An entire body of philosophy according to the principles of the famous Renate Des Cartes in three books, (I) the institution ... (II) the history of nature ... (III) a dissertation of the want of sense and knowledge in brute animals ... / written originally in Latin by the learned Anthony Le Grand ; now carefully translated from the last corrections, alterations, and large additions of the author, never yet published ... by Richard Blome.

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An entire body of philosophy according to the principles of the famous Renate Des Cartes in three books, (I) the institution ... (II) the history of nature ... (III) a dissertation of the want of sense and knowledge in brute animals ... / written originally in Latin by the learned Anthony Le Grand ; now carefully translated from the last corrections, alterations, and large additions of the author, never yet published ... by Richard Blome.
Le Grand, Antoine, d. 1699.
London :: Printed by Samuel Roycroft, and sold by the undertaker Richard Blome [and 10 others],

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Descartes, René, 1596-1650.
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"An entire body of philosophy according to the principles of the famous Renate Des Cartes in three books, (I) the institution ... (II) the history of nature ... (III) a dissertation of the want of sense and knowledge in brute animals ... / written originally in Latin by the learned Anthony Le Grand ; now carefully translated from the last corrections, alterations, and large additions of the author, never yet published ... by Richard Blome." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 23, 2024.


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The Eighth Part OF THE INSTITUTION OF PHILOSOPHY. OF MAN, CONSIDER'D WITH Relation to his Body. (Book 8)

CHAP. I. The Definition of MAN.

I. The wonder∣ful Compo∣sition and Structure of Man. WE are now come to MAN, the most Noble of all Living Creatures, besides whom the Philosophers do not esteem any thing Great that is in the World; as con∣taining in himself, whatsoever is in the Universe; and therefore is commonly call'd, the Compendium or Abridgment of the whole VVorld, and the most VVonderful of all VVonderful things, as PLATO styles him. It admits a Query, Whe∣ther he may not be look'd upon as a Prodigy amongst all other Living Creatures, as consisting of such different Parts; and more especially for the great Disparity that is between the Soul and his Body: So that it would scarcely be a greater Wonder, if an Angel should be joyned to a Beast or Light make an Alliance with Darkness. And therefore FICINUS, upon Plato Dialog. 1. de Legibus speaks thus: And because he had said, that this one Animal was composed of such diffe∣rent things, he not without reason subjoyns, that Man is a Miracle or VVonder amongst all other Animals; herein imitating Mercurius Trismegi∣stus, who calls Man, a Great VVonder, &c. But, to pass by the rest, why is Man such a VVonder? Because forasmuch as he is Divine, it is a wonder that he should be affected with Mortal things; and being Mortal, it is as great a wonder, that he should be taken with Divine things.

II. Whether or no the Peripate∣ticks do rightly define Man. Wherefore it hath always been look'd upon by Philosophers, to be a difficult thing to define Man aright, and to assign those Terms that might ex∣plain the Connexion of such different things, and exhibit a clear Image or Idea of him to the Under∣standing. The PERIPATETICKS, who conceit themselves to know the Nature of all Things, define MAN to be a Rational Animal, making Animal the Genus of Man, and Rational his Difference; whereby he is distinguish'd from other Animals. But to speak the Truth, this doth not seem to be the true Definition of Man, if we will give heed to the Rules of a Right Definition; the chief whereof is this, that it be Clear and Evi∣dent. Now it is manifest, that the word Animal, which they thrust into the Definition of Man, is obscure, and therefore cannot in the least contri∣bute to the clear perception of him. For it is not manifest what the word Animal (which they make the nearest Genus) doth signifie, without reducing it to the more remote Genera of a Body, a Living and an Animated Creature: But now, the higher we climb in the Praedicamental Table, the more obscure Notions we shall meet with; and therefore if the Praedicats of Animal be obscure, how will they be proper to explain and illustrate the Nature of Man?

III. The word Animal, cannot be an Ingre∣dient of the definiti∣en of Man. Again, if we carefully examine what Man, and what an Animal is, we shall find, after a due bal∣lancing of the Notion of them both, that we do more easily understand what Man is, than what an Animal is; and that we have a more clear Conception of Man, than of an Animal. Neither


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Book 1. Part VIII. Chap. 1.

G. Freeman Ivent.

A. Yonder Guist S••••lp.

To Ralph Macro of Clapton in the Parish of Hackney in the County of Midetesex, Dr. in Phisick.

This Plate is humbly Dedicated by Rich: Blome

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can any one mend this matter, by saying that an Animal is that which is endued with Life and Sense, since the notion of Life and Sense are every whit as obscure, yea more difficult to conceive. Wherefore seeing no Definition is to be admitted that is more obscure than the thing defined, and that this Definition of a Reasonable Animal doth not afford any sufficient light for the understand∣ing of the Nature of Man, the same is to be re∣jected, and to be left in its own darkness.

IV. Neither is reasonable the diffe∣rence of Man. Besides, the word Reasonable, which is the other part of the Definition, or the Difference, is ambi∣guous; for by it must be either understood, that which is endued with knowledge; and then the Difference will agree and coincide with the Genus, forasmuch as according to the PERIPATETICKS some Brutes, at least, are endued with Knowledge, and are not meer Engines as we take them to be, Or else by the word Reasonable is to be understood Discourse, Knowledge, as most of them hold, and so the difference of Man will be taken from an inferiour Attribute; forasmuch as Man the further he attains to perfection, the less he makes use of Ratiocination or discursive knowledge; and Wise∣men, who are nearer to the nature of Angels, do more understand things without Discourse, than others do. Or lastly it imports a simple appre∣hension, whereby things are conceived, without any Relation or Reference to others, which since they allow to Beasts also, they will never be able to explain, what kind of knowledge it is they at∣tribute to them, and how it is distinguishable from that which is peculiar to Man.

V. A Rational Animal doth not perfectly explain the Nature of Man. This Definition also is contrary to other Laws of a true and Rightful Definition, in as much as it doth not perfectly unfold the Na∣ture of Man. For seeing Man is compounded of 2 Parts extreamly different, viz. of a Soul and a Body, and that there is not the like cunjunction of parts to he met with again in the whole Uni∣verse of things, it appears very plain that the Essence of Man cannot be exactly defined, except this most observable composition be exprest in his Definition; and forasmuch as that of a Reasonable Animal doth not include any such thing, it is evi∣dent that it doth but imperfectly declare the nature of the thing defin'd.

VI. A Man is wrongly placed un∣der the re∣mote Ge∣nus of a Body. Moreover Man in the foresaid Definition is placed under the General Head, or notion of Bo∣dy, when with better reason he ought to be ranck∣ed under that of Spirit (for the Soul is the Prin∣cipal part of Man, and if well considered, is more known than the Body; for we may doubt of the Existence of Corporeal Beings, whereas we cannot doubt of the Existence of our Soul) as in all other things the denomination is always wont to be made from the more noble part; and if by evil custom, and the prejudices of our Infancy we have taken our Body to be our best and most noble Part, Philosophy ought to have corrected this mistake, and not to have cherisht and strengthned it.

VII. Why in de∣fining of man, we ought to have more regard to his Soul than to his Body. But you'l say that Philosophers have thought good to define Man, rather by his more ignoble Genus, viz. Body, than by that of Spirit, because Man, as to his external parts and appearance, is much more like a Beast than an Angel, and that therefore it was more proper he should be ranged under the meaner Genus of Body, than under that more sublime of Angels.

I Answer, that this is no better than a frivolous reply, as being not at all founded upon Reason, but Custom only, and the prejudices suckt in from our Infancy. For the question here is not about what objects our thoughts are most imployed, but about what they ought to be employed; and that these are those things that are endued with under∣standing no Man will deny, these being much more excellent than corporeal things, and to which our mind, because of the affinity it hath with them, is most inclined, she herself being of an Intelli∣gent or Thinking Nature. Now the reason why Men chiefly addict themselves to Corporeal and sen∣sible Things, is because they think that their Na∣ture or Essence, hath a greater affinity with Visible Things than with those that never fall under their Senses, and can only be reached by their thoughts, or intellectual faculty. Which Error ought cer∣tainly to be corrected by those who may glory of their being made after the Image and likeness of God.

VIII. The true Definition of Man. We must therefore look out for a more accurate Definition of Man, and such a one, if I be not mistaken this is: A Man is a thing compounded of a Finite Mind, and a rightly disposed or framed Body. For seeing that Man is not a simple thing, but composed of both kinds, viz. of a Soul or Mind and Body, it is necessary that this notable composition which distinguisheth Man from all other things, should be exprest in the Definition by this word Compounded; and by this means all the conditions of a good and lawful Definition are secured and preserved; the First whereof is that it express and declare the Nature of the thing, and the several parts whereof it is compounded. For there is nothing to be found in Man, which is not exprest in this Definition. Secondly, that the Genus and Difference be rightly assigned; for that Man consists of a well disposed or framed Body, this he hath in common with other Animals, and that he is endued with a Finite Mind, that is such an one as is not altogether perfect, he is distinguisht from God, who is the Infinite Mind. Thirdly, that the Definition be not more extensive than the thing defined, nor more contracted or narrow, but equal with it; for it is manifest from Induction that every Man whatsoever is com∣pounded of a Finite Mind, and a Body rightly disposed; so that of whatsoever the thing defined is praedicated, of the same the Definition may be praedicated also.

IX. What may be inferred or gather∣ed from the Definition. From this Definition we may infer First of all, that Soul and Body are the parts of a Man; as a part is taken for that, whereof any thing doth con∣sist. Secondly, that the Union of the Soul with the Body, is the Form of Man; since wheresoever that union is, the compound is likewise, as where it is not, the compound is not, viz. Man. Which Union of the Soul with a Human Body, doth con∣sist in the mutual Action of the Soul and Body up∣on each other, as shall be shewed in the follow∣ing Part.

X. What a rightly disposed Bo∣dy is. And whereas the other part of this Definition is a Body rightly disposed, we are to take notice that this disposition doth consist in such a Modification, whereby the body is fitted for an intimate union with a Human Soul. Wherefore every Portion of Matter, that is so modified, whether it be Or∣ganical or Inorganical, may properly be called a

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Human Body, since the Essence of Man wholly con∣sists in the Union of his Soul with his Body, and that it will be his Body as soon as it is united to him. Nei∣ther is it any whit clear or evident that Organs are of absolute necessity to this Union; for I can see no rea∣son why an Inorganical Body may not be so dispo∣sed, as to be fit to receive a Soul for its Form. Nei∣ther can a Man, if we have respect to his bare Es∣sence only, be said to be imperfect, because he is destitute of Organs, forasmuch as a Man that hath lost both his Arms and Legs, doth not cease to be a perfect Man for all that, as being no less a Man, than he who enjoys all his Members, because the perfection of a Man as such, consists in the union of his two Essential Parts, viz. of Soul and Body. And as his Soul is said to be perfect, because it hath that disposition which on its part is required for its union with the Body; so that Body, whatso∣ever it be, provided it only have such a disposition that it may be united with a Soul, is to be called a perfect Human Body. But forasmuch as we here consider Mans Body in its Natural State, we shall describe it here as it is Organical, and consisting of all its Parts.

CHAP. II. A Description of the External Parts of Mans Body.

I. It is suffici∣ent for a young Scholar in Philoso∣phy to know the more principal parts of Mans Body. VERY wonderful is the Struclure of Mans Body, if we consider all its Parts, and the use or end for which they were framed: but be∣cause it would require too much time and pains, to give here a particular account of them all; and because that belongs rather to a Physician than a Philosopher, I shall only touch at the more Prin∣cipal Parts, passing by those which would rather confound first beginners than inform them.

II. How many Similar parts there be in the Body of Man. For the better understanding of them, we must observe that the parts which constitute the Body of Man, are either Similar Parts, or Dissimilar. Similar are those whose substance is the same, and alike throughout: or which may be divided into Parts of the same nature and Denomination; and of these 11 are reckoned up by Physicians, viz. Bones, known by their great hardness and firm∣ness; Gristles, which are the next in solidity and firmness to that of Bones, and of which the Ear consists. Tendons, which are the ends or extremi∣ties of the Muscles; Ligaments, which approach to the nature of Tendons, and serve to join 2 solid parts together, viz. Bones to Bones. Fibres, which are as it were the Woof of the other parts. Mem∣brans, which are thin and broad substances, serving for a covering to several parts: such as are the Membran or Skin that covers the Ribs, the Blad∣der, the Stomach. Arteries, which conveigh the Vital Blood from the Heart to all the parts of the Body. The Veins which conveigh the Blood back again from the parts to the Heart. The Nerves or Sinews which carry the Animal Spirits from the Brain and the Marrow of the Back Bone to all parts; and the Flesh and the Skin. To which may be re∣ferred also the Fat, Nails and Hair, as being parts compleating the whole, and of a similar nature.

III. How many Dissimilar Parts there be in Mans body. Dissimilar Parts are such as are made up of se∣veral Similar Parts; or which may be divided into Dissimilar Particles, as a Hand, Foot which may be divided into Skin, Flesh, Bones, Veins, Ar∣teries and Nerves which are of a different Nature and Denomination. And such are the Head, Neck, Breast, both the Arms, Legs, &c.

IV. The Head. The first and Principal part of the Human Bo∣dy is the Head, which contains the Organs of Sense and Motion, and is the House or Abode of the Soul it self. It is round or Sphaerical, but some∣what comprest or flatted, and longish: and for its better security, is all cover'd with Bones. And is placed in the highest part of the Body, according to GALEN, for the Eyes sake, which are placed there as in a Watch Tower to take a prospect of all objects round about it.

V. The Parts of the Head. The Head is divided into the Hairy part or Scalp, and that without Hair, called the Face. The Forepart of the Hairy Scalp, from the Forehead to the Sutura Coronalis, is called Sinciput, that is, the Forepart of the Head; and that which reacheth from the Sutura Lambdoidea to the first Joint of the Neck, is called Occiput, or the Hinder Part of the Head; the middle and Gibbous part between both these, is called Vertex or the Crown of the Head. The part without Hair, that is, the Face, hath also its several parts, the Forehead, or supe∣rior part, which bears the Signs of the Mind; and the Inferiour in which are the Organs of the Senses, as the Eyes, Nostrils, Ears and Mouth which hides the Tongue.

VI. The Mem∣brans in∣wrapping the Skull. There be two outward Membrans that encom∣pass the Skull, the Pericranium or Skin so called from its going about the Skull, which is a soft and thin Membran; and the Periostium, which is a most thin nervous Membran, so closely joined to the Pericranium; that they seem only to consti∣tute one Membran. To which are conjoyned the Inward Membrans that infold the Brain, which are likewise 2, viz. a thin one, that imme∣diately covers the Brain, and is called Pia Mater, and a thick one, which is called Dura Mater. They are commonly called Meninges, and by the Arabian Physicians, Matres or Mothers, because they supposed all the Membrans of the Body deri∣ved and propagated from these.

VII. How the Blood comes to them. To these Membrans the Vital Blood is conveigh∣ed by the outward Branch of the Arteris called Carotides, and that which is left after the Nourish∣ing of their parts, is by small Veins sent back to the External Jugulars. Some believe that these Arteries, passing through the little holes of the Skull, do penetrate and pass into the great Bosom or cavity of the Dura Mater: tho' this doth not seem probable, since they tend only to the Diplois, and in it do vanish or disappear.

VIII. What the Neck is. The Neck is that part of the Body which is be∣tween the Breast and the Face, and supports the Head, being called Collum, à Colendo. Because it is commonly much adorned. It is somewhat lon∣gish, to assist the tuning of the Voice. According∣ly those Animals that utter no Voice, as Fishes, want a Neck; and those that have a strong voice, have the longer Necks, as Cranes, Geese, &c. The hind part of the Neck is called Cervix; and the forepart Guttur or the Throat. The Neck consists of 7 Joints, which are the upper part of the Spine. In the forepart of it are 2 great Pipes, whereof the one is called the Wind-Pipe or Rough Artery, because of its unequal Gristly Rings, and serves to conveigh the Air to the Lungs, and from thence

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out of the Body. The other inward Pipe is the Gullet, by which the Meat and Drink is conveyed from the Mouth to the Stomach.

IX. The Breast. Next to the Neck, the Breast begins, which is that part of the Body which contains the Heart, Lungs and Vital parts: Its hind-part comprehends, besides the Shoulder-blades, the Back, and 12 Joints of the Spine; from whence 7 Ribs do pro∣ceed, having their Ends cloathed or cover'd with Gristles, which are called the true or perfect Ribs; because they Circle-wise compass the hollow of the Breast, reaching to the Grisly or Spongy Bone cal∣led Sternum, and ending downwards in the Gristle that resembles the figure of a Sword. In the Middle of the Breast are 2 Dugs or Paps, on each side one; situated there, First, in order to their being near the Heart, to receive heat from thence: Secondly, for Comliness sake: Thirdly, for the more convenient Suckling of Children. They are 2 in number; not for to Suckle Twins, as some will have it, but to the end that if one of them should come to any hurt, the other might sup∣ply the place of it, and perform the Function alone.

X. The Dugs consist of two parts. The Dug is divided into the Nipple, and the Pap it self. The Nipple is a Spongy kind of flesh, and therefore is at sometines more loose and flaggy, and at other times more stiff, especially when suck'd or touch'd. The Dug, or Pap it self, in∣wardly consists of a Membran, Vessels, Kernels, or rather Kernel-like Bodies, and Fat. In Men the Dugs are not so great or prominent as in Women, theirs being not commonly designed for the Gene∣ration of Milk; yet to shew the Equality of kind i both Sexes, it was not fitting that Men should be altogether without them.

XI. The Belly. Under the Breast is the Belly, whose fore-part is called Abdomen, and in its Middle is the Navil; the upper part whereof is the Hypochondrium, which Name is also given to its Sides. Beneath are the Groins, and the Parts designed for Generation. The Upper-part of the Abdomen, reaching up to the Midriff, is the Stomach, which lies Cross∣ways, and which having received the Food from the Mouth, by means of the Gullet, doth digest it into Chyle; and afterwards sends the purer part of the Chyle, by the Subclavial Branches of the Vena Cava, into the Vena Cava it self.

XII. The Back∣parts of the Body. The Hinder-parts of the Body are the Shoulder∣blades, to which the Shoulders are joyned, and to them the Arms with the Elbow. For by the word Arm, we understand all that part which reacheth from the Shoulder, where the Collar-bones end, to the Fingers ends; tho' commonly the Hand is not comprehended under the word Arm. The Arm consists of 3 conspicuous Parts, viz. the Upper∣part of it called Lacertus; the Middle-part of it, from the Elbow to the Wrist, called Cubitus, and the Hand. The Upper-part of the Arm hath one only Bone; the Middle-part hath two Bones; the Lower, which is called Ulna or Cubitus, and the Upper called Radius. The Hand also consists of 3 Parts, viz. the Wrist, the part between the Fingers and the Wrist, called Metacarpium, and the Fingers; the Fingers have each of them 3 Joints. The Hands are 2, the Right and the Left. Next to the Shoulders are the Loyns, and near to them the Os Sacrum, distinguish'd as it were into 5 Bones, having on each side of it the Bone Ilium, jetting out like a Bow, and the Hip∣bone; and under these the Buttocks.

XIII. The Flesh. The use of the Flesh is, to cover the Bones and Members of the Body, more especially the Inward parts, and to hinder them from falling asunder. It is made up of the Substance of the Blood, by the coagulation of its thicker Parts. The Fat in its nature is like to Flesh, and proceeds from the same Principle. Its Function is to preserve the Natural heat, to defend the Parts it covers from Outward hurts, and by moistning and smoothing the dryer Parts of the Body, to assist and promote motion.

XIV. The Diffe∣rences of Flesh. Flesh is fourfold; Viscerous, Membranous or Skinny, Glandulous, and Musculous, or that of the Muscles. The Viscerous is that whereof the In∣wards consist, and is nothing else but an affusion of Blood, which supports the Vessels of the In∣wards, by filling the empty Spaces that are be∣tween them, and assists the Concoctions and Sepa∣rations that are made in them. The Membranous Flesh is nothing else, but the Fleshy Substance of every Membranous part; as of the Gullet, the Sto∣mach, the Guts, the Womb, and the Bladder. Glandulous Flesh is that of the Kernels; the use whereof is either to soak up the superfluous Hu∣mours (for they are of a Spongy Substance) as those in the Neck, under the Armpits, and in the Groin; or they are in order to the moistning of the Parts, for their more ready motion, or to pre∣vent the dryness of the Parts. The Musculous, which GALEN calls the fibrous or stringy Flesh, is that soft and red Substance, which is Flesh, pro∣perly so called.

XV. The Bones. The Bones are the strength and support of the Flesh, and are the insensible Parts of the Organical Body of an Animal; as also the hardest and driest, containing the Marrow within them. There are 304 of them in the Body of Man, which are of diverse figures, according to their different uses; for some of them are round, others flat; some sharp, and others blunt, &c. It is a mistake to think the Bones to be without Blood; for they are Red in the Womb before the Infant is born, are found to have small Vessels in them, from whence Blood gusheth forth; and when they are broke, the Callous matter that joyns them again together, sweats Blood. The Muscles follow the bigness and figure of the Bones, to which they are joyned; and move those Members of the Body, to which they are particularly destinated. The Nerves or Sinews have fibres or strings, extended long∣ways, and are the Instruments of Sense and Mo∣tion.

XVI. The Feet. Lastly, This whole Bulk is supported by the Feet, assisted with the Leg and the Thigh, with the Knee that joyns them both together. The Thigh hath only one Bone in the Upper-part, whereof, besides the round Head, inserted in the hollow end of the Huckle or Hip-bone, there is a kind of Neck, whence 2 Ends shoot forth, which are called Trochanteres: And in the Lower-part this Bone is so joyned with the Chief-bone of the Shin or Leg▪ that in the foremost Hollow of the jetting out of the Bone, there is a place for the Bone, called the Knee-pan, which hinders the Leg from bending forwards. To the Lower-part of the Foot 3 parts concur, viz. the Heel, the Sole of the Foot, which is as it were its Back, and is made hollow in the

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midst, to the end it might the more firmly stick to the Ground in going; and the 5 Toes, which are very helpful to progressive motion.

CHAP. III. A Description of the Principal Inward Parts of the Body of Man.

I. The Brain, which is the most principal Part of Mans Body, examined. THe Skin being pluck'd off, the Flesh is more distinctly perceived; which is not a continuous Mass, but distinguish'd into several Muscles. But the chiefest and most principal Part that presents it self, is the Brain; which in Man is the greatest in Bulk, with relation to other Ani∣mals. The Bark, or outside part of it, appears distinguish'd into a thousand turnings and wind∣ings, not unlike the Cronckelings of the Guts, with far greater variety than in any other Animal. All which crooked Windings are covered with a thin Membran, and are moistened with innume∣rable Vessels; which being in a most wonderful manner woven together, are dispersed every way, and in some places penetrate the inward Substance of the Brain. Tho' indeeed all the Veins and Arteries that penetrate the Substance thereof, are but small and few; but are more copious in the Cavities or Ventricles of it, and other places which are cover'd with the Pia mater or thin Meninx: For that Membran doth not only separate the Brain from the more inward Part that lies under it, but distinguisheth it also in divers parts, and invests all the deep surrows and foldings of the Bark or outward part of the Brain, conjoyns the more pro∣minent parts of them, forms almost innumerable Cavities, and every where twists most wonderful pleats and textures of the Vessels.

II. The Brain is divided into two Parts. The Brain is divided into 2 parts, viz. into the Fore and Hind-part: The Fore-part, which is much bigger than the other, is chiefly called the Brain; the Hind-part is called Cerebellum or the Little Brain; and tends downward, being continued to the Marrow of the Back▪bone, and cover'd with both the Meninges. Within the Substance of the Fore-part are two Cavities, so placed as to answer to a third Cavity in the Hind-part: And above the Passage, whereby the foresaid 2 Cavities have entercourse together, is the famous Kernel called Glandula Pinealis, from its figure, resembling that of a Pine-Apple, and Conarion from its Conical figure. The bottom of this Gland or Kernel is fastned to the Brain, whereof it is a part, and is seated in the very midst of the two Cavities This Kernel hath that of Singularity, that it is one only, whereas all the other that are found in the Brain are double.

III. Of the se∣ven pair of Nerves, derived from the Brain, ac∣cording to the Opinion of the Ancients. The Ancients were of Opinion, that 7 pair of Nerves only were derived from the Brain; whereof the first, were the Optick Nerves; the second, those that help to move the Eyes; the third and fourth, appropriated to the Taste; the fifth, to the Ears; the sixth was, that which is called the wandring Pair; and the seventh and last, those that move the Tongue. But in this enu∣meration, they have left out that Pair, which being convey'd to the Nostrils, are the Instruments of Smelling, and have divided the third Pair into two; and the fifth Pair, which they suppose single, is double: So that whereas they make but 7, others 8, and others 9 Pair of Nerves, we make 10 in all. The first Pair are appropriated to the sense of Smelling, the ends whereof reaching from the Brain towards the Nostrils, are called Processus Mammillares. The second is the Optick pair, subservient to the Sense of Seeing. The third, moves the Eyes. The fourth, serves to turn and writh the Eyes variously, suitable to the diversity of Passions that assail us. The fifth is, that by which the Tongue doth taste. The sixth is con∣veyed to the Palat, for the same purpose. The seventh is lost in the Muscle of the Eye, called the Abductor or Drawer aside. The Eighth assists the Drum of the Ear, in its dilatation or expan∣sion. The Ninth pair, which is called Wandering by others, is that which furnisheth all the Inward parts, situate in the middle and lower Belly. The Tenth and last Pair is by strong Membrans, joyned with the former Pair, for the strengthning of them.

IV. Several Pairs of Nerves proceed from the Pith of the Back∣bone. But forasmuch as the pith of the Back-bone is nothing else, but a Continuation of the substance of the Brain, it is certain that from the same several pairs of Nerves do proceed; viz. 7 to the Neck, 12 to the Back, 5 to the Loyns, 6. to the Os sacrum; and all these Nerves are nothing else, but the continued Substance of both the Meninges or membrans of the Brain, there being none amongst them that are not twisted of them both. These Nerves proceeding from both sides of the Pith of the Back-bone, are called Pairs, as being always double.

V. The Heart. In the Breast hangs the Heart, of a Pyramidal figure, resembling a Pine-Apple, with the Point of it inclining towards the Left-side; so as that the Left-part of the broad End, which is the beginning of the Great Artery, is situated much about the Center of the Chest. The Greatness of the Heart in Man, proportionably exceeds that of other Animals, and commonly weighs about 7 Ounces, being about 6 Finger-breadths long, and 4 broad. Not but that the bigness thereof sometimes varies.

VI. Of the Dilatation and Con∣traction of the Heart. In the Heart are 3 sorts of Strings or Fibres, some Transverse or Cross-wife, others Crooked or Oblique, and a third sort that are Strait, by which the dilatation or swelling of the Heart, when the Point of it is drawn up towards the broad End of it; and the Contraction whereby the said Point is withdrawn from the basis or broad End of it, are performed. There be 2 Ventricles or Cavi∣ties in the Heart, which are separated from each other by a part of the flesh of the Heart, called the Septum medium, or the middle partition Wall, the Right Ventricle being more ample and large than the Left. Two very large Channels answer to both these Ventricles, to wit; the Vena Cava, which is the principal Receptaele of the Blood, and is as it were the Trunk of the Tree, whereof all the other Veins are the boughs and branches; and the Arterial Vein, which ariseth from the Heart, and after that it is come forth from thence, divides it self into many branches, which are afterwards dis∣persed through the Lungs. In the Left-side there are likewise 2 corresponding Channels, as large as the former, if not larger, viz. the Venal Artery, which is derived from the Lungs, where it is divided into many branches, which are intermixed with the branches of the Arterial Vein and the

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Wind-pipe, by which the Air we attract doth enter; and the Great Artery, which proceeding from the Heart, disperseth its branches throughout the whole Body. Each of these Cavities have 2 Openings, placed towards the basis or broad End of the Heart: And in the entrance of these Openings, are some little Skins, which like so many flood∣gates do open and shut 4 Mouths or Orifices, that are in both those Cavities; viz. 3 in the entry of the Vena Cava or hollow Vein, which are so placed, that they cannot hinder the Blood they contain, from flowing into the Right Ventricle of the Heart, tho' they hinder any from coming out thence. 3 in the Entry of the Arterial Vein, which are ranged the quite contrary way, so as that they suffer the Blood, contained in that Cavity, to pass to the Lungs; but by no means will suffer that which is in the Lungs, to return thither again. And so likewise there are 2 more in the Orifice of the Venal Artery, which permit the Blood to pass from the Lungs into the Left Ventricle of the Heart, but hinder its return thither again. And 3 at the entry of the Great Artery, which suffer the Blood to come from the Heart, but hinder it from returning thither again.

VII. The situa∣tion of the Heart, in the Breast. The Heart is enclosed in a Nervous membran, called Pericardium; where it swims in a Liquor not much unlike to that of Urin; the broad End of it taking up the Center of the Breast, whilst the Point of it sways downwards, to the Left-side of the Midriff.

VIII. The Lungs. The Lungs are a Spongy substance, of a whitish or pale red Colour, and are divided in the Right and Left part by the Mediastinum, or the mem∣bran that divides the Breast, from the Throat to the Midriff, into 2 Bosoms; both which Parts are distinguish'd into several Lobes or Lappets, in order to their better covering and surrounding of the Heart, which is placed in the midst of them. In that part of the Mouth which is at the Root of the Tongue, is a Channel called the Wind-pipe, which passing downwards is divided into many little branches, which are disperst throughout the whole Substance of the Lungs, in the same manner as the Venal Artery, or the Arterial Vein. This Wind-pipe receives the Air that is taken in by breathing; and because the membran thereof is so hard and stiff, that it cannot easily be comprest or clos'd together, it continues always full of Air, and by this means causeth the great Lightness of the Lungs. Our Meat and Drink cannot pass from our mouth into the Gullet, without passing over the Mouth of the Wind-pipe, tho' nothing can fall into it, be∣cause of a little Valve which covers it, whenever we swallow any thing. The Lungs also have their Dilatation and Contraction; their Dilatation being caused by the Air entring into their Substance through the Wind-pipe; and the Contraction by the expulsion of tt.

IX. The Midriff Under the Lungs and the Heart is placed the thick membran, called the Diaphragm or Midriff, which separates the Breast from the Belly. It hath 2 Holes, through which the ascending Hollow Vein, and the Gullet which goes down to the Stomach, do pass. The Midriff lends also its assistance to the function of Respiration, to which it contributes rather, as it is a Musculous membran, than a Muscle.

X. The Liver. Under the Diaphragm, the Liver is placed on the Right-side, and the Spleen on the Left. The Liver in Man, as well as in most other Animals, seems to be nothing else but Clotted blood, of a Reddish colour. Tho' there be some Animals that have it of a green, others of a yellow, and others of other Colours. The Ancients were of Opi∣nion, that the Blood was prepared in the Liver, and that the Chyle was there turned into the form of Blood. But the contrary has been since made out, it being no longer question'd now, but that the Chyle is conveyed from the Receptacle of the Lacteal Veins upwards, to the Subclavial branches of the Hollow Vein, and thence into the ascending Trunk of the said Hollow Vein, whence it is carried together with the Blood, returning from all the parts of the Body, into the Right Ventricle of the Heart, without passing the Liver. The Gall∣bladder is joyned to the Liver, a small Channel proceeding from it, which becomes immediately parted into 2, whereof the one bends downwards towards the Liver again, and enters it; whereas the other, called Choledochus, is inserted into the lower end of the Duodenum, whither the Gall is conveyed, through a very little and almost insensible Orifice.

XI. The Spleen. The Spleen is situated on the Left-side, under the Midriff, between the Stomach and the Ribs. It is of a Spongy substance, cover'd with a thin mem∣bran, received from the Peritonaeum or Inner-rim of the Belly. Its more prominent or gibbous part is fastned to the Midriff; which is the Reason why those that are diseased with a Schirrus, or any other swelling of the Liver, do complain of a difficulty of breathing. It abounds with a thick dreggy Blood, and is fastned to the Stomach and Back, by means of the foresaid membran, and hath a communication with the Heart by certain Ar∣teries and Veins. The Spleen is almost as long again as it is broad; the Upper-part of it butting out like a Bow, the Lower-part of it ending in an obtruse Angle, and in the midst somewhat hollow and deprest.

XII. The Sto∣mach. Betwixt the Liver and the Spleen lies the Sto∣mach, into which all our Meat and Drink is con∣veyed through the Gullet. It hath 2 Orifices, the one whereby it receives in our Nourishment, which it dissolves and turns into Chyle; the other called Pylorus, by which it thrusts it down into the Guts.

XIII. The Guts. For the Guts take their rise or beginning from the neather Orifice of the Stomach, and after many windings are terminated in that part, by which the grosser Excrements are voided. To speak properly there be no more than one Gut, to the different parts whereof Anatomists have assigned different Names. That which is next to the Stomach they call Duodenum, the extent of which is not above 12 fingers breadth: The second is called Jejunum, from its almost continual emptiness: The third is called Ilium, from its various windings: The fourth, Colon, whence the Disease called the Colick takes its Name: The fifth is a little Appendix be∣twixt the Ilium and Colon, which is called Caecum, or the Blind-Gut: And the sixth Rectum, or the Strait-Gut. The 3 former of these are called the thin Guts, and the rest the great or thick Guts.

XIV. The Mesen∣tery. The Mesentery is a Membranous expansion, interwoven with Kernels and Fat, placed at the back-part of the Guts, and with its Center or nar∣rowest part tied to the Loins; but with its Cir∣cumference

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infolding all the Guts, and fastning them to the Back. Its figure is almost Circular, so as that its compass answers to the length of the Guts; but yet is so framed and folded, that it keeps within narrow Bounds.

XV. The Caul. The Caul is another Membranous expansion, consisting of a double membran, distended to an Orbicular figure, like to a Faulkners Pouch, inter∣woven with many Arteries and Veins, and great store of Fat, deriving its 2 wings or foldings from the Stomach, Liver, Spleen, the Rim of the Belly, and the Gut Colon; and not only covering the Guts, but following the windings and turnings of them; so that with regard to its situation it may well be called Epiploon, that is, swimming on the top, such being the situation of it with respect to the Guts.

XVI. The Womb. The Womb, which is also called the Matrix, is an Organical part, serving for Generation, situate in the lower part of the Belly, betwixt the Bladder and the Strait-Gut, lodged in a strong Bason, made by the Bones Ilium, Coxendix, and Sacrum; which Bason or Hollow is larger in Women, than in Men, in whom also when the time of their Delivery is at hand, it is yet further enlarged by the plying and giving-way of some of the strong Ligaments about the Bones Sacrum and Pubis, and by the starting back of the Bone called Coccyx, to make way for the Birth to struggle out of his Prison.

XVII. The Kid∣neys. Besides these Parts already mentioned, there are also 2 Kidneys that are fastned to the Joints of the Back-bone. Their Substance appears like to that of a curious Sponge, and in each of them is found a certain Cavity or Hollow, called the Dish or Ba∣son, which is generally fill'd with Urin.

XVIII. The Ureters. The Ureters are 2, viz. on each side one, car∣rying the Urin, that hath been separated in the Kidneys to the Bladder. They are nothing else, but an innumerable company of small Nervous fibres twisted together, and therefore no wonder that they are so exceeding sensible; for as soon as any one of their finest Strings is moved, all the rest are shaken and tremble, whence there ariseth in the Soul an Idea of the sharpest Pain.

XIX. The Blad∣der. Anatomists commonly attribute but 2 Coats or membrans to the Bladder; but if they be viewed with a Microscope, we shall find them to be many more, even to the number of 20. The Bladder is the receptacle of the Urin, conveyed through the Ureters from the Kidneys; which afterwards by the contraction of the fibres of the Bladder, are by the Urethra or Urinary passage evacu∣ated.

XX. The Testi∣cles. The last Parts to be consider'd, are the Testicles, which are Vessels design'd for Generation, tho' it may be doubted, whether the Generation of Seed may be wholly attributed to them; because there was never found any perfect Seed in the Testicles of the most Libidinous Animals. Yea, many do witness, that Bulls, Horses, and other such like Robust Animals, have generated their Like for many years together, after their having been gelt, and that they are not robb'd of their Prolifick virtue, except their Spermatick Vessels be taken away together with their Testicles. Wherefore it seems more probable, that the Seed is produced in the little Bladders, Kernels, and Pores, that neigh∣bour upon the Bladder and the Womb. But we leave this to be determin'd by Physicians.

CHAP. IV. Of the Forming of the Birth in the Womb, and of its Animation.

I. Whether the Seed in Generation, proceeds from both Sexes. THe Common Opinion is, that the Matter whereof the Birth is formed in the Womb, doth consist of the Seed of both Parents, the Fe∣male Blood being mix'd with it: Nor indeed have the Ancients question'd, but that the Woman doth contribute her part of Seed to the Conception, and efficiently concur to Generation; for both Sexes seem to have like Instruments for the generating of Seed. The Women have their Testes, in which the Blood is strained and purified, and a serous and thickish white Matter is squeezed out of them, which seems to be design'd for generation. Besides, we find that the Birth resembles the Mother, as well as the Father; which we cannot well con∣ceive how it should be, if both of them did not contribute Seed to the production thereof.

II. The Seed flows from all parts of the Body. But to the end we may understand by what Artifice an Animal comes to be formed, from a Moisture without all Form, so as to bear some resemblance with the Principle from whence it did proceed; it is commonly supposed, that the Seed both of Male and Female flows down from all their Parts, so as that there is no Member in their whole Bodies, whence some part of the Seed is not derived. For as the Serous humour is by the Veins separated from the whole Body, and through the Vessels call'd Emulgentes carried to the Kid∣neys and Bladder, in which latter place it is kept till it be voided: In like manner, say they, seeing that 2 Veins and 2 Arteries enter into the Testicks, why may not the Seminal particles flow from the whole Body into them, and from them into the Vessels destinated for their reception; and this not slowly and by degrees, but in a very short Space, wherein the whole Body is powerfully stirr'd up to an excretion or separation of what is most Spiri∣tuous in all the Parts of the Body?

III. Proved by Examples. Many Arguments might be alledg'd to prove this Point; but there are some Examples thought to be so clear and evident, as to supersede the necessity of many Proofs: A Cat, whose Tail was cut off when she was but young, litter'd Kitlings, whereof some had Tails, and others wanted them: And a Bitch, that was wont to bring forth sound Puppies, having broke her Leg, did ever after bring forth lame Puppies. Now to what can this resemblance of Puppies, with their Dams, be im∣puted, but because the Seed is conveyed from all the parts of the Body, so that perfect Births are born of sound and perfect Parents, and maimed and defective from such as are so. And if it some∣times happens, that whole and sound Births do proceed from maimed and defective Parents, this must be ascribed either to the Soundness of one of the Parents, or to the great Vigour of the Spirits. However, when it so happens that maimed Births proceed from maimed Parents, no other Reason seems so satisfactory, as that which hath been al∣ledged.

IV. How the Birth is formed in the Womb. From what hath been said, may in some sort be understood, how the Birth comes to be formed in the Mothers Womb; because the insensible Parts of the Male and Female Seed have already received such a Configuration in the Body of the Parents, that they are no sooner received into the Womb;

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but being there intangled together, and agitated by heat, they are turned into a rude delineation or Rudiment of the Animal, from which afterwards all the parts are perfected and compleated. For those parts which before, for example, did belong to the Head, Belly, &c. become now so disentan∣gled and separated from others, so as to be now at liberty to run together, and from the several di∣stinct parts of the Body; so that those parts which proceeded from the Brain, do now unite to constitute that part, those of the Eyes, the Eyes and so for the rest. Much after the same manner as the like grains of Sand, and the filings of Lead do come together, and make seve∣ral heaps: as when we fasten a Pipe to a Bladder, and through it cast Earth, Sand and Filings of Lead, and having poured water upon them, if then we blow through the Pipe, all these matters will be variously mingled and tost together, but as soon as the said agitation ceaseth a separation is made, the Lead setling with the Lead, the Sand with the Sand, &c. and in this condition we shall find them, if after the drying up of the water we shall rend the Bladder, that is, we shall find the like particles to be gathered to their like. And after this manner we may conceive that the par∣ticles of the Seed become so disposed as to make the first Rudiment of a Birth.

V. How the first Rudi∣ment of the Birth comes to be like Man. If you demand how it can be that from such a small quantity of Insensible particles, a Body should arise, resembling the great Body from whence it proceded, and representing every one of its Parts and Members.

It is Answered, that this is done much in the same manner as we find that a very little Image in a Convex Glass represents a Man; for this Image is therefore so little, because only a few rays are re∣flected to the Eye, from the several parts, many of the Rays rebounding elsewhere by reason of the convexity of the Glass, which makes that only a few Beams from each part do reach the Eye, which meeting in the Retina or Network Mem∣bran of the Eye, do represent a very little Man: In like manner, the first Rudiment of a Human Birth in the Womb, is indeed very little, and yet resembles the great Body, exactly as to the number of its parts, tho' not as to the quantity and bulk of them.

VI. The Time of the For∣mation of the Birth. Physicians are at some disagreement about the time of the formation of the Birth. HIPPOCRA∣TES Lib. 1. de Carn. tells us that the Seed being received into the Womb, by the seventh day hath whatsoever it ought to have, and that if an Abor∣tive at the end of this term, be put into the water, and accurately viewed, the rude draught of all the parts will be discernible in it. Others allow a longer time for this forming of all the Parts: ARISTOTLE Lab. 7. Hist. Animal. saith that the Body of the Birth on the fortieth day, consists, as it were, in a Membran, which being rent, the Birth appears of the bigness of a great Pismire, in which all the Members may be distinctly seen.

VII. What the Architecto∣nick or Pla∣stick virtue is. Now what this Plastick or formative virtue is that lies hid in the Seed, which begins and car∣ries on the formation of the parts, all are not agreed. GALEN sometimes calls it Nature, some∣times Native Heat, sometimes the Inborn Tempe∣rament, and sometimes Spirit, which in his Book de Trem. & Vigor. he determines to be a substance moveable of it self, and always moving. Ari∣stotle, Lib. 2. de Generat. Animal. Cap. 3. di∣stinguishing betwixt the Heat or Spirit of the Seed, and Nature, saith that the Plastick Virtue, is the Nature that is in the Spirit of the Seed. AVI∣CENNA and others following AVER∣RHOES call it a Coelestial Power, or Di∣vine Virtue. Some admit no other Soul in Man but the Rational, and maintain that it alone, out of convenient seminal matter offered to her, doth perfect all the Lineaments of the parts, and that she is the Architect of her own House. Others affirm that there is a Vegetative or Vital Soul in Man, which is Mortal and distinct from the Ra∣tional, and that this Soul is the chief, yea sole Operator in the forming of the Birth, and the ve∣ry same which some call the Plastick or Architecto∣nick Virtue.

VIII. What Parts of the Body are first formed. The Antients differ also, as to what parts of the Body are first formed. ARISTOTLE was of opi∣nion that the Heart was first formed, as being the Fountain of Heat, and the Principle of the Ani∣mal Life. For it seems very consonant to Reason, that what dies last, should have the precedence in formation. Others suppose that all the parts of the Birth are formed at once, and contend that there is no reason why the Heart should have any such Praeeminence allow'd it. For why, say they, should the Heart be formed before the other parts, seeing that in the framing of the Members, the Birth doth no more stand in need of the Influence of the Heart than of the Sense of the Brain? Nature digests the whole Mass of the Seed with one and the same Heat, which equally penetrates all the parts of it; so that when she begins to frame a Body, she doth not confound the particles of the Seed, but distributes them all into their se∣veral places. Which distribution of the Seed can∣not consist with a successive Generation of Parts; seeing it is equally requisit, that a part fit to form the Brain should be taken from the Heart, as it is that the Brain should communicate a part proper to constitute the Heart: Besides, Nature might be accused of Impotence, if she could not perfect and compleat those things together at once, which she hath begun at once.

IX. All Parts of the Birth are formed together, notwith∣standing that some parts be seen before others. Neither is it contradictory to this assertion, that some parts appear to us before others, because this is only to be attributed to their greater bulk. For the greater parts seem by Nature to be before the less; but we cannot therefore infer from hence that they exist before them; because all the Members of the Body are not perfected and compleated at the same time, but according as they are more or less nourished or heated. Wherefore HIPPOCRA∣TES Lib. 1. de Diaeta saith that all the Members are distinguisht and encrease together; not one be∣fore or after the other; tho' those parts which be greater by Nature than others, do appear before the lesser, but do not exist before them. For the order of Nature is, that the more worthy parts, and those that are designed for the use of others, should appear first, and therefore it is that the upper parts appear before the lower, and those which are formed of the Seed, before those that are formed of the Blood. But yet it sometimes happens, that the more imperfect parts are framed before others, as is manifest in the Navel, which is perfected before either the Heart or Brain.

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X. This fur∣ther proved from a Chicken. This may be proved by Experience; because never was there any Birth found, in which the Heart or any other part was formed, before the other parts were framed also. For tho' in the form∣ing of a Chicken, about the fourh day, the Head and Body of the Chicken begin to appear, when neither Wings or Legs are yet distinguishable, yet even at that time the Rudiments of those parts are there, tho' so little as not discernible by the bare Eye. And thus much concerning the opinion of the Antients about the forming of the Foetus.

XI. Dr. Har∣vey's opini∣on concern∣ing Con∣ception. Dr. HARVEY was the first of Modern Authors who maintained, that the Masculine Seed did not concur to the constitution of the Birth; because in the many Animals he dissected after Copulati∣on, he never found any Seed in their Wombs, and therefore was induced to believe, that the Seed of the Male did never reach the hollow of the Womb, or if it did, that it never staid there, but soon af∣ter slipt away: and accordingly he supposed that the Male-seed, only by a prolifick breath or conta∣gion, doth make the Female conceive. Secondly, That the Natural Conception in the Womb, happens much in the same manner, as doth the Animal Conception in the Brain: for as we, after having framed an Idea in our Brain, do express the like∣ness of it in our Works; so likewise the Idea or Species of the Begetter, tho' the Geniture or Seed be absent, by the help of the Formative Faculty, doth beget a like Birth, by impressing the Imma∣terial Species it hath upon its work.

XII. How Con∣ception is performed according to Steno, and other later Phy∣sicians and Anatomists In the year 1670, STENO a famous Anato∣mist, discovered that the Female Testicles so called, are nothing else but Ovaria, that is, Receptacles of Eggs, which hath been since confirmed by the Writings of KERCKRINGIUS, SWAMMER∣DAM, GRAAF, GASPAR BARTHOLINUS and others. And accordingly the received opinion now is, that the Birth, with all its parts, lies hid in these Ovaria, tho' not to sensible appearance. And therefore maintain that the Birth is not form∣ed of the Seed, but that the most Subtil Spirit only of the Masculine-Seed is conveighed through the bottom of the Womb and the Tubes or Trumpets (so called by FALLOPIUS for their resemblance with that Instrument) to the Female Ovarium, where it impregnates one of those little Eggs, that is, causeth or excites a Fermentation in it, which makes the Egg to swell, and to require a greater space, by which means it cracks the com∣mon Membran of the Ovarium, and through the slit of it, is driven into the Fallopian Tubes by those shaggy edgings which are at the end of the said Tubes, and by Anatomists are called the Leaf-work Ornament, being blown up and distend∣ed by the Animal Spirits, and which at the time of Copulation, like so many Fingers, clasp them∣selves about the Ovarium; and thus the Egg is conveighed through the whole length of the Fallo∣pian Tubes to the bottom of the Womb, where it is further hatched into a Living Birth.

XIII. The Point illustrated from a si∣militude betwixt the Vegetation of Plants and Ani∣mals. The Learned Mr. RAY illustrates this matter in his History of Plants from the Analogy and simili∣tude there is between the Vegetation and encrease of the Seeds of Plants in the Earth, and of Vi∣viparous Animals in the Womb. For even as, saith he, the ripe Seed of a Plant falls down to the Earth, and being there free and at liberty, doth first of all attract the Aliment through the pores of its coverings, and afterwards shoots down roots into the Earth; so likewise the Egg of a Vivipa∣rous Animal, being by the Masculine Seed made Fruitful, and brought to Maturity, falls down from the Ovarium as from its Tree, into the Womb, as the Earth, where continuing for some time loose and at liberty, without being fastned to the VVomb, it takes in its first Aliment through the involving Membrans or Secundines. These Ovaria are nothing else but the Female Testicles formerly so called, which he that diligently views will find them to be nothing else but a Cluster of little Eggs.

XIV. Many diffi∣culties may be solved from this Hypothesis. Admitting this opinion, we may easily resolve the following Difficulties, according to SWAM∣MERDAM in his Miracle of Nature, or the Structure of a Womans Womb. First, Why a Pa∣rent that wants Arms or Legs may notwithstand∣ing propagate a Birth, perfect and compleat in all its parts; even because all the Parts of it are con∣tained in the Egg. Secondly, So likewise that old and famous Question, whether the flowing of the Seed from all the parts of the Body be required to the perfection of the Birth, is readily answered. Thirdly, Hence it appears how Levi, long before his Birth, was said to pay Tenths, in, or with his Great Grand-father Abraham to Melchizedeck, to wit, because he was in the Loins of his Parents, as all the parts of an Animal are in the Egg. And Fourthly, Hence also may be explained and illustrated the ground and foundation of Original Corruption, because all Men that ever were, or shall be, were hid in the Loins of Adam and Eve, to whom therefore it may be easily conceiv'd, that that primordial Taint must have been ne∣cessarily propagated from these their First Pa∣rents.

XV. At what time the Soul is in∣fused into the Body. Now as to the time of the Animation of the Birth, Authors are likewise at great variance. ARISTOTLE supposeth that a Male Body receives its Soul the 42d day after Conception, and a Female on the 19th. Whereas AENEAS GAZAEUS will have the Soul not to be put into the Body already formed, but into the Seed it self, whilst it is yet without Form. THOMAS FIENUS, in his Book de Format. Foetus, determins the Infusion of the Soul to be the third day. But if it be lawful to guess at a thing so obscure as this is, it seems most probable that the Soul is then joined to the Body, when it is furnisht with all its Organs, that is, af∣ter the formation of the Belly, Heart, Brain, the Pineal Kernel, and all the other Parts, which Anatomists tell us happens about the Fourth Month.

CHAP. V. How the Body of Man is nourished and encreased.

I. What Nou∣rishment and En∣crease is. FOrasmuch as those parts that are so turned into our Substances, as to preserve our Body in the ame state and condition only, are said to nourish us; and that those parts, which being transmuted into our Bodies, do make it greater in Bulk than it was before, are said to encrease it, and make it grow, we may easily apprehend what Nourishment and Growth is.

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II. The Pro∣gress of our Food from our Mouth to the Sto∣mach, Guts, &c. The manner how both these are performed will more plainly appear, by taking an exact view of the changes of those Aliments, whence the Princi∣ples of our Blood are derived. First, It is evident that, besides the Culinary Preparation of the Ali∣ment, it is chewed by the Teeth, and being ming∣led with the Spittle is sent down into the Stomach. 2ly. That in the Stomach it undergoes a special Fermentation, whereby it is yet further dissolved. 3ly. That from this dissolved and digested Mass, by another peculiar effervescence or working in the Guts, are separated the more useful and pure parts of the Chyle, from those that are more thick and gross, which are yet farther dissolved and atte∣nuated in the Lacteal Veins, and the Kernels of the Mesentery, as also by the Commixture of the Lymphatick Juice; and at last being mingled with the Blood in the Veins, are carried to the Heart; where having past another effervescence, they be∣come united with the rest of the Blood, there being now no more any difference between them.

III. How the Chyle is driven out of the Sto∣mach into the Guts. When, I say, that the Chyle is driven out of the Stomach into the Guts, I do not thereby own any Expelling Faculty residing in the Stomach, as the Antients did suppose, this being done by the Ani∣mal Spirits flowing through the Nerves into the Membrans of the Stomach, and drawing them together. And forasmuch as these Membrans of the Stomach do immediately infold and embrace the Chyle, in a healthful state of the Body, the said Liquor must of necessity be expelled through the Lower Orifice of the Stomach, into the Guts, as is manifest from a Bladder filled with water, the neck of it being left open; for as soon as you press this Bladder with your Hands, the water gusheth out immediately at the Neck. Moreover, the pressure of the neighbouring parts, as of the Liver, Spleen, Guts, Midriff, the Pancreas, or Sweet-bread, and especially of the three last, con∣tribute much to this Expulsion: for the Midriff is driven downwards by constant Inspiration, and pusheth upon the Stomach that lies under it, as may be seen in the cutting up of Living Beasts.

IV. The nou∣rishing of the Body is performed by the help of the Blood And forasmuch as it is observed that a Body can∣not be nourished, as long as the Blood continually flows from it, but that on the contrary it wastes and consumes; we may well conclude, that Blood concurs to the Nourishment of the Body, and that it is a substance, which acquires another nature, so as to supply those parts that are dissipated, and turn to Excrement.

V. The opinion of the An∣tiens con∣cerning Nu∣trition and Crowth. Which Change the Antient Physicians explain∣ed, by saying, that when the Blood was come to the utmost parts of the Branches of the Capillary Veins, it sweat through them in the form of a Dew, which afterwards turned into substance not unlike to Glew, of a mean consistence; which Glewy substance was then attracted by the several parts of the Body, according to their several needs. So as that the Flesh attracted those particles that were most proper to be changed into Flesh; the Bones, the most fit to be turned to Bones; and that the same Attraction and Assimilation was performed by the help of 2 Faculties, the one whereof they called the Attractive, and the other the Assimila∣tive Faculty.

VI. This opini∣on rejected. But forasmuch as there is no such Attraction in our Bodies, and that our parts are not endued with any knowledge whereby they might be able to di∣stinguish such particles of the Blood as are like and fit for them, from those that are otherwise; this opinion seems to be very contrary to Reason. Neither do they make out, how the Venal and Arterial Blood comes to be changed into Dew, and thence into a Glew; neither can they demon∣strate what those wonder-working Attractive and Assimilative Faculties are, they do so much talk of.

VII. How Nutri∣tion and Growth are performed. We say therefore, that the Nutrition of Mans Body is thus performed. The Blood being come forth from the Heart, wherein it hath received its utmost perfection, is driven towards the ends of the Arteries. For as soon as the Arteries become di∣lated, and as it were blown up, the small particles of the Blood they contain, run against the roots of some Filaments, which proceeding from the Ex∣tremities of the Branches of the Arteries, do con∣stitute the Bones, Flesh, Skins, Nerves, Brain and the other solid Members, according as they are in themselves of a several Juncture or Texture, and thus have the force to drive them a little forwards, and to take up their places. And then as soon as the said Arteries fall again, they leave the parti∣cles of Blood in the several places wherein they are, which abiding there, are by this means united to the part they touch. Now supposing this to be the Body of an Infant or a Youth, the matter whereof is very soft, and its Pores readily dilata∣ble, if the particles of Blood, which are pusht out of the Arteries for the restoring of the solid Parts, be somewhat greater than those, into whose room they come, or if it happen that 2 or 3 par∣ticles crowd into one place, the Body by this means must needs grow and encrease.

VIII. How the Parts of the Aliment become changed into Parts of our Body. But this apposition of Parts chiefly proceeds from the diversity of Figures, that is, as well in the several Particles of Blood, as in the Pores of the parts of the Body: for by this means it is, that when the Blood is driven into the Parts, some of the said particles are more fit to stop in these Pores, and others again in others; where being variously complicated and figured, they become im∣mediately united with the substance of the Parts, and wholly changed into their nature: whereas those particles, which because of their peculiar con∣figuration, are not sit to adhere or cleave to these or the other Pores, are driven further to others; till at last the residue of the Blood, whose particles were not adapted to enter any of the Pores, are remanded through the Veins to the Heart; there to be further digested, and to acquire a new Apti∣tude for their union with the several parts of the Body.

IX. Blood, as Blood, doth not nourish. Yet we must not imagine that Blood, as it is Blood, doth nourish; for the red particles of Blood do not nourish our Body, but only the Chylous parts that are in it: for if the Blood, as such, did nou∣rish our Bodies, then it must certainly perform this function to the Heart it self, and the Lungs which are so near to it; for the Coronary Artery of the Heart, as soon as it is got out from it, doth pre∣sently, by a retrograde motion, return to it again. Thus also in the Lungs, the Blood takes but a very short course. So that it cannot be otherwise, but that these 2 parts, must have the Blood dashing against them with more force, than it doth against any of the other parts of the Body: If therefore in any part nutrition were performed by the Blood

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dropping out of the Vessels, the same must surely happen here, seeing that the Blood hath more force to enter upon them, by opening the small Orifices of the Vessels. But we do not see it does so in ei∣ther of these parts; for we find the substance of the Heart and Lungs in a natural and sound state, not moistned with extravasated Blood, but with a certain clear moisture.

Nay what is more, it is evident that the Blood never comes out of its Vessels, without causing some Disease or other; for if this happens in the Lungs, it causeth the spitting of Blood, and if in other parts, Swellings and other Diseases.

X. The Chyle passeth through the Lacteal Veins, to the Snb∣clavial. The Physicians of old were of opinion that the Chyle, being by the Branches of the Vena Porta suckt out of the Stomach and Guts, were by them carried to the Liver. But our Modern Anatomists demonstrate that the Chyle is driven through the Lacteal Veins only to the Subclavial, and more particularly GASPER ASELLIUS, in the disse∣ction he made of a Dog, whom before he had or∣dered to be well fed, in the year 1622. which discovery hath been further improved by others, who have found that the Lacteal Veins, filled with a Milky Juice, are Vessels different from the Mesaraick Veins: forasmuch as in Living Ani∣mals they appear distinct from the Mesaraicks which are Red, if the dissection be administred 4 hours after the Animal hath been fed, that is, at the time when the distribution of the Chyle is made; for after that time they disappear again. But how∣ever tho' these be empty, they always appear like so many Strings or Fibres, and are never found fill'd with Blood.

XI. The smal∣ness of the Lacteal Veins, con∣duceth much to the form∣ing of the Blood. Neither doth the smallness of the Lacteal Veins in the least embarras this opinion, for this was de∣signed so on purpose by the Provident Care of Nature, to prevent the more gross and earthly parts of the Chyle from entring into them, as also that the Chyle through them might be, by degrees and leisurely distributed according to the necessity or requirings of the Body, and the more easily changed into Blood in the Heart, by that new disposition of parts it acquires by passing through it, and the Effervescence it undergoes there. For as the whiteness of Snow, and the colours of other Bodies, proceed only from the contexture and Po∣sition of the Parts: So the Blood derives its Red∣ness only from that position of parts, which it obtains by its frequent passing through the Heart.

XII. Why the Lacteal Veins are supposed to be of use for the Nourishing of the Body. The Reasons that induce us to admit the use of the Lacteal Veins are; First, Because the Chyle, which is of a White Colour, cannot by the Mesa∣raical Veins be conveighed to the common Ocean, because they are manifestly filled with the Blood; whereas the Lacteal Veins are white, that is, of the colour of the Chyle that passes through them. 2ly. The Lacteal Veins do never appear till after the Body hath been fed, and only about the time when the food begins to be distributed; which is a strong argument to perswade us, that the Chyle passeth through them. 3ly. The quantity of the milky liquor that is in these Veins, may be en∣creased, by pressing the Guts, whilst they are as yet full of Chyle.

XIII. The pas∣sage of the Chyle from the Guts. The Chyle therefore being duly prepared, pas∣seth through the Guts, where the Alimentary Parts are separated from the unprofitable and excremen∣tal, and thence run into the Lacteal or Milky Veins, which carry the said Liquor into the Com∣mon Receptacle: From whence 2 other Vessels con∣vey it through the Thorax or Chest, near the Back∣bone, up to the Subclavial branches of the Vena Cava, and there empty themselves.

XIV. The Birth is not wholly nou∣rished in the Womb by the Mouth. Another Point to be examin'd is, how the Birth is nourished in the Mothers Womb; since it cannot take in its Food wholly by the Mouth, but at first rather by Apposition, and afterwards by the Navel. For the situation and disposition of its Parts will not admit of this, seeing that the whole Body lies crouded together, and hath its Mouth shut up be∣tween its Knees. And tho' as soon as it is born, it reacheth to the Mothers or Nurses Breast; yet is this only the effect of Natures Providence, which as it teacheth the Birth to fetch its breath; so likewise she directs it, where to meet with Food.

XV. But by the Umbilical Vessels. But that the Birth receives its Nourishment by the Navel, may be proved from the Courses of Women, which generally cease in those that are with Child, because the Blood is then defrauded of the Chyle and its Nutricious Juice, which at that time is kept in the Womb for the Nourishment of the Birth. And for the same Reason, as soon as the Birth is born, the Breasts are fill'd with Milk; because the Juice which before was employed to feed the Birth, mounts up to the Breasts, where it is changed into a white Liquor. And this is fur∣ther confirmed by those Women who do not Suckle their Children, for these perceive the Milk to return from the Breast to their Womb, where it is eva∣cuated. To which may be added, that if the Birth in the Womb were nourished by the Mouth, it seems that it should also breath; which it is impossible it should do, as long as it is in the Womb. Yea further, should the Infant open his Mouth in the Womb, it would be in danger of being choaked with the Liquor wherein it swims. So that it is very probable, that the Birth, when it is perfected, is only, at least chiefly nourished by the Umbilical Vessels.

XVI. Flesh is not the Natural Food of Man. Now forasmuch as Man feeds on Flesh, Fish, Herbs and Fruits, it may be enquir'd which of these is his most Natural Food. Indeed if we examine the matter strictly, the feeding on Flesh doth not seem Natural to him; yea, if we consider the Instruments he makes use of in Eating, we shall find it contrary to the intent of Nature. For we find that those Animals that feed upon Flesh, as Wolves, Lions, and the like, have their Fore-Teeth long, sharp, and at some distance from each other; because Flesh cannot well be prepared for the digestion in the Stomach, without such In∣struments as may pierce deep into the Substance of it, and pluck it to pieces. Whereas those Ani∣mals that feed upon Herbs, as Sheep, Oxen, Horses, &c. have short Teeth, which are ranged close together; whence it may be easily guess'd, that Man who is furnish'd with such like Teeth, was designed to feed chiefly on Herbs and Fruits.

XVII. Children love Fruits more than Flesh. This is further confirmed by the Example of Children, who following the Instinct of Nature, do prefer Fruits before Flesh: For Nature not being as yet debauch'd in them, they manifest by their Choice, what Food she design'd for them. So that it is not to be question'd, but that if Chil∣dren,

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as soon as they are weaned, should be kept from the eating of Flesh, they would the more strongly desire Fruits, and choose them before all other Food whatsoever.

XVIII. The Eating of Flesh was un∣known to the first Men. This Intent of Nature may further be illustrated from the Custom of the first Men that lived in the World, who fed only upon Fruits. And ac∣cordingly the Holy Scriptures assure us, that the eating of Flesh was not permitted till after the Flood. If it be Objected, that some men have been found in the World, that have fed upon flesh, as the Savages of Brasile, &c. it may be easily answer'd, that these did not follow the guidance of Nature, but their own depraved Lusts and Affections, which prompted them not only to the eating of Flesh, but even to the devouring of Mans Flesh.

XIX. Nature de∣monstrates the same, by denying us Instru∣ments ne∣cessary for the Eating of Flesh. Moreover, had Nature intended Flesh to be our nourishment, she would without doubt have fur∣nish'd us with Instruments fit for that purpose, nor have put us to the shift of making use of Knives, which other Carnivorous Animals do not stand in need of. Besides, why have we such an aversion to Raw flesh, and cannot endure to taste of it till it be prepared by Fire; but only to shew, that Flesh is not our Natural food, being only introduc'd by Lust, which hath quite changed our Nature from its Primigenial Inclination and Temper.

XX. Man would be every whit as strong, if he liv'd only on Herbs and Fruits. Neither let any Man object here, That Man would be much weaker, if he should confine him∣self to feed on Herbs and Fruits only; for we see that Horses and Bulls are very strong and hardy Animals, which yet feed upon nothing but Herbs, and Corn or Pulse. How swift is a Stag, how lively vigorous and long Liv'd; and this only by feeding on the Grass of the Field? So that I should be easily induc'd to believe, that in case a Man were brought up like a Beast in the Fields, he would not be inferiour to Stags in running, nor to Apes in climbing of Trees; which his delicate and tender Education do now make him unfit for.

CHAP. VI. How the Motion of the Heart, Arteries and Muscles, are performed in the Body of Man.

I. What the Heart, Ar∣teries and Veins are. WE may gather from what hath been said, that the Heart is nothing else, but a Body, consisting of Musculous Fibres, into whose Sub∣stance are inserted Arteries, Veins, Nerves, and Lymphatick Vessels. An Artery is a Vessel or Pipe proceeding from the Heart, fitted for the containing and conveying of Blood. A Vein is another sort of a long and round Vessel, hollow like a Pipe, with a single and lasting Coat, woven together of all sorts of Fibres. There are 2 Veins which pro∣ceed from the Heart, and in their coming out from it separate themselves, and are called by several Names: The Vena Cava, or Hollow Vein, proceeding from the Right Ventricle of the Heart, and from thence mounting strait to the Brain, is called the Jugular Vein, which under the Arm∣pits divides it self into 2 branches, called the Axiliary Veins, or Subclavial; and going down∣wards, it becomes also divided, and sends a large branch to the Liver; and this is the Vena Porta, so called, which being divided into very small branches, loseth it self in the Liver. The other Vein being derived from the Left Ventricle of the Heart, is called Pulmonalis, or the Lung-Vein; because it is distributed through the Lungs, the use of it being to convey the Blood back from the Lungs, by means of the Ear-lappet of the Heart, into the Heart again.

II. All Motion in Man, doth not proceed from his Soul. We pereceive many motions in the Body of Man, which the ignorant Common People do attribute to the Soul; for they seeing that a Dead Body, after the Souls departure, is deprived of all motion, conclude all motion to proceed from the Soul. But we shall easily be convinc'd of this Errour, by observing the Nature of Flame, which notwithstanding that it is Inanimate, is in continual motion; even to that degree, as to exceed the agi∣tation that is perceived in Animated Bodies.

III. Heat is the Cause of all our Motions. But not to concern our selves about the Opinions of the Vulgar, we conclude Heat to be the Bodily Principle of all our motions; seeing that Death is caused by nothing else, but the loss of our Native Heat, or the destruction of some Principal part of our Body. Wherefore when the Soul becomes separated from the Body, this doth not proceed from any defect of the Soul; but because the Heat vanisheth, or because some of the Organs are destroy'd and spoil'd. For as long as we live, there is a Heat, or rather Fire in our Hearts; but such a one as is without Light, (and not much unlike to that whereby new Wine grows hot and ferments) which we make the Principle of all the motions that are in the Body.

IV. Of the Parts of the Heart. There be 2 Ventricles in the Heart FF, to which 4 Pipes or Channels do answer: To the Right Ventricle GG, the Vena Cava AB answers, into which all the other Veins empty themselves, as into their common Receptacle; and the Arterial Vein D, which proceeding from the Heart, divides * 1.1it self into divers branches in the Lungs. To the Left Ventricle HH, as many Channels do belong, viz. the Venal Artery E, which riseth from the Lungs, and the Great Artery called also Aorta C; which being derived from the Heart, doth divide it self into many Rivulets, throughout the whole Body.

V. The Blood runs throughout the whole Body. They who are acquainted with the Works of Dr. HARVEY, know that the Blood runs out of the Vena Cava AB, into the Right Ventricle of the Heart GG, and from thence is carried to the Lungs through the Arterial Vein D; and after∣wards returns from the Lungs into the Left Ven∣tricle of the Heart HH, through the Venal Ar∣tery E; and last of all, after these Circulations, is conveyed into the Great Artery C, which carries the Blood throughout the whole Body. These things being explained thus in few words:

VI. The Cause of the Motion of the Heart, is the Bloods di∣latation. I say, That the motion of the Heart proceeds from the Dilatation of the Blood that passeth through it; Which effect of Dilatation is to be ascribed to the Fire which lies hid in the Heart, which rarefies the Blood as soon as it enters into the Ventricle of it; by which rarefaction and ex∣pansion of the Blood, the Mouths of the Vessels are opened, and the Blood is conveyed thence; upon which evacuation other Blood enters the Heart, to supply the place of that which is run out; which rarefying in like manner causes the

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Heart to swell. And from this only proceeds the motion of the Heart and the Pulse or beating of the Arteries; which is as often repeated, as any fresh Blood enters into the Ventricles of the Heart.

VII. There is more Heat in the Heart, than in any other part of the Body. For we are to observe, that as long as an Ani∣mal lives, there is more heat in the Heart, than in any other part of the Body; as also that the Na∣ture of the Blood is such, as that upon the least over∣heating, it becomes immediately dilated and rarefied, whence the motion of the Heart and the Pulse of the Arteries do proceed.

VIII. How the Heart and Arteries are moved. For the better understanding whereof, we are to observe that the Pulse or Beating of the Arte∣ries is chiefly promoted by 11 little Skins, which like so many little Floodgates or Doors, do open and shut the Orifices of the 4 Vessels that answer to the 2 Ventricles of the Heart. For at the same moment that one of these Pulses ceaseth, and another is at hand, these Valves in the Orifices of the two Arteries are exactly shut, and those that are in the Orifices of the 2 Veins are opened; so that it cannot be otherwise, but that at the same time 2 parts of Blood must run out of these Veins, one into the one, and the other into the other Ventricle of the Heart. Whereupon these 2 por∣tions of Blood, being both of them rarefied, and consequently taking up a greater Space, they shut the Valves that are in the Orifices of the 2 Veins, and so hinder any more Blood to fall down into the Heart; and at the same time do push against and open the Valves of the two Arteries, and swiftly rush into them, by which means both the Heart, and all the Arteries of the whole Body are blown up. But this rarefied Blood becomes pre∣sently condens'd again, or penetrates into other parts of the Body. And by this means the Heart and Arteries fall flat again, the Valves in the en∣trance of the 2 Arteries are shut up, and those that are in the Orifices of the 2 Veins are opened, and give passage to 2 other portions of Blood, which cause the Heart and Arteries to be blown up again.

IX. The Heart and the Arteries beat at one and the same time. Having thus discover'd the Cause of the Pulse, it may be easily conceiv'd that the Heart and Arteries must beat both together; for tho' Blood be a fluid Body, yet forasmuch as it is contained in the Veins and Arteries, it is to be consider'd as a Continuous Body. For as when one end of a Continuous Body, such as a Stick is, is moved, the other end is moved likewise, in the very same mo∣ment; in like manner a fluid Body that is con∣tain'd in a Pipe or Channel, if any part of it be moved, the whole must needs be moved also: Which the Boys in their play do evidence, who whilst they push forwards the Water that is at one end of the Spout, they make it gush out at the other. Moreover, all the Arteries that are in the Body are continued and joyn'd together, and do all of them rise from the Aorta; so that upon the least determination of Motion that is imprest upon this beginning of the Arteries, all of them must be made partakers of the same.

X. The Animal Spirits de∣rive their Original from this Cause. From this Dilatation of the Blood in the Heart, the Animal Spirits take their Original. For seeing that the Blood is made of the Chyle, and that the Chyle is nothing else, but a company of the more subtil Particles of the Aliment that have been dis∣solved in the Stomach, separated by means of the Orifices of the Lacteal Veins, and from thence carried to the Heart: It cannot be question'd, but that the Chyle and Blood, by frequently passing through the Heart, must attain to that great degree of Subtilty, as to resemble the Particles of those Bodies, which the Chymists, after fermentation, and several digestions and cohobations, do distill into Spirit, and bring over the Helm. These Spirits move upwards towards the Brain, because the Great Artery G, by which the Blood is carried up out of the Heart, tends directly that way. But being in great quantity, and not all of them alike pure, the more Subtil of them only do enter the Brain. So that the Animal Spirits are the purest portion of the Blood, subtilized by the heat of the Heart, and of that extream Swiftness, as to resemble the volatile Particles of Flame. For the Spirits are in a continual agitation, and never cease from Motion.

XI. What Parts a Muscle doth consist of. Now in order to our understanding of the man∣ner how our Members are moved, we are to take notice, that the Nerves, which are the Conduits of the Spirits, do proceed from the Brain and the Pith of the Back-bone, and end in many strings or filaments, which penetrate into the fleshy part, and help to constitute a Muscle: For these 2 Parts, viz. Flesh and Nerves do chiefly constitute the Essence of a Muscle. Which appears from hence, that many Muscles are found in the Body, in which nothing else is to be seen, besides the Nerve and the Musculous flesh; as the Muscles of the Eyes, Forehead, Temples, Bladder, &c.

XII. What Mus∣cles are, and how they come to be stretched, and swell. The Muscles therefore are parts of the Body, that are fastned to others more solid, consisting of a loose and porous Flesh, and of a Membran that surrounds them; which, when the Nerves do reach, (to make use of the words of GALEN, Lib. 1. de motu Musculorum, Cap. 1.) they become vari∣ously cut and divided, till at last being altogether scattered into thin and skinny Fibres, they are wo∣ven through the whole body of the Muscle, &c. For the Nerves are no other than so many Chan∣nels, which convey the Spirit, and are endued with Pores and Valves, that open themselves towards the Cavity of the Muscles; so as that when once the Spirit is let in, they do hinder it from returning back again. It is necessary therefore, that the Muscles being blown up by the Animal Spirits, should be dilated in breadth, and contracted in length, and thus move the part to which they are fastned by way of Traction or Drawing.

XIII. The Diffe∣rence of Muscles, as to their Situation and Figure. The Muscles which GALEN, calls the Instru∣ments of Motion, are all of them alike; but diffe∣ring in quantity, situation, and figure. With respect to their Dimension some are Thick, as the 2 that are called Vast ones; others Thin, as the slender Muscle that bends the Leg or Shin-bone. Some are Long, as the strait Muscle of the Abdomen, and the Abductor of the Leg; others Short, as the Py∣ramidal Muscles at the bottom of the Abdomen. Some Broad, as the oblique and transverse Muscles of the Abdomen; others Narrow, as the Muscles of the Fingers and Toes. As to their situation, some are on high, others below; some on the Right-hand, others on the Left, &c. As to their figure, some resemble a Lizard, others a Thorn∣back, others a Mouse: Some are three-corner'd, some four, some five; others are Round, Pyra∣midal, and the like.

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XIV. The Parts whereof the Muscles do consist. There are 3 Parts commonly assigned to a Muscle, the Head, Belly and Tail: By the Head of the Muscle, Anatomists understands that end, to∣wards which the Contraction tends. Most Muscles have but one Head, tho' there be some that have two, and others three. By the Name of the Tail, they understand that end of the Muscle which is inserted in the part that is to be moved. And by the Belly they denote the middle part of the Muscle, which appears more swell'd like unto Flesh. Some Muscles have but one Belly, others two; as the Muscle which shuts the lower Jaw∣bone, and that of the Bone Hyoides, which are therefore called Double-bellied Muscles, as those that have three Bellies are called Three-Bel∣lied.

XV. A descrip∣tion of the Half Ner∣vous Mus∣cle. This may happen several ways, the first where∣of is, when the fleshy Fibres of 2 Muscles do directly meet one another, and by this means form one Tendon; as it happens in the Muscle called Semi-nervosus, or Half-sinewy, which is repre∣sented by the Figure, in which the fibres of the * 1.22 Muscles AB, and BC, meeting one another directly, do by this their meeting form one com∣mon Tendon EB.

XVI. The descri∣ption of a two-headed Muscle. The second manner is, when the Fibres of 2 or more Muscles, meeting each other obliquely, con∣found their Tendons, and of 2 make 1; as it happens in the Two-headed Muscle of the Arm, as also in the Deltoides, which are represented by the * 1.3Figure, wherein the Fibres of the 2 Muscles AB, and DC, do meet obliquely, and confounding their 2 Tendons, make one of it, viz. the Tendon EF.

XVII. The Muscle of the lower▪ Jaw-bone. The third manner is, when the Fibres of two Muscles falling upon the two opposite sides of one common Tendon, continue parallel to each other; as it happens in the Digastrick or Two-bellied Muscle, which moves the Lower Jaw-bone, and * 1.4which is represented by the Figure, in which the Fibres of the Muscles DC, and BA, falling upon the two opposite sides of the Tendon FE, continue in a Parellel position to each other.

XVIII. The Mathe∣matical effect of a Muscle. There are some modern Philosophers, who endea∣vour to make out, that the effect of any Muscle is meerly Mathematical, and demonstrable from the Principles of that Science. For seeing that there is a threefold Dimension, viz. Length, Breadth, and Depth, and that the figure of a Muscle is terminated by these, it follows, that all Muscles, that lye upon the Bones, when they are contracted, do increase as much in breadth and depth, as they lose in length; that is, attain to a greater prominence of their Bodily bulk; whereas, when they are extended, they cover a greater part of the Body. Which they demonstrate thus: Let * 1.5there be a Parallelogram ABCD, representing the Two-headed Muscle in its state of Extension, and the Square BEGF, equal to it, representing the said Muscle in its state of Contraction. They say, that the Contracted Muscle in the second Figure, is every whit as large as the Extended Muscle in the first Figure: And because the Square of the Muscle BEGF, is equal to the Parallelo∣gram ABCD, therefore they infer, that the sur∣face of the Muscle is the same in both of the Posi∣tions, and that the Part GD, changed into breadth, is proportion'd to the Line AD, which determines the Local motion.

XIX Our Mem∣bers are moved by the help of the Muscles. The motion therefore of our Members is owing to the Muscles, which is when some of them are Contracted, and others Extended; for no part of the Body can be reduc'd to a less Extension, but that at the same time it must draw up to it that part to which it is joyned. Now that one Muscle is rather contracted than another, proceeds from the Communication of Spirits. For that Muscle is contracted that hath most Spirits, as there are fewer Spirits in that which continues extended, and for this Reason appears longer and thin∣ner.

XX. The Spirits that are contained in the Nerves, are assisting to the motion of the Muscles. When it is said, That the Spirits which proceed from the Brain, do assist the motion of the Muscles; this is not so to be understood, as if they alone were sufficient to perform this, but that they deter∣mine the Spirits that are contained in all the Nerves of our Body, to tend to one part, more than towards another; or because they open the Orifices, through which many other Spirits may flow to one part, and by blowing up the same con∣tract it.

XXI. The Moti∣ons that are ex∣cited in us without our adver∣tence, do not pro∣ceed from the Soul. From whence we may gather, That our Soul doth not immediately move our Members, but only direct the Spirits that flow from the Heart, through the Brain into the Muscles, and deter∣mine them to such and such motions. For the Spirits are indifferent of themselves, and may with the same facility be applied to several Actions. Wherefore all motions that are performed in us, without the command of our Will; as Walking, the Concoction of our Food, Singing, and other such like Actions, which are done without our adver∣tence, are not performed by the Soul, but only proceed from the disposition of our Organs, and influence of the Spirits. So that all our Actions, our Thoughts only excepted, do agree with and resemble those that we see in Brutes, and have one and the same Principle.

CHAP. VII. Of the Circulation of the Blood.

I. How the Blood is carried throughout the whole Body. FRom what hath been now said, no small diffi∣culty ariseth; viz. if the Blood flow out of the Vena Cava into the Right Ventricle of the Heart, and from thence into the Arterial Vein, and out of it into the Venal Artery, and thencc into the Left Cavity of the Heart, until it rush out into the Great Artery; whence then shall we suppose, that such great store of Blood can be fur∣nish'd? Or, how comes it to pass, that the rest of the Veins that empty themselves into the Vena Cava, are not exhausted? Or, that the Arteries are not over distended, into which the Blood from the Heart runs?

II. The Veins and Arte∣rits are like so many Ri∣vulets in the Body. This Difficulty will disappear, if we consider that the Veins and Arteries are like so many Rivu∣lets in our Body, in which the Blood runs along, beginning its motion, as hath been said, from the Right Ventricle of the Heart, and after various windings falling into the same again; so as that its motion is nothing else, but a continual Circulation. For the Blood which is contained in the Arteries and Veins of the whole Body, by turns continually rushing forth from the Heart, is driven along through the Arteries into the Veins, and out of

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them again returns into the Vena Cava, the Branches whereof are dispersed throughout the whole Body.

III. The Con∣traction of the Arte∣ries, pro∣motes the motion of the Blood. The Spontaneous Contraction of the Vessels, which are full of Blood, doth very much promote that vehement force, whereby the Blood from the motion of the Heart, is driven all along through the Arteries and Veins. For by means thereof, with the help of Subtil matter, which forceth the narrow Pores of the Fibres, the sides of the Vessels come nearer together, by which means the Liquor contained in them is still driven further, and runs with a greater Force, as coming from a larger Space which it hath near the Heart, into the narrower Arteries: According as we see it hap∣pens in a Hogs-Bladder, which being fill'd with the Breath that is blown into it, is no sooner removed from the Mouth, but the Spontaneous Contraction of the Sides of the Bladder do drive out the greatest part of the Air.

IV. Reasons proving the Circu∣lation of the Blood. This Circulation was first discover'd by Ana∣tomists, from the communication there is between the Heart and the Lungs. For they found there was the same quantity of Blood in the Venal Ar∣tery, as in the Left Ventricle of the Heart, which they concluded could not be so, except that the Blood were strained through the Arteries into the Veins, not by the Anastomoses or Inoculations of the Arteries and Veins, but by means of the porous Substance of the solid Parts. They observed also, that in the Hearts of Fishes which want Lungs, they could not find a Left Ventricle, because there is no necessity in them to have the Blood transfused out of the Heart into the Lungs. But they clearly make out, that such a Circulation is neces∣sary in Man, as well to preserve the Heat of his Body, as to the production of the several Humours thereof. For how could it be otherwise, but that the outward parts of the Body must be congealed with Cold, if New Blood did not continually come to them communicating the heat it brings along with it from the Heart? For conceive we the heat that is in the Heart to be never so great, yet would it not be sufficient to warm the Members that are so remote from it, except fresh Blood did continually flow to them, to repair their lost heat. Yea, it could not be otherwise, but that the Blood which is cold of its own Nature, must needs stag∣nate and be coagulated in the Parts, in case it did not continually return to the Heart, there to recruit its heat, and borrow new Spirits.

V. Nutrition cannot be performed, without the Circulation of the Blood. Moreover, how could our Bodies be nourished, if the Blood did not continually flow to all the Parts of it? And except some Particles of the Blood passing through the ends of the Arteries be∣came joyned to the Body, entring into the place of those which they justly out? How otherwise could our Food be digested in our Stomachs, and turned into Chyle, if there were not a virtue in our Sto∣machs proceeding from the Heart through the Arteries, which did promote their dissolution? Moreover, all these Particulars may be confirmed from what before hath been said, concerning the Production of the Spirits, which being the most Subtil parts of the Blood, mount from the Heart to the Brain through the Great Artery, and being afterwards diffus'd into the Muscles by the help of the Nerves, impart motion to the Body. Which Sallies of the Spirits could not be, if the Great Artery did not by a Right Line ascend from the Heart to the Brain.

VI. The Com∣mon Pra∣ctice of Chyrurge∣ons, is a confirmati∣on of the Bloods Cir∣culation. To this also may be added the Practice of Chi∣rurgeons, who when they go about to let any one Blood, make a Ligature about the Arm, above the Orifices of the Vein, towards the Shoulder, that the Blood may gush forth more freely; because the Ligature hinders the passage of the Blood, and doth not suffer it to pass beyond the Ligature: For tho' it cannot hinder the Blood from continuing its course, yet it cannot hinder but that fresh Blood still comes out of the Artery to the Hand, and from the Hand to the opening of the Vein; because the Arteries lye under the Veins, and by reason of the Hardness of their Coats, cannot be comprest without great Force. To which may be also added, that the Blood which proceeds from the Heart, through the Arteries, doth rush with greater force towards the Hand, than it returns from the Hand through the Veins to the Heart; because the Blood flows more slowly in the Veins, than in the Arteries; forasmuch as that which is in the Arteries hath but very lately been heated and rarefied in the Heart, whereas that which runs in the Veins, doth in time grow cold, and conse∣quently moves more slowly.

VII. As in the World there is a conti∣nual motion of the Water; so in Man, of his Blood. In like manner therefore, as there is in the Greater World a continual Course of the Waters that return from the Sea through Subterranean Channels; and of those that run towards the Sea, by the Rivers: So in the Little World, Man, there is a perpetual Circulation of the Blood through the Arteries and Veins. The Arteries carry the Blood from the Heart to the Members; and the Veins return the same Blood again from the Members to the Heart: So that the Circulation of the Blood is nothing else, but the perpetual Motion of the same Liquor, passing from the Heart through the Ar∣teries, and returning through the Veins to the Heart.

VIII. Why the Blood that is in the Veins, it unlike to that which is in the Arteries. You will Object, That if the Blood be circulated throughout the whole Body 100 or 200 times (as some suppose) through all the Arteries and Veins to the Heart, there seems to be no reason why the Blood that is in the Veins, should be unlike to that which is in the Arteries; whereas we find it is so. For the Arterial Blood appears more lively and florid; whereas that of the Veins is more dull, and of a blackish Colour, which difference would not be, if the same Blood did run through the Arteries and Veins.

IX. Answer. I Answer, That this difference of the Blood is, because that Blood, which is contained in the Arte∣ries, hath before passed through the Heart, and keeps the same Qualities which it hath got there. Whereas the Blood that is contained in the Veins, is not so pure, as containing besides the Blood, which flows to them from the Arteries, another Liquor, communicated to them from the Guts. To which we may add, that the Blood is not so hot in the Veins, as in the Arteries; because the Veins are at a greater distance from the Heart, than the Arteries, which only is sufficient to make it very different from that which is in the Veins; because nothing is so easily changed, as the Blood is: As is evident in that as soon as it is got out of the Veins, the Air immediately corrupts it, so that it degenerates into another Substance.

X. Whether Agues do depend on the Motion of the Blood. It may be you'l Object in the Second place, that Agues only return at certain days; whereas sup∣posing the continual Circulation of the Blood, they

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would recur more frequently, viz. as often as the Blood returns to the Heart.

XI. Answer. To which may be Answer'd, That the Matter of Agues is not lodged in the Veins, according to the Opinion of some Physicians, but in some Cavities of the Body; where it continues till it comes to maturity, and be made fit to be mingled with the Blood. And according as it doth sooner or later arrive to this Maturity, it causeth either a Quotidian, Tertian, or Quartan Ague: And irre∣gular Agues happen, when the said Matter, shut up in these Cavities, doth too much distend it self, and by its dilatation opens the Pores, so that by this means it wholly or in great part evaporates: For the Pores being once open'd, it is a hard matter to shut them again, before that much Matter is got out by them.

XII. How long the Circu∣lation of the Blood lasts in the Body of Man. But some or other, it may be, will enquire, how long this Circulation lasts?

I Answer, That this may in some sort be guest at from the Quantity of the Blood, which at every Pulse of the Heart flows into the Great Artery; and by determining the Quantity of Blood con∣tained in the whole Body. For if we suppose that at every Pulse of the Heart, one Dram of Blood enters into the Aorta, out of the Left Ventricle, and do then take an exact account of the number of Pulses, we shall easily infer, that if these Pulses be 64 times repeated in one Minute (as it hath been observed in a Man of a middle Age and Temperament) there will be 3840 of them in one Hours time. Whence it follows, that every Day 32160 Drams of Blood pass through the Ventricles of the Heart in one Day, which added together make 700 Pounds of Blood. But since there is not so much Blood in the Body of Man, nor scarcely above 10 Pounds, we must conclude that the whole Mass of Blood circulates through the Heart 72 times every Day, and that consequently it passeth out of the Heart into the Arteries, and from the Arteries to all the Parts of the Body thrice in one Hours time.

XIII. How the Blood Cir∣culates in the Birth, whilst it is yet shut up in the Womb. It remains now, that we explain how that the Circulation of the Blood through the Heart is per∣formed in the Birth, whilst it is shut up in the Womb: For seeing that the Infant doth not breath in the Womb, as shall be said in the next Chapter, its Lungs lye still without motion, and consequently admit no Blood at all. There are therefore 2 branches found in the Birth, by means whereof this Defect is made up: The former whereof springeth from the Vena Cava, 2 or 3 Fingers breadth above the Midriff, and is inserted into the Vein of the Lungs near the Left Ventricle of the Heart, which the Blood presently enters, and after its Fermentation, or Effervescence there, is through the Aorta distributed throughout the whole Body; but the remaining portion thereof ascends farther through the Vena Cava, and enters the Right Ventricle of the Heart; from whence, after Fermentation, it proceeds into the Artery of the Lungs, out of which, near to its egress out of the Heart, another small Channel ariseth, which runs strait to the Great Artery, and into it pours forth the Blood that comes from the Right Ventricle of the Heart, to the end it may be distri∣buted throughout the whole Body. So that be∣cause the Blood cannot pass through the Lungs, therefore that which enters the Left Ventricle of the Heart, passeth into the Right; and thus by these Channels, the want of the passage through the Lungs, is made up. But after that the Child is born, these 2 Channels are stopt up, as being of no further use; the Circulation of the Blood be∣ing now performed through the midst of the Lungs.

CHAP. VIII. Concerning Respiration.

I. What Re∣spiration is, and that it is neces∣sary for the mainte∣nance of Life. FOrasmuch as the Life of Man consists in the continual Motion of the Blood, and an Ani∣mal is said to live as long as the Alimentary Juice runs through the Heart, and from thence is driven to the other Parts; it is apparent that Respiration is necessary for the maintaining thereof, without which neither the Beating of the Heart, nor the flowing of the Blood can be performed. Hence it is that we commonly use the word Expiring for Dying; and that ARISTOTLE declares, that the Life of Man consists in the drawing and breathing out of the Spirit. For seeing that the Heart is heated by continual motion, Respiration is necessary for the Ventilating thereof, and for the Cooling of the Blood, to prevent it from being over-heated or enflam'd. Respiration therefore is the Alternative Expansion and Contraction of the Thorax or Chest, by which the Air is conveyed through the Wind-pipe to the Lungs, as well to cool the Blood contained in the Veins thereof, as afterwards to expel the said Air, together with the smutty Vapours: The Chest, Midriff, and Ab∣domen, as so many Muscles assisting to this Mo∣tion.

II. Respiration is either Voluntary or Sponta∣neous. Respiration is twofold, Voluntary or Sponta∣neous: Voluntary is that whereby the Soul, by its Cogitation and Will, determining the motion of the Animal Spirits into the Muscles, which serve for Respiration and Expiration, doth by turns enlarge and contract the Breast. Spontaneous Respiration is that which is performed by us when we are asleep, or think of something else, from the con∣formation of the Nerves, which assist Respiration; whereby the Animal Spirits, without any deter∣mination of our Thoughts, flow into the Muscles, design'd for Inspiration and Expiration.

III. There be two parts of Respira¦tion. There be 2 Parts that constitute Respiration, viz. Inspiration and Expiration. Inspiration is that Action, whereby the Chest becomes dilated upon the entrance of the Air: Expiration is that Action, whereby the Thorax, or Chest, becomes comprest upon the Expulsion of the Air, together with the Vapours. So that the Breast derives its Dilatation and Contraction from this twofold Motion; its Dilatation, when its Parts are extended beyond its Natural amplitude; and its Contraction, when of themselves they return to their former Natural situation.

IV. The Air doth not not enter the Breast to avoid a Vacuum. When the Air enters the Breast in Respiration, this Motion doth not proceed from the fear of admitting a Vacuum, neither must we imagine, that the Air of it self runs thither without being driven; but forasmuch as by the Dilatation of the Breast, the Air which is about the Breast and the Abdomen, is easily thrust out of its place, because of its Fluidity; neither is there any other place to receive that Air, but that which is made for it

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by the Dilatation of the Breast; by this means it comes to pass that the Air which is driven away by the Breast, doth push forwards that which is about the Mouth and Nostrils, and drives it down the Wind-pipe into the Lungs. And thus as much Air is driven into the Lungs, as the Breast and Abdomen by their Dilatation do thrust away from them; so that here must be conceived a whole Circle of moved Bodies, according to that Axiom of Natural Philosophy, that Every Motion is per∣formed Circularly. Now that the Air enters into the Lungs, because it is driven away by the Breast, is manifest in a Dead Body, where tho' the Mouth and Nostrils be open; yet the breath doth not enter into the Hollow of the Breast, because there is no Cause by which the Air might be driven thither. And the same we our selves experience, when after having breath'd out the Air, we keep our Chest for some Moments contracted: For in this state we are very sensible that the Air doth not in the least press upon us to enter into our Lungs, as long as we keep our Breasts in that posture.

V. Respiration is perform∣ed by the help of the Muscles of the Chest, and the Abdomen. Respiration therefore is performed by the Action of the Muscles of the Chest and the Abdomen, which by extending and contracting of our Body, determine the Air to its Ingress and Egress. For there be 2 Muscles H and L, which by turns are blown up by the Animal Spirits, and fall again, and which by their Ingress and Egress do conti∣nually maintain the Dilatation and Contraction of the Lungs: For they are so disposed, as that when the one of them, viz. H is blown up or swells, the Space wherein the Lungs are contained, becomes * 1.6dilated, whereupon the Air enters into them through the Mouth and Nostrils; and whilst the other L swells, the said Space is comprest, and then the Air is thrust out by the same ways: In like manner as the Air enters into a pair of Bellows, when the sides thereof are distended, and upon their being closed, is driven out again.

VI. The man∣ner how Spontaneous Respiration is excited at first. The Animal Spirits therefore being conveyed out of the Ventricles of the Brain, through the interposited Pith of the Back-bone into 2 Nerves, through the Valves CD, are sent in more abun∣dance, and with greater force into the Nerve CGA, which serves for Inspiration; forasmuch as the same is supposed to be more large and open. And thus the Valve or Flap G, being in the midst of both Nerves is shut, and hinders the Animal Spi∣rits from removing out of the Muscle H, into another passage K; and at the same time the other Valve F, of the opposite Nerve DFB, is opened, by which the Spirits pass out of the Muscle L, into the Muscle H; which together with those which flow from the Brain into the Nerve CGA, do enlarge the Body, and drive the neigh∣bouring Air into the Lungs.

VII. The Reason of Sponta∣neous Expi∣ration. And thus is Respiration performed, and lasts as long as the Muscle H, being swell'd by the afflu∣ence of Animal Spirits, doth hinder the Ingress of other Spirits, and being straitned by the Mem∣bran 1, 2, 3, wherewith it is covered, as well as by its Spontaneous Contraction, is comprest to that degree, that the Animal Spirits rushing forth, by reason of their too great quantity, out of that Muscle, do open the Valve G, and passing through it into the Muscle, they together with other Spirits flowing from the Brain dilate it, and streightning the Breast expel the Air out of it. And after this manner it is, that Spontaneous Respiration and Ex∣piration is performed in us, either when we are asleep or awake.

VIII. The Midriff is the Pri∣mary Cause of the Motion of Respira∣tion. But forasmuch as the Lungs have neither Fibres nor Muscles, without which no part of the Body is moved, we are to enquire what that is which effects this Rising and Falling of the Lungs. For as a pair of Bellows is distended or comprest with the Hand; so a like Cause must be assigned, which dilates and compresseth the Lungs: This upon Enquiry we shall find to be the Midriff. For it is a thing whereof every one is aware, when he feels that motion whereby his whole Abdomen is lifted up at every Inspiration, that at an equal Interval of time, the Gristles of his Ribs are drawn in∣wards; because the Midriff, by its middle part, presseth the Stomach and Guts downwards, and at the same time doth attract or draw inward, the Gristles to which its Extream parts are fastned, by reason of the tension or stretching of its Middle part. Moreover we find, that when we have fed plentifully, our Respiration is more swift, but withal not so strong and vigorous: And the same thing we Experience, when the Air we take in is thick and fill'd with gross Vapours. Forasmuch as in the former case, the Midriff, because of the over-fulness of the Stomach, cannot dilate it self, as it was wont to do, and therefore endeavours to compensate the diminution of this Dilatation, by the frequency of her Respirations. And in the latter case, the Lungs are so clog'd with the gross Air they have drawn in, that not being able to cast it out again, they are forc'd to continue di∣stended; and so it happens that the Midriff, not being able to return to its first State, is put upon a more frequent Reciprocation of its Mo∣tion.

IX. Wounds in the Chest prove the great in∣fluence the Midriff hath on Respira∣tion. This may be further confirm'd from Wounds of the Chest: For as soon as that is pierced, imme∣diately the Lungs fall flat, the Midriff still con∣tinuing its motion upwards and downwards, and attracting the Gristles, and moving them, as it did before the said Wound was inflicted: So that we cannot say, that the Lungs do perform the Fun∣ction of Respiration, but that they are only as Concomitants, inasmuch as complying with, or following the motion of the Midriff, they take in the Air, and presently after being contracted, expel the same, together with the smutty Vapours that arise from the Blood. Yea, it hath often been observ'd, that some Men who have had their Lungs in a manner wholly consumed; yet have never been troubled with any considerable difficulty of Breathing; which could never have been, in case the Lungs were the principal and primary Instru∣ment of Respiration.

X. Of the manifold use of Re∣spiration. Many are the Uses of Respiration: First, For the Cooling of the Blood; for except the Blood that flows from the Right Ventricle of the Heart, through the Arterial Vein, be refrigerated by the Air taken in by Respiration, and be condensed again, before it enters the Left Ventricle of the Heart, it cannot be fit Fewel to that Fire which lies hid in the Heart, nor maintain it.

The Second use is, That the Air which goes out from the Heart, carries along with it some Particles, which are as it were the Smoak and Soot of the Blood, and conveys the same through

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the Arterial Vein, from the Right Ventricle of the Heart. For the Lungs are as it were a Sieve, by the help whereof the Filth is separated, and those Humours sent away which would choak the Heart, should they continue mingled with the Blood. Respiration therefore clears and purifies the Blood, that it may be fit to enter the Left Ventricle of the Heart, and without hindrance be transmitted to the Aorta. Wherefore Respiration is of abso∣lute Necessity to the Life of Man, so that when that is stopt or hindred he must dye. And there∣fore HIPPOCRATES saith: We may live for some days without Meat or Drink; but when once the passages of our Breath are stopt, we can∣not continue one Hour. Moreover, when all other Actions admit Intervals of Rest, Respiration alone is that Action which in Animals never ceaseth. For seeing that the Animal Life chiefly consists in the motion of the Blood, or at least necessarily de∣pends on the same it is evident that upon the ceasing of Respiration, the Blood cannot pass from the Right to the Left Ventricle of the Heart; whereupon the motion of the Blood, which is of such absolute necessity to the maintaining of Life, must cease likewise.

XI. How In∣fants Breath in thei Mo∣thers Womb. If you Object here, That Infants live in their Mothers Womb without Respiration: I Answer, That Nature hath taken another way to secure the Life of the Infant in his Mothers Womb, by taking care that the Blood which hath been heated and rarefied in the Heart, should not any more return thither again, but in a very small quantity. For since the passage of the Lungs, because of their compact consistence, is intercepted or shut up, the Blood is conveyed another way, out of the Right Ventricle of the Heart into the Left, viz. through the Body of the Vena Cava, out of which there is a passage opened into the Venal Artery, which is commonly call'd the Oval Hole; and another out of the Arterial Vein, into the Great Artery; through which Passages the Blood is forced to take its course. But as soon as the Infant is born, the Blood enters through the Artery and Vein of the Lungs, either because these Vessels of the Lungs are wider than those other Passages, and afford it a more free Ingress; or because the Passage of the Oval Hole, and the Arterial Channel, begin to be obstructed by degrees, and turn to a Liga∣ment.

XII. Some Ani∣mals live in the Wa∣ters, with∣out any Respira∣tion. And for the same Cause it seems, that Ducks, Didappers, Geese, and other Aquatick Animals, do live for some time under Water, without Respi∣ration; because those Passages, I have but now mentioned, are not wholly stopt up in them, but either by their daily using of them, or by reason of the Natural disposition of the Parts in those Animals, do continue open, and cannot without some difficulty be obstructed or abolished. And we may with great probability attribute to the same Cause what Historians relate of some Divers, that would continue for Hours together under the Water, viz. that by a singular Priviledge of Na∣ture, these two Passages continued open in them, so as that the Blood could pass through them, as it did before they were born. Yea, we have the Relation of some dissected Bodies, in which these have been found open, so as that the Blood could freely pass through them.

CHAP. IX. Of the Growth and Decrease of the Body of Man; of the Temperaments and the Differences of Age.

I. How Aug∣mentation or Growth differs from Nu∣trition. A Body is said to be nourished, when the Par∣ticles of Aliment being turned into Chyle, do preserve and maintain it in the same state wherein it is; but it is said to grow, when these Particles are in such abundance joyned to it, as that thereby its bulk increaseth. Thus Mans Body is said to grow, when Particles of a new Substance are added to those which before made up its bulk, or magnitude, exceeding in quantity what it loseth by continual Transpiration. For seeing that all the Parts of our Body, the Bones only excepted, are soft, their Pores consequently are easily dila∣table; and therefore whensoever more prepared Aliment is joyned to them, than their Narrowness can contain, consequently that Body must increase in bulk.

II. How Aug∣mentation is perform∣ed in Mans Body. How this is done we shall easily understand, by following the Blood from its Fountain, the Heart, and observing the several turnings it takes in the Body. Conceive we therefore the Blood that hath been rarefied with the Heat, or Fire that is in the Heart, rushing forth thence through the Aorta towards the Brain, and some small portion of it entring the Capillary Arteries, and insinuating it self into all the infinite Pores of their Membrans, which are opened at every Pulse or beating of the Heart. Conceive we also these Pores, to be so exceeding narrow, that the Particles of Blood cannot range up and down in them, but are forced to pass strait forwards, so that touching one another, they do no longer compose a Liquid Body, but rather several slender Threads; such as the Fibres or Strings of Flesh are. This supposed, we shall easily apprehend that a Body is then said to be Nourished, when the dissipation of one Fibre of the Fleshy parts, is made good by an equal portion of Matter; and to grow or increase, when more Matter is joyned to it, than was dissipated. As we see that Bread swells to a greater bulk, when its Pores take in more Milk or Wine, than the quantity of Air was, which either of these Bodies have driven out of them.

III. What De∣crease or Diminution of the Body is. The Decrease or Diminution of the Body, is caused either upon the defect of Food, or when the Aliment is unfit to enter the Pores; or when the Natural heat is too weak to drive the Food to the ends of the Fibres, and by this means restore the dissipated Substance of the Body; as it happens in Old Men: Or when the Heat is too strong, as in those that are of a Cholerick Complexion: Or when the Texture of the Body is such, as that it cannot admit the Alimental Juice into its Pores.

IV. The Body of Man grows till the Age of One and twenty. The Body of Man is observ'd to grow till the years of 21 or 22; for seeing that until that term, the Bones are not yet arrived to their utmost degree of Hardness, and that the other parts of the Body are readily penetrable, the Aliment ac∣cordingly is readily received into the Pores of them; and though for many years after this, the Body may spread in breadth, yet at last it ceaseth from any further growth, because the Parts of the Body, by reason of a continual access of fresh

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Aliment grow so hard in process of time, that its Pores can no longer be extended or dilated, nor any thing further be added to it.

V. The Four Tempera∣ments or Complexi∣ons of a Human Body. The Body of Man being a compound of diffe∣rent parts, Physicians have attributed to it a Tem∣perament consisting of several Humours, viz. Blood, Phlegm, Choler and Melancholy; which are distinguisht by their native qualities. For the Blood in the Veins and Arteries is hot and moist; Phlegm cold and moist; Choler hot and dry; and Melancholy dry and cold. So that a Man whose Temperament is hot and moist, is esteemed of a Sanguine Complexion; he that is of a hot and dry, Cholorick; and so of the rest. For all Men are not of the same Temperament, but differ according to the Predominance of one or more of these humours, and accordingly are inclin'd to various Passions and Inclinations.

VI. The Dispo∣sition of those that are of a Sanguine Complexi∣on. Persons of a Sanguine Temperament, have quick and lively Bodies, a Ruddy Colour in their Faces, they are little thoughtful or serious, but inclin'd to Jesting, Singing, Complaisance and all manner of Merriment; and much addicted to Lust and Pleasure. They have a great, full and moderate Pulse; which makes Youths that abound with Blood to be facetious, good natur'd, plump and of a Rud∣dy Complexion, and subject to Inflammations and other Diseases proceeding from a surplus of Blood.

VII. The Temper o such as are Chole∣rick. Cholerick Persons; or such in whom the Gall abounds, are of a hot and hasty Temper, and like Straw or Stubble do easily take Fire, and are sud∣denly kindled with Anger and Indignation, but do not keep their Anger long, being soon reconciled. They are much subject to Tertian Agues, the Yellow Jaundise and Fluxes of the Belly, these Diseases proceeding from the Depravation of the Gall.

VIII. The Melan∣choly Com∣plexion. Those of a Melancholy Complexion are not so readily provoked to Anger; but being once pro∣voked, are not easily appeased. They have a small and slow Pulse, narrow Veins, and a sad and dark Aspect. The diseases they are most subject to are Schirrous Swellings, Quartan Agues, the Piles, Hypochondriacal Melancholy, and other Distempers of the Spleen.

IX. The Phleg∣matick Complexi∣on. Phlegmatick Persons being of a cold and moist Temperature, are not troubled with any vehement Passions, neither are greatly moved about any out∣ward things; and therefore are Slow, Sleepy, La∣zy, and not at all inclin'd to be Angry: They are subject to daily Phlegmatick Tumours, Winds and the Dropsie.

X. All the parts of the Body have their Pecu∣liar Tem∣perament. The parts of the Body also have their particular Temperament; for the Heart is the hottest of all other parts, as having in it a continual Fire, which is fed and maintained by the never ceasing Afflux of the Blood. The most moist part is the Brain, which the continual Defluxions proceeding from it, are a pregnant witness of, being caused by those Vapours, which continually ascending to the Brain, are there condensed. The Bones are the most cold and dryest parts of the Body, forasmuch as their particles are without all motion, and their Pores are only filled with Air or Subtil Matter.

XI. Of the Dif∣ferent Ages of Man. The difference of the several Ages of Mans Life doth likewise depend on a variety of Tempe∣rament; and are more in Man than in other Ani∣mals. By the name of Age we understand such a part of the Life of Man▪ wherein by reason of the mixture of Heat and Cold in his Body and their acting upon each other, the Temperament of it undergoes a sensible alteration. These Ages are distinguisht into Childhood, or the Age of Stripling, the Age of Young Men, Manly Age, and Old Age.

XII. Of the First Age, Child∣hood. The Age of Childhood in Boys reacheth to their 14th year, and in Girls to their 12th. The Bodies of Children are in a manner of an equal Temperature between Heat and Moisture; for tho' the Heat and moisture of their Bodies exceeds that of Men, yet they are said to be temperate, as be∣ing such as best agree with their state. BOYS and GIRLS begin to breed Teetth when they are a year and an half old; and when they are about 7, change their first Teeth for new ones.

XIII. The Second Age, Youth. The next Age is Youth, which extends to the 25th year. This Age is more Temperate than Childhood, as wherein the Heat doth not so much prey upon and dissipate the moisture, and the moi∣sture less clogs the Heat. Youths are most desirous of Liberty, and accordingly as soon as they are got from under the Inspection of their Parents and Masters, they are apt to run into great Excess, by betaking themselves to their Lusts and Pleasures. As being persuaded that they are now wholly at their own dispose, and at full and absolute liberty to do whatsoever they please.

XIV. The Third Age, that of Young Men. Next to Youth follows that which is called the Age of Young Men, which reacheth from 25 to 35, and is the flourishing Age of Man, wherein Heat and Driness do predominate; the watry Hu∣mour being much wasted in the foregoing years, and the Oily Particles more intricately mixed to∣gether, do make the Heat stronger, and preserve the Animal Spirits better. Accordingly Young Men are more hot than Youths, and violently car∣ried to Venery. As to the Temper of their minds they are Restless, Rash and precipitant in their Judgment, neglecting present good things, and reaching out to those that are Future.

XV. The Fourth is Manly Age. Next follows Manly Age, which from 35 ex∣tends it self to 50. In this Age the Natural Heat, and Agitation of the Spirits begins to be lessened; but yet the Body is not so exhausted, as that the natural Faculties grow faint and weak, seeing that every part is ready and fit to exert the Fanctions and Actions of Life.

XVI. The Fifth and Last is Old Age. Last of all comes Old Age which is Dry and Cold; the former part whereof called Viridis by the Learned, reacheth from the year 50 to 60, du∣ring which, many Old Men are yet pretty lively and vigorous; the Middle is from 60 to 70, du∣ring which term the Spirits are few and weak, and can but languidly perform their functions. The Senses grow dull and weak, the strength and vigor of the Body languisheth. And the last is that which is called Decrepit Age, which com∣pleating the Dryness and Coldness of the Body, brings in Death, the end and conclusion of them all.

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Book. 1. Part. 8. Chap. 10.

To his Highness William Duke of Glocester &c.a.

The Plate is most humbly Dedicated by Richard Blome.

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CHAP. X. Of the Senses in General.

I. What the Senses are. THO' all things in the Body of Man be full of wonder, and most proper to raise our minds in Gratitude to Glorifie our Creator; yet doth nothing more lowdly proclaim his Power and Goodness, than the variety of our Senses, which are those Affections or Cogitations by which we perceive External Bodies. For the Senses are no∣thing else but Perceptions of the Mind, that are the consequences of several Motions made in the Brain; our nature being such, that by occasion of these motions, produced in our Organs, several Ideas and Figures of the things are represented to us.

II. What an Organ is, and how manifold they are. An Organ is that part of the Body, which re∣ceives the impulse or action of the Object; or is that Natural Instrument by means whereof an Animal perceives something. Some Organs are External, which have their Inlets in the outward part of the Body, as the Eyes, Nostrils, Ears and the Nerves that are joined to them: Others In∣ternal, which lie hid in the inward parts of the Body, as the Brain, the Spirits, the Pineal Ker∣nel.

III. How the Senses per∣form their Functions in the Body. For seeing that our whole Skin and Flesh, where∣of the outward Habit of our Bodies do consist, are interwoven with several Twigs and Tendrils of the Nerves, when these are distended by the Animal Spirits rushing into them, they are easily put into motion by the least justling of outward Bodies: which motions according as they are grateful or hurtful to the Bodies in which they are excited, do exhibit variety of sensations to the Soul. As for Example, because Tangible Objects touch our Bodies, they produce a motion in the Organ, by the Help of the Nerves, the Extremities whereof are extended throughout the whole Body, which motion being immediately carried to the Brain, and thence communicated to the Soul, which is inti∣mately present to it, doth variously affect the same according to the diversity of the Nerves, and structure of the Organ.

IV. There be three De∣grees of Sensation. This will appear more clearly, by considering these three degrees in every sensation: the First when the Organ is affected by forrein Bodies; or when the Impression is made by the object it self, which being received into the Organ of Sense, carries the Type or Character of the sensible thing along with it; and this is nothing else but the Agitation of the Particles of that Organ, with some variety of Position and Figure proceeding from that Agitation. And this first degree is com∣mon to Men with Brute Beasts. The Second is the Perception of the Soul, heeding or attending to that motion, which immediately follows upon the former degree, because of the intimate presence of the Soul to the Organ so moved. The Third comprehends all those Judgments, which we form by occasion of these motions. Which Pro∣gress, if it be well heeded, it will be manifest, that all Bodily Objects are therefore only percei∣ved by us, forasmuch as they move the Nerves that assist such and such Organs.

V. The Three Degrees of Sensation illustrated by an Ex∣ample. As for Example, when I see a Stone, or any other Object, it is because the Light reflected from the Stone moves my Eye: for nothing else proceeds from the Objects to our Senses but motion only, or an Impression. Which motion is readily con∣veighed from the Bottom of the Eye through the Optick Nerve, or its small Fibres to the Brain, and Seat of the Soul; upon which impression im∣mediately follows our perception of Light or Co∣lour; and then the Judgment whereby the Soul concludes the thing to be of such and such a Colour.

VI. The Diver∣sity or Va∣riety of our Senses, pro∣ceeds from the Diffe∣rence of our Nerves. For from the variety of the Motions that are made in the Organs, and conveighed to that part of the Brain, from whence the Nerves proceed, divers Senses are produced. Thus by the force of the motions that are made in that part of our Brain, whence the Optick Nerves do proceed, we are affected with the Sense of Light, and by the variety of those motions, with that of colour. Thus by the motion of the Nerves that belong to our Ears, we perceive Sounds; and by those that are disperst through our Tongues, divers Tasts, Re∣lishes and Savours. And the same may be said of the perceptions of Titillation, Pain, Hunger, Cold, &c. all of them depending on the motion of the Nerves.

VII. All Moti∣ons are con∣veighed to the Brain. For seeing that the Ventricles of the Brain are perpetually filled and distended by the Animal Spirits, as we see that the Sails of Ships, are blown up and stretched by the wind: And since in the midst of the Brain we find that Kernel placed, which is called by Physicians, Conarion, or the Pine-Apple-like-kernel (of which more hereafter) being surrounded every way with the Animal Spi∣rits, there is no agitation so small or inconsiderable that can happen to the small Fibres or Filaments of the Nerves, but that it must be communicated to the Brain, and consequently be imprest on the Animal Spirits contain'd in it; and by means of them to the foresaid Kernel, and consequently to the Soul whose Residence it is. For so we are taught by Learn∣ed Men, that we never feel or are sensible indeed, except we feel, that is, perceive, that we feel. And thus ARISTOTLE himself tells us Pro∣blem 33 Sect. 11. that Sense, when it is separate from Understanding, is only insensible labour, whence it is said that the Mind sees, the Mind hears.

VIII. Our Senses are no more than Moti∣ons. We may conclude therefore that our Soul doth not stand in need of any sensible Species proceed∣ing from the Objects, to make it capable of Sense, the motions imprest upon the Body from without being sufficient for this purpose, as may be proved by manifold Experience: For when a Man is hit on the Eye, he perceives flashes of Light, tho' in∣deed he be in the Dark, and cannot discern any Objects. Whence it is evident, that this Sense is only to be ascribed to that violent agitation im∣prest upon the Organ of Sight. And something not unlike to this happens to those, who having for some time fixed their Eyes upon the Sun, upon turning their backs upon it, or shutting their Eyes, think they see a vast variety and mixture of Colours. The cause whereof is the concussion of the Strings or Fibres of the Optick Nerve.

IX. The Error of the Peri∣pateticks about the Cause of Sense. Whence we may be convinc'd of that palpable Error of the Peripateticks, who suppose the Sound that is received into the Ear, to be in the Air, or in the Sounding Body: And in like manner, that Light and Colour are in the Flame, and in a Wall or other Object; because they do not feel a Sound, Light, and Colours in themselves, as they feel Pain and Tickling; supporting their Opinion also with this

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Argument, That the Colours that are seen, appear to us much bigger than our selves.

X. This com∣mon Errour refuted. But that these Arguments are of no force in this case will appear, if we consider, that we have a sense of many things which are without us, and which we judge to be much greater than we our selves are, tho' there be nothing without us that effects such Sensations in us. For Mad-men, and such as are in a high Fever, do sometimes see, or think they see many Appearances or Representa∣tions, which are not imprest upon their Eyes from without. In like manner it frequently happens when we are asleep, that we think we hear Sounds, or see Colours, after the same manner as we do when we are awake; and then attribute that Sound, and those Colours, to External Objects, and imagine them to be much greater than they are; when indeed there is nothing without us, to which we can attribute them.

XI. There is no Necessity for our admitting of Inten∣tional Species. Neither is there any thing that obligeth us to admit such Images as these, for the Explication of the Sense of Seeing, or any other; since we find that there are many things that can produce Affe∣ctions and Commotions in our Souls, which have no likeness at all with the Objects they signifie: As when Words spoken, or committed to Paper, represent the Slaughter of Men, Destruction of Cities, or Storms at Sea; or excite the Affections of Love or Hatred: Which Representations or Thoughts bear no resemblance at all with the things they signifie.

XII. Because they are not Intelli∣gible. Besides these Species (which are commonly cal∣led Intentional) are so obscure, that the Nature of them cannot be understood: For they are not Corporeal or Divisible, seeing they are found whole and entire in every least part of the Subject or Medium. And if they be Indivisible, as most suppose them, and of an ambiguous Nature between Body and Spirit; how come they to move our Senses, yea, and sometimes hurt them too? Or how can they represent Extended Beings, being without Extension themselves?

XIII. Neither is the Cause of them intelligible. Neither is the Original or Cause of these Ima∣ges less obscure, than they themselves are: For how can we suppose that sluggish Bodies can by Emanation send forth such excellent Forms? No∣thing being more wonderful or inexplicable, than how such Spiritual Forms should continually be procreated by Terrestrial Bodies, or flow from them. Besides, by what Chariots or Vehicles are they conveyed to us? Do they come solitary to us from the Object? Or are they diffused and multiplied by Propagation, and that in a Moment of Time?

XIV. The Senses are in the Soul. Wherefore tho' every one (as DES CARTES saith, in the beginning of his Treatise of Light) be apt to persuade himself, that the Idea's which we have in our Thoughts, are like the Objects from whence they proceed; yet can I find no Reason, to assure my self thereof: But on the contrary do meet with many Experiments, that may make us to question it. For if Words that signifie nothing of themselves, but only from Custom and Human Institution, are sufficient to make us conceive many things, wherewith they bear no resemblance at all: Why may not Nature as well appoint a Sign, which may make us to have the Sense of Light; tho' indeed, it contain nothing that is like that Sense? Don't we find, that in this manner she hath appointed Laughter and Tears, whereby we may read Joy or Sorrow in the Faces of Men? But you'l say, That our Ears make us sensible of nothing but the Sound of Words, and that it is our Soul only which remembers what these Words signifie, that does represent the same signification unto us at the same time. To which I Reply, That it is our Soul also that represents to us the Idea of Light, as often as the Action which signi∣fies the same, doth touch our Eye.

XV. It cannot be concei∣ved how these Ima∣ges should reach the Brain. Neither is it less difficult to explain, how these Images can flow from the Objects. For what virtue is there in them, to produce these Species? Or how shall they be received into the Organs of the Outward Senses, and from thence be conveyed through the Nerves to the Brain? If the Species be received by the Sense, how is it that it is not known or perceived by it, since every thing that represents ought to the Knowing Faculty, is ob∣jectively related to it, forasmuch as it supplies the room of the thing it represents?

XVI. The Sense of Titilla∣tion or Pain, can∣not be ex∣plained by Species. None of these things were ever yet fully ex∣plained by those, who so much cry up Sensible Species; nor ever will be, as I suppose. Besides, how will they go about to explicate the Sense of Pain and Tickling by the help of these Images? The Point of a Sword, for Example, is thrust into a Body, which causeth a dissolution of Parts, whereupon Pain follows: Where shall we be able to find either in the Sword, or the Division of the Body, any Species that is in the least like the Sensation of Pain, that follows thereupon? What Analogy hath the application of our Hand with the Sense of Titillation? Conclude we therefore bold∣ly, that Pain, and all other Sensations, are therefore excited in us; because the Parts of our Body, by the Touch or contact of another Body, are locally moved; which motion of the Nerves, if it be moderate produceth Titillation; but if violent, Pain.

XVII. Light and Sound are Motions only. Moreover, what is Light, but the motion of the Subtil and Aethereal matter, which shakes and agitates the little Nerves of the Retina or Net∣work membran or coat of the Eyes? What is Sound, but the motion of the Air, which strikes the Drum or Organ of Hearing? Forasmuch therefore as divers Objects variously strike the Organs, it can be no otherwise, but that the Soul, which is placed in the middle of the Brain, must by means thereof perceive the differences of Sen∣sible things: Somewhat in like manner as a Blind∣man, by the motion of his Stick, can discern or distinguish a Stone from Sand, and Earth from Water. Because there is nothing, besides Motion, which can strike the Organs of the Senses, or affect the Mind it self.

XVIII. Of the Five Senses. Sense (by which word nothing else is under∣stood, but a Faculty of perceiving Sensible Objects) is fivefold, viz. Feeling, Tasting, Smelling, Hear∣ing and Seeing, according to the diversity of Ob∣jects that move the Nerves of the several Organs; and the variety of the Organs themselves, and the modes or manner of their being affected there∣with. Which cannot but happen, if the Organ that is affected be sound and whole, with a suffi∣cient distance of the Object from the Organ, and a fit Medium. By defect of the first of these, the Sense often mistakes in those that have the Yellow Jaundies, or Agues: For want of the second, the

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Object cannot be discerned, if it touch the Organ: And by failure of the third, the Sight that per∣ceives Objects through a misty Air, or partly through the Water, and partly through the Air, is very apt to mistake the true Modifications of them.

XIX. The Divi∣sion of the Senses into Internal and Ex∣ternal. The Senses are also commonly divided into Internal and External. The Internal are 2, viz. the Common Sense or Phantasie, and Memory. The External are the 5 already spoken of, and are called External, because they are produced in us by the help of outward Organs: Tho' indeed, if we will speak acurately, all these 5 Senses, called External, are Internal, forasmuch as it is the Soul alone, which residing in the Brain, Sees, Hears, Tastes, &c. It may also be said, that there is but one only External Sense, viz. that of Feeling; because no Sense can be without Contact and Local motion. Thus, if we would taste any thing, it is necessary that the Food should touch the Nerves subservient to that Sense, that so the said motion may be conveyed to the Brain, or the Common Organ of Sense; and the same may be said of all other Senses.

CHAP. XI. That the Senses are an Effect of the Nerves; and that the Soul of Man only feels, for asmuch as it resides in the Brain.

I. How the Nerves onduce to the forming of the Senses; and how the Soul rules in the Brain. THo' it sufficiently appears from the fore∣going Chapter what Sense is, and how by the Ministry of the Nerves External Objects are communicated to us; yet it remains still for us to enquire, how the Nerves perform this; and why the Senses rather have their residence in the Brain, than in any other part of the Body. Both which, tho' they be different Points, I shall comprehend in this Chapter.

II. Three things are to be con∣sider'd in the Nerves. In the first place, we are to take notice, that the Nerves are Vessels fitted for the containing and conveying of Spirits, proceeding from the Pith within the Brain. Secondly, That there are 3 things to be considered of in the Nerves; First, The thin Skins wherein they are wrapt or cover'd, which proceeding from the Coats or Membrans that encompass the Brain, are dispersed throughout the Body into small branches like Pipes. Secondly, That their Inward Substance, which is divided into very fine filaments or Strings, do reach from the Brain, whence they take their rise, to the utmost Parts of the Body, with which these Ner∣vous filaments are interwoven. Lastly, The Ani∣mal Spirits, which like a Wind, or most subtil Air, rushing through these little Pipes, do move the Muscles, by way of Inflation or blowing of them up. It remains now that we say something, how those Strings or Capillaments which are within the Tubes of the Nerves, are subservient to Sensa∣tion.

III. How the Nerves are subservient to Sensa∣tion. Which will not be difficult to understand, if we suppose that these Capillaments do reach to the Extremities of all the Members, that are capable of any sense; so that if any part of those Mem∣bers, to which the Nerve is fastned, be never so little stirr'd, at the same Moment that part of the Brain from whence that Nerve proceeds, must be moved also. Which we may Experience in a stretched-out Rope, whereof if the one end be touched, the other must be moved at the same time. So that all the diversity of Impressions that are made upon the Brain, do arise from the Nerves, which carry the various Qualities of the Objects along with them.

IV. How the Body is excited from Ex∣ternal Ob∣jects, to move it self. We must therefore imagine, that those small Filaments that are derived from the inmost Recesses of the Brain, and constitute the Pith or Marrow of the Nerves, are so disposed in all those Parts that are the Organ of any Sense, as that they may be most easily and readily moved by the Objects of those Senses. And that whensoever those Filaments are never so little moved, they draw those parts of the Brain, whence they pro∣ceed, and at the same time open the Orifices of some Pores, that are in the inward Surface of the Brain, through which the Animal Spirits in the Ventricles of the Brain, begin immediately to di∣rect their course, and through them rush into the Nerves and Muscles that are the Instruments of those Motions, that are altogether like them that are excited in us, when our Senses are so and so affected.

V. The Soul of Man hath its Resi∣dence in the Brain. As to the second Particular, viz. That the Soul of Man doth feel, that is, sensibly perceive all things; not as it is in the Organs of the External Senses, but only inasmuch as it is in the Brain, which is the Center and Rise of all the Nerves, this is evident from Examples and Reason. For when we see Light, or hear a Sound, we must not imagine that the Soul exerts this Act of Sensation in the Eye or the Ear; but that it perceives these things in its own place or seat, by means of the Nerves that reach from those parts to the Brain. For if the Soul did see in the Eye, and hear in the Ear, since both these Organs are double, there must needs follow a double perception of one and the same Object, at the same time: And since the contrary is most evident, it follows, that the Soul feels only in that part of the Body where the 2 Impressions, which proceed from one Object, through the double Organs of the Senses, are united again into one, before they affect the Soul.

VI. Proved from the Experi∣ment of Vapours and Wound. This may be confirmed from manifold Experi∣ments: For we find by daily Experience, that the Vapours which ascend from our Stomach to the Brain, and being condens'd there, do obstruct the passages through which the Animal Spirits have their course, do deprive a Man of the Power of Sensation. We find also that Diseases, which affect the Brain, or Wounds that are inflicted in it, do destroy the Senses; as is manifest in those that are struck with the Apoplexy. In like manner in Fren∣zies, wherein the Imagination is spoiled, Remedies are applied to the Head, which would be very foolishly done, if the Senses had their Residence in any other part of the Body. Hence it is that they who are seiz'd with the Apoplexy, are immediately deprived of all their Senses, so as not to be sensible, tho' they be slash'd with Knives or prick'd with Pins. And for the same Reason it is, that Persons that have their Attention fix'd upon any thing, do not take notice of things that are done in their presence; because the Soul residing in the Brain, is otherwise taken up, so as not to take notice o the things that ore offer'd unto it.

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VII. Another Instance taken from those, who are troubled with the Vertigo, or Turning of the Brain. But no mor convincing Argument can be al∣ledg'd to prove, that the Soul doth sensibly per∣ceive in the midst of the Brain, than that which is taken from the Vertigo, in which all External Objects seem to move round; whereas indeed there is no such motion, neither in the Objects them∣selves, nor in the Outward Senses; but it proceeds only from the Spirits in the Brain, being so moved, which affecting the Soul, it rashly attri∣butes the said Circular motion to the Objects that are about it.

VIII. The same thing con∣firmed from the Pain that persons think they Feel in the part they have lost. Moreover, they that are earnestly busie about Serious Matters, or are wearied with long Study, are sensible of a Pain in their Head; which I my self, after a little Study, frequently Experience: Which would not be so, if the Soul had not its Residence in the Brain, and did imagine and feel there. Besides, it sometimes happens that Pain seems to be felt in that part which is cut off from the Body; according to what DES CARTES tells us of a Girl that had her Arm cut off, who afterwards complain'd of a pain she felt in her Fingers. Which could not proceed from any other Cause, but because the Nerves, which came from the Brain to the Hand, upon the cutting off of her Arm, reacht no further than her Elbow, where being affected after the same manner, as they used to be when her Hand was yet pained, made her suppose, that she felt the same pain she formerly felt in her Fingers. For such is the Na∣ture of our Body, that no part of it can be moved by another, which is a little distant from it; but that it must be moved in like manner by those Parts that come between. As is manifest in a Rope, the End whereof may as well be pull'd or hal'd by that Part which is nearest to the midst, as by the other End opposite to it.

IX. When we have lean∣ed long upon our Elbow, we find a Pain in our Little Finger. In like manner it sometimes happens, that after having leaned long upon our Elbow, we are sen∣sible of a Numness in our Little Finger; because the Nerve which ends in that Finger, being too much prest upon, doth affect the Organ of the Common Sense, as if the Finger it self were so prest. For we are wont to affix the Sense of Pain to that part, which is wont to be moved by the Objects, and wherein the stretched Fibres of the Nerves are terminated.

X. In what part of the Brain the Soul hath its Seat. Wherefore it is necessary, that the Soul have its Residence in that part of the Brain, to which the Filaments of our Nerves do reach; to the end that it may take care for the Security of all the parts of the Body, and may have timely notice of, and provide for any Casualties that happen to the Body. For tho' all the Changes of the Fibres, consist only in some certain motions, which com∣monly do only gradually differ; yet must the Soul consider them as Changes that are Essentially di∣stinct, and that forasmuch as they cause so great an Alteration in the Body to which it is joyned. For the Motion, by Example, that causeth Pain, tho' it frequently differ but little from that Motion, the effect whereof is Titillation: Yet, because by the former some of the Fibres of the Body may be pluck'd out of their places, or broken, whereas the latter is an Argument of the firm and entire Constitution of our Body, so it is that the Soul ap∣prehends these 2 motions, as being essentially distin∣guish'd. As to what particular part of the Brain the Soul hath chosen for its Residence, shall be declared in the next Part of these Institu∣tions.

XI. The Impres∣sion from the Object is only made upon the Soul. But you'l say, It cannot be denied, but that we see with our Eyes, and feel pain in our Feet: Why then should we say, that the Function of Sense is only performed in the Brain, and not rather in these outward Organs of our Bodies?

True it is, that the Impression that is made by the Object, is begun in the Organs of the outward Senses; but it is not perfected or compleated there. We see with our Eyes, forasmuch as the Impressions of Lig ht and Colour are made upon them: But all this while the Action of the Soul, whereby this Impression is perceived, is exerted in the more par∣ticular and chief Residence of the Soul; as will appear more plainly in what follows.

CHAP. XII. Of the Senses in particular; and first of the Touch.

I. The Touch is first to be treated of, as being the most common and neces∣sary of all the other Senses. THo' the Touch be but a Dull Sense, and with respect to its Action be Inferiour to the other Senses, yet we must first of all handle it; not only because it is the most necessary Sense, but also the most common, as being to be found in every Animal, how imperfect soever, and diffused throughout all the Parts of our Body. That it is more Common than the rest of the Senses, appears in this, that the other Senses are nothing else, but several Species of Touching; which tho' they be perfect and exquisit, yet cannot their Functions be understood, but with some proportion to the Function of the Touch. For no Organ of our Body can be moved, without another Body touching it. Besides, the Touch, like the other Senses, is not tyed to one particular part of the Body, but is found in all the Nervous, Fibrous, and Membra∣nous parts of it. For it is communicated to the whole Body, as a Cap-a-pee Armour, to receive the Attacks and Impressions of all Sensible Qualities It is also very necessary for the defence of Life, and the avoiding of Dangers, which our Bodies are obnoxious to from External Objects. For the Touch is as it were our Monitor, advising us what we are to avoid; and what we are to do in these, or the other Circumstances.

II. What the Touch is. The Touch therefore, as it is distinguish'd from the rest of the Senses, may be defined, An outward Sense that is most common and necessary, by means whereof an Animal doth receive Tangible Quali∣ties.

III. The Touch divided into an Inward and Out∣ward. And thus the Touch, as it is taken in a larger Sense, may be distinguish'd into Internal and Ex∣ternal: That being the Inward Sense of Touching, which is performed in the Inward Organ; for seeing that the Nerves and Fibres, which are the the Organs of these Senses, are dispersed within, as well as on the outside of the Body, accordingly there is an inward as well as an outward Sense of feeling. And therefore the Veins, Arteries, Mem∣brans, and their appendages the Coats are partakers of this Sense. Thus the Pain which we feel in our Guts, and in other fibrous parts, belongs to this Inward Touch. For this Sense is excited upon every least motion that is made in any fibrous part, supposing it to be strong enough to be conveyed to the Brain.

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Book. 1. Part. 8. Chap. 12.

G. Freeman Invent:

M. Vander Gucht. sculp:

To the Right Worshipfull Sr. John Wentworth of North Elmes∣hall in the West Rideing of Yorkshire Baronet

This Plate is humbly Dedicated by Richard Blome

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IV. The Organ of the Touch, or Sense of Feeling as∣signed. The Organ of Feeling is neither the Flesh, nor the Membrans, nor the Skin; but the Nerves and their Filaments, disperst throughout the whole Body. For this Sense is excited, as oft as the Nerves and their Filaments, being shaken with more force than ordinary, do communicate their agitation to those parts of the Brain they more particularly relate to; as we see it happens in a stretched Cord, which being shaken at one end, immediately imparts its motion to the other.

V. The Opini∣on of our Modern Anatomists concerning the Organ of Feeling. Our Modern Anatomists fix the Organ of Feeling either in the Skin, the whole Substance whereof is Nervous, or in some Bodies that lye between the Skin and the Cuticle, which with MALPIGHIUS they call the Sinewy, or Nervous Nipples of the Skin, which they take to be the primary and immediate Organ of the Touch; because these little Nipples or Prominences are found to be more in number, and larger in those parts of the Body that are endued with the most exquisite Touch, as the Palm of the Hands, and the Ends of the Fingers, than in the other parts. MALPIGHIUS first discover'd these in the Feet of a Lamb, Hog, and other Animals; for as soon as their Hoofs are pull'd off, certain little Bodies do appear extended in length, and reaching to the Surface: So that Hoofs and Nails seem to be nothing else, than the appendages of the Cuticle, and of the Nervous Nipples, which being pull'd out do leave certain hollow Pipes be∣hind them.

VI. In what parts of the Body these Nervous Nipples may be dis∣cerned. These Nipples are not only discover'd by the help of a Microscrope, but also by the bare Eye, in the extream parts of the Nostrils of some Ani∣mals; as of an Ox, Swine, &c. And that the Organ of Feeling is chiefly to be plac'd in these Nipples, MALPIGHIUS with reason conjectures, be∣cause they are nothing else but a propagation of the Nerves and Tendons, proceeding from the Fibres of the Muscles. And forasmuch as the Touch is performed, as well as all the other Senses, by the Nerves and Fibres of the Tendons, it seems that no more proper Organ of the Touch can be assigned: Forasmuch as according to STENO's Observation, the Skin is for the most part nothing else, but a Texture of Nerves, Arteries, and Veins.

VII. What are the Objects of the Touch The Causes or Objects of the foresaid Affecti∣ons, which the Schoolmen call Sensible Qualities, are Heat and Cold, Moisture and Driness, Hardness and Softness, Heaviness and Lightness, Smoothness and Roughness, Titillation and Pleasure; and other Modifications of the Body, which produce some change of Motion, Texture and Figure in them. For all Objects indifferently cannot affect the Touch, but it is requisite that the Affection be con∣siderable, and such as to make it self sensible. For seeing that the Nerves, which are the Organs of this Sense, are of some Bigness, they cannot be moved by very little Bodies; because, according to an Axiom in Natural Philosophy, a Body greater in Extension being at Rest, hath by so much the greater force to resist a less. Which is the Reason that we do not feel the continual Steam and Ema∣nation of little Bodies; for tho' they pass through our Skin, yet because their Littleness is such that they cannot sufficiently shake the Nerves, neither are they able to make any impression upon the Organ of Feeling. And the same also is to be said with respect to the other Senses.

VIII. How the Sense of Feeling is performed. But to the end we may more clearly understand how this Sense comes to be exerted, we must call to mind, what hath been said in the foregoing Chapter, viz. that some Strings or Filaments pro∣ceeding from the Brain, are dispersed throughout all the parts of our Body, and that these constitute the Nerves, which being filled with the Animal Spirits, are stretched out like so many Cords, which are diffused throughout the whole Body. Which Nerves whenever they are somewhat forceably shaken, immediately draw the parts of the Brain; as when a Rope is pull'd, the Bell which is at the end of it sounds immediately; and by this means the Soul, which resides in the Brain receives a sense of the thing which hath moved the Nerves. Thus when we put our Hand to the Fire, the par∣ticles thereof being swiftly moved, are of sufficient force to agitate the Skin that covers the Hand, and consequently the Nerves that reach from the Hand to the Brain, and thereby to make the Soul to perceive the sense of Pain. For such is the near Relation between the Brain and all the Nerves diffus'd through the Body, that the Soul by their means receives the Impression of External Bodies. Thus we can distinguish several Bodies, by means of a Stick held in our Hands, and reach∣ing to the Bodies we would distinguish, as Stones, Clay, Metals and the like. Yea there are some persons born blind, who only by their Touch can distinguish the several sorts of polisht Marble, and the various impressions of Coin. And for the same reason it is why any motion on the Lips is so very sensible, viz. the great tenderness of the Skin that covers them, which makes the Fibres of those Nerves that constitute it to be easily shaken and moved, as before hath been said of a stretched Cord.

IX. An Objecti∣on Answer∣ed. It may be you will object that the Nerves are not so stretched, as a Rope or Cord is. I grant it, yet doth not this hinder the instance of a Cord to be very proper here, since it is not needful that in a similitude all things should be the same. Now a Cord and a Nerve agree exactly in this, that as when one end of a Cord is touch'd, the other is shaken; so when any Nerve in the Body is moved, the motion is immediately conveighed to the Brain. For tho' the Nerves be not so much stretched as a Cord, yet their apt disposition for the communicati∣on of motion, fully makes amends for that want of Tension in them.

X. Whence the Difference of the Touch proceeds, seeing that the Nerves are the same. But if it be so that the Sense of Feeling is per∣formed by the Nerves derived from the Brain, it may be queried whence so many species of Feeling do arise: For tho' there be many Nerves in the Body of Man, and manifold Tangible Qualities, yet there are no different Nerves made use of, for the producing of these different Affections: for the very same Nerves that produce Pain, cause the sense of Pleasure also, and so of the rest; but the same Nerves receive the impulse of the several Ob∣jects, being sometimes moved by these, and at other times by others.

XI. This diffe∣rence pro∣ceed from the Diver∣sity of the Objects. I Answer, That this Diversity proceeds from the difference of the Objects that affect and move the Nerves, much like the strings of a Lute which give a different sound, according to the different touches of him that plays upon it. Thus when the insensible parts of any Body, variously agita∣ted, are more swiftly moved than the Particles of

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our Body, our Soul perceives Heat, but if more slowly, then we are made sensible of Cold. Hence it is that what to an Aethiopian seems cold, to a Scythian appears hot. The same thing is likewise experienced by those that enter in Bathes distin∣guisht by several degrees of Heat: for having continued some time in a luke-warm Bath, to pre∣pare themselves to endure a very hot Bath, when they go back out of the hot Bath to the luke-warm Bath, that which before seemed hot to them at their first entrance, feels now cold to them.

XII. What is the Cause of Pain and Pleasure. When the small filaments of the Nerves are pusht against, or drawn with so great violence, that they are broken and rent from the Member to which they were fastned, the Soul is made sen∣sible of Pain; but when the said filaments are not broken, but moved without receiving any hurt, the Soul perceives a kind of Bodily Pleasure, which is called Titillation; which tho' with re∣spect to its cause, it seems to differ but little from Pain, yet doth it produce a quite contrary effect. So when the particles that terminate a Body, do with an even surface press the Skin, the Soul ap∣prehends it to be smooth and polisht; but if the surface of the thing be uneven, then it perceives it to be rough and rugged. In like manner when Bodies are strongly born downwards, they repre∣sent to the Soul the sense of Heaviness; but when they do but gently tend downwards, they afford the Soul the perception of Lightness. When the Particles of a Body are so disposed as to resist the motion of our Hand or other Members of our Body, the Soul perceives the quality of Hardness; whereas when the Particles of any Body are so moved, as not to stop or resist the Bodies that meet them; the sense of Fluidity is imparted to it. And the same is to be said of all the other quali∣ties that belong to the touch or sense of Feeling, which the Soul perceives differently according to the variety of the modes whereby the Nervous Fibres are affected.

XIII. How it comes to pass that since the Touch hath so many Objects, it is not manifold. Another Difficulty may be started here, viz. how the sense of Feeling can be said to be one only sense, seeing it hath so many Tangible Qua∣lities for its Object. For if the Senses be distin∣guisht from each other by their Objects, why may not the Sense of Feeling be said to be manifold, because it hath so many different qualities for its Objects?

XIV. Answer to the Questi∣on. Notwithstanding all this, we must conclude the Touch or Sense of Feeling to be but one: for tho' the Tangible Qualities do differ, according to the various Modifications of Bodies, yet they agree all in this general Notion, that by means of the Nerves they move the sense of Feeling. As the sense of Seeing is not said to be double or twofold, because it hath for its objects Light and Colours, which are exprest by 2 different names; nor the sense of Tasting, tho' the Tongue, which is the Organ of it be affected with various Tasts or Re∣lishes. Besides, the Senses are not only distinguisht by their Objects, but also by the Organs and Modes whereby they are affected. And forasmuch as all Tangible Qualities agree in this, that they impress the same Affection upon the Organ, and that the whole difference of them depends on the Diversity of this Impression, it is evident that the Touch must be lookt upon as being only one Sense, and not many.

XV. Some De∣ceptions of the Touch, instanced. The sense of Feeling is sometimes deceived, as when Women that are subject to the Fits of the Mother, complain of an extream cold in their Heads. And thus also places under ground, ap∣pear to us very cold in the Summer time, and in the Winter warm; when as indeed upon making a tryal with a Weather-glass, we shall find that there is no such change in the Temperature of the Place.

CHAP. XIII. Of the Sense of Tasting.

I. What the Tast is. THE Tast is an External Sense, whereby an Animal, with the help of his Tongue and Palat, which are furnisht with the Nerves sub∣servient to this Sense, perceives the several diffe∣rences of Tasts and Savours. Or according to others, the Tast is a sensation, by means whereof, after that the Savoury Object hath made a due im∣pression of it self upon the prominent and porous little Nipples of the Tongue, the Soul residing in the Brain, perceives and judges of the difference of the Savour or Rellish. For according to the sentiment of our Modern Anatomists the Organs of Tast are the foresaid prominent and porous Nipples of the Tongue, or small Strings which proceed from its inmost membran.

II. Wherein the Touch and Taste do agree and differ. The Tast, hath some affinity with the Touch; and if we will believe ARISTOTLE, it is but a species of it. For whereas in the other Senses, the Organs are affected by their Objects at a di∣stance, and are agitated by little Bodies flowing from them, the Organ of the Tast, requires an intimate contact with its Object, and cannot be moved by it at a distance. Yet there is this diffe∣rence betwixt these Senses, that the Organ of the Tast is more intimately penetrated by the savoury Object, which more deeply insinuates its self into the Fibres thereof, than Tangible Objects enter the Skin. Hence it is that we see that persons who are over-tired, or that are fallen into a swoon, do presently revive, upon the drinking of a Draught of Wine; and Men that are like to die, are strangely recovered by taking some of the Cordial that is called the Imperial Water: which strange effects are only to be attributed to this, because the Particles of Wine and the Imperial Water dive deep into the Pores of the Tongue, and mingling with the Spirits do greatly revive them.

III. Two othe ways whereby these Sen∣ses do differ. Moreover these Senses differ also, First by rea∣son of their several Organs: For the Organ of Taste, is not like that of the Touch, diffused thoughout all the Fibrous parts of the Body, but throughout one part only, viz. the Tongue; which alone is affected by Savoury Objects. Secondly, According to the Disposition that may be found in the said Organ: Thus a Tongue that is dry and without Moisture, toucheth dry things, but per∣ceives no manner of Tast in them. Thirdly, Thick and whole Bodies affect the Organ of Feeling; whereas that of the Tast cannot be imprest upon but by thin and liquid Bodies, or such as are divi∣ded into small parts: and for this Reason Pills that are swallowed whole communicate no Tast to the Tongue or Palate, or very little, and that only be∣cause some of the particles, in gliding over the Tongue, are dissolved.

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Book. 1. Part. 8. Chap. 13

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* 1.7 The Organ of the Tast is the Tongue, as well as the Inward and Spungy part of the Palate, be∣cause the surface of them both is full of those in∣numerable Nipples before mentioned. As con∣cerning the Tongue it is evident, that being of a soft, loose and spungy substance, it is most pro∣per to receive Savoury Bodies, mixed with some moisture. And accordingly we experience that if we touch any Savoury Matter with the tip of our Tongue only, we perceive the Tast of it: for the Nerves of the fifth and seventh Conjugation termi∣nate in the Tongue, which being inserted into 9 or 10 Muscles, become the Instruments of various Mo∣tions. For besides the Functions of Speaking and Singing, this Organ of the Tongue is of great use towards the moistning, mixing and swallowing of the Meat. All these Muscles divide the Tongue longwise into 2 parts, by means of a certain Ten∣dinous String, so as that this Organ, as well as those of the other senses, seems to be Double. Now that not only the Tongue, but also the upper part of the Throat or Palate is the Instrument of Tast∣ing, is very manifest, for when any savoury meat passeth towards the Gullet in order to its being swallowed, we perceive the Tast thereof, tho' it never touched our Tongue in the inward part of our Palate (which some call the swallow) for∣asmuch as its Flesh is Spungy, and very proper to admit the Particles of Savoury Bodies.

V. That the Particles of any Savou∣ry Body may enter the Tongue, Moisture is required to dilute or mingle with the said matter Now to the end that these Particles may pene∣trate the Pores of the Tongue, and pass through the Texture of the Fibres, some moisture is requi∣red for to steep, resolve, melt and conveigh them. Hence Nature hath so provided, that the Mouth where the Food is chewed, hath a continual moi∣sture attending it, by means whereof, as a Men∣struum, the Particles of Sapid Bodies are melted, and conveighed into the Organ. For as we find that an Herb being bruised with a Pestle, or any other Instrument in a Wooden Dish or Bowl, doth with its Liquor penetrate the Wood, and insinuate it self into its Pores; as is evident from the Smell and Savour of the Herb that remains in the Bowl: in like manner our Food being minced in our Mouths, by the help of our Teeth into small pieces, and steept in our Spittle, doth easily affect the little Nerves of our Tongue, and is conveigh∣ed to the inmost parts thereof. And therefore Salt before it can affect the Tongue and be tasted, must be melted with some moisture; neither can Pepper be tasted except it be first steeped in, or mingled with the Spittle that is in the Mouth: for dry Bodies, without the Vehicle of moisture, cannot be conveighed to the inmost Recesses of this Organ.

VI. How the Sense of Tasting is performed in the Tongue. From what hath been said, it may easily be un∣derstood, how the sense of Tasting is performed, viz. when any savoury matter, being, as it were macerated with the Spittle, is conveighed into the spungy substance of the Tongue, and in its passage doth after divers manners affect the Nerves insert∣ed into the Tongue, by vellicating, biting, striking, tickling, wringing and stirring the same. Which different Affections are carried from the Organ to the Brain, where they make a different impression on the Mind, according to the diversity of the motion of the Fibres of the Organ. So that now it remains onlv to be explained whence the great va∣riety of Tastes and Savours doth proceed.

VII. Whence the Diversity of Savours and Re∣lishes doth arise. Which will easily be done, if we remember that the Faculty of perceiving Tastes in us, is not un∣like to that whereby we are sensible of Pain; that is, to the actuating of this Power nothing else is required, but that the savoury Bodies do move the slender filaments of the Nerves of the Tongue, or the prominent Nipples before mentioned, in such a manner, as Nature hath ordained for the effect∣ing of the sense of Tasting. In like manner as to the production of the sense of Pain it is suffi∣cient, that the Nerves subservient to the Touch be moved after such a particular manner: So that all the difference of savoury Bodies doth depend on the Thickness, Figure and Motion of their Parts. This may be evidenced by some instances; for let us suppose the foresaid Fibres of the Tongue to be agitated 4 several ways, viz. by Salt, Vinegar, or any other sour Liquor, Common Water and Brandy, so as that the Soul thence is stirred up to perceive 4 distinct Tastes. We shall easily conceive that Salt doth therefore prick, and as it were cut the Organ, because it consists of long, stiff and various corner'd Particles, which with their points prick the small Fibres of the Tongue, and enter the same without the least bending or plying. Vinegar applied to the Organ, doth as it were slash and cut it, and by compression somewhat contract it, be∣cause the particles thereof by entring obliquely in∣to the Nerves, do slash the thin particles thereof, and dashing against the thicker parts they become bended, and so enter the pores slantingly. Com∣mon Water doth not enter the pores of the Tongue at all, and therefore doth neither prick nor pierce it, because its particles do only softly flow upon the Tongue, and lying sideways, because of their easie pliableness and bending, are scarcely percepti∣ble by the Taste, and therefore Water is lookt up∣on as insipid. Brandy doth bite and vellicate the Tongue, because the particles thereof penetrate most deeply, and are most swiftly moved. And the like account may be given of all other savoury Bodies, which according to the different disposition of their parts, can make different impressions upon the Organ of Tasting.

VIII. The Diffe∣rence of Tastes may proceed also from the Variety of the Organ. The difference of Tastes may also be caused by the Organ; for the various Texture and Disposition of the Tongue, may occasion a difference in the Taste of things. Thus persons that have a more fine and tender Organ, take delight in delicate Sa∣vours and Tasts; whereas those whose Instrument of Tasting is more gross, delight in more course viands and less exquisit Tasts. Thus Country People gene∣rally delight in course and Salt Meats; whereas Children are pleased with Sugar and sweet things. The reason is, because the Fibres of the Nerves are more fine and subtil in Children, and therefore are easily moved with a sweet Taste: whereas those of Rusticks are more gross and stiff, upon which nothing but strong and sharp things can make any impression. Wherefore it is no wonder to see that the Food which pleaseth the Palate of one Man, doth disgust another; because of the different disposition of the Organ in them both.

Yea it frequently happens that the same person, who at one time is pleased with some kind of Meats, may at another have an aversion against them; and we commonly experience, that those things which are most grateful to our Palates when we are Hungry and Thirsty, become un∣pleasant

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to us when we are full and satiated, and this because of some change in the Texture of the Organ, the Savoury particles not affecting the Tongue and Palat in the same manner, when the Pores of it are more straitned, than when they are dilated and more open.

IX. Why some loath those Viands which be∣fore they desired. Hence it is that Old men do loath some sorts of Meat, which they most delighted in when they were Youths; and that some Persons, after having accustom'd themselves to some sort of Food, are greatly delighted therewith, tho' before they loathed and could not endure it: Even because either the Organ in process of time grows dryer; or else, for that by Custom, and the frequent use of some sorts of Diet, some folds are formed in the Organ, which easily admit the particles of the Meat, which before they could not receive. The said variety of Taste may also proceed from the Tongue, being ting'd with the Savour of some Salt, Bitter, or Sowr matter, which hath not been effac'd by the eating of some Sweet thing, or by the drinking of a large draught of Liquor; for the Eating of Sweet-meats, and especially Drink∣ing, doth so resolve the hard and longish particles of Salt, the crooked particles of Bitter things, and the cutting particles of Sowr things, as to carry them along with it: And therefore it is that Drink tastes more grateful after the eating of Sowr things, and more delightfully affects the Tongue.

X. Deceptions of the Taste, and the Causes of them. Sometimes the Taste happens to be mistaken, not about the Affection imprest upon the Organ, but about the Cause from whence it proceeds. Thus they who are sick of the Jaundies, are not mistaken in that they suppose themselves to per∣ceive a bitter taste; for they do so, because the Gall is mingled with their Spittle; but they are deceived in attributing that bitter Taste to the Food they eat: In the same manner as they suppose the Objects they behold to be yellow, when indeed it is the Gall that depraves their Organ, and makes all the Objects they behold to appear of that Colour. And in like manner, sometimes our Meat seems to taste bitter to us, whereas indeed the said sense of Bitterness proceeds either from some Hu∣mour, wherewith the Tongue or Palat is tinged; or from the Vitiating of the Nerves, that are assistant to the Fibres of the Tongue. Yea, it happens sometimes, that we seem to perceive a Taste, without receiving any food, which cannot proceed from any other Cause, but from the de∣fluxion of some Humour that hath such a kind of taste, or from some fault in the Blood, that is conveyed to the Organ of Tasting; as may be demonstrated by many Examples.

CHAP. XIV. Of the Sense of Smelling.

I. Why Beasts excel Men in the Sense of Smelling. IT is certain, that Man is Inferiour to many Beasts, as to the exquisitness of the Sense of Smelling: For Beasts, when they light upon any unknown food, do presently, by the Quickness of their Scent, discover the Qualities thereof, Nature thereby preventing those Mischiefs which otherwise might be the effect of their Voracity, by their too greedily devouring things hurtful to them, if they were not assisted with such an Ex∣quisit Scent, which discovers to them the Suit∣ableness or Unsuitableness of the Food to their several Natures. By this Quickness of their Sense of Smelling they hunt out their Prey, tho' at a considerable distance from them, and tho' never so cunningly hid; according to the Relations we have in Story of Ravens, Vulturs, and Apes. Thus Dogs, by the Vivacity of this Sense pursue their Game, and follow the Steps of their Masters, tho' far out of their sight. Tigers, by the help of their quick Scent, pursue those that have robb'd them of their Whelps; and Cats find their way home, from whence they have been carried many Miles in a close shut-up Basket.

II. Why the Sense of Smelling is more dull in Man. than other Animals. Now this Sense is more dull in Man; not only, as some suppose, because he abuseth this Faculty, and fills himself with the Vapours of too great variety of Meats: But either, because his Organ is not of such an Exact Texture; or because his Brain is too moist, and so dulls and clogs the force of the Odorous Steams, by entangling the parti∣cles thereof, and hindring them from entring the Pores of the Nostrils. And for the same reason it is that we can smell nothing under Water, be∣cause the Nostrils being stopt with Water, cannot admit the Air that conveys the Odorous Exhala∣tions. Hence it is that they that have their Heads stuffed with a Cold, in a great measure lose their Sense of Smelling for that time; because the Pores that should admit the Odorous Exhalations are filled with the Rheum.

III. What the Sense of Smelling is. The Scent, or Smelling, is an External Sense, whereby an Animal, with the help of his Nostrils, which are furnish'd with very subtil Fibres, re∣ceives all manner of Smells. In all Smelling there is first a Collection of Odours, the Instrument whereof is the double Cavity of the Nostrils: In the Next place, the Sensation of the collected Odour, is propagated by means of some most Subtil Fibres: And, Lastly, this Sense is terminated and compleated by the agitation of the Nerves and Spirits, in the Conarion or Pine Apple-like Kernel.

IV. What is the Organ or Instru∣ment of Smelling. The Anatomists differ in their Opinions about the Organ of this Sense: For some of them make the Processus Mammillares, so called, to discharge this Function, which others attribute to the No∣strils. The Processus Mammillares, are 2 little bunches or protuberances of the Brain, in which 2 Conduits or Passages of the same Substance are terminated. However, these do not seem to be the Organ of Smelling; because both these Mam∣millary Processus are a portion of the Brain it self, consisting of the Pith or Marrow of it: Now, no Physicians ever owned the Brain to be the Organ of the External Senses. Besides, according to what we have before declared, the Nerves and Fibres are the Organs of the External Senses; but these Processus are too soft to be accounted Nerves; neither did ever any, that I know of, account them so. Moreover, if we place the Smelling Faculty in both these Processus, why do not we always perceive some smell or other, seeing that the Air continually flows to the Brain, with which the Odorous steams are always mingled; but this contradicts Experience. It remains there∣fore, that we place the Organ of this Sense in the Nostrils, that is, in some very subtil Fibres, de∣rived from the bottom of the Brain to the Nerves, which are not distinct from the Nerves that assist the Sense of Tasting, save only in this, that they


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Book. 1. Part. 8. Chap. 1

To the Right Worship∣full Sr. Comport Fitch of Eltham and Mount-Mascall in Kent Baronet, Son and heyre of Sr. Thomas Fitch of the said places Knight & Baronet Deceased, by Ann his Lady Daughter & Heyress of Richard Comport of Eltham aforesaid Gen∣tleman, deceased.

This Plate is humbly Dedicated by Richard Blome.

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do not pass through the Skull, wherewith the Brain is cover'd; and that the Fibres also are more subtil and fine, than those that are affected by Savoury Objects.

V. The Organ of Smelling is in the Nostrils. Sense it self assures us, that the Organ of Smel∣ling is in the Nostrils; for who doth not experience that in them he Smells, that is, perceives the Affe∣ction that is imprest by Odorous Objects? To which we may add, that forasmuch as this is a most subtil Affection, as being imprest by that most fine Steam wherein the Odour is diffused, it doth not seem possible to be performed in any Bone, Gristle, or Thick Membran, and conse∣quently that it can no where so properly be per∣formed, as in this fine Texture of the Nervous Fibres.

VI. Why those that are flat Nos'd do not smell well. Whence it is that those who have their Nostrils flatted or beaten down by any bruise or fall, have but a weak or dull Sense of Smelling; because the Nerves design'd for this Function are too much comprest in the upper-part of the Nostrils, and cannot give a free passage to the Odorous Exhala∣tions. And on the contrary, Dogs, Hares, and other Animals, that excel in this Sense, have many little Pipes in the thin membran of their Nostrils, through which these Odorous Exhalations are freely transmitted.

VII. How the sense of Smelling is performed. The Sense of Smelling therefore is effected, when the most thin Particles of Bodies flying in the Air, I mean such only as are Subtil and Brisk enough for this purpose, do strike, tickle and velli∣cate the most thin fibres of the Organ, and affect it after various manners. The Hollowness of the Nostrils is a great help and advantage to the per∣ception of Odours, especially if the said Cavity be wide at the Entrance, because then the Odoriferous Particles are more readily conveyed to the Brain. For the Cavity of the Nostrils, is like a Chimney or Funnel, through which the Odorous Particles do ascend, and being gather'd together, do pene∣trate the winding of the Nostrils. Wherefore they that have long Nostrils, have a more quick Scent than others; because they attract more of the Odorous steams, whereby the Sensation be∣comes more strong and vigorous.

VIII. Air is ne∣cessary for the convey∣ing of the Odorous Exhalati∣ons. The Sense of Smelling cannot be performed with∣out Air, wherewith the Odoriferous particles being mingled, they are drawn in by the Nostrils. For Air is the most proper Medium for the diffusion of Odours; not only because it is of absolute necessity to Re∣spiration, but also because the Odour is both fur∣ther and more easily diffused and transmitted thereby. Accordingly we see, that the stench of Carkasses is mostly carried towards that part whi∣ther the Air is driven by the Wind. For this is the Nature of this, as well as of all the other Senses, that except the Organ it self be struck upon, no Sensation is effected; for the Organ of Smelling, must be struck with the same Force wherewith the Air is drawn in. For the Air being the Vehicle of the Odoriferous Exhalation, a good part of it is let down into the Wind-pipe, whilst the other more affecting a streight motion, enters the Nostrils, and dasheth against the Organ of Smelling; which Odoriferous Steam is so long perceived, as the Air is drawn in by the Nostrils, and ceaseth to be felt, when it is breath'd out again. The Reason whereof is, because the Pipes and Passages in the Nostrils, which are opened by drawing-in of the Breath, and the Entrances whereof are towards the end of the Nose, are shut again upon the breathing-out of the Air, and consequently it is necessary that thereupon the Sense of Smelling should be intermitted, and all sensible Impression upon the Organ cease. Whence it is easily understood, why one that hath a stink∣ing Breath doth not perceive the smell of it him∣self, whilst he breaths it out through his Nostrils; because the hollow Passages of the Nostrils are shut up, and Odours cannot be received contrary to the Course or Grain of the Fibres.

IX. The Odo∣rous Object is to be at some di∣stance from the Organ. The Odoriferous matter cannot be perceived, except it be at some distance from the Nostrils; because when there is a due Distance, the Terre∣strial Particles, which are always in great abu∣dance mixed with the Air, are the more easily di∣sipated and disperst: As a Sword must be un∣sheathed before it can do any Execution; and an Arrow must be taken out of the Quiver, before it can make a wound. For the abundance of Eva∣porations do too much agitate the Nerves, sub∣servient to the Sense of Smelling, and by stopping up their Pores, hinder the supervening Steams from penetrating them. Hence it is, that an Odour that comes from far, is more grateful and pleasant, because those Heterogeneous and Grosser particles, which are mixed with the Odoriferous steam, do by degrees sink downwards, leaving the rest pure and unmixed; which entring the Nostrils, produce a purer and more refined Scent.

X. What a Smell or Odour is, and whence diversity of Odours doth pro∣ceed. Forasmuch therefore as every Odour is a Steam, which exhaling from the Odoriferous Body, and being diffused through the Air, doth move the Organ of Smelling in the Nostrils, after a certain determinate manner, and with Force enough, it may be easily understood, what is the chief Cause of the variety of Odours. For seeing that these Steams consist of almost innumerable Filaments (of which we have an Example in the Steam of a Candle newly extinguish'd) which may be variously crooked and bent, it cannot be question'd but that according to the variety of their Par∣ticles, they do more or less move the Odoratory Nerves, and thereby give occasion to the Soul, of perceiving great diversity of Odours: So as that those steams produce grateful and sweet Odours, whose Motions are very moderate, and duly temper'd together; and those on the con∣trary produce loathsom Smells, which are more vehemently agitated, or else whose Motion is too dull and slow. For those Bodies that do not strike the Organ, and in some sort press upon it, cannot excite the Sense of Smelling.

XI. Deceptions of the sense of Smel∣ling. That we may be deceived in the sense of Smel∣ling, is evident from divers instances. For CAR∣DAN in his 8th Book de Varietate Rerum, Chap. 43. declares, that he always perceived the Smell of something or other in his Nostrils, as sometimes the smell of Flesh, sometimes that of Frankincense, and at other times the smell of some other thing. LEWIS XI. in his melancholy fits, conceited that every thing that was about him had an ill smell. There was also a French Poet that was a very melancholy Man, who being sick of a Fever▪ and persuaded by his Physicians to have his Tem∣ples anointed with Unguentum Populeum to make him sleep, conceived such an aversion for it, that for many years after he imagined that every thing

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that was about him, smelt of it. There have been some persons likewise (as BARTHOLINE informs us, Hist. Nat. Centur. 4.) that could smell things that smelt well, but not such as did stink, or had an ill smell. The same Author tells us of an Apothecary, who had lost this sense, by the too frequent use of Camphire. And SCOT∣TUS Phys. Curios. Cap. 33. gives us an ac∣count of a Woman, who never could smell any thing.

CHAP. XV. Of the Sense of Hearing.

I. What the Sense of Hearing is. HAving spoken of the Senses of Feeling, Tast∣ing and Smelling, we next proceed to han∣dle that of Hearing. Now Hearing is an Exter∣nal Sense, whereby an Animal, with the help of his Ears, and the Nerves implanted in the Cavi∣ties thereof, receives Sounds. Or more plainly, Hearing is that Sensation, whereby from a due motion of the small Fibres of the Auditory Nerves, imprest upon the Ears, and conveyed to the Brain, or common Sense, the Soul perceives Sounds, and judgeth of them. For Hearing, as well as every other Sensation, is founded upon the help and mu∣tual concurrence of Soul and Body. For in this Sense the Presence and Action of the Soul is re∣quired; because when the Soul is otherwise em∣ploy'd, the Excitation of Sounds signifies nothing to it, tho' they be never so loud and violent; for then tho' the Ears be open, yet no sense is per∣ceived, because of the inadvertence, and want of Attention in the Mind.

II. The Useful∣ness of this Sense. This Sense is more Excellent than any of the foregoing, and is equally necessary to Man, and other Animals. For seeing that many things at a distance might attack Animals, to their great hurt and prejudice, except they were timely fore∣warned of them, Nature hath furnisht them with this Sense of Hearing, whereby they are fore∣warned to avoid things inimical, and to prosecute such are grateful and suitable to them. Moreover Hearing is of the Highest and most Necessary use to Man for the accomplishing of his Mind, as ARISTOTLE speaks in his Treatise, De Sens. & Sensili Cap. 10. For seeing, saith he, that in this short term of life that is allowed us here, we have not leisure enough to search into the nature of all things, this Sense gives us the advantage of being instructed, by listning to the informations of Learned Men, whereby we are taught our Duties, and how we are to behave our selves, not only in a Civil Society, but also in our private and Houshold concerns. For by the Company and Conversation of Learned Men, we attain the knowledge of Sciences, and are admonished how we may become both Wise and Prudent.

III. The parts that belong to the Or∣gan of Hearing. Before we can throughly understand by what means this Sense is produced, it will be necessary for us to know the structure of its Organ, and the principal parts that compose it. The out∣ward Lappet of the Ear, which is formed by Na∣ture for the collecting of the sound, and receiving its first impulse, consists of the flap or lappet and the Gristle of the Ear; this part, which hath a pretty large compass, is by degrees straitned, till it ends in the Hollow of the Ear. Next after this outward Cavity follows the Passage, or Auditory Cave, which is crooked and turned into several windings, to the end that the sound, which is car∣ried with the Air, may be encreased by insinua∣ting it self into them. This Winding Hole leads to a most thin and dry Membran, which is termi∣nated by, or enclosed with a Bony Circle, which is commonly called the Drum of the Ear, because it obliquely admits the impulse of the Air, being struck with the sound. To this part 3 small Bones and a Muscle are joined, viz. the Hammer, the Anvil and Stirrup, which all 3 hang together; for the Hammer is jointed into the Anvil, and the Anvil into the Stapes or Stirrup. The Cave wherein the foresaid little Bones are found, is by some called Concha or the Shell, and by others Pelvis or the Bason; which is large enough, and in a manner of a round figure, and leads to a vast number of little Cavities. Which Cave, with all its annexed Cavities is not empty, but filled with Air, which some call Inborn, but wrongly, foras∣much as it is frequently changed, as appears from the free and open passage the Air bath to them.

IV. By what Instruments the Sense of Hearing is performed. These things premised, it will not be difficult to understand in what part of the Ear Hearing is produced. For it is apparent, that it cannot be effected in its outward Cavity, because the out∣ward Ear is only like a Funnel, through which the shaken Air may the more freely enter into the Auditory passage; neither is this Sense performed in the Auditory Cave or Hole, seeing that the same seems only to have been framed by Nature, for the conveying of the sound, and for the perpetual out-flowing of the steam. Neither is it effected by the little Bones, for seeing that they want Nerves which are the Organs of all the Senses, neither can they be supposed to transmit the sound to the Brain. It remains therefore, that the same be performed in the Auditory Nerves that are la∣tent in the said little Cavities, there being 2 Nerves hid within the said Cavities, which receive all the shakings and agitations of the adjacent Air; by means whereof the representation of sound is communicated to the Soul. For the Air by sha∣king the Membran of the Drum, doth at the same time move the 3 linked Bones, to which these Nerves are joined: which tremulous impulse being conveyed to the Brain, by the help of the fore∣said Nerves, do give an occasion to the Mind, of conceiving the Idea of Sound.

V. What Sound is, and how it is formed. Sound is a tremulous and waving motion of the Air, whereby some part of the Air, being whirl'd into certain Circles, is most swiftly waved this way and that way. These Circles are framed by the Body that strikes or shakes the Air, as a Bell, a String, or a Tongue, much after the same manner as we find that Circles are formed in the Water when Stones are cast into it, which at first are small, and afterwards swell greater, one part of the beaten Water, driving and pushing on the other. And like as these Circles tend more to∣wards that part whither the stream of the River tends; so the Wind carries the Sound towards that part, whither it drives the Air. Yea as oft as the Wind, being hindred in its course by meeting with some solid Body, is forced to make a Circle, by waving backwards and forwards (as the water makes a Whirlpool, when ever it is hindred in its


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strait progress) so often is the sound heard, which operation is little different from that which forms an Eccho.

VI. Whence the variety of Souna's doth arise. The Differences of sounds proceed from the Di∣versity of motion, as well in the sounding Body, as of the Air that is agitated thereby. For that the strings of a Citttern do give so much a sharper and quicker sound, the more that they are stretch∣ed, and wound up higher; and the lower and duller, as they are less stretched; is only because the motion of Cords that are high wound is more swift, and consequently impresseth a swifter moti∣on on the Air, than that which is but slack. And therefore the sound is said to be shrill and sharp, when the shakings or beatings of the Air, be more frequently reciprocated, and the Organ more swift∣ly struck by them: and it is accounted a low or Deep sound, when the Vibrations of the Air are less frequent, and the Organ is more leisurely struck with the impulses thereof. So that all the Difference there is betwixt a high and Deep sound is this, that in a High or Sharp sound the parts of the Air beat more frequently and fast upon the Organ, whereas in the Base or Deep Sound, the Concussions admit of longer Intervals; as is evi∣dent in a shorter string wound up to the same Height, and of the same Thickness, compared with a longer, because the former will yield a more high or shrill sound than the latter, forasmuch as it affords more frequent Vibrations, and beats the Air and Ear with quicker repeated strokes.

VII. The Causes of the Harshness and Sweet∣ness of Sounds. In like manner we find a sound to be either hasher or sweeter, according as the Beatings or Wavings of it are more or less equal. For if the surface of the Body, whence the Sound or Air is reflected, or driven back, be rough and rugged, the sound is more harsh: For the ruggedness of the surface, causeth some particles of the Air to be pusht away sooner, and others later, as passing through an unequal space; wherefore it is neces∣sary that some of them must come to the Ear sooner than others. And for this Cause it is that a Trumpet that is not very polisht and smooth, doth give forth a more harsh sound. Whereas a grateful and pleasant sound consists in the equali∣ty of every Undulation of the Air, beating against the Ear, because in this case that whole portion of the Air, arrives at the Organ, at the same time, and strikes it with an even motion.

VIII. The Air is the Medium that trans∣mits Sounds The Air is acknowledged by all Philosophers to be the Vehicle of Sounds, which proceeding by a waving motion from the Sonorous Body, doth im∣press that Affection upon the Organ, which is call∣ed the Act of Hearing: For since the Air is in continual motion, it is easily determined by the Bo∣dy that is stricken, to produce a sound in us. I am not ignorant that some famous Modern Au∣thors are of opinion, that the whole Atmosphere of the Air is not the medium for the transmitting of sounds, but only the most pure part of it; founding their Sentiment upon this Experiment, that every sound, be it great or small, whether it be carried before or against the Wind, yet doth al∣ways, in an equal measure of time, pass through an equal space of place, which could not happen so if it were conveyed by the undulating motion of the entire Body of the Air.

IX. 〈◊〉〈◊〉 Sound 〈…〉〈…〉 to the Ear, according as the wind is for it o against it. But I cannot altogether assent to this assertion; for tho' a sound may be heard by 2 Men, stand∣ing at an equal distance from the Center, at the same time, notwithstanding that the Air blow vi∣olently, yet cannot it be inferred from thence, that the sound doth not depend upon the Undulation of the Air. For tho' it be true, that a Body that is swiftly moved, cannot be carried by that which is more slowly moved; yet is that Body to be ex∣cepted from this general maxim, which upholds and supports another. For let us suppose, that whilst a Globe doth move upon a Table, the Table also with a very slow motion moves towards it, it cannot be questioned but that in this case the Globe doth participate of the motion of the Table: In like manner those small particles of the Air, which convey the sound, must more leisurely transmit the same to the Ear, if the Wind be contrary. But that 2 Men in an equal distance from the Center, do both hear the sound at the same time, this is to be imputed to the sound it self, which being most swift in its motion, the difference of time seems to be insensible.

X. A Sound is better heard with the wind than a∣gainst it. Moreover, they who alledge the foresaid Expe∣riment, do acknowledge, that the sound is heard fuller and plainer by him to whom the sound is con∣veyed by the Wind, than to him to whom it comes against it. If this be true, we know that the Wind cannot make a greater sound, except it carry the particles of sound along with it, which it cannot do without moving them; neither can it move them, but that it must accelerate or hasten them, and cause it to come more swiftly to the Ear. Let us conclude therefore, that Sonorous Bodies do shake the whole circumambient Air, or rather de∣termine it, as being already in motion, to tend to some particular part. And therefore that not only the thin and subtil Air, is the vehicle of the sound, but also that which is thick and full of vapours. This manifestly appears in the Pneumatick Engin, for when the Air is wholly drawn out of it, the mo∣tion of a Watch can scarcely be heard in it. Which Experiment doth evidently demonstrate, that the gross Air doth conduce much to the conveying of the sound, and promotes its propagation.

XI. How an Eccho is formed. Forasmuch therefore as the sound is diffused, as it were along every line, from the Center of a Sphere, towards the Circumference, it may so hap∣pen that the particles of Air, that are on their way to convey the sound to others, may meet a hard Body, and being unable to penetrate or agi∣tate the same, are forced to turn back and be re∣flected, and to rebound their motion to those parts whence they had received it, and those again to others, and so on. By which means it comes to pass that the same sound is heard again, being se∣veral times repeated, which is called an Eccho. For Sound as well as Light, is subject to Reflexi∣on, and when-ever a smooth and hollow hard body is interpos'd, it rebounds; but yet with this diffe∣rence, that a sound, because of the slowness of its motion, cannot advance far in one Moment, but wants a longer space of time for its diffusion. And therefore the further the person that receives the sound is distant, from that Body that reflects it, the more time the voice in rebounding takes up: whereas the Light in one moment of time reflects from several Bodies, and enlightens many places at once. If the sound meet with divers Bodies, at different distances from each other, that are proper to rebound it, there follow many Reiterations of

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the same Voice, viz. when the former sound be∣ing vanisht in the neighbouring Air, another is formed by the Air that is more remote; which being afterwards beaten back from Opake and Hard Bodies at a greater distance, doth again shake the neighbouring Air, and that either once only, or more frequently. Yea an Eccho sometimes happens in Bodies that are very near, as in the Tiles of Houses; as when a Voice directed from a high place, and level with the Tiles of the Houses, en∣ters the hollow that is under the said Tiles, and from thence rebounds towards the Speaker, whence it proceeded.

XII. The Hear∣ing is sub∣ject to some De∣ceptions. Many mistakes may happen to the Sense of Hearing, as well as to the other Senses, which are not imputed to the inward Affection it self, but to the Cause of it. Thus a Buzzing Sound, or Noise in the Ear, which is commonly attributed to the Ex∣ternal Object, hath no other cause, but that some part of the Steam, or the inclosed Air, or a swel∣ling in the Muscles of the Ear, affecting the Or∣gan of Hearing, stirs up some undulating motions: wherefore it is that Sick People, because of some corruption of their Blood, or by reason of some Excrements that cause an obstruction in the Ear, do frequently complain of this noise in their Ears. Another mistake or Deception in the Sense of Hearing is, when upon cutting off of the Lappet of the Ear, the Sound is received like to Water running down from on High; for when this out∣ward Shell or Hollow is taken away, the Sound enters straight into the Auditory Cave, and wants that due determination it should receive from the outward part of the Ear: For the Ear-lappet, as before said, was framed by Nature, for the collect∣ing or gathering of the Sound; wherefore when that is wanting, the Sound immediately enters into the Bason, as if it came from several parts, as it happens in the noise of running Water. Nei∣ther are we to forget that mistake, which we are sensible of when we stop our Ear, for then we perceive a kind of tremulous Buzzing or Noise, as if the Air did role about in the Ear; the reason whereof can be no other but this, that the Steam is continually passing out of the Ear, which being hindred from coming out, it pusheth against the Organ of Hearing, whence this noise doth arise, which we suppose to be inward.

As I was not long since with some Friends go∣ing upon the Thames, between the two Churches of Fulham and Putney, it hapned they were ring∣ing Fulham-Bells, the sound whereof was so re∣bounded from the opposit Church, that it seemed equally to proceed from both places; neither was it easie for us to determin whence it came, so that we had various disputes about this Deception, be∣ing much affected with the Diversion it gave us.

CHAP. XVI. Of the Eye.

I. What the Eye is. FOrasmuch as the Eye, is the Organ of Sight, and that within the Recess or Hollow there∣of, the Images of the several Objects are repre∣sented, we shall never be able throughly to under∣stand how Vision or Sight is effected, without describing the disposition and structure of its parts. The Eye, therefore, is the outward Organ of Sight, through the Transparent parts whereof the Rays of Light pass, till they arrive at the Net-work-coat or Membran, and there variously moving the small Capillaments of the Nerves, suitable to the variety of Objects whence they proceed, do repre∣sent or pourtray the Image of the Object. The In∣ward Organ of this Sense are the Optick Nerves, which reach from the Net-work-like-membran to the Brain, and receiving the motion from the said Membran, convey it to the common Seat of the Senses.

II. Of the Fi∣gure of the Eye. And to the end we may more exactly appre∣hend all these particulars, suppose we an Eye cut through in the midst, but yet with that Art, as that all the several Humors contained therein, keep the same place they had before, without any part of them being spilt; and then it would ap∣pear to be of the same structure, as it is represent∣ed in this Scheme, wherein DB, CBD, set forth * 1.8its round Figure, that marked BCB, being the forepart of it, and BAB, the other part, which is enclosed within the Bone of the Head.

III. What the Horny Coat of the Eye is. BCB, is a hard and thick Membran, which the Physicians call the Horny Coat of the Eye, being, as it were the Vessel and Receptacle to contain all the other parts of the Eye; and this part is trans∣parent, and more prominent or convex than the Remainder, to which the Rainbow, so called, be∣longs, which almost is of different colours in all Men. It sticks out forwards, because if it were more flat, the Beams which slantingly touch its surface, would scarcely ever reach the Bottom of the Eye, through the entrance of the Apple there∣of; so that we should only perceive a very small part of the Hemisphere at one cast of the Eye.

IV. The Uveo▪ or Grape-like Coat, and the Apple of the Eye. DEF, is a thinner Membran, stretched out like a Hanging or Tapistry, and is called the Tu∣nica Uvea or Grape-like Coat, for that it is per∣forated like a Grape when the Stele is pluckt out of it. In this Membran or Coat is a small hole, the Apple of the Eye, in the midst of the Rainbow, marked out by the Letters FF, called in Latin Pupilla, because in it a Baby or little Image is re∣presented by the Rays that are reflected from the surface of the Eye, to every one that looks upon the Eye of another. The Apple of the Eye, in a Man, appears Black, because that part of the Coroides, or the Grape-like Coat, which answers to it, is of that colour. The contexture of Fibres rang'd in a circle, and which outwardly is placed about the hole of the Apple of the Eye, being diversified with various colours, is called the Rain∣bow.

V. The Lig∣ments of the Eye-lids. NN, are many black Filaments, called Proces∣sus Ciliares, which do every way surround, and gird in a certain soft and transparent Body, call∣ed the Crystalline Humour, and keep it suspend∣ed in the midst of them.

VI. The Watry Humour. The space contained betwixt EKE, is filled with another transparent Humour, which is there∣fore called the Watry Humour, because in all re∣spects it is like Water. This Humour gives the Round Figure to the Eye, refracts the admitted Beams, and in this disposition imparts them to the Crystalline Humour. The Eye continually re∣ceives of this humour by some particular Vessels which are in the Sclerotica, which is a part of the Horny Coat or Membran, and which are inserted into it, near to the Apple of the Eye, whence

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it is that when the Horny membran is pierced, and the Watry Humour by this means is spilt and let out, the said loss may be repair'd in the time of a few Hours.

VII. The Cry∣stallin Humour. The Mid-part L, is a certain transparent Sub∣stance, rather of the figure of a Lentil, than Sphe∣rical; for the greatest part of it is cover'd by the Rainbow, and the Fore-part of the greater Round, is less than the other, and the Hind-part of the lesser Round, is the biggest. It is because of its Compactness and some appearing Hardness, called the Icy Humour, but more commonly the Crystal∣lin. This Humour is white, like Starch, and is of the consistence of Wax, which melts, and may be comprest, but cannot be spilt.

VIII. The Glassy Humour. The remaining Hollow of the Eye GMI, is taken up by a whitish Humour, more transparent than the Crystallin or Watry, and of a mean con∣sistence betwixt them both; because it can more easily be contracted and displayed; and yet it is not so liquid, or thin and flowing, as the Watry Humour. It is commonly called the Albumineous and Glassy Humour, because it hath the consistence and colour of the White of an Egg, and is trans∣parent like Glass. This Humour rests upon the Network-like Membran, and contains in it self the Crystallin; it is enclosed in a very thin Membran, which keeps it from spilling.

IX. The Cry∣stallin Hu∣mour caus∣eth much the same Refraction of the Rays, as Glass doth. Experience informs us, that the Crystallin Hu∣mour causeth much the same Refraction, as Glass and Crystal doth; and that the two other Hu∣mours produce somewhat a less Refraction, and much about the same as Common Water: So that the Rays of Light pass more easily through the Crystallin Humour, than through the two other Humours; and yet more easily through these, than through the Air.

X. The Optick Nerve. HZ, is the Optick Nerve, which takes its rise from the Hinder-part of the Brain, not far from the beginning of the Back-bone, the Capillaments whereof GHI, being disperst throughout the whole Space ABH, do cover the whole bottom of the Eye, constituting a sort of a most fine Net, which from its Expansion is called Retiformis, or Net-work like, and Retina by Physicians. Now these Capillaments, by means of the Convex figure of the Eye, and of the Crystallin Humour, do collect the Beams, and communicate the motion they have received to the Brain, and present it to the Soul that resides there.

XI. Why the Surface of the Coats of the Eye is black. My design is not to reckon up here all the Coats that enclose the Eye, seeing that the knowledge of them doth not conduce to the understanding of the Sense of Seeing; and therefore shall only take notice, that the surface of these Coats is wholly obscure and black in those Parts that face the bot∣tom of the Eye; and this, to the end that the Rays which fall upon the Net-like Coat GHI, and from thence are are reflected to the Grape-like Coat, might be extinguish'd by that Blackness, lest being again reflected to the Retina, or Net-like Coat, they should disturb and confound the Sight.

XII. The six Muscles of the Eye. OO, are six Muscles, outwardly fastned to the Eye, by the help whereof it can readily move it self every way. Of these Muscles 4 are called Direct, whereof the first lifts the Eye upwards, the second turns it downwards, the third draws it towards the Nose, and the fourth withdraws it to the opposite part from the Nose. The other 2 are called Oblique or Slanting, because they en∣compass and surround the Eye; for with the one of them the Eye is enabled to give a slanting or oblique Cast, and with the other it is rolled round.

XIII. How the Right or Direct Muscles serve to move the Eye. When the Right Muscle, which is above the Eye, is fill'd with Animal Spirits, the Eye looks up; and the 3 other Muscles being fill'd in like manner by turns, assist it sometimes to look down∣wards, and sometimes to turn it to the Right or Left. Besides, it is evident by the situation of these Muscles, that when all of them are shortned, they at the same time alter the figure of the Eye, by making it more flat than it was be∣fore.

XIV. Why the Apple of the Eye is of a Con∣vex figure. That part of the Eye, which is marked BCB, is of a Convex figure, to the end that the Rays proceeding from the Objects, which of themselves have not force enough to enter the Apple of the Eye FF, might be united by a various Refraction, and by this means might have force enough strongly to move the Hairy-strings of the Optick Nerve HZ. For the Refraction which is made in the Crystallin Humour L, procures strength and di∣stinction to the Sight.

XV. The Apple of the Eye can be contracted and dila∣ted. Besides, this is to be observed, that the Apple of the Eye is liable to Contraction and Dilatation, according as the Objects, to which the Eye is di∣rected, are nearer or farther off; or more or less enlightned; or according as the Beholder doth more intently or carelesly view the Object. For this Coat hath the power to dilate or narrow it self like a Muscle, and by this means to enlarge or contract the Apple of the Eye, viz. by stinting the entring of the Rays, and by causing more or less to pass through it.

XVI. The Motion of the Apple of the Eye is voluntary. Wherefore this motion may be called Voluntary, tho' for the most part it happen without our At∣tention; for it doth nevertheless depend on our Will, or on those motions which do accompany the Will or desire of throughly beholding any Objects. In like manner as the motion of the Lips and Tongue, conducing to the formation of Voices, is called Voluntary; because it is consequent to our intention of Speaking, tho' we do not mind, yea, and are ignorant also, what kind of motion every Letter requires.

CHAP. XVII. Of Colours.

I. Colour is nothing else, but a Modifica∣tion of Light. FOrasmuch as Colours are the Objects of Seeing, we are to consider what they are, and wherein their Nature doth consist, before we undertake the Explication of the Sense of Seeing. We suppose therefore in the First plcae, that no Colour can appear without Light, and that conse∣quently Colours are nothing else but certain Alte∣rations or Modifications that happen to the Light. Secondly, that even Transparent Bodies also, appear distinguish'd with various Colours, if the Light that falls upon them be variously reflected to the Eye of the Beholder. As may be seen in a Round Ball of Glass fill'd with Water, in the Bubbles that Children sport themselves with, in a Prism, in the Rain-bow, and in other Bodies.

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II. What Light and the Beams thereof are. We must also suppose the Light to be the Action of a Subtil matter, the Parts whereof, as so many small Pellets, do roll continually through the Pores of Earthly Bodies: So that there are innumerous Rays or strait Lines by which this Action is com∣municated, which proceed from the several Points of a Lucid Body, and reach to the several Parts of the Body which they enlighten.

III. That in∣numerable Rays pro∣ceed from every Point. For we are to conceive, that there is no surface, how polish'd and smooth soever it may appear to the Eye, but is really rough and unequal; so that every Point assignable in the outside of the most smooth Body, is to be imagined like a little Hil∣lock or Prominence, from whence innumerable Beams may be dispersed round about. For other∣wise, if the surface of any Body were altogether polish'd and smooth, it could not shed the Rays roud about, but only directly to the opposite side; so that the Object would only reflect such direct and Parallel Rays, as could only reach to the Eye obliquely or slantingly placed.

IV. The Rays of Light may be reflected after di∣vers man∣ners. Moreover we are to take notice, that tho' the Rays pass strait along through Trasparent Bodies, yet they are easily turned aside by others they meet with; much after the same manner as a Ball struck against a Wall, rebounds variously, according to the difference of the Surfaces it lights against. For it rebounds otherwise from a plain and even Surface, than from a crooked; and otherwise from a hard, than from a soft: For being struck against a soft Body, it loseth its mo∣tion; whereas lighting upon a hard, it rebounds immediately.

V. The Rays, besides their mo∣tion in right Lines, may also be moved round. Lastly, We are to take notice, that as a Ball, besides its motion whereby it tends from the Hand to the Wall in a right Line, and from thence re∣bounds elsewhere, is capable also of being moved round its own Center: So likewise the Rays of Light cannot only move to Right Lines, but may be so reverberated by the Bodies they light upon, as to take upon them a Circular motion, wholly in the same manner as a Ball struck by a Racket, re∣bounds against the floor or ground.

VI. VVhat Co∣lours are. From what hath been said, it follows, that Colours are not in the Colour'd Bodies, but are only such a disposition, which either swallows up the Rays of Light, or variously reflects them to the Eye, and according to the diversity of this motion, doth differently affect the most subtil Organs of the Sight, and by this means produce a Sense of Colours in us. So that Colours, as they are assignable to Bodies, are nothing else, but dif∣ferent Modes, according to which Bodies receive the Beams of Light, and either drown them, or with great variety reflect them to the Eye.

VII. VVherein the Nature of Colours oth 〈◊〉〈◊〉. Let us suppose therefore, that there are some Bodies, which when they are struck with the Beams of Light, do choak them, and break all their force; and such are those that are of a Black Colour, which is common to them, and Darkness. That there are also other Bodies that reflect the Beams, some of them in the same manner as they receive them, viz. such Bodies, whose Surface being exactly polish'd, serve for Looking-Glasses. Others, which reflect them confusedly this way and that way; and again, that amongst these some reflect these Rays so, as that the Action of Reflection is not spoiled by any the least alteration, viz. those Bodies that are of a white Colour. And that others again produce a Change like to that which happens to the motion of a Ball that is struck with a slanting Stroak of a Racket; and such are the Bodies that are of a Red, Yellow, Blue, or other Colour.

VIII. Colour is nothing else, but a Modifica∣tion of the Rays o Light. For when the Rays of Light are sent forth from a Lucid Body, the Globuli of the second Ele∣ment, which constitute those Rays, are either evenly or unevenly driven forwards, and whirl'd about by a different Proportion; because of the various Nature and Constitution of the Bodies they meet with. And from this proportion of their direct Motion and Circumvolution, all Modifications of Light, or Colours do proceed. This is evident in Transparent Bodies, in which many Colours do appear, whereof no other Cause can be assigned, besides those different Modes, according to which the Beams of Light are admitted. As may be seen in the Rainbow, Peacocks-Tails, and in the Necks of Doves; forasmuch as these Colours can∣not be said to be any thing else, but the Light it self received in the outward-parts, and so or so reflected and conveyed to our Eyes. For all the Particles of Light, that enter a Transparent Body, are not drowned or swallowed up of it, but many of them rebound, which by means of various Re∣flection and Refraction reaching our Eye, do pro∣duce in us the Sense of Colours.

This will appear clearly to us in the Prism MNP, 2 of the Surfaces whereof, MN, and * 1.9NP, are entirely plain or flat, and so inclined the one towards the other, as to constitute an Angle of about 30 or 40 Degrees; and therefore if the Rays of the Sun ABC, that light perpendicu∣larly upon the Surface NP, do penetrate or pierce it obliquely about the Hole DE, which exhibits a Shadow at both parts of the said Hole, to the Rays DF, and EH, passing through it; it is manifest by Experience, that the Rays passing obliquely through that Hole, from the Glass into the Air will be refracted, and reaching the Surface HGF, (which we suppose to be White) they will exhibit divers Colours from H to F, and that in this order: In the first place they will represent a Blew or Violet Colour about H; then a Green; in the 3d place, a White about G; 4thly, a Yellow; and 5thly, a Red Colour about F.

Now what happens in this Production of di∣vers Colours, but only this, that the Globuli of those Rays, which after the same manner of Incli∣nation, falling upon the lower Surface of the Prism NP, on the Left hand towards DN, have a Shadow, caused by the slow motion of the Glo∣buli of the 2d Element; whereas on the Right, towards EP, they have a Light, caused by the swift motion of the said Globuli; which causes them to move more swiftly about their own Centers, than they do in a Right Line.

For the better understanding whereof, let us suppose a Ball 1, 2, 3, 4, so struck from V to X, as * 1.10to proceed only in a right motion, and that 2 of its Sides 1 and 3, with equal swiftness fall down to the Surface of the Water YY, where the motion of the Side 3, which reacheth that Surface before the other, is retarded, that of the Side 1 being not changed at all; whereupon the whole Ball begins to roll about, according to the order of the Fi∣gures 1, 2, 3. Now this Circumrotation will be much swifter, than its progress, in case the Ball S,


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Book. 1. Part. 8. Chap. 10

To the Worship∣full William Ʋpton of Lupton in the County of Devon Esqr.

This Plate is humbly Dedicated by Richard Blome.


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Book 1. Part 8. Chap. 18.

To the Honoured Sr. Iohn Morden of Ricklemarsh in the Parish of Charleton in the County of Kent Baronet, and to Susanna his Lady. Sister to the Right Worshipfull▪ r. Joseph Brand of Edwardstone in Suffolk Knight. This Plate is humbly Dedicated by Richard Blome.

The West Prospect of Morden Colledge, in the Parish of Charleton, in the County of Kent, now Erecting at the sole charge of the Honoured Sr. John Morden of Ricklemarsh in the Said Parish of Charle∣ton Baronet, who hath liberally endowed it for the Maintenance of forty decayed Merchants, in a more then vsuall manner, as well as to Dyet, and Apartments to themselves, as to their Stipents or Salaryes, for their Sup∣port in a Gentile lively hood, This being the noblest, Greatest, and most Charitablest Guist of any Subject in these three Kingdomes,—Especially in the life tyme of the Donor, to his Eternall Glory, and for the good Example of others to follow soe pious a Worke.

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being moved more slowly than it, and lying be∣neath it, about the part of the Ball 3 2, chance to stop its progress; and that Ball Q, plac'd above it, about the part 4 1, being more swiftly moved, do forceably push it forwards, and by this means make its rolling about to be much more swift than its Progress. But if the Ball 1 2 3 4, falling slantingly from V, on the surface of the Water YY, towards X, and first touching it with its Point 3, do roll about slowly, according to the order of the Numbers 1 2 3 4: I say, if this suppos'd, it have on the Side 1 the Ball R, moved more slowly than it self, and thereby hindring its whirling round; and on the Side 3, it have op∣pos'd to it the Ball T, more swiftly moved than it self, it will by this its more swift motion retard the Ball 1 2 3 4, striving to whirl it self about, according to the Series of the foresaid Numbers, and so will make its Circumrotation much more slow, than its progress.

IX. Whence the difference of Colours doth arise. These things being well observed, we shall easily understand, that by how much nearer the Rays of Light, passing through the Hole DE, do approach to the Left Shadow D, by so much greater will be the whirling about of the Globuli of the 2d Element, than their Progress: Whereas the nearer they approach to the Right Shadow E, they are whirled about so much more slowly, than * 1.11they move fore-right. We understand likewise, that those Globuli which intersect the middle of that Light about G, have an Equal proportion of Retardation or Acceleration of their Circumrota∣tion and Procession. And seeing that we find the White colour represented there, we must conclude that. Whiteness consists in that Proportion: But that the Nature of the other Colours, as of Blue, Yellow, Green, Red, consists in the different swift∣ness or slowness of their whirling about, exceed∣ing that of their Process, or moving for∣wards.

X. All Colours are true Colours, and none only appa∣rent. I am not ignorant, that most Men distinguish these Colours from true ones, and call them Appa∣rent only; but these do not seem to understand the genuine Nature of Colours, which consists only in this, that they appear and are conspicuous. For it is a contradiction, that any thing should appear and be false. All Colours therefore are the effect of Light, variously reflected from the Surface of Bodies, suitable to the situation of their outside Particles, their whole difference consisting in the various Modes of receiving it, and reflecting it to our Eyes. Thus we call that a Black Body, which extinguisheth and choaks the Rays of Light; and therefore Black Bodies carry a resemblance of Darkness. Blue Colour, which approacheth to the Nature of Black, is that which reflects only a few Rays: And 'tis for this Reason, that Sea-water, where it is deep and transparent, appears of a Bluish Colour; because there are but a few Rays reflected from its Surface, and none of those that penetrate the Substance of it, do return.

XI. What a White Body is. A White Body is that, which reflects the Rays to the Eyes, in the same order as it receives them. Of this colour are all those Opake Bodies, whose Surface is so rough and rugged, that it reflects from all Sides the Rays it hath received parallel. So that in order to our having the Representation of a White Colour, we must receive many Rays from the Object; whereas for to see a Black Co∣lour, we must receive none at all. And therefore the Nature of Blackness must consist in a pro∣perty which Black Objects have, to drown and mortifie the Beams they have received, as we have mention'd before. So that we may conclude, that those are Black Bodies, whose Surface is proper to extinguish and quash the Rays of Light; and that those are White, whose Surface hath the Property to diminish the Light, by reflecting it from all sides.

XII. Wherein the diffe∣rence be∣tween Black and White Marble doth consist. But some may Object, that Black and White Marble consist, in a manner, of the same parts, so that if one of them swallows or extinguisheth the Light, the other ought to do so likewise; and consequently, that the variety of Colours is not well grounded upon the Variety of Objects, which do variously reflect the Rays of the Sun.

To which we Answer, That true it is, that Black and White Marble do, in a manner, consist of the same Parts; but yet in the Black there are some soft Parts, which by taking in or swallowing the Light, produce a Black Colour. For Black and White Marble may be compared to a Pumice-Stone, whose Pores are filled with a kind of Oily Matter, and the White to a Pumice-Stone that is only fill'd with Air. For it may easily be under∣stood, that when particles of Sand dash against this latter, they will rebound presently; but not from the former, because the Oily Matter, that fills its Pores, doth quash their motion, and in a manner swallow them.

XIII. What a Red Colour is. That is a Red Body, which in reflecting the Rays of Light, makes the Particles thereof to whirl strongly about their own Centers, in like manner as a Ball turns round by being struck against the Earth, or with the slanting stroak of a Racket. Yellow, Purple and Green Colours, pro∣ceed, as hath already been said, from this various Rotation of the Particles about their Center. So that the Particles of the Subtil Matter, that con∣stitute a Yellow colour, are more slowly whirl'd about, than those that make a Red: And those that make a Green, more slowly than those that constitute a Yellow colour: And the Purple colour is nothing else, but mixture of a Blue with a Red colour, which imparts its brightness to the former.

XIV. Colour is nothing else, but modified Light. From all which we may conclude, That Colour is nothing else, but Light Modified; for it is evi∣dent, that a Coloured Object cannot of it self affect the Sight, as being for the most part immoveable, or at least not reaching the Eye, where it is per∣ceived; neither can any thing be thought of that moves the Eye at that time, but only the Light reflected from the Body seen.

CHAP. XVIII. Of the Sense of Seeing.

I. What the Sense of Seeing or Sight is. THe last in order of all the outward Senses, and the most Excellent of them, is the Sight; whether we consider the Object of it, or the manner whereby Objects are conveyed to the Seeing Faculty. For Sight is a Sensation proceed∣ing from a due and various motion of the Optick Nerve, made in the bottom of the Eye, by the Rays of Light coming from an Object, and from thence conveyed to the Brain; by means whereof the Soul perceives the illuminated thing, together with its Quantity, Quality, and Modifications.

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The Sense of Seeing begins indeed in the Eye, but is perfected no where but in the Brain, where the Soul is affected with the Impressions of visible Objects.

II. What the Object of Sight is, and how many-fold. The proper Object of Sight is every thing whereby the Eye becomes affected and changed, in order to the production of Sensation: And this Object is twofold, viz. Light and Colour; for these 2 cannot be perceived by any Sense but that of Seeing. And tho' some reckon up 5 several spe∣cies of common Objects, viz. Motion, Quiet, Num∣ber, Figure and Magnitude; yet to speak accu∣rately, Light only is the Object of Sight, whe∣ther the same proceed from the Lucid Body, through a transparent Medium, and so retain its own name; or whether it be reflected from Opake Bodies, and represent the Image of them; or whe∣ther in its reflexion, it be this or the other way refracted, and so affect the Eye, under the name and Species of Colour.

III. The Order of things to be hand∣led in this Article. Forasmuch therefore as Vision or Sight follows from the Action of the Object, upon the inward and outward Organs; and since it is necessary that visible things should convey some Images to the Eye▪ and from thence to the Brain, Our Business will be in this Chapter to enquire; First, How, and in what manner Rays do proceed from the Objects. Secondly, How Objects imprint their Images upon the Organ; and Thirdly, How these Images are communicated to the Brain.

IV. What Rays are to be considered in Vision, or with re∣spect to the Sense of Seeing. As to the First of these, we are to observe, that all the Rays that reach the Apple of the Eye, one of them always proceeds from the Object that is directly opposite to the said Apple, which passing through the midst of it, penetrates directly, and without any Refraction to the bottom of the Eye, or the middle of the Net-like Coat. And this Ray is commonly called the Axis of Seeing, or the Optick Axis. It is also called Perpendicular, because it enters straight into the Apple of the Eye; whereas the other Rays which recede from this middle Ray, tho' they enter the Apple, yet it is only slantingly or obliquely. So that the Cone, whose Axis, is the Axis of Vision, is the streightest of all, the others being more oblique, as they far∣ther recede from it. This will be more clearly ap∣prehended by the Figure.

Figure 7. Let therefore K be the Eye before described, and the Object TRX. Now it is evident that Rays proceed from every point of this visible ob∣ject. But forasmuch as those Rays only concur to the Sense of Seeing, that enter the Apple of the Eye, therefore we are only to consider those Beams which fall upon that part of the Horny Mem∣bran, which directly answer to the Apple. Where∣fore since our business here is to enquire what the Rays are, whereby the point R, doth affect the bottom of the Eye, we shall only here consider those which proceed from that point, viz. RN, RL, and the middlemost between these two, drawn from R to S.

And because the Middle Ray RS, is perpendi∣cular to the surface or outside of the Eye, there∣fore neither doth it suffer any Refraction by pas∣sing from the Air, into the Watry Humour, but passeth straight from R to S; for seeing that it falls perpendicularly upon the other intermediate parts of the Eye; it is necessary that it be direct∣ed in like manner to S.

But forasmuch as the Ray RN, doth not alight perpendicularly on the surface of the Eye, and being to pass from the Air into the Water, it is manifest that therefore it must suffer a Refraction, by approaching to the Perpendicular RS, and see∣ing that this Ray is not Perpendicular, whilst it passeth out of the Watry Humour, into a Harder Body, viz. the Crystalline Humour, it must a se∣cond time be refracted, and from thence entring into the Glassie Humour, which is softer, it must again be turned aside; and thus still approaching nearer to the Perpendicular RS, after many Re∣fractions, it arrives at the point S. The same is also to be said of the Ray RS, which after having undergone some Refractions, joine it self to the 2 other Rays, that are united in the point S. And thus it appears how the Object R, acts after the same manner upon the Bottom of the Eye, as if it sent forth one Ray only, that might perform the same, which all those Beams do that are contained between FF.

V. Rays flex∣ing from divers points of an Object, fall upon so many points of the Re∣tina, or Net-like Membran. From what hath been said it will appear, what happens to those Rays, which from another point T, enter the Eye. For all the Beams that enter the Eye must undergo such Refractions, as that they may all of them be terminated and united in the point V. And therefore we may say, that the Points TRX, and any other intermediate ones, do all of them send their Rays, in a manner into one and the sme Point of the Bottom of the Eye; and on the other hand, that every point of the Bot∣tom of the Eye, receives only the impression of one Point of the Object. So that it happens, when ever we have a mind clearly and distinctly to view any Object, that we direct our Sight, or the Axis of Vision to every part of it successively, and so take a particular view of the whole sur∣face.

VI. How the disposition of the Eye comes to be changed. Tho' the Rays only that proceed from Objects directly turn'd towards the Apple of the Eye, by passing through it, penetrate to the bottom of the Eye, yet may there be several other collections of the Rays, according to the different disposition of the Organ. As appears in Old Men, who have only a confus'd Image of Objects that are near them: And on the other hand, those that look Asquint, and have prominent Eyes, do more di∣stinctly see things near at hand, and less exactly, such as are at a greater distance. The Reason of which difference is, because the Eye is of such a make or constitution, that according to the diffe∣rent distance of the Objects we have a mind to view, it may be extended, and so become flatter. Thus when we direct our Sight to any Object, that is too far distant, to be distinctly perceived by us, according to the ordinary constitution of our Eye, the Eye by means of the 4 direct or straight Muscles, is made plain or flat, because all of them draw it downwards to the bottom of the hollow wherein the Eye is placed; by which means the Retina approacheth near enough to the Crystalline Humour, to be present to the new Collection of Rays which proceed from one Point of the distant Object. And on the other hand, when we have a mind to direct our Sight to an Object that is too near to us, then our Eye becomes dilated by the help of the 2 Oblique Muscles that do encompass it, and being blown up or swell'd, by the intro∣duced Spirits do press the Eye; whereby it comes

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to pass, that the space which is between the Cry∣stalline Humour and the Retina, becomes large enough for the Rays, which proceed from the Point of the near Object, to be again collected and united in the Retina.

VII. Why Old Men see things that are near them, con∣fusedly; and Squint-Ey'd per∣sons, things that are far from them. Old Men therefore cannot exactly perceive Ob∣jects that are too near them, because their Humours begin to dry up, and their Bodies waste and grow learner, whereby the Convexity of the Horny and Crystalline Humours is diminished and so grows flatter, by which means the Eye becomes some∣what broader than it was in time of Youth. Now this alteration of the Parts of the Eye, doth not suffer the Rays proceeding from a near Object, and constituting the sides of Cones, to unite in the Re∣tina it self, but make them pass on as if they would unite beyond it. Whereas those who see Asquint, and have prominent Eyes, do but imperfectly be∣hold things at a distance; for their Eyes being longer and protuberant, the Rays that proceed from one point of the distant Oject, do meet be∣fore they come to the Retina, and afterwards spreading themselves, fall only upon a little part of the bottom of the Eye. And therefore those who have such prominent Eyes, do approach the Object to their Organ, to advance the too short points of the visive Cones to the Retina. For the nearer a thing is approached to the Eye, so much the more are the Rays thereof turn'd aside, and constitute shorter Visive Pyramids or Cones. But Old Men remove the Object farther from their Eye, that by making the points of the Cones longer, they may reach the Retina.

VIII. Convex spectacles are of most use to Old Men, as Concave Spectacles to Squint Ey'd per∣sons. Hence it appears, that Convex Spectacles are most useful for Old Men; as on the contrary, Con∣cave Spectacles are most helpful to such as are Squint Ey'd. For seeing that the former stand in need of having the Rays contracted, to the end that the points of the Cones may be brought to the Retina, this is effected by a Convex Spectacle: but whereas the latter stand in need of a greater dilatation of the Rays, thereby to advance the Cusps of the Cones towards the Retina, this is ef∣fected by a Concave Spectacle. For by the in∣terposing of a Convex Glass, the Rays which be∣fore went to the Rainbow, and further, are by this means gathered into the Apple of the Eye, so that Rays are now received by the Eye from those parts that were hid before, and those which before were joined together, by the interposition of them, are made distant from each other, and consequent∣ly represent the whole Object bigger than indeed it is. But by the interposing of a Concave Glass, many Rays, which before entred the Apple, are thrust outwards to the Rainbow, or more outward parts; so that those parts which were separate be∣fore, do now unite, and by means of this contra∣ction represent the whole Object less than it is.

IX. How the Object forms its Image in the Eye. As to the second, viz. the forming of the Image of the Object in the Organ, it will not at all be difficult to conceive how this is done, supposing we do well apprehend that the Object acts only upon one point of the bottom of the Eye, viz. up∣on that which is directly opposite to it; and so likewise that one only point of the Retina, viz. the middlemost is affected by that one point of the Object. For the Rays that proceed from External Objects, at the bottom of the Eye, act upon some Latitude of the Optick Nerve, which as to the Figure doth as much resemble it, as the Linea∣ments of an Excellent Painter, drawn in a Picture, can be like him. Besides, there is another reason for this latitude of the Retina being like the Object, viz. because it receives so many impressions in all its parts, as there are different Colours or different degrees of Light, in all the parts of the Object. And because the name of an Image or Likeness is attributed to that thing, which hath some resemblance with the thing it expresseth; therefore we may well give this name to the Latitude of the Retina, on which all the Rays proceeding from the Object do fall; and conse∣quently may affirm, that the Object doth pour∣tray its similitude or Image in the bottom of the Eye.

X. This Image is not in all things lik unto the Object. Neither are we to look for any more perfect likeness between the Object we behold, and its Image, than there is between the Objects and Ima∣ges, that appear in a darkned Room, where only one little hole is left for the Rays of Light to enter, which are received at a convenient distance upon white Paper or a Sheet. For tho' in this case the Images of the Objects be very exactly de∣lineated, and their Qualities sufficiently express, yet they appear inverst, so that the right parts of the Object are left in the Image, and those which were uppermost in the Object, are neathermost in the Image. As appears in the Figure before re∣presented, where we find Y, which is on the left side, represents X, which is at the Right; and V, which is at the Right, T, which is at the Left. But how this comes about shall be shewed in the next Chapter.

XI. How the Images of the Objects arrive at the Brain. As to the Third thing to be resolved how the Resemblances of Bodies are conveyed from the Eye to the Brain, this also will be easily apprehended▪ if we consider that these Representations pourtraed in the Eye, and admitted to the place of the Extre∣mities of the Capillaments, which compose the Optick Nerves are so imprest, as that the Rays touch those Capillaments, not according to their whole length, but only with their extremities. And because this impression which is made at the end of every Capillament, reacheth to the other, it cannot be otherwise, but that the whole Image of the Object must be conveyed to that place, where these Capillaments are terminated, that is, within the substance of the Brain. The R••••s therefore that flow from the Body X, to the E••••, touch the end of some of the Capillaments of the Retina or the Optick Nerve, at the point Y, and those that come from the Body R, do in the point S, touch the Extremity of some other Capillament; and those that proceed from the Body▪ T▪ the end of another V, and so on. And since Light is no∣thing else but Motion, or a propension to Motion, it is evident that all the Rays that are come from XRT, being of force enough to move the Ca∣pillaments YSV, are consequently of force e∣nough to move the Brain. By which means an Image is again formed in the inward surface of the Brain, which faceth the Cavities thereof: For by the word Image nothing else is understood here, than the various Motions of the Parts of the Brain, and so likewise those represented in a Looking Glass, at the Bottom of the Eye▪ &c. are nothing else but such kind of motions.

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XII. How it comes to pass that only one Sensation is percei∣ved in the Brain. But it may be you will enquire, how it comes to pass that the Images proceeding from External things, and entring the Brain, do not exhibit these two, but one only Object, when yet there be 2 Optick Nerves which equally convey the motion imprest upon them?

XIII. Answer. To this I answer, that there is a certain Kernel, in the midst of the Ventricles of the Brain, called Conarion, in which the 2 Images, proceeding from both the Eyes, are united, by means of those Spi∣rits that fill the Cavities of the Brain. And this Kernel is called the Residence of the Common Sense, because the Soul immediately exerciseth its operations in it. When therefore at any time we behold an Object, by Example a Flower, the Light that is reflected from it, doth delineate 2 Pictures or Resemblances in each of our Eyes, and these draw 2 others, by the help of the Optick Nerves, in the inward surface of the Brain; which Re∣presentations being conveyed to this Kernel, do meet there, and are united; which Kernel conse∣quently acting upon the Soul, represents to it the Image of that Flower.

XIV. Why we assert this Kernel to be in the Midst of the Brain. Neither do we without good ground assert this Kernel to be in the midst of the Brain, as being the Principal Seat of the Soul, where all Sensati∣ons are performed. For we find that all the other parts of the Brain are double; as we have 2 Eyes to see with, 2 Ears to hear, and 2 Hands to handle, and the same may be said of the rest of the Organs of our Senses; and yet we see but one Object, and hear but one Sound, &c. wherefore It is necessary that both these Images, or rather Motions proceeding from 2 Organs, should meet together in one place, before they be considered of by the Soul. Neither is any such single part to be found in all the Brain, besides this Kernel, which is placed in the very midst of the Ventricles of the Brain, and consequently is surrounded by the Spirits, and therefore may well be accounted the seat of Common Sense, that is, of Cogitation, and therefore also of the Soul it self.

CHAP. XIX. How Vision, or the Sense ef Seeing is per∣formed.

I. The Soul feels or is sensible by means of the motion of the Nerves. HAving thus explained how the Light is transmitted through the Humours of the Eye; how Objects communicate their Images to the Organ, and how the said Images enter the Brain; it remains now that we explain, how this Image, communicated to the Brain, doth produce that Sensation in us, whereby we are said to See; and in the next place what are the Causes of the Clarity and distinction of our Sight; and Lastly, how the Qualities of Objects, viz. their Situati∣on, Distance, Magnitude, Figure, Motion or Rest, are thereby discerned. Now that we may the better understand how this Spiritual Image is de∣lineated in us, we are to call to mind, what hath been before handled Chap. X. § 6. viz. that such is the Nature of our Soul, that by the force of those Motions, which are imprest on that part of the Brain, whence the thin Capillaments, or Hair∣like Strings of the Retina derive their Original, various Sensations are excited; so that the whole difference of them depends on the various motion, which every part of the Object doth excite. Thus the Soul, by occasion of some motions that are made in the Nerves which belong to the Ears, perceives Sounds; and by means of the motion of those Nerves, that assist the Organ of Tasting, and act immediately upon our Soul, the Sense of Taste is stirr'd up in us, and so of the rest.

II. What the Images of Objects are. For these Impressions are nothing else, but va∣rious motions of the parts of the Brain, and of the Animal Spirits, affecting the Glandula Pinealis or Pine-Apple-like Kernel; to which when the Soul of Man attends, he discerns visible Objects, tho▪ these motions are not like the Objects which they represent. Just after the same manner as one that walks in the Dark, or i blind, distinguisheth Ob∣jects by means of a Stick, tho' neither the Stick, nor its Motion bear the Image of them. Or as Words written or spoken, serve to convey the knowledge of things to us, tho' they be no re∣semblances of the things they bring to our Minds.

III. How it comes to pass that some Objects appear more clear∣ly than others. It is manifest therefore, that the sight of any thing will be more clear and lively, according as there are more Rays proceeding from the Object, and entring the Eye: For by this means the im∣pression made upon the Capillaments of the Optick Nerve is the stronger. The largeness of the Ap∣ple of the Eye, conduceth also to this purpose, by giving way to many Rays, proceeding from the same point of the Object, to enter the Eye, in or∣der to the representing of its Image in the bottom thereof. Hence it is that we dilate and open the Apple of our Eye more in viewing a distant Ob∣ject, than one that is near us; because then more Rays enter the Eye from the several points of it, than when we do straiten it and make it less. And for this reason it is that remote Objects, appear more clearly to us, than such as are very near to us, and the Colours of those appear more lively, but of these more dull and weak.

IV. What is the Cause of the Di∣stinction of Vision. As to the Distinction of Sight, whereby the parts of the Object are discerned in their proper Place, Situation, Figure and Colour, it is certain that the same proceeds from the Refraction of Rays. Now to the end that the Sight of any Object may be very distinct, and admit of no confusion at all, it is necessary that all the Rays, which from the same point of the Object, are directed to the same point of the Horny Membran, be so refracted, as that they may at last meet and be united in the point of the bottom of the Eye. But seeing that this doth not happen, save only in those Rays, which proceed from that point of the Object, in which the Axis of Vision is terminated, it so happens that at that time, we can only have a distinct Sen∣sation of that part, and of the rest a confused and indistinct view.

V. The other Cause of Distinct Seeing. The other cause of Distinct Vision, depends on the Capillaments of the Optick Nerve; for seeing that we cannot discern the parts of Bodies we do behold, but only inasmuch as they are distinguisht by Colour, and that the distinct perception of these Bodies, doth not only depend upon this, that all the Rays which proceed from the several points of Bodies, do in the bottom of the Eye meet in about so many other points; but is also caused by the multitude of the Filaments of the Optick Nerve, the Extremities or Ends whereof are contained in that space, which the Image at the bottom of the

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Eye doth take up; it follows that there must be so many ends of these Capillaments, as there are sen∣sible parts in the Object, that reflect their Rays. For if the Rays proceeding from 2 different parts of the Object, should meet in 2 divers points of the same Filament separately, it would be the same as if they met in the same Point, because they could not move that one Filament after 2 several manners. Whence it is that Fields, in the Sum∣mer-time, abounding with Red or Yellow Flowers that grow amongst the Grass, do seem to be wholly Red or Yellow; because both the Grass and Flowers acting together upon one and the fame Capilla∣ment, the Flowers which are of a more lively Co∣lour, do only appear to the Eye, because that Fi∣lament, at that time only follows the motion, which the Flowers imprest upon it.

VI. How the Situation of the Ob∣ject comes to be dis∣cerned. The situation of Bodies is not perceived by any Representation or other Action, proceeding from them, but only by the Impulse, coming from a certain Region or quarter, to some particular part of the Brain. For the Object seems to be situate in that part, from whence the Rays come that af∣fect the Eye. Thus we suppose the Candle AC, to be placed in such a quarter, because the Eye BDE, doth from thence receive the Rays that make an Impression upon it, which Impression gives * 1.12occasion to the Soul to judge that the Candle AC, takes up such a situation amongst other Bodies. For the knowledge of the situation of any thing depends only on the situation of the particles of the Brain, from whence the Filaments of the Nerves do arise: But forasmuch as those Filaments are diversly affected by Bodies in different places, because of their various disposition, the Soul by their peculiar motion, discerns their different situa∣tions. Thus when we turn our Head or Eye this way or that way, the Soul is put in mind of that thing, by the Change which the Nerves inserted in the Muscles subservient to that Motion, do ef∣fect in our Brain. For when the Eye BDE sees the Candle AC, the Soul may know the situation of the said Candle, because the Nerves of the Eye partake of another disposition, than if it lookt ano∣ther way.

VII. Why the Image of an Object is turn'd upside down in the Eye. Nevertheless it is to observed, that tho' Objects be perceived in their natural situation; yet their Images are turned upside down in the Eye. The reason whereof is, because but one of those Rays that enter the Eye being Perpendicular, and Direct, and the rest, because of the straitness of the Ap∣ple of the Eye entring obliquely, it happens that the Oblique Ray AB, proceeding from the upper part of the Candle, and the Ray, CD, flowing from its lower, do intercept one another, so that the lower part C, of the Candle, is represented at the bottom of the Eye upwards about D, and the upper part A, of the Candle appears about B, by which means the Candle is delineated in the Eye inverted. This any one can make an Experiment of, by taking the Eye of an Animal, devested of all its Membrans and Muscles besides the Retina; for supposing that this Eye be placed before the little hole of a Darkened Room, and the Candle AC, be set opposit to it, if then standing in the Room we look into the bottom of the Eye, we shall see the Image turn'd upside down.

VIII. Things at a great di∣stance ap∣pear higher This inversion of the Image in the Eye, is th cause why things appear by so much higher as they are farther from us; because Rays that pro∣ceed from things near to us, do reach the upper parts of the Eye or Retina; whereas those that flow from Objects far distant, do come to the lower part of the Eye: And consequently it is ne∣cessary, that the former should appear Higher, and these latter Lower.

IX. How the Distance of things is perceived. The Distance of Objects is discerned by the va∣rious motions that change the Figure of the Eye: For when we behold things at a Distance, the Ap∣ple of the Eye becomes more dilated, and the Cry∣stalline Humour is somewhat withdrawn towards the Retina, and by this means the Figure of the Eye becomes more Round: whereas, when we view Objects that are near to us, the opening of the Apple of the Eye is lessened, and the Crystalline Humour contracted, and thrust outwards, by which means the Eye becomes more extended in length. And whilst we thus change the Figure of our Eye, according to the various situation of the Object, an alteration consequently happens in the parts of the Brain, Nature having so ordered it, that the Soul thereby might be informed of the distance of the Object.

X. Other ways of discern∣ing the Di∣stance of Objects. The Distance also of Objects may be discerned by the distinct or confused Representation of them, and so likewise by the strength or weakness of the Light. Thus when we know the Bulk of a Body beforehand, its distinct Figure, and the Liveliness of its Colour, this knowledge will help us to know the distance of it. The Interposition also of many Bodies between us, and those Bodies which we be∣hold, conduceth not a little to the perceiving of their Distance; because the distance we imagin there is between them, serves us for a measure whereby to take the distance of the Objects we are viewing. Thus when the Moon is very high raised above the surface of the Earth, it seems nearer to us when no visible Bodies interpose between us and it, than when many Terrestrial Bodies intervene. The strength also and weakness of the Light are of use to inform us of the Distance of Objects: For Bodies illustrated with a weak Light, are appre∣hended to be at a greater distance, and those things to be nearer to us which are seen distinctly, and under a strong and vigorous collustration. And therefore it is that towards Night, or in misty Wea∣ther, things that are near appear as if they were at a distance from us.

XI. How the Bulk of the Object is perceived. By perceiving the Situation and Distance of eve∣ry Object, we are informed of the Bulk and Big∣ness of it: Thus when the Rays from A and C, are decussated, or intersect one another at the Ap∣ple of the Eye E, the Objects Angle of Vision be∣ing known, the Soul by this Impression, being in∣formed of the length of these Rays, easily discerns the Quantity of the line AC, which is the Magni∣tude of the thing. So that if ever the Mind mi∣stake in judging of the Bulk of any thing, it is on∣ly because it hath not rightly perceived the distance of it. As it happens to a person, who not being able to conceive the great distance there is between the Sun and the Earth, will never know the true Mag∣nitude of the Sun. And this is the Reason why the Sun and Moon, when they are nearest to the Horizon, appear bigger than when they are farther from it; which doth not happen because they sometime appear under a greater, and at other time under a less Angle, but because they are judged to

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be at a greater distance. For our Modern Astrono∣mers, who have measur'd the Angle under which the Sun or Moon appear at their Rising and Setting, find it to be the same with that under which it appears about the Meridian.

XII. How the Figure of Objects is perceived. We judge of the figure of any Object, from the knowledge or opinion we have of the situation of the different Parts of it, and not at all from the likeness of the Images, that are delineated in the Eye; forasmuch as those Images are often Elliptical, and of an oblong Square, which represent to us Objects that are perfectly Round and Equilateral Squares. Thus Square Objects, that are at a great distance from us appear Round, because the great distance of the Angles obliterates the Jettings-out and Unevenness of the Object. In like man∣ner, Round or Concave Bodies appear with flat and even Surfaces, because the rising or depression of any of the Parts, by reason of the great distance, escapes the Eye. Thus he who beholds the Sun, doth not discern it to be round, but flat, tho' indeed the middle parts thereof be nearer to our Eyes, than those that are towards the Edges: but so vast is the distance between the Sun and our Eye, that the foresaid proximity of the middle Parts, is not at all considerable or percepti∣ble.

XIII. How the Motion or Rest of Bodies is perceived. Lastly, Motion is perceived when the Images of Objects imprest on the Eye, do run through several Spaces in the Retina, and successively an∣swer to other Images of Objects, which we look upon as immoveable. Or when the Eye is fain to turn it self, that it may continue to have the Sight of the Object. So likewise the Rest of Visible things is perceived, when the Eye continuing with∣out Motion, the Images represented in the Retina are at Rest, and continue to have the same Re∣spect to another Object, which is consider'd as with∣out motion.

XIV. There must be a due Distance betwixt the Object and the Eye. Moreover it is to be observed, that in order to the due and right seeing of any Object, there is required a due distance, to the end that the many Rays that proceed from the several Points of the Object, may meet together in every least part of the Retina. As likewise, that the Image of the Object, may be represented in the bottom of the Eye sufficiently great and perceptible. Otherwise if the Object, for Example D, be too near, the Rays that proceed from it, as ABC, will enter so ob∣liquely into the Convex Surface of the Eye AC, * 1.13that the Retina E cannot be affected by them, as not being sufficiently gathered together. Where∣fore since the meeting of the Rays is only in F, it is no wonder if no perceptible Image of the Object be delineated in the bottom of the Eye. Forasmuch as the Action of Seeing cannot be per∣formed, except the Rays entring the Apple of the Eye, and being refracted at their meeting with the Membrans and Humours, strike upon the Reti∣na, and impress the Image of the Object upon it.

XV. The too great di∣stance of the Object produceth only an obscure Vision. But when the Object is at too great a distance, the contrary happens; for seeing that then only a few Rays proceed from every Point of the Object, and that those that come from them, do too much approach to a Parallelism, it so happens that they are united before they reach the Retina; and pre∣sently after separating themselves again from that Point of their meeting, cannot sufficiently move or agitate the Retina; whereupon only an obscure Image of the Object is represented. By Example, If the Object A be supposed to be far distant from the Organ, it is evident that only a few Rays will flow from each Point of it; and that the Rays * 1.14AB, AC, AD, proceeding from each Point of it, by their inclining too much to a Parallelism, will unite about E, before they come to the Re∣tina F. Whence it will follow, that either a too little Image of the Object will be drawn at the bottom of the Eye, or none at all.

XVI. VVhat a Telescope or Prospe∣ctive-Glass is, and how Objects at a distance are percei∣ved by it. To prevent this defect, a Telescope or Prospe∣ctive Glass is employ'd (that is, an Instrument whereby the Visive Faculty is assisted to discern Objects, that are at a great distance distinctly) which consists of 2 Glasses, viz. a Convex and a Concave: For by the first of these the Rays are so gather'd, that before the union or coition of Cones like to those which are produced by the Eye, the Concave intervenes, which by somewhat dilating of these Cones, doth advance their Points or Cusps, and renders them more distinct; so that being received into the Apple of the Eye after decussation, they again meet in the Retina, and according to the proportion of the Convexity, represent the thing greater. Wherefore, if such an Instrument be duly applied to the Eye, it makes the Rays that are gather'd about E, and afterwards scatter'd again in the Retina F, become gather'd in it, by means of the convexity of the Eye, and so produce a distinct and exact Vision or Sight. For the Telescope, by reason of its great Pupil, makes the Object to be seen by many Rays, and because of the Convex figure of the outward Glass, which congregates the Rays, it appears under a greater Angle of Vision. This Instrument causeth also a great decussation of the Rays, which enter the Round outward Extremity of the Tube, towards the Retina; and by this means a great Representation or Image of the Object, is deline∣ated in the Eye, so that things at a distance appear great and distinct.

XVII. Of the Deception of the Sight. How liable we are to be deceived by our Sight, as well as by our other Senses, will be evident to us by considering the manner how all our Sensa∣tions are formed, and more particularly that of Seeing. For hence it is, that some Objects appear more clearly to us than others; and that their Place, Situation, Figure, and Colours, are not always distinctly represented; that their Bulk seems sometimes greater, and at other times less; yea, and sometimes they are altogether invisible, espe∣cially those Parts that make their Essential constitution. In the Bud of a Tulip-Root, with a Microscope, we may easily discover the Leaves, which afterwards turn Green, those which are to compose the Flower it self, and that little Triangular part which contains the Seed, with the 6 little Pillars that surround it, at the bottom of the Tulip. And the same may be said of the Bud of a Mustard-Seed, of the Kernel of an Apple, and generally of all sorts of Trees and Plants: For tho' nothing of all this can be per∣ceived by the Eyes, no not when assisted by a Microscope; yet we may with confidence conclude that they are all contain'd in the Bud of their Seeds. This may also appear in little Animals, as in the Mites that breed in rotten Cheese, and those little Worms that gnaw the Skin, and cause

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the hands to itch, which have all of them Orga∣nical Bodies, as well as any other Animals. And as we see in the Bud of a Root of the Tulip, the whole Flower, so likewise we may perceive in the Treadle of an Egg, which the Hen hath not yet sit upon, a Pullet, which it may be is wholly formed. So likewise Frogs may be perceiv'd in the Spawn of Frogs. To which add what Malbranche asserts, that probably there are infinite Trees in one only Bud, and that all the Plants, and all the Bodies of Man and Animals that shall ever be, have been produc'd from the beginning of the World. Now it is certain, that all these things cannot be perceived by our unassisted Eyes; yea, and that the greatest part of them cannot be per∣ceived with the help of the most excellent Micro∣scopes: And much less by our other Senses, which the Sight excells in order, dignity and extent. Neither must this seem any whit strange unto us, forasmuch as it is only the Surface of Bodies that affects our Senses, and that it is not their whole Surface neither that is capable of affecting our Senses, but those Parts only of it that are big enough to move the Fibres of the Nerves. And forasmuch as those Parts which make up the Essen∣tial Constitution of the Body, are very often too small to move the Fibres of the Nerves, that be∣long to the Organs of Sensation; it must follow that they are hid from us, and that the Object which we perceive, may be quite different from what it appears to be.

CHAP. XX. Of Waking, Sleep, and Dreams.

I. How Sleep is distin∣guish'd from VVa∣king. NExt after the Senses, it seems proper to treat of Waking and Sleep, forasmuch as by these their Operations and Cessations are deter∣min'd. For Waking is the free Exercise of the Senses, depending on the uninterrupted influence of the Spirits into the Organs. And therefore those things which increase the Animal Spirits, or do more strongly agitate them, are the Cause of Waking or Watchfulness. Sleep is a Binding of the Senses, proceeding from the want of Spirits. Wherefore those things which diminish the Spirits, or foreslow their motion, provoke Sleep. So that Waking and Sleeping differ no otherwise, than as Loosing and Binding, or as the Flowing or Standing still of the Water that is in a River. For if we give heed to our own Experience, we know nothing else of Waking, save that it is such a state, wherein we hear the Voices of those that speak to us, see visible Objects, are moved by the things that touch us, and are sensible otherways of those thing whereof our Nature is capable. And as to Sleep, we experience it to be a state opposite to this, and wherein we are not excited by the Ob∣jects wont to strike our Senses, but our Body rests as depriv'd of all motion.

II. Wherein the State of VVaking or VVatch∣fulness consists. To the end therefore, that we may be able to give an account of both these States, we are to observe, that the state of Waking consists in this, That the Animal Spirits (which as was said be∣fore, are the most lively parts of the Blood) being in great abundance in the Brain, are easily deter∣min'd by the Glandula Pinealis, to flow into the Nerves, and fill them▪so, that all their Capilla∣ments are kept stretched or distended, and separate from one another. For supposing this affluence of the Spirits in the Brain, if any Object acts upon our Body, it may be easily conceived, that the Capillaments of the Nerves, that terminate to∣wards that Part, will convey the motion they have received, to that very part of the Brain, which immediately stirs up the Soul to Sensation. For it cannot be difficult for us to imagine, that the Animal Spirits, which are then determin'd to∣wards certain Muscles, cause those Parts of the Body, in which the Muscles are inserted to be moved. So that Waking or Watchfulness is no∣thing else, but the Dilatation of the Animal Spirits in the Brain, and throughout all the Nerves, whereby the Organs of the Senses are at full liberty to transmit the motions of the Objects to the Common Sense, placed in the midst of the Brain.

III. The Causes of VVaking or VVatch∣ing. Watching may be effected by many Causes. First, By those things which thin the Blood, or which over-heat it, and by agitating it too much, increase the Animal Spirits. Secondly, By things which open the Plexus Choroides of the Arteries, and so make way for the Spirits to enter into the Nerves. Thirdly, By things that stir and agitate the Body over-much, and by making the motion of the Blood more swift, occasion a greater Briskness and Liveliness in the Body. Fourthly, By Mode∣rate Sleep or Rest, which recruit the strength of the Body, and make it with more agility and chear∣fulness to perform its Task.

IV. VVherein the State of Sleep consists. Sleep being the State that is opposite to Watch∣ing, and wherein the outward Senses are bound up, and cease from their Functions, we shall easily understand how it is effected, by assigning a diffe∣rent disposition to the Brain, from that which Watching doth produce. Forasmuch therefore as the State of Waking doth consist in the great abun∣dance of the Animal Spirits, which replenish the Ventricles of the Brain, and the Pores of the Nerves: Sleep on the contrary must consist in a deficiency and want of the said Spirits, which causeth the Pores, through which the Animal Spirits are wont to flow into the Nerves, to grow limber and cling together, and being no longer distended by the copious afflux of the Spirits, to be shut up. For where this Obstruction happens, the Animal Spirits, which before were contained in the Nerves, are dissipated; and there being no other in a readiness to supply their places, the Filaments of the Nerves cling together: So that if in this State an Object should act upon any part of our Body, yet can it not transmit that Impression to the Brain, and consequently no Sensation can result from thence. Besides, the Muscles being then empty and void of Spirits, become limber and flagging, and so cannot be of any use for the motion of the Members to which they belong, nor keep the Body in an upright posture, any more than if they were quite vanish'd. And accordingly in Sleep, the Body lies along, the Eye∣brows fall, the Head nods, the Knees fail, and and all the Senses cease from their Actions. And therefore Sleep is nothing else, but a relaxation of the Ventricles of the Brain, and a flagging of the Nerves, proceeding from the want of Animal Spirits, whereby the Organs of Sense are at a stand, and unfit to convey the motions of the

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Objects to the Brain, and to the Common Sense.

V. The Opini∣on of the Peripate∣ticks con∣cerning Sleep. But whence this Effect doth proceed, and what that Band is, whereby the Actions, as well of the Inward as Outward Senses, are supprest and bound up, is not so easie to determine. 'Tis a common Opinion amongst Philosophers, especially those that follow Aristotle, That Sleep is caused by the Vapours proceeding from the Chyle and other Hu∣mours working in the Stomach; which being after∣wards condensed, cloud the Brain, and cause Drow∣ziness and Dulness.

VI. This Opi∣nion reje∣cted by those that hold the Circulation of the Blood. But this Opinion is not approv'd of by them, who hold the Circulation of Blood. For these cannot discover, by what ways these Vapours ele∣vated from the Stomach, should through so many of the Inward parts and Bony prisons, as through so many Obstacles, be carried up to the Brain; forasmuch as their Opinion is, that the most part of those Humours that moisten the Brain, is trans∣mitted through the Arteries, and immediately communicated to it from the Mass of Blood. Besides, if Sleep be owing to the Vapours that arise from the Stomach, why is it not always conse∣quent to the taking in of Food; and why is not Watching always the Effect of our abstaining from Meat? When yet we frequently experi∣ence the contrary, that many times with an Empty Stomach we fall into a Deep Sleep; and when we have eaten freely are inclin'd to be watchful. Moreover, Children are apt to fall asleep, by Weariness, Singing, Darkness, and the Rocking in a Cradle; and yet none of these con∣tain any thing of these Vapours, that are suppos'd so necessary for the causing of Sleep. To which may be added, that if a Ligature be put upon the Inward Jugular Arteries or Veins of any person, he will presently fall asleep; which is the Reason that those who are hanged, seem to themselves, as it were, to fall asleep, as soon as they are turn'd off.

VII. The true Cause of Sleep. Wherefore the Cause of Sleep is not to be attributed, to the Fumes and Vapours that arise from the Stomach; but rather to the deficiency of the Animal Spirits, or the diminution of their motion. For Opium, Poppy, Mandrakes, and other such like Sleep▪provoking▪ Medicaments, do not praduce their Effects by raising copious Exhala∣tions from the Chyle to the Brain; but because they hinder the motion of the Spirits that way, and by their Fuliginous Humour stop the Spirits that are contained in the Brain, from being con∣veyed to the outward Membrans. And accord∣ingly gross Meats, and hard of Digestion, which oppress the Stomach, commonly cause Sleep and Drowziness; because they do fix and dull the Spirits contained in the Stomach, and by the con∣sent and correspondence there is between that part and the Brain, make the Spirits there more dull and heavy.

VIII. During Sleep, our Blood is hotter than when we are awake. But yet forasmuch as the Spirits can never be without a considerable degree of Agitation, and can never be so far dulled, as to be destitute of all motion, it must follow that not being now employ'd to keep the Body awake, they must needs increase the motion of the Blood wherewith they are mingled; and therefore we find, that the Body is much hotter whilst asleep, than when awake: For we find, that in the Coldest Weather in the Winter, our Bodies are very hot when asleep, but are no sooner awake, but we need Fire, or some strong and violent Exercise to preserve us from being sensible of extream Cold, and the rigour of the Weather.

IX. How Sleep comes to cease. Sleep is discust either by force, or of it self: The former way is, when the Organ of any of the Senses is so struck, that the imprest motion arrives at the Brain; because by this means the Spirits that are in the Brain may be so agitated, that joyning themselves with others that are car∣ried that way, they may produce Waking. And Sleep ends of it self, when the Animal Spirits, which the Blood doth produce whilst we are asleep, are in such abundance conveyed to the Brain, that opening the Passages of the Nerves, and rushing into them, they distend the Filaments thereof, and by this means give the Soul occasion to perceive the several Objects that touch and affect the Body.

X. VVhat a Dream is, and what the Cause of it. The Imaginations of those who are asleep, are called Dreams, when the Soul, while the Body is asleep, apprehends things, and discourseth of them, as if it were awake. Now this happens, when during Sleep the Animal Spirits enter these Foot∣steps, that were before imprest on the Brain, moving some Parts thereof in the same manner, as they are wont to be moved by the presence of an Object, acting upon the Organ of the Senses.

XI. How Dreams are pro∣duc'd. For notwithstanding that in Sleep, the greatest part of the Pores or Passages of the Brain, are stopt up by a thick Vapour, or rather Humour; and that the Fibres, by reason of this Obstruction, become less active, especially those by which the affection, or imprest motion, is conveyed from the outward Sense to the inward, and from the Plexus Choroides, to the bottom of the Brain, and Origi∣nal of the Nerves; yet the rest may notwith∣standing this discharge their Function, at least in part; which is the Cause why Imaginations are easily excited in us whilst we are asleep, by the least motion or impression from the Blood, Gall, or Phlegm, or of those Vapours that are the Cause of the foresaid Obstructions, which make the Fibres so torpid and unactive. And this is the reason why things are but confusedly represented to us, whilst we are asleep.

XII. The Cause of the difference of Dreams. The difference and great variety of Dreams, proceeds first from the variety of the Foot-steps of former motions imprest upon the Brain. Thus we find frequently, that the things wherewith we have mostly entertained our Thoughts in the Day∣time, are apt to be represented to us in Dreams by Night. Secondly, From the peculiar tempera∣ment and complexion of the Body, and the diffe∣rence of Meat and Drink, whence the Spirits are generated. Thus Persons of a Cholerick Tempera∣ment dream of Quarrels, Fightings, Fires, &c. Phlegmatick Persons, of Water-floods, Drowning, &c. Thirdly, From Custom; which being a kind of second Nature, hath its effect upon us even during Sleep.

XIII. Dreams are formed from things that are seen. Forasmuch as the Parts of the Brain, which have been before moved by the outward Action of the Object, are more easily moved than those that have been in continual Rest: Therefore it com∣monly happens that the Animal Spirits push against them; so that we seldom dream of any other things, but such as we have perceived by some

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Sense or other whilst we were awake. And accord∣ingly we find but little difference, between the things we behold waking, and those which appear to us in Dreams; and that there is much the same suc∣cession of our Imaginations in our Dreams, as when we are awake, which tho' they seem some∣times incoherent, yet is there commonly some hid∣den connexion between them.

XIV. How it comes to pass that our Dreams are some∣times strange and irregular. But because the Objects that are represented to us whilst we are awake, are in great number, and may variously affect the same parts of the Brain, it would be strange, if in the interval that is be∣tween Sleeping and Waking, the Spirits that are continually ranging through the Pores of the Brain should not promiscuously move some of the parts of it, that is, partly as they were moved at the presence of one Object, and partly as they were at the presence of another: and by this means it may come to pass that the Soul may perceive a monstrous representation, as of a Goat with a Li∣ons Head, or the like; so that we have no reason to look for any Connexion or Order in our Dreams.

CHAP. XXI. Of the Appetite of Hunger and Thirst.

I. Why Hun∣ger and Thirst are called Na∣tural Appe∣tites or Desires. SEeing that Hunger and Thirst are perceived after the same manner, as the other Senses, viz. by the Ministry of the Nerves, which like so ma∣ny fine Threads proceed from the Brain to the Sto∣mach and Gullet; it seems convenient that having spoken of the Senses, we should now proceed to explain what Hunger and Thirst is. Which 2 af∣fections, are commonly called Natural Appetites, because they suppose a Compound of Soul and Bo∣dy, and are generally accompanied with a desire to Eat and Drink.

II. Aristotle's Opinion concerning Hunger and Thirst. ARISTOTLE defines Hunger to be a de∣sire of that which is hot and dry; but does not take notice whence this Appetite doth arise, nor how it comes to be stirred up; nor do I believe that any of his Qualities will be able to explicate the nature thereof. For we find that Infants and other new born Animals desire Milk; but who will say that the Appetite to Milk is only the de∣sire of that which is dry? Or shall we say that Animals when they desire Herbs and Fruits, are carried out with an Appetite to that which is Hot and Dry, when a moisture can be separated from them, which far surpasseth their dry substance in quantity? Again, how can Hunger be said to be the Appetite of that which is hot and Dry, seeing that Herbs and Fruits, according to all that we can perceive by them, have more cold than heat in them?

III. What Hun∣ger is, and how it is caused. Hunger therefore is nothing else but a Sense ari∣sing in the Ventricle, from an Acid Juice twitch∣ing the Nerves thereof. For as the various mo∣tions of the Optick Nerve, makes the Soul to per∣ceive and discern all the varieties of Light and Co∣lours; so there is nothing that can produce the sense of Hunger, but the motion of some Nerves in∣serted into the bottom of the Stomach. For the better understanding how this is done, we are to take notice that when the Stomach is empty of Food, the Juice or Liquor which is wont to flow out of the Arteries into the Stomach, and there to mingle with the Food, finding no matter to work upon, twitcheth the Nerves of the Stomach, which motion being conveyed to the Brain, stirs up the Sense of Hunger.

IV. No Liquor is conveyed out of the Spleen into the Sto∣mach. Some Physicians are of opinion, that this Li∣quor is conveyed into the Stomach by Veins from the Spleen: But that they are mistaken herein, is evident by this Experiment, that when a Ligature is made on the Vas Breve, the Vessel that lies be∣tween the Spleen and the Stomach, that part of it which is betwixt the Ligature and the Stomach swells, whereas the other part grows flag and em∣pty; which is a plain evidence that some liquor is conveyed by the said Vessel from the Stomach to the Spleen, and not from the Spleen to the Sto∣mach. Moreover, the Valvulae that are in the Vas Breve venosum, do oppose the transmission of any liquor from the Spleen to the Stomach, because all of them lead towards the Spleen. Whence it is manifest that something is transmitted from the Stomach to the Spleen, but not the contrary way.

V. The Nature of the Li∣quor that flows out of the Arte∣ries. Now this Liquor which causeth the sense of Hunger is sowre and sharp, as being the off-spring of Choler and Melancholy, and which therefore lighting on the bottom of the Stomach, cannot but twitch and prick the membrans whereof it doth consist. Hence it is commonly observed, that Melancholy Persons are great Eaters, because this Juice is more sowre in them, than in others, by which means the Food is soon consumed there∣by, as Metals are in Aqua Fortis, and other acid Spirits, and the Guts egg'd on to a ready Evacuation.

VI. Why some Persons are very sel∣dom sensible of Hunger. And on the contrary it sometimes happens, that persons who have not eaten of a good while, yet have no sense of Hunger, nor any desire to Eat, as it is frequently so with Phlegmatick Persons. Because this Juice by some obstruction or other is hindred from entring into the Stomach, or be∣cause it is too thin and weak, so that the Stomach is not sensible of the weak impression it makes up∣on it; or because its force is blunted by some cold and clammy Humour, or because there is but lit∣tle of this sharp Humour conveyed to the Stomach. For it is always one or other of these causes that occasions the want of Appetite to Food, and more especially in Sick People.

VII. Of Persons that are troubled with a Dogs hunger, as 'tis called. And on the other hand there are some persons that are troubled with continual Hunger, and who like Dogs are ever Ravenous, and never satisfied; because so great quantity of this sharp Humour is conveyed to their Stomachs, that all their Food thereby is made sowre, so that their Stomach is continually twitched, and sollicited to desire more Food, the former being readily evacuated down∣wards, or else cast up by Vomit. And thus it comes to pass, that some of this Humour is some∣times transmitted to the Venae Lacteae, and conti∣nually besegeth the Stomach.

VIII. The Irregu∣lar Appe∣tite of Wo∣men with Child. But if this sharp Humour, lodging in the bot∣tom of the Stomach, be of such a Temperament, as to have a peculiar force to dissolve some Food sooner than other, then it will be apt to stir up the Appetite of one sort of Meat rather than another. Hence some Women eat Coals, Chalk, Quick-lime and the like. Now the cause of this variety of this sowre Humour may be, because in the first Months of Conception, the Mouth of the Womb

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being stopt, that the Superfluous Blood cannot be evacuated as formerly, by this means the Humours of the Body are corrupted, and being conveyed to the Stomach, produce an irregular Appetite. And therefore some Physicians are of opinion, that when the Melancholy Humour is deprav'd in Wo∣men, they long for Quick-lime, Coals, &c. when sowre Phlegm abounds in them they desire sowre things; and when Gall predominates, Bacon, Suet and such like. And it is from the same Cause that young Girls that are troubled with the Green-Sickness, as we commonlv call it, do take a liking to strange and unnatural sorts of Food, such as Coals, Chalk, Leather, &c. because their Blood for want of due evacuations grows sharper than ordinary, and consequently the Humour, which is derived out of the Blood into the Stomach, partaking of the same Quality, more violently twitches the Nerves thereof, and that after a pecu∣liar manner, according to the various constitution of the Blood in every Individual.

IX. It is not Heat that digests the meat in our Stomach. This discovers to us the mistake of the Peripate∣ticks, who suppose the Stomach to be like a Kitchin, where the Food is concocted and digested by heat only: whereas we find that there is but a moderate heat in the Stomach, and yet that even Bones are consumed and digested in it, as in the Stomach of a Dog, which if they should be boild for some Months together in a Pot with a very strong Fire, would never undergo any such change, as we find they do in the Stomach. Besides, Historians, and particularly P. Bressano in his Relation of New France, tell us of most ravenous and devour∣ing Fishes, which do readily digest the hardest Bodies and turn them into Liquor, whose Stomachs notwithstanding are so cold, that one can scarce∣ly endure to touch them; which is an incontesta∣ble Argument, that the dissolution of Food in the Stomach is not to be attributed to heat, but to the foresaid acid Juice in the Stomach, which dis∣solves our Food, as some acid Spirits do Me∣tals.

X. What Thirst and what Drink is. Thirst is a Desire of Drink, caused by the dry∣ness of the Throat and Gullet, or the Heat of the Stomach, commonly called Heart-burning, or a Salt Savour sticking to the Tongue. By the name of Drink we understand every sort of liquor, that is not Salt, Fat or too bitter, for Salt, Fat and Bitter Liquours do rather inflame the Thirst than allay it.

XI. What is the Cause of Thirst. To be informed of the Cause of Thirst, and that Driness which is sometimes in the Mouth, Tongue and Palate, we are to consider that the moisture which continually ascends from the Sto∣mach to the Gullet, in the form of a thick and moist Vapor, for the moistning of those parts, when at any time it is over agitated or heated, it doth so dry the Swallow, and at the same time so affect the Nerves, as to excite in the Soul the Ap∣petite of Thirst. So that there is a greater diffe∣rence between the Vapor which provokes Thirst, and that Liquor which produceth Hunger, than there is between Sweat, and that which exhales from the whole Body by insensible Transpira∣tion.

XII. Thirst is not an appetite of some∣thing that is cold. ARISTOTLE was of opinion that Natu∣ral Thirst was the Appetite or desire of something that is moist and cold. But this doth not seem probable; for tho' Thirst seem to be a desire of something that is moist, in order to dissolve, di∣lute and macerate the Food we have taken, and turn it into Juice; yet there is no need it should be cold rather than Hot; forasmuch as any moi∣sture doth extinguish Fire be it hot or cold. But whether it be more conducing to health to use Cold or Hot Drink is not so easily determinable, be∣cause of the different Temperaments of Bodies. Only we find by Experience, that the drinking of some extream cold liquor is very hurtful to the Body, whereas it is seldom known that any hurt accrues to us, by the using of hot drink.

XIII. Of the Dif∣ferent Causes of Thirst. Thirst is caused several ways, as either present∣ly after we have eaten, because of the driness of our Food, which like a Spung, drinks up the moi∣sture of our Stomach; or when our Throat is heated by the effusion of Gall, eating of high sea∣soned Meats, &c. or from some Salt Humour con∣veyed to that part, whence not only the imagina∣tion of drinking is awakened, but also an inordi∣nate desire thereof, by which means some persons long for Vinegar, Urin, Stinking Water, &c.

CHAP. XXII. Of the Common Sense, Imagination, and Memory.

I. The Soul is not really distinguisht from its Faculties. THE Common Sense, Imagination and Me∣mory, are called the Inferiour Faculties of the Soul, as being attributed to it, because of its intimate union with the Body; whereas the Under∣standing and Will are stiled its Superiour Faculties, because they appertain to the Soul, simply consi∣dered, and without any respect had to its Relati∣on with the Body. But as these latter are not Be∣ings distinct from the Soul it self, but only Modes of it: So neither are the former any thing else but different modifications thereof, arising from its intimate union with the Body. Thus the Soul, for∣asmuch as it perceives all the motions imparted to the Brain from the outward Organs of the Senses, is called the Common Sense; with respect to its long retaining and preserving the same perceptions, it is called Memory; and forasmuch as it variously compounds and divides the same, it is called Ima∣gination. In like manner, with respect to its de∣siring or having an aversion by reason of the Ob∣jects that are represented by those perceptions, it is called the Sensitive Appetite; as the Locomotive or moving Faculty is attributed to it forasmuch as it commands the Animal Spirits, and by their means variously moves the Members of the Body according to its pleasure. So that these Faculties are indeed nothing else, but outward modificati∣ons, or ways of our considering the Soul, which makes it no more to differ from it self, than Number and Duration makes those things to differ that are numbred or do endure; and consequently the difference there is betwixt the Soul and its Fa∣culties, is only a Distinction of Reason, that is, a notional distinction.

II. What the Common Sense is and how the same it exerted. Seeing therefore that our Bodily Members are devoid of Sense, and that the Soul alone is endu∣ed with that Faculty, it remains for us to exa∣min, what inward instrument the Soul makes use of for the perception of things, and how the Spe∣cies or representations of Objects are conveyed to it. For the motion of the outward Organ, is on∣ly performed in the Brain, because there the Soul

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exerciseth its Functions. Wherefore this Sense is called the Common Sense, because it receives all the Species of the outward Senses, and so reacheth their Objects. For when we represent to our selves any Object, as for Example, a Man, we do not only seem to behold the colour of his Face, and stature of his Body; but also to smell the Odours he is us'd to have about him, to hear him speak, to taste the Food he eats, and to feel the Softness or Rough∣ness of the Cloaths he wears. For from what hath been said already, it cannot be question'd, but that the Brain is the Organ of the inward Sense, foras∣much as the Nerves proceed from it, as Threads from a Distaff, whereby the motions of the outward Senses are transmitted.

III. The Glan∣dula Pine∣alis, or Pine-Apple-like Kernel, is the Seat of the Inward Sense. Yet is not the whole Brain the Seat of this Inward Sense, but only some part of it; for otherwise the Optick Nerves, and the Pith of the Back-bone, as being of the same Substance with the Brain, would be the Residence of the Inward Sense. Now this peculiar place of the Souls Resi∣dence, is the Conarion, or Glandula Pinealis, a certain Kernel, resembling a Pine-Apple, placed in the midst of the Ventricles of the Brain, and sur∣rounded with the Arteries of the Plexus Choroides. The Reason why we take this Kernel to be the peculiar Seat of the Soul is, because this part of the Brain is single, and one only. For whereas all the Organs of the Senses are double; there can be no Reason given, why we should not perceive two Objects instead of one; but only because both these Impressions are transmitted to a certain part of the Brain, which is single and one only, wherein both are conjoyn'd. Furthermore, it is also requi∣site that that part should be moveable, to the end that the Soul by agitating of it immediately, might be able to send the Animal Spirits into some certain Muscles, rather than into others. And forasmuch as this Kernel is only supported by very small Arteries that encompass it, it is certain that the least thing will be sufficient to put it into motion. And therefore we conclude, that this in∣most part of the Brain is the Seat of the Soul, in which it exerts its operations of Understanding and Willing of whatsoever proceeds from the Body, or tends towards it.

IV. What the Common Sense is. Accordingly the Common Sense may be de∣scribed to be an Internal Sense, whereby all the Objects of the External Senses are perceived and united in the midst of the Brain, as the common Center of all Impressions. Or the Common Sense is nothing else, but the concurrence of all motions made by the Objects upon the Nerves, in the Co∣narion, happening at the same time that the Objects move the Senses.

V. The Little∣ness of this Kernel is no hin∣drance to its being the Instru∣ment of the Common Sense. Neither doth the Smalness of this Kernel hinder its being the Instrument of the Common Sense; but on the contrary, those Persons are the most stupid in whom this Kernel, because of its bigness, is not so readily moved; and those the most witty and apprehensive in whom this Kernel is less, because it is so much the more easily moved: And tho' it were much less than it is, yet would it be big enough with respect to the several Points of the Ventricles, and to the Pipes of the Nerves.

VI. What Spe∣cies and Phantasms are. The Foot-steps of absent Objects, which are laid up in that simple and pliable Substance, by the assistance of the Nerves, are called Species and Phantasms, by Philosophers. They preserve the memory of things before perceived by us, and represent them to us, as oft as we think of them.

VII. What Ima∣gination is. Phantasie or Imagination, is nothing else▪ but a certain application of the Knowing Faculty to the Body (viz. the Brain) which is intimately present to it. Or it is an Internal Sense, whereby the absent Objects of the External Senses are represented present to the Brain, by reason of the Foot-steps of former Impressions. For the Species of the Imagination make us to conceive the Image of these things as present to the Eye of our Mind. For when we do imagine any Object, the Soul turns it self to the Body, there to behold the Image or Representation which it apprehends, as intimately present to its Thoughts.

VIII. The strength of the Imagina∣tion. But here ariseth a Difficulty. For if it be so that the Imagination be performed in the Brain, how comes it to act upon distant Bodies? as it happens in some White-Women that bring forth Blacks, and Blacks that bring forth White Children? And in those spots or marks which Longing-Women impress upon their Children; or that an Adulterous Woman brings forth Children, that are like her absent Husband?

This Difficulty will be easily resolved, if we suppose that the Imagination hath not only a great force over the Brain, but also over the whole Body; for seeing that the Nerves, as so many Strings, are extended throughout the whole Body, they readily convey the Animal Spirits from the Brain to the Muscles, together with the Affection imprest on the Brain. And by the same means the Imagination moves the Humours of the Body, and by this differerent agitation of the Humours, the Blood becomes alter'd, and consequently the Skin and colour of the Hairs also become changed. Yea, without this change or alteration of the Blood, some Impression may be conveyed through the Arteries of the Woman that is with Child, to some certain part of the Birth in the Womb, and leave a Mark there. See my Natural History, con∣cerning Man, Chap. VI.

IX. Wherein the Nature of the Memory doth con∣sist. Memory is that Faculty of the Soul, which re∣peats things perceived by former Sensations; or it is the calling to mind of known and past things. And differs from the Imagination only in this, that from the Foot-steps of former Impressions on the Brain, it doth represent as present to it self, Objects that were formerly offer'd to it: Whereas Memory consists in this, that the Pores of the Brain, through which the Spirits, determin'd by the Pine-Apple-like Kernel, have passed, are thereby become di∣lated, and consequently more fit to admit the same Spirits, repassing that way another time.

X. Memory is either In∣tellectual or Animal▪ And accordingly Memory is twofold, viz. Intel∣lectual and Animal. Intellectual is that which be∣longs to Angels and Souls, by means whereof they can represent to themselves, the Thoughts they formerly have had concerning Spiritual things; and this kind of Memory doth not stand in need of any Bodily assistance. The Animal Memory is that which is common to us with Brutes, and is per∣formed by means of the Brain, and the Foot-steps imprest upon it. For Sensual or Corporeal Memory imports nothing else, but a certain facility remain∣ing in the Pores of the Ventricles of the Brain, to open themselves again, by reason of their having

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been before opened by the Animal Spirits. Or, to speak more clearly, the Foot-steps of the Animal Memory are those, which the passage of the Ani∣mal Spirits hath left betwixt the Fibres of the Brain, through which they have passed before, so as to go out by the said Pores again, as they at first enter'd in by them; by which means it comes to pass, that these Spirits do more easily enter these Pores, than others; as Paper that hath been once folded, is more apt to run into the same Folds that hath been formerly made in it.

XI. How the Foot-steps of Memory are formed in the Brain. To understand how this is done, we are to imagine, that after that the Spirits that go forth from the Glandula Pinealis H, have left some im∣pression of a Species, or some particular Foot-steps of their passage, they do pass from thence through the Points 2, 4, 6, 8, and into the like Pores and Intervals as are found betwixt the Fila∣ments, whereof the portion of the Brain EE * 1.15doth consist. Which Spirits have the power of dilating the said Intervals in some sort; as likewise of folding and diversly disposing of the Filaments, against which they push in their passage, accord∣ing to their different motions, and the various openings of the Pipes through which they pass; that there also they may impress Figures like to those of the Objects.

XII. How they are trans∣mitted to the Brain. We are to conceive therefore, that the Figure imprest by the Object AB, CD, upon the Fibres of the Optick Nerve, which it moves or agitates in the Surface of the Retina 1, 3, 5, 7, must de∣lineate another Figure like it self, in the inward Surface of the Ventricles of the Brain 2, 4, 6, 8, where the said Fibres are terminated: Whence it comes to pass, that the Animal Spirits, which re∣side in the Kernel H, must more swiftly pass out of the Pores, that answer to them, than they did be∣fore; and that too in the same form or figure of the opening. And thus their Course produceth another like to it upon the Glandula H, which is that Form to which the Thoughts of the Soul, which depend on the Body, are immediately linked.

XIII. How these Foot-steps of the Memory are pro∣duced. But yet the Spirits, which make their way through the Passage 2, 4, 6, 8, though they may be of some force to dilate the passages of the Fibres a little; yet they have not power enough at the first stroak, to impress their figures upon the Fibres, which are in the Substance of the Brain, with so much facility or perfection, but by de∣grees perform the same more acurately, according as the Action of the Spirits is either stronger, more lasting, or more frequently repeated. Whence it follows also, that these Figures are not so easily obliterated, but do abide there: So that by means of them, Species, that at any other time have been imprest upon this Kernel, may a long while after be again represented or formed there, even tho' the Objects be absent. And tho' these Passages should afterwards chance to be shut up again, yet they still retain a greater facility or readiness to be open'd, than other Neighbouring passages that were never yet opened. As if many Needles should pierce * 1.16the stretched piece of Linnen A, the Holes which the said Needles had made in it, would remain open, even after that the Needles be taken away: Or, if they should be closed, yet there would some signs thereof remain in the Cloth, which might very easily be opened again. And it is to be noted, that if only some of these Holes should be open'd again: As for Example a, and b, this would be sufficient to make others of them, such as c, and d, to be dilated again at the same moment of time; especially if all the foresaid Holes had been often open'd, and that all of them had been usu∣ally opened together. Yea, there is a greater faci∣lity or readiness in the Pores of the inward Sub∣stance of the Ventricles of the Brain, of opening themselves upon the like Action, than there can be in the Linnen Cloth; for that whilst the Spirits do again open some of those Passages, the said Spirits, because they are diffused every way, do in some sort follow the same Track (in the same manner as we see that the Sound or Wind follows the motion of Running-Waters) and by this means do open the Passages again that are about them, because of the easiness they find to enter in by them.

XIV. How we can remem∣ber two Objects at one and the same time. Moreover, we are to take notice, that in case only some Passages were opened, after the same manner others would also be opened at the same time; especially if they had been frequently open∣ed before, and all of them together. Thus when 2 Objects have delineated their Species, and that the 2 Ranges of the Spirits, that have framed them, be somewhere joyned in the Substance of the Brain, it is sufficent if one of them only be brought to the Pine-Apple-like Kernel, for the stirring up again of the said Actions, which had their rise from them both. As when we have seen the Nose and Eyes of any Face, we readily appre∣hend the Mouth, Forehead, and other parts of it, and imagine them as present to us, because we are never us'd to see any of these Parts by it self, but all of them together.

XV. What ought to be the Tempera∣ment of the Instru∣ment of Memory. From what hath been said, we may easily ap∣prehend, that the Brain ought not to be over moist or soft, that it may the better retain the Species imprest upon it. Thus we see that New born Children, whose Brain is in a manner altogether watry, cannot retain any impression that is made upon it; and for the same Reason it is, that tho' Children afterwards do with ease enough learn things by Heart, yet they as easily forget them again. Whereas on the contrary, those who have harder and drier Brains, do long retain the Marks once imprest upon them, but cannot without difficulty receive any new Impressions. Hence it is that very Old Men, because of the Driness of their Brain, become wholly deprived of their Memory, neither can retain ought of those things that are committed to them; and yet are very retentive of those things they have long since committed to their Memories; because their Brain being grown hard, doth more firmly preserve the Impressions made there.

CHAP. XXIII. Of Health and Sickness.

I. What Health is. HEalth is nothing else, but that State of an Animal, wherein all its Powers can dis∣charge their Functions, as they ought. Or, it is a certain disposition of Body, and Harmony of its parts, whereby its fitted forth, exerting and per∣forming of all Actions, according to the Laws of Nature. For as Harmony in Musick consists in an agreeable concent of Sounds, whilst every one ob∣serves

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such a degree of Depth and Heighth, that it doth not go beyond, or fall short of a due propor∣tion: So we call that a State of Health, when every Humour and Quality observes that exact de∣gree of Intention and Remission that they never exceed in, or fall short of a congruous proportion. Hence GALEN in his first Book of the preser∣vation of Health, defines Health to be such a con∣stitution of Body, in which we are neither sensible of any Pain, neither are we hindred in any of the fun∣ctions of Life: And that therefore those Men are to be accounted Healthful, who without any pain or impediment can perform all the necessary fun∣ctions of Life.

II. Two things are requi∣sit to health There are 2 things more especially that concur to the constituting of Health, viz. a due Tempe∣rament of the Humours, and composition of the parts. By the name of Temperament we under∣stand a certain mixture or Union, according to which the Natural Functions are well and duly performed. And consequently the distemperature of the Humours, as the Excess of Choler, Phlegm or Melancholy do spoil Health, and hinder the use of our Natural Faculties. A congruous consti∣tution or composition of the Parts, consists in a due Number, Magnitude, Situation, Figure and Con∣nexion of the several Parts and Organs, and such a disposition of the Fibres, as the Natural Faculties stand in need of to discharge their seve∣ral Functions.

III. There is a Two-fold Health ac∣cording to Physicians. Physicians commonly distinguish Health into that which is Best and Absolute, which consists in a manner in an indivisible point, from which, if there be never so small a varying or deviation, the same is esteemed to be a Sickness or Disease; and the Other which is also perfect, tho' proba∣bly it may admit of some excess or defect, but not so great, as that it can be accounted for a Sickness, tho' it may cause some little hinderance in the na∣tural functions, or cause some inconsiderable Pain. The former of these States of Health is not to be found in Nature, and can only be conceived in our Minds: Tho', as GALEN saith, it may serve for a Rule, by which we may measure or compute the greater or less degrees of Health. The Latter is attributed to every Man, and is not found in a lower degree except it be acciden∣tally. For Nature always affects that which is best; and if at any time it cannot effect what it intends, yet it always performs the best it can.

IV. What things con∣duce to the preservati∣on of Health Many things are conducive to the preserving of the Health. First the AIR, which being taken in by the Mouth and Nostrils, enters the Body, and is necessary to rid the Blood of fuliginous steams by means of the Lungs; which should it not be continually done, as well the Branches of the Venal Artery as of the Arterial Vein would be obstructed, and not only Health, but also our Life would be in danger.

Secondly, Care is to be taken about our FOOD; for seeing that we stand in need of Food to repair and restore the Consumption made by our Inward Heat, we are to mind that it be taken in such Quantity, Manner, Time and Place as may be most conducive to the Health of our Bodies. For neither must it be taken in so small a Quantity, as to famish or weaken our Bodies; nor so copi∣ously, as thereby to overcharge our Stomachs; nor so frequently as to disturb the Digestion of the Food we have last taken; nor so seldom as to de∣fraud our Stomachs of their due allowance.

Thirdly, The Retention and Voiding, or Ex∣cretion of our ALIMENTS; for seeing that the purest and best of the Food must be changed into the Substance of the Body that is fed, it is of absolute necessity that it be retained in the Bo∣dy: And since it cannot be so pure, but that it must contain some Heterogeneous Parts, the same must be voided, lest by overlong stay in the Body it should putrifie, and disturb the Oeconomy there∣of.

Fourthly, Moderate EXERCISE; for mo∣tion is a great help to excite Heat, and to open those obstructions, which hinder corporal Functi∣ons. But yet on the other hand, overviolent and unseasonable Exercise, wastes the Body, and by di∣sturbing the inward Oeconomy, frequently is the cause of Diseases.

Fifthly, REST; for seeing that as long as we are awake, the Spirits continually course it through the Organs of our Body, this causeth Weariness, which must be restored by Rest and Sleep. Where∣fore whenever we watch too long, our Spirits be∣come dissipated, the strength of our Body weak∣ned, our concoction is hindred, and our whole Body, and more especially our Brain, is thereby dried.

Sixthly, moderate PASSIONS and AF∣FECTIONS, especially those of Joy and Cheerfulness, which promote and help the motion of our Spirits, and cherish and recreate all con∣gruous functions. But of all things, nothing is more conducive to Health, than for every Man to take heed to himself, and carefully examin what he finds Good or Hurtful to him, endeavouring al∣ways to avoid the one, and procure the other, and to use it in due time and manner. And accord∣ingly CICERO tells us in the 4th. Book of his Offices, Health is maintained by the knowledge of ones own Body, and by making observation of those things, which are wont to be Good or Hurt∣ful for us, as also by continual Temperance and Continence throughout the whole course of our Lives, together with the care to keep our Bodies neat and cleanly.

V. What Sick∣ness is, and that it on∣ly resides in the Body SICKNESS on the contrary is such a state of the parts of our Body, whereby they are hin∣dred from the due performance of their Functions. And therefore whatsoever overthrows the Tem∣perament of the foresaid Humours, or the compo∣sition of the Parts, is called Sickness. Tho' Sick∣ness doth attack the whole Man, yet doth it only consist in the Body; because those Distempers which seem to affect the Soul, are only some con∣sequences of Bodily Sickness; as appears manifestly in that as soon as the Body is cured, the griefs and uneasiness that were found in the Soul do immedi∣ately cease, and no longer afflict it.

VI. Of the two General Heads of Sickness. Sickness is commonly divided into two Gene∣ral Heads, viz. into Sickness of the Similar and Dissimilar Parts. Sickness of the Similar Parts, is called a Distemper, when it is such as that it sensibly hurts our bodily Actions, as when any Quality, by Example, that of Heat or Cold doth exceed. And this Distemperature is either Ma∣nifest or Hidden. Manifest is that wherein the Qualities that exceed are known. Hidden, when

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by reason of the ignorance of the exorbitant Qua∣lities, the cause of the Distemperature cannot be found out.

VII. Diseases of the Dis∣simular or Organical Parts. The other kind or General Head of Diseases is of the Organical Parts, which are said to be vi∣cious or faulty, with respect to their Conformation; or with respect to their Magnitude, when they are either greater or less than they ought to be; or with regard to their Number, when therein they exceed, or are defective; or as to their situa∣tion, when they are not rightly placed; or as to their Figure, when it is not such as it ought to be; or with respect to their Connexion, when they are at too great distance from each other, or if they be overmuch crowded together, stretched, comprest, loosened, or grown too stiff.

VIII. Some Dis∣eases afflict only some parts, o∣thers the whole Body. There is also another Division of Diseases into Universal and Particular: Univeral Diseases are such as afflict the whole Body, as Agues and Fe∣vers. Others Particular, which only affect one part of the Body, as the Brain, Lungs, Throat. But to theend that we may be able to understand the chief Diseases of the Body; we shall consider them in the following Order.

IX. Pain of the Head, or Headach. The First Disease, and which hath its seat in the Membrans of the Head, is the HEADACH, which is a Pain, or troublesom Sensation of the Head, proceeding from the Exorbitant Figures of the Blood, which spoil the Temperament thereof. For when the Animal Spirits, being too violent∣ly agitated by reason of a too Cholerick and Glewy Arterial Dew, are driven through the Ar∣teries, to the Head, and the Filaments and Mem∣brans of the Brain, they forthwith disorderly twitch, corrode, prick and cut the same, and find∣ing the pores through which they would make their way, not corresponding with them in Great∣ness and Figure, they by their force slit them up, and thereby produce an exquisit pain in the Head. Hence in the cure of this Disease there is made use of Blood▪letting, and other things conducing to the changing of the Distemper of the Blood, and to drive away the sharp particles, which are got into the most sensible Membrans of the Brain. Purging Medicines are also used, whereof some are more proper to expel these, and others, other particles; such as are Aqucous and Oleous Medicaments, which also stop the too swift motion of the Animal Spirits in the Blood.

X. Phrensie. PHRENSY or Raving is a violent agi∣tation of the Brain and Membrans thereof, caused by the excessive heat of the Blood, and its being filled with sharp and other malignant particles, which entring the Pores and Membrans of the Brain, do frequently cause an Inflammation there. Which then happens when Triangular Particles light upon Round Pores, whereupon in every such Pore, there are left three little spaces, because of the threefold surface, for the filling up of which spaces, the subtil matter presseth in with more abundance, by the rushing in whereof the Parts and Humours become agitated and disturbed. Whereupon the Glandula Pinealis is no longer in a condition to discharge its function, because these Animal Spirits are no longer subject to any Rule, but as Refractory Souldiers and Deserters, cast off the Yoke, and course it up and down without Rule or Discipline. Wherefore Opiates are commend∣ed for the cure of this Disease, which both reduce the Raging Spirits to rest and composure, by clo∣sing up the Nerves, as it were, with Bird-lime, and stop the irregular motion of the sharp parti∣cles, which before did cut the Fibres, and little Branches of the Nerves, that those Fibres, which before were stretched out like Cords, do run toge∣ther into twisted Knots and Bunches, which Knots stop the passage of the Spirits through the Nerves, and so hinders them from being transmitted to all the parts of the Body, and consequently from dis∣charging the wonted functions. Refrigerating or Cooling Medicaments are likewise of use in this di∣stemper; as for Example, the Chymical Prepara∣tion called Nitrum Perlatum, which being dissol∣ved in Water, is found to be of very good use in this case, because it fixeth the Spirits and the Blood, and at the same time opens Obstructions; as also Distill'd Vinegar, Antimony Diaphoretick, and Powder of Pearl, Coral, &c.

XI. Melancho∣ly. MELANCHOLY which is commonly defined to be a Doating, without a Fever or Ra∣ving; is a Delirium or Doating, proceeding from the sadness of the Patient, whereby the Animal Spirits are moved more slowly than they are wont. This distemper of the Blood, is commonly the pro∣duct of a vicious Sowre Humour in the Blood, by means whereof the Animal Spirits are darkned and condensed, which roving through the former footsteps left in the Brain, and rebounding from them, represent the same Images to the Soul; and accordingly Melancholy Persons think the things they have once conceived to be always present with them. Wherefore Alterating Remedies are much used in this Disease, and particularly such as abound with much Volatil Salt, as all Spirituous Matters do, as by Example, the Juice of Betony, Scurvygrass, Brooklime, Chickweed and such like, by means whereof the Ropy and viscous distempe∣rature of the Blood is amended.

XII. Madnes MADNESS is another kind of Doating, accompanied with great Rage and Alienation of Mind, without a Fever, proceeding from the ir∣regular motion of the Animal Spirits being infla∣med, and turned into a fiery Nature. For the Spirits being excited by some outward cause, and inflamed, range about through the Brain, but more especially about the Glandula Pinealis, and rushing like Lightning into the Brain and Muscles, do put the Glandula out of the Souls command, which being deluded by these Spirits, and depri∣ved of all her command over the Body, can no longer guide or govern it; whence proceed so ma∣ny undecent Gestures, Fightings, Quarrels, Bawl∣ings, &c. In order to the stopping of this Ef∣fervescence of the Blood, ponderous Remedies are made use of, as Lapis Prunellae, Saccharum Sa∣turni, or Sugar of Lead, Crabs Eyes, Laudanum Opiatum, Sanguis Draconis, &c. Decoctions also made of some ponderous sorts of Wood, are profi∣table in this case, as which by their heavy and hard Particles, do stop the motion of the Blood.

XIII. Lethargy. LETHARGY is an irresistible inclinati∣on to Sleep, accompanied with great forgetfulness, caused by an Obstruction of the Pores of the Brain, by a thick and gross Humour, and the want of Animal Spirits. This Disease is also in a great measure caused by Steams and Vapours that are mingled with a Slimy, Ropy Due, which being condensed into Water overwhelm the Brain, and

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the Soul together with it. And accordingly this Disease is cured by Volatil and Aromatical Re∣medies which restore the Spirits, and by their vo∣latility open the Pores, and cut the Viscid or Sli∣my Matter: Such as are all Spirituous Matters, all Volatil Salts, especially such as are Aromatical and Oleous, also the Wood Guajacum and Sassa∣fras, the Roots of Masterwort, the Herbs, Balm, Betony, Organy, Sage, Marjoram, Thyme, Rose∣mary, &c.

XIV. Coma Vi∣gil, or the Waking Drowse Disease. COMA VIGIL or the Waking Drowsiness, is a Distemper accompanied with a strong Inclination to Sleep, wherein the Patient lies drowsing with his Eyes shut, without being able to fall asleep. This Disease is caused by too great a dilaration of the Pores of the Brain, from the too much in∣flamed and agitated Animal Spirits. Wherefore in this Sickness it is necessary to purge the infla∣med Choler, which puts the Blood into a violent Fermentation; and to correct the said Humour by Acids. For the best way to cure this Disease is by such Remedies as do allay and asswage the sharpness of the Humour, and Cordials that restore strength, as also by Sudorificks, which volatilizing those sharp particles, drive them by sweat out of the Body.

XV. Catalopsis. CATALEPSIS is a suddain Detention or Immobility of the Body, accompanied with a weakning of the Senses, whereby the Patient retains the same figure of the parts of his Body, which he had in the first moment when he was seized with this Distemper. This Dreadful Dis∣ease is not caused by a freezing of the Animal Spirits, and the Humours that are in the Body, or from a Vapour that congeals the Spirits, as the Ga∣lanists do suppose, seeing that no such thing can happen to the Spirits, but because the Animal Spirits are no more subject to the command and guidance of the Soul, by reason of the Obstruction of the Glandula Pinealis, and therefore cannot move the parts as they used to do. So that the Cause of this Distemper is no other, but the Ob∣struction of either side of this Kernel. Where∣fore for the taking away of this Obstruction, and to restore the Animal Spirits to their Due and Regular Motion, Volatil Salts are prescribed, and Cephalicks, or Medicaments appropriated to strengthen the Brain, and the Glandula Pinealis in particular, the proper seat of the Soul. Strong Motions and Frictions, or Rubbings of the Body are commended with hot and course Linnen Cloath.

XVI. The Verti∣go. The VERTIGO is a Sickness wherein all Objects about us seem to turn round, caused by the undue circular motion of the Animal Spi∣rits. Because in this Distemper the Humours and Blood are so tossed and agitated, that by their ir∣regular motion they affect the Roots of the Nerves, and pressing and crowding upon one ano∣ther, make it appear as if all Visible Bodies turned round. Which crowding and compression pro∣ceeds frequently from the Depravation, and some∣times from the Abundance of Blood. And conse∣quently the cure of this Disease is commonly un∣dertaken by Spirituous Medicines that remove Ob∣structions, by Cephalick and Aromatical Balsams. But if this Disease be caused by an over-great abundance of Blood, then the breathing of a Vein is necessary; if from some depraved Juice lurk∣ing in the Stomach, Vomits are most proper, as also Marmelad of Quinces, Bisket and Crusts of Bread to correct the said vitiated sharp Hu∣mours.

XVII. The Epilep∣sy, or Fall∣ing Sick∣ness. EPILEPSY or the Falling Sickness, is a convulsive motion of all the Parts of the Body, more especially of the Hands and Feet, accompanied with a deprivation of the Inward and Outward Senses. This Disease proceeds from a Deprava∣tion of the Blood, and an Obstruction in the Solid Parts, caused by square figured Particles, which afflict the Nerves with their Angles, which way soever they apply to them; as also by hooked parti∣cles, which being once fastned in the Fibres of the Nerves, cannot so readily be disintangled thence. For the smoothing, and infolding of which parti∣cles, the Decoctions of several sorts of Wood, and other Cephalicks are made use of; whereby the sharpness of the Humours is blunted, and the points of the particles smoothed, as may be seen in a Knife, Sword, Needle, &c.

XVIII. Apoplexy. APOPLEXY is a suddain ceasing of all Animal Actions, viz. Sense and Motion, with the Hurt of the Principal Faculties, proceeding from an over-great Dilatation and opening of the Pores of the Brain, and the Plexus Choroides. For by this means is often caused a total Obstruction of the Brain, which is the Beginning or Rise of the Nerves, by a foreign Humour flowing into the Brain, which stops up the way for the Animal Spirits, whereupon all the Members of the Body flag, and become immoveable; as Sails fall flat, and hang limber, when the Wind fails, that be∣fore distended them. According to this notion of this Disease, liberal Blood-letting is very condu∣cive in that Apoplexy, which is caused by too great abundance of Blood; and a more mode∣rate Blood-letting in that which proceeds from abundance of Phlegm. Rubbing of the parts with Hot Cloaths are also commended, and with Spiri∣tuous Liquors; for by these the Animal Spirits are excited, and the clogging matter that obstructs the Nerves is by this means the better removed. Gen∣tle Glisters are also of good use in the beginning of this Distemper, and afterwards such as are more strong and vehement.

XIX. The Palsie. The PALSIE is a Privation of Sense and Motion, either throughout the whole Body, which is less frequent, or in some Members only proceed∣ing from the want or weakness of the Animal Spi∣rits. For where the Spirits are either altogether wanting, or not in sufficient Quantity, the Nerves and Muscles become limber and flaggy, by which means Sense and Motion, either altogether cease, or are remarkably weakned. Wherefore in order to the Cure of this Distemper Physicians take away a little Blood, to free the Passages from Obstructi∣ons, and afterwards exhibit Medicaments proper to correct the thickness and clamminess of the Blood, and to make it more thin and fluid; such as are altering and inciding Cephalicks and Aroma∣ticks appropriated to the Brain and Nerves. This done, the Pores of the Brain, and Pipes of the Nerves may be opened by Sudorificks, especially such as consist of hard and stiff parts; viz. Sas∣safras, Guajacum, Sarsaparilla, &c. to the de∣coctions whereof some Salt of Tartar may be ad∣ded, for to make the extraction the stronger by opening of the Pores of the said Woods.

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XX. Convulsion. CONVULSION, commonly call'd the Cramp, is an involuntary, continual and painful Contraction of the Muscles, proceeding from a tough, cold and thick Windy Vapour, puffing up and distending the Parts. To the removing of this Distemper, are made use of all Medicaments that open Obstructions and break Wind, whether in∣ward or outward, Volatile Salts, and all Cephalicks.

XXI. The Night-Mare. The NIGHT-MARE, is a great diminution of the Animal motion, and of those parts that are serviceable to the forming of the Voice and Respiration, and more especially the Nerves cal∣led Phrenici and Recurrentes, proceeding from the want of the Influx of Spirits, with the false Ima∣gination of an Heavy weight lying upon one, in the appearance of some frightful Spectre. For whenever during Sleep, the Spirits do not flow freely into the Muscles, then such a Motion is produc'd, as whereby the Soul judgeth some great Burthen to lye upon it, which hinders the free motion of the Midriff. Now this sense of being strangled or choak'd is occasien'd, by reason of the Spirits being hindred from their free ingress into the Muscles of the Throat, which thereupon flag and fall down, and so produce this Sense of Strangulation. In this Disease, the use of Volatile Salts is much commended, especially joyned with Spirituous means; and so likewise Aromaticks, and other Medicaments, proper to incide and attenuate, and consequently to open the Obstructions of the Pores of the Midriff.

XXII. A Catarrh, or Rheum. A CATARRH or Rheum is an Effusion of the sharp particles of the Blood, or serous part of it, in every part of the Body, being because of its long stay there coagulated, and producing a pain in the Part either with, or without a swel∣ling. For when the due and regular mixture and consistence of the Blood is spoiled by Serous and Pituitous matter, many sharp particles are cast out into the Glandulous parts, which by their acrimony, and other manifold malignity twitch the Membrans, whereupon follow frequent Sneezing, troublesome Coughing and Hoarsness. In the beginning of this distemper, mild Catharticks are much commend∣ed, as Pilulae de Succino and other Aloeticks; Bli∣sters also, and Issues, and Scarifications are com∣mended in order to the Evacuation of the serous peccant Humour. Moreover all Oleous and Fat things are of good use in this case, because that by the softness of their parts, they do infold and blunt the sharp points of Heterogeneous saline par∣ticles in the Blood; as likewise thick and Earthly Medicaments as Crabs Eyes, Terra Sigillata, com∣mon Bole, &c. because these are proper to file and rub off the sharp corners of Salts.

XXIII. Cough. Having thus handled the Diseases and Distem∣pers of the Head, we next proceed to consider those of the Breast or Chest, and here we shall in the first place Treat of that Distemper commonly called a Cough, which is a more frequent, uneven and Loud expiration or out-breathing, whereby a great part of Spirits bursting forth violently, en∣deavour to cast forth some sharp, and troublesome Excrements, caused by the sharp, and pricking particles of the Blood, which by the Circulation of the Humours, are carried into the Muscles design'd for inspiration or expiration, and being there in greater quantity than ordinary, do painfully twitch the Parts, and stir up a Convulsive motion. For the sharp particles like so many Knives or Prick∣les, being entred into the substance of the Lungs and the Fibres of the Branches of the Windpipe, do necessarily produce a kind of Convulsion, viz. a Cough. Wherefore, in order to the blunting of these sharp pointed Particles sweet things are com∣mended, and Opiats, which do also allay the sharp∣ness of the Humour. Vinegar of Squills is also of good use, especially where the Patient is troubled with tough Phlegm. And for a Purge Mercurius Dulcis is commended, because it doth cut Phlegm and evacuate it.

XXIV. The Tissick. ASTHMA, or Tissick, is a difficult and thick fetching of ones Breath, with, or without a Fever, sometimes with great wheezing, and other times without it, proceeding from an ill affection of the substance of the Lungs, and the Intercostat Mus∣cles, serving to Respiration. For whenever the Nerves, that belong to the Intercostal Muscles, and other Organs serving to Respiration, are ob∣structed, it produceth difficult Breathing. For the removing of which Obstructions, Physicians com∣mend the use of mild Aromaticks, and Volatile, Oleous Salts, which by their Volatility are very proper to pierce the windings of the Lungs, and to open their Obstructions, caused by tough and slimy matter. The fore-mention'd Decoctions of Wood are likewise very useful, as consisting of hard, ponderous and stiff Particles, which by their irregular figure and heaviness drive through the Pores, resolve the viscid or tough matter, and re∣store the Blood to its due fluidity.

XXV. The Pleu∣risie and Peripneu∣monia. The PLEURISIE, as also the PERI∣PNEUMONIA, is an Inflammation, the one of the Pleura, (that is, the Skin that covers the Ribs;) the other of the Lungs, accompanied with the greatest difficulty of Breathing, a high Fever, a continual Cough, sometimes with Frothy Spittle, and frequently also with that which is Bloody, with great Pain, Heaviness and Anxiety about the Breast and Heart, caused by a sharp, distending, pricking and corroding Matter. For this Matter is nothing else in the Pleurisie, but the sharp-pointed and volatile Parts of the Blood, transmitted to the Membrans that cover the Ribs and the intercostal Muscles; whereas in the Peripneumonia, or Inflammation of the Lungs, they are conveyed into the very Substance of the Lungs, and extravasated thence. Wherefore in either of these Distempers, it is proper to breath a Vein, as well to allay the furious effervescence of the Blood, caused by the foresaid Particles, as to evacuate some part of them. And to alter and correct the sharpness of the Particles of the Blood, testaceous Powders are commended, which do not only imbibe the acidity of the Blood, but also by their ponderosity, serve to dissolve the grumous and coagulated parts thereof.

XXVI. The Con∣sumption of the Lungs. PHTHISIS, or the Consumption of the Lungs, is a wasting of the whole Body, with a slow or Hectick Fever, and Cough, with the spitting of Purulent matter, caused by the sharp Particles of the Blood, fretting and corroding the Lungs. For these malignant Particles, whether proceeding from the Arteries, or the Lymphatick Vessels, or from the open'd Imposthme of a Quinsie or Pleurisie, by effusion of the Purulent matter into the Cavity of the Breast, do there infect and taint the Lungs. And therefore to rid the Lungs of

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these sharp and corroding Particles of the Puru∣lent matter, Physicians prescribe hard and ponde∣rous Remedies, viz. Testaceous Powders, and the Decoctions of several sorts of Wood, which have a virtue to imbibe and alter the sharpness of the Humour: Mercurius Dulcis, Bole-Armenick, and Terra Sigillata, are also commended in this Di∣stemper.

XXVII. Syncope or Swound∣ing. SYNCOPE, or Swounding, is a sudden fail∣ing of the strength of the Body, caused by the Extinction for a time, or overwhelming of the vital Flame in the Heart. For the want of a sufficient store of Spirits, with the ceasing of the Circulation of Humours, and of the determination of the Spirits into the Muscles for that time, makes the Body fall down like the Trunk of a Tree. In this Disease are commended Spirituous Medicaments, and Volatile Salts, which are proper to kindle and feed the flame in the Heart; as all spirituous, cordial, odoriferous Waters, such as Cinamon-water, Aqua-mirabilis, Vita-Matthioli, and the like, which rowze, corroborate and mul∣tiply the Spirits.

XXVIII. Cardial∣gia or Pain at the Heart. The Diseases of the Abdomen, or lower Belly, are CARDIALGIA, the Pain at the Heart, which is a painful Sensation at the Mouth of the Stomach, which by means of the Nerves is pre∣sented to the Soul. This Pain proceeds from the sharp and pointed Particles, that do prick, twitch and slash the Nerves and their Fibres, and conse∣quently shake them; which Agitation being con∣vey'd to the Organ of the Common Sense, it is vehemently moved thereby, and so represents to the Soul that afflicting Sensation, which we call Pain. Accordingly for the Cure of this Distemper, are prescribed several Remedies proper in Convulsions, but joyned with Specifick Stomachicks and Opiates, to which are frequently added the Powder of Na∣tive Cinnabar, Amber, Man's Skull, &c.

XXIX. Singultus or the Hickock. The HICKOCK is a Convulsive motion of the Midriff, caused by touch and irregular Particles, twitching and forcing it to this disordinate motion. For the Fibres of the Nerves of the sixth Conjuga∣tion, distributed to the Stomach and the Midriff, are so vellicated in this Distemper, that by their motion communicated to the Brain, they frequently open those Pores there, by which the Animal Spirits, rushing violently towards the Mouth of the Stomach, contract the Fibres appointed for the expulsion of any offending matter, upwards, and make the Patients to explode the Air, contained in the Mouth of the Stomach with that vehe∣mence, as constitutes the Hickock; which ceaseth as soon as the sharp twtiching matter is discharged by these repeated Convulsion Motions. For the correcting of these peccant particles all hard and ponderous matters, are commended, as Crabs Eyes, Coral, Filings of Steel, Mercurious Dulcis and Opiates.

XXX. Diarrhoea a Scour∣ing or Lask. A LASK is the dejection of various and li∣quid Humours by stool, caused by the effervescence of the Blood, encreased by the cholerick particles thereof, and irritating the Fibres of the Guts by their sharp points. For various Humours being precipitated through the Vessels which open them∣selves into the Guts, do vellicate their Fibres, and by this means make the Animal Spirits to rush down that way in greater abundance, whereupon a kind of Convulsion follows. In the dry Gripes and the Lienteria, or that Scouring, when the Meat passeth away in the same manner as it was taken in, the ferment of the Stomach is faulty, as not duly digesting the Food put into it. In all Lasks or Scourings, at the beginning Rhubarb, Jalap, and Crabs Eyes are commended, mixed with other proper Medicaments; and in the Lienteria and dry Gripes, Balsamick Remedies and Stomachicks, are given both inwardly and outwardly.

XXXI. Cholera or the Chole∣rick Pas∣sion. The CHOLERICK Passion is a depraved Convulsive motion of the Stomach and Guts, occa∣sioned by sharp and pointed particle; twitching the Fibres of the Stomach and the Gut called Duo∣denum, and contracting them upwards. For this twitching of the Fibres cannot continue long, without irritating of the Animal Spirits, and di∣sturbing of them in their several Orders and Sta∣tions, and thereby causing them to produce these Convulsive motions. In order to the quelling of this fury of the disturbed Animal Spirits, Bezoardicks are commonly prescribed, and all ponderous Medicines, as Crystal, Terra Sigil∣lata, &c.

XXXII. Dysenteri or the Bloody Flux. The BLOODY FLUX is an Exulceration of the Guts, accompanied with frequent and Bloody Dejections, and violent Pain and Gripings, caused by sharp particles that corrode and cut the small Fibres of the Guts. For the Hooked and Pointed Particles that are mixed with the Humours, do pierce and divide the Membrans of the Guts, and by this means cause an Ulcer therein. In order to the cure of this Disease, altering and Evacuating Medicines are made use of: and above all Rhubarb, because it leaves an adstringent Virtue behind it after Evacuation. Emollient and Lenitive Medica∣ments are likewise employed for the removing of this Distemper, and such things as promote Fer∣mentation, as Coral, &c.

XXXIII. Iliaca Pas∣sio or the twisting of the Guts. The TWISTING of the GUTS, is a most exquisit Pain of the small Guts, accompani∣ed with a most obstinate stoppage of the passage downwards, and vomiting of the Excrements, pro∣ceeding either from an Inflammation of the Guts, or from their obstruction by some hard Excrements. This Disease is often caused by sharp Humours, sticking within the Membrans of the Guts, which cause the Expulsory motion of the Guts to be turned the contrary way, because of the irritated Animal Spirits, flowing from the Brain into the ascending Fibres of the Guts, which influx being perverted, the Excrements contained in them are voided upwards by the Mouth. In the cure of this dreadful and desperate Disease, Blood letting is made use of, to remove the Inflammation; and afterwards Emollient and Lenitive Glisters to evacuate and temper the sharp Humours, and to make the passages glib and slippery. For the same purpose Lenitive Catharticks are commended. Crude Mercury is also prescribed mixed with the Yolk of an Egg, that it may not stick to the Guts; and lastly Narcoticks, which both correct the sharpness of the Humours, and allay the Convul∣sions of the Guts.

XXXIV. The Colick. The COLICK is an afflicting and painful sensation in the Colon, or its neighbouring Parts, caused by a Cholerick Humour joyned with a corro∣ding Salt. For there is a sharp Salt contained, not only within the Hollow of the Guts, but also betwixt the Membrans of them; which saline

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particles, when they enter into such Pores, through which they cannot pass, they become, as it were, lock'd up there, that is, in the pores of the Coats or Membrans of the Guts, where they occasion a most acute Pain, by twitching and corroding the Fibres thereof. Wherefore to break the force of this sharp Humour, and to heal the hurt Fibres of the Nerves, several Affwaging and Anodynous Medicaments are prescribed, and sometimes Opiates, to give some respit to the Patient, and that the Physician may gain time to eliminate that foreign and praeternatural Salt. Glysters also are com∣mended, and other outward Applications to com∣fort the hurt Fibres, and to allay the violent mo∣tion of the Animal Spirits.

XXXV. The Yellow Jaundise. The YELLOW JAUNDISE is an Ill habit of Body, staining the solid and fluid parts thereof with a yellow or black Colour, caused by the effusion of a sharp and depraved Gall. For the Gall, whenever its Particles are vitiated, either in their figure or motion; then that part of it which commonly promotes the Voiding of Excrements, is no longer sent that way, but continuing with the Blood, and circulating with it through the Body, stains the Skin with a yellow, and sometimes with a black Colour, that is, when sowr and gross Particles are mixed with those of the Gall. Where∣fore in this Disease Purging Medicins are to be used at first, and particularly Infusions of Rhubarb and Senna; for otherwise, if they be boiled, or too strongly wrung out, they communicate those Par∣ticles to the Potion, that after Purging strongly bind the Body, which may be very hurt∣ful.

XXXVI. The Dropsie. The DROPSY is a Swelling of the whole Body, and more especially of the Belly, caused by a Collection of watry Humours. For when a watry Humour stagnates and grows thick in the Belly, then it obstructs the Surface of the Inwards, together with the Peritonaeum and Muscles of the Body, with a kind of slimy, pituitous Matter, which hinders that the Vapours and Steams arising from the Body, cannot be evacuated by insensible Trans∣piration; which is the Reason, why those that are troubled with this Disease, are so difficult to be brought to Sweat. Whilst therefore these small Vessels are burst and broken by the thick and tough Particles, the serous Particles drop down into the Belly; which being by degrees and continually increased, they produce the Dropsie, and other Ills in the Body. Wherefore for the Curing of this Disease, Medicaments that purge watry and serous Humours, are commended, as Pilulae de Ammo∣niaco with Mercurius Dulcis; for the Mercury resolves tough and slimy Humours; and the Gum Ammoniacum is proper to consolidate the burst Vessels.

XXXVII. Hypochon∣driacal Melancholy, or the Spleen. HYPOCHONDRIACAL MELANCHOLY, or the Spleen, is a painful Sensation, caused by the Grossness, small Quantity, and Unevenness of the Spirits. For a sharp, sowr, and tough slimy Hu∣mour, lying hid in the Belly, breedeth Obstructi∣ons, whence all the Symptoms observable in this Disease do proceed. Wherefore also the Cure of this Distemper, is endeavoured by Decoctions made of the Barks of Tamarisks and Cappar-trees, of the Herbs of Germander and Chamaepytis, &c. If the Blood abound with vitiated Salts, volatile Acids, are commended, Antiscorbutical Herbs, and more especially sulphurated Tartar. And because praeternatural Acids generally have a hand in this Disease; therefore all those Medicaments are used, that are proper to alter and destroy the same; as the Alkalifate Salts of Herbs, Crabs-Eyes, Pearl, Diaphoretick Antimony, Salt of Tartar, and other such like.

XXXVIII. The Scurvy. The SCURVY is a Distemper of the Blood, and other Juices of the Body, caused by a praeter∣natural Sowrness, afflicting more or less all the Parts of the Body, and accordingly producing a vast variety of Symptoms. For the Cause of this Disease chiefly consists in that the Blood is impreg∣nate with much fixed Salt, or acid Juice, and is frequently to be imputed to the Air, that is fill'd with such like Particles; which being drawn in by breathing, communicates the same to the Blood, and so forms this Disease. The Cure of this Disease is performed by Volatilizing of the Blood, and the fixed Salt, and by opening of Obstructions; to which end Blood-letting is pre∣scribed, that the thicker part of the Blood being evacuted, better Blood might be furnish'd instead of it, by introducing of a volatile Acid.

XXXIX. The Stone. The STONE is a Disease caused in the Reins or Bladder, by the Gravel or Stone, accompanied with a most exquisite Pain, by their grating against the Fibres of the Kidneys and Ureters. It is the product either of the too great abun∣dance or thickness of the Blood, or the sharpness of the Humours. And therefore when the Patient, subject to this Disease, doth abound with much Blood, the Breathing of a Vein is necessary, and afterwards the Gravel and Stone must be evacuated by Diureticks and Lithonthripticks: Emollient Glysters are also very much commended, for to make the Passages more slippery and open.

XL. Stranguy. STRANGURY, is the continual desire to make Water, accompanied with an extraordinary Pain and Burning, caused by the sharp and pointed Particles that are in the Blood, or the Serous part of it. But the Cause of Bloody Urin, and of all other Bloody Fluxes, is the solution of any conti∣nuous Parts, caused by sharp and pointed Particles, pricking and cutting the Parts. And therefore the Remedies most proper for this Disease, are such as precipitate these acid Particles, or imbibe them, as likewise Anodynous Medicaments and Opi∣ates.

XLI. Diabetes. DIABETES is a most swift and copious evacu∣ating of the Liquor we drink by Urin, sometimes with little or no change made in it, accompanied with extream Thirst and a Wasting of the whole Body. For in this Disease the Contexture of the Blood is too loose, and the Pores of the Kidneys are too open, and the praecipitating Salt does too much abound. Some think the Drink goes directly by some short Passages from the Stomach to the Kid∣neys. Others, that it runs through the Pores of the Stomach and Guts into the hollow of the Belly, where meeting with the Bladder, it enters its pores, and thus is evacuated soon after, without any, or with but little change. In this Distemper adstringent and absorbent Medicins are commended, espe∣cially joyned with Opiates, to imbibe that vicious Salt, which precipitates the Blood too much.

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Book. 1. Part. 8. Chap. 2

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XLII. The Gout. The GOUT is a pain of the Joints, or parts about the Joints, caused by the various Corner'd Figures of Sales, or Saline particles, which twitch and prick the Fibres belonging o them. For when uneven and Saline particles do abound in the Blood, they by their Ruggedness and Points hurt the Fibres of the Nerves; or the Saline particles, by their sharpness twitching and vellicating them, are the Cause of those exquisit Pains, which those that are troubled with the Gout do endure; and other like Humours, impregnated with much the fame Particles, flowing to the Parts already afflicted, do increase the Pain, which is often accompanied with a swelling and light Inflammation. For the Cure of this Disease, ponderous things are made use of, as Crabs-Eyes, Coral, Chalybeats, Mercurius Dulcis, as likewise Sudorificks, Topicks, &c.

XLIII. The French-Pox. The Disease commonly called the FRENCH-POX, is a Distemper of all the Humours of the Body, consisting in a Volatile Corrosive Acidity, disturbing all the Actions of it, and at last quite corroding it. For the sharp saline Particles that lye lurking in the Blood and Humours, do produce all the Symptoms that are obvious in this Disease. And therefore in order to the altering and blunting of these Particles, the Decoctions of Woods and Roots, and Mercurial Medicins are prescribed; and for the evacuating of them out of the Body, Preparations that cause Salivation are made use of, and particularly Mercurius Dulcis.

XLIV. Ague or Fever. An AGUE, or Fever, is an Effervence of the Blood in the Heart, sometimes exceeding that which is Natural, and at other times less; but ever with greater Malignity. For when the Febrifick matter or humour, endued with a Fermentative quality, doth from its Focus or Seat, be it Mesentery, or any other part of the Body, in which it hath been a long time a gathering, come into the Veins, and is mingled with the Blood, and with it carried to the Heart, it stirs up an Ague. For when it is thus communicated to the Blood, passing through the Heart, the Matter of the First Element, which is a great Enemy to our Blood, doth greatly shake it, and confound the parts and mixture of it, in which Confusion the Nature of an Ague and Fe∣ver doth consist. Yet it is not every thing that mingles with the Blood, doth presently produce an Ague; but such Matter only as is of a Fermen∣tative Nature, that is, which disturbs the Mixture of the Blood. For this Fermentative Matter may be compared with Green-wood that is laid upon the Fire; for as such Wood, when once it begins to burn, doth burn more vehemently than Dry-wood; so the said Humour becomes more heated and di∣lated, than the Blood it self in its Natural condition. Hence therefore we conclude, that a Quartan Ague is produced, when the Matter, which is the Cause of it, stands in need of the space of 3 Days for its Concoction, before it can be fit to be united to the rest of the Blood; a Tertian Ague, when 2 Days is enough for this purpose; a Quotidian, when it is concocted every day, and mingles with the Blood; and Continual, with Exacerbations or Fits, when the Corrupt Matter doth so much infect the Blood, that it cannot rid it self of those defilements from that time, that the last drop of that Humour is run out, and that wherein the first drop of that which is gather'd anew begins to en∣ter the Heart. For this being the time wherein this depraved Humour, and ready to raise an Effervescence, is in greater quantity conveyed to the Heart, it must of necessity cause a greater Heat and Ebullition. Wherefore to the end that this Feverish Ferment may be expell'd in Agues, and more particularly in Quotidians, Vomits and Purges are used, which being exhibited at the Beginning, before the Fits, are found to be very successful in the Cure of them. But if the Ague be of long continuance, and the Stomach swoln, it is best to abstain from Vomits, and instead thereof to give gentle Purges; because Vomits weaken the Stomach. As for Fevers, they are commonly Cured by Remedies that precipitate and imbibe sowr Humours, as Crabs-Eyes, Antimony Diaphoretick; by such as thin the Blood, and make it more fluid, as Barly-water, Whey, &c. by such as open Obstructions, as Carduus Benedictus, Camphire, Venice-Treacle, Volatile Salts and Spirits. All Bitter things are also employed with good success, both in Fevers and Agues, because they strengthen the Stomach, and keep out the the Enemy; so that according to the Report of Physicians, Agues have frequently been Cured, only be exhibiting the Compound Essence of Wormwood.

CHAP. XXIV. Of Medicaments in General, and of their Operations.

I. What Medica∣ment is. HAving treated of the Diseases that afflict the Body of Man, it remains now that we add something concerning Medicins. Now a Me∣dicament in general is that which being applied to the Body of a Sick person, is able by its virtue, to reduce it from a Praeternatural state, to a Na∣tural.

II. Of the se∣veral sorts of Medica∣ments. Some Medicins are Simple, as Roots, Barks, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, Seeds, Gums, Juices, Ani∣mals and their Excrements, Products of the Sea, Salts, Stones, Minerals and Metals: Other are Compound; and these again are either Internal, which by the Mouth are taken into the Body: And these again are either Preparatory, otherwise called Digestive, which prepare and digest peccant Humours, in order to their Expulsion, as Syrups and Conserves; or Purgative, which evacuate the Matter that hath been prepared and ripened by the fore-going Digestives, as Purging Electuaries, Pills; and those the Latins call Linctus, and the Arabians Lohoch; or Cordial and Corroborative, which are used to strengthen the Body after Purgation, or rather when the Violence and Continuance of the Disease hath greatly weakned it; as likewise to remove any Obstructions or Distemperature in the Bowels or Humours of the Body; and take away the Symptoms of the Disease (as Pain, Watching, Loosness, Swounding,) such as are Cordial Con∣fections, Powders, Troches. External Medicaments, are those that are outwardly applied to that part of the Body which is chiefly affected, and therefore are called Topicks, because they are applied to the place grieved; such are Oils, Ointments, Cere∣cloaths, and Plaisters.

III. Of Medi∣cins Com∣mon and Specific▪ But to leave the more particular Disquisition into these Matters to Physicians, I shall only in a few words speak something of the Common Medi∣caments,

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viz. Vmits, Purges, Diureicks, Sudo∣rificks or Diaphoreticks, Cordials or Alexiphar∣maccks and Opiates; and then pass to Specificks, and briefly declare the Nature of them in gene∣ral, and the manner of their Operation.

IV. Vomits or Vomitory Medicins. VOMITS are Medicins that evacuate the Stomach, and drive out peccant humours upwards, and that by drinking luke-warm Water, but more readily if some Oil or melted Butter be mingled with it▪ which will make the Stomach the more to loath it, and therefore the more easily to dis∣charge it. Besides these common things, several Chymical Preparations are made use of to this purpose, as Salt of Vitriol, Glass of Antimony, Flowers of Antimony, Crocus Metallorum, Sul∣phur of Antimony, Mercurius Vitae, the particles of all which Preparations, when dissolved, do so violently twitch and affect the Fibres of the Sto∣mach, as to cause a Conlvulsive Motion both of that and the Neighbour Parts, viz. the Gut call∣ed Duodenum, the Porus Choledochus, or Passage that conveys the Gall, and the Ductus or Vessel of the Pancreas, by which Colvulsive motion whatsoever is contained in them is carried up to the Stomach, and from thence to the Mouth; and not only so, but by these Vomits the serous part of the Blood is often drawn out of the Extremities of the Arteries, carried up to the Stomach, and thence evacuated by the Mouth.

V. Purging Medicins. PURGING MEDICINS are such as move and loosen the Belly, and drive out the pec∣cant Humours in the Body of Man by Stool, such as are Roses, Violets, Cassia, Manna, Aloes, Rhu∣barb, besides manifold compound Purgatives. The reason of the operation of these Catharticks is, be∣cause they painfully affect the Spirits that are in the Fibres of the inward parts of the Body, and pro∣voke them to excretory contractions; and more∣over raise a Fermentation in the Humours, and thereby produce several fusions and separations of their parts. For tho' Manna and Cassia and other such like Gentle Purgers, which consist of very subtil parts, do not at all, or very little disturb the Stomach; yet as soon as they are past the Py∣lorus, or outlet of the Stomach into the Guts, they begin to irritate and twitch the most sensible Mem∣bran of the Gut Duodenum, and before they get any further, almost spend their whole force there. And because by the twitching and vellication of this Mmembran, the Porus Biliaris or passage of the Gall is considerably shaken, therefore they pro∣duce Bilious dejections.

VI. Purging Medicins do not act Electively. The opinion of old was, that Catharticks pur∣ged Humours Electively, that is, by choice, as evacuating one Humour rather than another: They were induced to be of this Opinion, because they often found that the Excrements evacuted by pur∣ging Medicins, were of a Yellowish, and sometimes of a Blackish Colour, whence they concluded, that some Catharticks, purged Choler, and others Me∣lancholy, as it were choosing and separating them from the rest of the Humours. But this is no bet∣ter than an error; for tho' there be purgative Medicins that evacuate Choler, Phlegm, Melan∣choly and Watry Humours, which gave occasion to Physicians to distinguish Catharticks into Chola∣gogues, Phlegmagogues, Melanogogues and Hydra∣ggues; as for Example, Rhubarb and Scammony, purge Choler rather than Phlegm; whereas Mercu∣rius Dulcis, and the Troches Alhandal, evacuate Phlegm rather than other Humours. Yet is not this so to be understood, as if Scammony, for in∣stance, purged Choler only, without touching any other Humours; or Mercurius Dulcis only expel∣led Phlegm; for it is certain that it purgeth other Humours also, tho' not so copiously as that of Phlegm; and therefore some Pungative Medicins may well be called purgers of Choler, and other Phlegm, &c. for tho' they do not purge that Hu∣mour only, whence they take their denomination, yet they do purge that Humour more copiously and signally than any other.

VII. Diureticks: DIURETICKS are Medicins that purge by Urin, such as are the Roots of Smallage, Parsly, Radish, Bitter Almonds, Spirit of Salt and of Nitre, Juice of Limons and of Sorrel, White-wine, Renish-wine and Cyder; which when taken into the Body, do precipitate the mass of Blood, and separate the Wheyish part from it, which soon after is evacuated. For the particles of these Diuretick Medicins by their pointedness and thin∣ness penetrate the Vessels, and by diluting, inci∣ding and dissolving the Blood, cause a great quan∣tity of Wheyish Matter to be separated from it in the Reins, and to be thence evacuated by the Ure∣ters.

VIII. Sudorificks or Diaph∣reticks. SUDORIFICKS are Medicaments that provoke Sweat, such as are the Leaves, Roots or Seeds of Carduus Benedictus, Contrayerva, Angelica, or the like, being taken either in Pou∣der, Decoction, Conserve or Magistery. The rea∣son of their Operation is, because they consist of such particles as are very friendly to the Stomach and Guts, and therefore do not produce any Con∣vulsions or Excretory Motions in them; only the mass of Blood being by them Rarefied and Heated, and consequently more swiftly circulated, do put the Body into a Sweat. Moreover, the particles of these Diaphoreticks entring the Vessels which are implanted in the Stomach, mix themselves with the Blood, and raising a Fermentation in it, make it run more swiftly through the Veins to the Heart, and there entring with some impetuousness, encreaseth the Beating or Pulse of it, by which means the whole mass of Blood, being rarefied and enkindled, rusheth more swiftly through the Arteries to all the outward parts▪ which not be∣ing able to admit it, nor the Veins to send it all back to the Heart, a considerable part of the se∣rum of the Blood is evacuated through the Pores by Sweat.

IX. Cordials. CORDIAL MEDICINS are such as are proper to restore and kindle the interrupted or weakned Fermentations of the Blood in the Heart. Wherefore these Remedies are not called Cardiaca or Cordials, because they are appropriated to strengthen and comfort the Heart, as are all things that are Spirituous and Volatil, such as Saffron, Wine, especially to those who are not accustomed to the drinking of it, and Strong Waters. The reason of which operation is because their Volatil Particles entring the Blood, separate all Heteroge∣neous and Malignant Particles from it. Neither is the Passage from the Stomach to the Blood so long, that there should be need to fear that the virtue of these Medicaments would be lost by the way. For it is evident that the inward Nervous Coat of the Stomach is all interwoven with multi∣tudes

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of Veins and Arteries, so that Medicaments, not only Purgative, but any others may exert their operations upon the Blood, before ever they pass out of the Stomach.

X. Opi••••s. OPIATS are those Medicines which have Opium for their Basis or chief ingredient, and are proper for the laying of Noxious Vapours, and as∣swaging of Grievous Symptoms, for the strength∣ning of the inward parts, the removing of Pain, and recruiting of the Animal Spirits. The man∣ner of their performing these effects is this, the particles of these Medicines do put a stop to the out∣going or efflux of the Animal Spirits and sup∣press them; so that during the operation of the Opium, they do flow much more sparingly to the inwards and other parts of the Body. And accord∣ingly the Pulse of the Heart, and Respiration are diminished in their swiftness and force, and some∣times cause a difficulty of Breathing, and a weak∣ness of the Pulse, with a listlesness to move, and drowziness over the whole Body.

XI. Why the Author treats of Specificks. Next after the common Medicins follow SPE∣CIFICKS, whose Virtues discovered by Expe∣rience, are consistent with the Principles of our Philosophy, and may be perspicuously unfolded by them. Some Galenists indeed have altogether rejected Specificks, probably because they found themselves unable to explicate the manner of their operation.

XII. What a Specifick is. The word Specifick is by Physicians used in a threefold Sense; for some call that a Specifical Me∣dicin, which is peculiarly friendly to some particu∣lar part of the Body, as to the Heart, Liver, Brain, &c. Others call that a Specifical Medicin, which by a peculiar Quality doth evacuate some determinate Humour, as Rhubarb and Cassia are said to Evacuate Choler; Senna, Melancholy; Ja∣lap and Diagridium, Serosities and Phlegm. But more frequently that is called a Specifical Medi∣cin, which peculiarly cures some particular Disease, as the Pleurisie, Tissick, Colick, Dropsie, and in this Sense I take it here.

XIII. Whether there be any Specifical Medicins. It may therefore be enquired, whether there be any such Specifical Medicins. Some Dogmatical Physicians, leaning too much upon the Principles of the Scholastick Philosophy, will admit of no Me∣dicinal Virtues that cannot be reduced to their ma∣nifest Qualities: But GALEN somewhere com∣plains of these Men, that they either plainly deny matter of Fact, or else assign such causes to these effects as are not sufficient to explain them. So that not only Galen, but many other Learned Phy∣sicians, both Modern and Ancient, do maintain that there are Specifick Medicins.

XIV. The effects of Speci∣ficks may be explain∣ed Mecha∣nically. It may also be queried, whether the effect of Specificks are mechanically explicable, that is, whe∣ther they be consistent with the Principles of me∣chanical Philosophy; to which I answer, that the Principles of the said Philosophy are of such a vast comprehension, that he who considers it, will not at all question, but that the effects of these Me∣dicins may be explained in such a manner, as shall not in the least contradict the said Princi∣ples▪

XV. In order to the ex∣plaining of the Effect: of Speci∣ficks, the make or structure of Mans Body is to be noted. To make out this we are to observe, that the Animated Body of Man is not to be considered as a meer Statue, as if it were nothing else but a dead heap of several parts and matters whereof it con∣sists; for to speak the truth, it is a most wonder∣ful and curious Machin or Engin, composed of fixt, liquid and spirituous Substances, with such exquisit Artifice joined together, that frequently we cannot judge so well concerning the action of an Agent that acts upon it, from the Power and forces of the Agent, considered in it self, as by the effects proceeding from it, because of the mutual action of the parts of this Living Machin upon each other.

XVI. Another thing to be noted about the opera∣tion of Spe∣cificks. It is likewise to be observed from the learned Mr. BOYLE, that it is not necessary that the Operations of all Specificks, or of the same in differing Diseases, must be of one kind; but differing Specificks may operate in several man∣ners, And of these general ways he has proposed such as follow, premising only, that the Specifick Remedy do's not commonly, tho' sometimes it may, relieve the Patient by this or that single way of Operation, but by a Concurrence of two or more, that as it were join their forces to pro∣duce the desired effect.

XVII. The first way or manner whereby Specificks perform their Ef∣fects. Specifick Medicins may sometimes cure by dis∣cussing or resolving the Morbifick matter, and thereby making it fit for expulsion by the greater Common-Shores of the Body, and the Pores of the Skin. For it is most notorious, that a great many Diseases, and those very obstinate and Chronical, are caused by some tough and slimy Humours, which obstruct the Passages, and so hinder the Circulation of the Blood, and the free motion of other useful liquors; which peccant Humours are sometimes so exceeding Glewy and Ropy, that they will not give way to common Remedies. Where∣as the Specifick, by the minuteness of its Parts, and the congruity of their Figure with the Pores of Morbifick Matter may be able to penetrate and re∣solve it, with the concurrent heat of the Patients Bo∣dy, and thereby dispose for an evacution by Urin, Sweat or otherwise, as Nature finds most convenient. So that the Blood, or some other Liquor of the Body being impregnated with the amicable and Active Particles of the Matter, may be a Men∣struum to dissolve the peccant matter; even as common Water impregnated with Salt Armoniack becomes a Menstruum, which by degrees will dis∣solve Copper and Iron.

XVIII. The second way or manner. Sometime a Specifick Medicin may mortifie the too over Acid, or other immoderate Particles that infest the mass of Blood, and destroy their Coagu∣latory or other Effects. For seeing that most Di∣stempers do arise from Acids, and their Malignant Effects, it is very probable that all such Diseases may be cured, or much alleviated by such a Reme∣dy as abounds with particles proper to mortifie the said Acid Juices. Which Mortification may be effected these two manner of ways: for there are some Bodies which destroy Acids by a Positive Hostility, that is to say, by such a contrariety as is discernible by the Taste, and by a conspicuous ight or conflict they maintain with the Acid Juice: Of this kind are all fixed Askalies, viz. the Lixivous Salts of Plants, and all volatil Alkalies, as Spirits of Harts-horn, Salt Armoniack, &c.▪ Another way whereby Acids may be mortified or dulled is, when their Particles are, as it were, sheathed or blunted; for as a Knife may be disa∣bled to cut, either by filing or otherwise blunting its Edge, or else by covering the Blade with a Sheath fit for it; so an Acid Compound may lose

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its power of cutting or pricking, when an Alkali alters its Figure, or when its sharp particles are, as it were, sheathed in the Pores of some other Body, tho' it may be the said Body may be wholly without Taste, or any considerable manifest quali∣ty by which it might appear contrary to the sowr Juice it enervates, as a File is contrary to the Edge of a Knife.

XIX. The third manner. A Specifick Medicin may sometimes help the Patient by precipitating peccant Matter out of the Blood, or other Humours of the Body. Thus SENNERTUS seems to intimate that in some cases the Disease is vanquisht by a precipi∣tation of the Aguish Matter. And KERGE∣RUS in his Treatise of Fermentation, Sect. 3. Cap. 3. tells us in plain terms, that he had cured above 1000 persons of Agues without Blood let∣ting, Purging, Diaphoreticks, Diureticks, altering Medicins or Topicks, only by means of one pre∣cipitating Medicin. Neither need we to fear any danger in these precipitations by the particles of the Medicin entring into, and spoiling the Tem∣perament of the Blood; because it is certain that Heterogeneous Matters in the Blood may be preci∣pitated by means of Remedies which never enter the Blood: For Physicians often exhibit filings of Steel, and other preparations of that Metal, to mortifie the Acidities of the Blood, and yet we have no reason to believe that the said metalline particles ever enter the Blood.

XX. The fourth manner. Sometimes Specifick Remedies exert their effect by a peculiar corroborâting of the Heart, and by that means, or without it, the Parts affected. For seeing that the Heart, Brain, Liver, Kidneys are all of them of a peculiar make and structure, and so likewise the liquid parts, as the Gall, the Blood and the Lympha; it may happen that the particles of a Remedy dissolved in the Stomach, and carried up and down the Body in the Vehicle of some of its Li∣quors, may according to their determinate Figure, Size, Stifness, Flexibility or Motion, &c. be more fit to be admitted in some one part of the Body, as the Brain, Heart, &c. than another, and so by continuing in the Pores thereof, and associating themselves to the Fibres, or furnishing it with some particles it wants, may strengthen the Tone of that Part, and enable it to resist the action of the Morbifick matter, and expel it.

XXI The sifth manner. Sometimes a Specifick Medicin may exert its operation, by producing such a Disposition in the Mass of Blood, as may enable Nature by correct∣ing, expelling, or other fit ways, to overcome the Morbifick matter, or other cause of the Distemper. For seeing that as most of the Diseases incident to Mans Body, are produced by a vitiated constituti∣on of the Blood, so the recovery of it to Health and Soundness depends on the restoring of it to its former state; a Specifick Medicament may divers ways effect this advantageous change of the Blood. As First, by furnishing the Blood with some very active particles, by which means it will not be necessary for the Midicament to raise any Fermen∣tation in it. Secondly, A Specifick may be of great use in restoring the Mass of Blood to a laudable state, by dilating and attenuating or thinning of it. For when the Blood is too thick, as frequent∣ly it is, it cannot so freely pass through the Ca∣pillary Vessels whence an obstruction will follow in them▪ whereby the Circulation of the Blood will be retarded, and great inconveniencies accrue to the Body. And on the other hand, if the Blood be too thin, especially if it be overmuch agitated, it will easily run out of the Vessels, and produce various Fluxes of Blood, and other dange∣rous effects, that commonly accompany the extra∣vasation of the Blood. Now a Specifick Medicin may correct this vitious consistence of the Blood, by furnishing it with such Particles, which by their Figure, Bulk, Motion, &c. may subdue those vitious particles that thicken the Blood, and atte∣nuate them; or by dividing the parts of it dispose it to a greater degree of Fluidity. And when the Blood is too thin, which is the effect sometimes of Diseases, and sometimes of certain Medicaments, and more particularly of Aloes, a Specifick in this case may afford such particles, as by their easie complication and infolding one another, may curb the too active particles of the Blood, which do too much attenuate it, or it may assist the expulsion of the said particles by transpiration, or any other way. Thirdly, a Specifick may be helpful to re∣store the Mass of Blood to its former good state, by some particular operation it may exert upon the Heart, by strengthning the Tone and Vigor of it, so as that it may be able to transmit the Blood to the greater advantage and welfare of the Micro∣cosm.

XXII. The sixth manner. Sometimes also a Specifick may unite its parti∣cles with those of the Peccant Matter, and with them constitute a Neutral Matter, that may be easily, or is not needful to be expelled. As when the Blood being impregnated with an Acid Juice, hath lodged the same in some stable part of the Body, as in the Liver, Spleen or Kidneys, &c. In this case the particles of the Specifick may with∣out any sensible contest or effervescence, when manifest Acids are mortified by such like Alkalies, so combine themselves with the particles of the vi∣cious Acidum, as to make one compound with them, which differing from the particles of the sowr Juice in Motion, Figure, Solidity and Stiff∣ness, or in one or more of the same, must needs constitute a substance of a Different Nature from the said Acid particles before that they were cor∣rected.

XXIII. An Adver∣tisement concerning Specificks. It was noted before, that when it was said that a Specifick doth cure a Disease, it is not to be un∣derstood as if a Specifick Remedy, or Nature by means of it, did for the most part cure Distem∣pers by one only of the propounded Modes, see∣ing that two, or more of them may concur to pro∣duce this effect. Besides, I have only here under∣taken to explain the operation of Specificks in Ge∣neral; but never asserted that the ways and modes by me propos'd, to be true and genuine, but on∣ly propounded them as so many probable ways whereby Specificks may produce their effects. Wherefore these things are not Dogmatically assert∣ed by me, but only delivered by me as Possible or Probable Explications, my chief design being only to evince thereby, that the Operations of Speci∣ficks are congruous to the Principles of Mechani∣cal Philosophy.

XXIV. An Objecti∣on against Specifick Medicins answered▪ There is an Objection the Rejecters of Specifick Remedies usually urge against them, which is, that by being taken into the Stomach and entrails, they are greatly changed by Digestion, and mix∣ture with the Aliments, a good part of them sent

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away by Excrement; and that as soon as they are got out of the Stomach, they pass through manifold Strainers of different Textures, which in all probability stop the greater part of the Me∣dicinal Particles. But this Difficulty will disap∣pear, if we consider that Rhubarb ••••ngeth the Urine of those that have taken it, many hours af∣ter, with a Yellow Colour. That Elaterium eaten by a Goat, communicates a purging quality to its Milk, so as to purge a Child that takes of it. For the articles of some Bodies do very obstinately ret••••n their Figures, and do not easily quit their virtue. For if a Meicament exerts its activity by impregnating the Blood, or any other Liquor in the Body, thereby turning it into a kind of Menstruum, it may so happen that the several Strainers through which the Particles are to pass, may stop the less f•••• parts of the Vehicle, so as to make the Menstr••••m more appropriate to the overcoming of the Peccant Humour, or that at least thereby it may be so changed as to restore this Substance in the Body of a Man rather than ano∣ther. And tho' there may but a small quantity of the Medicinal Matter reach to the part, on which it is to act, 〈◊〉〈◊〉 ought not we to question the effect upon that account, seeing that the 〈◊〉〈◊〉 of Natural Agents upon the Body of 〈◊〉〈◊〉 is not to be measured by their Bulk or Quantity, but by their Activity and Subtilty.

XXV. An Objecti∣on concern∣ing Topicks. An Objection may be also made against what hath been here asserted concerning the Operation of Medicaments, that all Topical Medicins, espe∣cially such as are applied to the Wrists, Amulets, and things hung about the Neck, or only out∣wardly touching any other part of the Body, can∣not afford sufficient Medicinal Particles for corect∣ing of the Peccant Matter, or subduing of the Dis∣ease. For an Answer to this Objection, it will be sufficient to consider that the Skin of Mans Body is very full of Pores, by which the more subtil particles of the Remedy may enter; as is evident from manifold instances. Water penetrates the Pores of the Bladder, and dissolves the Salt of Tartar or Sugar contained in it. Quick-silver mix∣ed with Ointments, and outwardly applied, insinu∣ates it self through the Pores of the Skin, into the most inward parts of the Body, where it often produceth most violent operations. Neither can it be difficult to conceive how the particles of any Specifick being once got into the Pores, may fur∣ther diffuse themselves throughout the ody, fo asmuch as near the Cuticle or thin outward Skin 〈◊〉〈◊〉 the Body there be many Capillary Vessels, which tho' very small, yet have their Cavities continu∣ous with other greater Vessels, and it will be easily understood that the particles of the Medicament, being once entred into these Capillary Vessels, will by the Vehicle of the Liquors contained in them, be transmitted to the Branches of the Principal Veins, and so by means of Circulation be mingled with the whole mass of Blood, and with it con∣veyed to all parts of the Body.

XXVI. Whether there be any Medi∣caments appropria∣ted to any particular part of the Body. The only difficulty that remains now to be re∣moved, is whether there e any Medicaments that are appropriate to this or the other particular part of the Body? To which I Answer▪ that there is no impossibility nor improbability in it, that the Particles of a Specifick Medicament should be de∣stinated more to one part of the Body than to ano∣ther, so as not only to strengthen it, and preserve its sound Constitution, but to restore it to its for∣mer strength and vigor, when 〈◊〉〈◊〉 by any Disease of Di••••emper: Foramc a by ••••eir par∣ticular Texture, Motion, &c. they may 〈◊〉〈◊〉 a pecu∣liar manner prepare the Molesting Matter for Ex∣pulsion, and withall so work upon the Fibres of the Part affected, as both to Enable it, and Excite it to free its self from its Enemy.


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