An abridgement of the whole body of divinity extracted from the learned works of that ever-famous and reverend divine, Mr. William Perkins / by Tho. Nicols.

About this Item

An abridgement of the whole body of divinity extracted from the learned works of that ever-famous and reverend divine, Mr. William Perkins / by Tho. Nicols.
Perkins, William, 1558-1602.
London :: Printed by W.B. for Will. Hope ...,

To the extent possible under law, the Text Creation Partnership has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to this keyboarded and encoded edition of the work described above, according to the terms of the CC0 1.0 Public Domain Dedication ( This waiver does not extend to any page images or other supplementary files associated with this work, which may be protected by copyright or other license restrictions. Please go to for more information.

Subject terms
Theology, Doctrinal -- 17th century.
Cite this Item
"An abridgement of the whole body of divinity extracted from the learned works of that ever-famous and reverend divine, Mr. William Perkins / by Tho. Nicols." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed May 26, 2024.


The second part of THEO∣LOGIE.

Of Gods works and his Decree.

THe works of God, are all the World, and all the things contained therein.

The end for which all things are created, is the manifestation of the glorie of God, Rom. 11. 36.

Page 15

The Decree of God is that, by which God hath freely from all eternity determined all things, Eph. 1. 11. 4. Matth. 10. 29. Rom. 9. 21.

The execution of Gods Decree is that, by which all things in their time are accomplisht, according as he foreknew them, and Decreed them.

The Decree of God is the first, and principal working cause of all things, and it is also in order and time before all other causes.

This first, and principal cause doth not take away freedom of will in Election; Nor the Nature and property of second causes; but it bringeth them into a certain order; and it directeth them to their de∣terminate ends, and hereupon the effects, or events of things are ei∣ther, contingent, or Necessary.—

—Even as the Nature of the second cause is; And thus Christ according to his Fathers Decree, died necessarily, (as Act. 17. 3.) But yet willingly. Joh. 10. 18.

Page 16

And if we respect the tempera∣ture of Christs body, he might have prolonged his life, and therefore in this regard he may be said to have died contingently.

Gods foreknowledge is con∣joyned with his Decree; and in re∣gard of us it is before his Decree, but not in regard of God.

The branches of the execution of Gods Decree are his, Operation, and his operative permission.

His operation is his effectual producing of all good things, which either have being, or moving, or which are done.

Gods operative permission is that, whereby he onely permitteth one, and the same work to be done of others, as it is evil; but as it is good he doth effectually work it, Gen. 56. 20. & 45. 7. Isai 10. 5. 6. 7.

God permitteth evil by a certain voluntary permission, in that he forsaketh the second cause in work∣ing evil.

And he doth also forsake his

Page 17

creature, either by detracting the grace it had,

Or by not bestowing that which it wanteth, Rom. 1. 26. 2 Tim. 2. 25. 26.

And in this we must not think God unjust, for he is indebted to none, Rom. 9. 15.

It is in Gods pleasure to bestow how much grace, and upon whom he will, Matth. 10. 15.

That evil which God permitteth in respect of God is good, whither it be as a punishment, or as a cha∣stisement, because he can, and doth produce good out of it.

Gods Decree as it concerneth man, is called predestination.

Predestination is a Decree of God, by which all men are ordain∣ed to an everlasting estate; either of Salvation, or Condemnation, 1 Thess. 5. 9.

The means of accomplishing Gods predestination, was the Crea∣tion and the fall.

The Creation is the World, and the inhabitants in the World.

Page 18

The parts of the World, are the Heaven and the Earth.

The Heavens are three fold, 1. The Air, 2. Sky, 3. The invisi∣ble Heaven.

Heaven in a large acceptation, is all that is above the Earth. All which, is distinguisht into three Heavens. The first Heaven is the space betwixt the Earth, and Starry Firmament. The second Heaven containeth the Sun, Moon, & Stars. The third Heaven is the invisible Heaven, this is the place in which the blessed do behold the Majesty, and glorie of the Almighty.

The inhabitants of the World are Angels, Men, and all other Crea∣tures.

In Angels there are these things to be considered.

1. Their Nature; they are spiri∣tual, and incorporeal essences, Heb. 2. 16. and 1. 7.

2. Their qualities, First they are wise, Secondly, they are of great might, 2 Thes. 1. 7. 2 Sam. 24. 17.

Page 19

2 Kings 19. 35. Another quality of them is, Thirdly, that they are swift, and of great agility, Isa. 6. 6. Dan. 9. 21.

3. Their Number they are innu∣merable, Dan. 7. 10. Hebr 12. 22

4. The place in which these good Angels are, and that is in the high∣est Heaven, for there they do ever attend upon God, and have socie∣ty with him, Matth. 18. 10. Mark. 12. 25. Psal. 68. 17.

5. Their orders, or degrees, which what they be, no man can certainly say; but there are Arch-Angels spoken of in Scripture, 1 Thes. 4. 16.

And Angels, Matth. 18. 10. And Cherubims, & Seraphims, Esai 6. 6.

But it concerneth us not to search this; neither may we curious∣ly enquire after it.

6. There office which is to mag∣nify God, and perform his Com∣mandments, Psal. 103. 20. 21.

The Angels were created within the six days, as appeareth, Gen. 2. 1.

Page 20

The knowledge that the Angels have, is either: 1. Natural, 2 Re∣vealed, 3. Experimental.

The Ministry of the Angels is three fold, either to adore, or to praise, or to glorifie God continu∣ally, To this purpose do they stand in the presence of God, ever more ready to do his Commandments; as Isai 6. 2. Luke 2. 14. Rev. 5. 11. 12. Ps. 103. 20. Dan. 7. 9. 10.

Part of the Ministry of Angels respecteth the Church, for they are Ministring Spirits sent forth of God, to Minister for the good of those that shall be heirs of salvati∣on, Heb. 1. 14.

For the good of all these, they Minister first in this life, 2. In the end of this life, and 3. In the last judgement.

In this life they watch for the good of their bodies, and for the good of their Souls, and that from the beginning of their days to the end of them, Psal. 34. 7.

In the end of this life, they carry

Page 21

the Souls to Heaven, as they did the Soul of Lazarus, Luke 16. 22.

In the last judgement they do gather all the Elect together, that they may come before Christ, and so enter into Eternal fruition of glorie, both in body and Soul, Matth. 24. 31.

Another part of their Ministery concerneth Gods Enemies, and it is to execute judgements upon his Enemies at his command.

Of Man and his State.

Man was made after Gods image, and resembling God in holiness.

In the excellent State of Mans in∣nocency, these things are to be con∣sidered.

1. The place in which he was set in his innocency, and that was the garden of Eden, that pleasant place. Gen. 2. 15.

2. The integrity of Mans Na∣ture, he was Created in righteous∣ness, and true holiness, Eph. 4. 24.

There are two parts of Mans first

Page 22

integrity, 1. Wisdom, for he had a true, and perfect knowledge of God and his will, as far as it was to be performed of him; and of the counsel of God, concerning all Creatures, Genes. 2. 19. 2. Second∣ly, Justice, which was a conformity in his will, affections and powers of his body to the will of God.

3. Man's dignity, which consist∣ed in these things. 1. In Man's Communion with God, God re∣joyced in Man made in his own image, and Man did fervently love God; and this appeareth by God's familiar conference with Adam; Genes. 1. 29. Secondly, in his Do∣minion over all the creatures of the Earth; Gen. 2. 19. Psal. 8. 6. Third∣ly, in his Decency, Comeliness, and Dignity of body; for though he was naked, yet was he cloathed with the best and excellentest roabs, even with innocency; There was im∣printed upon him by God a Prince∣ly Majesty, so that there could not then be any thing in him unseemly;

Page 23

Gen. 2. 25. Psal. 8. Fourthly, in his labour of body, which was without pain, or grief; Gen. 3. 17. 19.

4. Man's subjection to God, for he was bound to perform obedi∣ence to these commandments of God. He was not to eat of the two forbidden Trees. The command∣ment concerning the Trees was as a proof, and a trial of Man's obe∣dience.

The Tree of life was a sign to Man, to confirm to him his perpe∣tual abode in the garden of Eden, if he did continue in his obedience; Rev. 2. 7.

The Tree of the knowledge of good and evil, was a sign of death to him; if he did transgress Gods Commandment; Gen. 2. 17.

5. Man's calling; which was to obey God's Commandments, and to dress the garden of Eden; Gen. 2. 17. and 2. 15.

6. His diet, which was the herbs of the earth; and the fruit of all the Trees, save of the Tree of life,

Page 24

and of the Tree of knowledge of good and evil, and all the other Creatures; Gen. 1. 29. 30. and 9. 3.

His free choice to perform, or not perform these Command∣ments.

Thus were our first Parents Created in perfect innocency: But mutable. And thus it pleased God to prepare a way to the execution of his Decree.

Of the Fall.

The fall was of Man and An∣gels.

Angels fell by leaving that good state, wherein God had placed them. Jude 6.

In their fall may be observed,

1. Their corruption arising from their fall; by reason of which they are full of malice and hatred, and hatred, and by reason of this they do set themselves against God, and insatiablely desire to destroy all mankinde, and that they may do this as much as in them layeth, they

Page 25

do neglect neither force nor fraude to act it withall; 1 Pet. 5. 8. Eph. 6. 12. Joh. 8. 44.

Their degrees and diversity for one of them which is called Baal∣zebub, is chief; and Prince of the rest of the Devils; and he is far above the rest in malice; Matth. 25. 41. Rev. 12. 7. He is also called the Prince of this World, and the God of this World; 2 Cor. 4. 4. Eph. 22.

3. Their punishment; God after their fall gave them over to perpe∣tual torments, without any hope of pardon; Jude 6. 2 Pet. 2. 4.

By this we may see what great punishment they deserved, and that grievous sins will be grie∣vously punished.

Their punishment was first their dejection from Heaven; 2 Pet. 2. 4. And the shortning, and limiting of their power, Job 1. 12. Second∣ly, a grievous pain and torment in the deep, which is endless, and infinite in time and mea∣sure,

Page 26

Luke 8. 31. Matth. 25. 41. Rev. 20. 10.

Of Mans fall.

The fall of Man was his revolt∣ing from his obedience to sin. Sin was his transgression of Gods Com∣mandment, or

Mans fall was his disobeying of Gods Commandment, in eating the forbidden fruit, wherein these things are to be considered.

1. The manner of Mans fall.

The Devil having immediatly before fallen himself, perswaded our first Parents that both the pu∣nishment for eating the forbidden fruit was uncertain, and that also God was not true in his word unto them: Having done this he blinds the eyes of their understanding; and they being thus blinded straight be∣gan to distrust God, and to doubt of Gods favour; And when he had brought them to a doubting, he moved them to behold the forbid∣den fruit, which so soon as they

Page 27

saw in its beauty, upon his motion of them to this purpose; he then stirred them up to desire it; and from the desire of it, he moved them to satisfie their desires; And so the Woman pluckt the fruit and did eat, and gave it to her husband and he did eat, Gen. 3. 1. to the 8. Thus did they willingly fall from their integrity, God for just causes suffering it.

2. The greatness of their trans∣gression, which appeareth by these trespasses that they committed in that action of disobedience. 1. They doubted of Gods word. 2. They being bewitched with the Devils promises, cease to fear Gods pu∣nishment, and thus become puffed up with presumption, and en∣flamed with the desire of greater Dignity, and will no longer believe Gods threatnings. 3. They forsake Gods word, and seek after other wisdom. 4. They are proud, and seek to magnify themselves, and to become like God. 5. They con∣temne

Page 28

God, and against their own consciences sin against his Com∣mandment. 6. They prefered the Devil before God. 7. They are unthankfull, and drive out the holy Spirit of God from dwelling in them, and thus despised that ever∣lasting blessed Union. 8. They murthered both themselves and their progeny.

3. The fruits and effects of it, upon it there arose a state of unbe∣lief, and by it we are all included under sin, Rom. 11. 32.

Of Sin.

Sin is threefold. 1. A partici∣pation of Adam's transgression and guiltiness, by being in his loyns when he offended; as Heb. 7. 9. 10. It is said of Levi that he paid Tythes in Abraham, because he was in the loyns of Abraham when A∣braham paid Tythes.

2. Original sin which ariseth out of the former transgression; Original sin is a corruption engen∣dred in our first Conception, by

Page 29

which the faculties of Soul and bo∣dy are prone, and disposed to evil; Psal. 51. 5.

The remnant of God's image which man retained after his fall, were certain Notions concerning good and evil; as that there is a God, and that he doth punish sin, and that there is an everlasting life; and the like; all which serve to make men without excuse in the sight of God; Rom. 1. 20.

From the fall our mindes receive ignorance, by it we were deprived of knowledge in the things of God; by it we were made ignorant of his sincere worship and eternal life; 1 Cor. 1. 14. Rom. 8. 7.

By it our mindes are disabled to understand spiritual things, though they be taught us; Luke 24. 45. 2 Cor. 3. 5.

From the fall our mindes re∣ceived vanity, for we think false∣hood truth, and truth false-hood; Eph. 4. 17.

By it we have gotten a natural

Page 30

inclination to conceive and devise onely that which is evil, Genes. 6. 5. Jer. 4. 22.

The increase of sin in the under∣standing is either a reprobate sense. As when God withdraws the light of Nature, Joh. 12. 40. Rom. 1. 28.

Or, 2. The spirit of slumber, as Rom. 11. 8.

Or, 3. Spiritual drunkenness, Isai 29. 9.

Or, 4. Strong illusions, as 2 Thess. 2 11.

The remnant of Gods image in the conscience, is an observing and watchfull power, like the eye of a Keeper, reserved in Man partly to reprove; And partly to repress the unbridled course of his affections; Rom. 2. 15.

From Adam's fall the Conscience hath received impureness; Titus 1. 15.

This impurity worketh these ef∣fects.

1. It causeth Man to excuse sin, or cloak it, as when a Man by his

Page 31

outward service of God doth ex∣cuse his inward impiety; Mark. 10. 19. And it excuseth intents not waranted by Gods word; 1 Chron. 13. 19.

2. It doth accuse and terrify us for doing good, and this we may see in Idolaters and Superstitious persons, who are grieved when they do omit to perform Idolatrous and counterfeit Worships to their Gods; Col. 2. 21. 22. Isai 29. 13.

3. Effect which it worketh, is when the Conscience doth accuse and terrify for sin, as Genes. 50. 15. Joh. 8. 9.

Impureness encreased in the Con∣science, is such a sensless numdness as that it can hardly accuse a man of sin; Eph. 4. 19. 1 Timoth. 4. 2.

This senslesness springeth from a custom in sinning, 1 Sam. 25. 37. or else from some grievous horrour and terrour of the Conscience, as Gen. 4. 14.

The Symptomes of this disease are blasphemies, Trembling of bo∣dy,

Page 32

fearfull dreams; Act. 24. 26. Dan. 5. 6.

The remnant of God's image which remaineth in Man's will since the fall is a free choice, either in Na∣tural Actions, as to Nourish, to engender, to move, to perceive;

Or, in humane actions that are common to all men, whither they concern manners, families, or Com∣mon-wealths. In all these outward actions Man hath free-will, either to choose, or to refuse them, though it be but weak, as Rom. 2. 14.

By Adams fall the will received impotency, insomuch as it can not will, nor lust after that which is indeed good, and which doth please God, and is acceptable to him, 1 Cor. 2. 14. Rom. 5. 6. Phil. 2. 13.

And it received by Adams fall an inward Rebellion, whereby it doth utterly abhor that which is good; and will, and desire onely that which is evil.

The will in the first Act of con∣version to God is not an agent,

Page 33

but a patient, as it doth appear by this. For,

The affections have by Adams fall received a disorder, and by rea∣son of this disorder they do eschew good; and pursue that which is evil; Rom. 1. 26. 1 Kings 21. 4.

The body by Adam's fall hath received a fitness to begin sin, for it bringeth in all objects and oc∣casions of sin to the Soul; Genes. 3. 6.

And the body hath received a fitness to execute sin, even so soon as the heart thinketh it. Rom. 6. 13. 16.

Of Actual sin.

3. Actual sin ariseth from Ori∣ginal sin; Actual sin is either in∣ward, or outward.

Inward Actual sin, is in the Minde, Will, and affections.

The Actual sin of the minde is the evil thought assented to, or the evil resolves, purposes, and intents thereof.

Page 34

Examples of these Actual sins are these, As

When a Man thinks that there is no God, Ps. 10. 4. and 14. 1.

Or, That there is neither provi∣dence nor presence of God in this World, Ps. 10. 11.

An immagination of safeguard from peril, and yet there is a course of sinning; Ps. 10. 6. Rev. 18. 7.

Better esteem of a Mans self then ought to be, and worse esteem of others than ought to be, Rev. 18. 7. Luke 18. 11.

When a Man thinketh that the Gospel of God's Kingdom is meer foolishness, 1 Cor. 2. 14.

And when a Man thinketh un∣charitablely and malitiously of such as serve God sincerly, Matth. 12. 24.

When a Man putteth the day of death far off, Isai 28 15.

When a Man thinketh to run on in sin, and yet that he can eschew the pains of Hell, Isai 28. 15.

When also a Man thinketh that

Page 35

though he hold on his sins, yet that God will defer both his perticular judgement, and the last judgement; Luke 12. 19. 45.

When as God doth open our eys, we do see these evil thoughts rebel∣liously rising in our mindes even as sparckles out of a Chimney; yet in this will carnal Men pretend a good meaning.

These are the examples of the Actual sins of the minde.

The Actual sins of bothwill, and affections, are all wicked motions, inclinations, and desires, Gal. 5. 17.

Of outward Actual sin.

Outward Actual sins are all those in the committing of which, the Members of the body do joyn with the faculties of the Soul to act them.

Such sins as these are infinite, Psal. 40. 12.

Outward Actual sins are either sins of Omission, or of Commissi∣on, both which are either in Word, or Deed.

Page 36

The degrees of the sin of Com∣mission are these, Jam. 1. 14. 15.

1. Temptation when as the De∣vil offereth to the minde that which is evil to allure a man to sin, John 13. 2. Act. 5. 3. 1 Chron. 21. 1.

And this is also effected by occa∣sion of external objects, which the senses perceive, Job 31. 1.

Of Tentation.

Tentation hath two parts. 1. Ab∣straction. 2. Inescation.

Abstraction is the first thought of committing sin; by it the minde is withdrawn from Gods service, for which it should be always ready prest, Luke 10. 27.

Inescation is an evil thought conceived, and for a time retained in the minde, and it being thus kept in the minde, it doth by delighting the Will and Affections, lay a bait for a Man to draw him to con∣sent.

2. The second degree of sin of Commission is Conception.

Page 37

Conception of sin is, when the heart consents and resolves to com∣mit sin, Psal. 7. 14.

3. The third degree of it is the birth of sin. That is the very act∣ing and committing of sin; As when the faculties of the Soul, and the powers of the body joyn toge∣ther to act sin.

The fourth degree of the Com∣mission of sin is the perfection of sin; That is when sin by custom is made perfect, and ripe; And then it bringeth forth death and dam∣nation; and this is all that the sin∣ner reapeth by his sin, an example of this we have in Pharo.

The differences of sins of Com∣mission are these:

1. To consent with an offendour and not actually to commit sin, Eph. 5. 11.

This a man doth. 1. When he doth in judgement allow the sin of another, Num. 20. 10. 12. 2. When the heart approveth in affection and consent; as do Ministers and

Page 38

Magistrates, when they do conceal and winck at offences, 1 Sam. 2. 23. 29. 3. When sin is done indeed by Counsel, presence, or inticement, as Rom. 1. 13. Mark 6. 25. 26. Act. 22. 20.

2. The second difference of sin of Commission is.

Sinning ignorantly, that is, when a man doth not expresly and distinctly know, whither that which he doth be a sin, or not, or if he do know it, he doth not acknowledge and mark it, 1 Tim. 1. 13. Numb. 35. 24. 1 Cor. 4. 4. Ps. 10. 13.

3. The third difference of sin of Commission;

Is, when any Man sinneth up∣on knowledge, but yet of infirmi∣ty, as when a Man fearing some eminent danger, or when a Man amazed at the horrour of death, doth against his knowledge deny that truth, which otherwise he would acknowledge and embrace: Such was the fall of Peter, arising from the rashness of his minde, mingled with some fear.

Page 39

Thus do men offend by the strength of the corruptions of their flesh, provoking them to that which their heart doth detest, Rom. 7. 19.

The fourth difference of it is, Presumptuous sinning upon knowledge; as Psal. 19. 13. of this kinde is. 1. Every sin committed with an high hand, or in contempt of God, Numb. 15. 30. Second∣ly, presumption of Gods mercy, though we do evil, and run on in it, Eccles. 8. 11. Rom. 2. 4.

5. The fifth difference of sin of Commission is,

Sinning upon knowledge, and out of self malice against God. Of this kinde is the sin against the holy Ghost.

The punishment of sin.

Man is punisht for sin, first in this life, either

1. In body. As 1. by care for the provision for his body, and by trouble for the things of this life,

Page 40

Genes. 3. 17. Secondly, by proneness to diseases, Matth. 9. 2. Joh. 5. 14. Deut. 28. 21. 22. Thirdly, by shame of nakedness, Genes. 3. 7. Fourthly, by pains as are in Women in Tra∣vail, and Child-birth, Genes. 3. 16.

2. In Soul. As 1. By a trem∣bling of Conscience. Secondly, by care. Thirdly, by trouble. Fourth∣ly, by hardness of heart. Fifthly, by madness, Deut. 28. 28.

3. In both body and Soul. As first, by a fearfull subjection to the Regiment of Sathan, Colos. 1. 13. Heb. 2. 14. Secondly, by a sepera∣tion from the fellowship of God, and a trembling at his presence, Eph. 4. 18. Gen. 3. 10.

4. By divers calamities and damages in his goods, Deut. 28. 29.

5. By the loss of dignity, and Lordly Authority, which he had over all the Creatures; and by the vanity, weakning, corrupting, and abating of the excellencie, virtues, and powers of the Creatures, as Rom. 8. 20. 21.

Page 41

6. Or in his name; By infamy and ignominy before, and after his death, Jer. 24. 6. All these things come alike to all, yet doubtless it is by reason of sin, by Adams fall, and since that, by our improvement of our Original and Actual corrupti∣ons.

Secondly, Man is punisht for sin at the last gasp. First, by death, or 2. by a change, like unto death, Rom 6. 23.

Thirdly, Man is punisht for sin after this life, by an eternal sepa∣ration from the presence of God, and from his exceeding excellent glory, 2 Thes. 1. 9.

Of Election and his foundation of it.

Predestination hath two parts. 1. Election. 2. Reprobation, 1 Thes. 5. 9.

Election is the decree of God, concerning the salvation of some men, to the praise of the glory of his grace, Eph. 1. 4. 5. 6.

Page 42

This decree of God is the book of life wherein the names of the Elect are written, Rev. 20. 12. 2 Tim. 2. 19.

The execution of this decree is Gods effectual working of all those things which he purposed for the salvation of the Elect, by the same means with which he purposed to do it, Rom. 18. 29. 30.

The foundation of this decree is Christ Jesus, Heb. 5. 5. Isai 42. 1. Eph. 1. 4.

The means of accomplishing this decree is Gods Covenant, and the seal thereof.

Gods Covenant is either the Covenant of works, or of grace.

Gods Covenant of works is the moral Law, or ten Command∣ments.

Gods Covenant of grace is his free promise of Christ and all his benefits to man, if man will repent him of his sins, and by faith receive Christ.

The Seals of the Covenant are the Sacraments.

Page 43

Gods Covenant of works, which is called the moral Law, Decalogue, or ten Commandments, is devided into two Tables.

The first Table containeth four Commandments.

The second Table containeth six Commandments.

Every Commandment is both affirmative and negative. That is, it doth both command and forbid.

As it is Affirmative it bindeth at all times, but not to all times.

As it is Negative it bindeth at all times, and to all times.

Under one Vice expresly forbid∣den are comprehended all of that kinde; yea, the least cause, occasion, or inticement thereto are forbid∣den, Joh. 3. 15. Matth. 5. 21.

The first Commandment.

Thou shalt have no other Gods before me.

In this first Commandment are these affirmatives. First that we must acknowledge God.

Page 44

Secondly, that we must ac∣knowledge no other God but him.

The marks of the true love of God are these.

1. To hear his word willingly.

2. To speak often off him.

3. To think often off him.

4. To do his will without irk∣somness.

5. To give body, and all for his cause.

6. To desire his presence above all, and to bewail his absence.

7. To embrace all such things as appertain to him.

8. To love and hate that which he loveth and hateth.

9. To seek to please him in all things.

10. To draw others unto the love of him.

11. To esteem highly of such gifts and graces as he bestoweth.

12. To stay our selves upon his Connsels revealed in his word.

13. To call upon his Name with affiance.

Page 45

The Negative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

We must not account that God which is not God.

In this Negative part of this Commandment we are forbidden these things.

1. Ignorance of the true God and of his will.

2. Atheism, which is a denying of God, or of his Attributes; as off his justice, wisdom, providence, pre∣sence, Ps. 14. 1.

3. Errours concerning God, or concerning the Persons of the Die∣ty, or concerning Gods Attri∣butes.

Here Helenism, or the adoring of a multiplicity of Gods is forbid∣den.

4. The setting of our hearts and affections upon any thing else but one God.

The heart is drawn from God by these means.

1. By distrusting of God, Heb. 10. 38. From this distrust ariseth.

Page 46

First, impatiency in suffering af∣flictions, Jer. 20. 14. 13. 18.

Secondly, a tempting of God, and this is when the man that distrust∣eth and contemneth God, seeks an experiment of Gods truth and power, Matth. 4. 7. 1 Cor. 10. 9. 10.

3. A desperation, Genes. 4. 13.

4. A doubting concerning the truth of God, or concerning his be∣nefits, either present, or to come, Ps. 116. 11.

2. By confidence of Creatures, as 1. when a man putteth trust in the strength of the Creatures, as Jer. 17. 5. or 2. In riches, Matth. 6. 24. Eph. 5. 5. or 3. In defenced pla∣ces, Jer. 40. 16. or 4. In pleasures, or dainties, and who so trusteth in these doth make his belly his God, Phil. 3. 19. or 5. In Physicians, 2 Chron. 16. 12. or 6. In the Devil and his works. Thus Magicians trust in the Devil: and Witches, and all such as seek help at their hands, Levit. 20. 6.

Page 47

3. The heart is drawn away from God, by loving the Creature too much, and more than God, Matth. 10. 37. Joh. 12▪ 43.

And by self Love, 2 Tim. 3. 2.

4. By hatred and contempt of God, as when a man declining from God, doth fly from God, and is an∣gry with God when he punisheth sin, Rom. 8. 7. and 1. 30.

5. By want of the fear of God, Ps. 36. 1.

6. By fearing the Creature more than the Creatour.

7. By hardness of heart and carnal security, as when a man will neither acknowledge Gods judge∣ments nor his own sins, Rom. 2. 5. Luke 21. 34.

8. By pride, and presumption, as when a man ascribeth that to his own industry and merit, which is onely due to God, 1 Cor. 4. 6. 7. Genes. 3. 5.

The highest stair of prides lad∣ler, is that fearfull presumption of men, of climbing rashly into Gods

Page 48

seat of Majesty, as if they were Gods, Act. 12. 22. 23. 2 Thes. 2. 4.

The second Commandment.

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven Image, or any likeness of any thing that is in Heaven above, or that is in the Earth be∣neath, or that is in the water under the Earth.

Thou shalt not bow down thy self to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the Fathers upon the children, unto the third & fourth generation of them that hate me.

And shewing mercie unto thou∣sands of them that love me, and keep my Commandments.

The Affirmative part of this Commandment is this.

Thou shalt worship God in Spi∣rit and in truth, Joh. 4. 24.

Here we are first commanded to use the ordinary means of worship∣ping God: As

Page 49

1. The calling upon the name of the Lord. First, by humble sup∣plication, 1 Tim. 2. 1.

2. By harty thanksgiving.

3. By reading, hearing, talking, and continually meditating on the word of God.

4. By the use of the Sacraments, as Act. 2. 41. 42. and 20. 7.

Secondly, we are here command∣ed to use these means holily, that is, as God in his word hath command∣ed to use them, Matth. 28. 20. 1 Cor. 14. 40. Eccles. 5. 1. Ps. 26. 6.

Furtherance of Gods Worship Are leagues of amity, with those that truely fear God, and serve him according to his word, 2 Chr. 19. 2. Malaeh. 2. 11.

And such Covenants as the Ma∣gistrates and people make together with God, for the preservation of Christian Religion, 2 Chron. 15. 12. 14.

The Negative part of this Com∣mandment is this:

Thou shalt neither worship false

Page 50

Gods, nor the true God with false worship.

Here we are forbidden these things.

First, to represent God by any image, similitude, likeness, or figure whatsoever, Deut. 4. 15. 20.

For all idols are lies, Habak. 2. 18. Zach. 10. 2. Jer. 10. 8.

Secondly, we are here forbidden the least approbation of idolatry, Hosea 13. 2. Gen. 48. 10. And there∣fore all processions, plays, feasts, that are consecrated to the memo∣rial, and honour of idols, Exod. 32. 6. 1 Cor. 10. 7.

Thirdly, all relicks, badges, and monuments of idols, Exod. 23. 13. Isai 30. 22.

Fourthly, we are here forbidden all society with infidels: As 1. Mar∣riage with them, Genes. 6. 2. Deut. 7. 3. 4. Malach. 2. 11. Ezra 9. 14. 2 Kings 8. 18. 2. All leagues and confederacy with them in war, ei∣ther to assist them, or to receive as∣sistance from them, and that for these causes.

Page 51

1. Because it doth obscure Gods glory, and maketh him in appear∣ance either unwilling, or unable to aid his Church.

2. Because in so doing we shall without doubt infect our selves with their impieties and idolatries.

3. Because we are thus en∣dangered to be made partakers of their punishments, 2 Chron. 19. 2. With idolaters we are also forbid∣den all traffick in such wares, as we know may further the service of their idols.

We are also forbidden with ido∣laters all Trials in Law, before Judges that are infidels, when Chri∣stian Courts are open, and may be frequented, 1 Cor. 6. 6. But if Chri∣stian Courts be not open, we may according to St. Pauls rule appeal from one Court of infidels to ano∣ther; so from Festus he himself ap∣pealed to Caesar, Act. 25. 11.

Such necessities as these do make traffick, and other things to be fre∣quently used, which otherwise are unlawfull.

Page 52

We are here also forbidden all worshipping of the Beast, and re∣ceiving of his mark, Revel. 14. 9.

Fifthly, we are here forbidden all Will worship, or worship of God after our own fancies, in wayes which are not waranted by the word of God, though we do pre∣tend good intention for the doing of it, Collos. 2. 23. 1 Sam. 13. 9. 10. 13. whither it be by Superstitions, Sacrifices, Meats, Apparel, obser∣ving Ceremonies, Gestures, or by our Gate, Conversations, Pilgrim∣age, or by building of Altars, Pi∣ctures, or Idols, and the like; or by Temples, or by strange consorts of Musick, or by Monastical vows of single life, or of poverty, 1 Cor. 14 15. 1 Cor. 7. 9.

1. Such vows as these are alto∣gether repugnant to the Law of God. 2. They are greater then mans nature can perform. 3. They do disanull Christian Liberty, and make such things necessary as are indifferent. 4. They do renew Ju∣daisme:

Page 53

5. They are idolatrous, be∣cause they make them part of Gods worship, and esteem them merito∣rious. 6. They are Hypocrisie, for they are but an outward shew of Gods worship, Matth. 15. 7.

The effects of Hypocrisie are these.

First, to make a glorious shew of serving God, and yet to seek no∣thing else by it, but the pomp and glory of the World.

Secondly, to observe and take notice of other mens faults, and be∣haviour, and not to see, or minde our own.

Thirdly, to be more zealous, and curious in the observation of the Ancient Traditions, then of the Statutes and Commandments of Almighty God.

Fourthly, to strain at a gnat, and swallow a Camel; or to omit serious affairs, and the weighty mat∣ters of Gods word, and to hunt af∣ter trifles, Matth. 23. 24.

Fifthly, to do all things to be

Page 54

seen of men, Matth. 6. 5. and 23. 5.

Sixthly, to fast with an opini∣on of Merit is Hypocrisie, and to make a distinction of meats for the same; The like also is all external abstinence from meats, if it be with∣out an internal abstinence from sin, and unlawfull desires, Isai 58. 5. 6.

6. We are here forbidden all contempt, neglect, and intermission of Gods service, Revel. 3. 15. 16.

7. We are here forbidden all corrupting of Gods worship, and of that order of government, which he hath ordained for his Church; And this we do when we either add to Gods worship, or diminish it, or mangle it, Deut 12. 32.

8. We are here forbidden all Religious reverence of the Crea∣ture, Revel. 22. 8. Acts 10. 25.

9. We are forbidden all wor∣ship of Devils, under which is com∣prehended all kindes of Magick.

Magick is a mischievous Art, ac∣complishing wonders by the assi∣stance of the Devil.

Page 55

The Devil effects wonders and merveils, not by making a new thing which was not at all before, but by moving, transporting, and applying natural things diversly, by making a thin body thick and fog∣gy, and by bewitching and holding of mens senses.

The foundation of Magick is a Covenant with Sathan.

And this Covenant is such a contract, as doth make, men mu∣tually to have to do with the De∣vil:

The Original of this mutual con∣tract is this. First,

Sathan, or the Devil makes choice of such men to be his servants, as are by nature, either notorious bad persons, or else very seemingly sil∣ly, or indeed, silly Souls.

Then doth he offer to them di∣vers means, either by Magicians, or by their writings, or by teaching and instruction from himself.

The means which the Devil of∣fers for this purpose, are such as are

Page 56

used for the producing of such an effect, as by their own nature they were never ordained for: Nor is there any word of God for the doing of them, but against it.

These Satanical means are ob∣scure words, and words of Scripture wrested and abused; Holy water, Sieves, Seals, Glasses, Images, bow∣ings of the knee, and such like di∣vers gestures, The use of which ac∣cording to his own will, and to his own purpose, he teacheth some∣times by secret whispers, or sugge∣stions; and sometimes, either, by the words, or writings of Magicians. And when they have embraced these means, and do declare their Satanical confidence by their earnest endeavour to use, and pra∣ctise this kinde of wickedness by these means, the Devil standeth rea∣dy to assist them, and he alone it is that doth by these means, which are void of all such vertue as is sup∣posed, effect that which his wicked instrument intended.

Page 57

Then having brought them on thus far, the Devil Counterfeits God, and makes as though he was God. And as God hath his word and Sacraments, and Faith; so like∣wise the Devil hath his Characters, Gestures, & Sacrifices, which are as it were his Sacraments, by which he doth signifie to his Devilish Ma∣gicians; his own Devilish pleasure, and by the use of the same they do testifie their obedience to him.

And as God is delighted with his servants calling upon him. So likewise the Devil is delighted with the Magical ceremonies of his ser∣vants, and with their invocations.

The Covenant with the Devil is either secret, or express.

The secret Covenant with the Devil is, when the party doth not expresly compact and Covenant with the Devil, but yet in heart doth allow of his means, and doth assuredly believe that by the using of such means wonders may be ef∣fected.

Page 58

Express Covenant with the De∣vil is when the party doth not one∣ly trust in him, but also Covenant with him, and give himsel holely to him upon condition that he may by the observing of certain ceremo∣nies accomplish his desires.

Magick is either Divining, or working.

Divining is a foretelling of things to come by the help of the Devil.

Prediction, or foretelling is done either with means, or without means.

Prediction, or foretelling of things by means are chese.

1. Sooth-saying, or Divining by the flying of birds, Deut. 8. 10.

2. Divination by looking into the entrails of beasts, Ezek. 21. 22.

3. Necromancy, or Conjuring, This is, an asking counsel at the dead, The Devil doth appear to them that thus ask counsel, in the form of the dead man, as appeareth by the story of the Witch of Endor, 1 Sam. 28. 11. 13. 14.

Page 59

Divining, Prediction, or foretel∣ling without means, is called Pytho∣nisme.

Pythonisme is▪ when one is pos∣sessed with an unclean Spirit, and doth immediatly use the help of the same Spirit to charm with, or to re∣veal, and discover secrets by. Such a one was the Damsel Pythoness, spoken of by the Acts, that by her Spirit of Divination brought her Master much gain, Acts 16. 16. Concerning this kinde of Divina∣tion there is mention made, Isai 29. 4. where God threatning his judge∣ments upon Jerusalem, saith, Thy voice shall be out of the ground, like him that hath a spirit of Divi∣nation (or a familiar Spirit) and thy talking, or speech shall whisper, or peep, or chirp out of the dust.

Working Magick, or Magick ope∣rative hath two parts.

1. Jugling, which is when as the devil doth work by his conveyance, many things which seem great and hard, as Exod. 7. 10. 11. 12.

Page 60

2. Enchantments, or charmings, by these kinde of Charms, Beasts, young Children, and Men of ripe years are offt enfected, poysend, hurt, bounden, killed, and other∣wise molested.

By charms the Devil doth also offt cure diseases: As

1. By mumbling up some few words.

2. By making certain Characters and figures.

3. By framing of Circles.

4. By hanging Amulets about the Necks, and other parts of the body, a thing too frequently used now adays for the curing of dis∣eases, which Physicians call a curing of diseases by occult, and specifick qualities of remedies.

5. By the abuse of Herbs and Medicines to this purpose.

To such as these it is that Solomon, speaketh in Eccles. 10. 11. saying, Surely the Serpent will bite without enchantment.

Those that do consult with Ma∣gicians

Page 61

do also worship the Devil, for they do revolt from God to the Devil; Howsoever, they do plaster up their impiety with untempered Morter, as that they seek Gods help though by the means of Magicians, 1 Sam. 28. 13. Levit. 20. 6. Isai 8. 19. 20.

The third Commandment.

Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his Name in vain.

The Affirmative part of this Commandment is this.

Here we are first commanded to be zealous for Gods glory, above all things in the World, Numb. 25. 8. Ps. 69. 9.

Secondly, to use Gods Titles one∣ly in serious affairs, and that with all reverence, Deut. 28. 58. Rom. 9. 5.

Thirdly, to celebrate the praise of God, which we see brightly shining in his Creatures, Jer. 5. 22.

Page 62

To this part of this Command∣ment an Oath doth belong, the parts of which are these.

1. Confirmation of a Truth.

2. Invocation of God alone, as a witness of the truth, and a re∣venger of a ly.

3. A confession that God is a revenger of perjury; when he is brought in as a false witness.

4 A binding over unto punish∣ment, if in it deceit be used.

The form of an Oath is this.

1. We must swear truly, least we forswear.

2. Justly, least we swear to that which is wicked.

3. In judgement, least we swear rashly, or for a trifle, Jer. 4. 2. Isa. 48. 1.

There are some persons whose Oaths binde them not, as the Oaths of those that swear in their drink; and the Oaths of Frantick, furious men, Fools, and children binde them not.

The end of an Oath is to confirm

Page 63

some necessary truth in question, as Heb. 6. 16. Rom. 1. 9. 2 Cor. 2. 23.

An Oath is either publick, or private.

A publick Oath is, when a Ma∣gistrate without any peril to him that sweareth, doth upon just cause desire a Testimony under the reve∣rence of an Oath.

A private Oath is that, which two, or more in serious affairs take privatly, as did Jacob and Laban, and as did Boaz and Ruth.

An asseveration is like an Oath, but is no Oath.

An asseveration is nothing else but an earnest assertion of our meaning, the name of a Creature being sometimes used in it.

An asseveration without the use of the Name of the Creature is this of Christ. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Joh. 10. 1.

An asseveration with the use of the name of the Creature, is this of David: Indeed as the Lord liveth, and as thy Soul liveth, 1 Sam 20. 3.

Page 64

Though it be unlawfull to swear by Creatures, yet thus far may we use them in an Oath, as to make them pledges, and as it were cogni∣sances of Gods glory.

An Oath that a man makes of a lawfull thing must be performed, though with great difficulty, Psal. 15. 4.

Or it might be redeemed, as Numb. 27. 2.

The Oath of Maids under the Jurisdiction of Parents, might by the Father of the Maid be disal∣lowed in the day that he heard it; And so likewise the Oath of a mar∣ried Woman by her Husband in the day that he heareth it, Num. 30. 3. 6.

If a Man swear to perform things unlawfull, either out of ignorance, errour, infirmity, or any other way, his Oath is to be recalled, for we must not add sin to sin, 1 Sam. 25. 21. 22. 33.

Here we are commanded to sanctify Gods Creatures, as Meats, Drinks, Works, Callings, Marriage

Page 65

bed, by the reverent use of the holy Name of God. As by calling upon his Name for a blessing on them, or returning thanks to his Name for the benefit of them.

The means of the sanctification of Creatures are two. 1. The word of God. 2. Prayer, 1 Tim. 4. 4.

The word teacheth us how to use the Creatures to the glorie of God, Ps. 119. 24.

Prayer is a Petition by which we do obtain of Gods Majesty assi∣stance by his grace, to make an ho∣ly use of his Creatures, and ordi∣nances, Eph 5. 18.

Prayer is used upon particular occasions: As

Sometimes for a prosperous jour∣ney, Act. 21. 5.

Sometimes for a blessing upon meat, or drink, Joh. 6. 11.

Sometimes for good issue of Child-birth, 1 Sam. 1. 12.

Sometimes for good success in business, Genes. 24. 12.

Thanksgiving is the magnifying

Page 66

of Gods Name through Christ, for his grace, aid, and blessing, in use of the Creatures, Phil. 4. 6. 1 Thes. 5. 18.

It is also used after meat, Deut. 8. 10.

Sometimes after the loss of out∣ward wealth, Job 1. 21.

For deliverance out of servitude, Exod. 10. 18.

Sometimes for obtaining of chil∣dren, Gen. 29. 35.

Sometimes for Victory, 2 Sam. 32. 1.

Sometimes for good success in do∣mestical affairs, Thus Abrahams servant did, Gen. 24. 48.

The Negative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

1. Here Perjury is forbidden, that is, when a man sweareth to do a thing & doth not perform it, Matt. 5. 33. Perjury containeth under it.

1. Either lying unto God. Or ly∣ing, or Invocation on Gods Name to confirm a ly. And contempt of Gods threatnings.

Page 67

2. We are here forbidden to swear any thing that is false by the Name of God; For this is to make God like the Devil, Joh. 8. 44. Zach. 5. 4.

3. To swear in common talk, Matth. 5. 37.

4. To swear by strange Gods, or by that which is no God, Jer. 12. 16. and 5. 7.

5. Blasphemy, that is, a reproach of, and against God; and a con∣tempt of his Majesty, Levit. 24. 15. 16.

6. All cursing of enemies, or of our selves in any kinde what ever.

7. All use of Gods Name care∣lesly in our common talk, Phil. 2. 10. Isai 45. 23.

8. Here is forbidden the abuse of Gods Creatures, whither it be by deriding Gods workmanship, or his manner of working; for in all things we must give God his praise and glory, 1 Cor. 10. 31. Ps. 191.

9. Here is forbidden the abuse of lots, because the disposition of

Page 68

them doth immediatly come from the Lord, and the proper use of them is to decide great controver∣sies, Prov. 16. 33. and 18. 18.

The land of Canaan was devided by lots, Joshua 14. 15.

The Priests under the Law were commanded to choose the scape Goat by lot, Levit. 16. 8. 10. The use of lots we may also read of in these places of Scripture, Joshua 7. 13. to the 19. 1 Sam. 10. 20. 21. 22 23. Acts 1. 26.

10. Here is also forbidden Su∣perstition, that is, an opinion con∣ceived of the works of Gods provi∣dence contrary to Gods word, and to the course of nature.

Examples of this Superstition are these.

To think it unlucky to have Salt fall toward a man,

Or have a hare cross the way be∣fore him,

Or to have the right ear burn,

Or to think it good luck to finde old iron,

Page 69

Or to have the left ear burn,

Or to have drink spilled upon a man.

Or to pair the Nails upon some day of the week,

Or to dream of some certain things,

Or to think that beasts may be tamed, by verses, short prayers, or other charms,

Or to think that the repetition of the Creed, or Lords prayer can infuse into Herbs, or other things, a faculty of healing diseases.

Palmestry is a Superstitious thing of this kinde. Such abominations as these are all detested of God, and ought also to be detestable in the eyes of Gods people, as appeareth, Deut. 18. 10. 11.

11. Here is also forbidden Astro∣logy; whither in the calculating of Nativities, or used in Prognosticati∣ons, For in these regards Astrolo∣gy is nothing else but the abuse of the Heavens, and off the Stars. For the Imaginary twelve Houses are

Page 70

made o the fained signs of a sup∣posed Zodiak, in the highest sphear, which is commonly called the first moveable, and truly, because it is thus high, therefore can no man certainly know their influence and vertues.

This Art can not arise from ex∣perience, because the same position of all Stars never happen twice, and if they did, yet there could be no observation made of them, because the influencies of the Stars are all confusedly mixt, both in the Air, and in the Earth, even as if all herbs were mingled together in one Ves∣sel.

By this Art, Mens mindes are drawen from the contemplation of Gods Providence, when as they shall hear that all things fall out by the motion, and position of the Stars.

Stars were not ordained to fore∣tell things to come, but to distin∣guish dayes, moneths, and years, Genes. 1. 14. Isai 47. 13.

Page 71

Thou art wearied in the multi∣tude of thy counsellours, Let now the Astrologers, the Star-gazers, and Prognosticatours, stand up and save thee from the things which shall come upon thee, Dan. 2. 2.

Books of this kinde they were that for zeal of Gods glory, and love to the truth were burned by the faithfull, in the days of the A∣postles, such as these were the cu∣rious Arts those books treated off, Act. 19. 19.

All Astrological predictions are conversant, or busied about such things, as do either simplely depend on the will, or dispensation of God, or about such things as do depend upon Mans free-will, (and so are al∣together contingent, and therefore can neither be foreseen nor fore∣told,) and not upon the Heavens.

It is impossible by the bare know∣ledge of such a cause as is both com∣mon to many, and far distant from such things as it worketh in, precise∣ly and infalliblely to set down parti∣cular effects.

Page 72

The Stars have indeed a great force, but such as doth manifest it self onely in the operation, which it hath in the four principal qualities of natural things, as in heat, cold, moisture, driness.

The Stars can not at all force the will, or give the least inclination to it. It is beyond the reach of man to define how great the force of the Stars is.

The effects of the Sun and of the Moon, are apparent in the consti∣tution of the four parts of the year. But the effects of the Planets and of the fixt Stars, though they be of great force, and innumerable, are not so manifest unto us. And now, because a man can know but some Stars onely, and their operations, and not all the Stars, and all their operations and forces, he can not certainly foretell future things, or things to come; yea, though they did depend on the Stars. For though the position of certain Stars do demonstrate such an effect to

Page 73

ensue, yet the Aspects of such Stars as we know not may hinder those effects, and produce the contrary for ought we know.

That part of Astrology which concerneth the alteration of the Air, is for the most part of it false and frivolous, and therefore all manner of predictions grounded upon the Doctrine of it, are no∣thing else but toys and delusions.

And that part of Astrology which concerneth Nativities, Revo∣lutions, Progressions, Directions of Nativities, Elections of times, and the finding again, of things lost, is very wicked; yea, it is very proba∣ble that this Art, is of the same brood with implicite Magick, and that for these reasons.

1. Because the word of God rec∣koneth Astrologers amongst Magi∣cians, and adjudgeth them both to the same punishment.

2. Because the precepts of that part of this Art which concerneth predictions are rediculous; And

Page 74

therefore such things can not be told by them, but by a secret sugge∣stion from the Devil, or instinct of the Devil.

Augustine, lib. 5. cap. 7. de Civi∣tate Dei, saith the same, For saith he, if we weigh well all those things, we will not without cause believe, that Astrologers, when they do wonderfully declare many truths, work by some secret, instinct of evil Spirits, (which desire to fill mens brains with dangerous and erroneous opinions concerning starry destinies;) And not by any Art derived from any inspection and consideration of the Horo∣scope, which indeed is none.

12. Here is also forbidden Po∣pish Consecration of Water and Salt, to restore the minde to health and to chase away Devils.

13. Here is also forbidden ma∣king jests of the Scripture, Isa. 66. 2.

14. Also, all setting-light of Gods Judgements, which are seen

Page 75

in the World, Matth. 26. 34. 35. Luke 13. 1. 2. 3.

15. Here is also forbidden all dissolute conversation, Matth. 5. 16. 2 Sam. 12. 14.

The fourth Commandment.

Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.

Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work.

But the seventh day is the Sab∣bath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou nor thy Son, nor thy Daughter, thy man servant, nor thy maid ser∣vant, nor thy Cattel, nor thy stran∣ger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made Heaven and Earth, the Sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it.

The Affirmative part of this Commandment is this:

We do keep it holy if we do cease from sin, and from the works

Page 76

of ordinary callings; and if this being done we do also perform spi∣ritual duties, which God doth re∣quire of us.

As a preparation to the sanctifi∣cation of the Sabbath day, we must rise in the morning, and pray pri∣vately. Thus did Christ the day before the Sabbath: Mark. 1. 31. 39. Thus they were want to do under the Law, Exod. 32. 5. 6. Aaron pro∣claimed, saying, to morrow shall be the holy day of the Lord; and the people rose up early the next morn∣ing.

The Sabbath must again be san∣ctified, by frequenting the assem∣blies where we may hear the pure word of God, Act. 13. 14. 15.

And by Meditation upon Gods word and his Creatures, Psal. 92. Act. 17. 11.

By exercising of works of chari∣ty by visiting the sick, by giving Alms to the needy, by admonish∣ing those that fall; by reconciling those that are at difference, Nehem. 11. 12.

Page 77

The Sabbath is either Ceremoni∣al, or Moral.

It is Ceremonial. 1. In respect of its strict observation.

2. As it is a Type of the inward rest of the people of God, that is, of their continual resting from the work of sin, (Exod. 31. 13. Ezek. 20. 12.) And of the blessed rest of the faithfull in the Kingdom of Heaven, Heb. 4. 10. Isa. 66. 23.

And as it was observed the se∣venth day after the Creation of the World, and was then solemnized with other Ceremonies, Numb. 28. 9.

But in the light of the Gospel the Ceremony of the Sabbath is ceast, Colloss. 2. 16. 17.

The Sabbath was by the Apostles translated from the seventh day to the day following, (Act. 20. 7. 1 Cor. 16. 1. 2.) And this day is called the Lords day, because our Saviour rose again there on, Rev. 1. 10.

The Sabbath is moral, as it is a

Page 78

certain seventh day to preserve, and conserve the Ministry of the word, and the solemn worship of God in the holy assemblelies of the Church, and for this cause, we as well as the Jews are upon this day enjoyned rest from our vocations, Isai 58. 13.

It is also moral, because servants and Cattel are on this day freed from their labours.

In this Commandment we are not forbidden any holy things, or things of present necessity, as the preservation of life, or the main∣taining of the glory of God, or a Sabbath days journey, Act. 1. 12.

Or journeys unto the Prophets, or places appointed unto the wor∣ship, and service of God, 2 Kings 4. 23.

Or works of mercy in the secu∣ring, either of life, or goods, Matth. 12. 12.

Or provision of meat, or drink, Matth. 12. 1.

Or watering of Cattel, Luke 13. 15.

Page 79

Or curing of diseases, as did Christ and his Apostles by praying, and calling upon the Name of God.

Or the necessary voyages of Mar∣riners.

Or the tending of a flock by shep∣herds.

Or the necessary imployments of Medicines, Mark. 2. 27.

The Negative part of this Commandment is this.

We must not pollute the Sabbath of the Lord, Matt. 24. 20. Lament. 1. 7. Levit. 19. 30.

We are here forbidden the works of all ordinary callings, and all un∣necessary things, Exod. 16. 29.

As fairs on the Sabbath day, Ne∣hem. 13. 19.

All manner of Husbandry, plow∣ing, sowing, reaping, mowing, and bringing in of Harvest, Exod. 34. 21.

All jests, scurrility, sports, revel∣lings, all manner of Prophanes, and Hypocrisie.

Page 80

The fifth Commandment.

Honour thy Father and thy Mo∣ther: that thy days may be long up∣on the land, which thy Lord thy God giveth thee.

The Affirmative part of this, is this.

Here is commanded reverence, or civil respect to the aged, and gray hairs where it is found in the way of holiness, Levit. 19. 32. wis∣dom 4. 8. 9. Prov. 16. 31.

Obedience to the Lawfull com∣mands of Parents, Rom. 1. 30. Eph. 6. 1. 1 Pet. 2. 9.

And relief of them when they stand in need, 2 Tim. 3. 3.

Here we are commanded to obey superiours, yea, though cruel, but not in wickedness, Rom. 13. 1. 2. 1 Pet. 2. 13. 14. 18. Act. 4 19. 1 Pet. 2. 19. 20. Genes. 16. 6. 9. Colloss. 3. 23. 24. Rom. 13. 1. 2.

And to pray for Superiours, for Elders that rule well, and for such as are in Authority, 1 Tim. 2. 1. 2. and 5. 17.

Page 81

We are here commanded to sa∣lute one another with holy signs, 1 Pet. 5. 14. Rom. 16. 16. Thus did Moses salute Jethro, Exod. 18. 7. Jacob the Shepherds, Genes. 29. 4. And Boaz the reapers, Ruth 2. 4.

Here Superiours are commanded to carry themselves as brethren to inferiours, Deut. 17. 20. As did Iob to his servants, as did Naaman to Elisha, 2 Kings 5. 13. 14.

They must be as lights to shine before others by good example of a blameless life, Tit. 2. 2. 3. 1 Pet. 5. 3. Phil. 4. 9.

They must rule in the Lord, Deut. 17. 19. Collos. 4. 1.

They must provide good things, both for the bodies & Souls, of those that are under authority, Rom. 13. 4. Isai 49. 23. Psal. 13 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

They must punish light faults by rebukes, and great faults by corre∣ction. First, In punishing.

They must make a diligent en∣quiry and examination concerning the fault committed.

Page 82

Secondly, they must discover to the parties offending the grievous∣ness of their Crimes, that they may be sensible of the evils they have done.

Thirdly, they must defer, and omit punishment, in hope of a∣mendment, Eccls. 7. 23. 1 Sam. 10. 27.

Fourthly, they must punish in Gods Name, and not in their own; and that with an holy reverence, Deut. 25. 2. And as did Joshua Achan, Josh. 7. 19. 25.

Fifthly, in their punishing they must aim onely at the glory of God, and the best good of the Soul of the party offending, as Prov. 20. 30.

Parents are here commanded to provide for the good estate of their Children. 1 Tim. 5. 10.

Cruelty must not be used in pu∣nishing, Eph. 6. 4. 9. Jam. 2. 13.

Here we are commanded as con∣cerning our selves, to preserve the gifts and graces God hath put into us, Phil. 4. 8.

Page 83

Men do offend against them∣selves, when they do extinguish the gifts of God, Matth. 25. 2. 26.

Natural Parents and Superiours are no otherwise to be obeyed, but in the Lord, Eph. 5. 1. 1 Pet. 2. 9.

By Parents here is meant natural Parents, Magistrates, Ministers, El∣ders, and such as excell in gifts of God. To the four first of these, men do ordinarily give honour, and they receive it as their due, Joh. 5. 44. But Christians faithfull men, and true believers, are by the command of Christ forbidden to call any man Father upon Earth, Matt. 23. 9. Or to esteem of them∣selves one greater then another, or to go about to take upon them∣selves any Authority, or Dominion one over another, Matth 18. 4. and 20. 25. 26.

The Negative part.

Here contempt of Superiours are forbidden, Genes. 9. 22. Prov. 30. 17. Exo 117. And disobedience. Rom. 1. 30. 2 Tim. 3. 2. Gen. 6. 2. & 28. 8. 9.

Page 84

Parents are here forbidden cruel∣ty to their Children, either in cor∣rection, threatning, or provocati∣on, Eph. 6. 4. 9.

Servants are here forbidden stub∣borness, Titus 2. 6.

And deceitfulness, Tit. 2. 10.

To fly from their Masters, 16. 6. 9.

To resist lawfull Authority, 1 Pet. 2. 20.

And to obey unlawfull com∣mands, Gen. 39. 12. Act. 4. 19.

Here is forbidden; The rebellious disobliging of Children, their law∣full duties to Parents, Matth. 15. 4. 5. 1 Tim. 5. 4.

And the disobliging of such as are now subjects. Their lawfull obedience to Princes, as 1 Sam. 26. 8. 9.

Here we are forbidden to offend our equals, either in word, or deed, Matth. 20. 20. 21. 24.

The sixth Commandment.

Thou shalt not kill.

Page 85

The Affirmative part of this, is this.

Here we are commanded to pre∣serve the wellfare of our Neigh∣bour, both in body and in Soul, Rom. 12. 15. Job 29. 15. 2 Cor. 8. 3. Joh. 11. 25. Isai 24. 16.

To help him in his straights, to the utmost of our powers, and that speedily, Prov. 3. 28. Levit. 19. 17.

To help him to bear his troubles by taking part with him, & sharing with him in his adversities, Ps. 119. 136. Isai 24. 16. Rom. 12. 15. Joh. 11. 35.

We are here also commanded to abstain from anger upon small oc∣casions, Numb. 12. 3. Prov. 19. 3.

And not to continue wrath, nor to remain in anger, or displeasure, Eph. 4. 26.

And freely to forgive injuries, and not to avenge our selves, Eph. 4. 32.

Here we are also commanded in the wants and infirmities of our Neighbours to avoid occasions of

Page 86

stirring them up, and laying them open, Gen. 13. 8. and 27. 44. 45.

And to part with our own right rather then do wrong, Matth. 17. 25. 26. 27.

And to appease anger that is kindled. 1. By overcoming evil with good, Rom. 12. 21. 2. By seeking and following after peace, 1 Pet. 3. 11. 3. By courteous answers, Prov. 15. 1. 1 Sam. 1. 14. Phil. 4. 5. 4. By passing by words, and infirmities in mens words, and deeds, Prov. 19. 11. 5. By covering them with si∣lence, Prov 17. 9. For he that co∣vereth a transgression seeketh love, and love covereth a multitude of faults, 1 Pet. 4. 8. 6. By taking every thing if it be possible in the best part, 1 Cor. 13. 5.

Here is shewed the lawfulness of Truces, Covenants, and Agree∣ments concerning peace made to maintain love, and to avoid inju∣ries. 1. Whither in the maintain∣ing of antient bounds. 2. Or to procure security in traffick, and

Page 87

3. To maintain possessions and journeys, and 4. To maintain pen∣sions, and commons for Cattel. Or 5. Liberties of hunting, fishing, fowling, and getting of fewel, or other necessaries for publick com∣modities.

Truces and Covenants in this kinde, if there be no unlawfull con∣ditions, that is, such as are un∣warantable by the word of God joyned to them, are lawfull, and may be made not onely with Chri∣stians, but also to maintain peace with infidels. For, that which is Godly to be performed, is likewise godly to be promised; And it is a note of true godliness, to be as much as may be at peace with all men, Rom 12. 18.

These examples we have for the practise of this.

Abraham, (Genes. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27.) Covenanted thus with Abi∣melech.

Jacob with Laban, Genes. 31. 44. 45.

Page 88

We are here commanded to pre∣serve the life of our Neighbour.

By ministring to him food and raiment, Matth. 25. 45.

By helping him out of all bodily dangers, 1 Joh. 3. 16.

We are here also commanded to shew our desire of the good of his body by burying it when it is dead, as did Abraham the body of Sarah, Genes. 23. 19.

Thus did the Apostles and Disci∣ples to the body of Stephen, Act. 8. 2.

The want of which was hereto∣fore accounted a curse, as Jer. 22. 19.

Moses was buried by the Lord him self, Deut. 34. 5. 6.

Burial must be used without im∣moderate mourning, John 11. 34. 35. 36.

And without superstition and foolish ceremonies.

Without superfluous pomp and ostentation of Pride, Isai 20. 15. 16.

Page 89

We are here also commanded to suffer any man to satisfie his hunger either in our vineyard with Grapes, or in our Corn field with ears of Corn, Deut. 23. 25. Matth. 1 2. 1.

And to leave also besides this the gleanings of our Vineyard, and of our Corn fields for the poor, Levit. 23. 22. Ruth. 2. 8.

As concerning his Soul, we must endeavour by all means to win it to the Faith, 1 Cor. 10. 33. Heb. 10. 24.

We must live towards it without offence, 1 Cor. 10. 32. and 8. 13.

The light of our good life must be as a Lanthern, to direct the ways of our Neighbour, Act. 24. 14. 15. 16.

We must admonish him if he of∣fend, 1 Thes. 5 14.

We must encourage him to go on in the ways of Gods command∣ment.

To this Affirmative part may be referred.

Recreation in the fear of the Lord, Deut 12. 7. as wholesom and discreet riddles, Judge 14. 12 13. 14.

Page 90

Searching out of the virtue of Creatures.

Contemplation of Gods works, 1 King. 4. 33.

A recreating study of Physicall and Medicinal things.

He that useth Medicine, if he mean to be truly cured of his di∣stemper by it, he must first labour to cure himself of his sins by re∣pentance, Matth. 9. 2. 6. Joh. 5. 5. 8. 14. 2 Chron. 16 12.

We may avoid an injury offered by a private person.—

—And a mans defending of him∣self is faultless, if in the doing of it he doth neither purpose his own re∣venge, nor his enemies hurt, but onely his bodily safety from so im∣minent danger.

The Nagative part.

Here we are forbidden.

1. In heart. These things.

Hatred against our Neighbour, 1 Joh. 315.

Unadvised anger, Matth. 5. 22. Envy, Rom. 1. 29.

Page 91

Grudging against him, Jam. 3. 14.

Want of compassion and sorrow at the calamities of our Neighbour, Amos 6. 5. 6.

Frowardness, Rom 1. 30.

Desire of revenge, Ps. 5. 6.

2. In word. These things.

Bitterness in speaking, Prov. 12. 18.

Reproaches and railing, as to hit a man the teeth with his sins, or wit his infirmities, Matth. 5. 22. 2 Sam. 6. 16.

Contentions, Gal. 5. 19. Eph. 4. 31.

Brawlings in any conference.

Exclaiming against our adver∣sary.

Complaints to every one of such as offer injuries, Jam. 5. 9.

3. In countenance these things.

Malitious provoking gestures, Matth. 27. 39. Genes. 21. 9. In this place of Genesis, derision is called persecution, and Gal. 4. 29.

And mocking, or derision.

Page 92

4. In deeds these things.

To fight with, or to beat, or maim our Neighbour, Levit. 24. 29 20.

To procure the death of our Neighbour by sword, famine, or poyson, Genes. 4. 8.

To exercise cruelty in punish∣ment, Deut. 25. 3.

To use any of Gods creatures hardly, Prov. 12. 10. Deut. 22. 6.

To make our Neighbours infir∣mities, an occasion of our recrea∣tion in a discourteous way, Levit. 19. 14. 2 Kings 2. 23.

To injure the impotent, feeble, poor, strangers, fatherless, widdows, Exod. 22. 21. 22. Deut. 24. 14.

These are thus injured:

1. If the labourers hire be not paid him, Deut. 22. 21. 22.

2. If the pledge be not restored to the poor, Exod. 22. 26. 27.

3. If Corn be with drawn from the poor, Prov. 11. 26.

That Magistrate killeth and mur∣dereth that doth kill him, that de∣serveth not killing, as when he

Page 93

shall take away the life of a man upon a small occasion, as for the stealing of things of no moment.

Or when he shall save him that deserveth to be killed, as in any malitious murther, Numb. 35. 16. 33.

Here is forbidden Duels, as un∣lawfull.

1. Because they are not equal means ordained of God to deter∣mine controversies.

2. Because by such Combats he is offt the conquerer before men, who indeed is guilty before God.

Here is also forbidden sanctuary, or protection for wilfull and mali∣tious murther, Exod. 21. 14.

Here we are also forbidden, 1. to be a scandal, or offence to the Soul of our Neighbour, either in life, or Doctrine, Matth. 18. 7.

2. To Minister occasions of strife and discorde, as 1. when we will not remit of our own right, ra∣ther then offend our Neighbour. 2. when we shall return him snap∣pish

Page 94

and crooked answers. 3. When we interpret every thing a miss, and take it in the worst part, as did Na∣bal, 1 Sam. 25. 25. And Hanun, 2 Sam. 10. 3. 1 Chr. 19. 2. 4.

3. Here Ministers sin against their Neighbours, even to a killing of them. 1. When as they do not preach the Word of God to their charge, and when they do not in∣struct them in the right ways of Truth, and of life, Prov. 29. 18. Isai 56. 10. Ezek. 3. 18.

2. When they do not preach to all, or when they preach negligent∣ly, Jer. 48. 10. Rev. 3. 16. Isai 62. 6. Act. 20 28. 1 Pet. 5 2, 3.

Ministers may be absent from their charge in the case of sickness. For the necessary and publick good of the Church, Colloss. 1. 9 and

In the violence of persecution, when it is enforced particularly against his own life, and there is no danger nor discouragement to his people by it.

Here we are also forbidden to sin

Page 95

against our selves. 1 Either by hurting our selves; Or, 2. By kil∣ling our selves; Or, 3. By endan∣gering our selves, Matth 4 6.

And yet all this doth not hinder us from obeying this command of Christ, viz. If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross and follow me, Matth 16 24.

For saith Christ learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of minde, and you shall finde rest unto your souls, Matth. 11. 29.

The seventh Commandment.

Thou shalt not commit Adulte∣ry.

The Affirmative part.

Here we are commanded chastity in body and minde.

Chastity is the purity of body and Soul.

The minde is chaste, when it is free from fleshly concupiscence.

The body is chaste, when it doth not put in execution the lusts, and

Page 96

concupiscence of the flesh, 1 Thes. 4. 5. 1 Cor. 7. 34.

Modesty and sobriety do pre∣serve chastity.

Modesty is a virtue, which keep∣eth in every work a holy comelines.

Modesty is seen in the counte∣nance and eys, when as they do not express, nor excite the concu∣piscence of the heart, Job 31. 1. Genes. 24. 56. Prov. 7. 13.

Modesty is also seen in a mans words, when as his talk is holy de∣cent and comely, Gen. 4. 1. Ps. 51. 1. Isai 7. 20. Judge 3. 24. Matt. 12. 19. Prov. 10. 19.

It is the note of an Adulteress and strumpet to be a giglot, and loud tongued, Prov. 7. 11.

Modesty is also seen in Apparel, as when it is worn in a holy come∣liness, Tit 2 3.

Holy comeliness is that which expresseth to the eye the sincerity of the heart, and the Godliness, Temperance, and Gravity, either of Man, or Woman.

Page 97

Sobriety is a virtue, which con∣sisteth in the holy use of food.

Rules to be observed in the use of diet;

1. The chiefest at the Banquet, or Table, ought to consecrate the meat to God by saying Grace, 1 Sam. 9. 13. Mark. 6. 39. 41. Act. 27. 35.

2. We may furnish a Table with store of dishes for necessitie, and for good entertainment of a friend, and for delight, Luke 5. 29. Joh. 2. 2. and 12. 2. Ps. 104. 15.

3. At Feasts we must chuse the lowest romes, Luke 14. 7. 10. Prov. 25. 6.

4. We must eat at due times, and not at unseasonable hours, Eccles. 10. 16, 17.

5. We must eat and drink mo∣derately, that is, to strengthen the body, and for the refreshing of the Soul, to perform the actions of godliness, Luke 21. 34. Prov. 23. 29, 30, and 25. 16. and 31. 4.

6. We must especially think of

Page 98

these things when we eat at great mens Tables, Prov. 1. 2, 3.

7. At meat we may use Godly mirth, Act. 2. 46.

8. Table talk must be such as may edify, such as was Christs talk at the Pharisees Table, Luke 14. 1. 16. Matth. 9. 10, 15.

9. After meat we must not cast away the residue, Joh. 6. 12.

10. At a Feast we must eat suf∣ficient, and leave the rest, Ruth. 2. 14.

Chastity is double, single life, wed∣lock.

Those that are single must first have a care to keep their affections and bodies in holiness, Psal. 101. 9. 1 Joh. 2. 13. 14. Eccles. 12. 1.

2. They must fast often, 1 Cor. 9. 27.

3. They must take heed they burn not in lust, 1 Cor. 7. 9.

Chastity in wedlock is, when the holy and pure use of wedlock is ob∣served, Hebr. 13. 4.

Cautions for preserving purity in wedlock.

Page 99

1. Contracts must be made in the Lord, and with the faithfull onely, Malach. 2. 11. 1 Cor. 7. 39. Deut. 7. 3.

2. Both parties must separate themselves at the times of a Wo∣mans disease, and at the times of fa∣stings, Ezek 18. 6. 1 Cor. 7. 5.

3. Wedlock must be used rather to suppress, than to satisfie the cor∣rupt lusts and concupiscence of the flesh; and mainly, and chiefly for the enlarging of Gods Church by an holy seed, Rom. 13. 14.

4. It must be used with prayer and thanksgiving, 1 Tim. 4. 3, 4.

The Negative part.

Here is forbidden the lust of the heart, or the evil concupiscence of the flesh, Matth. 5. 28. Colos. 3. 5.

Burning in the flesh, that is, an in∣ward servency of lust, whereby the Godly motions of the heart are hindred, overwhelmed, and as it were burnt up with a strange and contrary fire, 1 Cor. 7. 9.

All strange pleasures about ge∣neration,

Page 100

which are forbidden in Gods word.

All pleasure with beasts, Levit. 18. 23.

All pleasure with Devils, such as Witches by their own confession say that they have; And why may not a Spirit have society with a Witch, as well as eat meat?

All pleasure of lasciviousness with one of the same kinde, or Sex, Le∣vit. 18. 22. This is a sin which they commit, whom God hath given over unto a reprobate sense, Rom. 1. 26, 27. This was the sin of Sodom, and from its being so commonly used there, it was called Sodomy.

All carnal pleasure with those that be within the degrees of con∣sanguinity, or affinity, are here for∣bidden, Levit. 18. 6.

All Fornication, that is, the ly∣ing carnally with a maid that is not his wife, that lyeth with her, Deut. 22. 28, 29. 1 Cor. 10. 8. For this sin with the Idolatrous Moa∣bitish women, there were in one

Page 101

day of the Israelites with a plague twenty three thousand men slain.

All Adultery, that is, all carnall pleasure with one that is married, or betrothed, Deut. 22. 22. to the 24.

Adultery is a marveilous great sin, as may appear in that it was punisht with the punishment of Idolatry, Rom. 1. 23. Prov. 6. 29, 32.

Adulterers break Gods Cove∣nant of marriage, Prov. 2. 16. 17.

Adulterers abuse their own bo∣dies, and dishonest them, 1 Cor. 6. 18.

They do bereave their Neigh∣bours of a great, and irrecoverable benefit, namely of chastity.

By the Law of God, the Children of Adulterers were excluded the Congregation of the Lord, till their tenth Generation, Deut. 23. 2.

The Adulterer maketh his family a stews.

Davids Adultery was punisht in Absoloms abuse of his Concubines, 2 Sam. 16. 21.

Page 102

A mans posterity feeleth the smart of the sin of Adultery, this is a fire which shall devour to destru∣ction, and which shall root out all mine encrease, Job 31. 11, 12.

Though Adultery be never so se∣cretly committed, yet God will re∣veal it, Numb. 5. 12, 23.

Adultery hath usually acompa∣nying it a dulness of heart, or a marveilous horrour of conscience, whoredom and wine take away the heart, Hos. 4. 11.

The Patriarchs Poligamy cannot be defended, but it may 1. be ex∣cused, because it served for the en∣crease of mankinde, when as yet, there were but few upon the earth: and 2. Because it served for the propagation of Gods Church.

Here also men are forbidden to abuse their liberty, as by knowing their wives in the time of their flowers, Ezek. 22 10. Levit. 18. 19. and Ezek. 18. 6.

Here are also forbidden unchaste thoughts.

Page 103

Effeminate wantonness, and seek∣ing of occasions to stir up lust, Gal. 5. 19.

Occasions of lust are these:

1. Eys full of Adultery, that is, eys which take delight in, and hunt after lascivious objects, 2 Pet. 2. 14.

2. Idleness, 2 Sam. 1 1. 2, 3.

3. Riotous, and lascivious attire, 1 Tim. 2. 9. Isai 3. 16, 23.

Riotous, and lascivious apparel, or Attire is a lavish and Prodigal wasting of Gods benefits, that might be employed upon better uses. It is a Testimony and ensign of pride, by which a man would have himself better esteemed than others. It is a note of great idleness and slouthfulness, those that use it cannot endure to take pains, & ne∣glect other business; It is a sign of Levity, and puts men upon the in∣vention of new fashions, and upon the imitation of them. It maketh a confusion among degrees, and cal∣lings of men, so that the one can not be known from the other.

Page 104

Here also we are forbidden an immoderate, or insatiable fulness of bread, or of meat, for they provoke lust in such immoderation, Ezek. 16. 49. Luke 16. 19. Rom. 13. 13.

And corrupt, and dishonest, and unseemly talk, I Cor. 15. 33.

And vain love-songs & Ballads, interludes and amorous books.

And lascivious representations of love-matters at any time, Ephes. 5. 2, 4.

Undecent, and unseemly Pictures, 1 Thess. 5. 22.

Lascivious dancing of men, and women together, Mark. 6. 22.

And all society, and company keeping with lascivious, and effemi∣nate persons, Prov. 7. 25.

The eight Commandment.

Thou shalt not steal.

The Affirmative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

Here every man is commanded to imploy the gift that God hath given him, and the temporal bles∣sings

Page 105

which he hath bestowed upon him. 1. For Gods glory. 2. For his own good. 3. To his Neigh∣bours good, 1 Cor. 7. 24. 1 Pet. 4. 10. Gal. 5. 13.

In the use of the things of this World is required contentation, and thriftiness amongst all men; And a common enjoyment of all worldly things amongst the faith∣full, and true believers, as Act. 2. 45.

Contentation in every man is a virtue, whereby he is well pleased with that estate wherein he is placed, 1 Tim. 6. 6, 7. Phil. 4. 11. Heb. 13. 5.

Thriftiness, or frugality is a vir∣tue, whereby a man doth chearful∣ly, and without prodigality and profuseness, and riotousness use, and employ temporal, and worldly bles∣sings freely, both for his own re∣freshing and commodity; and like∣wise to the refreshing, and commo∣dity of others, Prov. 5. 15, 16. Joh. 6. 11, 12.

Page 106

Here we are commanded to speak the truth from our heart, and to use harmless simplicity in all our ways; Psal. 15. 2. Genes. 23. 15, 18.

And to deal justly with all men, Thes. 4. 6.

Those that buy, or sell, or lett, or hire Farms, Tenements, or Lands, or that use marchandize, must not rack, but must keep a just, and true price.

1. Such as these must keep an equality, and a proportion in all contracts; and in the valuing of things, they must not onely consi∣der their own pains, but the buyers profite also; Levit. 25. 14. to 16.

They must square their dealings according to the Law of Nature, as Christ teacheth; Matth. 7. 12.

Those that are enrich'd by the lawfull gain of another mans goods have a naturall tie, or Obligation upon them, to make recompence in some proportion above the princi∣pal.

For Nature commandeth to do good for good.

Page 107

Goods, or temporal things ought to be imployed for the good of others; 2 Cor. 8 13.

In sale, wholesom things, substan∣stial things, and things fit for use are to be sold.

Here are commanded just weights, and just measures; Deut. 25. 13. Ezek 45. 16. Mich 6. 11.

He that hireth must not onely pay the appointed hire, but also make good that which is hired if that any evil come to it through his default; Exod. 22. 15.

But if 〈◊〉〈◊〉 come to it, and he be in no 〈◊〉〈◊〉 ••••ringing the evil, he is to be 〈◊〉〈◊〉 and it must go for its hire; Exod. 22. 15.

A pledge, or pawn, is to be re∣stored, if he that borroweth stand∣eth in need of it, and that present∣ly; Exod. 22. 26. Deut. 24 6.

Pledges in those that are to re∣ceive them are not to be exacted, but are to be such as the person borrowing offereth; Deut. 24. 10. to the 13.

Page 108

A man is bound largely, and freely, to the utmost of his power to help all, but not to make himself a surerety for any; Deut. 15. 7, 8. Prov. 11. 15. and 17. 18. and 22. 26. and 6. 1. to the 5.

Just Covenants and promises, though they be to our hinderance, must be performed; all promises binde, if they be lawfull, so far forth as he will, to whom we make the promise; Psal. 15. 4. Prov. 25. 14. Judge 1. 24, 25.

He that lendeth must do it free∣ly, and chearfully; 〈…〉〈…〉 5.

He that borroweth 〈◊〉〈◊〉 be care∣full to make restitution, if need be, with the sale of his goods, 2 Kings 4. 2. to the 7.

Here we are commanded to re∣store that, which is committed to our custody, without delay; Matth. 21. 41.

But if the thing committed to our custody be not lost by any de∣fault of ours, we are not to be urged to repay it, nor is there any bind∣ing

Page 109

of us at all to repay, Exod. 22. 7. 8.

That which a man findeth he may keep in his own hands, if the true owner cannot be heard of: but if he be, he must restore it, Deut. 22. 1, 2, 3.

In all injuries done unto men, they must ever have respect to the law of charity, and not so much endeavour to maintain their own right, as to recall an erring brother into the right way; Matth. 5. 39. 40. Jam. 5. 20.

The Negative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

Here we are forbidden stealing.

To steal is to conveigh any thing from another closely, unawares, or by fraud; Genes. 31. 20.

Here is also forbidden inordinate living, or idle living; 2 Thes. 3. 11. Gen 3. 19. 1 Tim 5. 8.

And unjust dealing, either in heart, or deed.

Unjust dealing in heart is cove∣tousness; Matth. 15. 19.

Page 110

Covetousness is Idolatry, Ephes. 5. 5.

It is the root of all evil, and that which nourisheth all kinde of sin, 1 Tim. 6. 10.

Unjust dealing indeed, is either in bargaining, or out of bargain∣ing.

1. Unjust dealing in bargaining, is to sell that which is not saleable, 1 Thes. 4. 6. as what ever is unprofi∣table, or pernitious, either to the Church, or Common-wealth.

Or to think to buy the gift of the holy Ghost for money, Act. 8. 18. to the 20.

2. It is unjust dealing in bar∣gaining, to use coloured forgery.

As forged cavillation, Luke 19. 8.

Or to sell that which is counter∣feit for good, as Copper for Gold, or to mingle bad with good, Amos 8. 4. to the 6.

Or to falsifie measures, and weights, Deut. 25. 13. Levit. 19. 35 Amos 8. 4.

3. It is unjust dealing in bargain∣ing

Page 111

to conceal the goodness, or fault of a thing.

Or to blindfold the truth with counterfeit speeches, Matth. 7. 12. Prov 20. 14.

4. It is unjust dealing in bargain∣ing.

To oppress in buying & selling, as by raising the just price of things; it is not lawfull in bargaining to purse a penny, without giving a penny worth, Matth. 7. 12.

Or by sale upon a set day, which is, when a day is given that the price may be inhanced, for this is to sell time, and to take more of a mans Neighbour than is right.

Or by engrossing, which is, when a man buyeth all commodities into his own hands, that he may sell it at his own price, when as no man hath any of it but himself.

Or by breaking, or becoming bankrupt, that thou mayest enrich thy self by the damages, and goods of others.

It is unlawfull also to oppress, by

Page 112

not restoring that which was lent, pledged, or pawned; Or that which is found, if the owner can be heard of; Ezek. 18. 7.

Or to oppress by delaying any kinde of restitution from one day to another; Prov. 3. 28. Ps. 37. 21. Deut. 24. 14, 15. Levit. 19. 13.

Or to oppress by practising usu∣ry; Exod. 22. 25. Deut. 23. 19. Le∣vit. 25. 36.

Usury is again exacted by Cove∣nant above the principal, onely in Lieu and recompence of the lend∣ing of it; Usury is quite contrary to Gods word; Exod 22 14, 15. Ezek. 18. 8. Psal. 15. 2 Cor. 8. 13. This usury is altogether unlawfull, and disallowed.

Cautions in Lawfull Use.

1. A man must exact nothing, but that which his debter can get by good and lawfull means.

2. A man must not take more than the gain; nay, not all the gain, nor that part of the gain, which drinketh up the living of him that useth the money.

Page 113

3. Sometimes a man that lend∣eth must neither take gain nor prin∣cipal, as when his debtour is by just and inevitable casualties brought behinde hand, Deut. 5. 2. And when it is apparent that he could not make any advantage of the money borrowed.

Here we are also forbidden to oppress, by detaining the Labourers wages; Deut. 23. 14. Jam. 5. 4.

Unjust dealing out of bargaining is to pronounce false sentence for a reward, either proffered, or pro∣mised. This is a grievous sin, which Lawyers and Judges must beware of; Isai 1. 23.

It is also unjust dealing out of bargaining to feed men that are stout, and lusty, and are offered employment, and yet will take no pains at all, 2 Thes. 3. 10.

Socrates, In the Tripatite Histo∣ry, saith, that the Monk which la∣boureth not with his hands, is no better than a Thief.

It is also unjust dealing out of

Page 114

bargaining not to employ him, who is knowing and able for employ∣ments, and desireth to be employed; yea, and also not to further and as∣sist those who do employ them∣selves in employments lawfull, and warrantable by the word of God, that so they may improve their la∣bours and endeavours both for pu∣blick good, and also for their own particular good, and for the glory of God.

Gaming for Money is here also unlawfull; For we may not enrich our selves by impoverishing our brethren in any kinde.

Here also is unlawfull, The use of unlawfull Arts, thereby to get mo∣ney, whither it be Magick, Judicial Astrology, or Juglings, or Stage∣plays, as is evident, by these Scri∣ptures, Eph. 4. 28. Deut. 18. 11 Eph. 5. 3. 1 Thes. 5 22

Here is also forbidden stealing; yea, though great good be intend∣ed by it; Mark 10. 19. Rom. 3. 8.

And all removing of bounds, or

Page 115

Land-marks; Prov. 22. 28. Deut. 27. 17.

And all stealing of servants, or Children, or to rob, or commit Sa∣criledge; 1 Tim. 1. 10. Josh. 7. 19. 1 Cor. 6. 10.

And to conspire with Robbers, or Thieves, either in advising them, or countenancing of them for this purpose, Prov. 29. 24.

Theft by the law of God was not to be otherwise punish'd, but by enlarging the restitution; Exod. 22. 1. 2 Sam. 12. 6.

The ninth Commandment.

Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy Neighbour.

The Affirmative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

Here we are commanded to re∣joyce at the good name repute and esteem of our Neighbour; Gal. 5. 22. Rom. 1. 8.

And to acknowledge the good∣ness which we see in any, Tit. 3. 2.

And to desire, and receive, and

Page 116

believe the good reports concern∣ing our Neighbours, Act. 16. 1, 2, 3. But so as we must in no kinde ap∣prove, allow, or countenance them in any of their wickednesses, or vices, which we see, or know, 2 Chr. 25. 2. and 27. 2.

In doubtfull cases we are here commanded to interpret them in the best part, 1 Cor. 13. 5, 7. Genes. 37. 31. to the 33. Matth. 1. 19.

We must not be too credulous, for then we shall oft be over taken with the belief of lies, Joh. 2. 24.

For this cause we must be ware of evil reports that run abroad amongst people by whisperers, and tale-bearers, Ps. 15. 3. Jer. 40. 14, 16.

It is good for a man to shew himself angry, and displeased, with such flattering tongues, and whispe∣rers, Prov. 25. 23.

Here we are commanded to con∣ceal, and keep secret, our Neigh∣bours offences of weakness, and imperfection, Prov. 10. 12. Matth. 18. 15.

Page 117

And knowing them we must ad∣monish him, that we may mend him, Gal. 6. 1. Jam. 5. 19. 21.

If concealing of his sin, and ad∣monition will not move him to forsake his sin, then, out of love, and charity to him, we must declare it to those that may remove, and amend the same, Gen. 37. 2. 1 Cor. 1 11. Matth 18. 16.

By Godliness we must seek to get a good name, and when we have so gotten it, we must likewise by Godliness strive to maintain it, Prov. 221. Eccles. 7. 1. Phil. 4. 8.

A good name is to be laboured for thus:

1. By seeking the Kingdom of God before all things, by repent∣ing of sin, and earnestly desiring to follow after, and to embrace righteousness. This is the right way to seek the Kingdom of heaven, Prov 10. 7. Mark. 14. 9.

2. By having a care to judge, and speak well of others, Matt. 7. 2. Eccles. 7. 23. 24.

Page 118

3. By abstaining from all kinde of vice, and wickedness; for evil men will make use of one vice of a man to obscure his good name up∣on all occasions, Eccles. 10. 1. Yea, and they will openly, and secretly labour to bring him into sin, that they may have occasion of doing this.

4. By seeking onely the glory of God in all things, and not our own glory, Matth. 6. 5, 6. Joh. 17. 18.

When we thus seek the glory of God, and have the praise of good men for the doing of it, we must not despise, nor contemne their Testi∣mony, and commendation.

And if we thus seek the glory of God, and they praise us not, nor commend us, yet we must take this in good part, and rejoyce that God is glorified; For, to him 〈◊〉〈◊〉 in∣deed doth belong all the praise, and glory of all our actions, 2 Cor. . 12. and 10. 13. 1 Cor. 1. 31. Psal 16. 5. 6.

Page 119

The Negative part of this Commandment is this.

Here we are forbidden envy, disdain of others, or desire of a mans own glory, Deutr. 19. 17. 1 Pet. 2. 1. Matth. 12. 15.

And evil suspitions, 1 Sam. 17. 28. Act. 28. 4.

And hard censures, and sinister judgement against our Neighbour, Matth. 7. 1, 2.

We must not interpret indiffe∣rent things in the worst part.

We must not out of evil will make a small offence great.

In judging others we may use three ways, and not sin

1. By the word of God when we see a sin, we may judge it sin, and reprove it.

2. The Magistrate may judge.

3. A friend may judge and ad∣monish, by wishing to abstain from evil company, and by giving warn∣ing to beware of sin, iniquity, and vice.

Here we are forbidden to give

Page 120

the bare words spoken for the full intention of our Neighbour, when as we neither know the sense of them, nor the meaning of our Neighbour, Matt. 26. 59. to the 61. Joh. 2. 19.

And to ly.

And unjust sentence in judge∣ment.

An to suborn, or rest in a wit∣ness to accuse another wrongfully.

And to betray a mans cause by collusion, or winking at it, 1 Kings 21. 12. Deut. 17. 6.

And openly to raise hurtfull, tales, and reports of our Neigh∣bour, or privily to devise the same, Levit. 19. 16. 1 Tim. 5. 13.

And to spread abroad flying tales, or to feign and add any thing to them, Prov. 26. 20, 22.

And to believe the reports of others, Exod. 23. 1. 1 Sam. 24. 10

And to accuse a man out of ma∣lice to his enemy, as Doeg did Abi∣melech, and David to Saul, Ps. 52. 1, 2, 3, 4. 1 Sam. 22. 9.

Page 121

And to declare the secrets of our Neighbour, or his sins of infirmity, Prov. 11. 13. Matth. 18. 15.

And all babling talk, and bitter words, Eph. 5. 3, 4. Joh. 9. 34.

And jestings, and all scurrility:

And that—— —For these causes.

1. Because quips, or jests are like the stings of Scorpions, Serpents, and Locusts; For by this means the Devil stingeth those that are jested upon, girding them with these of∣fences; and netleth, or tickleth those with pleasure, which take delight in the hearing of them; And this is his way by which he doth charm, and insensibly sting them also, even as he doth the other to their trouble.

2. Because a Christians Godli∣ness and Gravity can not stand, or agree with such behaviour.

And if any object here, that Salt and Tart speeches have been used in Scripture, as when Eliah mockt the Priests of Baal, 1 Kings 18. 27.

Page 122

And when Isaiah mockt the King of Babylon, Isai. 14. 4, 9.

Yet such must be thus answered, that these speeches were not to please any withall. But they were reproofs sharply denounced against Gods enemies for his glory.

Here we are forbidden flattery, that is, to praise our Neighbour above that we know in him, Prov. 27. 6, 14. Act. 12. 22.—

—This is a grievous sin in Mi∣nisters, 1 Thess. 2. 5. Jer. 6. 13, 14. Rom. 16. 18.

Here we are forbidden foolish over-confident boasting, Pro. 27. 1.

And to accuse, or witness against any falsly, 1 Kings 21. 13. Deutr. 19. 17.

The tenth Commandment.

Thou shalt not covet thy Neigh∣bours house, thou shalt not covet thy Neighbours wife, nor his man servant, nor his maid servant, nor his Ox, nor his Ass, nor any thing that is thy Neighbours.

Page 123

The Affirmative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

We are commanded here to la∣bour, to keep our hearts pure to∣wards our Neighbour, 1 Tim. 1. 5.

And to endeavour that the co∣gitations, thoughts, and motions of our hearts may be holy, and our spi∣rits free from such vanity. To this purpose was Pauls prayer for the Thessaloniaus, 1 Thes. 5. 23. Eph. 4. 23.

And to fight against the evil af∣fections, and lusts of the flesh, Rom. 7. 12, 24. 2 Cor. 12. 7. to the 9.

Cogitations, thoughts, or motions of the heart are of three kindes.

1. A glancing, or suddain thought suggested to the minde by Sathan, This doth suddenly vanish away, and is not received of the minde; This is no sin, It was in Christ him∣self, when as he was tempted by the Devil, Matth. 4. 1, 3.

2 A more remaining, and a∣biding thought, or motion, which doth as it were tickle, and mingle

Page 124

the minde with some inward joy.

A thought, or motion, which draweth from the will and affection a full assent to sin.

To covet is to think inwardly, and to desire any thing, whereby our Neighbour may be hindred, although there doth ensue no as∣sent of the will to commit that evil.

There is a concupiscence, or coveting which is evil, as when any man doth desire that which is ano∣thers, with his loss, damage, and injury.

And there is a concupiscence, or a coveting, or a desire which is good, as when a man doth desire meat and drink for the body. And the desire of the spirit when it lusteth, fighteth, striveth, and strugleth against the flesh, Gal. 5. 17.

The Negative part of this Com∣mandment is this.

Here is forbidden concupiscence

Page 125

it self, that is, original corruption, because it is hurtfull to our Neigh∣bour, Jam. 1. 14.

And all sudden corrupt cogita∣tions of the heart, which spring out of the bitter root of concupiscence, Gal. 5 17. Luke 10. 27.

And all suggestions of Sathan, which after the first offer are en∣tertained, and received into the closet of the heart.

And the entertaining of all tick∣ling cogitations, and motions of the heart that do thus delight it, as to say with prejudice to any, I would such a house was mine, or such a living, or such a thing.

And all unchaste dreams, which do arise from the force of concu∣piscence, or from the strength of any lustfull desires, which man doth suffer his heart to be possest with∣all

The use of the Law is this▪

1. In un-regenerate men it lay∣eth sin open, and makes it known to them, Rom. 3. 20.

Page 126

2. In unregenerate men it doth encrease sin, and that because of the flesh, and this is the cause that men do decline from the Com∣mandment, and encline to that which is forbidden them, Rom 7. 8, 9, 10.

3. It is to denounce eternal dam∣nation for the least disobedience, without offering any hope of par∣don.

This sentence the Law doth pro∣nounce against offendours; and by it, it doth reign and rule over a man, partly by threatning him, and partly by terrifying him, Rom. 3. 19. Gal. 3. 10. 2 Cor. 3. 7, 8.

The end of the reigning of sin in men, is to urge sinners to fly unto Christ, Rom. 11. 32. Gal. 3. 22. 24.

The continuance of the power of the Law is for ever, unless a sinner doth repent.

The very first act of repentance doth so free a sinner; as that, imme∣diatly upon it, he is no more under the Law, but under grace, as we may

Page 127

see by David, 1 Sam. 12. 13. Rom. 6. 14.

If we mean to have eternal life, we must examin the course of our lives by the square of Gods Law; we must set the course due unto our sins before our eys, and bewail our miseries, and have a holy de∣spair of our own powers, and re∣nounce our selves, and sue unto Christ Jesus.

This is the use of the Law, in un∣regenerate men and women.

The use of the Law in regenerate men, is,—

—To guide them to new obedience in the whole course of their lives, and this new obedience is acceptable to God through Christ; Rom. 3. 31. Psal. 119. 24. 105.

Of the Covenant of Grace.

The Covenant of grace is Gods free promise of Christ, and his be∣nefits to every repentant sinner, that will receive him by Faith,

Page 128

Hosea 2. 18, 19, 20. Ezek. 33. 11. to the 15. and 36. 25. to the 27. Ma∣lach. 3. 1.

This Covenant is called a Testa∣ment, because it is confirmed by the death of the Testatour; Heb. 9. 16, 17.

This Covenant is like a man's last Will and Testament, it is not for the profit of the Testatour, but for the benefit of the Heir; we do here receive from God, and not promise, or offer unto God.

In substance the Old and New Testament is the same.

The old Covenant, or Testa∣ment prefigured Christ in Types, & shaddows, who was then to come.

The New Testament declareth Christ, already come in the flesh, and sheweth him apparently in the Gospel.

The Gospel is that part of God's word, which containeth the wel∣come message of Christ, and of the benefits that do come to mankinde by him; Joh. 3. 14. Act. 10. 43.

Page 129

The Gospel doth manifest that righteousness in Christ, by which the whole Law is fully satisfied, and salvation attained, Rom. 1. 16. 17.

The Gospel is that instrument, or Conduit-pipe, by which the holy Ghost doth convey Faith into the Soul; 1 Cor. 1. 21. Act. 11. 19. to the 21. Joh. 4. 28. to the 42.

And Faith is the hand by which we do apprehend Christ and his righteousness; Joh. 6. 63.

The Sacraments are appendants to the word.

A Sacrament is that, whereby Christ and his saving graces are signified, exhibited, and sealed to a Christian by certain external rites; Genes. 17. 11. Rom. 4. 11.

The parts of a Sacrament are the sign, and the thing signified.

The sign is the visible, and sensi∣ble matter.

The thing signified is Christ.

The matter, or signs of the Sacra∣ment have no inherent force, or efficacie at all in them to make any

Page 130

that receiveth them holy; this is the alone work of the holy spirit, which indeed doth ever accompany the signs when at any time they are received by faithfull, and believing Souls.

So that the sign doth onely signi∣fy grace, either already received, or to be received, and doth not give it.

The thing signified is, 1. Christ, 2. His Graces.

The action about Christ is spiri∣tual, and it is, 1. Either of God, or 2. Of Faith.

The action of God is the offer∣ing, and application of Christ, and his graces to the Faithfull.

The action of Faith is the consi∣deration, desire, apprehension, or receiving of Christ in the Lawfull use of the Sacrament.

By a figure called a Metonymie, one thing is put for another in the Sacrament:

As the sign for the thing signi∣fied, Joh. 6. 51. 1 Cor. 5. 7. and 10. 7.

Page 131

And the name of the thing signified, is given to the sign, 1 Cor. 11. 24. Matt. 26. 28. Exod. 12. 11.

And the effect of the thing signified is given to the sign, as cir∣cumcision is a Covenant, Genes. 17. 10. Act. 7. 8. Luke 22. 20. Tit. 3. 5.

And that which is proper to the sign, is attributed to the thing signified; Deut. 10. 16. Joh. 6. 53.

The ends of the Sacrament are

  • 1. To confirm our Faith.
  • 2. To be a badge, or note to distin∣guish the true Church of God from other Congregations.
  • 3. It is a means to spread abroad the Doctrine of the Gospel.
  • 4. It doth binde the faithfull to continue Loyal, and gratefull to their Lord God.
  • 5. It is a bond of mutual amity be∣twixt the faithfull.

The Covenant of Grace is abso∣lutely necessary to salvation; for a man must be within the Covenant, and receive Christ the substance thereof, or he cannot be saved.

Page 132

But a Sacrament is not absolute∣ly necessary to salvation; for it is onely a stay for Faith to lean on, whilest that it doth assure to us that which God hath bestowed on us.

The want of the Sacrament con∣demneth not, but the contempt of it doth. For in the neglect of a Sacrament, true repentance will ob∣tain pardon of God. M. P. 72.

Unbelievers receive onely the sign, and not the thing signified, and therefore it doth not profit them; Rom. 2. 25.

Onely true believers do receive the Sacraments with profit.

Sacraments and Sacrifices do thus differ.

In a Sacrament God doth bestow his Graces on us.

In a Sacrifice we return thanks∣giving, Faith, and obedience unto God.

The Sacraments of the two Te∣staments thus differ.

The Sacraments of the Old Te∣stament were many.

Page 133

But the Sacraments of the New Testament are but few.

These pointed at Christ to come.

These shew him to be come.

They belonged properly to the posterity of Abraham.

These are common to all the Church, called out of the Jews and Gentils.

The Sacraments are two, Baptism and the supper of the Lord.

The Fathers had these Sacra∣ments, the first of the Corinth. 10. 1. to the 4.

Baptism belongeth to all the faithfull, even to all the promised seed.

It belongeth to infants whose parents are believing, or which have but one believing parent; 1 Cor. 7. 14. Rom. 11. 16. Genes. 17. 7, 13. Act. 16. 31.

It belongeth to all, even young and old that believe; Act. 8. 36, 37, 38. Matth. 3. 6. Exod. 12. 48.

Baptism signifieth our regenera∣tion by the holy spirit; Titus▪ 3. 5.

Page 134

And assureth, or sealeth to us our engraffing, and incorporating into Christ; Gal. 3▪ 27. 1 Cor. 12. 13.

The parts of Baptism, or of wash∣ing, are three.

1. A putting into the water, to signifie that all our sins are washt away by the bloud of Christ, and that his righteousness is imputed to us; Act. 22. 16. 1 Cor. 6. 11.

It doth also signify the morti∣fication of sin, by the power of Christ's death; Rom. 6. 3, 6, 7.

2. Continuance in the water, which signifieth to us the burial of our sins, and a continual encrease of mortification in us by the power of Christs death, and burial, Rom. 6. 4.

3. A coming out of the water, which signifieth unto us our rege∣neration, or spiritual vivification, or a newness of life, or quickning in holiness and justice, which we do obtain by the power of Christs re∣surrection; Rom. 6. 4, 5.

The once administring of Ba∣ptism

Page 135

is a sign of the washing away of all sins, both past, present, and to come, 1 Pet. 3. 21.

And this may be a good en∣couragement to all those that through infirmity fall into sin.

The Lord's supper is a Sacrament, by which, in the signs of bread and wine, is signified the nourishment of our Souls through Christ, by the holy spirit; 1 Cor. 11. 23. to the 25.

The receiving of the bread, and wine, signifieth the receiving of Christ, Joh. 1. 12.

The eating of the bread, and drinking of the wine, signifieth the applying of Christ to our selves by Faith, that so we may finde our Communion with him dayly in∣creased, and perceive our Union with him; 1 Cor. 10. 16.

The whole Scope and intention of the Lord's supper, as it was insti∣tuted by our Lord, was for no o∣ther end, but to be a remembrance of him; 1 Cor. 11. 24. Luke 22. 19.

Men must not, because of infir∣mities

Page 136

abstain from the Lord's sup∣per, but they must use it to confirm them, and to strengthen them.

So much for the outward means, whereby the decree of Gods electi∣on is executed.

The degrees of the execution are two.

1. The love of God, whereby he doth freely love us in Christ Jesus, who in our selves are corrupt; 1 Joh. 4. 19. Rom. 5. 8, 10.

2. The Declaration of God's love.

God doth declare his love, either in a secret way by his holy spirit, as to infants; 1 Cor. 12. 13. Luke 1. 35. to the 80. Jer. 1. 5.

Or to men of ripe years, and that more manifestly; as Rom. 8. 30. 1 Cor. 1. 30.

As first, By an effectual calling, in which God separateth a man from the World, and doth enter∣tain him into his own family, Eph. 2. 17, 19.

And for this cause it is, that the

Page 137

World do hate the faithfull; Joh. 15. 19.

In this calling God doth give us to Christ; Eph. 5. 21. 33. Joh 17. 2, 6, 7. and 10. 29. Isai 9▪ 6. Rom. 8. 32.

And hence ariseth the admirable Union betwixt Christ and his Mem∣bers, which is the engraffing of a man into him; Joh. 15. 1, 2. and 17. 20, 21. Eph. 2. 20, 21, 22. and 5. 30.

This Union, or Communion, Conjunction, or engraffing, is wrought by the operation of the spirit, which is an infinite essence, and therefore sufficiently able to conjoyn those things which of themselves are far distant, even as the Soul of a man joyneth all his Members together, and doth cause them all to grow and move, and live together; Eph▪ 2▪ 22. 2▪ Pet. 1. 4. Phil. 2. 1.

By this Union it is, that we are said to be Crucified with Christ, to die with him, to be buried with him, and to be quickned, raised and placed in heaven with him; Rom. 6. 4, 6. Eph. 2. 1, 5.

Page 138

And by this Union, as we all are said to sin in Adam, so we may be all said in Christ to fulfill the whole Law of God.

Of the Members of Christ.

The Members of Christ are ei∣ther Members outwardly, and be∣fore men, which are onely out of charity so called, as externally pro∣fessing the Faith.

Or Members in the sight of God.

Which are, 1. Either decreed so to be, as being elect from all eter∣nity, though not yet born, or not yet called, Joh. 10. 16.

Or 2. Actually so already, and these are first either actual li∣ving Members, as being engraffed through Faith by the holy Spirit into Christ, and therefore grow in the power of holiness, Or 2. Actual dying Members, or decaying Mem∣bers, that is, such as have not the feeling of the power of the quick∣ning spirit in them, though they be truly engraffed into Christ, of this

Page 139

sort are all those that are yet dead in their sins, till such time as they be again quickned, and regene∣rated.

God doth execute effectual cal∣ling by these means.

1. By the preaching of the word, and by hearing of it, Ezek. 16. 6. Isai 55. 1. Joh. 1. 12.

By the Law God doth shew a man his sin, and the punishment thereof, Rom. 7. 7.

By the Gospel God doth shew salvation through Christ, to such as do believe.

And whilest the word is preach∣ing, God doth inwardly enlighten the eys of the minde, and open the heart, and the ears, that the word heard, may be truely understood, 1 Joh. 2. 27. Act. 16. 14. Psal. 40. 6. Joh. 6. 44. Isai 54. 6.

2. By mollifying the heart, and making it fit to receive his saving grace into it, when he offereth it, Ezek. 11. 19.

The hammers by which a stony

Page 140

heart is bruised, and broken, are these.

1. The knowledge of the Law of God.

2. The knowledge of sin Origi∣nal and Actual, and of the punish∣ment due unto them.

3. Compunction, or a pricking of heart, that is, a sense, or feeling of the wrath of God for sin, Act. 2. 37.

4. An holy desperation of our own power in the obtaining of life, Luke 15. 17, 18, 19. Mark. 15. 24.

Thirdly, effectual calling is exe∣cuted:

By Faith receiving Christ, and by the operation of the holy spirit in applying him, Joh 1. 12. 6. 35. Rom. 6. 38. 1 Cor. 2 12. Zach. 12. 10. Rom. 8. 16. Eph. 1. 13. 2 Cor. 1. 22.

In the work of Faith there are five motions of the heart linked.

1. Knowledge of the Gospel by the illumination of Gods spirit, Isai 53. 11. Joh. 17. 3.

To this knowledge in those that

Page 141

are truely humbled is joyned a se∣rious meditation of the promises in the Gospel.—

—Which Meditation is stirred up by a sensible feeling of their own beggery.

And after this knowledge there doth arise a general Faith in all such as are enlightned, whereby they subscribe to the truth of the Gospel, Heb. 4. 2. 1 Tim. 1. 19. and 2. 4.

Which knowledge, so soon as it is full and perfect, it is called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is the full assurance of understanding, Col. 2. 2. Rom. 14. 14. Luk. 1. 1. 1 Thes. 1. 5.

2. Hope of pardon, by which a sinner believeth that his sins are pardonable, though he doth not yet feel them certainly pardoned, Luke 15. 18.

3. Hungring and thirsting af∣ter grace, which is offered to us in Christ Jesus, Joh. 6. 35. and 7. 37. Revel. 21. 6. Matth. 5. 6.

4. An approching with boldness

Page 142

to the Throne of Grace, that so we flying from the terrour of the Law, may take hold on Christ, and finde favour with God, Heb. 4. 16.

This approching of the Throne of Grace is done, 1. by an humble confession of our sins in the pre∣sence of God, as did David, Psal. 32. 5. 2 Sam 12. 13. Luke 15. 19.

2. By a craving earnestly to God for pardon of our sins, and by per∣severance in fervent prayer for the same purpose, Luke 15. 21. Act. 8. 22. Rom. 8. 26. Hosea 14. 2, 3.

3. An especial perswasion im∣printed in the heart by the holy Ghost, by which every faithfull man doth apply all the promises of the Gospel to himself, Matth. 9. 2▪ and 15. 28. Gal. 2. 20.

This perswasion is, and ought to be in every one, before he have any experience of Gods mercie, Matth. 15. 22, 27. Joh. 20. 29. Heb. 11. 1.

In natural Phylosophy we do first see things true by experience, and afterwards assent unto them;

Page 143

Thus we are perswaded that water is hot, because we perceive the heat by putting our hand into it.

But in the practise of Faith, we must first stedfastly believe, and then the experience and feeling of comfort will follow, 2 Chr. 20. 20.

It is therefore very ill done of any, that they should doubt of their salvation, because they do not al∣ways feel the especial motions of Gods holy spirit in themselves.

The lowest degree of Faith is 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, a weak Faith, or a little Faith, like to a grain of Mustard-seed, or to smoaking flax, which cannot flame nor give out heat, but onely smoak, Matth. 8. 25. 26 and 7. 20. Isai. 3. 4 2.

Faith may be then said to be fee∣ble, when either the first of the five motions, or the last of them is weak and feeble; yea, though the other three motions do remain strong, Rom. 14. 2. 3.

Rules to know this kinde of Faith by, are these.

Page 144

1. A serious desire to believe, and endeavour to obtain Gods fa∣vour, is the seed of this Faith, Matth. 5. 6. Rev 21. 6. Psal. 145. 19.

2. An earnest use of means to encrease the least spark of Faith, that so it may get growth by little, and little, Luke 17. 5, 6.

Faith is stirred up by earnest prayer, and meditation, and by ma∣king progress, and going on in the ways of perfection, and in the ex∣ercise of godliness.

The highest degree of Faith, is called 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, or full assurance, by this a man doth find in himself a certain perswasion and assurance, that God doth love him, & will to∣gether with Christ, and all his gra∣ces give him eternal life, Rom. 4. 20. and 8. 38. 1 Sam. 17. 36. Ps. 23. 6.

A man doth not come to high degree of Faith, till after a sense, and long experience of Gods love, and favour.

2. The second degree of the De∣claration of Gods love is justifica∣tion.

Page 145

By this, through the obedience of Christ, true believers are ac∣counted just in the presence of God, 2 Cor. 5. 21. 1 Cor. 1. 30. Rom. 5 19.

The parts of justification are, 1. Remission of sins, with a freeing from the guilt, and punishment of them, and that through the satisfa∣ction made to God for them by Christ, Collos. 1. 21, 22. 1 Pet. 2. 24.

2. Imputation of Christs righte∣ousness, by this, those that believe have the guilt of their sins covered, and are accounted just in the sight of God, Phil. 3. 8, 9. Rom. 4, 3, 4, 5, 6.

The obedience of Christ is called the righteousness of God, and of Christ, of God, because it is of God.

Of Christ, because it is out of us, and in the humanity of Christ, as in a subject.

To justification is joyned Ado∣ption.

By Adoption we do receive power, to be actually accounted

Page 146

the Sons of God by Christ, Eph. 1. 5.

Priviledges that come unto us by Adoption are these.

1. By it we are made Heirs appa∣rent to God, Rom. 8. 17.

2. Fellow Heirs with Christ; yea, Kings and Priests, Rom. 8. 17. Revel. 1. 6.

3. By it all our afflictions; yea, even our wants and offences are turned to trials, or fatherly chastise∣ments inflicted upon us for our good, Rom. 8. 28, 36, 37. Psal. 89. 32, 33. 2 Cor. 12. 7. 2 Sam. 7. 14.

4. By it we have dominion over all the Creatures; yet, so as that in this life we have onely right to the thing, but after this life we shall have right in the same, 1 Cor. 3. 22, 23. Heb. 2. 7, 8.

5. By it we have the Angels Mi∣nistring spirits for our good, Heb. 1. 14. Psal. 34. 7.

The faithfull alone have the true use of Creatures.

1. Because their persons are made

Page 147

acceptable unto God in Christ, and in him they have restitution made them of the right use of Creatures, which was lost in Adam, so that they may use them freely, and with a good conscience.

The third degree of the Decla∣ration of Gods love is sanctifica∣tion.

By it we are delivered from the Tyranny of sin, and by little and little renewed in holiness, & righte∣ousness, 1 Joh. 3. 9. Rom. 8. 1.

The parts of sanctification are first mortification.

By this the power of sin is aba∣ted, and sin is killed in the faithfull, Rom. 6. 2, 3. 4. Gal. 5. 24. Mortifica∣tion is wrought in us by the power of the holy Spirit, abolishing sin in us, and regenerating, or renewing our spirits.

2. Vivification.

By this inherent holiness is be∣gun in us, and by little and little augmented, and inlarged by the power of the holy spirit.

Page 148

For first we do receive the first fruits of the spirit, and then by de∣grees we have a continual encrease of them, Eph. 2. 21. and 4▪ 23, 24. Gal. 2. 20. Rom. 8. 23.

Vivification is a benefit that springeth unto us by the resurrecti∣on of Christ, and is wrought in us by the holy spirit, Phil. 3. 10. It is this that createth holiness in the heart of the adopted ones of God, Rom. 8. 9, 11. Job 33. 24, 25.

Inherent holiness is distinguish'd according to the several faculties of the body, and Soul of man, 1 Thes. 5. 23.

The parts of inherent holiness are these.

1. An illumination of the minde to know, and understand the will of God; which illumination is both the holiness of the minde, and the renewing of it, Colos 1. 9. 1 Cor. 12. 8.

Illumination of the minde is,

  • 1. Either spiritual understanding, by which it acknowledgeth the known truth of the word of God,

Page 149

  • 2. Or spiritual wisdom, by which the same truth is applied to the good ordering, both of particular things, and of particular actions, as persons, place, and time require.

The effects of spiritual under∣standing, and of spiritual wisdom are these.

1. To discern betwixt good and evil, Heb. 5. 14. Phil. 1. 10.

2. To discern spirits, 1 Joh. 4. 1. 1 Thes. 5. 21. Act. 17. 11.

3. To meditate upon the words, and works of God, Ps. 1. 1. and 119. 33.

4. To know, and acknowledge a mans own inward blindness, Psal. 119. 18, 33.

2. A sanctification of the me∣mory, by which it is inabled to re∣ceive a good thing offered to the minde, and to keep it; and remem∣ber it as there is need, Psal. 16. 7. 119. 11. Luke 2. 51.

3. Sanctification of conscience, This is a grace of God, by which a mans conscience excuseth him for

Page 150

all sins, after they are once par∣doned in Christ, and also of his up∣right walking in the whole course of his life, 1 Tim. 1. 19. 1 Cor. 4. 4. Act. 23. 1. and 24. 16. Ps. 26. 1, 2, 3. 1 Joh. 3. 21.

The inward peace of God doth arise from this sanctity of consci∣ence in all godly men; yea, and the outward alacrity and chearfulness of countenance also, Phil. 4. 7. Prov. 28. 1. Job 33. 24, 25.

4. Sanctification of will, by which through the renewing of the affections by the holy Spirit, a man doth begin to will that which is good, and to refuse evil.

This is such a state, as that the will is partly freed from bondage, and partly in bondage to sin, Phil. 2. 13. Rom. 7. 18. to the 22.

5. Sanctification of affections, by this, in the power of the holy Spirit the affections move well, and rightly, 1 Thes. 5. 23. Rom. 7. 24.

The chief affections are these.

1. Hope, by this, with sighings we

Page 151

look and wait for the accomplish∣ment of redemption, Rom. 8. 23.

This Hope, when it is grown strong and lively, hath its 〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉〈 in non-Latin alphabet 〉, that is, Its full assurance, even as Faith hath, Heb. 6. 11. 1 Pet. 1. 3.

2. Fear of offending God, be∣cause of his mercy, 1 Pet. 1. 17. Psal. 130. 4.

3. A contempt, or a base ac∣count of all worldly things, in re∣spect of Christ Jesus, Phil. 3. 7, 8.

4. A love of God in Christ, which is as strong as death, and as a fire that cannot be quench'd, Cant. 8. 6.

5. An fervent zeal to Gods glo∣rie, Rom. 9. 3.

6. An anguish of minde for our own sins; and also for the sins of others, Psal. 119. 136. 2 Pet. 2. 7, 8.

7. An exceeding great joy in the holy Ghost, Rom. 14. 17.

The sixth part of inherent holi∣ness, is sanctity of body.

By this in the power of the holy

Page 152

spirit, the body is made a fit instru∣ment for the Soul to accomplish that which is good by it, Rom. 6. 19.

Of Repentance, and fruits thereof.

Repentance doth follow Faith and sanctification, and yet in such as are converted it doth first mani∣fest it self.

Repentance is when a sinner turneth to the Lord, Act. 26. 20. Ezek. 33. 11, 19. 1 Joh. 3. 3.

Repentance is then true, when as any one, by the motion and instinct of the holy Ghost, doth purpose, will, desire, and endeavour, to for∣sake his sins, and to turn unto the Lord, and to become a new man, Psal. 119. 112. Act. 11. 23.

The fruits of repentance is Chri∣stian conversation, in which we bring forth fruits worthy amend∣ment of life, Matth. 3. 8.

A Christian conversation is such a course of life, as in which we do follow Christs example, & through

Page 153

the power of his spirit dwelling in us, perform new obedience to God, Matth. 11. 29. 1 Pet. 4. and 2. 21. and 3. 10, 11.

Of new obedience.

The parts of new obedience are these.

1. The denial of our selves, Matth. 16. 24.

2. The profession of Christ.

The denial of our selves consi∣steth.

1. In Christian warfar.

2. In the patient bearing of the Cross.

The parts of Christian warfar are.

1. The preparation to the battel.

2. The combat.

The preparation to the battel consisteth in the use of the com∣pleat armour of God, Eph. 6. 13.

The pieces, or parts of the com∣pleat armour of God are these.

1. Truth, Eph. 6. 14.

2. Justice and righteousness, Eph. 6. 14.

Page 154

3. Evangelical obedience, which is the shoeing of the feet with the shooes of the preparation of the Gospel of peace, Eph 6. 15.

4. Faith, (Eph. 6. 16.) as the shield whereby we must quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.

5. The sword of the spirit, which is the word of God, Eph. 6. 17.

6. The Helmet of salvation, Eph. 6. 17.

7. Continual, and fervent prayer with watching and fasting, Eph. 6. 18. 1 Pet 5. 8.

The Combat is a mutual conflict of them that fight spiritually.

The Combatants, or Warriours are the Tempter, and the Christian Souldier, Eph. 6. 12.

The tempter is the Prince of the power of the air, that is, the Devil and his Angels, which are spiritual wickedness in high places.

Their helpers are the flesh and the world.

The conflict of all these ene∣mies is temptation, by this they do

Page 155

provoke a man to commit such wickedness, as is hurtfull to the sal∣vation of his Soul, 1 Pet. 2. 11.

In the Souldier we must consider his resisting, and his fall.

Resisting is an action, whereby the Souldier through grace work∣ing inwardly in him, doth with∣stand temptation, 1 John 2. 14. 1 Pet. 5. 8. Eph. 6. 16. Psal. 91. 13.

The Souldier must strengthen, and confirm himself with these pre∣servatives.

1. When a man is tempted to sin, he must not onely abstain from it, but also earnestly love, and fol∣low after the contrary, viz. righte∣ousness, and holiness, 1 Pet. 5. 9. Eph. 4. 27. Jam. 4. 7.

2. He must never consent to Sathans words, whether he speak truth, (Mark. 1. 24.) or accuse fals∣ly, (Joh. 8. 44.) or flatter dissem∣blingly, Act. 16. 17.

3. He must look for one tempta∣tion after another, and then espe∣cially when his enemy seemeth to

Page 156

be at rest with him, as though he had made a truce with him. For, Sathan is such an enemy, as will never make an end of his malice, 1 Pet 5. 8.

The fall of the Souldier is then, when he fainteth through infirmi∣ty, and as being subdued by the power and violence of his enemy, Gal. 6. 1.

The remedy for the restoring a man thus fallen, must be by instru∣cting him in the spirit of meekness, Gal. 6. 1.

Here for encouragement every man may remember this for his comfort.

1. That in whomsoever there is a willing heart, That man shall be ac∣cepted for that grace which he hath, and is manifested in the wil∣lingness of his heart, & not for that which he hath not, 2 Cor. 8. 12.

2. He that will live godly in Christ must always remember in all these things, that the power of God is made perfect through our infir∣mity, 2 Cor. 12. 9, 10.

Page 157

Of the assaults in this Com∣bat.

1. The Devil assaults a man about his effectual calling.

The temptation here is this.

The Devil striveth to blinde a mans minde, and to harden his heart, least the word of God should work in him to salvation, Matth. 13. 4. to the 19.

This temptation must be resisted by giving ear, and endeavouring to receive the word, that so through the spirit of God it may be grafted in our hearts, and spring in us, Luke 8. 15. Heb. 4. 2. Jam. 1. 21.

Preservatives for the resisting of this temptation are these.

1. Meditate on the power, and use of the word, Eccles. 1. 17. and 5. 1.

2. Attend diligently unto it with thy minde, Acts 16. 14.

3. Hunger after it with the long∣ing desires of the heart, Joh. 7. 37.

4. Labour to be pure in life, Psal. 26. 6.

5. Cast away evil affections, Jam. 1. 21.

Page 158

6. Be doers of the word, Jam. 1. 22.

7. Consent always to the truth of the word preached, Act. 2. 37.

8. With David hide, or treasure up the word of God in your hearts that you sin not, Psal. 119. 11.

9. Reverence, and tremble at the presence of God in the assembly of the Church, Isai 66. 2. Act. 10. 33.

In the hearing of the word the fall is coldness in hearing, or re∣ceiving of it, or else a falling into errours.

The remedy here is to restore by the spirit of meekness, and that, be∣cause we our selves are also subject to be tempted, and thus doing is to bear one anothers burthens, and to fulfill the Law of Christ, Gal. 6. 1. 2.

The second Assault.

The second assault is concerning Faith.

The temptation here is this, the Devil putteth it into the heart of a

Page 159

godly man that he is not elect, that he is not justified, that he hath no Faith, and that therefore he will be condemned for his sins, Matt. 4. 3.

To weaken a mans Faith, the De∣vil will take occasion to tempt him.

1. From his adversities, dangers, losses, persecutions, and grievous of∣fences. Thus he dealeth with David, Psal. 73. 12. and Job 13. 23, 24, 25.

2. From the remembrance of sin past, Job 13. 26.

3. From a feeling of death, even already at hand.

Here resistance must be thus made. In the power of true Faith, we must apply Christ, and all his benefits to our selves. Thus

I assuredly believe that I shall not be condemned, that I am elect∣ed, and justified in Christ, and I am out of all doubt that all my sins are pardoned, Isai 53. 11. Rom. 8. 38, 39.

In this temptation the preserva∣tive from the fall is stedfastly to look unto, and rely upon Christ, the object of our Faith, Phil. 3. 12. to the 14. Joh. 3. 14.

Page 160

The fall upon this temptation is doubtfulness, and distrust of Gods mercy, and of our own elections, as in David, Ps. 76. 6, 7, 8. and 21. 1. The remedies to recover this fall are

1. The powerfull operation of the holy spirit in encreasing Faith, and stirring of it up, Phil. 1. 6. Luk▪ 17. 5. 2. Holy Meditations, as

1. That it is the commandment of God that we should believe in Christ, 1 Joh. 3. 23.

2 That the promises of the Go∣spel exclude none, but those that exclude themselves, Isai 55. 1. Matth. 11. 28. Joh. 3. 15.

3. That doubtfulness, and despair are most grievous sins.

4. That with Abraham we must under hope believe against hope, Rom. 4. 18.

5. That the mercies of God, and the merits of Christs obedience do belong unto all those that believe, Isai 54. 10. Ps. 103. 11. 1 Joh. 2, 1. 2. Ps. 130. 7.

6. That God measureth the o∣bedience

Page 161

due unto him more by the affection, and true desire of the heart to obey, than by the external act, and outward performance of obedience, Rom. 8. 5, 7. and the 7. 20, 21, 22. Malach. 3. 17.

7. That when one sin is for∣given, all▪ the rest also are for∣given; For, forgiveness being once given without any limit of time, is given for ever, Rom. 11. 29. Act. 10. 43.

8. That Grace and Faith are not taken away by sins of infirmity; but they are hereby declared, and made manifest, Rom. 5. 20. 2 Cor. 12. 7, 8, 9

9. That God works by con∣trary means, and his power is made perfect through weakness, 2. 12. 9.

The third Assault.

The third assault is concerning sanctification.

Here the temptation is a provo∣king to sin.

Page 162

The Devil provoketh to sin ac∣cording as he findeth a mans dispo∣sition.

Secondly, as occasion offereth it self, thus he provoked David to number the people, 1 Chron. 21. 1. And Judas to betray Christ, John 13. 2.

Here the Devil to further his temptation will diminish the sin, that he would have a man commit, and that

1. Either by closely objecting to us Gods mercie. Or 2. by covering and hiding from us the punish∣ment due to sin.

Helps by which the Devil fur∣thereth himself in his temptations, are

1. The flesh.

The flesh lusteth against the spi∣rit, 1. by getting evil motions and affections, 2. by overwhelming and oppressing good intents and mo∣tions, Gal. 5. 17. to the 21. Jam. 1. 14.

2. The World.

Page 163

The World helpeth the Devil by its pleasure, profit, honour, evil examples, by which the Devil la∣boureth to bring men into disobe∣dience and sin, Ephes. 2. 3. 1 John 2. 16.

These temptations may be re∣sisted by desire of the holy spirit, for it worketh good motions and affections in the faithfull; And it doth drive forth evil motions, Gal. 5. 22. 26.

We may strengthen our selves in resisting thus: 1. If we count no sin light, or small, Gal. 5. 9. Rom. 6. 23. 2. If we do avoid all occasions of sin, 1 Thes. 5. 22. Judge 23. 3. We must accustom our selves to subdue the less sins, that so we may the more easily overcome the greater, Rom. 13. 4. 4. We must ever employ our selves in employ∣ments, good and warrantable by the word of God. 5. We must op∣pose against the rebellion, and loos∣ness of our flesh. 1. The Law. 2. The judgements of God. 3. The last

Page 264

judgement. 4. The glorious pre∣sence of God, and the like, Prov. 28. 14. Gen. 39. 9.

Remedies against unjust anger, and against private desire of re∣venge are these.

1. If we do consider that inju∣ries happen unto us by the ap∣pointment of the Lord for our good, as David speaketh of Shemei cursing him, 2 Sam. 16. 10.

2. If we consider that God of his goodness forgiveth us more sins than it is possible for us to for∣give men.

3. If we consider that it is the duty of Christian love to forgive others.

4. If we consider that they are the redeemed of Christ as well as we, and that therefore we must not desire to destroy them.

5. If we consider that we are in danger of the wrath of God, if we suffer our anger to burn against our brother, Matth. 6. 14.

6. If we consider that we do not

Page 165

rightly understand the circumstan∣ces of the facts, or what the minde, or purpose was of those against whom we swell.

Remedies, or bridles against wrath are these:

1. If we do imitate the Lord in mercy, who doth bear long with the wicked, Matth. 11. 29. 2 Pet. 3. 9.

2. If we make a pause, or a delay betwixt our anger and the executi∣on of it.

3. If we go out of the place where those are with whom we are an∣gry.

4. If we endeavour to avoid con∣tention, both in word and deed.

5. If we will but oft meditate on this, that he shall have judgement without mercy that sheweth no mercy, and that mercy rejoyceth against judgement, Jam. 2. 13.

Remedies against desires of rich∣es and honour are these:

  • 1. If we consider, that in famin God doth quicken and revive those that fear him, Psal. 33. 18, 19.
  • ...

Page 166

  • 2. That godliness is great gain, 1 Tim. 6. 6.
  • 3. That we are not to make our abode upon the earth, but travel∣ling through the world to Heaven, and waiting here for the resurre∣ction, and inheritance of eternal life.
  • 4. That we are here servants of God, and that he therefore will provide us conveniencies.
  • 5. That ambition and pride blindeth a mans minde, and thus maketh his downfall greater. An ambitious man feareth to be hum∣bled, least he should not be ex∣alted.
  • 6. That pride, and ambition brought ruin upon mankinde even in Paradise.
  • 7. That he robs God of his ho∣nour, that taketh that glory to him∣self, which is onely due to God.

Remedies against the desires of the flesh are these:

  • 1. If we consider, that none can be Christs Disciples but those that

Page 167

  • live in a continual self denial, Luke 9. 23.
  • 2. That those that are of the spirit ought always to savour the things of the spirit, Rom. 8. 15.
  • 3. That those which walk after the flesh, shall die, Rom. 8. 13.
  • 4. That, even here; for holiness and righteousness, we ought to walk as Citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven, Phil. 3. 20.
  • 5. That our bodies are the Tem∣ples of God, 1 Cor. 3. 16.
  • 6. That our Members are Mem∣bers of Christ, 1 Cor. 6. 15.
  • 7. That we must not grieve the spirit of God which dwelleth in us, 1 Cor. 6. 16. Rom. 8. 9. Eph. 4. 30.

In these temptations by the flesh the fall is, any offence through in∣firmity, which a man by these tem∣ptations of Sathan is overtaken withall, Gal 6. 1.

In these falls Sathan will much aggravate, and make greater the offence committed than it is. And he will also terrifie the offendour

Page 168

with the judgements of God, Matt. 27. 3, 4, 7.

Here the remedy is

To renew our repentance.

The beginning of this repen∣tance is godly sorrow, or sorrow towards Godward, 2 Cor. 7. 9, 11.

The fruits of this repentance are seven. 1. A purpose, and endea∣vour to live according to the rule of Gods word. 2. Confession of sins before God, and an earnest entreaty of pardon for the offence at his hands, Ps. 32. 5. 2 Sam. 12. 3. 3. An holy indignation against a mans a self for his offence. 4 A fear, not so much because of the punish∣ment, as least God should be high∣ly displeased with the sin, Ps. 130. 3. 5. A desire to be delivered from sin, and to be fully renewed in life. 6. A fervent zeal to love God, and to embrace, & keep his Cammand∣ments. 7. A holy revenge, which a man must take of himself for the ta∣ming, & subduing of his flesh, least afterwards he should again fall in∣to the same offence.

Page 169

The second part of self-denial is, The patient bearing of the Cross.

The Cross is nothing else but that measure of afflictions, which every faithfull man, by the will of God, passeth under, in his travelling through the World to Heaven, Matth. 16. 24. Colos. 1. 24. No man is to seek affliction, or to multiply his own troubles, but when God layeth affliction upon a man, he is to bear it willingly, and patiently, Colos. 1. 11. Luke 21. 19.

Patience is thus strengthened.

1. By the holy Ghost, Phil. 4. 13. and 1. 29. 2. By holy Meditations. As 1. That afflictions come not to a Faithfull man by chance, but through the counsel and provi∣dence of God, Gen. 4 5▪ 4, 5. 2 Sam. 16. 10. Psal. 119 71. The afflicti∣ons of the godly are inevitable, Act. 14. 22. Matt. 7. 14. Joh 16. 33. 2 Tim. 3. 12.

Secondly, That though they be grievous, yet they are good and profitable, in that by them we are

Page 170

humbled for our sins before God, and obtain peace, and holiness of life, 2 Cor. 1. 9. Isai 26. 16. Hos 5. 15. Psal. 78. 34. Jer. 31. 18. Heb. 2. 10. and 12. 11. Ps. 30. 5. Joh. 15. 2. 1 Pet. 1. 6. 2 Cor. 1. 4. Rom. 5▪ 3.

Afflictions in the godly are signs of their adoption, Heb. 12. 6, 7. It is a praise for the godly to do well, and for it to suffer evil patiently at the hands of the wicked, 1 Pet. 2. 20.

They are a godly mans high-way to Heaven, Jam. 1. 12. 2 Cor. 4. 17.

Thirdly, That God hath pro∣mised favour and mitigation of pu∣nishment, his presence in them, and deliverance from them, 1 Cor. 10. 13. Phil. 1. 29. 2 Sam. 7. 14. Ps. 50. 15. and 121. 4. Isai 43. 2.

Fourthly, That in all our trou∣bles and afflictions, we do but take part in that which Christ our Lord hath suffered before us, 1 Pet. 4. 13. 2 Cor. 4. 10. Colos. 1. 24.

Fifthly, That in all our afflicti∣ons we have Angels ministring for

Page 171

our defence and comfort, Ps. 34. 7. 2 Kings 6. 16. The Prophet Elisha saw the Mountain full of Angels for his defence.

So much for the denial of our selves.

The second part of new obedi∣ence is the profession of Christ.

This profession doth concern either Christ himself, or us his Mem∣bers. The profession of Christ, which doth directly concern Christ from us, is, 1. Either continual, or 2. In time of danger.

1. Our continual profession, which doth directly concern Christ, is the calling upon the name of God; this is a duty that is always required of us in the name of him our Mediatour, 1 Cor. 1. 2. Act. 9. 14. Colos. 3. 17.

Gods name is called upon, 1. by prayer, or 2. thanksgiving, Phil. 4. 6.

Prayer hath two parts, 1. Peti∣tion, 2. Assent.

Petition is an asking things ne∣cessary at the hands of God in the

Page 172

name of Christ, according to the rule of Gods word, 1 Joh. 5. 14.

In every petition we must ex∣press a sense of our wants, and a desire of the grace of God to sup∣ply those wants, 1 Sam. 1. 10, 15, 17. Dan. 9. 4, 20. Ps. 130. 1. and 143. 6.

By assent we do believe, and profess before God our belief, that he in his due time will grant us our requests, which we have made un∣to his Majesty, 1 John 5. 14, 15. Matth. 6. 1.

Though the faithfull may disco∣ver many infirmities in their pray∣ers, yet they have a notable sense of Gods favour, Psal. 6. 1, 2, 3, 4. and 8. 9 and 16. 7. and 20. 5. and 3 5. 9, 8, 20.

And especially when they do pray zealously, Jam. 5. 16) And when they do pray often to the Lord.

Examples of infirmities discover∣ed in prayer.

Zacharias feared when he pray∣ed, Luke 1. 13.

Jonah was displeased and angry, Jonah. 4. 12.

Page 173

Thanksgiving is a calling upon Gods name, by which we do with joy and gladness of heart praise God for his benefits; Either re∣ceived, Ephes. 5. 20. or promised, Psal. 36. 8, 9. Collos. 3. 16, 17.

This for the continual profession of Christ.

2. Our profession of Christ in time of danger, is either, 1. In word, or 2. In deed.

Profession of Christ in word, is called Christian Apology, or the confession of Christ, as Rom. 10. 10. Psal. 22. 22.

Christian Apology, or profession of Christ in word is, when with fear and meekness we are always ready to confess the truth of Chri∣stian Religion as often as need re∣quireth, and that in the presence of unbelievers, that the name of God may be glorified, 1 Pet. 3. 15, 16. Act. 7. 1. to the end.

We are not bound to make this confession of our faith before unbe∣lievers that are past all hope of re∣pentance;

Page 174

For holy things must not be given unto Dogs, Matt. 7. 6.

Profession of Christ in time of danger indeed; is called Martyr∣dom.

Martyrdom is an undergoing of the punishment of death, for the profession of Christ in the Do∣ctrine of Faith, and for Justice, and for the salvation of the brethren. For Justice, John Baptist was be∣headed of Herod, Mark. 6. 18. 27. 28.

Christ laid down his life for us, so ought we, if need require for the brethren, 1 John 3. 16.

For maintaining the Doctrine of Faith, Stephen was stoned, Act. 7. 59.

And yet this doth nothing let Christians the using of all holy se∣curity, for the safety of their own lives.

For (as Christ hath shewed in the Gospel.) It is lawfull for Chri∣stians in times of persecution, if they finde themselves not sufficient∣ly

Page 175

resolved, and strengthened by the holy Spirit to stand, to fly from place to place for the security of their lives, Matt. 10. 23. Joh. 10. 39.

This Christ did, and advised his Disciples to do the like.

Upon such occasions as these, Paul fled to Tarsus, Act. 9. 30.

And upon like occasions Eliah fled for his life from Jezabel, 1 Kings 19. 3, 4.

Thus much for the profession of Christ, which concerneth Christ himself.

The profession of Christ, which concerneth his Members, is, either, 1. Edification, or 2. Alms.

Edification is every particular duty of us towards our brethren, which may further them in their growing up in Christ, and Unite them more surely to him, Rom. 14. 19.

To edification belong these things:

1. To give good example, Matt. 5. 16. 1 Pet. 2. 12.

Page 176

2. To exhort, Heb. 3. 13. Rom. 1. 12.

3. To comfort, 1 Thes. 5. 14. and 4. 18. Jam. 5. 16, 20.

4. To admonish, Rom. 15. 14. 1 Thes. 5. 14.

They do observe a holy manner of admonishing, who do ever ad∣monish in the spirit of meekness, and so, as if they themselves were guilty of the like infirmities, and of such faults, as they do certainly know by them whom they admo∣nish out of Gods word, Gal 6. 1. Matt. 7. 5. 2 Tim. 4. 2. Matt. 18. 15. Rom. 15. 14. Levit. 19. 17.

Alms, or relief is that, whereby the rich out of their abundance ought freely, largely, and with open hands to supply the wants of the poor, and that to the utmost of their ability, and sometimes beyond it, 2 Cor 8. 3. Acts 2. 44, 45.

In the days of the Apostles all those that were converted to the Faith by the powerfull operation of the holy Spirit, esteemed no

Page 177

worldly thing they had their own, but held all their worldly store, Treasures, and inheritances in com∣mon; yea, they sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men as every one had need.

So much for Edification & Alms.

The fourth degree of the Decla∣ration of Gods love, is Glorification, Rom. 8. 30.

Glorification is the perfect trans∣forming of the Saints into the image of the Son of God, Phil. 3. 21. 1 Cor. 15. 14, 49. Psal. 17. 15.

Glorification is begun in this life, and exceedingly enlarged at the day of death, and will be fully, and throughly perfected at the ge∣neral resurrection in the last day: death of the faithfull is a sleep in Christ; In this sleep the Soul is for a time severed from the body, 1 Cor. 15▪ 17. Act. 7. 60.

The body lieth in the earth and seeth corruption, and at length is raised to greater glory than at first it had, 1 Cor. 15. 36.

Page 178

The Soul is severed from it, that being fully sanctified it may imme∣diatly upon its departure from the body be transported to Heaven, Luke 13. 42. 3. Rev. 14. 13.

Remedies against death, or the fear of it are these:

1. If we consider that it is no∣thing else but a freeing of the faith∣full from the Tyranny of the world, flesh, and Devil, and a pla∣cing of them safe under the shadow of the wings of Christ.

2. If we consider that death, and the grave are sanctified to us through the death of Christ.

3. If we do consider that Christ is gain unto us as well in death as in life, Phil. 1. 21.

4. If we consider that the pains of death are nothing to the com∣forts after death.

5. That we shall see God in the brightness of his glory and Maje∣sty, and be received into the com∣pany of glorified Spirits, in Hea∣ven.

Page 179

6. That our Souls shall be clad with glorie instead of our bodies, 2 Cor. 11. 5.

7. That we are by it free from all the power of the Serpent, and of the sting of death, 1 Cor. 15. 55. Heb. 2. 15.

8. If we do not so much think of our death as exactly, and dili∣gently consider our life; For he that liveth well cannot die ill, and he that liveth ill doth seldom die well.

9. That the Angels of God are ready to carry our Souls into Hea∣ven, so soon as they do depart from our bodies.

And our Souls being by them brought into Heaven shall there magnify the name of God;

And shall there wait for, and pray for the consummation of the Kingdom of glorie, and for the full and perfect felicity of body & Soul, Rev. 5. 8, 9. and 14. 2, 3. and 6. 10.

The estate of the Elect at the last judgement.

Page 180

The manner of the last day is this.

1. Immediatly before the coming of Christ, the powers of heaven shall be shaken, the Sun and Moon shall be darkened, the Stars shall fall from Heaven, Matth. 24. 29, 30. Then the elect and faithfull seing this, shall lift up their heads and re∣joyce. But at this sight the Repro∣bate shall fear and tremble, Luke 21. 26, 28. 2 Tim. 4. 8.

2. The Heavens being on fire, shall suddenly pass away with a great noise, and the Elements shall melt with fervent heat, and the earth, and the works therein shall be burned up, 2 Pet. 3. 12, 13.

At the same time when all these things shall come to pass, the sound of the last Trumpet shall be heard sounded by the Arch-Angel, Matt. 44 31. 1 Thes. 4. 16.

Then shall Christ the Lord come suddenly in the Clouds with power and glory, and great train of An∣gels, Matt. 24. 30. 1 Thes. 4. 17.

Page 181

3. At the sound of this Trumpet all the dead shall rise.

And those that are found alive shall be changed in the twinckling of an eye, which change shall be in stead of death, 1 Cor. 15. 51, 52, 53.

Then shall all the bodies of the elect and faithfull be glorified, and made glorious like the body of Christ; Then, their bodies shall be spiritual, immortal, glorious, and free from all infirmity, 1 Cor. 15. 43, 44.

4. They being all thus gathered together before the Tribunal seat of Christ, he will forthwith place the elect at his right hand, and the reprobate at his left hand; Then will he say, come ye blessed, to the elect, and they shall be taken into Heaven, and he will say, go ye cur∣sed, to the reprobate, and they shall be cast into Hell, Matth. 25. 33. 1 Thes. 4. 17. Rev. 20. 15.

The state of the Elect after the last judgement.

The last judgement being finish'd

Page 182

the elect shall immediatly enjoy an everlasting blessedness in the King∣dom of Heaven.

Blessedness is that, whereby God himself is all in all his elect, 1 Cor. 15. 28. This is the reward of the good works of the faithfull, their works being accepted of God for the merit of Christs righteousness imputed to them, Rom. 6. 23. 2 Tim. 4. 8. Rev. 22. 12.

Blessedness doth consist in eter∣nal life, and perfect glory.

Eternal life is that fellowship with God, by which himself is life unto the elect, through the Lamb Christ Jesus, John 14. 23. 1 John 4. 15. Rev. 2. 3, 23. and 22. 2, 5.

For, in the Kingdom of Heaven they shall neither need meat, drink, sleep, air, heat, cold, physick, ap∣parel, or the light of the Sun, Moon, or Stars.

But in the stead of all these they shall have in them Gods holy spi∣rit, by which they shall immediat∣ly most gloriously be quickned for

Page 183

ever, Revel. 21. 3, 23. and 22. 2, 5. 1 Cor. 15. 45. Rom. 8. 11.

Perfect glory.—

Is that wonderfull excellency of the elect, by which they shall be in a far better state than any tongue can utter, or any heart can here wish, or think.

This glory consisteth in these things:

1. We shall see God face to face, we shall ever behold his face; which is, his glory and his Majesty, Rev. 22. 4. Psal. 17. 15.

2. We shall be most like to Christ, that is, we shall be just, holy, incorruptible, glorious, ho∣nourable, beautifull, strong, migh∣ty, nimble, 1 Joh. 3. 2. Phil. 3. 21.

3. We shall ever inherit the Kingdom of Heaven, for the new Heavens and the new Earth shall be our inheritance, 1 Pet. 1. 4. Matth. 25. 34. Revel. 5. 10. and 2. 7.

The fruits of this blessedness are:

    Page 184

    • 1. Eternall joy.
    • 2. The perfect service of God, Ps. 16. 11, 36, 8, 9.

    The parts of this service are: 1. Praise, 2. Thanksgiving, Rev. 5. 12 and 19. 5 and 11. 17.

    The manner of performing this service is this:

    We shall immediately worship God, by God himself; For in Hea∣ven there is neither Temple, Cere∣mony, nor Sacrament; For God and the Lamb is the Temple there∣of, and God himself together with the Lamb shall supply all, Rev. 21. 22. And this service shall be dayly, for ever, and without in∣termission, Rev. 7. 15.


    Do you have questions about this content? Need to report a problem? Please contact us.