The anatomy of Arminianisme: or The opening of the controuersies lately handled in the Low-Countryes, concerning the doctrine of prouidence, of predestination, of the death of Christ, of nature and grace. By Peter Moulin, pastor of the church at Paris. Carefully translated out of the originall Latine copy

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The anatomy of Arminianisme: or The opening of the controuersies lately handled in the Low-Countryes, concerning the doctrine of prouidence, of predestination, of the death of Christ, of nature and grace. By Peter Moulin, pastor of the church at Paris. Carefully translated out of the originall Latine copy
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Du Moulin, Pierre, 1568-1658.
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London :: Printed by T[homas] S[nodham] for Nathaniel Newbery, and are to be sold at the signe of the Starre vnder Saint Peters Church in Cornehill, and in Popes head Alley,
1620.
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Subject terms
Synod of Dort (1618-1619) -- Early works to 1800.
Arminianism -- Early works to 1800.
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"The anatomy of Arminianisme: or The opening of the controuersies lately handled in the Low-Countryes, concerning the doctrine of prouidence, of predestination, of the death of Christ, of nature and grace. By Peter Moulin, pastor of the church at Paris. Carefully translated out of the originall Latine copy." In the digital collection Early English Books Online 2. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/A69245.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed May 23, 2024.

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THE ANATOMIE of Arminianisme.

CHAP. I.

How soberly we are to deale in this Argument.

IF in any other Argument especially in this which we are to treate of, that rule of Saint Paul is to be kept; that no man be wise aboue that he ought, but that he be wise vnto sobriety. For God hath put a great mist ouer the se∣crets of his wisedome, into which it is a sinne to rush, lest while wee search into his Maiesty, we be ouer∣pressed by his glory: It is better to vnderstand things that are safe, then things that are high; and to keepe Gods commandements, then to pry into his counsels. This curiosity hath vndone mankinde. Adam, whilest he would be like God in the knowledge of good and

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euill, lost his good, and learned euill to his losse, be∣ing punished. Hence Heresies haue beene bred, whilest men, violently carried with the itching of their owne wit, runne out beyond the bounds of Gods word. Hence haue proceeded those troubles which Sathan hath stirred vp in this age (which is as fertill of dis∣putes, as it is barren of piety:) hauing vsed therto men, who by their lewd wit and rash presumption, daring to call God to account, and to prescribe lawes to him, haue greatly afflicted the most flourishing Churches of the low-Countries. Most safe therefore it is to fol∣low God as our guide, to vnderstand so much as hee hath made manifest to vs in his word, to command silence to our selues, where God himselfe speaketh not. But we must haue a very great care, least we patronize and maintaine the wisdome and prouidence of God, with the damage of his iustice: and againe, lest while we defend his iustice, wee put out the eyes of his pro∣uidence. God is not to be thought vniust, if hee doe any thing that doth not euery way answere to the rules we haue conceiued in our owne mindes. These two things are seriously to be auoided, as two fatall and dangerous rockes; and yet it is farre worse to set on God the marke of iniustice, then to place limits to his prouidence. For with lesse perill is God made a carelesse spectator and beholder of sinne, then if he be beleeued to be the author and incitor to sinne. Nei∣ther is there any more capitall mischiefe, then to trans∣ferre on God the cause of mans wickednesse. For thus it comes to pass, that men hauing broken their bars, doe scot free commit all riot, as hauing God the pa∣tron and author of their wickednesse.

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And yet to restraine curiositie, and to strike our mindes with a religious feare, the consideration of our owne meanenesse being compared to the diuine maiestie, is much profitable. For if any of vs should crush to death an Ant with his foot, no man would lay to his charge an action of iniustice for it, although the Ant hath not offended him, although he hath not giuen life to the Ant, although he hath destroyed an∣others worke, which cannot be restored by man, and although betweene man and it, there is no infinite in∣equality, but a kinde of certaine and finite proporti∣on. But man hath grieuously offended God, and yet God hath giuen life to man, and there is no proporti∣on betweene God and man, but as infinite a distance, as betweene a finite and infinite thing. If therefore God shall crush those sinfull men, which he is able to saue; if patiently tolerating the vessels of anger, he shall make them the matter of his glory, shall any man ex∣postulate with God, or thinke goodnesse wanting in him, or accuse his iustice?

CHAP. 2.

That we are not therefore altogether to abstaine from the doctrine of Prouidence and Preestination, although some abuse it to curiosity and impiety. And whereto it is profitable.

THere are some who being weary of the con∣tentions which proceede from the doctrine of Prouidence and Predestination, doe thinke that it is most safe for the peace of the Church and quiet of conscience, not to touch

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these questions, nor to speake any words of them to the people, to be suggested into them: seeing that by these speeches scruples are fastned in mens mindes, doubtings are bred, and the faith of the weake is sha∣ken. Let the people be taught, (say they,) not what God doth or decreeth, but what he would haue to be done by vs: let the doctrine of good Workes be in∣stilled into their minds, and the secrets of Election and Reprobation left to God.

Surely this speech sauoureth more of honesty, then truth. For these men while they make shew of the stu∣dy of piety, and loue of concord; they doe secretly accuse Christ and his Apostles of imprudency and in∣discretion, because they so often beate vpon the do∣ctrine of Election, in the new Testament. And while they are held with a preposterous religion, they are the authors, that the Pastours of the Church cut a∣way a portion from the word of God; neither doe they propound to the people the intire Doctrine of the Gospell. And whilest in a voluntary ignorance they affect the praise of modesty, they require discreti∣on in God himselfe.

And what shall we say to this; that without this Doctrine, due honour cannot be giuen to God, nor our faith made stable? For by the Doctrine of Prede∣stination, that immeasurable heape of the goodnesse and loue of God towards vs, by which he loued vs and respected vs, before the foundations of the world were laid, doth enter into our mindes. Also whatso∣uer light or grace God doth measure to vs, is ac∣knowledged to be a riuer flowing from that eternall loue. By this doctrine mans merits doe fall to the

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ground; and the imaginary faculty of free-will in things pertaining to saluation, doth vanish away. The confidence of our saluation will also stagger, vnlesse it be vpholden by the immutable decree of God, and not by mans free-will. This doctrine also is a great lightning of our sorrowes, and mittigation of all bit∣ternesse: while we consider that all things, euen those that are most grieuous, turne to the good of them, who are called by the purpose of God. Neither is there any more forcible instigation to good workes, then the acknowledgement of that eternall loue, wherewith God, in Christ, hath loued vs before all worlds. Finally, by this doctrine we are taught to search into our selues and to try our owne conscien∣ces, to finde in vs, and to stirre vp the testimonies of our election; knowing that our owne endeauour and care ought to further the election of God, and that by the way of hell, that is, by impenitency and vnbeliefe, it is impossible to come to heauen.

This Doctrine therefore, the Scripture being our guide, may profitably be propounded, so we keepe mediocrity betweene affected ignorance, and rash cu∣riosity; and follow such a moderation, that while we doe auoide things vnlawfull, we doe not abstaine from those that are lawfull.

In this worke we haue to doe with men which of∣fend both wayes, and doe runne vpon either extre∣mity: For if any one, Arminius doth breake into the secrets of God, and doth with a scrupulous curi∣osity cut into peeces the decree of Election; and yet the same man doth extenuate the whole doctrine of Election, as a thing, which if it were not knowne;

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Gods loue by it would not be diminished towards vs, nor any iniury done to his grace: They which denie this election (saith he) denie that which is true, but without any wrong to the grace or mercy of God.

CHAP. III.

What the prouidence of God is. How farre it extends. That God is not the author of sinne. What permission is. And what blinding and hardening is.

I. PRouidence is a diuine vertue, the gouer∣nesse of all things, by which God hath fore-knowne and fore-ordained from eternity, both the ends of all things, and the meanes tending to those ends.

II. All things being present to God, there is no∣thing which from eternity he hath not foreseene: But whether hee hath made a peculiar decree for all seue∣rall euents, it may be doubted. For it doth not seeme likely that God, from eternity, hath decreed, how many eares of Corne shall grow in the Neapolitan or any other field; or how many shreds hang on the torne beggars coate, or couering: Because these things haue no respect of good or euill, neither doe they adde to the glory of God, or protection of the world: And therefore Thomas is of opinion, That by the decree of God the number of men is determined, but not the number of Gnats or Wormes. Not that those lit∣tle things doe escape rhe knowledge of God, or that God cannot extend his prouidence to them, but be∣cause it doth not seem conuenient to his so great wis∣dome, to decree any thing which doth adde nothing

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to his glory, or to the protection of the vniuerse. Surely God hath, from eternity, fore-knowne all things, euen those that are least: But hee hath onely pre-ordained and decreed those things which haue in them some matter of good, and whereby the glory of God is made more illustrious, or the world more perfect.

III. The will of God cannot bee resisted. Rom. 9.20. God speaketh of himselfe. Esay. 46.10. My Counsell shall stand, and I will doe all my pleasure. And Saint Paul. Ephes. 1. God hath made all things according to the purpose of his Will. This doth not please Arminius: For he in his booke against Perkins, the 60. page, is of opinion, that God may make frustrate that particular end which hee hath propounded to himse fe; and page 198. doth thinke that the antecedent will of God may be resisted: But how truely, we shall hereafter see.

IV. God is in no wise the author, or instigator of sin. Psal. 5.5. Ps. 45.8. For God is not onely iust, but also iustice it selfe: And it is as impossible that hee who is iustice it selfe should sinne, or be the author of sinne, as that whitenesse should blacke the wall, or heate make one cold. Neither doth God onely doe the thing that is iust, but therefore the thing is iust, because God doeth it. And surely that idle deuise of some, is to be hissed out, who say, that God, though he doth enforce men to sinne, yet himselfe doth not sin; because there is no sin where there is no law, and God is bound by no laws. I confesse indeed that God is obnoxious to no Law: And yet it is certaine, that hee can doe nothing that is contrary to his owne

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Nature. God cannot lie, because hee is truth it selfe. God cannot sinne, because he is perfect righteousnesse it selfe. These speeches, that sinne is committed ey∣ther by Gods procuring or furthering, are altogether to be rooted out of diuinity.

V. Man by his owne fault hath brought destructi∣on to himselfe, neither can the fall of man be imputed to God. Thy destruction, O Israell, is from thy selfe; but in mee is thy helpe. Hosea 12.9.10. As in the gene∣ration of the Infant, the sunne and man doe worke together; yet if a monster be generated, it is not a∣scribed to the sunne, but to man: For therefore is the monster bred, because through the defect of the organs, or the euill affection of the matter, the vni∣uersall agent cause is withdrawne from the accusto∣med course. Euen so to humane actions, God and mans will doe concurre, yet if any euill bee in the action, it ought not to be ascribed to God, but to the disposition of mans will.

VI. And yet the Scripture doth sometimes vse those phrases of speech, which doe yeeld occasion to the prophane, of imputing their sinnes to God, as be∣ing committed by his will and incitation. It is well knowne with how great wickednesse, the sonnes of Iacob, moued with enuy, sold their brother Ioseph: Of this fact Ioseph himselfe thus speaketh. Genes. 0. Yee indeede thought euill against mee, but God meant it vnto good, that hee might saue much people aliue. As if GOD had beene the authour of this fact. The Scripture saith of the sonnes of Samuel, that they did not obey their fathers admonitions, because God would slay them. 1. Samuel 2.25. And 1. King. 2. the

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malignant spirit sets himselfe before the tribunall of God, and offers to God his seruice, to deceiue the Prophets: To whom God said, Thou shalt deceiue, and thou shalt preuaile: Goe forth, and doe so. Shemei curseth Dauid with foule imprecations. 2. Samuel 26. which Dauid receiues as done by the incitation of God. Let him curse (saith hee) for God hath said vnto him; Curse Dauid. Very grieuous calamities followed Dauids adultery with Bathsheba, and his murther of Vrias, by the rebellion of his sonne Absalon, who droue his father from his kingdome, and openly a∣bused his wiues. Nathan, sent to Dauid from God, doth declare how these things came to passe, in these wordes: Thou didst this secretly, but I will doe these things before all Israell. 2. Sam. 12. Satan afflicted Iob, the Chaldees steale away his goods; what saith this seruant of God to these things? The Lord (saith hee) hath giuen, and the Lord hath taken away, Blessed be the name of the Lord. In the fourth Chapter of the Acts, Saint Peter saith thus: Against thy holy childe Iesus, whom thou hast annointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, and the Gentiles, and the people of Israell, are assembled together, to doe whatsoeuer thy hand and thy counsell haue determined before to bee done. Saint Paule, in his first chapter of the Epistle of the Romans, speaking of the people that were worshippers of Idols, and were giuen ouer to all wickednesse, saith, that God gaue them vp to vile and wicked affections, that they might doe these enormious things. God himselfe doth witnesse, Exod. 10. & Rom. 9. That he hardned Pharaohs hart. Finally who doth not tremble at these words of God which are set downe in the sixt

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Chap. of Esay. Make the hart of this people fat, and make their eares heauy, and shut their eyes: Least they see with their eyes, and heare with their eares, and vnderstand with their hearts, and so conuert and be healed.

Least any prophane person should abuse these things, to the vnloosing of the claspe of intemperan∣cy; and least any whose heart is hardned against the word of God, should impute the hardnesse of it to God, who cannot be resisted. As that yong man in Plautus, thus excusing himselfe; Deus mihi impulsor fuit: God was an incitor to me, it was he drew mee to her: therefore some things are to be set downe wher∣by this question may be cleered, and the truth may be brought out of this darkenesse.

VII. Before all other things wee admonish, that the middle way be kept betweene the two extreames. One whereof is, to make God the authour of sinne; the other is to assigne any thing to be done, God be∣ing vnwilling, ignorant, or not regarding, as if sitting in a watch-tower he did expect casuall euents depen∣ding vpon chance, or vpon mans pleasure. Let him runne into neither of these, who would acknowledge the prouidence of God without damage of his iustice, not fathering his sinnes vpon him, and would not call in ignorance or neglect of things in God, for the de∣fence of his iustice.

VIII. First therefore, it must be graunted that sinne is not committed without Gods permission: Neither ought this word of permitting offend any one as if it derogated from the care and prouidence of God, seeing Saint Paul himselfe in the 14. chapter of

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the Acts doth vse this word; where he saith to the men of Lycaonia, God in times past suffered all nati∣ons to walke in their owne wayes; therefore God suf∣fered sinne. To permit sinne is, not to hinder it when thou canst: thence it comes to passe that there are so many meanes of permitting sinne, as of hindring it. God doth hinder sinne two manner of wayes; either by his Iustice, or by his Power. By his Iustice he hin∣dereth sinne, by commanding, by forbidding, by ad∣monishing, by threatning, and by promising. By his power he doth hinder it, when he doth take away a∣bility, or remoue the occasion of sinning, or by the efficacy of his spirit, doth change and encline to piety our wils that are prone to sin. The former is a morall impediment, the latter a naturall, or euen a supernatu∣rall. According to these meanes of hindering sinne, the meanes of permitting it are also diuers: For God doth permit sinne either by vnloosing the Law, and giuing liberty of sinning; or by not drawing away the ability of sinning, which might hinder men from sinning in act. After the former manner God doth neuer permit sinne: after the latter manner he doth permit it; which he doth in not hindring that man should assay it; and in not giuing a certaine succour and measure of his grace, which if it were present, the sinne might be preuented.

IX. This permission is a certaine act of the diuine will, seeing it is voluntary; for God doth nothing vnwitting or vnwilling: God therefore permits sinne, because he will permit it; neither had he permitted it, if it had not beene good that it should be permit∣ted: for if there were not euill, it would not be known

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what is good: euen as we should not know what light were, vnlesse there were a night; neither had his iu∣stice (whereby he punisheth, nor his mercy whereby he pardoneth) beene made knowne, nor his wise∣dome, whereby he can draw good out of euill; nor his infinite loue, whereby hee sent his sonne into the world that he might die for vs; not that God doth stand in neede of our wickednesse to illustrate his glo∣ry, but because, otherwise, man could not come to that full felicity to which hee was created. For God cannot be perfectly knowne, and therefore not per∣fectly loued, so long as his iustice and mercy is vn∣knowne: So that by the very fall of man, God hath framed to man, a step to a more perfect condition; and although in the respect of many particular per∣sons which perish, it might haue beene wished that man had not sinned, yet in respect of the vniuersall good, whereof regard is rather to be had, God ought not to haue vsed his power to haue hindred sinne, that it might not haue beene committed.

X. Furthermore, although God doth permit the Diuels and men to sinne, yet doth hee not so let loose the reynes to them, but that they are held fast bound by the bonds of his prouidence, and whilest they wan∣der out of the path of righteousnesse, they are yet in∣cluded within the limits of his prouidence, that they should not hurt them whom God loues: For al∣though mans will hath corrupted it selfe; yet is not therefore the gouernment of God diminished, to which the willes of men are subiect, how much soeuer they are aduerse to his commandement, and driuen with the spirit of rebellion doe gnash their teeth against his gouernment.

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XI. The principall faculties of the soule are two, the Vnderstanding, and the Will; the one by which man knoweth, and the other by which hee moues himselfe. By the vnderstanding, we are learned or vn∣learned, by the will, we are eyther good or euill. That which in the vnderstanding is to affirme or deny, that in the will, is to desire or to refuse. God doth not put wicked desires into the minde: but he doth often cast darknes into the mind, and in his iust iudgement doth blinde the vnderstanding, striking the rebells with a giddinesse, and making them drunke with the spirit of sleepe; yea truely, no otherwise then the master doth iustly blow out his seruants candle, which by night he doth abuse at dice: So God doth take away the light of his knowledge, when man doth abuse it to the contempt of God, and to the liberty of sinning. Howbeit, God hauing taken away this light, the er∣ring will doth stumble, and grieuously offend; but hardnesse of heart doth, of it selfe, follow this blind∣nesse of minde. For Saint Iohn ioyneth these together as hanging one vpon another. Chap. 12.40. God hath blinded their eyes, and hardned their hearts. By this meanes latter sinnes, are made the punishment of for∣mer sinnes; as Saint Austin teacheth at large in his fift booke against Iulian. Chap. 3. For by the very same thing, whereby man by his latter sinnes is made more wic∣ked, by the same he is also made more miserable: Not that sinne is sent from God as a punishment, but because God doth vse for a punishment that sinne which is not from him. And hence doth that doctrine of a bare and carelesse permission vanish; because a iudge doth not punish by a carelesse permission; but

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by decreeing or iudging according to iustice.

XII. The subministration, and furnishing of the outward meanes of saluation, such as are the word and sacraments doe also worke to this obduration, and hardnesse of heart. For vnlesse God moue the heart by the powerfull grace of his spirit, mans wic∣kednesse is more stirred vp by those outward helpes, and hauing cast off this troublesome yoake, he is carri∣ed through by-waies, and doth violently throw down himselfe with greater ruine: And then is fulfilled that which is said in the 81. Psalme. I gaue them vp to their owne hearts lusts, that they might walke in their owne counsells. But yet, that you might know that this hardnesse of heart doth proceede from man himselfe; the Scripture doth not onely say, that God hardned Pharaohs heart: but Pharaoh himselfe is said to haue hardend his owne heart. Exod, 8.15. Ney∣ther is that of Saint Paule, Rom. 1. any otherwise to be vnderstood; That God deliuereth ouer the wicked 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to a reprobate minde and vile affecti∣ons: For this reprobate minde, these vile affections are not put into the wicked by God, but they being in the vngodly, God hauing put out his light, doth suf∣fer these vile affections to exercise their authority o∣uer them; as Thomas teacheth. Lib. 2. Quest. 79. Art. 1.

XIII. Furthermore, they are two sorts of them whose hearts are hardned; for besides that hardnesse of heart which is common to all the reprobates, whereby a man is left to himselfe, whence it com∣meth that hee doth alwaies grow worse, there are some that are 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉 men of a high ranke of wicked∣nesse, whom God doth deliuer to Sathan with a

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peculiar and extraordinary vengeance; such as were Pharaoh, Saul and Iudas.

XIV. Euery positiue being doth depend vpon God as vpon the first and principall entity, neither can the creature moue it selfe without the assistance and sustentation of God: For by him we liue, and moue, and haue our bring, Acts 17. Neither doth he onely worke by influence into the creatures, or assist them by a generall power and influence, but also by his pe∣culiar assistance, by which he doth sustaine and direct seuerall actions. The euents which follow of seuerall actions doe declare this, which he doth witnesse, doe not happen by chance, but of his purpose, God so wil∣ling: If an Axe falling out of the hand of him that cutteth wood, doth kill one that passeth by, God doth affirme that it was done by him. The Lot is cast into the lap, but the whole disposing thereof is of the Lord, Pro. 16.33.

XV. Furthermore, although God by his concur∣rence, doth giue his influence into humane actions, sustayning the agent, and directing the actions, setting bounds to them, ordering the euents, and drawing good out of euill; yet must it not therefore be thought that God doth instigate to euill actions, or to haue forced Eue to the eating of the forbidden tree. To the clearing of which assertion, we say that God doth not onely worke by the creature, but also worke with the creature; both God and the creature are concurrent causes to one 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to the bringing forth of one effect; and these two taken together, are the totall cause of any action: which creature, if it doth worke voluntary, may by his concurrence pol∣lute the action wherein there is the concurrence of

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God, and determinate it to euill: By this meanes the whole fault doth remaine with the creature. For God effectually infusing into the creature, doth not take away from it the free contribution of its owne power. If man sinneth any thing in an humane action, the concurrence of God is naturall, but the concur∣rence of the creature is morall: whatsoeuer was na∣turall in the eating of the forbidden Apple was from God; whatsoeuer was morall and straying from the path of iustice, was from man. As God doth giue to a lame liuing creature the power of going, yet is not his lamenesse from God; so though God doth giue to man the faculty of willing, and doth sustaine the na∣turall motion of the will, and the act of willing; yet if any euill come which doth defile that act, it must not be said to be from God: Man is the effector of sinne, God the permitter. That act in which there is deformity, is naturally good, in as much as it is from God: but morally euill, in as much as it is from man. The action in which the sinne is, is one thing, the deformity of the action in which formally the sinne is, is another thing. To the action it selfe God doth concurre with man, but not to the sinne.

XVI. Neither is God to be blamed that he doth concurre with the creature, which hee knoweth will abuse his concurrence and assistance to sinning: For mans vice cannot straighten the limits of Gods pow∣er, nor dissolue that eternall law, by which the whole frame of nature doth stand, nor pull away that natu∣rall necessity, whereby the creature cannot moue it selfe, without the assistance of God. So the Soule although it knowes that the body will abuse her

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mouing power to halting, doth not keep back her mo∣uing force, or abstaine from the motion of the body. Neither will therefore the power of God be diminish∣ed in naturall things, or his influence cease, because in morall things, the will of man is disobedient to the law of God: Yea, God cannot require obedience from the creature, vnlesse he should sustaine it, and giue to it power of mouing it selfe.

XVII. As the Sunne is not the cause of darke∣nesse, although darkenesse doth necessarily follow the absence of it: So God seeing he is the most exact iu∣stice, is not the cause of sinne, although inordinate affections, blindenesse of minde, & the prauity of the will, doe necessarily follow the deniall of the grace of God. This is their meaning, which say, that God is not the efficient, but the deficient cause of sin: Yet I could wish men would abstaine from this kinde of speaking.

XVIII. Although wicked men doe worke freely, and of their owne motion are carried to sinne, God not alluring nor forcing them: yet it is certaine, that the euents which doe follow thence are directed and gouerned by Gods prouidence. For as the downefall of the running water, inclining to the lower parts, may be turned, the channell being guided by the di∣ligence of the conueyor: so although wicked men of their owne disposition are prone to sinne, yet by the prouidence of God and his secret counsell, they are inclined to commit this sinne rather then that, that they may serue the execution of the iudgements of God, when he will vse them either to punish any ones wickednesse, or to try the faith of the godly, or to stirre vp their sloathfulnesse. This similitude Salo∣mon

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doth vse, Prou. 21. The heart of the King is in the hand of the Lord, as the riuers of waters, and hee turnes it whether he will. By this meanes as Saint Peter saith, Act. 4. The wicked doe whatsoeuer things the hand of God and his purpose had determined to be done. Hence it is that God saith, Esay 5. that hee will whistle for the remote nations, to say waste Iudea. And Chap. 10. hee cals Ashur the rod of his wrath. Ieroboam seekes after nouelties, and doth practise a reuolting from Salo∣mon; Ahias the Prophet sent from God, doth declare to him the euent of this attempt: God did not instill this rebellion into his heart, which was before con∣ceiued; but hardned his minde, which was already e∣uill, to the daring this wicked attempt, that he might vse the wicked man to punish the sinnes of Salomon and Rehoboam.

As therefore Horse-leaches applyed to the parts of a sicke man, while they satisfie their owne gorge, doe performe the intent of the Physitian: so wicked men, whilest they rage against good men, besides their owne intention, they further the purpose of God: as Esay teacheth in his tenth Chapter; where God saith that hee had decreed to vse the King of Assiria to pu∣nish the hypocrisie of Israel, but that this minde was not in the King, being led onely by ambition and de∣sire of prey: Thus God vsed the wickednesse of the brethren of Ioseph to keepe famine from his people: and the treason of Iudas, for the death of Christ, and by it, for our redemption; and the ambition of Au∣gustus Caesar taxing the whole Empire, for the bring∣ing of Mary out of Galile to Bethlehem, that there shee might be deliuered, and so the prophesie of Michai be

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fulfilled. Euen they which resist the commande∣ment of God, helpe forward his prouidence, and like Rowers which set their backes that way which they goe. God by the folly of men, doth worke the purpo∣ses of his wisedome; he doth vse vniust men to the ex∣ercising of his iustice: as if one with a crooked staffe should strike a straight blow.

XIX. Whensoeuer God letting loose the reines to Sathan, doth permit him to tempt any man, Sa∣than truely may allure the appetite by propounding Obiects, or trouble the phantasie by the alterati∣on of the humours of the body, but he cannot com∣pell the will; otherwise the man should not sinne but Sathan: Neither could God iustly punish a man for sinne, to which hee had beene compelled by an outward cause, without his owne inclination.

XX. But because God, when hee would auenge the contumacy of his enemies, or punish the sinnes of his owne, doth sometimes vse Sathan as his mini∣ster; the holy Scripture doth attribute one and the same euent both to God and to Sathan. So 1 Sam. 16. the euill spirit troubling Saul, is said to be from God. and 1 Chro. 21. Sathan is said to haue rose vp against Israel, and to haue stirred vp Dauid to number the people; and 2 Sam. 24. it is attributed to God. There God is to be considered as a iust iudge, and Sathan as an incitour of the wickednesse.

By these instructions well conceiued, the way of exusing Saint Austen will easily be found, from whom sometimes there fall some speeches which trouble tender eares, if they be not moderated with a fit interpretation; such is that which he saith of Shemei

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cursing Dauid, in his Booke de Gratia & libero arbitrio. Cap. 20. What wise man doth vnderstand how the Lord said to this man, Curse Dauid? For he did not bid him by commanding him, that his obedience should be praised; bu because God inclined his will, which by his owne pro∣per vice was euill, to this sinne, by his iust and secret iudge∣ment, and therefore is it said, the Lord bid him. And Cap. 22. God worketh in the hearts of men to incline their wils whithersoeuer he will, either to good things of his own mercy, or to euill things according to their deserts. And against Iulian the Pelagian, lib. 5. cap. 3. Many other things we might rehearse, in which it would plainely ap∣peare, that the heart is made peruerse by the secret iudge∣ment of God, that the truth which is said might not be heard, and so man might sinne, that sinne might be the punishment of a former sinne: Yea, in the same place, he doth contend against Iulian, that those which are deliuered vp to their owne desires, are driuen into sinnes by the diuine power. Neither doth Thomas teach things vnlike these, in his Commentary vpon the Epistle to the Romanes, and the ninth Chapter.

CHAP. IIII.

Of the will of God.

I. THE will in man is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the rationall appetite; whereby man of his own accord, & with knowledge, doth moue himselfe to obtaine good, whether it be truely good, or good onely in shew, and in the opinion of man. But some∣times the will is not taken for the faculty whereby

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wee will, but for the act of willing or desiring: some∣times it is taken for the thing it selfe which wee will, after the same manner as Saint Paule speaketh, 1. Thes. 4. That the will of God is our sanctification.

II. Will, in God, is not a rationall appetite; for God is not capable of any appetite, yea, nor rea∣son: But the will of God, is that act of willing, whereby hee doth eyther command, or appoint and decree.

III. For the will of God is two-fold, the one is his decree, the other is his commandement. The de∣cree of God, belongeth to the prouidence of God, and the commandement of God, belongeth to his iustice: By his decree, hee doth appoint and dispose the euents of things; by his commandement hee doth gouerne our actions. By the former will, God doth appoint what he will haue done; by the latter, what he would haue vs doe. To the former all crea∣tures obey, euen the Diuels themselues; to the latter onely the faithfull, and yet not that per∣fectly.

IV. These faithfull men are esteemed iust, not be∣cause they obey the decree of God, but because they are obedient to his commandement. So the wicked sonne, wishing the death of his sicke father, doth sinne against the will of God, although his wicked minde doth consent with the decree of God: On the other side, the sonne which doth pray to God for the health of his sicke father, doth obey the will of God, al∣though by the decree of God his death is certaine, and the desire of the good sonne, is contrary to the purpose of God. God forbids murther; and yet hee

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decreed that the Iewes should kill Christ, by which fact they sinned against God, howsoeuer they fulfil∣led his decree. Act. 2.23. Vorstius himselfe doth ac∣knowledge, That God would not haue had his people so soone sent away by Pharaoh, viz. because God had de∣creed not to bend the heart of Pharaoh to obedience: But as concerning the commandement, it is no doubt but God commanded Pharaoh, that hee should send away the people without delay; for therefore God inflicted vpon him so many scourges; because he did not obey the commandement of God. Neither by this will Vorstius make God guilty of Hypocrisie, or fraudulent dissimulation; as he doth falsely lay to our charge.

V. These two willes, the Scripture doth some∣times mixe, and take them promiscuously one for a∣nother. So when Christ, Iohn 6. saith, that he descen∣ded from Heauen, that hee might not doe his owne will, but the will of him that sent him; it is certaine that Christ vnderstandeth both these two willes, because Christ by those actions did both fulfill all righteous∣nesse, and also did execute the decree of God: And therefore eyther of these willes is called the pur∣pose of God. Esay. 46.10, Luke 7.30. Act. 20.27.

VI. This decree of God, is properly, and by it selfe, called the will of God; the law of God is not so properly called his will, for the law is rather a document or lesson, then his will, and rather a decla∣ration, wherein God doth make knowne to man, by what meanes he may be pleased, then what hee hath absolutely appointed to come to passe. For onely of the will of God, so properly called, is that true

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which is saide, Psalme 115. God doth whatsoeuer hee will.

VII. The promises and threatnings of God, are yet more improperly called the will of God, seeing by them God doth neither command, nor decree any thing absolutely; but they are declarations, whereby God doth declare what shall come to passe; if man obey the law, or if he doe not obey it; if man be∣leeue the Gospell, or if he doe not beleeue it.

Perhaps the promises and threatnings of God, [Obiect.] are his conditionall decree, and depending vpon the per∣formance of the condition by the pleasure of man. But this cannot truely be said: For if it should be so, [Answ.] this decree would not be certaine by the will of God, although the euent was certainely foreseene by him: Also nothing can be imagined more absurd, then to appoint God to decree any thing with a condition, which condition, in the very moment in which hee decrees it, he knoweth will neuer be fulfilled. When a master saith to a seruant, if you will doe thus, you shall haue this reward, he doth declare, that hee will then giue the reward, when the condition is fulfilled. But God willeth nothing, which hee willed not from eternity. Indeede God doth promise life vnder the condition of obedience, but hee doth decree nothing vnder that doubtfull condition. Hee doth not elect Peter if hee shall beleeue, but hee electeth him to faith, that he might be saued: Neither was he onely willing to preserue the Niniuites if they would be turned, but hee also gaue them repentance whereby they turned.

VIII. They which say that Gods decree is his

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secret will, but his commandement, his reuealed will, seeme to me, to speake inconsiderately: For many things are made knowne to vs of the decrees of God, not onely those things which are made manifest by the euents, but also may other things, which God in his word hath taught vs shall come to passe. As the comming of Christ, the resurrection, &c.

IX. Thomas, and the Schoole-men, doe distin∣guish the will of God, In voluntatem beneplaciti, & vo∣luntatem signi; Into the will of his good pleasure, and the will of his signe, that is, his signified and reuea∣led will; The members of which distinction, fall one into another: For many things of the will of his good pleasure are signified to vs: Neither is the word be∣neplaciti, good pleasure, which in Greeke is, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, sufficiently applyed heere: For 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or good-pleasure, doth for the most part include, Loue and good-will: as Luke 2.14. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, On earth peace, towards men good will. See also Ephes. 1.5. & 9. But the decree of God, is also exten∣ded to his iudgements, and to the punishment of the wicked.

X. They doe very ill, which set these two willes one against another, and would haue them be con∣trary. Surely if God should driue a man to doe those things which hee hath forbidden to be done, or should keepe backe him, who is indeauouring to obey the Law, with an opposite barre from his obe∣dience; God should will things that are contrary, and should resist his owne will: But his decree doth not resist his commandement, when he doth require those things from man, which doe exceede mans

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power, and doth not minister to man that ability whereby he may fulfill what is commanded; for man himselfe is the cause of his owne impotency and ina∣bility, neither is God bound to giue those powers to man, which he lost by his owne fault. He which is in debt, doth not owe the lesse because hee hath consu∣med his estate; neither doth that creditor deale vn∣iustly which requireth his debt of the Bankerupt; be∣cause he doth not consider him as a poore man, but as a debtor. Arminius therefore is deceiued, in rea∣soning thus against Perkins. Hee that will denie to any one (saith he) necessary helpe to performe the act of Faith, he doth desire that such a one should not beleeue. Cer∣tainely he that will not giue money to a poore man, which is falne into pouertie by his owne fault, doth not therefore desire he should be poore, nor is deligh∣ted with his pouerty. Nor is that any better which he doth adde. As it cannot bee saide (saith hee) that God is willing that creature should liue, to whom hee doth deny the act of his preseruation: So also it cannot be saide, that God is willing that that action should he performed by any one, to whom hee doth deny his concurrence and helpe, necessary for the performing of that action. These things, and other such like, doth hee ill beate vpon, for hee doth vse a similitude, which is a plaine dissimilitude, for no man is bound to his Esse, to his being, neither can God exact from him, that is not, that hee should be: But to obey God, man is naturally bound; Therefore God can rightly require of man what hee oweth, and yet is not therefore bound to giue him a∣bility of obeying and fulfilling what hee commands; for God is not bound to restore to man, that power

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which was once giuen and is now lost by the fault of man. But here I would vse the fittest words, and I had rather say, that God decreed not to giue grace to one, whereby he should be conuerted and should beleeue, then to say, that God decreed that the man should be an vnbeleeuer and impenitent: For the word decreeing, is more fit to note out those things which God determined to doe, then those things which he determined not to cure.

XI. Furthermore vnder the word obedience, I comprehend also faith in Christ, for as much as it is one kinde of obedience to which wee are bound by the law, which doth command that God be loued, with all our heart, and with all our strength, and therefore that God be obeyed, that his word be be∣leeued, whatsoeuer it shall be that God shall com∣mand: Whence it commeth to passe, that wee cannot reiect the doctrine of the Gospell by vnbeleefe, but we also sinne against the law by disobedience; which if it be so, although faith on Christ was not expresly com∣manded by the Law, nor was Adam before his fall bound to beleeue in Christ, yet it is certaine that God commanding assent and reuerence to be exhibited to his Gospell, doth require that that loue which is com∣manded in the law, and which is naturally due, should be yeelded to him, that is, to Christ.

All these things that haue beene spoken, tend thither, that wee might teach that there is no dif∣ference betweene these two willes of God. Lt Saint Ausens Encheridion to Laurentius, Chapter 101. be read, where hee doth teach, how Gods will may be done of them which doe not the will of God:

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and that, that is not done besides Gods will, which is done against his will.

CHAP. V.

Of the Antecedent and consequent will of God.

DAmascen in his second Booke of Orthodox faith, Chap. 29. doth set downe two wils of God; the one 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or Antecedent; the other 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, Consequent. Ar∣minius hath catched this distinction, and doth place in it the chiefe strength of his Doctrine; and as often as he is vrged by our side, he creepes into this denne, as the Lyzard into the thickets.

I. The Antecedent will of God, hee saith is that, whereby God doth will any thing to the reasonable crea∣ture, before all the actions of it, or before any act of that creature; but the consequent is that, whereby he doth will any thing to the reasonable creature, after any one act, or after many acts, of the creature. To the explication of which distinction, he bringeth these examples. God (saith he) by his Antecedent will, would stablish and confirme for euer the kingdome of Saul; by his Con∣sequent will, he would put him from his kingdome, and substitute in his place a man better then he. Christ by his Antecedent will, would gather the Iewes as a Henne gathereth her Chickens; but by his Conse∣quent will, hee would ••••atter them through all the Nations. By his Antecedent will, they are cited to the marriage; which by his Consequent will, were decla∣red vnworthy, Matth. 22. By his Antecedent will, the man without the wedding garment was inuited; by

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his Consequent will, he was cast out. By his Antece∣dent will, the talents are giuen; by his Consequent will, the talent is taken from the seruant.

II. The one of these willes is called the Antece∣dent will, the other is called the Consequent; not be∣cause that will goeth before this, for in this sense, this distinction may be admitted, because there is a certaine order among the purposes of God: Thus his will of creating man, was in order before his will of feeding or cloathing him: But with Damascen and Ar∣minius, it is called the Anrecedent will of God, be∣cause it goeth before the act of mans will; and they call that the consequent will of God, which is after the will of man, and doth depend vpon it. This Arminius doth cleerely teach in his definitions before laide downe.

III. Betweene these two willes of God hee puts this difference, that the Antecedent will of God, may be resisted, the consequent cannot. Hee would haue it, that God should be disappointed in his antece∣dent will, and faile of his propounded end; But the consequent will of God cannot he frustrated, but it must necessarily be fulfilled: for hee thinks that God doth not alwaies attaine to that which hee intends, and that sometimes hee is disappointed of that parti∣cular end which he propounds to himselfe; and that God is prepared to doe that which from eternity he knoweth he shall not doe; whence it comes to passe, that he hath prepared himselfe in vaine, and that by his consequent will, which is eternall, certaine, and immutable, hee hath decreed to harden those repro∣bates, which by his antecedent will he is prepared to

Page 29

mollifie and conuert: And so he is prepared to doe, that which he hath decreed not to doe.

IV. Betweene these two wils of God (if any cre∣dit may be giuen to Arminius,) doth mans will come in, which doth cause, that God doth reuoke his ante∣cedent will, which is farre the best; and being dri∣uen from his propounded end, doth turne himselfe to another thing, then that which at the first he had in∣tended: so farre, that Vorstius saith, Disput. de Deo. p. 65. that God afterward will not doe some things, which before he had promised, yea sworne that he would doe.

V. If any Doctrine be contumelious against God, this is, accusing him of folly, putting vpon him hu∣maine affections, and falsely attributing to him wishes of no strength, and a desire of no force: as if they should bring in God speaking thus: I doe indeed ear∣nestly desire to saue you, but ye hinder, that I can∣not doe what I desire; I would if you would: there∣fore seeing by you I am frustrated of my intent, I will change my purpose of sauing you, and my will be∣ing otherwise bent, I haue determined to destroy you for euer. It is certainely plaine, that this Antecedent will of God, is not a will; but a desire and wish, which God doth obtaine onely by entreaty, and as much as he may, by mans good pleasure. Therefore Arminius doth oftentimes call this will, a desire and naturall affection, and it is common to these secta∣ries to take those places, Psal. 81.14. Esa. 48.18. where God is brought in speaking, as one wishing and de∣siring, and disappointed of his wish, as if they were properly spoken, when these things are spoken by an Anthropopathy and after the manner of men.

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VI. Furthermore, how grieuous a thing it is to be defrauded of ones desire and naturall affection, and how disagreeing this is to God, who doth not see, vnlesse it be he that will willingly be deceiued? For if God be most perfectly good, yea goodnesse it selfe, it must needes be, that his affections and naturall de∣sires (if he haue any) are of highest sanctity, iustice, and perfection: and therefore nothing is so much to be wished, as that that naturall affection might be ful∣filled, and that God might obtaine his desired end. There is cause therefore that wee should grieue for Gods cause, who is deceiued of that end which is farre the best, and who might be made partaker of his wish, if man would let him. See whether the wit of these nouators doth plunge it selfe, and how honou∣rably they thinke of God. Hitherto belong those im∣pious and wicked speeches of Vorstius; who doth af∣firme, that something doth happen vnexpected to God, and which is bitter and very distastfull to him, and doth (although it be vnproperly spoken) bring very great griefe to him, and which doth proceede, not from his Ante∣cedent, but from his Consequent will, hauing tryed all things in vaine; Which speach, doth doubtlesse abase God below the state of man: For if any such thing should happen, euen amongst men, and any ones endeauour, hauing tryed all things in vaine, should be deluded, it would be an argument, either of imprudency, or weakenesse, or infidelity. There is cause therefore we should lament the state of God, who vsing an vnpro∣sperous successe, hath so ill performed the busi∣nesse.

VII. It is also absurd, yea impious to affirme,

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that God, to whom all things from eternity are not onely foreseene, but also prouided for; should in∣tend any thing that from eternity hee knew would not come to passe, and to haue propounded an end to himselfe, to which he knew he should not attaine; as if one should leuell at a marke which is not, nor euer will be: For if God from eternity knoweth that this man shall be damned, in vaine doth hee wish from e∣ternity, that he should be saued: and hee doth from eternity know that he shall not be partaker of his na∣turall desire, and his antecedent will.

VIII. What a thing is it, that hereby there is brought in resistance betweene these two wils of God, the latter of which doth correct the former? for by this Antecedent will, God doth desire to doe that, which from eternity he is certaine hee shall not doe. And God is imagined doing something hardly and vnwillingly, and against that end which hee had first intended, because mans will comes betweene, by which it comes to passe, that God doth cease from that end propounded to himselfe, which was farre bet∣ter, as if per 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, vpon a second aduise, he should obtaine some secondary good. Arminius doth not dissemble this, whose words are these: God doth seriously desire all men should be saued, but being compel∣led by the stubborne and incorrigible malice of some men he will haue them make losse of their saluation. But God doth nothing vnwillingly, neither can he be compelled by man, to the changing of his will.

IX. And if these weake affections and ineffectuall desires, of which he is disappointed, by the stepping betweene of mans will, be attributed to God, there is

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no doubt, but that God created man floting betweene his Antecedent and Consequent will; as not with∣out griefe fore-seeing the fall of man, and know∣ing that hee created a creature which would cer∣tainely perish, and yet hee would not abstaine from his creation, because his decree of creating man could not be abolished: so that God bound himselfe in those straights, out of which hee could not quit himselfe.

X. It is not also to be indured, that the will of God should remaine vncertaine, vntill the condition, vnder which God doth Antecedently will any thing, be either fulfilled or broken. For although the gene∣rall affection of God towards all men, be not made to depend on mans will, yet (according to Arminius) the effect thereof is vncertaine, vntill God by his conse∣quent will hath decreed to saue this or that man. But Arminius makes this Consequent will in God to de∣pend on mans free-will, and doth make it to come af∣ter faith, and the right vse of grace: Therefore Vor∣stius, a man of a sharpe wit, but of an vnfortunate au∣dacity, is bold to write that the will of God is after some manner mutable, and that some change may be made in some part of Gods decree.

XI. But although all the counsels of God are eter∣nall and immutable, neither can God be said to will any thing anew, which he hath not willed from eter∣nity; yet whosoeuer shall exactly consider this Con∣sequent will of God shall finde that it is made to come after his Antecedent will, not onely in order, but in time: For it is impossible that God should at one time desire to saue all men, and to damne some. And it

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must needes be, that the Antecedent will of God must cease, as blotted and raced out by his Conse∣quent, before there can be place for his Consequent will.

XII. And when the Apostle, Rom. 9. doth af∣firme, that the will of God cannot be resisted; by this di∣stinction, there is made a will of God which may be resisted, and the execution whereof may be hindred by man.

XIII. And here, if any where, we may see how little constant the Arminians are. For they doe con∣tend, that in the ninth Chapter to the Romanes, it is spoken of the Antecedent will of God, by which God will haue mercy vpon some, (for so they speake) that is, vpon such as beleeue, and not of his Consequent will, by which he hath determined precisely and ab∣solutely to haue mercy on this or that man: And yet they forgetting themselues, say, that this Antecedent will may be resisted; when notwithstanding Saint Paul saith in the same place. Who can resist his will? Ei∣ther therefore let Arminius deny, that the Antece∣dent will of God is a will, but rather call it a wish, de∣sire, or affection; or if he doth contend that it is a will, let him confesse that it cannot be resisted.

To which purpose, excellently Saint Austen, En∣chared. Cap. 95. Our God in heauen doth whatsoeuer things hee will, both in heauen and earth; which is not true, if hee hath willed some things, and hath not done them: And which is more vnworthy of him, hath not therefore done them, because the will of man hath hin∣dred that the Almighty should not doe what hee willed.

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XIV. Arminius indeede doth confesse, that God doth not want power to fulfill that Antecedent will, whereby he doth earnestly desire all men to be saued: But it is not true (saith he) that the thing which he doth wish & seriously desire, that he will effect the same by what meanes soeuer he is able, but by those meanes by which it is decent and conuement, that he should effect it. The Fa∣ther wisheth, and doth earnestly desire, that his Sonne would obey mn, but he doth not violently draw his Sonne to obe∣dience: and a little after. The similitude of a Merchant, who doth desire his wares should be safe, and yet casteth them into th sea, doth very well square and agree to the purpose. God doth earnestly desire that all men should be saued, but compelled by the stubborne and incorrigible ma∣lice of some men, will haue them make losse of their salua∣tion. For although God doth earnestly will and in∣tend the saluation of all and singular men, yet he will not then put forth his omnipotency, least hee should force mans free-will. I answere. Nothing is effected by these similitudes; for they are plaine dissimlitudes. Arminius vseth examples of men which cannot be made partakers of their vowes, but by meanes that are not conuenient; and of them who are oftentimes disappointed of their intention. But to God there are neuer wanting iust and conuenient meanes, by which he should obtaine that which he intends; neither can he be disappointed of his intent. But you say, if God should exercise his omnipotency, in conuerting man, he should force mans free-will, and compell mans vo∣luntary liberty. But that I deny: For he can without constraint so bend the will, that it should follow of its owne accord. Without constraint hee suddenly

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changed the minde of Esau, Gen. 33. and the minde of Saul, 1 Sam. 19.23. and the minde of the Aegyptians, Psal. 105.25. and of Kings, Pro. 21.1. If God doth make this change of the will in wicked men, the liber∣ty of mans free-will vntouched; how much more may hee doe it in good and faithfull men? God without constraint did change the heart of the Theefe on the Crosse, and so doth he of all, from whom hee takes their stony heart, and giues them an heart of flesh, Ezek 36.26. and of those, who when they were dead in sinne, hee raised vp with a spirituall resurrection, Ephes. 2.5. We shall see Arminius is of opinion, that the vnderstanding is vnresistably indued with light by God, and that God doth vnresistably giue power of beleeuing the Gospell to all men, to whom the Gos∣pell shall be preached, and that hee drawes their af∣fections: But when the minde hath fully receiued in this perswasion, and the affections doe stir vp the will, it is impossible but their will should moue it selfe, whe∣ther the minde, instructed by God, doth appoint it, and whether the appetite doth force it; for these are the onely incitements of the will, neither is it moued by any other impulsion. The schoole and followers of Arminius, are also of opinion, that the Elect are drawne of God by effectuall and powerfull grace, the effect whereof is most sure, because God doth draw them in a congruent and fit time and manner, in which he knoweth they will infallibly follow him, cal∣ling them: And yet the Arminians meane not here∣by that any force is offred to the will of man, but that it is so vehemently affected with a morall and sweet perswasion, that it followeth of its owne accord. The

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example of the Theefe, doth seeme to mee to be no∣table aboue all the other; whose heart so suddendly changed in a time of aduersity, when the faith of the Apostles themselues did shake, is an euident lesson, how great the efficacie of the holy Spirit is on them who are called by the purpose of God, Rom. 8.28. But of this efficacy of calling, it shall be spoken more at large in his proper place.

XV. Hence appeares with how prepostrous dili∣gence Arminius hath turned his wit to the defence of free-will. For there lay open to him a most sure and plaine way, whereby God might shew forth his pow∣er in the conuersion of man, without the diminishing of our liberty. Nor, while hee doth patronize and de∣fend free will, ought he to strike against the wisedome and perfection of God, whom hee would frustrate and disappoint of his owne end and naturall desire, and wish those things which he knowes hee shall not obtaine, and propound an end to himselfe which shall neuer be.

XVI. In the meane while, the prudent reader shall easily discerne whereto that similitude of the marchant making losse, and casting his wares into the sea, with his owne hands, may belong. For Arminius doth not onely expressely say that God is compelled to doe something which he had not intended, (for the marchant did not intend to doe this, but doth it 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, nolens, volens, betweene willing, and nil∣ling) but also by these hee doth insinuate, that God being driuen from that better end which he had pro∣pounded to himselfe, turned himselfe to another end lesse to be wished; which things, whether they be

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spoken by prudent men to the reproach of God, or by vnwise men through ignorance, it doth strike hor∣ror into pious mindes.

XVII. But in this distinction of the will of God, into Antecedent and Consequent, the first whereof doth goe before, the other doth follow mans will; this is farre the worst thing, that by it, the will of man is made to goe before the election of God: For according to Arminius, God by his antecedent will would saue all men, and giue them power of beleeue∣ing in Christ; but by his consequent will, doth elect or reprobate seuerall men, according as hee fore-knowes their faith, or infidelity. A deadly doctrine, by which the election of man doth depend vpon mans will, and our faith is made the cause, and not the fruite of our election, and man chooseth God, and applyeth himselfe to God, before he is chosen of God: Whence it comes to passe, that on the one side, mans pride is blowne vp, as it were, with bel∣lowes, and on the other side, faith is vndermined, as it were, with trenches, and confidence doth decay: For what certainty can there be of our saluation, if our election depend vpon so instable a thing. But of these things more at large in their proper place. Now those examples with which Arminius doth support that double will of God, are to be exa∣mined.

XVIII. God (saith he) by his antecedent will would stablish the throne of Saule for euer; but by his consequent will, he would ouerthrow it, as it is 1. Sam. 13 13. but there is no such thing to be found; for Samuell doth not say, that God would stablish the

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kingdome of Saule; but he saith, God had established thy kingdome for euer; betweene which there is a great deale of difference: If God had established it, it had beene his will to stablish it: But because hee did not establish it; it is certaine it was not his will to esta∣blish it.

XIX. There is no more force at all in the other example. Christ (saith hee) by his antecedent will, would gather the Iewes, as a Hen gathereth her chic∣kens; but by his consequent will, hee would scatter them through all nations. Math. 22.37. But this place signifieth quite another thing. Christ speakes to Hie∣rusalem, and saith, that hee would haue gathered his children together; but Hierusalem her selfe resisted, with all her power. Hierusalem is one thing, and her children another, who here are expresly distinguished from the citty: By Hierusalem vnderstand the Priests, the Leuites, the Scribes, and the prince of the peo∣ple, for these did most of all withstand Christ: By the children of Hierusalem, understand the people. Christ saith, that hee would haue gathered together these children; neither is it to be doubted, but that he gathered together many of them, although the rulers were vnwilling. This place, therefore, maketh nothing for that Antecedent will, which these men would haue not to be fulfilled, when indeede it was fulfilled as much as seemed good to God. Then also these words, how often would I, they misvnderstand them of the Antecedent will, which is the decree of God; when to will, is here nothing else, then to inuite and command: So Saint Austen thinkes, Encherid. Chap. 97. Or rather (saith he) shee indeede would not

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haue had her children to be gathered together by him: but euen shee vnwilling, hee gathered those of her children whom he himselfe would 〈◊〉〈◊〉.

XX. The other examples are vnworthy that we should stay long vpon them. By his Antecedent will. (saith he) those were called to the wedding, which by his Consequent will were declared vnworthy: By his Antecedent will, hee without the wedding garment is inuited; by his Consequent will, hee is cast out. By his Antecedent will, the Gospell is offered to the Iewes; by his Consequent will, it is taken away. In all these things, that will of God, whereby men are called, is no other thing, then to command, and in∣uite, not to decree that by his Antecedent will, which afterward hee hath broken off by his Conse∣quent will.

XXI. Neither are wee scrupulously to enquire why God hath called them, whom hee knoweth will not follow. The end why God doth this, is euident, to wit, to require of men, that which they owe. To search any farther into the intent of God, is to make God obnoxious to accounts, and to breake into his secrets.

XXII. It is not to be ouerpassed, that Arminius will haue God, equally desire to saue all men by his An∣tecedent will, but when he is prepared to the effect, & execution of that will, he doth those things which are contrary to that will. For hee preacheth the Gospell to those that are very wicked, as to the men of Ca∣pernaum; he doth deny that fauour to those that are lesse wicked, as to the men of Tyrus & Sydon; and he doth suffer many wilde people and stupid, with their

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barbarous cruelty, to be ouerwhelmed in darkenesse. But why so? because (saith hee) their Ancestors refu∣sed the Gospell. O ridiculous reason! Should hee that doth equally desire the saluation of all, be hindred with so light an impediment, and which is contrary to his iustice, as shall afterward be taught? Thus though Arminius doth teach, that God would by his Antecedent will saue all seuerall men; it is yet mani∣fest by experience, that God through many ages hath denyed, and doth yet deny, to most nations, those meanes without which they cannot be saued, and doth onely supply those meanes, which meanes alone, none euer vsed well.

XXIII. But God (saith he) seeing hee is very good by nature, cannot but wish well to all men by his Antecedent and primary will; as being created af∣ter his own image. These things were spoken by them rightly, & agreeably to the nature of God, if we were borne without originall sinne: But seeing the image of God is almost blotted out, and in place of it, the image of the Diuell hath succeeded, no reason doth compell vs to beleeue that God is willing to saue all and singular men; but the holy Scripture doth teach, that some are saued by the meere grace of God, and by election, according to his purpose, the rest being left in their naturall perdition, and appointed to damnation for those sinnes which they were to com∣mit of their owne accord.

XXIV. All these things are not therefore spo∣ken, that we should reiect this distinction of the wil of God, into his Antecedent and Consequent will: For we know, that among the decrees of God, some are

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before, and some are after in order. But wee denie that there are two decrees of God, betweene which mans will steppeth in; as if mans will came betweene the decree of creating man, and the decree of con∣demning certaine men. But we denie that the will of man doth so come betweene the two decrees of God, that the first, or Antecedent decree is broken off by the will of man, and that God is compelled to absist from that end which he had propounded to himselfe, and which he did seriously intend: We deny also, in the worke of our election, the precise will of God to depend on the fore-seeing of any power or action of mans free-will; or the Consequent will of God to be suspended on mans will: Concerning which thing, it shall be diligently spoken in the proper place.

CHAP. VI.

Of the sinne of Adam.

I. GOD, hauing created man, enlightned his minde with a supernaturall light, and adorned his will with righteousnes and holinesse; but so that he was muta∣ble; for otherwise God had created a God, and not a man; for not to be able to change, is a preroga∣tiue peculiar to God, whereby he is distinguished from all created things.

II. Arminius, whom the old way hath alwaies dis∣pleased, Articul. Perpend. Pag. 18. is of opinion, That an inclination to sinning was in man before his fall, al∣though not so vehement and inordinate as now it is. If this

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be true, it must needes be, that God put in man that inclination to sinne; which seeing it is an euill thing, God should be made the author of that which is euill, and to haue inclined man to sinne; which cannot be spoken without hainous wickednesse.

III. It was the least finne which Adam sinned in, gluttony, but that was farre the greatest, that he had rather beleeue the Serpent then God, and that being spurred on by ambition, he would be like God in the knowledge of good and euill: And that while hee obeyed the Serpent, hee gaue credit to reproaches cast vpon God. Finally because he preferred so small a thing before the commandement of God, therefore the lesser the eating of the Apple was, the greater was his sinne.

IV. This ruine beganne at the vnderstanding, o∣uer which Sathan had spread the cloud of false opini∣on, and had cast the imagination of a false good. To whose perswasion, when man shewed himselfe ready, then peruersenesse of the will, and inclination of the appetites to sinne, followed this darkening of the minde.

V. This fall happened, God indeede not compel∣ling it, but yet permitting it. There was not wanting power to his omnipotency, by which hee was able to hinder this fall, neither did enuy turne away his good∣nesse: God therefore permitted it, because he would permit it, and because it was good that he should per∣mit it He that is the chiefest good, would not haue permitted euill, vnlesse it had beene good that euill should haue entred into the world; by that permis∣sion, he made a way for the manifestation of his glory

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and opened a way, to man himselfe, to a state farre more excellent: For without sinne, the mercy of God, whereby he pardoneth, and his iustice whereby he punisheth, had neither of them been made knowne, nor had hee made knowne his infinite loue to the church, by the sending of Christ into the world, to abolish our sinnes, and to carry vs to a celestiall glo∣ry: Neither doe I say these things, as if I thought that God doth stand in neede of our wickednesse, to the manifestation of his glory; but I say, that God crea∣ted man, that hee might come to greater perfection then that was, in which hee was created. And hee could not come to that perfection, without the know∣ledge of Gods iustice and mercy, which doth shine forth out of this fall, and out of the remedy which he had prepared for this fall: To which purpose, the words of Saint Austen, in his booke de Correp. & gra∣ti. Cap. 10. are very proper. He that created all things very good, and fore-knew that euill things would rise out of those good things, knew that it did more pertaine to his omnipotent goodnesse, to make good things, euen out of euill things, then not to suffer euill things to be. The like hee saith, Encherid. Chap. 96.

VI. The Arminians bring no other cause of this permission, then this: Because God would not force mans voluntary liberty, nor compell his will, neither did he thinke it conuenient to vse his omnipotency, in a thing which belongs to mans free will: But they doe too negligently touch so great a matter, neither doe they sufficiently weigh the moment of things, and the circumstances of the fall of Adam. For God without the diminishing of mans liberty, could haue

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restrained Sathan, and hindred him that hee should not tempt man. He could haue forewarned man, that he should not beleeue the Serpent. He was able not to haue propounded the tree to man, by the eating whereof he knew man would sinne. Hee could haue giuen man more strength, and more light, and more vnderstanding. He could haue giuen extraordinary strength in the very instant of temptation: And yet by these, force had not beene offered to mans will, nor his liberty violated. The Angels are examples hereof, whom he doth confirme in good, without a∣ny constraint: By these it is manifest that the fall of man happened, God not compelling, but yet dispen∣fing, and by his prouidence turning that euent which hee fore-knew from eternity, to an end which hee had determined with himselfe from eternity.

VII. Neither is it to be said, that God withdrew his grace from man; for this were to compell him, as the house doth necessarily fall, when the pillars are ta∣ken away; nor that God tooke from him the liberty of his will, for so he had brought a necessity of sin∣ing; but he would not hinder that man should not be tempted by Sathan, nor would he helpe him with ex∣traordinary succour. And whereas man sinned freely, yet that fell out, which God from eternity fore-knew would bee, and the creatures themselues, before the creation of man, did testifie that it would come to passe: For before Adam had sinned, God had put into the Plants healthfull powers to keepe away diseases; already had he cloathed the sheepe with fleeces, and had formed cattell for the vse of man, which are re∣liefes of humaine infirmity, and had beene in vaine

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created, if man had stood in his integrity.

VIII. Now whether the digestion and egestion of meate, to be refreshed with sleepe after labour, to enioy the marriage bed, to grow in stature, to haue flesh that may be wounded and burnt (to all which man before his fall was obnoxious,) whether I say, these are such things as may perpetually agree to a creature perfectly blessed, or whether they doe not secretly testifie what should be the condition of man to come, I leaue it to be iudged of by wise men.

IX. And yet it is no doubt, but that Adam, with∣out any extraordinary helpe, had strength to resist Sa∣than: For it is not credible, that God gaue a Law to man, when he was made at first, to the performing of which he did not giue power: yet in respect of the fore-knowledge of God, the fall of man was certaine. For the act of the will may be certaine and defined before God; the liberty of mans will being vntouched and intire: So it is no doubt, but the tortours had power and ability of breaking the bones of Christ, when yet in respect of the fore-knowledge and pro∣uidence of God, it was impossible that they should be broken. The will of man may by a certaine and voluntary motion, determine it selfe to some one thing, and yet doe that which, either the knowledge of God hath certainely fore-knowne, or his proui∣dence hath certainely fore-ordained.

X. These things are firmely to be held, least the fault of man be transferred vpon God. For howsoe∣uer God doth draw good out of the fall of Adam, yet he neuer doth doe euill, that good may come of it:

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Neither must we think that God would force man to sinne, although his glory should manifest y appeare thereby. Gods glory must not be further. I with the damage of his iustice; but after a maueous and vn∣vtterable manner, God doth so dispose and gouerne the euents of things, that vnauodably those things happen, which he doth condemne and disalow, and the diuine prouidence doth keepe a course betweene iniustice and negligence. They therefore doe inuert the nature of things, who say that God decreed that Adam should sinne, because hee had determined to send Christ, who should cure Adams sinne: when ra∣ther God decreed to send Christ, because Adam was to sinne. Man did not sinne that Christ should abolish sinne; but Christ came that he might abolish sinne.

Here is nothing said, that ought to trouble tender eares, or which should make God partaker of sinne: which yet if any one doth either not conceiue, or not digest, it is better to accuse his owne dulnesse, then accuse the iustice of God, and to abstaine from lawfull things, then attempt vnlawfull things.

CHAP. VII.

That all mankinde is infected with Originall sinne.

I. SInne is either Originall or Actuall: I vse the accustomed words for clearenesse of speech; for if one would deale strictly, he shou d abstaine from these tearmes, see∣ing it is certaine that Originall sin is in act, and there∣fore is actuall. But vse hath obtained that that sinne

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should be called actuall, which is committed in acti∣on or in deede; and that originall which we haue from the birth, that hereditary blot which is sent into vs, from our Parents.

II. Of Originall sinne Saint Paul doth treat, in the fifth and seauenth Chapter to the Romanes. In the fifth Chapter, how it hath passage into all mankinde; in the seauenth Chapter, how it doth remaine in him, in whose minde the law of God is perfectly written.

III. That no man is free from this blot, the Scripture doth cry, and experience doth witnesse; Whatsoeuer is borne of the flesh, is flesh, saith Christ, Iohn 3. And there he doth plainely teach, that all men are defiled with Originall sinne, when he saith, that it is necessary to be borne againe, and to be formed a∣new. We are by nature the children of wrath, Eph. 2.3. Who can bring forth a cleane thing out of an vncleae? there is not one, Iob 14. Dauid acknowledgeth himselfe infected with this contagion. Psal. 51. Behold (saith he) I was formed in iniquity, and in sinne my mother concei∣ued me. He doth not acuse his father, nor expostu∣late with his mother, but although hee was adorned with fingular prerogatiue, and replenished with be∣nefits, yet hee doth confesse himselfe to be defi ed with that vniuersall contagion: he fetcheth the cause of his sinne from that originall, and in this common lot, he doth lament his owne: Circumcision signii∣ed this; for by that externall symbole, e Church was warned, that there was something n man 〈◊〉〈◊〉 soone as he was borne, that ought to be cut off and ••••••r ted. The end of Baptisme is the same, watch 〈◊〉〈◊〉 the

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Sacrament of our cleansing in the bloud of Christ, by which our naturall filthinesse is washed a∣way.

IV. Not onely the progenie of Ethnicks and In∣fidels, or euill Christians, is borne in this Originall sinne, but also the off-spring of the godly and faith∣full: No otherwise then he that was Circumcised, be∣gat one that was vncircumcised; and as a graine of Wheate well cleansed, and receiued in the lap of the earth, afterward growing, doth bring forth Wheate with chaffe. Then was Adam iustified, then did hee by his faith cleaue to the promise of his seede, that should bruise the serpents head; when he begot Cain the heire of his naturall wickednesse, and not of his faith or repentance. Piety is not hereditary, to be deriued to ones heires; neither doth holinsse come into vs by nature, but by grace: not generation but regeneration, doth make men holy and good. After the same manner that Aristotle, lib 2. Phisic doth teach, That artificiall formes (as the forme of a statue or image) are not begotten, but onely naturall formes: Therefore in the children of the best man, as soone as they beginne to speake, you may see a crafty and lying disposition, and prone to reuenge, stub∣bornenesse against those that admonish them, prickes of glory and sporting vanity: also that great honour wherewith they prosecute their puppets and babyes, are no obscure seedes of their inclinablenesse to Ido∣latry: For as puppets are the Idols of infants, so I∣dols are the puppets of those that are growne in age: And therefore when any man hath children of euill manners, he ought to acknowledge his image in them;

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when he hath good children, he ought to admire the worke of God in them: For these are they of whom Saint Iohn saith, Chap. 1. who are not borne of bloud, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

V. The second Canon of the Mileuitan counsell is expresly to this thing. It pleaseth vs, that whosoeuer doth deny little ones that are new borne, to be Baptised, or doth say that indeede they are Baptised for the remission of their sinnes, but yet they drew no originall sinne from A∣dam, which is to be taken away by the lauar of regenerati∣on; whence it followeth, that the forme of Baptisme in them is to be vnderstood not to be true, but false, be an Ana∣thema.

VI. Christ alone was free from this blot, he deri∣ued not Originall sinne from his Mother. Saint Paul indeede, Rom. 5.10. saith, that all men sinned in Adam; neither is it any doubt but that Christ was in Adam, as being one of his posterity; but that sentence of the Apostle doth not concerne Christ, because the per∣son of Christ was not in Adam, but onely his hu∣maine nature: neither is he from Adam, as from the agent principle, and from the seminating power, but thence he tooke that matter, which by the ouer-sha∣dowing of the holy Ghost, was freed from the com∣mon contagion.

VII. Now if you should aske me, whether Origi∣nall sinne is done away by Baptisme, or whether that blot doth yet remaine in those that are regenerated by the holy Ghost; it is readily answered out of the Scripture, and experience, which is so certaine here, that there is no place left for doubting. Dauid was

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circumcised, and plentifully instructed with the gifts of the holy Ghost, and yet he doth confesse, that he was not free from this staine, but was polluted in an equall contagion with others. And Saint Paul, Rom. 7. speaking (vnder his owne person) of euery man, in whose minde the law of God is faithfully imprinted, doth acknowledge that sinne doth dwell in him, which he aileth the law of sinne, because it doth stirre him vp to sinne. We see infants dye as soone as they are baptised; and death, the Apostle being witnesse, Rom. 6. is the wages of sinne. I demand, for what sinne doe those Baptised infants dye? is it for actuall sinne? but they haue committed none: therefore it is for Originall sinne. Whence it appeareth, that Originall sinne doth remaine after Baptisme, wherein sinne is remitted, as touching the guilt, although it remaine in the act, as Saint Austen teacheth at large in his first Booke against Iulian, concerning Marriage and con∣cupiscence, Cap. 25. and 26. The concupiscence of the flesh (saith he) is forgiuen in Baptisme, not that it should not be at all, but that it should not be imputed for sinne.

VIII. But seeing the regenerate doe afterward sinne, whence are these sinnes, but from their in∣ward corruption? For that being taken away, the ef∣fects also, which doe flow onely from this cause, would be taken away.

IX. And what shall we say to this, that the best men beget their children tainted with this blot, and therefore standing in neede of Baptisme? Now if the parents begetting children, were without originall sinne, how could they send this blemish to their issue,

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and giue that to their children, which themselues haue not?

X. Therefore, say you, marriage is euill, seeing by it children of wrath are begotten, and sinne is propa∣gated, which ought rather to be pulled vp by the roote, and to be choaked in the very seede. I answere, that marriage is more ancient then sinne, and institu∣ted by God himselfe; the sinne that came vpon it, doth not hinder, but that marriage is naturally a good thing: No otherwise then meate and drinke, are things that are good, and to be desired, although thereby the life of wicked men is sustained. Besides, marriage doth bring forth sonnes to God, and doth serue to fill vp the number of the Elect. I let passe, that the faithfull couple doe ioyne their prayers, doe stirre vp one another to good workes, doe cure one ano∣thers incontinency, and in slippery places doe stretch forth the hand one to another. Neither are there wan∣ting examples of wicked men, to whom, by Gods be∣nefit there haue happened good and godly children; euen as God doth send seasonable raine on those seeds which were stollen and sowed by a theefe.

CHAP. VIII.

What Originall sinne is, and whether it be truely and properly sinne.

I. ORiginall sinne is the deprauation of mans nature, contracted and drawne from the very generation it selfe, and deriued from Adam into all mankinde; consisting of

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the priuation or want of originall righteousnesse, and the pronenesse to euill.

II. These two things, to wit, the priuation or want of originall righteousnesse, and the inclinablenesse to euill, are in originall sinne. For as sicknesse is not onely a priuation of health, but also an euill affection of the body from the distemper of the humours: so this hereditary blot, is not onely the want of righ∣teousnesse, but also the inclinablenesse to vnrigh∣teousnesse.

III. The last of these proceedes from the former. For the soule, which by originall sinne hath ceased to be good, is necessarily euill; and the soule being in∣structed by the will, which cannot be idle, holines and righteousnesse being lost, must needes turne to the contrary part.

IV. This corruption brings blindnesse to the minde, peruersenesse to the will, perturbation to the appetites, the losse of supernaturall gifts, and the cor∣ruption of those that are naturall.

V. And although in Adam the minde was first stained with errour, before the will was infected with peruersenesse; yet is the corruption of the will farre worse, and that blot more foule, because wee are not made good or euill by the vnderstanding, but by the wil, for whatsoeuer euill is committed, it is the sinne of the will; the committing of wickednesse is a greater sinne then the ignorance of the truth.

VI. The guilt or obliging to punishment, can∣not be any part of the definition of Originall sinne, seeing it is the effect of it.

VII. Lombard, and Thomas, and the other schoole∣men,

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who say that originall sinne is concupiscence, doe not attaine sufficiently to the nature of concupi∣scence: For Originall sinne doth infect all the facul∣ties of the reasonable soule, and concupiscence is the disease of the will and appetite; also concupiscence, is contrary to one commandement of the Law, and Originall sinne, is contrary to the whole Law: Nei∣ther by it, doe men sinne more against the second ta∣ble of the law then against the first. What? that con∣cupiscence is forbidden by a proper law: But I know not whether Originall sin may be said to be forbidden by the law; for God doth not command, that wee should be generated or begotten pure & without sin, for so God should speak to man before he were born. Surely man is not bound to obey the law, before he be man; and seeing the law doth not speak, but to them that heare, & are partakers of reason, to think that the law commands a man that is growne to age, to be born without sin, is a ridiculous thing, & well nigh a dreame: For so the law, should command him to be born, that is already born, & him to be begotten, that is already grown a man. The law doth not command, but presuppose Originall righteousnes & doth speake to man, being considered in the state wherein he was before the fall, requiring that old debt and naturall obedience: Whence it is manifest, that Originall sin, is condemned by the law, but not forbidden.

VIII. Of this sinne, although the Scripture speaketh so expressely, and sense it selfe and experi∣ence doth abundantly testifie it, yet there haue not beene wanting some who did deny this sinne, and would not acknowledge mankinde from his first

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stock, and originall, to be infected with sinne. Cyril∣lus Ierosolomytanus, or whosoeuer else is the author of those Catechismes which goe vnder his name, in his fourth part of his Catechisme, hath these words. Thou dost not sinne by generation, thou dost play the adul∣terer by fortune. And a little after. Wee come without sinne, but now we sinne by our owne election.

IX. In Saint Austins age, Pelagius & Celestius did deny Originall sinne, and did contend, that sinne did passe from fathers to their issue, onely by exam∣ple and imitation: They did deny that sinne was remitted to infants by Baptisme, because they had none; and did affirme, that by it onely, the kingdome of heauen was opened to them; whose heresie is long agoe hissed out, and strongly confuted by Saint Austin.

X. Saint Hierome (or whosoeuer else is the author of those briefe comentaries vpon the Epistle of Saint Paule, which are put in among Saint Hieromes works) doth fauour Pelagius: For those words of the Apo∣stle, Rom. 5. in whom all haue sinned, he restraines to example, and doth take them as spoken of the imita∣tion of the sinne of Adam.

XI. Saint Chrisostome in many places, doth seeme to creepe into this error. In his Homily vpon new Conuerts, he denyeth Baptisme to be profitable only to the remission of sinnes: For (saith he) wee Baptise infants, although they are not polluted with sinne, that holinesse, and righteousnesse, adoption, and the inheri∣tance, &c may be added to them. And in his tenth Ho∣misie vpon the Epistle to the Romanes, expounding that of Saint Paule, Rom. 5. By the disobedience of one,

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many were made sinners, by sinners, hee would haue vs vnderstand, those that are guilty of punishment, and mortall, and not those that are defiled by the blot of sinne.

XII. Lombard, lib 2. distinct. 30. litera E. saith, there were some that said, Originall sinne was no vice in vs, but onely the guilt of punishment, euen of that eternall punishment, which is due to vs, for the sinne of Adam, vnlesse we be freed by Christ. The Armi∣nians doe not much differ from this opinion, who doe not care who they imitate, so they inuent something that may make for the safeguard of their errour. Arnoldus after Arminius doth teach, that Originall sinne, hath no respect of vice, or sinne, properly so called, for nothing is sinne or vice, vnlesse it be committed by the free-will. In the same place hee denieth that Originall sin deserues punishment, but saith, that it is a punishment. And he doth confesse, that Arminius doth deny that Originall sinne, is sinne, properly so called. Arminius himselfe, Resp. ad 9. Quaest. P. 174. hath these words, It is peruersely said, that Originall sinne doth make a man guilty of death.

XIII. The reasoning then of Saint Paule the Apo∣stle, doth fall to the ground, Rom. 5.13.14, where speaking of sinne which hath flowed from Adam, in∣to his posterity, when he had said, That sinne was in the world vntill the Law, hee afterward proues it, by the death of the infants, who were dead before the daies of Moses: Death (saith he) raigned from Adam to Mo∣ses, euen ouer them that had not sinned after the simili∣tude of Adams transgression, that is, ouer infants which had not sinned actually: Hee thereby proueth, that

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sinne was in those infants, because death is the fruit and punishment of sinne. Seeing therefore the death of infants is a punishment of Originall sinne, if this Originall sinne were not truely sinne, but onely the punishment of sinne, then this death of infants would be the punishment of a punishment, and not the pu∣nishment of sinne; but to say that God doth punish punishments, and not sinnes, is vncomely for any, e∣specially for those who professe themselues to be maintainers of Gods iustice.

XIV. And if the Originall blot of infants is not sinne, but onely the punishment of sinne, they are baptised in vaine: For, baptisme is not profitable to wash away punishments, but to wash away sinnes. In vain are they washed, that are without the filth of sin. Why is it necessary men should be borne againe; but because they are dead in sinne? Whence is that per∣uersenes, by which naturally men are prone to euill; but from vice? and what is this vice but sinne?

XV. But (you say) it is not sinne, vnlesse it be voluntary. I confesse it, if you speake of actuall sinnes; but if you speake of the naturall staine and blot, it is not necessary, that this naturall blot be procured by euery ones owne will; it is enough if it be contrary to the Law: For this is the best difinition of sinne, that Saint Iohn layeth downe, that sinne is, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the breach of the Law: And it cannot be doubted, but that that is contrary to the law, which doth stirre vp a man to rebell against the law. For although Origi∣nall sinne hath not yet stirred vp the infant to sinne in act, yet is it apt and prone to stirre him vp: No o∣therwise then the Snake which hath not yet infected

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any one with her poysoning biting, hath yet an en∣grafted poyson in her, and a naturall readinesse to hurt. Originall sinne also, may be said to be volun∣tary, because by it we sinne voluntarily, and also be∣cause we sinned in Adam, and therefore in him wee were desirous of this corruption. Finally, wee must rather beleeue Saint Paul, that teacheth vs that sinne is in infants, then these men, who strike them∣selues with their owne stings, and entangle them∣selues.

XVI. For, seeing that the Arminians teach, that by the death of Christ, all mankinde is reconciled to God, and that remission of sinnes is obtained for all men: I demand, for what sinnes are infants puni∣shed, and doe fall into torments of body, and doe suf∣fer the assaults of Diuels? Is it for the sinne of Adam? that, the Arminians affirme, is forgiuen them. Is it for any actuall sinne? they haue committed none. It re∣maines therefore, that they are punished for Origi∣nall sinne, vnlesse we will brand God with the marke of iniustice, as he that torments the innocents and they that are guilty of no sinne.

CHAP. IX.

How the sinne of Adam may belong to his posteritie, and how many waies it may passe to his of spring. And first of the imputation, and whether the sinnes of the Grandfather, and great-Grandfathers, are imputed to their posterity.

I. THe sinne of Adam doth passe to his posterity by two meanes, by imputation, & propagation.

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II. The punishments which all men suffer in the name of Adam, doe argue that the sinne of Adam is imputed to vs: This the Apostle teacheth, Rom. 5.12. Death passed on all men, by one man, in whom all men sinned, or because all men sinned in him: For the sinne of Adam was not onely personall, neither did hee sinne as a singular person, but as carrying all man∣kinde in the stocke and originall; no otherwise then Christ satisfying for vs on the crosse, hath not suffred as a priuate person, but as sustaining and represen∣ting the whole Church in the head. Saint Paul, 2 Cor. 5.15. speaketh thus: If one dyed for all, all likewise were dead. And Rom. 6. doth affirme that we are dead and crucified with Christ. If therefore we dyed in Christ dying, and were crucified with him, it is no doubt but that it may likewise be said, that we sinned in Adam: For if the satisfaction and righteousnesse of the second Adam be imputed to vs, why shall not the sinne of the first Adam be imputed to vs; seeing that therefore the righteousnesse of Christ is imputed to vs, that the sinne of Adam might not be imputed to vs?

III. Reason it selfe doth consent to this: for if Adam had receiued good things, not for himself alone, but for his posterity; it is no maruell, if being spoi∣led of these good things, he lost them for himselfe and his posterity. If any one be capitally punished for treason, and brought to extreame pouerty, his chil∣dren also, with him doe loose their Nobility. Nor is a∣ny thing more equall, then that the sonne should pay his fathers debts, and that as they are heires of their estates, so they might be heires of their debts.

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IV. But in this similitude there is one, and that a notable difference, that is, when the debter hath wa∣sted the inheritance, and there is more in debt then in goods, the sonne may renounce the inheritance, and leaue his fathers goods: But here this yeelding vp cannot be made; because to the guilt by the sinne of Adam, there commeth also the naturall deprauation, and contagion; like as he that is borne of parents in∣fected which leprosie, which contagion cannot be put off when they please.

V. Although these things are grounded vpon the word of God, and the very rule of iustice, yet they seeme to be charged, and followed with great discom∣modities. First, that in Ezekiell, Chap. 18. v. 20. doth offer it selfe; The soule that sinneth shall die: The sonne shall not beare the iniquity of the father: Whereunto the law of God, Deut. 24. is consonant and agreeable; which law doth forbid children to be punished for the sinnes of their parents. Why then doe we die for anothers sinne? Why is the sinne of Adam imputed to vs? Or is it credible, that he that forgiues vs our sinnes, will impute to any one anothers sins? What? that the punishment is greater then the sinne? For when we sinned in Adam onely, in potentia, in power and possibility, yet we are punished in actu, in act: And that seemeth most cruell, that Adam, which sin∣ned in act is saued, and for the same sinne many are damned, who sinned in Adam onely in power and possibility.

I answere, the place in Ezechiel must be taken thus; the innocent sonne shall not beare the punishment of his fathers sinne: So when God saith in the law, that

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he will visit the iniquity of fathers vpon the children, he speaketh of children which walke in their fathers steps, and are partakers of the same fault: But the sonnes of Adam cannot be said to be innocent, as they which not onely sinned in Adam, as in the stocke and roote of mankinde, but also themselues are borne stained with the same deprauation, and prone to the same sinne. Secondly, I say that that place in Eze∣chiel makes nothing to the present matter: for hee speaketh of the sinnes of the fathers, whose sinnes are personall, and who in sinning doe not sustaine the persons of their children: For Arminius is deceiued, in setting downe the cause why those Infidels are re∣probated, who haue not refused the Gospell, viz. Be∣cause (saith he) they refused the grace of the Gospell in their parents, grandfathers, great-grandfathers, and their fa∣thers, by which act they deserued that they should be for∣saken by God: For I would haue them shew me a solid and sound reason, why Infants haue not sinned against the grace of the Gospell in their Parents, to whom the grace of the Gospell was offred, and by whom it was refused; seeing in Adam all his posterity sinned against the Law, and by it deserued punishment and forsaking. For the reason of the couenant of God is perpetuall, that children are comprehen∣ded in their Parents.

VI. Let therefore the Schoole and followers of Arminius learne the cause of this difference, and why the sinne of Adam should be imputed to his posteri∣tie, but the sinnes of other fathers should not be im∣puted to their children. [ 1] These therefore I say, to be the causes of this difference. 1. Because, by the sinne of Adam, we lost originall purity; but wee haue not

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lost it by the sinnes of our Grand-fathers, or great-Grandfathers. 2. Because Adam receiued gifts, [ 2] which as he had for himselfe, so hee should haue conueyed them to his posterity, which seeing hee lost, it iustly comes to passe that his posterity should be depriued of those gifts. But my Grand-father or great-Grand∣father receiued no supernatural gifts from God, which by an hereditary right they should deriue to their po∣sterity. 3. [ 3] Then also the sinnes of my Grand-father and great-Grandfather were personall sinnes; neither did they in their sinning sustaine the persons of their posterity, which cannot be said of Adam. Surely I think that it cannot be said that Ezechias or Iosias, who were the posterity of Dauid, did in Dauid murther V∣rias. 4. I will say somewhat more; [ 4] Adam while hee liued committed many sinnes, yet I thinke that one∣ly that first sinne of Adam was imputed to his poste∣rity, because onely by this sinne he violated that co∣uenant which was made with him, as with the author of mankinde. 5. [ 5] And if any one at this day is depri∣ued of the light of the Gospell, because some of his ancestors a thousand yeeres since refused the Gospell, as Arminius thinks, there is no cause why on the other side, one may not be called effectually to saluation, because some one of his ancestors beleeued the Gos∣pell. For why shall the infidelity of the great-Grand∣father be imputed to the great-grandsonne, and his faith be not imputed? But that the faith of one is im∣puted to another, Arminius himselfe is not of opini∣on, when he saith out of Habacuk 2. The iust shall liue by his owne faith, and not by anothers: Nor because Adam beleeued the promise of his seede, that should

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breake the serpents head, is this his faith therefore im∣puted to any of his posterity. Arnoldus doth seeme to consent to this; [ 6] but I cannot be brought to thinke that the other sectaries doe beleeue the same. 6. To beleeue that any one is reprobated, because hee resu∣sed the Gospell in his greatgrandfathers, or their Fa∣thers, is plainely conrary to the opinion of Saint Paul, 2 Cor. 5.10. where he saith, that euery one shall re∣ceiue the things done in his body, whether it be good or euill; [ 7] therefore not according to those things which he hath done in anothers body. 7. I let passe he ab∣surdities, into which Arminius by this meanes would plunge himselfe. For it may come to passe, that ones Grandfather by the fathers side hath beleeued the Gospell, & his Grand-father by his mothers side hath refused the Gospell. It may come to passe that ones Grandfathers or greatgrandfathers & so vpward, part haue beleeued, and part haue not beleeued. I demand of which of them, in the purpose of God, shall respect be had? Shall the faith of the one, or the infidelitie of the other be imputed to their posteritie? Then also, as often as the Gospell is offred to any Nation or Ci∣tie, there is nothing so likely, as that some of those people were borne of Ancestors that were Infidels and that some of them were borne of faithfull Ance∣stors; yet is the Gospell offred to all without any dif∣ference. Also it will come to passe that some one pro∣ceeding of faithfull Ancestors, may refuse the Gos∣pell; and on the otherside, one proceeding of Insides, may be conuerted. [ 8] 8. And if one may be an Infidell by anothers infidelity, and may be said to haue refu∣sed the Gospell in his Ancestors, because some one of

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his progenitors refused the Gospell a thousand yeares before, there will scarce be any of the godly, that af∣ter this manner hath not refused the Gospell. 9. [ 9] But what will they say to this? That it is found by expe∣rience, that the worst and most wicked progeny of ve∣ry wicked Ancestors, haue beene conuerted to the faith, and as the Apostle saith, Rom. 5.20. Where sinne abounded, there grace abounded. What were the anci∣ent Romanes but theeues, depopulating and wasting the world, and a scourge in the hand of God? What was Corinth, but the stewes of all Graecia, and the Mart or faire of most foule lusts? yet neuerthelesse, in those cities, God by the preaching of the Gospell, rai∣sed vp most flourishing Churches, and there were ve∣ry many in those dregges, which did belong to the e∣lection of God. 10. [ 10] But if at any time the posterity is punished for the sinnes of their Ancestors, Arminius ought not to extend it to so many ages, seeing the law doth not extend the visitation of the iniquity of the fathers vpon the children, beyond the third and fourth generation: And that because a man can scarce liue so long, as to see his issue beyond the third or fourth generation: For therefore are children punished, their fathers beholding it, that griefe might thereby increase to their parents, and that the fathers might be punished by the misries of the children; which is a cause to me of suspecting, that this visitation of the sinne of the fathers vpon the children, ought to be vnderstood of temporall, and not of eternall punishments.

VII. But to that which was said, that the punish∣ment was greater then the sinne, because they which

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in Adam sinned onely in power, are for his sinne pu∣nished in act; it is easie to answere: For wee so sin∣ned in Adam in power, that also the sinne was in vs in act: neither doe we onely beare the punish∣ment of anothers sinne, but also of our owne: nor is it any maruaile, if God hath pardoned Adam, and doth not pardon many of his posterity, for Adam beleeued and repented, but these refuse the grace of God offred, and persist in impenitency.

CHAP. X.

Of the propagation of the sinne of Adam to his posteritie, where also of the traduction of the soule, and of sinne it selfe.

WE haue already said that the sinne of Adam is conueyed to his posterity two man∣ner of wayes; by Imputation, and Pro∣pagation: Of imputation it hath been spo∣ken; now we are to speake of Propagation.

I. That the sinne of Adam hath infected all man∣kinde with an hereditary deprauation, and that this contagion hath farre spred it selfe, hath beene abun∣dantly proued by those places, by which we haue de∣clared that euery man was conceiued and borne in sinne. As by one man, sinne entred into the World, and death by sinne: so death went ouer all, in whom all men sinned. Rom. 5.

II. And if any one would exactly view the man∣ner and circumstances of Adams sinne, he shall finde that in euery man, the character, and no obscure image, of that first sinne, is deepely impressed: for there is

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engrafted in euery man curiosity & desire of knowing those thin gs which pertaine nothing to him: and al∣so a distrustfull haesitation, and doubting of the word of God: And as Adam laid the fault vpon his wife, and his wife vpon the Serpent, so is it naturall to eue∣ry man, to couer his fault with anothers fault: Also flight and trembling at the meeting of God, lying, dis∣sembling, and a sense of vndecent nakednesse, are in all men by nature, and are deriued into posterity from that fountaine; and to these things we are not taught, but made, not instructed, but infected: To these things, we doe not onely not need a master, but contrary to the teaching of masters, and to discipline, all stayes and barres being broken, wee returne to them, nature being conqueror.

III. As therefore the egges of the Aspe are iustly broken, and serpents new bred are iustly killed, al∣though they haue yet poysoned none; so infants are rightly obnoxious, and subiect to punishments: For although they haue not yet sinned in act, yet there is in them that contagious pestilence, and that naturall pronenesse to sinne.

IV. But hence ariseth a question hard to be dis∣solued, to wit, by what meanes sinne is traduced from parents to their posterity, and how mens soules may draw this deprauation. For seeing all things that God doth, are good; it is not credible nor likely, that God put Originall sinne into mens soules: For how should he punish those soules, which hee him∣selfe had corrupted? And if he created the soule pure and iust, but being included in the body, it is defiled with the contagion, other discommodities no whit

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lesse doe arise: For to include a pure and innocent soule in a stinking prison, and to thrust it, as it were, into a bridewell, that it might bee corrupted there, doth not seeme to agree with the iustice and good∣nesse of God.

V. Hereto is added also, that sin is the deprauation of the soule, not of the body, for sin is a spirituall thing, a vice of the will; the body therefore cannot giue that to the soule, which it hath not: And seeing the body doth not sinne, but when the soule doth vse the body as an organ to sinne, Rom. 6.13. it is manifest that sinne doth passe from the soule into the body, and not from the body into the soule; to which thing, the very sinne of Adam is a cleere testimony to vs: For Adam first sinned in will, before hee stretched forth his hand to the forbidden Apple. Caluin saw this, who in the first chapter of the second booke of his Institutions, hath these words: This contagion hath not its cause in the substance of the flesh, or of the soule: but be∣cause it was so appointed by God, that what gifts hee had bestowed vpon the first man, he should haue them, and al∣so loose them both for himselfe and his.

VI. Here is a way that is obscure and slippery, in which we must goe with wary steppes. I doe not propound to my selfe to satisfie them that are braine∣sicke, and wickedly acute: I will onely set downe those things which seeme to mee to be agreeable to the word of God, and to reason; whereunto that the way may be made plaine, some things are to be spo∣ken of the originall of the soule, and of the traduction of it.

VII. Origen, following Plato, was of opinion, that

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all soules were at first created together with the An∣gels, and afterwards put into bodies. This hee dis∣putes, lib. 1. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Chap. 7. Tertullian will haue the soule to be conueyed with the seede, and the soule of the sonne, to be from the soule of the father, which is not to be marueiled at in him, who doth con∣tend that the soule is the body, lib de anima, Chap. 5. Saint Ierome in his Epistle to Marcellina, and Anapsy∣chia, doth witnesse, that the greater part of the west were of the same opinion. Saint Austin hath writ foure bookes of the originall of the soule, in which he leaueth this question vndecided, neither dares hee rashly determine any thing: And his second booke of retractations, Chap. 56. doth witnes, that hee con∣tinued in that doubt to his death: Yet in his 157. Epistle, hee doth debate with Tertullian, and doth more incline to the contrary opinion.

VIII. But we determin, that the reasonable soule is infused into the embryon, but not, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, to come from without, as Aristotle would haue it. lib. 2. de generat. animal. Cap. 3. But we thinke that it is for∣med, by God, in the fruit, and in the rudiment of mans body, being led thereto by the authority of the Scripture, whereunto reason, and the nature of the soule it selfe doth agree.

IX. Moses, Numb. 27.16. saith thus to God. Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man ouer the Congregation. And the Apostle to the He∣brewes. Chap. 12. v. 9. And if (saith he) wee had fa∣thers of our bodies, which corrected vs, and we gaue them reuerence: Shall we not much rather be in subiection vn∣to the father of spirits and liue? It is not without con∣sideration,

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that God by a peculiar elegie and stile, is called the father of spirits, that he might be opposed to the fathers of the flesh: for if the soule be by tradu∣ction, those that are fathers of the flesh, would also be the fathers of the spirits: Neither should God by this title be distinguished from the fathers of the flesh, if he wrought alike in both; and did not forme mens soules otherwise then their bodies.

X. Wherefore Ecclesiastes, Chap. 12. saith. The bo∣dy is dissolued to dust, and the spirit returneth to God that gaue it, which surely would not be aptly spoken, if God should giue the spirit no otherwise then he giues the body. Certainly by that word of returning of the soule to God, Salomon doth insinuate, that the soule came from God, and doth returne thitherwhence she had her originall, which cannot be said of the body.

XI. The conception of Christ, in the wombe of his mother, doth adde credit to this opinion. For see∣ing that, according to the flesh, he had not a father, it is plaine, that his soule was immediately created by God: And if it be necessary that thou maist be sonne of Adam, to haue thy soule traducted by thy fathers seede, Christ could not be called the sonne of Adam, nor of Dauid.

XII. It is vnsauory which is brought out of the beginning of Exodus, to proue the traduction of the soule, Seauenty soules came out of the loynes of Iacob; for the propriety of the Hebrew, is well knowne, that by soules are vnderstood persons.

XIII. Also reason it selfe doth agree with the word of God. 1. For the soule, which is something which is aboue nature, cannot be in a common con∣dition

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generated with other naturall things. 2. Be∣cause it is immateriall, it cannot be brought forth by the power of any matter. 3. If the soule were not generated vnlesse by the body, it could not be with∣out the body, nor could it subsist by it selfe alone. 4. They that would haue the soule to be traduced by the seede, doe driue themselues into straights, from which they cannot possible free themselues. For why should not the soule of the mother, be also traduced into the sonne? or if the soule of the sonne be tra∣duced, as well from the soule of the mother, as of the father, it must needs be, that two soules doe grow to∣gether, & are mingled into one. 5. What will be come of so much seede that is lost, which either fals from them that sleep, or is vnhonestly lost, or being receiued into the wombe doth not come to conception? Will so many soules of men be lost, or shall they be choa∣ked in the wombe? or shall they remaine alone with∣out matter, seeing it is certaine that they belong not to the number of men. 6. Also it must neede be, that eyther the whole soule of the father is traduced, and so the father shall be made soule-lesse; or else a por∣tion and part of the soule; and so the soule shall be diuisible. Neither can the whole soule be transmit∣ted, as when light is kindled of light; for such a propagation is made, by the transmutation of the matter applyed vnto it; and so the applyed matter of the begetting soule, should be turned into the soule. 7. If the definition of the soule, laide downe by Ari∣stotle (Lib. 2. de anima, Cap 1.) and euery where con∣ceiued be true, by which he defineth the soule to be, the first act of the naturall originall body, hauing life in

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power, I doe not see how the rationall soule can en∣forme and shape the seede, in which there are no Organs.

XIV. Neither is man therefore to be said not to be∣get man, although he doth not beget the soule, nor the soule be brought forth of the power of the seed; yet is it sufficient for the generation of man, that in genera∣ting, although he doth not giue the whole substance, yet he doth giue the subsistance of the person, and doth not onely supply the matter of the infant, but doth also minister dispositions and aptitudes to re∣ceiue that forme, by which man hath his being. For, seeing that by the testimony of the Scripture, the Vir∣gin Mary is the mother of Christ, although the extra∣ordinary power of the holy-Ghost perfected his con∣ception; who neede doubt to affirme that, com∣monly man doth beget man, seeing all naturall things are done by ordinary meanes and rules. These thornes being plucked vp, the way to know the man∣ner of the traduction of sinne from parents to their children, is made playner.

XV. In the beginning, I thinke I haue shewed by sure reasons, that sinne doth not passe from the bo∣dy into the soule: And on the other side, that God put into the soule this inclination to sinne, it is a great wickednesse to beleeue. And yet that originall sinne was in the soule, God being vnwilling, or being indif∣ferent, and permitting it with an idle permission, can∣not be spoken or beleeued without great offence: For seeing Originall sinne is the punishment of the sinne of Adam, he that saith that this punishment was in∣flicted onely by the permission of God, and not by

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his will, doth take away from God the office of a Iudge; for Iudges doe not punish by permitting, but by decreeing.

XVI. For the explication of this Doctrine, we lay downe these sixe propositions and foundations of the truth.

First, Although we had not beene borne of Adam, yet because hee had receiued supernaturall good things, both in his owne and our name, seeing he lost them by his owne fault, wee are iustly depriued of them: Euen as among many brethren, one doth waste and consume that mony to his owne and bro∣thers losse, which hee receiued in his owne and bro∣thers name.

Secondly, God put into the soule these faculties, Vn∣derstanding, Will, Sense, & Appetite, which are natu∣rally carried to things that are obuious & known, and not to things that are vnknowne and farre remoued.

Thirdly, Man cannot know and loue supernatu∣rall and diuine things, without diuine and supernatu∣rall enlightning.

Fourthly, Neither could man vse those things that are obuious and naturall, iustly and conueniently, and to the glory of God, vnlesse some supernaturall light did shine forth to him.

Fifthly, God hath put into euery man, for his owne preseruation, a loue of himselfe, which loue is natu∣rally good; but doth then beginne to be morally good, when it doth accord to, and helpe forward the loue of God.

Sixthly, the manners of the minde, doe for the most part follow the temper of the body.

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XVII. These things being laid down, I say that God doth create the soules of men good, but destitute of heauenly gilts and supernaturall light, and that iust∣ly, because Adam lost those gifts for himselfe and his posterity, which he had receiued for himselfe and his posterity. Not to giue supernatural light to the minde is not to put into the will, although peruersenesle of will doth afterwards follow the blindenesse of the minde. For the will being destitute of this light, and of the knowledge of supernaturall good things, can∣not moue it selfe to things vnknowne, but onely to things that are present and knowne, such as are the pleasures of the body, riches, &c. Which although they be naturally good, yet they turne the will from the study and desire of supernaturall things. Then also selfe-loue, which is naturally good and ne∣cessary, doth beginne to be morally euill, because it doth inuade that place which is due to the loue of God. Hence is that pronenesse to euill, which is in that inordinate selfe loue, which supernaturall illuminati∣on doth not direct: which light God not giuing to the soule, doth not therefore put sinne into it: No o∣therwise, then if one doth take away from the Tra∣ueller the light of the Sunne, by putting darkenesse betweene; be doth not force the Traueller to stragle, nor doth turne him from the right way; but onely he doth take away that, without which the right way cannot be knowne.

XVIII. The temper of the body doth increase this contagion: For it is found by experience, that sanguine men are bloudy and libidinous, cholericke men are rash and angry, melancholicke men are su∣spicious

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and stedfast in their purposes, deepely hiding their malice; blacke and yealow, choller are as sparkes and tinder put to the appetite, by which it catcheth flames, and burnes: And according to the temper of the body, one laughes vnder the scourge, another weepes with a blow. The humours of the body therefore, are not causes, but prouocations of sinne; neither doe they compell the will, but allure it; nor doe they impresse sinne on the soule, but doe put forward the sinfull soule, and there being may waies open to sinne, they doe incline the soule hither rather then thither.

CHAP. XI.

Whether the power of beleeuing the Gospell is lost by the sinne of Adam.

I. IT is demanded, whether by the sinne of Adam we haue lost the power of belee∣uing the Gospell; Arminius, that maruai∣lous artificer of deuising, doth deny it: For, that he might proue that God is bound to giue to euery man power of beleeuing in Christ and obtai∣ning faith, he doth contend, that Adam before his fall, had not power of beleeuing in Christ, nor was it need∣full for him; & therefore we could not loose in Adam, that which Adam himselfe had not. He saith also, that faith was not commanded by the law, and therefore Adam was not bound to faith, because onely the law was giuen to him; he addeth also, that no man can beleeue, but he that is a sinner: And if Adam did not receiue power wherby, if he fell he might rise again, he

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did not receiue power of beleeuing the Gospell, by which we rise out of this fall.

II. Seeing these things tend thither, that Armini∣us might make a way for himselfe to that impious and vngodly opinion, whereby he affirmes, that God is bound to giue to all men power of beleeuing, and that God is prepared to giue faith to all men, if they themselues will: This question is of no small mo∣ment, nor to be perfunctoriously and lightly hand∣led.

III. We therefore contend against Arminius, that mankinde by the sinne of Adam, together with their originall purity and righteousnesse, lost also the pow∣er of beleeuing in Christ. For by the fall of Adam we lost the power of louing God, and of obeying him. Now saith doth include the loue of God, and it is a cer∣taine kinde of obedience.

IV. Adam indeede before his fall, was not bound to beleeue in Christ, because he was not declared to him, neither then was there neede; but he was bound to beleeue euery word of God, whatsoeuer should afterward be; this bond passed to his posteritie: but it had not passed, if Adam had not beene tyed to the like bond. So the israelites in the time of Dauid, were not bound to beleeue, Ieremy foretelling the instant captiuity into Babylon, because Ieremy then was not, neither was it needfull for them to know this; and yet the Iewes in contemning the prophesie of Ieremy, vi∣olated that law, by which the same people was held and bound in the time of Dauid. Hee were a foole who would say, that hee that hath lost his sight, hath not lost the power of seeing that house which was

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built foure yeares after: or that hee that is blinde by his owne fault, hath not lost the faculty of seeing the collyria or plaisters which the Physitian bringeth him some moneths after. Surely Adam, before his fall, had power of beleeuing in Christ, after the same manner that he had then power of succouring and helping the sicke and miserable, although before the fall there was no misery, nor could there be. Adam was in the remote power to beleeue the Gospell, as a sound man is in the remote power to vse the remedies of a disease that will or may come: But that he did not beleeue in Christ, it was not because it did exceede the power giuen him by God, but because it was not needefull. Finally, seeing Adam by his incredulity, lost the pow∣er of beleeuing the word of God, it must needes be, that hee lost also the power of beleeuing that word, by which God was to bring a remedy to this euill.

V. In vaine doth Arminius thinke, that it is vnapt∣ly spoken, if it be said that Adam had power of belee∣uing when hee had no neede, which power was ta∣ken from him, when hee began to haue neede of it. For neither was the power of beleeuing wanting to Adam, nor was it taken from him, but hee willingly lost it, when he lost the power of obaying God: And God of his meere grace doth restore the same to whom he will, not because we will, but because he worketh in vs that we will.

VI. But that is ridiculous which Arnoldus, cap. 14. doth say, that Adam before his fall, did not receiue power, by which he might rise, if he should fall: For that power whereby men rise, after the fall, is not

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giuen before the fall, seeing the power is lost by the fall; but after the fall is repaired. There is no doubt, but that Adam before his fall, had strength whereby he might rise againe, if hee had not lost it by his fall. Arnoldus therefore thus speakes; as if I should say, that hee to whom God hath giuen sound and cleare eyes, hath not receiued power, by which he might see with those eyes after he is made blinde,

VII. Finally, as many as are the posterity of A∣dam, are bound to fulfill the law; this is a naturall debt; and the law commands vs to loue God, and to obey him, and therefore to beleeue him speaking: When∣soeuer then Christ is preached, the doctrine of the Gospell cannot be refused, but with the contempt of the Gospell, the law also is violated. But he to whom Christ was neuer preached, shall not be condemned, because he hath refused Christ, but he shall be iudged by the law, which tyed him to beleeue in Christ, if Christ had beene preached to him.

VIII. And Arnoldus is plainely deceiued, when he doth affirme that the power whereby we beleeue God is one, and the power whereby they beleeue Christ is another; because, saith he, the word of the law, & the word of the Gospell differ in the whole genus, and are opposite; this thing fell inconsiderately from the acute man: Because white and blacke are opposite, is it therefore the property of one power to see white, and of another to see blacke? is it not the operation of the same faculty to know contraries? And yet I doe not see how the Law and the Gospell can be said to be contrary, seeing the Law is the Schoole-master to Christ, and the Gospell doth minister the meanes,

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by which the law should be satisfied: Surely be∣tweene the creditor and the surety, there is no dis∣cord. Christ came not that hee might abolish the law, but that hee might fulfill it. Matthew 5.17. Romanes 3.30.

IX. Out of these, it is easie to gather what is to be answered to that question, whereby it is demanded, whether the law doth comand vs to beleeu in Christ: For this is euen as one should demand whether the law of Moses commands the Prophet Esay to be belee∣ued: It is plaine, that that is not expressely comman∣ded by the law; for no man was bound to beleeue Esay before he was borne: Yet I say it was comman∣ded by the law implicitely, and by consequence, in as much as the law doth command obedience to be yeelded to God: And God is to be obeyed whe∣ther he speake to vs immediately, or by his messen∣gers: The same, I thinke, may be saide of Christ.

X. For of those things to which we are bound by the law, there are two kindes. Some things are due absolutely, by all men, and at all times; yea by them to whom the law, deliuered by Moses, hath not beene made knowne, such as are to loue God and our neighbour: For Adam was indued with the know∣ledge of these duties before the fall, and was bound to performe them in act: But there are some things, to the obseruation whereof, wee are then bound by the law of God, when they are commanded in act, and when the ability of knowing them is giuen vs of God. Thus the Israelites in Aegypt were not bound to obey the commandement of the not gathering of Manna vpon the Saboth day, or of looking on the

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bralen Serpent, or of the passing ouer lordan, which notwithstanding, if any had not obeyed when God commanded them, without doubt, they had iustly borne the punishment of the breach of the law.

XI. But Arnoldus doth wrongfully say, that it is not spoken here of that generall power of beleeuing euery word of God; for of it, it is plainely spoken here, seeing that the power of beleeuing in Christ, is comprehended in that generall power: No other∣wise then the power of seeing, doth comprehend al∣so the power of seeing the remedies for blindnesse, al∣though those remedies are not present, neither is there any neede of them before blindnesse.

XII. All these things pertaine thither, that it might appeare, that the power of beleeuing, and of embracing the remedies which God offers in the Gospell, is lost by that naturall corruption which is deriued into vs from Adam: And therefore that Arminius doth erre, when hee saith, that God is bound to giue to all men power to beleeue in Christ, or that he is prepared to giue faith to all. For, God is not bound to restore to man that which man lost by his owne fault; nor doth he deale vniustly, when he requireth of man, that which hee doth naturally owe.

XIII. Arminius is not constant to himselfe in this thing, and doth pluck vp those things which hee laid downe: For he saith, that many nations haue for many ages beene depriued of the light of the Gospell, without which, yet there is no faith, and that for a punishment of the incredulitie of their ancestors: He doth acknowledge, therefore, that God hath not

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giuen, nor was prepared to giue to these nations, po∣wer of beleeuing in Christ. Yea truely Arminius, in speaking thus, doth set downe the cause why God would not, and therefore was not prepared to giue to people that, without which, faith cannot be. Was God prepared to giue to the men of Tyre and Sydon the power of beleeuing, of whom Christ giueth this testimony, that they would haue conuerted in Sack∣cloath and Ashes, if the word and his miracles had come to them? Doth he giue power of beleeuing to them whose hearts he hardneth with his vnresistable will, as Arminius speakes? Could they beleeue of whom, it is spoken, Iohn 12.39. Therefore they could not beleeue, because it is written, he hath blinded their eyes, and hath hardned their hearts? Doth he giue power of beleeuing to them whom, Arminius saith, are called of God, by a meanes that is not congruent and agreeable, and by which he knoweth man will neuer be conuerted?

XIV. Here Arminius doth not obscurely accuse God of folly; for he will haue God to be aduerse to himselfe, and to be prepared to doe that, which that it might not be done, he taketh an incongruent and disagreeable course; nay, like a iudge, hee sets lawes for God himselfe; for what else meane these words, God is bound to giue the power of beleeuing? Surely it seemes that Arminius doth binde God by this Law: neither will God haue any reason for his iustice, vn∣lesse Arminius supply to him the meanes, whereby he may auoide the crime of iniustice.

XV. And although that impotency and disabilitie of beleeuing be a punishment of the sinne of Adam,

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yet he is not vniustly punished, who by this impo∣tency hath refused the Gospell, because the same im∣potency or disability, which is a punishment, is also a fault, which I say, that it might appeare how vnpro∣perly Arnoldus doth here vse the examples of punish∣ments which are not faults. Is it equity (saith he) that to a Souldier that hath beene punished with the losse of his eyes, for not keeping good watch, the Generall should offer the pardon of some other fault, or should promise some other thing, with this condition, that he should watch more diligently, and then punish him, because that being blinde, he hath not watched: This example is not to the pur∣pose; for to be blinde is not a fault, neither is any man by a naturall obligation bound to see: It is other∣wise with our impotency to beleeuing. Besides, hee that is punished with the losse of his eyes, is sorrow∣full, and doth heauily beare the losse of the light. But man therefore doth not beleeue, because he will not beleeue, and this impotency is voluntary.

CHAP. XII.

That God doth saue those whom of his meere grace hee chose out of mankinde corrupted and obnoxious to the curse. What Predestination is: The parts of it. That Arminius did not vnderstand what the decree of Predestination is, and that he hath vtterly taken away Election.

I SEeing that by one man, sinne entred in∣to the world, and death by sinne, and all men, without exception, are borne guilty of the curse; it is certaine, that

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that no man can be freed from the curse, but by the meere grace and fauour of God: This grace he hath reuealed to vs in Christ, without whom there is no saluation: For he put on our nature, that by this meanes of his comming betweene, and as it were by this knot, man might be ioyned with God; and hee suffered death that hee might satisfie for our sinnes, and so, reconciliation being made, wee might be restored to the title and degree of the sonnes of God.

II. This benefit, and sauing grace, God doth de∣clare to vs by the Gospell, wherein that couenant of free grace, whereof Christ is the mediator and foun∣dation, is propounded.

III. By this Gospell, eternall life is promised to those that beleeue in Christ: For as there is no sal∣uation without Christ; so without faith, Christ can∣not be apprehended, nor can we come to the saluati∣on appointed onely for the faithfull: For as the A∣postle saith, Heb. 11, Without faith it is vnpossible to please God: I call faith, not that vaine trust whereby men sleepe in their vices, and their consciences are benumbed, while they haue a good hope of the mer∣cy of God; but a liuely faith, which doth worke by charitie, Gal. 5.6. which by that very meanes doth in∣crease loue, because it driues away feare.

IV. This faith man hath not of himselfe, neither is it a thing of mans free will, but the gift of God, and the effect of the holy-Ghost, who doth draw men by a powerfull calling, and doth seale in mens hearts, and deepely, impresse in their consciences the pro∣mises of God, propounded in the Gospell.

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V. All men haue not this faith, as the Apostie saith, 2. Thes. 3. for then all men should be conuerted and saued, but onely they whom Paul saith, are called by the purpose of God. Rom. 8.28. and whom God of his meere good pleasure hath chosen to saluation.

VI. Faith is giuen by the meer good pleasure of God, neither is it giuen to the worthy, but it doth make them worthy when it is giuen: For God doth not find men good, but makes them so; neither doth he fore∣know any good in man but, that which hee himselfe shall doe: as hereafter shall more fully be taught.

VII. This eternall, and therefore immutable decree of God, is called Predestination; which is a part of the prouidence of God: For prouidence is called Predestination, when it doth apply it selfe to the sal∣uation or condemnation of the reasonable creature; and when it doth dispense and dispose the meanes, by which men come to saluation; for that these things are gouerned by the diuine will, and that God according to his good pleasure doth giue to some, that which he doth deny to others, cannot be doubt∣ed: For though the Scripture were here silent, yet reason would cry out, that it is not likely, that God, who doth extend his care to all things, is negligent in this thing alone, which is the chiefest.

VIII. Furthermore, although there be a Predesti∣nation among the Angels, as Saint Paul witnesseth, who 1. Tim. 5.21. calleth the Angels Flect: Here we are to deale onely with the predestination of men, as that which alone belongs to vs.

IX. Predestination is therefore the decree, by which in the worke of our saluation, God hath from

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eternity determined what hee will doe with euery man. Or thus: Predestination is the decree of God, by which, of the corrupted masse of mankinde, hee hath decreed to saue certaine men by Christ, and iust∣ly to punish the rest for their sinnes.

X. Of this Predestination there are two parts; the one is election, the other is reprobation, whereof the first doth necessarily lay downe the second: For, as often as some are chosen out of many, the rest are necessarily reprobated: and of them that are chosen, some are preferred before others.

XI. Of election, and of the Elect, there is often mention in the Scripture. Many are called, but few are chosen. Math. 20.16. God hath chosen vs in Christ, be∣fore the foundations of the world were laid. Ephes. 1.4. The purpose of God according to election doth stand, not of workes, but of him that calleth. Rom. 9.11. There is a remnant according to the election of grace. Rom. 11.5. False Christs and false Prophets shall arise, and shall shew signes and wonders to seduce, if it were possible, euen the elect. Mark. 13.22.

XII. On the other side, that some are reprobates, the Scripture doth witnesse, 1. Pet. 2.8. Which stumble at the word, being disobedient, whereunto also they were appointed. And Iude, v. 4. Certaine men are crept in, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation. Hitherto belongs that which is said Reuel. 20.15. That there is cast into the lake of fire, whosoeuer is not sound written in the booke of life: Which booke is nothing else, but the Catalogue of the Elect, determined by the decree of God.

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XIII. We haue Iacob and Esau for a notable exam∣ple of this difference, of whom whilest they were yet shut vp in the wombe, before they had done either good or euill, God doth pronounce, I haue loued la∣cob; I haue hated Esau, Rom. 9. Also the two Theeues crucified with Christ, Two shall be in a bed, the one shall be receiued, and the other left, Luk. 17.34. Not much vnlike that which happened to Pharaohs Butler, and his chiefe Baker, who being shut vp in the same prison, the one was brought forth to honour, the other to punishment.

XIV. An example of this difference God hath shewed, not onely in Abraham, but also in his stocke, which for no desert of theirs, hee preferred before o∣ther Nations, When the most high diuided to the Nations their inheritance, when he seperated the sonnes of Adam, the Londs portion was his people, Iacob was the lot of his inheritance, Deut. 32. And least any one should sup∣pose that that was done for the vertue of that people fore-seene; he thus speaketh to his people: Vnder∣stand therefore, that the Lord thy God giueth thee not this good Land to possesse it, for thy righteousnesse, for thou art a stiffe-necked people, Deut. 9.6.

XV. And although Predestination doth compre∣hend reprobation; seeing that it is certaine, that the wicked are appointed to a certaine end, and to their deserued punishments: yet the Apostle, by the word Predestination, doth vnderstand onely Election, as Rom. 8. Those that he predestinated, he called, &c. And Ephes. 1.5. Hauing predestinated vs to the adoption of chil∣dren. Thomas, imitating this manner of speaking, doth thus define Predestination. 1. Part. Sum. Quest. 23.

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Art 2. Predestination is the preparation to grace in the present, and to glory in the world to come.

XVI. But when concerning this doctrine, diuers men thinke diuersly; yet Arminius alone hath attai∣ned the nature of Predestination lesse then any other, and doth greatly stumble in the very entrance. He in his Theologicall disputations. Disp. 13. The. 3. saith, that the genus and generall of Predestination is the decree, and that (saith hee) not the legall decree, according to which it is said, the man that doth them shall liue in them: but the Euangelicall decree, which speaketh thus: This is the will of God, that euery one that seeth the sonne and be∣leeueth in him, should haue life eternall And all the Ar∣minians following him, doe comprehend the whole doctrine of Predestination in foure decrees: The first they will haue to be that, whereby God decreed to send his sonne to redeeme mankinde: The second, that whereby he decreed to giue eternall life to them that beleeue: The third, that, whereby he decreed to giue all men grace, and sufficient power to beleeue: The fourth, that, whereby he decreed to giue saluation to these, and they particular men whom he fore-knew would beleeue, and would perseuere in the faith; and as the linkes of a Chaine, they so knit these that the lat∣ter decrees depend on the former, and by the former, the way is to the latter.

XVII. By these things it is plaine, that Arminius did not vnderstand what the decree of Predestination was: For the decree of Predestination is that, where∣by God hath appointed what he will doe with vs, and not what he would haue vs doe: Vntowardly there∣fore doth Arminius place, among the decrees of God,

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that will of God, whereby he hath appointed those to be saued, who shall beleeue, seeing that in this will the commandement of God is included: Arminius him∣selfe in the same place doth comprehend Predestina∣tion vnder prouidence, and doth make predestina∣tion a species, or part of prouidence: If therefore that speech, hee that beleeueth, shall be saued, is not the decree of prouidence, certainely it will not be the de∣cree of predestination; seeing Predestination is no o∣ther thing then prouidence, restrained to the saluation or reprobation of men. This doth plainely appeare from thence, that Arminius doth oppose this decree, which hee cals Euangelicall, to the legall decree, by which it is said, He that shall doe these things, shall liue in them; which is manifestly, not the decree of proui∣dence, but the rule of iustice: And if not this, then certainely not the other, seeing the rules of the Gos∣pell doe no more belong to the prouidence of God, and therefore not to predestination, then the rules of the Law.

XVIII. Therefore of those foure decrees, the se∣cond is to be wiped out, and a place to be appointed for it in the doctrine of the Gospell, and not in the eternall decree and secret predestmation. And so of those foure linkes, the second being taken away, the whole chaine is broken, and as it were, one pin being drawne out, the whole ioyning together of that frame is loosed and dissolued.

XIX. Nay what? that Arminius doth altogether ouerthrow Election, and make it to be a thing onely of name? For he doth deny, that the number of the Elect is determined by the decree of God; whence it

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comes to passe, that no man at all is elected: For if the saluation of seuerall men, were determined by the de∣cree of God, it would also be determined, that this or that man were of the number, and so of seuerall men, the whole summe would be certainely and determi∣nately finished: But if the number of the elect, be not fore-determined, by the certaine decree of God, the Booke of life containing the number of them that are to be saued, Reuel. 20. and the number of the brethren not yet fulfilled, Reuel. 6.11. and whatsoeuer the Scripture saith of the sheepe that were giuen to Christ, euen before their conursion, must needes vanish away.

XX. And when Arminius will haue all men to be elected by a conditionall election; that is, so they will beleeue, and by their free will, rightly vse the grace which is offred them: he doth lay downe an election which is not an election, because it is equally extended to all: He doth not elect, that doth not preferre some before others. What? that by this generall election, Simon Magus and Simon Peter were equally elected? and the election is extended to Iudas and Pharaoh.

XXI. But that is the most dangerous that Armi∣nius doth make the election of seuerall men to come after faith, and so doth make the election of God to depend on mans free-will: Whence it comes to passe, that the saluation of man is a thing meerely contin∣gent & not necessary, because it depends vpon a thing that is contingent & mutable, to wit, vpon mans wil. For although God doth certainly fore-know those contin∣gent casuall things, which are to be after; yet is not therefore the election or saluation of man necessary,

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for a thing is not therefore certaine, because it is cer∣tainely fore-knowne. And because election, is not an act of the fore-knowledge of God, but of his will; the execution whereof (if we may giue credit to Arminius) doth depend on the fulfilling of the condition, which may be hindred by man: For the Schoole and fol∣lowers of Arminius, are of opinion, that euery man hath power of beleeuing, and that God is bound to giue to all men power of fulfilling the condition of the second couenant, and that the grace of God is but the cause in part of faith, and that it is not begot in man by the grace of God alone.

XXII. So while the Arminians will haue euery particular person to be elected by God, for faith fore∣seene; that is, that they are certainely appointed to saluation whom God fore-seeth will come, when they shall be called, and will perseuere, they doe plainely deny them to be elected: For to receiue all that come, is not to elect or choose; for although the Armini∣ans will haue both precedent and concomitant grace to be giuen by God, yet they will haue it in the pow∣er of mans free will, to refuse grace, or not to refuse it. Surely Arminius would haue God to predestinate those to saluation, whom he from eternity fore-saw would by their owne free-will vse aright his grace. But I deny that this can be called Election, seeing it is rather a decree of admitting those that will come to Christ, when they might not come: who (if Ar∣minius doctrine get place) doe first choose God and apply themselues to him, before they be appointed to sauation by God.

XXIII. I let passe, that Arminius will haue parti∣cular

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men so to be elected for faith fore-seene, that they belong to the election, not whom hee hath de∣creed, but whom he hath fore-seene will perseuere in the faith vntill death. Whence it comes, that God e∣lecteth none, vnlesse he be considered as dead, or else in the very point betweene life and death; which if it be true, Arminius doth say amisse, when he saith, that beleeuers are elected: for he should say, that they are elected, who cease to beleeue.

XXIV. Adde to this, that new and prodigious o∣pinion of the Arminians, whereby they thinke that re∣probates may be saued, and those which are elect may be damned, not as they are the reprobate or the elect, but as they are indued with power to beleeue, and to come to saluation. But if he which is a reprobate by the decree of God, may be saued, and hee which is e∣lected may be damned, it is plaine, that Predestinati∣on is not the decree of God, but a thing onely in title, and a floting will, or meere and bare fore-knowledge; the certainty whereof doth depend vpon the fore∣seeing of an vncertaine thing, to wit, mans free-will. Who, I pray, would endure a man speaking thus? I am indeede a reprobate, but I can effect that I should be saued; or, I am elected, but it is in my power to effect that I should be reprobated.

XXV. If therefore the certainty of election should be made to depend vpon mans will, it might come to passe, that no man should beleeue in Christ, and so Christ had died in vaine.

XXVI. But by that series and order of the foure decrees, whereby Christ is appointed to death, before God had determined who should be saued; Christ is

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made the head of the Church, without any certaine members, which is meere dotage: For Christ is fained to be giuen to be the head of the Church, without the certaine will of God, what should afterward be his body. Yea, by the doctrine of the Arminians, it may come to passe, that Christ should be a head without a body, and the Church should be none at all, for they thinke that there is none of the elect which may not be damned.

XXVII. This also is not to be omitted, that the Armi∣nians, to the end they might maintain that concatena∣tion, or linking together of the foure decrees, doe af∣firme, that Christ died, not for the faithfull, but for all men indistinctly; not more for Peter, then for Iudas; and that Christ in his death, had not determined whom he would saue by his death; yea, that when Christ dyed, election had no place, because election is a thing after the death of Christ.

XXVIII. The example of Caiaphas and of Iudas, is here of speciall weight: For by the doctrine of Ar∣minius, God electeth all men vnder this condition, that they beleeue in the death of Christ. I demand there∣fore, whether God chose Caiaphas and Iudas to salua∣tion, vnder this condition, that they should beleeue in the death of Christ? This surely cannot be said; because God had decreed to vse the wickednesse of Caiaphas and Iudas to deliuer Christ to death. How could they be elected to saluation, vnder the cond ti∣on of beleeuing in the death of Christ, who were ap∣pointed to that very thing, that by their increduity and wickednesse, Christ might be deliuered to death? But we onely touch these things coursarily and by the

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way, they are to be expounded more exactly in their place.

CHAP. XIII.

Of the obiect of Predestination, that is, whether God pre∣destinating, considereth a man as fallen, or as not fallen.

ALthough God hath elected to saluation, these men rather then others, for no other cause, then that it so seemed good to him, nor is the cause of this difference to be sought in man; yet what is the obiect of Pre∣destination, that is, whether God electing or re∣probating men, hath considered them as fallen and sinners, or as not fallen, but as men in the Masse, not corrupted, it may be doubted. The Pastors of the Valacrian Churches, strong main∣tainers of the truth, in their most exact Epistle, the coppy whereof they haue sent to vs, doe professe that they thinke that God considered those men which hee did elect, and which hee did passe by, as fallen in Adam, and dead in sinnes: All the anciens thinke so, to none of whom (as farre as I know) it euer came in their minde to say that God reprobated men without the beholding of sinne. I see that of the same opinion is Caluin, Zanchy, Melanchton, Bu∣cer, Musculus, Pareus, famous lights in this age of the Church, out of whose writings, I haue added some gathered sentences at the end of this worke, least they should stay the hastening reader, and should breake off the thread of the disputation begunne

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against the Arminians: The confession of the chur∣ches of France doth keepe it selfe within these limits, in the twelth Article, where out of the ninth Chap∣ter to the Romanes, and other places of Scripture, Election and Reprobation is proued to be out of the corrupt masse. The reuerend Synod of Dordt (then which for many ages there hath beene none more famous, nor more holy) harh allowed this o∣pinion: I doe not see what can be opposed to so great authority. A holy assembly gathered together out of diuerse parts of the Christian world, hath prudently seene and discerned, that this opinion is not onely more modest, and more safe, but also that it is most fit to put back the obiections of these innoua∣tors, which doe impudently triumph in this matter: Thus are their frames dissolued, and their sinnewes are cut from them; for Reprobation without the be∣holding of sinne being taken away, which they assaile with all their forces, they beate the ayre, neither haue they any thing that they should strike at: the causes by which our confession, and also the reuerend Synod is led, that they thought it fit for them to rest in the Predestination, wherein man is considered as fallen, I suppose be these.

I. First, that Phrase of Scripture which calleth the Elect, the vessels of mercy, offers it selfe: Now there is no place for mercy vnlesse towards the miserable. He cannot be elected to the saluation, to be obtained by Christ, vnlesse he be considered as one that hath neede of a redeemer: And seeing that the appoint∣ment to an end, doth include the meanes by which that end is come by, and the meanes to saluation is

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the remission of sinnes, nor is there remission of sinnes without sinne, it is plaine that they are ap∣pointed to saluation, who are considered as sinners.

II. Neither could God, with the preseruation of his iustice, punish those men whom he considered without sin, for God doth not punish the guiltles: Damnation is an act of the iustice of God, which iustice cannot stand, or agree with it self, if innocent man for no fault be appointed to that desertion, and forsaking, which eternall destruction must necessarily follow; or if God had determined to destroy men, before he did deter∣mine to create them.

III. Then as God doth not condemne, vnlesse it be for sin; so it is certaine that hee is not willing to con∣demn, vnlesse it be for sin: But to reprobate men, & to be willing to condemne, are the same thing, euen as to elect & to be willing to saue, is the same thing: There∣fore God doth not reprobate vnlesse it be for sinne.

IV. Furthermore it cannot be denied, but that reprobation or reiection of the creature from God, is the punishment which can be inflicted on the reaso∣nable creature, because eternall torments doe neces∣sarily follow it, which if we get to be granted; it will thence follow, that it is not the part of infinite good∣nesse and highest iustice to forsake his owne creature, and that not because he hath sinned, but because it so seemed good to God, that hee might seeke matter for his glory out of the desertion, and forsaking of the soule which hee created. Can the father, who knoweth that the happinesse of his sonne depends on him, without the crime of cruelty, and want of natu∣rall affection, forsake his sonue that is innocent, and

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found guilty of no wickednesse, especially if by this forsaking, his son should fall into eternall torments, and by it be made not onely most miserable, but also most wicked?

V. Neither should God deale iustly, if he should giue more euill to the creature, by infinite parts, then he hath giuen good: To which, when he had giuen esse, a beeing, a while after, without any fault of it, he gaue it, male esse, an euill and miserable being, for euer. Indeede if God should onely take away that he hath giuen, and should bring the creature to nothing, there were no cause at all of complaining: But to giue an infinite euill to that creature, to whom he gaue a finite good, and to create man to that end onely that he might destroy him, that out of this de∣struction he might get glory to himselfe, the good∣nesse and iustice of God abhorreth.

VI. Yet this is the most grieuous thing, that by this, eyther reprobation or desertion of man, being considered without sinne, the innocent is made not onely most miserable, but euen most wicked: For the auersion and turning away of the will, doth ne∣cessarily follow the denying of the spirit of God; and seeing according to this opinion, God hated man, that was made by him, before man hated God, it cannot come to passe, but that the hatred of God, whereby he hates man, by the same opinion, should be made the cause of that hatred whereby man hates God, and so God should be made the author of sinne.

VII. And if God hated Esau, being considered in the vncorruptible masse, as not a sinner, it must

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needes be, that God hates the innocent creature; and hatred in God, although it is not an humane af∣fection, nor a perturbation, yet it is a sure and cer∣taine will of punishing, and punishment cannot be iust, if it be without offence; neither can a man be iustly punished, vnlesse he be considered as a sinner.

VIII. If any man should say that God is ob∣noxious, or subiect to no lawes, and therefore his actions are not rightly examined, according to the rule of iustice, seeing hee is tyed to no rules: I will anfwere, that the nature of God, is more mighty then any law: That naturall perfection, by which it is im∣possible that God should lie, or that he should sinne; is also the cause, why he could not hate his guiltlesse creature, or appoint man to eternall torments, for no fault of his: Yea if these things were true, it were the part of a wise man to suppresse these things, not to moue this anagyris or offensiue matter, and rather to command silence or ignorance to themselues, then to breake into these secrets, which being declared, doe cast in scruples and doubts, and yeeld occasion to the aduersaries, of defaming the true religion, and by which, no man is made fitter to the duties of a Christian, or of a ciuill man, or to any part of piety.

IX. That could not escape which should say, that by reprobation, men are not appointed to dam∣nation, but onely are passed by, or not elected, Thus they seeke gentler words, that by them the same thing might be said; for it is all one, whether God doth appoint a man to damnation, or doth that, from

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which damnation must necessarily follow. Whosoe∣uer God doth not elect, whether hee be said to be o∣mitted and passed by, or to be reprobated, hee is al∣waies excluded from the grace of God, damnation doth certainely follow this excluding; because with∣out the grace of election, there is no saluation. For seeing it is manifest to all, that men by election, are appointed to saluation, I would haue it told mee, to what they that are not elected, but passed by, are appointed: Surely if election doth appoint men to saluation, it is plaine, that by reprobation, which is called omission or passing by, the rest are excluded from saluation, and appointed to destruction.

X. And if God haue appointed the innocent creature to destruction, it must needes be, that hee hath appointed it to sinne, without which, there can be no iust destruction, and so God would be the im∣pulsiue and mouing cause of sinne: Neither could man iustly be punished for that sinne, to which he is eyther precisely appointed, or compelled by the will of God.

XI. That the decrees of God are eternall, and that he hath fore-knowne all things from eternity, doth not hinder this opinion, which doth maintaine, God in election and reprobation, to haue considered man as fallen, before he considered him as condem∣ned: For although the decrees of God are certaine, yet there is some order among them; as the eternall decree of ouerthrowing the world by fire, was in or∣der after the decree of creating the world: So al∣though God, from eternity, had appointed the wic∣ked to punishment, yet nothing hinders but that

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the consideration, whereby hee considered men as sinners, should be in order before that whereby hee considered men as reprobate, or appointed to punish∣ment.

XII. Neither doth it follow of the opinion of the reuerend Synod, and the confession of our Chur∣ches, by which man fallen is the obiect of predesti∣nation, that God created man to an vncertaine end, or to haue missed of that end which he propounded to himselfe. The last end, propounded to God, was the illustration, and setting forth of his glory, by the manifestation of his goodnesse and iustice; that hee might come to this end, hee decreed to create man iust, but mutable and free: The fore-knowledge of the fall of man doth follow this decree, not in time, but in order, and election and reprobation doth in order follow this fore-knowledge.

XIII. They are very farre from the truth, which would haue God, in electing and reprobating, to haue considered man as not created; for they doe as much as if they should say, that God considered man as nothing, and therefore as not man. Surely in that very thing, that they call him a man, they call him somewhat; but to consider something as nothing is a thing well-nigh a dreame: He that will saue or punish a man, must necessarily, first haue willed him to be a man: For if God had appointed man to punishment before he had appointed to create him, he should so doe, as if any one should determine to beate his chil∣dren, before he hath determined to beget them.

XIV. Finally, seeing the first act of his omnipo∣tency was busied about nothing, it must neede, be

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that it went before the act of his mercy or iustice, which cannot be busied but about something that hath being.

XV. They say the same thing in other words, which would haue God in predestinating to haue considered man, as one that might be created and might fail: For he which saith he might be created, saith he was not yet created; and hee that saith hee might fall, saith that he had not fallen, but that to o∣ther inconueniences, they adde this increase, that they put a power and potentiall faculty in that thing which is nothing In God indeede there was the actiue power of creating the world, before he created it: But there was not in the world the passiue power for creating, before it was created: So neither could there be power for the creation, or for the fall, in man being not created, and it is plainely contrary to rea∣son, that of him which is not, it should be said that he may fall. Then also if God elected man that might be created, what doth hinder that it may not be said, that he elected some whom hee neuer would create? For these also may be created; but if God elected those whom he presupposed hee would create, the will of creating must needes goe before the election.

CHAP. XIV.

That the Apostle Saint Paul, in the ninth to the Romanes, by the word Masse, vnderstood the corrupted Masse.

I. SAint Paul keepes himselfe within these limits, in the ninth chapter to the Romanes, where hee speaketh more fully, and more exactly of the

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election and reprobation, then any where else. For if he had written with a beame of the Sunne, it could not more cleerely appeare, that he speakes of the cor∣rupted masse, and of the will of God, by which of sin∣full men, one is chosen, and the other reprobated.

II. The scope of the Apostle, is to beate back the vaine confidence of the Iewes, who boasted in the law, and in the righteousnesse of their workes, to whom it did seeme an absurd and impossible thing that the Israelites, or the greater part of them, fell from the couenant of God, and were not reckoned a∣mong the sonnes of God. That hee might pull this scruple out of their mindes, and might wash away this pride; he fetcheth the matter from the very ori∣ginall, and doth deny that carnall propagation, or the righteousnesse of workes, is the cause why any one is to be reckoned the sonne of Abraham, but the good pleasure of God, and the free election of grace, by which God, of the issue of Abraham, chose whom he would, and whom he would hee reiected; hath mercy of whom he would, and whom he would hee hardned: and of the same masse, hath prepared some vessels for honour, and hath patiently endured the vessels prepared for destruction. To which purpose he bringeth two paire of examples, Isaac and Ishmaell, Iacob and Esau; and he doth lay downe Isaac and Ia∣cob, as sonnes of the promise, and examples of the free election of grace; but Ishmaell and Esau, as ex∣amples of reiection: And he doth seeme of purpose to adde the example of Esau and Iacob for a prolepsis, or preuention of an obiection. For the Iewes might except, that therefore the difference was betweene

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Isaac and Ishmaell, because the one was of the seruant, the other of the free woman: Then also because when Isaac was borne, Ishmael already had shewed the signes of an euill disposition, and had done those things, for which hee ought to be excluded from the couenant. The Apostle doth fitly preuent this obiection, by the example of Iacob and Esau, who both were the sonnes of the free woman, and neither of them had done a∣ny good or euill, yet God loued the one, and hated the other.

III. All these things are brought by the Apostle, that he might teach in what respect God chose some of the Iewes, and reprobated others, although they were puft vp with the opinion of legall righteous∣nesse: This nation seeing it was impure and cor∣rupt, it could not be compared to the pure masse: And the Apostle should plainely speake besides the matter if he should vse the example of the vndefiled masse, to teach how God out of a corrupted nation chose some, and reprobated others.

IV. The examples of Iacob and Esau doe conuince and proue the same thing, of whom, when they were in the wombe, and had done neither good nor euill, God doth pronounce, that he loued Iacob, that hee hated Esau. Now God could not consider these twins in the wombe, but he must consider them such as they were: & they were corrupted & defiled with originall sinne. Surely he cannot be said to be preferred before the other, because he was better when he was in the womb, seeing neither of them had done good or euill. This is that with which S. Paul doth stop the mouth of these questionists, and will not haue any to plead

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against God, or answere him againe; seeing there is no cause but the meere good pleasure of God, why, of two that were equally euill, he preferred the one be∣fore the other.

V. Neither is there any small force in these words; I haue hated: for God could not hate the creature whom he considered as pure and voide of sinne.

VI. It is no light thing that hee so describeth the elect, to wit, that they are they whom God will haue mer∣cy on. ver. 18. whence also, ver. 23. they are called the vessels of mercy: for mercy presupposeth misery. They force the words of the Apostle, who by misereri, to haue mercy, vnderstand simply benefacere, to doe well. I should doubt and make conscience to affirme, that God had had mercy on Christ as man, on whom yet he hath bestowed more gifts, then on any other crea∣ture.

VII. There is great weight also in the word hard∣ning: he hardneth (saith the Apostle) whom he will. As by those on whom God will haue mercy, the Elect are vnderstood; so by them that are hardned, the repro∣bate are vnderstood: And to thinke that God deter∣mined to harden that man, whom hee considereth as pure, & as in the incorrupted estate, is great wicked∣nesse, and contumelious against the iustice of God: By this meanes God should not onely punish the in∣nocent, but also depraue and corrupt the guiltlesse. For obduration and hardning is a species and kinde of punishment, and therefore after sinne; God hard∣neth none, but he who is already hard; so he hardned Pharaoh, he being already stubborne, and prone to re∣bell of his owne disposition.

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VIII. Neither is there neede of much wit to per∣ceiue, that Pharaoh is no fit example of reprobation, out of the incorrupted Masse, and of a man conside∣red without sinne.

IX. It is also greatly to be obserued, that the A∣postle speaking of reprobates, doth say that they are vessels, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, fitted, or prepared, to destruction: He doth not say, that God prepared or sitted them, least he should seeme to say that God put sinne in them, by which they might be prepared to destruction; but when he speaketh of the elect, ha∣uing turned his speech, saith, that God prepared them for glory, which God doth, by giuing them the spirit, and faith. It is not without consideration that the A∣postle would not after the same manner speake in both places, viz. because God found some vessels fit∣ted to destruction, but made others vessels appointed to glory, and that by hauing mercy on them.

X. Saint Austen is expresse to this purpose: For in sixe hundred places, either explaning or touching this place of Saint Paul, hee doth vnderstand by the name Masse, the Masse corrupted and polluted with sinne. So Epist. 105. Because that whole Masse is iustly condemned, iustice hath giuen that contumely and disgrace that is due, and grace doth giue that honour which is not due: and in the same Epistle, The vniuersall Masse is iustly condemned of sinne: and a little after, If they are the vessels of wrath, which are made for that destruction which is duly giuen to them, let them impute this to them∣selues; because they are made of that Masse, which for the sinne of one man, is iustly and deseruedly condemned of God. He doth repeate the same thing, Epist. 106. and

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Encherid. cap. 98 99. and 107. where he calleth it the Masse of destruction: See also the 2. lib. against the two Epistles of the Pelagians, cap. 7. and lib. 5. against Iulian, cap. 3. Neither did euer any among the ancient, thinke that Paul speakes of the sound, and not cor∣rupted Masse.

CHAP. XV.

That Arminius doth willingly darken the words of the A∣postle, which are cleare and expresse.

ARminius with a carefull subtilty, but with an vnhappy successe, hath written a Treatise vpon the ninth Chapter to the Romanes; for hee doth torment the A∣postle, and doth, as it were with wracks, draw from him against his will, what things he thinks may make for the patronage of his errour of Election for faith fore-seene.

I. He faines that the Apostles minde is to teach, that they onely of the Iewes were to be reckoned the sonnes of Abraham, who letting passe iustification by the law, doe follow after righteousnesse and faith; and the purpose, according to Election, hee denyeth to be the decree of the election of seuerall men, but the generall and condition all decree of sauing all, who were to beleeue: By which decree Arminius will haue all men to be elected conditionally, which surely is no election, seeing election is not, but of seueral men, who are chosen out of the multitude, others being re∣iected.

II. I confesse indeede, that the doctrine of election

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by free grace, doth make the way to the doctrine of righteousnesse, by faith; yet all this dispute of Saint Paul concerning election, which reacheth from the sixt verse to the thirteenth, doth not deale of iustifi∣cation by faith, neither would the Apostle proue in this place, that man is iustified by faith, or that God doth elect those which apprehend Christ by faith: But by the doctrine of election, doth frame to him∣self an entrance, to the treatise of iustification by faith, which afterwards he addes. Hee would here proue this one thing, that man is not truely the sonne of the promise by the workes of the law, but by the electi∣on of free grace, and by the mercy of God; for it is manifest, that here workes are not opposed to faith, but to election, and to God calling. So Verse the 11. he doth not say, not by workes, but by faith; but he saith, not by workes, but by him that calleth. So Verse 16. when he had said, It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth; hee doth not adde, but of him that beleeueth: What then? but of God that sheweth mercy.

III. For when it is spoken of the cause, why, of two that are equally conceiued in sinne (such as were Esau and Iacob,) God should preferre the one afore the other, the onely mercy of God, and the election by grace, is to be considered, and not faith, which is not the cause, but the effect of our election, neither doth it goe before election, but followeth it. So Saint Paul 1 Cor. 7.25. saith, that he obtained mercy from God to be faithfull, and not because he was after to be so. Wherefore Saint Paul in all this speech wherein hee speaks of the cause of the difference which God makes betweene two that were by nature alike, makes no

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mention of faith: But this Treatise being finished, he doth descend, verse 30. to the righteousnesse of faith, as to the fruit which doth follow election.

IV. But Arminius for the safegard of his cause, doth change the words of Saint Paul, and doth thrust in something of his owne: For in the place of that which Saint Paul saith, not of workes, but of him that calleth, he doth substitute these his words, feigned by himselfe; not of worke, but of faith, whereby God calling should be obeyed: when notwithstanding in all that dis∣putation which dealeth concerning election, there is no mention made of faith, neither doth the least steppe thereof appeare.

V. It is meruailous, how much Arminius doth a∣buse the examples of Isaac and Ishmael, and also of Ia∣cob and Esau: He doth contend, that they are here propounded, not as examples, but as types of them who followed after righteousnesse by workes, not by faith. Certainely there must be some agreement be∣tweene the type, and the thing signified by the type. But who euer heard it said, that Ishmael would haue beene iustified by the workes of the Law, and not by faith? seeing at that time the law was not giuen, nei∣ther were these differences of iustification by the law, and by faith knowne; neither is it credible, that Ish∣mael euer thought of or regarded these things: There∣fore Arminius doth as much as if Nimrod should be made a type of the Pharisaicall righteousnesse. Can the night be a type of the light? or can Esau, whom the Apostle, Heb. 12.16. calleth prophane, and therefore also a despiser of the Law, be a type of them, who be∣ing set on fire with the zeale of the Law, would be

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iustified by their workes? But it is worth the labour to here, why he would haue Esau be a type of the sonnes of the flesh, and of them which affct rightousnesse by workes. Because (saith he) he was first borne. O acutely spoken! He should haue said, because he was red, or because he was a hunter: I am ashamed to re∣fute these things; and yet in these figments and for∣geries, the good man doth place the chiefe safegard of his doctrine of election, for faith fore-seene.

VI. Then also see how licentiously he mookes the Apostle: For when he layeth downe Ishmael and E∣sau, not as examples of reection, by the secret coun∣sel of God, but as a type, hauing no agreement with the thing signified; he doth so vse these names, as Lo∣giians vse Socrates, or Lawyers Titius and Maeuius, for any other man.

VII. But if we exactly weigh, what it is to haue hated man, being yet in the wombe, before hee hath done good or euill; we shall easily see, that Esau is not onely laid downe hre as a type, but also as an exam∣ple, to whom indeede these things agreed, although he were not vsed for a type: For Malachy, from whence these words are taken, doth not lay downe Esau as a type, but as an example.

But how that which is said, that God hated Esau, being yet in the wombe, before he had committed a∣ny cuill, may be drawne to Arminius his purpose, and belong to the type of those who will be iu∣stified by faith, hee hath seene, surely I doe not see.

VIII. Paul addeth, What shall we say then? is there vnrighteousnesse with God? The sense is plaine, and

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depending on those things that went before▪ He had laid downe two twins of like condition and nature, neither better then the other, whereof yet God loues the one, and hates the other, and had brought the meere will of God, who hath mercy on whom he will, to be the cause of this difference, and not the fore-seeing of any vertue in the one. Hence is bred an obiection: whether God be vniust, who giueth vnlike things to them that are alike; and why he hath not mercy on both? What saith Arminius here? Why, hee takes these things, as if Paul demanded whether there is iniustice with God, who excludes those from the co∣uenant, who would be iustified by the Law, which he himselfe made, and who would haue them that be∣leeue in Christ, to be iustified. This is a bould con∣iecture, whereof there is no step nor mention in that which went before. But if it be lawfull for any one to mingle and adde to the Scripture so many things out of his owne wit, there is nothing so absurd or impi∣ous, which may not be proued out of the Scripture. What? that there is no color nor reason for this here? for what shew is there here of iniustice in God? or who is so mad that he will expostulare with God, because he will iustifie by faith in Christ, and obsolue them that are guilty of the breach of the law? Truely who∣soener doth maruaile or demand, why it seemes good to God to saue sinners by fath in Christ, doth not re∣quire iustice in God, but doth peere into the secrets of Gods wisdome. And if this had beene the Apostles minde, which Arminius doth faine to him, it had beene easie to answere, that God is not therefore vn∣iust, who doth saue them that beleeue, and doth sup∣ply

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a better righteousnes, to them who cannot be iustified by the Law, of the breach whereof they are guilty; or in place of the couenant of the law, which by sinne is made voide, doth set another, by which man might be saued. Saint Paul answers no such thing, but doth bring in God himselfe, answering thus; I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy, and I will haue compassion on whom I will haue compassion: which words, doe not speake of iustification by faith, but of the free election of God, whereby of two men alike conceiued in sinne, and alike guilty, one is pre∣ferred before the other: Saint Paul doth not say, that because the law is violated therefore there is neede of mercy; but he doth bring the cause of this difference betweene those that are equall by nature; I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy: According to Armi∣nius, hee should haue said, I will haue mercy by what meanes I will & I will make such a couenant as shall please my selfe. For he will haue God not to speake of the election of seuerall men, but of the manner, which it pleaseth God to choose to exercise his mercy: As if he had said, I will haue mercy as I will; and not, I will haue mercy, cuius volo, on whom I will: Surely this word Cuius, of whom, doth put this question to flight, and doth make dull the weake wit of Arminius: for this word marketh out particular persons, and not the manner whereby God doth exercise his mercy to∣wards them: For he that asked the question; What shall we say then, is there iniustice with God? moued the doubt concerning the hardning and reiection of par∣ticular men, & not concerning the manner by which it seemed good to God to saue men, or to haue mercy on them.

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IX. And these words, I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy, and, it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy: By which saluation and election, is expresly ascribed to the good pleasure of God, Arminius doth darken and obscure them; for he thus interpreteth them: It is not of him that willeth, that is, righteousnesse is not: But in the former verses, it is not spoken of righteous∣nesse, but of election: Also those wordes, I will haue mercy, on whom I will haue mercy, are taken out of Exodus, Chap. 33. v, 19. Where it is spoken of salua∣tion, not of righteousnesse: But grant that it is here spoken of righteousnesse; will it not hence follow that faith is not of him that willeth, and therefore neither saluation? for saluation is by righteousnesse, and righteousnesse is by faith.

X. The obstinacy and affected stupidity of these sectaries, doth maruallously bewray it selfe in one thing. Paul bringeth in the demander thus speaking, Why doth he yet complaine? for who hath resisted his will? By which words it doth manifestly appeare, that in this Chapter it is spoken of the will of God, which cannot be resisted, and that Arminius is willingly blinde, while he affirmeth that it is here spoken of the antecedent will of God, which hee thinkes may be resisted.

XI. What? That Arminius doth secretly accuse Saint Paul of stupid dulnesse, or of preposterous and needelesse modesty: for what neede was there in the businesse of the election and reprobation of seuerall persons, to stop the mouth of demanders, by saying, O man, what art thou that repliest against God? seeing

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by the doctrine of Arminius, there is at hand an ea∣sie and ready answere: That God elected this man, because he foresaw he would beleeue; and hee re∣probated that man, because he foresaw he would not beleeue. Did not the Apostle see these things? Or did he see them, but did enuy to vs the cleere solution of this knot, that might bring light to this darke∣nesse? The ignorance of Paul shall be alwaies bet∣ter to mee, then the sharpe vnderstanding of an∣other.

XII. Maruailous is the wit and ridiculous au∣dacitie of Arnoldus Coruinus, in expounding this chap∣ter. He in his worke against Tilenus, Chap 9. doth thus expound the type of Iacob and Esu. Surely (saith he) as there the yonger was preferred before the elder, so also it was figured, that saluation should not be by the Law, although it was first giuen, but by faith. Surely if this man be beleeued, the Law is the elder brother, and Faith the yonger: Did God then hate the law, before it had done good or euill? I am asha∣med to confute these things; for seeing God preach∣ed the Gospell to Adam himselfe, by the yonger bro∣ther, the law is rather to be vnderstood: Perhaps by the elder, he would haue those to be vnderstood, who would be iustified by the law; but this is no lesse dif∣ficult to conceiue, how God hated them before they had done eyther good or euill, and how they could be the elder, seeing they neuer were sonnes.

XII. Finally the truth is here so euident, that Vorstius hauing left Arminius, doth yeeld to our part: For he thinkes that the scope of the Apostle in this chapter is to teach, that righteousnesse, and eternall

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saluation doth depend, not on the dignity and worth of workes, or any carnall prerogatiue, such as the Iewes boasted of, but on the meere good pleasure o God that hath mercy.

CHAP. XVI.

The opinions of the parties vpon the doctrine of Pre∣destination.

I. WE haue already said that predestination is the decree of God, by which, in the worke of our saluation, God hath from eternity determined what hee will doe with euery particular man; and that there are two parts or species of it, Election, and Reprobation.

II. Arminius, Thes. 15. Theolog. Disputa. vnder∣standing by the name of Predestination, onely electi∣on, doth thus define it. Predestination is the decree of Gods good pleasure in Christ, whereby from eternity hee hath determined with himselfe, to iustifie, to adopt, and free∣ly to reward with eternall life, the faithfull, to whom hee hath decreed to giue faith, to the praise of his glorious grace. All other his sectaries doe with one mouth say, that election is the decree of God, of sauing those that beleeue in Christ, and shall perseuere in faith.

III. But here the Arminians doe with a maruailous craft hide their minde and meaning: For that defi∣nition laid downe by Arminius doth seeme to teach, that God chose some certaine men to saluation: But it is otherwise, nor is this the meaning of this difini∣tion: for by these words, the faithfull to whom hee de∣creed to giue faith, they doe not vnderstand some

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certaine men whom God hath precisely elected; but they onely insinuate of what quality they are whom God would elect, to wit, such as should beseeue: And they teach, that God is often disappointed of that will by which he hath decreed to giue men faith, and that he may be condemned whom God hath so e∣lected: For they deny that this decree is precise, but that it is conditionall, and which depend of faith foreseene; of which faith the grace of God is but a cause in part, for free will hath also a part here, in the power whereof it is to vse well or ill the preuenting & accompanying grace of God, & eyther to receiue, or to refuse it: Therefore they make God, by this decree, seriously to intend the saluation of all men, & to haue determined to giue them sufficient grace & power to beleue: but that he is disappointed of this his decree & intention in many, mans will hindring it, whereby it comes to passe that God is deceiued of his naturall desire and first intention, which surely must needes be the best. Least therefore any one should thinke, that by this decree of election, which Arminius hath defined, some certaine men are appointed to life, it must be obserued, that this decree, according to the meaning of Arminius, doth conditionally belong to all men whatsoeuer, and that by this antecedent will, Pharaoh and Iudas, &c. are conditionally elected; wherefore the Arminians doe deny that the number of the elect is certaine by the precise appointment of God, which can neither be increased, nor be dimini∣shed.

IV. Obserue also, that that definition laid downe by Arminius, doth not belong to infants, which are

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taken away by an immature and vnseasonable death; for the Arminians will haue onely them that beleeue to be elected.

V. Besides this generall and conditionall election, by which all men without exception are elected, they make another election of particular men, which doth rest & relye on faith foreseene. This they define to be the absolute decree of God, of sauing some certaine men, whom he from eternity fore-saw would beleeue in Christ, and perseuere in the faith, which faith and perseuerance, they say, is considered in the decree of election, as already fulfilled: The same men are also of opinion, that this election, while wee are pilgrimes vpon earth, is incompleate, and reuocable: For so Greninchouius, P. 136.137. As the good things of our saluation, which are continued, faith being continued, and are reuoked and called backe, faith being denied, are in∣compleate; so election is in this life incompleate, not per∣emptory, not irreuocable: But the course of election being finished, they will haue this decree then to bee compleate and irreuocable.

VI. They will haue the will of God, of sauing some certaine men, to be after the will of man, and to depend vpon the fore-seeing of faith.

VII. They will haue that first election to belong to the antecedent will, the latter election to the con∣sequent will.

VIII. That God doth supply tomen the meanes to beleeue, they thinke it to be the act of his pro∣uidence, and not of this election, whereby hee hath appointed some certaine men to glory: and they de∣nie true faith and perseuerance in faith, to be an

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effect of this latter and absolute election: seeing pre∣cise election doth rather depend on the fore-seeing of that faith, and faith is before election: For they denie that God hath precisely predestinated any one to faith, but they will haue it, that they that haue faith are predestinated to saluation.

IX. They comprehend the whole doctrine of election in foure decrees, which they so knit among themselues with a perpetuall linking, that the latter depend on the former.

X. The 1. decree of God, is of giuing his son for the abolishing of sin, & for the redemption of al mankind, in which redemption, they would haueal mankind to be reconciled, and remission of sins to be obtained for all. The 2. decree, that whereby God decreed to saue them that beleeue, & would perseuere in faith: This is that generall & conditionall election. The 3. decree, is that wherby God decreed to giue to all men sufficient grace for faith & repentance: which power, they say, is giuen irresistably, yea; and that God is bound to giue all men this grace: But the very act of beleeuing, they say, is not giuen but resistably, least force should be of∣fered to mans will. They denie therefore that God de∣creed to giue to any one precisely & absolutely faith, and the act of beleeuing. The 4. & last decree, they would haue to be that whereby God hath precisely and absolutely decreed to saue some certaine men, for their faith fore-seene.

XI. These are the decrees of the Arminians, and this is the summe of their whole doctrine, in the sear∣ching and viewing of which, the labour is not small, they doe so enwrap their meanings, they doe so hide

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their mindes, that there alwaies lyeth open some hole to scape by; whose meaning he that doth not know, will easily beleeue, they haue wrong done them, they doe so parget ouer their errour with beautifull co∣lours, as if they were of the same opinion with vs, when they are very farre distant from vs: Then also if one in expounding their opinion, hath not expres∣sed all, euen their least distinctions, or hath not obser∣ued all their shifts, it cannot be said, what tragedies they stirre vp, how miserably they complaine, as it were, of force and grieuous slanders, and calumny: Being ready also to forsweare Arminius, and them∣selues to pluck vp their owne opinions, and to main∣taine the cause of the Papists, finally, to doe any thing so they may escape our hands.

XII. But we handle the matter more plainely, nor doe we so laboriously, cut the election of God into members: Neither doe wee prescribe an order to God, by which hee should haue digested, or yet ought to digest his thoughts, and to dispose his de∣crees. We acknowledge there is no generall election, seeing there is no election where nothing is left: And we acknowledge no election, vnlesse it be of seuerall and particular persons, and that also to be precise and determined by the purpose of God; neither doe we thinke any to be elected, but he that shall certain∣ly and infallibly come to saluation: Nor doe we be∣leeue that we be elected from faith, or for faith, but vnto faith. For God doth not elect those that are good, by any goodnesse which goeth before election, but by his election hee will make them good: Nor doth he fore-know any good in vs, but what he him∣selfe

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is to bring to passe; which is not to fore-see, but fore-ordaine: Neither doe wee make the election of perticular persons, to depend vpon mans will: Yea, and we beleeue, that perseuerance, and the confirma∣tion of mans will in faith doth proceede from Gods free election of grace, by which he decreed to giue to them whom he appointed to an end, the meanes to come to that end.

XV. Wee agree with the Arminians in this, that God, in electing, doth consider a man, not onely as fallen, but as one that by his gift is to beleeue: for those which he appointed to saluation, he appointed also to faith and repentance; but we doe not thinke, that in election, faith is considered as accomplished; but as that which should be accomplished by the grace of God, and which is the effect of our election; and that God doth this not by compelling the will, but by bowing it, and by granting that of its owne accord it should follow him, calling: Not by a force, which is therefore called irresistable, because thou canst not resist it although thou wouldst, seeing this very thing is a part of this grace, that thou shalt not be willing to resist it: But that God is bound to giue his grace to men, we detest it, as an opinion contume∣lious, & reproachfull, against the maresty of God. Also we despise the opinion of the Arminians, wherby they determine that God equally desires saluation to all, as an opinion contrary to the Scripture & to experience.

XIV. Wee say that election is the eternall, and therefore immutable decree of God, whereby out of mankind fallen & corrupted, God decreed of his owne meere grace, by Christ, to saue some certaine men,

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and to giue them the meanes whereby they might come to saluation.

XV. The decree of giuing faith & repentance, we make to be a part of that decree: For the decree con∣cerning the end, includes, also the meanes; so the de∣cree of making warre, doth include, Horses, Armes, and prouision; and the will whereby any one hath decreed to builde, doth necessarily include the will of gathering together stones and timber: Neither doe we thinke it safe to pull asunder the counsels of God, and as it were, scrupulously to cut them into peeces.

CHAP. XVII.

That the Arminians make fore-seene faith the cause of the election of particular persons.

I. THe Arminian conferrers at the Hage, and as many as are their sectaries, in ma∣ny places doe professe, that they doe not make faith the cause of Election, but one∣ly a precedent condition, and some thing pre-requi∣red before Election. These things they say onely in word: For the same men, with very great diligence, doe heape vp arguments, whereby it may be proued, that faith is the cause of the election of particular per∣sons. But oftentimes, there fals from them, either vn∣willing or vnawares, that which they indeauour to presse downe, and as Rats, they are catched by be∣wraying themselues.

II. Nicholas Greuinchouius. pag. 103. doth confesse, that Arminius was of opinion, that election did rest

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vpon fore-seene faith. The Remonstrants in the con∣ference at the Hage, p. 117. doe vse the same manner of speaking: And Arminius in the 47. page of his de∣claration; The decree (saith he) whereby God decreed to saue some certaine men, doth rest on the fore-knowledge of God, whereby from eternity he hath knowne who will be∣lieue, &c. The Arminians, page 38. of their answere to the Walachrians, haue these words: We determine, that the fore-seeing of faith and infidelity, doth in order goe before the decree of predestination, and that this decree doth rest on that former fore-knowledge. Truely he is blinde that doth not see that it is one thing to follow one, & another thing to rest on him: For if the rising starre doth in order goe before the following starre, doth therefore the latter rest on the former? Arminius therefore doth not lay downe faith onely as an ante∣cedent thing, but as something which doth sustaine election, in which it is founded, and on which electi∣on doth rest: And he doth no lesse make election de∣pend vpon faith; who saith, that faith is the foundati∣on, then he that saith that it is the cause of Election: for the cause giueth to election that it should be, the foun∣dation giueth to it, that it should stand and be firme: Either way alike iniury is done to God, whether you say, that some vertue which is in man, is the cause of the good pleasure of God; or whether you say that the good pleasure of God hath his foundation from some vertue of man.

III. But by those words, they doe not obseurely acknowledge, that fore-seene faith is the cause of electi∣on: for they will haue the fore-seeing of faith so to goe before election, as the fore-seeing of incredulity,

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doth in order goe before reprobation: But that the reprobates are appointed to condemnation, for in∣credulity, and because they are vnbeleeuers, they eue∣ry where acknowledge. And Arminius against Per∣kins. p. 86. doth roundly affirme, that sinne is the me∣ritorious cause of reprobation. So Arnoldus, p. 151. Election and reprobation of particular persons were made in respect of the fore-sight of faith and incredulity. Arnol∣dus; Can any suspect your fidelity, that you take the word, ex, equiuocally, in reprobation, to note the cause, but in election to note the condition? It must needes be therefore, that they acknowledge that the elect are appointed to saluation for faith fore seene, because they beleeue, and that fore-seene faith is the cause of the election of particular persons.

IV. But there is no difference, whether you say that Election doth rest on faith fore-seene, or that it doth rest on the fore-seeing of faith: for both wares faith is made the cause of election, in the latter it is made the neerest cause, in the former it is made the remote cause: for fore-seene faith is made the cause of fore-seeing it, and the fore-seeing it, is made the cause of election: For why doth God fore-know that they will beleeue, vnlesse because they will beleeue? and why doth he elect, vnlesse because he fore-knoweth they will beleeue? These are the words of Arminius against Perkins. p. 142. In that God fore-knowes, he there∣fore fore-knowes, because it will afterward be.

V. The same men a little after, against the Walachri∣ans, doe vse (although fearefully) the word depending, that they might make election depending on faith: And although (say they) that word of depending, which

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we are neuer wont to vse in this argument, be 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, easily subiect to calumny, yet if a maleuolent minde be absent, it cannot be drawne to the least suspicion of any absurdity. Yes, it may be drawne to the greatest: For Greuincho∣uius himselfe, doth acknowledge, that dependency, strictly taken, doth argue causality, and the depen∣dency of a superiour by an inferiour. And truely these men doe not obscurely declare how willingly they would vse this word, if they did not feare our pur∣suite.

VI. There is extant a Treatise of Greuinchouius, with this Title, Of election for faith fore seene: but that word, ex, from, or for, doth not onely note priority, but also causality: For who would endure a man that should say, that Tiberius was from Octauius Augustus? or that this yeare is from the former, because one went before the other? A man that is not vnskiifull of the Latine, doth sufficiently know, that the praeposition ex, is not fit to note onely the priority of faith, vnlesse besides the priority, there is also some efficiency or dependency: Wherefore the same man, page 24. hath these words: It is altogether conuenient to the nature of lawes and prescribed conditions, that the will of the Iudge should be moued to giue the reward, by the required and performed condition. This performed condition, the Arminians say to be faith, which (if we beleeue them) is considered in election, as performed: They will therefore haue God to be moued by this fulfilled con∣dition, that he should giue the reward; which if it be true, faith is plainely the cause, both of decreeing and giuing the reward, because it is that which moueth the Iudge.

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VII. So in the conference at the Hage, the Armi∣nians doe contend, that God doth not elect without respect of qualities; which thing is true, not onely of faith, but also of repentance, so it be taken thus; that God in electing, considered men, as they that by his gift and bounty would beleeue and be renew∣ed in repentance. If you take this respecting o∣therwise, it must needes be, that this respecting is the cause; for one is said to choose any thing in respect of some quality or vertue, who by that qualitie or vertue, is moued to choose it, otherwise he would not.

VIII. Nay what? That the Arminian conferrers at the Hage, p. 86. doe vse the word Cause? (God sen∣deth his word whether it seemeth good to him, not accor∣ding to any absolute decree, but for other causes lying hid in man: Then is man the cause why hee is called: whence it comes, that he is the cause also that he is e∣lected. For that which is the cause, why God doth call a man to saluation, is plainely the cause why God will saue him; for these are things connexed and knit together. The same men, page 109. It is absurd to put the absolute will of God in the decree of election, for the first and principall cause, that it should goe before the other causes, to wit, Christ, faith, and all other causes. Here you heare that faith is put among the causes of electi∣on: wherefore Arnoldus, page, 53. doth leaue it in the middle, whether faith ought to be called the cause, or the condition; Whether (saith hee) faith should be called the condition, or whether it should be called the cause, it alwayes being laid downe for granted, that it is the gift of God, this alone is the question, how faith hath respect to

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election. And a little before he had said, If any should say, that in the decree of election, faith hath the respect of a cause, yet he should not thereby deny that it is the gift of God: Not obscurely insinuating how prone hee was to that part, and perceiued that hee was not rashly to be blamed, who hath called faith the cause of our election.

IX. Adde to these that Arnoldus, page 186. and the rest with him, doe contend, that faith is not of those that are elected, but that the election is of those that are faithfull. We truely out of Saint Paul to Ti∣tus, chap. 1. v: 1. say, that faith is of the elect, which we so take, because election is the cause of faith; to which our assertion, seeing they oppose theirs as contrary, whereby they say that election is of them that are faithfull; what else would they, but haue faith to be the cause of our election?

X. Let also the moment and force of their reasons be weighed and considered. In the conference at the Hage, they professe, that they doe not refuse to write with great letters, and to subscribe, that election is made by Christ, without any consideration of good workes: And yet doe the same men, euen to loathing, beate vpon this, that Election is the decree of sauing them that beleeue; that there is no man elected by God, but in respect of faith. But I would know, why they so earnestly exclude the consideration of workes from election, seeing that the earnest endeauour of good workes is a condition no lesse fore-required to saluation, then faith? Who by these things doth not see, that faith is not laid downe by them, meerely as a fore-required condition? For if faith were thus con∣sidered

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by them; it is plaine, that the study and en∣deauour of good workes, had beene ioyned and placed in the same degree with faith.

XI. And if God electeth to saluation, not those whom he absolutely decreed, but those whom hee fore-saw would beleeue; it is plaine that God in electi∣on, hath respect to some dignity and worth which is in these, but not in them: But it is not likely, that a∣ny wise man doth choose the best men, for any other cause, then because they are the best: For if the good∣nesse of the faithfull doe goe before election, hee should doe very ill that should elect them for any other cause, then because they are good.

XII. And certainely, whensoeuer any thing is pro∣mised to a man, vnder a condition, which is in the power of mans free-will; it is plaine, that the fulfil∣ling of the condition by mans free-will, is the cause why the promise is fulfilled; and the Arminians doe contend, that God doth giue, yea, and that hee is bound to giue grace and sufficient power to beleeue: but to vse that grace, or not to vse it, is in the power of mans free-will.

XIII. Neither is it a hard thing to draw from them that which I would haue. For let the Schoole and followers of Arminius tell me, what moued God, by his consequent will to choose Simon Peter, rather then Simon Magus? why Gregory rather then Iulian? They haue nothing to answer, but that it was done, because God fore-saw faith in them, and incredulity in these. Therefore although they should get it granted, that by their doctrine, fore-seene faith is not made the cause why God hath appointed this man to saluation;

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yet they must needes confesse, that according to Arminius, fore-seene faith is the cause of the diffe∣rence betweene the elect and the reprobate, and therefore the cause why this man is preferred be∣fore the other; which surely is no other thing, then to be the cause of election: For euery election is comparatiue, and doth inferre the reiection of one or more.

XIV. So when they deny, that by the will of God electing, the number of the elect is certaine and de∣termined; it must needes be, that they would haue mans will to be the cause why the number is such a number, and so euery man is the cause why hee is of the number of the elect, and therefore also the cause of his owne election.

XV. Although therefore they would haue this su∣spicion remoued from them, yet they will neuer wipe out this blot, by which they are contumelious against God, and doe weaken the firmenesse and strength of faith: As they which make the eternall election and good pleasure of God, to depend on mans free-will; & will haue saluation to be of him that willeth & of him that runneth; & they doe place some worth & vertue in man, which is the cause why saluation in the eter∣nall counsell of God, is appointed to one, rather then to another: Whence it comes, that faith doth shake, and saluation is vncertaine: as that which although God doth certainely fore-know, yet he doth not cer∣tainely and infallibly will it; for Election is not an act of the fore-knowledge, but of the will of God, and this will, how can it be certaine, if it doth depend on an vncertaine thing, to wit, on mans will? But

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these things by the way; for they shall be more ex∣actly examined in their place.

CHAP. XVIII.

The decree of generall election is searched into, by which Arminius will haue all men to be elected to saluation, vnder the condition of faith.

I. WE haue taught in the fift Chapter, that the antecedent will of God, as Arminius hath receiued it after Damascen, is a meere forged deuise, and a thing contumelious against God. This foundation being taken away, that vniuersall election, common to all men, vnder the condition of faith to be performed, doth fall downe: For this generall election Arminius will haue to belong to the antecedent will of God.

II. Whereunto adde those things which we haue spoken, Chapter 12. where we haue dissolued, and vnloosed the chaine of the foure decrees, in which the Arminians doe comprehend the whole doctrine of Election: There we haue shewed that the second de∣cree, by which saluation is not decreed to particular persons, but it is determined, that they shall be saued, who shall beleeue, is not the decree of prouidence nor predestination, but is the rule of the Gospell, which doth prescribe and set downe the way to sal∣uation.

III. This question is put to slight, onely by the name of election; for Election cannot be of all men; he doth not choose that taketh all: Neither, in the time of the deluge, had Noah beene chosen that hee

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should liue in the deluge, if no man had perished by the flood: He is elected, who is preferred before o∣thers, the rest being eyther despised, or lesse accoun∣ted of.

IV. And seeing in all the points of faith, wee ought to be wise, and taught out of the Scriptures, much more in so high an argument, which doth exceede our capacitie. Let therefore the Arminians shew by what place of Scripture all men are said to be elected, by that election which is opposite to repro∣bation (for of that it is spoken here, and not of the e∣lection of seuerall men, by the consequent will of God. Who euer heard it said, that Pharaoh or Iudas, did any way belong to the election of God? Saint Peter indeede 2. Epist. Chap. 1. doth ioyne calling to e∣lection, commanding vs to make our calling and e∣lection sure, that is, by the earnest endeauour of good workes, to effect that the sence of our effectuall calling, and the perswasion of our election may daily be increased in vs: But he will not therefore haue our calling and election to be the same, nor will hee haue all that are any waies called, to be elected: Yea, many are called, but few chosen, Matth. 20.16.

V. That also is to be obserued, that by this gene∣rall election, it is not decreed who are to be saued; but what manner of men are to be saued: and that the Arminians draw the ninth chapter to the Romanes to proue this; where it is plainely spoken of the good pleasure of God, and his mercy towards some seuerall and peculiar persons, whom it seemeth good to God to choose: For those words, I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy, speake of some certaine men;

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and not of what qualified men; for then he had said, Misertor qualium: I will haue mercy on men so qualified, and not cuius, or quorum, of whom: Neither had the example of Isaac and Iacob, who were particular per∣sons, beene applied to explaine the election not of particular persons, but the election eyther of all, or of men so qualified.

VI. But I would learne of the Arminians, whe∣ther Iudas or Pilate; whether the high priests and the Scribes, by the instigation and accusations of whom our Sauiour was crucified, were elected conditionally, and comprehended in that generall election. If they were not comprehended, then that generall and con∣ditionall election which they would haue to be ex∣tended to all men: falleth to the ground. On the o∣ther side, if Iudas and those high priests were condi∣tionally elected, the decree of God, concerning the crucifying of Christ, could not be absolute, because it was done by men, which were conditionally ele∣cted, vnder a condition which they might fulfill: It might therefore haue come to passe, that before this wicked deede, they might haue beene conuerted and become faithfull, and so had not crucified Christ.

And truely it cannot be said, that Iudas and Caia∣phas, were elected to saluation, vnder the condition of beleeuing in the death of Christ, seeing they were appointed to that very thing, that by their increduli∣ty and wickednesse, Christ might be deliuered to death: but if Iudas and Caiaphas had beleeued in Christ, Christ had not beene deliuered to death; and therefore this decree, whereby the Arminians will

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haue God to haue elected Iudas and Caiaphas, and Pilate, vnder this condition, if they would beleeue in Christ, doth infolde a contradiction: For they doe as much, as if they should bring in God, speaking thus: I appointed to saue Iudas and Caiaphas, if they will beleeue in the death of Christ: But if they shall beleeue, and shall be faithfull, Christ should not be deliuered to death, nor be crucified.

Also of the foure decrees of the Arminians, the two former are contrary one to another: For by the first decree, God decreed to vse the incredulity and perfidiousnesse of Iudas, to deliuer Christ to death: But by the second decree, God elected Iudas vnder the condition of faith, in the death of Christ: There∣fore by the former decree, Iudas is absolutely conside∣red as an vnbeleeuer and a reprobate, but by the se∣cond, he is considered as one conditionally elected. The schoole of Arminius is painted about with these monsters, and Chimeraes, contrary one to another, which would moue laughter, if the church were not troubled by them, and the wisedome of God exposed to reproach.

VII. Furthermore, by that generall decree whereby all men are said to be elected vnder the con∣dition of faith to be performed, God is openly moc∣ked: For it is a foolish decree, which is made vnder a condition, which condition, he that decreed it knew certainely in the very moment he decreed it, that it would not be fulfilled; especially if this condition cannot be fulfilled but by the helpe and power of him who decrees it: For by such a decree, God should set a law to himselfe, not to man. But it is

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manifest by experience that God doth not minister to all men the meanes that are necessary to the fulfil∣ling of this condition: For he will not haue his Gos∣pell preached to all, neither doth he giue the spirit of regeneration to all.

VIII. Finally, what is to be iudged of this ge∣nerall election, appeares by the consectaries, and con∣clusions which are drawne thence; whereof that is the chiefest, and farre the worst, whereby they denie that the number of the elect is certaine, and determi∣ned by the will of God, electing; whence it followeth that the election of particular persons, is not certaine by the will of God: For if it were certaine by the decree of God, that this, or that man, were of the number of the elect, then of seuerall persons ioyned together, the whole summe and certaine number would be made vp. But that which Arnoldus saith, Pag. 192. That the number of the elect may be in∣creased or diminished, is such a thing, that there is no good man who doth not tremble at the hearing of it. For what is it in God, to diminish the number of the elect, but to change his opinion, and to take from the number of the elect, those which indeede being not sufficiently well considered of, and as hauing cast his accounts amisse, he had brought into the white roule of the elect, which should rather haue beene carried into the blacke booke of reprobates?

IX. Of the same euill stampe, is that of Gre∣uinchouius against Ames, Pag. 136. making a halfe, an incompleate, and so a reuocable election. In the Scriptures (saith hee) men are called elect, 1. incom∣pleately, according to the present state, in as much as they

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are such, to wit, faithfull men for the present time, the last tearme of their life being excepted, in which, 2. Ele∣ction is fulfilled. Behold a depending election, by which euery most wicked man; is incompleately elect, and the decree of God is incompleate, vntill it be made compleate by man, which surely are not, dogmata, but portenta, not doctrines, but monstrous opinions, which neuer came into the minde of any one, of whom the name of Christ is any where heard of.

X. But the Scripture teacheth, that the number of the elect is certaine, Reuel. 6. The soules which are vnder the Altar are commanded to waite while the number of the brethren is fulfilled; Also that which Christ saith of the sheepe that were giuen him, euen before their conuersion, Iohn 10.1. As also that he saith, that all shall come to him, as many as are giuen him by the father; Iohn. 6.37. And that none of his sheepe can be taken out of his hand, Iohn. 10.28. doe all plainely declare, that the number of them is de∣termined by the purpose of God. Saint Luke doth al∣so accord, in whom, Chap. 10. v. 20. Christ thus spea∣keth to the Apostles: Reioyce not that the spirits are sub∣iect to you: but rather reioyce that your names are written in heauen. No lesse expressely doth the Apostle to the Hebrewes speake, Chap. 12. v. 22.23. where hee cal∣leth the church, the heauenly Ierusalem, the assembly of the first borne, which are written in Heauen. Hitherto per∣taines that book of life, concerning which it is spoken in other places. And, Reuel. 20. where they are said to be cast into the lake of fire, which are not found written in the booke of life. The Arminians, Pag. 96.

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of the conference at Hage, doe with a vaine interpre∣tation expound those words of Christ: Reioyce that your names are written in the booke of life: For they will not haue these words to be taken of election to salua∣tion, but they will haue this to be the sence of it; Reioyce that according to the present state of faith, righteousnesse, and obedience, ye are accounted for pious and godly men, yea for the sonnes of God. O good God, where is modesty! Here is neyther reason nor colour for this. For, to be accounted faithfull by men, is not to haue their names written in heauen: Nor was there any cause that the Apostle should so reioyce, because men thought well of them, seeing that often times happeneth to him that is most wic∣ked; and this had beene much lesse, then that the diuels did tremble at their voice, and fled from them: which yet Christ reckons to be but a small thing, in comparison of hauing their names written in heauen: Surely that speech, to be written in heauen, is referred not to the opinion of men, but to the purpose of God: And this phrase is taken from the Prophets, with whom, that is said to be written before God, which is fastened and determined by his decree. So, Esay 4. v. 3. they are said to be written for life, who were to be preserued by the purpose of God. And Chap. 65.6. Behold it is written before me, I will not keepe silence, but will recompence: As if hee should say, it is certaine and determined by mee, to reuenge these wicked deedes.

XII. I am ashamed of that shift, whereby some of them say, that therefore the names of the Apostles are said to be written in heauen, because they were

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elected to their Apostleshippe: For so the name of Iudas himselfe was written in heauen; in which re∣spect, he had so little cause to reioyce, that euen his very Apostleshippe turned to his destruction. Then also we haue the words of the Apostle to the He∣brewes, which are plainely agreeable to these, by which he calleth the faithfull, the first begotten, which are written in heauen: which cannot bee drawne to the election to an office, seeing it belongeth to all the faithfull and the elect.

XIII. The question of the booke of life is a grea∣ter and longer question, not belonging to this place. I am not ignorant, that there is a certaine booke of life, which is not the booke of election, but the Cata∣logue of them who professe themselues to be mem∣bers of the Church, and are visibly grafted into the couenant, of which book there is mention, Eze. 13.9. Psal. 69. ver. 29. out of which booke, there is no doubt but some are blotted. But when they are throwne headlong into hell, as many as are not written in the booke of life; it is plaine, that in this booke is set downe the certaine and determined number of men, who while other are appointed to the fire, they alone are reserued to life; the number of whom can be en∣creased or diminished no more now then in the last iudgement.

XIV. These things concerning that generall and conditionall election. Now let vs come to the abso∣lute election of seuerall persons, which the Arminians would haue to rest and depend on the fore-know∣ledge of faith, and to be made for faith fore-seene: The former of these elections hath the second place in

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the series and ranke of the foure decrees laid downe by Armintus; the latter election hath the fourth place; that doth pertaine to the antecedent will of God, this to the consequent; that doth goe before, this doth follow mans will: Arminius saith, that God is disappointed of that, but cannot be disappointed of this.

CHAP. XIX.

The election of particular persons in respect of faith fore∣seene is confuted. It is prooued that men are not elected for faith, but to faith.

OVt of the great abundance of places which the holy Scripture doth supply to vs, we wil tithe and choose out some that are most cleare and most weighty.

I. Saint Paul to the Ephesians, Chapter 1. vers. 3.4. hath these words, God hath blessed vs with all spirituall blessings in heauenly places in Christ, according as he hath chosen vs in him, before the foundation of the world. The Apostle doth plainely enough teach, that spirituall blessings, and therefore faith, are giuen vs according to the eternall election, & as we were elected. Whence it followeth, that election is necessarily before these blessings, both in order and time. So hee that saith, that the Souldiers receiued their donatiue and bene∣uolence, as it seemed good to their Generall, doth manifestly say, that first it seemed good to the Gene∣rall before it was done, and that the certaine and ab∣solute will of the Generall went before this largesse and gift. Neither are those words of lesse moment which

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follow: He elected vs in Christ before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him, in loue. You see that we are elected to holinesse, and not from holinesse, or for holinesse; and if we be elected to holinesse, then also are we elected to faith, wherein our holinesse chiefly consists. It cannot be de∣nyed that faith is a part of our holines, vnlesse by him, who also denieth, that incredulity in the prophane is a part of their prophanenesse and vice: For by faith we are not onely sanctified efficiently, but also formal∣ly; no otherwise then the wall is formally whited by the white colour. And if the Arminians could get it granted, that the holinesse which is spoken of here, doth consist onely in charity, yet they would effect nothing, nor would it euer the lesse be proued out of this place, that we are chosen to faith; for he that is elected to charity, is necessarily elected to faith, which begets charity, Gal. 5.6. Nor is it credible, that any one is elected to one part of holinesse, and not to the other.

Being beate therefore from hence, they seeke other refuges. Arnoldus. p. 66. by elect, would haue they that are called to be vnderstood; as if election and calling were the same thing: but many are called, few are chosen, Matth. 20. Therefore among these elect (if Arnoldus be beleeued) there will be many reprobates; neither will this election be opposed to reprobation. The same man, pag. 142. doth contend, that these elect are the faithfull, which is false in that sense he takes it, to wit, that they are considered as being already faithfull, when they are elected: For how can they that are considered as being faithfull, be elected to holinesse,

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seeing in that they are faithfull, they are already holy? Paul indeede speakes to the Ephesians, whom hee cal∣leth faithfull and blessed: but not, if now they were faithfull and blessed, they were therefore faithfull be∣fore they were elected.

This good man therefore hath deuised another sub∣tilty, and would haue Paul to speake not of the electi∣on of particular persons, but of the election, whereby any one people is elected to the calling, by the Gos∣pell. If this be true, it must needes be, that among the elect, before the foundation of the world, there were many reprobates: But the following words doe not admit this interpretation; for the Apostle saith, we are elected, that we should be without blame, in loue. He will haue vs to be elect, that we might endeauour to holinesse and good workes: Now good workes are of particular men, and not of a Nation; neither by the elect can here be vnderstood, the nations admit∣ted into the couenant, seeing Saint Paul includes him∣selfe in this number, Hath chosen vs in Christ, &c. Ar∣noldus himselfe doth sufficiently declare how little he trusts to this exposition, while hee ioynes another which ouerthrowes this: He saith, that here it is spo∣ken of the election to glory, and therefore by holinesse, would haue saluation vnderstood: But the Apostle doth fitly preuent this starting hole; for hee addes, that we might be holy and blamelesse; but to be blame∣lesse is a vertue, and not saluation it selfe: Then also Paul expounds, how wee are holy, to wit in charity, nor in the fruition and enioying of glory. He vnder∣stands the dueties of charity which are exercised in this life, vnto which to be exhorted after this life is

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needelesse. Finally, by their so various and diuers ex∣positions, which ouerthrow one another, they doe sufficiently confesse, that they haue nothing wherein they may be constant: And because they cannot ma∣ster vs by the weight of their expositions, they en∣deauour to ouerwhelme vs by the multitude of them.

It is of small importance, that from this word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, blamelesse, they gather, that it is spo∣ken of the perfection after this life: For the Apostle will haue vs to be blamelesse, euen in this life, as, Phi∣lippians 2.15. Where he commands vs to be 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, blamelesse, and harmelesse, in the midst of a crooked and peruerse generation. Certainly, when the Apostle saith, that we might be blamelesse in charity; it is manifest, that he doth not speake of the Saints en∣ioying glory, where there is no place for reprehen∣sion, nor for exhortation, to the duties of charitie. There is no little force in the following verse: He pre∣destinated vs to the adoption of children, by Iesus Christ. Out of this place I thus reason: Those whom God predestinated to adoption, he hath predestinated al∣so to the spirit of adoption, to be giuen them, and this is nothing else but to predestinate them to faith; for the spirit of adoption is it that beareth witnesse in our hearts, that we are the sonnes of God, Rom. 8. and this testimony is faith it selfe. It is true indeede, that God appointeth no man to adoption, but whom God con∣sidereth, as one that by his gift will be faithfull; but the same may also be said of those that are appointed to faith, which is appointed to none but whom God considereth as one that will be faithfull: And surely

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they are grosely deceiued, who thinke that the faith∣full are appointed to the adoption of children, see∣ing in that they are faithfull, they are already chil∣dren: This Saint Iohn teacheth, chapter 1. To them that beleeued, he gaue this prerogatiue, to be the sonnes of God.

II. Agreeable to this place are also many other, 1 Cor. 7.25. I haue obtained mercy of the Lord to be faith∣full, not because he considered me as already faith∣full, Iohn 15.16. I haue chosen you, that you should bring forth fruit: therefore he did not choose vs, considered as already faithfull, and therefore as already bea∣ring fruit. Should wee imagine, that Christ speakes here onely of the election of the Apostles to their A∣postleship? I thinke there is none of so impudent a face, who can deny that the same thing may be spo∣ken of any of the elect, whereof there is none whom God hath not elected, that hee might be godly and good: euen as also there is no man, who is not of a shamelesse countenance, who will deny that all the following documents and lessons, doe belong to all the faithfull: These things I commend you, that you loue one another: If the world hate you, you know that it hath hated me firsh, &c.

III. Not vnlike this, is that which the Apostle saith, 2 Thes. 2.13. God hath chosen you to saluation by sanctifi∣cation of the spirit, and beleefe of the truth. He saith that we are elected to obtaine saluation by faith, not for faith, and so faith is after election, and a certaine me∣dium, or middle thing, betweene election and sal∣uation.

IV. The words of Ananias to S. Paul, Act 22.14.

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are consonant to this; God hath chosen thee, that thou shouldst know his will; by which knowledge, faith and assent to the Gospell is vnderstood: for Saint Paul was not elected more to know the Gospell, then to beleeue the Gospell: Paul therefore was elected to be∣ieeue, and so his election was before his faith.

V. The same Apostle, 1 Thessa. 1.3. praising the faith and charitie of the Thessalonians, doth fetch the cause of these vertues from election it selfe: Remem∣bring without ceasing your worke of faith, and labour of lone, as knowing that you are elected of God.

Here the Arminians doe willingly stumble in a plaine way: for by Election they will haue Calling to be vnderstood; which if it be true, the reprobates themselues will be elected, as being also called. Then also Saint Paul is deluded, as if hee were not in his right minde: For what neede Paul tell the Thessa∣lonians, that he knew they were called by the Gospell, seeing Saint Paul himselfe preached the Gospell to them? He were a ridiculous Grammarian, who should tell his Schollers that he had taught; I know you haue learned Grammer. Arnoldus, pag. 66. doth suspect that the word, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, knowing, is to be referred to the Thes∣salonians themselues. But the good man hath dealt too negligently here, for he doth not see, that by this meanes, the Greeke speech would be made incongru∣ous and not agreeing, for then it must haue beene read 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that it might agree with 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, which is in the former verse. But distrusting this exposition, he hath smelt out that by the word election, excellency ought to be vnderstood, which truely is an intollerable li∣cense; seeing election differeth from excellency by

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the whole praedicament; for election is an action, ex∣cellency is a quality, or a relation. Surely if it be lawfull to bring such portents and monsters of interpretati∣on, what will there be in the holy Scripture, which may not be deluded or depraued? Let Arnoldus bring another place, where Excellency is vnderstood by the word Election: For although he that is elected, may be taken for him that excelleth, yet you shall neuer finde Election to be so taken for Excellency. Neither ought it to seeme a maruaile that Paul saith, he knew of the election of the Thessalonians; for God might reueile that to him concerning the Tessalonians, which he re∣uealed concerning the Corinthians, Acts 18.10. I haue much people in this citie. Or if that doth not please, it may be said, that Saint Paul, when he saw the Gospell receiued by the Thessalonians, with very great ioy and much fruite, easily perswaded himselfe that many of that people belonged to the election of God.

VI. The same Apostle, in the beginning of his E∣pistle to Titus, calleth himselfe, the Apostle, according to the faith of Gods elect. It is plaine, that faith is said to be of the elect, because it is peculiar to the elect, or else it were not rightly adorned with this elogy & com∣mendation, and that by the confession of Vorstius him∣selfe: Faith (saith hee) is called the faith of the elect of God, Titus 1. because faith is a proper marke of the elect, &c. But why is faith peculiar to the elect? is it because as many as haue true faith are elected by God? But the Arminians deny this; for they write of the Apostasie of the Saints, and thinke that the most holy men may fall away. It remaines therefore, that faith is said to be

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of the elect, which God giueth to the elect, and which is a fruit of election.

The Arminians auoid this dart and argument, by saying, that by the name of faith, is vnderstood do∣ctrine: But they doe not well auoid it so, for the do∣ctrine of the Gospell is not peculiar to the elect, nei∣ther can it be called the doctrine of the elect, seeing it is preached also to wicked and prophane men Here therefore we may see the Apostle and Arminius to be striuing together: Saint Paul saith, Faith is of the elect: Armintus on the contrary part saith, that electi∣on is of them that are faithfull, and who are conside∣red as already beleeuing.

With like licentious liberty, doe they abuse the word, of the elect, by which they will haue those that are called, and are holy to be vnderstood: But after what manner? Seeing that according to Ar∣minius, among them that are called, and holy, there are many reprobates; the elect therefore, by this meanes shall be reprobates. Is the Scripture thus to be deluded? But let vs see other places.

VII. Noteable are the words of Christ. Luk. 10 20. Reioyce, that your names are written in Heauen. Christ speaketh to men that were liuing, & who had not yet perseuered in the faith to the end: Yet notwithstan∣ding, their names were already written in Heauen, their saluation was determined by the certaine pur∣pose of God: Their election therefore, was before their perseuerance in faith, contrary to which is the opinion of Arminius, who will haue perseuerance in faith, to goe before election, and will haue vs to be e∣lected for faith fore-seene.

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And if election be not peremptory, & immutable, but after finall perseuerance, as the Arminians would haue it, then we must say, that the names of the Apo∣stles, who did then first enter the race of Christian profession, were so written in Heauen, that yet it was in the power of the Apostles to fall away from the faith and so to be reprobated; And therefore they could bring it to passe, that Christ should lie: See to what the audacity of these innouators doth come. Further∣more, that that is said in the Scripture to be written in Heauen & before God, which is appointed & deter∣mined by his eternall counsell, we haue proued in the former Chapter; where we haue reiected that vnsauo∣ry and rash interpretation of the Arminians; we will haue the writing of our names in heauen, to be no∣thing else then to be accounted the children of God, by the present state of righteousnesse, and that for no other argument, then because they will haue it so.

VIII. S. Paul. Ephes. 2.8. By grace ye are saued through faith: He doth not say, that they are saued for faith fore-seen, but by faith, as by the meanes to saluation: And if God doth not saue vs for faith fore seen, he nei∣ther wil saue vs for faith fore-seen, nor doth he elect vs for faith fore-seen: For to elect, is to be willing to saue.

IX. The same words, By grace ye are saued through faith, do plainly say, that faith is the meanes to saluation: & if saluation be the end, and faith the meanes, it must needs be that God thoght of giuing saluation to Peter & Paul before he thoght of giuing them faith, wherby they should come to saluation: for the end is first in the intent before the means: so habitatiō is intended before building, life before foode, health before phisick. With what face therfore dare the Armint. say, that God had

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decreed to giue Peter and Paul faith, before he had de∣creed to giue them saluation.

X. But here Arminius hath laid aside shame, and doth deny that saluation is Gods end; but hee saith, that saluation and faith are the gifts of God, tied to∣gether by the will of God in this order, that faith should goe before saluation, in respect of God the giuer, and in the thing it selfe. These are the words of Arminius, which are cited and allowed by the Ar∣minians, in their answere to the Epistle to the Wala∣chrians. Pag. 93. But besides that, I had rather be∣leeue Saint Paul, teaching that we are saued by God, through faith. Arminius himselfe doth seeme to me to grant the same thing, while he doth deny it: For it is not likely, that God is willing, that faith should goe before the obtaining of saluation, vnlesse because he will giue and bestow saith vnto saluation. Now that which helpeth to obtaine saluation, is the meanes by which we come to saluation, as to the end. Greuin∣chouius following him, Pag. 12. doth deny that God intended the saluation of certaine men in particular, as an end. And Pag. 124. We haue said (saith he) that faith is to be considered two manner of waies, eyther as it is prescribed and to be performed, or as it is already per∣formed: As it is to be performed, it is not the meanes, but the condition, and the thing required: But as it is perfor∣med, it is the meanes to man, by which he doth obtaine sal∣uation, promised vnder the condition of faith. The Rea∣der shall obserue his excellent wit. This man will haue faith, then, to be the meanes to saluation, when it is performed, that is, when faith ceaseth: For the Arminians then thinke faith to be performed, when

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one hath perseuered in faith to the end; at which time vision and sight succeedeth to faith ceasing. Therefore (if Arminius be beleeued) saith will then beginne to be the meanes of saluation, when it is not faith: Then also that saying, that faith performed, is the meanes for man, not for God, is very weake: For faith is the meanes for a man to come to saluation, for no other cause, then because God willeth and cau∣seth that man should come to saluation by faith: So he that saith, that foode is the meanes for a man to liue, saith also that it is the meanes that God doth vse for the sustentation of mans life.

XI. It is of no small importance that the Apo∣stle in the same place, calleth faith the gift of God: By grace ye are saued through faith, and that not of your selues, it is the gift of God: For the Apostle will not haue saluation alone to be the gift of God, but also faith: For he that giueth the end, giueth also the meanes; as hee that giues vs life, giues vs also meanes to maintaine our life. So Philip. 1.19. It is giuen to you for Christ, that is, in that which concerneth Christ, not onely to beleeue on him, but also to suffer for his sake: Therefore to beleeue in Christ, is the gift of God. Wherefore we are not rightly said to be ele∣cted by God for faith fore-seene, seeing God himselfe giues faith: For God is not said (vnlesse it be very vnproperly) to fore-see those things which he him∣selfe determined to doe. Hee would not be thought to haue a sound braine, who should say that God fore-saw the Sunne would be round or shining, for God himselfe turned it into roundnesse, and put the light into it. How greatly the Arminians erre here,

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and that it followes of their doctrine, that faith is not the gift of God, although sometimes they speake o∣therwise, shall be seene in the right place.

XII. Thither also belong the words which are in the eleuenth verse of the first chapter. Being prede∣stinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counfell of his owne will. If God hath predestinated any one to saluation, he worketh also all things which are necessary to the execution of that decree, and if all things, then also faith: Faith there∣fore, is something after predestination, for it is a part of the execution of that decree.

XIII. There is a noteable place, Acts 13.48. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉: They belee∣ued as many as were ordained to eternall life. While Paul preached to the men of Antiochia, some beleeued, some refused the Gospell: Saint Luke brings this cause why they did not beleeue, to wit, the ordination and decree of God. Election therefore is before faith, be∣cause the election of God, is the cause why men be∣leeue. According to Arminius, Saint Luke ought to haue spoken thus: And as many as beleeued were elected by God, in reward of their faith: But contra∣riewise hee saith, they beleeued, because they were elected.

Socinus, and after him Arminius, doe depraue and corrupt this place with very great wickednesse. For by, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, they that were ordained, they vnder∣stand, they that were disposed, prepared and inclined, or well affected: as if Luke had writ 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Cer∣tainely a bold euasion, and an interpretation without colour and example: For neyther the Scripture, nor

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any man, that I know, euer tooke the word 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, in this sence. To which purpose when many exam∣ples may be heaped vp, yet they are most fit which are taken out of the booke of the Acts it selfe, that it may appeare in what sence Saint Luke doth alwaies take this word, Chap. 15.2. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, they decreed or determined that Paul should goe vp. And Acts 28.23. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, when they had ap∣pointed him a day. So Saint Paul, Rom. 13.1. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. The powers that are, are ordained, or appointed by God. So S. Chrisost. Hom. 30. vpon the Acts doth interpret this place of the Acts, as many as were ordained to saluation, where he ren∣dreth, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, ordained, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, seuered by God, and fore-determined. Then also, although the word were ambiguous, reason it selfe would conuince this: For none of the vnregenerate can be well dis∣posed, or well affected to eternall life: But all these men of Antiochia, before they beleeued the Gospell, were vnregenerate, therefore they were ill disposed to the obtaining of saluation. Let the schoole and fol∣lowers of Arminius tell me, what disposition was in the theefe who was crucified with Christ, to beleeue before he did beleeue: Or in the Apostle Paul, when like a wolfe he did rage against the flocke of Christ, and swelling with Pharisaicall pride, was a most eager maintainer of righteousnesse by the Law; yea also common sence doth abhorre that kinde of speaking which they deuise: For wee are not wont to say, that one is well disposed, or prone, or well affected to blessednesse, but to vertue. This inclination must be to doe something, and not to enioy or obtaine some∣thing.

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So one may be said, to be inclined to the exercise of his body, but not to health; to the com∣bat, not to the reward or victory: Or if any one please to take the word dispositum, disposed, for cupido, desire, there is no man who is not disposed to sal∣uation.

It is not for nothing, that the Greeke hath not the word, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, simply and alone, but 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, as many as were appointed: By which preterplu∣perfect tense is plainely signified, not a present dispo∣sition, but an ordination that went before.

It is to no purpose, that they therefore gather, that by those that are ordained, are vnderstood, those that are disposed, because in that place, they are oppo∣sed to them that are vnworthy. For Luke here makes no opposition, nor if he did, would it any thing hin∣der vs, who know that by the very election to faith and saluation, men are made worthy, and therefore also we are opposed to those that are vnworthy. In the meane time let the Reader iudge, what, and how wicked a doctrine this is, which doth make men to be worthy, before they beleeue, and that some are found among Infidels, who are worthy of sal∣uation.

XIV. Marke 13.22. False Christs and false Pro∣phets shall arise, and shall shew signes and wonders, to se∣duce, if it were possible, the very elect. There is an 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a cause and reason of it giuen in the word Elect: For the cause is noted, why some cannot be finally deceiued, to wit, because they are elected. E∣lection, therefore, is before perseuerance in faith to the end, as being the cause of perseuerance: And

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that which is the cause of perseuerance in faith, is the cause of faith. That which is the cause why one doth alwaies beleeue, is the cause why hee doth beleeue: Therefore the opinion of Arminius doth fall to the ground, by which he determineth, that not onely faith, but also perseuerance in faith, is before election. and that God in electing doth consider it as a condi∣tion already performed and fulfilled.

XV. The words of the Apostle ought not to be omitted, 2. Tim. 1.9. He hath saued vs, and called vs with an holy calling, not according to our workes, but ac∣cording to his owne purpose and grace, which was giuen vs in Christ Iesus, before the world beganne. These words seem to me to be diametrically, & directly contrary to Arminianisme: For the Apostle doth not onely deny, that we are saued for the fore-seeing of workes, but also he brings the eternall decree of God, to ex∣clude the respect of workes. But if God hath not e∣lected vs for the foreseeing of workes; then certainly, not for the fore-seeing of faith, which doth beget and effect workes: And if God hath not elected any one for the fore-seeing of faith, then certainely, not for the right vsing of grace, nor for the obedience of faith, for as much as this vsing and this obedience, is manifestly a worke: Neither is it any doubt, but that to embrace the Gospell by faith, is a kinde of worke and action of the will.

XVI. What? That Arminius doth acknowledge faith not onely to be an action, and therefore aworke, but doth also contend, that faith is imputed for righ∣teousnesse, not as an instrument, that is, not as it ap∣prehendeth Christ, but as it is a worke and an action?

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The words of Arminius, are reported by the Wala∣chrian brethren, in their Epistle, and they are these: Faith is imputed for righteousnesse, not as it is an instru∣ment, but as it is an action, although it be by him, whom it apprehendeth. Neither doe the Arminians in their an∣swere deny it, but doe willingly acknowledge that these are Arminius his words, and Pag. 87. they doe defend him. The same men in the page going before, doe confesse that Peter Bertius, a man of speciall name amongst the Arminians, is of opinion, That the very act of faith, is imputed to vs for righteousnesse in a proper sense, and therefore that we are iustified by faith, as by an inherent qualitie; which vlcer I doe not touch here: But I onely take that which makes for the present matter, to wit, seeing that faith it selfe, is not onely an action and a worke, but that also according to the minde of the Arminians, wee are iustified by faith, in as much as it is an action and a worke, and an inherent vertue; it is plaine, that the fore-seeing of faith is excluded, by that very eternall good pleasure of God, which the Apostle vseth to exclude the fore∣seeing of workes, seeing that faith it selfe, is also a worke and an action; yea, and doth iustifie, as it is an action, if Arminius be beleeued.

XVII. Hitherto pertaines that which is said, Rom. 9.11. The purpose of God, which is according to election, not of workes, but of him that calleth: because faith it selfe is a worke, and doth iustifie as it is a worke (as the Arminians will haue it) and to vse grace aright, is with them to worke.

XVIII. The Scripture speaketh of the decree of ele∣ction, as of a certaine & immutable decree. 2 Tim. 2.19.

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The foundation of God standeth sure, and hath this seale, the Lord knoweth them that are his. And Romanes 9. That the purpose of God, which is according to election might stand. And Iohn, 10.28. I giue to my sheepe eter∣nall life, and they shall neuer perish, neither shall any man plucke them out of my hand. And chap. 6.37. All that the father giueth me, shall come to me: whereunto adde that which is, Mark. 13. that the elect cannot be deceiued. Did Pilate thinke it was an vnlawfull thing to change the title of the crosse, which was written by him; and will it be a thing worthy the maiesty and wisedome of God, to cancell those things he writ, and hauing chan∣ged his opinion, to wipe out those which hee had set into the white register of the elect? Hee therefore doth not thinke well of God, and doth subuert the doctrine of the Gospell, who will haue the decree of the election of men to be mutable, and reuocable, and to depend on mans will. We haue heard that Greuin∣chouius doth deny the decree of election, to be peremp∣tory and absolute, while we liue here. And the whole Schoole of Arminius, doth cry out with one voyce, that the number of the elect is not certaine and deter∣mined by the election and will of God: But if the num∣ber of the elect be not certaine by the will of God, then neither is election it selfe certaine. And surely, they iustly make election mutable, who make it to de∣pend on mans will: for they will haue election to rest on faith fore-seene, and faith it selfe to depend on mans free-will. Indeede they say, that preuenting and accompanying grace, is necessary to beeeue; but the vse of this grace, they will haue to be in the pow∣er of mans will, which alwaies hath this liberty, that

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it may vse that grace, or not vse it. And we shall see in his place, that the Arminians teach, that the grace of God is not the totall cause of faith, but onely a cause in part.

Finally, you may euery where finde, that electi∣on is made by the purpose and good pleasure of God, and for his meere grace, as 2 Tim. 1.19. Ephes. 1. ve. 5.6. and 11. Rom 9.15. and 11. ver. 3. But I finde no where that any one is elected for faith fore-seene; neither doe the Arminians proue it any other∣wise, but by consequences farre fetched, which we will examine in their place and order.

CHAP. XX.

Election for faith fore-seene is confuted by places taken out of the Gospell of Saint Iohn.

THis contention will cease, if we stand to the testimony of Christ himselfe; in the Gospell according to Saint Iohn, hee faith many things which cut this knot, and leaue no place for doubting.

I. Iohn 6 37. he thus speaketh to the Iewes, What∣soeuer my father giueth me, shall come to me: To come to Christ, is to beleeue; for so Christ himselfe ex∣pounds it, verse 35. He that commeth to me, shall not hunger, and he that beleeueth in me shall neuer thirst: He might haue said in both places; Hee that commeth shall not hunger, nor shall thirst; but in the latter place he puts beleeue, for come, that wee might know that we come to Christ by beleeuing. The meaning there∣fore of Christ is, that those that are giuen him by the

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father, will beleeue in him.; and they are giuen to the sonne, who are therefore giuen, that hee might saue them, and they might be his flocke. The sense therefore of these words, whatsoeuer my father giueth to me, shall come, is this, Whosoeuer my father giueth me to be saued, shall beleeue in me. They are giuen then to Christ, before they can come, or can beleeue; for therefore they come to Christ, and beleeue, because they are giuen him. But Arminius will haue them be∣leeue before they be giuen, for he will haue them to be elected, and therefore to be giuen to Christ for faith fore-seene. Christ saith that therefore they come, be∣cause they are giuen him: the sectaries on the contrary say, that therefore they are giuen, because they come.

In another place, the head-strong obstinacy of these men, doth no lesse discouer it selfe, by them who are giuen to Christ; they would haue the faithfull to be vnderstood, as if Christ had said, he that beleeueth in me will come to me. But we haue already proued, that to come, is the same that it is to beleeue. The sence therefore of these words of Christ, according to Armi∣nius, will be this; Whosoeuer doth beleeue, shall beleeue in me: Adde to these, that seeing in the Arminian election, faith and perseuerance in faith is considered as already performed, and therefore they that are elected, are considered as dead, or in the very limits of life and death; they cannot be said to come, who haue not already measured out the course of their life. Neither by them who are giuen to Christ, can be vn∣derstood those which first gaue themselues to Christ; for this were not to giue themselues to the sonne, but to be willing that the sonne should receiue them com∣ming

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to him. He indeede receiueth those that come, but they therfore come, because Christ draweth them; as he himselfe saith, verse 44. No man can come to me, vn∣lesse the father, that sent me, draw him.

The Arminian conferrers at the Hage, pag. 87. doe suspect, that by those that are giuen to the sonne, are to be vnderstood, not the faithfull, but those that are gi∣uen to beleeue. But seeing the Arminians are of opini∣on, that the reprobates also are giuen to beleeue, and that God doth seriously intend their faith and sal∣uation, they should be falsely said, that they were to come to Christ, that is, that they wil beleeue, as many as are giuen him to beleeue. The very words of Christ doe affirme, and common sense doe conuince this, that by those that are giuen to Christ, are vnderstood his flocke, and therefore the elect: for as much as those that are giuen to Christ, are here seuered from those that are not giuen.

II. Iohn 8.47. Ye therefore heare not, because ye are not of God: They therefore which heare and beleeue, doe therefore heare and beleeue, because they are of God; and to be of God, what is it else, then to belong to God? As on the contrary part, verse 44. they are said to be of the diuell, who belong to the diuell. See∣ing then that Christ himselfe doth witnesse, that there∣fore some men beleeue, because they belong to God; who doth not see, that it must needes be, that they first belong to God, before they beleeue, for as much as to belong to God, is the cause why they be∣leeue?

III. Nor is there lesse force in the words of Christ, Iohn 10.26. Yee beleeue not, because yee are not of my

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sheepe: They then who beleeue, doe therefore beleeue, because they are of the sheepe of Christ: Not accor∣ding to Arminius, who would therefore haue them to be of the sheepe of Christ, because they beleeue. It pleaseth the Arminians to haue the faithfull vnder∣stood by the sheepe of Christ, and I doe not deny, but that the sheepe of Christ, are they which beleeue; but I deny that the word sheepe, can be so taken in this place: For so an vnsauory tantalogy and vaine repe∣tition should be put vpon Christ; ye beleeue not, be∣cause ye beleeue not. This is a declaration of it, that a lit∣tle before he called those also his sheepe, which were not yet conuerted: Other sheepe I haue, which are not of this fould, them also I must bring, and they shall heare my voice.

IV. So, Iohn 17.6. I haue manifested thy name vnto them which thou gauest me: Therefore first they were giuen, before Christ declared to them the name of God, by which declaration they receiued faith. The Arminian conferrers at the Hage, pag. 87. thinke that it is here spoken of the Apostles, who did already be∣leeue; but they proue nothing by it: for this being granted, yet that stands which I maintaine, that the Apostles were first giuen to Christ, before he had de∣clared himselfe to them. But that it is not here spoke of the Apostles alone, Christ himselfe doth expresly witnesse, verse 20. Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall beleeue on me, through their word. And seeing that ver. 9. they are opposed to the world, it appeares that these things are to be extended to all the faithfull: Vnlesse, perhaps the Schoole and fol∣lowers of Arminius, doe thinke that the Apostles

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alone are they that are not of the world, and that they alone are exempted from the curse of the world. Fur∣thermore, seeing there is no part of the Scripture which doth bring more comfort, nor doth more vp∣hold our faith, striuing with temptations, then this diuine and large prayer of Christ, because the petiti∣ons of Christ, making intercession for vs, are so ma∣ny secret promises and declarations of the good will of the father, which doth alwaies agree with the peti∣tion of the sonne; let the Arminians see with what spirit they are led, and why with so great diligence they endeauour to defraud vs of that comfort, which is certainely taken from vs, if this Prayer of Christ doth intercede for the Apostles alone; and if the Apostles onely be meant by those that are giuen vn∣to Christ.

CHAP. XXI.

The same is proued out of the eight and ninth and the ele∣uenth Chapter to the Romanes.

SAint Paul in the eight to the Romanes, trea∣ting of Predestination, doth easily driue away all the cloudes of errour. His words are these, Verse 28.29.30. We know that all things worke together for good to them that loue God, to them that are called, according to his purpose: For whom he did fore-know, them also he did predestinate to be con∣formed to the image of his Sonne, that he might be first borne among many brethren. Moreouer, whom he did pre∣destinate, them also he called, and whom he called them also he iustified, and whom he iustified, them also he glorified.

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I. First of all, that speech offers it selfe, that we are predestinated, that we might be made conformable to the image of Christ: And seeing this conformity in this life, is by faith and charity; it is plaine by the Apostle, that wee are iustified to faith, and not for faith. I know indeede that Christ himselfe had not faith, as faith is taken in the Gospell; but seeing that the conformity of the faithfull with Christ is placed in charity, righteousnesse, and holinesse; and these are the effects of faith, which doth worke by charity: he that saith we are predestinated to charity and righte∣ousnesse, doth also say, that we are predestinated to faith, which doth effect and worke all those things; no otherwise then hee who is appointed to goe and to breath, is appointed also to life.

II. What say the Arminians here? Why, they by conformity with Christ, vnderstand the crosse, and afflictions for Christ: But the following words dis∣proue that, that he might be first borne among many bre∣thren: For Christ is the first begotten of the sonnes of God; as for other causes, so also because hee being more liberally furnished with the gifts of the holy Ghost, is an example of righteousnesse and holinesse; being annointed with the oyle of gladnesse aboue his fel∣lowes, Psal. 45. euen as the first borne receiue more of their fathers goods: But that he should be called the first borne for the crosse and for afflictions, is a thing new and insolent, and that which reason abhorreth. Also it is certaine, that that which Saint Paul speak∣eth of, doth belong to all the faithfull. For he addeth, whom he did predestinate, them also be called, whom he cal∣led, them also he iustified, whom he iustified, them also he

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glorified. Glorification, iustification, calling, prede∣stination, are the foure linkes of that chaine belong∣ing to the conformity vnto the image of Christ, and they are so interlaced & enfolded, that by no meanes they can be pulled asunder: For all that are glorified are iustified, all that are iustified are called by that effectuall calling, which is peculiar to the elect; all that are so called are appointed, that they should be conformable to the image of Christ. Let the sectaries tell me, whether glorification, iustification, and cal∣ling, doe not belong to all the elect: For Arminius, while he doth restraine this conformity to afflictions, he maketh many elect, that are not conformable to Christ, because many of the seruants of God, euen of the best, haue had peace without interruption, and quietnesse with honour. Doe the Arminians wipe themselues out of the number of the elect, who in the height of peace, forgetfull of the crosse of Christ, haue moued this sinke, pernicious and deadly to them∣selues, and to the Church? I am not ignorant, that these things are spoken by the Apostle, to the com∣fort of the afflicted, to whom all things turne to good. But what lets, that hee should not comfort them by those lessons which might belong to all. So the Apostle Saint Peter, 1. Pet. 2. when hee had commanded ser∣uants to be subiect to their masters, not onely if they were good, but also if they were euill and rough; a little after he doth exhort them to patience, by those instructions which are common to all Christians, ad∣monishing them that it is pleasing to God, if any of them endure troubles for conscience sake; that Christ being innocent, therfore suffered, that he might leaue

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vs an example, that we might walke in his steppes: And it is no doubt, but that these that are here said to be predestinated to conformity, vnto the image of Christ, are the same with those, who in the same place he saith, are called by the purpose of God: But they that are afflicted for Christ, are not onely called, but also all the elect; among whom there are many that are free from persecutions.

III. Especially obserue, that Saint Paul here doth speake of the election of particular persons, those whom he Predestinated, and those whom he glorify∣ed, for but some, and that a few are glorified. These Innouators, will haue the election of particular per∣sons to be after calling and they will haue them to be elected, whom God fore-seeth will follow him cal∣ling; and they make election to rest vpon this fore∣seeing. But Saint Paul here maketh election to be be∣fore calling, when hee saith, Whom he predestinated them also he called, whom he called, them also he iustified; whom he iustified, them also he glorified: For as in or∣der and time, iustification is before glorification; and calling before iustification, so also the predestination of seuerall persons is before calling.

IV. But it is worth the labour, to consider the linkes of that Apostolicall chaine, Whom he prede∣stinated he called, whom he called he iustified, whom he iustified he glorified, Doe not you see how we are pre∣destinated to our calling, and by our calling to iusti∣fication? And seeing that we are iustified by Faith, it followeth that we are predestinated to Faith: For how can he be predestinated to iustification by Faith, who is not predestinated to Faith? These things strike at the life.

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V. I let passe, that the Arminians doe ouerturne those words of S. Paul, whom he iustified, them also he glorified; while they affirme, that many are iustified who are reprobates. This they cleerely shew in their Epistle against the Walachrians, Pag 40. They who be∣leeue for a time, may be said to be iustified, whom the e∣uent doth shew to be reprobates.

VI. In the same chapter, v. 16. he saith, The spi∣rit of God beareth witnesse with our spirit, that we are the children of God. I demande whether this tesie∣mony of the spirit be certaine or doubtfull? If it be doubtfull, the spirit of God is accused of a lie. If it be certaine, I demand on what foundation doth this certainty rest? Doth it rest on the power of free-will? Why this is a doubtfull and deceitfull certainty. Or is this testimony certaine, because it is giuen to none but them, whom God hath certainely appointed to saluation? Why, this is that very thing, which we af∣firme, and the Arminians deny.

VII. There is no lesse force in the ninth chap∣ter to the Romanes, where the Apostle doth through∣ly and largely treate of Election and reprobation. The scope of the Apostle, is to teach, that election and saluation, is not of the workes of the law, but of God, calling and hauing mercy, and his scope is not (as Arminius faines) to treate of iustification by faith. I will not repeate those things which are spoken, chap. 15. where we hauer pressed Arminius, torturing the Apostle, that he might draw him, against his will, to the patronage of his cause.

VIII. Thus much the carefull Reader shall ob∣serue; that Paul after he hath spoken of the purpose

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of God, according to Election, doth presently lay downe Iacob, for an example of that Election; whom God loued before he had done any good or euil, and therefore before he had beleeued (for to beleeue, is to doe something) and so Election went before Faith. Yea, although to beleeue the Gospell and obey it, were not an action; yet if election went before the consideration of workes, it must needes also goe be∣fore the consideration of Faith, from which workes doe flow: For if Faith should goe before Election, God in electing could not consider Faith, but as bringing forth workes, for otherwise he had conside∣red Faith, not as it is, but as it is not.

IX. Also that which he saith, v. 16. It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy, were false, if God had mercy on men for faith fore-scene. For the Arminians doe hold this stedfastly, and defend with greatest diligence; that God giueth all men power of beleeuing in Christ, yea, and that he is bound to giue it, and how great grace soeuer God may giue to beleeue in act, yet it is in the power of mans free will to vse this grace or not to vse it; to beleeue or not to beleeue, and that that man is elected by God, whom he fore∣saw would beleeue, and whom he considereth as al∣ready beleeuing. According to this doctrine, it may rightly be said, that saluation is of him that willeth and of him that runneth, and not onely of God that sheweth mercy: But if Paul therefore said, that it is not of him that willeth, because it is not alone of him that wileth, why shall it not be also lawfull to say, that it is not of God that sheweth mercy, because

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it is not alone of him shewing mercy, but also of mans free will.

X. But if to that question whereby it is demanded, why God of one and the same Masse, hath loued one and hated another, why hee had mercy of one, and hardned the other; it may be answered, that it was done because God fore-saw that the one would be∣leeue, and the other would not beleeue: Saint Paul ought not to haue blamed the demander, and com∣manded him to be silent, seeing the cause of this dif∣ference is in readinesse, to wit, in the one, faith was fore-seene, in the other vnbeleefe was foreseene. Did Saint Paul seeme to Arminius, eyther not to be quick of vnderstanding, or to be scrupulous without cause? But least he should be compelled to say this, he hath deuised I know not what subtilties, and monsters of interpretations: Such as are these. Of him that calleth, that is, of Faith: And of God that shew∣eth mercy, that is, that iustifieth not for workes, but for Faith, which mercy, notwithstanding is common to many reprobates. Then also that speech, I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy, by cuius, whom, hee would haue qualium, what sort of men, to be vnder∣stood. And it is not of him that willeth, to wit, righte∣ousnesse is not: For he denyeth that these are to be vnderstood of saluation, as if saluation were of him that willeth: Euen as to haue mercy, if Arminius be beleeued, is not to saue, but to giue the meanes to righteousnesse, And many more such like, which are eyther inconuenient or wrested, which we haue exa∣mined in the 15. chapter.

XI. Adde to these that which is in the eleuenth

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to the Romanes, At this present there is a remnant ac∣cording to the election of Grace. By this remnant, or re∣serued portion, are vnderstood those Iewes who clea∣ued to Christ, and who did not fall from the couenant with the rest. We haue here therefore the cause why these perseuered in the Faith, and haue not fallen from grace, to wit, because the reseruation was made according to the election of grace: Therefore perse∣uerance in Faith, is according to the election of grace, and not election, according to perseuerance in Faith. as Arminius would haue it. Arminius, that he might shift off this place, saith, that it is here spoken of electi∣on to righteousnesse, not of election to Faith, which although it be false, yet it doth not infringe the force and euidence of this place: For, whosoeuer is ele∣cted to righteousnesse, is elected to Faith. And sure∣ly I cannot sufficiently maruaile at that which Armi∣nius saith, Pag. 222. What is that which is by grace? It is election to Faith, nothing lesse, but it is election to righte∣ousnesse, as if there were any righteousnesse without Faith: Or as if he who refuseth Faith, doth not also refuse righteousnesse. Surely these things sound of Socianisme, and doe shew that there is vnder them some hidden vlcer: Also what is it to the purpose to contend, that it is here spoken of election to righte∣ousnesse, seeing according to Arminius, this is not certaine by the will of God, but doth depend on mans free-will.

XII. Arnoldus, Pag. 346. dealeth more warily: He thinks that it is spoken here of the reiection of the Iewes, and taking in of the Gentiles: But the word remnant, or reseruation, doth confute this, for from

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hence, as also from the former verses, it is manifest that he doth enquire the cause, why a few of the Iewes, onely a remnant, doe belong to the couenant, being afterwards to explaine how the Gentiles were engrafted into the place of the rest, which were reie∣cted and cut off.

Finally, against these places of Scripture, the Ar∣minians (although they be acute and witty men) doe so flye the encounter, they doe fight so recoylingly, they doe so intangle themselues, that they seeme ey∣ther to be vnwilling to be vnderstood, or to distrust their owne cause: Furthermore, if they say true, no man yet had vnderstood what Christian Reli∣gion is.

CHAP. XXII.

The same Election, in respect of Faith fore-seene, is confu∣ted by Reason.

I. REason it selfe doth agree to the Scrip∣ture: For if perseuerance in Faith, be considered in Election, as a thing al∣ready performed, no man is elected but he is considered as dead, and as hauing finished his course, for no man can be said to haue perseue∣red vntill the end, but hee which is come vnto the end.

II. Hence also it appeareth, that Arminius is contrary to himselfe; For hee saith, Election is of them that beleeue: But they that are dead cease to be∣leeue: Therefore, that Arminius might be con∣stant to himselfe, hee ought to say, that Election is

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of them that cease to beleeue, and not of them that beleeue.

III. Also if election to glory, be made for some fore-seene vertue, Christ himselfe, as hee was man, was not predestinated to glory: for he was not car∣ried to such a height of glory, for the fore-seeing ey∣ther of faith, or workes, or any vertue; for whatsoeuer vertue or holinesse is in Christ, as he is man, doth flow from the personall vnion with the diuinity, and from the purity of his conception, by which he was free from originall sinne. Therefore this his holinesse can∣not be said to be fore-seene, but to be decreed. Nor was he predestinated for holinesse, but to holinesse. And that the election of the head, should be contrary to the election of the members, and that the head should be elected to vertue, the members for vertue, no reason doth admit.

IV. Adde to these, that while election is said to be for faith fore-seene, there is appointed an election, which doth not belong to infants that are taken away by an immature and vntimely death, because they want faith.

V. Yea, election for faith fore seene, cannot be called election, but it is an admission and receiuing of them who come to Christ by Faith, and of them, who by their free-will, vsing Grace well, doe first choose God, in whom they put their trust before they be chosen by God. Christ on the contary side saith, Iohn 15.16. Ye haue not chosen me; but I haue chosen you. The Arminians, while they contend that it is here spoken onely of election to their Apostship, doe not obscurely confesse that this place doth hurt them, if

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it be there spoken of election to saluation: their will is therefore in the worke of saluation, that God be chosen by man, before man be chosen by God. Goe to then, let vs grant, that it is here spoken onely of election to their Apostleship, for that doth not a lit∣tle further our cause. For if the Apostles were elected to their Apostleship, not for any fore-seene vertue, but were elected to receiue those vertues and gifts, by which they might execute their Apostleship; it is much more likely, that man is not elected to saluation for any fore-seene vertue, seeing eternall saluation is a farre greater benefit then the Apostleship, and fur∣ther remoued from the power of man, and more exceeding our capacity, and therefore it is a thing whereunto we haue much more neede of the helpe of God, and which is lesse in the power of mans free∣will, then the obtaining of an Apostleship.

VI. By the same doctrine, faith in Christ, is made a thing of mans free-will, in the power whereof, it is to vse grace, or not to vse it, to beleeue, or not to beleeue, and to vse, or not to vse those powers to be∣leeue, which are giuen vnresistably. Surely Arminius, had neuer said that election had beene for saith fore∣seene, if he had thought that God had certainely de∣creed to giue faith to some certaine men, whom hee elected to saluation, for he acknowledgeth no precise and necessary decree of God of giuing to any one the very act of beleeuing: For this speech were vnapt, God elected Paul because he fore-saw that hee would giue him Faith: If in election faith be considered as already performed, and as that on which election doth rest, it must needes be, that God hath not wrought it:

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Otherwise God should be said to be willing to saue a man, because he determined to giue him faith; when on the contrary side, he doth therefore giue faith to one, because he hath decreed by his certaine and im∣mutable will to saue him.

VII. What is to be thought of this doctrine, may be gathered by the consequents which they build on this foundation: such as are these; The election of God in this life is not certaine, nor irreuocable; the number of the elect is not certaine and determined by the will and election of God: the grace of God is not the totall cause of faith, which is a grieuous speech, and ouerthroweth the foundations of faith, as we haue already proued, and hereafter more shall be spoken of the same thing.

VIII. What a thing is it? that by this opinion, no man can beleeue that he is elected: For if any one did beleeue he were elected, hee would beleeue also that his faith was after his election. So he that belee∣ueth he is a man, was a man before he beleeued it: and if faith and perseuerance in faith, doth goe before e∣lection, he who beleeueth in Christ, may indeede pre∣sume or hope that he is elected, after he hath per∣seuered; but he cannot beleeue that hee is already elected, seeing according to Arminius, no man is elected, but after hee hath beleeued, and when he hath ceased to beleeue. Hath therefore this pernici∣ous doctrine torne the bowels of the Churches of the Low-Countries, that it might pull out of their mindes he confidence of Election, and that no man, vnlesse it were impudently and falsely, might beleeue that hee is elected by God to saluation?

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CHAP. XXIII.

The opinion of Saint Austen concerning Election for faith fore-seene.

WEE are beholding to Pelagius and his secta∣ries, for the learned Treatises of Saint Au∣sten, full of good fruit, wherein he hath ex∣plained more fully and more plainely then any other, the heads of Christian faith concerning Grace, Free will, and Predestination: For before Pe∣lagius his time, these things were handled generally and grosely, and not exactly enough: Saint Austen himselfe, in his booke of the Predestination of the Saints, Chap. 3. and of his retractations, lib. 1. cap. 24. and in many other places, doth confesse, that he at the beginning writ, with little consideration, concerning these things; the holy man was not ashamed to change his opinion, after hee sharpned his wit at this whet∣stone of contentions, and the sparkes of truth broke out of the disputation.

The heresie of Pelagius being driuen away, the re∣liques of the Pelagians did yet remaine in France, who to keepe backe enuy, least they should seeme to fa∣uour Pelagius, they did distinguish nature from grace: But they did affirme that sufficient grace was offred to all men, and that it did extend as farre as nature: they did acknowledge an election, but it was conditi∣onall and not absolute. For they were elected by God whom he fore-saw would beleeue and vse his grace well. And these are their opinions, That election is for faith fore-seene; and that the number of the elect is not

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determined by the certaine decree of God. They said that the fruit of the doctrine of Saint Austen concerning election according to the purpose of God, was eiter desperation, or a benummed sluggishnes, if the repro∣bate man cannot be saued by any labour and conten∣tion, nor he that is elected be depriued of the king∣dome by any negligence. It is not amisse to set downe their words, taken out of the Epistle of Prosper to Saint Austin, which is incerted in the seauenth Tome of Saint Austins works: They determine that the propitia∣tion, which is in the Sacrament of the bloud of Christ, is propounded to all men, without exception; that whosoe∣uer will come to faith and to baptisme, may be saued. And that God fore-knew before the making of the world, who were to beleeue, and who by faith (which afterwards was to be assisted and helped by the grace of God) were to re∣maine: And that he predestinated those to his kingdome, who being freely called, he fore-saw would be worthy of election, and would depart out of this life with a good end, &c. But they say that the opinion of Saint Austen doth take away from them that are fallen, the care of rising a∣gaine, and doth yeelde occasion of a heauy dulnesse to the Saints, &c. They doe not yeelde that the predestina∣ted number of the elect can neither be encreased, nor diminished: this is meere Arminianisme, the very same opinion; we are assailed with the same calumnies wherewith Saint Austin was.

Against these Semipeagians, the holy man writ a Booke of the PRedestination of the Saints; out of which Booke, it will not be from the purpose to take out and alledge some places.

Chap. 3. We reade (the Apostle saying it) I obtained

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mercy, that I might be faithfull: He doth not say, because I was faithfull: It is giuen then to him that is faithfull, but it is giuen him also that he might be faithfull.

Chap. 17. Let vs vnderstand the calling whereby men are elected, not they which are elected because they belee∣ued, but they which are elected that they might beleeue. For this the Lord himselfe doth make plaine enough, when he saith; Ye haue not chosen me, but I haue chosen you: For if they were therefore chosen, because they beleeued, they had first chosen him, by beleeuing in him, that they might deserue to be elected. And a little after: They did not choose him, that he might choose them, but that they might choose him, he chose them, because his mercy preuen∣ted them, according to his grace, not according to their de∣sert. And in the same chapter; God then elected the faithfull, but it was that they might be so, not because they were already so. By choosing them, he maketh them rich in faith, as heires of a kingdome; and rightly, because he is said to choose that in them, which that he might worke in them, he hath chosen them. Doth any one heare our Lord saying; Ye haue not chosen me, but I haue chosen you? and dares he say that men beleeue that they might be chosen, when rather they are chosen, that they might be∣leeue?

Chap. 18. He chose vs in him before the world was made, that we might be holy and without spot: Therefore not because we were holy, but that we should be holy; it is certaine, it is manifest: Therefore we were to be such, be∣cause he elected vs, predestinating vs, that by his grace we should be holy.

In then inteenth chapter he repeateth the same words, and addeth moreouer these; When therefore he pre∣destinated

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vs, hee fore knew his owne worke, who hath made vs holy and without spot.

In the same place the Pelagians reiecting election for workes fore-seene, sticke onely in the fore-seeing of faith: Wee (say they) doe say that our God fore knew nothing, but faith whereby we beginne to beleeue, and there∣fore he elected vs, &c. Against these things Saint Au∣stin disputeth much, and at the length he doth thus conclude his speech, Neither doth faith it selfe goe be∣fore; for he doth not choose vs because we beleeue, but he chose vs that we might beleeue, least we should be said to choose him first: and that should be false (which God for∣bid) which Christ saith, ye haue not chosen me, but I haue chosen you: Neither are we called, because we doe beleeue, but we are called, that we might beleeue, and by that cal∣ling, which is without repentance, it is wrought, and through∣ly wrought, that we should beleeue.

Finally, he saith, that Pelagius himselfe, to the in∣tent that he might delude the Palestine Synode, with an ambiguous confession, condemned those that say that grace is giuen according to merit; which opinion was allowed by the Synode; and they were condemned, who said election was for faith fore-seene. For Saint Austin confirmeth, that these two come to one and the same sence, in his fift booke against Iulian, chap. 3. God electeth no man that is worthy, but by electing him, he maketh him worthy.

And he doth in sixe hundred places, beate vpon ab∣solute election, or (as Arminius calleth it) precise ele∣ction, and not depending vpon the fore-seeing of any vertue or worth. As Epist. 105. Why one should beleeue, and another not beleeue, when both heare the same thing;

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and if a miracle be done in both their sights, it is the height of the riches of the wisdome and knowledge of God, whose iudgements are vnsearchable, and with whom there is no iniquitie, while he will haue mercy on whom he will, and hardneth whom he will: for those things are not vniust, be∣cause they be hidden and secret: But these things are not hidden to Arminius, for hee saith, the cause of this difference is the fore-seeing of faith in one of them.

The Booke de fide ad Petrum, whether it be the Booke of Fulgentius, or of Austin, in the third chap∣ter, hath these words; They shall raigne with Christ whom God of his free gracious goodnesse, hath elected to the kingdome; because by predestinating them, he hath prepared them to be such that they might be worthy of the kingdome, he hath prepared them, whom according to his purpose he will call; that they may obey, he hath prepared them whom he will iustifie, that hauing receiued grace, they might beleeue rightly, and liue well: To which kingdome they haue come, whom God hath saued of his free-grace, for no precedent merit of good will or good worke.

CHAP. XXIV.

The arguments of the Arminians, by which they endea∣uour to stablish Election for faith fore-seene, are exa∣mined.

I. THe Arminians, who by a new name, call themselues Remonstrants, in the conference at the Hage, doe poure downe a thicke haile of places of Scripture, by which they endeauour

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to perswade that election is of them that beleeue, and that the decree of Predestination, is nothing else but the will of sauing them that beleeue. This is to doe another thing, and not to touch the question, for the controuersie betweene vs, is not concerning these things. The state of the question is this Whether electi∣on be for faith fore seene: Then also, whether God e∣lecting seuerall and certaine persons, doth consider in them perseuerance in faith, as a thing already ful∣filled, and as a condition, on the performance where∣of Election doth rest. But these men leauing the que∣stion vntouched, are altogether in that, that they might prooue election to be of them that beleeue: Wherefore although the ranke of their nine Syllo∣gisms, which they set in order, or admit many other ex∣ceptions, yet because they are all faulty in that fallacy, which is called Ignoratio Elenchi; by which that which is concluded, is thought to hurt the aduersary, when yet it doth not hurt him, it is better to grant that which they would haue, to wit, that God electeth none but they which beleeue, and that election is of the faithfull, so this be fitly receiued, and in a good sense; to wit, that God doth elect, and that he is wil∣ling to saue those that beleeue, because hee saueth no man but to whom hee will giue faith, and because without faith it is impossible to come to saluation. And that God in electing, doth consider men as faith∣full; that is, as those that by his gift were to haue faith: And that the decree of election is with respect of faith; because the decree of saluation doth in∣clude also the decree of the meanes to come to that end, and therefore also of faith in Christ. And surely

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Arminius, and after him Arnoldus, pag 92. doe falsely fasten on vs this opinion: That God determined to saue the elect, without the consideration of faith in them.

The thunderbolt therefore that they cast with such a noise, is turned away onely with a blast, or with the winde of ones cap, and toucheth neither vs, nor to the matter.

II. No more to the purpose doth the other secta∣ries, so often heape vp the words of Saint Paul, Ephes. 1.4. He hath elected vs in Christ, which they so take, as if Saint Paul had said, He hath elected vs for Christ, and considered as already beleeuing in Christ, when he did elect vs. The Apostle saith no such thing, whose mea∣ning is plaine and simple; He elected vs in Christ, that is, He appointed vs to saluation, to be bestowed vpon vs by Christ, or in Christ.

III. They effect nothing more by these places: No man shall separate vs from the loue of God, which is in Christ Iesus, Rom. 8.39. And, God was in Christ recon∣ciling the world to himselfe, 2 Cor. 5. Surely here is not a word of faith fore-seene: For if they should bite their nayles vntill the bloud followeth, they could proue nothing by sixe hundred such places. God was in Christ while he was on the earth, in him and by him, working out our reconciliation; but what is this to faith fore-seene?

IV. It is a weake dart which they cast, He that belee∣ueth in me hath euerlasting life, Iohn 6. and, without faith it is impossible to please God, Heb. 11. By these places in∣deede, the necessitie of faith is proued, but not the fore-seeing of it before election: No man is saued, but

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hee that beleeueth, because God would haue this to be the way of saluation, and because hee giueth saluation to none, to whom hee doth not giue faith.

V. These are the words of Conradus Vorstius, in his book intituled the Conference with Piscator. Sect. 18. If we are adopted by faith, we are also elected by faith. But I deny that that will follow; for Adoption is af∣ter Election, as the Apostle teacheth, Ephes. 1.5. He predestinated vs to the adoption. He which saith, we are adopted by faith, doth not therefore say, that we are elected by faith, or for faith; but he saith, that by faith we are affected with the sense of the fatherly loue of God to vs, and that the beleeuers receiue the spirit of adoption.

VI. He doth defend himselfe by the words of the Apostle, 2 Thes. 2. He hath chosen vs from the beginning, through faith. But here Vorstius doth wickedly cut short the words of the Apostle, and doth present them lame vnto vs. The words of Saint Paul are these, God from the beginning hath chosen you to saluation, through sanctification of the spirit, and beliefe of the truth: Hee doth not say, that we are elected for faith fore seene; but that we are elected to obtaine saluation by faith. And if it may be gathered from this place, that we are elected for faith fore-seene, it will be proued by the same place, that we are elected for sanctification or regeneration fore-seene, which doth not please Ar∣minius.

He doth vrge that place of Saint Iames, chap. 2. Hath not God chosen the poore of the world, rich in faith? but in vaine: for therefore they are rich in faith, because

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God hath giuen them faith, and he hath therefore giu∣en it them because they are elected. If I say, God hath elected the Saints which doe enioy glory, doe I there∣fore thinke that God elected them for the fore-seeing of the glory to come? And if it be lawfull for the Ar∣minians to take these words of Christ, I giue my life for my sheepe; as being spoken by anticipation or preuen∣tion of those who were not yet his theepe, but were to be: why may it not be lawfull for vs also to take these words, God chose the beleeuers: as being spoken by an anticipation, of those which doe not beleeue in act, but are considered as those who are to be∣leeue.

VII. Vorstius addeth, that Mat. 22. few are said to be elected, because few haue the wedding garment. But I deny, that this is to be found there: Christ shuts vp with this sentence, the parable of those that were called to the wedding, wherof onely few obayed him, calling them; Many are called, few chosen. In which words the reason is not yeelded, why he was cast forth that had not on the wedding garment, but why, of many that were called, there came but a few: Which thing, that the Reader might not obserue, Vorstius hath vsed a double deceit; for hee hath omitted those words, many are called, and then also instead of Nam For, he hath st downe, Quia, because; that he might perswade that here the cause was rendred, why he that was vndecently apparelled was call out: For he knew that the particle, Nam, for, doth often set downe the note or marke, but not the cause, as Mt. 26.73. and in many other places: but in this place, it is no doubt but that here the cause is signified: For the cause is

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noted, why of so many that were called, so few follow∣ed him calling, to wit, because although many are called, yet few are chosen. Whence it is manifest, that this place, if any other doth hurt Arminius.

VIII. The other things which he doth heape vp, that hee might proue, that they that are elected, are those that be ecue, are nothing to the purpose: For the elect are the beleeuers, and the belecuers are the erect: But they are not elected, because they are belec∣uers, but that they might bereeue.

IX. There is no more force in the obiection which he bringeth out of the 2. Pet. Chap. 1. Make your cal∣ling and election sure: Out of which words he doth in∣ferre, that calling is before election. But Peter doth not here set calling before election, but the certainty of our cailing, before the certainty of our election: I willingly acknowledge that that certainty is first in order. But that election is before calling, Saint Paul teacheth, Rom. 8. Whom he predestinated hee called, whom he called he iustified, whom he iustified he glorified: For as iustification is before glorification, and cal∣ling before iustification, so predestination is before calling.

X. Greuinchouius against Ames, Pag. 171. doth thus dispute. I say that by your predestination the Gos∣pell is inuerted: For this is the sntence of the Gospell: If thou beleeuest thou shalt liue: but this your predestina∣tion saith, if you are predestinated to life you shall beleeue. I answere, it is one thin; to inuert or turne the sen∣tence, another thing to ouerturne it: For this sen∣tence is conuertible, whosoeuer is elected shall beleeue and whosoeuer doth beleeue is elected: For we speake

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of that faith which Saint Paul Tit. 1.1. calleth the faith of the elect. Doe not the Arminians rather inuert the Gospell, which faith, that faith is of the elect; but they say, that faith is not of the elect, but that electi∣on is of the faithfull? That which Greuinchouius in that place doth stuffe in concerning reprobation, shall be examined in his owne place.

XI. The same man, pag. 130. doth thus argue. Sal∣uation is the reward of faith, 1 Pet. 1.9. the crowne of righteousnesse, the reward of labour, the prize of our strife and finished course, the inheritance of the sonnes of God, that is, of the faithfull, Iohn 1.12. Gal. 4.30. And be∣cause it is hard to see how these things can be drawne to election for faith fore-seene, seeing it is not there spoken of election, nor of faith foree-seene, he addeth these words, Therefore Election to saluation is not the decree concerning the end of men, as they are men simply, but of the saluation of men, as they are such sort of men, to wit, of them that are faithfull, and of them that perse∣uere in the faith. This also we confesse in that sense which we said before; but it were better to say, of them that were to perseuere, because God electing, doth not consider faith and perseuerance, as a thing perfor∣med, but as a thing to be performed, and that by his bounty and gift.

XII. He further addeth, The will of bestowing the reward, the wages, &c. doth necessarily presuppose the fore-seeing of faith, and perseuerance in faith, by the co∣uenant of the Gospell, if thou beleeuest and doest perse∣uere, thou shalt be saued. Here you digresse from the question: For it was spoken of election for faith fore∣seene; but you speake of saluation which is bestowed

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after faith. God electing to saluation, doth fore-see that faith will come before the obtaining of saluation, but he doth so fore-see it, that God foreseeth that which he himselfe is to worke, which to speake pro∣perly is not to fore-see, but to will. Furthermore, eternall life, is called the reward of faith, because it is not to be had, but after the fight of faith, neither can we come thither but by labour; but it is not giuen for the labour, neither are we chosen to saluation, for the fore-seeing of labour or faith; but God who doth predestinate vs to the reward, doth also prede∣stinate vs to the fight: As Paul testifieth, Phil. 1.26. It is giuen to you in the behalfe of Christ, not onely to be∣leeue in him, but also to suffer for him. It is also a kinde of reward freely bestowed, as Saint Ambrose teach∣eth, Epist. 1. Lib. 1. The reward of liberality and of grace, doth differ from the stipend of vertue, and wages of labour. In the meane while, the Reader shall note by the way, that the Arminians striue for election, vpon the fore-seeing of workes: For eternall life in the holy Scripture, is called the wages or reward not onely of faith, but also of workes, of almesdeedes, of pati∣ence, according to that of Matthew, Chap. 19. Call the labourers, and giue them the pay. If therefore it may thence be proued, that election is for faith fore-seene, because eternall life is called the reward of faith, why shall not the same election be for workes fore∣seene, seeing eternall life is often called the reward of workes; especially seeing to beleeue, is it selfe a worke, and that the chiefest worke, and the Armini∣ans are of opinion, that we are iustified by faith, as it is a worke, as shall be seene in his owne place?

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XIII. The same man, P. 170. and 188. doth much please himselfe in this argument. If predestina∣tion is such as you faine it to be, then the will of God, con∣cerning the saluation of a man that is to be saued, is two fold, and contradictory to it selfe: One whereby he doth will and ordaine saluation to him that doth not beleeue, that is, not for faith fore-seene: The other, whereby in time he will not saue the same man, vnlesse as he is faithful. But I deny that these things are contrary: To elect to saluation him that doth not beleeue, that he may be∣leeue, and to will the saluation of him that beleeueth. So if a father should appoint his little sonne of two yeeres old, to the office of a Senator, or of a Pastor of the Church, and afterward should haue care to fur∣nish with learning the same sonne, when he is growne great, that he might come to this office; doth this father will contrary things, because hee appointed him to this office at the first, being vnlearned, and af∣terward being learned?

XIV. The same man, Pag. 194. doth thus dis∣pute. What men soeuer, and howsoeuer qualified, and in what order soeuer, God in time doth saue the same men, and so qualified, and in the same order he hath decreed to saue; But in time he first giueth Christ, then according to his wisedome he doth iustly administer the meanes that are necessary to faith and repentance, both sufficiently and ef∣fectually, and them that repent & beleeue in act, he doth re∣ceiue into grace: And finally, those that perseuere in Faith he saueth. Therefore he hath decreed to saue in the same man∣ner and order those men, and so qualified, or so considered.

Ans. The maior proposition doth mingle false and true things together, that those that are false might lye

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hid in the multitude, nor is it in all respects true. There is no doubt, but that whatsoeuer men, & what sort of men God in time doth saue, the same men, & the same sort of men he hath decreed to saue: But that God doth saue them in the same order in which he decreed, is one way true, and another way false. It is true that God doth saue in the same order in which he decreed to saue; but it is not true, that God in executing or sauing, doth follow the same order which he did in decreeing: For in decreeing, he first thinkes of the end, before he thinkes of the meanes: Contrariwise, in executing, hee beginneth with the meanes and helpes, and finisheth in the end. So the Phisitian doth first intend health before physicke, but in exe∣cuting, he doth first apply the medicines, before he healeth. Greuinchouius therefore doth erre, who from the order which God doth follow in executing his de∣cree, doth gather what should be his order in decree∣ing. In the meane while, by the way obserue in Gre∣uinchouius the spirit of Arminius: He dares not say that God giueth faith, but that hee giues onely the meanes to faith, because he will haue it to be in the power of free-will to vse these meanes, and that faith is but the gift of God in part.

XV. The argument of Arnoldus, pag. 181. hath the same fault; These things (saith he) are thus coupled together: that God will first haue one belecus, before he will haue him be saued; wher as your predestination teacheth cōtrarily, that God doth first will to saue a man and then he willeth that he should beleeue. In these words he doth confound the or∣der of decreeing, with the order of executing: for in the execution of his decree, God will first haue him to

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beleeue, before he will haue him to be saued: but in de∣creeing, God doth first decree to giue saluation, be∣fore he decreeth to giue faith; and he first thought of the end, before he thought of the meanes.

XVI. The same man, pag. 195. doth contend that these are things incompatible, and which cannot stand together, that God would saue Peter absolutely, and that he would not saue him, but vpon the condition of faith. I answere, there is an homony my and equi∣uocation in the word absolutely: If by absolutely, be vnderstood certainely, precisely, or necessarily, these are not contrary, to will to saue Peter certainely and precisely, and to will that Peter should be saued by faith: Euen as these things are not contrary; To will absolutely that Peter should liue, and to will that he should liue by foode and by breathing. But if by these words, To will to saue, absolutely, be vnderstood that God will saue without faith: then we are slandered, for there is none of vs of this opinion, none beleeues it: but that this is the meaning of Greuinchouius, the following words declare, for he addes, These things are contrary, to will that the same man should beleeue, and that he should not beleeue. Which of vs, yea, what Chri∣stian hath euer said, that God doth will that a man should not beleeue in Christ? and yet hee doth a∣scribe that opinion to Caluin, citing in the margent his Institutions, lib. 1. chap. 18. §. 13. where there is no such thing, nor hath there beene any more rigid and precise maintainer of faith in Christ, then that holy man: Therefore after his sicke minde hath vomited out this poison against vs, he triumphs, as of a thing well performed, as the Cocke crowing vpon the dung∣hill;

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These things (saith he) when you haue reconciled, I will say you are a great artist in reconciling. But it was not for Ames, a man well deseruing of the Church, to labour in reconciling the doctrine of the Gospell, with the blasphemy of Sathan.

XVII. The sectaries are wont, after this manner to accuse vs of ouerthrowing the Gospell: The Gospell say they) which on condition doth promise life to the be∣leeuer, cannot serue for the executing the decree whereby life is precisely appointed to certaine and determined per∣sons. But I affirme that it doth serue; because God promiseth life vnder a condition, which he decreed to worke in the elect. For what letteth that God should not promise life to him that beleeueth, and yet decree to giue faith to those certaine and determi∣ned persons which he hath elected?

XVIII. Arnoldus, pag. 52. hath these words; If faith be an effect of election, it cannot be comprehended in the decree of election. But there is none of vs saith, that faith is comprehended in the decree of Election, but a purpose or will of giuing faith: And this will hath that respect to the decree of election, as the part to the whole; for the decree of the meanes to the end, is included in that decree by which the end is decreed; as in the will of building a house, the will of prouiding stones and timber is contained.

XIX. It is a thing of small moment, which they euery where beate vpon: According to the Gospell (say they) faith is a condition required in sauing and electing, but not according to your opinion. It is a caumny. We acknowledge that faith is a condition required in sa∣uing a man, but not fore-required in electing him, as

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Arminius would haue it: Faith is a thing without which God doth not elect, but not that for the fore∣seeing whereof he doth elect. That faith is required in election, although the Scripture doth not say it in the same words, yet it may fitly be receiued, and accor∣ding to the meaning of the Scripture, if faith be laid downe as a condition following election, and with∣out which God will haue no saluation. No otherwise then breathing is a condition to life, although a man be first appointed to life, before to breathing.

XX. The Arminians in their Epistle against the Wa∣lachrian brethren, p 43. doe thus explaine their opini∣on: It seemeth most inconuenient to vs to affirme, that God in election did decree what he himselfe would worke in man, by his spirit: For by the decree of absolute election to saluation, the conferring of saluation alone, and not of faith is decreed. This their false and foolish opinion they vphold by this argument: Seeing that saluation and faith are most diuers predicates, neither doe they make the same thing by it selfe, or by accident; it cannot possible be, but that the decree of conferring saluation is one, the de∣cree of conferring faith is another. I answere: Although saluation and faith are diuers things, yet faith is a ne∣cessary meanes to saluation; and the decree of the end includes also the meanes; life and breathing are things no lesse diuers, then faith and saluation: and yet by the same decree, whereby one is appointed to life, he is appointed also to breathing, because breathing is the meanes to life.

XXI. This obiection of the Arminians is frequent and worne out with vsing: If God doth predestinate men to faith, as to the meanes by which they should come

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to saluation, it must needes be, that God should also prede∣stinate the reprobates to incredulity and impenitency, as to the meanes by which they should come to damnation. But I deny that this followes; for here we speake of the meanes which God himselfe doth supply, but incre∣dulity and impenitency are meanes which man him∣selfe ath suggested of his owne. The meanes which God findes already made, are to be distinguished from those which he makes: God in predestinating, doth consider man as corrupt and lying in sinne; whence it comes to passe, that the meanes to damnation are already in man: neither is there any neede that they should be supplyed otherwise, much lesse by God, who neuer is the author of sinne. But seeing man is naturally destitute of the meanes of saluation, they cannot come to man, vnlesse God giue them. Neither is incredulity a condition required after the same manner in reprobates, as faith is in the elect; for that is a condition required before reprobation, but this is a condition following election: Thence it is, that in∣credulity and impenitency, are things deseruing re∣probation, but faith is a thing not deseruing election nor saluation.

XXII. With that argument another also doth fall to the ground, which these Sectaries heape vp, euen with a loathsome repetition: If God (say they) doth not elect for fore-seene faith, then he doth not reprobate for fore-seene sinne. But I deny that these things are alike, or that one followeth of another: for God fore∣seeth sinne, because he is not the author of sinne, but he doth not fore-see faith, but doth decree to worke it; and this which God decreeth, he doth not fore-see

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it, but doeth will it: if we would vse significant and fit words, and not purposely darken things by an im∣proper kinde of speech. And truely the Arminians seeme to mee, to strike themselues with their owne stings: For if this reason of theirs preuaile, why may it not also be lawfull to reason thus. If God electeth without the respect of good workes (as Arminius will haue it) then also he doth reprobate without the re∣spect of euill workes: The consequence is the same, and yet the Arminians doe not admit this. Arnoldus after Arminius doth heape together many things, by which he would get enuy to our cause, and would loade it with hatred, the knowledge whereof is worth the labour, for they are cloathed with much art, and searched colours: In the front hee doth place argu∣ments by which he would proue, that our opinion is contrary to the wisedome of God.

XXIII. He therefore, Page 217. doth thus argue. It is contrary to wisedome, first to ordaine abso∣lutely to any one, that thing which is lost, and therefore is not at all, and then to decree that he should obtaine the samething. The same homonomy, is in the word ab∣solutely, which we noted before in Greuinchouius, in the sixteenth obiection; the answere therefore may be sought for there. But it is not true that this is contrary to the wisedome of God, no more then ab∣solutely to decree that one should recouer his lost health, and yet decree that he should take Phisicke, and should obtaine helpe of the Phisitian.

XXIV. He doth repeate the same argument in other words, in the same and in the following page, but that he also addes, That it is contrary to the

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wisedome of God, to ordaine first who shall receiue the re∣ward, before he ordaines on what condition they are to re∣ceiue it. But we doe not teach this: For, wee deter∣mine that all the decrees of God are eternall, as con∣cerning the order, we doe not part these into two de∣crees, one whereof should be of the persons to be sa∣ued, the other of the condition whereby they should be saued. By one and the same decree, God determi∣ned to saue certaine men by Faith: But if wee should speake as Arnoldus doth imagine, nothing would thereby be derogated from the wisedome of God. The father doth often decree to giue something to his children, before he hath determined on what con∣dition, or by what labour. In this place Arnoldus hath stuffed in many things of vnresistablenesse, and of re∣probation, which wee haue put off to another place: Therefore from the wisedome of God, he passeth to the iustice of God, which he doth contend to be vio∣lated by vs.

XXV. Therefore, Pag. 224. hee beginneth with a calumny. You determine (saith he) that God de∣creed to saue some men without the beholding of Faith. I say he doth falsely accuse vs: For although God doth not elect vs for faith, yet hee doth elect vs to faith, and faith is a part of the definition of election. But if of two that are alike sinners, he electeth one to salua∣tion, not considering obedience as a thing already per∣formed, but electing him to performe obedience, God shall not therefore be vniust: for concerning his owne he doth what he will, according to that, I will haue mercy on whom I will haue mercy, &c. It is e∣nough that although he giueth to the one the grace

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that is not deserued, yet he imposeth no punishment on the other but what is due. In the meane while the Papists haue cause to reioyce, who haue sound a patron of merit in Arnoldus: For it is said to be merit, when the reward is giuen to any one for righ∣teousnesse. Eternall life is a reward, and that it might be giuen for righteousnesse, Arnoldus will haue it giuen for the beholding of obedience performed, therefore it is giuen to him that merits it.

XXVI. It is idle which he addeth Pag. 225. By the decree whereby God hath decreed to giue saluation to none but to him that beleeueth, he sheweth that he doth rather loue obedience, then the creature. But contrary∣wise by your decree, God is made to loue men, although they be sinners, rather then righteousnesse; which is con∣trary to iustice. Surely these things are knit together with a very wicked art. For, first he imagines that we teach that God will saue other men then beleeuers. Secondly, he doth craithy compare that loue where∣with God loueth obedience, with that loue where∣with God loueth the creature: seeing the loue of obe∣dience (which is the very iustice of God) is rather to be compared with the loue wherewith God loueth his goodnesse and mercy. For although God loueth his owne iustice more then the creature, yet hee doth not loue his iustice more then his goodnesse, by which he doth doe good to the creature: for God doth no lesse giue cleare and certaine proofes and effects of his goodnesse, then of his iustice; which goodnesse is also a kinde of iustice, if iustice be taken not strictly for that vertue by which rewards are giuen to the iust, and punishments to the vniust; but for that generall

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vertue, wherby God doth doe all things conueniently and as it is meete. And although all things are equall in God, yea all the attributes of God are one vertue, and the very essence of God, yet the Scripture doth extoll the goodnesse of God with farre greater praises then his iustice: So in the Law God doth visite the iniquity of the fathers vpon the children, vnto the third and fourth generation, but doth extend his mercy to thousands of generations. So Psal. 36. The iudgements of God are compared to the mountains, and his goodnesse to the deepe. And Psalme 30. His goodnesse is extended to a life or an age, but his an∣ger is restrained to a moment. Saint Iames doth con∣sent to this, Chap. 2. v. 13. saying that mercy doth boast it selfe, and glory ouer iustice; because God hath manifested to vs more euident arguments of his goodnesse then of his iustice. God is therefore rightly called, Optimus maximus, The most good, and the most great; but most good is set first, and then most great. And if you would repeate the matter from the begin∣ning, you shall finde that in the first place the decree of creating is to be laid downe, in which there is good∣nesse, but not iustice.

XXVII. Arnoldus doth more largely presse the same things, Chap. 9. where he saith that the iustice of God is violated by vs, while wee will haue God to haue ordained men to saluation without the behol∣ding of any obedience; which as I haue already said, is not our opinion. I confesse indeede, that God doth loue his owne iustice more then man; but I deny that he doth more loue the manifestation or execution of his iustice, then the manifestation of his mercy and

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goodnesse towards man. God doth more loue that which is due to him by the creature, then hee doth loue the creature it selfe: But he doth not more loue that which is due to him from the creature, then hee doth loue that which he oweth to himselfe, to wit, the manifestation of his glory, by doeing good to the creature: Surely there was danger that God could not maintaine his iustice, vnlesse these innouators had issued forth, who patronize his iustice, preferring it before his goodnesse and wisedome. And this is the place where Arnoldus will haue God to be a debtor: Iustice (saith he) doth appoint that God should giue to the creature performing obedience, that which is his. Neuer was any thing said more harsh by the most vehement maintainers of mans merits: Surely Arnoldus is pre∣pared to say to God, giue me that which is mine, for this thy iustice requireth. O proudely spoken! But let vs proceede to other things.

XXVIII. A little after he doth endeauour to proue that we offend against the same goodnesse of God, in the doctrine of reprobation: But wee haue appointed a peculiar chapter for the examining of these things, as also there shall be a place of exami∣ning those things which he doth euery where with∣out order stuffe in, of Reprobation, and of Free will, and of Christ the foundation of election.

XXIX. It is not to be omitted, that it is famili∣ar with the Arminians to inuey against the doctrine of Election, which is beleeued in our Churches, and that vnder the pretence of piety, and exhortation to good workes. For they say that precise election doth extinguish all the endeauour of good workes, prayers,

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hearing of the word, and doth takeaway euery pious enterprise. For if one beleeue that hee were predesti∣nated to faith, and to good workes, hee will leaue the care to God of mouing man infallibly, and would shake off all wholsome feare, because hee is perswaded that his saluation cannot be lost, nor his faith cast off. These and other things borrowed from the Pelagians, and still warme from the anuile of the papists, they carry about, as it were the Circouse∣an pompe, with a great clamour; Also these craftie men speake this, as men taught by experience: For they say, that while they were of opinion with vs, they felt that vice growing on them by this doctrine, and that a languor and diminishing of the loue of God, crept vpon them, and that sometimes they felt some temptations of desparation: But as soone as they shooke off that opinion of precise election, they were healed of these diseases, and their piety grew hot. No doubt wee had bid piety and sanctitie of manners farewell, if this sect had not rose vp, which hath triumphed ouer vices, and hath raised vp piety, almost dead. I doe not search into their manners: thus much I say, their writings relish of anger, and are full of bitternesse.

But to the purpose. I deny that by our doctrine iust occasion of sinning is taken, and the raines let loose to intemperance: But nothing hath euer beene said so holily, nor so truely, which may not be drawn to the worser part, and be corrupted by a sinister in∣terpretation. Saint Paul suffered the same calumny, who in the sixt Chapter to the Romanes, doth with an opportune prolepsis, and timely preuention, re∣moue

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from himselfe this opinion, speaking thus; Shall we continue in sinne that grace may abound?

XXX. Wee deny therefore that these things which they imagine, doe follow of our doctrine. If God hath predestinated any one to faith and repen∣tance, he ought not therefore to be lesse carefull how he may please God, and yeelde obedience to him. For, repentance is carefulnesse it selfe. They there∣fore so speake as if they should say, that the elect ought to want carefulnesse, because God hath prede∣stinated them to carefulnesse.

XXXI. Neither doth the beneficence and bounty of God, hinder the vigilancy and watchful∣nesse of man. So God giueth vs our daily bread, and yet by this he doth not hinder our labour. He doth in vaine expect from God succours for his life, who doth sit idle with his armes a crosse. The same God which giueth vs foode, exhorts vs to labour: for his blessing doth not come vpon sloath, but vpon diligence.

XXXII. Furthermore nothing letteth, that a man should with lesse diligence follow that labour, the euent whereof is determined by the certaine decree of God, whether this decree be knowne to vs, or whe∣ther it be not knowne. Christ was not ignorant of the tearme of his life vpon earth, and yet did hee auoide the dangers, and escaped the hands of the Iewes more then once. Ezechias being recouered from his disease, knew that he had yet fifteene yeeres to liue, in which time it is no doubt, but he receiued foode, and had care of his health. God had reuealed to Paul, that none of the passengers that were in the same ship

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should be drowned, and yet for all that, he exhorted the Saylors to labour, and commanded them to be kept in the ship, who hauing let downe the boate would haue fled. The Arminians will not deny, but that the euent of their warres, was determined by the purpose of God, yet they would not thence inferre, that it was in vaine to sight couragiously. The Scrip∣ture doth testifie in many places, that God hath set to euery one the limits of his life, and that the num∣ber of our daies is determined by the purpose of God, and yet he is not to be dispraised, who sends for the Phisitian in his sicknesse, or hee, who before the bat∣tell puts on armour: For the industry of man, must serue the decree of God; neither is it right, that the liberality of God, should be a cause of negligence to vs. So the infant moueth it selfe in the wombe, and doth it selfe helpe its owne natiuity, although that power which it hath of mouing, is from God. Sure∣ly, seeing faith and repentance are the meanes to sal∣uation, nothing is so contrary to reason, as to vse the end for the abolishing of the meanes. Wherefore Saint Paul, Philip. 2. doth acknowledge that it is receiued from God, both to will and to doe, and yet in the same place he doth exhort to worke out our saluati∣on with feare and trembling; whom wee had rather beleeue then Arnoldus, whose words are these, Page 273. It seemes to me, that the conscience of sinne, is al∣together extinguished in him, who knoweth that he is deli∣uered from sinne by the absolute and immutable ordinance of God. What? Was the conscience of Dauid hard∣ned to sinne, or did he loose the sence of sinne, after that God signified to him by the Prophet Nathan, that

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he had taken away his sinne? No, he sorroweth, and doth grieuously lament his sinne: for griefe and re∣pentance doth stick fast in the minde euer after par∣don is obtained: So Saint Paul. 1. Tim. 1. saith, that God had mercy on him, and yet in the same place he doth detest his sinne.

XXXIII. Wee are to thinke the same thing concerning prayer, as concerning the labour and en∣deauour of good workes: For we doe rightly and pi∣ously aske of God those things which are determined by his certaine purpose: For God who hath deter∣mined to doe good to vs, will giue that good to our prayers, and not to sloathfulnesse and security. Iosa∣phat did not in vaine pray before the fight, 2. Chro. 20. although he was not ignorant that God had already decreed what should be the euent of the battell. The Apostles knew well enough that their sinnes were forgiuen them by God, and yet they did daily pray, Forgiue vs our trespasses. Christ did not doubt of his resurrection, and of the obtaining of glory after the combat, and yet he did pray by night, and went aside into the mountaine to pray.

XXXIV. I let passe, that euery man, euen the best, is obnoxious and subiect to temptations, which assailing him, he is to flie for the helpe of God, least his faith faile, or sloathfulnesse and negligence creepe vpon him.

XXXV. Doth not Saint Paul also witnesse, Rom. 8. that the holy-Ghost prayeth in vs, and doth suggest sighes and prayers, whence hee is called by Zacharie, the spirit of supplication. Zach. 12.10. Which seeing it is the effect of the good pleasure of God,

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and the fruit of election, it were a maruaile if election it selfe should keepe vs back from prayer.

XXXVI. And if any man that is elected doth yet doubt of his saluation, he hath somewhat to aske of God, to wit, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, a full perswasion, and the sustaining of his staggering faith, and the increase of charity and zeale, and the obtayning of glory; and if he be certaine of his saluation, hee must aske the in∣crease of this confidence, hee must aske perseuerance in faith and good works, hee must pray to bee kept backe from sinne, to which he feeleth himselfe prone: he must pray for the fulfilling of the promises of God, he must pray against the temptations of Sathan, who although hee cannot ouerthrow the elect, yet he doth prick their heele, and doth dig into them with his goades.

XXXVII. That is of the same lumpe, where∣with Arnoldus from Arminius, Pag. 304. doth vp∣braide vs. Your doctrine (saith he) doth make the ser∣uants and Ministers of God sloathfull in their ministery, because from thence it followeth that their diligence can profit none, but those whom God will absolutely saue, and who cannot perish, and againe their negligence can hurt none but those whom God will absolutely destroy, and who cannot be saued. The Pelagians obiected the same things to Saint Austin. Lib. de bono perseu. Chap. 14. Where∣unto wee haue already largely answered: For the same reasons which stirre vp the carefulnesse of the hearers to repentance and good workes, are also of power to stirre vp pastors diligently to vndergo their office, and to prick forward their hearers to repen∣tance: For although the elect cannot perish, yet wee

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know that God doth bring the elect to saluation, by the word and sacraments, and by the ministery of the Gospell, whose decree our obedience must serue.

And although the minister of the word, dealing perfunctoriously and carelesly cannot cause, that he that is elected should perish, yet hee hurts himselfe, and shall beare the punishment of that negligence in the day of iudgement. Therefore although he did not hurt others, yet hee should very much wrong him∣selfe. Saint Paul, a most vehement maintainer of ele∣ction, doth professe that he endureth all things for the elect, that they may obtaine saluation. 2. Tim. 2.10.

XXXVIII. As concerning the Reprobates, if this reason of Arminius preuaile, by the like reason we shall neyther eate nor drinke, nor shall parents be bound to be carefull of the health of their children: because this negligence can hurt none but them whom God will haue to perish, who by his decree hath set sure bounds to the life of euery particular person, which cannot be pulled backe, nor passed o∣uer. And if it were manifest to the pastors, which of their flocke were Reprobates, then there were some colour for the doubting, whether they ought to be carefull for the saluation of them that are Repro∣bates: But seeing that this is vnknowne to them, they ought to scatter the seede of the word euery where, and leaue the euent to God.

XXXIX. Arnoldus, Page 307. saith, that which in my iudgement is exceeding bad: If any one (saith he) should teach, that God himselfe hath precisely appointed to nourish one for some time in this life, and that

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he would so prouide the bread where with he should be nou∣rished, that he could not but haue it aboundantly: I grant that such a one neede not be warned that hee should be carefull, how to prouide himselfe bread. But I affirme, that such an one needes, and ought to be warned to prepare himselfe bread; because the same God who doth promise bread, and hath decreed to giue it, doth also declare in his word that he will giue this bread to our labour, and by the meanes of our carefulnesse: Therefore he that will giue the bread, doth also giue strength, will and industry, whereby this bread should be prepared: So that Arnoldus yeelds that to him∣selfe, which no man in his right sense, would yeeld to him.

XL. Furthermore, the certainty of Election may be taken two manner of waies, eyther for the immutability of the decree of God, or for that cer∣taine perswasion, whereby any one doth beleeue that he is elected: Of the former kinde of certainty, it is onely spoken here, the latter doth require a peculiar treatise: But by the way, we say that we beleeue none of those things which Arnoldus doth falsely attribute to vs, whereof this is one; that all men are bound to beleeue that they are elected to eternall life: Nay, we teach, that he that will not beleeue in Christ, and re∣pent, is bound to beleeue that saluation gotten by the death of Christ, doth not pertaine to him: Of the same stampe is that calumny, when he saith, that we command wicked men to be secure, as they that can lose saluation by no euill deedes. Fie on that ab∣hominable doctrine. To say, I am elected, therefore I may be wicked, is the speech of a reprobate man, who

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will therefore be wicked because God is good. By this meanes, that loue wherewith God in Christ hath loued vs, which is the most vehement incitation to loue God, is turned into a pillow, on which pro∣phane security may sleepe. Whosoeuer God hath elected, he hath giuen him, or will giue him, the ho∣ly-Ghost, by which he abstaineth from so prophane a thought. So him whom hee hath appointed to life, he hath appointed also to foode and to breathing. He were ridiculous who should say, if God hath de∣creed that I should liue till I am eighty yeeres old, what neede I eate, seeing it cannot be but I must liue so long? Surely the destruction of such a man is neere; for God hath determined to vse this his sencelesse pee∣uishnesse to punish him.

XLI. In the meane while wee admonish, that the certainty of the election of seuerall persons, is carefully to be distinguished from that certainty whereby seuerall men beleeue themselues to be ele∣cted: The former is the certainty of the decree, the latter is the certainty of faith. For if Arminius could proue, that piety and the endeauour of good workes, is extinguished by the perswasion of election, yet it would not thence follow, that the decree of God con∣cerning the election of particular persons, is not cer∣taine and precise: But it would onely follow, that this decree is not to be beleeued by vs to be certaine. Whence it appeares how ill Arminius and Arnol∣dus doe reason, who thereby inferre that the decree of God, concerning the election of particular persons, is not absolute nor precise, because the confidence of election, doth make some men more negligent to the workes of piety.

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XLII. Adde to these, those things which we haue laid downe in the second chapter, where we haue shewed how many waies the doctrine concer∣ning election, is profitable to good manners, and to the discipline of piety, which notwithstanding wee would haue thus to be taken, not that euery one is to expect a reuelation of his election, but the Gospell is to be heard, and this promise, whereby God doth promise life to them that beleeue, is throughly to be fastned in our minde, and to be embraced with our whole heart: By which perswasion, whosoeuer shall feele himselfe to be liuely affected with the loue of God, and to be driuen to repentance, shall easily ga∣ther that he is elected, and that the thing promised in the Gospell doth belong to him. For although electi∣on is in nature before faith and repentance, as the cause from whence these vertues flow, yet faith and repentance is better knowne to vs, and we are alwaies to proceede from the things that best are knowne: whence it commeth to passe, that many times we goe to the cause, by the effects, which order in the schooles is called Resolutiuus.

XLIII. And if we would imitate Armini∣us, it were an easie thing to lay these things vpon him, and to teach how many waies his doctrine doth of∣fend against the wisedome and goodnesse of God, and therefore also against his iustice: How many waies occasion may thence be taken either of distrust or of frowardnesse, by what meanes it doth blow vp a man while he burst, and lift him vp on high, that it might throw him downe headlong; For, one that is filled with Armianisme may say thus. God indeede is

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willing to saue me, but he may be disappointed of his will, hee may be defrauded of his naturall defires, which are farre the best: Those whom God will saue by his Antecedent will, hee will destroy by his Con∣sequent will: Also his election doth rest on the fore-seeing of mans will; I were a miserable man, if my saluation depended vpon so vnstable a thing. The same man will also reason thus; God giueth to all men sufficient grace, but hee hath not manifested Christ to all men, therefore there is some grace suffi∣cient without the knowledge of Christ. Also the same man will easily beleeue that God doth mocke men, for he hath learned in the schoole of Arminius, that God doth seriously desire & intend the saluation of all and singular men, and yet that neuerthelesse he doth call very many by a meanes that is not congru∣ent, that is, by a meanes, in a time and measure, which is not apt nor fit, by which meanes, whosoe∣uer is called, doth neuer follow God calling. But what doe I know, whether he calleth by a congruent and agreeable meanes or no? Adde also these fa∣mous opinions, that vnregenerate men doe good workes; that they are meeke, thirsting after and do∣ing the will of the Father; that faith is partly from grace, and partly from free-will: Nay, what that a∣ny maintainer of the sect of Arminius, shall dare to set lawes to God himselfe, and to say that God is bound to giue to all men power of beleeuing? And that the iustice of God doth require, that he may giue to man that which is his owne, and that man himselfe may determine and open his owne heart to receiue the word of God. O your fidelity! Are these your famous

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incitations to holinesse of life? Doth Arminius traine vp men to piety by these instructions? Surely if any one is stirred vp to good workes by these things, hee is thereby the more corrupted. For, God had rather haue sinnes with repentance, then righteousnesse with pride. God will not stirre vp men to repentance, with the losse eyther of our faith or his glory: Nor are we onely to doe our endeauour that men be stirred vp to repentance, but we must also see that it be done by meanes that are conuenient, and not contumeli∣ous against God.

CHAP. XXV.

Whether Christ be the cause and foundation of Election.

I. WE say that no man is saued but by and for Christ, and that Christ is the 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, and price of our redemption, the foun∣dation and meritorious cause of our sal∣uation: But we doe not say that he is the cause of election, or the cause why of two considered in the corrupted masse, one is preferred before another. There are not wanting examples of most wicked men to one whereof (God so dispensing) the Gospell hath beene preached, whence it came to passe that he was conuerted and did beleeue, but to the other the Gos∣pell hath not beene preached: The Scripture doth not say that the death of Christ is the cause of this, but doth fetch the cause from the good pleasure of God, who hath mercy on whom he will: For the loue of the father doth alwaies goe before the media∣tion of the sonne, seeing that the loue of the father

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to the world, was the cause why he sent his sonne.

Yea truely, seeing Christ himselfe, as he is man, is elected, and the head of the elect, hee cannot be the foundation and cause of election: For as hee is the head of men, as he is a man; so is he the head of them that are predestinated, as he is a man predestinated to so great honour, which came to him by the meere grace of God.

II. Wherefore the Apostle calleth Christ 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the price of our redemption, and, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the pro∣pitiation, Coloss. 1. Rom. 3. but he doth not say that he is the cause why some men should be elected ra∣ther then others.

III. Reason it selfe doth consent. For as the recouery of the sicke-man doth in the intention al∣waies goe before the vsing of the Phisitian; so it must needes be, that in the minde of God, the thought of sauing men was (not in time, but in order) before the thought of sending the Sauiour.

IV. Adde to these, that the mediation and re∣demption of Christ, is an action whereby the iustice of God is satisfied, which is not signified by the word Election; for it is one thing to be a mediator, and a∣nother thing to be the cause of Election, or of the preferring of one before another in the secret coun∣sell of God: Whence it is, that Christ is the meritori∣ous cause of our saluation, but not of our election; which is as much as if I should say, that Christ is the foundation and cause of the execution of the de∣cree of Election, but not the cause of Election it selfe.

V. It is of no small moment that Christ, Iohn 15.13.

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saith, That he layeth downe his life for his friends: & chap. 10. v. 11. he calleth himselfe the good shepheard, that layeth downe his life for his sheepe: And if Christ be dead for his friends, and for his sheepe, it must needs be, that when he died for them, he did consider them as being already friends and sheepe, although many of them were not then called, as Christ himselfe doth testifie, who in the sixteenth verse of the same chap∣ter doth call those also his sheepe, who were not yet conuerted. And if Christ dying for vs, considered vs as his friends and sheepe, it is plaine, that before the death of Christ, there was already destinction made betweene his friends and enemies, betweene the sheep and goates, and therefore that the decree of Election was in order, before the death of Christ, and that the opinion of Arminius, is to be hissed out, as an opini∣on subuerting the Gospell, whereby hee thinkes that the election had not place when Christ died. Certain∣ly he that died for his sheepe, died for the elect, and not for them who were to be elected after hee was dead.

By these things it is plaine, that by those friends and sheepe for which Christ died, are not vnderstood those, onely, who loue God and follow Christ, but all those whom God loueth, and whose saluation hee decreed: for whom Christ died when they did not yet loue God, and when they were enemies to him. And therefore they are called enemies, Rom. 5.10. because they did not loue God, but yet euen then they were highly loued by God, and were appointged to salua∣tion in Christ: For in a diuers respect they were both friends and enemies, sheepe and goates: Friends

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because God loued them, enemies because they did not yet loue God.

VI. Neither is iniurie done to Christ, if the loue of the Father, and his good pleasure be said to goe in order before the decree of sending his sonne, seeing Christ himselfe doth witnesse it Iohn, 3.16. God so lo∣ued the world, that he gaue his onely begotten sonne, &c. where the loue of the father is manifestly set before the sending of the sonne, which is so to be vnderstood, as that the sonne is not excluded from the act of ele∣ction it selfe; seeing that he also is one God with the father, but this was done by him, not as hee is media∣tor, but as he is God.

VII. Neither is any iniury done to Christ, if the will of the father concerning the sauing of men, be said to goe before the redemption of Christ, seeing that this redemption is also after sinne: for the dis∣ease is before the medicine.

VIII. Nor is any thing detracted from the greatnesse of the price of our redemption, if his will who offered the price, be said to goe before it.

IX. The very definition of the decree of election, doth proue this thing; for election is the decree of sa∣uing certaine men by Christ, in which definition, Christ is laid downe, not as the cause of election, but as the meanes of the execution of it, and as the meri∣torious cause of saluation.

X. It is maruailous, how much the Arminians insult here: For because wee make the loue of God to goe (not in time, but in order) before the mediati∣on of the sonne, they so deale with vs, as if we taught,

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that God loued vs without Christ, and as being con∣sidered without faith in Christ, which doth differ as much from our opinion, as that which doth differ most. Be it farre from vs, that wee should say, that God would euer bestow saluation vpon vs, but that together and in the same moment he considered vs in Christ, as being to be saued by him: Nor was there a∣ny cause why we for that thing should be accused of Sicianisme; we haue nothing to doe with that Alastor and hellish monster, which doth altogether ouer∣throw the benefit of Christ: But it is one thing to say that the loue of the father doth, in order, goe before the mediation of the sonne; and another thing to say that God loueth vs without the sonne. It is one thing to dispose the thoughts of God in order, and another thing to separate them, and pull them asunder. Ar∣minius who in the beginning of his booke against Per∣kins, calleth himselfe a wirty fellow, doh craftily, yea wickedly catch at and hunt after points of priority in order, to pull asunder those things which cannot be seperated. Hee doth therefore as much as if one should say, that the thought of creating man, was first in order, in God, before the thought of ador∣ning him with holinesse and righteousnes, and would thence inferrre that God would first create man not iust, or first to haue considered him as not holy. If a∣ny man saith that in the decree of God, the thought of ouerthrowing of the world, was before the thought of ouerthrowing it by fire, hee doth not therefore say, that God first thought of ouer∣throwing it without fire. All the purposes of God are eternall, although there be a certaine order

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and dependency betweene them.

XI. That place of Saint Iohn, Chap. 3. vexeth Arminius: God so loued the world, that hee gaue his onely begotten sonne, &c. where the loue of God is laide downe, as the cause by which it came to passe, that he gaue the sonne: He doth therefore endeauour to de∣lude so direct a place by a witlesse cauell, That loue (saith he) is not that by which he will giue eternall life; which appeareth by the very words of Iohn, who doth ioyne faith betweene this loue and eternall life. The Rea∣der therefore shall obserue, that Arminius himselfe doth acknowledge, that there is a kinde of loue of God towards men, which doth goe before his decree of sending his sonne. But hee saith that God by that loue is not willing to giue eternall life. What then will hee doe by it? For this thing hee ought to shew. Will God by that loue, leaue men in death? Is it pos∣sible that God should loue the creature, created by him to life, but he must needes by the same loue, will that it should liue? I am ashamed of so weake a sub∣tilty. Yea truely, in that he sent his sonne, by that loue it is sufficiently manifest, that by that loue he was willing man should be restored to life: But (saith he) faith commeth betweene that loue and eternall life: What then? Cannot I will the recouery of him that is sicke, although the Phisition come betweene my will and his recouery. Surely he maketh those things opposite and contrary, which are appolite, and ioy∣ned together. But I doe not see how he rather fauou∣reth Socinus, who saith that Christ is not the cause of Election, then he that saith that Christ is not the cause of the loue whereby God would send Christ

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into the world, and prouide for vs a redeemer: Or why there should be a greater offence in making the redemption of Christ to be the medium, and meane betweene the loue of God, by which hee elected vs, and betweene our saluation, then if it be made the medium, a meane betweene the loue of God, by which he will giue Christ for vs, and betweene our saluati∣on: For on both sides redemption is made the meanes, and not the first cause. Let vs not therefore enuy God the father this praise, that his good plea∣sure thould be made the fountaine and first originall of our Election.

XII. Obserue moreouer that that Election whereof Arminius will haue Christ to be the founda∣tion, is that generall election, whereby all men are conditionally elected, which seeing wee haue largely consuted, Chap. 18. whatsoeuer the Arminians doe bring to proue that Christ is the foundation of ele∣ction, doth vanish away. Surely there was no cause why they should so earnestly labour to proue that Christ was the foundation of that election, by which Pharaoh and Iudas were elected: Of which imagina∣ry election, he shall haue the true character and por∣traiture, who hath brought in God speaking thus: I decreed to send my sonne to saue all men who shall beleeue, but who and how many they shall be, I haue not determined; onely I will giue to all men sufficient power to beleeue, but he shall belecue who will himselfe.

XIII. Arminius doth defend himselfe against so euident a truth, by one little word of the Apostle, Ephes. 1.4. He hath elected vs in Christ: But it is one thing to be elected in Christ, and another thing to be

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elected for Christ, so that Christ should be the cause why one is elected rather then another. The mea∣ning of the Apostle is cleere: To elect, is nothing else then to appoint to saluation. Therfore to elect in Christ, is to appoint to saluation, to be obtained in or by Christ: For whosoeuer God hath decreed to saue he hath giuen them to Christ, and hath considered them as ioyned to Christ. Hee seeketh a knot in a bulrush, who by farre fetched interpretations would darken that which is perspicuous and plaine.

XIV. For a foundation of this their opinion, Arminius, and after him Arnoldus, doth lay this pro∣position: That Predestination is the foundation of Chri∣stianity. This demand he will haue to be granted him, for he doth not proue it; no otherwise then if one in the beginning of a disputation, would obtaine by suite, and would desire that it might be granted him, that a circle hath corners. This is a great demand, and that which I thinke no man would grant him, who knoweth what predestination is, and what is the foun∣dation of Christian Religion. The foundation, of Christian Religion is, to acknowledge that Christ, the onely sonne of God, is sent from the fa∣ther, that whosoeuer beleeueth in him might not pe∣rish but haue euerlasting life. It must needes be that the foundation of Christianity be the rule of faith, on which the faith of Christians must rest; but prede∣stination is not the rule of faith, but the action of God, whereby bee determined to saue certaine men by Christ. Farre be it from vs that wee should say, that the secret decree, by which seuerall men, as Peter or Charles, &c. are elected, is the foundation of Chri∣stianity.

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Whosoeuer would from thence beginne to teach Religion, and would beginne the elements of Christian faith at this decree of Predestination, hee should eyther, by the darkenesse cast before him, tremble at the very entrance, or should fall downe right, as being taken with giddinesse. Whatsoeuer things therfore Arnoldus doth build on so false a pro∣position, doe of themselues fall to the ground, so that we neede not ouerthrow those things, which of them∣selues will fall downe. Further also he doth impugne and striue against that thing which is not beleeued by vs, to wit, that we are loued by God without Christ; onely the ambiguity wherewith he would deceiue the Reader, is to be noted, when he saith, Page 171. That Christ is the foundation of our receining into grace, and in∣to the loue of God. If by receiuing into grace and loue, he vnderstand the reconciliation by his satisfaction performed for vs; I confesse that Christ is the foun∣dation of that receiuing into grace, and of that loue: But if by receiuing into grace and loue, be vnderstood that loue of the father, by which hee would send his sonne to saue vs (which is the greatest loue of all, and the fountaine of all good) certainely Arminius himselfe would not haue Christ to be the foundation of that loue; and yet by that very same loue, God chose from eternity whom he would.

XV. I doe not search into that which Armi∣nius boldly and rashly hath dared to say, that God could not saue vs otherwise then by Christ, nor had he any other meanes for the saluation of man. God could not (saith he) will eternall life to any one without the respect of a mediator: And the Arminian conferrers

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at the Hage; It is impossible for God to decree saluation to sinners, but that he must before haue decreed the satisfacti∣on of his iustice: Now they speake of the satisfaction of Christ. Surely they doe boldly and rashly con∣taine the wisedome of God within limits, and if this thing were true, yet it were not for man to speake such things: It is sufficient that God hath followed the most conuenient way, and then which none is better. By the way it is to be obserued, that this opi∣nion hath not pleased Vorstius. He, Page 33. disput. de Deo, doth affirme, That it was lawfull for God to relent or yeelde somewhat of his owne right, no lesse then to re∣taine or pursue that which is his right. And Page 399. It is false to say, that no sinne could be let passe vnpunished by the iustice of God.

XVII. The conferrers at the Hage doe thus argue: If the decree of Christ the Sauiour, be after the de∣cree of the election of some particular persons to saluation, then God decreed the saluation of some particular persons, in order before he decreed the satisfaction of his iustice.

Here is a manisold deceite: For the decree of sauing certaine men, and the decree of sending Christ to saue them, they make two decrees, when it is but one; for election is the decree of sauing certaine men in Christ. It is not one decree by which God hath appointed man to life, and another, by which he hath appointed him to breathing. There is another fraud in that they compare the saluation of seuerall men with the satisfaction of Gods iustice, when the com∣parison was to be made, of the manifestation of the goodnesse of God, by which hee doth saue seuerall men, with the satisfaction of his iustice. It is not in∣conuenient

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if God be said first to haue decreed the manifestation of his goodnesse, before the satisfaction of his iustice. Adde to these that they doe craftily vse these words, the election of some particular persons, to extenuation and contempt; for these some particular persons, are the Church of the Elect, whose saluation is of so great account with God, that for the saluati∣on thereof, he would satisfie his owne iustice: Whence it followeth, that God, that he might declare his good∣nesse, did first intend their saluation, before the satis∣faction of his iustice.

CHAP. XXVI.

The other things which they adde, are now to be exa∣mined by vs.

I. THE doctrine of Reprobation, is so farre profitable to the elect, in as much as by the comparison of the lot of Re∣probates with theirs, they are stirred vp to the praise and admiration of the bounty of God towards them. Then also when the pledges of Ele∣ction doe begin to faile, and the spirit of adoption is grieued by the lusts of the flesh, it is profitable to the faithfull to be striken with some horrour, and to be stirred vp to try themselues, whether they proceede in regeneration, or whether they grow worse and fall backe, that so pricks and incitements might be put to them that are sloathfull.

II. The very word election doth proue, that there are some that are reprobates; for there were not some e∣lected; vnlesse the rest were passed by and reiected. The

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Scripture maketh mention of Reprobates, 1. Pet. 2.8. Which stumble at the word, being disobedient, whereunto also they were appointed. And Iude 4. Certaine men are crept in vnawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation. These in the Reuelation are noted out vnto vs, by those who are not written in the book of life, the number of whom Christ doth insinuate to be very great, when hee saith, Many are called, few chosen. The same is proued by experience: For not onely before the comming of Christ, but also at this time there are very many nations to whom the name of Christ is not knowne, without the knowledge of which there is no saluation.

III. Reprobation is the decree of God, by which from eternity he decreed, not to giue to certaine men his grace, by which they might be freed from their engrafted deprauation, and from the curse due to them, and appointed them to iust and deserued pu∣nishments for their sinnes.

IV. The definition of Thomas doth not please me, who saith that the decree of Reprobation is the will of permitting one to fall into sinne, and of laying vpon him the punishment of damnation for his sinne: For the permission whereby God doth permit, doth not be∣long to predestination, but to his prouidence, al∣though it serue to predestination.

V. It is the opinion of the Arminian sect, that Re∣probates may be saued: For (saith Arminius) that de∣cree is not of the power, but of the act of sauing. Very ill spoken: For where the act of God is determined by his decree, in vaine is the power by which this act may be resisted. This opinion doth draw with it

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other opinions no better then it selfe, for errors are tyed together among themselues like serpents egges: For if a Reprobate may be saued, he that is not writ∣ten in the booke of life, may effect that hee be now written in, and so the number of the elect will not be certaine, nor the decree of Reprobation be irreuoca∣ble and peremptory (as they speake) vnlesse after fi∣nall perseuerance in incredulity. Also hence it will fol∣low, that a reprobate may, if he will, obtaine faith, and conuert himselfe: whence it would come to passe, that faith should not be of the meere grace of God, which wee shall see hereafter to be the opinion of Ar∣minius.

VI. God is, after the same manner, the cause of Re∣probation, as the iudge is the cause of the punishment of them that are guilty, and sinne is the meritorious cause. Seeing therefore the consideration of sinne doth moue the iudge, and the iudge doth condemne to punishment, it appeareth that sinne is the remote cause of damnation, and not onely a condition neces∣sarily fore-required, and that the iudge is the next and neerest cause.

VII. Furthermore although sinne be the cause of appointing to punishment, yet it is not the cause of the difference betweene the Elect and Reprobate. For examples sake: Two men are guilty of the sme crime, and it pleaseth the king to condemne one, and to absolue and free the other, his sinne indeede that is condemned is the cause of his punishment, but it is not the cause why the king is otherwise affected to the other then to him, seeing the fault on both sides is alike: The cause of the difference is, that some∣thing

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thing steppeth betweene, which doth turne the pu∣nishment from one of them; which in the worke of predestination is nothing else but the very good plea∣sure of God, by which of his meere good pleasure, he gaue certaine men to Christ, leauing the rest in their inbred corruption, and in the curse due vnto them. For which difference, it is great wickednesse for vs to striue with God, seeing hee is not subiect nor bound to any creature, and punisheth no man vn∣iustly, giuing to one the grace that is not due, and imposing on the other the punishment that is due.

VIII. Here it is demanded what is that sinne for which God doth reprobate, to wit, whether men are Reprobated onely for the sinne which is deriued from Adam, and for that blot which is common to Reprobates with the elect, or whether they are also reprobated for the actuall sinnes which they are to commit in the whole course of their life. The an∣swere is at hand: For although naturall corruption be cause sufficient for Reprobation, yet it is no doubt but that God hath decreed to condemne for the same cause for which hee doth condemne; and hee doth condemne the Reprobates for the sinnes which they haue committed in act: For in hell they doe not onely beare the punishment of originall sinne, but al∣so of actuall sinnes: Therefore also God hath appoin∣ted them to damnation for the same sinnes. Now to Reprobate, and to appoint to punishment, are all one. God doth so execute any thing in time, accor∣ding as he from eternity decreed to execute it: Now he doth punish in time for actuall sinnes, therefore

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also hee decreed from eternity to punish for them Thence it is that the punishments of the men of Ca∣pernaum, was to be greater then the punishment of the Sodomites, and the punishment of him that knew the will of his master, greater then the punishment of him that knew it not, because there is a great diffe∣rence betweene the actuall sinnes for which they are punished. Nothing hindreth, that God considering a man lying in his naturall corruption and deprauati∣on, should not also consider him as poluted with those sinnes which he was to commit by that naturall deprauation.

IX. Arminius doth not thinke that any man is Reprobated for originall sinne, for he contends that Christ hath obtained the remission of it for all man∣kinde. But he will haue man to be reprobated onely for the fore-seeing of actuall sinnes, that is, for the breach of the law, and the contempt of grace: In which thing he doth seeme not to be constant to him∣selfe. For seeing all actuall sinnes doe flow from ori∣ginall sinne, it cannot be, that the cause and fountaine of actuall sinnes should be remitted by God, and yet the sinnes that flow from thence should not be re∣mitted: As if God should forgiue a man intempe∣rance, but should punish him for adultery; for acti∣ons doe flow from habits and naturall inclinations, as the second acts doe flow from the first.

X. Without doubt incredulity, and the reiecti∣on of the Gospell are among the sinnes, for which a∣ny one is reprobated; For by this reiection we sinne against the Law, by which God will iudge vs: For the law commandeth that God be loued with all our

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heart, and that he be obeyed in all things, and with∣out exception, and therefore also that he be beleeued when he speaketh, and that hee be obeyed when hee commandeth vs to beleeue, whatsoeuer it shall be which he shall eyther command or shall say.

XI. That hee should be Reprobated for reie∣cting the Gospell, and despising the grace of Christ, to whom the Gospel was neuer preached, is against all reason: For, whom the Gospell doth not saue, it leaueth vnder the law, to be iudged by it, which law doth then binde a man to beleeue in Christ, when Christ is preached to him: Nor is it the Schoole ma∣ster to Christ, but to them who haue meanes to come to the knowledge of Christ; After the same man∣ner as the law did not binde them to belecue the prophecy of Ieremy, who neuer heard of the name of Ieremie, nor could it be knowne to them.

XII. And although reprobation cannot be said to be the cause of sinne, because sinne goeth before reprobation, yet it cannot be denied but that repro∣bation is the cause of the denying of grace, and of the preaching of the Gospell, and of the spirit of adopti∣on, which is peculiar to the elect: For seeing this de∣nying is a punishment, it must needes be, that it is in∣flicted by the will of a iust iudge. These are the words of Arminius, Page 58. against Perkins: Effectuall grace is denyea by the decree of Reprobation; and a 〈◊〉〈◊〉 after, God by the certaine accree of Reprobation, determinea not to giue faith an repentance to some, to wit, by yeelding them his effectuall grace, by which they would certainely belecue and be conurted. There is no cause therefore that we should be traduced by the Arminians in this

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respect, seeing that the principall of their sect doth say the same thing.

And it is easie to tell the cause why God should not be bound to giue to all men faith and repen∣tance: For God who hath not wrought the disease, is not bound to giue to all men the remedies of the disease, nor to giue the ability of performing those things which are due from man to God. For this im∣potency & disability in performing, proceeded from man himselfe, not from God: And the fulfilling of the law, is a naturall debt; Which law seeing it is violated by the retection of the Gospell, it is plaine, that it is also a naturall debt to beleeue the Gos∣pell, not before it is preached, but then when it is preached.

XIII. The Arminians are of opinion, that no man is reprobated, but hee that hath contemned that grace which doth leade to Christ, and they make in∣credulity the speciall cause of reprobation not onely in them to whom the Gospell is preached, but a so in them who haue not heard the name of Christ spoken off. Arminius maketh these guilty of the contempt of grace: For he saith that there is giuen to all men vn∣resistaby the faculty of beleeuing, and the power of obtaning faith, if they will: Yea, they say, that sufficient meanes to be eeue were administred to the heathen, who before the comming of Christ, liued in the inmost part of Spaine or Scythia: And they lay downe a certaine vniuersall sufficient grace, common to all men; but when they come to explaine that grace, sometimes they place it in the common noti∣ons, and naturall light; sometimes in the contem∣plation

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of the creatures, sometimes in any generall knowledge of the law: Of which cursed doctrine, and how by these things they doe not obscurely passe into the campe of Pelagius, shall be spoken in their due places.

XIV. But here we are euery where set vpon by their darts, and the Arminians doe abundantly cast reproaches vpon vs, and doe faigne to themselues monsters which they may kill. The conferrers at the Hage, Page 122. after they haue belched out some calumnies, doe thus conclude their speech: These things are briefely spoken, against that absurd, detest∣able, and abhominable opinion. Good words I pray you: These terrible vizards doe not fright vs. They ima∣gine that we teach, that in fidelity doth flow from re∣probation, as if reprobation were the cause of infide∣lity. The good men sing this Cuckowes song to vs sixe hundred times, attributing to vs the doctrine which we neither beleeue nor teach: For if one hath not decreed to giue to him that is blinde the reme∣dies by which he might recouer his sight, hee is not therefore the cause of his blindnesse, nor hath hee ap∣pointed him to blindnesse.

XV. They ground on a false foundation, on which they build those things which are worse. For they thus beginne their speech of Reprobation, Page 118. It is knowne to the Contraremonstrant brethren, that such as Election is on the one part, such Reprobation ought to be on the other part. This is the fountaine of their error; this false beginning hath led aside those acute men into by waies: The respect of Election is one, the respect of Reprobation is farre other. For

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sinne and in fidelity is not a condition required after the same manner in the reprobates, as faith is a con∣dition required in the elect: For sinne is a condition fore-required in reprobates, but faith is a condition following election. Reprobation is made for sinne, but election is made to faith. Sinne is the cause of the appointing to punishment, faith is the effect of electi∣on. God findeth sinne, but worketh faith. Sinne fol∣loweth reprobation onely in the necessity of conse∣quence, but not in the necessity of the consequent: But faith doth follow election both waies. By these things that calumny is abundantly washed off which Arnoldus, Page 228. and in many other places doth sprinkle vpon vs, that we deny that the reprobates are reprobated for sinne.

XVI. It yeeldeth an occasion to the Arminians of falsely accusing vs, because we say, that the decree of reprobation is precise and absolute, nor doe we agree to Arminius, who teacheth that the reprobates in∣deede are not saued, but yet they might be saued, and who denieth that the number of the reprobates is de∣termined by the decree of God. But here is nothing from whence it can be drawne, that reprobation is the cause of sinne, or that any one is reprobated with∣out the beholding of sinne.

XVII. Arnoldus doth carpe at our opinion with certaine little obiections, Page 219. Ye say that the reprobates haue beene excluded of God from saluation in his decree for one sinne, but that they shall be excluded in time for another diuerse sinne. It is a calumny, wee neither thinke nor say it. He doth heape vp the same false accusation, Page 229. and 238. where hee saith

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that men are reprobated, as onely considered in the sinne of Adam.

XVIII. In the same page he doth thus vainely argue: It is not the part of wisedome to be willing that they should hope for good, who are excluded from it by the absolute decree of God. But I deny, that vnbeleeuers and prophane men are excluded from God, by the absolute decree of God, after that manner as you take the word absolute, that is, without respect to their sinnes: Neither doth it fauor of folly to command that they who are excluded from eternall life, by the absolute, that is, by the certaine and ineuitable de∣cree, should contend and aspire to eternall life, seeing that they are therefore excluded from life, be∣cause they haue not aspired to it.

XIX. The same man, Page 226. Ye determine (saith he) that God hath precsely reprobated from salua∣tion, some sinners lying in the fall of Adam, without the consideration of impenitency. Is is a slander: Our Churches doe not beeeue it. The confession of the Churches of France, of England, of the Low-Coun∣tries, doth not say it: Indeede in the decree of repro∣bation is included the will of not giuing faith and fi∣nall repentance to reprobates; but it doth not fol∣low thence, that reprobation is without the conside∣ration of impenitency.

XX. Arnoldus addeth; Your doctrine determines that God doth exact faith from the reprobates, and that he decreed to condemne them if they should not beleeue, when yet it is impossible for them that they should beleeue in Christ with a sure perswasion of minde, not onely because God doth not giue them power of beleeuing, but also because

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if thy were furnished with power to beleeue, yea, if they should beleeue in Christ, they would beleeue that which were false, because Christ hath not died for them: But it is contrary to the iustice of God to exact such an obedience, and then to punish the creature, for not performing such an obedience, which is absolutely impossible to the creature. He doth abundantly repeate the same thing in other places, but especially, Page 261. and 262. Here are many things faise. First, it is false that faith is exacted and required of all the reprobates, for it is required onely of them to whom the Gospell is preached. Neither is it true that faith is absolutely, and without condition required of all those, to whom the Gospell is preached; for it is required vnder a condition, to wit, that they be conuerted and repent: But if they doe not repent, we teach and cry out, that the benefit of Christ doth not pertaine to them; and that they hope and beleeue in Christ in vaine, so long as they are aduerse and contrary to God, inuiting them to repentance: And it is also false, that God is vniust, if he command them to beleeue and obey, who for their inbred deprauation cannot beleeue and obey, and to whom God doth not giue power of beleeuing; for man himselfe hath brought this impotency and disa∣bility on himselfe, and this deprauation, in man, is vo∣luntary; and God exacting from man, that he should beleeue him speaking by Christ, doth require nothing which man doth not owe: For to obey the law is a naturall debt. For God, speaking by Christ, cannot be refused or contemned, but the law also is broken, as we haue already taught at large in many places, especially Chap. 11. Where we haue taught that the

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power of beleeuing was giuen vs in Adam, and that Adam had it before the fall, but an occasion of vsing it was wanting: And therefore also this power was lost in Adam. Nor is God bound to restore it, as Ar∣noldus (setting lawes to God himselfe) would haue it. By these things also we meete with that false accusa∣tion wherewith Arnoldus doth pursue vs, Page 230. Ye determine (saith he) that faith is required of repro∣bates, and yet that the meanes to performe obedience to faith are precisely denyed: For it is not required of all, but of them to whom Christ is made knowne, nor is it required of these absolutely, but with condition of repentance: Neither is any thing required of them although they be reprobates, but what they owe.

XXI. But Arnoldus doth adde to this a foule calumny, wherewith he would odiously buren our cause. Ye will haue (saith he) faith to be required of the reprobates, that they might be made inexcusable, and their damnation might be aggrauated. Wee say indeede that their damnation is thereby made the greater, but we doe not say that this end was propounded by God. So when we say that one goeth forth to warre, that he may be slaine, wee signifie what is to happen, not what end should be intended. And it is not for vs to enquire scrupulously into the end which God pro∣pounded to himselfe. Yet these two ends are certaine, to wit, to require of man what is due, and also by this meane to bring the elect to saluation.

XXII. He doth bend at vs another dart, Page 286. Your doctrine (saith he) doth repugne the Euan∣gelicall threates: For seeing the intent of God in the

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propounding of them is, that men should be driuen from impenitency, and so should be saued. You on the contrary side teach, that God doth deny to some men the meanes that are necessary to repentance, because he hath determi∣ned not to saue them. First, it may be doubted whether there are any Euangelicall threats; for the threatnings which are contayned in the bookes of the Gospell, are not a part of the Gospell. For seeing the word Euangelium, Gospell, doth signifie, a good message, I doe not see how threatnings can belong to a good message: They who beleeue not the Gospell shall be punished, not by the Gospell, but by the law. But howsoeuer it be, I see nothing here which doth re∣pugne these threates, by which God doth intend to require from man that which is due, and that which the law it selfe requireth, to wit, that God be obeyed. Seeing that the denying of grace, and of the restoring of the powers which man by his owne fault lost, doth very well agree with such a declaration of threat∣nings. These things are not repugnant, to propound life to man on the condition of obedience, and not to restore to man those powers of obedience which hee lost by his owne fault.

XXIII. Neither are these things repugnant, to propound life to any one vnder a condition, and to appoint the same man to death for his fore-seene disobedience.

XXIV. The same man since Arminius, Page 269. (for that which he addeth concerning Infants shall hereafter be handled) doth thus inuey against our opinion. Your opinion (saith he) causeth that pub∣like prayers cannot be offered to God, as it is meete they

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should, to wit, with faith and confidence that they shall profit all them that heare the word, because according to your opinion amongst them, there are many, whom God not onely will not haue to be saued, but whom he will haue to be condemned by his absolute, eternall, and immutable will, which goeth before all things and causes: Yet the Apostle commandeth that prayers be made for all men, and addeth this reason, because it is good and accepta∣ble to God, who would haue all men to be saued and come to the knowledge of the truth.

XXV. I answere, that it is falsely supposed by Arminius, that publike prayers ought to be poured out with this confidence, that they shall profit all them that heare the word. This faith were rash, and not resting on the word of God; especially seeing the ministers of the word, haue, for the most part, known many that are disobedient and openly prophane, nor doe they doubt, but that besides these, there are ma∣ny that are sicke, and ill affected with inward and hid∣den vices, who yet make a shew of piety. Certainely the similitude of the seede sowne into diuers ground, and of a differing disposition, and with an vnlike suc∣cesse, doth in this case bring more feare then confi∣dence. And yet because the secrets of reprobation are vnknowne to vs, we doe rightly pray for all, be∣cause we hope well of euery one. I doe not see where∣to this obiection belongs, vnlesse to stop and stay the Reader with a childish declamation, because this very obiection doth no lesse pursue Arminius, who although he will not haue the decree of God to be precise, yet doth confesse, that God doth certainely fore-know who are to be damned. And to confesse this, what is

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it else, then to teach that God is willing that wee should pray for them, whom he certainely knoweth our prayers will not profit? But that which he cast∣eth vpon vs, that we make the decree of reprobation to goe before all things and causes, and therefore also before sinne it selfe, is plainely contrary to our opini∣on.: And if such words haue fallen from any vna∣wares, it is not therfore the opinion of our Churches, we defend those things that are ours, but we doe not warrant other mens.

XXVI. Concerning the place of the Apostle, where hee saith that God would haue all men be sa∣ued, it shall be spoken in his order and place. To will, here, is no other thing then to inuite, and to call: Also by all men, he vnderstandeth, men of euery con∣dition and sort: After the same manner that Titus, 2.11. The grace of Christ is said to bring saluation to all men, when notwithstanding so many perish. This is a token here, of that in the former place it is spoken of kings, in this place of seruants: Their domination was at that time contrary to Christ, and the lot and state of these men, was abiect and base, the Apo∣stle would not hinder that they should not be pray∣ed for, and these are thought such as may be parta∣kers of sauing grace.

XXVII. The Arminians seeme, to themselues, to deale very acutely, when they dispute thus: If there be any one (say they) whose eyes haue beene pulled out for not keeping his watch well, is it a iust thing to com∣mand him that hereafter he should watch and ward? And then if he hath not done it, to lay great punishments vpon him because he hath not watched? I answere, that this is

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an example nothing to the purpose: For they vse the example of one that is blinde, who is not bound to see. But man though he be corrupted and wicked, yet he is bound to obey God, which if hee hath not done, he is iustly punished. Then also they bring an example of one whose eyes were pulled out, hee stri∣uing against it, and being vnwilling: But man brought this deprauation on himselfe, of his owne accord, and was voluntarily euill, and therefore he is iustly punished.

CHAP. XXVII.

How farre, and in what sence Christ died for all. The opi∣nions of the parties.

I. THE Arminians are of opinion, that Christ by his death obtained & got re∣mission of sins, reconciliation, & salua∣tion for all, & particular men: Nor doe they doubt to say, that by the death of Christ, reconciliation was obtained for Pharaoh, Saul, Iudas, and Pilate, not as they were reprobates, but as they were sinners: For God doth equally intend and desire the saluation of all men; and that the incredu∣lity of man is the cause that remission and reconcilia∣tion is not applied to all.

Yet Vorstius alone, the champion of the Armi∣nians, doth stagger in this question, and doth seeme to be more prone to the contrary opinion. In the 56. Page Collat. cum Piscat. He saith that Christ was deli∣uered by God to death, not for the elect alone, but for all men whatsoeuer, at least for them that are called.

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III. They thinke that the end which God pro∣pounded to himselfe in deliuering his Sonne to death, was not to apply this benefit to some certaine men; nor doe they thinke that Christ was appointed to death, by the precise will of God; to saue man, for Christ was appointed to death by his father, before God thought of sauing of men, and therefore that he was appointed to death without that respect, that they which beleeue in him should be saued. Greuin∣chouius, Page 21. doth say expressely, that reconcilia∣tion being obtained, there was yet no necessity of ap∣plication, that is, after saluation and reconciliation for all men was obtained, there was no necessity that any one should be saued, and it was possible that no man in act should be reconciled: Because he will haue the decree of sending Christ, in order, to goe before the decree of sauing those which beleeue, and therefore that God determined to send his Sonne, when he had not yet determined to saue those which beleeue. But the Arminians would haue this to be the end which God propounded to himselfe in sending his Sonne, to wit, to make the saluation of men possible, and to lay open a way for himselfe, whereby hee might saue finners, without any hurt to his iustice. By this meanes, they say, God hath gotten power of sauing man, because without the death of Christ, by which the iustice of God was satisfied, God could not be willing to saue men.

IV. And if no man had beleeued in Christ, yet Christ (if these men be beleeued) had obtained that end which he propounded to himselfe in dying: For they denie that he died to saue any man precifely, but

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that the saluation of man might be made possible, and a gate might be opened vnto him to saluation, which is left free for man by the helpe of grace to en∣ter, or not to enter.

V. They distinguish therefore, betweene the ob∣taining of reconciliation and the application of it. They contend that reconciliation and remission of sinnes, is obtained for all, which yet is applied onely to them that beleeue: That all men are giuen to Christ in the right of saluation, but not in the communica∣tion of saluation: That God hath neither willed nor nilled the application of reconciliation (that is, faith and saluation) to all men, but he hath thus willed it, if they beleeue, if they will receiue grace.

VI. The same men also doe deny, that Christ on the crosse sustained the person of the elect, or that he died for the elect: Because election had not then place, for election is something that is after the death of Christ.

VII. They say indeede that Christ offered him∣selfe for a sacrifice for all men, but as concerning his intercession, they are not constant to themselues in that, sometimes they will haue him to make inter∣cession onely for the saithfull, as if something might be obtained without intercession: Sometimes they make two kindes of intercession, one generall and common to all, another particular, which is onely pe∣culiar to the elect.

VIII. We doe very much differ from this opi∣nion: We acknowledge that Christ died for all; but we denie, that by his death saluation and forgiuenesse of sinne is obtained for all men: Or that reconci∣liation,

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is made for Cain, Pharaoh, Saul, Iudas, &c. Neither doe wee thinke that remission of sinnes is obtained for any one, whose sinnes are not remit∣ted, or that saluation was purchased for him, whom God from eternity hath decreed to condemne: For this were a vaine purchae. We denie that election is after the death of Christ, as for many other causes, so also because Christ in the very agony of death gaue a notable proofe of election in the theefe, whose heart he affected, and enlightned his minde after an vnvtte∣rable manner; the other theefe being left and neg∣lected. And seeing Christ doth euery where say that he died for his sheepe, and for those whom his father gaue him, he doth sufficiently declare that he died for the elect.

IX. And when we say that Christ died for all, we take it thus, to wit, that the death of Christ is suffi∣cient to saue whosoeuer doe beleeue, yea, and that it is sufficient to saue all men, if all men in the whole world did beleeue in him: And that the cause why all men are not saued, is not in the insufficiency of the death of Christ, but in the wickednesse and incredu∣lity of man. Finally Christ may be said to reconcile all men to God by his death, after the same manner, that we say that the Sunne doth enlighten the eyes of all men, although many are blinde, many sleepe, and many are hid in darkenesse: Because if all and seue∣rall men had their eyes, and were awake, and were in the middest of the light, the light of the Sunne were sufficient to enlighten them. Neither is it any doubt but that it may be said, not onely that Christ died for all men, but also that all men are saued by Christ, be∣cause

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among men, there is none saued but by Christ: After the same manner that the Apostle saith, 1. Cor. 15.20, that all men are made aliue by Christ, because no man is made aliue but by him.

CHAP. XXVIII.

That reconciliation, remission of sinnes, and saluation is not obtained nor purchased for all, and particular men, by the death of Christ.

I. FIrst, whosoeuer saith, that by the death of Christ reconciliation is obtained for all and singular men, although hee con∣sider Pharaoh and Iudas, not as repro∣bates, but simply as sinners, yet hee saith that recon∣ciliation is obtained for them who haue neuer belee∣ued, nor neuer were to beleeue. And seeing it is not equall nor iust, that reconciliation should bee obtai∣ned for such, the death of Christ is vsed wrongfully to obtaine something that is vniust, and to doe some∣thing which is contrary, to the iustice of God.

II. And who but hee that doth willingly shut his eyes, will euer beleeue that the reconciliation of Iudas, was obtained by the death of Christ, seeing that the death of Christ, was the very crime of Iudas, and by it he was brought to the halter.

III. And seeing that at the very time in which Christ did die, many were already tormented in hell, he must needes be of a shallow braine, who thinketh that by the death of Christ, saluation or reconciliation was obtained for them.

IV. Also by this doctrine God is openly mocked:

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For Christ is imagined to obtaine that from his fa∣ther, which he knew would neuer profit; as if God should grant to his sonne the saluation of that man which from eternity he decreed to condemne. For if Christ obtained reconciliation and remission of sinnes for Pharaoh and Iudas, whether considered as Reprobates, or considered as sinners, hee knew well enough that that obtaining of it would not be for their good or profit. Christ therefore is brought in asking this of his father: I pray thee receiue into grace those whom I know thou wilt neuer receiue into grace, and whom I know certainely are to be condemned: For Christ in his death, and before his death, knew full well the secrets of election. Surely these men seeme to doe their endeauour that Christian Religion should be made a laughing stocke.

V. Also they expose God to derision, while they will haue God at the same time, to loue and hate the same man; to loue him because hee giueth his sonne for him, and would haue reconciliation to be obtai∣ned for him, but to haue hated him, because from e∣ternity he decreed to condemne him.

VI. And if Christ obtained remission of sins for Iudas; it must needs be that God granted that to Christ ask∣ing it, & that he forgaue the sins of Iudas: Which if it be true, it necessarily followeth that God doth abolish his owne acts; and condemning Iudas, punished those sins which were remitted, and so men should be puni∣shed for those sins, the pardon whereof is obtained: & the testament of Christ by which they wil haue salua∣tion to be purchased for all men, should be made void.

VII. Neither is God onely thus mocked, but

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also he is made to mocke mankinde: For it is mani∣fest by vse, and by the experience of all ages, that the Gospell is scarce preached to euery tenth man, and that the name of Christ is vnknowne to the greatest part of the world; which thing that it is done by the prouidence of God, so dispensing, there is none that will deny, vnlesse he that thinkes that all things are carried confusedly, and that they doe proceede with∣out reason or order. And if reconciliation and sal∣uation by Christ be purchased for all men, why doth not God publish this benefit through the whole world? Why doth he suffer this reconciliation to be vnknowne to the greatest part of mankinde? Why doth he keepe in and hide from so many men the grace which doth belong to them, and which is obtai∣ned for them; without the knowledge of which, no man can be saued? They answere, that God doth it because men shew themselues vnworthy of this grace. As if any man could be worthy of it, or could shew himselfe worthy of it. Who knoweth not that the Gospell is preached to them that are most vnworthy? And where sinne hath abounded, there grace hath aboun∣ded? And if God is hindred by the vnworthinesse of man, that he should not make knowne to him the re∣conciliation obtained, the same vnworthinesse could and ought to hinder the obtaining of reconciliation. For when reconciliation was obtained, God did then fore-know the vnworthinesse that would fol∣low, with no lesse certainty then if it had beene pre∣sent.

VIII. And when they say that Christ died for all, as concerning the obtaining of saluation, but not

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as concerning the application of it, they doe plainely confesse that Christ did not obtaine that this reconci∣liation should be applied to all. Whence it commeth to passe, that this obtaining of reconciliation, is vaine, yea, and ridiculous: For they speake as much as if they should say, that freedome was obtained for one, but not that he should be freed; or that foode was obtained for one, but it was not procured that hee should be fed with this foode.

IX. And seeing that by faith the application of the death of Christ is made, if Christ by his death hath not obtained for vs the application of this reconcilia∣tion, it will follow that he hath not obtained faith for vs: For they must needes deny that faith is obtained for vs, who will not haue faith to be from grace alone, but to be partly from free-will, in whose power they will haue it to be to refuse or admit grace, to beleeue in act, or not to beleeue.

X. And surely hee that shall more attentiuely consider what these words meane; The obtaining of ap∣plication, and the application of the thing obtained, will finde that it is a meere Meteor, or building of Castles in the ayre, and that they are vnseasonable trifles, with which they enwrap mens wits: seeing Christ doth obtaine nothing which he doth not apply, nor doth he apply any thing which he hath not obtained: O∣therwise in vaine were the obtaining of that benefit, which both he that obtaineth it, and he of whom it is obtained, knoweth that it will neuer be applied, and that it will neuer profit him, for whom it is obtained; Nor is it credible that the remission of that sinne which shall neuer be remitted, is procured.

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XI. Yea, these innouators doe so speake, as they that would haue by the death of Christ something to be procured, not for vs, but for God: For they say that by the death of Christ, God obtained power of sauing vs, but they denie that the application or con∣ferring of saluation was obtained by the death of Christ for Peter or Paul, but that onely a gate and way was opened for them, by which they might come to saluation: Wherefore Christ by his death will be said to be, not the giuer, but the preparer of saluation. And certainly the opinion of Arminius doth tend thither, that Christ should be said, not to haue obtai∣ned reconciliation for any one, but to haue laid open a way for God, by which he might bestow saluation.

XII. They doe no lesse trifle, when they confesse that the fruit of the resurrection of Christ, pertained onely to the faithfull, but the fruit of his death, that is, reconciliation and remission of sinnes, they extend to all and seuerall men. Ther fore (if these men be be∣leeued) there will be some mn to whom the fruit of the death of Christ doth pertaine, but the fruit of his resurrection doth not pertaine. As if they should say that Christ died for some men, for whom hee hath not ouercome death: And that the fruit of the fight belonged to all, but not the fruit of the victory. And there will be some men, for whom although he hath offered himselfe on earth, yet hee doth not offer himselfe in heauen. But the Scripture ioyneth these things, as inseuerable, and vnseperable, that hee died for vs, and that he rose againe for vs; Rom 8.34. It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risn againe, who is at the right hand of God, making intercession for vs. And

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the 2. Co. 5.14. That they which liue, should not henceforth liue vnto themselues, but vnto him that died for them, and rose againe: Because no man is made partaker of the fruite of the death of Christ, but by his resurre∣ction.

XIII. It is of no small moment, that if recon∣ciliation were obtained for all mankind, it must needs be that all infants, borne without the couenant, are reconciled, their sinne is forgiuen them: Whence it would come to passe that they could not haue a grea∣ter benefit bestowed vpon them, then if one in a gen∣tle cruelty should kill them in their cradles: For if they die in this state of reconciliation, their saluation is certaine; but if they liue, they shall be brought vp in paganisme, which is the most sure way to eternall destruction.

XIV. And seeing no man can be saued, but hee for whom reconciliation hath beene obtained, and hath also beene applied: I doe not see what the ob∣taining of reconciliation doth differ from the applica∣tion of it in infants, which are taken away by an vn∣timely death: For (by the doctrine of Arminius) they are saued by reconciliation alone. Here there∣fore that distinction of the obtaining of reconciliation and of applying of it, doth vanish away: Which di∣stinction, although it may haue place among men, yet with God it cannot haue place, who granteth no∣thing which he doth not giue, from whom nothing is obtained which hee doth not giue and conferre in act: For to him all things are fore-seene ney∣ther can any thing happen, by which hee should be compelled to deny what hee hath granted, to

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change his counsell, or to abolish his acts.

XV. And if these two things be compared be∣tweene themselues, to obtaine reconciliation for his enemies, that they might be saued, and to bestow sal∣uation on them that are already reconciled, it is no doubt, but that it is farre greater loue, to die to re∣concile his enemies, then to giue saluation to them that are reconciled. The Apostle teacheth ths ex∣presly. Rom. 5.10. If when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his sonne, much more be∣ing reconciled, we shall be saued by his life. If Saint Paul be beleeued, it is an easier and more likely thing, to saue him that is reconciled, then to reconcile him that is an enemy, by dying for him. Seeing therefore that Christ (if we giue credit to Arminius) hath perfor∣med for all men that which is farre the greatest, and is an argument of his highest loue; it will be said, that Christ in dying for vs, loued Pilate, Iudas, Saul, and Pharaoh, no lesse then Peter and Iohn: But there is no man can make himselfe beleeue, vnlesse it be hee that is willing to be deceiued, that Christ loued those with his greatest loue, whom his father from eternity ha∣ted, and whom the sonne himselfe knew were from e∣ternity appointed to punishment.

XVI. Yea truely, seeing Christ, as hee is one God with the father, hath from eternity predesti∣nated the reprobates to damnation, it is not likely, yea not possible, that the same Christ hath obtained re∣conciliation for Iudas, as hee is man and a mediator, and hath from eternity reprobated the same man, as hee is God. For although these sectaries will haue the decree of reprobation to be, in order, after the

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obtaining of reconciliation, yet neither of them is in time before the other, and it must needes be that the desire of reconciling, and the decree of reprobating were together in one and the same minde.

XVII. Notable is the speech of Christ, Iohn 15.13. Greater loue hath no man then this, that one lay downe his life for his friends. The meaning of Christ is, that friends cannot be more loued then by dying for them: For although it be greater loue to die for ones enemies then for his friends, yet it is certaine, that nothing can be performed for thy friends sake, by which thou maist more testifie thy loue to them, then if thou die for them. Seeing therefore that this is the greatest loue to die for one, whether friend or e∣nemie, it must needes be that Christ equally loued all men, with his greatest loue: They must therefore af∣firme, if they will be constant to themselues, that Christ, in dying, loued with his greatest loue, Iudas, Pilate, yea Cain and Pharaoh, who were already in hell.

XVIII. The conferrers at the Hage, doe en∣deauour to quit themselues: If (say they) to loue in the highest degree, is not onely to merit saluation, but also to bestow it, we denie that Christ did generally loue all those, in the highest degree, for whom he died. They therefore condemne Christ, and accuse him of a lie, who will haue this to be the greatest degree of loue, to die for one. And it is impossible that Christ should loue any one in the highest degree of loue, but that also hee should bestow saluation vpon him. And if these things could be separated, yet this would remaine firme and sure, that Christ loued him with his greatest

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loue for whom hee died, although hee hath not af∣terwards bestowed saluation vpon him, because the greatnesse of the loue of Christ, is to be esteemed, not by the profit that commeth to him for whom hee died, but by the greatnesse of the sorrowes which hee suffered for him: Yea, whosoeuer shall weigh these things, in the exact scale of iudgement, shall finde that it is greater loue to suffer death for one, to procure for him some little good, then to procure great good. So it is more flagrant loue to expose himselfe to death, that his friend might not be hurt, no not a lit∣tle, then if he should doe it, that his friend should not perish by being burnt aliue.

XIX. Nor doe they escape by the distinction of this loue, into Antecedent and Consequent, seeing the Antecedent loue wherewith they will haue Iudas, and Pharaoh to be loued by Christ, cannot but be the greatest, and that beyond which (as Christ himselfe witnesseth) none can be extended. These are not two loues, to be willing to haue mercy before faith, and to be willing to saue after faith; but they are two effects of one and the same loue.

XX. And if Christ by his death was the pledge, and price of redemption for Iudas, Pharaoh, Saul, &c. The marke of iniustice would be set vpon God, who hath taken two punishments for the same sinnes, when the first satisfaction did suffice, and hath twice giuen iudgement vpon the same thing: For once they were dead in Christ, seeing Christ sustained their person vpon the crosse, and yet the same men doe die the eternall death in their owne persons. Thence also it will follow that Christ did in vaine beare the

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punishments due to Iudas and Pharaoh, and that hee in vaine made himselfe a pledge for them: For surely if Christ on the crosse, was the pledge of all and seue∣rall men, and made himselfe for them as a surety, it must needes be, that hee supplied their place on the crosse, and sustained their person: And so that may be said of all men without exception, which the Apo∣stle saith, 2. Corinth. 5.14. If one died for all, then were all dead. But no man yet, as I know, hath dared to say, that the reprobates died with Christ, or in Christ. And truely the following words of the Apostle doe argue, that he doth not speake of all men in the whole world, but of all those to whom the fruit of the resur∣rection of Christ doth pertaine, and who are become new creatures.

XXI. That reconciliation is purchased onely for the elect, the Apostle teacheth, Rom. 5.11. Wee ioy in God, through Iesus Christ our Lord, by whom wee haue now receiued reconciliation. Did S. Paul so greatly reioyce in that benefit, which was common to him with Herod and Pilate? And C. 3. v. 25. God hath set forth Christ to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood. There is therefore no proptiation without faith, and therefore no obtaining of reconciliation. For hereby it is perceiued that God is pacified to a sinner, and his propitiation is made, because Christ hath obtained re∣conciliation for him.

XXII. In the eight Chapter, and foure and thirtieth verse of the same Epistle, it is not onely said that Christ died for the elect, but because that Christ died for them; the Apostle doth thence inferre that no accusation can be laid against them: Who shall lay

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any thing to the charge of Gods elect? It is God that iusti∣fieth: Who shall condemne? It is Christ that died, &c. Out of which place we thus argue: They for whom Christ died cannot be condemned, nor can any thing be laid to their charge: But the reprobates are con∣demned, and something is laid to their charge; there∣fore Christ died not for them; So it be vnderstood in that sence which I said at the beginning, to wit, that Christ by his death did not obtaine reconciliation and saluation for them.

XXIII. Those for whom Christ obtained re∣conciliation and remission of sinnes, for those he also prayed and made intercession: But he doth not make intercession nor pray for the world, but onely for the faithfull, as Christ himselfe saith, Iohn 17.9. I pray for them, I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast giuen me. It is no doubt but that by the world those that doe not beleeue are to be vnderstood, and those that haue not receiued the grace of Christ, a∣mongst whom also are refractary persons: For these, Christ saith, he doth not pray; Now all men are such by nature, being destitute, not onely of faith, but also of the power of beleeuing. But among these, God giueth some men to Christ, to whom also hee giueth faith in Christ: For these alone Christ doth professe that he maketh intercession to his father.

XXIV. Here the sectaries after their manner doe vse a sleight distinction: For they make a double intercession; one generall, whereby Christ doth make intercession for all, the other particular, whereby hee doth make intercession onely for the faithfull. By the first, reconciliation of sinnes is obtained; by the other,

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the applying of reconciliation and saluation: But this generall intercession is plainely needelesse; for in vaine is reconciliation asked, without the application of saluation. By that generall intercession, Christ ey∣ther asked saluation for Iudas and Pilate, or else hee did not aske: If he asked not, his intercession was to no purpose; If he asked, he suffered the repulse, and so in vaine he made intercession: But hee himselfe saith, Iohn 11.42. that he was alwaies heard by his fa∣ther. But perhaps they will haue Christ to haue as∣ked the application of saluation for all men, on a con∣dition, to wit, if they will beleeue; and with this respect, that they should beleeue: Truely if it be so, then Christ hath not made intercession for all. For that which is asked on a condition, take away the condi∣tion, and it is not asked. He that saith to God, I pray to thee for all, so they beleeue, doth plainely declare that he doth not pray for them which doe not beleeue: Wherefore Christ himselfe doth restraine his sending into the world, and therefore also his intercession, to the faithfull alone, Iohn 3.13. God so loued the world, that he sent his onely begotten sonne, that whosoeuer belee∣ueth in him should not perish, but haue euerlasting life. There you see that not onely the fruit or application of the donation and giuing of the Sonne (that I may so speake) but also the donation it selfe doth belong onely to beleeuers.

XXV. But it is worth the labour to know what that particular intercession is, with which (as these sectaries doe confesse) Christ, Iohn 17. doth make intercession for the faithfull alone, and to know what it is that he asketh by it. Father (saith he) keepe

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them: And a little after, I pray thee that thou wouldest keepe them from the euill. If this intercession be peculi∣ar to the faithfull, I doe not see what remaineth for the generall intercession: For without these things all intercession is vaine. And seeing in the Lords pray∣er these two things are asked ioyntly, and together, to wit, remission of sinnes, and freedome from euill, who would endure such a bold forgery, whereby the Arminians doe pull asunder these things, and will haue Christ to obtaine remission of sinnes for all, but not freedome from the euill?

XXVI. And if Christ prayeth for all, he pray∣eth also for them whom hee knoweth doe sinne the sinne vnto death, for which Saint Iohn doth not suffer vs to pray, Iohn. 5.16.

XXVII. Yea, the Arminians here are not con∣stant to themselues, when they say that Christ did in∣tercede by a particular intercession for the faithfull, and for those whom the father gaue to the Sonne; for seeing they teach that the faithfull & godly men may fall from the faith & be condemned, it appeareth that they will haue Christ to intercede for many repro∣bates by a particular intercession, if many of the faith∣full are reprobates.

XXVIII. Arminius, p 70. against Perkins, doth bring for this purpose many things, which I doe not know whether they will be alowed by his followers. First, he thinks that Christ doth sacrifice himself for many, for whom he doth not make intercession: because his sa∣crificing was before his intercessiō: For he wil haue the sacrificing of Christ; to pertaine to his meriting, & his intercession to pertain to the application of his merit. These

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things seeme to me to be repugnant, not onely to the truth, but euen to common sence: For whosoeuer doth prepare himselfe to be a purging sacrifice for a∣nother, doth necessarily pray that the sacrifice which he is to offer, may be pleasing and acceptable for him for whom he doth offer himselfe for a sacrifice. And whosoeuer doth offer a price of redemption, doth first intreate this price may be receiued, as that Chryses in Homer speaking thus:

〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉. Release to me my louing daughter, and accept the gifts.

See in the first place his prayers, and then the offe∣ring of the price: Therefore intercession doth neces∣sarily goe before the sacrifice. Arminius addes. It is true indeede that Christ, in the daies of his flesh, offered vp prayers and teares to God the father; but those prayers were not made for the obtaining of those good things he merited for vs, (that is, for the obtaining of salua∣tion) but for the assistance of the spirit, that he might stand in the combat. An impious and wicked opinion; for by it, it is denyed that Christ prayed for our saluation be∣fore he died; when yet, Iohn 17. hee prayeth thus before his death: Keepe them in thy name. And, Father, I desire that those which thou hast giuen me, may be with me, that they may see the glory which thou hast giuen me. Arminius himselfe is ashamed of so false a doctrine; for by a certaine doubtfull Epanorthosis, or correction, he doth seeme to condemne that which hee said; for he addes. But if he did then offer prayers for the obtaining of this application, they did depend on his sacrifice that was to be finished, as if it were finished. That speech, But if, is the speech of one doubting, when yet it is a thing

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most certaine. But what is this against Perkins, who saith, that Christ doth not sacrifice himselfe for them for whom hee doth not pray? Surely these things which Arminius doth heape vp, are nothing to the purpose, nor doe they touch the matter: For although the prayers which Christ offered vp for our saluation before his death, are grounded on the merit of his death that was to come, yet that remaineth which Perkins saith, that Christ doth not sacrifice himselfe for them for whom hee doth not pray: For the death of Christ had not beene a sacrifice, vnlesse hee had prayed that it might be accepted of the father, for their life for whom he died: For griefe and torment is not of its owne nature a sacrifice, vnlesse there be also such a petition.

XXIX. I doe not deny, but that Christ in his death prayed for them that crucified him: But I de∣nie that he prayed for all without exception, but for them alone who did it by ignorance; for he saith: Fa∣ther forgiue them, for they know not what they doe, Luke 23.24. Whom a little after, as Saint Luke doth testi∣fie, were conuerted to the faith. Act. 2. and Chap. 3.17. Doth not Christ say this with an humane affe∣ction, and not as the redeemer? For, as he was man, he might wish well to those, whom as he was God, he knew were reprobates: Thus hee wept ouer the inha∣bitants of Ierusalem, the fall and reiection of which Citty, as he was God he had decreed.

XXX. And when the sectaries doe deny, that Christ on the crosse sustained the person of the elect, they doe openly impugne that speech of Christ, Iohn 10.11. I am that good shepheard, the good shepheard giueth

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his life for his sheepe. And Iohn 15.13. Greater loue then this hath no man, that one should lay downe his life for his friends. And Ephes. 5.25. Christ loued his Church and gaue himselfe for it. Christ therefore died for his sheepe; for his friends; for his Church; and what are these but the faithfull and elect? Can Pharaoh, Iudas, &c. in any respect, be called the sheepe of Christ? The Arminians answere, that they are cal∣led sheepe, not in respect of the present condition, but of that to come. A vaine thing: For the condi∣tion to come, was already present in the decree of God, in respect of which decree, they are called sheep before their conuersion, Iohn 10.16. For they are called sheepe, not onely because they were to ga∣ther themselus to the fould of Christ, but because God in his eternall counsell, decreed to giue them faith, by which they might gather themselues to the fould of Christ: For if they had not beene giuen to Christ, vntill they had ioyned themselues to Christ by faith, they had giuen themselues to Christ, before God had giuen them to Christ.

XXXI. In the meane time it is to be obserued, with what fidelity these sectaries doe deale here: For they will haue God to haue chosen those that be∣leeue: Neither doe we deny it, so that by beleeuers, those be vnderstood, who are to beleeue by the gift of God, and those to whom God hath decreed to giue faith: For we say that faith is considered as a thing to be performed, and not as a thing present and al∣ready performed; and when wee speake of Election, we say that beleeuers are called, not in respect of pre∣sent condition, but of that to come. This thing al∣though

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it be agreeable to reason, and to the word of God, yet it is reiected by these sectaries, as absurd: And yet the same men a little after doe vse the same thing, and yeeld to our part: For they will haue that speech, I giue my life for my sheepe, to be taken in respect, not of the present condition, but of the fu∣ture; and that they are called sheepe, because they shall gather themselues to the fould of Christ. There is no cause therfore why they should so much be mo∣ued, when we say, that beleeuers are elected, not in re∣spect of the present or past, but of the future conditi∣on, and by the beholding of that faith, by which, by the gift of God, they are to come to saluation. That which pleaseth them, when themselues say it, ought not to displease them when it is vsed by vs: Especially seeing the Scripture doth neuer expresly say, that be∣leeuers are elected; but doth cleerely pronounce that Christ died for his sheepe, and for the Church.

XXXII. For these causes the holy Scriptures, which doth sometimes say that Christ died for all, in that sence which I haue said, doth oftentimes shorten and restraine that generall speech, laying, that the blood of Christ was shed for many, Matth. 26.28. And that the sonne of man came, that he might giue his life, a redemption for many. And, that he was offered once for the sinnes of many. Heb. 9.28.

XXXIII. And if you would fetch the matter from the beginning, and from the couenant which God made with Adam, you shall finde that this couenant doth belong onely to them alone, whose heele the Serpent bruiseth, and whom hee hurteth with a light

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wound, and therefore onely to the faithfull, and the elect; for the rest, the serpent infecteth with his poi∣son, killeth them with his biting, and taketh them away with a deadly wound.

XXXIV. And if Christ by his death obtained re∣conciliation for Cain, Pharaoh, Iudas, &c. It must needs be, that Christ redeemed them: But he hath not re∣deemed them, because they alway doe and shall re∣maine captiue: Nor is it credible that Christ would pay the price of redemption for them, whom he knew were neuer to be freed; or that Sathan could take away those soules, redeemed by Christ with so great a price.

XXXV. Saint Paul, 2 Cor. 5.20. saith, That God was in Christ, reconciling the world vnto himselfe. If by the world, are vnderstood all and seuerall men with∣out exception; it must be beleeued, that not onely reconciliation was obtained for all and seuerall men, but also that they are reconciled in act; and that Iu∣das and Pharaoh were sometimes among the friends of God: which thing, Arminius himselfe doth not dare to say.

XXXVI. Finally, if Christ hath obtained recon∣ciliation for all men, euen for them who are without the couenant, then no man shall be borne without the couenant of Christ, and that will be false which Saint Paul saith, Ephes. 2.3. where speaking of the con∣dition in which we are borne, he saith, that by nature we are the children of wrath, that is, borne subiect to the curse: For how can any one be borne subiect to the curse, if reconciliation is obtained with God, for all men, without exception.

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CHAP. XXIX.

The obiections of the Arminians are dissolued, by which they endeauour to maintaine and confirme the obtaining of saluation for all men.

THE Arminians make many obiections a∣gainst these things, but preuaile nothing. First, they flourish with places of Scripture, and then they handle the matter with other reasons.

I. They bring that place of Saint Iohn, Chaper 3. Verse 16. Where God is said to haue so loued the world, that he gaue his Sonne: which place wee haue already taught, doth hurt Arminius; and that the sending of the same, is in the following words, restrai∣ned to the beleeuers alone. Whence it is manifest, that Christ was not sent, but to saue them who were to be∣leeue. I might say that the world is here taken for the faithfull alone; as, Iohn 6.33. and 1 Tim. 3.16. and Hb. 2.5. But although we grant, that by the world all mankinde are contained in the whole, yet it will not thence follow, that Christ purchased saluation for all, and particular men: for the obtaining of the salua∣tion of some men, doth abundantly testifie, that man∣kinde is loued by God.

II And it is worth the labour to know what mea∣ning the Arminians apply to Christ, and what accor∣ding to the Arminians is the sense of these words of Christ. God so loued the world, that he gaue his onely be∣goten Sonne, that whosoeuer beleeueth in him, should not perish, but haue euerlasting life. According to the

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doctrine of Arminius, this must be the sense of these words; God so loued all mankinde, with a loue where∣with he hath not willed their saluation, that he decreed to send his sonne, before he thought of sauing man, to pur∣chase for himselfe the power of sauing man, and afterward he decreed to giue euery man power of beleeuing, if he him∣selfe would, that so he might haue eternall life. A monster of Doctrine, and a new Gospell.

III. They assault vs also with the words of Saint Iohn, 1 Epist. 2. Chap. 2. v. where Christ is said to be the propitiation for the sinnes of the whole world. And out of the first Chapter of Saint Iohn; where hee is called the Lambe, taking away the sins of the world. But by these, they effect nothing; for this is said, be∣cause in the whole world no mans sinnes are remit∣ted, but by Christ. In the same sense that 1 Cor. 15.22. Saint Paul saith, In Christ all men are made aliue; be∣cause no man is made aliue, but by him. So hee that should say, that Hypocrates taught all Graecia and Italy the art of Physicke, did not say that all and seuerall men of Graecia and Italy learned Physicke of him, but that no man learned Physicke but from him. For it is manifest, that Christ hath not taken away the sinnes of all and seuerall men, because very many remaine in sinne, and are condemned for their sinnes.

IV. They doe colourably boast of that place, 1 Tim. 2.4 God would haue all men to be saued, and come to the knowledge of the truth. And, Verse 6. Christ gaue him∣felfe a ransome for all. Also that to Titus, Chap. 2. The grace of God, that bringeth saluation vnto all men, hath ap∣peared: But that here, by all, are vnderstood any; and men, of whatsoeuer state and condition, the very con∣text

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and coherence of the place doth proue. In that place to Timothy, the Apostle would haue Kings to be prayed for; in that place to Titus, hee commandeth seruants to be faithfull, and not to purlome. Of this exhortation, this is the cause and reason; because the promise of saluation did belong to Kings, although at that time they were strangers from Christ; and to ser∣uants, although they were of an abiect and base state; neither is any condition of men excluded from salua∣tion. Saint Austin doth thus take this place of the first to Timothy, Enchirid. ad Laurent. Cap. 103. And Thomas in his commentary vpon this Epistle. And this thing is confirmed by the very words of the Apostle; for he saith, God would haue all men be saued, and come to the knowledge of the truth: Now it is manifest by expe∣rience, that God doth not giue, yea, nor doth not offer to all and particular men the knowledge of the truth.

V. It is frequent in the Scripture, to take the word all, for the word any, as Luke 12.42. Ye tithe Mint and Rue, & omneolus, and all manner of hearbs. And Mat. 9.35. Christ healed, omnem morbum, euery disease, for e∣uery kinde of disease. You haue the like example, Colos. 1.28. In this sense, Heb. 2. Christ is said to haue dyed for all.

VI. Furthermore, there is no doubt, but that the Apostle commandeth vs to pray, not onely for Kings in generall, but also for all seuerall Kings. For we, to whom the secrets of Election are vnknowne, ought to hope well of euery one: But he that commandeth vs to pray for Nero, doth not therefore determine that God will saue Nero, but onely forbiddeth vs to de∣spaire of him.

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VII. The sense therefore of these words, God would haue all men to be saued; is this: God doth inuite men of all sorts to saluation, and doth exclude no condition of men from saluation. For if God should absolutely will, or should seriously desire all and particular men to be saued, there would not be wanting meanes to him, whereby he might effect what hee would, and be made parta∣ker of his desire, his iustice yet remaining intire, and mans liberty being not touched, nor infrin∣ged.

VIII. That place maketh no more to the purpose, which they bring out of Rom. 14.15. Destroy not him with thy meate, for whom Christ dyed: For to destroy there, is not to condemne, but to scandalize and to of∣fend the conscience of any; by which deede, as much as is in vs, we would lead him to destruction: For to de∣stroy any one absolutely, is not in our power. So with the Apostle, 2 Cor. 10.8. to destroy, is the same thing, as to offend with scandall, and to slacken him that is doing the workes of piety.

IX. In the second Epistle of Peter, Chap 2. Vers. 1. Christ is said to haue redeemed the false Prophets, who denyed him: but there it is not spoken of re∣demption from eternall death, but of the freedome from ignorance and errour, and the darkenesse of that age, by the light of the Gospell, which those false Prophets did corrupt, by the mingling of false doctrine: For to take redemption for any kinde of freedome, is vsuall in the Scripture; insomuch, that resurrection is called the redemption of our bodies, Rom. 8.22. Ephes. 4.30.

X. In the same Epistle, Chap. 3. ver. 9. Peter saith,

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God is not willing that any should perish: to wit, because he is not the cause of the perishing of any one; and because he admitteth all who are conuerted, neither doth he reiect any one: But he is not bound to restore to all, those powers which were lost by mans fault, nor to giue faith to all, seeing man by his owne fault brought vpon himselfe the inability of beleeuing, as wee haue proued at large in the eleauenth Chap∣ter.

XI. Ezechiel 18.23. God saith these words; I am not delighted with the death of a sinner, but that he should be conuerted, and liue. These words say nothing else, then that God will not the death of that sinner who is conuerted: But if he be not conuerted, Arminius himselfe will not deny, but that God doth will his death; as the Iudge doth will the punishment of him that is gui ty. God is not delighted with the death of a sinner, as hee is a man, but yet no man can deny, but that God loueth the execution of his iu∣stice.

XII. Indeede in the 1 Tim. 4.10. God is called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the sauiour of all men. But the Apostle there spea∣keth of the preseruation in this present life, and of the prouidence of God, which is extended to the preser∣uation of all men: which care, Dauid, Psal. 36. doth extend euen to the beasts, for there God is called the preseruer of men and beasts. The precedent words of the Apostle doth declare this: We hope in the liuing God; for he speaketh of God, as he doth giue life to things created by him. Alike place you haue, Act. 17.25.

XIII. Arminius, pag. 220. against Perkins, doth bring the promise made to Adam, concerning the

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seede of the Woman, which saith hee, doth belong to all particular men. I answere, that by this promise it is onely promised that Sathan shall be ouercome, by the seede of the Woman; but that it belongeth to all and particular men, it is no where said. The do∣ctrine of the Gospell preached to Adam, doth not so pertaine to all his posteritie, as the precepts of the na∣turall law; because the obedience of the law is a na∣turall debt; but the doctrine of the Gospell is a super∣naturall remedy. Thence it is that the sinne of Adam against the law of God, is imputed to all his posteritie; but his faith, by which he beleeued the Gospell, is not imputed to his posteritie. Nor if Adam, by his incre∣dulitie, had refused the promise of the seede of the wo∣man, had therefore his posteritie fell from the hope of saluation: Nay, what that this promise of the seede of the Woman, to breake the Serpents head, is manifest∣ly restrained to the faithfull alone? For Sathan doth bruise the heele of the children of God alone, seeing he killeth the rest with a deadly wound.

XIV. The Arminians being driuen from the ho∣ly Scripture, flie to their reasons: and as they vse the Scripture without reason, so they vrge reasons with∣out Scripture. They charge vpon vs this syllogisme, as it were with a great dart, when yet it is but a slen∣der twig.

Whatsoeuer all men are bound to beleeue, is true. But all men are bound to beleeue that Christ dyed for them: Therefore that is true.

The minor part of this Syllogisme is false, and doth beare many exceptions For they to whom Christ hath not beene preached, and who haue heard nothing of

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the death of Christ, are not bound to beleeue that Christ dyed for them, which yet are the greatest part of the world: Neither are they, to whom Christ is preached, bound to beleeue absolutely and without condition that Christ died for them, but on this con∣dition, if they be conuerted: For if they shall perse∣uere in impenitency, they are bound to beleeue that the death of Christ doth nothing pertaine to them.

XV. Arminius, pag. 77. against Perkins, and his sectaries, doe repeate and heape vp these things, euen to tediousnesse. If there be any, for whose sinnes God would not haue satisfaction to be made to himselfe by the death of Christ, then in no right can faith be required of them, nor can Christ be made their iudge, neither can the reprobate be blamed for refusing the grace of redemption, because it did not pertaine to him. I answere, all these things are grounded on this false supposition, that faith is required of all men: for wee haue already taught, that it is not required of them who neuer had any meanes to know Christ; as also that they to whom Christ is preached, are not bound absolutely and without condition, to beleeue that they are re∣deemed by the death of Christ, but on this condition, that they be conuerted. They to whom the Gospell hath not beene preached, shall not be condemned for the reiection of the Gospell, but for the breach of the Law: of which iudgement, Christ by his father is ap∣pointed to be the Iudge; who doth leaue vnder the Law, those whom he doth not saue by the Gospell. But they who by their incredulity, haue refused the grace offred them by the Gospell, are iustly condem∣ned

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for refusing that grace, not because they haue re∣iected that which pertaineth to vnbeleeuers and im∣penitent persons, but because hauing despised the condition, they haue neglected that which was offe∣red to them vnder the condition of beleeuing; which condition, although they cannot fulfill by their natu∣rall powers, yet it is their debt, for man himselfe, by his owne fault, brought vpon himselfe the disabilitie of beleeuing, which disability God is not bound to cure in all: Of which thing it is largely spoken, Chap. 11. But (say they) Reprobates cannot be blamed for despising that grace which doth not belong vnto them. But they are quite out of the way: For repro∣bates cannot be accused for despising grace, if they did despise it, because they knew it did not belong vnto them: But they therefore reiect it, because they loue not Christ, and they are led to the contempt of it by their owne will: For Reprobates doe not there∣fore beleeue, because saluation doth not belong vnto them; but rather, saluation doth not belong vnto them, because they doe not beleeue, and they draw destruction to themselues, by their owne incredulity and impenitency. It is true indeede, that reprobati∣on is the cause why God will not giue faith and re∣pentance to this or that man: But it is not the cause which doth put in and brede impenitency, and in∣credulity in man: Wherefore that speech of Christ, Iohn. 10.16 Yee beleeue not because ye are not of my sheepe, is so to be taken as if hee had said, Therefore God doth not giue you faith, which is peculiar to the elect, because yee are not elected.

XVI. This is the obiection of Greuinchouius, P. 19.

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If election be before the obtayning of saluation, then God first decreed of the communicating of saluation, be∣fore he decreed of the obtaining of it. But I am so far from thinking this to be absurd, that I beleeue it is plainely necessary: For it is alwaies first thought of the end, before of the meanes to the end. The saluation of man was the end God propounded to himselfe; that this was the end is hence manifest, because this is last in execution: Therefore God first thought of gi∣uing saluation, before he thought of the obtayning of saluation by Christ, because this is the meanes by which he doth leade vs to saluation.

XVII. The same man, Page 87. doth thus dis∣pute: They to whom this price (being fit to saue them) is offered, if they themselues will embrace it, for them also it is payed by the purpose of God: But it is offered to Repro∣bates on this condition, if they will embrace it; therefore it is payed also for them by the purpose of God. I answere, that the minor part is not vniuersally true; for this price is not offered for all the Reprobates; and the maior part doth offend against the rules of precogni∣tion or supposition, which will haue the subiect of euery Axiome or sentence, to be, or to haue being. For examples sake; this sentence, Whosoeuer fulfilleth the law is saued, is not false: But the falshood of it is in the presupposition, whereby it is presupposed, That some men fulfill the Law. The Maior of this Sy∣logisme hath the same fault: For the subiect of it, is imaginary and not existent: For the subiect is this, They to whom this price is offered to embrace it if they will; I deny that there are such men to be found: For this price is not offered to the Reprobates, if they will

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embrace it, seeing it is most certaine that they will not, and that they cannot will; of which disabilitie man himselfe is the cause: Neither is this price offe∣red to the Elect if they will, but God in offering that price, doth worke in them that they should will.

XVIII. And when they speake of the suffici∣ency of the death of Christ, as they extoll the efficacy of it, so they say that it is sufficient, not onely for men, but also for the diuells. Which if it be true, it must needes be, that God doth take away and cut off something from the price of the death of his Sonne; and doth shorten the efficacy of it. But although I know that the price and dignity of the death of Christ, doth not depend on his humane nature, but on the infinite excellency of his diuine nature, yet I denie that his death is fit for the redemption of diuels, because the iustice of God requireth, that man who sinned, should beare the punishment, and it was need∣full that the mediator betweene God and man should haue reference to both, in the communion of his nature: Therefore to saue man, he tooke not the Angels, but the seede of Abraham, Heb. 2. And if the death of a man is sit to satisfie for the sinnes of Angels, then the torments of an Angell, if Christ had taken the nature of Angells, had beene fit to satisfie for the sinnes of man. Finally, when it is spoken of the fitnesse, is not to be disputed of the sufficiency: For otherwise, it might also be disputed whether the death of Christ be sufficient to saue Horses or Beetles, and to giue them immortality; which surely is not without im∣pietie.

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XIX. These in a manner are the arguments wherwith these innouators do defend themselus: But they doe exagitate and wrong our opinion, after their owne manner, which is euill; for they change it before they impugne it: By this meanes they doe not re∣fute our opinion, but their owne forgeries. For ex∣amples sake, Christ, Iohn 3.17. speaketh thus: God sent not his sonne into the world, to condemne the world, but that the world through him might be saued. Greuin∣chouius, Page 21. doth faigne that wee thus interprete this place: God sent his Sonne into the Elect; When notwithstanding there, by the world, is manifestly vn∣derstood this region of the earth, and his habitation among men. He, wantonly sporting with an vncon∣stant licentiousnesse, doth attribute many such things to vs. This one example which I will adde shall be instead of many, Page 76. hee doth bring vs in thus speaking: Ye Reprobates, why doe you cease; Hauing got∣ten so fit a price of redemption, that if ye will beleeue, or eate through a Rock, ye may goe right from hence into the kingdome of Heauen? And a little after, Hee hath also vouchsafed you, to wit, the Reprobates, his calling, al∣though ye are appointed to eternall punishments, for no de∣sert of yours, that being more blinded and stupified, ye might procure to your selues a greater iudgement. Behold the mans pastime, and his Theologicall spleene. I doe not doubt but his heart leapt for ioy when hee writ these things, as a thing brauely carried: But the good man doth trifle, and fight with his owne shadow, for these things doe quite differ from our opinion. For we doe not command the Reprobates, that is, they that perseuere in impenitency & vnbeleefe, to beleeue

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a lie, or while they perseuere in impenitency, to flat∣ter themselues with a vaine hope, vnder the pretence of faith in Christ: Nor doe we say that they are ap∣pointed to eternall punishments for no desert of theirs, seeing they haue procured this destruction to themselues by their owne sinnes: Nor doe we teach that any one is onely therefore called by God, that he might procure to himselfe greater iudgement, al∣though oftentimes, men by their calling are made in∣excusable, because by the knowledge of their dutie, the fault of the neglect of their duty is made greater, and it is a greater fault, not to doe what you know. then not to know what you should doe. The scope and intent of God calling to the Reprobates, is to re∣quire of them that which they owe; to the elect is, to giue the efficacy of their calling, that they might be saued; to them both, that hee might make knowne what is acceptable to him, and what obedience is plea∣sing to him.

XX. But Greuinchouius shall not goe scot-free, it seemeth good to lay these things vpon him, and to present to your view the prodigious doctrine of the Arminians, the curtaine being, as it were, drawne a∣side, and that without any false accusation: For put∣ting on the person of an Arminian, I may thus speake to the Reprobates.

Be of a good courage ye Re∣probates, for although ye are reprobates, yet ye may be saued. It is true indeede that no reprobates are saued; but yet there is none of them who may not be saued. For Christ hath obtained for you saluati∣on, but not the application of saluation: He hath obtained good things for you, but hee hath not ob∣tained

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for you, that you should euer possesse those good things in act: For he hath obtained that re∣conciliation, which in the very moment wherein he procured it, he certainly knew would not profit you. Hee hath obtained for you the remission of those sinnes which he certainely knew were not to be remitted: For this reconciliation is not applied but on a condition which hee knew was not to be fulfilled. And that ye may know how well Christ wisheth you, I tell you that hee doth intercede for you with a generall intercession, but not with a par∣ticular, without which no man is saued. For by the death of Christ, reconciliation is obtained for you, but not the communication of the reconciliation: Neither is the application of the obtained reconci∣liation procured for you; but God by it hath got∣ten to himselfe liberty and faculty to saue you: By which death, Christ is made a redeemer, without a∣ny certaine purpose of God who were to be redee∣med, and is made the head of the Church, without any members that are certaine. God indeede sen∣ding his Sonne into the world, was moued with some inclination and affection towards men; but without any certaine will of sauing men: For the decree of sending his Sonne, went in order before the decree of sauing. By which decree, all men are elected, although many from eternity were repro∣bated. God indeede did desire to saue all and that seriously, but he is disappointed of his end by you, neither hath hee attained to what hee did desire, which doth very much grieue him. Know also this, O reprobates, that Christ procured and purchased

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saluation for you all, but he is not willing it should be knowne but to some few, when yet without this knowledge no man can be saued. Also although he hath obtained reconciliation for you, yet hee hath not obtained faith for you, without which there is no saluation: Wherefore God calleth you to sal∣uation, but not after a congruent and agreeable manner, whereby they that are called doe not fol∣low. And yet be not out of heart, God giueth to you all the power of beleeuing, that you may be∣leeu in act, if ye wil, for it is in the powr of your own free-will to vse grace, or not to vse it, that ye may be saued, although certainly you are to be damned.
Kindely spoken; yea, rather wickedly spoken, and to the scorne of God and men: For who doth not trem∣ble at the shape of so prodigious a doctrine? Who doth not grieue at the case of the Christian Church, to the deforming of which, and to the turning of it into a monster, no slow wits haue conuerted all their subtlety? When therfore Greuiuchouius, Page 70. be∣ing touched with pitty towards vs, doth professe that he is ready to helpe our infirmity and ignorance, it is a doubt whether he be worthier of laughter, or of pitty.

CHAP. XXIX.

That it was long agoe disputed whether Christ died for all, but in a farre diuerse sence.

SAint Austin being dead, his wrightings of Pre∣destination, of Grace, and of Free will were di∣uersly receiued by diuers men. This disease especially

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possessed Aquitania. Amongst these contentions issu∣ed out the heresie of those that were called Prede∣stinati, whereof Sigebert in his Chronicle to the yeere 415. doth make mention. These taught, that the in∣deauour of good workes did nothing profit a repro∣bate man; and againe, that wicked deedes did no∣thing hurt the man that was elected, although hee gaue himselfe ouer to lust, gluttony, and rapine. Lu∣cidus, a certaine priest of Aquitania, was infected with this error, to whom there is extant an Epistle of Fau∣stus, an Aquitan, Bishop of Rhegiū, whereunto are sub∣scribed the names of eleuen Bishops of the Arelaten counsell: In this Epistle an Anathema is laid vpon them, who say that Christ died not for all; also on them who say that God would not haue all men to be saued: Which that it was truely spoken by Fau∣stus, and according to the Catholike faith, the Arela∣ten Synode hath rightly iudged: For the Synode beleeued that this was spoken by Faustus, against Pe∣lagius, who seeing hee denied originall sinne, and thought that a man might perfectly fulfill the law by his owne free-will, it is no maruaile if hee said that Christ died not for all; for why should Christ die for them that were not sinners? Or what neede is there of Phisicke where there is no disease? Or what neede of the Gospell to him who hath fulfilled the law? But Faustus a crafty and subtle man, imposed it vpon the Arelaten Synode, with ambiguous and deceitfull words, wherewith that Epistle was cloathed, which hee offered to the Synode. For afterward he expla∣ned his meaning in the booke which hee writ, De gratia qua saluamur, where hee doth more incline to

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Pelagius, which booke Gennadius, and Sydonius Apolli∣naris doe so mention, that they seeme to thinke hono∣rably of it: But at the same time, Caesarius Bishop of Arles, and Auitus Bishop of Vienna, writ against this Booke, as Ado doth testifie in his Chronicle, to whom Fulgentius Bishop of Ruspe in Africa ioyned himselfe: Whereby we may see that the authority of Faustus is not so great, that it ought to be of any estimation here: Neither was this question euer handled in that sence that now it is; for there was neuer question made (as farre as I know) before this age, whether Christ by his death purchased saluation for all and se∣uerall men, or whether by his death he obtained re∣conciliation as well for Pharaoh as for Peter.

CHAP. XXXI.

Whether God loue all men equally, and doth alike desire the saluation of all.

I. THe question whereby it is demanded whether God doth equally loue all men, and so desire their saluation, is an addition to the former question, and doth depend on it: For if remis∣sion of sinnes and saluation are not purchased for all men by the death of Christ, it is plaine that all men are not equally loued by God: wherefore these inno∣uators doe defend themselues in either question, by the same places of Scripture. These are the words of Arnoldus, pag. 379 God, in a generall will and affection, doth equally desire the saluation of all men. Greuinchoui∣us, pag. 335. doth consent to this: The will of God, and

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his affection of sauing men, is equall towards all. For in that series and order of the foure decrees, in which they comprehend the whole doctrine of Predesti∣nation, this is the third; that God decreed to ad∣minister to all men sufficient meanes to faith and re∣pentance.

But I suppose that these things are affirmed by them, not because they beleeue, and seriously thinke so, but that they might maintaine their other opini∣ons, which cannot stand, if this opinion fall: for they doe openly repugne the Scripture, experience, yea, and themselues.

II. Which before we demonstrate, the reader is to be admonished, that loue in God is not an affection, nor passion, nor inclination of the minde, nor any de∣sire; for God is not touched by these passions, as be∣ing impassible, and not subiect to affections: But as God is said then to be angry or to hate, when he will punish or destroy; so loue in God is a eertaine and sure will of doing good to the creature. Whence it commeth to passe, that hee may rightly be said to be loued by God, to whom hee hath giuen or hath de∣creed to giue more and better good things.

III. This difference is manifestly seene, not one∣ly betweene the good and the euill, but also betweene good men themselues, to some one of whom God hath giuen more vnderstanding, and doth measure out his spirit in a larger & greater measure; but to ano∣ther more sparingly, and as it were with a striked mea∣sure: to one he giueth two talents, to another fiue, according to his owne good pleasure: Not onely gi∣uing many things to the best men, but also making

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them better, while hee giueth them many things.

IV. And here I cannot but meruaile, with what face Greuinchouius, pag. 335. dares to say, that God gaue fie talents to one, in the hope of receiuing more gaine from him then the other; as if hope, or feare, or gaine, could happen to God: or as if he, who so carefully encreased his estate by the fiue talents put out to vsury, had not from God the will and power of imploying them so happily. God is vnaptly said to hope for that which himselfe is to worke. These subtill men are wont to say, when they are vrged, that these things are spo∣ken by an Anthropopathy to mans capacity; but in the meane while, they abuse these improper words, to bring in their owne speculations, and to build vp their owne opinions. In preaching and speaking to the people, this impropriety of speech is to be borne with, but not in disputing, and when the importance of truth is to be considered and weighed.

V. Concerning this inequality of the gifts of God, I would haue the Arminians shew me, why God hath giuen more gifts to Paul, then to Marke or Cleophas, that were otherwise holy and good men: Was it be∣cause Saint Paul before his conuersion, was more in∣clined to the faith of Christ, and better affected then they? Or because Paul vsed that common and gene∣rall grace, which happeneth euen to the reprobates, better then Marke? These are trifles; for there was then none more deadly enemie to the name of Christ, then Paul. What then was the cause? why, because it so seemed good to God, who doth with his owne what he will; and who in distributing the gifts of the holy Ghost doth not follow an Arithmeticall or Geo∣metricall

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proportion; for he doth giue vnequall good things to them that are equally euill, according to his owne pleasure, as being a debtor to no man, nor sub∣iect to any Law.

VI. But the difference and inequality of the loue of God, will more clearely appeare, if those whom God doth call by his word, and to whom he doth giue the spirit of adoption, and faith, and by them saluati∣on, be compared with other men: Many (saith Christ, Mat. 22.4.) are called, few chosen. Behold here three sorts of men: some that are not called; some that are called, and not elected; some that are called and e∣lected: all which, that they are confusedly and equal∣ly loued, and that God doth alike desire their saluati∣on, cannot be said or thought.

VII. Christ, Iohn 6.44. saith: No man can come to me, vnlesse my father which sent me, draw him. Where that it is spoken of the drawing to faith, and by faith to saluation, no man doth doubt. Secing therefore by these words it is manifest, that all are not so drawne; it is certaine that they are most loued, who are so drawne. Faith is the gift of God, but all men haue not faith, and it is giuen but to few; therefore these are more loued: So the spirit of Adoption is a prero∣gatiue of the sonnes of God, therefore also these are more loued.

VIII. Doth not God visite some people from on high, and doth vouchsafe them the preaching of his word, others being neglected? as Saint Paul teach∣eth, Acts 14.16. saying, God in times past suffred the Gentiles to walke in their owne wayes. At this time also there are very many nations drowned in deepe darke∣nesse,

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to whom, not so much as the report or name of Christ hath come.

IX. Were the Corinthians and Philippians, who li∣ued before the time of the Apostles, so much loued by God, as their posteritie was, who by the preaching of Saint Paul, were conuerted to the faith? Can it be said, that God did alike wish the saluation of them, as of these?

X. What should I speake of the men of Tyre and Sydon, whose saluation, if Christ had wished, as well as he did the saluation of the Iewes; it were a maruaile why he would not make knowne the Gospell to them, especially seeing he giueth them this testimony, that they were more prone to repentance, then the men of Capernaum?

XI. Acts 16.6.7. Paul endeauouring to preach the Gospell in Asia and Bythinia, the spirit of God for∣biddeth him, and commandeth him to passe ouer in∣to Macedonia: Certainely it appeareth, that God did not equally will the saluation of the Bythinians, and the Macedonians, seeing he would haue the Gospell rather to be preached to these, then to them; and presen∣ted the necessary meanes of saluation to these, when he denied it to them. I confesse indeede, that after some yeares the Gospell came into Bythinia, but in the meane time, many dyed in Bythinia, who had not the meanes of comming to the knowledge of Christ: whose saluation that God did equally desire, as hee did the saluation of the Macedonians, to whom he com∣manded Paul to hasten, there is no man will beleeue, but he that doth willingly harden his minde to resist the truth: No otherwise, then if I should say that the

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Physition doth equally desire the recouery of two that are sicke of the same disease, and yet doth pro∣uide physicke for the one, and will not prouide for the other.

XII. When Christ saith, Iohn 10.16. that he hath o∣ther sheep which he hath not yet gathered: did he loue those sheepe which were not yet gathered, but were to be gathered in his time, no more then other men, whom he hath not onely not drawne by his word, but not so much as vouchsafed to call? Surely if God did equally will the saluation of all and singular men, he would equally supply to all men the meanes of salua∣tion: and he would not giue to many people onely a shadowed light, and such meanes, by which being a∣lone, the Arminians themselues haue not yet da∣red to affirme that any man hath come to salua∣tion.

XIII. Notable is that of Christ, Mat. 11.25. where he giueth thanks to his father, that he hath hidden the doctrine of saluation from the wise, and had reuealed it to babes. But why? did he as much loue them from whom he had hid the doctrine of saluation? Arnold. pag 413 & 414. doth depraue and corrupt the words of Christ: For he will haue Christ to giue thankes, be∣cause his father had reuealed to babes those things which were hidden from men of vnderstanding: But Christ doth not onely say, that these things were hid∣den from the wise, but doth expresly say, that God hid these things from them.

XIV. That place of Saint Paul, Rom. 9. doth trouble the Sectaries, where it is said, that God loued Iacob, and hated Esau, before they had done good, or

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euill. We haue therefore God himselfe professing that he doth not equally loue men that are equall by na∣ture, and whereof neither is better then the other; and that not because any one hath done any good, or shall doe any good, but of his meere good pleasure, whereby he hath mercy on whom hee will: For al∣though Malachie saith, that the dominion of Iacob ouer his brother was an effect of this loue, and hatred; yet the Apostle conscious and priuie of the minde and meaning of God, will haue this to be an example, or a type of Election, according to his purpose, and doth extend the words of God to the worke of our sal∣uation. Wee neede not be diligent in so clere a matter.

XV. The Arminians doe couer themselues against this shower of Arguments, with that their distinction of the antecedent and consequent will of God. They say that God doth loue some men more then other by his consequent will, that is, by that will which is after the faith and repentance of man: For God doth loue them most, whom he fore seeth will beleeue, and by their owne free-will, are to vse grace well. But by his primary and antecedent will, God doth alike loue all men, and doth equally desire the saluation of all; and therefore he doth giue to all men sufficient grace for faith, and so for saluation. And the cause why the Gospell is not preached to all, they say, is not the will of God, but either the negligence of Christians, or the indignity and vnworthinesse of the people, or else the sinnes of their ancestors, who haue reiected grace, be∣ing offered.

XVI. Certainely this is a deadly speech, and is

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directly contrary, not onely to the Scripture, but al∣so to it selfe. For while they bring reasons, why God doth not offer his Gospell to all, vnawares they yeeld to our party; for they lay downe the causes, why God doth not equally loue all: But the question is not, why God loueth some men more then others, but whether God doth loue all men equally; therefore they entangle themselues. And how absurd that di∣stinction is of the will of God into antecedent and consequent, how contumelious against God, in that sence in which it is taken by the sectaries, wee haue taught at large, Chap. 5.

XVII. Moreouer, they teach, that God is often disappointed of his antecedent will, and that the loue of God to vs is then mutable, if he loue vs with his con∣sequent will, that is, by his will which is after our loue and faith, and our owne will. It is a wicked thing to desire, that the immutability of the loue of God to∣wards vs, should be after our loue, and should de∣pend on our will; for the loue of God cannot be certaine, if it be grounded on the loue wherewith we first loue him. That therefore the loue of God to vs might be certaine and immutable, it must needes goe before our loue, as Saint Iohn teacheth, 1. Epist. 4.19. Ye loue him, because he loued you first.

XVIII. And if God by his consequent will loued one man more then another, because hee fore∣saw hee would beleeue, and vse grace well; then God shall not sperate man, but man seperate himselfe; con∣trary to that of Saint Paul 1 Cor. 4.7. Who seperateth thee, &c. And this man shall be loued more by God then another, because he loued God more.

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XIX. Then also that speech of the Apostle will faile, Rom. 9. It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy; if the will of man doth goe before the will of God, whereby hee will certainly and immutably haue mercy vpon vs. For the Arminians teach, that the antecedent will of God may be resisted, but his consequent will cannot. It must needes be therefore, that they say that the A∣postle speaketh of the consequent will, and of that loue whereby God loueth vs by his consequent will, seeing that the Apostle doth there adde, Who hath resi∣sted his will? And truely here the good men are held, intangled with a knot, from which they will neuer vnlose themselues. For if they say that the Apostle in this place doth speake of the antecedent will of God, which may be resisted, then they fall foule vpon that which is there said, Who hath resisted his will? But if they will haue it to be spoken of the consequent will of God (which is grounded on the will of man, and the right vsing of grace, and is after our will) they are refuted by that other speech of the Apostle, It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy. But Saint Paul, doth directly teach here, that the will of man, and the fore-seeing of the right vse of grace and of faith (which the will of hauing mercy should follow) is excluded by this will of God which cannot be resisted.

XX. Let the Arminians tell me why God loued Iacob and hated Esau before they had done eyther good or euill: Surely he was not preferred before him by the Consequent will of God, and which was after the faith or workes of Iacob; seeing that Saint Paul

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doth directly remoue from the election according to the purpose of God, the consideration of all good which they eyther had done or were to do; for the A∣postle should speak vnproperly if he should exclude on∣ly the consideration of the good done before his birth, and not the consideration of the good which Iacob was afterward to doe, seeing no man was ignorant that Iacob could not doe any good before his birth: Yea, if he could haue done, yet the fore-seeing of the good to be done after his birth, would no lesse dero∣gate from the election of free grace, then the fore-see∣ing of the good which should goe before his birth. And if God electing had had respect to the good which Iacob was to doe, Saint Paul would not haue appeased him that pleadeth with God, and doth scru∣pulously enquire; seeing that the reason had beene ready, to wit, that the one was preferred before the other, because God fore-saw the faith and workes of the one. Finally that speech, It is not of him that wil∣leth, nor of him that runneth, doth exclude all indeauour and helpe of man from the causes of election, and of the good will of God, by which he vnchangeably hath mercy vpon man.

XXI. But those examples and testimonies which we haue brought out of the Scripture, doe no lesse establish the inequality of the loue of God, by his antecedent will, then by his consequent will. For when Christ saith, Iohn 6. No man can come to me, vn∣lesse my father draw him, hee speaketh of the calling which goeth before faith, and which is peculiar but to some men. The same is to be iudged of the other examples. For what? Did God, preaching to the

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Iewes, and not to the men of Tire, lesse loue the Ty∣rians then the Iewes, by his consequent will, that is, because he saw that the Tyrians were worse affected, and that they were lesse disposed to beleeue, then the Iewes? No sure, for Christ doth contrarily testifie that the Tyrians were more prone to repentance then the Iewes.

XXII. Had the Corinthians or Romanes that liued in the age of the Apostles, more inclination to faith then their ancestors that liued an hundred yeers before? Did God not vouchsafe the doctrine of sal∣uation to the Corinthians and Ephesians, who liued a little before the birth of Christ, because their ance∣stors had refused it? But if this were the cause, why then did he inlighten with his sauing doctrine their children, which proceeded from the same ancestors? Surely because it so seemed good to God, who for his owne goodnesse doth bestow more benefits vpon them whom hee loueth mo•••• although they are neuer a whit better disposed to ••••ith and Repen∣tance.

XXIII. But why did God call Paul with so effectu∣all a calling, in the very height of his hatred against the Church, and of a wolfe made him a sheep, of a sheep a shepheard? was it done because God perceiued in him some inclination to faith in Christ? Or because he did well vse vniuersall grace? No sure: For at that time, like a Tyger, hee raged against the fould of Christ. But God did not loue him any whit the more by his con∣sequent will, that is, for the fore-seeing of faith, see∣ing that the faith of Paul was an effect of the loue of God: Nor was he loued because he was to be faith∣full,

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but that he might be faithfull; as he himselfe wit∣nesseth, 1 Cor. 7. where he saith, That he obtained mer∣cy, that he might be faithfull.

XXIV. And seeing as it commeth to passe, that God doth bestow vpon a man that is euill, and borne of bad parents, more of his grace and gifts, and doth effectually conuert him, that where sinne doth a∣bound, there grace might abound. Rom. 5.20. I would know whether God would be more liberall to an euill man, by his antecedent, or by his consequent will: If by his antecedent will, we haue ouercome; if by his consequent will, let the Arminians tell me, what will of the euill man went before his effectuall calling, which could not be found in another which is lesse e∣uill? Will they say, that he that was more euill be∣fore his conuersion, did thirst, was but a little euill, and did the will of his father, as they speake? They shall more easily draw oyle out of a pumise stone, then they shall finde in Saint Paul before his conuersion; in the theefe before his crucifying; or in them to whom, for a heart of stone God giueth a heart of flesh, any such dispositions, before regeneration.

XXV. Adde to these, that the Scripture saith, Act. 14.16. God in times past suffered all nations to walke in their owne waies. Here I demand whether God did so much loue these nations, and did alike wish their saluation, as he loued their posteritie, whom he afterward called with an effectuall calling by his Gospell. I suppose, that no man hath so brazen a face, that he dareth affirme it: Neither doe the Armi∣nians deny, but that the sauing calling by the Gospell, is a very great argument of the loue of God to any

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nation: But hauing bent their disputation another way, they doe search into the causes, why God doth more vehemently loue some then others, which is that very thing which we would haue.

XXVI. Finally, if God doth equally will to all men the end, that is, saluation, then also hee will equally suggest vnto them the meanes to the end, to wit, the word, faith, and the spirit: But he doth not suggest these things equally to all; neither can any thing be imagined more absurd, then that God should equally will, that all particular men should beleeue, and be saued, and yet suggest to some men the meanes that are congruent and fit, and will certainely profit; but to others, meanes that are not congruent nor fit, and that certainely will not profit, which yet is the doctrine of Arminius.

XXVII. And in setting downe the causes of the greater loue of God towards some one nation, and his lesse loue towards some other, it cannot be said how coldly they deale: Sometimes they make the disposition of the one, which is better then the o∣ther, to be the cause; which we deny. For Rome, or Corinth, or Ephesus, were not more prone to piety a little before the light of the Gospell was brought to them, then they were some ages before: Yea, at that time, prodigious lust, riot, pride, and rapine, had so immeasurably increased, that they could goe no fur∣ther. At the same time there were many nations e∣uen stupid with their barbarous lewdnesse, and see∣med more worthy of pitty, if the heauenly calling were gouerned by mans reason, and not by the se∣cret purpose of God. Surely before the comming of

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Saint Paul, God had much people at Corinth, as God himselfe saith, Acts 18.10. and that among the most foule and common lusts of that most impure citie: For which elects sake, God in his appointed time, sent to Corinth such an excellent Apostle, so cleere a trumpet of the Gospell, whose preaching and miracles he vsed, to the conuersion of them who be∣longed to his election.

XXVIII. Finally, seeing that there is no man, who by himselfe, and of his owne nature, is not vndis∣posed to faith and conuersion, no man that is not dead in sinne; no man that is not vnable to follow God calling: He is ridiculous, who in the worke of re∣generation and spirituall resurrection, doth seeke for dispositions and inclinations to life, among the dead, and who doth faigne that God hath a will of sauing vs, which doth follow mans free-will, and doth depend on it.

XXIX. But to make the fault of their ance∣stors to be cause of this, and to thinke that God there∣fore would not haue his Gospell to be preached to this nation, because their ancestors, a thousand, or two thousand yeers before, refused the grace of God, is absurd, and nothing to the purpose: For the Ro∣manes and Corinthians, that liued in the time of the A∣postle Paul, were sprung of the same ancestors which the Romanes and Corinthians were, which liued thirty or forty yeeres before the preaching of Saint Paul: Nor is it equall that the ofspring should be punished for the sinnes of their ancestors: The sonne shall not beare the iniquity of the father, Ezechiel 18. Nor doth the law extend the visitation of the fathers vpon the

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children, beyond the third and fourth generation, al∣though also there it is spoken of children that shall walke in the steppes of their fathers, and doe imitate their fathers wickednesse. Further also by warres, by colonies and companies, by banishments, and by mar∣riages, there is a maruailous permixtion and mingling together of mankinde, and in one and the same nati∣on, there are some who haue proceeded from other ancestors, whose manners were diuers: Yea, one and the same man hath proceeded from ancestors, where∣of some haue refused the grace of God, and some haue not: Of all which, if regard is to be had; & if God will haue his Gospell preached, or not preached to a nati∣on, according as their ancestors haue behaued them∣selues, it will be impossible but that he must be distra∣cted with diuers and contrary thoughts, and that his wisedome must be bound with ridiculous bonds, and contrary purposes.

XXX. Yet the Arminians doe obstinately per∣sist in their opinion, and although they know, that in all ages, and see that in this our age, the name of Christ is vnknowne to many nations; yet they doe harden their minde, and doe contend, that God would haue the Gospell to be preached to all. Ar∣noldus, Page 97. doth deny that it may be said, that God would not haue the Gospell to be preached to all. And, Page 397. It is true indeede (saith he) that the Gospell is not euery where preached to all, yet it doth not thence follow, that God will not bring all men to faith, but this happeneth because by their owne affected malice and peruersity, they make themselues vnworthy of that Grace: Which words doe seeme to mee to imply a

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contradiction, for if the cause why the Gospell is not preached to a nation, is the wickednesse and prauity of it, it is playne that God will not haue his Gospell preached to that nation, because by this punishment he would reuenge the stubbornnesse and obstinacy of it. And to think that any punishments are inflicted on any nations, God being vnwilling, especially in the worke of our saluation, is to accuse God of cruell negligence, and to desire to put out the eyes of his prouidence: Also wee haue largely taught that all men are vnworthy, and that, (God so dispensing) the Gospell is preached to the most vnworthy, and to the worst nations: According to that, Rom. 10.20. I was found of them that sought me not, I was made mani∣fest to them that asked not after me.

XXXI. Being driuen therfore from hence, they haue deuised another thing, then which, nothing is more weake. They say that it cannot be said, that God is vnwilling that the Gospell should be preach∣ed to all nations, but that many nations sit in darke∣nesse, because there are wanting those who wil preach to them, and that this commeth to passe, because the zeale of Christians doth grow cold, and because of the sloathfulnesse of the pastors of the Church, who will not goe thither to preach: But if all Christians were affected as it is meete they should, and were touched with a zeale of the house of God, the prea∣ching of the Gospell would be wanting to no people. I answere, that I am not hee who will affirme that Christians are altogether faultlesse in this thing: Yet notwithstanding it cannot be doubted, but that these things are gouerned by the counsell and prouidence

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of God. For if God would haue brought the light of the Gospell to the people of America, who haue lyen for many ages in the thicke night of ignorance, be had not suffered them for so many ages, to be vnknowne to the Christian world. For how can they be accu∣sed for not preaching the Gospell to the Americans, who did not know that there were any such people, or that that prat of the earth was inhabited? Neither is it credible that God can be disappointed of his in∣tent, and of his desire of sauing any Nation, by the negligence of some Ministers: Nor is it equall, that enumerable people should for euer beare the punish∣ment of others negligence. Also if God would haue his Gospell preached to people, who are diuided from vs in land, climate, and language, he would haue infused into some of vs, the gift of tongues, that they might be vnderstood by the Barbarians: But at this day, the Americans are instructed in Popery, in the Spanish tongue, to the learning of which, they are compelled by force: therefore they haue vnwilling∣ly receiued religion with the language; so that to know Christ, is to them a kinde of punishment, and a part of their bondage, which the calling of God doth abhorre. But it is an easie thing for these inuouators (while in this great peace and quietnesse, they make worke for themselues and others) to talke of these things in corners; who if they spoke seriously, would forthwith in companies sayle into America or Florida, or would goe to the inhabitants of the South conti∣nent, and would haue instructed them in the faith of Christ; and would not (being forgetfull of the crosse of Christ, and being ouertaken with the itching of

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their owne wit) haue made so many troubles, nor haue torne the bowels of their owne Church.

XXXII. But it is wont to be disputed, whether the Apostles preached to all men: Surely it doth not seeme to me to be likely, that the Apostles passed be∣yond the Aequinoctiall, into the inmost parts of Af∣fricke, or that they came into America, or any other part of the world which is vnknowne: The short life of the Apostles was not sufficient for that worke, nei∣ther was the way knowne to these places; also some prints and signes of Christianity would be extant there. Saint Paul, whose iournyes and courses were well knowne, had falsely said, that hee had laboured more then all the Apostles, 1 Cor. 5.11. if the other A∣postles had gone to the Antipodes, or to the Articke and Antarticke Pole. The memory of all ages doth witnesse, that there hath beene more Heathens then Christians, and that the Christian Church, where it was most flourishing, scarce possessed the tithe or tenth part of the earth. The Apostles indeede were com∣manded to preach the Gospell to euery creature, but this commandement doth not belong to the Apo∣stles alone, but also to their successors, who haue or shall carry this lampe of the Gospell, deliuered to them by their predecessors, through the whole world. For the Gospell must be preached to all nations, yet not together, and at the same time, but successiuely. If that speach, Psal. 19. Their sound went through the whole earth, be applyed to the preachers of the Gos∣pell, yet it will not necessarily follow, that this must be at once, and at the same moment, rather then by parts, and successiuely: God, as it were viewing and

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going about the Nations, vntill there shall be none, to whom the doctrine of saluation hath not at length come: no otherwise then the Sun in the Aequinoctiall day, doth not enlighten the whole Globe of the earth at one time, but by parts, vntill he hath finished his course. For then shall the end of the world be neare, when the Gospell hath come to all people; as Christ himselfe witnesseth, Mat. 24.14. And the Gospell of the kingdome shall be preached in all the world, for a witnesse vnto all Nations, and then shall the end be: which words of our Sauiour doe cut this knot; for it is manifest, that in the time of the Apostles, the Gospell was not preached to all Nations, because at that time the end was not neare.

XXXIII. But (say you) Saint Paul, Col. 1.23. doth say, that the Gospell was preached to euery creature which is vnder heauen. I answere: The Apostles vseth a kinde of speech vsuall in the Scriptures, which by all that are vnder heauen, doe not vnderstand all and euery particular creature, absolutely and without ex∣ception, but very many of them: So, Acts 2.3. And there were dwelling at Ierusalem Iewes, out of euery nation vnder heauen. For what? were there some out of Ame∣rica, or out of the Molucoes, or the South contenent, the names of which places were not then knowne? much lesse, that they should come from thence to Ie∣rusalem: So, Eccles. 4.15. I saw all the liuing, which walke vnder the sunne; When yet Salomon saw onely a little part of the earth. See also, Ezech. 31.6. and 13. and Chap. 32.4. and you shall know, that the word all, is not frequently so taken, that none is excepted, but that it is very oftentimes vsed for many.

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XXXIV. That I may not say many things: In this question, whether God doth equally desire the sal∣uation of all men, and whether he doth loue all men with an equall loue; the truth is so euident, that the Arminians sometimes are ashamed of themselues, and vnawares doe come to our side. Arminius against Per∣kins, p. 2.4. hath these words: If any one, by the helpe of pe∣culiar grace, hath apprehended grace offred; it is thence ma∣nifest, that God doth loue him with a greater loue then he doth another, to whom he hath only made his grace common, but hath denied his peculiar grace. Arnoldus, pag. 380. doth confesse, that Arminius doth acknowledge, that the meanes to faith, are not sufficiently offered to all men; all men therefore are not loued alike: Neither is any thing so frequent with the Arminians, as to say, that God calleth some men in a congruent and fit time and manner, by which, they that are called, doe certainly & infallibly follow him calling; but some he calleth by an incongruent and vnfit meanes, by which they that are called, doe neuer obey God calling: But it is no doubt, but that they to whom peculiar grace is giuen, are more loued then they to whom it is denied; as also they to whom sufficient grace for faith is giuen, are more loued, then they to whom it is not giuen: & they who are called by a meanes which God knoweth to be con∣gruent, and which will certainly profit, are more loued then they whom God calleth by an incongruent, and which he knoweth will neuer profit. Arminius, against Perkins, pa. 16. hath these words: God by a sure decree, de∣termined not to giue faith and repentance to some men, to wit, by yeelding them effectuall grace, by which they would certainly beleeue and be conuerted. And it is the constant

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opinion of the Arminians, that God doth giue that effe∣ctuall grace to all, which may be effectuall in act, with∣out which no man beleeueth, nor no man is saued: and that God doth giue but to few that grace where∣by he giues, not onely to be able, but also to will, & to desire to be conuerted and beleeue. God therefore doth more desire the saluation of these men, then of others, to whom hee doth not vouchsafe this benefit.

XXXV. Notable aboue the rest, are the words of Greuinchouius, p. 342. Sometimes (saith he) he doth sooner helpe by his grace greater sinners then lesser: for who shall prescribe a measure to God, that he should not sometimes be∣yond the law, made by himselfe, giue according to his liberali∣ty, greater gifts to the worse men? This confession I think is cleare enough: for if these things be true, it cannot be denied, but that God by his antecedent will may most loue the worst men, seeing that by that antecedent wil, he doth giue more good things to them, & doth bestow on them that grace which he doth deny to others that are lesse euill. For it cannot be said, that this grace is gi∣uen to the worst men, by that will which doth follow mans will: seeing that no will of man that is good, but euen a most wicked disposition doth goe before the gi∣uing of grace. But perhaps God doth this seldome, & as Greuinchoutus saith, besides the law that he hath made. Nay, he doth this very often, and according to the rule declared in the Gospell, Where sinne abounded, there grace abounded, Rom. 5. For so the glory and pow∣er of God doth more clearely shine forth, by which he doth breake the most hard things, and doth rush through all obstacles; and where seeming and con∣ceited wisdome, or most desperate manners, did seeme

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to hinder the proceedings of the Gospell, there hee plants the Gospell, and doth propagate it with a more happy successe, and greater efficacy.

CHAP. XXXII.

Of Free-will: The opinions of the parties.

I. HOw much that purity and integrity in which man was at the first created, is deformed by sinne, and how the image of Sathan is drawne ouer the image of God, we haue taught, Chap. 7. Yet a liberty from constraint, and physicall necessity hath remained to the will: for if the will could be compelled, it were not voluntas, a will, but noluntas, a nill & vnwillingnes. Or if by an externall principle, by a naturall and im∣mutable law, it should be necessarily determined to one thing; it were not a will, but either a violent im∣pulsion, or a naturall inclination and propension, de∣stitute of knowledge and iudgement, such as is the inclination of all heauy things to the center of the world. For seeing there are three kindes of liberty; the first is from constraint, and physicall or naturall necessitie; the second from sinne; the third from misery: Man, while he is in this present life, shall ne∣uer be fully free from sinne and misery; but to these two liberties he shall come in the life to come: The liberty from constraint and physicall necessity is es∣sentiall to the will, and inseperable from it.

II. The seate of this liberty, is in the will; because it hath gotten the dominion, concerning voluntary actions: For although the will in particular actions

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doth follow the perswasion of the vnderstanding, yet the vnderstanding doth not iudge nor deliberate, vn∣lesse it be commanded by the will; for the dominion whereof man doth apply himselfe to deliberation and searching out of the truth: After the same manner that a blinde Master doth in euery thing obey his ser∣uant, leading him and perswading him; which ser∣uant, notwithstanding, doth it that he may obey his Master, who will haue himselfe led, and admonished by him.

But seeing the Scripture saith, that man is the ser∣uant of sinne, Rom 6.17. and sould vnder sinne, Rom. 7.14. And dead in sinne, Ephes. 2.1.5. and Colos. 2.13. it is worth the labour, to know how farre this liberty of mans will doth extend it selfe, as well vnder the estate of sinne, and before regeneration, as vnder the estate of grace and regeneration.

III. The will is the reasonable appetite, which of his owne nature, is alwaies carried to good, whether it be good truely, or in appearance: for it is impossi∣ble that one should desire euill, as it is euill, and not vnder the respect of good.

IV. The liberty of the will, whereby it may will something, or not will it, is called the liberty of con∣tradiction; but the liberty whereby it may will some. thing, or the contrary of it, is called the liberty of contrariety.

V. Now there are onely two things, which wee can will, for we either will the end, or the meanes to the end; the first whereof, is called by Aristotle, Ethi. 3. cap. 4. 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the will; the other, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, the choise. Wee doe absolutely desire the end, wee choose the

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meanes. And if any one doth absolutely, and with∣out deliberation will some meanes to obtaine the end, he doth will that meanes, not simply as a meanes, but as the end; & that he might obtain that, he doth choose other meanes: Now in choosing, the will doth follow the iudgement of the practicall vnderstanding; vn∣lesse when the vehement and inordinate actions ouer-ruling, doe darken reason, or doe resist the iudge∣ment of it.

VI. We call that vnvoluntary, which is not onely strained, and to which we are compeled by force, but also that which is done by ignorance.

VII. That which is voluntary, diffreth from that which is spontaneus, and done of its owne accord, be∣cause that which is spontaneus, doth extend it selfe further then that which is voluntary: for euery thing which is voluntary is spontaneus, but not contrari∣ly: For euen cattell are mued of their owne accord, and they haue their spontaneus appetites and inclina∣tions; but those are done voluntarily, which are done with some knowledge and reason: whether the rea∣son be right, or onely haue a shew of right and truth.

VIII. And of those things that are done volun∣tarily, some are more voluntary then others: For there are some things which one doth 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, wil∣ling and nilling, and slowly, as loath to doe them; as when the sicke man stretcheth forth his arme to be cut off, that the Gangrene might grow no further; or as when the Merchant casts his goods into the sea, with his owne hands: which actions are yet more willingly done, because they are done for their good: For the lesse euill by, which men come to a greater

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good doth put on the forme of good.

IX. We all doe necessarily will the last & chiefe end, to wit, felicity; neither doth the desiring of the last end fall into deliberation: For no man can procure from himselfe, that he should will himselfe to be miserable: But yet we will that end freely, because we doe will it without constraint, and with knowledge and iudge∣ment; whence it commeth to passe that this desiring is not onely spontaneus, but also voluntary, and there∣fore free.

X. Furthermore, there are many kindes of hu∣mane actions: For some are meerely naturall, as the contrary motion of the Arteries, and beating of the pulse, the digestion of nourishment, &c. Which be∣cause they are not in our power, nor at mans pleasure, the will is neyther occupied about them, nor doe they fall within the compasse of Election or delibe∣ration.

XI. Some actions are partly naturall, and part∣ly voluntarie, as to eate, to walke, &c. Which al∣though they be naturall, yet they are gouerned by the will. In these actions the will is free, vnlesse when some externall force compels, or some vnauoidable necessity doth vrge, men being vnwilling.

XII. There are also some actions that are ciuill, as to sell, to buy, to bargaine, to play, to build, to paint: In these things the will of man is free, and doth freely incline it selfe to one or other: For hee that doth these things at the command of another, yet is willing to obey him that commandeth, and therefore is driuen to doe it, not onely by anothers will, but also by his owne. Of this liberty the Apostle

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speaketh, Corinth. 7.37. He that standeth stedfast in his heart, hauing no necessity, but hath power ouer his owne will, & hath so decreed in his heart, that he will keep his virgin, doth well: For in this place the Apostle vnderstandeth, by that which is done well, not that which is done agreeable to Gods law, but that which is done prudently, and fitly, to the present time and pur∣pose.

XIII. Also in actions that are ciuilly honest, the will of man is moued by its owne pleasure, as when a heathen man helpes vp him that is fallen, or sheweth the way to him that is out of it.

XIV. The like liberty is in the obseruation of Ecclesiasticall pollicy, and in those workes comman∣ded by the law of God, which doe belong to an out∣ward operation; for the most wicked men, doe per∣forme holy rites and religious ceremonies, doe bestow almes, doe heare and reade the word of God.

XV. But especially in euill actions man is free. For hee is not onely of his owne accord carried to sinne, but also of two or more euills, most freely hee doth choose eyther, and doth voluntarily apply him∣selfe to that, to which his minde leads him. Wherefore seeing man, that is naturally euill, is gouerned by his owne euill will, and that one is for that cause said to be free, because he doth what he listeth, it is manifest, that man is therefore the seruant of sinne, because he is in subiection to his owne will, and because he doth sinne voluntarily and freely, and that man is therefore a seruant because he is free.

XVI. They that say that an vnregenerate man by this seruitude & naturall deprauation doth necessarily

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sin, ought not to be reprehended; for an vnregenerate man must needes sin: Thus the diuels doe necessarily sinne, but yet freely; for they sinne being not con∣strained, nor determined and appointed to any one thing onely, by any outward cause forcing them: But they are led by their owne motion, by their ingrafted wickednesse, and with their knowledge; after the same manner that the Saints that are glorified, are ne∣cessarily and immutably good, but yet voluntarily and freely: For it is not credible, that the Saints haue lost their liberty by their glorification. There is a kinde of necessity which is voluntary; neither is li∣berty contrary to necessity, but to constraint and seruitude. Wherefore Saint Austin, Enchirid. Chap. 105. & ciuitat. lib. 22. Cap. vlt. doth teach, that by the necessity of not sinning, which shall be in the Saints, their free-will shall be rather increased and confirmed then diminished. What is more free then God? And yet he is necessarily good and doth good things: For as Thomas saith, Tom 8. De libro arbitrio. Quest. 24. Art. 3. It is no part of free-will, to be able to choose euill. The same man doth in many places say, that constraint, and not necessity, is contrary to the liberty of the will, but especially in the same Tome, Quest. 10. De process. diuin. personarū. Art. 2.

XVII. There are moreouer, habits and actions, that is, vertues and workes, which doe helpe forward to saluation, and which are proper to the faithfull. Such as are the true knowledge and feruent loue of God, saith and repentance, and holy actions flowing from these vertues. In and about these things, the will of a man that is vnregenerate, and standing in his

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pure and meere naturals is not free; here is no free∣will of man, no inclination, no disposition: Surely it had beene a very hard thing to finde in Paul, raging against the Church, and in the theefe, crucified for his robberies, whom Christ conuerted in the very agony of his death, any dispositions or preparations to re∣pentance.

XVIII. I doe not deny, but that there are memorized many things of heathen men, which were done honestly, and profitably for ciuill society, for concord, and for the defence of their countrie: But seeing, Without faith we cannot please God, Heb. 11.6. And seeing that that action alone is acceptable to God, which is done with Faith (for, Whatsoe∣uer is done without faith is sinne, Rom. 14.23.) and which is referred to the glory of God, as the Apostle commandeth, 1. Cor. 10.31. It is plaine, that those honest deedes of the heathen were not without fault, and that they could not come to saluation by such ci∣uill vertues, nor that any one could by them be dis∣posed to faith or true repentance. The right outward duties of ciuill vertues, are of one sort, the duties of faith and Christian piety are of another sort. And tru∣ly in my iudgement, the heathen iudge, who in gi∣uing sentence, and in diuiding possessions doth iudge equally and well, is no more iust before the tribunall of God, then the theeues who equally and iustly di∣uide the pray among themselues: For whosoeuer doth want faith in Christ, is not the Sonne of God, and therefore cannot be an heire and iust possessor of worldly goods, although he excell in ciuill vertues. For a kinde of doubtfull light, and some seedes of

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equity are left in man for ciuill society: And they to whom the light of the Gospell doth shine, if they giue themselues ouer to vices should be confounded with shame, being vrged by these examples.

XIX. But after God hath enlightned the minde of any one with his light, and hath touched his heart with repentance, and hath wrought in him faith in Christ, then the will of man beginneth to moue it selfe willingly and freely to holy actions, to which it is not forced by phisicall or naturall necessity, but it is so turned by a milde and effectuall, eyther perswa∣sion or influence, that the will may freely and wil∣lingly follow God calling: For otherwise that were not a good worke, whereunto one should be drawne by constraint, or should be compelled by a naturall necessity. He that doth good vnwillingly, doth wic∣kedly: Such a man is sufficiently rewarded, if God pardon his obedience; for although God hate euill, yet he will not therefore compell to good: Because a good worke is not good, but when it is volun∣tarily.

XX. And although man is freely moued to the workes of piety, yet the whole praise of the good worke is due to God, who worketh in vs to will, and to doe, of his good pleasure, Phil 2. So, although the in∣fant in the mothers wombe doth moue it selfe, and doth helpe forward his owne natiuity, yet it hath that power of mouing from God: Therefore, euen as if any one doth ascribe the whole praise of the forming of the infant, the generation and birth of it to God alone, he doth not thereby hinder the birth of the infant, or diminish the vigour of it: So he that doth

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ascribe to God the whole praise of our regeneration and holy actions, doth not thereby hinder the endea∣uour of good workes, nor weaken the will of man, or binde it with the bonds of naturall necessity.

XXI. Here therefore a distinction is to be vsed: For if it be spoken of the beginning of conuersion, and of the first entrance of regeneration and faith, that is, of the procuring or forming of faith and re∣pentance in our soules, wee contend that free-will doth nothing here, and that our soules in the very be∣ginnings are, not onely meerely passiue, but also that they doe with their greatest endeauour resist the worke of God, forming in vs the rudiments and draughts of the new man, so that man in this case is not free, vnlesse it be to resist God. But after rege∣neration begunne, and after God hath giuen to man a heart of flesh for his heart of stone, then man doth freely moue himselfe to those workes which are ac∣ceptable to God. And as there are secret, but yet certaine increasings of regeneration, so this liberty doth increase by little and little, fainting euery day with the resistance of our lusts. By this meanes mans will doth cooperate and worke together with God, yet so, that whatsoeuer good is done, is due to God alone: No otherwise, then as when a scriuener doth guide the shaking hand of the childe, and doth at the first frame it to make letters; the childe indeede doth indeauour to forme the letters, and doth striue with all his power, yet the right forming of the letters is not to be ascribed to the childe, but to the scriue∣ner: This example seemeth to me to be most fit, because it teacheth that God doth not onely worke

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with our will (as the Semipelagian Synergists, or main∣tainers of our cooperation with God, of this our age, would haue it) but also that God doth worke by our wills, and doth bend them by an effectuall motion, which motion after what manner, and how farre man may resist, shall hereafter be taught.

XXII. Wee therefore say that the act of belee∣uing and repenting, is so farre the act of man, in as much as man himselfe beleeueth and repenteth, and not God; and in as much as no man beleeueth and repenteth, but he doth it willingly. But we say, that the grace of God alone, doth create and giue the first being to faith in vs, and that it is the gift of God, and by the power of the regenerating spirit, that wee doe willingly and freely beleeue and repent. For the question is not who beleeueth, whether man or God; but what doth bring forth faith in man, and whether it be in the power of free-will, helped with grace, to beleeue or not to beleeue, and to vse grace or not to vse it.

XXIII. From this doctrine (the foundations and proofes whereof shall be brought out of the ho∣ly Scripture in the next chapter) Arminius, and his Sectaries doe infinitely and exceedingly differ: For, they are of opinion, that an vnregenerate man hath power of beleeuing and repenting. The Arminian conferrers at the Hage, Page 272. doe affirme, that conuersion doth goe before faith, and that man doth helpe somewhat to his owne conuersion before hee hath faith. And turning ouer the writings of these Sectaries, I finde that they determine, that by the corruption of nature, mans vnderstanding is darke∣ned,

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and his affections are depraued; but I no where finde in their writings, that his will is of its owne na∣ture deprued, and prone to sinne: But they attri∣bute to it, pronenesse eyther to good or euill, and an equall inanation to either part: Wherefore in the regeneration of a man, they will indeede haue his vn∣derstanding to be enlightned vnresistably, and his af∣fections to be drawn (for so they speake) but they say, that the will keepes her owne liberty of beleeuing, or not beleeuing, of repenting, or not repenting. And they will not haue the viuification and reuiuing of the will in our regeneration, to consist in this, that of being naturally euill, it is made good by the infusion of some vertue, but that by the illumination of the vnderstanding, the amendment of the affections the will is made able to put forth that faculty of willing or nil∣ling, which is ingrafied in it. This the Arminians of the conferrence at the Hage teach, Page 25. And al∣so the same men, a little after, say these words: In our spirituall death, the spirituall gifts are not properly sepera∣ted from the will of man, because they were neuer engraf∣ted in it. Surely those men are of opinion, that the will of Adam, before his fall, was not furnished with righteousnesse and holinesse: For it cannot be denyed but that these vertues are spirituall gifts; which certainely is a prodigious and monstrous diuinity.

XXIV. The same men doe affirme, that suffi∣cient grace is giuen to all men, euen to vnregenerate and heathen men, to whom the name of Christ hath not come, whereby they may obtaine faith, if they will: And that an vnregenerate man is not altogether

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dead in sinne, but that there are in him reliques and remainds of spirituall life, and power of fulfilling the law of nature: for they thinke that God doth ex∣act and require nothing from man, to the performing whereof hee would not giue him sufficient power: otherwise (say they) God should gather, where hee hath not scattered: They say therefore, that God is bound to giue to all men the power of fulfilling that which he commandeth, and of beleeuing in Christ.

XXV. Notable are the words of Arminius, pa. 244. against Perkins. Doest thou (saith he) deny that free-will is flexible and pliant to either part? I adde further, and that also without grace: for it is flexible of its owne na∣ture, and as it is addicted to euill in the state of sinne, so it is capable of good, which capablenesse, grace doth not giue it, for it is in it by nature. Hee therefore doth differ from himselfe, when hee addes, that free will is not bowed to good, without the grace of God. For how doe these things stand together? that free-will is flexible to good, without grace; and yet it is not bowed to good without grace? In vaine is that power which is neuer brought into act: For whence doth hee ga∣ther that that thing may be done, which he himselfe knoweth neuer was done, nor neuer shall be. Hither∣to pertaineth that which he saith, pag. 257. To be able to beleeue is in nature, to beleeue is of grace: therefore to be able to beleeue is not of grace. There is indeede naturally in man a possibility of hauing or receiuing faith; but it is not in him by nature to be able to be∣leeue; for these things doe very much differ. The first notes the susceptability and possibility of receiuing faith: the other signisieth the actiue power and faculty

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of beleeuing, which surely is not in man by nature, but is onely from grace.

XXVI. Arnoldus, pag. 271. layeth this to our charge, as a very great errour, that we say that the regenerate man cannot doe any good, vnlesse hee be moued by grace. Truely a great crime, and that which is common to vs with the Apostle, who doth pro∣nounce, that we are not sufficient of our selues to thinke any thing, as of our selues, but all our sufficiency is of God. 2 Cor. 3.5. The same Arnoldus, pag. 447. doth make the vse of grace subiect to mans will: It is determined, saith he, that the vse of grace is subiect to mans will, that man may vse it, or not vse it, according to his naturall liberty: And a little after he doth confesse, that the effect of the mercy of God, was made by Arminius to be in the power of man, but such a man as is already strengthened with grace. To vse which grace, or not to vse it; to beleeue, or not to beleeue, he thinkes is in the power of mans free∣will. Finally, the Arminians will haue the efficacy, that is, the efficiency and working power of it, to de∣pend on free-will. Arnoldus against Bogermannus, pag. 263. and 274. All the operations of grace, which God doth vse, to worke our conuersion being granted, yet the conuersion it selfe doth remaine so free in our power, that we may not be conuerted, that is, that we may con∣uert, or not conuert our selues. Greuinchouius, pag. 198. I say, that the sffect of grace, after the ordinary and vsuall rule, doth depend on some act of free will, as on a fore∣going conition, without which, it is not. The same man, pag. 203. and 204. doth say, that there cn no other common cause be guten of the whole (why this grace should beessectuall, rather in Paul or Peter then in another) then

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the liberty of the will. Perkins said; As there can no good either be, or be done, vnlesse God doth it; so there can no euill be auoided, vnlesse God hinder it. This true and holy sentence, Arminius carpeth at and doth depraue. pag. 113, and for the words, can be auoided, he puts, is auoided: for he saith, that there is in all men power of doing good, and auoiding euill, and that a man may auoide euill, and abstaine from sinne, although God doth not hold him from it; but that the act it selfe, is partly from grace, and partly from free-will, which as it pleaseth, doth either admit, or refuse grace. Here the words of Arnoldus, pag. 381. The good vsing of free∣will, is principally from grace, but yet so, that man himselfe doth vse well his owne free-will: and the liberty of vsing, or not vsing grace is left to him. For these sectaries are of opinion, that the power of beleeuing is vnresistably giuen to all, and that the act of beleeuing is so helped by grace, that it is left to mans free-will to beleeue in act, or not to beleeue, & to vse grace either well or ill.

XXVII. And they deny that faith is from grace alone, but that it is partly from grace, and partly from free-will. Greuinchouius, pag. 208. and 210. It is mani∣fest, that free-will and grace are together causes in part: And pag. 211. We ioyne grace and free-will together, as causes in part: He must so speake, who saith that Electi∣on is for faith fore-seen: For God would be very vnfit∣ly said to fore-see that which he alone is to do; for this is not to fore-see, but to decree: Hitherto also pertai∣neth that conditional decree of sauing men, if they shal beleeue; for by this it is placed in the power of man to beleeue: For this were a foolish decree; I will saue him, if I shall giue him faith. Arminius against Perkins, pa. 223.

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and 224. saith, that the totall cause why one beleeueth, and another not, is the will of God, and the free-will of man. Arnoldus, pag. 228. saith, that Arminius gaue the chiefe part of the working of faith, to grace. viz. because in the working of faith, he will haue free-will to haue a part; which part, that it is not the least, yea, that it is the greatest, in the sence of the sectaries (although they would make another shew) Arminius, and after him Arnoldus, pag. 125. doth sufficiently acknowledge: We deny (saith he) that this difference of calling grace, is not placed so much in mans free-will, as in the will of God. And truely in the conuersion of man, free-will must haue the chiefe part, if it be true that the Armi∣nians contend for, to wit, that the efficiency and work∣ing power of grace, doth depend on free-will, and that the right vse of grace is made subiect to mans will. And that which Arnoldus saith, pag. 444. That God doth so worke in man, that in the meane while man is not wanting to himselfe, he can conuert himselfe. And Greuin∣chouius against Ames, pag. 205. Grace doth not deter∣mine and conclude, vnlesse free-will worke with it: in which respect and manner, what if we should say, that the efficacy of grace, doth after a certaine manner depend vp∣on free-will, as concerning the euent? If therefore the efficacy of grace, as concerning the euent, that is, the effect, doth depend on mans free-will; it must needes be, that free-will hath farre the greater part in our conuersion and regeneration. The same man, pa. 214. In comparing betweene themselues, the effectuall helpe of God, and the insluence of free-will, there is no priority be∣tweene them both. And seeing it is in the power of free∣will, so to vse grace that he may beleeue, and obtaine

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faith, we being by faith the sonnes of God, Gal 3.26. It appeareth (if we may credit Arminius) that to be made the sonnes of God, is a thing proper to free-will, and although it cannot be done without the helpe of grace, yet the effect doth depend on mans will: So that God is willingly indebted to man; for hee is be∣holding to free-will that he hath sonnes.

XXVIII. This is the malicious and blacke iuyce of the fish Loligo; and this is their most pestilent do∣ctrine: of which, what is to be iudged it is easie to coniecture by those speeches which euery where meet vs in the bookes of these sectaries. That Lydia opened her owne heart, when yet, as Luke witnesseth, Act. 16.14. God opened the heart of Lydia: And that a man doth separate himselfe, although Saint Paul saith, who seperates thee? 1 Cor. 4.7. And that an vnregenerate man is not altogether dead in sinne: and that God doth giue man power of beleeuing, if he himselfe will: when yet God giueth both to will, and to doe, Phil. 2.13. And that sufficient grace which is giuen to all men, yea, to the reprobates, doth take away the im∣potency, and doth stablish the liberty of free-will; as Arminius against Perkins, pag. 245. and 246. teacheth. Let vs heare the proud words of Greuinchouius, p. 253. I separate my selfe: for when I might resist God and his predetermination; yet I haue not resisted, and therefore why may it not be lawfull for me to boast in that, as of my owne? For that I was able, it was of God shewing mercy, but that I was willing, when I might haue beene vnwilling, it was my owne power. It is a venter, but this little worme will swell so big, that he will breake. O it is the part of a magnanimious & great minded man, to be vnwilling

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to owe too much to God, and not to be ouerchar∣ged with his benefits. Those things which the same author saith, pag. 279. sauour of no lesse pride: You will say that in this manner of working, God doth after a certaine manner, depend on the will of man: I grant it, as concerning the act of free determination. Indeede this one thing was wanting, to the very height of pride, that God should be said to depend on man.

XXIX. There meete vs in the writings of these innouators, some places, in which they say, that man in his corrupted state was altogether dead, and that of himselfe, he can neither thinke, nor will, nor doe, any thing that is good. But these things are said but for a colour, and that they might deceiue the vnwary rea∣der: For they say, that a man is able to doe no good without grace; but by this grace, they vnderstand vniuersall grace, which is common to all men, and sufficient grace, which is giuen, euen to them to whom Christ was made knowne, and which doth extend it selfe as farre as nature: They say indeede, that grace is the cause of beleeuing, but they neuer adde, that it is the cause alone. The Arminian conferrers at the Hage, in the third and fourth Articles, doe so speake as if they were of the same opinion with vs: For there they professe, that man hath not saning faith from him∣selfe; and that the grace of God is the beginning, the pro∣ceeding, and the finishing of all good, and that all good actions are to be ascribed to the grace of God in Christ: But the subtle men, when they say that a man hath not faith from himselfe, they vnderstand, that he hath it not from himselfe alone: And when they say, that euery good worke is to be ascribed to grace, they are

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very wary, least they should say to grace alone. Then also in the word grace, they lay a snare, and being the Apes of the Pelagians, they faigne a certaine grace, which is common to all, which doth extend it selfe as farre as nature: Also they distinguish grace from the vse of grace; for indeede, they will haue grace to be from God, but the vse of grace to be in the power of mans free-will: With the like craft, they say, that the power of beleeuing is from grace: for they pre∣sently draw backe what they haue reached forth, while they say, that to beleeue it selfe, is of mans free∣will; and that grace is giuen to man to beleeue, if he will. But whensoeuer they will haue a kinde of speci∣all grace to come to that generall grace, they make the vse of this speciall grace to depend on free-will; and they roundly, and without any circumstances affirme, that the efficiency, and working power of grace, doth depend vpon it.

We shall also see, that by that vniuersall and suffici∣ent grace, common to all men, is vnderstood naturall gifts, & notions that are naturally engrafted, and that they cloath nature with the goodly name of grace; (which thing also Pelagius did:) Which thing, when they doe with their greatest cunning, yet their dissem∣bling is neuer so wary, but that their Pelagian eares and errour doe appeare: and although they doe imi∣tate the speech of truth, yet their vizard doth of∣ten fall from them vnawares; and their vlcers be∣ing pressed, doe presently cast forth stinking cor∣ruption.

XXX. Yet Vorstius here doth differ from his Ma∣ster: For when Arminius saith, that no man is con∣uerted,

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and doth beleeue in act, by that vniuer sall grace alone, which is common euen to the reprobates, but that there is also some speciall grace required: Vorstius on the contrary side, doth affirme. Collat. cum Piscat. pag. 57. that some are conuerted by vniuersall grace (which he calleth the lesser mercy) that is, without spe∣ciall grace, which he calleth grace more then suffici∣ent, and super abounding helpe: Therefore if this man be beleeued, some men come to saluation by that grace alone which is common to all heathen men.

CHAP. XXXIII.

It is proued out of the holy Scripture, that an vnregenerate man, is altogether destitute of the power and liberty of his will, in those things which pertaine to faith and sal∣uation.

I. IF they stand here to the iudgement of the holy Scripture, there will be no place of doubting. Of a man that is vnregenerate, and in his meere natu∣rals, the Scripture speaketh thus. Gen. 6.5. Euery thought of the heart of man is onely euill continually. The same is repeated, Chap. 8. Ver. 21. Iere∣my in his seauenteenth chapter consenteth to this; The heart of man is wicked, and vnsearchable. And Rom. 3. There is none righteous, no not one: They are all gone out of the way, and are become vnprofitable: there is none that doth good, no not one. And Rom 7.18. I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing. And Chap. 8. ver. 8 The wisdome of the flesh, that is, whatsoeuer a

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carnall man vnderstandeth or perceiueth, is enmity a∣gainst God, for it is not subiect to the law of God, neither indeede can be. Compare these things with the do∣ctrine of Arminius, who is of opimon, that a man that is an infidell and vnregenerate hath sufficient power to beleeue, and to fulfill the law: For the A∣postle is of opinion, that our flesh, not onely is not subiect to the law of God, but that it cannot be. The same Apostle, 1. Cor. 2.14. saith, that the naturall man receiueth not the things of the spirit of God, for they are foolishnesse vnto him, neither can he know them. Hitherto pertaineth that which the Scripture saith, Ezech. 36. That the heart of man is stony, and therefore of its owne nature vnapt and vncapable to receiue the im∣pression of the law of God, vnlesse God (as hee did of old) write it on that stone with his finger. Also that which Saint Paul saith, Ephes. 2.1.5. that not onely the Ephesians before their calling, but that all of vs were dead in sinnes. Hee hath the same words, Coloss. 2.13. And that which Christ saith, Iohn 14.17. The spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receiue, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him. Christ in these words doth plainely acknowledge that there is no free will of man, no power to receiue the spirit of truth, but a naturall auersion and disability.

II. Wherefore the Scripture doth call the change of man, by the spirit of regeneration, sometimes ano∣ther birth, Iohn 3. sometimes the creation of the new man, Ephes. 4.24. It calleth it, another resurrection from the dead, Reucl. 20.6. Luke 15.32. Iohn 5.25. Not that creation and resurrection is in all things like to regeneration and the change of the soule; but only

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in this thing of which it is here spoken, to wit, as the Carkasse cannot dispose nor prepare it selfe to the resurrection, and a thing that is not created, can∣not further any thing to the creation of it: So man in the state of sinne, and before his regeneration, hath nothing whereby he may dispose himselfe, or further his regeneration and spirituall new birth.

III. The Arminian conferrers at the Hage, Page 279. doe roundly confesse, that by our spiritu∣all death, the liberty of doing well or ill, is separated from the soule. I demand therefore whether an vn∣regenerate man, furnished with that sufficient and vniuersall grace, which is giuen euen to Reprobates, hath free-will of doing well or ill in those things which belong to saluation? If he haue not, why doe the Ar∣minians contend he hath? If hee hath it is plaine by their owne confession, that he is not dead in sinne.

But there is a speciall force in the word borne: For if there were any seeds and reliques of spirituall life in an vnregenerate man, as Arnoldus is of opinion, there were no neede to be borne againe, and that the new man should be formed, but God were to be pray∣ed to, that he would againe raise vp those sparkes and reliques of spirituall life, and would vouchsafe to kindle and increase it, as it were, by adding fuell to it.

IV. Adde to these, those places which teach vs, that without faith it is impossible to please God, Heb. 11. That all men haue not faith, 2. Thess. 3. because it is the gift of God, Philip. 1.19. Ephes. 2.8. Seeing therefore what soeuer is not of faith is sinne, Rom. 14.25. it is plain that in things which belong to saluation and to the worship of God, hee doth nothing but

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sinne that wants faith, such as are all the heathen and vnregenerate men. In which place to the Romanes, it is to be noted, that the Apostle speaketh of the vse of meates, which he will haue vs to eate with faith, that is, with a certaine knowledge that the vse of meates is allowed by God, and is agreeable to his word. Seeing therefore that, euen in things which are of their owne nature indifferent wee sinne, when we vse them without such a faith, how much more are we to thinke that the heathens sinne in euery acti∣on that pertaineth to saluation and the worship of God, because they are altogether destitute of this faith?

Hitherto pertaine those places which teach vs that God is the author of euery vertue, and euery good worke that is done by vs. We are not sufficient of our selues to thinke any thing, as of our selues; but our suf∣ficiency is of God, 2. Cor. 3.5. And Christ himselfe, Iohn 15.5. Without me ye can doe nothing. And in the same place, we are compared to branches cut off and appointed to the fire, vnlesse wee haue beene engraf∣ted into Christ, by whom wee liue and beare fruit. The Apostle, Ephes. 2.8. doth teach, that saluation and faith is not of our selues, but of the gift of God: For by grace ye are saued through faith, and that not of your selues, it is the gift of God. How farre is this from Arminius, who will haue the totall cause of faith, not to be grace alone, but grace and free-will. And least any of Arminius followers should seeke a refuge, and should say that the power of beleeuing is giuen to all vnresistably, but that the act of beleeuing is so helped by grace, that it is also from free-wil, the Apostle doth

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fitly preuent such a weake subtilty, Phil. 1.29. where he saith, It is giuen to you, in the behalfe of Christ, not one∣ly to beleeue on him, but also to suffer for his sake. You see that not onely the power of beleeuing is giuen vs; but also the act it selfe, to beleeue. Agreeable to this is that, Iohn 6. No man can come to me vnlesse my fa∣ther draw him: Where to come, is to beleeue in act, and not to haue the power and faculty of beleeuing which is brought into act by free-will. No lesse direct is that of the Apostle, Philip. 2.13. It is God which wor∣keth in you both to will, and to doe, of his good pleasure. Now to will, is to will in act, and not to haue the power of willing. God himselfe, Ezechiel 36.27. saith, I will put my spirit within you, and will cause you to walke in my statutes. Therefore hee doth not onely giue the power of walking in his statutes, but also doth cause that we really walke, and doth worke in vs the very act. After what manner and how farre the elect may resist the efficacy of the spirit shall hereafter be seene. It is sufficient to the present question, if we winne this of them, that God doth not onely giue the power whereby we may beleeue, but also that hee doth giue and worke in vs the act of beleeuing, to beleeue it selfe.

We meete sometimes with places where the Ar∣minians say that not onely the power of beleeuing, but that also the act of beleeuing, to beleeue it selfe, is giuen by God. But they will haue this act so to be giuen by God, in as much as he giueth knowledge to the minde, and doth raise vp the fainting affections which doe put forward the will to beleeue, and that this is done by a morall perswasion, and after the

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same manner that wee are moued by obiects: But this is not to giue faith and the act of beleeuing. For surely hee that doth perswade, that doth propound obiects, and doth inuite the appetite to runne, doth not giue the act of running, to runne it selfe: Where∣fore the Arminians doe deny that faith it selfe is infu∣sed, or imprinted on the heart by God, but that the will is inuited to beleeue onely by a morall perswasi∣on, and by a courteous allurement.

With a like fraud (that they might seeme to at∣tribute some great thing to God) they say that God doth giue the power of beleeuing, and that vnresista∣bly: But when they come to explane the manner whereby these powers are supplied, it is manifest that they deny that the power of beleeuing is giuen to man by God: For they thinke that God doth giue these powers no otherwise then by enlightning the vnderstanding with knowledge, and by stirring vp the appetites, which certainely is not to giue the po∣wer of beleeuing: For hee which in the darke doth with a torch giue light to the wandring traueller, and doth stirre him vp to goe, doth not thereby giue him the power of going.

VI. And least any man should in any part arrogate to himself the prayse, eyther of that knowledge which he hath obtained, or of that loue wherewith he feeles himselfe to be affected, Christ doth beate downe all pride, in speaking thus to Peter, Matth. 16.17. Blessed art thou Symon Bar-Iona, for flesh and blood hath not reuealed this vnto thee, but my father which is in heauen. And, Chap. 11.25. he doth giue thanks to his father, that hee hath hidden these things from the wise

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and men of vnderstanding, and hath reuealed them to babes.

VII. And especially when it is spoken of the loue of God, and of obedience to his commande∣ments; the Scripture will haue vs to acknowledge that whatsoeuer is done well by vs, is receiued from God: We loue God because he hath loued vs first, Iohn. 4.19. For this is one of the effects of the loue of God towards vs, that it doth put into our hearts a loue of him: God himselfe thus speaketh, Ier. 31. I will put my Law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts. And Chapter 32. I will put my feare into their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. And Moses bringeth this reason, as the cause why the Israelites did not re∣pent at the law of God, ratified with so many threat∣nings, and confirmed with so many miracles, Deut. 29.4. The Lord hath not giuen you a heart to perceiue, nor eyes to see. Let Arminius tell mee whether these men had sufficient power to beleeue, or sufficient grace, which with the helpe of free-will, they might haue rightly vsed if they would. Fie on this forgerie. And yet was not God the cause of the impenitency and blindnesse of that people: For hee that will not heale him that is blinde, is not the cause of his blinde∣nesse: God did not put this wickednesse in man, but he knoweth who they are on whom hee will haue mercy, and he hath reason for his actions, to enquire into which were not onely rash, but also dangerous.

VIII. Saint Paul, Galath. 3.26. saith, That wee are the sonnes of God, by faith in Christ. If therefore it be in the power of mans free-will, being helped with grace to beleeue, or not to beleeue, to vse that grace

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or not to vse it, it must needes also be in the power of free-will, helped with grace, to effect, that we may be the sonnes of God, or may not: Which is contrary not onely to piety, but also to common sence; for who euer effected that he was the sonne of his father? or who is beholding to himselfe for any part of his generation?

IX. The same Apostle saith, Rom. 9. It is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of him that sheweth mercy. By him that willeth and him that run∣neth, hee vnderstandeth him that worketh, for the consideration of workes is excluded from the electi∣on, or (as Arminius had rather) from the iustificati∣on of man, that this benefit might be acknowledged to be receiued from the mercy of God alone. Armi∣nius offendeth against this rule: For by his doctrine, the conuersion of a man by faith, and therefore both his righteousnesse and saluation, is of him that wil∣leth, and of him that runneth, & of him that worketh, that is, of him who by the helpe of his free-will, doth vse vniuersall grace well, and who doth therefore be∣leeue, because to the helpe of grace, hee hath brought the power of free-will, by which hee hath obtained Faith. For (as I haue said) the Arminians make the cause of faith, to be these two ioyned together, to wit, grace and free-will; to vse which free-will to the ob∣taining of saith, and to the conuerting of himselfe, is certainely to will and to runne: The Apostle ther∣fore ought to haue said, It is of man that willeth and runneth, and of God which sheweth mercy, that free-will might be ioyned with the mercy of God. And if (as Saint Austin saith fitly, Lib. 1. ad Simplic. Quaest. 2. It

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may be said, That it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, because conuersion and saluation, is not by the free-will of man alone; why may it not also be said, that it is not of God that sheweth mercy, be∣cause conuersion is not made by the grace of God alone, but also by free-will? It skilleth nothing that Saint Austin vsed this argument against Pelagius, who denied that we were preuented by grace, for it hath the same force against the Semipelagians, who ioyne free-will to grace: Seeing that Saint Paul doth not say, That it is not alone of him that willeth, but doth altogether exclude free-will.

X. Finally, this argument hath so tormented Arnoldus, Page 445. that he would seeme to yeeld to our part; for he saith, It is not placed in our will, that we should obey the calling of God, but this thing it selfe is also from the mercy of God. But the scoffing and crafty man, is very wary least hee should say somewhat that should hurt his owne cause: For when he saith that it is not placed in our will, he vnderstandeth alone: Ther∣fore he would not say, that this is wholy placed in the mercy of God alone, but tenderly and with a flou∣ting speech he saith, that it is placed in the mercy of God: He might, yea he ought to say so much of free-will, that he might agree to himselfe; for he thinketh that it is not placed in the grace of God alone, nor in free∣will alone.

XI. That man cannot be conuerted vnlesse God conuert him, and that the whole praise of our conuer∣sion is due to God, Ieremy teacheth, Chap. 31. v. 18. Conuert me, and I shall be conuerted; which is also repea∣ted in the last Chapter of the Lamentations. I am

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ashamed of the weake interpretation of the Armini∣an conferrers at the Hage, who pag. 266. by conuerted, would haue corrected to be vnderstood: There is no∣thing so cleare and direct in the holy Scripture, which may not be corrupted with a foolish and rash inter∣pretation: who hauing but little skill in the Hebrew, is ignorant that the Verbe shub, signifieth to be turned, and not to punish; and therefore in the contugation Hiphil, it is to cause that one be conuerted, and not that he be punished. Or who doth not see how ridiculous a thing it were, if men bruised with afflictions, should pray that they might be still afflicted? As if any one that were grieuously whipped, should desire more∣ouer that he might be buffeted? But Ieremy expoun∣deth himselfe, and doth teach what it is to be conuer∣ted: for he addeth, being conuerted, I will repent and ac∣knowledge my selfe: this indeede is to be conuerted. Seeing therefore that men, who are already conuer∣ted, say; Conuert me, and I shall be conuerted, Ier. 31. Draw me, and I will runne, Cant. 1. And doe ascribe the progresse and the proceeding of their conuersion to God alone: how much more is the beginning of our conuersion to be attributed to God alone? For if they that are already willing, doe confesse that they owe to God whatsoeuer good they doe, and that without his grace, they cannot moue a foote fur∣ther; how much more is it to be determined, that of being vnwilling, wee cannot be made willing, of dead, aliue, vnlesse God draw vs, and make vs aliue?

XII. And to ouerthrow those preparations, by which the sectaries thinke, that an vnregenerate man

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well vsing vniuersall grace and naturall light, doth dis∣pose and prepare himselfe to regeneration; that which God saith, Ezech. 36. doth greatly preuaile; I will giue you a new heart, and a new spirit will I put within you, and I will take away the stony heart out of you, and I will giue you an heart of flesh; I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walke in my statutes. For seeing that God himselfe witnesseth, that in those things which belong to the worship of God and to saluation, man hath naturally a stony heart, which hath neede to be ta∣ken away, and another to be giuen by God, in which God should imprint the character of faith and repen∣tance: it manifestly appeareth, that an vnregenerate man cannot prepare himselfe to his regeneration: For that which must be taken away, and must be changed for another, that we may be regenerated; certainely, that doth not further regeneration, nor doth prepare vs to it, for otherwise we should be helped by the im∣pediments themselues.

XIII. Arnoldus, pag. 461. doth answere, that this phrase of a stony and fleshly heart is figuratiue and Symbolicall diuinitie cannot proue any thing. I an∣swere, that figuratiue speeches haue the force of those that are properly spoken, when they are expounded by the Scripture it selfe; & when it is euident to what end, and in what sence they are vsed: Now in the same place of Ezechiel, there are many words that are plaine, and not figuratiue, which doe make cleare this figure; for in the same place, God doth promise that hee will giue them a new spirit, by which he would cause that they should walke in his waies.

XIV. Wherefore Arnoldus with a superfluous

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diligence, and nothing to the purpose, doth heape to∣gether the differences betweene the heart and a stone. A stone hath not life, the heart hath; a stone cannot be softned without the taking away of the substantiall forme, the hart may; the stone cānot resist his own soft∣ning, the heart may: All besides the matter, for in that one thing of which it is spoken here, the comparison is most apt: For euen as the stone cannot soften it selfe, but it is softned onely by the power of an outward a∣gent: so the vnregenerate heart cannot conuert it selfe, or dispose it selfe to regeneration, but it is done one∣ly by the efficacy of the spirit of God: He that with∣out this shall seeke comparisons, shall finde infinite differences; as that a stone may be engrauen, and bro∣ken, may be taken out of the quarries, and be laid on the building, &c. but the heart cannot.

XV. The words of Saint Paul doe vexe these Se∣mipelagians, when he saith, that man is dead in sinne, and he speaketh of the vnregenerate man: The point of which dart, that they might auoide and make fru∣strate, they doe laboriously heape together differen∣ces betweene a dead corps, and an vnregenerate man; which doe tend thither, that they might proue that an vnregenerate man, is not altogether dead in sinne, and as Arnoldus saith, hath some reliques of the spirituall life: To which naturall reliques and remainds of vni∣uersall and sufficient grace, he added, which they say is giuen to all men, euen vnregenerates and repro∣bates, by which there is no man, but may fulfill the law and obtaine faith; certainely, there will be found in an vnregenerate man, very much life, and there will be none or very little conueniency or similitude, with

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him that is dead. It is well therefore, that these secta∣ries doe thither apply all their force, that they might shew that Saint Paul doth not speake so properly as he should. Arnoldus layeth downe these differences, pag 466. and 468. In resurrection the soule is insu∣sed, in regeneration it is onely changed: in resurrecti∣on there doth no dispositions and preparations goe before, but regeneration is made after some fore-go∣ing dispositions: Also our resurrection is done in an instant, but our regeneration by degrees. Resurrecti∣on is done necessarily, but regeneration is wrought, our free will remaining. In the dead carkasse, there are no reliques of life, but in an vnregenerate man, there are some reliques of spirituall life: God doth not speake to a dead carkas, but he speaketh to them that are dead in sinne, and doth propound his word to them. He that is dead, cannot resist his resurrecti∣on, the vnregenerate man may. I doe not deny, but that this similitude doth not square in all things: there is no doubt, but that Arnoldus could haue found ma∣ny other differences: as that the resurrection of the body shall not be till the last day, that it shall be at the trumpe of the Angell. &c. But it is sufficient, that this similitude doth well square in that which is the principall of the matter, and in that, concerning which the controuersie is betweene vs: to wit, in this, that as the dead corps is altogether vnapt to motion, and cannot dispose nor prepare it selfe to the resurrection; so the soule of a man that is vnregenerate and dead in sinne, doth want in things spirituall and pertaining to sauation all sense and motion, and cannot prepare, nor dispose it selfe to regeneration, vntill the spirit of

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regeneration descend into the heart, stirre vp new motions, and doth worke the first beginnings of the new life: By sense in spirituall things, I vnderstand zeale, by motion, good workes. And surely, these things seeme to me to be repugnant; vz. to be dead in sinne, as Saint Paul saith, and to haue reliques and remainds of spirituall life, as Arnoldus saith. For death in spirituall things, doth altogether exclude spirituall life: I willingly acknowledge, that there are some mo∣tions of truth, and spurkes of light in an vnregenerate man, & some obscure prints of the Image of God: But these reliques are not any part of spirituall life & rege∣ration: the diuels themselues haue much more light & derstanding, and yet they are altogether dead in sins.

XVI. Neither are all those differences true, which they doe bring! First, we deny that God hath respect to the dispositions of free-will, or that a man by free∣will can prepure himselfe to regeneration. God in∣deede, doth by a mans calamities, and by his free∣dome out of them, and by the examples of the ven∣gance that he taketh of the wicked, sometimes make way to himselfe for his regeneration: Also a man by a seruile feare, and dread of punishment, may profita∣bly be troubled: but I maintaine, that those inward motions doe then begin to be laudable and accepta∣ble to God, when they are produced by the holy spi∣rit, and not before: which when it is done, then I say, such morions are a part of regeneration, and the first motions & pulses of the new man, & although weake, yet sure beginnings of the new life; & not preparations of the free-will, which goe before regeneration, and by which God is moued to gine a greater measure of grace: But it is so farre, that God in beginning rege∣neration

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should haue respect to fore-going dispositi∣ons; that on the contrary, they are called, who are the greatest strangers from the kingdome of heauen, and who are ouer whelmed in greatest darknesse. Let the Thiefe on the crosse be an example, also the Romanes, the people of Alexandria, of Antioch, the Corinthians, and the Ephesians, then which people, there were ne∣uer any more wicked in lust, nor more effeminate in luxurie, of greater ignorance, or of more prodigious idolatry; whom yet so euill affected and dispoled, God called by an effectuall calling, and hauing sent his Apostles to them, gained them to Christ, that where sinne did more abound, there grace also might more abound.

XVII. And that regeneration is not alwayes wrought by degrees, the example of the conuerted Thiefe doth shew, who in the extreame inuasion of spirituall agony, in one moment passed ouer an vn∣measurable space: and o the contrary, that the resur∣rection of the body may be done by degrees, Ezechiel teacheth, Chap. 37.

XVIII. That is no truer which they say, that re∣generation is wrought, free-will remayning. For if free-will doth remaine in regeneration, it must needes be, that it goeth before regeneration: but in things that are spirituall, and which belong to saluation, there was no free-will before regeneration.

XIX. It is of the same sort, yea farre worse, which they adde, that in an vnregenerate man, there are some reliques of the spirituall life: for so they aske that to be granted to them, which is the question, and which we haue already proued to be false.

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XX. Neither yet is that true which they say, that God doth not speake to a dead corps; for Christ spake these words to Lazarus that was dead, Laza∣rus come forth, Luk. 11. And Eze. 37.4. God doth thus speake to the bones that were long before withered: Oye dry bones, heare the word of the Lord. God calleth those who are not, as if they were; but in that he cal∣leth them, he causeth that they may be: The words of Christ, Iohn 5.25. are direct to this purpose; The dead shall heare the voice of the sonne of God, and they that heare shall liue. For as God with his light, doth so enlighten the blinde, that he also giueth them eyes; so by his word, he doth so speake to the dead, that by that word he doth make them aliue.

XXI. Maruailous is the wittinesse of the Armini∣an conferrers at the Hage, who doe thence proue, that there is some ability left in man, that is spiritually dead: because we acknowledge that man may resist grace. Passing well spoken; for they proue, that a man is not dead in sinne, because he can resist the spi∣rit of God; as if the remainds of our spirituall life were placed in the faculty of resisting God; when on the contrary, a man is therefore dead in sinne, because he can doe nothing but resist. They doe therefore as much as if they should say, that a man is not therefore dead in sinne, because he is dead in sinne.

XXII. And that which they say, that he which is dead, cannot resist his resurrection, but hee that is vnregenerated, may resist his viuification; maketh for vs, and doth burden the cause of these innoua∣tors: For thence it followeth that the death in sinne, is farre the worse death, and that he that is dead in

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sinne is bound with stronger bonds, if he resist his owne resurrection, not onely in the beginnings of his regeneration, but also in the progresse of it: Yea, that very inclination to resist God, is the chiefest part of that death and naturall corruption.

XXIII. In the meane while, the Reader shall obserue, how artificiall a couert Arnoldus doth vse, while he saith, that he which is dead, cannot resist his resurrection, but he that is dead in sinne, may resist his viuification. The opinion of the Arminians is, that an vnregenerate man hath free-will, by which he may vse sufficient grace, or not vse it, beleeue, or not be∣leeue. Arnoldus therefore ought thus to haue framed his comparison, saying, he that is dead, cannot hin∣der or further his owne resurrection: but hee that is vnregenerate, may hinder or further his regeneration. But Arnoldus doth not here make mention of that helpe, that he might put by the enuie and susption of Semipelagianisme. Thus they are wont to doe that are ashamed of their owne opinion.

XXIV. That is not to be passed ouer with si∣lence, which the Arminians of the conference at the Hage, pag. 81. doe say. For there they make two kindes of vnregenerate men: some, who being left without any calling of God, doe walke in the vanity of their minde and thoughts. These they confesse are dead in sinne; but there are some, who are already called and stirred vp by the grace of God, whose vnderstandings being enlightned, and their affections being enflamed, doe stirre vp the will to the apprehension of the truth. They deny that those are dead in sinne, because their vnderstandings and appetites are viuified, although

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the will is not yet drawne; here are many absurdities. First, because they thinke that some are vnregenerate, who are already viuified and made aliue, when yet viuification and regeneration are the same thing. For if ones minde be quickned, it must needes also be re∣generated. Secondly; With the like error they place viuification there where there is not faith, seeing (as the Apostle witnesseth) the iust doth liue by faith, and it is impious to acknowledge any viuification to be in an infidell and vnregenerate man. Thirdly; And they dispute vntowardly, when they iudge it to be possible, the vnderstanding being enlightned with the knowledge of the truth, and the appetite enfla∣med with the loue of it, that the will should be auerse from this truth. And that a man may be quickned in his minde and affections, and yet his will remaines without life. For what should turne away the will when they two doe instigate and stirre it vp, seeing that the will is moued by these two alone? Nor doth the will euer stand in doubt, but when reason stirreth it vp one way, and the appetites draw it another way, and the will is forced hither and thither, by the contrary suggestions of the minde and the appetites. Fourthly; Nor doe they agree to themselues, when they say that there are some left without any calling of God, seeing that they maintaine with great con∣tention that all men are called to saluation, not onely by an outward, but also by an inward calling, and that sufficient grace is administred to all. Fiftly; Finally I demand whence they haue these two kindes of vn∣regenerate persons; If out of the Scripture, let them shew the place; If out of their owne con∣iecture,

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wee doe not beleeue them.

XXV. Arnoldus against Tilenus, Page 134. doth say that it may come to passe, that of two men furni∣shed with an equall helpe of grace, one may be con∣uerted, one not: But he ought also to shew whether it may come to passe, that of two that are equally e∣uill, and furnished with the like helpe of grace (that is, hauing alike sufficient and vniuersall grace, and being alike called by the Gospell) whether it can come to passe that one should be conuerted, and another not. If it can come to passe; I demand whence is the dif∣ference? Was greater grace giuen to the one? No, he said the grace was equall: Or is it because one is better then another? No, the question is, of them that are equally euill: Also if it were so, the conuer∣sion of the one should not be of grace alone, but of free-will: Neither is Arnoldus vnwilling to this, for he addes, Although God, who doth principally worke faith in man, doth separate the faithfull man from the vn∣beleeuer, yet because he doth not worke faith and conuersi∣on in man without the will of man, hee doth not separate man without man. And a little after he addeth, That man doth separate himselfe by his owne will. You heare that God is the principall cause of faith, but not the totall, and that man doth separate himselfe by his owne will, when yet the Apostle saith, Who separates thee? attributing this praise to God alone: And that the cause why of two that are alike called, one followeth, the other refuseth, is in the one free-will, in the other grace indeede, but yet so that the vse of it dependeth on mans free-will, in the power whereof it is to vse grace or not to vse it. So that in the one,

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free-will is the totall cause of incredulitie, and in the other, it is the part-cause of faith and conuersion: So that now man hath whereof he may boast; it is he that separates himselfe, and saluation is of man that willeth and runneth, and of God that sheweth mercy.

These innouators, that they might defend them∣selues against that saying of Saint Paul; Who separa∣teth thee? doe contend that Paul speaketh of that sepa∣ration, by which they that haue receiued many gifts, are separated from them who haue receiued fewer, which I willingly receiue: For if by the grace of God alone, they which are indued with greater gifts, are separated from the faithfull, who haue receiued fewer gifts, how much more are they who are furnished with many gifts separated, by the mercy of God a∣lone, from them who are altogether voide of Faith, and of the knowledge of God?

XXVI. That therefore of Saint Paul, Tit. 3. standeth vnmoueable: Vnto them that are defiled and vnbeleeuing, is nothing pure, but euen their minde and con∣science is defiled. And hee speaketh not onely of meates, but also of the vse of meates, which is pure according to the purity of conscience; least any one should thinke that it is here spoken of the puritie of meates, and not of the purity of actions.

XXVII. Finally, all Christian vertues, Faith, Charity, &c. are eyther in vs by nature, or are ob∣tained by vse and diligence, or they are put and wrought in our hearts by God. That they are natu∣rally ingrafted, Pelagius himselfe hath not dared to say: That they are not obtained by vse and diligence, the example of the theefe doth proue, who in one mo∣ment,

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without vse or exercise, obtained faith. It re∣mainteth therefore, that they are put into vs by God, and that faith is from the meere gift and grace of God, and not from free-will.

CHAP. XXXIV.

The reasons of the Arminians are examined, by which they maintaine free-will in an vnregenerate man, con∣cerning things that are spirituall, and belonging to sal∣uation.

I. AGainst the doctrine of the Ortho∣doxe Church, which doth put away from man all free-will in the worke of saluation, being vpholden by the word of God, and proued by sence it selfe, and experience, the Arminians doe oppose themselues with great diligence, and doe patronize free-will in those that are vnregenerate.

II. They doe euery where obiect and reckon vp that of Saint Paul, Rom. 2.14. The Gentiles which haue not the Law, doe by nature those things contained in the Law. I answere, that by the Law it is comman∣ded to loue God with all the heart, with all the strength, which cannot be done vnlesse you direct all your actions to his glory, and vnlesse you be indued with faith, because whatsoeuer is not of faith is sinne: Whosoeuer shalexamine the vertues of heathen men, by the line of these rules, shall finde that in their most honest deedes, there were many things wanting, and much sinne in them: Hence it appeareth that the Gentiles indeede, in an externall worke, doe those

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things which are of the Law: The words of Saint Paul are not to be extended any further: But the forme of a right worke, which is placed in the inward conueniency and agreement of the minde with the law of God, was alwaies absent from infidels and heathen men. It is one thing to doe those things that are of the law, it is another thing to fulfill the law: The one is to obey the law, as concerning the ex∣ternall matter of the worke, the other is to be obe∣dient to the law, after that manner, with that minde, and to that end, which is commanded by the word of God.

III. They scatter some little motiues, as that, Esay 55. v, 1. They that thirst are inuited by God, that is, those that are desirous of reconciliation with God, and of saluation. And that Matth. 11. They that are heauy laden are called, Come vnto mee yee that are weary and heauie laden: By those that are laden, are noted our, those that are pressed downe with the conscience of their sinnes, and sighing vnder the bur∣den of them: Therefore (say they) they were already desirous of saluation, and were pressed downe with the conscience of their sins, before they were called, and regeneration is after calling: And therefore in the vnregenerate there may be a sauing griefe, and a desire of remission of sinnes; but I affirme that those men so thirsting, and so laden, were not vnregenerate: For that very desire of saluation and the grace of God, and the sighes of the conscience, panting vnder the weight of sinne, by which wee are compelled to flie to Christ, is a part of regeneration: And that be∣ginning of feare (if it be acceptable to God) is an effect

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of the holy spirit mouing the heart: For what hin∣dreth, that he who thirsteth after the grace of God, hath not already tasted of it, and as it were licked it with his lippes? What hindreth that he who is com∣manded to come to Christ, should not already moue himselfe and beginne to goe, although with a slow pace? Doth Christ as often as he commandeth men to beleeue in him, speake onely to vnbeleeuers? Yea, this exhortation to beleeue, and to come to him, doth especially belong to them, whose faith being new bred, and weake, doth striue with the doubtings of the flesh.

IV. It is familiar to the Arminians to cite the words of Christ, Iohn 7.17. If any one will doe the will of him that sent me, hee shall know of my doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speake of my selfe. Hence they would proue, that one may doe the will of God, before he know Christ and his doctrine. This is to delude the Scripture, and to wrest it at their plea∣sure: For they speake, as if Christ had said, Hee that doth fulfill the commandements of God, shall afterward know of my doctrine, whether it be of God, &c. Also by the words, to doe the will of God, they vnderstand, to acknowledge their sinnes, to feare God with a seruile and slauish feare, seriously to wish the grace of God, and remission of sinnes, to doe those things which are of the law, &c. All false: For to doe the will of God, in this place, is nothing else, then to beleeue Christ speaking; for this is that which Christ doth vrge, that this is the will of the father, that we should beleeue on the Sonne: Whose words if any man be∣leeues, hee thereby knoweth that his doctrine is

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heauenly and diuine, wherefore we are not to thinke that we doe the will of God before we beleeue in his Sonne. Thus, although it be true that he who is mo∣ued doth liue, yet it doth not thence follow, that mo∣tion is before life: So in that Christ saith, Whosoeuer will doe the will of the father, shall know that my doctrine is from God: It doth not thence follow, that the will of the father must be done before it can be knowne that his doctrine is from God: But if there is any or∣der of time here, it must needes be that the doctrine of Christ be first knowne to be from God, before he can be beleeued, or obeyed when he speakes: For no man doth beleeue that which hee doth not in some part know. Christ followeth this order, Iohn 17.8. They haue knowne that I came out from thee, and they haue beleeued that thou didst send mee. And, Chap. 14.17. he saith, that the spirit of truth is not receiued by the world, because the world doth not know him: To know therefore is before to receiue.

V. That is no better which Arnoldus doth adde, Page 409. The feare of the Lord is the beginning of wise∣dome, Prou. 1. And, The Lord reuealeth his secrets to them that feare him, Psal. 25. But I deny that the feare of the Lord, of which it is spoken here, can agree to vnbeleeuers and vnregenerate men. Salomon saith, that the feare of the Lord, is the head of wisedome, that is, the chiefe part, and that wherein wisedome doth chiefely consist, for this the Hebrew word, Reshith, doth plainely signifie: And those that feare God, to whom he reuealeth his secrets, are not vnre∣generate persons, but those which are truely godly, to whom hee doth daily giue increase of wisedome,

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and of the true knowledge of God.

VI. To the same end Arnoldus, Page 397. doth bring the words of the 51. Psalme, A contrite spirit is an acceptable sacrifice to God. And, Esay 66. God will dwell in a contrite spirit. Arnoldus thinketh that these things are spoken of an vnregenerate man, but yet such a one as doth confesse his sinnes, doth grieue, hath the beginning of feare, &c. But hee eyther de∣ceiues or is deceiued: For there Dauid lamenting his sinnes, with a large confession, doth comfort himselfe with this hope, and doth promise to himselfe that his contrition will be an acceptable sacrifice to God. Whosoeuer therefore doth say that Dauid there spea∣keth of the contrition of an vnregenerate man, doth affirme that Dauid himselfe was vnregenerate: And there is no man but seeth, that Esay doth speake of them that are truely faithfull, and of a filiall feare and contrition, and not of that feare which may be in the vnregenerate, and in the heathen, who haue not heard the word of God. For the Prophet saith, To whom shall I looke? To him that is afflicted and of a contrite heart, and trembleth at my word: Hee speaketh of the man who is instructed in the word of God, and who with a holy feare is moued to the hearing of it.

VII. Arnoldus, a little before, had reckoned vp the good workes which may be done by an vnregenerate man, viz. To doe those things which are of the law, to haue some sparkes of light and knowledge engra∣uen on his heart, to grieue for his sinnes, to implore the grace of remission of sinnes, and of the new spirit: But how many nations are there, who doe not know

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what this new spirit is, nor haue euer heard any thing of the grace of remission of sins? Also I would know whether such things that are done by the vnregene∣rate, without faith, are truely good: If they be true∣ly good, then we can doe that which is truely good without Christ, without his spirit, and without faith: If they are not truely good, how can that not be true∣ly good and iust, which God alone intendeth, and which alone, nothing more (if Arminius be beleeued) he doth require from the vnregenerate man as long as he is vnregenerate?

VIII. A little after, he saith, that the same worke cannot be performed as perfect in its essence, without the faith of Christ; and he doth put this difference betweene workes which are done before regenerati∣on, and they which are done after regeneration; to wit, that they are imperfect, these are perfect. These are the two kindes of merits, with which, in the Schooles of the Papists, make such a noyse, merits of congruity, and merits of condignity, but new dres∣sed and cloathed with other names. The Reader there∣fore shall note, that the Arminians place in a regenerate man perfect workes, and a perfect loue of God: For they thinke that the regenerate, may by the spirit of Christ so conforme their life, according to that law, that they may come to that degree of obedience which God doth require of them. These are the words of Arnoldus, pag. 492. and pag. 399. according to Arminius, he saith, that there is a double spirit, one that doth goe before regenerati∣on, and doth tend to it, which is the spirit of bondage to feare, the other which doth regenerate, and doth perfect regeneration. Arminius, Resp. ad. 31. Art. pa. 164.

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and 165. I doe not repugne that opinion of Austin, where∣by he determines, that man may be without sinne in this life. Truely it is boldly spoken: The Arminians then are better then the Apostle Iames, who speaketh thus, Chap. 3. In many things we offend all. In which speech, he doth account himselfe among them who offend in many things: Better then Saint Iohn, whose confessi∣on is this; If we say we haue no sinne, wee deceiue our selues, and the truth is not in vs: Yea, better then all the Apostles, who did daily say, Forgiue vs our trespasses. Neither is it to be maruailed at, if the Arminians thinke that the regenerate can fulfill the Law, seeing they al∣so say, that the Law of nature may be fulfilled by the heathen and vnregenerate: Now the Law of nature is that, to which Adam before his fall stood bound, which bond passed to his posteritie: This Law for∣bids a man to lye; but the Scripture, that cannot lye, saith, that euery man is a lyar: The same Law, com∣mandeth that God be loued withall our heart, and all our strength; which thing, how can it be performed by the vnregenerate, seeing it was neuer peeformed by the regenerate themselues? That which a liuing man neuer performed, how can it be performed by him that is dead? Finally, we must bid Christian reli∣gion farewell, and another Gospell must be coyned, if this prodigious doctrine be admitted.

IX. But that we may come to that double spirit of God. Arminius, and according to him Arnoldus, pag. 399. doe deuise two spirits, or rather two acts of the same spirit: The one of these spirits, they will haue to be common to all men, euen to the vnregenerate, yea, and to heathen men, to whom the Gospell hath

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not come; by which spirit, they thinke that God doth worke in all men, and is idle in none: This is that spi∣rit, which they call the spirit of bondage, of which it is spoken, Rom. 8.15. which is opposed in that place to the spirit of Adoption, which is peculiar to the true faithfull. This spirit of bondage, the Arminias will haue to be effectuall in the law, not onely in the written law, but also in that which is naturally im∣printed in mens hearts: By this spirit they thinke that vnregenerate men doe tremble with a sauing feare, doe acknowledge and confesse their sinnes, doe im∣plore the grace of God, and apply themselues to the obedience of the law of nature: these they thinke are preparation and dispositions to regeneration, if so be that free-will doth vse well that vniuersall and suf∣ficient grace which is common to all men: These are the decrees of this new sect, full of many perplexi∣ties, and filled with nice and slender points.

X. I finde in the holy Scripture the spirit of adop∣tion, the first fruits of the spirit, the spirit of sanctifi∣cation; but I no where finde a spirit of God, that is tyed to the law, and common to all men: Nor can the spirit of God, working in our hearts, be without very great wickednesse, seperated from the know∣ledge of Christ: Nor doe I see how there can be in them whom Saint Paul, Ephes. 2. saith, to be dead in sinne, strangers from the life of God, and without God in the world, either any spirituall life, or the spirit of God dwelling in their hearts, and sauingly mouing and affecting them: Certainely, the Apostle had ne∣uer called the Law, seperated from the Gospell a kil∣ling letter, nor had opposed it to the spirit, if the spirit

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of God were alway ioyned to the law, or if the spi∣rit of God did worke in mens hearts, and dispose them to faith and conuersion, without the knowledge of the Gospell: Nor is the Law a Schoole-master vnto Christ, vntill the grace of Christ is offred to vs: for then the Law, with terrour and threats doth compell vs to imbrace the grace offred.

XI. But that is most dangerous, which the Armi∣nians presse downe and hide, but dare not vtter, to wit, that the holy spirit is naturally in euery man. For if the spirit of God be effectuall in the law, and the law be naturally engrauen in euery man, it must needes be, that the spirit of God is naturally in euery man. And so, whatsoeuer the Scripture speaketh of the se∣cond birth, by the spirit, of the creation of the new man, and of the spirituall resurrection, will fall to the ground, yea, will be ridiculous: For, what neede were there to infuse a new spirit for regeneration, if the same spirit of God did already dwell in the hearts of the vnregenerate?

XII. And that place of Saint Paul, Rom. 8. Ye haue not receiued the spirit of bondage againe to feare, they doe falsely, and against the Apostles will, draw to this matter. For Saint Paul neuer called the spirit of God, the spirit of bondage; for so he had reproached the spirit of God: but he onely saith, that the spirit that was giuen to them, was not seruile, and such as should strike their hearts with a slauish feare: For, where the spirit of God is, there is liberty, 2 Cor. 3. If I should say, that we haue not receiued from God the spirit of ly∣ing; should I therefore say, that there is a spirit of God that compels to lying? Is the spirit of God contrary

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to it selfe; that one spirit of God, should be called the spirit of bondage, and another the spirit of liber∣ty? The plaine and simple meaning therefore of the words of the Apostle, is this; Ye haue receiued the spi∣rit of God, not that which should terrifie your consciences with a slauish feare, which made you vncertaine and doubt∣full, before the grace of God, and the adoption of Christ was reueiled to you, &c.

XIII. And they doe extreamely dote, when they put the feare and terrour, wherewith the law (desti∣tute of the spirit of regeneration, and the knowledge of Christ,) doth strike mens hearts, among the effects of the spirit of God: For the law thus receiued, can onely restraine the raging affections with the feare of punishment, and frame a man to certaine outward obedience: but it will neuer purge the inward filthi∣nesse, or instill any one drop of true repentance: yea, rather it will stirre vp the inward lusts, by the resi∣stance of it, as it is engrafted in euery man, to encline to that which is forbidden, and wheresoeuer hope of impunity is propounded, men hauing broken their barres, doe so much the more outragiously riot, by how much they were straightly bridled in. This is that which the Apostle would expresse, Rom. 7.5.8. The motions of sinnes by the law, did worke in our mem∣bers, and sinne taking occasion, by the commandement it selfe, wrought concupiscence. And that vntill the spirit of life, which in Christ frees vs from the law of sinne and death, as it is said, Chapter 8.2. that is, vntill the powerfull efficacy of that quickning which we haue from Christ, free vs from that bondage of deadly sinne.

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XIV. It is vaine and idle which they obiect, that the corruption of an vnregenerate man, is compared to sleepe, and to an Vlcer. I confesse it is compared to a sleepe, but to a deadly one, and such a one, out of which, man cannot awaken and raise himselfe: That Vlcer and scarre which is spoken of, Esay 53.1. and 1 Pet. 2. doth not signifie sinne it selfe, but the punish∣ment of sin. This therefore is nothing to the reliques and remainds of spirituall life, in an vnregenerate man.

CHAP. XXXV.

The Obiections which the Arminians borrow from the Pe∣lagians and Papists, are answered. Whether an vnre∣generate man doth necessarily sinne; and whether ne∣cessitie excuseth the sinner: Also whether God doth command those things which cannot be performed by man.

I. THese thornes and difficulties being taken away, wee are to come to the Arguments, or rather Declamations, with which they would odiously bur∣den our cause. They say, that by our doctrine, an vnregenerate man doth necessarily sinne, and nothing but sinne: That it is not sinne which is committed necessarily, and cannot be auoided. Armi∣nius against Perkins, pag. 106. The necessity and immuta∣bility of sinning, doth excuse the sinne, and doth free from punishment the committing of that act. And Arnoldus, pag. 188. Necessity doth excuse the sinne. It is in vaine commanded, if it be impossible to be obayed. God,

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(saith Arnoldus) doth require nothing of vs, to which he doth not giue vs sufficient power: yea, (saith hee) if God should require of man any thing, and should not giue him sufficient power to doe it, he should gather, where he hath not scattered. The same things doth Vorstius reckon vp, pag. 28. Collat in Piscat.

II. This Pelagian Colewort, these Sectaries do again set before vs, and a thousand times they sing one and the same song, which we must needes exactly consi∣der of, although they boast of these things, rather for ostentation and to trouble weake wits, then that they thinke as they say.

III. First, we say that necessity of sinning doth not excuse sinne, if it be voluntary, and if this ne∣cessity be procured by his owne fault. So Arist. Ethic. 3.7. saith, that at the first, vniust and intemperate men had power not to be such; but after that by their owne will they were made such, they cannot but be such; nor are they therefore to be excused: Also he saith, that it is a shamefull thing, if one by his drun∣kennesse, should bring blindnesse vpon himselfe. And if it be so in the vices of the body, into which, when any one hath fallen by his owne fault, hee doth wish he had not fallen into them, and would redeeme it with a great price; how much more is it in the vices of the minde, which seeing they are procured by ha∣bit and generation, are loued by him who is volunta∣rily euill? For herein is placed the greatest part of the disease, that he which is vicious doth loue his vices, and will not be amended; for there is a necessity which is voluntary, and therefore free; Nor is it suffi∣cient, to say that such a necessity is spontaneus, and of a

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mans owne accord, seeing euen beasts, led by instinct, are carried of their own accord, & without knowledg: but he that is necessarily euill, is euill, not onely of his owne accord, but also voluntarily, because it is with ludgement and knowledge: So God is necessarily good, but yet freely: and Sathan is necessarily euill, but with a most free will; and the Saints in heauen are freely good, and yet necessarily; for it is not credi∣ble, that they haue lost their liberty by their glorifica∣tion: Nor can it be said, that the Saints in heauen therefore cannot sinne, because there is no occasion of sinning, and no temotation; for the Angels be∣fore their fall, had no more occasion of sinning: By the very gifts of God wherewith they were abundant∣ly furnished, they tooke occasion of too much louing themselues, and by it were made more slacke to the contemplation of God, staying in the admiration of themselues; whence came their pride, and from their pride, their rebellion. It must needes be, that the ne∣cessity of the perseuerance of the Saints, doth rest on another foundation, to wit, the election of God; who doth furnish those whom he predestinated from eter∣nity, and gaue to Christ, with gifts and necessary meanes to perseuere in that state, whereunto they were appointed. Further also, there is a certaine visi∣on and beholding of God, to which, when the crea∣ture is admitted, he is necessarily transformed into the likenesse of God; no otherwise then the glasse doth burn at the sunne: Of which vision it is spoken, 1 Iohn 3. We shall be like him, because we shall see him as be is. and Psal. 17.15. Finally, if hee is vniustly pu∣nished who doth sinne necessarily, although he sinne

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voluntarily, and hath brought vpon himselfe the ne∣cessity of sinning by his owne fault; then he also shall vniustly haue benefits and glory bestowed and hea∣ped on him who cannot sinne, and who is necessarily good; such as we haue proued the Angels and Saints in heauen to be.

IV. Wherefore Saint Austin in many places hath not doubted to say, that there is in man a necessity of sinning; So Disput. 2. contra Fortunat. After that man sinned by his free will, wee who discended from his stocke, are necessarily fallen into a necessity of sinning. And in his booke, de perfect. iustitiae. Ratio. 9. Because the will sinned, there followed the sinner a hard and forcible necessity of sinning. Arminius differeth from him, whose words against Perkins, Page 106. are these: It is impossible that that which one doth freely, he should doe necessarily. Yea, Page 144. he is bold to pronounce, that God by all his omnpotency cannot make that that which is done necessarily, should be done free∣ly: For it is familiar to this man, as to make lawes to Gods iustice, so to set bounds to his omni∣potency.

And if God is necessarily good and not freely, as Arminius is of opinion, and it be farre more excel∣lent to be good freely then not freely, without doubt man shall be better then God, and the blasphemy of Seneca is to be subscribed to, who in his 53. Epistle saith, that a wise man doth goe before God himselfe, because man is wise by the benefit of nature, but God by his owne. Therefore as God is freely good, and yet cannot but be good; and as Satan is necessarily euill, but yet freely and voluntarily, so also a man

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that is dead in sinne, doth necessarily sinne, but yet voluntarily, and therefore freely.

V. In which thing, so great is the force of truth, that it often falleth from them vnawares; for Arnol∣dus eyther vnwittingly or else on purpose, doth ac∣knowledge this necessity of sinning, Page 394. where, according to Arminius, he saith, That man, vnder the state of sinne, can vnderstand, will, or doe nothing that is good: And hence it is that he doth necessarily sinne, on∣lesse God gratiously take away that necessity. He doth ther∣fore confesse that man sinneth necessarily, before God taketh away that necessity of sinning; and that man sinneth necessarily, euen then when he sinneth freely. For (as Arminius confesseth) it were not sinne, vn∣lesse he sinned freely. But perhaps Arminius and Ar∣noldus are of opinion, that God taketh that necessity of sinning from all men: Let vs therefore heare what Arnoldus in the same place doth adde: Armi∣nius (saith he) doth determine that God is prepared, for his part, to take away that necessity of sinning. In which words he doth not obscurely confesse that God doth not take that necessity from all, but that he is prepa∣red to take it away, if themselues will; but that hee doth not take it away from all, is our owne fault; as Arnoldus himselfe doth acknowledge, Page 398. The same man, Page 399. according to Arminius doth say, That God by little and little, by the grace of his spirit, doth free men from this necessity of sinning: It is not there∣fore presently taken away; yea it remaineth alwaies in them in whom the grace of the holy Ghost, eyther doth not worke, or doth not preuaile. The same man, Page 406. doth acknowledge that there is in

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man an impotency and disability of resisting sinne, and this impotency, what is it else then the necessity of sinning.

VI. Nay, more then this, the Arminians doe say, that God doth vnresistably harden some men? For I vse their owne words. Now there is nothing more euident, then that he doth necessarily sinne, who is vnresistably hardned: We haue therefore the con∣fession of these Sectaries, that there are some who sinne necessarily, and whom the necessity of sinning doth not excuse from their sinne, because they haue contracted this necessity to themselues by their owne fault.

VII. It is a meruaile therefore that the Armini∣ans, who are otherwise ingenious, doe stumble at this straw, and had rather patronize and maintaine Pela∣gius, and borrow weapons from him, then yeelde to the Scripture, and to the euidence of truth: For af∣ter the same manner doth Caelestius, a Pelagian, dis∣pute, in Saint Austins booke, de perfect iustitiae-Ratio. 2. Againe (saith hee) it is demanded, whether sinne be of the will, or of necessity? If of necessity, it is not sinne: If of the will, it may be auoided. In Arminius therefore we haue Pelagius raised to life againe.

VIII. We determine therefore, that the necessi∣ty of sinne doth excuse from sinne, if he that sinneth hath not procured this necessity of sinning by his owne fault. As also if by necessity, constraint and a greater force of the outward agent be vnderstood, or a naturall necessity appointed to some one thing by the creator, and being voide of knowledge, such as is the naturall inclination of heauy things to the center

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of the earth. But necessity doth not excuse sinne, if he that sinneth hath procured on himselfe that neces∣sity of sinning, and if hee sinneth wittingly and willingly, and is delighted with that inclination to sinne.

IX. And that which the Sectaries say, that there is no place for punishment, if man want the liberty of his free-will, may be admitted, if by libertie of free-will be vnderstood, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that which is of ones owne accord; In which sence many of the an∣cients, especially before Saint Austin, doe defend the liberty of free-will: For, whosoeuer sinneth, sin∣neth of his owne accord. But if by the liberty of free∣will be vnderstood, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, an inclination, which is alike free, eyther to good or to euill, in those things which belong to faith and saluation, I constantly af∣firme, that man is worthy of punishment, although he want this liberty. It is sufficient to punishment, that he doth not onely sinne of his owne accord, but also voluntarily, and that hee himselfe is the cause of his necessity of sinning, and that hee doth ap∣plaude and please himselfe in this voluntary neces∣sitie.

X. Yet the Arminians doe obstinately persist, and doe maintaine, that it is in vaine commanded, if we baue not power to obey: That exhortations, promises, threats, and counsells are in vaine, if none of them can be neither perceiued nor performed by man; for that were as much as if a song should be sung to a deafe man; or as if one should command a blinde man to see; or one that is fettered to runne; or as if one should thus speake to the dry bones of

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them that are dead, be ye conuerted, be ye conuerted, and see. This is an old obiection of the Pelagians, as may be seene in Saint Austin, lib. de perfect. iustitiae. Rat 6. & 11. Where Caelestius the Pelagian doth thus dispute: Againe, it is demanded, whether man be commanded to be without sinne: For eyther hee cannot, and it is not com∣manded, or because it is commanded hee can: For why should that be commanded, which cannot at all be done? And Rat. 11. Certainely all those things which are forbid∣den, can as well be auoided, as those things which are com∣manded can be done: For that in vaine would be forbidden or commanded, which cannot be auoided nor fulfilled. Here is very starke Arminianisme. Caelestius tooke this argu∣ment from Cicero, as Saint Austin witnesseth, lib. 5. de ciuitate Dei, Cap. 9. where hee saith, That Cicero whilest by the denying of the fore-knowledge of God hee would make men free, made them sacri∣legious.

XI. I answere to these things, that precepts, threates, and counsels, &c. are in vaine, if man wan∣ted the faculty of vnderstanding, and of willing or nilling something of his owne accord, and with rea∣son and iudgement. But an vnregenerate man is in∣dued with vnderstanding, and hath a will which is moued of its owne accord and incitation, and after fore-going knowledge and practicall iudgement. Nor is it alwaies true, that those precepts are giuen in vaine which cannot be fulfilled: For the intemperate man, who by custome hath brought on himselfe insensiblenesse, and cannot temper himselfe from lust and surfeiting, is yet tyed by the lawes of sobrietie and temperance. Neither is it any doubt, but that

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the diuell, who is necessarily euill, and vnfit to yeelde obedience to God, is bound to obey God; for other∣wise he should not sinne in being an enemy to God: So from a debtor, which hath consumed at dice a great some of money which he tooke vp at vse, that which he oweth is not in vaine nor vniustly required, nor can the creditor lose his right by the wickednesse of the debtor. Seeing therefore, that man by his owne fault procured on himselfe the disability of performing that which God would haue done, God doth not vainely and vniustly require from him the obedience which he oweth: For it is not equall that the sinne of man should profit him, and that there∣fore he should be lawlesse, because he corrupted him∣selfe with his owne wickednesse, and brought vpon himselfe the disability of paying to God the debt of nature, which God doth require of man, considered not as a sinner, nor yet as iust, but simply as hee is a debtor, and in as much as he is a creature subiect and bound to obedience. After the same manner, that a creditour requiring his debt, doth not consider the debtor as he is poore, or as he is rich, but simply as he is a debtor: God making his law, doth consider man after this manner, and so he doth consider him, when he doth adde promises and threates to the Law, saying, Doe this, and thou shalt liue. And choose good, that thou maist liue, &c. And make ye a new heart, for why will ye die O house of Israell? Ezech. 18. He is deceiued, surely he is deceiued; who thinketh that the comman∣dements of God are the measure of our strength, see∣ing they are the rule of our dutie: For in the law we doe not learne what we are able to doe, but what wee

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ought to doe; nor what now we are able, but what heretofore we were able to doe, and from what a height of iustice we fell by the fall of Adam.

XII. The Scripture doth supply most forcible proofes for this thing. Saint Paul, Philip. 2.12. doth command vs to worke out our saluation with feare and trembling; but presently after lest it should be thought that this can be performed by vs, because it is commanded, he doth adde; It is God which worketh in you both to will and to doe, of his good pleasure. Thus Ezech. 18.31. Make you a new heart, and a new spirit. But lest any should thinke that this is a thing of our free-will, in the thirty sixt Chapter of the same Pro∣phecy, God speaketh thus: I will take away the stony heart out of you, flesh, and giue you a new heart. Thus Ioel 11. Be ye conuerted to mee with your whole heart; yet Ieremy, Chap. 31.18. doth acknowledge that the conuersion of a sinner is the gift of God; Turne mee O Lord, and I shall be turned. And the last of the La∣mentations, Turne vs O Lord, and we shall be turned. So Deut. 10.16. God doth thus speake to the people: Circumcise the fore-skinne of your heart; yet Chapter 30.6. it is declared who doth worke it: The Lord thy God will circumcise thy heart. Thus Christ, Iohn 14.1. commands vs to beleeue in him, and yet hee saith, no man can come to him, except the father draw him, Iohn 6 44. and that by comming hee meaneth belee∣uing, he himselfe teacheth, v. 35. He that commeth to me shall not hunger, and he that beleeueth in me shall ne∣uer thirst. And, Phil. 1. Ephes. 2. wee are taught that faith, and the act of beleeuing is from God. Finally, the Scripture will haue men to gaine their bread by

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the sweat and labour of their hands, and yet neuer∣thelesse, wee are commanded to aske our daily bread of God, because the foode of the body, is the gift of God, but that which hee doth giue to him that wor∣keth: For the blessing of God doth not come on idlenesse, but on labour. That I may not say many things: Doth not God require perfect obedience from the vnregenerate? Yes, and from the heathen, to whom Christ was neuer knowne: And yet if one should say that they might be perfectly iust, and alto∣gether without sinne, he should attribute that to vn∣beleeuers, which neuer happened to any faithfull man. Doth not Arminius himselfe acknowledge that some are vnresistably hardned, from whom yet God doth require perfect obedience?

XIII. Neither doth God therefore command in vaine, or are his precepts to no purpose: For God in commanding, exhorting, threatning, &c. doth af∣fect man with the sence of his sinne; hee doth teach man his debt; what once hee could doe, and whence he fell: Also he doth propound a rule of iustice, lest any one should pretend ignorance for his sinnes: Fi∣nally, he doth ioyne to his word the efficacy of the spirit, and he doth, as it were, arme and head it, and make it sharpe and effectuall. It is not in vaine to command him that is fettered to runne, if by that commandement his fetters are loosed. It is not in vaine to command a blinde man to see, if by those words wherewith this is commanded, the eyes of him that is blinde are opened: For the words of God doe work that in vs, which they command vs to do: They doe so command that they doe also worke; as his

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words in the creation: God commandeth that which he would haue done, but hee giueth also that which he commandeth: and it is profitable for man to be pressed downe with the intollerable burthen of the Law, which doth exceede his strength, that he might the more couetously embrace the remedies offred in Christ. Excellently to this purpose Saint Austin, lib. de corrept. & gratia. cap. 3. O man, in the commandement know what thou oughtest to doe: in the word of correction and reproofe, know that by thine owne fault thou hast not that thou oughtest to haue: in prayer, know whence thou mayest receiue what thou wouldst haue. And in his booke, de spiritu & litera. God doth not measure his precepts by the strength of man, but where he commands that which is right, hee doth freely giue to his elect ability of fulfil∣ling it.

XIV. The similitudes which these Sectaries vse to procure enuie to vs, are plainly contrary, and no∣thing to the purpose: They say, it is to no purpose to blame the blinde man, because he doth not see, al∣though he hath pulled out his owne eyes; or to vrge him to worke, who hath cut off his owne hands. Con∣cerning him that is blinde, I answere, that this exam∣ple is brought by them vnproperly; for no blinde man, whether he is blinde by his owne fault, or by anothers, is bound to see: But hee that by his owne fault, is made wicked, and vnable to obey God, is yet bound to obey him: No man is bound to exercise na∣turall functions after they haue ceased; but the bond whereby the creature is bound to the Creator, can be wiped out by no occasion, much lesse by the wicked∣nesse of man. But if any blinde man, had rather be

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blinde, then see, and should refuse the remedies offred, should he not iustly be blamed? Such is the condition of man in the state of sinne; for he is not onely necessa∣rily euill, but he will not be good, and he is delighted with his wickednesse.

XV. The similitude of him who hath willingly cut off his owne hands, hath the same defects; Where∣vnto this is to be added; that the hands may be cut off, but the will, which is here signified by the hands, cannot be cut off: For euery most wicked man, is en∣dued with a will, by which hee is alwayes bound to worship and loue God, although he hath corrupted it. Finally, the similitudes of naturall and ciuill things, are for the most part very vnfitly and absurdly drawn to morall things, and to religion. By the like reason, that ridiculous similitude of a man speaking to dry bones is disolued; for these bones are not bound to moue themselues, but an vnregenerate man is bound to beleeue, and to obey.

XVI. Arnoldus, page 136. hath these words; We see (saith hee) that the Scripture doth often say, that he which doth beleeue and is conuerted, doth seperate him∣selfe from euill, doth purge, quicken, sanctifie, saue, and circumcise himselfe, doth make him a new heart, doth put on the new man, &c. Whence hee doth gather, that it may be said, that man doth seperate himselfe, although the Apostle saith, Who seperateth thee? vnderstanding none but God. The places noted in the margent, where∣by the proueth these things, are these, Ezech. 18.31. Make you a new heart, and a new spirit. Iam. 1.27 Pure religion, is to keepe himselfe vnspotted from the world. 1 Pet. 1.22. Wee are commanded to purifie our soules.

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2 Tim. 2.21. If any one purge himselfe, he shall be a vessell vnto honour, sanctified, &c. Luke 17.33. Whosoeuer shall loose his life, shall preserue it. Deut. 10.16. Circumcise the fore-skinne of your heart. All which places are besides the purpose, for they doe not say, that which Arnol∣dus doth apply to them, to wit, that these things are done by vs, but they onely commanded them to be done: and I meruaile how so great a negligence hath crept on a man of a sharpe and acute wit: Yea, if these places should say that man gaue himselfe a new heart, that he did sanctifie, and quicken, and saue himselfe, yet it would not thence follow, that these things are done by our free-will; for it is familiar to the Scrip∣ture to say, that those are done by vs, which God doth worke by vs: Thus man openeth to God, knock∣ing, Reuel. 2.20. Thus the Apostles raised the dead: Thus the Pastors of the Church forgiue sins, Mat. 18. Iohn 21. Thus they saue soules, 1 Tim. 4.16. When yet without wickednesse, they cannot arrogate to themselues the title of the Sauiour of soules.

XVII. And whether this doctrine tendeth of the concurrence of free-will with grace, and of the facul∣ty whereby man may beleeue, & vse grace if he will, or not beleeue & refuse grace, and the totall cause of faith is assigned not to grace alone, but to grace with free∣will; whether, I say, this doctrine, drawne out of the ditches and puddles of the Semipelagians, doth tend, it is easie to know: For it tendeth thither, that mans merits might closely be brought in, as it were by vn∣dermining wayes: For a though these Sectaries doe at the first view, seeme to beare a hatred to merits, yet in many places, they doe establish them. The Epistle

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against the Walachrians, hath these words, pag. 44. Those whom God calleth, and to whom he doth before hand vouchsafe the grace of preaching, we confesse for the most part, to be such men, that their vertues doe deserue no lesse then this free bestowing of gifts. Behold then, some men who deserue the bestowing of the gifts of God, and that before regeneration. Arnoldus, pag. 328. God giueth to the creature, performing obedience, that which is theirs of due. Arminius against Perkins, pag. 218. God, of his promise, and of due debt, doth giue life to him that worketh. And Arnoldus, pag. 433. doth speake of some, who by the helpe of grace, doe not make themselues vnworthy, and doe not deserue that the spirit should cease to worke in them.

XVIII. It liketh me well, for a corollary, to set downe here the famous sentence of Saint Austin, ad Simplicium, quest. 2. This is manifest, that we will in vaine vnlesse God shew mercy; but I doe not know how it can be said, that God sheweth mercy in vaine, vnlesse we doe will; for if God hath mercy, we are willing, because it belongeth to that mercy, that we should be willing: for it is God that doth worke in vs to will and to doe, of his good will. And in the same place; The effect of the mercy of God cannot be in the power of man, that he should in vaine haue mer∣cy, if man be vnwilling, because if he will haue mercy on them, he can call them after that manner that is fit for them that they should be moued, and vnderstand, and follow.

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CHAP. XXXVI.

Of the outward and inward calling, and whether the one be without the other.

I. ALthough the workes of God, which are euery where before our eyes, doe abun∣dantly testifie, and euen against mens wils, do shew the infinite power, good∣nesse, and wisdome of God: yet this light is but dimme, and nearer to darkenesse, in com∣parison of the light of the word of God, whereby hee doth not onely giue vs assurance of his omnipotency, maiesty, and prouidence, but doth also reueile to vs his will: For surely the contemplation of the creatures doth not touch men with the sence of sinne, nor doth shew to a man the way of saluation and reconciliati∣on with God: yea, there can be no profitable and sauing contemplation of nature, vnlesse those things, which in a doubtfull light, and in worne-out letters are hardly read, doe by the word of God, as it were through spectacles, appeare plaine and distinct to vs: Then at length doe we contemplate heauen with filiall eyes, as the entry of our fathers house, when God by his word hath dispelled this mist from our mindes, and hath declared sure tokens of his father∣ly loue.

II. Furthermore, although the knowledge of the creatures doth not suffice to saluation, yet the Gentiles, who were instructed by no other teacher then nature, are therefore inexcusable, because they doe not vse these (although small) helpes, to as good purpose as

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they might: and because they endeauour to choake or depraue those naturall good notions, and sparkes of goodnesse and equity, which are put into them by nature: Therefore they alone doe profit in piety, by the teaching of the creatures, and are by the prickes of conscience stirred vp to the feare of God, to whom God hath vouchsafed the prerogatiue of his word.

III. But yet not all they that heare the word of God, doe come to saluation; but those in whom the preaching of the Gospell piercing deepely, and being admitted into them, doth change their hearts, and shed in their mindes a heauenly light: And these sa∣uing effects, are not to be ascribed to the eloquence of man, obtained to perswade, but to the secret efficacy of the holy Ghost, which is the true doctor of our soules, and that singer of God, engrauing the law on the stony tables of our hearts. Thence it is, that the Gospell is called in the Scripture a two-edged sword, a hammer breaking the stone, the arme of God, and the power of God to saluation: Without which efficacy of the holy Ghost, preaching is but a dead letter, and a vaine sound striking mens eares; effectuall onely to this, that the condemnation of the stubborne and re∣bellious hearer, should be the greater.

Hence ariseth a double calling, one outward, which is wrought by the outward publishing of the Gospell; the other inward, which is wrought by the powerfull drawing and change of the heart by the Holy-Ghost, by whom the word is made effectuall. This inward change doth consist of two parts, viz. The enlightning of the minde, and the change of the

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will, which change of the will, though it be latter in time, yet it is worthier in dignity: In so much that the enlightning of the minde, without the renewing of the heart, doth turne to our greater condemnati∣on. This inward change is in the Scripture called conuersion, regeneration, the new birth, creation, and resurrection.

IV. Here wee haue somewhat to doe with the Arminians, and there is no small controuersie be∣tweene vs: For they say, that the word of God, whensoeuer, and amongst whomsoeuer it is preached, is neuer destitute of its quickning power, neither is a∣ny one outwardly called, but hee is also inwardly drawne: And therefore they refuse the distinction of vocation or calling, into outward and inward. These are the words of Arminius against Perkins, Page 57. The word is vnprofitable without the Holy-Ghost, wherefore it hath the cooperation of the Holy-Ghost alwaies ioyned to it: And this he saith being vnminde∣full of that which hee had said a little before, where speaking of the word, and of the cooperation of the holy spirit, he saith; these two are almost alwayes ioy∣ned together, therefore not alwayes: Neither is Ar∣noldus vnwilling that Arminius should doubt in that thing; for, pag. 432. he speaketh thus; It may be doubt∣ed whether Arminius thought that the inward succour of the spirit was alwaies, and in all men, ioyned with the out∣ward preaching: But that which the Master speakes fearefully and doubtingly, is openly and without any circumstance affirmed by his schollers. For Arnoldus, Chap. 4. would draw Arminius into this opinion, that the outward calling doth happen to none, without the

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inward: and pag. 433. The opinion of Arminius is, that the efficacy of the holy Ghost is present with all them, who at the first are called. The Arminians in their Epistle against the Walachrians, pag. 49. doe labour much to teach, that in those who are not conuerted, the word is not destitute of the quickning spirit. Arnoldus, pag. 464: teacheth, that this quickning force is ioyned, not one∣ly to the preaching of the Gospell, but also to the preaching of the law, and that this change is made by the spirit, by the word of the Law, preparatorily, and by way of preparation; by the word of the Gospell, con∣summatorily, in respect of the finishing of it; and that so, as man cannot but receiue that sence, and be affected with it, and in this action the spirit carrieth himselfe altogether passuely: By which feeing, hee saith, the spirit doth allure the assent, the liberty of the will yet remaining safe and whole. This holy spirit working in mens hearts, by the knowledge of the law, Arnoldus doth put, euen in Infidels and those that be not regenerate; which although it is not the spirit of regeneration, yet it doth dispose to regeneration.

V. This doctrine is repugnant, not onely to the holy Scripture, but also to experience and common sence: For we see many hearers of the word, that are no more affected with the preaching of it, then if les∣sons should be sung to them that are deafe; those whose mindes doth wander other-where, and doth neuer returne; besotted with such a stupidity, that they haue no relish of the Gospell, no feeling of it, nor assent vnto it, although to other things they are not slow: Also there are very many, who when they heare the Gospell, receiue it with gibing & laughter, as

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an absurd thing, as the Athenians, Acts 13.32. For Christ preached is an offence to the Iewes, and foolishnesse to the Greekes, because they are offended, and these mocke at it. I haue seene those, who being asked what they brought from the Sermon, and what they re∣membred, haue seriously answered, they could not discerne whether the Preacher spoke French or La∣tine.

VI. In such men, yea, and in Infidels, instructed in the law alone, the Arminians say, that the spirit of God doth worke, and doth necessarily, and (as they speake) vnresistably, giue the sence and feeling of the true doctrine, although he doth not giue the assent and agreeing to it, but by the helpe of free-will. Much more therefore among the Arminian multitude, there will be none, who is not drawne with the holy Ghost, and who doth not feele in him the quickning spirit: This flying in the ayre, doth not much disser from the fanaticall enthusiasme and inspiration of the Ana∣baptists, but that the Anabaptists will haue this sence and feeling peculiar to themselues; but these inno∣uators will haue it to be common, both to the faithfull and to Infidels, yea to all, to whom either the Gospell is preached, or the Law without the Gos∣pell.

VII. It is to no purpose, to reckon vp places of Scripture, to ouerthrow this opinion: For hitherto belong all those places which wee haue brought, Chapter 34. to proue that an vnregenerate man, and an infidell, is vnable and vnfit to euery worke that is good and profitable to saluation: All which were false, if the quickning power of the holy spirit, did

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dwell in infidels, and vnregenerate persons, and if all men were drawne inwardly, and by an internall calling.

VIII. To this purpose are those places which teach vs, that they alone come to Christ whom the father draweth, Iohn 6.44. But according to Armi∣nius all men are drawne, and are inwardly affected, by the holy Ghost: As the winde bloweth where it listeth, so also the spirit, Iohn 3.8. Therefore hee doth not breath euery where. In the multitude of people God opened the heart of Lydia before the rest: When the Apostles were astonished, the theefe beleeued among the cries of the raging people, and so many impedi∣ments of beleeuing: One little call of Christ moued Mathew, that leauing the receipt of Custome he follo∣wed Christ; when the men of Capernaum, among so many miracles and good lessons, were hardned at the preaching of the Gospell: Whence it appeareth, that some men are drawne by the efficacy and power of the spirit, and some men are left in their naturall wickednesse. Whence is this difference? If dignity be respected, who among the vnregenerate is not vnworthy of the grace of God, seeing all men are of a stony heart, and are dead in sinne? But if the precedent disposition be respected, why are the men of Capernaum rather called by the Gospell, then the men of Tyre, seeing that Christ doth witnesse that the men of Capernaum were worse affected, and lesse inclined to repentance.

IX. Arnoldus, Page 445. doth contend, that the heart of Lydia was therefore opened, because shee was well affected and disposed, and that God there∣fore

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opened her heart, because she opened it her selfe: For in that place shee is called, 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, one that was addicted to the worship of God, before she beleeued Paul. I might say that there are many who worship God with a wicked and vnlawfull worship: But I am more prone to this opinion, that I should beleeue that Lydia, a Iewish woman, was indued with the spirit of regeneration, and had receiued true pie∣tie, and beleeued in the Messiah promised, although she did not yet know that Iesus the Sonne of Mary was the Christ, because he was not preached to her. Such a one was the Eunuch of Candaces, and Cor∣nelius, who, Acts 10. is called a deuout man, whose prayers, and almes, and piety, was praised, before hee had heard any thing of Christ: These were some of those men, who as Saint Luke saith, Chapter 2.25. Did expect the consolation of Israell. I thinke it were wickednesse to account these among insidels, and a∣mong the rest of the Iews, who did blaspheme Christ, and dispise him preaching. Seeing therefore that Ly∣dia was such a one, God opened her heart, that shee might attend to the words of Saint Paul, and might learne from him, that Christ, whom shee did expect, was already come, and that those thinges were fulfilled, which were fore-told of him by the Pro∣phets.

X. Against these things, the Arminians bring some arguments, but so light, that they are dispear∣sed onely with a breath. Arminius against Perkins, Page 57. doth say, that Stephen, Acts 7.51. doth vp∣braide and reproach the Iewes, that they did alwaies resist the Holy-Ghost. Hence the accure man doth

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