are dispersed and scattered, unlesse they have proceeded so far as to contagion, And so much for Latona.


ANtium a City of the Latines bordering upon the Sea, had Fortune in great reverence, to whom they ere∣cted a magnificent Temple. Wherefore Horace thus speaks: Page  30

Oh Divae gratum quae regis Antium.

So Rhamnus or Rhamnis, a Town in Attica, where Ne∣mesis and Fortune were held in equall reverence; and from hence rather called Ramnusia. In Preneste a City of Italy, Sortes and 〈◊〉 were held in like adoration, of which they were called Praenestine. Petrus Crinitus in his first book of honest Discipline and the six Chapter, concer∣ning this goddesse, reheaseth these verses from Pacuvius▪

Fortunam insanam esse, & Brutam perhibent
Saxi{que} ad instar globosi praedicant esse,
Quia quo saxum Impulerit Fors, Ea Cadere
Fortunam autumant:
Caeam ob eam rem esse vocant, quia nil
Cernant quo sese applicet.
Insanam autem aiunt, quia atrox, incerta
Instabilis{que} sit;
Brutans, quia dignum aut indignum
Nequeat ignoscire.

Which I thus English.
The Philosophers tell us that Fortune is both mad and brutish:
They preach to us that like a round rolling
Stone, she is voluble:
Intimating, wheresoever chance shall force,
Fortune shall incline.
Therefore they make her blind, because she can
discern nothing to which she can apply her selfe,
They term her mad, because she is cruell without
Pity: uncertaine and unstable.
Brutish; because she cannot distinguish betwixt
what is right and injury.

Hitherto Pacuvius, whose verses M. Cicero commemo∣rates. Pliny to Vespasian speaks thus concerning the power of Fortune:

Through the whole world (saith he) and in all places, at all houres, and by all tongues, Fortune is still invocated, and sh alon; she is onely nominated, shee alone is accused, alone made guilty, solely thought upon, solely commended, solely reproved, and with her repro∣ches ador'd; of many shee is held mutable and blind: she is wandering, inconstnt, incertain, diverse, and a fa∣vourer of the unworthy, at her shrine are all things ex∣pended, Page  31 to her are all things acceptable, offered; she al∣together swaies, guides, and directs the reason of men.
A∣mongst the Scythians she is painted without feet; she had only hands and feathers. Amongst the Smynians, with her head she supported Heaven, bearing in one of her hands the horn of Amalthea, that is, of Plenty. She is described by Pausanias, in the statue of a Buffe or wild Ox: but amongst all her figures and attributes, let me not forger that of in∣genious master Owens,* the Epigrammatist, speaking of Fortune:
Spem dat pauperibus divitibus{que} metum.
She is the poor mans hope, and the rich mans feare.

Livy,*Dionysius Halicarnasseus, Lactantius, Plutarch, and others,* affirm that the statue of Fortune which stands in the Latine way, with the Temple, was dedicated at the same time that Coriolanus by his mothers intercession, withdrew his forces from the sack and spoile of Rome. Which image was heard to speak these words.

Rite me matronae vidistis, vite{que} dedicastis.

So superstitious they were in the daies of old, that they attributed all their intents, actions, and events of things, to the guidance and will of Fortune, nay, that she had a power in their very birth-daies, and daies of death: as of Euripides the most famous Tragick-Poet, he was born on the same day that before Salamine, the Greeks and the Meads fought that famous Sea-battel, and died upon the birth-day of Di∣onysius senior, the Tyrant of Sicily. When as (Timaeus saith) at one instant, Fortune took away the imitator of Tragick calamities, and brought in their true actor and performer. Ascribed it is to Fortune, that Alexander the Conqueror, and Diogenes the Cynick, should dye both on a day: and, that King Attalus left the world, the same day of the year that he entered into the world. The like was read of Pompey the Great, the same day of the month that he was born in Rome, the same (or as some will have it the day after) he was beheaded in Aegypt. Pindarm the Greek Poet, born in Pithea, consecrated many divine Hymns to Apollo, pa∣tron of the place. Fiorus remembers Carneades in the cele∣bration of Plato's birth-day, whom he cals a stout cham∣pion of the Academy, observing that they were both born on the feast day of Apollo, Plato in Athens, where the Thar∣getia were acted; and Carneades in Cyrene, where the Car∣nia were celebrated; both these feasts falling upon the se∣venth Page  32 day, on which his Priests say Apollo himself was born, and therefore they call him Sepimanatus, and Hebdomage∣nus, as much as to say, the seventh day born. Those there∣fore that call Plato the sonne of Apollo (as Plutarch saith) have done the God no indignity or dishonour, he having succeeded him in the Oracles of divine Philosophy, of whom Tindarus Lacedemonius hath left this character:

Non hic creditus est mortali de patrenatus
esse: Deo genitore satus—
Deriv'd from mortall parents he was not;
No, 'twas some Deity that him begot.

Plutarch in his quaest. Rom. the 64. question, demands why Servius Tullius dedicated a Temple to little Fortune, or Short? (for so the Latine words imply, being Parvae & Bre∣vi) because saith he, that in the beginning from basenesse and obscurity (as being born of a captive mother) by the benefit of Fortune he was exalted to the Principality of Rome: or doth this change not rather shew her power then her poverty, that she is a gyant, and no dwarfe? Of all the other Deities, Servius was known to celebrate her with the most Divine honours, and to inscribe her in all his actions: for he not onely built Temples to Fortuna bonae spei, of good hope; Averruncae, to turne away her anger; Blandae to her smiling; Primogeniae, as to the eldest child of Inheritance; Virili, as she was manly: but he erected one also to his own proper fortune. He gave her also the de∣nominations of Convertentis, turning, or turning towards; Bene sperantis, of well hoping; and Fortunae virginis, Fortune the Virgin; likewise Viscosae, as catching and clinging to us in all our attempts and actions: May it not therefore be observed, that this Temple, and these rights and ceremo∣nies were celebrated to Little Fortune, that she may assist and much availe us even in things of the smallest mo∣ment? Teaching us, that in all occurrents and events we ought to intermit no occasion or opportunity that may availe us, for the smalnesse in shew or sleightne••e in ap∣pearance: But to apply these things to our better use, and shew that all these Divine attributes bestowed on this god∣desse were heathenish, and absurd, I hold opinion with Plutarch lib. de Fortuna, That wisedome guideth the life and actions of man, not Fortune. Was it by Fortune (saith he) that Aristides lived in poverty, when it was in his own pow∣er to purchase wealth? or that Scipio having taken Car∣thage, Page  33 neither saw the prey, nor took part of the spoile? That Philocrates having received so many Talents of A∣lexanders, spent them upon strumpets, and fishes. That Lasthenes and Euthycrates, by proposing to themselves no other felicity, than the throat and belly, lost Olynthus? If these things be attributed to Fortune, we may as well say, Cats, Goats, and Apes, are by chance given to voraci∣ty, lust, and squirility. If all things be attributed to fortune, what can be devised? what learnt? what Cities govern∣ment could subsist? or what Kings counsell be managed without providence, and wisedome to direct it? did For∣tune sway all? Many brute beasts are better furnisht in their nature and condition than man; some are arm'd with horns, some with teeth, some with prickles, not so much as the Porcupine, nay, the Hedge-hog, but as Empedocles saith:

Dorsum horret spinis & spicula torquet actua.

Some of their feet are armed with horne, most of their backs cloathed with haire; man onely, as Plato saith, is left by nature naked and unarmed, without shooe or gar∣ment:

Vnum sed haec largita, emoll it omnia.

She hath yet bestowed one thing upon him, which makes good all the rest, The use of Reason, Industry and Providence: nothing more wild, or more swif then the horse, yet he runs to mans use: The dog is a beast, fierce and cruell, yet his servant and keeper; with the Forrests beast, the Airs foul, and the Seas fish he feeds and banquets: what beast is greater then the Elephant? or to behold, what more ter∣rible? yet to him he is a spectacle of pleasure, like a play in a publick Theater? Anaxagoras saith, That bruit beasts excell man in all things, yet whatsoever they have, man applies to his own use; he gathers the honey from the Bee, and drawes milk from the Cow; yet in all this Fortune hath no hand, only Counsell and Providence. Look but into Crafts, Arts, and Sciences, we see mettals tried, houses built, Statues carv'd, yee not any of these by chance or ac∣cident; for the Arts and Crafts (as we call them) acknow∣ledge Ergana, that is, Minerva (not Fortune) for their god∣desse and Patronesse. It is recorded of a Painter, that ha∣ving drawn a horse in all his lineaments, colours, shape, and every thing in their true posture, only the form for∣ced from the horses mouth by the curb or bit of the bridle, Page  33 he had not done to his mind; which often blotting out, and again seeking to make perfect but in vain, in a great vexation and anger, he cast his pencill (being then full of the same colour) against the table, which hitting in the same place gaue so fortunate a dash, that what art could not doe, meer chance and accident made compleat and per∣fect: and this is the only master piece or Fortune that I have read of. In all Sciences, A••sicers use their rules, squares, lines, plammes, measures, numbers, lest any par∣ticle of their cunning should be conferr'd upon ap or ac∣cident. There is a providence even in tuning or 〈◊〉 instru∣ment, in slacking or stre•••ing the seeing; in the ltchin to season meat to the pallate: nor doth any man that hath boughe cloath to suit himselfe, neel down and make his orisons to Fortune, to make them up and fit them to his body. He that hath gathered together abundance of trea∣sure and riches, hath many captives about him, and ser∣vants to attend him, dwels in a Pallace with many porches and gates, sees it furnisht with costly hangings, sumptuous beds and tables, without true wisdome to mnage all these, apprehends no true felicity or happinesse of lite. There∣fore one asking Ipicrates, why having arms, and bowes, and weapons, and other military ornaments, What kind of man he was that profest not any? he answered, he was that man that had dominion over all these, and power to use them at his pleasure. Therefore wisedome is neither gold nor silver, nor glory, nor health, nor riches, nor strength, nor beauty; it is onely that which by knowing how to use them well, makes them saudable and profitable, without which they are meerly vain, barren, yea, and oft∣times damnable, and to him that enjoies them, brings trouble and shame. I will conclude this tractate with the saying of the Poet,

Vires exiguae sunt mortalium
Sed calliditate mul••plci,
Blluas Maris & T•• stria,
〈◊〉 sub Coela voluantta 〈◊〉 homo domat.
Small is the strength of 〈◊〉 man,
〈◊〉 full of 〈◊〉 and skle:
〈◊〉 and land monsters. he an tame,
And bring birus to his will.

Page  35

Of the Goddesses called Selectae.

THese Goddesses were honoured amongst the Gen∣tiles Canina, Leuana, Edulica, Potina, and Statana; these as they are opinionated, have the government of children in their infancy, till they find their feet, and can stand, or begin to go. Canina looks to them in their swathing bands, whilst they are bound up and mantled. Leuana lists them from the earth when they chance to fall, and keeps them from breaking or spoiling their faces. Edulica and Potina, have the charge of the meat and drink by the nurses provided for them. Fabulana teacheth them when they begin to prattle; and Vagitana to still them, lest they should spoil themselves by too forcible crying. Libentina, is a bawdy goddesse, and an overseer of their luste and pleasures. I here are likewise Aldonea, Albeona▪ Voluna, Pellonia, all diligent and circumspect about men. Pellonia, she keeps off and beats back their enemies. Then there is Agenoria, Strenua, and Stimula, which stirs up men, and accites them to some action or other. Numeria, to help them in numbers, and to make even their accounts. Augerona, she is instead of a Physitian to ease their maladis, and to prevent or help against diseases. Febris, which is the Ague, was made a goddesse, and had a Chappell allowed her in the Pallace. Postuerta and O bona, were two others. Prosa di∣rected the tongue in the voluble speaking of Prose. Sentia, had predominance over quick and witty sentences. In mar∣riages, child births and funerals, they used the invocation of others, as Deneverra, Interci ones, Domiduca, Manturna, Vr∣ginenses, Lucina, Prema, Parrunda, Populonia, Mena, Tellumone, Rusona, Naenia. For corn and graine were Tutulina, Nodinum, Volutina. Patalena, Hostilna, Flora, Lactucina, Natura, Aver∣runca, and Runta. Against theeves they had Spineosis: and to preserve their fruits from blasting, and that they might ipen in time convenient, Fructesa. Rurina was goddesse for the Countrey. Mountains, and Promontories. Empanda, over the Plo•••easts, and Countrie pastimes. To these were added Tanagraea, Ante•••ta, Larunda, Moneta, Larentia, Ma∣jesta, Ventilia, and infinite others. Those which they called Page  33〈1 page duplicate〉Page  35〈1 page duplicate〉Page  36 the select goddesses, were in number eight, Tellus, Ceres, Lucina, Juno, Diana, Minerva, Venus, and Vesta.

Anais. She was a goddesse that was particularly adored by the Lydians, and not known to any other nation: to her service were selected the choise and pickt damosels out of the chiefe and principall of the Nobility. These had no sooner been in her ministerie, and admitted to serve at her Altar, but all modesty and shameastnesse set apart, they exposed their bodies to publick prostitution, by this means to be made more capable of husbands, and better practised against marriage.

Angerona. She was a goddesse honoured by the Romans, when the whole City laboured of a disease called the squi∣nancy, which is an inflammation or fiery heat of the Jawes, breeding a tumour in the throat, which suddenly (if not prevented) suffocates and stops the passage of the breath: In this extremity they offered many sacrifices to her. Her Sacreds and Festivals were called Angeronalia. Her Image was, with her finger laid upon her lips. Pliny in his second book thus speaks of her: Angerona, to whom the Romans use to sacrifice, the thirteenth of the Calends of January, hath her effligies in her Temple, with the mouth closed or sealed up.

Atergatis.* A goddesse honoured by the Syrians, so saith Strabo, That beyond Euphrates is the great City Bambice (whom some call Edessa, others Hierapolis) in which Ater∣gatis the Syrian goddesse hath divine reverence.

Drias, or Bona Dea, was adored by the Roman Matrons, as also by the ordinary women of lesse state and quality: to whose sacrifices, no man could be at any time admitted; of her Tibullus speaks,*

Sacra bonae maibus non adeunda deae.

Her name was 〈◊〉 the daughter, or (as some will have it) the wife of Faunus, who was of that modest Temperance and Continencie, that she so much retir'd her self from the sight of all men, that she never walked abroad, nor was at any time seen in 〈◊〉. A great aspersion and calumny still lives upon the Seplchre of 〈◊〉. Claudius, a noble man of Rome, in that he was so impudent and irreligious, as to violate her rights and ceremonies; For in her Temple (as Juvenal amongst others remembers of him) he adulte∣rated Pomp•••a the daughter of Quintus Pomptius, and niece to Sylla.

Page  37
—Nota bonae secreta deae—

Bubona and Carna is the goddesse of oxen, and herds of cattel, all such she takes to her charge: but Carna was called Dea Cardinis, The goddesse of the hinge or hook, on which the door or gate hangeth or moveth. Ovid in his first book de Fast, thus writes;

Prima dies tibi Carna datur, dea cardinis haec est,
Numine clausa aperit claudit aperta suo.
The first daies Carna's; She of doors,
The goddesse is and guide:
She by her power, opes closed gates,
And shuts such as stand wide.

The Ancient writers affirm, that she was held to have predominance over the intrails, and all the interiour parts of man or woman: to whom they made their orisons, that she would keep and preserve their hearts, liver, lungs and bowels, free from anguish and the disease of consumption. To her Brutus erected a Temple.

Dicè, and Diverra. Dicè was one that had power over the Tribunall, or seat of judgement: she had imploiment in taking up quarrels, ending strifes, compounding law-cases, and deciding all contentions whatsoever. Her ministers were called Dicastae, quasi litem diremptores, as much in our English tongue, as if we should call them Peace-makers. Deverra was a goddesse too, and hld in reverence, for no other reason then that she preserved them from ominous night birds, called Scopae.

Empanda, She had the charge of all such things as were negligently left open; where she took the charge, it was held to be more safe then under lock and key.

Feronia. She is a goddesse of the woods memorated by Virgil in these words,

—Et viridi gaudens Feronia luco,
Feronia rejoycing, and taking pleasure in the green groves.

Flora. She was first a strumpet in Rome of extraordinary fame, state, and beauty, who by her prostitution attaind to such an infinite wealth, that she at her own proper charge, not only repaired, but new built a great part of the wals of Rome. After her death, she consticuted the people of Rome for her heir: for which bounty they caused her to be deified, and offered unto her divine honours. Her Feasts were called Floralia. Of her Ovid thus speaks, in his fifth book Fastorum.

Page  38
Hunc mens implevit generosa Flore maritus,
Atque ait arbitrium tu dea Floris eris.

Tro and Thor.* These are the names of a goddesse and a god, spoken of in the history of Saxo Grammaticus.

Furina. Is the goddesse of theeves; her sacrifices are kept in the night, as best affecting deeds of darknesse. The E∣truscians call her the goddesse of lots, such as are drawn for the taking up of controversies.

Hippona.* She hath the government and protection of Horses, whom hostlers and grooms of stables have in great adoration, her picture is still in the place where their hor∣ses stand: of her Juvenal speaks in his eighth Satyre.

Horchta, is a goddesse worshipped in the City of Etruria, as the genius of the same place. From her the village by, called Horchianus, takes name.

Laverna. She is over theeves, who make supplication to her for good and rich booties, as that she would charm the houshold with sleep, keep the dogs from barking, and the door hinges from creeking, to detend them from shame, and keep them from the gallowes.*Horace in his first book of Epistles,

—Pulchra Laverna
Da mihi allere, da sanctum justumque videri.

Viz. Oh faire Laverna, grant me that I may cousen and deceive; but grant me withall, that I may appear to the world, a just man, and an holy.

Mania was a goddesse, and mother of the Lares, or hous∣hold gods, to whom children were used to be offered in sa∣crifice, for the safety of their familiar friends, that were in travell by land or sea, or in any feare of danger. But Ju∣nius Brutus in his Consulship, altered the property of that oblation, and changed the innocent lives and blood of In∣fants, into the heads of garlick and poppie, which served in the stead thereof.

Medetrina, Mellonia, Mena, Murcea, &c.

Medetrina. She was the medicinall goddesse, and was cal∣led so à Medendo, she had power in the ministring of Phy∣sick, her solemnities were called Medittinatia. So likewise Mellonia was thought to be goddesse and chiefe Patronesse of honie. Mena had predominance of some secrets belon∣ging to women. Murcea, was she that was worshipped by such as were lazie, idle, and sloathfull.

Nundina.* She was a goddesse amongst the Romans, taking Page  39 her denomination of the ninth day, called dies Lustricus. In that day children had their names given them, as Macro∣bius relates the males on the ninth day, the females on the eight day after their birth.

Pecunia likewise was numbred among their goddesses▪
Pitho, Razinna, Robigo, Rumilia.

Pitho was thought to be the goddesse of eloquence: the Latines called her Suada.

Razenna, was one amongst the Etruscians, who was to rule in Wedlock, and marriages.

Robigo and Robigus, were a two sex deity, of whom the Romans were opinionated, that they could preserve their sheaves and unthresh'd corn from being musty or mouldy. Their Festivals were called Robigalia.

Rumilia, was the protect••sse of sucking infants, as anci∣ent Writers are of opinion: for Ruma signifies mamma, a dug, and therefore sucking lambs are called Subrumi.

Runcina belongs to the gardens, and is said to be the goddesse of weeding; her, the poor women weeders have in great reverence.

Seia, Segesta, Tutilina, &c.

Seia, the ancients report to be the goddess of sowing; and Segesta had her name from the binding up of the sheaves: both these had their Temples in Rome in the time of Pliny.

Tutilina and Tutanus were gods, so called of Tutando, preserving, or keeping safe. Eanius cals them Aevi∣lernos, and Aevilogros, as much as, Ever liv'd, and ever in the perfectness and strength of their age; because it was in full power and vigour, not subject to mutability or capable of alteration. In naming of gods, we may as well use the feminine as the masculine, and the masculine as the feminine gender, as Virgil speaking of Venus.

Discendo & ducente deo Flammam inter & hostes.
Down come I, and the god my guide, I make no stay,
But boldly through the enemy and fire I force my way.

Vacuna dea, was Lady and Governess over those that were vacant, and without business; especially had in reve∣rence by swains and husbandmen, who after the gathering of their harvest had a cessation from labour.

Vallania was held to be the goddess of vallies.

Vitula dea, had predominance over youthfull mirth and Page  40 blandishments: For Vitulari was by the ancient gramma∣rians taken for gaudere, to be glad or rejoice.

Volupta is held to be the goddess of Pleasure.

Rhaea This goddess hath by the Poets allowed her a Charriot drawn by four Lyons, a Crown upon her head of Cities, Castles and Towers; and in her hand a golden Scep∣ter. Priests could not offer at her Altar before they were guelded, which order was strictly observed in memory of Atyos a beautifull Phygian youth, and much beloved of Ceres, but would no waies yeeld to her desires: because (as he excused himselfe) he had a past vow of perpetuall cha∣stity; but after, not mindfull of his promise (as Dorytheus Corinthius in his histories relates) he comprest and deflou∣red the nymph Sagaritides, of whom he begat Lydus and Tyrhenus. Lydus gave name to Lydia, as Tyrhenus to Tyrhe∣na. For this the imaged goddess strook him with such fu∣rie and madnesse that he guelded himselfe, and after would have cut his own throat, had not she commiserating his penitence, transform'd him to a Pine-tree, or as others will have it, restored him to his sences, and made him one of her Eunuch Priest▪ N. cander in Alexpharm. saith, her sa∣crifices were observed every new Moon with much tinck∣ling of brass, sound of timbrels, and strange vociferation and clamours. Some fable, that Jupiter being asleep, and dreaming, let that fall to the earth which may be called Filtus ante patrem; of which the earth conceiving, produc'd a genius in an humane shape, but of a doubtfull sex, male and female, called Agdst; the gods cut off all that be∣longed to the masculme ex, and casting it away, out of that first grew the Almond tree, whose fruit the daughter of the flood Sangatius first casting, and hiding part thereof in her bosome, as they wasted there and vanished, so she be∣gan to conceive, and in time grew great and brought forth a* son, whom laying out in the wood, he was nursed by a goat, and fostered till he was able to shift for himself. As he grew in years, so he did in beauty, insomuch that he excee∣ded the ordinary feature of man: of him was Agdistes won∣drously inamored, who when he should have married with the daughter of the King of Pestinuntium, by the inter∣comming of Agdiste, such a madness possest them borth, that not only Attes, but his father in law likewise, caused their parts of generation to be cut quite away. Pausanias in A∣chaicis saith (that for his tare beauties sake) Rhea selected Page  41Attes into her service, and made him her Priest. Those of that order were called Matragyrte, as either begging pub∣lickly, or going from house to house to demand things ne∣cessary for her Offerings: For the Greek word Meter sig∣nifieth Mater, or Mother, and Agartes, Praestigiator or Men∣dicus, a Jugler or Beggar. She was call'd by divers names, as Proserpina, Isis, Cybele, Idea, Berec••thia, Tellus, Rhaea, Vesta, Pandora, Phrigia, Pylena, Dindymena, and Pessinuntia: some∣times of the places, sometimes of the causes. Rhaea bearing young Jupiter in her womb, and ready to be delivered: knowing the predicted cruelty of Saturn, who commanded him to be slain, retired her selfe to Thaumasius a mountain in Arcadia, fortified by Hoptodamus and his fellow giants, lest Saturn should come with any forcible hostility to op∣presse her: this mountain was not far distant from the hill Molossus in a part of Lysia, where Jupiter was born, and Saturn there deluded; into which place it is not lawfull for any man to enter, only women. Lucian in Nigrino saith, that the Phrygian pipe was only sufficient to yield musick to her sacrifices, for that was no sooner heard, but they fell into a divine rapture resembling madnesse, neither was the Pine only sacred to her,* but the Oake, as witnesseth Apol∣lodorus. Euphorion attributes to her the Vine,* because out of that wood her Effigies was alwaies cut. Apollonius left re∣corded▪ that the Milesian Priests accustomed first to sacri∣fice to Taetia and Silaenus, and after to Rhaea, the mother of the gods, whose altars were deckt and adorned with Oaken bowes. By Rhaea is meant the earth, or that strength of the earth which is most pertinent and available in the genera∣tion of things: She is drawn in a Charriot, because the globe of the earth hangs in the middle of the aire, without supporture, neither inclining or declining to one part or another, and that by nature. About her chariot are wild beasts, the reason is, she is the producter and nourisher of all creatures whatsoever. Deservedly she wears a Crown of Towers and Turrets, being the Queen and Mistresse of so many Towns, Castles, and Cities. By the noise of musick and clamours at her sacrifices, is observed the whistling and blustring of the winds, who are necessary in all the affairs of nature, especially in heat and cold, bearing the show∣ers and tempests to and fro upon their wings, to make foul weather in one place, and a cleer skie in another. Her Cha∣riot is drawn with four Lions, which imports those foure Page  42 brothers which blow from the Orient, the Austrll, the Occident, and the Septentrion; these are said to be her Coach steeds, and hurry her from place to place because in generation they are much availing: therefore 〈◊〉 all things, as from a fountaine derive their originall and be∣ginning from her, she is most pertinently called Raea à sluendo, of flowing.

Isis or Io. She was the daughter of the flood Iachs: and as Andraetas Ti••dius let written, was no better then a strumpet, who by sorcery and witchcraft sought to attract the love of Jupiter, in which businesse she used the assistance of Inyae the daughter of Pan and Eccho, or (〈…〉 will have it) of Suadela: this being dscovered to Juno. she changed her into a bird which still bearet her name, Inyx, which is frequently used amongst witches in their sorceries and incatations: who because she moveth her taile so much and so often, is by the Latines called*Motasilla: from the intrails of this bird, with other ingredients, was made a con∣fection which (they say) Jason gave to Medaea to inmu∣rate her, in that expedition which he made to Col hos: this Ione or Io by the cunning of Inyx, lay with Jupiter in a clowd, and after to conceal her from Iuno, he transhap'd her into a Cow: but this jugling being discovered by Iu∣no, she begg'd her as a gift and gave her in custody to Ar∣gus the sonne of Aristor, whose hundered eies Mercury (by the commandement of Jupiter) having charmed asleep, he cut off his head and so slew him. In these distractions, she past the Ionian sea, which from her beares the name (though Theompus and Archidamus rather are of opinion, that that Sea took his denomination from Ionius, an emi∣nent man of Illyria;) from thence she came to Haemus, and transwasted thence to a gulfe of Thracia, which by her was called Bosphorus: There were two Bosphori, the one cal∣led Cimnerius, the other Thracius (so much Prometheus speaks in his Escilus) she past thence into Scythia, and trai∣cting many seas, that divide and run by Europe and Asia, came at length into Aegypt, and by the banks of Nilus re∣assumed her humane shape: and this hapned neer the City Iax, so called of Io, after which she brought forth Epaphus (as Strabo writes) in a cavern or den in Eubaea by the Aege∣an sea shore,* which place is to this day called* Aula Bo∣vis. That she past all these seas in the shape of a Cow, the meaning is, that the ship wherein she sailed, had the image Page  43 of a Cow caryed upon the stern, and therefore was so cal∣led. By Argus with so many eies, was intended Argus a wise and provident King of the Argives, whom Mercury having slaine, released her from his servitude. After all her trans∣marine navigations (being the most beautifull of her time) she was espoused to Apis, King of the Aegyptians: and by reason she taught them in that Countrie the profitable u∣sury arising from agriculture, was esteemed by them a god∣desse, whose statue her fo▪. Aepaphus (after he had builded Memphis the great City) caused to be erected. Some more ingeniously and divinely withall, say that Isca, by which name the first woman and wife of Adam was called, im∣ports to more than Isis, whom the Aegyptian honoured as the great and most ancient goddesse and mother of man∣kind: for the Latines and Greeks corrupt the pronuntiati∣on and eymology of the word, speaking Isis for Issa or Isca. Therefore as Isca is the wise of our great grandfather Adam, so by the ancient tradition of the Aegyptians, Isis was the wife of Ossidis whom the Latines call Osirides, trans∣ferring the Aegyptian Euphony, to their own Idioma or proper form of speech.

Ate. Ate, whom some call Laesio, is the goddesse of Dis∣cord or Contention, and by Homer termed the daughter of Iupiter:

Ate prisca proles quae laeserit omnes
Ate the ancient off spring that hath hurt and harmed all

He cals her a certaine woman that to all men hath been obnoxious and perilous alluding (no doubt) to the pa∣rent of us all, Eve, that first transgressed, and by some reliques of truth, with which he was enlightned, for he saith

Filia prima Iovis quae{que} omnes perdidit Ate

As much to say, Pernitious Ate the eldest daughter of Ju∣piter, who hath lost us all. In another fable he alludes to the same purpose, where he saith, Iupiter notwithstanding he was the most wise of all mortals, yet was in daies of old tempted and deceived of his wife Iuno. And this Homer hath plainly de∣livered, that the beginning of evill came first from a wo∣man, and by her the wisest of men was beguiled. Hesiod. (in his book of Weeks and Daies) is of the same opinion, and writes to the same purpose: but in another kind of fa∣ble, Page  44 from the old tradition. For saith he, From Pandora a woman of all creatures the most fairest, and first created by the gods, all mischiefs whatsoever were dispers'd through the face of the whole earth. And though Palephatus in his fabulous narrations, and Pleiades Fulgentius in his Mythologicis other∣wise interpret Pandora, yet Hesiodus is still constant in the same opinion, as may appear in these verses:

Namque prius vixere Homines, verum absque labore,
Absque malis morbo{que} grav tristi{que} senecta:
At mulier, rapto de poclo egmine sp••rsit
Omne mali genus▪ & morbos curasque molestas.
Which I thus interpret.
Man liv'd at first from tedious labours free,
Not knowing ill or grievous maladie,
Nor weak and sad old age: till woman mad
Snatcht from the pot the cover which it had,
Sprinkling thereby on mankind, every ill,
Trouble, disease, and care, which haunts us still.

Therefore the same author in his Theogonia (as Cyrillus testifies in his third book against Iulian, and in the begin∣ning of the book) cals women Pulchrum malum, The faire evill.

Pandora. Of her thus briefly (the better to illustrate the former) Hesiod tels us: that Promaetheus upon a time offered two Oxen to Iupiter, and having separated the flesh of ei∣ther from the bones; in one of the skins including all the flesh without bones, in the other all the bones without any part of the flesh; and artificially making them up again, bad Iupiter make choise of these, which he would have im∣ploied in his sacrifices, who chused that with the bones: and taking it in great rage to be thus deluded he to be re∣venged, took away all fire from the earth, thereby to in∣flict the greater punishment upon mankind. But Prome∣theus by the assistance of Minerva, ascended heaven, and with a dried cane or reed, kindled at the Charriot of the Sun (unknown to Iupiter) brought fire down again upon the earth,* which Horace expresseth in these words;

Adax Iapeti Genus,
Ignem 〈◊〉 malu gentibus intulit.
The bold 〈◊〉 of Japetus,
By his had fraud brought fire again among the nations.

This when Iupiter understood, he instantly commanded Vulcan to fashion a woman out of clay, who being the most Page  45 subtle and best furnisht with all kind of arts (so indued by the gods) was therefore efore called Pandora.*Pausanias tearms her the first created of that sex; she was by Iupiter sent to Prometheus with all the mischiefes that are, inclu∣ded in a box; which he denying, she gave it to Epimetheus; who taking off the cover or lid, and perceiving all these evils and disasters to rush out at once, he scarce had time to shut it againe, and keep in Hope, which was the lowest and in the bottome. The purpose of the Poets in this, as I can guesse, is that since Pandora, signifies all arts, all sci∣ences, all gifts, it imports thus much for our better under∣standing, That there is no mischiefe or evill happens to man, which proceeds not from a voluptuous life, which hath all the arts to her ministers and servants: for from them Kings were first instituted and raised to their ho∣nours, by them were plots, stratagems, supplantations, and dangerous innovations attempted; with them grew emula∣tion and envy, discord and contention, thefts, spoiles, wars, slaughters, with all the troubles, cares, vexations, and in∣conveniences belonging and hereditary to mankind.