The reformed school by John Dury.

About this Item

Title
The reformed school by John Dury.
Author
Dury, John, 1596-1680.
Publication
London :: Printed by R.D. for Richard Wodnothe ...,
[1649?]
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Subject terms
Education -- Early works to 1800.
Cite this Item
"The reformed school by John Dury." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/A37084.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed May 20, 2024.

Pages

Concerning the Parts of Learning.

The Parts of Humane Learning wherin Children are to be exercised are first the grounds and precepts of profitable Arts and Sciences. Secondly, the Tongues which are most usefull to enlarge the knowledge thereof.

By profitable Arts and Sciences, we meane all matters of knowledge which direct man to the right use of all Creatures, and the ordering of his owne Faculties about them.

The Tongues which are ordinarily most usefull to enlarge the knowledge of these Arts and Sciences, are Latin and Greek; and that which in an extraordinary way will in due time be usefull heerunto, is Hebrew, and the other Orientall Tongues which are a kinne unto it.

Concerning these parts of Learning,

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we lay down these Maximes as grounds of teaching the same.

1. Arts and Sciences are immediatly use∣full by themselves to restore the defects of our nature by the Creatures.

2. Tongues are no further finally usefull then to enlarge Traditionall Learning; and without their subordination unto Arts and Sciences, they are worth nothing towards the advancement of our Happiness.

3. The Immediat Use of Tongues is only to Understand what others say to us, accor∣ding to their custome of speaking; and to ex∣presse our mind unto them significantly ac∣cording to our custome.

From these Maximes we gather these fol∣lowing Rules of Teaching.

1. The teaching of Arts and Sciences ought not to be suspended upon the teaching of unknown Tongues, but made familiar unto the childrens capacity in their Mother-Ton∣gue first; and afterward enlarged by the Use of other Tongues.

2. The Arts and Sciences which lead us most directly unto the Use of the creatures without any reflexion upon our own Facul∣ties are first to be taught; because they may be taken up by the simple Acts of Sense, Ima∣gination and Memory, without much Rea∣soning.

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3. The Arts and Sciences which lead us to reflect upon the use of our owne Faculties, are not to be taught, till we are fully acquain∣ted with their proper Objects, and the direct cts of the Faculties about them.

4. The knowledge of Tongues is the proper effect of Memory, and not of any Reasoning abilitie, because they depend upon the Ob∣servation only of that which is the constant custome of people; and not upon any ratio∣nall inducement why they do so. whence follo∣weth. 1. That those things which are most helpfull and subservient unto memory, are to be set a work in teaching Languages; rather then those that employ the Judgement. 2. That the wayes which fix and order the Imagina∣tion most effectually towards the sound of the words and the thing signified therby, are most advantageous to this way of teaching. 3. That the teaching of words, is no further Usefull then the things signified therby are familiar to the Imaginatiō, and that the teach∣ing of Rules before the Materiall sense of the words is known, or before the formall co∣herence of things which their construction is to represent in a Sentence, can be appre∣hended; is wholly preposterous and unprofi∣table to the Memory.

5. So farre as children are capable of Tra∣ditionall knowledge: so farre in every degree

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of Science they may be taught the Tongues which serve for that Use; but till they be fitted for the one, the other is Useless to them.

6. Whatsoever in the teaching of Tongues doth not tend to make them a help unto Tra∣ditionall knowledge, by the manifestation of Reall Truths in Sciences, is superfluous, and not to be insisted upon, especially towards Children. whence followeth that the Curious study of Criticismes, and observation of Styles n Authors, and of straines of wit, which speak othing of Reality in Sciences, are to be left o such as delight in vanityes more then in Truths.

From these Maximes and Rules the Ra∣ionality of the ensuing Method may be made ut to the full, if time did permit; but we shall ot insist upon that now: only we shall shew hat by them we are led to teach and consider atters of Learning in this Order.

First, to consider the Children that are to e taught; Secondly, the Things which are to e taught unto them; Thirdly, the Manner nd way of teaching the same.

Concerning the Children; we must reflect pon their ordinary Capacities, and distin∣uish the same into their naturall degrees.

Concerning the Things which are to be aught; we must reflect upon a twofold pro∣ortion therin▪ first, we must find out that

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which is proportionat to the degree of every ones Capacity. Secondly, we must order every thing which is sutable to each Capacity, pro∣portionally to the end for which it is to be taught, as in its proper place it is subordinat unto other things, which must follow in the Course of Education.

Concerning the way and manner of teach∣ing and proposing the same; we must studie by the properties of Things to be taught, to find all manner of advantages; and accord∣ing to circumstances determine the way which will bring no losse of time, nor be wearisom and tedious to the Children, and which wil make the matters taught most easie for the apprehension, and delightfull to their affe∣ctions in apprehending the same. For, I sup∣pose that this Conclusion in this matter is a firme, as any Mathematicall Demonstratio in other matters. viz: If all degrees of Chil∣drens Capacities be fitted with proper Ob∣jects, if none of the Things, which any 〈◊〉〈◊〉 their Faculties can receive, be left untaugh if no time be lost in teaching, nor any thi offered before it be seasonable, if that whic is taught in the first place be not disiointe from that which followeth after, but made 〈◊〉〈◊〉 steppe therunto.

If all matters offered, by their conjunctio make him that receiveth them a perfect ma

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eading him without distraction to his true end: and if no servile constraint be laid upon he inclination of him that is taught, by for∣cible meanes to break his Spirits: but his af∣ections raised to a delightfull willingness, to eceive that which is offered; by allurements nd generous insinuations readily.

If (I say) all these things be observed, in he Course of Teaching; then little or no∣hing will be wanting, which can be wished or towards the advancement of learning in his way, or can be prosecuted by rationall ndevours and humane Industry.

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