An entire body of philosophy according to the principles of the famous Renate Des Cartes in three books, (I) the institution ... (II) the history of nature ... (III) a dissertation of the want of sense and knowledge in brute animals ... / written originally in Latin by the learned Anthony Le Grand ; now carefully translated from the last corrections, alterations, and large additions of the author, never yet published ... by Richard Blome.

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Title
An entire body of philosophy according to the principles of the famous Renate Des Cartes in three books, (I) the institution ... (II) the history of nature ... (III) a dissertation of the want of sense and knowledge in brute animals ... / written originally in Latin by the learned Anthony Le Grand ; now carefully translated from the last corrections, alterations, and large additions of the author, never yet published ... by Richard Blome.
Author
Le Grand, Antoine, d. 1699.
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London :: Printed by Samuel Roycroft, and sold by the undertaker Richard Blome [and 10 others],
1694.
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Subject terms
Descartes, René, 1596-1650.
Philosophy -- Early works to 1800.
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http://name.umdl.umich.edu/A50014.0001.001
Cite this Item
"An entire body of philosophy according to the principles of the famous Renate Des Cartes in three books, (I) the institution ... (II) the history of nature ... (III) a dissertation of the want of sense and knowledge in brute animals ... / written originally in Latin by the learned Anthony Le Grand ; now carefully translated from the last corrections, alterations, and large additions of the author, never yet published ... by Richard Blome." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/A50014.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 25, 2024.

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CHAP. XXIII. Of Health and Sickness.

I. What Health is. HEalth is nothing else, but that State of an Animal, wherein all its Powers can dis∣charge their Functions, as they ought. Or, it is a certain disposition of Body, and Harmony of its parts, whereby its fitted forth, exerting and per∣forming of all Actions, according to the Laws of Nature. For as Harmony in Musick consists in an agreeable concent of Sounds, whilst every one ob∣serves

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such a degree of Depth and Heighth, that it doth not go beyond, or fall short of a due propor∣tion: So we call that a State of Health, when every Humour and Quality observes that exact de∣gree of Intention and Remission that they never exceed in, or fall short of a congruous proportion. Hence GALEN in his first Book of the preser∣vation of Health, defines Health to be such a con∣stitution of Body, in which we are neither sensible of any Pain, neither are we hindred in any of the fun∣ctions of Life: And that therefore those Men are to be accounted Healthful, who without any pain or impediment can perform all the necessary fun∣ctions of Life.

II. Two things are requi∣sit to health There are 2 things more especially that concur to the constituting of Health, viz. a due Tempe∣rament of the Humours, and composition of the parts. By the name of Temperament we under∣stand a certain mixture or Union, according to which the Natural Functions are well and duly performed. And consequently the distemperature of the Humours, as the Excess of Choler, Phlegm or Melancholy do spoil Health, and hinder the use of our Natural Faculties. A congruous consti∣tution or composition of the Parts, consists in a due Number, Magnitude, Situation, Figure and Con∣nexion of the several Parts and Organs, and such a disposition of the Fibres, as the Natural Faculties stand in need of to discharge their seve∣ral Functions.

III. There is a Two-fold Health ac∣cording to Physicians. Physicians commonly distinguish Health into that which is Best and Absolute, which consists in a manner in an indivisible point, from which, if there be never so small a varying or deviation, the same is esteemed to be a Sickness or Disease; and the Other which is also perfect, tho' proba∣bly it may admit of some excess or defect, but not so great, as that it can be accounted for a Sickness, tho' it may cause some little hinderance in the na∣tural functions, or cause some inconsiderable Pain. The former of these States of Health is not to be found in Nature, and can only be conceived in our Minds: Tho', as GALEN saith, it may serve for a Rule, by which we may measure or compute the greater or less degrees of Health. The Latter is attributed to every Man, and is not found in a lower degree except it be acciden∣tally. For Nature always affects that which is best; and if at any time it cannot effect what it intends, yet it always performs the best it can.

IV. What things con∣duce to the preservati∣on of Health Many things are conducive to the preserving of the Health. First the AIR, which being taken in by the Mouth and Nostrils, enters the Body, and is necessary to rid the Blood of fuliginous steams by means of the Lungs; which should it not be continually done, as well the Branches of the Venal Artery as of the Arterial Vein would be obstructed, and not only Health, but also our Life would be in danger.

Secondly, Care is to be taken about our FOOD; for seeing that we stand in need of Food to repair and restore the Consumption made by our Inward Heat, we are to mind that it be taken in such Quantity, Manner, Time and Place as may be most conducive to the Health of our Bodies. For neither must it be taken in so small a Quantity, as to famish or weaken our Bodies; nor so copi∣ously, as thereby to overcharge our Stomachs; nor so frequently as to disturb the Digestion of the Food we have last taken; nor so seldom as to de∣fraud our Stomachs of their due allowance.

Thirdly, The Retention and Voiding, or Ex∣cretion of our ALIMENTS; for seeing that the purest and best of the Food must be changed into the Substance of the Body that is fed, it is of absolute necessity that it be retained in the Bo∣dy: And since it cannot be so pure, but that it must contain some Heterogeneous Parts, the same must be voided, lest by overlong stay in the Body it should putrifie, and disturb the Oeconomy there∣of.

Fourthly, Moderate EXERCISE; for mo∣tion is a great help to excite Heat, and to open those obstructions, which hinder corporal Functi∣ons. But yet on the other hand, overviolent and unseasonable Exercise, wastes the Body, and by di∣sturbing the inward Oeconomy, frequently is the cause of Diseases.

Fifthly, REST; for seeing that as long as we are awake, the Spirits continually course it through the Organs of our Body, this causeth Weariness, which must be restored by Rest and Sleep. Where∣fore whenever we watch too long, our Spirits be∣come dissipated, the strength of our Body weak∣ned, our concoction is hindred, and our whole Body, and more especially our Brain, is thereby dried.

Sixthly, moderate PASSIONS and AF∣FECTIONS, especially those of Joy and Cheerfulness, which promote and help the motion of our Spirits, and cherish and recreate all con∣gruous functions. But of all things, nothing is more conducive to Health, than for every Man to take heed to himself, and carefully examin what he finds Good or Hurtful to him, endeavouring al∣ways to avoid the one, and procure the other, and to use it in due time and manner. And accord∣ingly CICERO tells us in the 4th. Book of his Offices, Health is maintained by the knowledge of ones own Body, and by making observation of those things, which are wont to be Good or Hurt∣ful for us, as also by continual Temperance and Continence throughout the whole course of our Lives, together with the care to keep our Bodies neat and cleanly.

V. What Sick∣ness is, and that it on∣ly resides in the Body SICKNESS on the contrary is such a state of the parts of our Body, whereby they are hin∣dred from the due performance of their Functions. And therefore whatsoever overthrows the Tem∣perament of the foresaid Humours, or the compo∣sition of the Parts, is called Sickness. Tho' Sick∣ness doth attack the whole Man, yet doth it only consist in the Body; because those Distempers which seem to affect the Soul, are only some con∣sequences of Bodily Sickness; as appears manifestly in that as soon as the Body is cured, the griefs and uneasiness that were found in the Soul do immedi∣ately cease, and no longer afflict it.

VI. Of the two General Heads of Sickness. Sickness is commonly divided into two Gene∣ral Heads, viz. into Sickness of the Similar and Dissimilar Parts. Sickness of the Similar Parts, is called a Distemper, when it is such as that it sensibly hurts our bodily Actions, as when any Quality, by Example, that of Heat or Cold doth exceed. And this Distemperature is either Ma∣nifest or Hidden. Manifest is that wherein the Qualities that exceed are known. Hidden, when

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by reason of the ignorance of the exorbitant Qua∣lities, the cause of the Distemperature cannot be found out.

VII. Diseases of the Dis∣simular or Organical Parts. The other kind or General Head of Diseases is of the Organical Parts, which are said to be vi∣cious or faulty, with respect to their Conformation; or with respect to their Magnitude, when they are either greater or less than they ought to be; or with regard to their Number, when therein they exceed, or are defective; or as to their situa∣tion, when they are not rightly placed; or as to their Figure, when it is not such as it ought to be; or with respect to their Connexion, when they are at too great distance from each other, or if they be overmuch crowded together, stretched, comprest, loosened, or grown too stiff.

VIII. Some Dis∣eases afflict only some parts, o∣thers the whole Body. There is also another Division of Diseases into Universal and Particular: Univeral Diseases are such as afflict the whole Body, as Agues and Fe∣vers. Others Particular, which only affect one part of the Body, as the Brain, Lungs, Throat. But to theend that we may be able to understand the chief Diseases of the Body; we shall consider them in the following Order.

IX. Pain of the Head, or Headach. The First Disease, and which hath its seat in the Membrans of the Head, is the HEADACH, which is a Pain, or troublesom Sensation of the Head, proceeding from the Exorbitant Figures of the Blood, which spoil the Temperament thereof. For when the Animal Spirits, being too violent∣ly agitated by reason of a too Cholerick and Glewy Arterial Dew, are driven through the Ar∣teries, to the Head, and the Filaments and Mem∣brans of the Brain, they forthwith disorderly twitch, corrode, prick and cut the same, and find∣ing the pores through which they would make their way, not corresponding with them in Great∣ness and Figure, they by their force slit them up, and thereby produce an exquisit pain in the Head. Hence in the cure of this Disease there is made use of Blood▪letting, and other things conducing to the changing of the Distemper of the Blood, and to drive away the sharp particles, which are got into the most sensible Membrans of the Brain. Purging Medicines are also used, whereof some are more proper to expel these, and others, other particles; such as are Aqucous and Oleous Medicaments, which also stop the too swift motion of the Animal Spirits in the Blood.

X. Phrensie. PHRENSY or Raving is a violent agi∣tation of the Brain and Membrans thereof, caused by the excessive heat of the Blood, and its being filled with sharp and other malignant particles, which entring the Pores and Membrans of the Brain, do frequently cause an Inflammation there. Which then happens when Triangular Particles light upon Round Pores, whereupon in every such Pore, there are left three little spaces, because of the threefold surface, for the filling up of which spaces, the subtil matter presseth in with more abundance, by the rushing in whereof the Parts and Humours become agitated and disturbed. Whereupon the Glandula Pinealis is no longer in a condition to discharge its function, because these Animal Spirits are no longer subject to any Rule, but as Refractory Souldiers and Deserters, cast off the Yoke, and course it up and down without Rule or Discipline. Wherefore Opiates are commend∣ed for the cure of this Disease, which both reduce the Raging Spirits to rest and composure, by clo∣sing up the Nerves, as it were, with Bird-lime, and stop the irregular motion of the sharp parti∣cles, which before did cut the Fibres, and little Branches of the Nerves, that those Fibres, which before were stretched out like Cords, do run toge∣ther into twisted Knots and Bunches, which Knots stop the passage of the Spirits through the Nerves, and so hinders them from being transmitted to all the parts of the Body, and consequently from dis∣charging the wonted functions. Refrigerating or Cooling Medicaments are likewise of use in this di∣stemper; as for Example, the Chymical Prepara∣tion called Nitrum Perlatum, which being dissol∣ved in Water, is found to be of very good use in this case, because it fixeth the Spirits and the Blood, and at the same time opens Obstructions; as also Distill'd Vinegar, Antimony Diaphoretick, and Powder of Pearl, Coral, &c.

XI. Melancho∣ly. MELANCHOLY which is commonly defined to be a Doating, without a Fever or Ra∣ving; is a Delirium or Doating, proceeding from the sadness of the Patient, whereby the Animal Spirits are moved more slowly than they are wont. This distemper of the Blood, is commonly the pro∣duct of a vicious Sowre Humour in the Blood, by means whereof the Animal Spirits are darkned and condensed, which roving through the former footsteps left in the Brain, and rebounding from them, represent the same Images to the Soul; and accordingly Melancholy Persons think the things they have once conceived to be always present with them. Wherefore Alterating Remedies are much used in this Disease, and particularly such as abound with much Volatil Salt, as all Spirituous Matters do, as by Example, the Juice of Betony, Scurvygrass, Brooklime, Chickweed and such like, by means whereof the Ropy and viscous distempe∣rature of the Blood is amended.

XII. Madnes MADNESS is another kind of Doating, accompanied with great Rage and Alienation of Mind, without a Fever, proceeding from the ir∣regular motion of the Animal Spirits being infla∣med, and turned into a fiery Nature. For the Spirits being excited by some outward cause, and inflamed, range about through the Brain, but more especially about the Glandula Pinealis, and rushing like Lightning into the Brain and Muscles, do put the Glandula out of the Souls command, which being deluded by these Spirits, and depri∣ved of all her command over the Body, can no longer guide or govern it; whence proceed so ma∣ny undecent Gestures, Fightings, Quarrels, Bawl∣ings, &c. In order to the stopping of this Ef∣fervescence of the Blood, ponderous Remedies are made use of, as Lapis Prunellae, Saccharum Sa∣turni, or Sugar of Lead, Crabs Eyes, Laudanum Opiatum, Sanguis Draconis, &c. Decoctions also made of some ponderous sorts of Wood, are profi∣table in this case, as which by their heavy and hard Particles, do stop the motion of the Blood.

XIII. Lethargy. LETHARGY is an irresistible inclinati∣on to Sleep, accompanied with great forgetfulness, caused by an Obstruction of the Pores of the Brain, by a thick and gross Humour, and the want of Animal Spirits. This Disease is also in a great measure caused by Steams and Vapours that are mingled with a Slimy, Ropy Due, which being condensed into Water overwhelm the Brain, and

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the Soul together with it. And accordingly this Disease is cured by Volatil and Aromatical Re∣medies which restore the Spirits, and by their vo∣latility open the Pores, and cut the Viscid or Sli∣my Matter: Such as are all Spirituous Matters, all Volatil Salts, especially such as are Aromatical and Oleous, also the Wood Guajacum and Sassa∣fras, the Roots of Masterwort, the Herbs, Balm, Betony, Organy, Sage, Marjoram, Thyme, Rose∣mary, &c.

XIV. Coma Vi∣gil, or the Waking Drowse Disease. COMA VIGIL or the Waking Drowsiness, is a Distemper accompanied with a strong Inclination to Sleep, wherein the Patient lies drowsing with his Eyes shut, without being able to fall asleep. This Disease is caused by too great a dilaration of the Pores of the Brain, from the too much in∣flamed and agitated Animal Spirits. Wherefore in this Sickness it is necessary to purge the infla∣med Choler, which puts the Blood into a violent Fermentation; and to correct the said Humour by Acids. For the best way to cure this Disease is by such Remedies as do allay and asswage the sharpness of the Humour, and Cordials that restore strength, as also by Sudorificks, which volatilizing those sharp particles, drive them by sweat out of the Body.

XV. Catalopsis. CATALEPSIS is a suddain Detention or Immobility of the Body, accompanied with a weakning of the Senses, whereby the Patient retains the same figure of the parts of his Body, which he had in the first moment when he was seized with this Distemper. This Dreadful Dis∣ease is not caused by a freezing of the Animal Spirits, and the Humours that are in the Body, or from a Vapour that congeals the Spirits, as the Ga∣lanists do suppose, seeing that no such thing can happen to the Spirits, but because the Animal Spirits are no more subject to the command and guidance of the Soul, by reason of the Obstruction of the Glandula Pinealis, and therefore cannot move the parts as they used to do. So that the Cause of this Distemper is no other, but the Ob∣struction of either side of this Kernel. Where∣fore for the taking away of this Obstruction, and to restore the Animal Spirits to their Due and Regular Motion, Volatil Salts are prescribed, and Cephalicks, or Medicaments appropriated to strengthen the Brain, and the Glandula Pinealis in particular, the proper seat of the Soul. Strong Motions and Frictions, or Rubbings of the Body are commended with hot and course Linnen Cloath.

XVI. The Verti∣go. The VERTIGO is a Sickness wherein all Objects about us seem to turn round, caused by the undue circular motion of the Animal Spi∣rits. Because in this Distemper the Humours and Blood are so tossed and agitated, that by their ir∣regular motion they affect the Roots of the Nerves, and pressing and crowding upon one ano∣ther, make it appear as if all Visible Bodies turned round. Which crowding and compression pro∣ceeds frequently from the Depravation, and some∣times from the Abundance of Blood. And conse∣quently the cure of this Disease is commonly un∣dertaken by Spirituous Medicines that remove Ob∣structions, by Cephalick and Aromatical Balsams. But if this Disease be caused by an over-great abundance of Blood, then the breathing of a Vein is necessary; if from some depraved Juice lurk∣ing in the Stomach, Vomits are most proper, as also Marmelad of Quinces, Bisket and Crusts of Bread to correct the said vitiated sharp Hu∣mours.

XVII. The Epilep∣sy, or Fall∣ing Sick∣ness. EPILEPSY or the Falling Sickness, is a convulsive motion of all the Parts of the Body, more especially of the Hands and Feet, accompanied with a deprivation of the Inward and Outward Senses. This Disease proceeds from a Deprava∣tion of the Blood, and an Obstruction in the Solid Parts, caused by square figured Particles, which afflict the Nerves with their Angles, which way soever they apply to them; as also by hooked parti∣cles, which being once fastned in the Fibres of the Nerves, cannot so readily be disintangled thence. For the smoothing, and infolding of which parti∣cles, the Decoctions of several sorts of Wood, and other Cephalicks are made use of; whereby the sharpness of the Humours is blunted, and the points of the particles smoothed, as may be seen in a Knife, Sword, Needle, &c.

XVIII. Apoplexy. APOPLEXY is a suddain ceasing of all Animal Actions, viz. Sense and Motion, with the Hurt of the Principal Faculties, proceeding from an over-great Dilatation and opening of the Pores of the Brain, and the Plexus Choroides. For by this means is often caused a total Obstruction of the Brain, which is the Beginning or Rise of the Nerves, by a foreign Humour flowing into the Brain, which stops up the way for the Animal Spirits, whereupon all the Members of the Body flag, and become immoveable; as Sails fall flat, and hang limber, when the Wind fails, that be∣fore distended them. According to this notion of this Disease, liberal Blood-letting is very condu∣cive in that Apoplexy, which is caused by too great abundance of Blood; and a more mode∣rate Blood-letting in that which proceeds from abundance of Phlegm. Rubbing of the parts with Hot Cloaths are also commended, and with Spiri∣tuous Liquors; for by these the Animal Spirits are excited, and the clogging matter that obstructs the Nerves is by this means the better removed. Gen∣tle Glisters are also of good use in the beginning of this Distemper, and afterwards such as are more strong and vehement.

XIX. The Palsie. The PALSIE is a Privation of Sense and Motion, either throughout the whole Body, which is less frequent, or in some Members only proceed∣ing from the want or weakness of the Animal Spi∣rits. For where the Spirits are either altogether wanting, or not in sufficient Quantity, the Nerves and Muscles become limber and flaggy, by which means Sense and Motion, either altogether cease, or are remarkably weakned. Wherefore in order to the Cure of this Distemper Physicians take away a little Blood, to free the Passages from Obstructi∣ons, and afterwards exhibit Medicaments proper to correct the thickness and clamminess of the Blood, and to make it more thin and fluid; such as are altering and inciding Cephalicks and Aroma∣ticks appropriated to the Brain and Nerves. This done, the Pores of the Brain, and Pipes of the Nerves may be opened by Sudorificks, especially such as consist of hard and stiff parts; viz. Sas∣safras, Guajacum, Sarsaparilla, &c. to the de∣coctions whereof some Salt of Tartar may be ad∣ded, for to make the extraction the stronger by opening of the Pores of the said Woods.

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XX. Convulsion. CONVULSION, commonly call'd the Cramp, is an involuntary, continual and painful Contraction of the Muscles, proceeding from a tough, cold and thick Windy Vapour, puffing up and distending the Parts. To the removing of this Distemper, are made use of all Medicaments that open Obstructions and break Wind, whether in∣ward or outward, Volatile Salts, and all Cephalicks.

XXI. The Night-Mare. The NIGHT-MARE, is a great diminution of the Animal motion, and of those parts that are serviceable to the forming of the Voice and Respiration, and more especially the Nerves cal∣led Phrenici and Recurrentes, proceeding from the want of the Influx of Spirits, with the false Ima∣gination of an Heavy weight lying upon one, in the appearance of some frightful Spectre. For whenever during Sleep, the Spirits do not flow freely into the Muscles, then such a Motion is produc'd, as whereby the Soul judgeth some great Burthen to lye upon it, which hinders the free motion of the Midriff. Now this sense of being strangled or choak'd is occasien'd, by reason of the Spirits being hindred from their free ingress into the Muscles of the Throat, which thereupon flag and fall down, and so produce this Sense of Strangulation. In this Disease, the use of Volatile Salts is much commended, especially joyned with Spirituous means; and so likewise Aromaticks, and other Medicaments, proper to incide and attenuate, and consequently to open the Obstructions of the Pores of the Midriff.

XXII. A Catarrh, or Rheum. A CATARRH or Rheum is an Effusion of the sharp particles of the Blood, or serous part of it, in every part of the Body, being because of its long stay there coagulated, and producing a pain in the Part either with, or without a swel∣ling. For when the due and regular mixture and consistence of the Blood is spoiled by Serous and Pituitous matter, many sharp particles are cast out into the Glandulous parts, which by their acrimony, and other manifold malignity twitch the Membrans, whereupon follow frequent Sneezing, troublesome Coughing and Hoarsness. In the beginning of this distemper, mild Catharticks are much commend∣ed, as Pilulae de Succino and other Aloeticks; Bli∣sters also, and Issues, and Scarifications are com∣mended in order to the Evacuation of the serous peccant Humour. Moreover all Oleous and Fat things are of good use in this case, because that by the softness of their parts, they do infold and blunt the sharp points of Heterogeneous saline par∣ticles in the Blood; as likewise thick and Earthly Medicaments as Crabs Eyes, Terra Sigillata, com∣mon Bole, &c. because these are proper to file and rub off the sharp corners of Salts.

XXIII. Cough. Having thus handled the Diseases and Distem∣pers of the Head, we next proceed to consider those of the Breast or Chest, and here we shall in the first place Treat of that Distemper commonly called a Cough, which is a more frequent, uneven and Loud expiration or out-breathing, whereby a great part of Spirits bursting forth violently, en∣deavour to cast forth some sharp, and troublesome Excrements, caused by the sharp, and pricking particles of the Blood, which by the Circulation of the Humours, are carried into the Muscles design'd for inspiration or expiration, and being there in greater quantity than ordinary, do painfully twitch the Parts, and stir up a Convulsive motion. For the sharp particles like so many Knives or Prick∣les, being entred into the substance of the Lungs and the Fibres of the Branches of the Windpipe, do necessarily produce a kind of Convulsion, viz. a Cough. Wherefore, in order to the blunting of these sharp pointed Particles sweet things are com∣mended, and Opiats, which do also allay the sharp∣ness of the Humour. Vinegar of Squills is also of good use, especially where the Patient is troubled with tough Phlegm. And for a Purge Mercurius Dulcis is commended, because it doth cut Phlegm and evacuate it.

XXIV. The Tissick. ASTHMA, or Tissick, is a difficult and thick fetching of ones Breath, with, or without a Fever, sometimes with great wheezing, and other times without it, proceeding from an ill affection of the substance of the Lungs, and the Intercostat Mus∣cles, serving to Respiration. For whenever the Nerves, that belong to the Intercostal Muscles, and other Organs serving to Respiration, are ob∣structed, it produceth difficult Breathing. For the removing of which Obstructions, Physicians com∣mend the use of mild Aromaticks, and Volatile, Oleous Salts, which by their Volatility are very proper to pierce the windings of the Lungs, and to open their Obstructions, caused by tough and slimy matter. The fore-mention'd Decoctions of Wood are likewise very useful, as consisting of hard, ponderous and stiff Particles, which by their irregular figure and heaviness drive through the Pores, resolve the viscid or tough matter, and re∣store the Blood to its due fluidity.

XXV. The Pleu∣risie and Peripneu∣monia. The PLEURISIE, as also the PERI∣PNEUMONIA, is an Inflammation, the one of the Pleura, (that is, the Skin that covers the Ribs;) the other of the Lungs, accompanied with the greatest difficulty of Breathing, a high Fever, a continual Cough, sometimes with Frothy Spittle, and frequently also with that which is Bloody, with great Pain, Heaviness and Anxiety about the Breast and Heart, caused by a sharp, distending, pricking and corroding Matter. For this Matter is nothing else in the Pleurisie, but the sharp-pointed and volatile Parts of the Blood, transmitted to the Membrans that cover the Ribs and the intercostal Muscles; whereas in the Peripneumonia, or Inflammation of the Lungs, they are conveyed into the very Substance of the Lungs, and extravasated thence. Wherefore in either of these Distempers, it is proper to breath a Vein, as well to allay the furious effervescence of the Blood, caused by the foresaid Particles, as to evacuate some part of them. And to alter and correct the sharpness of the Particles of the Blood, testaceous Powders are commended, which do not only imbibe the acidity of the Blood, but also by their ponderosity, serve to dissolve the grumous and coagulated parts thereof.

XXVI. The Con∣sumption of the Lungs. PHTHISIS, or the Consumption of the Lungs, is a wasting of the whole Body, with a slow or Hectick Fever, and Cough, with the spitting of Purulent matter, caused by the sharp Particles of the Blood, fretting and corroding the Lungs. For these malignant Particles, whether proceeding from the Arteries, or the Lymphatick Vessels, or from the open'd Imposthme of a Quinsie or Pleurisie, by effusion of the Purulent matter into the Cavity of the Breast, do there infect and taint the Lungs. And therefore to rid the Lungs of

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these sharp and corroding Particles of the Puru∣lent matter, Physicians prescribe hard and ponde∣rous Remedies, viz. Testaceous Powders, and the Decoctions of several sorts of Wood, which have a virtue to imbibe and alter the sharpness of the Humour: Mercurius Dulcis, Bole-Armenick, and Terra Sigillata, are also commended in this Di∣stemper.

XXVII. Syncope or Swound∣ing. SYNCOPE, or Swounding, is a sudden fail∣ing of the strength of the Body, caused by the Extinction for a time, or overwhelming of the vital Flame in the Heart. For the want of a sufficient store of Spirits, with the ceasing of the Circulation of Humours, and of the determination of the Spirits into the Muscles for that time, makes the Body fall down like the Trunk of a Tree. In this Disease are commended Spirituous Medicaments, and Volatile Salts, which are proper to kindle and feed the flame in the Heart; as all spirituous, cordial, odoriferous Waters, such as Cinamon-water, Aqua-mirabilis, Vita-Matthioli, and the like, which rowze, corroborate and mul∣tiply the Spirits.

XXVIII. Cardial∣gia or Pain at the Heart. The Diseases of the Abdomen, or lower Belly, are CARDIALGIA, the Pain at the Heart, which is a painful Sensation at the Mouth of the Stomach, which by means of the Nerves is pre∣sented to the Soul. This Pain proceeds from the sharp and pointed Particles, that do prick, twitch and slash the Nerves and their Fibres, and conse∣quently shake them; which Agitation being con∣vey'd to the Organ of the Common Sense, it is vehemently moved thereby, and so represents to the Soul that afflicting Sensation, which we call Pain. Accordingly for the Cure of this Distemper, are prescribed several Remedies proper in Convulsions, but joyned with Specifick Stomachicks and Opiates, to which are frequently added the Powder of Na∣tive Cinnabar, Amber, Man's Skull, &c.

XXIX. Singultus or the Hickock. The HICKOCK is a Convulsive motion of the Midriff, caused by touch and irregular Particles, twitching and forcing it to this disordinate motion. For the Fibres of the Nerves of the sixth Conjuga∣tion, distributed to the Stomach and the Midriff, are so vellicated in this Distemper, that by their motion communicated to the Brain, they frequently open those Pores there, by which the Animal Spirits, rushing violently towards the Mouth of the Stomach, contract the Fibres appointed for the expulsion of any offending matter, upwards, and make the Patients to explode the Air, contained in the Mouth of the Stomach with that vehe∣mence, as constitutes the Hickock; which ceaseth as soon as the sharp twtiching matter is discharged by these repeated Convulsion Motions. For the correcting of these peccant particles all hard and ponderous matters, are commended, as Crabs Eyes, Coral, Filings of Steel, Mercurious Dulcis and Opiates.

XXX. Diarrhoea a Scour∣ing or Lask. A LASK is the dejection of various and li∣quid Humours by stool, caused by the effervescence of the Blood, encreased by the cholerick particles thereof, and irritating the Fibres of the Guts by their sharp points. For various Humours being precipitated through the Vessels which open them∣selves into the Guts, do vellicate their Fibres, and by this means make the Animal Spirits to rush down that way in greater abundance, whereupon a kind of Convulsion follows. In the dry Gripes and the Lienteria, or that Scouring, when the Meat passeth away in the same manner as it was taken in, the ferment of the Stomach is faulty, as not duly digesting the Food put into it. In all Lasks or Scourings, at the beginning Rhubarb, Jalap, and Crabs Eyes are commended, mixed with other proper Medicaments; and in the Lienteria and dry Gripes, Balsamick Remedies and Stomachicks, are given both inwardly and outwardly.

XXXI. Cholera or the Chole∣rick Pas∣sion. The CHOLERICK Passion is a depraved Convulsive motion of the Stomach and Guts, occa∣sioned by sharp and pointed particle; twitching the Fibres of the Stomach and the Gut called Duo∣denum, and contracting them upwards. For this twitching of the Fibres cannot continue long, without irritating of the Animal Spirits, and di∣sturbing of them in their several Orders and Sta∣tions, and thereby causing them to produce these Convulsive motions. In order to the quelling of this fury of the disturbed Animal Spirits, Bezoardicks are commonly prescribed, and all ponderous Medicines, as Crystal, Terra Sigil∣lata, &c.

XXXII. Dysenteri or the Bloody Flux. The BLOODY FLUX is an Exulceration of the Guts, accompanied with frequent and Bloody Dejections, and violent Pain and Gripings, caused by sharp particles that corrode and cut the small Fibres of the Guts. For the Hooked and Pointed Particles that are mixed with the Humours, do pierce and divide the Membrans of the Guts, and by this means cause an Ulcer therein. In order to the cure of this Disease, altering and Evacuating Medicines are made use of: and above all Rhubarb, because it leaves an adstringent Virtue behind it after Evacuation. Emollient and Lenitive Medica∣ments are likewise employed for the removing of this Distemper, and such things as promote Fer∣mentation, as Coral, &c.

XXXIII. Iliaca Pas∣sio or the twisting of the Guts. The TWISTING of the GUTS, is a most exquisit Pain of the small Guts, accompani∣ed with a most obstinate stoppage of the passage downwards, and vomiting of the Excrements, pro∣ceeding either from an Inflammation of the Guts, or from their obstruction by some hard Excrements. This Disease is often caused by sharp Humours, sticking within the Membrans of the Guts, which cause the Expulsory motion of the Guts to be turned the contrary way, because of the irritated Animal Spirits, flowing from the Brain into the ascending Fibres of the Guts, which influx being perverted, the Excrements contained in them are voided upwards by the Mouth. In the cure of this dreadful and desperate Disease, Blood letting is made use of, to remove the Inflammation; and afterwards Emollient and Lenitive Glisters to evacuate and temper the sharp Humours, and to make the passages glib and slippery. For the same purpose Lenitive Catharticks are commended. Crude Mercury is also prescribed mixed with the Yolk of an Egg, that it may not stick to the Guts; and lastly Narcoticks, which both correct the sharpness of the Humours, and allay the Convul∣sions of the Guts.

XXXIV. The Colick. The COLICK is an afflicting and painful sensation in the Colon, or its neighbouring Parts, caused by a Cholerick Humour joyned with a corro∣ding Salt. For there is a sharp Salt contained, not only within the Hollow of the Guts, but also betwixt the Membrans of them; which saline

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particles, when they enter into such Pores, through which they cannot pass, they become, as it were, lock'd up there, that is, in the pores of the Coats or Membrans of the Guts, where they occasion a most acute Pain, by twitching and corroding the Fibres thereof. Wherefore to break the force of this sharp Humour, and to heal the hurt Fibres of the Nerves, several Affwaging and Anodynous Medicaments are prescribed, and sometimes Opiates, to give some respit to the Patient, and that the Physician may gain time to eliminate that foreign and praeternatural Salt. Glysters also are com∣mended, and other outward Applications to com∣fort the hurt Fibres, and to allay the violent mo∣tion of the Animal Spirits.

XXXV. The Yellow Jaundise. The YELLOW JAUNDISE is an Ill habit of Body, staining the solid and fluid parts thereof with a yellow or black Colour, caused by the effusion of a sharp and depraved Gall. For the Gall, whenever its Particles are vitiated, either in their figure or motion; then that part of it which commonly promotes the Voiding of Excrements, is no longer sent that way, but continuing with the Blood, and circulating with it through the Body, stains the Skin with a yellow, and sometimes with a black Colour, that is, when sowr and gross Particles are mixed with those of the Gall. Where∣fore in this Disease Purging Medicins are to be used at first, and particularly Infusions of Rhubarb and Senna; for otherwise, if they be boiled, or too strongly wrung out, they communicate those Par∣ticles to the Potion, that after Purging strongly bind the Body, which may be very hurt∣ful.

XXXVI. The Dropsie. The DROPSY is a Swelling of the whole Body, and more especially of the Belly, caused by a Collection of watry Humours. For when a watry Humour stagnates and grows thick in the Belly, then it obstructs the Surface of the Inwards, together with the Peritonaeum and Muscles of the Body, with a kind of slimy, pituitous Matter, which hinders that the Vapours and Steams arising from the Body, cannot be evacuated by insensible Trans∣piration; which is the Reason, why those that are troubled with this Disease, are so difficult to be brought to Sweat. Whilst therefore these small Vessels are burst and broken by the thick and tough Particles, the serous Particles drop down into the Belly; which being by degrees and continually increased, they produce the Dropsie, and other Ills in the Body. Wherefore for the Curing of this Disease, Medicaments that purge watry and serous Humours, are commended, as Pilulae de Ammo∣niaco with Mercurius Dulcis; for the Mercury resolves tough and slimy Humours; and the Gum Ammoniacum is proper to consolidate the burst Vessels.

XXXVII. Hypochon∣driacal Melancholy, or the Spleen. HYPOCHONDRIACAL MELANCHOLY, or the Spleen, is a painful Sensation, caused by the Grossness, small Quantity, and Unevenness of the Spirits. For a sharp, sowr, and tough slimy Hu∣mour, lying hid in the Belly, breedeth Obstructi∣ons, whence all the Symptoms observable in this Disease do proceed. Wherefore also the Cure of this Distemper, is endeavoured by Decoctions made of the Barks of Tamarisks and Cappar-trees, of the Herbs of Germander and Chamaepytis, &c. If the Blood abound with vitiated Salts, volatile Acids, are commended, Antiscorbutical Herbs, and more especially sulphurated Tartar. And because praeternatural Acids generally have a hand in this Disease; therefore all those Medicaments are used, that are proper to alter and destroy the same; as the Alkalifate Salts of Herbs, Crabs-Eyes, Pearl, Diaphoretick Antimony, Salt of Tartar, and other such like.

XXXVIII. The Scurvy. The SCURVY is a Distemper of the Blood, and other Juices of the Body, caused by a praeter∣natural Sowrness, afflicting more or less all the Parts of the Body, and accordingly producing a vast variety of Symptoms. For the Cause of this Disease chiefly consists in that the Blood is impreg∣nate with much fixed Salt, or acid Juice, and is frequently to be imputed to the Air, that is fill'd with such like Particles; which being drawn in by breathing, communicates the same to the Blood, and so forms this Disease. The Cure of this Disease is performed by Volatilizing of the Blood, and the fixed Salt, and by opening of Obstructions; to which end Blood-letting is pre∣scribed, that the thicker part of the Blood being evacuted, better Blood might be furnish'd instead of it, by introducing of a volatile Acid.

XXXIX. The Stone. The STONE is a Disease caused in the Reins or Bladder, by the Gravel or Stone, accompanied with a most exquisite Pain, by their grating against the Fibres of the Kidneys and Ureters. It is the product either of the too great abun∣dance or thickness of the Blood, or the sharpness of the Humours. And therefore when the Patient, subject to this Disease, doth abound with much Blood, the Breathing of a Vein is necessary, and afterwards the Gravel and Stone must be evacuated by Diureticks and Lithonthripticks: Emollient Glysters are also very much commended, for to make the Passages more slippery and open.

XL. Stranguy. STRANGURY, is the continual desire to make Water, accompanied with an extraordinary Pain and Burning, caused by the sharp and pointed Particles that are in the Blood, or the Serous part of it. But the Cause of Bloody Urin, and of all other Bloody Fluxes, is the solution of any conti∣nuous Parts, caused by sharp and pointed Particles, pricking and cutting the Parts. And therefore the Remedies most proper for this Disease, are such as precipitate these acid Particles, or imbibe them, as likewise Anodynous Medicaments and Opi∣ates.

XLI. Diabetes. DIABETES is a most swift and copious evacu∣ating of the Liquor we drink by Urin, sometimes with little or no change made in it, accompanied with extream Thirst and a Wasting of the whole Body. For in this Disease the Contexture of the Blood is too loose, and the Pores of the Kidneys are too open, and the praecipitating Salt does too much abound. Some think the Drink goes directly by some short Passages from the Stomach to the Kid∣neys. Others, that it runs through the Pores of the Stomach and Guts into the hollow of the Belly, where meeting with the Bladder, it enters its pores, and thus is evacuated soon after, without any, or with but little change. In this Distemper adstringent and absorbent Medicins are commended, espe∣cially joyned with Opiates, to imbibe that vicious Salt, which precipitates the Blood too much.

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XLII. The Gout. The GOUT is a pain of the Joints, or parts about the Joints, caused by the various Corner'd Figures of Sales, or Saline particles, which twitch and prick the Fibres belonging o them. For when uneven and Saline particles do abound in the Blood, they by their Ruggedness and Points hurt the Fibres of the Nerves; or the Saline particles, by their sharpness twitching and vellicating them, are the Cause of those exquisit Pains, which those that are troubled with the Gout do endure; and other like Humours, impregnated with much the fame Particles, flowing to the Parts already afflicted, do increase the Pain, which is often accompanied with a swelling and light Inflammation. For the Cure of this Disease, ponderous things are made use of, as Crabs-Eyes, Coral, Chalybeats, Mercurius Dulcis, as likewise Sudorificks, Topicks, &c.

XLIII. The French-Pox. The Disease commonly called the FRENCH-POX, is a Distemper of all the Humours of the Body, consisting in a Volatile Corrosive Acidity, disturbing all the Actions of it, and at last quite corroding it. For the sharp saline Particles that lye lurking in the Blood and Humours, do produce all the Symptoms that are obvious in this Disease. And therefore in order to the altering and blunting of these Particles, the Decoctions of Woods and Roots, and Mercurial Medicins are prescribed; and for the evacuating of them out of the Body, Preparations that cause Salivation are made use of, and particularly Mercurius Dulcis.

XLIV. Ague or Fever. An AGUE, or Fever, is an Effervence of the Blood in the Heart, sometimes exceeding that which is Natural, and at other times less; but ever with greater Malignity. For when the Febrifick matter or humour, endued with a Fermentative quality, doth from its Focus or Seat, be it Mesentery, or any other part of the Body, in which it hath been a long time a gathering, come into the Veins, and is mingled with the Blood, and with it carried to the Heart, it stirs up an Ague. For when it is thus communicated to the Blood, passing through the Heart, the Matter of the First Element, which is a great Enemy to our Blood, doth greatly shake it, and confound the parts and mixture of it, in which Confusion the Nature of an Ague and Fe∣ver doth consist. Yet it is not every thing that mingles with the Blood, doth presently produce an Ague; but such Matter only as is of a Fermen∣tative Nature, that is, which disturbs the Mixture of the Blood. For this Fermentative Matter may be compared with Green-wood that is laid upon the Fire; for as such Wood, when once it begins to burn, doth burn more vehemently than Dry-wood; so the said Humour becomes more heated and di∣lated, than the Blood it self in its Natural condition. Hence therefore we conclude, that a Quartan Ague is produced, when the Matter, which is the Cause of it, stands in need of the space of 3 Days for its Concoction, before it can be fit to be united to the rest of the Blood; a Tertian Ague, when 2 Days is enough for this purpose; a Quotidian, when it is concocted every day, and mingles with the Blood; and Continual, with Exacerbations or Fits, when the Corrupt Matter doth so much infect the Blood, that it cannot rid it self of those defilements from that time, that the last drop of that Humour is run out, and that wherein the first drop of that which is gather'd anew begins to en∣ter the Heart. For this being the time wherein this depraved Humour, and ready to raise an Effervescence, is in greater quantity conveyed to the Heart, it must of necessity cause a greater Heat and Ebullition. Wherefore to the end that this Feverish Ferment may be expell'd in Agues, and more particularly in Quotidians, Vomits and Purges are used, which being exhibited at the Beginning, before the Fits, are found to be very successful in the Cure of them. But if the Ague be of long continuance, and the Stomach swoln, it is best to abstain from Vomits, and instead thereof to give gentle Purges; because Vomits weaken the Stomach. As for Fevers, they are commonly Cured by Remedies that precipitate and imbibe sowr Humours, as Crabs-Eyes, Antimony Diaphoretick; by such as thin the Blood, and make it more fluid, as Barly-water, Whey, &c. by such as open Obstructions, as Carduus Benedictus, Camphire, Venice-Treacle, Volatile Salts and Spirits. All Bitter things are also employed with good success, both in Fevers and Agues, because they strengthen the Stomach, and keep out the the Enemy; so that according to the Report of Physicians, Agues have frequently been Cured, only be exhibiting the Compound Essence of Wormwood.

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