Nine Books of various Histo∣ry, only concerning Wo∣men: Inscribed by the names of the nine Muses.
The first Book which is CLIO, treating of the Goddesses Coelestiall, Terrestriall, Marine, and Infernall.
BEfore we enter into a particular tractare of these Goddesses, it shall not be amisse to speak something of the opinions set∣led in sundry Nations, concerning them Who were their first Adorers and Wor∣shippers; the multiplicity of their gods; and what several Rights, and Customs, Observations and Ceremonies they used in their Oblations and Sacrifices. The Aethiopians are said to be the most ancient, and first beginners of Divine adoration, as Diodorus is of opinion; Imagining in them∣selves, and verily beleeving some of their gods to be ever∣lasting, and others to participate of a mortall and corrup∣tible nature. The Phoenicians, they delivered admirable and strange things concerning their gods, and the first be∣ginning and Creation of things: above all others, having in Divine worship, Dagona and Chamas. The Atlantides (a Page 2 people of Affrica) they are confident that the generation of the gods proceeded from them, and the first that reig∣ned amongst them they called Coelum, which is heaven. The Augitae another Nation (in the Affrick Continent) acknow∣ledged no other Deities, then the Ghosts of such Noble persons as were deceased, to whose Sepulchres they usually repaired to demand answers of al such things wherein they doubted. The Theology of the Phrygians was not much different from theirs. The Persians neither erected Statues nor Altars, they worshipped the Hea•ens, which they called Jupiter; the Sun, by the name of 〈◊〉 the Moon Venus; the Fire, the Earth, the Winds, and the Water. Isiodorus saith, the Graecians first honoured 〈◊〉 whom they stiled Jupiter, and were the first devis•rs 〈◊〉 Images, erecters of Altars▪ and offerers of Sacrifice. The Jewes as Cornelius Tacitus relates, apprehended but one divine power, and that onely they acknowledged. The German of old (as the same Author affirms) were of opinion, That the gods could not be comprehended within wals, not have any humane shape appropriated unto them, measuring the•• incompre∣hensible power, by the magnitude of the heavens. Now concerning the divers opinions of men, what this supreme Deity should be; some held it the universe or the globe of the world: of which opinion was Origenes in his fifth book against C••sus. The Stoicks held it to be the first world; the Platonists, a second world; and divers other S•ct•sts of Greece, to be a third world. Thales M•lesius cal∣led God, a Mind, that fashioned all creatures out of the water, that knew •o beginning, and was not capable of end. Anaximander, he ascribed a Deity to the Stars and the Pla∣nets, and these coelesti•ll bodies, attributing no honour to that Mind, of which Thales dreamed. Anaximenes thought it to be Infinite 〈◊〉, to which he attributed the Origi∣nall of all causes, and derived the birth of the gods from thence; for so Saint Augustine and Cicero affirms. Demo∣critus Abderites (as Cicero and Arnobius testifie of him) was of opinion, that it was a Mind of fire, and the soule of the world. Plutarch in the 〈◊〉 of Numa, sets down Pythagoras his opinion concerning this godhead, and thus defines it: A Mind still travelling, never out of motion, but dispers'd and diffus'd through all the parts of the world, and things naturall, 〈◊〉 which all creatures whatsoever that are born, take life, •ysis and Philolaus, call it an unspeakable Page 3 number, or a summity of the greatest or smalest number, for so Origenes saith. Archelaus Physicus would have all things to be created of earth, and (as Epiphanius testates of him) the beginning of all things to proceed from thence. Ph•recidas taught, that the earth was before all other things, and therefore to that he appropriated a divinity. Heraclius E∣phesius, contested the gods to be made of 〈◊〉; so Varro writes of him: of the same beleefe was Hippasus Meta∣pontinus (witnesse Simplicius.) Anaxagor•s Claz••en called his god, Homoeomeria, that is, L••••esse of parte; and that a divine thought was the producter of all things whatso∣ever: So Augustine reports of him; others, that he held an infinite mind to be the first mover. Prodicus Coeus, as Epi∣phaenius tels us, plac'd his god in the foure Elements: like∣wise in the Sun and the Moon; in which two Planets there existed a living vertue. Diogenes Apollonaites, derived his god from the Air, as the matter from whence all things had their reality, as likewise that it did participate of divine reason, without which nothing could be created. Cleanthes Assius would have his god of the Firmament, as divers o∣thers of the Stoicks. And as Arnobius witnesseth of him, sometimes he call'd him the Will; now the Minde; then that part of the aire which is above the fire: and some∣times again, the reason. Straton made Nature his sum∣mum bonum. Antisthenes Atheniensis, he taught that there were many popular gods, but one onely Architector of the fabricke of the world. Chrysippus Silix the Stoick, hee taught that God was a naturall power endued with divine reason; and then again, he called him a Divine necessity. Zeno Citteieus, called him a divine and naturall Law; and sometimes the Firmament. Zenophanes Collophonius, cal∣led him, Whatsoever was infinite in a conjoined mind, or one universall and every thing that (as Theophrastus saith of him) he imagined to be God. Parmenides Eliates, cal∣led him •a•ta•me, or an apprehension of an Imaginary thing, something resembling a Crown; which the Greeks call 〈◊〉 conteining within it a fiery light, an orb, or girdle 〈◊〉 compasseth and embraceth the heavens: ad∣hering to •his fantasie, were Cicero and Simplicius. Empedo∣cles Agrigentinus, he would have four natures of which all things should subsist, and these he taught to be divine: as also, that they had birth, and should see end; for so Cicero writes in his book de natura deorum. Theodorus and Epipha∣niusPage 4 speak of one Theodorus, sirnamed Atheos, the Atheist: He affirmed the gods to be meer ioies, and not worthy of divine honours, that would perswade men by their exam∣ples, to theft, perjury, and rapine. Protagoras Abderita was of opinion, That it was not lawfull to enquire con∣cerning the gods, whether they were or were not, or of what nature and quality. Xenocrates Chalcedonius, made eight gods; in the wandring stars the number of five, in the whole number of the Planets, one, a seventh in the Sun, an eighth in the Moon. Plato Atheniensis went more divinely to work; who taught that it is neither the aire, nor reason, nor nature, but that there is one only God, by whom alone the world was fashioned, and made perfect, and miracu∣lous. Zenophon Socraticus held argument, That the form of the true God, was not visible, and therefore his essence nor lawfull to be sought into. Ariston the S•oick affimed, than God might be comprehended within his own substance. Aristotle proposed, That one Mind governed the whole world, and that it was the prime and principall cause of all things. Spe•sippus constituted a naturall living power, by which all things were governed, and that he stil'd a Deity, for so Arnob. in his eighth book reports. Al•maeon Crotonia∣tes did attribute a Deity to the Sun, Moon, and the rest of the Planets; in his ignorance (as Cicero speaks of him) gi∣ving immortality to things meerly mortall. Ecphantus Siracusanus, as Erigines relates of him, imagined the divi∣nity to exist in the mind and soule. Brachmanae, (who were the Indian wise men, or Sophoi) called it the Light; but not as the splendour of the Sun, or Air, but the light of rea∣son; by which wise and understanding men might enquire into the dark and mysticall secrets of nature. Lactantius and Cicero say, that it was the opinion of the Stoicks, for the most part, That this instrumentall power was a divine substance, intelligible and airy, but wanting form; yet to be transhap'd, or made like to whatsoever it best pleased it selfe. The same Philosophers attributed a god-hood to the stars, and all other coelestiall bodies. Heraclides Ponticus, thought the World and the Mind both divine, and was of opinion, that this form of the Deity was mutable, reducing the earth and the heavens within the compasse of God∣head. Epicurus Atheniensis, he made him gods of Atomes or M•ats, allowing them bodies differing from men, but bea∣•ing humane form. M. Terentius Varro, supposed him to be Page 5 the soule of the world, and the world it selfe to be god. Cicero defines him thus, a certaine pure and free mind, se∣parate from all mortall commixtion, ever moving, and all things knowing; and Origenes adhering to the opinion of Exilneus, concludes that the gods are eve• during, not sub∣ject to corruption, and yet altogether without providence. But lest I should grow tedious in the search of so many di∣vers opinions, which to some may appear impertinent to the tractate in hand, yet not altogether unnecessary •o such who have not travelled in the search of these Antiquities; I will come neerer to the matter, and to speak of the goddesses, as we promised▪ Hesiod hath left to memory, that there are no lesse then thirty thousand gods within the compass of the world, and every one have several predominance over men, beasts, fish, fouls, and al other creatures vegetative and sen∣sitive. Tertullian speaks of three hundred Joves or Jupiters counted by M. Varro. Therefore it was not permitted a∣mongst the Romans, to adore any other gods or goddesses, then such as were approved and allowed by the Senate. In the books of the high Priest, it was thus written: Let no man bring in an innovation of any new gods, or aliens, to be privately adored, unlesse they be publickly approved; on∣ly such as have from antiquity been held coelestiall, and unto whom Temples and Altars have been consecrated; let none else have divine worship. The Heathen of old amongst their goddesses, counted these Pudicitia, Concordia, Mens, Spes, Honor, Clementia, and Fides; that is, Bashful∣nesse, Concord, the Mind, Hope, Honour, Clemency, and Faith. Pliny writes of a Temple in Rome, dedicated to Honor. Certaine living creatures, and other things, were in the old time reverenced as gods. The Trogloditae (as the same author testifies) worshipped a Tortoise. The Aegyp∣tians had in honour, Garlick and Onyons; they have the Crocodile likewise in divine adoration, to whom they offer Sacrifice: But the Ombytae, chiefly a people of that Coun∣try, by whom he is held most sacred; and if it so happen that their children be by him devoured, the parents rejoice, imagining they are specially beloved of the gods, that are thought worthy to beget food to please their appetites. Serpents are honoured by the Phoenicians. In Gadeta a City of Spain, two Temples were erected; the one to Age, the other to Death: to one as the Mistresse of Experience; to the other, as a quiet harbor or cessation from all miseries Page 6 and calamities. In other Cities were the like instituted to Poverty, and to Fortune; lest the one should afflict them, and that the other should favour them, Floods likewise and Rivers, were esteemed as deities, some portrai'd in the figure of men, and others in the semblance of beasts. A∣mongst the Lacedemonians as Plutarch relates, Temples were edified, one to Feare, another to Laughter, a third to Death. The Aegyptians worshipped the Sun and Moon, the goddesse Ibis, a Cat, an Eagle, and a Goat. The Syrians adored a Dove: The Romans a Goose, by reason that by the cackling of Geese, the Capitoll was preserved from the sack. Amongst the Th••alians it was held an offence Capitall, to kill a Stork. These that inhabite the Island Sy•en, 〈◊〉 the fish called Pha•os. Those that dwell in M••tis, the fish Oxiringus: In Ambracia, a Lyonesse, because in times past a Lyonesse seised upon a Tyrant, and tore him to pieces; by which they were restored to their anci∣ent liberties. Those that live by Delphos, a Wolfe, who by scraping up the earth, discovered a great quantity of gold buried, and till then concealed. The men of Samos, a Sheep; the Argives a Serpent; the Islanders of Tenedos, a Cow with Calfe; after whose conception, they tender her as much service, as to a woman young with child. A Dragon in Al∣b• (a grove just opposite against Juno's Temple) was ho∣noured by the Spa••ane virgins: to which at certain times they went, and fed him from their hands. The Aegyptians had Asps likewise in great worship, which they fostered and brought up together with their children. The Thebans honoured a Sea L•mprey. There were gods called Mediox∣um dei, or middle gods: or which Plautus in his Cistellaria, makes mention, Isa me dei deaeque superi, & inferi, & medio∣rum; as the gods and goddesses supernall or infernall, or those betwixt them both, &c. He speaks likewise of Dii potel∣larii, such as had power over the dishes that were used in Sacrifices: to which Ovid hath reference in this verse, 〈◊〉. Missos Vestae pura pa•ella cibos; The clean platter pre∣sents those cates sent to Vesta. And Plautus in another place, Dii me omnes, magni, minuti, & patellarii, &c. There be others called Semones; who have domination over as much as lies open from the middle Region of the air to the earth, and they are called by us semi-dei, or halfe-gods: Fulgen∣•••• cals those Semones, that for the poverty of their desert, are not worthy a place in the heavens: Amongst whom he Page 7 reckons Priapus, Hippo, and Vertumnus. In Italy there were divers others called Dii municipales, as belonging to private men in Cities, not called into any publike office; as amongst the Crustuminians, Delvent•nus; amongst the Narnienses, Viridiarius; amongst the Astrulanians, Ancha∣ria; amongst the Volcinienses, Nortia. But now of the Goddesses in order.
Of the Goddesses Coelestiall: and first of JUNO.
IVNO is the daughter of Saturn, the Queen of the g•ds, and chiefe of those that are called Coelestiall, The wife and sister of Jupiter, goddesse of Power and Riches, and soveraignesse of marriage, and all conjugall contracts. The Festivals kept in her honour, were called Herea, which was a name appropriated to her own person▪ so Enneus saith, as Cicero cites him in his first book of offi∣ces, Vos ne velit an me regnar• Hera? Will the Mistresse have you to raign, or me? where some take Herae for For∣tune. One of her Priests, as Virgil testates, was Calibe, of whom he thus speaks;
The old woman Calibe, was Priest in Juno's Temple. O∣vid in his second book Metamorph. nominates Alcinoe.
She was honoured most in the City of Carthage, the chiefe City of Affrica: of which Virgil in his first book Aeneīad. thus speaks:
Which only (saith he) Juno is reported to prefer before all other Countries, even Samos it selfe. Statius in his first book Theb. saith that she was much honoured in the City called Prosimna: but in Samos (an Island compast in with the Icarian sea) she was chiefly celebrated, as said to be there noursed in her infancy. In Argos and M•cene, two chiefe Cities of Ach•ia, she was likewise much honoured, as their Queen and Patronesse, for so Horace affirms, lib. 1▪ Page 8 Carmin. Ovid in his 6. book De fastis saith, that the people called Phalisci, have her in great adoration, calling them Junonicoli, as those that honour Juno. Of ther chastity, majesty, her brawling and chiding with Iupiter, her re∣venge upon his strumpets and bastards, divers things have been diversely commented, of which I will insist upon some few. Iuno having in suspition, Semele the daughter of Cad∣mus and Hermione, to have been often prostituted by Iupi∣ter, she changed her selfe into the shape of her Nurse Be∣roe, perswading her that she should beg of him, That he would grace her so much, as to lie with her in the same state and majesty, with which he bedded Iuno; that as his power and potency was great above all, so her 〈…〉 wantonnings, might be remarkable above others: which he unwillingly granting, and she as unfortunately obtai∣ning, was the occasion that she with her Pallace, were both consumed in 〈…〉 and thunders.
It is related of Iuno further, that when she and her hus∣band being reconciled and pleasantly discoursing, held argument betwixt themselves, Whether in the act of ge∣neration, men or women took the greatest delight? and that by joint consent, their controversie was to be determi∣ned by Ty•esias (one that had been of both Sects) Ty•esias giving up his censure, That women were by nature the most wanton; her sport turned into spleen, and her mirth into such madnesse, that she instantly bere•v•d him of his sight, and strook him blind: to recompence which losse, Iupiter inspired him with the spirit of Divination and Pro∣phesie; to which her continued anger further added, That howsoever he truly prophesied, yet his presages should ne∣ver be beleeved.
Alomena too, growing great of Hercules, and ready to be delivered, she taking on her the shape of a Beldame, sate her down before her own Altar, with her knees crossed, and her hands clutched, by which charme she stopped the pas∣sage of her child-birth; which Gallantis espying, and ap∣prehending (as it was indeed) that to be the occasion why her Lady could not be delivered, she bethought her of a craft to prevent the others cunning; for leaving Alomena in the middest of her throwes, she assumes a counterfet joy, and with a glad countenance approcheth the Altar, to thank the gods for her Ladies safe delivery. Which Iuno•o sooner heard, but up she riseth, and casts her armes Page 9 abroad; her knees were no sooner uncrost, and her fin∣gers open, but Alomena was cased, and Hercules found free passage into the world. Gallantis at this laughing, and Iuno chasing to be thus deluded, she afflicted her with an un∣heard of punishment, by transhaping her into a Weesill, whose natiue is to kindle at the mouth; that from the same jawes with which she had lied to the gods about Alomena's child be 〈◊〉 she should ever after bring forth her young.
No lesse was her hatred to all the posterity of Cadmus; for when Agave had lost Penthaeus; and Antinoe, Actaeon, and S•mele had been consumed by Ioves thunders; and there remained onely two, Athames and Ino, she possest them both with such madnesse, that he being on hunting, transpierc'd his sonne L•••chus, mistaking him for the game he chased; and Ino snatcht up young Melicertes, and with him cast her sel•e down headlong into the Sea, from the top of an high promontory. But at the intercession of Venus, who was born of the waves, Neptune was pleased to rank them in the num∣ber of the Sea-gods, so that Melicertes is called Palaemon; and Ino, Iaeucothoe. I could further relate of many other poeticall Fables, as of Ixion, who enterteined and feasted by Iupiter, attempted to strumpet Iuno, and adulterate the bed of Iu∣piter; which to prevent, and shun the violence of a rape, she fashioned a Cloud into her own similitude and sem∣blance, which Ixion mistaking for Iuno, of that begot the Centaurs. As also the birth of her son Vulcan, and her daughter Eccho; he lame, and she so deformed, that being ashamed to shew her selfe, or appear to the eies of any, she hath so conceal'd her selfe in thick woods and hollow vaults and caverns, that never any part of her could ever yet be discovered more then her voice.
Yet 〈◊〉 shew that in all these seeming Fables, golden meanings were intended, I wil briefly thus illustrate them: Iuno was therefore called the daughter of Saturn, because the world was created by God, the great work-master of Nature. Then, in his course was Time born; from thence, 〈◊〉, which is, whatsoever is above the Element of Fire, the Firmament, or the S•y, and next that, the Elements: The highest 〈◊〉Iupiter is Aër, namely Iuno, the mode∣ratresse of the life of man, by whom the treasures of rain and ball are disposed and governed: of the air waxing hot are generated creatures, trees and plants, &c. whose tempera∣ture hath an influence in the bodies and minds of reasona∣ble Page 10 creatures: therefore when from water Aer is next be∣got, she is said to be nourisht by Oceanus and Thetis; when the force of the Element works with the Aer in the pro∣creation of creatures, she is then said to be the wife of Iu∣piter when shee is changed into fire, then she brings forth Vulcan: when the benignity of the air hath coopera∣tion with such things as are generated, she is then stiled the goddesse of marriage. So likewise it is said of Ixion, that for attempting the bed of Iupiter, he was from heaven cast down into hell; which some would bring within the com∣passe of history: But that he is there tortured upon a wheel incessantly turning round, must needs include mo∣rality. Most probable it is that Ixion disgrac'd and banisht from the Court of that King, whose wife he had sought to adulterate, was thereby made of all men the most wretched and miserable, as one excruciated with perpetuall ambition and envy: for such as under the imaginary Idea of ver∣tue, apprehend the reality of vain glory, they can attempt nothing good, nothing sincere or laudable, but all their actions are criminall, irregular and meerly absurd, impor∣ting thus much, That their estates can have no continu∣ance, that by sinister and indirect courses, seek to climb to the height and crown of glory.
SHE is the wife of Saturne, and is called the mother of the gods. Her Chariot is drawn with Lions. To her, Ida and Dindymus (two mountains of Phrygia) were sacred, whereupon Virgil saith,
In Phrygia the Ministers of this goddesse, called Galli, kept certain feast daies in her honour, after the manner of Fencers or Gladiators, contending amongst themselves even to the shedding of much blood; which when they saw to flow plentifully about their heads and faces, they ran to a certain flood not far thence, sacred to the goddesse, and in that washt both their wounds and weapons: the like did the Romans in Almo, a River neer to Rome, the eleventh of the Calends of April, which Valerius Flaccus remem∣bers.Page 11
Reate (as Sylius saith) a City in Umbria, is sacred to her, so is Berecinthus a mountain in Phrygia, of whom shee takes the name of Berecynthia Apuleius, lib. 11. cals her Pesi∣nuntica of Pesinuntium a City among the Phrygians: Ovid in his Metamorph. amongst her Priests, reckons up Alphitus: and Virgil in his 11. book, Choreus. Melissa was a woman Priest, of whom all that succeeded her, were called Me∣l•ssae. Plutarch in Mar. nominates one Barthabaces, Perea tempora, &c. About tho•e times came Barthabaces Priest to the great mother of the gods, saying, she had spoken to him in her Temple, and predicted victory. This Cybele is likewise called Vesta, and Rea. The rights of her sacrifices perfor∣med in her honour, Ovid in his Fastis thus expresseth:
Her Priests were called Curetes, and Corybantes; as also Idaei Dactili, who like mad-men wagging their heads and playing on Cimbals ran about the streets, provoking o∣thers to do the like: They came from Ida in Phrygia into Creet, in which Island they call'd a hill by the name of Ida.
The Poets (who in their Fables hid all the mysteries of learning, as the Aegyptians in their Hieroglyphicks) by the mother of the gods, would have us thus much understand, That when they meant to signifie to our apprehensions, that the earth, as the stability of the world, and firmament of all naturall bodies, from whence all things born had beginning; they therefore Cybele or Vesta, the mother of the gods, and to her sacrifices brought all the first fruits of the earth as due to her. Further to expresse the nature of the earth, many things have from antiquity been remembred touching her: for Rhea signifies the force or strength of the earth, who passeth and shifteth, piercing into the gene∣ration of things.
SOme report her to be born of the Nymph Dione, daugh∣ter to Oceanue and Thetis: Others, that she was borne of the foam or froth of the sea. She is the goddesse of Love, the wife of Vulcan, the sweet heart of Mars, the mo∣ther of Cupid and the Graces. She goes armed with Tor∣ches, and bound about with a marriage girdle. Her chari∣ot is drawn by Swans, as Juno's with Peacocks, as Ovid in his tenth book Metamorph.
The like witnesseth Horace, Statius, Silvius, and others. The places to her most sacred, were Amathus, an Isle in the Sea Aegeum, of which she took the name of Amathusa or Amathusis. She was honoured in Cyprus; and especially in Paphos, a City of that Isle: likewise in Memphis where she had a Temple: of Cyprus she had the denomination of Cy∣pria, Cypris, and Cyprigena; of Paphos, Paphia; of Gnydos, Gnydia. Pliny reports, that Praxitiles was nobilitated for his graving of Marble, but especially for the Statue of Gni∣dian Venus. The Idalian woods, the Ciclides, and the hill Cythera were to her sacred. Of Erix a mountain in Sicilia, she was called Erecina; as Horat. Carmin. lib. 1.
Concerning her love to Mars, and his mutuall affecti∣on to her, it is frequent amongst the Poets; only I will in∣troduce Ovid in his second book de arte amandi.
Of her love to Adonis, the incestuous issue of Mirrha, and her father Cyniras; how he was slain of the boar, and how his blood was turned into a purple flower by the power of the goddesse: her doating upon Anchises, the father of A•neas; it might appear superfluous to insist upon. There∣fore to avoid all prolixity, I will briefly come to the myste∣ries included.
Because some creatures are born of corruption,* and others by copulation, the Poets by Venus would illustrate what is requisite and convenient to both: To those which are bred of corruption, the mediocrity of heat, and cle∣mency of the heaven is very necessary to their breeding. Againe, to those that are begot by conjunction, male with female, most convenient is the temperature of the aire, for the matter of generation being of the most subtile part of the blood, it acquires a moderate heat, which is chiefly hel∣ped by the Spring: for the temperature of the Spring is Page 14 called the baud to all procreation: and therefore the an∣cient writers, to expresse the matter of the seed, and mode∣ration of the air (both necessarily to meet in the appetite of generation) have fabulated, That Venus was born of the generative parts of heaven, as also of the Sea: For these parts, are the mediocrity of heat by motion, which is usefull and necessitous in the begetting of all creatures whatso∣ever.
SHE is likewise called Pallas, born of the brain of Iupi∣ter; she is the goddesse of Wisdome, Discipline, and Arms, and therefore called Bellona, and therefore translated into the number of the gods, because the invention of arts and sciences are attributed to her. The places ce∣lebrated to her deity, were Ithinas, a hill neer to Athens, where she had a Temple erected; the mountain P••eas, in Attica; in Aracinthus, a place in Aetolia, from which (as Statius writes) she was called Aracinthia. Pliny saith, that Nea, one of the Islands called Cyclades, was pecu∣liar to her. But Athens was her place of most honour, which City she is said to have built. From thence she hath the name of Athnaea, Attica, Cecropia, and Mosopia, Horace Carm. lib. 1. The great City called Alcomeneum, scituate in Boeotia, hath likewise by the Testament of the first founder submitted it selfe to her patronage. Of Scira, a Prophet of Elucina, she was called Sciras. The solemni∣zation of her festivals, were called Panathenea. There were certaine wrestling contentions, which Theseus in A∣thens, first instituted to this goddesse, as Plutarch hath de∣livered. She had likewise her Quinquatria yearly celebra∣ted, which were kept sacred five daies after the black day, (and therefore so called) the black day was immediately after the Ides: In her sacrifices it was their custome to offer a Goat, because as Pliny hath left recorded, The biting of the Goat is prejudiciall to the Olive tree, whose fruit Mi∣nerva best loveth; the very licking of the rind with their tongues makes it barren. She slew the beast Alcida, a mon∣ster that from his mouth and nostrils breathed fire. Aelianus writes, that when Alexander brought his army against The∣bes (amongst many other prodigies) that the image of Mi∣nerva, sirnamed Atalcomineides was burnt by a voluntary flame, no fire being neer it. At Assessum she had two Tem∣ples: Page 15 from that place she was called Minerva Assessia. From other places where she was worshipped, she took the name of Pallenides and Pedasia: Alea from her Temple amongst the Tegeates. Tutelaris she was called by the inhabitants of Chios, and honoured as an Oracle amongst the Aegyp∣tians; she had only a po•ch amongst the Scians. In some places her statues were covered with gold, in others they were of plain stone. She had a Temple in Sige∣um: three others, Si•adis, Aegis, and Crastiae: she was by some called Minerva Vrbana, and Minerva Isliadi. Herodo∣tus writeth, that when Xerxes transported his army into Greece, passing by Troy, and being perusing the antiqui∣ties thereof; and upon his departure thence, at the Altar of Minerva, he sacrificed a thousand oxen one day. Many things are fabled of her by Poets, as of her contention in weaving, with Arachne, which I purposely refer to her story as it fals in course. She is the Hieroglyphick of Wisdome, and therefore the Poet Martianus writes that she was born without a mother, because that in women there is scarce any wisedom to be found; in a Hymn upon Pallas he is thus read:
The Maclies and the Auses, are two nations that border upon the spacious Fen Tritonides: Their virgins in the yearly feast of Minerva, in celebrations of their rights to the goddesse, divide themselves into two armies, and fight one part against the other, with stones, clubs, and other weapons of hostility: such as perish in the conflict, they hold to be no true and perfect Virgins, because not pro∣tected by the goddess: But she that hath born her selfe the most valiant in the conflict, is by common consent of the rest▪ ••ichly adorned, and beautified with the best armour, according to the manner of the Greeks, her head beauti∣fied with a Corinthian crest or plume, and seated in a Cha∣rio• d•awn through the Tritonian Fen. They have it by tradition, that Minerva was the daughter of Neptune, and the Fen before named, and being reproved by her father, she ••ok it in such scorn, that she utterly rejected him and gave •he selfe to Iupiter, who adopted her his daughter. Zaleucus when •e commended his lawes to the Locrenses, to make them the better observed by the people, told them, Page 16Minerva had appeared to him, and did dictate and pro∣pose to him whatsoever he had delivered to them. The most famous of Poets, Homer, he mad Minerva a compani∣on of Vlysses in his travels; in whom he personated the most wise man amongst the Grecians, who freed him from all dangers, labours, and ship-wrecks, and brought him in safety to his Country, Parents, Queen, Sonne, and Subjects: thereby intimating, That by Wisedome and Knowledge, all difficult things may be easily undergone. This is that win∣ged horse Pegasus, by which Perseus subdued so many mon∣sters. This is that shield of Pallas, to which the Gorgons head being fastned, turns the beholders to stone, amazing the ignorant and unlearned. Agreeable to this is Homers first book of his Odyssae, the argument I give you thus in English:
Vlysses suffering ship-wreck,* and cast naked upon the shore of Pheacus, he was assisted further by her, as followes in the sixt and seventh arguments.
In all his negotiations and travels, Pallas was still his assistant, for Wisedome never forsakes any man in ne∣cessities: insomuch, that after he had freed his Court of his wives unruly •utors, having slain them all, and was now peaceably possest of his Kingdome, she was still constant to him in all his extremities. Which I will conclude with the foure and twentieth argument of Homers Odysse, and the last book.
Pallas hath been often invocated by the Poets, but a∣mongst infinite I will only instance one; and that for the elegancy. Homer in his long peregrination through Greece and other Countries, sometimes by sea, and sometimes by land, and by the reason of his blindnesse grooping his way, he hapned to passe by a place where Potters were at work, and setting such things as they had newly moulded into their furnace; who finding by his harp (for he seldome tra∣velled without it, being one of the best means he had to get his living) that he had some skill in Musick, intreated him that he would play them a fit of mi•th, and sing them a fine song; which if he would do, they would give him so many small pots and necessary drinking cups for his la∣bour, vailes that belonged to their trade. The conditions were accepted; and he presently to his harp sung this ex∣temporall ditty, called Caminus, or Fornax.
That the former writers might demonstrate unto us, Page 20 That humane actions are not altogether so governed by the force coelestiall, but that there is some place left open for mans prudence, and wisedome; and besides, to deliver unto us, how acceptable the knowledge of good things is to him who is the giver of all graces: they therefore left this expression to posterity, that Wisedome was the daugh∣ter of Jupiter, and born without a mother, since God is on∣ly wise, and men not so, but meerly in a similitude or sha∣dow. Therefore to manifest the power of Wisdome, they feigned her to come into the world armed, because the wise man respects not the injuries of Fortune, nor puts his trust in any worldly felicity, further then by counsell and pati∣ence to subdue the one, and moderate the other; stil pla∣cing his hopes in that fountaine from whence she first pro∣ceeded. Next, because the feare of the Lord is the be∣ginning of Wisedome, she is said to have combated Giants, the sonnes of the earth: such as in that Gigomantichia, would have pluckt Jupiter out of his throne; by which are intended the presumptions of nature, and the insolencies of men; who, all service and adoration to the divine powers neglected, are not affraid to make insurrection a∣gainst heaven it selfe. I may therefore conclude, that all humane wisedome different against the divine will, is vain and contemptible, since the good man is onely wise, and in the grace and favour or his Maker.
SHE is the daughter of Iupiter and Latona, the goddesse of Virginity and Chastity. In the heaven she is called Luna, the Moon; in the earth, Diana; in Hell or amongst the Infernals, Pros•erpina: of which three-fold power, she is called Triformis and Triula. The places sacred to her, were (as Valerius Flaccus affirms) Parthenius, a flood of Pa∣phlagonia. She with her brother Apollo, was born in Cin∣thus, a mountain hanging over Delos; of whom Statius saith, they are both called Cinthii. In Ephesus, a City of Io∣nia, or Lydia, she had a magnificent Temple numbred a∣mongst the seven wonders of the world. In Bauron, a City of Attica, she was likewise honoured. And as Lucan testates, in Taurus, a mountain in Sicily; and as Virgil, in Delos,
Page 21Horace reports her to have two mountains in Italy de∣dicated to her deity, Aventinus and Algidus. In her sacri∣fices, a Hart was stall offered at her Altar; and dogs or hounds, as Ovid writes;
The S•baeans and the Thessalians inhabiting the snowie mountain Haemus, used dogs in their oblations. Of her Temple at Ephesus, it shall not be amiss to speak a word or two by the way. Plutarch in his book De vitando Aere alieno, saith, that the Temple of Diana was a Sanctuary, wherein all debtors were safe from their creditors. As the Vestals of Rome had the time of their service distinguished into three parts; in the first to learn the mysteries of Vesta; in the second to do the ceremonies; and in the third, to instruct others that were ignorant: So amongst the Priests of Diana in Ephesus, the first order of them gave them the name of Melieres, that is, to be capable of the Priesthood, but not admitted; the second was Hieres, that was in present office; the third Parieres, that was dead from the service. This stately and magnificent structure was first erected by the Amazons, so beautifull and sacred, that when Xerxes had with sword and fire wasted and demolisht all the Tem∣ples of Asia, he spared only that, as the richest jewell of the world. It is reported of one Herostratus, a wicked and de∣bauch'd fellow, who finding in himselfe nothing good to preserve his memory, and willing that his name should live to posterity, set this Temple on fire, for no other pur∣pose, but that he would be talkt on: the Ephesians under∣standing this his malicious ambition, they made it death once to name him. Cornelius Nepos writes, that the same night that this famous structure was ruin'd and defaced by fire, Alexander was born in Pella, in the three hundred and eighth yeare after the building of Rome: so that at the extinguishing of one light of the world, another was kind∣led. It being demanded of one of Diana's Priests, Why Diana being a goddess, would suffer her Temple to be ut∣terly destroied? and what she was a doing the while? It was answered again, That it was done unawares to the goddess, for she was that night at the labour of Olympias, and busied about bringing Alexander into the world. Not∣withstanding this great ruine, the people of Ephesus cau∣sed it to be re-erected, and made both richer and more Page 22 beautifull than before: of which work Dinocrates an Ar∣chitectour of Macedonia was chiefe.*Diana (as Plutarch in his Symposaicon saith) is called Elitheia, or •ucina, as also Locheia, as goddess• of child-birth: she is called also Di∣ctiana. And in his Solertia animalium, that Apollo would be called Lycoconos; and Diana, Multicida Elaphibolos: The one for killing so many wolves; the other, Harts. Amongst the Aegyptians she is called Bubastis: she is celebrated (witnesse Herodotus) amongst the Thressae, and the Peloni∣ates: amongst the Bizantians she hath the name of Diana Orthosia.
The Poets fain that she is continually exercised in hun∣ting, for no other reason but to instruct and incourage all such as professe virginity to shun sloath and idlenesse: so Ovid,
Diana and Phoebus, were therefore said to be the children of Latona, because in that, the ancient Poets would signifie the beginning of the world: so▪ when the matter whereof it was made, was a meer confused Masse, and without shape, because all things were obscure and hid: that darknesse is signified in Latona; and whereas they make Iupiter their Father, it imperts as much as if they should fetch Iupiter out of this darknesse called the Sun and the Moon. More plainly, the Spirit of the Lord said, Let there be light; of which light. Ap••llo and Diana, the one by day, and the other by night, are the greatest: by this inferring, that the ge∣neration of the world began first from Light.
THE Goddesse of fruits and grain, and daughter to Saturn and Ops, a Law-giver to the Sicilians: there∣fore by Virgil called Segifera. In Eleusis, a City of Artica, she had divine worship; because she there taught planta∣tion and agriculture; and of that place had the name of •lusina; she was honoured in the mount Aetna: in Aeona and Catana, two Cities of Cicily, From whence, as Claudian••lates, she had the name of Aetnaea, Aennaea, and Catanensis the like doth Selius, &c. Lactantius reports, that into these her Temples erected in these Cities, it was not lawfull •o Page 23 any man to enter. The manner of the rights among the Philagenses were, that no sacrifices should be slain, only the fruits of planted trees, Honycombs, and new shorn wool, were laid upon the Altar, and sprinkled with sweet oile, and were set a fire, burnt and offered: these Customes were privately and publickly observed yearly, as Pausanias left recorded. The Argives sacrifice to this goddesse by the name of Ceres Clithonia, upon certain set daies in the Summer, after this manner: Their sacrificial pomp is atten∣ded by the chiefe Magistrats of the City: after which com∣pany, the women and children next followed, the boies all in white robes with chaplers about their browes of Hyacin∣thes interwoven: and in the lag end of the same troop were driven a certain number of faire and goodly Oxen, but bound in the strict bands, and drag'd towards the Tem∣ple: being thither come, one of these beasts with his cords loosed was driven in, the rest of the people standing with∣out the gates, and looking on; who, no sooner see him en∣tred, but shut the gates upon him: within the Temple, are four old women Priests with hatches and knives, by whom he is slain, and one of them hath by lot the office to cut off the head of the sacrifice. This done, the doors are againe set open, and the rest, one by one forc'd in, and so in order by the same women slain and offered. In a book of the scituation of Sicily, composed by Cl. Marius Aretius, a Patritian, and of Syracula: Intituled Charographia Siciliae; In the City Aenna saith he (as Strabo consenting with him) were born Ceres, and her daughter Libera, whom some call Proscrpina; From which place she was rapt, and therefore is this City to her sacred. Neer to this City is a river of an infinite depth, whose mouth lieth towards the North, from whence it is said Dis or Pluto; with his chariot made ascent, and hurrying the virgin thence, to have penetrated the earth againe not far from Syracusa. This is that most an∣cient Ceres, whom not Sicilia only, but all other nations whatsoever celebrated. Most certain it is, that she was Queen of the Sicilians, and gave them lawes, taught them the use of •illage and husbandry; and that her daughter Libera, was transported thither by O•cus, or Dis, King of the Molossians. In her Temple (part of which, not many years since was standing) were two statues of Marble; one sa∣cred to her, another to Proserpina; another of brasse, beau∣tifull and faire, but wondrous ancient. At the entrance into Page 24 the Church in an open place without, were two other faire portraictures; one of her, another of Triptolemus, large, and of exquisite workmanship: In Ceres right hand was the image of victory most curiously forged. This History with many other, is with much nimble and dextrous with fabula∣ted by Ovid;* to whose Metamorphosis I refer you.
In Ceres is figured to us, an exhortation to all men to be carefull in the manuring and •illing of the earth, since Ceres is taken for the Earth, the treasuress of all riches whatsoever; and just is that usury, and commendable, which ariseth from thence: for the fertility that growes that way, is begot by the temperature of the weather, and the industry of mans labours. She is therefore said to wan∣der round about the earth, and over the spacious Universe, because of the obliquity of the sign-bearing circle, and the progress of the Sun beneath that, by which Summer is in some parts of the world at all seasons of the year, and elsewhere, when not here. Besides, from hence this mora∣lity may be collected, No man unpunished can despise the gods: for miseries are the hand-maids of dishonesty, there∣fore of force, a wicked and irreligions man is subject and incident to fall into many distresses and casualties: there∣fore Piety towards heaven, Wisdome in managing our af∣fairs, and Thri•••〈◊〉 in the disposing of our private for∣tunes, me all requisite in an honest, religious, a parsimo∣nious, and well disposed man.
THE daughter of Iupiter and Ceres, she was honoured in Sicily, of which Province she was called Sicula, of whom Seneca thus speaks,
Hast thou seen the Kingdomes of Sicilian Proserpine? She is likewise called by Lucan, Ennaea, of the City Enna.
Many f••les of Proserpina have been introduc'd for our better instruction, by the ancient Poets; which is onely to express to us the nature of the seeds and plants; for Proser∣pina, by whom is signified the Moon, shining to us one halfe Page 25 of the month, and lying the other halfe in the arms of her husband Pluto, that i• being halfe the year in Heaven, and the other in Hell, six months beneath 〈…〉, and as ma∣ny above: so is it 〈…〉, whose 〈◊〉 for six months space, is by 〈…〉 cold, forc'd and 〈◊〉 upword 〈…〉 and branches: ag•ine, by the extremity of the Winters upper cold, it is compulsively driven back downward into the •oot, beneath the earth: for so doth nature 〈◊〉 her power and ver∣tue to all creatures and naturall b•dies whatsoever, that th•• may observe a mutuality (if I may tearm it so) in their cooperation. After the like manner i• the day sorted out for our labours and affairs, the •ight for our rest and repose. So likewise in explicating the power of Luna, or the Moon: some call her the daughter of H•perion, or the Sun, because she being Corpus diaphanes, that is, a body christall•n, like reflective glass, transfers the light recei∣ved from her father, upon the earth to us, for which cause she is called also the sister of the Sun; by the swiftness of her course her proper motions are declared. To express her nature alwaies appearing to us greater, or lesser, is to signifie her strength and multiplicity of working, there∣fore they allot her a garment of divers and sundry colors. In attributing to her the double sexes of male and female (as some have commented) the reason is, in that as she is woman, she in•useth an humour necessary and profitable to the 〈◊〉 of all creatures: in respect of her virile nature she allowes a moderate and sensible heat, much available to increase; for without this heat, in vain were her opera•••n, which is easily proved in all creatures that are p•egna•t and bri•ging forth therefore, she is called 〈◊〉, as the goddess that b•ings creatures to light. She is likewise operative to 〈◊〉, which is the reason that si•k men and such as are troubled with any grievous m•lady, are most in danger of death in the criticall daies of the Moon.
SHE is the goddess of Reven•e and Wrath, and 〈◊〉 of the proud and vain-glorious, She had a Temple in R•mnus, a Town in Ar••ca, 〈◊〉 which she took the name of Rhamnusia. Aristotle, by the passion of Indignation, Page 26 and affection of Commiseration, saith Nemesis is figured; and both of these took in the better part: Indignation when good men are troubled and vexed to see bad men use good things ill: Commiseration, to see honest and just men crost with the disasters of the world. Plutarch in his book de capienda ex hostibus utilitate, speaking how ridicu∣lous it is for any man to reprove another of that vice, of which he is himselfe guilty, or taint any man for the least deformity unto which he is subject himselfe, bring in Leo Bizantius a croked back'd fellow, gybing at him, because he had a weaknesse and infirmity falne into his eies: to him he thus answered, Why dost thou mock me for this mischance by fortune, when thou thy selfe carriest Nemesis upon thy back by nature. O what power this Nemesis was, and how honoured, many authors as well amongst the Greeks, as the Latines, have laboured industriously to make manifest, I will insist on few: Ausonius from the Greek interpreted this Epigram;
The History from which both Epigrams are derived, Pau∣sanias recites much after this manner: From Marathon (saith he) some threescore leagues distant is Rhamnus, a City bordering upon the Sea, just in the way to Oroxus: by which stands the Temple of Nemesis, a goddesse, who is the inevitable revenger of such men as are haughty, proud, and contumelious. It seems the barbarous Persians under the name of Nemesis, do comprehend Indignatio: for com∣ming towards Marathon, and despising the Athenians, are not able to interpose their incursions. They took a stone of white Marble, as if they had already obtained the victory: of which stone Phidias (the excellent statuary) made the portraicture of Nemesis: A faire Crown upon her head, Page 27 with forrest Harts carved about it, and smal Imageries pour∣traying Victory, in her right hand a golden cup, in which the Aethiopians were figured. Some think her the daughter of Oceanus, some of Jupiter▪ others of justice Amm•anus Marcellanus in his book of the deeds of the Emperour Gal∣lus, speaks to this effect: These and such like things (saith he) 〈◊〉 (under whose name by a double signification, we understand Nemesis) oft times works in 〈◊〉 being a certaine sublime law of some high and power effectuall in the 〈…〉, and plac'd, or having residence about the 〈◊〉 circle, who suppress•th the lofty necks of the proud, and from the lowest of despaire erects the minds of the humble. For when the wise and understanding men would illustrate to us, nothing to be more acceptable to heaven, of more commodious to the life of man, than a mo∣deration of the mind, as well in prosperity as adversity; they devised many fables, to exhort m•n nobly to indure the miseries and afflictions of this life, with constant suffe∣rance and resolved patience. And because many had by such examples yeelded their submissive shoulders to the burden of disasters, but in prosperity, and in the superabundance both of Wealth and Honour, knew not how well to behave themselves; they therefore introduc'd Nemesis the daugh∣ter of Justice (a most grave and severe goodesse) to see pu∣nishment inflicted upon such, that in the excesse of their fe∣licity, and height of their authority prove over other men Tyrants, and therefore intollerable.
SHE was honoured in Delos,* as there being delivered of Apollo and Diana, to illustrate whose history the better I will give you a taste out of Lucians dialogues, the interlo∣cutors are Juno and La•onae. You have brought to Jupiter two beautifull 〈◊〉 saith Iuno. To whom she replied, We cannot 〈◊〉 cannot all, indeed, be the mothers of such sweet babes as Vulcan, Iuno replies, Though he be Iame, as falling from the upper region down to the earth, by the negligence of his father, yet is he profitable and usefull both to gods and men; for Iupiter, he provides thunders; for men, armour, and weapons,: when on the contrary, thy daughter Diana imploies her selfe onely in hunting, and unnecessary pastime, an extravagant huntresse, never sa∣tiate Page 28 with the blood of innocent beasts: Thy beautifull son pretending to know all things, to be an exquisite Archer, a cunning Musitian, a Poet, a Physitian, and a Prophet: and not of these alone the professor, but the Patron. To this purpose hath he set up Temples, and Oracles, here in Del∣phos, there in C•atos, and Dydimus: by his dilemmaes and oblique answers to questions demanded (such as which way soever they be taken, must necessarily fall out true) deluding and mocking all such as come rather to be resol∣ved of their doubts and fears, or to know things future: by these illusions, raising an infinite gain and riches to him∣selfe, to the losse and discommodity of others; his foreknow∣ledge meerly consisting of legerdemain and jugling. Nor is it concealed from the wise, how in his predictions, he di∣ctates false things as often as true. For could he exactly and punctually presage all things to come, why did he not foresee the death or his Minion, and know before that he was to perish by his own hand? why did he not predict, that his love Daphne (so fair hair'd and beautiful) should flie and shun him as a monster hated and scorned? these with infinite others considered, I see no reason thou shouldst think thy selfe more happy in thy children than the most unfortunate Niobe. To whom Latona replyed: I well per∣ceive (great goddess) wherein this many killing and much gadding daughter, and this lying and false prophesying son of mine offends you, namely, that they are still in your eie glorious, numbered amongst the gods, and of them estee∣med the most beautifull: yet can you not deny but that he is most skilfull in the Voice and the Harp, exceeding whatsoever can be upon the earth, and equalling if not pre∣ceding that of the Sphears in heaven. I cannot chuse but smile saith Iuno: Is it possible his skill in musick should beget the least admiration? when poor Marsias (had the Muses not been partial, but judged indifferently of his side) had gain'd of him priority: but he alas by their unjust sentence, lost not only his honour in being best, but being vanquished, he most tyrannously had his skin flead off for his ambition: and this your fair Daughter and Virgin, is of such absolute feature and beauty, that being espi'd na∣ked by Actaeon (bathing her selfe in the fountaine) she transform'd him into a Hart, and caus'd him by his own dogs to be torn in pieces, lest the young man should sur∣vive to blaze her deformities. Besides, I see no reason why Page 29 to women in labour and travell in child-birth, she should shew her selfe so carefull and common a mid-wife every where, and to all, if she were as she still pretends to be a Virgin. With her Latona thus concluded: You are there∣fore of this haughty and arrogant spirit, because you are the sister and wife of Iupiter, and rain with him together, which makes you to us your inferiors so contumelious and harsh: but I fear I shall see you shortly again weeping, when your husband leaving the heavens for the earth, in the shape of a Bul, an Eagle, a golden shower or such like, shall pursue his adulterate pleasures. Ovid in his sixth book Metamor. and his third fable saith, That Niobe the daughter of Tantalus, born in Sypilera City of Lydia, having by Am∣phion, six brave sons and as many daughters, though she were forewarned by the daughter of Tyresias to be present with the Thebans at their sacrifice to Latona and her chil∣dren, yet she contemptuously denied it, preferring her selfe in power and majesty before the goddesse; and her own beautifull issue, before the others: at which contempt the goddesse much inraged complained to Apollo and Diana, in whose revenge, he slew all the young men, and she the virgins; with griefe whereof, Amphion slew himselfe, and Niobe hurst her heart with sorrow.*Latona is by interpreta∣tion Chaos, it was beleeved that all naturall bodies and seeds of things, mixt and confused, lay buried in darknesse. Some take Latona for the earth, and therefore Juno did op∣pose the birth of the Sun and Moon▪ by reason of the fre∣quent fogs and damps arising, by which the sight of these two glorious planets, are shadowed and kept from our eies; for when by the thicknesse and tenebrosity of the clouds, the Sun is weakned and made of lesse force, oft∣times there proceeds a pestilent aire, with many pests and diseases prejudiciall both to sensible creatures and to plants: but when the Sun resumes his vertue and vigour, then by the purifying of the air, all these infections are dispersed and scattered, unlesse they have proceeded so far as to contagion, And so much for Latona.
ANtium a City of the Latines bordering upon the Sea, had Fortune in great reverence, to whom they ere∣cted a magnificent Temple. Wherefore Horace thus speaks: Page 30
So Rhamnus or Rhamnis, a Town in Attica, where Ne∣mesis and Fortune were held in equall reverence; and from hence rather called Ramnusia. In Preneste a City of Italy, Sortes and 〈◊〉 were held in like adoration, of which they were called Praenestine. Petrus Crinitus in his first book of honest Discipline and the six• Chapter, concer∣ning this goddesse, rehea•seth these verses from Pacuvius▪
Hitherto Pacuvius, whose verses M. Cicero commemo∣rates. Pliny to Vespasian speaks thus concerning the power of Fortune:
Livy,*Dionysius Halicarnasseus, Lactantius, Plutarch, and others,* affirm that the statue of Fortune which stands in the Latine way, with the Temple, was dedicated at the same time that Coriolanus by his mothers intercession, withdrew his forces from the sack and spoile of Rome. Which image was heard to speak these words.
So superstitious they were in the daies of old, that they attributed all their intents, actions, and events of things, to the guidance and will of Fortune, nay, that she had a power in their very birth-daies, and daies of death: as of Euripides the most famous Tragick-Poet, he was born on the same day that before Salamine, the Greeks and the Meads fought that famous Sea-battel, and died upon the birth-day of Di∣onysius senior, the Tyrant of Sicily. When as (Timaeus saith) at one instant, Fortune took away the imitator of Tragick calamities, and brought in their true actor and performer. Ascribed it is to Fortune, that Alexander the Conqueror, and Diogenes the Cynick, should dye both on a day: and, that King Attalus left the world, the same day of the year that he entered into the world. The like was read of Pompey the Great, the same day of the month that he was born in Rome, the same (or as some will have it the day after) he was beheaded in Aegypt. Pindarm the Greek Poet, born in Pithea, consecrated many divine Hymns to Apollo, pa∣tron of the place. Fiorus remembers Carneades in the cele∣bration of Plato's birth-day, whom he cals a stout cham∣pion of the Academy, observing that they were both born on the feast day of Apollo, Plato in Athens, where the Thar∣getia were acted; and Carneades in Cyrene, where the Car∣nia were celebrated; both these feasts falling upon the se∣venth Page 32 day, on which his Priests say Apollo himself was born, and therefore they call him Sep•imanatus, and Hebdomage∣nus, as much as to say, the seventh day born. Those there∣fore that call Plato the sonne of Apollo (as Plutarch saith) have done the God no indignity or dishonour, he having succeeded him in the Oracles of divine Philosophy, of whom Tindarus Lacedemonius hath left this character:
Plutarch in his quaest. Rom. the 64. question, demands why Servius Tullius dedicated a Temple to little Fortune, or Short? (for so the Latine words imply, being Parvae & Bre∣vi) because saith he, that in the beginning from basenesse and obscurity (as being born of a captive mother) by the benefit of Fortune he was exalted to the Principality of Rome: or doth this change not rather shew her power then her poverty, that she is a gyant, and no dwarfe? Of all the other Deities, Servius was known to celebrate her with the most Divine honours, and to inscribe her in all his actions: for he not onely built Temples to Fortuna bonae spei, of good hope; Averruncae, to turne away her anger; Blandae to her smiling; Primogeniae, as to the eldest child of Inheritance; Virili, as she was manly: but he erected one also to his own proper fortune. He gave her also the de∣nominations of Convertentis, turning, or turning towards; Bene sperantis, of well hoping; and Fortunae virginis, Fortune the Virgin; likewise Viscosae, as catching and clinging to us in all our attempts and actions: May it not therefore be observed, that this Temple, and these rights and ceremo∣nies were celebrated to Little Fortune, that she may assist and much availe us even in things of the smallest mo∣ment? Teaching us, that in all occurrents and events we ought to intermit no occasion or opportunity that may availe us, for the smalnesse in shew or sleightne••e in ap∣pearance: But to apply these things to our better use, and shew that all these Divine attributes bestowed on this god∣desse were heathenish, and absurd, I hold opinion with Plutarch lib. de Fortuna, That wisedome guideth the life and actions of man, not Fortune. Was it by Fortune (saith he) that Aristides lived in poverty, when it was in his own pow∣er to purchase wealth? or that Scipio having taken Car∣thage, Page 33 neither saw the prey, nor took part of the spoile? That Philocrates having received so many Talents of A∣lexanders, spent them upon strumpets, and fishes. That Lasthenes and Euthycrates, by proposing to themselves no other felicity, than the throat and belly, lost Olynthus? If these things be attributed to Fortune, we may as well say, Cats, Goats, and Apes, are by chance given to voraci∣ty, lust, and squirility. If all things be attributed to fortune, what can be devised? what learnt? what Cities govern∣ment could subsist? or what Kings counsell be managed without providence, and wisedome to direct it? did For∣tune sway all? Many brute beasts are better furnisht in their nature and condition than man; some are arm'd with horns, some with teeth, some with prickles, not so much as the Porcupine, nay, the Hedge-hog, but as Empedocles saith:
Some of their feet are armed with horne, most of their backs cloathed with haire; man onely, as Plato saith, is left by nature naked and unarmed, without shooe or gar∣ment:
She hath yet bestowed one thing upon him, which makes good all the rest, The use of Reason, Industry and Providence: nothing more wild, or more swif• then the horse, yet he runs to mans use: The dog is a beast, fierce and cruell, yet his servant and keeper; with the Forrests beast, the Airs foul, and the Seas fish he feeds and banquets: what beast is greater then the Elephant? or to behold, what more ter∣rible? yet to him he is a spectacle of pleasure, like a play in a publick Theater? Anaxagoras saith, That bruit beasts excell man in all things, yet whatsoever they have, man applies to his own use; he gathers the honey from the Bee, and drawes milk from the Cow; yet in all this Fortune hath no hand, only Counsell and Providence. Look but into Crafts, Arts, and Sciences, we see mettals tried, houses built, Statues carv'd, yee not any of these by chance or ac∣cident; for the Arts and Crafts (as we call them) acknow∣ledge Ergana, that is, Minerva (not Fortune) for their god∣desse and Patronesse. It is recorded of a Painter, that ha∣ving drawn a horse in all his lineaments, colours, shape, and every thing in their true posture, only the form for∣ced from the horses mouth by the curb or bit of the bridle, Page 33 he had not done to his mind; which often blotting out, and again seeking to make perfect but in vain, in a great vexation and anger, he cast his pencill (being then full of the same colour) against the table, which hitting in the same place gaue so fortunate a dash, that what art could not doe, meer chance and accident made compleat and per∣fect: and this is the only master piece or Fortune that I have read of. In all Sciences, A••sicers use their rules, squares, lines, plamme•s, measures, numbers, lest any par∣ticle of their cunning should be conferr'd upon •ap or ac∣cident. There is a providence even in tuning or 〈◊〉 instru∣ment, in slacking or stre•••ing the seeing; in the l•tchin to season meat to the pallate: nor doth any man that hath boughe cloath to suit himselfe, •neel down and make his orisons to Fortune, to make them up and fit them to his body. He that hath gathered together abundance of trea∣sure and riches, hath many captives about him, and ser∣vants to attend him, dwels in a Pallace with many porches and gates, sees it furnisht with costly hangings, sumptuous beds and tables, without true wisdome to m•nage all these, apprehends no true felicity or happinesse of lite. There∣fore one asking Ip•icrates, why having arms, and bowes, and weapons, and other military ornaments, What kind of man he was that profest not any? he answered, he was that man that had dominion over all these, and power to use them at his pleasure. Therefore wisedome is neither gold nor silver, nor glory, nor health, nor riches, nor strength, nor beauty; it is onely that which by knowing how to use them well, makes them saudable and profitable, without which they are meerly vain, barren, yea, and oft∣times damnable, and to him that enjoies them, brings trouble and shame. I will conclude this tractate with the saying of the Poet,
Of the Goddesses called Selectae.
THese Goddesses were honoured amongst the Gen∣tiles Canina, Leuana, Edulica, Potina, and Statana; these as they are opinionated, have the government of children in their infancy, till they find their feet, and can stand, or begin to go. Canina looks to them in their swathing bands, whilst they are bound up and mantled. Leuana lists them from the earth when they chance to fall, and keeps them from breaking or spoiling their faces. Edulica and Potina, have the charge of the meat and drink by the nurses provided for them. Fabulana teacheth them when they begin to prattle; and Vagitana to still them, lest they should spoil themselves by too forcible crying. Libentina, is a bawdy goddesse, and an overseer of their luste and pleasures. I here are likewise Aldonea, Albeona▪ Voluna, Pellonia, all diligent and circumspect about men. Pellonia, she keeps off and beats back their enemies. Then there is Agenoria, Strenua, and Stimula, which stirs up men, and accites them to some action or other. Numeria, to help them in numbers, and to make even their accounts. Augerona, she is instead of a Physitian to ease their maladi•s, and to prevent or help against diseases. Febris, which is the Ague, was made a goddesse, and had a Chappell allowed her in the Pallace. Postuerta and O• bona, were two others. Prosa di∣rected the tongue in the voluble speaking of Prose. Sentia, had predominance over quick and witty sentences. In mar∣riages, child births and funerals, they used the invocation of others, as Deneverra, Interci •ones, Domiduca, Manturna, V•r∣ginenses, Lucina, Prema, Parrunda, Populonia, Mena, Tellumone, Rusona, Naenia. For corn and graine were Tutulina, Nodinum, Volutina. Patalena, Hostil•na, Flora, Lactucina, Natura, Aver∣runca, and Run•ta. Against theeves they had Spineosis: and to preserve their fruits from blasting, and that they might •ipen in time convenient, Fructesa. Rurina was goddesse for the Countrey. Mountains, and Promontories. Empanda, over the Plo•••easts, and Countrie pastimes. To these were added Tanagraea, Ante•••ta, Larunda, Moneta, Larentia, Ma∣jesta, Ventilia, and infinite others. Those which they called Page 33〈1 page duplicate〉Page 35〈1 page duplicate〉Page 36 the select goddesses, were in number eight, Tellus, Ceres, Lucina, Juno, Diana, Minerva, Venus, and Vesta.
Ana•is. She was a goddesse that was particularly adored by the Lydians, and not known to any other nation: to her service were selected the choise and pickt damosels out of the chiefe and principall of the Nobility. These had no sooner been in her ministerie, and admitted to serve at her Altar, but all modesty and shame•astnesse set apart, they exposed their bodies to publick prostitution, by this means to be made more capable of husbands, and better practised against marriage.
Angerona. She was a goddesse honoured by the Romans, when the whole City laboured of a disease called the squi∣nancy, which is an inflammation or fiery heat of the Jawes, breeding a tumour in the throat, which suddenly (if not prevented) suffocates and stops the passage of the breath: In this extremity they offered many sacrifices to her. Her Sacreds and Festivals were called Angeronalia. Her Image was, with her finger laid upon her lips. Pliny in his second book thus speaks of her: Angerona, to whom the Romans use to sacrifice, the thirteenth of the Calends of January, hath her effligies in her Temple, with the mouth closed or sealed up.
Atergatis.* A goddesse honoured by the Syrians, so saith Strabo, That beyond Euphrates is the great City Bambice (whom some call Edessa, others Hierapolis) in which Ater∣gatis the Syrian goddesse hath divine reverence.
Drias, or Bona Dea, was adored by the Roman Matrons, as also by the ordinary women of lesse state and quality: to whose sacrifices, no man could be at any time admitted; of her Tibullus speaks,*
Her name was 〈◊〉 the daughter, or (as some will have it) the wife of Faunus, who was of that modest Temperance and Continencie, that she so much retir'd her self from the sight of all men, that she never walked abroad, nor was at any time seen in 〈◊〉. A great aspersion and calumny still lives upon the Seplchre of 〈◊〉. Claudius, a noble man of Rome, in that he was so impudent and irreligious, as to violate her rights and ceremonies; For in her Temple (as Juvenal amongst others remembers of him) he adulte∣rated Pomp•••a the daughter of Quintus Pomptius, and niece to Sylla.Page 37
Bubona and Carna is the goddesse of oxen, and herds of cattel•, all such she takes to her charge: but Carna was called Dea Cardinis, The goddesse of the hinge or hook, on which the door or gate hangeth or moveth. Ovid in his first book de Fast•, thus writes;
The Ancient writers affirm, that she was held to have predominance over the intrails, and all the interiour parts of man or woman: to whom they made their orisons, that she would keep and preserve their hearts, liver, lungs and bowels, free from anguish and the disease of consumption. To her Brutus erected a Temple.
Dicè, and Diverra. Dicè was one that had power over the Tribunall, or seat of judgement: she had imploiment in taking up quarrels, ending strifes, compounding law-cases, and deciding all contentions whatsoever. Her ministers were called Dica•stae, quasi litem diremptores, as much in our English tongue, as if we should call them Peace-makers. Deverra was a goddesse too, and h•ld in reverence, for no other reason then that she preserved them from ominous night birds, called Scopae.
Empanda, She had the charge of all such things as were negligently left open; where she took the charge, it was held to be more safe then under lock and key.
Feronia. She is a goddesse of the woods memorated by Virgil in these words,
Flora. She was first a strumpet in Rome of extraordinary fame, state, and beauty, who by her prostitution attain•d to such an infinite wealth, that she at her own proper charge, not only repaired, but new built a great part of the wals of Rome. After her death, she consticuted the people of Rome for her heir: for which bounty they caused her to be deified, and offered unto her divine honours. Her Feasts were called Floralia. Of her Ovid thus speaks, in his fifth book Fastorum.Page 38
Tro and Thor.* These are the names of a goddesse and a god, spoken of in the history of Saxo Grammaticus.
Furina. Is the goddesse of theeves; her sacrifices are kept in the night, as best affecting deeds of darknesse. The E∣truscians call her the goddesse of lots, such as are drawn for the taking up of controversies.
Hippona.* She hath the government and protection of Horses, whom hostlers and grooms of stables have in great adoration, her picture is still in the place where their hor∣ses stand: of her Juvenal speaks in his eighth Satyre.
Horchta, is a goddesse worshipped in the City of Etruria, as the genius of the same place. From her the village by, called Horchianus, takes name.
Laverna. She is over theeves, who make supplication to her for good and rich booties, as that she would charm the houshold with sleep, keep the dogs from barking, and the door hinges from creeking, to detend them from shame, and keep them from the gallowes.*Horace in his first book of Epistles,
Viz. Oh faire Laverna, grant me that I may cousen and deceive; but grant me withall, that I may appear to the world, a just man, and an holy.
Mania was a goddesse, and mother of the Lares, or hous∣hold gods, to whom children were used to be offered in sa∣crifice, for the safety of their familiar friends, that were in travell by land or sea, or in any feare of danger. But Ju∣nius Brutus in his Consulship, altered the property of that oblation, and changed the innocent lives and blood of In∣fants, into the heads of garlick and poppie, which served in the stead thereof.
Medetrina. She was the medicinall goddesse, and was cal∣led so à Medendo, she had power in the ministring of Phy∣sick, her solemnities were called Medittinatia. So likewise Mellonia was thought to be goddesse and chiefe Patronesse of honie. Mena had predominance of some secrets belon∣ging to women. Murcea, was she that was worshipped by such as were lazie, idle, and sloathfull.
Nundina.* She was a goddesse amongst the Romans, taking Page 39 her denomination of the ninth day, called dies Lustricus. In that day children had their names given them, as Macro∣bius relates the males on the ninth day, the females on the eight day after their birth.
Pitho was thought to be the goddesse of eloquence: the Latines called her Suada.
Razenna, was one amongst the Etruscians, who was to rule in Wedlock, and marriages.
Robigo and Robigus, were a two sex deity, of whom the Romans were opinionated, that they could preserve their sheaves and unthresh'd corn from being musty or mouldy. Their Festivals were called Robigalia.
Rumilia, was the protect••sse of sucking infants, as anci∣ent Writers are of opinion: for Ruma signifies mamma, a dug, and therefore sucking lambs are called Subrumi.
Runcina belongs to the gardens, and is said to be the goddesse of weeding; her, the poor women weeders have in great reverence.
Seia, the ancients report to be the goddess of sowing; and Segesta had her name from the binding up of the sheaves: both these had their Temples in Rome in the time of Pliny.
Tutilina and Tutanus were gods, so called of Tutando, preserving, or keeping safe. Eanius cals them Aevi∣lernos, and Aevilogros, as much as, Ever liv'd, and ever in the perfectness and strength of their age; because it was in full power and vigour, not subject to mutability or capable of alteration. In naming of gods, we may as well use the feminine as the masculine, and the masculine as the feminine gender, as Virgil speaking of Venus.
Vacuna dea, was Lady and Governess over those that were vacant, and without business; especially had in reve∣rence by swains and husbandmen, who after the gathering of their harvest had a cessation from labour.
Vallania was held to be the goddess of vallies.
Vitula dea, had predominance over youthfull mirth and Page 40 blandishments: For Vitulari was by the ancient gramma∣rians taken for gaudere, to be glad or rejoice.
Volupta is held to be the goddess of Pleasure.
Rhaea This goddess hath by the Poets allowed her a Charriot drawn by four Lyons, a Crown upon her head of Cities, Castles and Towers; and in her hand a golden Scep∣ter. Priests could not offer at her Altar before they were guelded, which order was strictly observed in memory of Atyos a beautifull Ph•ygian youth, and much beloved of Ceres, but would no waies yeeld to her desires: because (as he excused himselfe) he had a past vow of perpetuall cha∣stity; but after, not mindfull of his promise (as Dorytheus Corinthius in his histories relates) he comprest and deflou∣red the nymph Sagaritides, of whom he begat Lydus and Tyrhenus. Lydus gave name to Lydia, as Tyrhenus to Tyrhe∣na. For this the imaged goddess strook him with such fu∣rie and madnesse that he guelded himselfe, and after would have cut his own throat, had not she commiserating his penitence, transform'd him to a Pine-tree, or as others will have it, restored him to his sences, and made him one of her Eunuch Priest▪ N. cander in Alex•pharm. saith, her sa∣crifices were observed every new Moon with much tinck∣ling of brass, sound of timbrels, and strange vociferation and clamours. Some fable, that Jupiter being asleep, and dreaming, let that fall to the earth which may be called Filtus ante patrem; of which the earth conceiving, produc'd a genius in an humane shape, but of a doubtfull sex, male and female, called Agd•st•; the gods cut off all that be∣longed to the masculme •ex, and casting it away, out of that first grew the Almond tree, whose fruit the daughter of the flood Sangatius first casting, and hiding part thereof in her bosome, as they wasted there and vanished, so she be∣gan to conceive, and in time grew great and brought forth a* son, whom laying out in the wood, he was nursed by a goat, and fostered till he was able to shift for himself. As he grew in years, so he did in beauty, insomuch that he excee∣ded the ordinary feature of man: of him was Agdistes won∣drously inamored, who when he should have married with the daughter of the King of Pestinuntium, by the inter∣comming of Agdiste, such a madness possest them borth, that not only Attes, but his father in law likewise, caused their parts of generation to be cut quite away. Pausanias in A∣chaicis saith (that for his tare beauties sake) Rhea selected Page 41Attes into her service, and made him her Priest. Those of that order were called Matragyrte, as either begging pub∣lickly, or going from house to house to demand things ne∣cessary for her Offerings: For the Greek word Meter sig∣nifieth Mater, or Mother, and Agartes, Praestigiator or Men∣dicus, a Jugler or Beggar. She was call'd by divers names, as Proserpina, Isis, Cybele, Idea, Berec••thia, Tellus, Rhaea, Vesta, Pandora, Phrigia, Pylena, Dindymena, and Pessinuntia: some∣times of the places, sometimes of the causes. Rhaea bearing young Jupiter in her womb, and ready to be delivered: knowing the predicted cruelty of Saturn, who commanded him to be slain, retired her selfe to Thaumasius a mountain in Arcadia, fortified by Hoptodamus and his fellow giants, lest Saturn should come with any forcible hostility to op∣presse her: this mountain was not far distant from the hill Molossus in a part of Lysia, where Jupiter was born, and Saturn there deluded; into which place it is not lawfull for any man to enter, only women. Lucian in Nigrino saith, that the Phrygian pipe was only sufficient to yield musick to her sacrifices, for that was no sooner heard, but they fell into a divine rapture resembling madnesse, neither was the Pine only sacred to her,* but the Oake, as witnesseth Apol∣lodorus. Euphorion attributes to her the Vine,* because out of that wood her Effigies was alwaies cut. Apollonius left re∣corded▪ that the Milesian Priests accustomed first to sacri∣fice to Taetia and Silaenus, and after to Rhaea, the mother of the gods, whose altars were deckt and adorned with Oaken bowes. By Rhaea is meant the earth, or that strength of the earth which is most pertinent and available in the genera∣tion of things: She is drawn in a Charriot, because the globe of the earth hangs in the middle of the aire, without supporture, neither inclining or declining to one part or another, and that by nature. About her chariot are wild beasts, the reason is, she is the producter and nourisher of all creatures whatsoever. Deservedly she wears a Crown of Towers and Turrets, being the Queen and Mistresse of so many Towns, Castles, and Cities. By the noise of musick and clamours at her sacrifices, is observed the whistling and blustring of the winds, who are necessary in all the affairs of nature, especially in heat and cold, bearing the show∣ers and tempests to and fro upon their wings, to make foul weather in one place, and a cleer skie in another. Her Cha∣riot is drawn with four Lions, which imports those foure Page 42 brothers which blow from the Orient, the Austr•ll, the Occident, and the Septentrion; these are said to be her Coach steeds, and hurry her from place to place because in generation they are much availing: therefore 〈◊〉 all things, as from a fountaine derive their originall and be∣ginning from her, she is most pertinently called R•aea à sluendo, of flowing.
Isis or Io. She was the daughter of the flood I•ach•s: and as Andraetas Ti••dius le•t written, was no better then a strumpet, who by sorcery and witchcraft sought to attract the love of Jupiter, in which businesse she used the assistance of Inyae the daughter of Pan and Eccho, or (〈…〉 will have it) of Suadela: this being d•scovered to Juno. she changed her into a bird which still bearet her name, Inyx, which is frequently used amongst witches in their sorceries and inca•tations: who because she moveth her taile so much and so often, is by the Latines called*Motasilla: from the intrails of this bird, with other ingredients, was made a con∣fection which (they say) Jason gave to Medaea to in•m•u∣rate her, in that expedition which he made to Col hos: this Ione or Io by the cunning of Inyx, lay with Jupiter in a clowd, and after to conceal her from Iuno, he transhap'd her into a Cow: but this jugling being discovered by Iu∣no, she begg'd her as a gift and gave her in custody to Ar∣gus the sonne of Aristor, whose hundered eies Mercury (by the commandement of Jupiter) having charmed asleep, he cut off his head and so slew him. In these distractions, she past the Ionian sea, which from her beares the name (though Theompus and Archidamus rather are of opinion, that that Sea took his denomination from Ionius, an emi∣nent man of Illyria;) from thence she came to Haemus, and transwasted thence to a gulfe of Thracia, which by her was called Bosphorus: There were two Bosphori, the one cal∣led Cimnerius, the other Thracius (so much Prometheus speaks in his Escilus) she past thence into Scythia, and trai∣cting many seas, that divide and run by Europe and Asia, came at length into Aegypt, and by the banks of Nilus re∣assumed her humane shape: and this hapned neer the City Iax, so called of Io, after which she brought forth Epaphus (as Strabo writes) in a cavern or den in Eubaea by the Aege∣an sea shore,* which place is to this day called* Aula Bo∣vis. That she past all these seas in the shape of a Cow, the meaning is, that the ship wherein she sailed, had the image Page 43 of a Cow caryed upon the stern, and therefore was so cal∣led. By Argus with so many eies, was intended Argus a wise and provident King of the Argives, whom Mercury having slaine, released her from his servitude. After all her trans∣marine navigations (being the most beautifull of her time) she was espoused to Apis, King of the Aegyptians: and by reason she taught them in that Countrie the profitable u∣sury arising from agriculture, was esteemed by them a god∣desse, whose statue her fo•▪. Aepaphus (after he had builded Memphis the great City) caused to be erected. Some more ingeniously and divinely withall, say that Isca, by which name the first woman and wife of Adam was called, im∣ports to more than Isis, whom the Aegyptian• honoured as the great and most ancient goddesse and mother of man∣kind: for the Latines and Greeks corrupt the pronuntiati∣on and e•ymology of the word, speaking Isis for Issa or Isca. Therefore as Isca is the wise of our great grandfather Adam, so by the ancient tradition of the Aegyptians, Isis was the wife of Ossidis whom the Latines call Osirides, trans∣ferring the Aegyptian Euphony, to their own Idioma or proper form of speech.
Ate. Ate, whom some call Laesio, is the goddesse of Dis∣cord or Contention, and by Homer termed the daughter of Iupiter:
He cals her a certaine woman that to all men hath been obnoxious and perilous alluding (no doubt) to the pa∣rent of us all, Eve, that first transgressed, and by some reliques of truth, with which he was enlightned, for he saith
As much to say, Pernitious Ate the eldest daughter of Ju∣piter, who hath lost us all. In another fable he alludes to the same purpose, where he saith, Iupiter notwithstanding he was the most wise of all mortals, yet was in daies of old tempted and deceived of his wife Iuno. And this Homer hath plainly de∣livered, that the beginning of evill came first from a wo∣man, and by her the wisest of men was beguiled. Hesiod. (in his book of Weeks and Daies) is of the same opinion, and writes to the same purpose: but in another kind of fa∣ble, Page 44 from the old tradition. For saith he, From Pandora a woman of all creatures the most fairest, and first created by the gods, all mischiefs whatsoever were dispers'd through the face of the whole earth. And though Palephatus in his fabulous narrations, and Pleiades Fulgentius in his Mythologicis other∣wise interpret Pandora, yet Hesiodus is still constant in the same opinion, as may appear in these verses:
Therefore the same author in his Theogonia (as Cyrillus testifies in his third book against Iulian, and in the begin∣ning of the book) cals women Pulchrum malum, The faire evill.
Pandora. Of her thus briefly (the better to illustrate the former) Hesiod tels us: that Promaetheus upon a time offered two Oxen to Iupiter, and having separated the flesh of ei∣ther from the bones; in one of the skins including all the flesh without bones, in the other all the bones without any part of the flesh; and artificially making them up again, bad Iupiter make choise of these, which he would have im∣ploied in his sacrifices, who chused that with the bones: and taking it in great rage to be thus deluded he to be re∣venged, took away all fire from the earth, thereby to in∣flict the greater punishment upon mankind. But Prome∣theus by the assistance of Minerva, ascended heaven, and with a dried cane or reed, kindled at the Charriot of the Sun (unknown to Iupiter) brought fire down again upon the earth,* which Horace expresseth in these words;
This when Iupiter understood, he instantly commanded Vulcan to fashion a woman out of clay, who being the most Page 45 subtle and best furnisht with all kind of arts (so indued by the gods) was therefore efore called Pandora.*Pausanias tearms her the first created of that sex; she was by Iupiter sent to Prometheus with all the mischiefes that are, inclu∣ded in a box; which he denying, she gave it to Epimetheus; who taking off the cover or lid, and perceiving all these evils and disasters to rush out at once, he scarce had time to shut it againe, and keep in Hope, which was the lowest and in the bottome. The purpose of the Poets in this, as I can guesse, is that since Pandora, signifies all arts, all sci∣ences, all gifts, it imports thus much for our better under∣standing, That there is no mischiefe or evill happens to man, which proceeds not from a voluptuous life, which hath all the arts to her ministers and servants: for from them Kings were first instituted and raised to their ho∣nours, by them were plots, stratagems, supplantations, and dangerous innovations attempted; with them grew emula∣tion and envy, discord and contention, thefts, spoiles, wars, slaughters, with all the troubles, cares, vexations, and in∣conveniences belonging and hereditary to mankind.
Of the Marine Goddesses.
IN these, as in the former, I will study to avoid all pro∣lixity, because I am yet but at the start of the race, and measure in my thoughts, the tediousnesse of the way I am to run, before I can attain the goale intended; and therefore thus desperately from the Earth, I leap into the Sea, direct me O ye Marine goddesses, and Amphitrite first.
JVpiter having expelled Saturn from his Kingdome, by the help of his brothers, Neptune and Pluto, and having cast ••ts for the tripartire Empire; the Heaven fell to Iupiter, Hell to Pluto, and the Sea with all the Isles adjacent, to Neptune, who solli•iced the love or Amphitrite, but she not willing to condescend to his amorous porpose, he imploied a Dolphin to negotiate in his behalfe, who dealt so well in the businesse, the• they were not only reconciled, but soone after married. For which, in the parpetuall memory of so Page 46 great and good an office done to him, he placed him a∣mongst the stars, not far from Capricorn, as Higinus hath left remembred in his Fables, and Aratus in his Astrono∣micks: others contend that Venilia was the wife of Nep∣tune: but notwithstanding his love to, and marriage with Amphicrite, he had many children by other Nymphs, God∣desses and wantons. Of Lyba he begot Phaenix, Betus, and Agenor: of Cataeno, Cataenus: of Amimone, Nauplius: of Py∣lanes, (of whom a City of Lacoonia bears name) Avadne, and Aone, from whom the province of Aonia takes his deno∣mination; Phaenix that gave the name to Phaenicia; and A∣thon, of whom the mountain is so called: as also Pheaces, from whence Pheacia (now called Corcyrus) is derived; Dorus, that gives name to the Dorii; and of Laides, the daughter of Otus, Althepus; by Astipataea he had Periclimenus, and Erginus; by Alccone the daughter of Atlas, Anathamus, Anthas, and Hy∣peretes; by whom certain Cities amongst the Trezenians were erected, and from them took their name. Of Arne he had Boetus: of Alope the daughter of Certion, Hippothous: of C•clusa, Asopus: of Brilles, Orion. He begot the Tritons, one of Celaene, the other of 〈◊〉 of Tyrho, Palaemon, and 〈◊〉: of Molio, Cr•atus, and E•ithus; of Crisigone, the daughter of Almus,〈◊〉: of Melantho, Delphus: of 〈…〉 of Venus▪ Erix: of Alistra, Ogigus: of Hip∣pothee, Tap•••us: he had one Cygnus by Caces; another by Scama•drodices, by Tritogenia, the daughter of Aeolus: Miny∣as of the Nymph Midaea: Aspledones of Cleodora: Pernasus of M•cio•ca (to whom, as Asclepeades relates, he granted a Boo•, that shee should walk as firmly and stedfastly upon the water as the land) Euripilus and Euphemus: Besides these he 〈◊〉 another Euphemus that was steers man in the Argo, when all the brave Heroes of Greece made their expedition for the golden fleece. As also Amicis, Albion, 〈…〉, Amphimanus, Aethusa, Aon, Alebius, Dercilus,〈…〉 and Astraeus, who ignorantly having been 〈◊〉 with his sister Aleyppa, and the next day their 〈◊〉 of blood and affinity being known to him by a 〈…〉 himselfe headlong into a river, and was drow∣ned; * which 〈…〉Leo Bizantius writes, was first from him called 〈◊〉 and after Caius, of Caicus the sonne of Mer∣cury and 〈◊〉: moreover these were his children, Acto∣•on 〈◊〉, Bromes, Busyris, Certio• Crocon, Cromos, Crysoos, 〈◊〉, Chrisogenaea, Crius, Dorus, Euphemus, Ircaeus, Lelex, Page 47 Lamia the Prophetesse, and S•billa, Hallerhoitius, Laestrigone, M•garaeus, Mesa•us, Ephialtes, Nictaeus, Melion, Nausithous, O•hus, Occipite, Poliphemus, Piracmoa, Phorcus, Pelasgus, Phaeax, Pegasus, Phocus, Onchestus, Peratus, Siculus, Sicanus, Steropes, Farus, Theseus, Haretus, and others infinite, besides foure∣score whose names are remembred: there are others scarce to be numbered, for as Zetzes saith in his History,
All that are high minded, and strong men, were esteemed as the sons and friends and beloved of Neptune. Amphitrite, signifies nothing else, but the body and matter of all that moist humour which is earth above, below, or within the earth, and for that cause she is called the wife of Neptune: Euripides in Cyclope,* takes her for the substance of water it self.*Orpheus cals her Gla•cae and Piscosa, that is blew and ful of fish, being attributes belonging solely to the goddesse of the Sea. And by the Dolphins soliciting the love of Neptune to Amphitrite, and reconciling them, is meant nothing else but to illustrate to us That of all the fishes that belong to the sea he is the swiftest, the most active, and apprehensive.
Thetis or Tethies.
HEsiod cals her the wife of Oceanus,* who is stiled the fa∣ther of all the floods, creatures, and gods: because (as Orpheus, Thales, and others are of opinion) all things that are bred and born, have need of humour, without which nothing can be beget or made corruptible. Isacius hath left recorded, that besides her he had two wives, Partenope, and Pampho•••e; by Par••nope he had two daughters, Asia and Libia: by Pampholige, Europa, and Thracia: and besides them, three thousand other children, for so many Hesiod num∣bers in his Theogonia. This Thetis was the daughter of the earth and heaven, and therefore as Oceanus is called the father of the 〈◊〉, so is she is esteemed as the mother of the goddesses.*〈◊〉 cals one Thetis the daughter of Chi∣•on the C•ntaure: and Homer in his hymn to Apollo, the child of Nereus, which 〈◊〉 confirms,* as also Euripides in Aphigema and in 〈◊〉 she was the wife of Peleus, and of all women living, the most beauti••ll, of whom Apollodorus thus speaks, They say Iupiter and Neptune contended about her Nuptias, but she not willing to incline to Iupiter, be∣because Page 48 because she was educated by Juno, therefore he in his rage allotted her to be the bride of a mortall man. Homer writes that she was angry, being a Marine goddesse, to be the wife of a man, therefore to avoid his embraces, she shifted her selfe into sundry shapes and 〈◊〉: but Peleus being advised by Chiron, notwithstanding all her transformations (as into 〈◊〉, into a Lion, and others) never to let go his hold till she returned into her own naturall form, in which he vitiated her, and of her begot A••illes; the last shape she took upon her, was a Sepia, which is a fish called a Cuttle, whose blood is as black as ink; now because this was done in Magnesia, a City of Thessaly, the place (as Zertzes in his history records) is called Sepias:*Pithenaetus and others say that she was not compelled or forced to the marriage of Peleus, but that it was solemnized in the mountain Pelius, with her full and free consent, where all the gods and god∣desses, saving Discord, were present, and offered at the wed∣ding, for such hath been the custome from antiquity; Plu∣to gave a rich Smaragd, Neptune two gallant steeds, Xan∣thus and Ballia; Vulcan a knife with an hast richly carved, and some one thing, and some another. By Peleus she had more sons then Achilles, which every night she used to hide beneath the fire, that what was mortall in them might be consumed: by which they all died save Achilles, who was preserved by being in the day time annointed with Ambro∣sia; therefore (as Amestor in his Epithalamium upon The∣tis〈◊〉 relates) he was called Piresous, as preserved from the fire, additur hinc n•men Piresous. She was the sister of Titaa, and brought forth Ephire (who was after married to 〈◊〉) and 〈◊〉,* who as Ovid relates in his book de Fast•, was the 〈…〉Atlas. These are likewise num∣bred amongst the daughters of Oceanus and Thetis, Acaste, Admete, Asia (that gave name to a part of the world, till now called Asia) Clim•ne, Idy•a, Ephire, Eudora, Eur•ome, Jamra, 〈…〉 Plexame, Primno, Rhodia, Thea, Thoe,〈…〉, who was beloved of Apol∣lo, but being jealous or his affection to Leucothoë, she had discovered it to her father Orchamus; Apollo therefore left her: in griefe of which, she vowed an abstinence from all sustenance whatsoever, onl• with fixt eies still gazing upon the course of the Sun; which the gods commiserating, changed her into an Hel••aropi•n, which is called the Suns flower, which still inclines to what part soever he makes Page 49 his progresse. But whether she be Tethies or Thetis, she is no other than the reputed goddesse of the Sea: her name importing that huge masse of water or element (as Virgil in his Pollio saith) necessary to the generation of all crea∣tures whatsoever. Towards the East she is called Indica, towards the West Atlantica•, where she divides Spain and Mauritania; towards the North, Pontica and Glaciatis, as likewise Rubra, and Aethopica, for so Strabo relates, as also Rhianus in the navigation of Hanno the Carthaginian. Stiphilus in his book de Thessalia hath bequeathed to memo∣ry, That Chiron a wise and skilfull Astrologian, to make Peleus the more famous, consulted with the daughter of Acloris and Mirmidon, and betwixt them published abroad that he by the consent of Jupiter, should match with the goddesse Thetis,* to whose nuptials all the gods came in great showers and tempests (for he had observed a time when he knew great store of raine would fall) and from that the rumour first grew, That Peleus had married Thetis. But Dailochus and Pherecides report, that Peleus having pur∣ged himself of the murder of his brother Phocus, murdered Antigone: others say that he first took Antigone, and after her death, Thetis; and that Chiron being an excellent Chi∣rurgeon, was so called for the lightnesse and dexterity of hand (which is an excellent gift in the searching and dres∣sing of wounds, in any of that profession.) Apollodorus saith, that Thetis after many windings and turnings, and transhapes to preserve her virginity, was at length com∣prest by Iupiter. The Nymphs called Dorides, were her Mi∣nisters and handmaids.
THey were the daughters of Nereus and Doris; he is said by Hesiod to be the son of Oceanus and Thetis, he is stiled a Prophet or South saier, who as Horace tels us, did predict to Paris all the calamities that were to succeed at Troy. Apollonius tels us that his chiefe mansion, or place of residence, is in the Aegean sea. The same is, that Hercules being sent to fetch the golden apples of the Hesperides, and not knowing where abouts they grew, went to the Nymphs that dwel by the banks of Eridamus, to be resolved by them: they sent him to demand of Nereus, who thinking to delude him by shifting himselfe into sundry shapes, was notwith∣standing held so fast by Hercules, that he was forced to as∣sume Page 48〈1 page duplicate〉Page 49〈1 page duplicate〉Page 45 his own form againe, and tell him; for so O•pheus in his A•gonauticis informs us. He is said to have a principa∣lity in the sea, to be delighted in the company of Nymphs and Damosels; as also to be the beginning and end of wa∣ters; of whom O•pheus in one of his hymns thus sings:
Euripides in one of his Tragedies, saith, he was educated and noursed by the waters, and cals him the father of the Nereides. He had daughters by Doris, the Nymphs Halia, Spio, Pasitaea, and Lygaea; Hesiod in his Theogonia reckons of them to the number of fifty. Doris was the sister of Nereus; Horace and others describe her with green haire. Theocri∣tus in Thessaliis, saith, that the birds called Halciones, were to them most gratefull: some say that they use to dance and revell in the waters, and play about the chariot of Tri∣ton, as nimbly as fishes. Homer in his Iliads reckons of that ranck, Glauce, Thalia, Cymodoce, Nesea, Spio, Thoe, Halie, Cymo∣thoe, Actaee, Melite, Agane, Amphithoe, Iaere, Doto, Proto, Pheru∣sa, Dinamione, Doris, Amphinome, Panope, Callianira, Dexamine, Gala•aea, Amathaea, Callianassa, Climine, Ianira, Ianassa, Mera, Orithia. Hesiod besides these reckons up Euerate, Sao, Eu∣dore, Galene, Glauce, Pasithaea, Erato, Eunice, Doro, Pherusa, Ne∣saee, Protomedea, Do•is, Panope, Hippothoe, Hypponoe, Cymatole∣ge, Cimo, Eione, Halimeda, Glanconome, Panto, Pautopenia, Liago∣re, Evagore, Laomedala, P•l•nome, An•onoe, Lasianassa, Evarne, Psamathe, Menippe, Neso, Eupompe, Themito, Pronoe, Nemertes, Apollodorus Athentensis adds to these, Glancothoe, Nonsithoe, Halia, Pione, Plesrure, Calipso, Crante, Neomeris, De•ane•ra, Poli∣noe, Melie, Dione Isaea, Dero, Eumolpe, Ione, Ceto, Limnoraea, and all these are held to be most beautifull▪ it is therefore thus fabled, That C•ssiope wife to Cepheus King of Aethiopia, glo∣ried so much in her beauty, that she held her selfe to be the fairest woman in the world; and did not onely compare, but preferre her selfe before the Nymphs called Nereides: for which, their indignation was kindled against her, and in that high measure, that they sent into those seas a Whale of an incredible greatnesse; the people consulting with the Oracle, how to appease the goddesses, and free themselves from the monster; answer was returned, That it could not be done, but by exposing their only daughter Androme∣da, fast bound to a rock that overloked the sea, to be a prey to the sea-Whale; but she was thence released by the ver∣tue Page 51 of Perseus: and Cassiope by this means (as a perpetuall example that all such rashnesse ought to be avoided) tran∣slated amongst the stars, for so much Arataeus hath left to memory in certain verses interpreted by Cicero.
This Nerius is for no other reason said to be the son of Oce∣anus and Tethis than to denote unto us the counsell, judge∣ment, and cunning, in guiding and directing ships by sea; and therefore to have many daughters, which are nothing but inventions, new devises, stratagems, and changes be∣longing to navigation. He is therefore said to be a Prophet, because in all arts and disciplines, there is a kind of know∣ledge, by which we foresee and divine of things to come, for he is held no skilfull navigator, that cannot foretell by the weather, the changes of winds, and certain signs of tem∣pests, thereby to use prevention against them before they suddainly come. He is also said to change himselfe into ma∣ny figures, to give us to understand, that it is the part of a knowing and understanding man, to arm himselfe against all chances and varietie of things whatsoever. It is there∣fore required of such a man, to use providence and care in all his affairs and actions, and not to accuse the gods if any thing sinisterly happen unto him through his own te∣merity and rashnesse; since with a prudent and well go∣verned man, their help and assistance is alwaies pre∣sent.
The daughters of Triton.
ACesander cals Triton the son of Neptune. Numenius in his book de piscatoribus, derives him from Oceanus and Te∣this. Lycaphron in those verses wherein he tels of a cup pre∣sented unto him by Medea, cals him the sonne of Nereus. The Poets ascribe to him the invention of the trumpet, and that it was first used in the Gigomantichia, the great battel betwixt the gods and the gaints: for in the midst of the skirmish, when the event of the battell grew doubtfull, Triton blew so shrill a blast, that the giants thinking it had been the voice of some dreadfull and unknown monster, that undertook the party of the gods, turn'd their backs and sled; by which accident they obtained a more sudden and safe victory. Pausanias cals Tritia the daughter of Tri∣ton, who was at first one of Minerva's Priest, who being comprest by Mars, brought forth Menalippus, but that he had more then her, I have not read.
Page 52Ino. She was the daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, who with her son Melicerta, were enterteined into the number of the Sea-gods; he, by the name of Palaemon, she, of Leuco∣thea: both these are said to have predominance over sai∣lers, and power in navigation. That she cast her selfe head∣long into the sea, I have before related in the tractate of Juno. She was a stepmother, and so prosecuted the children of Nephetes, that she would have sacrificed one of them to the gods; for which (as Polizelus saith) her husband Atha∣nas did prosecute her with such rage, that flying to Gerania (a mountaine amongst the Megarenses) from a rock cal∣led Maturides, she cast her selfe and her son into the sea; and of the same opinion is Pausanias: some think it hapned at the same time that the Nereides were dancing there, and that his body was transported by the waves to Sisiphus, from Exhaenuntia, where the Ithmian pastimes were first cele∣brated to his remembrance. They of the City Megaera af∣firm, her body to be cast upon their shore, and by Cleso and Tauropolis, the daughters of Cleson, took up and buried. She was afterwards called Matuta, as Cicero in his Tuscul. dis∣putations, saith, Ino the daughter of Cadmus, Is she not called by the Greeks Leucothoe, and by us Latines Matuta? And that she is taken for the morning, is manifest by Lu∣cretius, lib. 5. Pausan in his Messanaicis saith, that she was first named Leucothoe in a small village not far from the City Corone, and that she had clemency in the securing and preserving of ships, and pacifying the violent and troubled billowes of the Ocean. Palaemon is also called Portunus, or the Key-carrier (as one that keeps a key of all the ports and havens, to exclude and keep out all forrein enemies) and the son of Matuta, or the Morning; in that time com∣monly the winds begin to breath and rise with the depar∣ting of night, and because that from the land they rush up∣on the waters, they are therefore said to cast themselves head-long into the sea; for the morning is the most cer∣tain interpreter either of succeeding winds and tempests, or of the countenance of a serne skie, and faire weather. Strabo cals Glaucus the son of Anthedon, a Boeotian; but Theo∣phrastus will have him the issue of Polybus the son of Mercu∣ry and Euboea, Promothidas, Heracl•ota, derives him from Phorbus, and the Nymph Pampaea, born in Aothedon, a fa∣mous City of Boe•tia; Thelytus Methimnaeus in his Bacchick numbers, brings his progenie from Nopaeus. Epicus in one of Page 53 his hymns, from Evanthes the son of Neptune and Maedis. He is said to have ravisht Syma the daughter of Iclemis and Doris, and to have transported her into Asia; and was after married to Hidua, the daughter of Sydnus Scioneus, one that used to dive and fetch things up from the bottome. But of his issue there is nothing left remembred. It is commen∣ted of him, that being a fisherman, and having taken more fishes then he could carry upon his back with ease, and laying down his burden to rest him by the shore, there grew an herb, which the dead fishes no sooner touched or tasted, but they instantly recovered life, and one by one leapt into the sea: he by tasting the same herb to prove the vertue thereof, was forced to leap after them, and so was made a Sea-god▪ Others are of opinion, that wearied with the tediousnesse of his age, hee willingly drowned him∣selfe.
The wives and daughters of Proteus.
ZEtzes in his foure and fortieth history, cals Proteus, the sonne of Neptune and the nymph Phenica; who travelling from Aegypt into Phlegra, there took to wife Torone, by whom he had three sonnes, Toronus, Timilus, and Telegonus, all wicked and bloody minded men, who for their cruelty perisht by the hands of Hercules. Euripides speaks of one Psamethes, a second wife, by whom he had Theonone and Theolymenus. He had moreover these daughters, Cavera, Rhetia, and Idothaea. This was she that when Menelaus doubted of his returne into his countrey (having sojourned somewhat long in Aegypt) counselled him to apparell him∣selfe and his followers in the fresh skins of Porposes, and counterfeit themselves to sleep amongst these Sea-cattell, and that about the heat of the day, at what time Proteus used to come out of the deeps upon the dry land, and there take a nap with his Porposes, then to catch fast hold on him sleeping: and notwithstanding all his changeable shapes and figures, not to dismisse him, till he had reduc'd himself to his own naturall form, and then hee would predict to him whatsoever was to come. This counsell given by Ido∣thaea, Homer excellently expresseth in his fourth book of his Odyssaea. It is said of him that he could change himsel•e sometimes into water, and againe to fire, to 〈…〉 birds, trees or serpents, &c. Neither did this mutability Page 54 of shape belong to him onely; for we read the like of Thetis and Mestra or Metre, the daughter of Eresicthan the Thessalian. Periclemenus the son of Neleus and Polymela, and brother of Nestor obtained the same gift of Neptune: of him Euphor•on and Hesiod speaks more at large. Empusa is remembred by Aristophan•s to have the same faculty and dexterity in changing her shape: so likewise Epicharmus.
The Poets (in these changing of shapes, and turning themselves into so many sundry sorts of creatures) impor∣ting nothing else, but the wisdome of such persons who have searcht into the hidden mysteries of Philosophy, and acquired the natures and properties of water, fire, herbs, 〈◊〉, and plants, beasts, birds, and serpents; in which be∣ing perfect, they may be (and not altogether unproperly) said to change themselves into the similitudes of so many creatures.
The daughters of Phorcis.
THis Phorcis, whom the Latines call Phorcus, was the sonne of Terra and Pontus, the Earth and the Sea, as Hesiod in his Theogonia makes him: But Varro will have him to be the issue of Neptune, and the Nymph Thosea. He had besides those daughters, begot one Ceto the Ph•rcidae, name∣ly, the Gor•ons; and Thoosa, who lay with Neptune, and brought forth the Cyclops Polyphemus, as Homer witnesseth. He is called also the father of the serpent that kept the He∣•perides, by Hesiod. But I will forbear the rest, to speak some∣thing of his daughter Medusa.
Medusa. She for her lust and immoderate appetite to in∣chastity, incurred the ire of the gods, being so impudent, as to suffer the imbraces of Neptune in the •emple of Miner∣va. There were divers of that name, one the daughter of Priam, another of Sthenelus and Niciope. Pa•sanias, in Co∣rinthiacis cals her the daughter of Phorhus, others of 〈◊〉 sea-monster, which I take to be Phorcus before mentioned. Mi∣nerva, for the prophanation of her Temple being grievously Page 55 incens'd, thought to punish her in those hairs which a lit∣tle before were so wondrous pleasing to Neptune, and turned them into hissing and crawling snakes; giving her this power, that whosoever gazed upon her face, should be in the instant converted into stone. Isacius is of opinion, that that was not the cause of her calamity, but relates it ano∣ther way, That Medusa was of Pisidia, and the fairest of all women, who glorying in her feature, but especially the beauty of her hair, dared to contend with Pallas; which ar∣rogant impudency the goddesse heinously taking, her hair (in which she so ambitiously gloried) she changed into fil∣thy and terrible snakes, and then gave her that killing look before mentioned; but pitying at length so generall a mis∣chiefe, incident to mortall men by that means, she sent Per∣seus the son of Jupiter and Dana (or rather as some wil have it, he was imploied by Polydectes, King of the Seriphians) to cut off her head, who having before received a hooked skein called Harpe, from Mercury, and a shield from Pallas, came to the •en called Tritonides, amongst whose inhabitants she exercised her mischiefe; and first approaching Pephredo, and Aenio, two of the Phorcidae and of the Gorgonian si∣sterhood, who were old and wrinckled crones from their nativity, they had betwixt them but one eie and one tooth, which they did use by turns; and when they went abroad, or when they had no occasion to imploy them, laid them up in a casker, for so Ascilus relates. He borrowed of them that eie and tooth: neither of which he would restore till they had brought him to the Nymphs with winged shooes, which taking from them, and being armed with the Helmet of Pluto, the sword of Mercury, and the mirrour of Pallas, he fled to Tartessus, a City of Iberiae where the Gorgons then inhabited; whose heads crawled with adders, whose teeth were like the tusks of a boare, their hands of brasse, and their wings of gold; and there arriving, found them asleep, and spying her head in Minerva's glasse, in which he still looked, it directed him so, that at one blow be cut it off, out of whose blood Pegasus sprung forth. The other two sisters, Sthumo and Aeuryale, awaking, and this seeing, with the loud hissing of these innumerable snakes, made a noise most dreadfull and horrible: From whence Pallas first de∣vised the pipe with many heads. The form and shape of these Phorcidae,*Hesiod elegantly describes. Crisaor and Pe∣gasus were begot of the blood dropping from Medusa's Page 56 head,* as Apollonius Rhodius writes in his building of Alex∣andria. The Gorgons were called Graee, as Zetzes explicates in his two and twentieth History. M•nander in his book de Mysteriis, numbers S•ylla amongst these Gorgons, and that they inhabited the Doracian Islands, scituate in the Aethi∣opick sea, which some call Go•gades, of whom they took the names of Gorgones. Nimphodorus in his third book of Histories, and Theopompus in his seventeenth, affirm their girdles to be of wreathed vipers: so likewise Polemo in his book to Adaeus and Antigonus. The occasion of these fi∣ctions are next to be inquited after. By these Graee the daughters of Sea-monsters is apprehended, Knowledge, and such Wisedome as is attained too by Experience They are said to have but one ere, which they used when they went abroad, because Prudence is not so altogether neces∣sary to those that stay within, and solely apply themselves to domestick affairs; as to such who look into the world, and search after difficulties. Of this Wisedome, or these Graee (not impertinently called the sisters of the Gorgons) is meant the pleasures and vain blandishments of the world, with the dangers that appertaine to the 〈…〉: from either of which, no man without the counsell of 〈◊〉 can acquit himselfe: Therefore is Per••us said to overcome the Gorgons, not without the 〈◊〉 of Pluto, the eie of the Grae•, the sword of Mercury, and the mirror of Pallas; all which who shall use a•ight, shall p•ove himself to be Perse∣us, the friend and son of Iupiter.
Scylla and Charybdis.
ACusilaus and Apollonius, both nominate Scylla to be the daughter of Ph••cia and H•caete: but Homer, that her mothers name was Crataeis.*Chariclides cals her the issue of Pho•bantes and H•cate: Ste•ichorus, of Lamia; Tymeus terms her the daughter of the ••ood Cratus. Pausanias in Atticis, and Strabo in l. 8. agree that this Scylla was the daughter of Nysus, King of the Megarenses, who surprised with the love of King M•nos, stole from her fathers head that purple lock in which consisted the safety of his own life and Kingdome. The Athenians having invaded his dominion, and seised many of his Townes, and wasted the greatest part of his country by their fierce and bloody incursions, they at length besieged him in the City Nysaea. Some are of opinion, that ••sus incensed with the foulnesse of that treason, caused her Page 57 to bee cast into the sea, where shee was turned into a sea-monster. Pausanias avers, that she was neither changed into a bird, nor a monster of the sea, nor betrai'd her father, nor was married to Nisus, as he had before promised her; but that having surprised Nysaea, he caused her to be precipi∣tated into the sea, whose body tost to and fro by the waves of the Ocean, till it was transported as far as the Promon∣tory ca•led Scylaea, where her body lay so long upon the continent unburied, till it was devoured by the sea-fouls: this gave pl•ce to that fable in Ovid.
'Tis said, the daughter having stoln her fathers purple hair, sair. Fals from the hin-deck of the ship, and thence sores through the Z•nodorus saith, that she was hanged at the stern of Mi∣nos his ship, and so dragged through the waters till she died: and that Scylla the daughter of Phorcus, was a damosel of incomparable beauty, and vitiated by Neptune, which known to Amphitrite, she cast such an invenomous confe∣ction into the fountain where she accustomed to bath her selfe, that it cast her into such a madnesse, that she drowned her selfe. Of his mind is Miro Prianaeus in his first book Rerum Messanicarum. Others imagine, that she had mutuall consociety with Glaucus the sea god, which Circe (who was before inamoured of him) understanding, she sprinkled the well wherein she used to lave her self with such venomous juice, that from her wast downwards, she was translated in∣to divers monstrous shapes; which as Zenodotus Cyrenaeus saith, was the occasion of the Fable commented upon her. Isaoius thus describes her deformity; She had six heads, the one of a canker-worm, the other of a dog, a third of a L•on, a fourth of a Gorgon, a fifth of a whirl-poole or a Whale the six• of a woman. Homer in his Odysses, describes her with six heads, and twelve feet, every head having three order of teeth. Virgil in Sileno saith, that all ships were wrackt and devoured by those drugs that grew be∣neath her navell.
Charybdis. She was likewise a most devouring woman, who having stolne many Oxen from Hercules, which he before had taken from Geryon, was by Jupiter stroke with a thun∣derbolt, and so transformed into that monster of the sea; others contest, that she was slaine by Hercules, and after so transhap'd: of these divers are diversly opinionated. Stra∣boPage 58 saith, that Homer imagined the vehement flux and reflux of that sea about the concaves of those rocks made so ter∣rible a noise, that therefore the Poets fabulated, that in her sides, and about her interiour parts were the barkings of dogs continually heard. Isacius writes, that Scilla is a pro∣eminent promontory over against Rhegium in Sicily, han∣ging over the sea, under which are many huge and mas•ie stones hollowed by the billowes in whose concavities many sea-monsters inhabit, and when there is shipping in those parts amongst those rocks and shelves, they are either swal∣lowed by Charybdis or Scylla. Charybdis being scituate di∣rectly against Messina, and Scylla against Rhegium: they are therefore said to be women, because afar off these pro∣montories appeare as it were in a feminine shape, what fleet soever by the tides and tempests was forc'd upon Cha∣rybdis, were there shipwrackt, and such as by Charybdis were •ost on the rocks of Scylla were there swallowed. In which fable is included the nature of Vertue and Vice. No man but in the progresse of his life, sailes betwixt these two quicksands: if he incline to one hand more then the other, he is either swallowed by Scylla, or devoured by Charybdis. What else doth this signifie, but that which Aristotle in his Ethicks illustrates, Vertue, which is the medium betwixt two extreams? both which are to be avoided, and the mid∣dle, wherein is safety to imbraced: for mans life is nothing else but a continuall navigation betwixt divers molestati∣ons of one hand, and tempting and unlawfull pleasures on the other; both which are comprehended in these Syrtes, or places of certaine destruction. For Scylla is so called 〈◊〉spoliand•, or repando; of spoiling or grieving; And Charyb∣dis of sucking up and swallowing; betwixt which two dan∣gerous, and almost inevitable gulfs, a vertuous and a pious man shall in the greatest storms and tempests (neither in∣clining to the right, nor the lese) securely, and with great safety attain unto his wished harbour. Moreover, where Scylla is said to transhap't into this monster, by Circe, being so faire and beautifull a creature, What is it but to demon∣strate unto us, that all such as digresse from reason, and the true institution of good life and manners, do withall put on a bestiall and brutish shape, since Circe imports nothing else then a wanton •i•illation, inciting us to immoderate and unlawful lusts and pleasures: and so much I guesse was intended by the Poets in these Fables of Scylla and Charyb∣dis.
The Goddesses of the Hils, Woods, Groves, and Trees.
IT is commemorated by Plato,* in certain of his verses, that the Hydriades and Hamadriades much delighted in the musick of Pan, who was the god of shepherds, and that they used to dance about him; the first beginning of the harmo∣ny which came from the pipe being invented by him, and made from his love the nymph Syrinx, by London changed in∣to a reed,* the manner was thus, as Ovid manifests:
Isacius saith, that the Nymph Eccho was beloved of him, and that by her he had a daughter called Iringes, she that to Medea brought the love potion which she presented to Page 60Iason: but of Pan and Syrinx, Ovid thus speaks,
Which reeds being shaken by the wind, making a kind of melody, of these he made his first pipe, which he called after her name. Of the Satyrs, Silaeni, Fauni, and Silvani, memorable things have been recorded, but all being mas∣culine, they belong not to this history in hand: therefore I purposely omit them and proceed to our terrene god∣desses, and of them briefly.
THese because they were bred upon the Hils and Mountains were said to have a dominion and divine government over them. Strabo cals them the daughters of Phoroneus and Hecataea, but Horace in his Iliuds, will have them the issue of Iupiter and Oristrade: some hold them to be but five in number, but Virgil numbers them to be ma∣ny, and companions with Diana in her hunting.
Viz. Such as attend Diana over the banks of Eurota, and over the mountains of Cinthus, a thousand of the Ore∣ades in her company here and there shining: Mnasaea Pa∣tarentis hath bequeathed to memory, that these were the first that absteined from eating flesh, contenting them∣selves with Chesnuts and Acorus, and the fruits of trees. One of them called Melissa. first found and tasted honie in Peloponnesus, with whose taste the Greeks were so pleased, that they call all Bees Melissae, after her name: From hence it came, that in the sacreds of Ceres, and in all nations the Priests derived their names from her. These Nymphs were supposed to have the charge of hils and mountains, and sometimes of such wild beasts as they pursued in the com∣pany of Diana: but the protection of private herds or domestick flocks was not conferr'd upon them; so religi∣ous were the people of old, that neither publick place, nor private, was destitute of some peculiar and divine power: so likewise every element, herb, root, and tree, or whatsoever Page 61 simple was usefull and medicinable, or obnoxious and hurtfull to the life of man. Those of the mountains were Oreades or Orestiades.
The Dryades and Hamadriades.
THe Dryades had predominance over the woods and groves, as Pomona over the orchards and gardens. The Hamadriades were the genii of every particular tree; and as Callimachus in a Hymn to Delos witnesseth of them, they begin with their first plantation, grow with them, and con∣sume and perish as they rot and wither: their number is not agreed upon. Pausanias in Phocicis, cals one of them Tythorera; in Arcadicis, a second, Erato; and a third, Phiga∣lia. Claudianus in laudibus Stiliconis, reckons them seven. Charon Lampsacenus produceth one Rhaecus, who in the coun∣trie of Assyria, having a goodly faire oake, whose earth shrinking from the root, and being ready to fall; as he was propping and supporting the tree, and supplying the decaied mould about it, the nymph or genius of that tree, which was to perish with it, appeared to him, and after thanks for so great a courtesie, bid him demand of her what∣soever, and it should be granted, since by the repairing of that plant she was still to live: He taken with her beauty, demanded liberty freely to embrace her to his own fill and appetite, to which she instantly yielded. Apollonius in his Argonaut, tels of the father of one Paraebius, who going to cut down an ancient faire oake that had stood many years, a Nymph in like manner appeared unto him, humbly pe∣titioning, that he would spare the tree for her sake, since the age of it, and her, and the lives of both, were limited alike: which he refusing, so enraged the other of her fel∣lowes, that many afflictions befell both himselfe and his posterity. Mnesimachus saith, that they are called Dryades, because in their oaks their lives are included; and Hama∣driades, because they are born with them; and Isacius the interpreter of Apollo, because they perish with them. I will conclude these with one tale recited by Charon Lampsace∣nus: Archus (saith he) the son of Jupiter and Calisto, being chacing in the forrests, incountred one of the Hamadriades, who told him how neer she was to ruine, in regard that the river running by had eaten away the earth from the root of such a goodly oak (to which she pointed) and that by Page 62 saving that, he should preserve her: at her intreaty, he turned the stream another way, and supplied the root with earth; for which this Nymph, whose name was Prospetia, granted him her free imbraces: of whom he begot Philatus and Aphidantes. Whether these relations were true or false, is not much to be disputed on; if false, they were for no other causes devised, but by the superstition of the people of ancient daies, who left nothing unmeditated that might stirre up men to the adoration of the divine powers, since in every thing they demonstrated a deity. If they were spo∣ken as truths, I rather beleeve them to be the meer illu∣sions of devils and spirits themselves, then the genii of plants and trees, that made such apparitions.
Of the Goddesses Infernall.
IT lies with much convenience in our way to make dis∣course of Pluto, the third brother of Satu•n; of the river Acheron, and the properties thereof; Of Styx, a flood terrible to the gods themselves, and by which they use to swear; of Cocytus, of Charon, of Cerberus, of the three infernall judges, Minos, Aeacus, and Rhadamant, of Tartarus, with di∣vers others, out of all which many excellent fables, pleasant to read, and profitable to make both morall and divine use of, might be collected: but I skip them of purpose, since I am injoined to it by promise, for but women only I have now to deal with: It therefore thus followes.
Of the Parcae.
OF Proserpina we have treated already amongst the supernall goddesses above, and therefore must neces∣sarily spare her here amongst these below. The Pa•cae (or fatall goddesses) are three, Clo•ho, Lachesis, and Atropos, Ceselius Vindex he gives them three other names, Nona, De∣cima, and Morta; and cites this verse of Livius, a most an∣cient Poet,
Some cals them the daughters of Demorgorgon: others (as Page 63Cicero) of Herbus, and Noz, Hell and Night; by another name, they are called Fata, the Fates, as Seneca,
As much as to say, Many come to their death whilst they feare it. They are said moreover to measure the life of man with a spindle and thread which they spin from their di∣staffe; from which they are called Lanificae by the Po∣ets,
They are said to be inexorable, and by no praiers or in∣treaties be moved to alter the limit of the fixed time, or prorogue the life of man one minute after the date be expired, which was proposed at our births; therefore Se∣neca:
The Poets thus distinguish their offices: one begins the life of man, and plucks the towe from the distaffe; the se∣cond makes the thread, and continues it; the third cuts it off and so ends it. The first is Clotho, whom Satius cals Ferrea, or hard hearted; Seneca, Grandaeva, or extreamly aged; Ponta∣nus, Improba, and Sedula, obstinate and yet carefull and dili∣gent. The second, Lachesis, called by Ovid, Dura, hard; by Martiali, Invida, envious; by Claudian, Ferrea, obdure and rude. The third Atropos, of whom Statius,
Some number Illithia amongst the Parcae.
Plutarch speaking of the face that is visible within the Orb of the Moon, saith, some are of opinion that the soules of men are resolved into the Moon, as their bodies into the Earth: Aliquanto post tempore eas quoque animas in se recepit Luna, at quae composuit. 1. After some time the Moon receives into her selfe those souls which she had before framed, re∣storing their mindes before lost: (for they are all in a dream, like the soule of Endimion) and by coadjuting with the Seminary and vitall powers of the Sun, makes them as new soules. The Tetra, that is the number of Foure sup∣plying the body: for she gives nothing after death, who re∣ceives towards generation. The Sun takes nothing from, but Page 64 receives again the mind which he gives; the Moon both receives and gives, and composeth or makes, and divides; when she makes, she is called Lucina; when she divides, Dia∣na. So of the 〈◊〉Parcae, Atropos is placed about the Sun, as the beginning of this new birth; Clotho is carried about the Sun, to collect and mingle; Lachesis the last, her office is upon the Earth: but these are riddles rather to trouble the brain than profit the understanding. Parcae the mother of these three sisters, is said to be the daughter of Necessity: doubtlesse the Ethick writers held these to be most power∣full goddesses, because all things born, or that had subsi∣stence, were thought to be under their jurisdiction and power, and therefore they were imagined by some, to be the daughters of Jupiter and Themis, because (as the Pytha∣goreans taught) Jove gave to every one a body and form suitable to the merits or misdeeds of their former life; or else because the divine Wisdome allotted to every soule, rewards or punishments, as their good deeds or bad deser∣ved, the cause of which division the ancient Writers not truly understanding, appropriated all to •ate and the Parcae.
Furiae or the Eumemides.
THose whom the Poets call Furiae. Virgil terms the daughters of Night and Acheron. Therefore Galtreus in his twelfth book de Alexand. cals them by a sit Epithite, Noctiginae,
By the same law Mantuan cals them Achecontiginae, as born of Acheron: they are called by Lucan amongst the in∣fernals, Canes, dogs:
Their temples and foreheads, instead of hair are said to crawle with snakes and serpents, as witnesseth Catullus, Sta∣tius, Mantuanus, in Apollon. and others. By Virgil they are called Dirae.
Lactantius in his sixt book de Vero Cultu, writes after this manner: There be three affections or passions, which precipitate into all violent and facinerous actions, there∣fore Poets call them Furies: Ire, which covets revenge; Covetousnesse, which desires riches; and Lust, whose itching appetite is after all unlawfull pleasure. The first of these Furies, called Alecto, discovered by Virgil, where he terms her Luctifica, as making strife and contention: The second is Tesiphone, or Tisiphone, the daughter of Acheron, whom Ovid thus delineates,
Claudian in his book of the praises of Stilico, cals the third daughter of Acheron and Night, Megaerat so likewise Mantu∣an de Calam temporum, lib. 2. The sacreds that were made to these, were by such as having escaped any dangerous dis∣ease, or pestilent sicknesse, had been spared by the fates; and their sacrifices were only done with a sad silence. The Priests were called Hesichidae, of a Heroe called Hesicho, to whom, before the solemnity, a Ram was still offered, a•Po∣lemo witnesseth in that work he writ to Er••osthenes: It was held a prophanation (saith he) for any of the meaner sort of people to ha•e accesse to these to these ceremonies, only to these Hesichides, whose family was only acceptable to these Page 66 severe goddesses, and in all their oblations had the princi∣pall, prime place and precedence. Their Chappell is neer to Cidonium by the Nine ports. All such as sacrificed to them, were in black vestures; and they were alwaies cele∣brated in the night season, as it is manifest by Apollonius.
To them was slaine and offered a c•le black Ewe, and great with young ready to yeane: neither was there any wine u•ed in their sacrifices, which were called Neph•lia. Now because no man should have hope to hide and conceal his own guilt and wickednesse, to the three severe judges of Hell, were given these three ministers; which some call by the name of Erinnae, which signifies the pricks and stings of Conscience (the parents of which were born, importing so much) for there is no greater torture or deeper pier∣cing, then a mans own sentence against himself. And (com∣pendiously to shut up all) the ancient writers would by these signifie unto us, That to a good and just man only, all things are safe: and that innocency and integrity alone, make men fearlesse and constant against all the mutabili∣ties of fortune, since the like torments of Mind, and trou∣bles of Conscience still attend on all such as are impute and dishonest. Thus having past over the goddesses Coe∣lestiall, Marine, and Infernall, the goddesses Selectae, Ter∣restriall, and others; lest my discourse might grow too re∣dious by appearing dull and heavy; and besides, in regard that my purpose is aimed at many, or most of that sex, of what estate and condition soever, to make my worke more succinct and compendious, and to spare you some reading, and my selfe more labour, I will deliver you a multiplicity o• histories and tales in few, namely, in a short Epitome give you the arguments of all the Fables of O•i•s Meta∣morphosis which for your better content I shall expresse to you in verse, and with that conclude my first book called Cho.