Travels of Jonas Hanway, Esq. through Russia into Persia, and afterwads [sic] through Russia, Germany, & Holland.
Hanway, Jonas, 1712-1786.
Page  [unnumbered]


JONAS HANWAY, Esq. so distinguish|ed as a philanthropist and a real Chris|tian, was born at Portsmouth on the 12th of August, 1712. His father was an naval offi|cer; but losing his life at an early age by an accident, the care of rearing and educating the family devolved on the mother, who put Jonas to school in London, where he acquired such branches of learning as might qualify him for a commercial life, and made some proficiency in Latin.

At the age of seventeen, he was bound apprentice to a merchant in Lisbon, where he served his time with great credit to himself and satisfaction to his master Soon after he returned to London, and accepted the offer of a partnership in the house of Dingly, a merchant at Petersburgh, who was engaged in a Persian trade through Russia.

In this capacity he performed the travels which form the subject of the following pages. His work early obtained celebrity; and the character of the man gave the stamp of authenticity to his descriptions, and of so|lidity to his remarks.

Page  4Mr. Hanway, having closed his commer|cial engagements, took up his residence in London, where he employed his time in literary pursuits, and in the far more valua|ble occupations, of disinterested benevolence and public-spirited services.

It is impossible to follow him through all his charitable and praise-worthy undertak|ings. His country and mankind were bet|tered by his various exertions in their behalf; and he lived to reap the applause that was due to him. Honoured and respected, he closed this transitory life on the 5th of September, 1786, in the seventy-fifth year of his age.

We now proceed to his travels. In April 1743, he embarked from the port of Lon|don for Riga. On his arrival there, about the end of May, he was carried prisoner to the Castle of Dwenamund, because he had come without a regular passport, though it was not customary to carry one. However, having letters of recommendation from the Russian ambassador, at the court of London, to the great chancellor of the empire, he was soon liberated.

He found the weather here as hot as it generally is in Portugal; for the sun, at this season, sinking below the horizon only for three or four hours, neither the earth nor the air had time to cool.

Mr. Hanway was received with great kindness by the British factors at Riga; but as a war at this time subsisted between the Swedes and Russians, the governor had re|ceived Page  5 express orders to suffer no one to pro|ceed to Petersburgh without the particular permission of the court. This being at length procured, Mr. Hanway provided him|self with a sleeping waggon, which is made of leather and hung upon braces, and in this manner he rode post to the capital.

Riga was founded about the year 1190, when this country first embraced Christiani|ty. It is the metropolis of Livonia, and was taken from the Swedes by Peter the Great in 1713. The chief commodities here are masts, timber, flax, and hemp, with which a considerable number of ships are annually la|den. The houses are built with steep roofs, and are seldom above two stories high. The German language is generally spoken here.

Having passed through several inconsidera|ble places, Mr. Hanway arrived at Narva, the capital of Esthonia, famous for the bat|tle fought here in 1700, when one hundred thousand Russians fled before a handful of Swedes. This city stands on a rising ground, and is clean and well fortified, though not large. Its trade chiefly consists in hemp and timber.

Our author reached Petersburgh on the 10th of June, and was much pleased with the general aspect of the city. Soon after his arrival here, it was judged expedient that one of the partners, in the commercial house to which he belonged, should proceed to Porsia; and the intimation he received of the distracted situation of that country did not Page  6 deter him from offering his services, which were accepted.

Having obtained a passport from the court of Russia, he provided a sleeping waggon, for himself, a second for his clerk, and a third for his baggage. He was also attended by a Russian servant, a Tartar boy, and a soldier; and took upon him the charge of thirty-seven bales of English cloth, which was sent for|ward on the 1st of September, and on the 10th, Mr. Hanway followed it.

In two days he reached the river Volcoff, where the ferry-man, discovering he was a merchant began to be insolent; for the Rus|sian boors entertain no high respect for the commercial character. The soldier, however, brought the fellow to submission, by exer|cising his cane, and our traveller was carried over in safety.

On the 13th, one of the waggons stuck in a morass, which obliged him to spend the night in that situation Next day they reached Baanitz, near Novogorod, where they found the weather mild, and the roads open and pleasant. Provisions were so cheap, that beef might be purchased for three farthings a pound, and matton and pork in proportion.

The 15th brought them to Valdal, the inhabitants of which are chiefly Poles, who were taken prisoners in former wars; but the distinction between them and the original natives is almost lost. The dress of the wo|men, however, is nearer than the generality Page  7 of the Russian peasants; but they greatly lessen the effect of their personal charms by paint and giddiness.

The surrounding country is very pleasant; and from the many love songs, which are here the delight of the Russians, it might be supposed that Venus had once fixed her re|sidence here; but the refined pleasures are scarcely known among the present race.

The next day, Mr. Hanway overtook his carravan at Twere, and fearing that he might not be able to reach Persia so soon as he in|tended, he ordered an additional horse to be put to each carriage.

The Russian conveyances for merchandise are about ten feet long and three broad, principally composed of two strong poles, supported by four slight wheels, nearly of an equal height. The bales are laid on a thick mat, and over them are placed other mats, with an outward covering of raw cow hides.

Twere is a very ancient city, seated on the Twersa, which runs into the Volga▪ It is a great rendezvous for merchants, who carry on their traffic along the banks of the last-mentioned river.

On the 20th, Mr. Hanway arrived at Moscow, the ancient metropolis of the Rus|sian empire.

Among other grand projects of Peter the Great, was a road, to extend from Peters|burgh to Moscow in a direct line, for the space of seven hundred and thirty-four versts, or four hundred and eighty-seven English Page  8 miles. This is in part executed, over such impediments as would have terrified a com|mon genious. For about one hundred and fifty versts, it is wholly made of wood, laid over morasses, till then thought impassable.

Moscow stands in 55 deg. 40 min. north latitude, and is built after the eastern man|ner, having few regular steets, but many gardens mixed with the houses. It is six|teen English miles in circumference; and the river Moskwa meandering through it, adds greatly to its beauty and convenience,

The imperial palace is chiefly remarkable for its thirty chapels, and its pendant gar|den. The number of churches and chapels in this city almost exceeds credibility. They are said to amount to one thousand eight hundred, but many of them are very mean.

The great bell of Moscow is at once a monument of art and folly. It weighs four hundred and forty-three thousand seven hun|dred and seventy-two pounds, and was cast in the reign of the late empress Anne; but the beam on which it hung being burnt, it fell to the ground, and suffered considerable damage.

This city is the general residence of the Russian nobility, who are not obliged to fol|low the court; and it contains the chief mer|chants and manufacturers of the empire. The dreadful conflagrations which have re|peatedly happened here, and the removal of the court, have united to diminish the gran|deur and extent of this place; and now there Page  9 is scarcely accommodations for the imperial retinue, without distressing the people.

Having made the requisite preparations, on the 24th of September, Mr. Hanway left Moscow, and passed through a picturesque and pleasant country, till he arived at Peris|lawl, where he found himself in another cli|mate: for the harvest here was not yet ga|thered in. The prospects are delightful, and the soil is well watered, but the inhabitants exhibit proofs of indigence and distress.

Traversing a pleasant country by good roads, on the 1st of October he entered the Step, where he overtook a caravan, consisting of forty loads of European goods, belonging to Armenian merchants Next day he ar|rived at Novochoperskaja, the Russian fron|tier towards the Don Cossacks, which is in|differently fortified, and is almost hid in a grove of oaks. The adjacent country is ve|ry delightful, and the travelling commodi|ous.

In the Cossack towns, the people appeared neat in their persons and comfortably cloth|ed. The woman were gay and comely; they wore a high cap, with two points, in the form of a crescent; and their shifts were ornamented with red crosses.

In travelling through the Cossack country for three days, Mr Hanway saw little more than land and sky, except some woods which covered the mountains to the eastward. At length they arrived at Grigoriskoi which, Page  10 forms a kind of peninsula. Here the inhabi|tants catch vast numbers of craw-fish, and ex|port the eyes for medicinal purposes. They dwell in oaken huts, and marry very young. Our author saw a boy of fifteen contracted to a girl of the same age.

On the morning of the 9th, they arrived under the lines that are thrown up from the Don to the Volga, for the distance of fifty versts. The foss is about sixteen feet deep, and a mound of earth rises to the height of twenty feet, with a strong wooden rail near the top. At certain distances are placed sentry-boxes, from which the guard can com|municate an alarm to the chief garrison at Zaritzen, which terminates the line on the western bank of the Volga. On this spot Peter I intended to join the Don with the Volga, and this canal was actually begun for that purpose; but it now serves as a defence against the incursions of the Tartars on that side

The Kuban Tartars were once very for|midable; but they are now kept in subjec|tion. These people made their appearance in small parties. In a deep valley, near Za|ritzen, which stands on a high bank of the Volga, was an encampment of Calmuck Tartars. They have the same turn of fea|tures with the Chinese; but are fierce and savage. Their arms are bows and arrows; and they feed on the flesh of horses, camels, dromedaries, and almost whatever falls in their way. They throw their dead to the dogs; Page  11 and if six, or more, feast on the corpse, they esteem it honourable to the defunct. What a singular and barbarous idea!

They pay religious adoration to little wooden images, which they caress when they are pleased, but beat and ill-treat when the weather is unfavourable, or fortune frowns on them.

Our traveller now set about procuring a vessel to carry his goods to Astracan, and found one, which he purchased for forty roubles or ten pounds. This bark, in her materials and equipment, was one of the most crazy and indifferent that was ever trusted with such a valuable cargo, particularly in such a dangerous navigation; but there was no alternative—a better was not to be pro|cured.

Having given the necessary instructions with regard to the conveyance of the goods, he prepared for his own voyage down the Volga, by engaging, for himself and attend|ants, two boats, each navigated by five men, with the addition of six soldiers, by way of protection. This precaution was requisite, as the Volga is frequently infested with pi|rates, who make use of row-boats, that carry from twenty to thirty hands, and are provid|ed with firearms. These marauders appear chiefly in the spring, when the river over|flows its banks, and facilitates their escape, should they meet with resistance. They sel|dom fail to murder, as well as rob, those whom they can overpower; but if taken, Page  12 they meet with the most exemplary punish|ment, which, cruel as it is, is not always sufficient to deter the rest of the gang.

The Russian soldiers are encouraged to take them alive; when they are put on a float, wherein a gallows is erected, armed, with iron hooks; and the wretched pirates, being suspended on them by the ribs, with a label over their heads signifying their crime, are launched on the stream, and writhe in agonies inexpressible till death releases them. It is a capital offence to give them the least relief, or even to dispatch them by a less painful death.

It is reported, that one of these miscreants found means to disengage himself from the hook, and, though naked and faint with the loss of blood, he got ashore, when the first object he saw being a poor shepherd, he knocked him on the head with a stone, in or|der to obtain his clothes. Such is the la|mentable depravity of some natures, that no danger can intimidate them, no example, however dreadful, can reclaim them!

On the 14th of October, Mr. Hanway put off from shore, and sailing down the ri|ver, he saw several water fowl, larger than swans, which the Russians call Dika Baba, or the wild old woman. They live on fish; and their fat is esteemed a specific in aches and bruises.

During their progress, the weather proved calm and the current moderate. In many places the banks were high and undermined; Page  13 in others they found a flat shore of various extent.

On the 17th they stopped at Chernoyare, about half way from Zaritzen to Astracan, from which it is distant two hundred versts. This place has some fortifications, and car|ries on a considerable trade, with the sur|rounding Tartar nations. Next night they had a providential escape from being lost; and what enhanced their gratitude for their deliverance, was the sight of several wrecks cast on the shore, near the spot of their dan|ger.

On the 19th, he reached Astracan, where he was obliged to wait for a vessel, com|manded by Captain Woodroofe, which was to convey him to Persia; and employed the interval in viewing this city and its envi|rons.

Astracan is the metropolis of a province of the same name, and stands in 47 deg. north latitude, within the limits of Asia, in an island about sixty English miles from the Caspian Sea. It contains about seventy thousand inhabitants, of various nations, whose different manners and customs exhibit an epitome of Asia. It is surrounded by an old brick wall, and is well garrisoned by six regiments of Russian troops. The houses are of wood, and most of them very mean. The upper part of the town commands a view of the Volga, which is here near three miles broad, and, from its occasional inundations, Page  14 is said to render the air insalubrious, and to bring on various diseases.

Many gardens and orchards surround As|tracan; and grapes are carried from thence, twice a week, to the court of Petersburgh, though the distance is not less than one thou|sand two hundred English miles▪ The me|lons are very good; but though the grapes are in such high request, the wine of this country is very indifferent.

About ten miles below Astracan is the small island of Bosmakoff, remarkable for its large storehouses of salt, from whence an im|mense extent of counrry is supplied. In this place likewise are very capital fisheries, par|ticularly of sturgeon, beluga, and assorta.

This country is much infested with locusts, which sometimes appear in such swarms that they darken the sky, and wherever they alight, leave not a blade of vegitation. Cap|tain Woodroofe informed our author, that once sailing down the Volga, a cloud of these insects had fallen into the river, and obstruct|ed the motion of the boat for many fathoms together.

The trade of Astracan consists in red lea|ther, linen and woollen cloths, the greatest part of which is exported to Persia, from whence they receive silks, cottons, and drugs, particularly rhubarb. The last article is en|grossed by the government, and private per|sons are prohibited from dealing in it, on pain of death.

Page  15While Mr Hanway was here, the go|vernor invited him to a feast at which were nearly three hundred dishes, which gave him an opportunity of seeing a singular specimen of Russian intemperance, in drinking goblets of cherry-brandy to excess. This feast was occasioned by the birth of the governor's grand-daughter; and each of the guests, made a present to the mother, according to his rank and abilities. In the opinion of our author, this is an ingenious way of levying contributions on merchants and others; and though less delicate than some of our own usages, is at least as honest and creditable.

For several miles round the city wherever the soil will admit of cultivation, are settle|ments of the Crim Tartars, a very civil and industrious people, subject to Russia. They raise goods crops of manna, oats, and water|melons; but their chief riches consist in their wives and children, their sheep, horses, and cattle.

When a daughter becomes marriageable, they cover her tent with white linen, tie a painted cloth on the top with red strings, and place by the side a painted waggon, which is to be her dowery. This is a signal for those who want a wife, and the girl is generally disposed of to him who offers her father the most valuable present.

On the 8th of November Mr Hanway left Astracan under convoy of the governor's barge, with twelve grenadiers, and slept the first night near a Calmuck settlement, com|posed Page  16 of circular tents about twelve feet high and fifteen yards in circumference. In the centre of the tent they make a fire, and the smoke issues out by a vent at top.

These people are miserably poor, and sub|sist all the year round on fish, which they catch in the Volga. They prefer living on the banks of that stream, where the flags and rushes grow to a great height, and assist to shelter them from the severity of the win|ter's cold.

At the efflux of the Volga are numerous small islands, and the whole scene appears wild and inhospitable. Arriving at Terkie, Mr. Hanway embarked on board an English ship, the Empress of Russia, pleased to ex|change his crazy bark for a vessel of good oak. It gave no less delight to see the Bri|tish flag, and to receive the attentions of his countrymen.

On the 3d of December, having anchor|ed in Langarood Bay, he sent to Mr. Elton, a British factor, to inform him of his arrival, when that gentleman waited on him, and con|ducted him to the shore, where he gave him a cordial reception.

Mr. Elton's habitation at Langarood, was eight English miles from the sea, in the midst of woods, surrounded by marshes, where the roads were almost impassable. This situa|tion naturally made the place very unwhole|some

Here Mr. Hanway spent several days in conversing about the Caspian trade. It ap|peared Page  17 that Mr. Elton was actually engaged in building ships for the shah, as had been reported in Russia; and Mr. Hanway took occasion to point out his apprehensions of the danger that might arise to their trade and settlement in Russia, in consequence of his engagements with that prince.

One great inducement to open the Caspian trade, was the hope of establishing a new branch of commerce from Astrabad to Mes|ched, from whence Mr. Elton thought it practicable to extend it to the northern ci|ties of the Mogul's empire. To attempt the execution of this design fell to Mr. Hanway's lot. He had brought with him goods to the value of five thousand pounds, for which he found no market in this country; and though the shah had made an express de|cree for his safe conduct in all parts of his dominions, he was under considerable appre|hensions, till he found that, in case of dan|ger, he might obtain a guard of soldiers.

Having taken leave of Mr. Elton, our traveller got on ship board, and they directed their course for Astrabad, where they arrived on the 18th of December The sea here, as in other parts of the Caspian, makes great inroads on the land, so that in many places, trees lie on the shore.

The ship having cast anchor, Mr Hanway sent an Armenian servant to know if he might land his goods in security; but he soon re|turned without any information. Instantly Page  18 they saw many fires lighted, the signal of alarm; for, it seems, the natives took them for pirates, and had put themselves on the defensive.

Two days after, Mr. Hanway went on shore, and having satisfied the natives that he was come on a friendly errand, they received him kindly, and conducted him and his at|tendants to a small village, the way to which lay through thick woods and winding paths.

Having dispatched his Armenian interpre|ter to Mahomet Zaman Beg, the governor of Astrabad, with his compliments, that chief returned him an assurance of his pro|tection, and cautioned him against putting any confidence in the natives on the coast. A few days after he received a visit from Na|zeer Aga, a Persian officer attended by a grave old man named Myrza, who had a high reputation for wisdom. The former had been recommended to Mr. Hanway as a per|son of great probity; and on this occasion he made him offer of his house at Astrabad, which our author accepted with grateful thanks.

About this time the vessel narrowly escap|ed being burnt, from the accidental confla|gration of a quantity of raw cotton, which was with difficulty extinguished with little damage, after it had nearly reached the pow|der chest. Same night their alarm was re|newed by the mountains appearing in a blaze, which fire was intentionally kindled to de|stroy the insects; but, spreading by the wind Page  19 and the long-continued drought, it made such progress, that the butter in the ship was melt|ed by its heat, and the natives were obliged to labour with all their might to divert its course from their villages.

On the 2d of January 1744, Mr. Hanway pitched his tent on the shore, and made pre|paration for conveying the goods to the city. That day they were entertained with extem|pore songs, dances, and congratulations by the natives; and in the evening they witnes|sed their devotions. Next morning Myrza's brother and two sons brought horses for Mr. Hanway, and in a few hours they reached the city.

The succeeding day our author waited on the governor, and made him a present of se|veral cuts of broad cloth and sugar-loaves. He was attended by several persons of dis|tinction in the city, and behaved with great condescension, telling Mr. Hanway that he was welcome to Persia, and that the city of Astrabad was now at his disposal. For this high-strained compliment, our traveller re|turned due acknowledgments, and expressed the grateful sense he felt of his kindness and protection.

Mr. Hanway, who was about to become the dupe of his own integrity and want of suspicion, now waited on Nazeer Aga, of whose politeness he had received some signal proofs. He was far advanced in years; but while his age and his white beard rendered his appearance venerable, his manly cheerful Page  20 manner made his company perfectly agreea|ble. This person had been the companion of Nadir, when he was no more than the chief of a party of robbers in the neighbour|ing mountains; but seemed too honest and unassuming for a favourite; yet those quali|ties had, perhaps, been his safeguard through life. The old man received Mr Hanway with many tokens of good will, and sent for some master carriers to agree about convey|ing his caravan to Mesched. Here our traveller first received an impression of the equivocating disposition of the Persians; he found it impossible to fix them to any thing, and therefore took his leave for that time.

A day or two after, several of the princi|pal persons of the place came to pay their respects to Mr. Hanway. Most of them had an air of importance, and spoke little; but af|ter sitting and smoking the caallean, a mode of using tobacco through water, for a few minutes, they rose and took their leave.

The difficulties and delays made by the carriers gave him great vexation, and some of the townsmen frequently importuned him to open his bales there, and sell them what they wanted. To this proposal he did not think it prudent to accede; but to keep them in good humour, he made the most considera|ble persons presents of cloth enough to make a ••at.

At length, on the persuasion of Nageer Aga, though contrary to his own sentiments, he suffered the carriers to set out with ten Page  21 loaded camels, two or three days before he was to follow them with the horses, and ap|pointed a place of rendezvous, on the other side of the mountains.

These being dispatched, Mr. Hanway made a visit to the governor, who appeared agitated and confounded. He pretended to be employed in providing horses to convey part of the king's treasure to Casbin, which prevented him from accommodating our traveller with soldiers and horses as he wished. This intelligence extremely startled him, but fortunately for his peace, he was at this time ignorant of the real extent of his un|happiness.

Determined to follow the caravan imme|diately, he prepared to set out; but while he was giving the necessary orders, Nazeer Aga told him this was not a lucky hour, and that he must not depart. Our author ex|pressed his reliance on a good Providence who ordered all events, and that all hours were the same to him. However, the catastrophe was now ripe. Scarcely had Nazeer Aga left him, when the hoarse sound of trumpets was heard to call in the neighbouring in|habitants, the shops were ordered to be shut, and the townsmen to man the walls.

Mr. Hanway now began to recollect ma|ny incidents which assisted to develope the plot. Nazeer Aga advised him to send or his ship, as they were all in extreme danger from a rebellion which had broken out in the vicinity of the city; but the vessel had sailed Page  22 to another port; and he found that no one was allowed to leave the city; so that the loads of cloth he had sent forward were de|voted to the insurgents without opposition.

It now appeared that Mahomet Hassan Beg, who had left the city some days before, had put himself at the head of a party Kha|jars and Turcoman Tartars, with an avowed intention of seizing the shah's treasure, and particularly our traveller's caravan.

The only consolation that Nazeer Aga could now give Mr. Hanway, was the as|surance, that while he lived, he should be secured from personal danger. The respect which had always been shewn by the chief of the insurgents to this old man, induced him to venture himself among them; but he used his eloquence and influence in vain to recal them to their duty, though they suffered him to return to the city.

A besieged city, with a faithless and weak garrison, was a new scene to Mr. Hanway; and the idea he had formed of the barbarity of the Turcoman Tartars increased the gloom inseparable from his situation. His attend|ants would have persuaded him to assume the Persian dress, but he chose to remain with|out disguise. The governor, however, and Nazeer Aga escaped by night in the habit of peasants, and left the townsmen to take c••e of themselves.

Those who had not engaged in the rebel|lion now cursed our traveller as the cause of their distress, alledging that it was his valua|ble Page  23 goods that had tempted the insurrection.

But he could not reproach himself with having given any just cause of offence to any one; and patiently waited the event. The town was surrendered on the 17th, and the king's treasure being seized, the general and his attentendants next visited Mr. Hanway, who, having collected his men into one room, sent a Tartar boy, who spoke the Turkish language, to introduce those hostile guests, and to tell them that he entreated humani|ty.

They assured him of personal security, and that as soon as the government was settled, his goods should be paid for; demanding at the same time to know where they were lodged, and asking for his purse, which they returned, after counting the money.

It was now apparent on what principles Myrza Mahomet had acted. He was in the secret of the rebellion at the time he invited Mr Hanway to the city, and had brought him there as a victim, devoted to ruin; but having nothing more than his life to lose, he dessembled the perfidy he had experienced, and endeavoured to secure the protection of Baba Sadoc, the new governor of the city, to whom he made a present of a piece of rich silk that he had found means to se|crete.

His purfe, however, was again demanded, and he was obliged to give it up. Indeed he found that the Turcomans were not satis|fied with his spoils; they proposed to Ma|homet Page  24 Khan Beg to have him and his at|tendants given up as slaves; and fearing lest he should be carried away by those barbarians, into their own country, he resolved to effect his escape.

The victors soon quarrelled about the plunder, and an order was issued that no one should pass the gates without the knowledge of Mahomet Hassen Beg. However, Mr. Hanway having given the governor a regular account of the real value of the goods, the better to carry on the farce, was presented with a bill for the amount, payable as soon as the new order of affairs was settled. The governor also directed that a guard and horses should be provided for him and his attend|ants.

Accordingly, on the 24th of January, they took their leave of the city or Astrabad, ac|companied by Myrza his brothers, and two sons. At the end of the first day's journey, one of Myrza's brothers offered to conduct Mr. Hanway to a house belonging to him in the adjacent mountain, which scheme he reso|lutely declined; and in this he was confirm|ed by the carriers, who expressed their ap|prehensions for his safety, if he complied.

It seems this villian supposed our traveller was still possessed of some concealed proper|ty, and having got him in his power, was de|termined to make use of the opportunity which presented itself of stripping 〈◊〉 of every thing. Finding he could 〈◊〉 ivigle him by false pretences, he scrupled not to Page  25 declare, that he would not suffer him to proceed a mile farther, unless he left his bag|gage, as he could not answer for his safety.

This crafty veteran, whose perfidiousness was exceeded by nothing but his hypocrisy, was playing a deep game. If the rebellion succeeded, he intended to make sure of the baggage; if it failed, be wished to have the merit of pleading his loyalty, by preserving it for the 〈◊〉. Mr. Hanway saw himself wholly at his mercy, and therefore, after having concealed every thing that was port|able, he delivered up the rest to him.

Next day, our author advanced with his Company about twenty English miles, and took up his lodgings in the open fields. Finding that his conductors sowed rebellion wherever they came, as the government of the shah was become very unpopular, from his tyranny and exactions, he determined to part with them as soon as possible. They had engaged to carry him to Balfrush, the capital of Mazandera; but hearing that the admiral of the coast, Mahomet Khan, was raising forces to check the progress of the revolters, they were intimidated from pro|ceeding to the place of their destination, and left him on the sea coast, before he knew how to manage without their services.

After a very perilous navigation, he pro|videntially got safe to Meschedizar, and soon after waited on the admiral of the coast, who congratulated him on his escape Page  26 with life, and joined in the assurances which he had received from the merchants at Bal|frush, that the shah would make him a com|pensation for his losses. This served to re|vive his dejected spirits; but next day, the rebels having advanced within a few miles of the city, and the admiral painting the dan|gers of his own situation, as he neither was in a condition to give battle, nor dared to retreat for fear of his master's displeasure, Mr. Hanway saw there was no time to be lost, and escaped by one gate as the Tar|tars entered by another.

The distresses he now underwent would be painful to relate. Hunger, cold, fatigue, and the most imminent danger surrounded him; but after various adventures, he had the good fortune to arrive at Langarood, which he had left seven weeks before; and was received by Mr. Elton with open arms, who rejoiced at his having escaped with li|berty and life.

Mr Hanway had been twenty three days in reaching this place, from the time he left Astrabad; and for sixteen days he had not taken off his boots, nor enjoyed a moment's comfortable repose. His legs and feet were much swelled and bruised; and he was in want of every necessary.

Being now in safety himself, his cares re|turned for his attendants, whom he had been obliged to abandon to their fate. Mr. Elton immediately sent servants and horses in quest of them, and if the disasters which befel Page  27 Mr. Hanway himself were great, the calam|ities which Mr. Hogg, his clerk, had been doomed to suffer, infinitely surpassed them. This unfortunate man was almost expiring of a consumption, when he was brought to Langarood; he had been exposed, for three days and as many nights, to the cold and rain, without food or shelter; he had been five times robbed, and at last stripped of his clothes, and left almost naked; and would infallibly have perished, had he not been re|lieved by the charity of some dervises, who•• retreat in the mountains he had the good fortune to discover.

One of the Armenian servants, named Matteuse, and his companions, did not re|turn till three weeks after, and had the good fortune to escape many of those hardship▪ Sadoc Aga had given them a passport, the dictation of which will give a pretty good idea of the idiom of the oriental languages, as well as of Persian arrogance. "To the victorious armies be it known, that Matt|use, the Armenian is here. Let him not be molested, but live under our shadow."

Being recovered from his fatigues, Mr. Hanway set out for Reshd, and after tra|velling seven miles, arrived at Lahijan, which is seated on an eminence, and is reckoned the most healthy town in the province of Ghilan. The rains had filled a large flat with water, in the centre of which stood 〈◊〉 grove on a moderate elevation, which servePage  28 to beautify the prospect, and to render it as delightful as the season would permit.

Here he was received by Hadjee Zamon,* a man of sense and authority, who loudly complained of the inhumanity of the shah and his officers. Supper being brought in, a servant presented a bason of water and a towel to the guests, to wash and dry their hands with; and then a kind of tea-board was set before each, covered with a plate of pleo, in which was a small quantity of mine|ed meat mixed up with fruits and spices. Plates of comfits, sherbet, and other weak liquors, were also served up. Every viand in this country is so prepared, that it may be eaten with the fingers; to cut dressed meat is reckoned an abomination.

Supper being finished, warm water was brought in to wash with, and then the con|versation was resumed. This was carried on with great decency and attention to the sen|timents of the aged. It is not the richest man who is here regarded, but he who is most esteemed for wisdom and experience.

Next morning our traveller set forward to Reshd, well pleased with his last night's en|tertainment; and the following day arrived at that city, where he had the pleasure to be visited by two English gentlemen, and three French missionaries. Soon after, he paid a visit of ceremony to Ordo Kouli Beg, gover|nor Page  29 of the province, who received him with much politeness, and ordered a chair to be set for him; a mark of attention not often paid in this country, where European fashi|ons are little regarded. The apartment was full of people, seated on felts of camel's hair. After some general conversation, Mr. Hanway related the history of his misfor|tunes, and soon took his leave.

Having here provided himself with clothes, arms, mules, and horses, he pursu|ed his journey on the 26th. In the vicinity of Reshd, are rice fields and plantations of mulberry-trees. The mountains, however, are composed of naked rocks, piled on each other to a great height, and the only fertili|ty is in the vales.

On the 28th they passed the river Kizi|lazan in canoes, and swam over the horses and mules; but the rapidity of the stream rendered this very dangerous. As they as|cended the mountains, they found the cli|mate much altered; and the wind blowing fresh, they were obliged to dismount and lead their cattle along the narrow paths among the precipices. The rocks here almost rose perpendicular from the river.

Continuing their progress over the moun|tains, on the 1st of March they came to the great plain of Casbin, then covered deep in snow, which reflected such brightness from its surface as painfully affected the organs of sight. The villages in this plain are built in such a manner, that half the tenement is un|der Page  30 the surface of the earth, and the roof is raised into a cone, the better to carry off the snow. That night they lodged in a ru|ined stable; and next day resumed their journey before sun rising.

When Mr. Hanway arrived at Cast in, he waited on Hadjee Abdulcrim, the principal merchant in the town, who provided him with a handsome lodging, and told him that it was impossible to proceed farther at pre|sent, on an account of the snow.

The houses of Casbin are almost wholly subterraneous, and many of the gardens are below the level of the adjacent lands, to fa|cilitate the conveyance of water to them. In general they build with unburnt brick, and use a strong cement of lime. Their habita|tions are flat roofed, and consist of two di|visions within an inclosure of mud. In the exterior court is a spacious room called the Aviam, open on one side, and supported by pillars, where the men dispatch their busi|ness; and behind this is the haram, or wo|men's apartment. Niches in the walls sup|ply the place of tables. The floors are co|vered with large carpets, and large pieces of felt are used by way of cushions.

Mr. Hanway was handsomely entertained by the Hadjee on the 3d of March. His host enquiring how he liked Persia, our tra|veller told him the disasters he had met with; when he received the comfortable assurance, that the shah would do him justice; but gave a pathetic description of the misery to which Page  31 the country was reduced; and instanced Cas|bin, which was reduced from twelve thou|sand houses to less than a tenth of that num|ber. Mr. Hanway sensibly remarked, that when the sovereign had accomplished his de|signs, there was reason to suppose, he would alter his system; for that it never could be his purpose to destroy his people, as that would be annihilating his own consequence.

In Casbin is a palace built by Nadar Shah, which Mr. Hanway visited. It has a long avenue of lofty trees before the en|trance, and is inclosed by a wall of about a mile and a half in circumference, with only one entrance. Within this area are four large squares, adorned with trees, fountains, and running streams. The apartments are raised about six feet from the ground; and the aviam, or open hall, which stands in the centre, shuts in with folding doors. The rooms are ornamented in the Italian taste, and the ceilings are embellished with moral sentences, arranged in squares. Most of the windows are composed of painted glass, in which the figures are drawn in proper shades, and executed with great felicity of design.

The haram makes a magnificent appear|ance, and is quite separated from the other parts of the palace, by a wall of its own. The rooms are sinely decorated, and the whole is refreshed with fountains, and adorn|ed with elegant and expensive embellish|ments.

Page  32Near the haram is the eunuchs' apart|ment, remarkable only for its having but one door. Here are likewise some old a|partments built by Shah Abas, in which are some indifferent pictures, by European artists.

The city of Casbin is fortified by a wall and turrets. It is famous in history for hav|ing been one of the chief cities of the anci|ent Parthia, the residence of many of the Persian kings, and the burial place of He|phoeston, the favourite of Alexander the Great. However, the greatest part of this once-celebrated place was now in ruins.

On the 11th of March the snow being chiefly dissolved, and the weather warm. Mr. Hanway set out with a caravan, that was carrying money to Shiras, under a guard of eight hundred Afghans. As he ad|vanced, scarcely any thing met his view but ruin and devastation, which was the more pitiable in a climate and soil naturally good.

In Persia it is an established custom for the military to pillage wherever they go, or at least to compel the natives to furnish them with whatever they want. This hard treat|ment steels the hearts of the peasants against the calls of humanity. They defend their property by barricadoing their houses, and consider every stranger as a foe, by which means the innocent suffer, as well as the guilty.

Mr. Hanway at length discovered that all his Persian fellow-travellers were in the cus|tody Page  33 of a messenger. One of them who was a native of the eastern parts of Persia, particularly attracted his notice. He was al|most black; and apprehended himself to be in considerable danger from the resentment of the Shah. Being of a communicative disposition, and finding that our author was an European, he freely spoke his sentiments.

"I am come from Ispahan," said he, "where I have been two years engaged in raising forces for the shah; and, in return for my services, he has lately extorted four thousand crowns from me, and I am now under the dread of some other act of vio|lence. It is no unusual thing for my mas|ter to send for a man, in order to strangle him; and, for my part, I should be glad to compound for a severe beating."

This prisoner endeavoured to learn a pray|er by heart, which, if he repeated right in the presence of the shah, he said, it would divert his wrath. He had also another spell, which was the repetition of ten particular letters of the alphabet as he entered the royal tent, closing a finger at each, and keep|ing his fist clenched till he came before the throne; when he was suddenly to open his hands, and by the discharge of his magic ar|tillery, to subdue his sovereign's resentment.

It is astonishing to see in how many in|stances the Persians demonstrate the highest superstition. Almost every motion of the Page  34 body is considered as possessed of magic power.

Sneezing is held a happy omen; and they facy that falling meteors are the blows of the angels on the heads of the de|vils. Cats are held in great esteem, and dogs are proportionably detested. The Turks, however, are not behind hand with them in superstitious folly. In the reign of Shah Abas, the grand seignior sent to desire that he would not suffer any of his subjects to dress in green, which colour belonged to the prophet and his descendants. Shah Abas, who was a man of an enlightened mind, returned this humorous answer: That if the grand seignior would prevent the dogs from watering the grass in Turkey, he would comply with his request.

On the 17th, they began to approach the camp, and already fell in with the advanced guard. As they drew near the place where they expected to find their doom, the fears of the Persian convoy increased, and they took leave of our author with heavy hearts. Their conductor, on wishing them to get on quickly, was asked, why he hastened them; "for, dost thou not know," said one of them, "that to condemned persons, every hour of life is precious?"

Mr. Hanway having sent forward his in|terpreter to the shahs minister, appointed for the reception of strangers, to receive in|structions; on the 20th pitched his tent near the royal standard, and had the satisfaction Page  35 of hearing that the rebellion of Astrabad was suppressed. But be had not been long in this situation, before a loaded piece, ac|cidentally going off in his tent, had very near deprived him of life; nor was he free from apprehension of being called to account for the danger in which this involuntary bu|siness had involved others, particularly as it happened so near the royal residence. How|ever, it passed with no very serious conse|quences to any one.

Having paid his respects to Mustapha Khan, he was received with many marks of civility, invited to dinner, and made com|fortable, by the assurance that justice should be done him. Meanwhile he delivered his petition into the chancery; and had the pleasure to hear that it was believed, his ma|jesty would pardon the Persians who had accompanied him from Casbin, as a com|pliment to him.

In a few days, the royal standard was tak|en down, as a signal for striking the tnts, and the whole army moved with great regu|larity, and again encamped about two leagues and a half distance.

Soon after our traveller received a decree, by which it was ordered, that he should de|liver in the particulars of his losses in wri|ting, to Behbud Khan, the general in As|trabad, who had orders to restore whatever part of the goods might be found, and to pay the deficiency, out of the sequestered estates of the rebels, to the last farthing. Page  36 As this laid him under the necessity of re|turning to Astrabad, it was not quite what he wished for, but he thought it prudent to acquiesce.

Mr. Hanway being now made easy on the subject of his loss, amused himself with tak|ing a ride round the Persian camp. The tents of the ministers and officers were pitch|ed in front, near that of the shah, and oc|cupied a considerable space. The pavillion, in which his majesty usually sat to give au|dience, was of an oblong form, supported by three poles, adorned at the top with gilt balls. It had no appearance of appropri|ate magnificence, and the front was always open, even in the most unfavourable wea|ther The roof was covered with cotton cloth, lined with clouded silk. On the floor were spread carpets, on which the shah some|times sat cross-legged, and sometimes he in|dulged himself with a sofa.

At a distance behind were the monarch's private tents, where he retired to his meals; and almost contiguous were the tents of his ladies, separated from each other by curtains. The boundaries of the shah's quarter were occupied by his eunuchs and female slaves; and almost the whole inclosure was surround|ed by a strong fence of net-work, guarded by a nightly patrole, that exercised severity against all intruders.

The camp market was about half a mile in extent. It consisted of tents ranged like the houses in a street, where all kinds of Page  37 provisions and articles of convenience were sold. An officer superintends this district of the camp, and rides up and down, to pre|serve peace and order. All the dealers are under the protection of some of the cour|tiers, who are themselves the principal spe|culators in grain, by which they make vast profits.

The shah had about sixty women, and a|bout the same number of eunuchs. When he changed his station, he was preceded by running footmen, chanters, and a watch guard, that spread a mile or two, to give notice of their master's approach, and to warn the people from intruding. Howe|ver, when he travelled without his women, this precaution was not attended to, and his subjects were allowed to approach him. His women, and other ladies of distinction, rode astride on white horses, or were carried on camels in a kind of elegant panniers. Wo|men of inferior rank mixed among the crowd; but not without a linen veil over their faces particularly those of Persian birth, who are very scrupulous in this respect. A|bout one female to ten males is the usual proportion in the shah's camp.

The horse furniture belonging to Nadir was to the last degree expensive. He had four sets of it, one mounted with pearls, another with rubies, a third with emeralds, and a fourth with diamonds of great magni|tude. The immense value of those trap|pings could only be equalled by the barba|rous Page  38 taste in which they were executed. In a visit to Mustapha Khan, our traveller of|fered to get a complete set of horse furni|ture made up in Europe for the shah, which would infinitely surpass the workmanship of such as he possessed; but the khan, perfectly knowing his master's temper, replied, "the shah has not patience enough to wait till they are finished."

The officers, and even the soldiers, seem to have a pride in the splendor of their horses' trappings; and, indeed, their accou|trements and arms in general, are very rich. It seems to be a principle of policy in the monarch, to keep his army dependent, by encouraging them to expend their money in articles of vanity.

Mustapha Khan, one of the best and great|est men in the Persian court, shewed so much attention to Mr Hanway, that, out of gra|titude, he presented him with a gold repeat|ing watch, some fine cloth, and silk. The chief at first declined accepting them; but at last, being prevailed on to honour our traveller so far, he made a return in some jewels, which had once decorated the head|dress of an Indian. The principal jewel consisted of a large sapphire set in gold, and encompassed with diamonds

On the 27th of March, Mr. Hanway left the Persian camp, and had two soldiers as|signed for his protection They now took a different route; and had every where the melancholy prospect of vast tracts of land, Page  39 of the richest soil, lying waste, and towns and villages, once populous and handsome, reduced to ruin and desolation

Next day, in the vicinity of an inaccessi|ble mountain, they discovered five persons, who put themselves into a threatening posture, which gave our author some uneasiness. The soldiers entered into a parley with one of them, and purchased a stolen horse, belong|ing to the party of marauders, who, it seems, were intimidated from attacking Mr. Han|way, by the reputation which the Europe|ans possess for their dexterity in the use of fire-arms. From this adventure, our author had no very exalted opinion of the reliance he could place on his military guards.

On the 29th, they ascended the summit of a very high mountain, where they found the air so extremely subtle and piercing, that it was with difficulty they could breathe. Descending, however, into the valley, they enjoyed a very different climate, and Abar appeared before them with an enchanting aspect. But this city had suffered like the rest, and it was with difficulty they could procure a lodging in it.

The mountains, over which their direct road lay, being still covered with snow, they were obliged to take a circuit us route, and in the space of four leagues, they had occa|sion to cross a branch of the Kizilazan no less than sixty-five times This river was about thirty feet wide, and between two and Page  40 three deep: the stream was rapid, and the bottom stoney and rough.

After a journey of ten hours, they arriv|ed at a desolate caravansary, where they found nothing but water; but some hospita|ble inhabitants of a village they had previ|ously passed through, had supplied them with provisions. Next day, on approaching the mountains that cover Ghilan, they found the reflection of the sun so strong, that it was with difficulty they saved themselves from the scorching heat. At length, being almost exhausted, they came in sight of the village of Arsevil, which being barricadoed with large fir trees, except one narrow passage, excited a suspicion that it was in a state of rebellion. This apprehension, however, was soon relieved, by their learning that the in|habitants had thus secured themselves from the couriers of the shah, who seize their horses, and ride them without mercy. They gave our traveller and his attendants a kind reception; but in two hours after their arri|val, eight couriers arrived, well-armed, em|ployed on some mission for their sovereign. These couriers exercise many acts of wanton cruelty, and think the authority under which they act is sufficient to protect them. The postmasters, who supply them with horses, are subject to grievous oppressions, and have frequently demands made upon them beyond what they can answer. One of these contractors being charged by Nadir with disappointing his couriers, made this bold Page  41 reply: "For every ten horses in my power, you send me twenty couriers; and a man had better die at once than live to serve a rascal." With this he immediately stabbed himself. The shah exclaimed, "Save him! he is a brave fellow!" but humanity was now too late: the wound was mortal.

While in this village, Mr. Hanway had the pain to see some youths, invested with military power, striking old men, whose as|pect entitled them to reverence, for trivial o|missions, or for no fault whatever. His Ar|menian servants seemed inclined to imitate their example; but he restrained them, by the assurance, that they should suffer tenfold punishment if they injured any one.

After crossing a high mountain, they des|cended into a pleasant and fruitful valley. Spring had already strewed the ground with her finest bloom; and the brightness of the sky, together with the picturesque appear|ance of the country, filled the mind with the most pleasing ideas. The river Kizila|zan meandered through this delicious spot, and the most beautiful woods and lawns di|versified the scene.

How happy, says Mr. Hanway, might Persia be, did not a general depravity of manners involve her inhabitants in such in|extricable confusion! But how much hap|pier still are those countries, though under a less favourable sky, which enjoy a mild go|vernment, and whose inhabitants are inspired Page  42 with sentiments of true religion and virtue, which alone can blunt the edge of those ills to which mankind are universally subject!

On the 1st of April, Mr. Hanway passed the defiles of the mountains, which guard the province of Ghilan, and next day arriv|ed at Reshd, where he had the pleasure of meeting some of his friends. On the 5th, he reached Langarood, where he once more found himself happy in the society of Mr. Elton and the French missionaries.

Though near the scene of his former suf|ferings, and obliged to have intercourse with some of those who had contributed to his disasters, with a mind superior to revenge, he indulged that Christian charity which a|lone can ensure tranquillity, and render the mind happy when it turns on itself.

Mr. Hanway was here visited by a Persian priest, in company with Shahverdie Beg. They entertained him with several quotati|ons from their pets, particularly in regard to love and women; and expressed them|selves on this subject with great delicacy. The priest, or mullah, observed, that though their laws allowed of four wives, besides con|cubines, he considered that man as the most virtuous, who confined himself to one; while, on the other hand, he regarded celi|bacy as a crime against nature

The Persians may marry for a stipulated time, and after 〈…〉xpired, both parties are at libery; but if the woman proves preg|nant, 〈…〉 obliged to support her for Page  43 a year, and if she produces a male child, it belongs to the father; but if a female, she retains the exclusive right to it. Even legi|timate marriage does not seem to entitle the women to any distinguished privileges; for they are considered as little more than crea|tures formed for the pleasure of their lords.

The women of Ghilan are fair and hand|some. They have black eyes and hair; and they darken the former by art. They are generally low in stature, and have delicate features. The children of both sexes have fine complexions; but the boys soon con|tract a tawney hue.

The women here are very industrious, and are frequently employed in the toils of agri|culture, on which occasions they do not al|ways conceal their faces with a veil. When women of rank, however, go abroad, they are not only veiled, but have a servant to clear the way for them; and it is reckoned the greatest mark of unpoliteness to look at them.*

The Persians are much governed by shew and external parade. Hence some of the European factors have carried their ostenta|tion to the most ridiculous pitch. Perhaps this conduct is politic among a people who Page  44 are swayed by appearance; but it seems in some cases to be carried too far.

The province of Ghilan is partly sur|rounded by mountains, and has many diffi|cult passes, for which reason it is not easily kept in subjection. Reshd, the capital, was formerly reckoned a most insalubrious situa|tion, from the thickness of the woods which surrounded it; but some of these have been cleared, and the place is no longer so fatal to life. The whole province however is marsay; and it is observed by the natives, that only women, mules, and poultry enjoy health, which may possibly arise from the confine|ment to which they are generally subject.

But though the climate is unpropitions, the soil is rich, and produces exuberant crops. Fruits of all kinds are very plenti|ful; but the grapes, for want of cultivation, are but indifferent Indeed, most of the fruits are unfavourable to the health of stran|gers, particularly the peaches and figs, which partake of the pernicious moisture of the soil.

Having taken care to provide himself a proper armed guard, on the 1st of May, Mr. Hanway set out for Astrabad The first evening they were benighted and lost in a wood, though they had successively pro|cured several guides, who abandoned them through fear. In this dilemma they ad|vanced towards a light, where they found a house barricadoed with trees. In vain did they use their entreties with the 〈…〉Page  45 conduct them to Radizr: they were oblig|ed to break into his house by force, and to carry him with them in a rope. Unwarrant|able as this conduct may appear, it is conso|nant to the practice in this distracted coun|try; and they took care to reward him for his services, though they were involuntary.

Next day they entered the province of Mazanderan. On the 4th their cattle were attacked by a large wolf; but being driven off by the guard, the savage content|ed himself with killing a cow. Soon after they fell in with a detachment of fifty soldi|ers, the commander of whom courteously of|fered his service to guard them. Ten men were accepted, and the officer was compli|mented with cloth for a coat.

As they advanced farther into this pro|vince, which greatly resembles Ghilan in its soil, climate, and productions, the peasants began to grow daring, and one of them seized the commander of their troop by the throat As it is dangerous to proceed to extremities, Mr. Hanway recommended for|bearance, and even withdrew from the house assigned for their lodgings to a tent in the open air, that he might not incommode the women and children belonging to the fami|ly. Such attentive humanity is very amiable in any person, and probably was little ex|pected among the people of this country. However, night drawing on, he found him|self in a very bad neighbourhood; for these •••lagers having engaged in the late rebelli|on, Page  46 began to be apprehensive that the stran|gers were sent to seize them, and took to their arms, but soon retired. The inhabitants of the neighbouring mountains were equally disaffected, and several horsemen poured down into the village in the night, no doubt, with a view of plundering them; but find|ing Mr. Hanway and his party prepared, they returned without attempting any thing. It was evident they were considered as ex|tremely rich; for the natives would not be persuaded, but that all the brass buttons on their clothes were solid gold.

As soon as it was day, they left this un|pleasant situation, under a hot sun, which the Persians seemed little to regard. During the heat of the day, however, they took shel|ter in a wood, resolving in future to travel only in the cool. As they approached to|wards Amul, the country appeared still more pleasant. The city stands at the foot of Mount Taurus, and is washed by a fine river, over which there is a bridge of twelve arches.

The Persians have a tradition, that if any governor or commander passes this bridge on horseback, he will soon be deprived of his office, if not of his life. On this account, though the stream is very rapid, the natives generally ford it; and as our author did not chuse to be regarded as a person excluded from the common bounties of heaven, he thought proper to gratify opinion so far as to alight, and lead his horse over this fated bridge.

Page  47Here are the ruins of an old fortress, which appears to have been very strong and regular for Persia; and likewise a stone pa|lace, in which Shah Abas often resided, which commands a pleasant prospect, and is well contrived for coolness and convenience. In the garden are cypress trees of extraordi|nary size and height.

In this city our traveller met with a wri|ter belonging to Mahomet Khan, who, af|ter detailing the particulars of the late rebel|lion, invited him to a concert of music. One instrument resembled a flute, another a gui|tar, and a third a kettle-drum; to the mu|sic of which an old man and two boys sang and danced. Dancing is considered in this country as mean and ignoble, and is prac|tised by none except such as make a trade of it for hire. It seemed principally to consist in gesticulation.

To entertain Mr. Hanway to the best of his power, the writer then sent for a priest, celebrated for his voice; but neither the vo|cal nor instrumental music had much ch••ms for an European ear.

In the evening of the 9th, Mr. Hanway left Amul, and travelled through a delight|ful country till they reached Balfrush, the capital, where he learned additional circum|stances relative to the fate of the rebels. Among the rest, he was told, that the go|vernor appointed by Sadoc Aga, being seiz|ed, had holes cut in his flesh, and lighted candles put into them, in which shocking Page  48 condition the unhappy chief was led aked about the market place, till he expired with loss of blood.

A day or two after Mr. Hanway paid a visit to Mahomet Khan, who had a delightful residence a few miles from the city. It was far from being superb; but the adjacent woods and rivulets gave it an air of charm|ing simplicity, beyond the finest strokes of art. In the area before the house, one hundred and fifty men were drawn up under arms, in double lines, to receive the guest. Our author alighted from his horse at a small distance, and advanced towards the khan with the usual salutation. He was sitting in the aviam, or outer court, and re|ceived him with many expressions of kind|ness; and, as a proof of his regard released a man that was tied and condemned to be beaten; adding, that he did this purely to honour his visitor.

Our traveller made this chief a present of some fine cloths, and a case of choice li|quors, of which he was immoderately fond. Having prevailed on his guest to tarry all right, he ordered poultry and a sheep to be killed. Resolving to shew him such attenti|on as would wipe off the stain of his former oil treatment; for which he condescended to make an apology.

After dinner, music and dancers were ent for, who tortured the nerves of our au|thor the whole evening with their noise and gesticulation. When the dancing men finish|ed, Page  49 they presented Mr Hanway with an orange, which was a civil intimation that they expected a recompence for their trou|ble.

This entertainment being over, the khan invited him to drink brandy with him, and expressed his astonishment, when he found that an European and a Christian was not fond of spirituous liquors The khan, and his friends, indeed, shewed no reluctance in this respect; and after Mr. Hanway retired, it is probable they finished the strong waters he had presented him with. The usual mode is for each person to have a plate of sweet|meats before him, and to drink their liquor out of tea-cups, till they drop with intoxi|cation.

Next morning, Mr. Hanway viewed the monument of the khan's favourite wife, who had lately been buried in an adjoining wood. It had an epitaph, in which the trite senti|ment was repeated, of comparing life to a flower, that blossoms in the spring, attains the full lustre of beauty in the summer, be|gins to wither and decline in autumn, and when winter comes on, is liable to be blown to the ground by every gust of wind, where it lies and rots

Mr. Hanway now left Balfrush, and pro|ceeded on his journey through a fine country to Alleabad, which has a palace of mean ap|pearance, but delightfully situated. The most capital work of art in this vicinity is Page  50 the causeway, built by Shah Abas the Great, which extends from Keskar, in the south-west corner of the Caspian, to Astrabad, and be|yond it; comprising, in the whole, an ex|tent of three hundred English miles. It is raised to the middle, with ditches on each side, and, in some places it is bordered with a thick wood, whose luxuriant branches af|ford a delightful shelter to travellers.

At Sari, the next stage, are four temples of the Guebres, or worshippers of fire, who formerly possessed all this coast. These re|ligious edifices are rotundas about fifty feet in diameter, raised to a point of near one hundred and twenty feet in height, and are formed of the most durable materials.

Continuing their route to Ashreff, they had a view of the mountain Demoan, on which, the Persians say, the ark rested, while the Armenians ascribe this honour to Mount Arrarat, which in clear weather is also visible on the western coast of the Cas|pian.

At Ashreff, they saw a celebrated palace of Shah Abas, the most magnificent of any on the coast of the Caspian Sea. Over the entrance are the arms of Persia, a lion with the sun rising behind him, emblematic of the strength and glory of this empire. Within the gate is a long avenue, on each side of which are thirty apartments for guards. The next gate opens into a garden, through which runs a stream of limpid water, that falls in Page  51 several cascades, with a bason and fountain at each.

In an adjacent building is a princely avi|am, painted with gold flowers on a blue ground, and containing several portraits, by a Dutch artist, of no masterly execution. On the sides of the aviam are several small apart|ments, and behind them other waterfalls that pour down the sides of a sleep mountain clothed with wood.

The garden is chiefly laid out in walks, bordered with rows of pines, orange, and other fruit trees. Beyond this is another garden, which seems to be considered as sa|cred ground, as they were not permitted to enter it.

They next visited a banquetting house, dedicated to a grandson of Ali; and out of respect to this place, they were desired to leave their swords at the door. The so|lemnity with which our author was intro|duced here, inspired at first a kind of awe; but it was soon exchanged to contempt, on seeing the room adorned with such paintings as could only please a voluptuous Mahome|tan.

They were then shewn another house and garden, in which was a stately dome whose top was painted, and the was covered with Dutch tiles, as far as the gallery. On an eminence, at some distance, stood a building intended for an observatory.

The whole structure commands the view of a fine country and of the Caspian Sea. Page  52 In short, every circumstance conspires to ren|der this place delightful, and filled our au|thor with many pleasing ideas; but the wretchedness of the people constantly recur|red to his thoughts, and damped the plea|sure he felt from a view of the country.

On the 15th, they left Ashreff, and on the way met a courier from Myrza Maho|met to beseech Mr. Hanway to hasten his journey, and use his interest to save his life. As they approached the city of Astrabad, they met several armed horsemen, carrying home the peasants, whose eyes had been put out for taking a part in the late rebellion. Near the entrance of the city on each side, was a stone pyramid, full of niches which were filled with human heads that made a most ghastly appearance.

On entering Astrabad for the second time, Mr Hanway found it a scene of misery and desolation That day the eyes of thirty persons had been scooped out, four had been beheaded, and one burnt alive; two hun|dred women had been banished the city, one hundred and fifty of whom had been sold to the soldiers as slaves.

When Mr. Hanway was introduced to Behbud, the king's general, he found him surrounded by soldiers, and employed in judging and condemning the unhappy in|surgents. After the first compliments, our author delivered the shah's decree, which was received with every mark of respect, and given to the secretary to read. A speedy Page  53 compliance with it was promised, and Mr. Hanway was then entertained with sweet|meats, and large white mulberries, which are a delicious fruit. During this repast, the prisoners were removed, and the secreta|ry made a complimental speech on the utili|ty of merchants, who ought, for their ser|vices to kings and countries, to be protected by all parties, and injured by none.

Sadoc Aga, who had a principal hand in Mr Hanway's misfortunes, was then brought before the tribunal. When our au|thor saw him before, he was a youth of more than common vivacity, was richly dressed, well armed, and full of mirth. What a change now appeared! His garb was mean, his eyes were deprived of sight, he drooped his head, even the tone of his voice was altered. The general told him he must pay for our traveller's goods, and en|quired how they had been disposed of. "All I know of them," said he, "is, that they were taken by Mahomet Hassan, and by him distributed to the people. Would to God! that Mahomet Hassan, and his whole house had been buried deep in the earth, ere I had heard his name! And how can I refund? I have nothing left, but this mean garb you see on my back; and this, indeed, is more than sufficient; for, after you have deprived me of fight, of what value is life to me?"

This feeling speech was accompanied with that emotion, natural to a daring spirit: it Page  54 ought to have melted the tyrant; but to si|lence him, he cruelly ordered the miserable man to be struck on the mouth, which was done with such violence, that the blood gush|ed out.

Sadoc Aga being removed, Myrza Ma|homet was brought in, loaded with wooden fetters, and a heavy triangular wooden col|lar about his neck. Mr. Hanway might then have retorted the wrongs he had receiv|ed, had he been a brute; but he was a man, and a Briton, and wounded with the pite|ous objects before his eyes, his heart was too full to bear the sight any longer.

He then visited Mahomet Hussein Khan, whose son had been governor of Astracan before the rebellion, and who had been charged with the murder of Shah Toehmas, the last legitimate sovereign of Persia. He assured Mr Hanway that his business should be expedited according to the shah's order, and observed, "I am charged with a parti|cular commission to excecute punishment on the rebels. I must do that for which I know I shall be damned. To-morrow is a day of blood; I will make them pay you, though I pull the money out of their throats."

This was too much for humanity to hear: Mr. Hanway was incapable of thanking him for this bloody intention. The unhappy re|bels had acted, indeed, as if they meane to devote themselves to ruin; yet an oppositi|on to such execrable tyranny wanted only Page  55 more strength and wisdom to give it the stamp of glory.

Next day, eight Turcoman Tartars be|ing taken, were brought into the city, on which the general expressed great satisfacti|on, observing, that many niches in the py|ramid called by his own name, were yet un|filled. In Persia a malefactor is executed with little ceremony; he kneels, and pro|nouncing his creed, "There is but one God, Mahomet is his prophet, and Ali his friend," his head is struck off with a scime|ter

When Mr. Hanway waited on Nazeer Aga, who had been his firmest friend, he expressed great satisfaction at seeing him a|live, after the dangers they had both run through. This person had been well remu|nerated by the shah for the services he had rendered him during the rebellion

In a few days after Mr. Hanway was in|formed that Captain Woodroofe was arrived in the bay of Astrabad, and Nazeer Aga ad|vised him, by letter, that, as several of the hordes were still in arms, it might be dan|gerous for him to trust his property on board the ship. Our author thanked him for his care; but affecting security, as the best means of preventing danger; he returned for answer, that the great guns would deli|ver them from the most numerous assailants that might have the temerity to attack the vessel.

Page  56On the 21st, Myrza Mahomet delivered to Mr. Hanway the greatest part of his bag|gage, and also paid him as much money as, he said, was in his hands, or in his power; in hopes that our author would intercede in his favour. Next morning he waited on the khans, and told them that Myrza had re|stored his baggage, and that he hoped he would be pardoned "For your sake," said the khan, "he shall be saved. His ma|jesty has shewn you honour, and it is my business to do the same." Mr. Hanway made his acknowledgments, and Myrza was liberated.

Mr. Hanway had now received to the va|lue of about five thousand crowns; and was requested to take a part of the remainder in female slaves. This he positively refused to do, perhaps to the astonishment of the ge|neral, who, learning, he was only thirty-two years old, seemed to be looking for a solu|tion of his continence in his hoary locks, till he was told that he wore a wig.

Delays still intervening about the pay|ment of the remainder of the money, the governor pressed Mr. Hanway to take his obligation for it, payable in ten or fifteen days, as the general was obliged to march, and avowed that he could not depart with|out a receipt; and that he must kill men till he completed the sum. Mr Hanway ex|pressed his hope that no one would suffer on his account; but that he could not answer Page  57 to his principals to give a receipt in exchange for any obligation whatever.

Some days after, our author privately con|veyed on board the ship, money and goods to the value of eleven thousand crowns, and on the 29th he visited the ship again with five thousand crowns more; leaving Matte|use, his old Armenian clerk, and two ser|vants to solicit for the remainder, that was due, in conformity to the shah's decree.

Before Mr. Hanway takes his leave of Persia, he give some account of the religi|on of the Guebres, which is still preserved by some of the posterity of the ancient Indi|ans and Persians. This religion sprang from Zeroaster, who lived about the year of the world 2860. This great philosopher, struck with the demonstrations he observed of the perfection of that self-existent Being, who is the author of all good, taught his follow|ers to worship God under the symbol of light or fire, considering the brightness, activity, purity, and incorruptibility of that element, as bearing the most perfect resemblance to the nature of the beneficent Being Thus the Persians honoured the sun as the brightest image of God, and offered up their sacri|fices in the open air, thinking it injurious to the majesty of the God of Heaven, who fills immentity with his presence, to confine his service within walls.

About six hundred years after the first Zeroaster, another philosopher, of the same Page  58 name, arose, who refined on the doctrines of his predecessor, and caused temples to be built, in which the sacred fire was ordered to be continually preserved. The Guebres, or Gaurs, still adhere to the tenets of those two philosophers, with a few modifications, and their veneration for fire is unabated.

What is commonly called the everlasting fire, is a phenomenon of a very extraordina|ry nature. This object of devotion is to be seen about ten miles from Bakir, a city of the Caspian Sea, where are several ancient temples of stone, supposed to have been all dedicated to this active and pure element. Among the rest is one, in which the Indi|ans now perform their devotions. Near the altar is a hollow cane, from the end of which issues a blue flame, like that of a lamp burn|ing with spirits. This flame, the worship|pers pretend, has continued ever since the general deluge, and they believe it will last till the consummation of all things.

Round this temple are generally forty or fifty poor devotees, who come on a pilgrim|age from their own country, and are charged with the expiation of the fine of their friends and neighbours, which, it seems, can be done by proxy. They mark their foreheds with saffron, and the most distinguished for piety among them, observe certain painful and invariable postures of their limbs.

At a small distance from the temples is a low cleft of a rock, with a horizontal open|ing, near six feet long and three broad, from Page  59 which issues a blue flame, like that from the reed or cane in the temple. In serene weather it burns low, but during a high wind, it sometimes mounts to eight feet; yet without apparent effect on the rocks or surrounding objects Here the devotees also pay their adorations

What is still more singular, for two miles round this place, on removing the surface of the ground to the depth of two or three in|ches, the uncovered part immediately takes fire on applying a coal or torch to it; but though it warms the earth, it does not change its substance. If a cane, or even a paper tube, be fixed, about two inches deep in the earth, and a live coal be held over the top and blown on, a flame instantly is|sues, without burning either the cane or the paper, provided their edges be luted. Three or four of those burning canes will boil a pot, and in this manner the people dress their victuals.

Though this flame burns so spontaneous|ly, it may be as easily extinguished as that of spirits of wine Round this remarkable spot, brimstone is dug, and springs of naptha are found. The springs boil up highest when the weather is thick and hazy; and the naptha often kindling on its surface, spreads with incredible rapidity to a considerable distance. In short, the everlasting fire is really natural to the soil, and may be tra|ced to brimstone and naptha. The latter, indeed, is the only fuel the inhabitants use Page  60 for domestic use, and is generally kept in earthen vessels under ground, and at a dis|tance from their houses, because it is apt to kindle of itself.

In the peninsula of Apcheron is a kind of white naptha, of a thinner consistence, which the Russians use medicinally, and it is said to be carried into India, where, be|ing prepared, it forms the most beautiful and durable varnish known.

But to resume the narrative of transacti|ons: Mr. Hanway, having lived some time in a very friendly manner with Mr. Elton at Langarood, finding his health declining, removed to Lahijan for change of air, and from thence to Reshd. About this time Mr Elton, who had hitherto shewn him the extremest kindness, being much offended with our author's employers for their sub|mission to the Russian court, and apprehen|sive that he might be blamed for his engage|ments with the shah, which were absolutely inconsistent with the views of the Russian company, suddenly contracted an unreason|able enmity against our traveller. But the details of quarrels can never be pleasing to the benevolent, and therefore we pass over them

Mr Hanway having, with extreme dif|ficulty, and after long delay, obtained a recompence for his losses, he disposed of the cloth he had recovered, in Reshd; and laid out the produce, as well as the money that he possessed, in raw silk.

Page  61Thus having finished his mercantile trans|actions, he left the city of Reshd on the 13th of September, and arriving at Perry|bazar, he embarked in a flat-bottomed Per|sian boat, and on the 29th reached Yerkie, where the commander of a guard-ship, sta|tioned there informed him, that if he had any goods on board, which were not the produce of Ghilan, and did not declare them, the law made it capital to the offend|er, ad decreed that the ship and cargo should be burnt.

The Russian consul, it seems, had inform|ed the governor of Astracan, that the plague was raging at Cashan; and, in consequence of this, Mr. Hanway was strictly interro|gated, if he had any goods on board from that place. They were then ordered to land on a small desolate island to the east of the channel of the Volga, where a sur|geon examined them with the usual precau|tions; and, after being satisfied they were not under infection, their letters were dip|ped in vinegar, and delivered to him.

Renewed enquiries were made, as to the places from whence they had taken their car|go, and where they had personally been since they left Russia.

In this state matters remained, till the 11th of October, during which space they suffered both from the weather and the want of fresh provisions. At last, a signal was made by the guard-ship for Mr. Hanway and the captain to come on board, when Page  62 they had the mortification to be enjoined the performance of quarantine on an unin|habited island, still more to the eastward. But what affected them most, was to learn that all their letters, dispatches, and pass|ports, with the lives of twelve soldiers, were lost by the attacks of the Calmucks, on the party which carried them.

At length, the governor of Astracan sig|nified his permissin for Mr. Hanway to come up as far as the island of Caraza, si|tuated on a small branch of the Volga, on condition that he brought neither clothes nor baggage with him. At this place he was lodged in a house detached from the crew and the other passengers, and, before he was suffered to proceed further, he was required to strip himself entirely naked in the open air, and to pass through the unpleasant ce|remony of having a pail of warm water thrown over him.

Having undergone this discipline, he em|barked in a large barge rowed by twelve grenadiers, and sailed for Astracan. The day after his arrival, he waited on the go|vernor, whose behaviour appeared much changed since he visited him before. On the subject of trade in general he was very reserved, though very inquisitive about Mr. Elton's proceedings; and not even the ap|plication of a handsome present could pro|cure more than distant civility and constrain|ed attention.

Page  63Every danger of infection appearing visi|onary to the most scrupulous, our author obtained leave to depart for Petersburgh on the 22d of November; but the Volga be|ing covered with floating ice, he resolved to travel by land, and finding a Russian convoy under a guard of Cossacks, pursuing the same route, he was happy to join them, with his two servants; and in this form they crossed the Volga

On the 28th they met a large caravan on its way to Astracan; from which they learned, that four persons in the neighbour|ing towns were missing, and, as a bloody shirt had been found on the way, it was con|cluded that they had been murdered. This intelligence taught them to keep a stricter watch than usual, and induced those to keep close together, who, from the impatience to get forward, were before inclined to separate from the convoy A few days after, they found a Russian waggon and the harness of several horses, which belonged to the persons who had actually been murdered

At Zaritzen, where they arrived on the 3d of December, Mr. Hanway dined with one of his fellow-travellers, who acted as sub-governor of the town. This gentleman presented his wife to the company, who sa|luted her, as is customary; after which, she presented them with small cups of brandy on a salver, and which she again repeated after dinne▪ though she did not sit at table. At this entertainment the viands were numerous, Page  64 but ill-dressed; and the quantity of liquors drank was almost beyond belief

It appeared, this feast was made on pur|pose to reconcile a friend of the host and a principal merchant of Astracan, who had quarrelled. Their healths being drank, they were desired to kiss each other; and then the rest of the company saluted them in a si|milar manner. To complete the farce, they immediately began to reproach each other for past injuries; so little reliance is there to be placed on friendships contracted at the social board.

As the snow at this season rendered the roads impassable for wheelled carriages, Mr. Hanway caused his waggon to be placed on a sledge, and set out on the 6th, accompa|nied only by two servants Next day the cold was so intense, that wine froze under his feather bed At night he reached Cash|aliena, situated on the Don, where he found poverty, but liberty and content The winds now blew so excessively keen that the carri|ers could not always venture to face them; for which reason they were frequently oblig|ed to halt, and generally to direct their way by a compass.

On the 13th, they stopped at Brusano, where the inhabitants informed them, that the preceding night a band of robbers ••d broken into some houses, and 〈…〉••un|dered the inhabitants of 〈…〉 find, but tortured them, 〈…〉 be|tween their fingers, to 〈…〉Page  65 their money. These villains were closely pursued, but escaped.

During this inclement season, the pea|sants live in the most miserable manner. Few of their huts have any chimney, and as the smoke of the stoves is carried out through the windows, they are so filled with smoke, that it is impossible to breathe at more than two or three feet from the floor, till the wood is burnt to ashes; and therefore, such as wish to escape suffocation, must crawl in on their hands and knees.

At Moscow, where our author arrived on the 22d, he received letters informing him of his accession to a considerable fortune by the death of a relation. He staid at that me|tropolis four days and provided himself with a light sledge, in which he determined to travel post. These vehicles are so well a|dapted to the climate, and so easy that Mr. Hanway slept, at one time, without waking, while he had been carried one hundred versts, or sixty-six English miles.

The whole road between Moscow and Petersburgh is marked out in the snow by plantations of fir-trees on both sides; and at intervals are large piles of wood, which may be lighted when any person belonging to the court passes that way in the night. The distance between the two capitals is no less than four hundred and eighty eight Eng|lish miles; yet Peter the Great once per|formed the journey in forty-six hours.

Page  66Mr. Hanway arrived at Petersburgh on the 1st of January, after having been ab|sent about a year and four months, in which space he had travelled above four thousand miles by land.

Petersburgh, it is universally known, was founded by Peter I. in the beginning of the present century, and may now be consider|ed as the modern metropolis. Though the soil was formerly a barren morass, the geni|us of the founder has converted it into solid land, and raised an elegant and superb city on a spot the most unpromising. This place ranges on both sides of the Nva. At the upper end of the north side stands the citadel, which is more remarkable for the number of lives sacrificed in building it, than for its strength.

As Peter took Amsterdam for his model, this city is intersected by canals; but, sin|gular as it may appear in such a climate, the houses are chiefly built in the Italian ta•••, and have more numerous windows than the buildings in England.*

The climate in the Russian dominions is very various. In the month of February, at Petersburgh, the su generally shines bright, the sky is clear, and every object seems to glitter with gems, while the hu|man Page  67 frame is braced by the cold. Riding on sledges then constitutes the principal amuse|ment of the young and active.

March commonly brings showers, which, with the increasing heat of the sun, begin to melt the surface of the ice, which in the Neva is sometimes three quarters of a yard thick. About the end of that month, it frequently breaks up, and navigation begins to be restored.

April is often warm, and serves as the prelude to the spring: but it is sometimes the beginning of June before vegetation has made any considerable progress. The heat at that season becoming very intense, its ef|fects on nature may be visibly traced from day to day.

From this time, till the middle of July, the sun is almost constantly above the hori|zon, except for about two hours every night. The heat, at this period, is even disagreea|bly intense; and would be still more unplea|sant did not winds and showers occasionally refresh the air Mr. Hanway, who resided here five years, once experienced a delightful season till the end of September; but this rarely happens: August closes the scene of rural beauty and vegetation; so that three months alone in the year, nature appears ani|mated.

In October and November the Neva is always frozen, and when once the ice be|comes solid and the snow hard, the period of speedy and secure conveyance by sledges Page  68 commences. At that season, it is nothing unusual to bring fresh provisions to market at the distance of one thousand English miles▪ In December and January the cold is so very severe, that many persons, who are exposed to it, either perish, or lose their limbs.

The Russians are generally of a middle stature, though many of them are tall and comely. The women, however, are less lovely in Russia than in many other coun|tries, and even what charms they naturally possess are obscured by paint. It is an avow|ed sentiment with them; that if they have sufficient plumpness, they can procure them|selves beauty.

The common people are dressed in long coats made of sheep skins, with the wool inwards, and they wear fur caps▪ Howe|ver, persons of rank, dress nearly in the same manner as the English, except wear|ing a great coat lined with fur, with a fur cap, whenever they go abroad.

Except the difference of petticoats, the lower class of women wear sheep skin coats, like the men; but those who move in a higher sphere have silk cloaks lined with furs, which are rich or ordinary, according to rank and fortune.

Having closed his commercial engage|ments at Petersburgh, on the 9th of July 1750, Mr. Hanway left this place, and pro|ceeding along the banks of the Neva, came to the palace of Strelna Musa, about twenty Page  69 versts from the capital. It is situated on an eminence, and commands an extensive view of the Gulph of Finland. The gardens are laid out in a fine taste, and the whole edifice was intended to have been on a magnificent scale, had Peter lived to realize his ideas. However, Peterkoff, which that great mo|narch left a mean building, by the partiali|ty of his successors, has risen into grandeur; while Strelna Musa has been neglected In|deed, Peterkoff has many local advantages. It has fine water works, said to resemble those of Versailles, and the landscapes it commands are highly picturesque.

Mr. Hanway passing the Gulph of Fin|land, arrived at Cronstadt, where unfavoura|ble weather confined him here several days. This delay gave him an opportunity of exa|mining the dry dock, contrived by Peter the Great, which is one of the most stupen|dous works of the kind in the world It ex|tends above seven hundred sathoms, is sixty feet wide at the bottom, eighty at the top, and forty deep, furnished with different flood gates. Fourteen line of battle ships may be accommodated here at once. Adjoining is a capital reservoir.

The Island of Cronstadt is about eighteen miles in circumference, but very barren. The great resort of mariners, however, to the town, renders it a populous and flourish|ing place.

On the 15th our author embarked in a small yatch, and in three days landed at Re|vel. Page  70 This place is the capital of Estonia, and lies fifty leagues from Petersburgh It submitted to Peter I. by capitulation, and is only taxed with the accommodation of five thousand soldiers, and three thousand sailors. The population within the walls is calculat|ed at eight thousand souls; and the suburbs are large and well inhabited. The people seem to be formal and precise in their man|ners, but are extremely industrious, and live in the most perfect security. The houses are all adapted for the reception of merchandise, and there are large magazines of corn, with which the country abounds.

Great part of Revel stands upon an emi|nence, and has regular fortifications. The streets are neither wide nor uniform, but some of the edifices are stately, particularly the public buildings, though they contain little remarkable.

On the 19th, Mr. Hanway re embarked, and passing the Isle of Gothland, belonging to Sweden, on the morning of the 24th they entered the Vistula, and sailed up to Dant|zic. This city is about three English miles in circumference, and is well fortifid with lofty works and a double wet fosse. The fortifications require about one thousand five hundred men to man them; but this city cannot maintain so many, unless on emergencies.

The houses of Dantzic are generally five stories high, which, with other peculiarities in their structure, takes off from the appa|rent Page  71 width of the streets. The inhabitants are very agreeable in their manners, and the women have all the personal attractions of the English ladies. Here women of distinc|tion affect the Polish manners, and the most respectful way of saluting a lady, is to kiss her hand, or rather the hem of her petti|coat, as is commonly practised by the Poles.

A republican spirit pervades this great commercial city, which is under the pro|tection of Poland.* The arsenal is well filled with arms of different kinds; but ma|ny of them are old and useless.

Among the curiosities which chiefly at|tracted our author's attention, was the great Lutheran church, a very ancient structure, which still retains the crucifixes and other emblems of popery. This, it seems, is not merely a matter of indifference, but was sti|pulated by treaty. Among the paintings is one on wood by Van Dyke, representing the resurrection. It is much admired for its expression, though it is said to be one of the first performances in oil colours.

Corn is the principal article of traffic here, which in plentiful seasons, is brought down the Vistula in amazing quantities. The ves|sels employed in this trade are about fifty Page  72 tons burden; and sometimes no fewer than one thousand six hundred of them pass down the Vistula within a year.

Our traveller having spent a week very agreeably at Dantzic, and provided himself with a chariot, took leave of his friends. He soon entered the Prussian dominions, and at Stolpe, a small pleasant city, he was exa|mined whence he came, and whither he was going This is usual in Prussia, and gives a good idea of vigilance and military disci|pline.

He now travelled over an open pleasant country of arable lands, pretty populous, but not rich. At Stargard, the metropolis of Prussian Pomerania, is a cathedral church of great antiquity; and three reformed church|es, in one of which service is performed in the French language.

Our author next arrived at Koeninsburg, a small town on the Oder, which river he crossed by a timber bridge. On the north bank is a fine palace and garden, belonging to the Margrave of Schwedt, with a very neat town, bearing the same name, adjacent. Near this place he saw the bodies of two malefactors, who had been broken on the wheel. A gallows, he observes, is planted near every town on an eminence, though the vigilance of the government prevents the perpetration of many crimes, and consequent|ly executions are rare.

The palace of the margrave is the only object that has any grandeur of appearance Page  73 for many miles. Men of family and fortune generally flock to court; and the country is thus deprived of their active services on the spots from whence they draw the income that supports their state.

As he approached to Berlin, the face of the country began to wear a more cultivated aspect; but the want of inclosures is a defect in rural embellishment; nor is that vivid verdure to be seen here which captivates the eye in England.

From Dantzic to Berlin, the distance is fifty-seven German, or about two hundred and fifty English miles.

The entrance into the metropolis of Prus|sia is airy and elegant; the streets are regu|lar and clean, and the houses uniform. Near the Pont Neuf, over the Spree, is an eques|trian statue of Frederick William the Great, which is esteemed a piece of excellent work|manship. The palace of the Pont Neuf is also a magnificent pile.

The first object that strikes a traveller is the royal palace, called the castle. The walls of the grand front are seven or eight feet thick, which, though they add to the strength of the building, give a dark and gloomy air to its apartments.

The economy used in this court deserves notice. The common articles of furniture are of massy silver, in which the fashion does not exceed seven per cent. so that four millions of dollars might be easily realized, Page  74 should the exigencies of the state require it. In this palace are the pictures of Charles V. and his empress, the frames of which are of solid silver, and weigh six hundred and sixty pounds, or six centners. There is al|so a grand crown lustre of seven centners, and m••y separate articles of four or five centners weight. A music gallery is beauti|fully ornamented with silver; and one end of a gallery, for about twenty feet high, and as many in width, is wholly furnished with gilt plate, which is entirely for pa|rade.

The king's private apartments are simply elegant; the prevailing taste is stucco gilt. Several of the rooms have tables with pens, ink, and loose papers, which indicate the dispatch of business, raher than the pomp of royalty. The hall is decorated with seve|ral large and excellent paintings, and the grand saloon is hung with tapestry, repre|senting our Saviour driving out the money|changers, the last supper, the miraculous draught of fishes, and washing his disciples' feet.

The throne in the audience chamber is of velvet, embroidered with gold, in a grand, but chaste, taste. In the old quarter of the palace, the most remarkable piece of furni|ture is a bed of crimson velvet, adorned with above two hundred cyphers, with electoral crowns, all set with pearls: the chairs in this apartment are all in the same stile. In this Page  75 bed it is usual for persons of the blood roy|al to consummate.

The arsenal forms one side of the palace, and is said to be well stocked with arms; but as visiting it is attended with some disa|greeable ceremonies, our author declined an inspection. The external, however, of this edifice is very fine: it has indeed a profusi|on of ornaments.

From the palace he proceeded to visit the library, which he observes, would be but a mean apartment for a common school. But its regulations are excellent, and liberty is allowed to every person who has the appear|ance of a gentleman, to study here from ten in the morning till two in the afternoon. In this collection are five hundred Bibles of different languages and editions; and one is kept as a kind of relict, said to have been that which Charles I. of England used on the scaffold, and which was presented to the Elector of Brandenburgh by Dr. Juxon * Here is also a Koran in MS. in such a mi|nute character, and on such thin paper, as to be only an inch and a half in bulk.

The opera house is an elegant modern edifice, adorned with splendid scenes in an exquisite taste. It has three galleries, and is Page  76 capable of containing two thousand persons. The columns which support the roof are ranged in such a manner as to throw the whole into a grand saloon. The orchestra consists of about fifty performers.

This amusement is entirely supported at the king's expence, and in some measure is made subservient to political purposes. His majesty is extremely attached to music, and has acquired great knowledge of that sci|ence.

The fortifications of the city of Berlin are regular, though not formidable. The French language is almost as prevalent here as the German. Many or the public struc|tures are magnificent, and the streets being regular, give the whole an air of grandeur.

Several thousands of French manufacturers having found protection in this country, the arts and manufactures are carried to a great degree of beauty and perfection. Gold and silver lace, and wrought silks, are scarcely to be purchased on such advantageous terms in any other place.

Before Mr. Hanway left Berlin his curi|osity carried him to Charlottenburg, about a German league distant. This palace was fou•••d by his majesty's grandfather, but has been finished in a fine style by the pre|sent sovereign. It has a range of ten a|partments well disposed, ornamented with stucco and gilding. The ball room, in par|ticular, is worthy of the king who designed it. It has ten windows on each side, and is Page  77 decorated with busts, statues, and large mir|rors.

Mr. Hanway's character of Frederic II. king of Prussia, from the impartiality of the author, deserves to be recorded. He says, that he had an early taste for literature and the polite arts, and distinguished himself by the delicacy of his manners, in opposition to the inelegant customs that prevailed in his father's court. The late king was much addicted to drinking, a reigning vice in Germany: the prince abominated this beast|ly practice, and in consequence of this and other causes of dissatisfaction, he determin|ed to retire from court in a private manner, and take up his residence in England; but his intentions being discovered, an unhappy gentleman, who was in his confidence, lost his head, and the plan was frustrated.

When princes are really God's vicege|rents, religion must be the basis of their go|vernment. This prince, however, is by ma|ny reputed a free thinker of the worst class; but the rule of his government, and his ex|emption from the vanities and mean gratifi|cations of life, do not favour so harsh a judgment.

In one circumstance his majesty excels any European potentate; I mean in economy. The allowance of his table is but thirty crowns a day, fish and wine excepted, in which he is by no means extravagant. Pots|dam is his favorite residence, and here he a|voids the empty parade of a court. He en|tertains Page  78 at his table twelve persons: his fa|vourite ministers and foreign ambassadors, who happen to be in attendance there, are first invited, and his military officers, even to an ensign fill up the vacant places. But this is not the only method he takes to in|gratiate himself with his soldiery. The hum|blest officer knows that his injuries will be redressed by the king; for wherever he may be stationed, he needs only to write to his sove|reign, and by the return of the post he may expect an answer, frequently written by the prince's own hand. He sometimes even condescends to advise, where he thinks the party errs in judgment, or is influenced by unreasonable desires.

His conversation is free and easy, even to pleasantry; but he knows how to support his dignity, not only through fear but affec|tion.

He is choice in his food, but eats mode|rately; and mixes water with his wine. He takes Spanish snuff to excess, and his clothes frequently bear the marks of this harmless though inelegant practice.

His face is florid, and his looks inclined to the pensive, or rather are expressive of the incessant labour of the mind. He begins to stoop, and is plump rather than corpulent. He often appears in boots, and always in regimentals; and he is master only of one change for the winter, and another for the summer. Our author saw his wardrobe, which is either mean or noble, according to Page  79 the impression it makes on the spectator. Little minds, which are caught by show, will receive small gratification from the dis|play.

So little does he observe useless forms, that he has risen from his chair at his wri|ting table, and ordered his secretary to take his place, and write down what he dictated standing. He often asks his most familiar favourites, if they think the condition of a king desirable above all others: and then tells them how easily they may rectify their opinion, by observing what labour and at|tention the duties of a king impose on him.

Besides his great skill in music, in which he is a composer as well as a performer, he has a taste for poetry; and after undergoing the fatigues of a general in the day, he pos|sesses such tranquillity as to answer letters of pleasure and politeness in the evening, or even to compose verses

The grand secret of life, with regard to the execution of business of every kind, is a proper distribution of the several hours of the day; which nobody understands better than his Prussian majesty. He generally goes to bed early, and, after seven or eight hours rest, gets up, and pursues his stated routine of business or amusement. When not en|gaged in war, he generally spends a short time every morning in playing on the Ger|man flute, before he enters his cabinet, where he stays till eleven: he then receives foreign ministers, and transacts other pub|lic Page  80 avocations till noon; when he usually goes abroad and gratifies himself in perform|ing the duties of a general, and keeping up the spirit of discipline. Soon after one, dinner is served up: about three, a secretary comes to read to him; and in the evening he has a concert. This is the usual mode in which he fills up the day; and the regulari|ty of the sovereign is carried into every de|partment of the state.

His reputation is established on the firm|est foundation, was it only for that bold and generous stroke in politics, by which he de|livered his country from the jaws of hire|ling lawyers, who, before his time, sported with the sufferings of the wretched, and saw unmoved, the tears of the widow. In the Prussian dominions the decision of causes cannot be protracted to a ruinous length, nor carried to an enormous expence.*

Potsdam is agreeably situated on a branch of the Spree, and is an elegant and regular town. The palace is small but handsome; and some of the apartments are richly fur|nished with works of mechanic art, and the finest productions of taste and genius

Here the royal guards are quartered, who amount to two thousand men, all of large stature, personable, and well clothed. They Page  81 are distinguished by wearing silver laced hats and black cockades. His present majesty has wisely declined the oppressive measures practised by his father, to keep up a race of giants, and yet they are still remarkably tall. The officers dine every day in a large apartment at the king's expence.

The Prussian soldiers, in general, have re|markably short coats, strengthened at the elbows with leather, in the form of a heart; which prevents the necessity of patching an old garment. A soldier here is never seen in rags; but as far as respects personal neatness, all appear to be gentlemen. The guards, and some other regiments, have new clothes every year; but in general, two suits serve for three years. The pay of a common soldi|er is eight grosch, or fourteen pence a week, out of which they are supposed to spend three pence in washing, and in materials for cleaning their arms; but it should be observ|ed, that they are furnished with bread gra|tis

Our traveller next visited Sans Souci, in the vicinity of Potsdam. It stands on an e|minence, and enjoys a fine view of the town, and a small branch of the Spree which wash|es the gardens. The apartments are chiefly on the ground floor, and are splendidly fur|nished From the palace to the lower end of the garden is a descent of one hundred and twenty yards, by six several ranges of stone steps, and as many terraces, the sides Page  82 of which are planted with vines under glass frames, by which means the grapes are brought to great perfection. The lower part of the garden is adorned with several fine sta|tues, particularly Venus drawing a net, and a Diana with game, on pedestals, richly or|namented with alto relievo. At the eastern extremity is an Egyptian pyramid embellish|ed with hieroglyphics.

Mr Hanway now took his leave of Ber|lin, and proceeded through woods and sandy plains to Britzen, which is the Prussian fron|tier. He then entered the Electorate of Saxony, where the brightness of the verdure, the richness of the soil, and the various pro|ductions of nature, both animate and inani|mate, gave the idea of plenty, superior to what he had seen in Prussia; yet, many of the inhabitants of the latter have been tempt|ed, by political advantages, to change their country for the more steril soil of Prussia. Hence the towns erected by his Prussian ma|jesty on his frontiers, are almost wholly peo|pled by Saxons.

At length our author arrived at Witten|burg, a fortified town on the Elbe, famous for a manufactory of coarse cloth, the wool of this country being good and plentiful. Clothes are sent hither from all parts to be dyed, and the blues and greens, commonly called Saxon, here are supposed to receive their finest tints.

In this place is an academy, with nearly seven hundred students, and here is the So|koloff Page  83 church, where Martin Luther first preached the doctrine which gave rise to the reformation. In this church too, that great reformer is inferred; but has no other mo|nument than a brass plate with an inscripti|on, except his original portrait painted on wood, and well preserved.

The people here have a strong tincture of the Romish superstition, and the credulous maintain, that the devil visited Luther in the library, now belonging to the academy; but that the reformer received him by throw|ing his inkstand at his head.

In passing through this electorate, Mr. Hanway observed, that the fertility of the soil did not operate much to increase the o|pulence of the inhabitants. On the 25th, he saw Molsberg, a hunting palace of the Elector of Saxony, situated on an eminence near the village of Isengberg Its approach is by a long avenue, planted with wild ches|nut trees, and is encompassed by woods, in which the prince takes such delight in hunting the wild boar, that he fixes his re|sidence here sometimes for months succes|sively.

Hunting, indeed is the favourite diver|sion of the Saxon court, but by indulging this too far, the subjects are more distressed than the brutes. Above thirty thousand head of deer are said to range in the open fields and forests; but though they commit terrible depredations on the crops of the farmer, he dares not kill one, under the pe|nalty Page  84 of being sent to the gallies. In every town of note, five men keep watch every night by rotation to frighten the deer away, will bells, from destroying their corn.

The peasants of this country carry their provisions to market from a great distance in wheelbarrows, whose structure is well adapt|ed for this purpose. The wheel is bound with iron, and is both larger and lighter than those used in England

Dresden, the capital, is seated in the midst of a plain, surrounded by lofty dis|tant hills, the nearest of which are convert|ed into vineyards. The Elbe divides it into two parts, over which is a stone bridge, five hundred and forty feet long, and thirty-six broad, consisting of eighteen arches Up|on this structure stands a brazen crucifix of curious workmanship.

The city contains many handsome build|ings, six or seven stories high, and several elegant squares Near the entrance of what is called the New city is an equestrian statue of Augustus II. erected on a lofty pedestal, said to have been executed by a common smith, and as such deserves admiration, though it has many capital defects

The trade of Dresden is very inconsidera|ble, consisting chiefly in silver ingots, brought every fifteen days from the mines of Fid|burg, to the amount of twenty thousand dollars. This silver is immediately coined into florins, of higher value than the cur|rent coin, on which account it is conveyed Page  85 into the neighbouring territories, and melt|ed down into pieces of other denominations.

Among the calamities under which this electorate labours, that of religious jealousy is none of the least. The Lutheran clergy oppress the Calvinists; while both think themselves extremely injured, by the coun|tenance given at court to the Roman Catho|lics. The Protestants deem it a gross absur|dity to be ruled by a Catholic prince; for, according to the established Saxon constitu|tion only one Catholic church can be allow|ed at Dresden. A chapel, however, is con|nived at, as a private place of worship.

Our author visited the Grune Gewolbe, a part of the royal palace, consisting of seve|ral apartments; replete with curiosities, which have been collected at an immense expence.

The first chamber contains one hundred small, but exquisite, statues, principally in brass. Among others, are an equestrian sta|tue of Augustus II. King of Poland, Fre|deric William the Great of Prussia, after the famous statue of Berlin, Lewis XIV. Mer|curius, Centaurs, &c.

The second chamber contains a variety of ivory figures, among which are Abraham offering up his son Isaac, with the angel de|scending, all of exquisite workmanship; a fine crucifix; and a ship completely rigged, with ropes of gold wire.

The third is filled with silver ornaments, in particular, a large fountain, and four vases of vast size.

Page  86The fourth contains vessels of pure gold, and silver gilt. The pannels of this apart|ment are of looking glass

The fifth is a spacious room, in which are many precious stones, wrought with great art; a cup of lapis nephriticus; a statue of Charles II. of England; a hall of crystal, six inches in diameter, without a blemish; a large goblet set round with the most cu|rious and costly antiques; several tables in mosaic; and the angel Michael vanquishing the devil, admirably executed in wood, and which cost in England, where it was made, two thousand five hundred pounds.

The sixth chamber contains a collection of precious stones, with an infinite variety of pearls, set in a multiplicity of forms.

The seventh and eighth apartments are stored with jewels of immense value, inclos|ed in glass cases. Among other rich curio|sities, is a representation of the throne of the Great Mogul, in silver figures enamelled, and adorned with precious stones, with a view of princes offering their presents, and falling prostrate, with elephants, soldiers, servants, and attendants.

Mr. Hanway having gratified his curiosi|ty here, paid a visit to the cabinet of curi|osities, called the Kunstkammer

The first chamber contains a series of prints, from the commencement of engrav|ing to the present time.

The second is filled with minerals, ores, and earths, from every country.

Page  87The third contains petrifactions, particu|larly of animals and wood.

In the fourth chamber are different kinds of wood, and other vegetable productions; in particular, a cabinet, with three hundred and fifty squares, about the size of the palm of a hand, all run in flat, as drawers, of as many different kinds of wood. In this apart|ment, likewise, are the portraits of a man and his wife, who lived near Tamiswar: the man was one hundred and eighty-five years old, and the woman one hundred and seventy-two.

In the fifth chamber is a small cabinet of skeletons, and other anatomical prepara|tions. The sixth contains the skins of many different animals stuffed. The seventh the skins of fishes stuffed. The eighth is devoted to shells. In the ninth is a cabinet of about six feet high and four broad, every drawer of which has some natural curiosity in am|ber. In the tenth is a grotto with springs of water The eleventh contains corals The twelfth is filled with the skeletons of lions, bears, and other extraordinary animals, par|ticularly that of a horse, whose mane is said to be three ell and a half long, and his tail twelve and a half.

Our author was then shewn, in an apart|ment at some distance, a model of Solomon's temple, with all its furniture, which cost twelve thousand crowns.

The gallery of pictures next fell under his observation, which is one of the finest Page  88 in the world. It contains one hundred pieces of superlative value, all said to be originals, and to have cost half a million of crowns. The whole collection consists of above two thousand pieces, the capital works of Ra|phael, Rubens, and Corregio. Their aggre|gate value is about half a million sterling.

The Chinese palace, as it is called, is a capital object of attraction. It stands on the Elbe, and is built in the Chinese taste throughout. In its different apartments are many natural and artificial curiosities, too numerous to be particularized. Among other articles are forty-eight China vases of great size, with which the father of the present elector was so charmed, that he purchased them of the late king of Prussia, at the price of a whole regiment of dragoons.

The royal gardens, though fine, want that charm which arises from an inequality of ground. They contain a small palace, in the front of which is a field for tournaments, and behind a sheet of water. They are a|dorned with a profusion of marble statues, many of them colossal; and pourtray the ge|nius of the late King of Poland, Elector of Saxony, who, being entirely devoted to his amours, left them as monuments of his la|civiousness

Some of the palaces of the grandees are very beautiful, particularly that of Count Bruhl, which is fitted up with princely mag|nificence. His library is two hundred and twenty feet long, and well furnished with Page  89 books. Nor is his gallery of pictures much inferior to some royal collections.

It is said that Saxony contains thirty thousand towns and villages, of which sixty are to be seen from some eminences near Dresden. The population of the electorate is computed at four millions; but this seems to be exaggerated. The people are burthen|ed with many heavy taxes, and the expenc|es of the court, in delicacies only, is said to be twice as much as the King of Prussia allows for his whole table.

During Mr. Hanway's residence here, he was introduced to M. Calkoen, who had been ambassador from the United Nether|lands to the Ottoman Porte, and was now envoy to the King of Poland.

He had formerly resided in England, and professed himself an admirer of that nation. At his table were Polanders, Italians, French, and Germans. The conversation, at first, turned on Nadir Shah, when our author was asked, which of the countries he had seen he thought most agreeable, and where a man of sentiment would chuse to spend his days. Mr. Hanway modestly re|plied, that his knowledge of the world was very limited; that he had seen a great deal of misery in one shape or other, in every country he had visited; but, after a pause, determined in favour of England The com|pany seemed surprised at his hesitation; and expressed their suffrage by a loud, but po|lite Page  90 applause, and unanimously agreed in praise of this happy isle.

On the 30th of August, Mr. Hanway left Dresden, and travelled towards Meissen. He was captivated with the rural charms of the country; the corn-fields, the vineyards, and the different prospects of the Elbe. On approaching Meissen, the valley contracts, and some of the houses of this town are built on lofty rocks that rise perpendicular from the Elbe, and have a most romantic appearance.

The castle of Meissen, in which the por|celain manufactory is carried on, stands on the western bank of the Elbe, and is a large building, capable of some defence. No person is admitted here without an order from the governor of Dresden, nor are the workmen allowed to leave the gates, on pain of being closely confined; though, in fact, they are all prisoners in a limited sense. They amount to about seven hundred; and so moderate is their pay, that the annual expence of this establishment is not estimat|ed at more than eighty thousand crowns. This manufacture, which is kept so secret, is entirely on the elector's account, who sells porcelain to the amount of one hun|dred and fifty, or two hundred thousand crowns a year.

After passing the Elbe, and mounting a steep ascent, our author entered on a fine champaign country, where the soil is rich and well cultivated, and towns and villages Page  91 agreeably intermixed. At length he arrived at St. Hubertsberg, another hunting pa|lace, belonging to the elector, which is ex|tremely well situated for its destination. This building is large, and some of the a|partments are superlatively fine.

Proceeding on his journey, he met with nothing worth notice till he came to Leip|sic, one of the greatest trading towns of Germany, though it has no river of any mag|nitude near it. Here are three fairs,—on New Year's Day, Easter, and Michaelmas, to which resort, people of almost every Eu|ropean nation, either to buy or sell. But what adds to the pre-eminence of Leipsic over many cities, which have superior local advantages is that liberty of conscience granted to all religions * Hence the inhabi|tants are distinguished for their industry, and their progress in moral and intellectual improvement. This is the seat of a conside|rable university. The inhabitants amount to about forty thousand within the walls, and the suburbs are also very populous.

The fortifications seem rather calculated for the use of the inhabitants to walk on, than for defence. The citizens, however, maintain two hundred soldiers. The streets Page  92 are clean and commodious, and the houses in general are lofty, with elegant fronts.

In the vicinity of Leipsic are fine gar|dens; that called the Apel garden, in parti|cular, is laid out in an excellent taste, and is ornamented with statues, which, though not masterly performances, are so ranged as to have a pleasing effect.

In his road to Landsperg, Mr. Hanway had a distant view of Hall, famous for its university. At Landsperg he re-entered the Prussian dominions; the transition from one sovereignty to another, being very rapid in Germany, from the intermixture of proper|ty, and the small extent of principalities. Indeed the subjects of the petty states of Germany, which are very numerous, are the most oppressed of human beings. Their princes, by every art of exaction, can scarcely raise enough to support their af|fected dignity; though it may be suppos|ed that their necessities render them ingeni|ous in devising the means of obtaining sup|plies. Yet poverty and morality seem in this country at least to be intimately allied; for thefts and robberies are hardly known.

On the 3d of September, our author ar|rived at Magdeburg, distinguished for its for|tifications, which are immensely strong. This city is under the sovereignty of the King of Prussia, and is remarkable for its magazines of merchandise, which are spread from this centre over the surrounding country. In the great square is an ancient statue of the em|peror Page  93 Otho, who is said to have founded this city in the year 930

Soon after quitting Magdeburg, Mr. Han|way had a fracas with a custom-house offi|cer, on account of the postillion attempting to evade the payment of a certain duty. However, by his spirited conduct, he brought himself off in the most honourable manner, and was allowed to pursue his journey with|out molestation. It should be observed, that the German postillions wear the liveries of the countries to which they belong; and use small French horns, which some of them sound in no unpleasant manner.

At Helmstet, belonging to the Duke of Brunswick, are two hundred students, chief|ly supported by the bounty of their sove|reign. Four German miles farther, lies Wol|sinbuttel, where our traveller arrived after the gates were shut, but procured admission.

The fortifications are neat and regular, and the houses appear comfortable, but not grand. The ducal palace answers the same description; but it has several well-furnish|ed apartments, and two small galleries of pictures. Mr. Hanway declined seeing the public library, for want of time to examine its contents, thinking that the simple view of books is a more barren entertainment, than surveying the sky, without contem|plating him who made it.

Next day he reached Brunswick, a well fortified place. This is the ducal residence, and has an arsenal well filled with every kind Page  94 of armour and ordnance. On the ramparts is a brass mortar piece, made in 1411, which is ten feet long, and nine feet in diameter. It requires fifty-two pounds of powder to charge it, and will carry a ball of seven hundred and thirty pounds weight to the distance of thirty-two thousand paces, and throw a bomb of one thousand pounds weight.

The military are clothed and trained near|ly after the Prussian model: in times of peace they are estimated at thirteen thousand men; and yet the revenues of the country are said not to exceed two hundred and sixty thou|sand pounds sterling a year.

Brunswick contains several churches, one of which is a very ancient Gothic structure, and has its ceiling ornamented with twenty large paintings, representing the prophets in the Old Testament in the clouds of heaven, which communicate a very solemn air to the edifice. The high al••• is of marble, sup|ported by Aaron and Moses, and surround|ed by statues of the four evangelists.

This court is distinguished for its polite|ness, particularly to the English, who pass this way The duke seems more attached to ease and happiness, than vain parade. His coach is generally attended by no more than seven servants, and some of his family al|ways occupy the vacant seats.

The palace of Saltzdahlen stands above a German mile from Brunswick, and is chief|ly constructed of timber, lined with painted cloth, which gives the apartments an air of Page  95 grandeur at a small expence. The picture gallery is a noble apartment, and contains many capital productions of the pencil. The left wing is furnished in a grotesque taste, with porcelain; and another is filled with painted enamelled ware, great part of which is said to have been executed by Raphael d'Urbino, while he was enamoured of the potter's daughter.

Among the most celebrated paintings, are Adam and Eve viewing the dead body of Abel, and trying to open his eyes; Abra|ham embracing his own son, after the trial which God had made of his faith; Peter delivered from prison by the angel; Judith and her attendant holding the head of Ho|lifernes, which still seems to retain the last traces of life; Cephalus and Procris; and various others.

The dutchy of Brunswick carries on a pretty extensive trade with Bohemia. It a|bounds in hops, esteemed the best in the em|pire; and much oil is made from turnip seed.

On approaching the city of Hanover, it appeared embosomed in trees, through which vistas are cut; and so extensive are the woods in the environs, that though our author says it was computed eighty thousand trees had been blown down in a late storm, they could scarcely be missed.

Hanover, in many respects, is a pleasant place, and may be esteemed elegant. It is washed by the Lena, a branch of the Alie••Page  96 which runs into the Weser, and consequent|ly it has a communication with Bremen.

The electoral palace is seated on the banks of the Lena. It has several courts, and many grand and commodious apart|ments, some of which are hung with very rich tapestry. The opera-house and the the|atre for the French comedians are both with|in the palace. During the winter, plays are regularly performed, and concerts are given twice a week, when the courtiers, without exception, take place, according to their mi|litary rank. A guard is always mounted, and an open table kept for the council of state, even when the king is not in his elec|toral dominions.

The military force, in time of peace, is about twenty-four thousand men, and the re|venues of the electorate amount to seven hundred thousand pounds, a considerable part of which arises from the silver mines.

Herenhausen, situated about two English miles to the north of Hanover, is always considered as an object of attraction to tra|vellers. Our author says, he knows not whe|ther he was more mortified or surprised, to find that this celebrated palace fell vastly short of his expectations. It was built in the year 1670, by the elector Ernest Au|gustus; the greatest part is of wood, and though the apartments are large, they are far from being magnificent Some of the furniture, however, is rich, and the pictures deserve admiration.

Page  97The gardens are very beautiful. Mr. Han|way says he had seen none in Germany to be compared with them, though they were not laid out in that exquisite taste, of which there are so numerous specimens in England. They are adorned with statues; and the jet d'eau, formed in 1716, by Mr. Benson, per|haps, is unrivalled, as it throws up the wa|ter seventy feet high. Here, according to the German taste, is a sylvan theatre, adorn|ed with statues, on which are sometimes ex|hibited plays and masquerades.

On the 15th of September, Mr. Hanway set out for Zell. By the road, he observed in several places, the remains of ancient buildings, about three feet high, which the vulgar ridiculously imagine are of an era coe|val with the deluge

Zell, which is subject to Hanover, is a considerable fortified place The palace is situated on an eminence commanding a fine prospect, and is itself a strong post. The houses are mostly mean wooden structures. This place has an inconsiderable trade with Bremen, by means of the river Aller.

In his way to Weissendorf, he passed through a barren country, fit only to sup|port flocks of sheep; and indeed this elec|torate supplies the greatest part of Germa|ny with mutton, as Westphalia does with hogs, and Hungary with bef

On the 17th he arrived a Hamburg, be|low which city the banks of the Elbe in Page  98 some places rise to a great height, and af|ford a delightful view of several islets in the middle of the river, which is five or six miles broad.

Hamburg is one of the towns belonging to the Hanseatic league, and is a place of the greatest importance. Its situation for trade, and the reputation of its laws and go|vernment have peopled it with opulent mer|chants, who carry on an extensive com|merce. It stands in the dutchy of Holstein, on the north side of the Elbe, where that river forms many islands, and some of the streets are so low, as to be frequently inun|dated by the tides.

The houses in general are substantially built, and make a stately appearance; but many of the streets are so narrow, as to render it difficult to use wheel carriages. However, there are some parts of the town which are open and airy; but these being more remote from the river, are less fre|quented by commercial people.

Hamburgh is, with respect to Germany, what Amsterdam is to Europe—the general emporium of natural produce and manufac|ture. By means of canals, ships may unload at the warehouses, which are stored with the most valuable commodities.

The whole number of vessels, of conside|rable burden, belonging to the town, is computed at four hundred; some of the largest of which trade to and from London. The British factory here is possessed of as Page  99 many distinguished privileges as any body of foreigners enjoy in the commercial world.

The fortifications on the land side are reckoned very strong. The walks round the ramparts extend about four English miles, and, in most places, are very pleasant. On the east side of the town is a fine piece of water, formed by the Alster, within the walls, which, in the summer, is covered with pleasure-boats. The citizens have several gar|dens on the banks of the Elbe and the Al|ster; they are kept in the neatest trim; and, from their diminutive size, appear more like a puppet-show than a rural scene.

The city is divided into five parishes, which have as many capital churches. Lu|theranism is the established religion, and Roman Catholics are objects of great jea|lousy; but the Jews, the universal brokers of nations, live unmolested.

The government of Hamburg is vested in four burgomasters, and twenty-four sena|tors; fourteen of whom are chosen from a|mong the merchants, and ten from the pro|fessors of the law. There are also four syn|dics, who act as secretaries of state, and as many professed secretaries. Besides, every parish has the appointment of three officers, in the nature of the tribunes among the an|cient Romans; and nothing of moment is determined by the senate without their con|currence. The population within the walls may be computed at one hundred and eighty thousand souls, and it is probable, that the Page  100 suburbs and adjacent villages contain about half that number. Except sugar-baking and cotton printing, the manufactures of this place are very inconsiderable.

The better sort of people, among the men, are very affable; but the women ap|pear reserved. State and grandeur are here lost in the superiour attention to commercial pursuits. Indeed the easy circumstances of the majority of the inhabitants, and the e|quality of the constitution under which they live, have infused a certain degree of repub|lican independence, which tinctures their manners. This spirit of insubordination is perceptible even in the lowest classes; not that it prompts them to acts of riot, but it gives them a kind of consequence, which, where the gradations of rank are observed, would appear insolent.

On the 20th of September, Mr. Hanway proceeded to Blankeness by a delightful road, on the banks of the Elbe, which af|fords a fine and extensive view of part of the Hanoverian dominions on the west, and of Holstein an appendage of Denmark, on the east. For some days he observed nothing worth notice in the country or towns thro' which he passed.

On the 1st of October, he reached Closter Seven. The surrounding territory is thinly inhabited; but, as he approached Bremen, the aspect in fertility and population began to improve About three English miles from Bremen, he observed three stones bear|ing Page  101 the British arms, which mark the limits of the Hanoverian dominions.

Bremen is seated on a plain, on both sides of the Weser, over which it has a bridge. This dutchy formerly belonged to Sweden; but being conquered by the Danes, was sold to the Elector of Hanover in 1716; yet only a small part of the town is subject to that electorate. The rest, with its adjacent territory, is independent, and is governed by its own laws and magistrates.

Calvinism is the prevailing religion here, and there are five churches for citizens of that persuasion. The inhabitants amount to thirty thousand; and, were we to judge from the frequent appearance of Soli Deo Gloria, painted in large characters over their doors and windows, both within and with|out, we should conclude that they were pi|ous indeed.

Most of the streets are narrow, but many of the buildings make a handsome appear|ance, and the shops are full of merchan|dise. In the market-place is the figure of a giant fourteen feet high, clothed in armour, sid to represent a general who saved the ci|ty when it was in the utmost danger from its enemies. The great dome devoted to the Lutheran religion, is the most remarkable structure in the place. It is built in the Go|thic style, and seems to possess the quality of preserving the bodies of the dead from corruption. In confirmation of this, it is re|ported that corpses, which had been buried Page  102 one hundred and fifty year, were discovered entire, with their skins black and parched, but the features distinguishable, and the co|hesion of the parts unaltered. The vault in which they were deposited, is about six feet below the surface of the earth, arched over, and seems to have nothing extraordinary, ex|cept that the air is temperate, and perfectly dry.

Several persons have offered considerable sums to have their bodies deposited in this receptacle of mortality: but the priests, it is said, refused the idle boon; alleging that it is the decree of heaven, "that man should return to the dust from which he was made."

The vicinity of Bremen being subject to inundations, a long causeway is raised for the convenience of travelling. Passing along this, Mr. Hanway re-entered the Prussian dominions, and at length arrived at Wilde|shausen, a principal town, and the residence of the great bailiff of the district.

From thence he advanced to Hasselune, a pretty agreeable town, in the electorate of Cologn. Poverty and superstition reign here unrivalled: a crucifix is erected on almost e|very spot subject to observation.

Lingen was the next stage. This lies in the circle of Westphalia, and is subject to the King of Prussia The town is fortified, and the buildings are neat, the general cha|racter of places under the sovereignty of Prussia.

Page  103Our author now approached the confines of the United Netherlands, where the wo|men appeared almost blinded with the smoke arising from the turf, which is here the usu|al fuel. The little towns he began to pass through, exhibited that characteristic clean|liness, for which the Dutch are so remark|able.

In a short time he arrived at Daventer, a large city in the province of Overyffel, which formerly constituted one of the Hanse towns, but is now subject to the States.

It stands on the river Yssel, which is na|vigable for vessels of large burden. Over this stream is a wooden bridge, where passengers are subject to a heavy toll. The town is well fortified, and has a strong garrison. The houses and streets are neat, and the inland trade is considerable.

From hence is a regular stage to Voorthu|sen, and about midway is Loo, a famous seat of the Prince of Orange. Voorthusen is a mean village, and the environs are not very inviting.

At the distance of two German miles be|yond this, lies Amersfort. On approaching this place, evident signs appear of the per|severing industry of the Dutch. The tobac|co plantations are formed with great labour, and for an article, whose consumption is so universal in the Netherlands, perhaps no ex|pence or trouble is too great

Amersfort is an ancient and pretty large town, on the small river Eems, which runs Page  104 into the Zuyder Sea. The houses are clean to an extreme, but the manners of the people are far from being equally delicate; and their rusticity is shewn in their con|tempt for strangers.

About two English miles from this town stands Soesdyke, a palace belonging to the Orange family, with a park of eight miles in circumference.

Our author being impatient to reach Am|sterdam, declined visiting Utrecht. In his way he passed through Naarden, the boun|dary of the province of Holland, and a well fortified place, standing near the Zuyder Sea. From hence to Amsterdam is reckon|ed two German miles. The whole country appears below the level of the sea, but is en|riched with gardens and luxuriant pastures. In the avenue to Amsterdam, is a causeway lined with villages and gardens, which add greatly to the beauty of this artificial coun|try.

The city of Amsterdam, as well as many others in the Netherlands, are works of art and labour, not inferior to the greatest mo|numents of human industry in ancient times. It stands about two hundred and twenty miles eastward from London, and derives its name from the river Amstel, or the dam of the Amstel, which, by corruption, as|sumes its present appellation.

Our author computes that it is about four hundred years old from its first foundation, and two hundred and seventy from the era Page  105 that it was inclosed with walls. In 1570 the Dutch began to lay the basis of their opu|lence and power. Embracing Calvinism, and wearied with the oppressions of the Spanish government, they emancipated themselves into liberty, after a long struggle and many conflicts, and formed a great republic.

About the year 1660, the flame of liber|ty occasioned such a conflux of people to Amsterdam, that the walls were extended, and by subsequent enlargements, they are become three leagues in circuit. The city is esteemed nearly one third as populous as London or Paris; nd within the walls are computed to be twenty-six thousand five hundred houses.

The main strength of the place consists in the difficulty of access both by sea and land; but the numerous shoals that obstruct the mouth of the Texel have proved no bar to commercial enterprise, though they ren|der navigation dangerous to ships of war. Economy is here perceptible in every thing: even the bastions of the fortifications, which are very numerous, have each a windmill.

Many of the streets are lined with canals and planted with trees. No wheel carriages are allowed to be drawn here, except on pay|ing a heavy duty. Coaches are set on sledg|es, drawn by one horse, and on the same vehicle goods and merchandise of every kind are conveyed from one place of the town to another.

Page  106The houses are rather distinguished for neatness than elegance; and the principal care of the inhabitants seems to be laid out in keeping them clean, which the nature of the climate renders in some measure necessa|ry; but personal elegance is far from keep|ing pace with domestic neatness.

Of all the buildings in Amsterdam, the town-house is the most remarkable Its front extends two hundred and eighty-two feet in length, its depth is two hundred and thirty-two feet, and its height one hundred and sixteen feet, exclusive of the cupola The expence of its erection cost three millions of Guilders, which, considering the value of money at that period, is an astonishing sum; but it should he considered, that it stands on thirteen thousand large piles of wood, so that the foundation greatly enhanced the expence.

This immense fabric contains the offices and tribunals for the execution of the laws, in every branch of government. It is night|ly guarded by a body of the burghers, who are charged with the protection of this great reservoir of the wealth of the United Pro|vinces. The bank, which is kept in the lower apartments, is said to contain immense sums of specie.

The Exchange is likewise a spacious and convenient structure. It is supported by forty-six pillars marked with numbers, and every merchant has his particular station, that he may be the more easily found.

Page  107Though Calvinism is the established reli|gion, all persuasions are allowed the free ex|ercise of their modes of worship. The Jews are very numerous, and have several syna|gogues. To render marriages, however, va|lid, they must either be performed according to the rites of the established church, or the parties must first enter into a contract before the civil magistrate; after which they are indulged with their own particular ceremo|nies.

In passing over the Ya to Saardam, our author observed the various purposes to which windmills are applied in this country. They are used for sawing timber, for grinding woods and other materials for dyeing, and for almost every manufacture to which ma|chinery is applicable.

The dykes are prodigious monuments of labour, and many of them are lined with large stones. That which bounds the Zuyder Sea, is raised sixteen feet perpendicular, and goes off on an easy slope.

The danger of such a dreadful element as the sea, is almost equal to that of a volcano, and the Dutch have often suffered from its inroads. In spite of their utmost skill and industry, their dykes have proved ineffectual to secure them. In 1530, a great part of Zealand was overflowed, and in the same century, seventy-two villages on the coast of Holland were swallowed up, and twenty thousand people perished. Other inundati|ons Page  108 have happened at different periods, and spread desolation over extensive tracts

Amsterdam is a prodigious magazine of corn, wine, timber, and naval stores. Its herring and whale fisheries bring in immense wealth; and the rich productions of their oriental possessions being poured in here, add immensely to the opulence and commerce of this emporium.

Though there are many Hollanders who live elegantly, the manners of the common people are extremely boorish. Our author observes, that he has seen a boatman in a great city, strut up and down a room with his hat on, and spit with a careless air of in|solence at the feet of a gentleman who was treating him with civility, and throwing e|molument in his way. This behaviour they mistake for liberty, as if liberty were incon|sistent with propriety of manner.

Cheese, beer, Geneva, brandy, and to|bacco, with red herrings, are the luxuries of the common people, who in their cups are apt to mix rusticity with cruelty.

Constant employment, coldness of com|plexion, and an ungenial kind of food, may perhaps account for their indifference to the passion of love. Except among the higher ranks, female beauty is scarcely to be met with, nor does their dress set off their home|ly persons to any advantage.

The women here are generally past par|turition at thirty years of age, and as the men are singular for their large breeches, so Page  109 the women are remarkable for using pots of live coals, which they place under their petti|coats as they sit, to warm themselves; which is not only an offensive custom, but in a physical light, is attended with many ill consequences. Hence the proverb, "that the dirtiest piece of furniture in a Dutch|man's house is his wife."

Mr. Hanway quitted Amsterdam on the 16th of October, and embarking at the Haerlem gate, proceeded down the canal in a treckscoot to that town, passing through a succession of rich meadows well stocked with cattle.

From Haerlem he proceeded to Leyden, through a pleasant and rich country. This city is well known for its university, to which students resort from all parts of Eu|rope. The houses are neat, and the surround|ing gardens very pleasant; but here the water becomes stagnant, and in consequence disagreeable.

Our author next visited the Hague, which having no inclosure, is denominated a vil|lage though it is the most elegant place in the Netherlands. The streets are broad, and the gaiety and splendor of the inhabitants form a striking contrast to the style of life in the trading cities. The assembly of the States General being held here, draws hi|ther all the principal people of distinction of the different provinces, and the ambassadors from the other European courts. In short, the Hague is the seat of amusement, of pa|rade, Page  110 and magnificence, in the United Pro|vinces

Delft, which was the next place our au|thor visited, is a very ancient and pleasant town, environed by meadows of considerable extent. This place is famous for its earthen ware, and its population, is computed at twenty thousand persons.

Rotterdam, about seven miles distant, may justly be considered as the second city of Holland. Indeed it has several advan|tages over Amsterdam itself, particularly with respect to the southern trade of Eu|rope: besides, the navigation of the Maese is more safe and commodious than that of the Texel, and the air and water are better.

Among other public structures, is an ex|change for the merchants; but the most re|markable edifice is the great church of St. Lawrence, in which are the monuments of several persons of distinction On the great bridge is the statue of the illustrious Eras|mus.

The British factory here is chiefly com|posed of North Britons, who have a Calvin|istic church. During the wars in Flanders, under the great Duke of Marlborough, an episcopal church was erected by the contri|bution of the English officers, merchants, and mariners, which is said to be the only regular episcopal church, countenanced and established, belonging to the subjects of Great Britain, in a foreign country.

Page  111On the 27th of October, Mr. Hanway sailed down the Maese to Helvoet Sluys. Though this is one of the best harbours in the United Provinces, the town is of no great extent. Here our traveller had the pleasure to find a small squadron of British ships of war, under the command of Lord Anson, intended to convey George II. to England. The sight of his country's ships of war was the more agreeable, as he had not enjoyed such a view for the long space of eight years.

Embarking at this place next day in the packet for Harwich, he landed safe on the British shore, after a passage of twenty-four hours, and thus closed his extensive perigri|nations.