The vanity of arts and sciences by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Knight ...

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Title
The vanity of arts and sciences by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Knight ...
Author
Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius, 1486?-1535.
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London :: Printed by J.C. for Samuel Speed ...,
1676.
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Subject terms
Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius, 1486?-1535.
Learning and scholarship -- Early works to 1800.
Scholasticism.
Science -- Early works to 1800.
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http://name.umdl.umich.edu/A26566.0001.001
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"The vanity of arts and sciences by Henry Cornelius Agrippa, Knight ..." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/A26566.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 13, 2024.

Pages

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OF THE INCERTAINTY & VANITY OF Worldly ARTS & SCIENCES.

CHAP. I.

Of the Sciences in General.

IT is an old Opinion, and the con∣curring and unanimous judgment almost of all Philosophers, where∣by they uphold, that every Sci∣ence addeth so much of a sublime Nature to Man himself, accor∣ding to the Capacity and Worth of every Person, a many times enables them to Translate themselves beyond the Li∣mits of Humanity, even to the Celestial Seats of the Blessed. From hence have proceeded those various and innumerable Encomiums of the Sciences, whereby eve∣ry one hath endeavour'd, in accurate, as well as long Orations, to prefer, and as it were to extol beyond the Heavens themselves, those Arts and Mysteries, where∣in,

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with continual Labour, he hath exercised the strength and vigour of his Ingenuity or Invention. But I, perswa∣ded by reasons of another nature, do verily believe, that there is nothing more pernicious, nothing more de∣structive to the well-being of Men, or to the Salvation of our Souls, than the Arts and Sciences themselves. And therefore quite contrary to what has been hitherto practized, my Opinion is, That these Arts and Scien∣ces are so far from being to be extoll'd with such high applauses and Panegyricks, that they are rather for the most part to be disprais'd and vilifi'd: And that in∣deed there is none which does not merit just cause of Reproof and Censure; nor any one which of it self de∣serves any praise or commendation, unless what it may borrow from the Ingenuity and Virtue of the first possessor. However, I would have you take this Opi∣nion of mine in that modest Construction, which may imagine, that I neither go about to reprehend those who are of a contrary judgment; or that I intend to ar∣rogate any thing singly singular to my elf, above others: Therefore I shall entreat you to suspend your Censure of me, differing in this one thing from all others; so long as you find me laying an auspicious Foundation of proof, not upon Vulgar Arguments drawn from the Superficies and out-side of things, but upon the most firm reasons deduc'd from the most hidden bow∣els of secret Knowledge; and this not in the sharp stile of Demosthenes or Chrysippus, which may not so well beseem a Professor of Christianity, but would ra∣ther shew me to be a vain pursuer of flattery and osten∣tation, while I endeavour to varnish my Speech with the Fucus's of Eloquence. For to speak Properly, not Rhetorically, to intend the truth of the Matter, not the ornament of Language, is the du•••• of one Professing Sacred Literature. For the seat of Truth is not in the Tongue, but in the Heart. Neither is it of importance,

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what Language we use in the Relation of Truth, seeing that falshood only wants Eloquence, and the trap∣pings of Words, whereby to insinuate into the minds of Men; but the language of Truth, as Euripides wri∣teth, is plain and simple; not seeking the graces of Art, or painted Flourishes. Therefore if this great Work of ours, undertaken without any Flowers of Eloquence (which in the series of our Discourse we have not so much flighted as condemned) do prove offensive to your more delicate ears; we entreat you to bear it with the same patience, as once one of the Roman Emperours made use of, when he stood still with his whole Army to hear the tittle-tattle of an imperti∣nent Woman: and with the same humour that King Archelaus was wont to hear Persons that were Hoarse, and of an unpleasant Utterance; that thereby after∣wards he might take the more delight in the pleasing sounds of Eloquent Rhetoricians, and Tuneful Voices. Remember that saying of Theophrastus,

That the most Illiterate were able to speak in the presence of the most Elegant Persons, while they spake nothing but Truth and Reason.
And now that I may no lon∣ger keep ye in suspence, through what Tracts and By∣ways I have as it were hinted out this Opinion of mine, it is time that I declare unto ye. But first I must ad∣monish ye, That all Sciences are as well evil as good, and that they bring us no other advantage to excel as Deities, more than what the Serpent promis'd of old, when he said, Ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil. Let him therefore glory in this Serpent, who boasts himself in knowledge; which we read the He∣resie of the Ophites not a little unbeseemingly to have done, who Worship'd a Serpent among the rest of their Superstitions, as being the Creature that first in∣troduc'd the knowledge of Virtue into Paradise. To this agrees that Platonick Fable which feigns, That one

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Theutus being offended with Mankind, was the first rai∣ser of that Devil, call'd the Sciences; not less hurtful than profitable: as Thamus King of Aegypt wisely discourses, writing of the Inventors of Arts & Letters. Hence most Grammarians Expound and Interpret the word Da∣mons, as much as to say Artists. But leaving these Fables to their Poets and Philosophers, suppose there were no other Inventors of Arts than Men themselves, yet were they the Sons of the worst Generation, even the Sons of Cain, of whom it is truly said, The sons of this world are wise than the sons of light in this generation. If men be there∣fore the Inventors of Arts, is it not said, Every man is a Lyer, neither is there one that doth good? But grant on the other side, that there may be some good men; yet follows it not, that the Sciences themselves have any thing of ver∣tue, any thing of truth in them, but what they reap and borrow from the Inventors and possessors thereof: For if they light upon any evil Person, they are hurtful; as a per∣verse Grammarian, an Ostentatious Poet, a lying Histori∣an, a flattering Rhetorician, a litigious Logician, a turbu∣lent Sophister, a loquacions Lullist, a Lotterist Arithme∣tician, a lascivious Musician, a shameless Dancing-master, a boasting Geometrician, a wandring Cosmographer, a pernicious Architect, a Pirat-Navigator, a fallacious Astro∣loger, a wicked Magician, a perfidious Cabalist, a dream∣ing Naturalist, a Wonder-faigning Metaphysician, a mo∣rose Ethic, a treacherous Polititian, a tyrannical Prince, an oppressing Magistrate, a seditious People, a Schismatical Priest, a superstitious Monk, a prodigal Husband, a bar∣gain-breaking Merchant, a pilling Customer, a sloathful Husbandman, a careless Shepherd, an envious Fisherman, a bawling Hunter, a plundering Souldier, an exacting Landlord, a murderous Physician, a poysoning Apotheca∣ry, a glutton-Cook, a deceitful Alchymist, a jugling Law∣yer, a perfidious Notary, a Bribe-taking Judge, and a he∣retical and seducing Divine. So that there is nothing

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more ominous than Art and Knowledge guarded with impiety, seeing that every man becomes a ready Inven∣tor, and learned Author of evil things. If it light upon a person that is not so evil as foolish, there is nothing more insolent or Dogmatical, having besides its own headstrong obstinacie, the authority of Learning, and the weapons of Argument to defend its own fury; which o∣ther fools wanting, are more tame and quietly mad: As Plato saith of the Rhetorician, That the more simple and illiterate he is, the more he will take upon him to declaim; will imitate all things, and think himself not unwor∣thy of any undertaking. So that there is nothing more deadly, than to be as it were rationally mad. But if good and just men be the possessors of Knowledge, then Arts and Sciences may probably become useful to the publick Weal, though they render their possessors nothing more happy. For it is not, as Porphyrius and Iamblicus report, That Happiness consists in the multitude of Arts, or heaps of Words. For should that be true, they that were most loa∣den with Sciences, would be most happy; and those that wanted them, would on the other side be altogether un∣happy; and hence it would come to pass, That Philoso∣phers would be more happy than Divines. For true Bea∣titude consists not in the knowledge of good Things, but in good Life; not in Understanding, but in living Under∣standingly. Neither is it great Learning, but Good Will, that joyns Men to God. Nor do outward Arts avail to Happiness, only as Conditional means, not the Causes of compleating our Happiness, unless assisted with a Life an∣swerable to the nature of those good things we profess. Therefore saith Cicero in his Oration for Archias,

Ex∣perience tells us, That Nature without Learning is more diligent in the pursuit of Praise and Vertue, than Learning without natural Inclination.
It shall not then be needful (as the followers of Averroes contend) so vi∣olently to labour to season our minds with the so long,

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so tedious, so difficult, so unattainable learning of all sorts of Sciences, which Aristtle confesses to be a common felicity, and easie to be attain'd to by labour and diligence; but only to give our selves to what is more easie and common to all, the Contemplation of the most noble Object of all things, God: which com∣mon Act of Contemplation so easie to All men, is not obtain'd by Syllogism and Contemplation, but by Belief and Adoration. Where is then the great feli∣city of enjoying the Sciences? where is the praise and beatitude of the wise Philosophers, that make so much noise in the School, founding with the Encomiums of those Men whose souls perhaps in the mean time are at that instant suffering the Torments of Hell? This St. Au∣stin saw and fear'd, while he exclaims with St. Paul, The unlearned rise, and take heaven by force: while we with all our Knowledg, are cast down into Hell. So that▪ if we may be bold to confess the Truth, That the Tradition of all Sciences are so dangerous and incon∣stant, that it is far safer to be Ignorant, than to know: Adam had never been Ejected out of Paradise, had not the Serpent been his Master to teach him Good and Evil. And St. Paul would have them thrown out of the Church, that would know more than they ought. Socrates, when he had div'd into the Secrets of all sorts of Science, was then by the Oracle adjudged to be the wisest among many, when he had publickly pro∣fessed, That he knew nothing. The knowledge of all Sciences is so difficult, if I may not say impossible, that the age of Man will not suffice to learn the perfection of one Art as it ought to be: Which Ec∣clesiastes seems to intimate, where he saith, Then I beheld the whole Work of God, that man cannot find out the work that is wrought under the Sun; for the which man laboureth to seek it, and cannot find it: yea, and though the wise man think to know it, he cannot find

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it. Nothing can happen more Pestilential to Man, than Knowledge: this is that true Plague that invades all Mankind with so much confusion that subverts all Innocence; subjecting us to so many Clouds of Sin and Error, and at length to Death. This is that that hath extinguish'd the Light of Faith, casting our Souls into profound darkness, which condemning the Truth has mounted Error to a Throne. Therefore in my Opinion, neither is Valentinian the Emperor to be dis∣prais'd, who is reported to be such an open Enemy of Learning; nor is Licinius to be accompted blame∣worthy, who affirm'd Learning to be the Poyson and bane of the Commonwealth. But such is the large freeness, and free largeness of Truth, as can be appre∣hended by no contemplations of Science, by no judg∣ment of Sence how quick soever; by no evident proof, no Syllogistical Demonstration, no humane Discourse of Reason, but only by Faith: which he that is indu∣ed with, Aristotle in his Book of First Resolves, ac∣compts to be in a better Condition, than he that▪ is indued with Knowledge: which Words Philoponus Expounding, saith, is to be better disposed, as more know∣ing by Faith, than by Demonstration, which is done by the cause. Therefore saith Theophrastus in his Book of Supernaturals, As to so far, we may discern by the Cause, taking our beginnings from the Sences; but after we have passed the Extreams, and first Principles, we can go no farther, either because we know not the Cause, or through the defect of our weak understanding. Plato in his Timaeus saith,

That our Abilities will not reach to the Explanation of those things, but commands to believe those that deliver'd them before, though they speak without any necessity of Demonstration.
For the Academick Philosophers were in high esteem, for affirming, That nothing could be Affirmed. There were also the Pyronicks, and many others, who were

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of the same Opinion, That nothing could be affirmed. So that Knowledge hath nothing super-excellent above Belief, especially where the Integrity of the Author directs the freewill of Believing. Hence that Pythago∣rical Answer of He hath said it; And that vulgar Proverb of the Peripateticks, We are to believe every man expert in his Art. Thus we believe the Gram∣marian, as to the signification of Words. The Logi∣cian believes the Parts of Speech, delivered by the Grammarian. The Rhetorician takes for granted his Forms of Argument, from the Logician. The Poet borrows his Measures from the Musician. The Geo∣metrician takes his Proportions from the Arithmetici∣an: And upon both these, the Astrologer pins his sleeve. Supernaturalists use the Conjectures of Natu∣ralists, and every Artist rightly trusts to the Method and Rules of another: For every Science hath certain Prin∣ciples that must be believed, and can be by no means Demonstrated; which if any one deny, those Philoso∣phers will streight cry out, He is not o be Disputed withal, as a denyer of Principles; or else they will deliver him over to the rack of his own experience: as if one should deny Fire to be hot, let him be thrown into the Fire, and then resolve the Question. So that of Philosophers, they are forc'd to become Executi∣oners, compelling men to believe that by force, that they cannot teach by Reason. To a Commonwealth there can be nothing more pernitious than Learning and Science, wherein if some happen to excel the rest, all things are carried by their Determination, as taking up∣on them to be most Knowing; who thereupon laying hold upon the simplicity and unskilfulness of the Mul∣titude, usurp all Authority to themselves; which is oft the occasion of the changing Popular States into Oli∣garchie, which dividing into Factions, is at length easily oppress'd by single Tyranny: which never any man in

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the World was ever known to attain to without Know∣ledge, without Learning, without Literature; only Sylla the Dictator, who an Illiterate person, invaded and obtained the Supream Government: to whose igno∣rance the Commonwealth was yet so far beholding, that it was the occasion that at length of his own accord he quitted his great Command. Furthermore, all Sci∣ences are but the Opinions and Decrees of private Men; as well those that are of use, as those that are prejudicial; as well those that are wholsome, as those that are pestiferous; as well the bad as the good; being never perfect, but both doubtful, full of Error and Contention: and that this is evident, we shall make appear, by taking a survey, and making a par∣ticular inspection into every particular Science.

CHAP. 2.

Of the first Elements of Letters.

FOR who sees not, that the Arts of well speaking, that is to say, Grammar, Logick, Rhetorick, which are but the Porches and Wickets of Sciences, but not of Knowledge, are oft-times the Causes of more mis∣chief then delight? which notwithstanding have no other rule of Truth for their Establishment, than the Decrees and Statutes of their first Institutors; which e∣vidently appears in the Invention of Letters themselves, which are the Elements and Materials of all Arts. The first Letters were Caldaean, invented by Abraham, as Philo affirms, and were in use among the Galdae∣ans, Assyrians, and Phoenicians; though others say, that Radamanth was the first that fram'd Letters among the Assyrians. After this, Moses delivered certain Cha∣racters

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to the Jews, though not the same which are us'd at this day; the Author of which, Ezra is said to be, and not only so, but of all the Books of the Old Testament. Afterwards, one Linus a Calcidian is said to have brought over Letters out of Phoenicia into Greece, being the Phoenician Characters, which were there used till Cadmus the Son of Agenor made publick among them other new Letters of another sort, sixteen in Number; to which in the time of the Trojan War Palamedes added four more; and after him, Simonides the Melitian as many more. To the Aegyptians it is said that one Memnon first taught the use of Writing by the Portraitures of Beasts, as is seen in their Obelisks; but as for Letters, Mercurie is said to be the first that gave them the Knowledge thereof: that Mercurie, whom Lactantius affirmeth to be the first of that Name, to whom Vulcan the Son of Nilus succeeded in the Kingdom. But the first that taught the use of Letters among the Latines, was Ni∣costrata, sirnam'd Carmenta. Thus we see seven sorts of Letters most famous in Antiquity, the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Caldean, Aegyptian, and Getic. Of which in a very Antient Manuscript Crinitus re∣ports that he hath read these following Verses.

First Moses Hebrew Letters did invent: To Atica the wise Phoenicians sent: The Latine ones Nicostrata found out: Syriac and Caldee, Abram without doubt: Ipsis the Aegyptians taught, not with less Art: To Getans, Galsela did theirs impart.

But other People and Barbarous Nations of latter times have invented new Letters. For Cordanus▪ the Bishop invented Letters for the Goths; and the An∣cient Franks, who under the Leading of Marcomirus

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and Pharamond vanquish'd the Gauls, us'd certain Characters very little different from the Greeks: which Letters Wastaldus, writing their History in their own Language, made use of. There are also other Letters extant among the Franks, whose inventor one Dora∣cus is said to be, far differing in Character from those of Wastaldus; together with others, of whom Hi∣chus the Frank was Author, who came out of Scythi to the Mouth of the Rhyne with Marcomir. Beda al∣so produces the Characters of certain Norman Let∣ters, but without any certainty of their first Inventor. Many other Nations have appointed for their own use several new Characters of Letters; either borrowed from the Ancients, or which they did impart, change, and corrupt: Thus the Dalmatians corrupted the Gre∣cian; the Armenians the Caldean; the Lombards and Goths defac'd and alter'd the Latin Characters. Many Ancient Letters are also quite lost, as of the Ancient Hetrurians, which notwithstanding formerly were in high esteem among the Romans, as Livy and Pliny wit∣ness. Of which Letters, the Characters are to be seen in many Ancient Coyns, although their significa∣tion be altogether unknown. For the Romans here∣tofore Conquering the greatest part of the World, took from many Nations the use of their own Letters, and violently impos'd upon them their own Forms. In the like manner the Hebrew Letters were lost in the Captivity of Babylon, and their Language was cor∣rupted by the Caldeans. Thus the ancient Letters of the Germans, Spaniards, and other Nations, perish'd upon introducing the Roman Character; and their Languages were also by the same means wholly cor∣rupted. On the other side, the Letters and Language of the Romans were corrupted and chang'd by the Goths, Lombards, Franks, and other Barbarous Nations: Neither is the Latin Language now in use the same

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with that in times of yore. Concerning the Hebrew Language and Character, there is no small dissention among the Talmudists; for Rabbi Jehuda saith, That Adam the first man spake the Aramaean Language. Mar∣surra affirms, That the Law was delivered by Moses, in the Character which is said to be the Hebrew; but in the Sacred Idiome of Speech, which being afterwards chang'd into the Aramaean Idiome, and written in the Assyrian Character by Esdras; a little while after re∣taining the Assyrian Character, reassum'd the Sacred Idiome. Others say, That the Law was not Written in other Characters at first, than those at present known; but that sometimes it was changed upon their fallings away, and by and by restor'd upon their Repentance. Rabbi Simon the Son of Eleazer believes neither the Language nor Character to have at any time been chang'd: So little of certain concerning the Hebrew Letters is there among the Hebrews themselves. And indeed, such are the alterations hapning through the Vicissitude of times, that there are no Languages or Letters that are able to make good the Antiquity or Truth of their first Original.

CHAP. 3.

Of Grammar.

YET out of these so inconstant, and in all Ages mutable Principles of Letters and Languages, Grammar first, then the other Arts of well speaking proceeded: For when it seem'd to be of little use to know Letters, unless they were joyn'd together in a certain Method and Form, and Syllables fram'd there∣of, which at length might grow into Words and Sen∣tences

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for the understanding of Speech; then did cer∣tain Ingenious Men undertake to Ordain Rules of speaking; that is to say, the Construction of govern∣ment of Words and things signifi'd, imposing as it were a bridle upon Speech, that whatever was writ∣ten or said according to those Rules, should be well written or said, and should be the Art of well speaking, which Art they call'd Grammar. The first Inventor whereof among the Grecians is said to be Prometheus. Crates Mallotes was the first that brought it into Rome, being sent by Attalus between the second and third Punic War; which afterwards Palaemo Profess'd with great Ostentation, so that he gave a new Name thereto, calling Grammar the Po∣laemonian Art: A man so Arrogant, that he boasted That Letters had their beginning, and should dye with him; so prov'd, that he despis'd all the most Learned men of this Age; not forbearing to call Marcus Va∣ro Hog. However, the Latin Grammar is so bar∣ren, and so much beholden to Greek Literature, that whoever understands not so much, is to be ejected out of the Number of Grammarians. Therefore all the Foundation and Reason of Grammar consists on∣ly in the use and Authority of our Ancestors, who have been pleas'd, that a thing shall be so call'd and so written, that words shall be so compounded and construed; which being so done, they esteem well done. From whence though Grammar boast it self to be the Art of well-speaking, yet doth it falsly claim that Pre-eminence, seeing that with more advantage we learn that very thing from our Mothers and Nurses, rather than from the Grammarians. The Language and Speech of the Gracchi, (who were most Eloquent Men) their Mother Cornelia polish'd and adorn'd. Istria taught her Son Siles, Son of Aripethis King of Scy∣thia, the Greek Tongue. And it is well known, that

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in many Provinces where Forreign Colonies have been introduc'd, the Children have still retain'd the Dialect of their Mothers. Hence it is, that Plato and Quin∣tilian are so careful in appointing Rules for the choice of a fit Nurse. Far be it from us therefore to acknow∣ledge the reason of well-speaking to these Gramma∣rians; who professing Grammar only, and making that their only business, yet are skill'd in nothing less. Priscian could not learn this Art in the whole time of his Life. And Didymus is said to have four, some say six thousand Books upon this Subject. They re∣port that Claudius Caesar was so given to the Greek Tongue, that he added three new Letters thereto, which he afterwards made use of when he was a Prince. Charles the Great is said to have Compil'd a Gram∣mar for the German Tongue, giving new Names to the Months and Winds. Even to this hour how men toyl and labour Day and Night! scribling con∣tinually of all sorts, Commentaries, Forms of Elegan∣cy, or Phrases, Questions, Annotations, Animadversi∣ons, Observations, Castigations, Centuries, Miscella∣nies, Antiquities, Paradoxes, Collections, Additions, Lucubrations, Editions upon Editions. And yet not one of them all, whether Grecian or Latine hath given any accompt how the Parts of Speech are to be distinguish'd, or what order is to be observ'd in their Construction; or whether there be only fifteen Pronouns, as Priscian believes, or whether more, as Dimedes and Focas will have it: whether a Participle put by its self, be some∣times a Participle, or whether Gerunds are Nouns or Verbs: why among the Greeks, Nouns plural of the Neuter Gender are joyn'd with a Verb of the singu∣lar Number: upon what accompt it may be lawful to pronounce in um, Latine words terminating a and us, as for Margarita, Margaritum; for Punctus, Punctum: how it comes that the Word Jupiter makes Jovis in

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the Genitive Case: Why many write most Latin words with a Greek Diphthong, others not; as Foelix, Quaestio: whether the Latin Diphthongs are only written, and not pronounced; or whether there be a double pronunci∣ation in one Syllable: Likewise, why in some Latine words some use the Greek y, and some the Latin i only; as in considero: Why in some words some dou∣ble the Letters, some not; as causa, caussa; religio, relli∣gio: Why the word Caccabus, by position long, by rea∣son of the double cc, is notwithstanding most com∣monly by the Poets made a Dactyle: Whether Ari∣stotles word for the Soul, ought to be writ endelechia with a Delta, or entelechia with a Tau. I omit their infinitie and never-to-be-reconcil'd contentions about Accents, Orthography, Pronounciation of Letters, Fi∣gures, Etymologies, Analogies, Declinings, manner of Signification, change of Cases, variety of Tenses, Moods, Persons, Numbers; as also about the various impediments and order of Construction. Lastly, con∣cerning the Number and Pedigree of the Latin Let∣ters, whether H be a Letter or not; and many other trifles of the same Nature: so that not only as to Words and Syllables, but also in the very Elements and Foundations of Grammar it self, no reason can be given of such their continual warfare. Such a kind of Battel as this, Lucian of Samos has very elegant∣ly describ'd, about the Consonants S and T, whether should have the Victory in the word Tbalassa, or Tha∣latta: Answerable to which, one Andreas Salernita∣nus hath with very much wit compil'd his Gramma∣tical War. But these are poor and low things; but more, and of greater Consequenc, could we urge concerning their deprav'd significations of Words, with which they impose upon the greatest part of the Uni∣verse, not a little to the damage of the Publick Weal, while they interpret subjection to the Law, Servitude;

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Liberty of the People, they call that when every one has Liberty to do what he pleases; Acrisonomie or Equality of right they call that, when there is the same punishment, the same reward to all alike. In like manner they call that a quiet and peaceable Govern∣ment, when all things submit to the inordinate will of the Prince; That a happy Government, when the People wallow in ease and luxury. By such-like ex∣positions as these, and many other, Physick and Law are corrupted: nay, the very Scriptures, and Christ him∣self, are compell'd to be at a kind of variance one with another, and himself with himself; wresting those holy words not according to the meaning of the holy Ghost, nor to the Advantage of humane Salvation, but to the sense and meaning of their insignificant Com∣pendiums and discants thereupon: whence arise most eminent mischiefs; Error in Words, being many times the parent of Error in Matter. This mistake was grievous to Saul first King of the Jews, in the word Zobar, which signifies both a Male, and the Memory. So that when God said, I will root out the memory of Amalech, Saul thought he had sufficiently executed the Command, in destroying all the Males. The like Error befell the Greeks and Latines in the word Phos, which signifies both Light, and Man; by which ambi∣guity of the word, the ancient adorers of Saturn be∣ing deceiv'd, were wont to Sacrifice a Man in their usual Ceremonies; whereas otherwise they might have as well appeas'd their Deity by the only kindling of proper Lights and Fires: which Error was afterwards reform'd by the prudence of Hercules. Last of all, Divines and holy Friers mixing themselves among the Tribe of Grammarians, are forc'd to make use of He∣resie to make good their Contests about the significa∣tion of Words, overturning the Scriptures for Gram∣mars sake; evil Interpreters of words well spoken:

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men truly vain, and truly unhappy, blinding themselves with their own Art, and flying the Light of Truth; who while they over-diligently scrutinize into the sorce of Words, lose the sence of the Scripture, not willing to understand the word of Truth: which puts us in mind of the story of the Priest, who having many Hosts at one Elevation, for fear of committing a Grammar-absurdity, cry'd out, These are my Bodies. Whence arose that execrable Heresie of the Antidicomarianites and the Elvidians, denying the perpetual Virginity of the Blessed Virgin, but from that one word until, where it is said, Because Joseph did not know her until she had brought forth her first-born? What strife and contention have those two Syllables from and through rais'd between the Latin and Greek Church! The Latines asserting the Holy Ghost to proceed from the Father and from the Son; the Greeks denying him to proceed from the Son, but from the Father through the Son. How many Tragedies has the word Nisi been the occasion of in the Council of Basil! the Bohemians asserting the Lords Supper to be necessary in both kinds, because it is written, Vnless ye eat the Flesh of the Son of Man and drink his Blood, ye shall not have life in ye. Whence that Opinion of the Waldenses and others their fol∣lowers concerning the Eucharist, but from the word is, which they will have Symbolically understood, which the Roman Church would have meant Essentially? There are other pernicious Heresies of the Grammari∣ans, but so nice, so subtile, that unless the Oxonians the most acute Divines of England, or the Sorbonists of Paris, had discovered them with their Lynx's eyes, and condemned 'um under their great Seals, it would be difficult to shun them▪ of this nature are those sub∣tleties, which is best said, Christ thou Preachest, Christ Preacheth; I Believest, thou Believeth, Believing am I: also that the Word, the permanent Word, may be

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depriv'd of all its accidents: also that there is no name of the Third Person, and the like; which if they be Heretical, then are Isaias and Malachy in the first place to be accompted Hereticks, who both introduce God speaking of himself in the Third Person: the first, when God speaks to Ezechiel, saying, Ego addet, not addam super dies tuos. The other is this, Et Do∣mini Ego, ubi est timor meus? In which place he makes God giving himself the appellation of Dominos in the plural Number. Much rather ought they to be ac∣compted Hereticks, who are now esteem'd the chief Divines in the Roman World, amusing and clouding the whole Doctrine of the Orthodox Church, with noveltie of Pronunciation contrary to all the rules and maximes of Grammar, with far-strain'd words, new-made Vocabularies, and abstruse Sophisms; teaching moreover, That the Doctrine of Theology cannot be truly delivered in neat and genuine Language. And a miserable thing it is to consider, what Debates, what Errors these obstinate Grammarians and proud Sophists are the occasion of, by means of their perverse and impe∣rious Interpretations of Words; while some out of words gather Sentences; others, out of Sentences ga∣ther Words. Hence in Physick, in both Laws, in Philoso∣phy, in Theology, infinite Arguments and Errors arise. For Grammarians demonstrate nothing, but solely lean upon Authorities, which are oft-times so various and discordant among themselves, that of necessity the most of them must be false; insomuch that they who most confide in their Precepts, must be thought to ut∣ter least of all to the purpose. For all the Laws of Speech abide not with the Grammarians, but with the People, that by continual custom attain the use and ha∣bit of well-speaking. Now the vigor of the Latine Tongue after it ceased among the People, through the Invasion of barbarous Nations, the true substance thereof

Page 19

is not to be sought among the Grammarians, but among the most Authentick and Learned Authors, as Cicero, Cato, Vrro, both Plinies, Quintilian, Seneca, Sue∣tonius, Quintus Curtius, Livie, Salust, and such-like; in whose Writings only remain the delights of the Latine Language, and the Custom of well-Speaking; not in the scribblements of Grammatical Letter-mongers, who by their starch'd Rules concerning declining of Verbs and Cases, Compounds and Deponents, impose more up∣on the Latine Tongue, and oftentimes frame to them∣selves stranger words than is fit for the Latine Lan∣guage to own. Though it be apparent to the World, that there is no faith to be given to these Grammari∣ans touching the truth of the Latine Tongue, yet these impertinent Scriblers arrogate to themselves to be the only Censurers of other Mens Writings, their Judges and Interpreters, and all Books and Authors to reduce into Method, and to allow or reject at their pleasures. Never was any Author of so sublime a wit whatever extant, which has scap'd their malicious slanders, or whom they have not tax'd and calumniated as they thought good. They accuse Plato of Confusion, of whose faults George Trapzund hath put forth several Books, who as Crinitus declares, is therefore by others call'd the Parent of Truth and Verity. They seek per∣spicuity in Aristotle, condemn him of Obscurity, giv∣ing him the nickname of Sepi (or Cuttle-fish.) Ver∣gil they condemn for little Wit, and for being a Plaa∣rie, and an Usurper of other mens Works. Demosthenes displeases Tully. On the ot••••r side, Tully that great Rhetorician of the Latines, is accus'd of Bribery, re∣proach'd for being Fearful, superfluous in Repetitions, cold in his Joking, tedious in his Exordiums, idle in his Digressions, seldome growing Warm, slowly Swel∣ling, yea, reprehended by those even of our Age, and by Capella tax'd for his disorderly Stile, but more by

Page 20

Apollinaris branded for being Flat and Insipid. Trogus condemns Livies Orations for Fictions. Plautus and Horace cannot agree. Lucilius is damn'd for the rustick∣ness of his hobling Verse. Pliny like a Rapid Stream is said to grasp and overflow with too much Matter. Ovid is complain'd of, for too much Indulging his own Fancy. Salust is accus'd of affectation, by Assinius Pollio. Terence could do little without the assistance of Labeo and Scipio. Seneca is adjudg'd to be Lime without Sand; whom Quintilian taxed in these words: If he had not contemn'd his Equals, had he not been Co∣vetuous, had he not too much lov'd and admir'd his own things, if he had not injur'd weighty Matters with trivial Sentences, he then might have been esteemed more in the judgment of Learned Men, than in the Love of Children. Marcus Varro is call'd a Hog. Macrobius a most Learn∣ed man degraded, as one of an impudent and ungrate∣ful Genius: neither is there any that ever wrote in Latine, whom Laurentius Valla the Learnedest of all the Grammarians hath spar'd in his Anger; and yet him hath Mancinellus most cruelly butchered. Servius of old was thought to have well deserved of the Latine Tongue, yet hath Beroldus most furiouly oppos'd him; and our later Grammarians altogether shun him as a Barbarian. Thus all the Grammarians rage one against another: but lastly, by their means it comes to pass, that the Translation of the Holy Scriptures, under pretence of Correction, hath been so often chang'd, that now it seems altogether to differ from it self: Through their devices and censures, those doubts now raigning have been rais'd concerning the Revelation, the Epistle of St. Paul to the Hebrews, the Epistle of Jude; and many other places and Chapters of the New Testament by many call'd in question, even to an endeavour of sub∣verting the Evangiles themselves. But now to the Poets.

Page 21

CHAP. 4.

Of Poesie.

POeste, in the Judgment of Quintilian, is another part of Grammar: for this reason not a little proud, that heretofore Theaters and Amphitheaters, the most stately Fabricks of the time, were with great cost and magnifi∣cence erected, not for Philosophers, Lawyers, Physici∣ans; not for Rhetoricians, Mathematicians, or Divines but to represent the Fables of the Poets. An Art inven∣ted to no other purpose, but with lascivious Rhythmes, measure of Sillables, and the gingling noise of fine words, to allure and charm the Ears of men addicted to folly; and furthermore, with the pleasing intice∣ments of Fables, and mistakes of feigned Stories, to insnare and deceive the mind. Therefore hath she deserv'd no other title, than to be the female Architect of falshood, and the preserver of idle and fond opinions. And though we may pardon so much of her as coune∣nances Madness, Drunkenness, Impudence, and Bold∣ness; yet who can bear with Patience her undaun∣ted Confidence in maintaining Lyes? For what cor∣ner of the Earth hath she not fill'd with her hairbrain'd Trifles, and idle Fables! Taking the first rise of her fa∣bulous Stories from the very Chaos, she relates the di∣visions of Heaven, the birth of Venus, the fight of the Titans, the infancy of Jove, the deceits of Rhea, and cheat of the Stone, Saturnus Bonds, the Rebellion of the Gyants, the Thievery and Punishment of Promethe, the wandrings of Delos, the travail of Latona, the slaughter

Page 22

of Pytho, the Treachery of Tyrus, Deauale••••s Flood, Stones turn'd into Men, the Butcheries of Iacchus, the Fraud of Juno, Semels Conflagration the double Prog∣ny of Bacchus, and whatever is reported of Minerva, Vul∣can, Erichthonius, Boreas, 〈◊〉〈◊〉, Theseus, Aegeus, Castor, Pollux, the Rape of Helen, the death of Hip∣polytus; To these may be added the absconding of Ce∣res, the Rape of Proserpina, together with the stors of Minos, Cadmus, Niobe, Petheus, Attaeus, Oedipus, the Labours of Hercules, the Fight of the Sun and Neptune, Athamas madness, o turn'd into a H••••fer, and Argos her keeper kill'd by Mercury, with those other Dreams of the Golden Fleece, Peleus, Jason, Medaea; the death of Agamemnon, and punishment of Clytemnestra, Danaë, Per∣seus, Gorgon, Cassiopea, Andromeda, Orpheus, Orestes, the Travels of Aeneas and Vlysses, Circe, Thelagon, Aeolus, Palamedes, Nauplius, Ajax, Daphne, Ariadne, Europa, Phaedra, Pasiphaë, Daedalus, Icarus, Glaucus, Atlas, Gery∣on, Tantalus; Pan, Centaurs, Satyrs, Syrens, and what∣ever else has been delivered to memory concerning these notorious untruths. Neither hath she been con∣tented only with Mankind, but also she hath made the Gods themselves Parties to her delusive Stories, rela∣ting in pleasing measures, and in the mischievous charms of Verse, their Birth, their Deceases, Strifes, Quarrels, Animosities, Battles, Wounds, Lamentations, Bonds, Loves, Lusts, Fornications, Adulteries; not only de∣ceiving and infecting the present Age, but having neat∣ly preserv'd and pickled up these be••••ialities of the Gods in neat Verse and Meter, communicates the same to posterity, like the Venome of Mad Doggs, com∣pelling all that are Bit, to be in the same con∣dition. And with so much Art are her Lyes woven, that they are often prejudicial to true History, as appears by the feigned Adultery of Dido with Aeneas, and the taking of rey by the Greeks. Some there are

Page 23

arrived at such a height of madness, that they ascribe some share of Divinity to her, because the Devils for∣merly return'd their Answers in Poetical Anagrams. Hence Poets are in some sence said to be Prophets, and inspired from above; their trifling Verses being us'd as Oracles and Answers of Divination; which is the reason that Spartianus, in the Life of Trajan, makes mention of Sortes Homericae, so called from the Verse of Homer, and of the Vergilianae sortes, so nam'd from the Poems of Vergil, which superstition is now trans∣ferr'd and apply'd to sacred Text, and the Poetry of the Psalms, not without the connivance of some of the greatest Masters of our Religion. But to return to Poesie St. Austin; hath commanded it to be exil'd from the City of God: Heathen Plato expels it out of his Common-wealth, and Cicero forbids it to be ad∣mitted: Socrates admonishes the person that desires to keep the Virgin-purity of his good name undefiled, to beware of the acquaintance of Poets, for that their power to praise is not so great, as the force that lies in their slander and dispraise. Thus we see Minos, ce∣lebrated by Homer and Hesiod for the justest of Kings, because he made War upon the Athenians, rais'd all the Tragick Poets about his Ears, who immediately sent him packing to Hell. Penelope, so famous in Ho∣mer for her Chastity, yet Licophron reproaches as one that lay with many Adulterers. Dido, a most vertuous and continent Widow, Foundress of Carthage, Enni∣us the Poet, in his Poem upon Scipio's Life, feigns to have unchastly lov'd Aeneas, whom by computation of time it was impossible for her to have seen▪ And Ver∣gil confirms the same so plausibly, that the Story hath almost gain'd belief. At length this Liberty of lying and slandering was advanced to that height, that the Censors thought fit to enact a Law, whereby the falshoods and reproaches of Poets might be sup∣pressed.

Page 24

Among the Ancient Romans, Poesie was held in great disrepute, so that whoever gave his mind to the Study thereof, was, as Gellius and Cato witness, accounted as a publick Enemy. And Q. Ful∣vius was accused by M. Cato, for that he going Pro-Con∣sul into Asia, had taken Ennius the Poet along with him to bear him company. Neither doth that great Justiciary, the Emperor Justinian, give any freedom or immunity to the Professors thereof. Homer was call'd the Philosopher of all Poets, and the Poet of all Philosophers; yet the Athenians laid a Fine upon him as a Mad-man, of fifty Drachma's; and they laught at and derided Tihteus the Poet, as one beside his Wits. The Lacedaemonians also commanded the Books of Archilochus the Poet to be carried out of their City. And thus the best and wisest of Men have always despised Poesie as the Parent of Lies, find∣ing Poets to be such monstrous Lyers, as being such who never made it their Study to speak or deliver in Writing any thing of sound knowledge, only to tickle the Ears and Fancies of vain Persons with idle Stories, always building Castles in the Air, as Campanus hath truly said of them.

Mad Poets only on their Verses feed; Reject their Fables, they will starve for need: Their Lyes their Riches are, and all their Gold They faign, and think that they enjoy; so bold To think the Palm grows only the reward To Crown the Brows of every lying Bard.

Furthermore, there are most desperate contentions not only about the Forms and Figures of Verses, and also concerning the Feet, Accents and quantity of Syllables long and short (for these are the Trisles of Grammarians) but also about their own Toys, Fig∣ments,

Page 25

and Lyes: for example, the Club of Hercules, the chast Tree, the Letters of the Hyacinth, the daughters of Niobe, the Tree under which Latona brought forth; as also concerning the Country of Homer, and his Se∣pulcher: Which was eldest in time, Homer or Hesiod: Whether Patroclus were before Achilles: In what At∣tire Anacharsis the Scythian slept: Why Homer did not honour Palamedes: whether Lucan be to be pla∣ced among the Poets, or Hereticks: Also concerning the thefts of Vergil, and what time of the year he dy∣ed. Who was the Author of the little Epigrams, is a great Contest among the Grammarians, and hither∣to undecided. To say truth, all the Verses of the Poets are full of Impostures and Fables, invented for the delight of Fools, under pretence of Flattery, or de∣traction of the worst of Men. Whatever Poets do, whether they relate, praise or invoke,'tis all but in flattery of their own Fables; again, whether they in∣veigh, satyrize, or accuse, they do it in applause of their own Fables, acting always the parts of Mad-men. Rightly therefore did Democritus call Poesie not an Art, but Madness. Therefore Plato said, that he never knockt at a Poets Doors, being in his Wits. Then are Poets said to express most admirable lines, when they are either Mad or Drunk. For this cause St. Austin calls Poesie the Wine of Error, quaft only by drunken Doctors. St. Jerome also calls Poesie the Meat of the Devils. An Art of it self thin and naked, which is in reality a meer insipid thing, unless it be clad and season'd with some other learning. An Art always hungry, always starving, and like Mice, feed∣ing on stollen Cates, yet I know not with what bold∣ness in the midst of their trifles and fables, like Tithonus Grashoppers, the Lycian Frogs, the Myrmidons Emmets, promising to themselves immortal Fame and Glory.

Page 26

Live happy then, such Charms my numbers boast, No day shall see ye in Oblivion lost.

Which indeed is no Fame or Reward at all, or at most very little profitable. Neither is it the Office of a Poet, but of a Historian, to prolong the life of Repu∣tation.

CHAP. VI.

Of History.

NOw History is a Narration of Actions, either with praise or dispraise, which declares and sets forth the conduct and event of great things, the Actions of Kings and Illustrious Men, according to the order of Time and Place. Therefore most Men think this to be the Mistress of well-living, and most useful for the instruction thereof; for that by the examples of great things, it both incites the best of Men, out of a desire of Immortal Glory, to undertake great and no∣ble Actions, and also for fear of perpetual Infamy, it deters wicked Men from Vice. But it often falls out contrary; and many, as Livie relat of Manlius Capi∣tolinus, had rather purchase great than good Fame: and when they cannot obtain their desired greatness by vertuous means, will endeavour to atchieve it by Acts of Impiety; as Justin out of Trogus relates of Pausanias the young Macedonian, famous for the Mur∣der of King Philip; and is also justifyed of Herostra∣tus, who burnt the Temple of Diana, the most famous Structure in the World, which had been two hundred years in building, at the expence of all Asia; as Gel∣lius,

Page 27

Valerius, and Solinus report. And although it was enacted under most severe Penalties, that no Man should so much as make mention of his name, either by Word or Writing; yet he attain'd the end which spurr'd him on to commit so great a Villany, his name being still remembred, and yet living to this our pre∣sent Age. But let us return to History; Which being a thing that above all things promises Order, Fideli∣ty, Coherence, and Truth, is yet defective in every one; For Historians are at such variance among them∣selves, delivering several Tales of one and the same Story, that it is impossible but that most of them must be the greatest Lyers in the World. For to omit the beginning of the World, the Universal Deluge, the Building of Rome, or of any other great City from whence they generally commence the first begin∣nings of all their huge Narratives, of which they are all altogether ignorant, of the other generally very incredulous, and of the third very uncertain what to determine: For these things being the most remote in time, more easily gain Pardon for vulgar Error. But as to what concerns later times and Ages, within the memory of our Ancestors, there is no excuse that can be admitted for their Lying. Now the causes why they so much differ among themselves, are ma∣ny. For the most of Historians, because they were not living at the same time, or were not present at the Actions, or conversant with the persons, taking their Relations upon trust at the second hand, mist the chief scope of Truth and Certainty. Of which Vice Eratostenes, Metrodorus, Speptius, Possidonius, and Patrocles the Geographer, are accused by Stra∣bo. Others there are, who having seen by halves, as in a March, or as Mendicant Travellers to per∣form Vows, viewing many Provinces, undertake to compile Histories; such as formerly Onosicritus

Page 28

and Aristobulus set forth concerning India. Some others to please their own Fancies will feign upon true History, and sometimes for the Fables sake o∣mit the whole Truth, as Diodorus Siculus notes of Herodotus Liberianus; and Vopiscus of Trebellius, Tertullian and Orosius of Tacitus; among which you may likewise reckon Danudes and Philostratus. O∣thers convert the whole Story into Fables, as Gui∣dius, Cesias, Haecateus, and many other of the An∣cient Historiographers. Others there are, who im∣pudently arrogating to themselves the Name and Title of Historians, lest they should seem to be ignorant of any thing, or to have borrowed from others, presume to write strange and wonderful Re∣lations of unknown Places, and inaccessible Provin∣ces. Of which nature, are those Figments of the Arimaspi, Gryphons, Pigmies, Cranes, People with Dogs Heads, the Astromori, People with Horses Feet, the Phanissii and the Trogladytes; a-kin to which are those Relations that ave the Northern Seas to be frozen all over: However, they find Fools, and Men without Wit or Judgment, who believe these things, and take 'um for Oracles. In the number of these idle Writers is Ephorus to be reckoned, who related that there was but one City in Ireland; as also Ste∣phen the Graecian, who said the Franks were a Peo∣ple of Italy, and that Vienna was a City of Galilee; together with Arianus, that affirm'd the Germans to be Borderers upon Ionia; and Dionysius, so notorious for his tales of the Pyrenaean Hills. For further confirmation, we find that what Tacitus, Marcel∣lus, Orosius, and Blondus discourse concerning many places of Germany, is for the most part ve∣ry unagreeable to Truth. Falsly doth Strabo af∣firm, that Ister, which is the Donaw, rises not far from the Adriatick Sea: Falsly doth Herodotus af∣firm

Page 29

the same River to flow from the West, that it rises among the Celtae, the farthest people of all Eu∣rope, and disgorges it self among the Scythians. Again, falsly doth Strabo relate, that the Rivers Lapus, and Visurgus, flow as far a Hanasus; when as Lapus falls into the Rhine, and Visurgus into the Sea. So Pliny relates, that the River Mosa hastens into the Ocean, whereas it runs not into the Ocean, but into the Rhine. Errors like these, we find among Historians and Geographers of a later date. Sabellicus makes the Alani to be descended from the Alemanni, and the Hungarians from the Huns. Moreover, he asserts the Goths and Getars to be the Scythians, and confounds the Danes with the Dacians, and fixes the Mountain of D. Ottilias in Bavaria, which was not far from Argentoratum. Volaterranus also will have Austerania and Austria, the Avari and Savari, Lucerna and Naulium, to be the same; and saith that Pliny makes mention of the Switzers of the Canton of Bearn, when it is known they were placed there long after by Bar∣tholdus, Duke of the Zaringii. In like manner, Conradus Celtes believes the Dacians and Cimbrians to be the same; and places the Riphean Mountains in Samaria, saying besides that, that the Gum Amber distills out of a Tree. There are yet other Historians guilty of greater Lies than this, and de∣serving double blame, who though they were pre∣sent at the transactions themselves, or otherwise knowing the carriage and management of things, yet overcome by favour and affection, in flattery of their own Party, against the Faith of History, will con∣firm Falsity for Truth, and deliver to Posterity a wrong accompt of things. Of these there are some who undertaking to write Histories in excuse, or justification of some particular Mens Actions, and rela∣ting

Page 30

only such things as conduce to make good their Argument, while they 〈◊〉〈◊〉 her dissemble, pass by, or ex∣tenuate the rest, make imperfect and corrupt Histo∣ries. Of which fault Blondus taxes Orosius, for that he omits that famous overthrow in Italy, which made the Goths Masters of Ravenna, Aquilegia, Fer∣rara, and almost all Italy; lest he should injure the Argument which he had propounded to him∣self. Others there are, who out of Fear, Envy, or Hatred, detract from the Truth. Others, while they greedily desire to extol their own Acts, vili∣fie the deeds of others, so to bring them into con∣tempt; writing not what the thing is, but what they desire it should have been: not doubting they shall ever want those that will not only confirm, but Patronize their untruths. This Vice was very familiar among the Ancient Greek Authors, and at this time many of your Annalists and Chronogra∣phers are guilty of the same; as Sabellicus and Blondus, in their Venetian Stories; Paulus Emylius, and Gaguinus, in their Relations of the Franks. Men whom, as Plutarch saith, Princes cherish for no other reason, than that they by their smart wits suffocating and concealing the Merits of others, may be only free to advance their Actions, magnify'd by the addition of Fables, countenanced by the Ma∣jesty of History. Thus the Greek Historians writing of the Inventors of things, assume and arrogate all things to their own Countrimen. There is a∣nother Crew the most abominable of all, which are Flatterers, who endeavouring to deduce the pedi∣gree of their Princes from the most▪ ancient Kings, when they cannot compass their ends in the right line, extravagate into forreign Pedigrees and Fa∣bles, feigning the names both of Kings and pla∣ces, not omitting any Fraud, that may help out

Page 31

their purpose. Of this sort is that Barbarian Hu∣ibaldus, who writing the History of the Franks, has feigned the names of Scythia, Sicambria, and Pri∣amus the younger, which never any Historian did before, or ever followed him in doing after, unless those that were like himself, as Gregorius Turonensis, Rhegino, and Sigisbert, and some few others. Of the same Chaff is Vitiscindus, who will have the Saxons, the most ancient people of Germany, to be descended from the Macedonians, especially the Race of Alexander, whom the greatest part of the rest pursue in the same Error. Many write Histories, not so much for Truths sake, as to delight the Rea∣der, and to set forth some Idea of a King which they have framed to themselves. Whom if any one convince of falshood, they cry they did not aim at the Truth of Transaction, so much as the profit of Posterity, and propagating the fame of their own Ingenuity; therefore they do not relate how things were done, but how they ought to have been done; it not being their business obstinately to defend the Truth, but to feign and falsify where it seems profi∣table, calling Fabius to witness, that a lye is not to be dispraised, which perswades to honesty: And furthermore affirming, that when they write to po∣sterity, it matters not under whose name, or in what order of time the example of a good Prince be expo∣sed to publick view. Thus Xenophon wrote the Story of Cyrus, not as he was, but what he ought to have been; propounding him as a true Pattern and example of a Just and Heroick Prince. Hence it comes to pass that many apt to feign by Nature, and using indu∣stry therewithal, have applyed themselves to write those Romances of Morgant, and Morgalona, Amadis, Floran, Tyran, Conamor, Arthur, Lancelot, Tristram; ge∣nerally unlearned, and worse than the mad Dreams of

Page 32

Poets, and more fabulous than Comedies and Fables themselves. Among the learned, Lucian and Apulcius obtain the first degree; part also of the History of Herodotus is not to be left out, which Cicero denies not be to very full of lies and ridiculous Fables. For there we read of the Medes drinking up whole Rivers at a Dinner, and how people sail'd over the Mountain Athos.

And whatsoever else the lying Greek In Story dares—

And these are the reasons that there is no exact Truth to be found in Historie, though it be the thing we most seek for there. Seeing then there are no Writings of publick transactions that are able to declare the real Truth, and convince Error, but that every Man is left to his own opinion; hence it happens that there is so much discord among Historians, in so much that they write sometimes quite contrary of the same things. In how many Places, saith Josephus, doth Helianicus differ from Agesilaus in point of Genealogy! in how many places doth Agesilaus correct Herodotus! How doth Ephorus shew Hellanicus to be false in most things! how doth Timaens rebuke Ephorus! and others coming afterwards, how do they find fault with Timaeus! but every one blames Herodotus. In many things Thucydides is accused to be fallaci∣ous, though he seem to have written very ten∣derly, and with much care. This Josephus writes of others, whom notwithstanding our Aegesippus very severely corrects. Furthermore, many from the rela∣tions of Historiographers relate many things, but not upon proof; and those that go about to prove things that are not to be justify'd, generally propound the worst examples for imitation. For they who so much

Page 33

extol, and raise such lofty Pyramids to the praises of Hercules, Achilles, Hector, Theseus, Epaminondas, Ly∣sander, Themistocles, Xerxes, Cyrus, Darius, Alexander, Pyrrhus, Hannibal, Scipio, Pompey, and Caesar; what have they done, but describ'd the greatest and most fu∣rious Thieves and Robbers in the World? Say they were great Generals, yet were they the worst and wickedest of men. If any one shall say to me, That there is much wisdom to be gain'd by the reading of History; I will grant it, so he allow that there is also more impiety to be learnt: and indeed, as Martial upon another occasion saith, There are some good things made indifferent, but an infinite of Evil.

CHAP. VI.

Of Rhetorick.

NOW Rhetorick, which is the next, whether it be an Art or no, is mainly disputed among the most Learned men, and remains to this day a que∣stion undetermin'd. For Socrates in Plato by most sound Reasons argues it to be neither an Art nor a Science, but a certain kind of subtilty, and that nei∣ther noble nor honest, but meer low, illiberal, and servile flattery. Lycias, Menedemus, and Cleanthes were of Opinion, That Eloquence could not be compre∣hended within the bounds of any Art, but that it pro∣ceeds from Nature, which is the common School-mistris of Mankind; and as occasion serves, teaches every one to soothe, to r••••ate pleasant Stories, and to use Arguments: and as for Memory, right Pronunciation, and Invention, they are meerly Natural Effects; which

Page 34

is indeed not a little evident in Antonius, the Prince of the Latin Orators. And although before Thisias, Coraces, and Gorgias, there was not any one who had either taught, or wrote of Rhetorick; yet were there many men, who through the strength of their Natural Parts became to be very Eloquent. Furthermore, seeing that Art is defin'd to be a Collection of Precepts, it is a great Dispute among the Rhetoricians, what that end should be, whether to perswade or to teach good utterance: and not content with the true grounds, they dayly seek to invent new and fictitious. To which end, they have found out so many Theses, Hypotheses, figures, colours, characters, suasorie phrases, contro∣versies, declamations, proems, insinuations, courtships, and artificial stories, that it is impossible to recount them all; and yet they deny, that among all these, the end of Rhetorick is to be found. This made the Lacedaemonians altogether refuse it; believing that the speech of good men ought to proceed from the sinceri∣ty of the heart, not from the Hypocrisie of Studied Artifice. The ancient Romans would not admit Rhe∣toricians into their City in a long while. And when Ci∣cero had after much labour endeavour'd to shew that the faculty of making Orations did not proceed from Art, but from Wisdom, as he aspires to prove in his Book De Oratore; yet is not the Rhetorician whom he there proposes for the only true pattern of an Orator so well approv'd of; nay to Brutus, a man of singular Integrity, no way pleasing. And always this Opinion hath born sway, That the Precepts of Oratory are more hurtful than useful to the Life of Man. And to say truth, it is evident that the whole Discipline of Rhe∣torick is nothing else but an Artificial help, or the mystery of Flattery; or as some more boldly affirm, Lying, whereby they endeavour, what they cannot gain by truth, to effect by the flourishing varnishes of

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fine Language: As Archidamas the Sophist said of Pe∣ricles, by the report of Eunapius; which Archidamas being demanded which was the more powerful, Pe∣ricles or himself made answer, If Pericles were over∣come by me in War, yet such is his Eloquence of Speech, that should be but discourse thereof, he would rather appear a Victor, than a Person Vanquish'd. And of Carneades, Pliny reports, That while he Disputed it was hard to discern, what was true, and what not: of whom it is likewise related, that when he had one day spoken many things wisely and elegantly in the behalf of Justice, the next day with the same Learning and Eloquence declaim'd in her dispraise. There was Corax a Rhetorician among the Syracusans, a man of an accute Wit and promptness of Speech, who taught this Art for gain. To him Tisias came, and not having ready money, promis'd him double pay so soon as he should have taught him his Art: which condition Co∣rax willingly accepted, and taught him. Tisias having afterwards learnt his Art, and intending to defraud Co∣rax of his reward, demanded of him, What is Rhe∣toirck? who answering, That it was effectual perswasi∣on: Then said Tisias, Whatever agreement has been made between us, if I can perswade my self that I owe thee nothing, then shall I be quit of my Debt: If I can∣not perswade my self, notwithstanding I shall then owe thee nothing neither, because thou hast pretended to teach me how to perswade. To which Corax reply'd, Whatever, said he, I agreed to take of thee, 〈◊〉〈◊〉 can per∣swade my self to take it, I ought so to do, because I have so perswaded my self: If I cannot perswade my self, how∣ever I ought to take my reward, for having bred a Scho∣lar that so far excels his Master. When the Syracusans heard 'um thus contending, and wrangling together, they cry'd out, Bad Crows lay bad Eggs; meaning, That bad Masters make worse Scholars. A story not unlike

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this, Gellius reports of Protagorus the Sophist, and Evath∣us his Disciple. Now as it is many times commenda∣ble, delightful, and always profitable, to know how for a man to express himself in neat, exact, discreet, and fluent Language; so sometimes it falls out to be a thing very much to be discommended, many times of ill consequence, and always very much to be suspected: wherefore Socrates thinks Rhetoricians worthy of no respect, and will not allow them any power in a well-order'd Commonwealth. And Plato excludes them out of his Commonwealth with the same contempt as he rejects Players and Poets, not without reason: For there is nothing more dangerous in civil Affairs, than this deluding Mystery, as that from whence all pre∣varicators, juggling shufflers, backbiters, sycophants, and all other leud and vile-tongu'd persons derive their malice and knavery. With this Art many Per∣sons endu'd, raise Seditions and Commotions in Na∣tions, while by their nimble Tongues some are de∣ceiv'd, some flatter'd, some over-perswaded; usurping as it were a kind of Tyranny over men, not so subtle as themselves. Therefore saith Euripides, It is Tyranni∣cal to boast of Knowledge: and Aeschylus writes, That compos'd Orations are the greatest Evils in the World. And Raphael Volaterranus, a most studious lover of Histories and Examples, confesses, That upon due con∣sideration of all that he had read or seen either of anci∣ent or modern Stories and Examples, he finds very few Eloquent men to have been good men. Hath not this thing call'd Eloquence, not only greatly disturb'd most Potent Commonwealths, but also wholly ruin'd them? Witness the Examples of Brutus, Crassus, Grac∣chus, Cato, Cicero, Demosthenes, who as they were ac∣compted the most Eloquent, so were they the most seditious and turbulent of their time. For Censori∣ous Cato being himself forty times accus'd, seven∣ty

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times accus'd others; being nothing but a continual disturber of the Peace, with his mad Declamations, all his life long. The other Cato, call'd Vticensis, by pro∣voking Caesar, was a great occasion of the utter sub∣version of the Roman Liberty. In like manner did Cicero provoke Antony, to the great mischief of the Em∣pire; and Demosthenes incensed Philip, to the ruine of the Athenians; so that there is no State of Govern∣ment, but has been highly injur'd by this wicked Art: no society of men, that ever lent their Ears to the Charms of Eloquence, that has not been extreamly mischiefed thereby. Moreover, a confident Eloquence prevails much in Judicature: Eloquence being the Patroness, bad Causes are defended, the guilty are sav'd from the punishment of the Law, and the in∣nocent are Condemned. Marcus Cato, the most pru∣dent among the Romans, forbad those three Athenian Orators, Carneades, Critholaus, and Diogenes, to be admitted to publick Audience in the City; being men endu'd with such acuteness of Wit, and Eloquence of speech, that they could with great ease make evil good, and good evil. And Demosthenes was wont to boast among his friends, That he could sway the Opi∣nions of the Judges, by vertue of his Eloquence, which way soever he pleased; and that according to his will and pleasure, Philip and the Athenians either made War or Peace. Such is the force of Eloquence, either to allay or incite the Affections of men, having as it were Supream Dominion over Nations, to make them follow her Perswasions. For this reason Ccero was at Rome call'd King, because he Rul'd and guided the Senate by his Orations which way he pleas'd. Hence it appears, that Rhetorick is nothing else but the Art of moving and stirring the Affections by subtile Lan∣guage, exquisite varnishings of neat Phrase and cun∣ning insinuation, ravishing the minds of heedless Peo∣ple,

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leading them into the Captivity of Error, and sub∣verting the sense and meaning of Truth. So that if by the benefit of Nature there is nothing but may be express'd in proper Language, what can be more pe∣stilent than the fucus and varnishes of fallacious words? The Language of Truth is simple, but quick and pe∣netrating, a discerner of the intentions of the Heart, and like a Sword easily cuts in sunder the difficult Enthymems and Gordion-knots of Rhetorick. This made Demosthenes, though he contemn'd all other the fine and Eloquent speakers of his time, nevertheless, to stand in awe of one Phocion, who also spoke pithily, short, plainly, and to the purpose; and was there∣fore wont to call him the Hatchet of his Orations. Perchance, the Ancient Romans were not ignorant of these things; who, as Suetonius witnesses, Twice Expell'd Rhetoricians, by Publick Edict, out of the City; once, when Faunius Strabo, and Valerius Messala were Consuls; and the second time, in the Consul∣ships of Domitius Aenobarbus, and Licinius Crassus: and a third time, in the Raigne of Domitian the Em∣peror, by an unanimous Decree of the Senate, they were not only expell'd out of Rome, but also out of all Italy. The Athenians forbad them to come near the Seat of Judicature, as being perverters of Justice; they also put to Death Timagoras, for flattering Da∣rius, according to the custom of the Persians, in too high and obsequious a manner. The Lacedaemonians exil'd Tesiphone, only because he bragg'd, That he could talk a whole day upon any Subject. For there was nothing which they hated more, than this curious Artifice of the Tongue, appertaining to men that nothing regarded the speaking of Truth; but whatever work they propose to themselves, that to polish with high-flown and bigg words; and only intending to deceive the minds of their Auditors,

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and to boast of their leading them by the Noses▪ And now it is evident, That never any men were made better by this Art, but many worse; who, though they sometimes speak handsomely of Vertue and Ho∣nest things, yet are far more Polite, Elegant, and In∣genious in the defence of Error, to sow Sedition, to stir up Factions, to heap Slanders, and Reproaches, and Calumnies, than in the reconciling of differen∣ces, making peace, maintaining amity, or in the com∣mendation of Love, Faith, or Religion. Moreover, many men presuming too far upon this Art, have re∣volted from the Orthodox Faith. From this Art flow those numberless Sects, Heresies, and Superstiti∣ons, that contaminate Religion; while some so con∣temn the Scripture, because it abounds not in Cice∣ronian Phrases, that many times they take part with the quaint and fallacious Arguments of the Heathen against the Catholick Truth: which is manifest from the Tatian Hereticks; and from those whom Liba∣nius the Sophist, and Symmachus the Orator, great Champions of Idolatry; together with Celsus Afri∣canus, and Julian the Apostate, seduced from the true Religion, insulting over Christianity with their flashes of Rhetorick: From whose pernicious and Blasphemous Oratory, Hereticks have drawn many perswasive Arguments to seduce simple People from the true Faith. And do we not now adays see the most Eminent and Learned, most Elegant and Sub∣tile Doctors and Disputants in the World to be the greatest heads of Heresies and Factions? So are men affected with the Charms of Eloquence, that rather than not be Ciceronians, they will turn Pagans. These becoming Impious, while those that are more zealously devoted to Aristotle and Plato, become al∣together superstitious. But all these vain Bablers that so fill the ears of their Auditors with their emp∣ty

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and idle Orations, shall one day stand before the great Tribunal, to give an account of those Errors which they have so vainly feigned, and invented against the Truth of God.

CHAP. VII.

Of Logick.

LOgick succeeds in aid of the foregoing Arts, be∣ing it self also the Mystery of contention and darkness, by which the other Sciences are rendered more obscure and difficult to be understood: and this Logick, forsooth, they call the Art of Reasoning. A most miserable and brutish sort of people surely, that are not able to reason or discourse without the Assistance of this Art. However, Servius Sulpitius ex∣tols this for the greatest of all Sciences, and as it were a Light to those things which are taught by others; as being that which, as Cicero saith, distributes the whole matter into parts, and by definition explains the hid∣den sence of things, explains obscurity, distinguishes between things doubtful, and points out the certain Rule to distinguish Truth from Falshood. Further∣more, the Logicians promise to find-out the Essential definition of every thing, yet are not able to render themselves Masters of their own word, in making things so clear, but that they may be asked why they could not as well call Man a Man, as Animal Rationale, or a Mortal Rational Creature. More of this you shall find in Boetius, whose Works are not esteem∣ed, but are beyond all the Predicaments, Topicks, Ana∣lyticks, and other trifles of Aristotle, whom the Peri∣pateticks

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following, believe that nothing can stand or be known, unless what is prov'd by Syllogism, that very Syllogism which is set forth by Aristotle; who ne∣ver observed in all his Maximes, how all his Arguments are deduced from suppositions, or things granted before: whose rule those other great boasters following, have hi∣therto as yet made out no true or real Demonstrations, not so much as in Naturals, but deduce them all out of the Precepts of Aristotle, or some other that went before him, whose Authority they preserve and make use of for all their Principles of Demonstration. Now Ari∣stotle affirms that for true Demonstration, which Cre∣ates a Science; which is made by Quiddities, as the Logicians call them, and by the proper differences of things to us unknown and hidden. He saith farther, that Demonstration is made by the Causes; which Cau∣ses proceed, either De, per, or secundum quod ipsum. Which parts of Speech, being convertible, and rela∣ting back one to another, yet, saith he, no circular De∣monstration can be granted out of the Causes, for all that. If therefore the Principles of Demonstration are unknown, and that Circulation be not admitted, certainly little or no knowledg can be thence conclu∣ded: For we believe things demonstrated, through certain very weak Principles, to which we assent ei∣ther through the preceding authority of the wise, or else approve by experience of our Sences. And indeed all Knowledge hath its original from the Sences. And it is a certain experiment of the Truth of Speech, as Averroes saith, when the words agree with the things thought. And that is most truly known, to the Know∣ledge of which most Sences concur. Out of sensibles, we are by the knowledge thereof led to all those things that fall within the compass of our Knowledge. But now when all the Sences are subject to be deceived, they can surely produce to us no real experience.

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Wherefore seeing that the Sences cannot attain to an Intellectual Nature, and that the causes of inferior things, out of which the Natures, Properties, Effects, and Passions of those things ought to be discovered and demonstrated, are by the consent of all Men, al∣together unknown to our Sences; doth it not hence appear, that the way of Truth is wholly shut up, and obscured from our Sences? So that all those deductions and seeming Sciences deeply rooted in the Sences themselves, must of necessity be altohgther erronious, uncertain, and fallacious. Where is then the benefit of Logick? where is the fruit of this Scientifical Demon∣stration from Principles and Experiments? which when we must be forced to consent to, as to known Terms, will not those Principles and Experiments be rather things perfectly known, than demonstrated? But let us consider this Art a little more remotely. Logicians reckon up ten Predicaments, which they call, most ge∣neral Genus's: Those are Substance, Quantity, Quality, Relation, When, Where, Scituation, Habit, Action, Passi∣on. By which they hope to comprehend and under∣stand all things whatever are contain'd within the round circumference of the World. They add more∣over five Predicables, so call'd, because they are pre∣dicated of themselves, and of their parts; that is to say, Genus, Species, Difference, Proper, Accident. Then they assigne four Causes of every thing; the Ma∣terial, Formal, Efficient, and Final; by which they believe themselves able to discover the Truth or Falshood of all things, by a certain infallible Demon∣stration. Now they compound every Syllogism, o Demonstration, of three Terms: the first is the Sub∣ject of the Question, and is called the Major; the next the Predicate of the Question; the third is the Middle, participating between both: with these terms they form two Propositions, which they call the Pr∣mises,

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out of which at length springs the Conclusion. This is that egregious Engine, and these the Terms and Parts thereof, whereby they undertake to joyn, divide, and conclude all things, by the help of certain Axiomes which they dream impossible to be refuted. These are the deep and profound Mysteries of Artificial Logick, invented with so much care by these fallacious Doctors, which being such great and secret Mysteries, are not to be exposed or learnt by any other, than they who are a∣ble to give great rewards for the same, and to be at large expences to purchase Authority among the Schoolmen. These are the Nets, and these are the Hounds with which they hunt the Truth of all things, whether natu∣ral, as in Physicks; or supernatural, as in Metaphysicks: but according to the Proverb of Clodius and Varro, can never overtake, by reason of their bawling and braw∣ling one with another.

CHAP. VIII.

Of Sophistry.

BUt the late Schools of Sophistry have made an ad∣dition of far greater and more Monstrous Prodi∣gies; such a Scroll of Infinitus, Comparatives, Super∣latives, Incipits, and Desinits, Formalities, Haecceities, Instances, Ampliatios, Restrictions, Districtions, Inten∣tions, Suppositions, Appellations, Obligations, Con∣sequences, Indissolubles, Exponibils, Replications, Ex∣clusives, Instances, Cases, Particularizations, Supposits, Mediates, Immediates, Completes, Incompletes, Com∣plexes, Incomplexes, with many more vain and intole∣rable Barbarisms, which are thick sown in their Logical Systemes, whereby they endeavour to make all those

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things to appear Truths, which are in themselves abso∣lutely false, and impossible; and those things which are really true, like furies breaking out of the Trojan Horse, they seek to ruine and destroy with the Flames of their barbarous words. Others there are, who will admit of no more than three Predicaments, not but two Fi∣gures of Syllogisms, and of them but eight Moods; laughing to scorn all Modal Compositions, together with concrete and abstract Terms. Others are not wanting who have found out the eleventh Predica∣ment, and a fourth Figure of Syllogisms; Increasing the number likewise of Predicables and Causes; and have moreover invented so many invincible Stoical sub∣tleties, that the Niceties of Cleanthes and Chrysippus, together with the little conceits of Daphita, Euthydemus, and Dionysiodorus, seem dull, and meer rustical, when compared with the new devices of our Modern Sophi∣sters; in the Study whereof, the whole fray of our Sophi∣sters are so stupidly employ'd, that their whole busi∣ness seems to be, to learn to erre, and with perpetual Skirmishes to render more obscure, if not quite to ob∣literate the Truth which they pretend to explain; so that the great Art which they profess, is but a Gallimau∣fry of depraved and barbarous words, by nice and froward Cavilling, perverting the use of Speech, of∣fering violence to the poor Tongue that is scarce able to manage them, the glory whereof consists only in noise and reproach; the professors themselves coveting Combate rather than Victory, and seeking all occasi∣ons rather of Contest, than to find out the Truth. So that he is the best Man among them, who is most im∣pudent, and fullest of Clamour: of whom Petrarch writeth, that whether it be the modesty of their Stile, or a confession of their Ignorance, they are implaca∣ble in their Language, yet dare not abide a true Chal∣lenge; and are unwilling to appear in publick, know∣ing

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what frivolous Ornaments they are attir'd withal; and therefore like the Parthians, they exercise a flying Fight, and darting their volatile words up into the Air, may be said to commit their Sails to the Wind. These are they, who, as Quintilian says, are extraor∣dinary subtile in Disputing; but take them from their impertinent Cavilling, and they are no more able to endure the blows of right Reason; like little Buggs, that secure in Chinks and Crevises, are easily trod upon in the plain field. Sophisters are unwilling to Fight under the Banners of sound and approved Au∣thors, but like Stratagematists fly for Refuge to the strength of Memory, and the whifling clamor and noise of a nimble Tongue. Neither do they think it of any consequence to consider what reason to use, so they can but give any high instance or example; nor matters it what they think or say, so that they talk loud and bold enough: For he that among them is fullest of words, seems to be the wisest, and the most learned Person. Arm'd with these Sorceries, they visit the Schools, haunt the Streets, frequent great and full Tables, provoke Antagonists: if the Fight begin, and they find themselves worsted, then they fly to their old lurking holes, and their accustomed Labyrinths. If they find any person unwilling to grapple, then they endeavour to entrap him at unawares with some unusual Question; to which, if they have not a ready and pertinent Answer, or that the Party seem any thing puzl'd, then they raise to themselves mighty Py∣ramids and Triumphs. But what good fruit this Lo∣gick with her Sophists hath brought forth, or is like∣ly to bring forth in the Church, let us consider: Sure∣ly we shall quickly find, that they not assenting to Di∣vine Tradition, confound the holy sence with Rea∣sons deduced from their own fallacious suppositions; to which while they give too much credit, they ba∣nish

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the Light of Truth, and embrace darkness; and be∣ing thus wrapt and infolded in those shades of Er∣ror, blind leaders of the blind, they draw many with their false Argumentations, and shadows of Reason, in∣to the Ditch, together with themselves; and always blundering in the deep Ocean of Ignorance and Error, seduce the more Ignorant to adore their Fictions; in honour of which, they dare presume to aver, That sacred Theologie is not able to subsist without Logick; that is to say, without Brangling and Jangling, with∣out Contention and Sophistry. I deny not, but that Logick may be useful in Scholastick Exercises; but how it may assist or uphold Theological Contempla∣tion, I cannot apprehend; whose chiefest Logick con∣sists in Prayer. For truly that promise of Christ was not made in vain; Pray, and ye shall receive. Through which means, the Faithful of Christ shall obtain from the Master of Truth all necessary Knowledg of the Truth, long before they shall be able to compass the height of their Logical skill. Furthermore, Sophistry with all her quirks and devices could never soar high∣er than Philosophy; but through the path of Prayer lies the certain and streight way to the highest Know∣ledge of Divine and Humane things. Therefore they are in the wrong, who affirm this Sophistry to be the only Engine, and most Potent for the subversion of Heresie; when it is indeed the chief Strength and Pillar of Heresie. For Arrius and Nestorius relying upon this Art, the one affirm'd divers Substances in the Trinity, the other deny'd the Virgin Mary to be the Mother of God: giving greater credit to the Sophisms of Aristotle, than to the Word of God. For, as St. Jerom observes, all the Opinions of the Hereticks have made their Nests and founded their San∣ctuaries among the Briars of Aristotle and Chrysippus. Hence Eunomius argues, That which is born, could not

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be before it was born. Hence the Manichaean, because he would free God from being the Cause of Evil, makes a bad or evil Deity. Hence Novatus, that he may take away Repentance, denyes Pardon. From such Fountains as these, do spring all the larger Rivo∣lets of Heresie: for seeing there is no sentence which may not be contradicted, nor no Argument which may not be assail'd by another; hence it is, that it is so impossible to attain to any end of Knowledge, or to come to the Knowledge of Truth, by the means of Sophistical Argumentation: and hence it is, that so many deviate from Truth to Heresie; thinking that they have found some appearance of more pow∣erful Truth, by the help of Logical Disputes; or else condemn one Heresie, to be themselves the Establishers of a new one. And thus far of Logick and Sophi∣stry.

CHAP. IX.

Of the Art of Lullius.

RAymund Lullie in these latter times hath Inven∣ted a Prodigious Art, not unlike Logick; by means whereof (like another Gorgias Leontinus, who was the first that in a Publick Assembly durst put the Question what they would have him to Discourse of) to enable any person to discourse extempore up∣on any Subject. But to insist farther upon this, it will not be needful now, seeing we have Commented suffi∣ciently upon this Art already; and the thing it self is so obvious, that it will not be necessary to use ma∣ny words about it. This I am to admonish ye of in general, That this Art is of no other use, than only

Page 48

to shew the Pomp and Magnificence of Wit and Learning, and is no way prevalent for the attaining of sound Learning; having in it far more of con∣fidence than efficacy.

CHAP. X.

Of the Art of Memory.

AMong these Arts, is to be reckon'd the Art of Memory; which, as Cicero saith, is nothing else, but a certain method of Teaching, and Precept; like a thin Membrane, consisting of Characters, Places, and Representations; first invented by Simonides Melito, and perfected by Metrodorus Sceptius. But let it be what it will, more certain it is, that it can never come to good, where there is not a very god Natural Me∣mory before; which sometimes it perplexes with such monstrous Apparitions, that instead of a new Me∣mory, it is the cause of Madness and Phrenzies; and over-burdening the Natural Memory with the Cha∣racters and Images of innumerable things and words, it occasions those that are not contented with the bounds of Nature, to run Mad with Art. This Art, when Simonides or some body else did offer to The∣mistocles, he refus'd it, saying, He had more need of Forgetfulness than Memory; said he, I remember what I would not, but I cannot forget what I would. As for Metrodorus, Quintilian thus writes concerning him: It was a great piece of vain Ostentation, saith he, to glory rather in his Memory by Art, than in that by Nature. Of this Art Cicero makes men∣tion, in his Book of Rhetoricks; Quintilian in his Institutions; and Seneca. Among Modern Authors,

Page 49

Francis Petrarch hath writ something concerning it; together with Mareol, Veronensis, Petrus Ravennas, Her∣mannus Buschius, and others, though unworthy of a Catalogue, as being obscure Persons. Many there be, that at this day Profess the same, though they get more Infamy and dis-repute, than gain thereby; being a sort of rascally Fellows, that do many times impose upon silly Youth, only to draw some small piece of money from them for present Subsistance. Lastly, 'tis a childish Triumph to boast of a great Memory; besides that it is a thing of shame and dis∣grace to make a shew of great Reading, exposing a great Fair of words without doors, when the House within is altogether unfurnish'd.

CHAP. XI.

Of the Mathematicks in general.

IT is now time to discourse of the Mathematicks, surely the most certain of all the Arts. Yet all of them chiefly consist in the Opinions of their Teaches who have got the most credit; yet in their several Opinions have committed sundry Errors, which Al∣bumazar among the rest acknowledges, saying, That the Ancients long after Aristotles time did not right∣ly understand the Mathematicks: And that though all these Arts are chiefly invented for the understan∣ding of Figures, Number, and Motion; yet are their Professors forc'd to confess, that there was never any Figure yet found, either according to Art or Nature perfectly Spherical. And though these Arts have been the occasion of little or no Heresie in the Church; yet St. Austin saith, That they avail nothing at all to

Page 50

Salvation; and that they do rather lead men into Er∣ror, and take men off from the Contemplation of true Divinity: and as St. Hierome observes, are not the Sciences of Piety.

CHAP. XII.

Of Arithmetick.

OF these Sciences, the first is Arithmetick, or the Doctrine of Numbers, which is indeed the Mo∣ther of all the rest; not less superstitions than vain, and only valu'd among Merchants, for the low and mean benefit of keeping their Accounts: it treats of Num∣bers and their Divisions, which is even, which odde; which is evenly odde, and which odly even; which superfluous, which a Fraction; which perfect, which compounded: also of proportion, and proportiona∣lity, and their kinds. Lastly, of Geometrical and Harmonical Numbers; the Effects and use of Num∣ber, and their Fractions, and the wayes and rules of casting Accompts.

CHAP. XIII.

Of Geomancy.

A Rithmetick produces to us Geomantick Divination, Cards, Tables, and Dice; and whatsoever else in the Nature of Numeral Chances: This Geomancy most men do rather make a Member of Astrology, by reason that their method of judgment is the same;

Page [unnumbered]

and because the force and vertue thereof consists not so much in Number, as in Motion, according to the say∣ing of Aristotle: The Motion of Heaven is perpetual, and is the Principle and Cause of all Inferiour Motions. Of this Geomancy, among the Ancients, Haly hath writ∣ten; among our Modern Authors, Gerard of Cremona, Bartholomaeus of Parma, and one Tundinus. I my self have written a Geomancy, far different from those before mentioned, though not less superstitious and fal∣lacious; or if you will, I may say, not less crow∣ded with Lyes.

CHAP. XIV.

Of the Art of Dicing.

THE Art of Dicing is one of those Arts that de∣pends wholly upon Chance; wherein, he that is most studious, and most expert, becomes so much the more vile and wicked, while out of covetousness of ano∣ther mans, he bears no reverence to his own Patri∣mony. This is the Mother of Lies, Perjury, Thefts, Quarrels, Injustice, and Murther; rightly an Inventi∣on of Evil Spirits, which after the overthrow of the Asian Empire, was carried away Captive into Greece among the Spoils of those Cities; where afterwards 〈◊〉〈◊〉 enslav'd and bewitch'd the Conquerors themselves. It is said, that Attalus King of Asia was the first In∣ventor of that Game, having found it out by his skill in Arithmetick. Among the Romans, it is reported that Claudius the Emperour wrote a Treatise there∣of: He, together with Augustus Caesar, being great Ad∣mirers of this Game. An Exercise most Infamous, and forbidden by the Laws of Nations, insomuch,

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that Cobilon the Lacaedemonian being sent to Corinth for the obtaining a mutual League and Friendship between those two Cities, when he saw the Captains and Sena∣tors of Corinth playing at Dice, return'd without doing any thing, saying, that he would not so much defile the Glory of the Spartan's, as that it should be said, they had made a League with Gamesters. This Art was so much dis-esteem'd among the greatest of men for∣merly, that the King of Parthia is reported to have sent a Bale of Golden Dice to Demetrius, on purpose to upbraid his Inconstancy. Now adayes it is a Game in the greatest Request, even among the greatest Prin∣ces, and the chief Nobility. How do I say, a Play? Yea, the only Wisdom, and highest Knowledge of Men most carefully and wickedly bred up to Cheat and Cozen.

CHAP. XV.

Of the Pythagorean Chance.

NEither do I think it fitting to pass by what the Py∣thagoreans did Assert, what others thought, and what Aristotle himself did believe, That there are cer∣tain Numbers in the Elements of Letters, from whence some will undertake to tell Fortunes by the Prope Names, the Letters whereof being added together▪ and the Names repeated as oft as there be Letters they give the day to him, whose Name comes to be last reckon'd; whether the Question be con∣cerning War, Quarrel, Marriage, Life, or any other concernment. And thus, they say, it was fore∣told that Patroclus should be kill'd by Hector, tha

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he should be slain by Achilles. Of which, Terence makes mention in Verse, and how they made use of the Letters of their Names.

These greater Numbers, those the less require. He that in doubtful War his Chance would know, If the great number stop, may safely go. But signes of Death, the lesser sums presage; And thus Patroclus fell, by Hector's Rage. Thus from small sums they did of old foretel How Conquering Hector by Achilles fell.

Some will undertake to Erect Horoscopes by these kind of Computations, as one Alchandrius, an obscure Philosopher said to be the Scholar of Aristotle, hath been ready to assert. And Pliny relates, That by the inventions of Pythagoras, there is in the Eye a peculi∣ar property to foretel Lameness and some other mis∣chances.

CHAP. XVI.

Yet of Arithmetick.

BUT to return to Arithmetick: Plato saith, That this was first Invented by some Cacodaemon, together with Cards and Dice: and Lycurgus, that great Law-giver among the Lacedaemonians, expell'd it as a most turbulent and factious Science out of his Commonwealth: For it requires a great deal of idle Labor, and diverts men from other more lawful and honest imployments, raising great and mischievous quarrels many times about the smallest matters. Hence arises that irreconcilable dispute among Arithmeti∣cians, Whether an even or odd Number be most to

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be prefer'd; which is the most perfect Number be∣tween Three, Six, and Ten; and whether any Number may be properly said to be evenly even: in which matter of so great consequence, they say that Euclid the Prince of Geometricians, has very much err'd. It is a hard matter to say, what strange Pythagorical Mysteries, what Magick Vertues they Dream there be in number, though naked and abstracted from things; and with a great deal of Presumption aver, That the World could not have been Created by God, had not Numbers been Instrumental; and that all Divine Knowledge is contain'd in Numbers, as in a certain Rule. From these beginnings, the Heresies of Marcus, Ma∣gus, and Valentinus, took their first growth and progressi∣on, who presum'd that they were able to discover an innumerable company of Divine Secrets of Truth and Religion, by the dull and weak assistance of Numbers. Some accompt the Pythagorean inventions among the Sacraments, with many other ridiculous fancies and idle stories not worth repeating; Arithmeticians ha∣ving nothing to boast of, but an insipid, inanimate, and sensless Number, though they think themselves Gods, because they can only cast a Figure, or can tell how to reckon: But such honours the Musicians will scarce allow them, who think them rather due to their Musick.

CHAP. XVII.

Of Musick.

LET us now discourse a little concerning Musick, of which among the Grecians, Aristoxenus hath written very largely, asserting that Musick was the Soul of Man; whose Writings Boetius hath Translated into Latine.

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Now, by Musick I understand that part of Musick which relates to the knowledge of Sounds, and mana∣ges either the Voice or Hand; not that part which teaches the Laws and Rules of Meter and Rythm, more properly term'd Poesie, which, as Alpharabises saith, is carried on not by any method of Speculation or Reason, but with a certain frenzy and madness, as we have before discoursed. Now that part of Musick which consists in Sound, and is the consort of Strings or Voices agreeing in Sounds inoffensive to the Ear, treats more particularly of Sounds, Intervals, Changes of Mood, and variety of Notes. This the Antients have divided into Enharmonick, Chromatick, and Diato∣nick. The first, that is to say, the Enharmonick, by reason of its profound abstruseness, & the impossibility of disco∣very, they altogether laid aside: The second, by reason of its wanton measures, they contemn'd and utterly refused: The last, as agreeing best with the composi∣tion of the world, they onely admitted. Others there are who have distinguish'd the Moods of Musick as deriv'd from sundry Countries, for whose particular Genius they seem'd at first to have been more proper∣ly contriv'd; of which there are three nam'd, the Phrygian, the Lydian, and the Dorick; which, according to the opinion of Polimestres, and Saccadas a native of Argos, are said to be of greatest Antiquity. To these Sappho the Lesbian added a fourth, term'd the Mixolydian, of which others take Tersander, others Py∣thoclides the Piper, to have been the Authors; though Lisias makes Lamprocles the Athenian inventer thereof. These four Moods pass currant under the Seal of Au∣thority. This whole Structure or Fabrick, they call Encyclopedie, or the Sphere of Sciences, as if Musick did comprehend all Sciences, seeing, as Plato observes in his first Book of Laws, that Musick cannot be un∣derstood, without the knowledge of all the other Sci∣ences.

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Among these four Moods, they approve not the Phrygian, for that it distracts and ravishes the Mind; therefore Porphyrius gives it the name of Barbarous, as exciting and stirring up men to fury and battel: O∣thers give it the appellation of Bacchick, furious, im∣petuous, turbulent; which being generally us'd in A∣napesticks, were those Charms which, as we read, for∣merly incited the Lacedaemonians and Cretans to War. With this sort of Harmony Timotheus incited King Alexander to Arms: and Boetius relates how Tauromi∣nitianus, a young man, was mov'd by sound of this Phrygian Harmony to burn a house where he knew a certain Curtisan lay concealed. The Lydian Mood Plato refuses, as too sharp and shrill, and coming short of the modesty of the Dorian, being most proper for Lamentation; though, as others will have it, most a∣greeable to merry and Jolly dispositions. This made the Lydians, a Merry and Jocund people, to be very much affected with that sort of Musick; which af∣terwards the Tuscans, the Off-spring of the Lydians, were wont to make use of in their dancing. The Dorick, as being more grave, honest, and every way modest, consequently most congruous and agreeable to the more serious affections of the Mind, and graver gestures of the Body, they preferr'd above all the rest; and was therefore held in great esteem among the Cretans, Lacedaemonians, and Arcadians. Agamemnon being to go to the Trojan War, left behinde him, at home, a Dorick Musitian, to the end he might by his grave Spondaick Songs preserve the Chastity of his Wife Clytemnestra, so that it was impossible for Aegy∣sthus to obtain his desires of her, until he had first mur∣der'd the said Musitian. As for the Mixolydian, onely fit for Tragedies, and to move Pity and Compassion; they were of opinion that it had a great power either to quicken or put a damp upon the Spirits, either to

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raise or depress the Affection, and that it had an abso∣lute dominion over Grief and Sadness. To these four Moods, some there are who have added others, which they call Collateral, the Hypodorian, the Hypolydian, and the Hypophrygian; to the end there might be seven, correspondent to the number of the Planets: to all which Ptolomy adds an eighth, the Hypermixolydian, the sharpest and shrillest of all. But Lucius Apuleius onely names five; the Aeolian, Hyastian, Varian, shrill Lydian, warlike Phrygian, and Religious Dorick. Mar∣cian, according to the tradition of Aristoxenus, num∣bers five principal Moods, and ten Collateral. Now though they confess this Art to contain very much of sweetness and delight, yet the common Opinion is ve∣rifi'd by general experience, that Musick is an Art professed onely by men of deprav'd and loose inclina∣tions, who neither know when to begin, nor when to make an end; as is reported of Archabius the Fidler, to whom they were wont to give more money to leave off, than to continue his play: Of which impertinent Musitians, we finde this Character in Horace.

Among their Friends all Singers have this vice, That begg'd to sing, none are more coy or nice; Vnbid, they'll never cease—

Musick has been always a Vagrant, wandring up and down after sordid hire; an Art which no grave, mo∣dest, chast, magnanimous, and truly valiant person ever profess'd: therefore the Greeks generally term them Father Bacchus's Artificers, Bacchanal or lewd Artists, generally of loose behaviour, incontinent in their lives, and for the most part in great poverty and want; which is not onely the Mother, but Nurse of Vice. The Kings of the Medes and Persians reckon'd Musitians 〈…〉〈…〉 of their Jesters, Parasites, and Players,

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pleasing themselves with their Songs, but contemning their persons. And the wise Antisthenes hearing that one Ismenias kept an incomparable Musitian in his house, quoth he, He is a bad man, for he would not be a Fidler if he were honest: for that is not an Art be∣coming a good and vertuous man, but onely the lazy E∣picure. This made Scipio, Aemylius, and Cato utterly to despise this Science, as being contrary to the Majesty of the Roman Manners. Therefore were Augustus and Nero so much condemn'd for giving their minds so much to Musick. 'Tis true, Augustus being reprehen∣ded, gave it over; but Nero more eagerly pursuing it, was for that cause hated and derided. King Philip when he heard that his Son had sung very finely at a certain Entertainment, burst into a passion, reproaching him in these words: Art thou not asham'd to sing hand∣somely? for it is enough that a Prince will vouchsafe to be present while others sing. Jupiter is never said to sing or play on the Harp, by any one of the Poets: But the learned Pallas is said to hate all manner of Piping. In Homer we read of a Harper to whom Alciones and Vlysses willingly lent their Ears. In Virgil, Iopas both sings and plays, while Dido and Aeneas give attention: Yet when Alexander the Great was singing, his School∣master Antigonus brake his Harp and threw it away, tel∣ling him, It was his business to raign, and not to sing. The Egyptians also, as Diodorus witnesseth, forbad the use of Musick to their Youth, as rendring them luxuri∣ous and effeminate. And Ephorus, according to Poly∣bius, condemns it as an Art invented onely to delude and deceive men. And indeed, what is more unpro∣fitable, more contemptible, more to be avoided, than the society of these Fidlers, Singers, and other kind of Musitians; who with so many sorts of Songs, Dia∣logues, Catches, and Roundelays, more chattering than Rooks or Daws, do but like Syrens bewitch and cor∣rupt

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the well-dispos'd minds of men, with their lasci∣vious sound of Ribaldry and Debauchery? Therefore the Mothers of the Cycones persecuted Orpheus even to Hell, for effeminating their Males with his charming Harmony. And if there be any authority in Fables, we finde that though Argus had his head guarded with a hundred Eyes, yet they were all charmed asleep with the sound of one single Pipe. It is true, that from hence the Musitians take occasion to extol themselves far above the Rhetoricians, for that their Art has a greater power to move the passions and affection: and to such a hight of madness they are carried, as to affirm that the Heavens themselves do sing; not that they were ever heard so to do, but onely as their drunken Dreams and Imaginations prompt them to believe. Neither was there ever any Musitian that ever descen∣ded from Heaven, who could ever pretend to know all the Consonances of Sound, or the true reason of Proportions: Onely they say, that it is a most compleat Art, and comprehends all other Sciences; nor can be throughly understood by any one not Universally lear∣ned. Yea, they attribute to it the vertue of Divina∣tion, and that thereby men may make a judgement of the habits of the Body, affections of the Minde, and manners of Men. They say moreover, that there is no end of this Art, and that every day produces new discoveries therein; which in another sense Anaxilas wittily hints, that Musick is like Libya, which every year produces some new sort of venomous Creature or other. Athanasius therefore, by reason of its vani∣ty, exiles it from the Church. It is true, St. Ambrose more delighting in Pomp and Ceremony, instituted the use of Singing and Playing in Churches. But St. Au∣stin in the mean betwixt both, makes a great doubt of the lawfulness thereof, in his Confessions.

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CHAP. VIII.

Of Dancing and Balls.

TO Musick Dancing is a kinde of Appendant, most grateful to Children, and youthful Lovers; a thing which they learn with great care, and practise all night long; most punctually observing the time of the Musick, and that the measures of their Feet and Capring-steps may exactly answer the time of the Fiddles; labouring to perform the silliest and maddest thing in the world, with the greatest knowledge and activity their Bodies and Souls will admit: A thing, which were it not set off with Musick, would appear the greatest Vanity of Vanities, the rudest, most non∣sensical, and ridiculous sight in the world. This is that which lets loose the reyns of Pride, the friend of Wickedness, the food and nourishment of Lust, the bane and enemy of Chastity, and unworthy so much as the thought of any honest person. At these Balls, saith Petrarch, many a grave Matron hath lost her long∣preserv'd Honour: Many an unhappy Virgin there, hath learnt what she had better never have known: from thence many have return'd home polluted, many half overcome; but never any one more vertuous than they were before. Yet have some of the Grecian Writers highly prais'd this idle Art (as the worst and most per∣nicious things never want their extollers) and have de∣duc'd the Pedigree of Dancing and Balls even from the Heavens themselves, comparing the Steps of Dancing to the motion of the Stars, that seem in their Harmonical order to imitate a kinde of Dancing motion, which

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they began so soon as the world was created. Others say, it was an invention of the Satyres. By the help of this Art, Bacchus is said to have soften'd and overcome the Tyrrhenes, Indians, and Lydians, most Warlike Na∣tions. Whence Dancing was by them made use of in their Religious Rites, and the Exercise thereof by the Goddess Rhea commanded the Corybants in Phrygia, and the Curetes in Crete. And in Delos there was no sacred Ceremony perform'd without Dancing; no Festivals, Sacred or Civil, celebrated, where Dan∣cing was left out. The Brachmans also among the Indians, morning and evening, with their faces toward the Sun, dancing, were wont to worship his Beams. Likewise among the Aethiopians, Thracians, and Scy∣thians, Dancing was us'd in all their Religious Ceremo∣nies, as being first instituted by Orpheus and Museus, the best Dancers of their times. There were also a∣mong the Romans the Salian Priests, whose duty it was to dance about in honour of Mars. The Lacedaemoni∣ans, the bravest people of Greece, having learnt the cu∣stom of Dancing from Castor and Pollux, in all their Feasts and publick Ceremonies us'd Dancing. In Thes∣saly it was held in such Veneration, that the Com∣manders and chief Leaders were honoured with the Title of Formost Dancers. Socrates also, by the Ora∣cle judg'd to be the wisest of men then living, was not asham'd to learn to dance when he was far stricken in years; and not onely so, but highly extoll'd the same Art, and reckon'd it among the most serious parts of Education; and was esteem'd by him a thing of that Gravity as could hardly be express'd, and enter'd into the world together with the Love of the Gods. But what wonder it should be so highly honour'd among the Grecian Philosophers, who are not asham'd to make the Gods themselves the Patrons of Adultery, Rapes, Parricides, and indeed of all manner of Villa∣nies?

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Many have written Treatises of Dancing, wherein they set forth all the several sorts and mea∣sures thereof; expounding their several names, and who were the particular Authors and Inventers of each; so that I need proceed no farther therein. But the Antient Romans, men ever famous for their Gra∣vity and Wisdome, condemn'd all manner of Dancing; neither was any woman among them accompted Ver∣tuous, that was given to Dance. Therefore Salust re∣proaches Sempronia, that she sang and danc'd more ex∣quisitely than was convenient for an honest woman. Nor are Gabinius and Marcus Celius, men in Consu∣lar dignity, less blam'd for their over-great skill in Dancing: And Marcus Cato objected it as a Crime to Lucius Murena, that he had been seen to dance in Asia; whose Cause when Cicero took in hand to defend, he durst not justifie the act as well done, but utterly de∣ni'd the Fact, saying, That no sober man ever danced either alone, or so much as at a moderate Banquet, unless he were mad; Dancing being always the Com∣panion and Attendant upon immoderate Feasts, and inordinate Plays. We must therefore necessarily con∣clude, that Dancing brings up the rere of all Vices. Neither is it hard to tell what evils come many times to pass through idle Discourse and Toying. At such time as Youth in the heat of Dancing, uses antick Gestures, and makes a hideous stamping noise, skip∣ping to wanton Tunes, and the sound of obscene Airs, then are Virgins and Matrons handled with shameless hands, tempted with immodest Kisses, and lustful Em∣braces; then, what Nature hides, and Modesty vails, Wantonness discovers, and civil sport becomes the pretence of wickedness. An Exercise not sprung from Heaven, but invented by the Devil in defiance of Divinity; so that when the Children of Israel had erected themselves a Calf in the Wilderness, they sa∣crific'd

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thereto, eating and drinking, and afterwards rising up to play, they fell to Singing and Dancing.

CHAP. XIX.

Of Gladiatory Dancing.

NEither must I here omit to tell ye, that there are many other sorts of Dancing, the greatest part whereof are now laid aside, others still in use; for ex∣ample, Dancing in Arms, proper onely to Gladiators and Souldiers; a Tragical invention to kill the Inno∣cent in sport, making it a great infamy for a man to receive his deaths wound for want of Agility. A hate∣ful Invention; Folly and Impiety mix'd together. And indeed, all sorts of Dancing, as they are full of vanity and shamelesness, are not onely to be disprais'd, but utterly abominated, seeing they teach nothing but a wonderful mystery how to run mad.

CHAP. XX.

Of Stage-Dancing.

STage-dancing was design'd for Imitation and De∣monstration, whereby to explain things conceiv'd in the minde, by the gestures of the body; so cleerly and perspicuously representing manners and affections, that the Spectator shall understand the Player by the motion of his body, though he say not a word. So

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far the excellency of this Art appears, that without the help of an Interpreter, while the Actors by motion represent an Old Man, a Young Man, a Woman, a Servant, a Drunkard, an angry Person, or of any other condition or affection whatsoever, the Spectator at a di∣stance hearing nothing of the story, shall be able to un∣derstand the subject of the Play. This brought Stage∣players into great request, as Macrobius witnesseth, so that Cicero was wont to contend with Roscius, who was also very intimate with Sylla the Dictator, who should plainest and soonest, and with most variety, ex∣press the same Sentence; whether the one by Gesticu∣lation, or the other in set Language: which encourag'd Roscius to write a Treatise wherein he compares Stage∣motion or Action with Eloquence. But the Massilienses, great preservers of serious Gravity, would not endure a Stage-player among them, for that most of their Arguments consisting in the repetition of Rapes and Adulteries, they thought the often seeing thereof would accustom men to the practise of such things. In fine, it is not onely a dishonest and wicked Calling to exercise Stage-playing, but also a matter of great dishonour to behold them: for the pleasure of lascivious minds of∣ten degenerates into wickedness. So that of old there was no name so ignominious as that of a Stage-player, who by the Laws was made incapable of all Honour and honourable Society.

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CHAP. XXI.

Of Rhetorism.

THere was also a Rhetorical Gesticulation, not much differing from Stage-action, but more careless, which Socrates, Plato, Cicero, Quintilian, and most of the Stoicks have deem'd most necessary and commen∣dable in a Rhetorician, and an Orator; as teaching a graceful gesture of the Body, and composure of the Countenance: seeing that the vigour of the Eye, the sound of the Voice, accommodated to the significati∣on of Words and Sentences, together with a decent motion of the Body, and managment of the Coun∣tenance, adde much to the force and efficacy of Orati∣on. But this Histrionical-Rhetorical Gesticulation be∣gan at length to be little us'd, while Tiberius admo∣nishes Augustus, That he should speak with his Mouth, and not with his Fingers; and is now quite laid aside, unless it be among some Mimmick Friers, whom you hall see now adays with a strange labour of the Voice making a thousand faces, looking with their Eyes like men distracted, throwing their Arms about, dancing with their Feet, lasciviously shaking their Loyns, with a thousand sundry sorts of wreathings, wrestings, turn∣ings this way and that way of the whole Body, pro∣claiming in their Pulpits their frothy Declamations to the People: mindful perhaps of that Answer of De∣nosthenes, reported in Valerius Maximus, who being ask'd what was most efficacious in speaking, reply'd, Hy∣pocrisie and Counterfeiting: and being asked over and over again, still made the same Answer as before; testi∣ying thereby, that the whole force of Perswasion lay

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therein. But that we may not digress too far from the Mathematicks, let us return to Geometry.

CHAP. XXII.

Of Geometry.

THis is that Geometry which Philo the Jew calls the Principle and Mother of all Arts, and has this Excellency above the rest, that whereas there are manifold Contentions among the Professors of all other Arts, the Masters of this Science generally agree in their Problems; neither is there any great matter of debate among them, but only as to Points, Lines, and Superficies, whether they be divisible or no; but they differ not from one another either in Doctrine or Tradition: only every one strives to excel the other in the Invention of new Subtilties, and in making ad∣ditions to what is already found out. Yet there is no Geometrician that could ever find out the right Qua∣drature of a Circle, or the Line truly Equal to the side: though Archimedes of Syracuse, and after him many even to our times, pretended to have found the same out. This we may say, That there are very few, or none, that do acquiesce in the Traditions and Axioms of their Predecessors; and therefore, while they go about to be still adding something which their Masters left Imperfect, they run themselves into such an extremity of Madness, which all the Helle∣bore in the World is not able to Purge away. To this Geometry, which instructs us in Lineaments, Forms, Intervals, Magnitudes, Bodies, Dimensions, & Weights, belongs the Art of making all Mechanick Engines, and

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Instruments appertaining to the Mechanick Arts; all Engines of War, and Architecture, as Battering Rams, Tortoises, Catapults, Scaling-Ladders, moving Towers, Ships, Gallies, Bridges, Carts, Carriages, Wheels, Bars; together with all those Engines by which great and massie Weights are moved and lifted up with little help, and much ease. Besides these, all those pieces of Art that move by the assistance of Weight, Wind, Water, Ropes or Lines; as Clocks, Hydraulick Organs. By this Art Mercury is said to have made certain Idols among the Egyptians, that made an Articulate noise with their Tongues, and could walk several Paces. Architas the Tarentine is also said to have made a Dove so exactly by rules of Geometry, that the Figure would move and fly of it self. And Archimedes is said to have made a Brazen Heaven in such sort, that it shew'd all the Motions of the Planets and Sphears, the like whereof we have seen brought to pass in our time. From this Art also proceed the several varieties of Guns, and Fire-vomiting Engines; of which lately my self have Written a special Treatise, Entituled Pyrographie, which I now Repent me to have done; seeing that it only Teaches a most pernicious and de∣structive Art. Lastly, Painting, Measuring of Land, Agriculture, Founders, Statuaries, Smiths, Carpenters, nd all that make use of Wood, or Metals, all borrow heir Experience from Geometry.

CHAP. XXIII.

Of Optick and Perspective.

NEarest of kin to Geometry, is the Art Perspective. Now Perspective is an Art, that teaches a Three∣fold

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way of seeing Direct, Reflex'd, and Broken: as also the difference of Light, Shadows and Spaces; how Visibles appear through false Intervals, how the beams of the Sun are receiv'd through one or more perspicu∣ous Bodies, and how they play upon several figures of Bodies; the several accidents of Object, Sight, and Me∣dium; and how the Object and the Sight are affected according to the variety of the Medium. Now, as concerning the reason of Seeing, there are sundry and different Opinions. Plato thinks that the sight pro∣ceeds from an equal clearness in the Eye, and the Ob∣ject; the clearness from the Eye, being caus'd by the flowing of the Light to one extrinsick Air; that which proceeds from the Body, being caus'd by a reverbera∣tion of the Sight to the Eye; the middle clearness about the Air, being easily fluid, and apt to receive shape, according to the force of the Sight that always extends it self in a firy Form. Galen agrees with Plato. But Hipparchus saith that the Beams extended from the Eyes to the Bodies themselves, touching them as it were with a certain Palpitation, returns back the apprehension thereof to the Sight. Aristotle is of Opi∣nion, that the Images of things pass from the Object to the Sight according to their quality, through the al∣teration of the middle Air. Porphyrius believes, nei∣ther Beams nor Images, nor any thing else to be the Cause of Sight, but that the Soul knowing her self, ap∣prehends and sees her own self in all visible beings. But the Geometricians and Opticks coming near to Hipparchus, have invented certain Cones made by the co-incidence or falling together of the Beams, which are emitted through the Eyes, so that the Eye appre∣hends many visibles at one time; but those most certain∣ly, where the Beams meet together. But Alchindu teaches another thing, which St. Austin thinks to be most true, That the Power of the Soul doth act some∣thing

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in the Eye, which is above humane Wisdome to find out. This Art therefore much conduces to the understanding the variety of Coelestial Bodies, their Distance, Magnitude, Motions, and Reflections; and is also a great help to Architecture, in the measuring, adorning, and perfecting great Buildings. But in the Art of Painting and making of Landskips, is of so great use, that neither can be done without it. For it shews us how to make Figures seem undeformed, and in Symme∣try, at whatsoever height or distance they are to be seen.

CHAP. XXIV.

Of Painting.

PAinting is a wonderful Art, imitating the shapes of Natural things, by an accurate description of the Lineaments, and apt choice of Colours. This was once in such high esteem, that it was accompted the chief of all the Liberal Sciences. Not less Liberal than Poetry, in the Opinion of Horace.

Painters and Poets have free leave With equal power to dare and to deceive.
For Painting is nothing else but mute Poetry, and Po∣etry a speaking Picture; so neer akin they be to each other: for as Poets, so Painters feign Histories and Fa∣bles, and representations of all things; expressing and figuring Light, Splendor, Shades, Heights and Depths. This moreover it borrows from Opticks, to deceive the sight; and in one Picture, the scituation being varied, to represent various shapes to the sight: and what the Statuary cannot reach, this attains to: it represents in lively colours, fire, beams, light, thunder, lightning, evening, morning, dawn, clouds, passions of Men, the senses of the Mind, and even almost the Voice it self; and

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by falsifying measures and dimensions makes these things appear to be, which are not; and those things which are not, to appear to be. As is related of Zeuxis and Parrhasius, Painters, who contending both for Ex∣cellency, the first shewed painted Grapes, so like, that the Birds flew to feed upon them. The other shew'd a Coverlet only Painted; which was so rarely done, that when the First went to put it aside that he might see the Workmanship that was under, and found his Error, he was forc'd to yield the Victory to the Lat∣ter: whereas, he had only deceiv'd the Birds, but Parrasius an Artist. And Pliny relates, That in the Plays of Claudius there was such excellent Painting, that the Crows have flown to the representation of Tiles, mistaking them for the tops of Houses. And the same Pliny relates, How it had been found by ex∣perience, that the singing of Birds has been stinted by the sight of a painted Dragon. This moreover is always attributed to Painting, That in all her Works there is more to be understood and judged of, than is to be seen, as Plutarch has diligently found out in his Icons; so that though the Art be extraordinary, yet the Ingenuity thereof is beyond the Art.

CHAP. XXV.

Of Statuary and Plastick.

PAinting is accompanied with the Arts Statuary, Plastick, Casting, and Engraving: the Inventions of Laborious Wit, which may notwithstanding be all comprehended in Architecture. The Statuary makes the likeness of things, either in Stone, Wood, or Ivory; the Plaster performs the same in Earth; the like Images the Caster performs, by casting melted

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Brass and other metals in Moulds; The Graver ex∣presses the same things in Stones and Gems. Of all which, Pomponius Gauricus among Modern Writers hath chiefly Treated. But all these Arts, together with Painting, were meerly invented by the Devil, for the nourishment of Pride, Lust, and Superstition: the Au∣thors were those, who first, according to the words of St. Paul, Chang'd the Glory of the Incorruptible God, in∣to the likeness of Corruptible man, of Birds, of Beasts, and of Serpents: the first, who contrary to Divine Command, that forbids the Graven Image, or the likness of any thing either in heaven above, or in the earth be∣neath, introduc'd Idolatry so detested of God. Of whom the wise man saith, The Idol is curs'd; and be that made the same, together with the thing made, shall suffer Torments. For the Vanity of Men, as the same Author saith, invented these Arts, to tempt the Soul of Man, and to deceive the Ignorant: And the In∣vention it self, is the Corruption of Life. However, we Christians above all other People are so mad, and carried so headlong into this corruption of Life and Manners, that in all our Courts, Houses, and Cham∣bers, we are not asham'd to keep and admire these wick∣ed Ornaments; thereby to invite Women and Vir∣gins to Wantonness, with the sight of obscene Pictures: nay, we stick not to introduce 'um into our very Tem∣ples, Chapples, and over our Altars, to the great hazard of breeding Idolatry. But of this more when we come to Treat of Religion. Now that there is a certain Au∣thority not to be contemned in Statues and Pictures, I learnt not long ago in Italy: where there happening a very great debate before the Pope, between the Au∣stin Fryars, and the Regular Canons, about the Habit of St. Austin; that is to say, whether he wore a black Stole over a white Vest, or a white Stole over a black Vest: and finding nothing in Scripture that gave Light

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toward the determination of the Question, the Judges at length thought fit to refer the whole matter to the Painters and Statuaries, resolving to give judgment according to what they should declare they had seen in Ancient Pictures and Statues: Confirm'd by this ex∣ample, I my self labouring with indefatigable diligence to find out the Original of the Monks Cowl, and not finding any that might resolve the doubt in Scrip∣ture, at length I refer'd my self to the Painters; seek∣ing the Truth of the matter in the Porches of Halls of the Monasteries where the Histories of the Old and New Testament are generally Painted. Now seeing that I could not perceive in all the Old Testament, neither any of the Priests or Prophets, no not Elias him∣self, whom the Carmelites make their Patron; I went and diligently view'd all the New Testament: There I saw Zacharias, Simeon, John Baptist, Joseph, Christ, the Apostles, Disciples, Scribes, Pharisees, High Priests, Annas, Caiphas, Herod, Pilat, and many others; but yet I could not see one Cowl among them All: till at length, examining the whole story over and over again, and by and by in the very Front of the Piece I found the Devil himself with a Cowl on, as he stood tempting Christ in the Wilderness. I was very glad to find that in a Picture, that I could observe in no Writing, that the Devil was the first Inventor of Cowls, from whom I am apt to believe the Monks and Fryars have borrowed the same, though wearing it of divers Colours, if they do not absolutely claim it by Inheri∣tance.

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CHAP. XXVI.

Of Prospective, and Looking-Glasses.

TO return to Opticks, to which the use of Look∣ing-Glasses and Prospective-Glasses does mainly conduce; the Experiments whereof are daily seen in the various kinds of Glasses, Hollow, Convex, Plane, Pil∣lar-fashion'd, Pyramidal, Globular, Gibbose, Orbicular, full of Angles, Inverted, Everted, Regular, Irregular, Solid and Perspicuous. So we read, as Celius in his ancient Readings relates, That one Hostius, a Person of an Obscene Life, made a sort of Glasses that made the Object seem far greater than it was; so that one Finger should seem to exceed the whole Arm, both in bigness and thickness. There is also a sort of Glass, wherein a man may see the Image of another man, but not his own; and another, which being set in such a posture and place, gives back no representation; but the posture being alter'd, presently returns the Ob∣ject presented. Some that shew all sorts of Represen∣tations; some not all, but many. Other Glasses there are, that contrary to the fashion of all others, will shew the right hand directly opposite to the Right, and the Left directly opposite to the Left. Other Glasses there are that do not represent the Image with∣in, but as it were hanging in the Air. Burning-Glasses there are too, that Collecting the beams of the Sun into one point, kindle fire at a distance upon any Combusti∣ble Matter. Little Perspicuous Glasses also are not without thier Impostures; that is to say, to make a lit∣tle thing appear great; those that are afar off, neer; those things or places that are neer, afar off; those that are above us, below us; those things that are below us,

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above us, or in any other posture or situation whatever. There are other of these Glasses that make one Object appear to be many, and will represent things with di∣vers Colours like the Rainbow; as also, in divers Shapes and Figures. And I my self have learnt to make Glasses, wherein, while the Sun shines, you may discern for the distance of Three or Four Miles toge∣ther, whatever places are enlightned or over-spread with his Beams. And this is to be admired in plain Glasses, that by how much the less they are, so much less than themselves they will represent the Object; but let them be never so big, yet shall they not repre∣sent the Object ever a whit the larger: which when St. Austin consider'd, writing to Nibridius, he conceives it to be something of an occult Mystery. However, they are vain and useless things, invented only for Ostentation and idle Pleasure. Many both Greek and Latine have Treated of Looking-Glasses and Perspectives, but above all the rest, Vitellius.

CHAP. XXVI.

Of Cosmimetry.

LET us have a few words now concerning Cos∣mimetry, which is divided into Cosmography and Geography: both measure the World, and di∣stinguish it into Parts; the First, according to a me∣thod drawn from the Heavenly Bodies, by distinguish∣ing Places as they are Situated under such Stars or Constellations, measuring them by Scales of Degrees, or Minutes, by Climates, by the difference of Day or Night, Points of the Winds, various risings of the Stars, Elevations of the Pole, Parallels, Meridians, shadows

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of Gnomons, and the like; all which is performed by Mathematical Rules. The Second not regarding any thing of the Celestial Bodies, measures the World by Furlongs and Miles; divides it into Mountains, Woods, Lakes, Rivers, Seas and Shores, Nations, People, King∣doms, Provinces, Cities, Ports, and whatever else is worthy taking Notice of.

They Native Customes, Native Habits shew, And what each Region suffers there to grow.

And in imitation of Painting according to the Rules of Geometry and Perspective, describe the whole World in Plain Tables or Maps.

In little Volumes Painting all the World.

Of this they reckon Chorography to be a part, which undertaking the particular Description of particular Places, sets them out more fully and accurately.

Each part distinguish'd, various order yields Of Vines, of Woods, of Meadows, Fountains, Fields. Behold, how swelling Streams the Ocean fill! There falls a Valley, there a mounting Hill With wooddy top assails the distant Stars.

All these things, and whatever we have before spo∣ken of in this Chapter, Cosmimetry teaches in chief. But what Authors shall instruct us in this Art! so ma∣nifold are the Contentions among them about Bounds, Longitudes, Latitudes, Magnitudes, Measures, Distan∣ces, Climates, and Qualities of Countries. All which Eratosthenes has one way explained, Strabo another; another way Marinus; another way Ptolomy; another way Dionysius; another way the Later Authors. Nei∣ther

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do they agree about the Navil or Middle of the Earth, which Ptolomy places under the Equinoctial Circle; Strabo believes it to be the Mountain Parnassus in Greece: with whom Plutarch, and Lactantius the Grammarian agree, and believe, That in the time of the Deluge it was the only Mark of distinction between the Skies and the Water.

When all the World lay all in Water drown'd, This only appear'd, the Waters utmost bound.
But if this reason be the only satisfactory reason of that Opinion, then shall not Parnassus of Greece, but Gordi∣cus a Mountain of Armenia be the Navel of the Earth, which, as Berosus testifies, first appearing above the Waters, was the first resting Place of the Ark. Others Assign other places, and how the middle of the Earth was found out by the flying of Eagles. There are some Divines, who thrusting their Sickle into this Corn, will have Jerusalem to be the Middle of the Earth; because it is written by the Prophet, God hath wrought Salvation in the middle of the Earth. Lucretius, Lactan∣tius, and Austin, fall under the same Censure, who have so constantly deny'd the Antipodes; as also those who deny any other Habitable Part beyond Europe, Asia, and Africa; which notwithstanding we find to be ut∣terly false, by the Voyages and Discoveries of the Spa∣niards and Portugals; who also confirm to us all the Torrid Zone to be Inhabited, contrary to the Fables and Trifles of the Poets. Other Errors of the Geographers we have recited in the Chapter of History. Now this Art that undertakes to teach us to Describe and Mea∣sure so large a World, such unsearchable Seas, and discover to us the Scituation of all Islands and Regi∣ons, Bounds, and remarkable Places; together with the Originals, Customs, Manners, and different Dispo∣sitions

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of innumerable Nations, what fruit doth it further yield us? but only that it makes us covetous to pry into the Concernments of other people, while we forget our selves; and as St. Austin in his Confessi∣on saith, Men Travel to admire the high Mountains, the Prodigious Waves of the Sea, the large and dismal Falls of Rivers, the Compass of the Ocean, and the Rounds of the Stars; but in the mean time, forsake themselves. Pliny saith, That it is a madness to Mea∣sure the Earth; which while we endeavour to mea∣sure, we go our selves beyond all bounds.

CHAP. XXVIII.

Of Architecture.

NO doubt but Architecture seems to bring great advantages and ornaments both to publick and private Building. This makes us Walls and Roofs, Mills and Carts, Rivers, Ships, Temples, Churches, Towers, fenced Walls and Fortifications, and all other Engines, either to defend or adorn both Publick and Private Buildings; a very necessary and honest Art, did it not so much bewitch the minds of Men, that there is no man scarce to be found, if his Wealth will per∣mit him, who does not wholly employ himself, either in Re-building, or adding to that which is well and de∣cently already done: through which insatiable desire of Building it happens, that there is no end or bound there∣of: but to please Fancie, Rocks have been cut, Val∣lies fill'd up, the bowels of the Earth digg'd into, Promontories made over the Sea, the currents of Rivers

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turn'd, Seas joyn'd to Seas, Lakes exhaust, Pools dry∣ed up, the Seas curl'd, the depth of the Ocean search'd into, and New Islands have been made. All which things though they seem to have been done in desyance of Nature, yet have brought not a little advantage to the Publick. But let us compare with these, all those other things that are of no use at all but for men to gaze and stare at, and out of vain Ostentation to shew the vastness of the Builders Wealth; such as are the superstitious Wonders of the Aegyptians, Greeks, He∣trurians, Babylonians, and other Nations; their Laby∣rinths, Pyramids, Obelisques, Colosses, Mausoleum, the Monstrous Statues of Rapsinatis, Sesostres, and Amasis, and that Extravagant Sphynx, in which King Amasis was said to be Entomb'd. For, saith Pliny, it was hew'd out of a Natural Red-stone; the compass of the Head was One hundred and two foot round the Fore-head; the length thereof One hundred forty three. But there are greater Wonders than this, the stupendious work of Memnon and Semiramis, in Bagisianum, a Mountain of Media, a vast Efigies, containing Seventeen Furlongs in bigness. Which had been far exceeded by that Architect, whoever he were, whether Stesicrates, as Plutarch reports; or Democrates, as Vitruvius asserts, who propos'd to have made an Effigies of Alexander out of the Mountain Athos, which should have held in the hand thereof a City capable to receive Ten thou∣sand men. We may add to these the Babylonian Den, the Basis whereof was a full Furlong in Compass, as Herodotus witnesseth▪ together with that famous Tower which was made to swim in the wide Sea, up∣on the backs of Glass Lobsters. With these may be number'd the Gordian Edifices, the Triumphal Arches, the vast Temples of the Gods; that especially in Ephe∣sus Dedicated to Diana, which was two hundred Years in Building, at the Expences of all Asia: and that

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Chappel dedicated to Latona, built in Aegypt all of one Stone, broad in Front forty Cubits, and cover'd over also with one entire Stone: as also, the Statue of Nebuchodonosor King of Assyria, all of pure Gold, sixty Cubits in bigness; which it was a Capital Crime not to Worship: and another Statue Forty Cubits high, fram'd all out of one entire Topaze, in honour of an Aegyptian Queen. Not unlike these are the Tem∣ples Erected in our days with most lofty Towers and Spires, vast heaps of Stones, rising to an Incompara∣ble and Prodigious Height; together with innumera∣ble Steeples for Bells, erected at the vast expence of money drain'd under the pretence of Pious uses and Charity, which had been better improv'd to the relief of thousands of the Poor, who being the true Tem∣ples of God, perish in the mean time with hunger, cold, and sickness, more proper to be kept in repair with those Sacred Alms. Now what Destructions, what Devastations this Art Causes among Men, whose War∣like Engines of Batteries, Catapults, Scorpions, Slings, and other manifold instruments of Death, fram'd by the chief industry and invention of her Professors; so many Nations thereby ruin'd, so many Cities thereby destroy'd, do afford sufficient Testimony: and of this, not only by Land, but by Sea, whole Navies built on∣ly for fight and combat do give evident proof: where∣in men do not seem so much to Navigate, as to Inha∣bit the most dangerous Seas, which as they are of them∣selves full of hazard and terror, by these Ships are ren∣der'd far more unsecure and terrible to us; therein, as on the solid Land, Fighting and Robbing one another. The first that writ of Architecture was Agatarebus, an Athe∣nian; afterwards Democritus and Anaxagoras; after them Silenus, Archimenides, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Cato, Varro, Pliny; and Lastly, Vitruvius, and Nigrigentus. Of Modern Authors, Leo Baptista, Friar Lucas, and Albertus Duretus.

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CHAP. XXIX.

Of Miners and Metals.

TO Architecture is adjoyn'd Mining and Digging of Metals; an Art of no small ingenuity, disco∣vering by the very Superficies of the Earth, either in Plain or Mountain, what Veins are there to be found, how far they extend their bounds and sides, and how to undertop the hollow and empty bowels of the Earth: concerning which, Strato Lampsacus, among the Ancients, hath written a large Treatise, Entituled, De Machinis Metallicis. Though how out of the Me∣tallick Oar, to consolidate and purifie the true Metal by fire; or if mixt, how to separate them, few or none have hitherto taken the pains to teach; perhaps because that being an Art too Mechanick and Servile, learned and ingenious Men have thought it beneath their Studies. However, being my self some years since made Overseer of some certain Mines by his Im∣perial Majesty, searching diligently into the Nature of all those things, I began to write a special Treatise thereof, which I have yet in my hands, continually adding and correcting the same, as my Experience and Knowledge encreased; intending to omit nothing that may serve to further the Invention and Knowledge thereof, whether in relation to the searching and dis∣cerning of the Vein, melting the Oar, under-propping of Mines, framing all manner o Engines, and what∣ever else belongs thereto: Mysteries hitherto altoge∣ther hidden before. By means of this Art, we come to be Possessors of all Humane Wealth; the eager de∣sire

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whereof hath so invaded Mortals, that they make their approaches to Hell, and seek Riches in the very mansions of the Infernal Ghosts; as Ovid elegantly describes it.

Deep in the Bowels of the Earth they toyl; There what she strove neer Stygian shades to hide, They dig up Wealth, the baneful Root of Pride, Now fatal Steel, but far more fatal Gold, With gain bewitch'd did Mortals first behold. Desire of gain, that Truth and Vertue chas'd, And in their room Deceit and Treason plac'd.
Or as another Poet doth express himself,
Now Truth is driven out by Gold, By Gold our Laws are bought and sold.

Certainly therefore he first found out the greatest plague of Humane life, that first found out Mynes of Gold, and other Veins of Metal. These men have made the very ground the more hurtful and pestiferous, by how much they are mre rash and venturous than they that hazard themselves in the deep to dive for Pearl. Concerning the places where these Metals are found, Authors do very much vary. Lead, they say, was first found in the Islands called Cassiterides, not far from Spain: Brass in Cyprus, Iron in Crete, Gold and Silver in Pangaeus a Mountain of Thracia: At length they infected the whole world; onely the Scythians, as Soline relates, condemn'd the use of Gold and Sil∣ver, resolving to keep themselves eternally free from publick avarice. There was an antient Law among the Romans against the superfluity of Gold. And in∣deed, it were to be wish'd that mn would aspire with the same eagerness to Heaven, that they descend into

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the Bowels of the Earth, allur'd with that vein of Riches, which are so far from making a man happy, that many repent too often of their time and labour so ill bestow'd.

CHAP. XXX.

Of Astronomy.

IN the next place, Astrology offers it self, otherwise called Astronomy; an Art altogether fallacious, and more to be derided than the Fables of the Poets; whose Professors are a sort of confident persons, Authors of Prodigies; who with an impious Confidence and Cu∣riosity, at their own peasures, beyond humane ability, undertake to erect Celestial Orbs, and to describe the measures, motions, figures, shapes, number, and re∣ciprocal harmony of the Stars, as if they had long convers'd in Heaven, and were but newly descended thence: however, among themselves of most different and dissenting Opinions, even concerning those things by which they say all things are kept up and subsist: that I may well say with Pliny, that the incertainty and inconstancy of this Art, plainly argues it to be no Art at all; of whose very Fundamentals the Indians think one thing, the Egyptians another, the Moors another, the Caldeans another, the Jews another, the Arabians another, the Latins another, the Antients another, the Moderns another. For Plato, Proclus, Aristotle, A∣verroes, and almost all the Astrologers before Alphon∣sus, treating of the number of the Spheres, reckon up but onely eight Spheres; though Averroes and Rabbi Isaac aver, that one Hermes and some Baby∣lonians

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did adde a ninth: to which Opinion Azarche∣les the Moore adheres, with whom Albertus Teutoni∣cus agreed, in his time, for what notorious fact I know not, called the Great; and all those that approve the accesses and recesses of the Spherical Motions. But the later Astrologers have constituted and appoin∣ted ten Orbs; which Opinion the same Albertus be∣lieves that Ptolomy also held. But Alphonsus follow∣ing the judgment of Rabbi Isaac, sirnamed Bazam, held onely nine Spheres; but four years after, in an Edition of his Tables, adhering to the Opinions of Albuhassen the Moore, and Albategnus, he reduc'd them to the number of eight. Rabbi Abraham Avenezra, Rabbi Levi, and Rabbi Abraham Zacutus, believe no moveable Orb above the eighth Sphere. But they dif∣fer very much about the motion of the eighth Orb, and of the fixed Stars. For the Caldeans and Egyp∣tians are of opinion, that it is mov'd by onely one motion; with whom Alpetragus, and among the Mo∣dern Writers Alexander Aquilinus agree: but all the other Astronomers from Hipparchus even unto these times, affirm the same to be turn'd with various moti∣ons: The Jewish Talmudists assigne thereunto a double motion: Azarcheles, Tebeth, and Johannes Regiomonta∣nus, added the motion of Trepidation, which they call approachings and recedings, upon two little Circles, about the heads of Aries and Libra: but in this dif∣fering one from another, for that Azarcheles affirms, that the moveable head is distant from the fix'd not more than ten parts. Tebith asserts them to be di∣stant one from the other not above four parts, with some minutes. Johannes Regiomontanus makes them distant more than eight parts, which is the reason given that the fixed Stars do not always incline to the same part of the Sky, but sometimes they return to the place where they began. But Ptolomy, Albategni,

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Rabbi Levi, Avenezra, Zacutus, and among the later Authors Paul the Florentine, and Austin Ritius my fa∣miliar Acquaintance in Italy, affirm that the Stars do always move according to the successions of the Signes. The later Astrologers make a threefold mo∣tion of the eighth Sphere; the one which is most pro∣per, and is the motion of Trepidation, which is finished once in seven thousand years; the second they call the motion of Circumvolution, being the motion of the ninth Sphere, and is finished in forty nine years: The last is made by the tenth Orb, and is called the motion of the Primum mobile, or the rapid and diurnal motion, which turns round in the Compass of one natural day. However, among them that give a double motion to the eighth Sphere, there is great diversity of Opinions; for all the Modern Authors, and they who admit the motion of Trepidation, say that the Sphere is carried a∣bout by a superior Sphere. But Albategni, Albuhas∣sen, Alfraganus, Averroes, Rabbi Levi, Abraham Za∣cutus, and Austin Ritius, say, that the Diurnal motion, which they call the Rapid motion, is not proper to any Sphere, but that it is made by the whole Heaven. Aver∣roes also confirms it, that Ptolomy in his Book intitled Narrations, doth deny the motion of Gyration: and Rabbi Levi saith, that Averroes was in the same opi∣nion with Ptolomy, that the Diurnal motion was the motion of the whole Heaven. Again, there is not less difference among them about the measure of the motion of the eighth Sphere, and of the fixed Stars: For Ptolomy believes that the fixed Stars do move one degree in a hundred years. Albategnus will have them to move so far in sixty six Egyptian years; with whom Zacutus, Rabbi Levi, and Alphonsus in the cor∣rection of his Tabes, give their assent. Azarcheles the Moore says that they move one degree in seventy five years; Hipparchus, in seventy eight. Many of the

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Hebrews, as Rabbi Josua, Moses, Maymon, Rabbi Aven∣ezra, and after them Hay Benrodam, in seventy years; Johan Regiomontanus in eighty. Augustin Ritius took the middle way between the opinions of Albategni and the Hebrews, delivering his opinion that the fixed Stars do not move one degree in less than sixty years, nor in more than seventy. But Rabbi Abraham Zacutus, as Ritius declares, by a tradition of the Indians dis∣covers to us, that there are two fixed Stars most dia∣metrically opposite one to another, which do not fi∣nish their course, contrary to the order of the Signes, in less time than a hundred and forty years. And Alpetra∣gus is of opinion, that there are many motions of the Heavens which are yet unknown to men; which if it be true, then there may be also Stars and Bodies pro∣per to those motions, which men have either not been able to behold by reason of the hight, or else they have not fallen within the discovery of any observation. To which opinion Phavorinus the Philosopher assents, in his Oration mention'd by Geliius against Genethliacks. So that it remains most apparent, that never any Astro∣nomer was ever yet in Heaven, to teach us the certain and true motions thereof. Neither is the certain mo∣tion of the Planet Mars known to this day: of which Johannes de Monte regio complains, in an Epistle to one Blanchinus: the errour also of the motion of that Planet, a certain famous Astrologer, named William of St. Clou, above two hundred years ago hath left dis∣cover'd, but never any one as yet corrected. As truly impossible it is to find out the ingress of the Sun into the Equinoctial points, as Rabbi Levi proves by many reasons. But what shall we say of things since brought to light, and what strange errours were committed about those things in former times? For many, with Tebith, thought the greatest variation of the Sun to be continually varied; which we know now to kep

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always one certain measure. And although Ptolomy thought otherwise thereof, yet Albates, Rabbi Levi, Avenezra, and Alphonsus, found otherwise by experi∣ence. Otherwise also have they found out concerning the motion of the Sun, and the measure of the year, quite different to what either Ptolomy or Hipparchus deliver'd. Also concerning the motion of the Aux of the Sun, Ptolomy is of one opinion, Albategnus and the rest of another. Concerning the Figures of the Signes, and the considerations and observations of the fixed Stars, the Indians have thought one thing, the Egyptians another, the Caldeans another, the Hebrews another, and Arabians another; Timotheus is of one minde, Hipparchus of another, Ptolomy of another, and the later Authors of another. I omit their mad contentions, which is the right, or which is the left side of Heaven; concerning which when Tho. Aquinas and Albertus the Teutonick endeavour to say something seriously, they are yet altogether unable to deliver any thing of certainty. Again, what the Galaxy or Milky way should be, is yet controverted among Astrologers. I omit also all their vain disputes about Eccentricks, Con∣centricks, Epicycles, Retrogradations, Trepidations, ac∣cesses, recesses, swift motions, and Circles of motion, as being the works neither of God nor Nature, but the Fiddle-faddles and Trifles of Mathematicians, taking their beginnings from corrupt Philosophy and the fables of the Poets: Yet which the Professors of this Art believe as true, created by God, and established by Nature; from these Fictions deducing the causes of inferior accidents, asserting those feigned motions to be the principles of all inferiour motions. These Astronomers a Serving-maid of Anaximenes very seasonably tax'd with a sharp reply. This Maid was wont to walk with her Master, who one day going out a little later than ordinary to look upon the Sky, while he was gazing among the Stars

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ne're minding the scituation of the place, fell into a Ditch. Then quoth the Maid, I wonder Sir how you can pretend to foreknow things in Heaven, that can∣not tell those things that are just before your Nose? Thales Milesius was reprehended with a like witty say∣ing, by his Maid-servant Thressa. Neither does Tully much vary from either: Astrologers, saith he, while they search and prie into every Coast of Heaven, are ig∣norant of that which is just before their feet. I my self learnt this Art from my Parents, and have lost not a little time and pains therein; but at length I found that the whole Art had no other foundation than the meer figments and trifles of imagination: and it ve∣ry much repents me of the time which I have wasted, and I wish I could absolutely forget and abolish the memory thereof in my minde; and would wholly a∣bandon the use thereof, unless the violent intreaties of great personages, who oftentimes make use of noble Ingenuities to bad purposes, did not compel me to continue my studies therein; and that domestick pro∣fit did not over-perswade me to enjoy the folly thereof, and with toys to please those that seek after and are covetous of trifles; I say, Trifles! for what hath A∣strology in it worth notice, unless the Fables of the Poets, their monsters and wonders with which they have fill'd the whole Region of Heaven? Neither do any sort of people more agree one among another, than the Astro∣logers and Poets; onely in that one thing of Lucifer and Vesperus; the Poets affirming that what day Lucifer ap∣pears before the Rising Sun, that day he follows the Set∣ting Sun; which all the Astrologers deny can be done in one and the same day, onely those that place Venus above the Sun, because those Stars that seem to be at greatest distance from us, seem to appear soonest in their rising, and to set most slowly. But this discord between the Astrologers about the scituation of the

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Stars and Planets I had quite forgot, had I not had this occasion to remember them, the handling whereof has been more particular to Philosophers than Astro∣logers. For Plato places the Sphear of the Sun next about the Sphear of the Moon; and the Aegyptians do the like, placing the Sun between the Moon and Mer∣cury. Archimedes and the Caldaeans make the Sun to be the fourth in Order. Anaximander, Metrodorus, Chius, and Crates, constitute the Sun uppermost, below him the Moon, beneath her the other Planets and fixed Stars. Zenocrates will have all the Stars to move in one Superficies. No less contention there is among them about the distance and bigness of the Sun, Moon, and the rest of the Stars fixed and wandring: Nei∣ther is there indeed any constancy of Opinions among them, nor truth of Assertion: and no wonder, when the Heaven it self, which they so much endeavour to search and dive into, is the most inconstant of all, and crowded with Fables and Fictions: for all the Twelve Signes, with the Northern and Southern Constellations, got all into Heaven by the help of Fables, and by these Fables Astrologers live, cheat, and get money, while the Poets their Inventors are ready to starve for hauger.

CHAP. XXXI.

Of Judicial Astrology.

THere is another part of Astrology remaining, which they call the Divining or Fore-telling Part, other∣wise call'd Judicial Astrology, which Treats of the Revolutions of the Years of the World; of Nativi∣ties, of Horary Questions, and by what sort of means to foretel and know Future Events, and the Secrets of Divine Providence, thereby to avoid ill Success, and se∣cure

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the undertaker of Prosperity. Astrologers there∣fore borrow the Effects and Influences of the Stars from the most remote Ages of the World, beyond the memo∣ry of things, even before the days of Prometheus, and from Conjunctions that were before the Flood; pre∣tending themselves able to display the hidden Natures, Qualities and Effects of all sorts of Animals, Stones, Metals and Plants, and whatever else being part of the Creation; and to shew how the same do depend on the Skies, and flow from the Stars, and partake of their Influences. A most credulous sort of People, and no less impious, not acknowledging this one thing, That God made the Plants, Herbs, and Trees, before the Heavens and the Stars. The gravest Philosophers also, as Pythagoras, Democritus, Bion, Phavorinus, Pa∣netius, Carneades, Possidonius, Timaeus, Aristotle, Plato, Plotinus, Porphyrius, Avicen, Averroes, Hippocrates, Ga∣len, Alexander, Aphrodisius, Cicero, Seneca, Plutarch, and many others who have diligently laboured in the search of the Causes of Things through all Arts and Sciences, never do remit us to these Astrological Cau∣ses, which although they might be allow'd for Cau∣ses, yet when they themselves do not rightly under∣stand the Course of the Stars, which is most evident to all wise men, they can never be able to give a cer∣tain judgment of their Effects. Neither are there others wanting among them, as Eudoxus, Archelaus, Cassan∣drus, Hoychilax, Halicarnassaeus, and many others of later date, grave in esteem, who confess, That 'tis impossible that any thing of certainty should be found out by the Art of Judicial Astrology, by reason of the innumerable co-operating Causes that attend the Heavenly Influences; and so Ptolomy is also of Opi∣nion, both for that there are many occasions of Ob∣struction, as Customs, Manners, Education, Vertue, Empire, Place, Geniture, Blood, Diet, Libertie of Will,

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and Learning; as also for that, as they say, the Influ∣ences do not compel but incline. Furthermore, they who have prescrib'd the Rules of Judgments, set down their Maxims so various and contradictory, that it is impossible for a Prognosticator, out of so many various and disagreeing Opinions, to be able to pronounce any thing certain, unless he be inwardly Inspir'd with some secret and hidden instinct and Sence and of future things; or unless by some occult and latent Communi∣cation of the Devil, he be enabled with a discerning fa∣culty: which two means he that wants, can never be a true Prophet in Astrological Judgments; Astrologi∣cal Prediction not depending upon Art, but meerly upon obscure Chance: And as young People light up∣on such or such verses in Fortune-Books, not by Art, but by Chance: so Prophesies flow from the brest of an Astrologer by the same Chance, and not by Art; which Ptolomy witnesses, saying, The know∣ledge of the Stars is in thee, and thence proceeds; there∣by intimating, that the Prediction of hidden and fu∣ture things is not attain'd to so much by Observati∣on of the Stars, as of the qualities and affections of the Mind. There is no certainty therefore in this Art, applicable to all things according to Opinion; which Opinion is gathered and delivered from Conjectures, through an unperceiveable Inspiration of the Devil, or else by meer Chance: therefore is this Art no more than a fallacious Conjecture of Superstitious men, who by the Experience of long time have attain'd to some insight into uncertain things, wherewith to such out a little money; they many times deceive the ignorant, and are as often deceiv'd: for if their Art were true, and rightly understood by them, whence so many Er∣rors and Deceits continually swimming in their Prog∣nostications? and if not true, do they not vainly, foolish∣ly, and wickedly profess the Knowledge of things

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which are not, or are not rightly understood? But the more cautious among them will not utter their Prog∣nostications but in obscure and ambiguous terms, and which may be apply'd to all things, times, Princes, and Nations whatever. If any thing which they have said do come to pass, then they Collect together the Cau∣ses thereof, confirming after the thing is apparent, their old Prophesies by new Reasons, that they may seem to have foreseen: like your Interpreters of Dreams, upon the relation of a Dream know nothing of certainty, but apply their Interpretation to that which happens afterwards. Furthermore, seeing it is impossible in so great a number of Stars, but that we must find some in bad, some in good Positions; they take occasion from thence of speaking to whom and what they please: foretelling Life, Death, Health, Honours, Wealth, Power, Victory, Off-spring, Friends, Marriage, Magistracy, and many other things: To others, from a bad Position, foretelling Death, Hang∣ing, Shame, Overthrows, Barrenness, Sickness, and Misfortunes; not by the power of their wicked Art, but by a wicked stupefaction of the Mind, and forcing a necessity of Actions concurring to such Events, draw∣ing credulous people to their ruine, causing also among Princes and Nations most severe Wars and Seditions. Now if it happen that fortune jumps with any of their Prognostications, that among so many ambiguous Va∣ticinations one or other happen to prove true, how they strut and crow, and fall into raptures and high admiration of themselves! If they be found to lye continually, and be still convinc'd of falshood, then they excuse it with Blasphemy, fortifying one Lye with another, saying, That a wise man has power over the Stars: whereas in truth, neither the Stars are govern'd by wise men, nor wise men by the Stars; but both are govern'd by God: or else they cry, That

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the unaptness of the subject, or the solly of the party, was an obstruction of the Influences; but if ye require more of them, they are angry. Yet these Fortune-tel∣lers do finde entertainment among Princes and Ma∣gistrates, from whom they receive considerable Salaries; whereas there is indeed no sort or generation of men more pernicious to a Commonwealth, than those that undertake to prognosticate by the Stars, by Dreams, or any other Artifices of Divination, and scatter their Prophesies about: Men always enemies to Christ, and all that believe in him: Of whom Cornelius Tacitus complains: Your Mathematicians, for so they are vulgarly called, are a sort of men, saith he, treacherous to Princes, deceitful to those that believe in 'um; were al∣ways proibited from our City, but never expell'd. Varro also a grave Author testifies, That all the Vanities of superstition flow'd out of the bosome of Astrology. There was a certain Tribute assess'd in Alexandria, which the Astrologers pay, being called Blacenomium, which signifies Folly, because that out of ingenious Folly they made a certain Gain, and because that none but rash and inconsiderate people were wont to con∣sult them. But if our life and happiness proceed from the Stars, what do we fear? why are we so sollicitous? Let us trust all these things to God, and the Stars, who can never erre, never do any evil. Let us not dive into things beyond our own capacities, but onely learn to know that which is onely in our reach; and being that we are Christians, let us leave the Hours to Christ, the Minutes to God the Father. But if the Stars have nothing of force, nothing of power, nothing of in∣fluence over our life and happiness, then is every Astro∣loger a very vain and idle person. But there are a sort of people so very timorous and credulous, that as Chil∣dren frighted with the stories of Hobgoblins, they be∣lieve and are more afraid of those things which are not,

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than of those things which are; and by how much a thing seems to be less possible to come to pass, so much the rather are they afraid thereof; and the less pro∣bable a thing is, the sooner they believe it; who if they were not Astrologers, might eat their nails, or die with hunger. And this strange credulity of theirs, forget∣ful of things past, negligent of the present, running headlong after future things, is so favourable to these deceivers, that though but one lye told, shall injure the credit and reputation of other men, so that they shall be scarcely believ'd again when they speak truth; On the contrary, among the Doctors of Lying and Falshood, one Chance-truth shall gain belief of a hun∣dred Publick lyes: In which they who chiefly confide, are the most unhappy of all men, such superstitious trifles always bringing their Adorers into ruine: Which Antiquity witnesseth of Zoroastes, Pharaoh, Ne∣buchadnezzar, Caesar, Crassus, Pompey, Diotharus, Nero, Julian the Apostate, who as they were most addicted to these Gugaws, so did they perish through their confi∣dence in them: All things falling out most unfortunate to them, to whom their Fortune-tellers promis'd all things favourable and auspicious. As to Pompey and Caesar, whom they both made believe that they should die aged, in their beds, and in great honour, yet both of them came to bad and untimely ends. A perverse and preposterous generation of men, who profess to foreknow future things, in the mean time altogether ignorant of past and present; and under∣taking to tell all people most obscure and hidden se∣crets abroad, at the same time know not what happens in their own houses, and in their own chambers: E∣ven such an Astrologer as Moore laught at in his Epi∣gram.

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The Stars, Ethereal Bard, to thee shine clear, And all our future Fates thou mak'st appear. But that thy Wife is common all men know, Yet what all see, there's not a Star doth show. Saturn is blinde, or some long journey gone, Not able to discern an infant from a stone. The Moon is fair, and as she's fair she's chast, And won't behold thy Wife so leudly embrac't. Europa Jove, Mars Venus, she Mars courts, With Daphne, Sol, with Hirce Hermes sports. Thus while the Stars their wanton Love pursue, No wonder, Cuckhold, they'll not tell thee true.
In the next place, it is notorious how they differ from one another among themselves, Jews, Caldeans, E∣gyptians, Persians, Graecians, Arabians, about the Rules of giving judgment; and how Ptolomy quite lays a∣side all the ancient Philosophy; for which how Aven∣rdan defends him; how Albumasar rails at him; and how Abraham Avenezra the Jew falls upon the bones of all these. Lastly, Dorotheus, Paulus, Alexandrinus, Ephestion, Maternus, Aomar, Tebith, Alchindus, Zahel, Messahalla, are all of another opinion; and when they cannot prove what they say to be true, they endeavour to defend themselves by Experiments, and yet they are not all unanimous in that neither. Neither is there less discord about the propriety of the Houses, whence they fetch the Predictions of all Events: wherein Pto∣lomy is of one opinion, Heliodorus of another, Paulus of another, of another Manlius, Maternus of another, of another Porphyrius, Abenragel of another, the E∣gyptians of another, of another the Greeks and Latins; the Ancients and Moderns alike dissenting. Neither can they agree where to place the ends, where the be∣ginnings of their Houses; which structures the An∣cients

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have built after one fashion; Ptolomy, Campanus, and Johan Regiomontanus, every one in another distinct manner; whereby they themselves take away all credit from their own observations, several ascribing several properties to the same persons. An impious Race of men, attributing that to the Stars, which belongs onely to God; making us that were free born, to be slaves of the Stars; and when we know that God created all things good, they will be appointing some Stars to be Malevolent in their Aspects, and the Originals of bad Influences; not without great contempt of God, and injury to the Heavens, in that Divine Senate make all mischiefs and misfortunes to be decreed; and what∣ever is done by us out of the depravity of our Wills, which nature cannot avoid, through the corruption of the Subject-matter, all that they Attribute to the fault of the Stars. Neither are they ashamed to teach men to be most pernicious Hereticks and Infidels, while they endeavour to make the gift of Prophesie, the pow∣er of Religion, the secrets of Conscience, dominion over Hell, the vertue of Miracles, the efficacy of Prayer, the state of future Life, all these mighty things to de∣pend upon the Stars; to be granted by them, and the knowledge thereof to be wholly deriv'd from them: For they say, that Gemini being the Ascendent, Saturn and Mars being in Conjunction in Aquarius, That a Prophet should be born in a new part of the World; and that Christ was therefore famous for so many Vertues, because Saturn and Gemini were together in that place. The several Sects of Religion they make to be govern'd by other mixtures of the Constellations; Jupiter being nevertheless their Lord and Patron. Jupiter joyn'd with Saturn, governs the Religion of the Jews; joyn'd with Mars, the Caldean; with the Sun, the Aegyptian; with Venus, the Saracen; with Mercury, the Christian, with Luna, the Antichristian.

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They say moreover, that Moses instituted the Sabbath among the Jews upon certain Logical reasons that urged him tereto; and that therefore the Christians Erre, that will not observe the Sabbath of the Jews, which is the true Saturday. Next they impugne all Faith both toward Religion, toward Men, and God himself; affirming, That the secrets of Conscience may be discovered from such a part of the Sun, being in the ninth, third, eleventh houses of the Heaven; and many have prescrib'd Rules, whereby they pretend to disclose the very thoughts and intentions of Men. Exalting the Coelestial Constellations, above the Mi∣raculous Works of God, as the superintendant Cau∣ses of the Universal Flood, the Law given by Moses, and the Child-bearing of a Virgin; and vainly attribu∣ting to Mars the occasion and necessary cause of Christs All-redeeming death. Yea they do affirm, That Christ himself did make choice of his hours wherein to work his Miracles; and when he rode in Triumph into Je∣rusalem, what times he knew the Jews could have no power to hurt him; which was the reason he chid his Disciples in these words, Are there not Twelve hours of the day? They say moreover, That if any one were happily placed under Mars, being in the Ninth House, such a one shall be able to cast out Devils with his presence only. But he that shall Pray to God, Luna and Jupiter being in Conjunction in the Mid-Heaven with the Dragons-head, shall obtain all his desires; and that Saturn and Jupiter do promise future pros∣perity of Life. Moreover, that he who hath Saturn happily constituted with Leo at his Nativity, shall when he departs this Life immediately return to Heaven again. Now who could think it? as silly and as idle as these Heresies are, yet want they not abettors, Petrus Aponensis, Roger Bacon, Guido Bonatus, Arnoldus de Villa Nova, Philosophers; Alyacensis Cardinal and Di∣vine:

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and many other famous Christian Doctors, who have not without great Infamy given their Assent to the same; and more than that, have been so bold as to testifie and defend the truth thereof. Against these Astrologers of later years, Johannes Picus Mirandula wrote Twelve Books so fully, that he hath scarce omitted one Argument, but with such a force of Elo∣quence, that neither Lucius Balantius a most strenuous Champion of Astrology, nor any other Hector of this Art could ever defend it from the ruine of those Argu∣ments that Mirandula hath brought against it. For he makes it out by most strong Arguments, That Astrology is an Invention not of Men, but of the De∣vil (which Firmianus confirms) by which he endea∣vours to exterminate and abolish all Philosophy, Phy∣sick, Law, and Religion, to the general mischief of Mankind: for first, it takes away the use of Faith in Religion, lessens the reverence of Miracles, takes away Divine Providence, while it teaches, That all things happen by force and vertue of the Stars, and from the Influences of the Constellations, by a kind of fatal Necessity. It patronizes Sin, excusing Vice as descen∣ding from Heaven; it defiles and subverts all good Arts, in the first place Philosophy, translating the Causes of things from right Reason to Fables; transla∣ting the practice of Physick from the application of Natural and Efficacious Remedies, to vain Observati∣ons and idle Superstitions deadly both to Body and Soul; Abrogating all Laws, Customes and Rules of humane Prudence, when Astrology must be only consulted at what time, how, and by what means to Act; as if she only held the Scepter that governs hu∣mane Life and Manners, together with all Affairs publick and private, deriving an uncontrolable Autho∣rity from Heaven, and accompting all things else vain and ridiculous that will not submit to her jurisdicti∣on.

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A most worthy Art! which the Devils heretofore Professed, in contempt of God, and to the deceipt of Men. Neither can we think that the Heresie of the Manicheans, which takes away all liberty of Free-will, had any other Original than the false Opinions and Doctrines of Astrology. From the same Fountain sprang that Heresie of Basilides, who believed that there were Three hundred sixty five Heavens, all made successively, and in the same likeness, according to the number of the days of the year; and assigning to e∣very one of them certain Qualities, Principles, and Angels; and also giving them names: he calls the su∣preme Ruler of them all Abraxas, which name accor∣ding to the Greek Letters contains the Numerals of Three hundred sixty five, to answer the Number of Heavens which he had invented. These things I have therefore set forth, that ye may understand Astrology to be the Mother of Heresie. Besides this same Fortune-telling Astrology, not only the best of Moral Philoso∣phers explode, but also Moses, Isaias, Job, Jeremiah, and all the other Prophets of the Ancient Law; and among the Catholick Writers, St. Austin condemns it to be utterly expell'd and banish'd out of the Territories of Christianity. St. Hierome argues the same to be a kind of of Idolatry. Basil and Cyprian laught at it as most contemptible. Chrysostome, Eusebius, and Lactan∣tius, utterly condemn it. Gregory, Ambrose, and Se∣verianus, inveigh against it. The Council of Toledo ut∣terly abandon and prohibit it. In the Synod of Mar∣tinus, and by Gregory the younger, and Alexander the third, it was Anathematiz'd, and punish'd by the Ci∣vil Laws of the Emperours. Among the Ancient Romans, it was prohibited by Tiberius, Vitellius, Dio∣clesian, Constantine, Gratian, Valentinian, and Theodosius, Ejected also, and Punish'd: by Justinian made a Capi∣tal Crime, as may appear in his Codex.

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CHAP. XXXII.

Of Divinination in general.

IT willnot be amiss here to bring in those other sorts of Divination, drawing predictions not so much from the observation of heavenly bodies, but of in∣feriour things that retain a kinde of shadow and re∣semblance of heavenly things; that those things being understood, ye may the better understand this Astrolo∣gical Tree that yields such trashie Fruit; and from whence, as from a Lernaean Hydra, the Beast of so ma∣ny Heads is generated. Among the Arts therefore of Fortune-telling Vulgarly professed in hope of gain, are Physiognomy, Metoposcopie, Chiromancy, Soothsaying, Speculatory, and Interpretation of Dreams; to which we may adde the mad Oracles of former times: All which have not the least of solid Learning in them, nor have any ground of Reason to fix on, but depend upon Chance, familiarity with Spirits, or some appa∣rent Conjectures, which are gathered from ancient Tra∣ditions, or long Observations. For all these prodigi∣ous Arts of Divination, defend themselves with the Buckler of Experience, and to dis-entangle themselves out of the bonds of hampring Objections, by suggesting to work beyond Faith and Reason; of all which, the Law takes notice, thus Commanding: Let none be found among you that maketh his Son go through the fie, or that useth Witchcraft, or a regarder of times, or a mar∣ker of the flying of fowls, or a Sorcerer, or a Charmer, or that councelleth with Spirits, or a Soothsayer: for all that do those things are an abomination unto the Lord.

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CHAP. XXXIII.

Of Physiognomy.

PHysiognomy taking Nature for her Guide, upon an inspection, and well observing the outward parts of the Body, presumes to conjecture by probable to∣kens, at the qualities of the Mind, and Fortune of the Person; making one Man to be Saturnal, another a Jovist, this man to be born under Mars, another under Sol, some under Venus, some under Mercury, some un∣der Luna; and from the Habits of the Body, collects their Horoscopes, gliding by little and little from Affections to Astrological Causes, upon which Foun∣dations they Erect what idle Structures they themselves please.

CHAP. XXXIV.

Of Metoposcopie.

MEtoposcopie, to know all things from the sole Observation of the Forehead, prying even into the very beginnings, progress, and end of a Mans Life, with a most Acute Judgment, and Learned Ex∣perience; making herself to be likewise a Foster-Child of Astrology.

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CHAP. XXXV.

Of Chiromancy.

CHiromancy fancies Seven Mountains in the Palm of a Mans Hand, according to the number of the Seven Planets; and by the Lines which are there to be seen, judges of the Complection, Condition, and Fortune of the Person; imagining the harmonious dis∣position of the Lines, to be as it were certain Coelesti∣al Characters stampt upon us by God and Nature, and which, as Job saith, God imprinted or put in the hands of men, that so every one might know his works; though it be plain, that the Divine Author doth not there Treat of vain Chiromancy, but of the Liberty of the Will. These Fortune-tellers have this to say for themselves, That though they judge not of the Events or Effects of things by the Causes of things, yet they judge thereof by such Signs as are taken like Impressi∣ons from the same or like Causes, which to the same things continue still the same; and to things alike, continue still alike. They farther say, That Pythago∣ras made use of this Art, who made his Conjectures of the Nature, Conditions, and Ingenuity of Children, by the lineaments and features of the Face and Body, and received none into his School but such as he judged capable of Learning. Which was also the pra∣ctice of Pharaotes King of India, as Philostratus re∣lates. But there is no need to bring any other rea∣son to make manifest the Errors of this Arts Professors, than only that one, that they have no Reason in 'um. Many grave and ancient Authors have Written con∣cerning the same, as Hermes, Alchindus, Pythagoras,

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Pharaotes the Indian, Zophirus, Helenus, Ptolomeus, Aristoteles, Alpharabius: besides these, Galen, Avicen, Ra∣sis, Julianus, Maternus, Loxius, Philemon, Palamon, Con∣stantine and Africanus: among the Latines, Lucius Syl∣la and Caesar were mightily addicted to this Art. Of later years, Peter of Appo, Albert the Teutonick, Mi∣chael Scotus, Antiochus Bartholomeus, Coclitis, Michael Savonarola, Antonius Cermisonus, Petrus de arca, An∣dreas Corvus, Tricassus Mantuanus, Johannes de Indagine, and many other famous Physicians: but none of them have been able to make any farther progress than Con∣jecture, and observation of Experience. Now that there is no certainty in these Conjectures and Obser∣vations, is manifest from thence, because they are Fig∣ments grounded upon the Will; and about which, the Masters thereof of equal Learning and Authority do very much differ. Therefore are they most certainly mad, and drowned in Error, that will undertake to fore∣tel by such Signes as these, not only the Complexion of the Body, and Disposition Natural; but also the very Affections of the Mind, and Chances of Fortune, evi∣dent in the judgment of Zopyrus concerning Socra∣tes. Nor must we believe what Appion the Gram∣marian hath left behind him in writing, that one Alex∣ander did so discerningly paint or express the likenesses of resemblance, that from thence he could tell the cer∣tain years of past or future death; which that they can be known by those Arts, is not so much incredible as it is impossible. But it is given to these idle sort of people thus to dote and frame Chimaeras to themselves by the instinct of the Devil, who by that means leads them from Error into Superstition, and from Super∣stition into Infidelity.

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CHAP. XXXVI.

Of Geomancy.

GEomancy, of which we have spoken before in the Chapter of Arithmetick, is an Art that by cer∣tain Points separated either by Chance or by Force; out of which it composes certain Figures by Numbers Even and Odd, likened to those in the Heavens; makes a kind of Divination, and therefore by all Writers call'd the Daughter of Astrology. There is another sort of Geomancy which Almadal the Arabian introduc'd; which by conjectues taken from sound, or appearance, as Noise in the Earth, motion, cleaving, swelling of the same, as also by the sounds of Thunder, raises a kind of Divination, or Fortune-telling; leaning intirely upon the Prop of Astrology, as very observant of hours, of Lunations, as also of the Rising, Setting, and Fi∣gures of the Stars.

CHAP. XXXVII.

Of Augurie.

AVgurie, or marking the Entrails of Fowls, of which there are many sorts, is an Art which was held in great Veneration in Ancient times; even so great was the esteem thereof, that nothing of those things that belong'd either to publick or private Affairs was acted, before the Entrails of Beasts were inspected. This most ancient Art, as Pomponius Laetus testifies, was

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receiv'd by the Greeks from the Caldees; the first among whom Amphiateus, Tyresias, Mopsus, Aphilotes and Calchas, were accompted the chief: from the Graecians it passed to the Hetrurians, and from them to the Latines. Romulus himself was a Soothsayer, who first Ordain'd, that the choice of Magistrates should be con∣firm'd by Augury: and Dionysius tells us, That the Art of Soothsaying was most ancient even in the time of the Aborigines: and Ascanius before he put his Battle in Array against Mezentius, made an Inspection into the Fowl; and seeing the Augury answered his expecta∣tion, he Fought and overcame. The Phrygians also, Pisidians, Cilicians, Arabians, Vmbrians, Tuscans, and many others, observed the Ceremonies of Soothsaying. The Lacedemonians always had an Augur to attend up∣on their Kings, whom they appointed to be always at∣tending in Publick Councils; and among the Romans there was a Colledge of Augurs. They who first brought this Art in request, were those that taught how that there were certain Lights of discovery and Revelation that descended from the Heavenly Bodies upon the Inferiour, as it were certain Signes constituted and setled in their Motion, Lying, Resting, Gesture, Walk∣ing, Flying, Voice, and Feeding, in their Colour and Working; wherein, by a certain occult Force, and si∣lent Harmony, they do so far sympathize with the Ce∣lestial Bodies, with whose qualities they are affected, that thereby they are enabled to foretel whatever those Celestial Bodies intend to act. From whence it is apparent, that this sort of Divination depends only upon Conjecture, grounded partly upon the Influences of the Stars, partly taken from parabolical Simili∣tudes, than which there is nothing more deceitful. Therefore Panaetius and Carneades, Cicero, Chrysippus, Diogenes, Antipater, Josephus, and Philo, held it very idiculous: besides, the Law and the Church condemn

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it. Of this sort are those Mysteries of the Caldaeans and Aegyptians, which the Hetrurians of old, then the Romans, and now the vulgar sort of Superstitious Hea∣thens adore.

CHAP. XXXVIII.

Of Speculatory Divination.

UPon the same Grounds the Art of Speculatory Di∣vination, is founded which makes interpretations of Thunder and Lightning, and other Airy Meteors, as also of Monsters and Prodigies; but no otherwise than by Conjecture and Comparison; which how false and erronious it is, is notoriously manifest.

CHAP. XXXIX.

Of Interpretation of Dreams.

HEre we may usher in the Interpretation of Dreams call'd Onirocritica, whose Interpreters are properly call'd Conjecturers: according to that Verse in Euri∣pides;

He that Conjectures least amiss, Of all, the best of Prophets is.
To this Delusion, not a few great Philosophers have given not a little credit, especially Democritus, Aristo∣tle, and his follower Themistius, Sinesius also the Pla∣tonick, so far building upon Examples of Dreams, which

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some accident hath made to be true, that thence they endeavour to perswade Men, that there are no Dreams but what are real. For say they, as the Celestial In∣fluences produce divers Forms in Corporeal Matter, so out of certain Influences predominating over the power of the Fancy, the impression of Visions is made, being Consentaneous, through the disposition of the Heavens, to the Effect which is to be produc'd; more especi∣ally in Dreams, because the mind being then at liber∣ty from all corporeal Cares and Exercises, more freely receives the Divine Influences: therefore it happens, that many things are reveal'd in Dreams to them that are asleep, which are conceal'd from them that wake. With these reasons they pretend to beget a good Opi∣nion of the Truth of Dreams. But as to the Causes of Dreams both External and Internal they do not all agree in one judgment. For the Platonicks reckon them among the specifick and concrete Notions of the Soul. Avicen makes the Cause of Dreams to be an Vlti∣mate Intelligence moving the Moon in the middle of that Light with which the Fancies of men are Illuminate while they sleep. Aristotle refers the Cause thereof to Common Sence, but plac'd in the Fancy. Averroes places the Cause in the Imagination. Democritus ascribes it to little Images or Representatives, separated from the things themselves. Albertus, to the Superior In∣fluences, which continually flow from the Skie through many Specifick Mediums. The Physicians impute the Cause thereof to Vapours and Humours; others to the affections and cares predominant in persons when awake. Others joyn the powers of the Soul, Celesti∣al Influences and Images together, all making but one Cause. Arthemidorus and Daldianus have writ∣ten of the Interpretation of Dreams: and certain Books go about under Abrahams Name, whom Philo in his Book of the Gyants and of Civil Life, asserts to have

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been the first Practiser thereof. Other Treatises there are falsified under the Names of David and Solomon, wherein are to be read nothing but meer Dreams concerning Dreams. But Marcus Cicero in his Book of Divination, hath given sufficient Reasons against the vanity and folly of those that give Credit to Dreams, which I purposely here omit.

CHAP. XL.

Of Madness.

BUT though I had almost forgot it, let us with these Dreamers number those that give a kind of sacred Credit to the Prophesies of Mad-folks, who themselves have lost all knowledge of things present, memory of past, and indeed all humane sense, fondly imagining them to have the gift of Foreknowledg; as if what the wise and waking know not, Mad-folks and Dreamers should see; as if God were nearer at hand to them, than to the vigilant, watchful, intelligible, and those that are full of premeditation. Unhappy men that believe such Vanity, that give obedience to such Impostures, that cherish such Deluders, submitting their own Faith and Discretion to their Bellies. For what can we imagine Madness to be, but a departure of Reason persecuted by evil Spirits, convey'd through the Stars, or through the Inferiour Bodies by the bad Angels? which Lucan seems to intimate, when he brings in Arvus the Thuscan Prophet:

In Thunders motion skill'd, and Lightnings bright, And in the downy Feathers airy flight.

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Then after the City-Procession, after the Offering slain, after the Entrails inspected, he brings in a Potter, thus delivering his judgment:

What rage, ye Gods, what wes do ye prepar? If Saturn's baneful Star in topmost Air Should kindle his dull Fires, we then should moan To see Aquarius pour whole Rivers down, And all the World in total deluge drown. If Sol should mount the Nemaean Lions back, In Flame would all the Worlds whole Fabrick crack, And all the Skie with Sol's burnt Chariot blaze These Aspects cease; but thou that burntst the claws, And firk'st the Tail of threatning Scorpion. What great thing breed'st thou Mars? milde Jove goes down Oppressed in his fall, and in the Skies The wholsome Star of Venus dulled is, Mercury looses his swift motion, And fiery Mars rules in the Skie alone. Why do the Stars their Course forsaking glide Obscurely through the Air? why does the side Of Sword-breaking Orion shine too bright? Wars rage is threatned, the Swords power all right Confounds by force: Impiety shall bear The name of Vertue; and for many a year This fury lasts.
Therefore all these delusions of Divination have their root and foundation from Astrology. For whether the Lineaments of the Body, Countenance, or Hand be inspected, whether Dream or Vision be seen, whe∣the marking of Entrails or mad Inspiration be con∣sulted, there must be a Celestial Figure first erected, by the means of whose indications, together with the conjectures of Signes and Similitudes, they endeavour

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to finde out the truth of what is desired: So requisite is the use of Astrology to the Arts of Divination, as if it were the Key that opens the door of all their Mysteries. Therefore how much all these Arts are distant from Truth, is evident from this, that they make use of principles so absolutely false and feigned; which being such as neither are, ever were, or will be, and yet they will have to be the causes of future Events, what can appear to be more contrary to all Truth?

CHAP. XLI.

Of Magick in general.

IT is requisite that we should here say something of Magick, which is so linkt to Astrology, as being her neer Kinswoman, that whoever professes Magick with∣out Astrology, does nothing, but is altogether out of the way. Suidas is of opinion, that Magick took its Original and Name from the Magusaei. The common opinion is, that it is a Persian name, with whom Por∣phyrius and Apuleius consent; and that Magos signifies in that Language, no more than a Wise man or a Phi∣losopher; so that Magick containing both Natural Phi∣losophy, and the Mathematicks, takes into the same Society the forces and bands of all Religions; joyning to its self Goetia and Theurgy; which is the reason that Magick is generally divided into Natural and Cere∣monial.

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CHAP. XLII.

Of Natural Magick.

NAtural Magick is taken to be nothing else, but the chief power of all the natural Sciences; which therefore they call the top and perfection of Natural Philosophy, and which is indeed the active part of the same; which by the assistance of natural force and fa∣culties, through their mutual & opportune application, performs those things that are above Humane Reason. The Aethiopians and Indians were the greatest admirers of Magick, where there was a great supply of variety of Stones and Herbs conducing thereto. Of this, some think that St. Jerome to Paulinus makes men∣tion, where he saith, That Apollonius Tyaneus was a Magician or Philosopher. Of the same sort were those Magi who bringing Gifts to Christ, did first adore him; which the Expositors of the Evangels call the Philosophers of the Caldaeans. Such were the Hiarchs among the Brachmans, Tespion among the Gymnoso∣phists, Budda among the Babylonians, Numa Pompilius among the Romans, Zamolxides among the Thracians, Abbas among the Hyperboreans, Hermes among the E∣gyptians, Zorastes the Son of Ormasus among the Persians. for the Indians, Aethiopians, and Persians always had the pre-eminence in Magick: wherein, as Plato in his Alcibiades testifies, the Children of the Persian Emperours were always instructed, that they might learn to govern the Kingdom by the Pattern of the Grand and Universal Order. And Cicero, in his Book of Divinations, asserts, That no Persian could enjoy the Scepter of that Empire, if he were not skill'd

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in Magick. Natural Magick therefore is that, which considering well the strength and force of Natural and Celestial beings, and with great curiosity labouring to discover their affections, produces into open Act the hidden and concealed powers of Nature; so cupoling inferiour with superior faculties, by a mutual applica∣tion thereof, that from thence many times great and marvelous Miracles have been effected: not so much by Art, as Nature, to whom Art onely shews her self a Hand-maid and Assistant in her operations. For Magicians, as the most accurate inquirers into Nature, taking along those things which are prepared by Nature, and applying Actives to Passives, oftentimes produce ef∣fects before the time ordained by Nature; which there∣fore the Vulgar take for Miracles, when they are not∣withstanding onely natural Operations: as if any person should in March produce Roses, ripe Figs, or Garden-beans; or should cause Parsly to spring from the Seed into a perfect Plant in few hours; and greater things than these, as to cause Thunder, Clouds, Rain, Ani∣mals of divers sorts; and several transmutations and transigurations of living beings, such as Roger Bacon is said to have done by pure natural Magick. Of these Operations sundry have written: as Zoroastes, Her∣mes, Evantes King of the Arabians, Zachary of Baby∣lon, Joseph the Jew, Bocus, Aaron, Zenotenus, Kiranni∣des, Almadal, Thedel, Alchindus, Abel, Ptolomy, Geber, Zahel, Nazaharub, Tebith Erith, Salomo, Astropho, Hipparchus, Alcmeon, Apollonius, Tryphon, and many others; of which Writings there are many whole and entire, some imperfect, which have come to my hands. Of Modern Writers, there have been but few who have treated of Natu••••l Magick, nor have they left many Wri∣tings behinde them; that is to say, Albertus, Arnoldus de Villa nova, Raymund Lully, Bacon and Aponus, and the Author of the Book dedicated to Alphonsus, which

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mingles abundance of Superstition with Natural Ma∣gick, which many others have also done.

CHAP. XLIII.

Of Mathematical Magick.

THere are besides these, many other imitators of Nature, wise inquirers into hidden things, who without the help of natural Virtues and Efficacies, confidently undertake, onely by Mathematical lear∣ning, and the help of Celestial influences, to produce many miraculous Works, as walking and speaking Bo∣dies; which notwithstanding are not the real Animal: such was the wooden Dove of Archytas, which flew; the Statues of Mercury, that talk'd; and the Brazen Head made by Albertus Magnus, which is said to have spoken. In these things Boetius excell'd, a man of a large Ingenuity, and manifold Learning; to whom Cassiodorus writing upon this Subject, Thou, saith he, hast propounded to thy self to do great things, and to know the most difficult: by thy ingenious skill Metals are heard to roar, Brazen Diomed sounds a Trumpet, a Brazen Serpent hisses, Birds are counterfeited, and they that are incapable of a voice of their own, yet are heard to make a sweet noise: We relate but small things of thee, that hast so great a power to imitate Heaven. Of these delusory Sciences may be said that which we read in Plato's tenth Book of Laws: Art is given to Mortals, which enables them to produce cer∣tain posterior and succeeding Inventios, neither per∣taking of Truth or Divinity, but cetain Imitations somewhat akin thereto: Wherein Magicians have ad∣ventured to proceed so far, by the help of that ancient

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and subtile Serpent, the great promiser of knowledge; that Aping him, they become imitators of God and Na∣ture.

CHAP. XLIV.

Of Witchcraft.

THere is a sort of Natural Magick, which they call Witchcraft; the effects whereof are wrought by Potions, Philters, and other compositions of Medica∣ments: such as Democritus is said to have made for the begetting of good, happy, and fortunate Children; and that other by which we should be able to under∣stand the Language of Birds, which Philostratus and Porphyrius relate Apollonius to have made. Virgil also speaking of certain Pontick herbs:

Such Herbs as these when Meris us'd, Streight as a Wolf unto the Woods did flee; And by their powerful Charms dead bodies rear'd From out their Graves in open Air appear'd. And Crops of Corn to ripeness were improv'd, Streight have I seen to other Fields remov'd.
And Pliny declares, that one Demarchus Parrasius at a Sacrifice which the Arcadians made to Jupiter Lycaeus, wherein they offered Humane Bodies, tasted the En∣trails of a Boy, and streight changed himself into a Wolf; by reason of which transmutation into Wolves, Austin believes the name of Lycaeus was attributed to Jupiter and Pan. St. Austin declares also, That when he was in Italy, certain Female Witches, like Circe, gi∣ving to certain Travellers a kind of Enchanting Me∣dicament

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in Cheese, turn'd them into Cattle; and when they had made them to carry what burthens they thought fitting, they restor'd them again to their for∣mer shape: which thing, as he affirms, happen'd to one Father Prestantius. Now, lest any person should be∣lieve these things to be meer Chimaera's and Fictions, let him remember how Sacred Scripture testifies of Nebu∣chadnezzar's being chang'd into an Ox, and that he liv'd upon Fodder seven years together; though at length, by the mercie of God, he was restored to his former shape; whose body his son Evilmerodach, after he was dead, caus'd to be thrown to the Vultures to feed on, lest he should rise from the dead, that had been chang'd from a Beast into a Man. And concerning Pharaoh's Magicians, many more things are related in Exodus. But of these Magicians or Witches, the Wise man speaketh but a hard Sentence, when he cries, Thou hast abhorr'd them O God, because they work abominable works by Medicaments. I would have you also farther to understand, that these Magicians do not onely pry into Natural things, but also those things which ac∣company Nature, and do almost shake off all Relation to her; as Numbers, Figures, Sounds, Voice, Lights, Affections of the mind, and words. So the Psylli and Marsi called Serpents together, which others with other Charms put to flight. So Orpheus asswag'd the Tempest of the Argonauts with a Song: and Homer relates, how the course of Vlysses blood was stopt by the power of words. Moreover, in the Law of the Twelve Tables, there is a Law against those that did inchant the standing Corn; whereby it is apparent, that Witches have a power by the force of words, to produce strange Effects, not onely upon themselves, but also upon outward things: All which things, that is to say, to separate the hidden force of things, and either draw them to themselves, and repel them from

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themselves, they credibly believe themselves to effect no other way than as the Loadstone draws Iron, or Am∣ber or Jet draws Chaff, and as Onions again destroys the Magnetick Power. So that by this Gradual and Concatenated Sympathy, not only Natural and Celesti∣al Gifts, but also Intellectual and Divine may be re∣ceiv'd into humane Souls, as Iamblicus, Proculus, and Sinesius gather from the Opinions of Great Men; and that by this Consent and Harmony of things, Magi∣cians do call up the very Spirits. For some of them are arriv'd at such a height of Madness, that they believe that upon the right Observation of such and such Constellations at such intervals of time, and by such reason of Proportions, an Image being made would receive Life and Motion; which upon counsel desired, should be able to give Answers, and Reveal the hidden Secrets of Truth. Hence it is manifest, That this Natural Magick inclining toward Conjuring and Necromancy, is often entangled in the Snares and Delusions of Evil Spirits.

CHAP. XLV.

Of Conjuring and Necromancy.

THE Ceremonial Parts of Magick, Conjuring and Necromancy. Geocie or Conjuring, curs'd for being familiar with unclean Spirits, ceremonies of wicked curiosity, compos'd of Prayers and Inchantments, is held Abominable, and wholly Condemn'd by the De∣crees of all Lawgivers.

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Men hateful to the Gods, that stain the Skie, And blot the Stars, though Natures Progenie: The setled course of things they can confound; Can fix the Poles, send Lightnings on the ground; Pull down the Heavens, and Hills eradicate.

These are those that Invoke the Souls of dead Bo∣dies, who Inchant Children, and cause them to give the Answer of the Oracle; and as we read of Socra∣tes, carry about with them certain Pocket-Daemons; and who, as they say, nourish little Spirits in Glasses, by which they pretend to Foretel and Prophesie. All these proceed in a twofold manner. For some of them make it their business to adjure and compel Evil Spi∣rits to appearance, by the Efficacy and Power of sacred Names; because seeing that every Creature doth fear and reverence the Name of its Creator, no wonder if Conjurors, and other Infidels, Pagans, Jews, Saracens, or prophane Persons, do think to force the Devils Obe∣dience by the Terrour of his Creators Name. Others, more to be detested than they, and worthy the utmost punishment of Fire, submitting themselves to the De∣vils, sacrifice to them, and Worship them, become guilty of the vilest subjection and Idolatry that may be; to which Crimes though the former are not quite so ob∣noxious, yet they expose themselves to manifest dan∣gers. For the Devils are always watchful to intrap Men in the Errors they heedlesly run into. From this insipid crowd of Conjurors have flow'd all those Books of Darkness, which Vlpian the Civilian calls by the name of forbidden Writings. Of which, one of the first Authors is said to be Zabulus, a man wholly inclin'd to unlawful Arts. Then Barnabas 〈◊〉〈◊〉 Cyprian; and now frequently other Books are Published up and down, under the feigned Titles and Names of Adam,

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Abel, Enoch, Abraham, and Solomon; others under the Names of Paulus, Honorius, Cyprian, Albertus, Thomas, Hierome, and one Eboracensis; to whose silly trifles Al∣phonsus King of Castile, Robert the Englishman, Bacon, Apponus, and many other of deprav'd Fancies have adher'd. But besides this, they have not only made the holy Patriarchs and Angels Authors and Uphol∣ders of their detestable Studies, but also shew several Books which they pretend were written and delivered by Razial and Raphael, tutelar Angels of Adam and Tobias. Which Books notwithstanding, to any one that narrowly considers the Rules of the Masters, the Customes and Ordinances of their Ceremonies, the Na∣ture and Choice of their Words and Characters, their insipid and barbarous Pharases, sufficiently betray them∣selves to contain nothing but meer Toys and Geugaws, and that they were in far later Ages contriv'd by such as were utterly ignorant of that Magick Profess'd by the Ancients, being ounded only upon certain pro∣phane Observations mixt with the Ceremonies of our Religion, with an addition of many unknown Names and Characters, to terrifie ignorant and silly people, and to amuse those that are void of sence and under∣standing. Neither doth it therefore follow, that these De∣lusions are Fables; for unless there were something of reality in them, and that many mischievous and wick∣ed things were accomplish'd thereby, both Divine and Humane Laws had not so strictly provided for the pu∣nishment thereof, and Ordain'd them to be quite extir∣pated from the Earth. Now why these Conjurers make use only of evil Spirits, the reason is, because the Good Angels seldome appear, being only attendant on the Commands of God, and not vouchsafing to be known, but only to upright and holy Men. But evil Spirits submit themselves more willingly to their In∣vocations, falsely assuming to themselves, and counter∣feiting

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Divinity, always ready to deceive, and delight∣ing to be ador'd and worship'd: and because Women are more covetous of the Knowledge of Secrets, and not less cautious and prone to Superstition, and more easily Deluded; therefore to them the Devils show themselves more familiar, and make them the perfor∣mers of many Miracles, as are related of Circe and Me∣daea; of many others the Stories of the Poets are full: and Cicero, Pliny, Seneca, St. Austin, and many others, both Philosophers, Doctors, and Historians, as also Sa∣cred Writ, bring many Testimonies; For in the Book of Samuel we read of a certain Woman-Witch that liv'd in Endor, that rais'd the Soul of Samuel: though most Interpreters agree, that it was not the soul of Samuel, but an Evil spirit that took upon him the shape of the Prophet. Yet some of the Hebrew Doctors aver, neither doth St. Austin to Simplician deny the possibility thereof, that it was the true Soul of Samuel, which before a compleat Year after its departure from the Body, might be easily call'd up, according to the rule of Necromancy. The Necromantick Magicians believe, that the same may be performed by certain Natural tyes and Obligations; which was the reason that the Ancient Fathers well-read in Spirituals, not without good cause, ordain'd, that the Bodies of the Dead might be buried in Holy-ground; should be assisted with Lights, and sprinkled with Holy-water, be perfumed with Incense, and pray'd for by the Li∣ving, so long as they were above Ground. For say the Hebrew Doctors, All our Carnal Body remains as Food for the Serpent which they call Arazel, which is Lord of the Flesh and the Blood, and Prince of this World: in Leviticus nam'd the Prince of the Deserts: to whom it was said in Genesis, Thou shalt eat the dust all the days of thy life. And in Isaiah, The Dust is thy bread, that is, our Corporeal Body Created out

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of the dust of the Earth, so long as it remains unsan∣ctifi'd, and not chang'd for the better, to be no longer then at the disposal of the Serpent, but of God, ac∣cording to the word of St. Paul: It is sow'd corporal, but shall rise spiritual: And in another place, All shall rise, but all shall not be chang'd; for that many shall re∣main perpetual food for the Serpent. This foul and detestable matter of the Flesh, the food of the Ser∣pent, lies in the Grave, in hopes of a better Lot, and spiritual Transmutation; which is already come to pass in those that have already tasted the first-Fruits of Redemption; and some have attain'd it by vertue of the Deifick Spirit, as Elias and Enoch, and as some are of opinion, Moses; whose bodies being chang'd into the nature of Spirits, never saw corruption, nor, as other Carcasses, were left to the power of the Serpent. And something to this purpose, it was thought, was the great dispute of Michael with the Devil about the body of Moses, which St. Jude mentions in his Epistle. Thus much concerning Conjuring and Necromancy.

CHAP. XLVI.

Of Theurgy.

MAny there are that believe Theurgy not to be un∣lawful, which pretends to have to do with none but good Angels, and the Divine Numen him∣self; though under the names of God and Angels, it proves to be onely the delusion and mockery of evil Spirits. It pretends no natural Power, but to make use of Celestial Ceremonies, by which they think to attract and reconcile the Divine Natures: Concerning which, the antient Magi have deliver'd several

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Rules in several Volumes. But the chiefest part of their Ceremonies is, in observing Cleanliness, first of the Soul, then of the Body, then of those things about the Body, as in the Skin, the Garments, the Dwelling, Vessels, Utensils, Immolations, and Sacrifices; which cleanliness renders them capable of being the recepta∣cles, and fit for the entertainment of Divine Spirits, and is very much encourag'd and commended in Sacred Scripture, according to the words of Esay: Be glad and be clean, and take away the evil of your thoughts. But uncleanness, which often corrupts, and defiles, and infects man, disturbs the most clean and pure Soci∣ety of Celestial Beings, and chases away the spotless Spirits and Angels of God. It is true, that many times unclean and delusive powers, to the end they may be ador'd and worship'd for Gods, do counterfeit this Purity; and therefore great diligence and care is to be us'd for the avoiding thereof; and therefore we have abundantly discours'd thereof in our Books of Occult Philosophy. Now of this Theurgy or Divine Magick, Porphyrius having delivered many things, at length concludes, that by Theurgick Operations the soul may be made fit to receive Spirits and Angels, and to see and converse with them: but that there can be any access to the Deity thereby, he altogether denies. His Rules and Directions are contain'd in his Art Almabel, his Notorious Art, his Art Pauline, & his Art of Revelations, where are abundance of Superstitions to be found, which are so much the more pernicious, by how much they seem more Losty and Divine to the unskilful.

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CHAP. XLVII.

Of the Cabalists.

HEre the words of Pliny come into my minde: There is, saith he, another Sect of Magicians, of which Moses and Latopea, Jews, were the first Authors; which words bring to my remembrance the Cabala of the Jews, which as the constant opinion among the Hebrews goes, was delivered by God to Moses, and thence, through succession of Ages, even to the times of Ezra, preserv'd by Tradition onely, without the help of writing. As of old the Doctrine of Pythagoras was delivered by Archippus and Lysiades, who kept School at Thebes in Greece, where the Scholars lear∣ning all their Masters Precepts by heart, made use onely of their Memories instead of Books. So cer∣tain Jews despising Letters, plac'd all their Learning in Memory, Observation, and verbal Tradition; whence it was call'd by the Hebrews, Cabala, that is to say, a re∣ceiving from one to another by the Ear: An Art, by report, very antient, though the name be but of later times known among the Christians. Now this Cabala they divide into three parts: the first contains the know∣ledge of Bresith, which they call also Cosmology, ex∣plaining and teaching the force and efficacie of things created, Natural or Celestial; expounding also the Laws and Mysteries of the Bible according to Philoso∣phical reasons, which for that cause differs little from Natural Magick, wherein they say K. Solomon excell'd. Therefore we finde in the Sacred Histories of the Jews, that he was wont to discourse from the Cedar of Li∣banon to the low Hyssop; as also of Cattle, Birds,

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Reptiles, and Fish, all which contain within themselves a certain kinde of Magical vertue. Moses also the Egyptian, in his Expositions upon the Pentateuch, and most of the Talmudists, have followed the Rules of this Art. The other part thereof contains the know∣ledge of more sublime things, as of Divine and An∣gelical Powers, the contemplation of Sacred Names and Characters; being a certain kinde of Symbolical Theology, wherein the Letters, Figures, Numbers, Names, Points, Lines, Accents, are esteemed to contain the significations of most profound things, and great Mysteries. This part again is twofold: Arithmantick, handling the nature of Angels, the Powers, Names, Characters of Spirits and Souls departed; and Theo∣mantick, which searches into the mysteries of the Di∣vine Majesty, his Emanations, his Names, and Pentacula, which he that attains to, they account endu'd with most admirable power. By vertue of this Art they say Mo∣ses wrought so many Miracles, changing his Rod into a Serpent, the Water into Blood, and plagu'd Egypt with Frogs, Flyes, Lice, Locusts, Emrodes, and Pesti∣lence, slaying the first-born of Man and Beast: By this Art he divided the Red-sea, caus'd Water to flow out of the Rock, brought the Qualls into the Wilderness, sweeten'd the bitter Waters, made Lightning by day, and a Pillar of Fire by night to lead the March of his people, call'd down the Voice of God among the peo∣ple. By this Art he punish'd the Arrogant with Fire, the Murmurers with Leprosie, Mutiners with sudden Destruction, causing the Earth to swallow them up; preserv'd the Clothes of the Israelites from wearing out, and gave them Victory over their Enemies. Lastly, by means of this Art, Josua commanded the Sun to stand still; Elias call'd down Fire from Heaven, and rais'd the dead Youth to life; Daniel muzzled the Li∣ons mouths, and the three Children sang in the middle

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of the fiery Furnace. Nay, the perfidious and unbe∣lieving Jews stick not to aver, that Christ himself wrought all his Miracles by vertue of this Art. So∣lomon, as they say, did excel in this Art, and that he discovered several secrets thereof, containing several Charms against Devils and their Possessings; as also against Diseases, as Josephus writes. As for my part, as I do not doubt but that God Revealed many things to Moses and the Prophets, which were contained un∣der the Covert of the words of the Law, which were not to be communicated to the prophane Vulgar: so for this Art which the Jews so much boast of, which I have with great Labour and diligence sarch'd into, I must acknowledge it to be a meer Rhapsodie of su∣perstition, and nothing but a kind of Theurgick Magick before spoken of. For if, as the Jews contend, com∣ing from God, it did any way conduce to perfection of Life, Salvation of Men, Truth of Understanding; cer∣tainly that Spirit of Truth, which having forsaken the Synagogue, is now come to teach us all Truth, had never concealed it all this while from the Church, which certainly knows all those things that are of God; whose Grace, Baptism, and other Sacraments of Sal∣vation, are perfectly Reveal'd to all Languages. For every Language is alike, so that there be the same Piety; neither is there any other Name in Heaven or on Earth, by which we can be Sav'd, but only the Name of Jesus. Wherefore the Jews most skilful in Divine Names, after the coming of Christ were able to do nothing, in comparison of their Forefathers. But by that which we have common Experience of, we see, that oft-times wonderful Sentences of very great My∣steries are wrested from the Sacred Text; that is, no∣thing but a certain playing with Allegories, which some slothful Persons imploy'd only in the considera∣tion of particular Points, Letters, or Figures, which

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this Language and manner of Writing easily admit of, take occasion to fancy; which many times make a noise as if they were very great Mysteries, but are able to prove or evince nothing; but that according to the words of St. Gregory, they may be contemned with the same easiness, as they are Asserted. Rabanus the Monk has invented several of these, but in Latine Characters and Verses, inserting sundry Pictures, which being to be read which way soever you turn the Let∣ters, declare some Sacred Mysterie representing the Painted History; which no man denies; but that they may be extorted out of prophane Authors, no person is ignorant, especially he that hath read the Centones upon Christ, compos'd out of Virgil, by Valeria Proba: all which things, and all of this Nature, are but the spe∣culations of Idle People. But as to what pertains to the working of Miracles, surely there is no man can be so stupid, as to believe there is any force in this Art to accomplish any such thing. The Cabala of the Jews therefore is nothing else, but a most pernicious Superstition, the which by Collecting, Dividing, and Changing several Words, Names and Letters disper∣sed up and down in the Bible, at their own good will and pleasure, and making one thing out of another, they dissolve the Members of Truth, raysing up sen∣tences, Inductions, and Parables of their own, apply thereto the Oracles of Divine Scripture to them, defa∣ming the Scriptures, and affirming their Figments to consist of them, Blaspheme the Word of God by their wrested suppositions of Words, Syllables, Letters and Numbers; endeavouring to prop up their Villanous Inventions, by Arguments drawn from their own Delusions. And being blown and puft up with these Trifles, boast themselves to have found out, and to know those ineffable Mysteries of God which are not Re∣veal'd in Scripture; by means whereof, they are able

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to Prophesie, Work Miracles; all which they blush not with confidence to aver. But it happens to them, as it did to Aesops Dog, who leaving the substance, and catching after the shadow, lost his Food; who being alwayes busied in the shadows of the Scripture, and laborious in the study of their own Fictions, their Superstitious Cabala, snatching at they know not what, they loose the Bread of Eternal Life; and feeding up∣on empty Notions, loose the Word of Truth. From this Judaical ferment of Cabalistical Superstition, I verily believe the Ophites, Gnosticks, and Valentinians came, Hereticks that with the help of their Disciples invented a Cabala, corrupting the Mysteries of the Chri∣stian Faith; and by a Heretical Artifice, drawing and patching together the Greek Letters and Numbers, and framing out of them a thing, which they call, The Body of Truth; they teach, that without the help of those Letters and Numbers, the Truth of the Gospel cannot be found out, being so various and repugnant one to another, and full of Parables; written so, that those that have Eyes should not see, and those that have Ears should not hear, but propounded to the Blind, and wandring according to their weak capacities; so that the hidden Truth is not to be understood by Writing, but by successive Tradition, delivered Viva Voce, which, they say, was that Alphabetary and Arith∣mantick Theology secretly delivered to his Apostles by Christ himself, and which St. Paul saith, He only speaks among those that are perfect. For these being most high Mysteries, therefore they are not written, nor to be written; but to be kept in silence among the Wise Men, who are to reserve them in the most secret parts of their Hearts.

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CHAP. XLVIII.

Of Witchcraft.

BUt to return to Magick, a part of which is the de∣lusion of Witchcraft, that is to say, of delusions that are onely made in outward appearance, such as are the Phantasms and Miracles dayly wrought by com∣mon Juglers; which is not so much perform'd by Geo∣tick Inchantments, and Imprecations, and Fallacies of Spirits, but by Fumigations, Lights, Philters, Colly∣ries, binding and hanging of Phylacteries and Charms to the parts of the body, Rings, Images, Glasses, and like devices of Magick Arts. Many things are per∣form'd by Agility and slight of hand, as we see done by Players and Juglers; which are therefore by some call'd Hand-philosophers, or Chirosophi. Of this Jug∣ling Art there are many Treatises extant, written by Her∣mes and others. We read of one Pastes a Jugler that was wont to shew a great Banquet to an abundance of Guests sitting thereat, which when he pleas'd he caus'd to vanish again out of sight, leaving all the Guests a-dry and hungry. Numa Pompilius also made use of these kinde of Prestiges or Witchcrafts: And we read how that the most learned Pythagoras did once ridicu∣lously act an odd business, which was this: That which came into his minde he wrote in a Glass with his Blood, which being held against the Full Moon, what∣ever was written appear'd to him that stood behinde, as if it had been in the body of the Moon. To this, whatsoever is written of the changing of Mens shapes, either believ'd by Poets, related by Historians, or cre∣dited by some of our Divines. Thus some men seem

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to have the shape of Asses or Horses, or other Animals; the Medium Air being disturb'd, or else the Eyes by some Incantation fascinated, such things as these some∣times seem to be done by good and evil Spirits, or else upon the Prayers of good men to God; as we read of Elisha, when Dothan was besieg'd by the Ar∣my of the King of Assyria: but the pure and open sight of God cannot be deceived. Thus the woman, which the people thought to have been a Cow, to Hilarion appear'd to be what she was indeed, a woman. Thus those things which are said to be done by dece∣ption of the sight, are called Praestigia. But the trans∣mutation of shape, as of Nebuchdonozor, or of place, and when the Crop of Corn was remov'd into another field, of these we have spoken before. Now of this Art of Witchcraft Iamblichus thus writes: As to what those persons who are bewitch'd imagine, they have no other certainty of the truth of the essence of the action, but what is barely imaginative: for the end of this Craft is not to do things simply, but to extend i∣magination to appearance, and then on a sudden to remove all signe of any thing. Out of all that hath been said, we must resolve, that Magick is but a mix∣ture of Idolatry, Astrology, and superstitious Physick: And indeed there are a great croud of Hereticks that dayly increase in the Church, who with their first ar∣guments and foundations from these Magitians, who as Jannes and Jambres contradicted Moses, so do they resist the truth. The Ringleader of these, was Simon the Samaritan, who at Rome, under Claudius Caesar, was honour'd with a Statue, for his excellency in this Art, with this Inscription, To Simon the Holy God: Whose Blasphemies are sufficiently related by Clement, Eusebius, and Irenaeus. From the Positions of this Simon, as from a Seminary of all Heresie, sprung those monstrous Ophites, those shameful Gnosticks, Cerdoni∣ans,

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Martionists, Montanians, and many other He∣reticks, for gain and vain-glories sake, lying before God; yet bringing neither profit nor advantage to Men, but leading them into Error and Perdition; whose believers and admirers, the Judgment of God shall over∣take. 'Tis true, that being young, I wrote three Books of Magick my self, which I Entitled, Of Oc∣cult Philosophy; in which, what Errors soever I then committed in my Youth, now grown more wary, I do publickly Recant, as having formerly spent too much time in those Vanities. This advantage I got, that now I know by what Reasons to Convince others of the Ruine which those Vanities will lead them into. For while they presume to Prophesie, and Divine, not in the Truth of God, but according to the Opera∣tions of Evil Spirits, and boast themselves the Wor∣kers of Miracles, not ceasing while they live, and Act by the means of Magick, Vanities, Exorcisms, Incan∣tations, Love-potions, and other Demoniacal Operati∣ons, they are all with Jannes and Jambres, and Si∣mon Magus, Destin'd to the Eternal Torments of Hell-Fire.

CHAP. XLIX.

Of Natural Philosophy.

BUT let us now come to things that far surpass all these, the very Maximes of Philosophy it self, which dive into Nature it self, and inquire into the Principles of things by the means of subtle Syllogisms. Which what Truth they have more than what they borrow from the Credit of their first divulgers and defenders, there is no man that very well understands.

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The Poets were the first Professors thereof, among which were Prometheus, Linus, Musaeus, and Orpheuss among which, Homer may be numbred. Now what Truth can that Philosophy afford us, which had its beginning out of the Fables and Gewgawes of the Poets? Which that it is so, Plutarch doth prove, by manifest Arguments, for that all the sects of Philo∣sophers took their Original from Homer: and Aristo∣tle confesses, That the Philosophers are by Nature Philomythi, that is to say, Admirers, or Lovers of Fa∣bles. The Sects of Philosophers some have divided in∣to Nine, some into Ten; But Varro into a far grea∣ter Number. So that should one man Assemble all the Philosophers together, it were impossible to find out among them which Opinion were first to be chosen, or what Sect to follow. So repugnant and differ∣ing they are among themselves about every particu∣lar, maintaining a perpetual War one against another: and as Firmianus saith, One Sect labours to subvert another, to establish themselves and their own Opini∣ons; neither will either grant the other to be wise lest he should acknowledge himself to be Mad. He that disputes of particular Philosophers, delivers nothing of certainty concerning any one; which makes me at a stand, whether to reckon Philosophers in the num∣ber of Men, or of Brutes: for indeed they seem to excel Beasts, in that they have Reason and Understan∣ding; but how they should come to be Men, whose Reason is so uncertain, so unconstant, and alwayes stag∣gering upon various and slippery Opinions, whose Un∣derstanding cannot find out any thing fixed, either to hold by, or follow, is a very great Quere. The Truth whereof, we shall now shew you more at large.

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CHAP. L.

Of the beginning of Natural things.

FOR first, as concerning the Principles of Natural things, upon which the whole Foundation of this Art lies, there is a most deadly Combat among the greatest and wisest Philosophers; and the Contention is yet undecided which hath determined best. Most perswasive Reasons are urg'd on both sides. For Tha∣les Milesius, accompted by the Oracle the chief wise Man, was of Opinion, That all things had their be∣ginning from Water: His Scholar, and Successor in his School, Anaximander, said, That the beginnings of things were Infinite: but his Disciple Anaximenes held the Infinite Body of Air to be the beginning of all things. Hipparchus and Heraclitus the Ephesian, held Fire to be the first Principle; to whom Archelaus the Athenian agrees. Anaxagoras the Clazomenian makes Infinite Principles, at first small and confus'd Parti∣cles, but afterwards by the Divine Creator reduc'd in∣to Order. Xenophanes said, that there was but one beginning of all things, and that Mutable. Parmenides upheld Hot and Cold, Heat being the Fire that mov'd, and Cold the Earth that form'd. Leucippus, Diodo∣rus, and Democritus, were all for Full and Empty. Di∣ogenes Laertius was altogether for the Air, which he made capable of Divine Reason. Pythagoras the Sa∣mi•••• set up Number for the beginning of all things; to whom Alcmeon the Crotoniate adher'd. Empedocles the Agrigentine Discord and Concord, and the four Elements: Epicurus, Atomes and Vacuum or Emptiness. Plato and Socrates, God, Idea and Matter. Aristotle rai∣ses

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up Matter coveting Form by privation, which he makes the Third Principle; contrary to what he has taught in another place, that Equivocals are not to be reckon'd for Principles. Wherefore some later Peripateticks have set up a kind of impulsive Motion, in the stead of Privation; which being an accident, how can it be the Principle of Substance? Or what shall be the mover of this Motion? And therefore the Hebrew Philosophers admit of no other Principles than Mat∣ter, Form, and Spirit.

CHAP. LI.

Of the Plurality of the World, and of its Continuance.

IN their Disputations concerning the World, they are very various. Thales was of Opinion, There was but one World, and that it was the Structure of God himself. Empedocles was of the same Opinion as to one World; but said withal, that this was a small Particle only of the Universe. But Democritus and Epicurus were of Opinion, That there were In∣numerable worlds▪ whom Metrodorus their Disciple fol∣lows, saying, That there are Innumerable Worlds, be∣ing that the Causes of them are Innumerable: neither was it less absurd to think, that there should be one World in the Universe, than to imagine one Ear of Corn in a whole Field. But as to the Continuance of the World, Aristotle, Averroes, Cicero, Xenophon, make it Aeternal, and void of all Corruption. For when that they could not understand, whether the Egg or the Bird were first Generated, since no Bird could be without the Egg; Hence they imagin'd, that this

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World, and the Beginning of every begotten thing, together with the End thereof, was by perpetual Re∣volution sempiternal. Pythagoras and the Stoicks said, That the World was of God; yet as far as its Divine Nature could permit, should be corrupted in time: with whom Anaxagoras, Thales, Herocles, Avi∣cen, Algasel, Alcmeus, and Philo the Jew, concur in Opinion. But Plato affirming that it was Created by God, after his own likeness, denies that it shall ever be destroy'd. Democritus saith, That the World was once Created, shall once be Destroyed, and never more be renewed. Empedocles and Heraclitus the Ephe∣sian were of Opinion, That the World doth every day renew, and every day perish or decay. Let us discourse of any thing which they say proceeds from a Natural Cause; as for Example, let it be an Earthquake, yet are they at no certainty therein, but wander in Ex∣travagancies; while Anaxagoras makes the Cause there∣of to be the Air; Empedocles, Fire; Thales Milesius, Water; Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Albertus, Subterra∣neal Wind or Vapour; Asclepiades, great Mischan∣ces, or Devastations, Possidonius, Calisthenes, and Me∣trodorus, the Destinies. Seneca and others variously dis∣senting, seem to have labour'd in vain in the search thereof. And therefore the Ancient Romans, when they either felt, or heard of shaking or trembling of the Earth, commanded Holy-days; but never did En∣act to which of the Gods they should be Dedicated, because it was uncertain what force, or which of the Gods was the Cause thereof.

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CHAP. LII.

Of the Soul.

IF you desire to know any thing from them concern∣ing the Soul, there is far less of certainty among them. For Crates the Theban affirm'd, that there was no Soul, but that the Body was mov'd by Nature. Those who grant that there is a Soul, suppos'd it to be the most thin and subtile of all bodies, infus'd into this thick and earthy body. Others there be that affirm it to be of a fiery nature; of which number were Hip∣parchus and Leucippus, with whom the Stoicks for the most part agree, who define the Soul to be a hot Spirit, together with Democritus, who calls it a moveable and fierce Spirit, mix'd and infus'd into Atomes. Others said it was the Air, as Anaximines and Anaxagoras, Di∣ogenes the Cynick, and Critias; with whom Varro con∣curs, where he says, that The Soul is Air receiv'd into the Mouth, heated in the Lungs, temper'd in the Heart, and diffus'd over the whole Body. Others will have it of a watery substance, as Hippias. Others of an earthy substance, as Heliodorus and Pronopides; to whose opi∣nion Anaximander and Thales willingly agree, both fellow-Citizens with Thales. Others will have it to be a Spirit compos'd partly of Fire and partly of Air, as Boetes and Epicurus. Others, compos'd of Earth and water, as Zenophantes. Others, of earth and fire, as Parmenides. Others affirm'd the Soul to be the blood, as Empedocles and Circias. Some would have it be a thin Spirit diffus'd through the body, as Hippocrates the Physitian. Others, flesh exercis'd by the senses, as Asclepiades. But many others have been of opinion,

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that the Soul is not that little body, but a certain qua∣lity or complexion thereof infus'd through all the par∣ticles of the same; as Zeno the Cithick, and Dicearchus, defining the Soul to be the complexion of the four E∣lements: Cleanthes also, Antipater, and Possidonius, af∣firming the same to be a certain heat or complexion of heat, drew Calenus the Pergamenian into the same opinion. Others there are that uphold that the Soul is not that quality or complexion, but something resi∣ding in some part of the body, as the heart or brain, as it were in its proper point or center, and from thence governing the whole body. Amongst the number of these, are Chrysippus, Archelaus, and Heraclitus Ponticus, who thought the Soul to be Light. There are others who have thought more freely, believing the Soul to be a certain unfix'd Point, ty'd to no part of the Body, but separated from any determinated Situation, being totally present in every part of the Body; which whe∣ther it were begot by Complexion, or Created by God, yet was first hatch'd and form'd in the bosome of Matter: Of this Opinion were Zenophanes, Colophonius, Aristoxenus, and Asclepiades the Physitian, who held the Soul to be the Exercise of the Sences: and Cretolaus the Peripatetick, who call'd it the Fifth Essence; as also Thales, who held, That the Soul is an unquiet Na∣ture moving it self; and Zenocrates would have it to be a Number moving it self: whom the Aegyptians fol∣low, asserting the Soul to be a certain Force or Ver∣tue passing through all Bodies. The Caldaeaus were of Opinion, That it was a Force or Vertue without a determinate Form, but receiving all Forms that are External. So that they altogether agree, That the Soul is a certain Vertue fit to cause Motion; or that it is else a Sublime Harmony of all the Cor∣poreal Parts, depending however upon the Nature of the Body. The Footsteps of these Men are followed

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by that Daemoniack Aristotle, who by a new-invented Name of his own, calls the Soul Entelechia; that is to say, the Perfection of a Corporal Organ, Potential∣ly having life, from which the same Body receives the Principles of Understanding, Perceiving and Moving. And this is the most receiv'd, though most imprtinent Definition of a Soul, found out by that great Philo∣sopher; which doth not, however, declare or make manifest the Nature or Original, but only the Affecti∣ons of the Soul. There are others that soare some∣what higher than these men; who affirm the Soul to be a certain Divine Substance whole and indivi∣dual, diffus'd through the whole and every part of the Body, produc'd in such manner from the Incorpo∣real Author, as that it depends upon the force of the Agent, not on the Generative Faculty of the Matter. Of this Opinion were Zoroastes, Hermes Trismegistus, Pythagoras, Euminius, Hammonius, Plutarch, Porphyrius, Timaeus, Locrus, and Divine Plata himself, who defin'd the Soul to be an Essence moving it self, endu'd with Understanding. Eunomius the Bishop, consenting partly to Plato, partly to Aristotle, affirms the Soul to be an Incorporeal substance made in the Body; upon which definition he lay'd the Foundation of all his Opinions. Cicero, Seneca and Lactantius affirm, That it is impossi∣ble to define what the Soul should be. Thus it is apparent what great Contention there is among them touching the Essence of the Soul. Nor are the Con∣tentions and Variances less, or less Numerous than their Disputes, when they come to make inquiry which is the Seat of the Soul. For Hippocrates and Hierophi∣lus place it in the Fibres or Ventricles of the Brain. Democritus, in the whole Region of the Temples. Era∣tistratus, in the Epicranidal Membrane. Strabo, within the space between the Eye-brows. Epicurus gives it room in the whole Brest. Diogenes, in the Arterial

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Ventricle of the Heart: the Stoicks with Chrysippus, in the whole Heart, and Spirits that surround the Heart. Empedocles seats it in the Blood; to which Opinion Moses seems to give way, while he forbids his People to eat the Blood of any thing, because the Soul of every Animal is seated therein. Plato and Aristo∣tle, and the more Noble Sects of Philosophers, place the Soul in the whole Body. Galen is of Opinion, That every part of the Body has his particular Soul: For so he makes it appear, in his Book of the Usefulness of the Parts: There are many Particles of Animals, some greater, some lesser; others altogether indivisible into the Species of the Creatures, yet necessarily every of those wants a Soul. For the Body is the Or∣gan thereof; and therefore the Particles of the Bo∣dy are very much different one from another, because the Souls are different. I cannot here pass by a Sen∣tence of Beda the Divine, who writing upon Mark, The Principal seat of the Soul, saith he, is not, as Plato thinks, in the Brain; but to follow the Doctrine of Christ, in the Heart. Now as concerning the Continuation of the Soul, Democritus and Epicurus were of Opinion, That it dy'd with the Body. Plato and Pythagoras held it to be altogether Immortal; but that being out of the Body, it retires to some Nature or being like it self. The Stoicks taking the middle way between both these, assert, that the Soul shall leave the Body; but that if it be not purified and dignifi'd with the excel∣lent Vertues to be possessed in this Life, that then it shall presently dye; but that if it be endu'd with Heroical Vertues, then that it may attain the Heavenly Seats, and be associated with those Sympathiing Na∣tures that stay there in expectance of being joyn'd unto it. Aristotle taught, That some parts of the Soul which remain in Corporeal seats are inseparable from the same, and therefore dye with them; but that the Under∣standing,

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which wants no Corporeal Organ, is separate from the Corruptible Parts. But he is so far from de∣livering any thing of farther perspicuity, that his In∣terpreters do wholly abandon the Discourse thereof. Alexander the Aphrodisean saith, That most certainly he held the Soul to be Mortal. And of the same Opi∣nion among us, is Gregory Nazianzene. Against these, Pleton, and Thomas Aquinas in defence of Aristotle, most stiffly stands up, affirming that he was in the right Opinion concerning the Immortality of the Soul. Moreover, Averroes, that most exquisite Commenta∣tor upon Aristotle, believes that every man has a pe∣culiar Soul, but Mortal; But that the Mind or Under∣standing is Eternal, having neither Beginning nor End; of which there was but one kind, that all men use in this Life. Themistius saith, That Aristotle held one only Active Understanding; but that the Understanding capable of Subjects was manifold, and that both were Immortal. Thus through the strange Dissentions and Garboils of these Philosophers, it comes to pass, that there are so ma∣ny absurd Contests among our Christian Divines about the Original of the Soul; among whom, there are some that believe that the Souls of all Men were Created at the Beginning, and remaining there as in a Store∣house till they come to be us'd; of which Opinion above all the rest is the Learned Origen. St. Austin also believes, That the Soul of our First Parent had its Original from Heaven, being something Elder than the Body; and perceiving the Body to be a fit Habi∣tation, of its own accord did covet the same: how∣ever, he does not affirm it for any certain or positive Maxime.

Others believe the Soul to be propagated extraduce, from Parent to Parent; and that the Soul is begot by the Soul, as the Body is begot by the Body: of which Opinion was Apollinaris Bishop of Laodicea, Tertullian,

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Cyril, and Luciferianus; against whose Heresie St. Jerom fiercely Combats. Others are of Opinion, That Souls are Created daily by God: which Opinion Thomas Aquinas follows, defending himself with that Peri∣patetical Argument, that seeing that the Soul is the Form of the Body, the same ought not to be Created apart, but in the Body: to which Opinion the Uni∣versal Judgment of our Modern Divines adheres. I omit the Degrees, Ascentions and Descentions of Souls, which the Origenists have brought into play, as being neither strengthned by Scripture, nor consenaneous to the Thesis of Christianity: so little of certainly there is, either among Philosophers, or among Divines, con∣cerning the Original, or indeed the very meaning and definition of the Word Soul. For Epicurus and Aristo∣tle believe it Mortal; Plato's Circle brings it to the same Station again, in so many years. Some there are that, as Plato says, contract it within the Verges of Humane Bodies; others diffuse it into the Bodies of Animals: some restore it to Heaven from whence they had it, others send it on Pilgrimage about the World: Some that Compel it to Infernal Hell, others deny any: some say, That every Soul is Created by it self; others say, They were all Created together. So far Thomas. There was Averroes, who undertaking to broach something more remarkable, First held the Vnity of the Understanding. The Manichaean Hereticks were of Opinion, That there was but one Soul of the Universe, dispers'd as well into Inanimate as Animate Bodies; but that those things which are without Life, l••••s participate thereof: that Animate things have a greater share, and Coelestial things the greatest of all: and at length they conclude, That singular Souls are but parts of the Universal Soul. Plato also holds but one Universal Soul of the World, but other Souls for particular Creatures; as if the World subsist∣ed

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only by its own Soul, but particular Creatures were animated by particular Souls. Others there are that will have but one sort of Souls. Others make a twofold Soul; that is to say, Rational and Irrational. Others say, there are many, as many as there be spe∣cies of living Creatures. Galen the Physitian affirms, That there are various and distinct Souls in divers Crea∣tures, according to the variety of the Species; and moreover, he appoints many Souls in one Body. There are other that place two Souls in a Man, one sensitive from Generation, the other intellectual from Creation: among these we finde Occam the Divine. Plotinus will have the Soul to be one thing, and the Under∣standing to be another; with whom Apollinaris con∣sents. Some there are that do not distinguish between the Soul and the Understanding; but they say, that it is the most Principal Part of the substance of the Soul. Aristotle believes the Intellect to be present only Po∣tentially in the Soul, and that Actually it works from without; neither that it conduces to the Essence or Nature of Man, but only to the Perfection of Know∣ledge and Contemplation. Therefore he affirms, That few Men, and those only Philosophers, are endu'd with Actual Understanding. And indeed, there is a great Dispute among Divines, whether, according to the Opinion of Plato, the Souls of Men after they are Departed from the Body, do retain any Memory of things done while the Body was alive; or whether they altogether want the Knowledge thereof: which the Tomists, together with their mighty Aristotle, firmly assert. And the Carthusians confirm it, from the Testi∣mony of a certain Parisian Divine returning from Hell, who being ask'd, what Knowledge he had left him, return'd Answer, That he understood nothing but Pain: and then citing the words of Solomon, There is no understanding, no knowledge, no wealth in Hell, he

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seem'd to them to make it out, that after Death there was no Knowledge of any thing: which notwithstan∣ding is not only manifestly against the Opinion of the Platonicks, but repugnant to the Authority and Truth of the Scripture it self also, which teaches, That the wicked shall see and know that he is God; and that they shall give an account not only of al their Deeds, but of all their idle Words and Thoughts. Moreover, there are some that have adventur'd to write and report many things concerning the Apparition of separated Souls, and those oft-times repugnant both to the Do∣ctrine of the Gospel, and the sacred Text. For where∣as the Apostle teaches us, That we ought not to believe the Angels from heaven, if they should preach otherwise than what is delivered; yet the Gospel is so much out of date with them, that they will rather believe one come from the Dead, than the Prophets, Moses, Apostles or Evangelists. Of this Opinion was the Rich Man in the Gospel, who believed that his Brothers and Kindred living would give credit to any one that were sent from the Dead. To whom so vainly Con∣jecturing, Abraham made answer, If they will not believe Moses and the Prophets, neither will they believe any one that should be sent from the dead. However, I do not absolutely deny some Holy Apparitions, Ad∣monitions, and Revelations of the Dead; but yet I ad∣monish ye to be very wary, knowing how easie it is for Satan to Transform himself into an Angel of Light. Therefore they are not absolutely to be believ'd, but to be entertain'd as things which are Apocry∣phal, and without the Rule of the Scripture. There are many Fabulous stories to this purpose, written by one Tundal in his Consolation of Souls; and also by some others, of which your Cunning Priests and Fri∣ars make use, to terrifie the Vulgar sort, and get Mony. A certain French Notary hath also lately put forth a

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Relation of a Spirit walking at Lyons; a Person of no Credit, and less Learning. But the most approved Authors that write of these things, is Cassianus, and James of Paradise, a Carthusian. But there is nothing in them of solid Truth or secret Wisdome, tending to the encrease of Charity, or edifying of the Soul; only they thereby perswade people to Alms, Pil∣grimages, Prayers, Fastings, and such other Practi∣cal Works of Piety; which the Scripture nevertheless with far greater Reason and Authority enjoyns. But of these Apparitions we have discours'd at large, in a Dialogue which we have Written of Man, as also in our Occult Philosophy. But now let us return to the Philosophers. All the Heathen, who affirm the Soul to be Immortal, by common consent also up∣hold the Transmigration of the Soul: and farther, That rational Souls do sometimes Transmigrate into Plants, and Creatures void of Reason. Of this Opi∣nion of Transmigration, Pythagoras is said to be the first Author; of which, thus Ovid:

Souls never die, but in Immortal state, From dead to living bodies transmigrate. I now my self can call to minde how I, When long since Troy the strength of Greece did try, Was then Euphorbus, that my life sold dear, To crown the Conquest of Atrides Spear, Which then my left hand bre; I knew the Shield Which late in Juno's Temple I beheld.
Much more has been written concerning this Pytha∣gorical Transmigration, by Timon, Xenophanes, Crati∣nus, Aristophon, Hermippus, Lucianus, and Diogenes Laertius. But Iamblicus, who has many other Abet∣tors, asserts, That the Soul does not Transmigrate out of Man into Brutes, nor return from Creatures Irra∣tional

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into Men; but that there are Transmigrations of Souls, that is, of the Souls of Beasts into Beasts▪ and of the Souls of Men into Men, he does not deny. There are also Philosophers, of which number E••••ri∣pides is one, a greatfollower of Anaxagoras, together with Archelaus the Naturalist, and after them Avicen, who report the first Men to have sprung out of the Earth like Herbs: in that not less ridiculous than the Poets, who feign certain Men to have sprung from the Teeth of a Serpent sown in the Earth. Some there are who deny that the Soul is Generated, and others who deny that it has any Motion.

CHAP. LIII.

Of Metaphysicks.

BUT let us go a little farther, and make it appear, that these Philosophers are not only at a loss about those things that seem to have a Being in Na∣ture, but that they are also at great variance among themselves concerning such as have no Principle or Foundation at all; it being altogether uncertain whe∣ther they be or no; and which they believe to subsist without Body or Matter, and which they call Separa∣ted forms; which because they are not in Nature, but thought to be above Nature, therefore they are call'd Metaphysicks, and said to be beyond Nature: from thence sprang those Infinite, every way contra∣dictory, and not less impious and unlearned Opinions concerning the Gods For Diagoras, Milesius, and Theodorus Cyrenaicus, altogether deny that there was any God. Epicurus held that there was a God, but that he took no care of things below. Protagoras said,

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that whether they were or no, they had little or no Power. Anaximander thought that there were Gods Native of Countries, some in the East, and some in the West, at great distances one from another. Xenocra∣tes held, that there were Eight Gods. Antisthenes, that there were many popular Gods, but one Supream, the Creator of the rest. Others have precipitated them∣selves into such a profundity of Madness, as to make with their own hands the Gods which they intended to Worship▪ such was the Image of Bell among the Assyrians: which made and carved Gods, Hermes Trismegistus does notwithstanding very much applaud, in his Aesculapius. But Thales Milesius discoursing of the Divine Essence, asserted the Understanding to be God, who Form'd all things out of Water. Clean∣thes and Anaximenes held the Air to be God. Chry∣sippus Deified the Natural Ability endu'd with Reason, or Divine Necess••••y. Zeno ascribes Divinity to the Divine Law of Nature. Anaxagoras, to the Infinite Intellect moveable of it self. Pythagoras would have a certain Soul diffus'd, and passing through the Nature of all things, from whom all things receive Life, to be God. Alcmaeon of Crotona Deified the Sun, Moon, and other Stars. Zenophanes would have God to be All whatever had a Being. Parmenides makes a cer∣tain Circumscrib'd Orb of Light, which he calls a Crown, to be God. Aristotle, as if a certain Know∣ledge of God could be collected from the Motion of the Heavens, hath invented Fictitious Gods of the Nature of them; and sometimes will have the Mind to be Divine; and sometimes he calls the World i self God: sometimes he makes another God far more Supream and Superintendent over it; whom Theophra∣stus imitates with the same inconstancy. I omit what Strato, Perseus, Aristo the Disciple of Zeno, Plato, Xe∣nophon, Speusippus, Democritus, Heraclitus, Diogenes the

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Babylonian, Hermes Trismegistus, Cicero, Senea, Pliny, and many others have delivered, whose Opinions not∣withstanding are far different from the former, not yet recited. I might here run through all their De∣bates, and Monstrosities of words, concerning Idea's, Incorporeals, Atomes, Hyle, Matter, Form, Vacuum, Infinity, Eternity, Fate, introduction of Forms, Mat∣ter of the Heavens; whether the Stars▪ consist of the Elements, or of the Fifth Essence, which Aristotle inven∣ted; with many other such kind of Trifles, that have afforded Men great cause of Dispute and Contention. But I suppose I have made it sufficiently apparent, how far Philosophers are from agreeing about the Truth it self; to whom, the nearer a man adheres, the more remote he is from any certainty, and the farther he wanders from right Religion. Hence it is, That we find John the Twenty second, Pope, in a very great Error, who was of Opinion, That the Souls of the Blessed should not see the Face of God before the day of Judgment. We know also that Julian the Apo∣state did Abjure Christ, for no other Cause, than that because being much addicted to Philosophy, he began to scorn and contemn the Humility of the Christian Faith. For the same cause Celius, Porphyrius, Lucian, Pelagius, Arrius, Manichaeus, Averroes, have with so much madness bark'd against Christ and his Church. Hence that common Proverb among the Vulgar, That the greatest Philosophers are the greated Hereticks. St. Je∣rom therefore calls them the Patriarchs of Heresie, the First-born of Aegypt; seeing that all Heresie what∣soever hath had its first rise out of the Fountain of Phi∣losophy. By this Philosophy is all Divinity almost Adulterated, so that instead of Evangelical Doctors and Teachers, false Prophets and Heretical Philoso∣phers have appear'd in the World, who have adven∣tur'd to Equalize the Divine Oracles with Humane In∣ventions;

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polluting the same with strange Opinions of Men, have Tranform'd true and simple Divinity (as Gerson saith) into swelling and Sophistical Loqua∣city, and Mathematical Figments. Which St. Paul the Apostle foreseeing, with many timesrepeated ad∣monitions commands us to beware left any person should prevail over us, and seduce us through vain Philoso∣phy. St. Austin defends and fortifies his City of God against them. All other Divines and Holy Fathers have condemned it to be wholly extirpated out of the Church. Neither are there wanting Examples of the Heathen, by which we find that they have done the same. For the Athenians put Socrates to Death, that was the Father of the Philosophers. The Romans threw Philosophers out of their City. The Messanians and Lacedemonians never admitted them: and in the Raign of Domitian, they were not only Expell'd the City, but forbid through all Italy. There was also a Decree of Antiochus the King against those young Men that durst take upon them to study Philosophy; and more than that, against their very Parents that per∣mitted them. Neither have Philosophers been only con∣demn'd and expell'd by Kings and Emperors, but also exploded by most Learned Men in their several Wri∣tings Extant; of which Number is Phliasius Timon, who wrote a Treatise, Entitled Sylli, in derision of Philo∣sophers; and Aristophnes, who wrote a Play in Con∣tempt of them, which he call'd Nubes, or the Clouds: and Lastly, Dion Prusaeus, who made a most Eloquent Oration against them. Aristides also made a most Learn∣ed Oration in the behalf of Four Noble Athenians against Plato; and Hortensius, a most Noble and Elo∣quent Roman, hath with most strong and powerful Rea∣sons most sharply oppugned the same.

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CHAP. LIV.

Of Moral Philosophy.

IT remains now, that if there be any part of Philo∣sophy that contains the Discipline of Manners, to inquire whether the same do not rather consist in va∣riety of use, custom, observation, and perservation of life, than in the little Rules of Philosophy; which are changeable according to the times, places, and opini∣nions of men; and such as threats and fair words teach Children, Laws and Punishments cause men to learn. Of some things which cannot be taught, natural In∣dustry makes an addition in men; for many things wax out of use, through process of time, and consent of the people. Hence it comes to pass, that that was then a Vice, which is now accompted a Virtue; and that which is here a Virtue, in another place is compted a Vice; what one man thinks honest, another man thinks dishonest; what some hold to be just, others condemn as unjust, as the Laws, Opinions, Times, Pla∣ces, and Interests of Government vary. Among the Athenians, it was lawful for a man to marry his Couzen∣german; among the Romans, it was altogether for∣bidden: Formerly among the Jews, and now among the Turks, it is lawful to have plurality of Wives, be∣sides Curtisans and Concubines; but among us Chri∣stians it is not onely forbid, but accompted a most hor∣rible sin. Lastly, that the women should go to Play∣houses, and be seen publickly by all persons, was a∣mong those Nations accompted no dishonour; and yet among the Romans so to do, was held infamous and dishonest. However, the Romans were wont to

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take their Wives with them to great Entertainments, where they went to appear in great Splendor, and a∣bide in the best parts of the house: but in Greece no married wife was admitted to any Banquet or Feast, unless it were among their neerest Relations; nor was she to converse but in the most retir'd parts of the house, where no man went but the nearest of Kin. Among the Lacedaemonians and Egyptians, it was ac∣compted an honourable thing to steal; but among us, Thieves are taken and hang'd. Some Nations are so planted by Heaven, that they appear eminent for the unity and singularity of their Customs. The Seythi∣ans were always infamous for Savageness and Cruel∣ty. The Italians were always eminent for their Mag∣nanimity. The Gaules were reproach'd for Stupidi∣ty. The Sicilians were always subtile. The Asiaticks Luxurious, the Spaniards Jealous, and great Boasters. Besides, several Nations have some particular marks of distinction, which are the more immediate marks of Heaven; so that a man may easily discern of what Nation such or such a stranger may be, by his Voice, Speech, Tone, Designe, Conversation, Diet, Love or Hatred, Anger and Malice, and the like. For who that sees a man marching in more state than a Dung∣hill-Cock, in gate like a Fencer, a confident Look, a deep Tone, grave Speech, severe in his Carriage, and tatter'd in Habit, that will not straight judge him to be a German? Do we not know the French by their mo∣derate Gate, effeminate Carriage, smiling Countenance, pleasing Voice, courteous Speech, modest Behaviour, and careless Habit? The Italians we behold more slow in Gate, their Carriage grave, their Countenances varying, of few words, captious in Discourse, in their Behaviour magnificent, and decent in their Habit. In Singing also the Italians Bleat, the Spaniards Whine, the Germans Howl, and the French Quaver.

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In Discourse, the Italians are grave, but subtile; the Spaniards neat, but great boasters; the French quick and ready, but proud; the Germans foure, but simple. In Council, the Italian is provident, the Spaniard sub∣tile, the French rash, the German for profit. Toward Strangers, the Italians are officious, the Spaniard plea∣sant, the French are milde, the Germans rude and chur∣lish. In their Anger and Malice, the Italians are close, the Spaniards hard to be appeas'd, the French full of threats, the Germans full of revenge. In Con∣versation, the Italians are prudent, the Spaniards cau∣tious, the French gentle, the Germans imperious. As to their Amours, the Italians are jealous, the Spaniards impatient, the French inconstant, the Germans ambiti∣ous. In business, the Italians are circumspect, the Germans laborious, the Spaniards watchful, the French careful. In War, the Italians are stout, but cruel; the Spaniard full of Stratagems, the Germans fierce and mercenary, the French magnanimous, but rash. The Italians are famous for Learning, the Spaniard or Portugal for Navigation, for Affability the French, for Religion and Mechanick Arts the Germans. And in∣deed, every particular Nation, whether civil or barba∣rous, has some particular Manners and Customs par∣ticularly imprinted by Heavenly Influence, different from others, not to be acquir'd by any Art or Philo∣sophy, but such as are meerly natural to the Inhabi∣tants, without any assistance of Education. But let us return to those who have publickly treated concerning these things. Those Authors, like the Serpent, have given us the possession of that fruit, by the eating whereof we shall understand Good and Evil; though they all cry, that it is best for men to follow Vertue, and eschew Vice. But how much more certain, how much more profitable, and indeed how much more happy would it be for us, that we should not onely not

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commit sin, but also not know it? Who is ignorant that by that very thing we all then become miserable, when our first Parents learnt to distinguish between Good and Evil? And therefore perhaps the Errour of Philosophers might be pardon'd, if under the notions of Vertue and Goodness they did not teach us the worst of Evils, and the most shameful Vices. Now there are many Sects of these Philosophers that teach us Ethicks; as the Academick the Cyrenaick Eliack. Me∣garick, Cynick, Eroitick, Stoick, Paripatetick with many other such-like. Of all which, that Theodorus, who was honoured with the Title of a God, thus gave his Verdict; That wise men would not stick to give their minds to Thieving, Adultery, or Sacriledge, when they found a seasonable opportunity: for there is not any one of these that is evil by nature; and therefore if the vulgar opinion generally conceiv'd concerning these things, were set aside, there is no reason but a Philosopher might publickly go to a Whore without a reproof. This was one of the Maximes of that Hea∣venly Philosopher, than which nothing could have been reveal'd more wicked, unless it be that which we read in Aristotle, and was also by the Law permitted in Crete, male-Venery, which Jerome the Peripatetick ex∣tolls, saying, That the use thereof had been the de∣struction of many tyrannical Governments. But the words of Aristotle in his Politicks, where he makes it profitable for a Commonwealth that the Vulgar should not be too numerous in Off-spring, are these. The Law-giver, saith he, wisely and carefully ordained ma∣ny things in relation to temperance in Diet, a thing very necessary; as also touching Divorcing of women, providing and establishing the use of Males, left the multitude of Children should encrease too fast. This is that Aristotle, whose Ries and Customs were con∣demn'd by Plato; whence grew that hatred and ingra∣titude

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of his toward his Master: This is he who fea∣ring the punishment of his wicked life, fled privately, and in haste, out of Athens; who being the most in∣grateful person in the world to his Benefactors, poy∣son'd Alexander, by whom he was most liberally and magnificently rewarded; who also restor'd him to his Country, and trusted him with his Life, his Body, and Soul. This was he, who having an ill opinion of the Soul, deni'd any place of Joy after death; who filch∣ing the sayings of the Ancients, and likewise putting false Interpretations upon them, sought to increase the fame of his Ingenuity by Theft and Calumny. He who at length grown old in wickedness, and running mad out of an immoderate desire of knowledge, was the Author of his own death, becoming a Sacrifice fit∣ting for the Devil that taught him his learning. This is that worthy Doctor so frequent now adays in our Latine Schools, whom my fellow-Pupils, Cullen Divines, have translated to Heaven, having publish'd a Book entitled Of the salvation of Aristotle; as also another Pamphlet both in Prose and Verse, Of the Life and Death of Aristotle; upon which they have made a Theological Comment, at the end whereof they con∣clude, that Aristotle was the forerunner of Christ in Naturals, as John the Baptist was his forerunner in Spirituals. But now let us hear what these Philosophers say concerning Happiness and the chiefest Good, which some plac'd in Pleasure, as Epicurus, Aristippus, Gnidius, Eudoxus, Philoxenes, and the Cyrenaicks. Others joyn'd Honesty with Pleasure, as Dinomachus, and Caliph. Others in the choice gifts of Nature, as Carneades, and Hierome of Rhodes. Others in Grief, as Diodorus. Others in the Vertues, as Pythagoras, So∣crates, Aristotle, Empedocles, Democritus, Zeno Citicus, Cleantes, Hecaton, Possidonius, Dionysius of Babylon, and Antisthenes, and all the Stoicks. Many also of

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our Divines, adhering to them, do to this day raise great Disputes concerning the connexion of the Vertues, and what should be that common foundation of Hap∣piness, to the building of which all the Vertues ought to meet: For unless they all meet in one, 'tis impossi∣ble they should make a man happy, though there should be but one wanting. Seeing therefore that the Ver∣tues themselves are in some manner different and re∣pugnant one from another, as Liberality and Thrift, Magnanimity and Humility, Mercy and Justice, Con∣templation and Labour; unless they all concur Har∣moniously together, they are not to be esteem'd Ver∣tues, but Vices. Now that wherein they ought all to concur, is Justice, according to the Opinion of Am∣brose and Lactantiu, who together with Macrobius, have followed the Opinion of Plato in his Common∣wealth. Others take it to be Temperance, that im∣poseth a mean in all things. Others will have it to be Sanctity, as Plato in his Epinomides. Others hold it to be Charity, without which all other Vertues little avail, as saith St. Paul; and upon this Question Scotus, Henry, Thomas Aquinas, and others, have at this day raised very great Disputes. But let us return where we began. Some men have plac'd Felicity in Fortune, as Theophrastus. Aristotle places it in Fortune, joyn'd with Vertue, and the Gifts of generating Nature: as also in Pleasure, varnished over with the profession of Vertue; as if Epicurus did not defend and shelter his Pleasure under the same pretence. The other Peri∣pateticks thought that it consisted in Speculation. Herillus the Philosopher, Alcidamus, and many Socra∣ticks, held Knowledge to be the chief good. The Platonicks, together with their Master Plato, and Plo∣tinus, never without a smack of Divinity, will not permit Happiness to be separated from the Chief Good. Bias of Pryena constituted supream Happi∣ness

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in Wisdome; Bion and Borysthenes in Prudence▪ Thales Milesius in a mixture of these: Pittacus of Mi∣tylene in well doing: Cicero in leisure from all business; though when we have sought far and neer, it is onely to be found in God alone. I pass by the crowd of Vulgar Philosophers, that took away all Felicity; as Pyrrho Eliensis, Euricolus, and Xenophanes; or else plac'd it in Glory, Fame, Honour, Power, freeness from Trouble, Riches, and the like: as Periander Corinthus, and Lycophron, together with those of whom the Psalmist thus saith: Whose mouth talketh vanity, and whose right hand is the right hand of iniquity; whose sons are as new plantations in their youth, & whose daugh∣ters are as the polished corners of the Temple; whose gar∣ners are full and plenteous with all store; whose sheep bring forth thousands, and ten thousands in their steets: whose oxen are strong to labour; who have no decay, no leading into captivity, and no complaining in their streets. Those who enjoy'd these benefits, they accompted hap∣py. Now concerning Pleasure, they all believe as diffe∣rently concerning it: for, as I told you before, Epicurus makes it to be the Supream Good; but on the other side, Architas Tarentinus, Antisthenes, and Socrates, ac∣compt it to be the Chief Evil. Speusippus, and some of the antient Academicks, said, that Pleasure and Pain were two Evils opposite one to the other; but that was the Good, which was in the mean between 'um. Zeno esteem'd Pleasure neither Good nor Evil, but an indifferent thing. Critolaus the Peripatetick and Pla∣to, affirm Pleasure not onely to be evil it self, but also the fountain of all evils. It would be over-tedious to re∣cite the Opinions of all men concerning Felicity, and to heap 'um up all together; with which many Scrib∣lers have fill'd whole Volumes. For St. Austin puts us in minde of one hundred and eighty Opinions col∣lected by Varro, touching this very Subject; the chiefest

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whereof we have here taken an occasion to repeat. But now let us see how all these Opinions agree with the Doctrine of Christ, and we shall find, that Blessed∣ness and chief Happiness are not to be attain'd or ac∣quir'd by Stoick Vertue, Academical Severity, or Peri∣patetick Speculation, but by Faith and Grace. You have heard how some Philosophers place Chief Hap∣piness in Pleasure; but Christ in Hunger and Thirst. Others in Fame and Renown; but Christ in the Cur∣ses and Hatred of Men. Others in Beauty, Health, Mirth, and Pleasure; but Christ in Weeping and Mourning. Others in Wisdome and Knowledge, and the Moral Virtues; but Christ in Innocency, Sim∣plicity, and uprightness of Heart. Others in Military Glory, and famous Actions; but Christ in Peace. Others in Fortune; but Christ in Mercy. Others in Pomp and Honour; but Christ in Humility, calling the Meek Blessed. Others in Power and Victory; but Christ in Persecution. Others in Riches; but Christ in Poverty. Christ teaches us, That Vertue is not to be acquired but by Grace granted from above; the Philosophers, by use and Natural Gifts: Christ teaches us to desire the Good Will of all Men, to Love our Enemies, Lend freely, to take Revenge of no body, to give to every one that asks; the Philosophers, on∣ly to those that are able to recompence Courtesie for Courtesie; and that there is nothing more Lawful, than to be Angry, bear Malice, make War, and exercise Usury. These Philosophers were they that first Erected the Pelagian Heresie, with their Free-Will, dictates of Reason, and Light of Nature. Therefore saith Lactan∣tius, all Moral Philosophy is a vain and empty thing, neither sufficient to instruct men in the Rules of Justice, neither in their duty or Government of themselves. Lastly, it is altogether repugnant to the Law of God, and Doctrine of Christ; owing its chief honour to Sa∣tan.

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CHAP. LV.

Of Politicks.

TO this kind of Philosophy Politicks in the next place appertain, which is the Art of Administring and Ordering Publick Affairs. Now Government is di∣vided into three sorts. Monarchy, which is the Go∣vernment of one Man, or Kingly Soveraignty. Ari∣stocracie, when a few, and those of the Nobility Go∣vern. Democracy, when the meaner sort, or the Com∣mon People bear sway. Neer of kin to thse is, First Tyranny to Kingship; Oligarchia to Aristocracy; and Anarchy to Democracy. But which of all these Forms of Government is in the first place to be prefer'd, is not yet concluded among Writers. They who assert Mo∣narchy, confirm their Thesis by the Example of Nature, saying, That as there is but one God that governs the Universe, as there is but one Sun among the Stars, one King among the Bees, one Master-Ram in a Flock, one Commanding Bull in a Heard, one chief leader of the Cranes; so in a Nation there ought to be but one King, as Soveraign and Head of the Political Bo∣dy, from which the Members ought in no wise to disagree. This Form of Government Plato, Aristotle, and Apollonius approv'd above the rest; to whom among those of our own Religion, Cyprian and Jerome adhere. But those who extol Aristocracy, say that there is nothing more effectual in the management of great Affairs, than the Consultations of many, and those the most noble. For the Counsels of the chiefest men ought to be best; neither can any one man be compleat in Wisdome, seeing that is onely proper to God himself.

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To the Judgment of these Men, Solon, Lycurgus, De∣mosthenes, Tully, and almost all the ancient Lawgivers, together with Moses, unanimously subscrib'd. Neither did Plato Diffent from them, affirming that Com∣monwealth or City to be most happily and firmly Con∣stituted, which was Govern'd by wise Men; to whom we may likewise add, without prejudice, the most Noble, as being an Opinion Confirm'd by the com∣mon consent of all Writers. But they who prefer a Popular State, have dignifi'd it with the most agree∣able and specious Title of Isonomie; That is to say, Impartiality in the Administration of Justice. For therein all things are refer'd to the Common Vote, all Councels are carried on by the Multitude; the more certain, by how much the greater Number advice is gi∣ven. Moreover, the Voice of the People is said to be the Voice of God. Hence whatsoever is Enacted by the Generality, whatsoever is Establish'd by the com∣mon consent of the People, that seems to be Ordain'd by God himself, and may be presum'd to be best and most just. Besides, they conclude this Form of Govern∣ment to be safer than that of Aristocracy, as being less subject to Sedition. For the People seldome or never disagree among themselves; but the Nobles very often, and with great Contention. In a popular Government there is all Freedome and Equality, no oppression of Tyranny: where the degrees of Estates are equal, no man is richer than his Neighbour, but all the People Rule and Command by urns. Democracy there∣fore has been especially commended by Othanes the Persian, Eufrates, and Dion Syracusanus: and we ob∣serve at this time the Venetian and Helvetian Com∣monwealths to be the most flourishing People in the Christian World; renown'd for their Prudence, Pow∣er, Riches and Justice, and no less famous for their Victorious Atchievements. The Athenian Common∣wealth

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also commanding a large Dominion with great Force and Power, was govern'd only by Democracy, all things being acted by the People, and with the People. The Romans also making use of this Form of Government, became Masters of the greatest part of their Empire under Democracy, and were never in a worse Condition than under the Command of their Kings and Nobility; but chiefly suffered from their Emperours, under whose Command their vast Domi∣nion suffered Shipwrack. So that which of these three Forms is best, is hard to judge, since there is neither of them but has its strong Defenders and Oppugners. Kings, they say, who Command altogether according to their own Will and Pleasure, seldome Govern well, and very rarely without War and great Combustion. Kingly Rule hath also this most unavoydable Mischief in it, that they who before were counted good and just, having obtain'd as it were a Regal Authority, and Liberty to do evil, grow uncontroulable, and the worst of Men; which is verifi'd in Caligula, Nero, Do∣mitian, Mithridates, and many others. Scripture also witnesses the same in Saul, David, and Salomon, Kings chosen by God: and of all the Kings of Juda, few were approved; of the Kings of Israel, none. Empe∣rors also, Kings and Princes that now adays Raign, think themselves Born and Crown'd not for the sake of the People, not for the Good of their Citizens and Commonalty, not to Maintain Justice, but to Defend their own Grandeur and Prerogative; Governing so, as if the Estates of the People were not committed to their Custody, but to be shar'd and divided by them, as their own proper spoyl and prey. They use their Subjects at their pleasure, and as they list themselves, abusing the Power with which they were Entrusted; Oppress their Cities with borrowing, the Common Peo∣ple, some with Taxes, some with Penal Statutes, others

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with excessive Subsidies and Imposts, without Measure and without End. Or if some more moderate do release the excess of these Grievances, they do it not in respect of the Common good, but for their own Private ends, permitting their Subjects to be at quiet, that they may live at ease themselves; or else to gain to themselves the name of being Mild and Just. Others most severely punish guilty Offenders, Confiscating their Goods, and setting great Fines upon their Heads, not caring how many they take in the same Premu∣nire: For as the Offences of Delinquents are the strength of Tyrants, so does the Multitude of Offenders en∣rich Princes. Being in Italy, I had the honour to be very familiar with a powerful Prince, whom when I once advis'd to suppress the Factions of the Guelphs and Gibellines within his Dominions, he confess'd to me ingenuously, that by means of those Factions, above Twelve thousand Duckets came every Year into his Exchequer. Now where the Nobility Command in chief, there is nothing but Jealousie, Hatred, and Emulation. Rarely therefore they agree in Amity, every one seeking to be Chief, and to make his own Sentence pass. Hence Factions, Seditions, Slaughters, Civil War, and at length, the Total Ruine of the Com∣monwealth. Whereof there are infinite Examples in the Histories both of the Greeks and Latines. And at this day in most of the Cities of Italy, the Effects of those miscarriages are to be seen. But Popular Go∣vernment is Universally accompted the most destru∣ctive, and worst of all. Apollonius with many Rea∣sons disswades Vespatian from it. And Cicero Affirms, That there is neither Reason, Council, Discretion or Diligence among the Vulgar People, as the Poet also sings.

By opposite desires and humours led, Th' uncertain Vulgar move, once taking Head.

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Othanes the Persian also asserts, that there is nothing more insolent, nothing more stolid; nothing more proper to the Rabble, than to know; nothing but head∣long, like a Current, to carry all business before 'um. Demosthenes calls the people an Evil Beast. Plato, a Monster with many heads; which Horace doth not forget. And Phalaris writing to Egesippus, All mul∣titudes, saith he, are rash, mad, slothful, apt to change their Opinion, perfidious, uncertain, treacherous, heady, fraudulent, good for nothing but to make a noise, easie to love or condemn. Hence it follows, that he who in governing the Commonwealth strives to please the people, must be contented to submit to a hundred un∣deserved Contumelies. Lycurgus being ask'd why he had not erected a Popular Government in his City, Rather do thou, saith he, submit to a Popular Govern∣ment in thy house. Aristotle also in his Ethicks con∣demns the government of the people to be the worst of all, but the rule of one person to be the best: for the Commonalty is the Ring-leader of Errour, the Mistriss of evil Customs, and a rude heap of Mischief. No Reason, no Authority, no Perswasions can move, where it either wants knowledge, or is in contempt: Therefore are the Vulgar so indocible and obstinate a∣gainst all perswasion, whose nature is so unconstant, always desirous of Novelty, despising the present Au∣thority, not to be curb'd by the learned Admonitions of the Wise, by the Precepts of their Ancestors, Authori∣ty of Magistrates, or Majesty of Princes. This we finde verifi'd in Socrates, question'd by the Athenians about his opinion of the Gods; In Capys the Trojan, delivering his judgment about the bringing in of the Grecian Horse; In Magius the Campanian, advising that Hannibal should not be received into the City; In Paulus Emilius perswading not to fight at the Bat∣tl of Canna; Lastly, in so many of the Predictions of

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the Prophets of God, no way obey'd or hearkned to by the people of the Jews. Moreover, as to the Laws and Statutes of the people, how is it possible that any of them should be good or profitable, seeing that it is impossible for the popular Multitude to understand which are good, and which are evil? the greatest part whereof are ignorant labouring Handicraft people, not led by Reason of Justice or Equity, but consisting onely in Number, where there are generally more bad than good: Neither is the determination of Affairs led by Judgment, but guided and turn'd to and fro according to the favour, number and affection of the Multitude: Which Pliny the younger affirms; for the decrees and choices of the people are number'd, not consider'd. For in popular Consultation, that always carries the day, which not the wisest, but the greatest number think most convenient: among whom, while they all accompt themselves equal, there is nothing more unequal than that Equality it self. Nothing therefore can be rightly order'd by the promiscuous heat and headlong fury of the Multitude; nor can a∣ny thing be rightly amended, that shall be found amiss and disadvantageous to the Commonwealth: rather, those Statutes and Decrees which are made and con∣firm'd, and found to be most wholesome for the pub∣lick good, by the rage of the inconsiderate Multitude, are overturn'd and abrogated. Now among all these so various forms of Rule, and administrations of Go∣vernment, most Authors have another, compounded of two particular kinds: Such an one did Solon compose, partly of the Nobles, partly of the People; so making his publick Honours communicable to all. Others thought fit to frame their Political Rules by making a mixture of all three together. Such was the go∣vernment of the Lacedaemonians, for they had a King who was perpetual; but he had little or no Command,

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only in time of War: then had they a Senate chosen out of the richest and wisest part of the Nobility; moreover, out of the Common People they Created Ten perpetual Ephori, who had power of Life and Death, and were Controulers both of the King and Senate, being Elected out of the Vulgar people. Among the Romans, the Authority of the Senate plainly shew'd that there was an Aristocracy mix'd with their Demo∣cracy; and we find that many things were commanded by the Senate, many things by the People. And at this day, though in many places Kings and Princes do rule at their own pleasures, yet do they make use of the chief Nobility and Gentry in the several Counties and Provinces of their Kingdoms, to transact many Affairs, and of great consequence: from whence hath arose a question, which it is most sate to live under, a good Prince and bad Counsellours, or bad Counsellours and a wicked Prince. Marius Maximus, Julius Capitolinus, and others, choose the latter; notwithstanding that many grave Authors are no way willing to consent to them; finding by experience, that evil Counsellors may be corrected sooner by a good Prince, than an evil Prince be amended by good Counsellers. However, for the good government of a Commonwealth or Kingdom, it is not Philosophy nor Kingcraft, nor any other Sci∣ence that can avail, but the integrity, fidelity, and ability of the Ruler: for a single person may govern best, so may a few, so may the people, provided that in each there be the same intention of Unity and Ju∣stice; but if the designes of each be evil, then can neither rule as they should. But that which convinces the strange rashness of Men addicted to Rule, is this, that when Men in their several stations, some plainly confess themselves ignorant how to Plough and Sow, how to keep Sheep, some how to guide a Ship or govern a Family; yet there is no Man who does not

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think himself sufficiently gifted to bear Office in a City, to act a King or Prince, or to command great Nations and People, which is the most difficult thing.

CHAP. LVI.

Of Religion in General.

TO the perfect Weal of a State or Kingdome, Religion is of main concernment, which is a certain Discipline and Canon of outward Rites and Ceremonies, by means whereof, as by certain signes, we are admonished of our Internal and Spiritual Duties. Cicero defines it to be a Discipline teaching us to ex∣ercise the Ceremonies of Divine Worship with a reve∣rent Famulatu: which that it is most useful and ne∣cessary for all Cities and Governments, the same Ci∣cero, together with Aristotle, firmly holds. For thus saith he in his Politicks, It behoves a Prince above all others to seem Religious. For the People are of Opi∣nion, that such Rulers will do 'um no harm; and they will be the more afraid to Plot against them, by how much the more they think themselves defend∣ed by the Gods. Now Religion is so deeply Rooted in Men by Nature, that it makes the difference more plain betwixt them and Beasts, than Reason. Now that Religion is thus Naturally grafted in us, Aristotle confesses; besides that it is apparent from his very experiment, That as often as we are oppressed with any suddain Dangers, or put to any suddain Affright, presently before we search into the Cause, or seek for any other help, we flye to Coelestial Invocation; Na∣ture it self teaching us, without any other Instructor, to Implore Divine Assistance. From the Beginning of

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the World we find, that Cain and Abel did Religiously Sacrifice to God; though Enoch were the first that taught the Forms and Ceremonies of Divine Worship: for which reason the Scripture saith, That then the name of the Lord first began to be call'd upon. After the Flood, how many several Laws and Ordinances of Religion were Instituted by several persons in se∣veral Nations! For Mercury and King Menna taught the Aegyptians their Forms of Worship. Melissus the Foster-Father of Jove, instructed the Cretans in their Ceremonies. Faunus and Janus Instituted the Rites of the Latines. Numa Pompilius, those of the RomansMoses, those of the Hebrews. Cadmus also, the Son of Agenor, is said to have brought out of Phoenicia all those Solemn Mysteries, Consecrations of Images, Hymns, Festivals, and other Sacred Rites and Customs, performed in honour of the Gods▪ which were af∣terwards in use among the Graecians. Neither did they only give names to the Gods, but also Ordaina what Rites and Ceremonies should be due to each. They held, that there were certain Numens the Pro∣tectors of Criminal Offences, and ascrib'd a Deity to Diseases, and evil Accidents: Therefore did the Ro∣mans Worship Jove the Adulterer, and Dedicated a publick Temple to the Goddess Feaver, and in their Esquiliae plac'd an Altar to Misfortune. In Hell they also found out Deities to adore, and the Prince of Darkness, Satan, the most miserable, and the lowest of all, they made a shift to Worship, under the Names of Pluto, Dis and Neptune, assigning to him for a Keeper the Three-headed Cerberus, that greedy Monster that Compasses the Earth seeking whom he may Devour; sparing none, hurtful to all, the Accuser of all Men.

From Captive Souls, the Lord of Stygian Lands, For past Offences, Punishment demands:

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'Gainst all the shades, remorseless Rage he breaths; With Furies compass'd, and a thousand Deaths. Here sundry sounds of sundry wayling Pains, There Thousand Torments shake their dismal Chains.
Th' Aegyptians, together with their Deities, adore Brute Beasts and Monsters; and there are at this day that Worship Idols and Images. At this day likewise a great part of the World, as the Turkes, Saracens, Arabians and Moors, give Divine Honours to Mahomets; though the Author, or first Founder of a most ab∣surd Religion: and the Jews yet persisting in their folly, believe their Messiah yet to come. Among us Christians, several Popes, several Councils, several Bi∣shops have prescrib'd several Varieties and Forms of Worship; differing among themselves, either touch∣ing the manner of the Ceremonies, Meats lawful, Fasts, Vestments, Publick Ornaments: or else about Cleri∣cal Promotions and Tithes. But one thing overcomes the admiration of Wonder it self, to see how these Ambitious men think to climb Heaven, by the same wayes that Lucifer fell from it. Neither do all these Laws and Rules of Religion lean upon any other Foundation than the meer Opinions and Pleasure of their Founders. Consider from the Beginning of the World how many there were, how many there are several Inventions of Religion; how many Ceremo∣nies, how many Heresies, how many Opinions, how many Decrees, how many Canons; yet cannot Reli∣gion lead men in so many Ages to the right Path of Faith without the Word of God; which being once made Flesh, and Triumphing over his Enemies on the Cross, Temples and dols were thrown down, and the Powers of Numens and Oracles ceas'd.

The Voice of Pytho's gone, that seldom rr'd. Apollo too, so many Ages▪ heard,

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Is now in silence lock't. Tby Service done, to thine own Country go; Return to thine own Altars down below.

For no sooner the Word of God came to shine in the World by the manifestation of the Gospel, but all the Gods of the Heathen, being as it were Thunder∣struck, fell to Destruction, according to the saying of Christ in Luke, I saw Satan falling from Heaven like Lightning. How far this concerns Faith, Theology, and the Decrees of the Canonists, we shall discourse hereafter: For now we are only treating of Religion, so far as to those Mysteries contained therein, which concern the benefits of the Priest, or that suffice to render the outward face of the Commonwealth sump∣tuous with Images, Statues, Temples, Phanes, Chap∣pels, Dignities, Pomp and Riches of the Ministers and Ecclesiastical Officers, of which I have Disputed at large, in my Dispute upon the Theological Decrees, held by me at Collen, in the Year 1510: and therefore I shall the more briefly pass them over now, yet show you, that among those things which were set apart for the decency of Worship, and most proper for the safety of Mens Souls, not a little of the Tare of Va∣nity and Destructive Superstition has been mix'd.

CHAP. LVII.

Of Images.

THe worship of Images has not been antiently by all people admitted: For the Jews, as Josephus relates, after they had been so often chastized, and in∣deed at first the most strict observers of the Law, did

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abhor nothing more than the making of Images. For the commands of God, delivered by Moses, did utterly prohibit the use of Images, either in Temples or in any other place. And Eusebius testifies, that among the people call'd Seres, the adoration of Images was by Law absolutely forbidden. Neither do we read either in Clement or Plutarch, that (for so Numa had decreed) there was any Image to be seen, or that was spoken of, for above a hundred and seventy years after the buil∣ding of the City. Which also St. Austin alleadges out of Varro, whose words most clearly witness, that there was no Image or Idol in the City for one hundred and sixty years; and that afterwards it came to pass, that by reason of the Multitude of Images and Idols, the Worship of the Gods was not only neglected, but had in contempt. The Persians also, as Herodotus and Strabo Witness, never suffered Images among them. On the otherside, in the honour of Idols there were none more Superstitious and dotingly stupid than the Aegyptians, from whence that Impiety, as from a cor∣rupted Fountain, over-ran other Nations; which Su∣perstitious Customes, and false Religion of the Heathens, when the same People became to be Converted to the Christian Faith, did not a little contaminate the Pu∣rity of our Religion; introducing Idols and Images into our Church, together with many Barren Pomps and Ceremonies, of which there was nothing thought of among the Ancient and Primitive Christians: Nor can it be imagin'd how strongly and superstitiously Idolatry is riveted into the Minds of the Unlearned Multitude by the means of Images; the idle Priests among the Catholicks conniving thereat, as reaping not a little benefit thereby. 'Tis true, they endea∣vour to defend themselves by the help of St. Gregories Words; who saith, That Images are the Books of the Vulgar, whereby the Memory of things is by them the

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more easily retain'd; so that by these, they who cannot read, may yet be taught, and by the sight thereof be drawn to the Contemplation of God. However, these are but the humane Comments and Suppositions of Palliating St. Gregory; and though that good Man might in some sort approve of the Images themselves; yet it cannot be thought that he did any way allow the Worship thereof. For it is no part of our duty to learn from the Forbidden Book of Images, but from the Book of God, which is the Scripture. He there∣fore who desires to know God, let him not endeavour to obtain that Knowledge from the handy-work of Painters and Statuaries; but according to the Directi∣on of St. John, Let him search the Scriptures what testimony they give concerning him. And they who can∣not read, let them hear the Word of the same Scrip∣ture, where St. Paul pronounces, That Faith comes by hearing; and what Christ in another place aith. My Sheep know my Voice. As also what in another place he avers, No man can come to him unless the Father draw him, and no man cometh to the Father but by Christ himself. Why then do we take the Glory from God, giving it to Pictures and Images, as if they could draw us to the Knowledge of the most Divine Being? To this we may add the vain and immode∣rate Worship of idle Reliques. We confess, That the Reliques of the Saints are Holy, and that they thall one day shine with the Glories of Eternity; Yet to give them Adoration as to the Reilqus of Dities that hear our Prayers, is a most stupid piece of Fasci∣nation. Lest therefore we fall into Idolatry and Su∣perstition, it is the safest way for us not to fix our Faith upon visible things. But the Covetous Generation of the Romish Clergy, greedy after gain, raising matter to eed their Avarice, not only out of Wood and Stones, but also from the Bones of the Dead, and Reliques

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of the Saints, make them the Instruments of their Ra∣pine and Extortion. They shew the Sepulchres of the Saints; they expose the Reliques of Martyrs; which no man must so much as touch or kiss, but for mony. They adorn their Pictures, set out their Festivals with great Pomp and State, they extol 'um for Saints, ad∣vance the Fame of their Miracles, utterly disagreeing in their Lives and Conversations, from the Lives and Examples of those whom they praise. These were the Men to whom our Saviour spoke, when he cry'd out, Wo be to you that build up the Sepulchres of the Prophets like to those that shew them. Like to the Heathen, to every Saint they allot his proper charge; to one with Neptune they share the Command of the Seas, and power of Deliverance from the dangers thereof: to another with Jupiter, to have the Do∣minion of Thunder: to another with Vulcan to con∣troul the Fire: to another they pray with Ceres for seasonable and plentiful Harvests: to another with Bacchus they give the Charge of their Vintages and Vines. The Women also have their Deities, from whom, as from Lucina, they beg for Children, and the cure of Barrenness: and another, by whose Power they either Appease, or Revenge themselves upon their An∣gry Husbands. Others there are, to whom they give the priviledge of recovering and finding Lost Goods. Neither is there any Disease which has not its pecu∣liar Physitian among the Saints. Which is the rea∣son that Physitians do not get so much as Lawyers; there being no sort of Action, though never so just, that ever could boast of a Saint for its Patron. 'Tis true, the Papists aver, That as the Soul in every Mem∣ber Displayes a several Act; and every Act, as it is variously dispos'd, receives a distinct Power, as the Eye to see, the Ears to hear: So Christ in his Mystical Body, of which he is the Soul, by his several Saints,

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as Members accommodated to the same Body, doth Administer and Distribute the several gifts of his Grace to the Inferiour Creatures; and that to every Saint is allotted a particular operation for the dispersing of se∣veral Graces, according to the variety of Graces given to each Man. But this Conjecture, as being one of Agrip∣pa's Vanities, for which there is no ground in Scripture, we cannot reckon among the Vanities of Science, but as a peculiar Invention of his own.

CHAP. LVIII.

Of Temples.

NOW as concerning Temples, there was nothing wherein the Superstition of the Gentiles was more eminent, who to every Deity were very curious in Building particular Temples; after whose Exam∣ple, the Christians afterwards Dedicated their Tem∣ples to particular Saints. Yet there were many Na∣tions that never made use of any Temples; and Xerxes is reported to have burnt all the Temples throughout Asia, at the perswasion of his Magicians, believing it to be an Impious thing to enclose the Gods in Walls. But of these Temples Zeno Citicus Disputed formerly in these Words; To build Churches and Temples, saith he, it is no way necessary: for nothing ought to be ac∣compted Sacred by Right, nothing to be esteemed Holy which men themselves Build. Among the Persians of old there were no Temples; Neither was there among the Hebrews from their first beginning, but only one Temple Dedicated to Divine use, which was Built by Solomon, of which however it is thus written in Isaias; Thus saith the Lord, The Heaven is my seat, the Earth

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the footstool for my feet, what is this house which thou buildest for me? And Stephen the Protomartyr adds, Salomon built a House, but the most High Inhabits not in places made with Hands. And Paul the Apo∣stle saith to the Athenians, God dwells not in Temples made with hands: for being the Lord of Heaven and Earth, he is not serv'd by mens hands, who wants not their help. However he teaches, that Humane Nature, even Men themselves Holy, Pious, Religious, Devout to God, are the most acceptable Temples to God: as he Asserts, writing to the Corinthians, Ye are the Temple of God, and the Spirit of God dwells in you; the Temple of God is holy, so ought you to be. Moreover, Origen writing against Celsus, confesses, That at the first beginning of Christian Religion, and long after Christs Suffering, there were no Churches Built; Confirming by many Arguments, that among Christians they avail neither to the right Worship of God, nor to the Honour of true Religion. Therefore faith Lactantius, Temples are not to be made to God of Stones piled up to an im∣mense height, but there is a place to be reserv'd in the Heart of every Man, where his Thoughts ought to retire when they are taken up in Religious Exercise.

Not Temples made with hands th' Almighty hold; Just men are the true Temples made of Gold.
And Christ sends his Adorers not into the Temple, not into the Synagogues, but into their private Clo∣sets to Pray. And we read, that he himself did many times appear with the Multitude in the Cities, in the Temple, in the Synagogue, when he made his Sermons; but he went into the Mountain to Pray, where he spent the Night in Prayer. However, the Church, that does nothing but by the Inspiration of the Spirit of God, when the Christian Religion began to

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increase, and that Sinners entred into the Temple with the Godly, the weak with the strong in Faith, and as they entred the Ark of Noe, the Clean with the Unclean, did then Ordain certain Temples, Chappels, Churches, and separated Places free from Prophane business, wherein the Word of God might be Publick∣ly Preached to the Multitude, and the Sacraments might be more decently and orderly Administred; which have since been held by the Christians in most Venerable Esteem; and being guarded with the Immu∣nities of several Princes, have encreased to such a vast Number, augmented with the Addition of Monasteries, Abbies, and the like, that it is very necessary that many of them should be cut off as superfluous and unneces∣sary Members. And here we cannot be unmindful of another Enormity, which is the superbity of Building, wherein vast sums of Alms and sacred Money is ex∣pended; which, as we have observ'd before, would be more fitly and honestly employ'd in the maintenance of the true poor of Christ, the true Temples and re∣semblances of God, many times ready to perish for hunger, thirst, cold, labour, sickness, and want.

CHAP. LIX.

Of Holy-days.

HOly-days, both among the Gentiles, as among the Jews, were always in great estimation; who did all at certain times of the year, and upon certain days, set apart several Holy-days for Divine worship upon several occasions; as if it were lawful to be more religious or more ungodly at one time than another; or that it were the pleasure of God to be worshipped

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more at one time than another: which St. Paul ob∣jects to the Galatians as a shame, writing to them af∣this manner: Ye observe days and months, and times and years: I fear I have labour'd for you in vain, and without a cause. Concerning which when he admo∣nishes the Colossians, he commands them in these words: Let no man judge you for meat or drink upon a Holy∣day, or of the New-moon, or of the Sabbath, which are members of future things. For to true and perfect Christians there is no difference of days, who are al∣ways feasling and pleasing themselves in God, always keeping a perpetual Sabbath; as Isaiah prophesi'd to the Fathers of the Jews: The time shall come that their Sabbath shall be taken away; and when the Savi∣our comes, there shall be a perpetual Sabbath, and per∣petual New-moons. However, for the sake of the common people, and the more illiterate part of the Church, the Holy Fathers did institute Holy-days, that they might have liberty and vacancie to come and hear the Word, and to celebrate Divine Worship, and for receiving the Sacraments; yet so that the Church should not be subservient to the days, but that the days should be subservient to the Church. Therefore did the Fathers ordain certain Holy-days wherein the com∣mon people were exhorted to abstain from worldly business and bodily labour, whereby they might be the more free to serve God, the more at leisure to pray and think upon Divine matters, to be present at Ser∣vice and Sermons, and to tend such other Duties as might most directly tend to their Salvation. But that same perverter of Equity, that destroyer of all Order and Decencie, that author of all Evil, the Devil, en∣deavouring to pull down whatever the Holy Ghost sets up, hath neer demolish'd this Tower of Beauty also. While we behold the greatest part of Chri∣stians not converting this Holy leisure of Holy-days to

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the exercises of Prayer, or hearing the Word of God, but spending their pretious time in the corruption of all good Manners, Dancing, Stage-playes, lewd Songs, idle Sports and Games, Drinking, Feasting, Visiting, and in all worldly and Carnal works quite opposite to Spiritual. As Tertullian speaks of the so∣lemn Feasts of the Caesars: They were wont, saith he, to make a great stir, to bring forth into the publick street their Fires and their Chorus's, to junket in the High-way, to make a Tavern of the whole City, to pour Wine down one anothers throats by violence, then to run headlong to do all manner of mischief, and to please themselves in all manner of filthy Lust. Are we not therefore deser∣vedly to be condemn'd, who celebrate the Festivals of Christ and his Saints after such a lewd fashion? I confess we do not finde many Heretical Disputes concerning Holy-days, omitting the madness and Blasphemy of the Manichaeans, and the pestiferous opinions of the Cata∣phrygians; yet had they like to have occasion'd a great breach in the Church, when Victor the Pope excommu∣nicated all the Eastern and Southern Churches for not keeping Easter-day according to the direction of the Western Decrees; who notwithstanding was notably resisted, among others, by Polycrates Bishop of Asia. Ireneus also Bishop of Lions, though he observ'd Easter-day as was commanded by Victor, yet with great free∣dom undertook to chide the Pope, for that he had, contrary to the Example of his Predecessors, as a di∣sturber of the Peace, lopp'd off so many Limbs of the Church, not for any Errour in point of Faith, but onely for disagreeing in point of Ceremony from the Church of Rome. 'Tis true, there have been many decrees of Popes and Councils to confirm and settle the observation of Easter-day, and many Ecclesiastick Computations have been made, for the better finding out of the true day: And yet to this very hour they

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could never find out a certain day, or that was Uni∣versally observ'd through the whole World at one and the same time. A very worthy business indeed, that for the humour of one obstinate Pope, the whole Church should suffer Shipwrack.

CHAP. LX.

Of Ceremonies.

OF the Members of Religion, the Pomp of Rites and Ceremonies in Habits, in Vessels, in Lights, in Bells, in Organs, in Singing, in Perfumes, in Postures, in Pictures, in the choice of Meats and Fasts, and the like, have been receiv'd and approv'd with great Ado∣ration and Veneration by the Multitude, especially Papistical, who understand no more than what they see with their Eyes. Numa Pompilius first Instituted Ceremonies among the Romans, thereby to invite a rude and fierce People, that had obtain'd a Kingdom by Violence and Rapine, to Piety, Truth, Justice and Religion: such were the Ancylia and Palladium, the Sacred Pledges of the Empires Safety; the double-Fronted Janus, Arbiter of Peace and War; The Fire of Vesta, over which a she-Flamin did continually Watch: The Year also divided into Twelve Months, with the variety of Good and Evil Days. The Sa∣cerdotal Dignity divided into Pontifexes and Augurs; their various Ceremonies of Sacrifices, Supplications, Shews, Processions, Temples; of which the greatest part, as Eusebius testifies, has been Translated into our Religion. But God himself, who delights not in Flesh and Humane Signes, contemns and despises these Car∣nal and Exteriour Ceremonies. For he is not to be

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Worship'd with Corporal Actions, Eye-pleasing Works, or Carnal Adoration, but in Spirit and Truth by Christ Jesus. For he looks upon the Faith, considering the inward Thoughts and Intentions of Men; the searcher of Hearts, that sees the very Secrets of the Soul. Therefore those Carnal and outward Ceremo∣nies no way advance us toward God, with whom there is nothing acceptable but Faith in Jesus Christ; with a perfect imitation of his Charity, and an unshaken hope in his Salvation and Reward. This is the true Worship, spotless from all Contamination of Exter∣nal and Carnal Ceremonies; wherein St. John instruct∣ing us, saith, That God is a Spirit, and to be worship'd in Spirit and Truth. This some of the Ethnick Philo∣sophers were not ignorant of; therefore Plato forbid that any Ceremonies should be used in the Worship of the most high God. For there is nothing wanting to him, who is all things himself; only it is requisite that we should adore him, by returning our thanks to him for all things. Neither have we any thing more grate∣ful to return to God, than Praise, Glory, and Thanks. Neither will it serve for an Objection, to insist upon the Sacrifices, Rites, and Ceremonies of the Mosaical Law, as if God had taken delight in them. For God brought them not out of Aegypt to offer up Sacrifices and Incense to him; but that forgetting the Idolatry of the Aegyptians, they might hear the Voice of God, and obey him in Faith and Truth to the obaining of their Salvation. Now the reason that Moses Institu∣ted Sacrifices and Ceremonies among them was, that he bare with their Infirmities, and yielded to the hardness of their Hearts, indulging a small Error, to recal them from things more unlawful, directing their Sacrifices to God, and not to Devils. For those things were not principally Instituted, but by consequence; neither could that Law oblige them otherwise, than

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as it was approv'd by the people. Therefore Moses when he produc'd the Laws of Ceremonies, he col∣lected the suffrages of the Elders and the people, where∣by to render them more pliable to his commands. Therefore might that Law be chang'd according to the alteration of times and manners, and was at last totally abrogated; but the Law of God delivered in the Tables of Stone, that is perpetual. For so God spake by Jeremiah, Why do ye offer to me Frankincense of Saba▪ and Cynamon fetch'd from a far Country? Your Holocauts and your Sacrifices have not pleased me. And again by the same Prophet, Thus saith the Lord, Put your burnt offerings to your sacrifice, and eat flesh, for I spake not to your Fathers, nor commanded them when I brought them out of the Land of Egypt, concer∣ning sacrifices and burnt-offerings; but this thing com∣manded I them▪ saying, Obey my voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be my people; and walk ye in all the ways that I have commanded, you that it may be well with you. And Isaiah 43. 23. Thou hast not brought me, faith the Lord, the sheep of thy burnt-offerings, neither hast thou honoured me with thy Sacrifices; I have not cau∣sed thee to serve with an Offering, nor wearied thee with Incense; thou boughtest me no sweet savour with mo∣ney, neither hast thou made me drunk with the fat of thy Sacrifices: but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, and hast wearied me with thy iniquities. And Chap. 66. v. 2. To him will I look, even to him that is poor, and of a contrite spirit, and that trembleth at my words. For it is not thy fat flesh that shall cleanse thee from thy iniquities. For Chap. 58. v. 5. It is such a fast that I have chosen, vers. 6. to loose the bands of wickedness, to take off the heavy burthens, to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke. vers. 7. To deal thy bread to the hungry, and that thou bring the poor that wan∣dreth into thy house: when thou seest the naked, that thou

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cover him, and hide not thy self from thine own Flesh. Verse 8. Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thy health shall grow speedily, thy righteousness shall go before thee, and the glory of the Lord shall com∣pass thee. Verse 9. Then shalt thou call, and the Lord shall answer, Here am I. I will not deny, but that as by Moses and Aaron formerly in the Synagogue, and after him by the succeeding Priests, Judges and Prophets, even to the Scribes and Pharisees; so also in the Chri∣stian Church it was the practise of the Apostles, Evan∣gelists, Fathers, Priests and Doctors, to deck and adorn her with decent Rites, Ceremonies and Institutions, to render her a more amiable Bride to her Celestial Spouse. To which later Ages have added many things too much savouring of Humane Weakness. But as it often happens, that that which is provided as a Remedy, turns oftentimes to nourish the Disease; so happens it now with the Ceremonies of the Church, that through the folly of Popish Superstition, Christi∣ans are now adays more clogged with continual inno∣vations than were the Jews of old; and, which is worse, though these Ceremonies are many of them neither good nor bad in themselves, but things indiffe∣rent; yet the superstitious people groping in the dark of Popery and Superstition, place a greater belief in them, and observe them more strictly than the Com∣mands of God: the Bishops, Abbots, Monks and Priests conniving all the while thereat, and well providing thereby for their Bellies. Now these Ceremonies, though they have been the occasion of few Heresies against the Faith, yet have they introduced innumerable Sects into the Church, and have been the seed of ma∣ny Schisms. For from hence it came to pass, that the Greek Church was separated from the Romans, while the one Consecrated Vnleavened, the other Lea∣vened Bread; when it matters not which, so the Bread

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be consecrated. Hence the Bohemian Church separa∣ted from the Roman, that they might administer the Sacrament in both kinds; but as St. Paul saith, Gal. 6. 15. Neither circumcision availeth, nor uncircumcision, but the observance of the Commands of God, which the same Author in the same place calls, the new crea∣ture. Therefore is it a most abominable piece of Ini∣quity, for such slight causes, and about things indiffe∣rent, to disturb the Unity of the Church, and divide the Body of Christ; and as our Saviour objects to the Pharisees, to Cleanse the outside of the Cup and swallow a Camel. Therefore by the providence of God the Pope did himself little good, when he was so stingy against the Leaven of the Greeks, and the Bohemian Cup.

CHAP. LXI.

Of the Magistrates and Superiours of the Church.

IN the Government of the Church, it is necessary to make use of Ecclesiastical Magistrates and Officers, for the avoiding confusion. Now whatsoever is done in the Church, either for Ornament or for the increase of Religion, whether it be in the Election of Over∣seers, or in the Institution of Ministers, unless the same be done by the instinct of the Divine Spirit, which is the Soul of the Church, it is altogether im∣pious, and contrary to the Truth: For whosoever is not call'd to the great Office of the Ministry, and Dig∣nity of Apostleship by the Spirit, as was Aaron; and whoever enters not in at the door which is Christ, but gets another way into the Church through the win∣dow,

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that is to say, by the favour of men, by purcha∣sing Voices in Election, or by superiour Power; certain∣ly such a one is no Vicar of Christ or of his Apostles, but a Thief and an Impostor, the Vicar of Judas Is∣cariot, and Simon the Samaritan. Therefore it was so streightly provided by the antient Fathers in the E∣lection of Prelates, (which they therefore call the Sa∣crament of Nomination) that the Prelates and Apo∣stles who were to be Overseers of the Ministers of the Church, should be men of most unspotted Inte∣grity in their Lives and Conversations, powerful in sound Doctrine, able to give a reason of all their do∣ings: But the antient Constitutions falling from their Majesty, and the late Pontifical Jurisdiction by dam∣nable Custome getting a head, such a sort of Popes and Prelates now adays ascend into the Throne of Christ, such as were the Scribes and Pharisees in the Chair of Moses, who talk and do nothing, binding heavy burthens to the shoulders of the people, to which they will not put the stress of a little finger: Meer Hypocrites, performing all their works to be seen of men, making a shew of their Religion as it were in Scenes; they covet the chief Seats at Feasts, in Schools, in the Synagogues; the upper hands in the streets, and to be saluted with the ponderous appella∣tions of Rabbi and Doctors. They barricado up the Gate of Heaven, not onely not going in themselves, but excluding others. They devour Widows houses, jabbering long Prayers, traveling Land and Seas to seduce children and ignorant persons; that having by the addition of one Proselyte encreased their forlorn number, they may with a more numerous train enter the Regions of Fire prepared for them. With their idle Legends and Traditions, they corrupt the most Holy Laws of Christ; and neglecting the true Tem∣ple of God, the living Images of the Son of the Fa∣ther,

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and the Altars of the peoples Souls, with a co∣vetous eye seek after onely Gold and Gifts; and mind∣ing the more profitable and sinister parts of the Law, are very strict in their Decrees touching Tithes, O∣blations, Collections, and Alms; Tithing Fruits, Cattel, Money; not sparing also things of the smal∣lest price, as Mint, Anise, and Cumin, for which, bar∣king like Dogs, they daily contend with the people in the Pulpit. But as for the more weighty and right∣hand-works of the Gospel, Law, Christian-Justice, Judgment, Mercie, Faith, these they altogether ne∣glect, slumbling at a little Stone, but leaping over a great Rock; blinde Guides, false and treacherous, a Generation of Vipers, whitened Sepulchres; outward∣ly in their Miters, Caps, Habits, Garments and Cowls, making a shew of Simplicity and Sanctimony, within full of Filth, Hypocrisie, and Iniquity; Whoremon∣gers, Dancers, Players, Pimps, Gamesters, Gluttons, Drunkards, Sorcerers, who being advanc'd to Bisho∣pricks, Cardinalats, Abbeys, and the like, not by ver∣tue of their deserts, but either by servile Flattery, Gifts, favour of Princes, or affection of Friends and Kindred, under the Mask of Hypocrisie heap to them∣selves private riches; devouring the goods of the Poor, making Fairs and Monopolies of the Alms of our Predecessors, wasting them again in Brothel-houses, Gaming, Hunting, and in all manner of Riot and Luxurie.

—Who Cure of Souls neglecting quite, In Horse and Hounds place all their chief delight.
They perplex the People, set Kings and Princes to∣gether by the Ears, sollicite Wars, pull down Chur∣ches which the Devotion of their Ancestors rear'd, to Buld stately Palaces in their places, clad in Purple and

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Gold, to the great loss and impoverishment of the People, infamy of Religion, and insupportable burthen of the Commonwealth; whom the Famous Bernar∣dus Clarevallensis in a Srmon at the opening the ge∣neral Synod of Rbeimes, before the Pope, openly stil'd, not instead of shepherds Mercenary, not instead of Mercenaries Wolves, but instead of Wolves Devils. Now as for the Pope himself, as the Bishop, Camotensis com∣plains, he is the most intolerable and burthensome of all, whose Pomp and Pride never any the most haughty Tyrant yet equall'd. And yet they boast, that the safety of Religion and the Church is establish'd only in them, who throwing the burthens of Religious Duties, and the Ministry of the Gospel, which is the true Pontifical Function, upon their Inferiours, fit at the Helme making their own Laws, and receiving the benefits and profits of the Church, themselves in the mean while as idle, as they are full of iniquity. And making us believe, that the Pontifical Chair ei∣ther admits none but Holy Men, or else makes them so; thence they think it lawful for them to perpe∣trate any manner of wickedness. A perfect Example of all which, Crinitus gives us in Boniface the 8th. This is that great Boniface who did three Great and Miracu∣lous things; who Cousening Clement with a counter∣feit Message from Heaven, caus'd him to resign the Pontifical Chair to him; who compil'd the Sixth Book of Decretals, and made the Pope Lord and Supream in all things. Lastly, who Instituted the Jubilee, Erect∣ing Fairs for Indulgencies, extending his Jurisdiction as far as Purgatory. I omit those other Monsters of Popes, such as was Formosus, and those other Nine that followed him; neither do I insist upon those other of later times, as Paulus, Sixtus, Alexander, Julius, most famous Disturbers of the Christian World. I pass by Eugenius, who violating the League made between him

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and the Turks, was the occasion of such dreadful Ca∣lamities that afterwards befel the Christian Common∣wealth. How great mischief Alexander the sixth brought upon all Christendome, by poysoning Selim Brother of Bajazeth the Great Turk, is known to all Men. The Legates also of the Popes, as the said Ca∣motensis witnesseth, and daily Experience makes ma∣nifest, rage with such Fury in their several Provinces, as if Satan were sent from the face of God to scourge the Church. They trouble the Earth, and put it in an Uproar, that they may seem to have a Charm to appease it again; they are glad when evil things are committed, rejoycing in the worst and most wicked Actions, and scarce can refrain from Tears when they behold nothing Lamentable. They eat the sins of the people, are clad and nourish'd with the same; and luxuriously wallow in the same: yet have they fine names and pretences for their Vices; neither can any thing be objected against them, which they can∣not excuse by the Example of some Saint or other. For if it be thrown in their Teeth that they are Illite∣rate and Ungodly, they say, That Christ chose such for his Apostles, who were neither Masters of the Law, nor Scribes, nor ever frequented Synagogues or Schools. Tell them of the barbarousness of their Language, they'l tell ye Moses had an impediment in his Speech; and that Jeremie knew not how to speak; and that Zacharie, though he were dumb, was not excluded from the Priest-hood. If you object against them their Ig∣norance of the Scripture, Infidelity, Error, or Heresie; they repeat to ye, That St. Ambrose not yet a Christian, but only Catechumenos, was Elected to be a Bishop; and that St. Paul, not only from being an Infidel, but a Persecuter, was call'd to be an Apostle; that St. Au∣stin was a Manichaean; and that Marcelline the Martyr in his Papacy, Sacrific'd to Idols. If you upbraid them

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for their Ambition, they bring ye for an Example the Sons of Zebedee; If for Faint-heartedness, Jonas and Thomas, the one fearing to go to the Ninivites, the other to the Indians. If for Fornication, they say Oseas married a Strumpet, and Sampson a Whore. If for Quarrelling, Fighting, Murder, or taking up Arms; they tell you how St. Peter cut off Malchus Ear, how St. Martin serv'd under Julian, and how Moses kill'd the Aegyptian and hid him in a Stable. So that among them it is a matter of no Moment what man∣ner of Person he be, that is admitted to the chiefest Ecclesiastical Promotions: and then every one must sub∣mit his Neck to the Sword of these Ecclesiastical Ty∣rants. Not the Sword of the Word, of which they ought to be the chief Keepers and Ministers; but the Sword of Ambition, the Sword of Covetousness, the Sword of Injustice and Extortion, the Sword of bad Example, the Sword of Blood and Murther, with which they arm and defend themselves against all Truth, Justice and Honesty.

The Scepter's forceless, where no Justice raigns; That's true Religion, Honesty maintains. Freedom is Force, licentiously us'd; The Sword Protects not, when to Rage abus'd.
Nor is it lawful to contradict their Decrees, or disobey their Wills, unless any one be prepar'd to suffer Mar∣tyrdom as a Heretick; the very reason that Jeremy Savanarola, a Divine of the Order of Preaching Fry∣ers, was burnt at Florence, and suffer'd a Martyrdom. However, because all Powers are good, as being of God, who is the giver of all things, and of all good things; and though to those that are in authority, and those that are in subjection they may sometimes prove of evil consequence, however to the generality there

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is something of good in them; God so providing, who turns all our evil actions for the best. Whoever is therefore by God constituted a Bishop or Ruler in the Church, him we ought to obey, and in no wise to contradict; for who disobeys the Bishop or Priest, disobeys not man but God, as he himself spake to the Contemners of Samuel: They have not contemn'd thee but me: And as Moses reproving the murmuring people, saith, Ye have not murmured against us, but a∣gainst the Lord your God; nor will God suffer them to go unpunish'd that resist their Bishop or Prelate. Thus Dathan and Abiram rebell'd against Moses, and the Earth swallow'd them up. Many conspir'd with Corah against Aaron, and were consum'd with Fire. Achab and Jezebel persecuted the Prophets, and were eaten by Dogs. The Children mocked Elisha, and were torn and devour'd by Bears. Vzzia the King presuming to meddle with the Priesthood, was struck∣en with Leprosie. Saul adventuring to sacrifice with∣out the presence of Samuel the High Priest, was de∣priv'd of his Kingdom, and not onely depriv'd of his Prophetick Spirit, but possess'd with an Evil one. It is a point of Infidelity not to believe the Scriptures, a point of Impiety to despite the Ecclesiastick Govern∣ment.

CHAP. LXII.

Of the several sorts of Monks.

THere are yet remaining in the Church a sort of People of several Opinions which are call'd Monks and Fryars Anchorites, altogether unknown to the Old Law: At this day they assume to themselves

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the Title of Religious Persons; prescribing to them∣selves most severe Rules of Living; and Professing most Holy Duties and Exercises, march under the Name and Banner of some most Religious and noted Person or Martyr, as Bernard, Austin, Benedict, Francis, and the like: but at this time there is an Abomina∣ble Rout of sinners crept in among them. For hither, as to a Sanctuary, flock together all those, who out of the guilt of their Consciences, or otherwise fearing the Punishment of the Law, are safe no where else, others who have committed certain Crimes that are to be Expiated by Sufferance and Repentance, whom the dis-repute of their Conversations hath rendred proof against Infamy; who having wasted their Estates with Whoring, Drinking, Gaming, and all manner of Riot, at length Debt and Want compells 'um to Begg: others there are, whom the hope of ease, loss of Mistress, or their being Cheated when Young, fierce Mothers-in-Law, or severe Tutors, compel and drive to these Hou∣ses, the Massie Body of which Higgle-de Piggle-de is joyn'd and soder'd together with a reign'd Sanctimo∣ny, a Cowl, and a confidence of sturdy Begging. The Body of their Houses is that great Sea wherein, with the other little Fishes, dwell the great Leviathans and Behemoths, the Great Whales, Monsters, and creeping things, whose number is not to be told. From thence are spew'd up so many Stoical-Apes, so many Penny-Beggers, so many Mendicant Gown-men, so many Monsters in Cowls, so many Beard-weares, Rope-carriers, Staff-bearers, black, sad-colour, grey, white, woodden-shooes, ba••••-footed Budget bearers, vary-colour'd, many-coated, canvas-wearing cloak-carriers, gown-men, coat-carriers, some loose, some tuck'd up, with all the rest of the crouds of Histrio's, who having no Faith in Worldly things themselves, by reason of their monstrous habit, are yet by the poor

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People of the World accompted Divine, Usurping the Sacred Name of Religion to themselves, and boasting themselves to be the Companions of Christ and his Apostles; whose Life and Conversation is generally most Wicked, contaminated and defil'd with all man∣ner of Covetousness, Lust, Ambition, Sawciness, Im∣pudence, and all manner of enormity; yet going safe and unpunishable, under the defence of pretended Re∣ligion. For they are fortified with the Priviledges of the Romish Church, and exempted from all Ecclesi∣astical Jurisdiction, to the end they may the more lawfully go on in Wickedness: and although they are able to cite all other Persons whatsoever before their false and illiterate Tribunal, yet they themselves can be Cited no where but either to Rome or Jerusalem. As for their Vanities and Errors, were I to set them down in Writing, not all the Parchment in Madi∣an would comprehend them; I mean of them who profess not Piety for Religions sake, but put on the Cowl to maintain their Luxurie. Most rapacious Wolves, who under Lambs-skins and Sheeps-cloathing hide the Fox in their Brests, using such Arts of Dissi∣mulation, that their whole Profession seems to be a meer Mimick Hypocrisie, and a meer trade of Piety dri∣ven on by personated Persons, which under a Pale Vi∣sage hide their pretended Fasting, making their du∣tiful Tears obey their deep Sighs, counterfeiting Pray∣ers with the Motion of their Lips, and by means of their sober Gate, and demure Postures,

With Head dejected, fixing on the Ground Their Leacherous Eyes.
Assuming Modesty and Devoutness to themselves, with their poor Garments covering their pretended Hu∣mility, and by means of their Cowls hanging down

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their backs, creating to themselves an Opinion of Ho∣liness, though their inward and private Conversations be most detestable; who though they commit very great Enormities, are yet sav'd; with the pretence of Reli∣gion overcoming, and with their Cowls, as with Bucklers, warding off all the Darts of ill-Fortune; and thus living secure from all civil Troubles and Dan∣gers, eating the bread of Idleness, instead of that which they ought to Labour or, they afterwards lye down to Rest in ease and quiet: Esteeming it to be Evan∣gelical poverty, to feed upon the Labours of other men in beggery and idleness. These are they who Professing utmost Humility, clad in mean and vile Habit, bare-footed, Stage-players, bound with Ropes, like Rob∣bers and Thieves, with their Heads shaven like Mad-folks, with their Cowls, Beads, and Bells like Morris-Dancers and Carneval-mummers, prosess themselves to wear these Emblems of Poverty and Contempt for the sake of Christ and Religion: yet swelling in∣wardly with Ambition, and giving to the chief of their Orders the most ArrogantTides of Paranymphs, Re∣ctors, Guardians, Presidents, Priors, Vicars, Provinci∣als, Archimandritae, and Generals; so that no sort of People seems more covetous of People than they are. There are not wanting many other Enormities which may be truly reported of them; but there are others before me, who have made sufficient discovery there∣of already. I will not deny but there are some Pious and Devout men among them, but the Generality of 'um are Infidels, Reprobates, and Apostates, that de∣form and deface Religion.

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CHAP. LXIII.

Of Prostitution, or the trade of Whoring.

HEre it seems no way unseasonable for us to speak something of the Art of Bawdery, seeing that among the Egyptians, the first institutors of Religion, it was not lawful for any person to be made a Priest that was not first initiated in the ceremonies and my∣steries of Priapus; and for that in our Church it is also a receiv'd Maxime, that there can be no Pope with∣out Testicles, and that Eunuchs and gelt persons are forbidden to be admitted into the Priesthood; and for that we also finde, that wheree're there be the most stately Priories and Abbies, there are always certain Bawdy-houses adjoyning to 'um: and for that the recluse houses of Nuns, and Religious houses, are for the most part but the receptacles of lewd women, whom the Monks themselves do often keep privately in the Habit of Men, for their particular solace. There∣fore I say, it seems very proper to bring in a little dis∣course of the Practice of Bawdery in this place, which many wise Philosophers have thought not onely pro∣fitable, but necessary, in a well-order'd Common∣wealth: For Solon the great Lawgiver of the Atheni∣ans, and adjudg'd for one of the seven Wise Men by the Oracle of Apollo, as Philemon and Menander do both witness, took care for the buying of Wenches for the Young men, the first that dedicated the Tem∣ple of Venus Pandemia at the expence of the Rents of Prostitutes: he also instituted Brothel-houses, esta∣blish'd them by Law, and likewise gave them several priviledges and immunities. In Greece▪ Whores were

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had in so great esteem, that when the Persian was ex∣pected to make his violent invasion, the Corinthian Curtesans were order'd to make a publick supplication for the safety of Greece in the Temple of Venus. It was also a Custome among the Corinthians, that when they were to make any supplication to Venus, about any great matter, the care of that Affair was always committed to their Curtesans. Many Temples were built by the Curtesans among the Ephesians; and they of Abydos built a most stately Temple in honour of their Prostitutes, having recover'd their lost liberty by the means of a Curtesan. The wise Aristotle also was of opinion, that Curtesans were worthy of Divine honours, when he sacrific'd to Hermia the Harlot, in the same manner as is she had been Ceres Eleusinae. Now the invention of this Art is attributed to Venus, who was therefore translated among the number of the Gods. For she being a woman of little shame, and prostituting her self to all manner of Lust, was the occasion that the women in Cyprus made profit of the use of their bodies: Whence it was a Custome among the Cypriotes, that their Virgins so long before Mar∣riage appointed, might Prostitute themselves for mony to pay their Portion; and for their Future Chastity should make a small Offering to Venus. It was a Cu∣stome likewise among the Babylonians, as Herodotus affirms, That they who had consum'd their Private Estates, might compel their Daughters to Prostitution for their Maintenance. Aspasia the Socratick Curtesan fill'd all Greece with Harlots; for the Love of whom, and for that the Megareans had ravish'd from her cer∣tain of her Young Girls, Aristophanes reports that Pericles undertook the Peloponnesian War. The Em∣peror Heliogabalus did very much advance the Art of Baudery; who, as Lampridius witnesses, would al∣wayes have them prepared in his own House for his

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Friends and Clyents. He also bestowed great Banquets on them, of Twenty two great Dishes apiece, pro∣viding that between every Dish they might wash and retire, and they were sworn to perform duty. Ma∣ny times he would redeem Harlots from Bawds, and give them their Freedome. And he is said among the rest to have redeem'd a certain Noted and very fair Curtesan for Thirty pounds of Silver. And in one day he is said to have visited the Circus, Theaters, and Amphitheatres, and all the Curtesans through all Parts of the City, and to have distributed to every one a Crown in Gold. Another time he assembled all the Harlots and Curtesans from all Parts of the City into one Publick spacious place, where he made them as it were a Military Oration, calling them Fellow Souldiers, and disputed with them about the Variety of Postures and Pleasures; and after he had made an end of his Harangue, he order'd 'um, as to Souldiers, a Donative of Three Crowns in Gold: moreover, to such Roman Women as would play the Harlot, he not only gran∣ted Immunity but Impunity, and decreed Sallaries to the Harlots out of the Publick Treasury. He also Promulgated several wanton and sportive Decrees of the Senate touching Harlotry, which by the Name of his Mother and Wife, he called Semiramid's Laws: He also invented several sorts of Postures, whereby he might not only exceed the Cyrenian Curtesan call'd Duodecamechanick, for having invented Twelve wayes of Venereal Exercise; but that he might also Excel all the Ancient Tribad's Hostia's, Apbia's, Spinctria's, Gasalvada's, Casarita's, Prostipula's, and all the other famous Artists of their Times. I omit Juda the Jew∣ish Patriarch a Fornicator, and Sampson, one of the Judges of the People of God, who Married two Har∣lots; and Solomon the wisest King of the Jews, who kept whole Troops of Curtesans: Caesar the Dictator,

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a most strong man, and therefore call'd the man of Women: and Lastly, Sardanapalus Monarch of Baby∣lon, with many other Innumerable and most Potent Patrons of Curtesans. But I cannot pass by Proculeius the Emperour, who has not got a little Fame by In∣dulging to the Venereal Exercise, for that having ta∣ken an Hundred Sarmatian Virgins, he lay with Ten the first Night, and Deflowr'd 'um all in fifteen dayes. Though that were a far greater Labour which the Poets relate of Hercules, that he made Fifty Virgins Women in one Night. Theophrastus a grave Author relates, That there is an Herb of such Vertue in India, that he who Eats of it may be able to lye with a Woman Seventy times. Add to all this, that this Art has receiv'd no small ornament and credit from the Verses of Sappho the Poetess belov'd of Phaon, and from Leontium, with whom Metrodorus kept Com∣pany, most Learned in Philosophy; insomuch, that she wrote against Theophrastus, in defence of Forni∣cation against Wedlock. Among which, we may num∣ber Sempronia, most Elegant both in the Greek and La∣tine Tongues. Nor is Laena to be pass'd by, kept by Ari∣stogiton; of a most approved Fidelity towards him, who being put upon the Rack, to cause her to betray her friend, suffer'd the torments with an unspeakable si∣lence and constancie. Neither did ••••hodope the Cur∣tisan less ennoble this Art, the Preservatrix and Bed-fellow of Aesop that compiled the Fables, who at∣tain'd such a mass of Wealth by prostituting her body, that the built a third Pyramid, reckoned among the Wonders of the world. Next to her Thais is to be remember'd, who trusting in the prerogative of her Beauty, disdain'd the company of any others than Kings and Princes. In the advancement of this Art, Messalina far exceeded all these, who frequenting the publick Brothel-houses, overcame a noble Curtesan,

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suffering her self to be lain withal twenty five times in twenty four hours, returning wearied, but not sa∣tisfi'd: With whom we may joyn Joane the most Illustrious Queen of Naples of fresher memory, with many other Princely Curtesans and Palatine Harlots, were it safe to name them; yet in this differing from the common sort of Strunipets, that contrary to the Law of Heliogabalus, they acted not in publick Brothel-houses like the Empress Messalina, but in private Chambers. We may adde to these both the Julia's, the Niece and Daughter of Octavianus Augustus, toge∣ther with Populea, and Cleopatra Queen of Egypt; nor can we forget Semiramis and Pasiphae, most anti∣ent Examples of Lasciviousness: Of which the Lust of the one was so burning hot, that she not onely wooed her own Son to her embraces, but also passio∣nately lov'd a Horse even to desire of Copulation. The other, Wife to King Minos, suffer'd her self to be known by a Bull. It is not our business to set forth here a Catalogue of Illustrious Curtesans; yet we must not omit to inform you, that the Beds of Harlots and Adulteresses have brought forth the most Illustri∣ous Heroes in the world; for example, Hercules, A∣lexander, Ishmael, Abimelech, Solomon, Constantine, Clodoveus King of the Franks, Theodorick the Goth, William the Norman, and Raymund of Arragon. So lightly are the Laws of Matrimony set by among great Personages, who at their pleasure divorce, leave, and change their true and lawful Wives; and so often they wed and rewed their Sons and Daughters, that it is hard to say which is the most lawful Marriage. Do we not read how Ladislaus of Poland, having taken Beatrice to Wife, by whose very nod, as it were, he ob∣tain'd the Kingdom of Hungary, at length repudiated her to marry a French Harlot? Do we not finde, how Charles the Eight the French King having divorc'd

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Margaret the Daughter of Maximilian Caesar, took a∣way his espoused Wife and married her? whom after∣wards Lewis the Twelfth, having put away his own Wife, took afterwards to his Bed; the Bishops and Chief Clergy of the Kingdom assisting him therein, and consenting thereto; who esteem'd and valu'd the ends of obtaining Britany, more than the obser∣vation of the Laws of Marriage. But let us re∣turn to the Discourse of Harlots, whose cunning devices he that will understand, that is to say, by what ways they prostitute their Chastity, with what wan∣ton casts of the Eye, with what nods of the Coun∣tenance, with what gestures of the Body, with what flatteries of Speech, with what obscene Embraces, with what allurements of Habit and artificial Pain∣tings they provoke their Corrupters, together with the rest of their cunning Harlotry Devices, Snares, and Stratagems, let him seek 'um among the Comick Po∣ets. But he that desires to know what Allurements, what affectionate Language, what Kissing, Handling, Rubbing, Resisting; what postures of Lying, what im∣pulse of Action, what reciprocations of Kindness compleat the Venereal Game, let him search into the Volumes of Physitians. Yet there be others that have set forth Treatises of Harlotry, as Antiphanes, Aristo∣phanes, Apollodorus, and Callistratus; in particular, Ce∣phalus the Rhetorician wrote in the praise of Lais the Curtesan, and Alcidamus in honour of Nais. Not have many others both Greeks and Latins been wanting to discover their wanton Amours, as Callimachus, Phi∣letes, Anacreon, Orpheus, Alceon, Pindarus, Sappho, Tibullus, Catullus, Propertius, Virgil, Juvenal, Martial, Cornelius Gallus, and many others, more like Panders than Poets; though all of them were outdone by Ovid in his He∣roick Epistles dedicated to Corinna, which were also outdone by himself in his de Arte Amandi, which he

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might have better intitled, The Art of Whoring and Pimping: The learning whereof, because it had cor∣rupted Youth with unchast Documents, therefore was the Author deservedly banish'd by the Emperour Octa∣vianus Augustus to the farthest parts of the North, Archilochus also the Lacedaemonian, caus'd all Love-books and Verses to be burnt. Yet now adays this Art is publickly learnt and taught in every School by our unwary Pedagogues, with vain and obscene Commen∣taries upon the Text. Nay, I my self have seen and read under the Title of The Curtesan, publish'd in the Italian Tongue, and printed at Venice, a Dialogue touching the Art of Bawdery, wickedly explaining the Veneries of both Sexes, which with the Author were more fit to be committed to the fire. I omit to rehearse the most detstable vice of Buggery, which the Great A∣ristotle so much approves of, and which Nero solemniz'd with a publick Wedding; at which time St. Paul wri∣ting to the Romans, denounces the anger of the Omni∣potent against them. For on them shall God certainly rain Brimstone, and Coles of fire shall be the portion of their Cup. Against these the Emperour commands the Laws to arm themselves, and with exquisite tor∣ments to inflict capital punishment upon them, the Sword being the Executioner; but now adays they are burnt with Fire. Moses in his Laws ordain'd most severe punishment for this Crime: and Plato extir∣pates it out of his Republick, utterly condemning it in his Laws. The Antient Romans, as Valerius and others witness, inflicted most severe penalties on those that us'd it. Examples whereof were Quintus Fla∣minius, and the Tribune stain by Caelius. But that we may not farther vex the honest Ear, let us return from this monstrous Lust and beastly uncleanness, to our first Subject. For the Love of women is common to all, & there is no person that at one time or other does not

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feel the Fire thereof; though the women love one way, the men another; young men one way, great pesona∣ges another way; the poor one way, the rich another way: and, which is more miraculous, according to the difference of Nations and Climates. The Italians are of one humour in their Amours, the Spaniards of a∣nother, the French of another, the Germans of another. The same difference of Love appears in the difference of Sex, Age, Dignity, Fortune, and Nation, every one having a different sort of amorous Frenzy. The Love of men is more ardent and impetuous, the love of wo∣men more constant; the love of young men is wanton, the love of aged persons ridiculous; the poor Lover strives to please with Obsequiousness, the rich Lady with Gifts; the vulgar sort with Feasts and Treatments, Noble-men with Interludes and Plays. The ingenious Italian courts his Lady with a dissembled heat, a quaint kinde of Wooing, praising her in Verse, and extol∣ling her above all other women. If he be jealous, he perpetually shuts her up, and keeps her as his Captive; if he despair of enjoying his Mistriss, then he con∣founds her with a thousand Curses, and loads her with Maledictions. The Spaniard is rash, impatient of his heat, mad, and restless, and bemoaning the torments of his Flames, with miserable lamentations worships and adores his Mistriss. If he be cross'd in his Love, he grieves and pines away to death; if he grow jealous, he kills her, or being atiated, leaves her to prostitute her self. The lascivious French-man trusts in his Obsequi∣ousness, and strives to win his Ladies favour with Songs and merry Discourse. If he grow jealous, he com∣plains of his hard fortune; but if he lose his Love, he reviles her, threatens revenge, and attempts to com∣pass his ends by force. After enjoyment, he neglects her, and marries another. The cold German slowly moves to love; but being once inflam'd, he makes use

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of art and liberality. If he grow jealous, he shuts his Purse. After enjoyment, the heat is quickly over. The French-man feigns his Love, the German dissembles his Heat: the Spaniard hath a good opinion of himself, and believes himself to be belov'd; but the Italians Love is never without Jealousie. The French-man loves a witty, though unhandsome woman; the Spa∣niard prefers a fair woman before a witty: the Italian loves a fearful bashful woman; the German one that is bold. The French-man, through vehement desire, of a wise man becomes a fool; but the German ha∣ving wasted all his Estate, at length, though late, of a fool becomes a wise man: the Spaniard, for his Mi∣striss sake, will attempt great things; and the Italian, for the enjoyment of his Lady, contemns all thought of danger. Moreover, we see that great men intan∣gled in the Shares of Love and Passion, many times forsake great Actions, and leave most noble Enterpri∣zes behinde their backs, as formerly Mithridates in Pon∣tus, at Capua Hannibal, Caesar in Alexandria, in Greece Demetrius, Antonie in Egypt. Hercules ceas'd from his labours for Iole's sake: Achilles hides himself from the Battel for love of Briseis: Circe stays Vlysses: Clau∣dius▪ dies in Prison for love of a Virgin: Caesar is de∣tain'd by Cleopatra; and the same woman was the ru∣ine of Antonius. We read in Scripture, that for the Fornication of Seth with the Daughters of Cain, that the whole Race of man was drowned in the Flood. The Sichemites and the House of Amor was destroy'd in revenge of Fornication and the whole people of Israel, for committing Fornication with strange wo∣men, were many times overcome in Battel, and carried into Captivity. And for the single Adultery of one person, David the King, what a destruction and waste of people ensu'd! For Fornication and ravishing of women, the Thebans, Phoceans, and Circeans were as∣sail'd

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and quite overthrown; and for the same reason was the Peloponnesian War undertaken, as I said be∣fore, by Pericles; and Troy for the same reason, ten years besieg'd, to the vast detriment of Greece and Asia. For the same reasons, and upon the same score, Tarqui∣nius, Claudius, Dionysius, Hannibal, Ptolomy, Marck Antony, Theodorick the Goth, Rodoaldus the Lombard, Childerick of France, Advinceslaus of Bohemia, and Manphred the Neapolitan, suffered death, and the ruine of their Countries. Meerly for the vitiating of Ju∣lia Cana Daughter of the Governour of Tingitana, by Rodorick the King, the Moors having driven out the Goths, possess'd all Spain. Henry the second, King of England, for abusing the contracted Wife of his Son, Daughter of Philip the French King, had like to have been driven out of his Kingdom by his Son. For be∣ing false to their Beds, those enraged Wives, Clytem∣nestra, Olympia, Laodicea, Beronica, Fregiogunda and Blanch both Queens of France, Joane of Naples, and many other women, slew their Husbands. And this was the reason that Medea, Progne, Ariadne, Althea, Heristilla, changing their maternal Love into Hatred, were every one the cause and plotters of their Sons deaths. And now adays we finde, that many women revenge the Adulteries of their Husbands upon their Children; and of most milde and patient Mothers, have become most cruel Medea's, furious Althea's, and impious Heristilla's.

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CHAP. LXIV.

Of Pandarism, or Procuring.

NOw because that by the advice, assistance, and per∣swasion of Pimps and Bawds, both Whores and Whoremongers commit their mutual Follies; Let us discourse a little concerning their Subtleties and Devices; for as it is the Calling of a Whore onely to prostitute her own body, so it is the business of a Pimp or Bawd to batter and overcome the Chastity of another. Which is therefore a Trade to be in some respects preferr'd before the Trade of Self-prostitu∣tion, by how much it is the more wicked; and so much the more powerful, as being guarded with the Artillery of many other Arts, and Experience besides: so much the more pernicious, that while it makes use of other Arts and Sciences, whatever there is of poy∣son in any Art or Science, that this worshipful Voca∣tion wholly sucks to it self; out of which the weaves those Snares, that not like Spiders Cobwebs take the Flies, but let go the stronger Birds; nor like the strong toils of Hunters catch the bigger Beasts of Chace, and let go the less; but such strong Nooses and Bands, that no Maid, no Virgin, no Woman, never so silly, never so prudent, never so constant, never so obstinate, never so bashful, never so fearful, never so confident, but will at length lend a willing ear to a Bawd, & be insnar'd with her perswasions. So fine a Craft is this, that no woman can vanquish, whose perswasions no Virgin, Widow, Wife, or Matron, though a Vestal, can resist; whose un∣armed Militia vanquishes the Chastity of most women, which a whole Army would not be able to conquer.

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The crafty tricks, cunning shifts, deceit, circumven∣tions, delusions, frauds, and strange inventions of the Art of Bawdery, no Pen can suffice to set down, nor Wit to express: So that it is nothing strange, that though there be so many Professors of this Trade of both Sexes, yet there are few that arrive to a perfecti∣on therein. For since the Baits of Pandarism lie couch'd in every Art or Science, it behoves therefore a Bawd to be perfect in every one. Therefore she that intends to be a perfect Bawd, must not direct her stu∣dies to one particular sort of knowledge, as to her Pole∣star, but to be universally learned, as professing an Art to which all other Arts and Sciences are but the Slaves and Hand-maids. For first and foremost, Grammar, the Art of Writing and Speaking, affords ye ability to write Love-letters, and how to compose and frame them of Complements, Petitions, Lamentations, and Moans, Invocations, Protestations, and alluring perswasions; of all which ye have many late Presi∣dents, in Sylvius, Jacobus, Caviceus, and many other Modern Authors. There is also another use of Gram∣mar for the manner of abstruse and secret writing in Characters, an Invention of Archimedes the Syracusan, as Aulus Gellius reports. Concerning this, Trithemius Abbot of Spanheime hath written two Treatises some few years since, one under the Title of Polygraphy, the other under the Title of Stenography; in the latter of which, he hath discover'd such mysterious ways and means of expressing the minde at what distance soe∣ver, and concealing the meaning of words plainly legible, that the most discerning jealousie of Juno, nor the strict custody of Danae, nor the watchful eyes of Argos can ever prevent. Next to Grammar comes Madam Poesie, who by the assistance of her lascivious Rhimes, wanton Stories, and Love-dialogues, Epi∣grams, and Epistles, taken out of the Armories of Ve∣nus,

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playing the part of a Pimp and Bawd together, corrupts all Chastity, destroys all the hope, toward∣liness, and good manners of Youth. Well therefore do Poets deserve to have the Precedencie above other common Pandars and Bawds, of which the chiefest among the Antients were these, whom we have above named in the Chapter of Prostitution: as Callimachus, Philetes, Anacreon, Orpheus, Pindarus, Alceon, Sappha, Tibullus, Catullus, Propertius, Virgil, Ovid, Juvenal, and Martial: and we have now adays too many that write after a most impudent and shameful manner. Next to Poets, Rhetoricians claim Precedencie, the contrivers of fraudulent Flatteries and Perswasions; for which cause Suadela or Persuasio was held to be the chief Goddess of Pandarism. Historians also have not a little Interest in the World, especially the Com∣pilers of those Historical Romances of Lancelot, Tri∣stram, Eurialis, Peregrinus. Callisthus, and the like; by means whereof, young Children are in their tender years bred up and accustom'd to the Intrigues and Mysteries of Fornication and Adultery. Neither is there any Engine so powerful whatsoever to overthrow and oppress the Chastity of young Virgins, Wives, and Widows, than the reading of a wanton History: no woman so well principled, or of so chast a disposition, which is not spoil'd and tainted thereby. And yet for Maids and Virgins to discourse what they have read in these Books, to taunt and jeer, and prattle with their Servants or Wooers in imitation of what they read there! Now there have been many of these Histori∣cal Pandars, of which some of obscure same; as Aeneas Sylvius, Dantes and Petrarch, Boccace, Poutanus, Baptista de Campo Fragoso, and Baptis de Albertis a Floremine: Also Peter Haedus, Petrus Bembus, Jacobus Carniceus, Jacobus Calandrus, Mantuan, and many others, from all which Boccace bears away the Bell,

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especially in those Books which he calls his hundred Novels; where the Stories and Examples set down, do but discover the Stratagems and Tricks of Whores and Bawds. Now when a woman Vertuous, Religious, and Chast, is to be assail'd, then all the fallacious Argu∣ments of Rhetorick are let loose; and how far they avail, the Fable of Myrrha in Ovid tells ye. Now as concerning the Mathematicks, what greater assistance and help to familiarity, than your Mathematical Plays and Games? Neither is Musick a contemptible friend of this Art, as being no small incentive and provo∣cative to Lust, by means of her wanton Airs, and the Charms of Voice, and sweet touches of an Instrument, softning the Minde, moulding the Affections, and af∣terwards introducing variety of Society and Company, who begin at length to be Lovers and Admirers. Nei∣ther is there less use of Dancing and Dancing-schools, where the Lovers have freedom of Discourse, liberty of Kissing, Handling, and Embracing; and many times, after that, the conveniencie of withdrawing. Nei∣ther is the Geometrical Artist wanting to give his as∣sistance, by whose contrivance fine convenient Lad∣ders are made for the scaling of Windows, and by the cunning of Daedalus, Keys are many times counterfei∣ted, and no invention omitted that may farther Pasi∣phae's obedience to her Adulterer. But as for Pictures, these, women that never had the advantage of read∣ing, may understand more than they who had read never so much; while they behold within their Cham∣bers Copies of Obscenity, easie enough to be imitated, whereby the Eyes, as well as the Ears, become the Con∣duits to convey evil thoughts to the Heart. Pi∣ctures make a deep impression upon the Minde, seeing that the representation of what has been done, easily moves men to do the like: For example, Venus of Gidos drawn in her Temple by the hand of Praxitiles,

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in the Act of being Vitiated: and a Cupid of the same Artist corrupted by Alchidas a Rhodian young man. Elian also reports, that the Statue of Fortune was so vehemently belov'd by an Athenian young man, that when he could not be permitted to buy it, he expired at her feet. Terence also in his Eunuchus, brings in a young man inflam'd with Love, seeing a Picture, where was painted the Story how Jupiter lay with Danae in a Golden showre. Therefore not undeser∣vedly propose, that a severe penalty should be inflicted upon those Painters, who expos'd such things to the eyes of the multitude, whereby to kindle and inflame Lust; so that it was not without cause that the wise man said, That Statuary and Painting were invented by the Devil, as a chief means to tempt them to evil. In the next place we meet with Astrologers, Palmistry, Gypsies, Fortune-tellers, Dream-expounders, Witches, & Conjurers, an innumerable tribe of Assistants to Pan∣darism, by a kinde of Divine Imposition of their Fal∣lacies upon the disturb'd Fancies of Youth, bring un∣lawful Amours to perfection, contrive and finish most wicked and abominable Marriages, and er'e they be well knit together, dissolve them by and by into most heinous Adulteries. From such Panders as these, not onely credulous women, but to their unspeakable shame, men also fetch the prosperous Omens of their Loves and Marriages, grounding the hopes of Pos∣session or Enjoyment upon their uncertain guesses; and upon their not so stupid as impious assurances, either Marry, or leave the Pursuit of their Love. Nay, some are so mad as to believe, that by Astrological Images, and observation of Hours, Love may be compell'd, as Theocritus, Virgil, Catullus, Ovid, Horace, Lucan, and many other triflng Poets have made the world believe: By which single piece of Cunning, your A∣strologers and Fortune-tellers make no small advan∣tage.

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Next to which, Magick also brings a very con∣siderable aid.

That by her Charms some Lovers trees from fears, Afflicting others with consuming Cares.
Of which Lucan thus sings:
—Love that before was slw, Thessalian Charms now cause to overflow Th' inflamed heart—
In Horace we finde Candidia; in Apuleius, Paemphilae provoking their Lovers; and in the Tragi comedy of Callisthus, Celestina the Bawd inflames the Virgin Melibae by her Magick Art. To these we may adde the use of Philters and Love-potions, though very dangerous, sometimes the cause and procurers of Death instead of Love. One of these Drenches kill'd Lucullus and Lucretius, who before they did grew mad, and lost their senses. We read also of a certain wo∣man who was acquitted by the Areopagites, because she did it out of Love. But there is no Art or Science so use∣ful and profitable to Pandarism as Physick, that pro∣mises fairly, by renewing the Hymenan Film, to re∣store lost Virginity, to hinder the Brests from swelling, to put a Spell upon the Womb, administring procure∣ments of Sterility for the longer continuation and se∣resie of Venereal Combats, and teaching how by the swift motion of the Reins, to eject the first matter of Conception, as we read in Lucretius.

Thus for their own sakes, Whores were wont to move, Left they should fill too soon, and gravid prove, Not equal Pleasure with their Loves enjoy.

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By which one benefit of Physick, many Matrons and Widows, many that go for Maids, many Court-La∣••••es most securely follow the sports of Venus. Nei∣ther is Physick less Officious in filling up the clefts of Age, in composing Pomatums and Fucus's, for which you may find infinite Receits in every Volume of Phy∣sick, and in all their Pharmacopoeas, under the Title of Decorating and cleansing the skin; and are of great use for Bawds, to put off their old Worm-eaten Ware: which Compositions the Scripture calls Oyntments of Whoredome. With these you shall also see set down many Incentives and Provocatives to Lust, which are call'd by another Name, Restoratives; by the help of which, Ovid boasts himself to have liv'd to the Nine∣tieth Year. Moreover, there is no design of Bawdery so closely and undiscernably carried, as that which is Acted under the Design of Physick; for there are no Houses so fast shut, no Nunneries so Recluse, no Prisons so well guarded, which will not admit a Physitian-Pan∣der, in whose shape Adulteries have been Commit∣ted in the Courts of Princes, as by Eudemus with Livia the Wife of Drusus; and by Valerius Vectius with Messa∣••••ina the Wife of Claudius. Now lest any one should think the Philosophers unuseful for Pandarisme, behold Aristippus the very Master of the Cyrenaicks, who asso∣ciating himself among other Rivals with Thais a No∣ble Curtesan, boasted that he enjoyed Thais, others were only enjoyed by Thais; so that while they wasted their Estates upon her, he had his Pleasure with her gratis. Whereby it is shrewdly to be suspected, that he Jade did but make the Philosopher her Pimp, by his Example and Authority, minding to draw the young Nobility to her Embraces. Neither was Aristip∣pus satisfied in making himself Pimp to a Whore; ut he also began to teach the Arts of Lust in Publick, Translating them from the Brothel-house into the

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Schools. Nor are the Mechanick Arts less favourable to the Art of Bawdery than these we have rehears'd; especially, the Phrygian Arts of Weaving, Knitting, Sewing, and other the like Female Exercises, under pretence whereof your old Bawds while they pretend to carry about Linnen, Silk, Head-cloaths, Hoods, Lock∣ets, Gloves of young Whores, now become stale and experienced Bawds, making those Toyes the Baits of their Allurements, and thereby also obtaining the op∣portunity of Discourse; and these are immediately se∣conded by Laundresses and Chare-women, who have freedom of access into Houses: There are also Beg∣gars that under pretence of Charity are constant at the doors where any Design is laid, on purpose for the Conveyance of Letters and Messages.

And to the Married Wife those Gifts convey, Which the Adulterer sends to make his way.
The Exercises of the Nobility also, as Tilting and Ju∣ing, give great opportunities to Compass the Designs of Pandarisme, as also your Military Traynings, by means whereof, Romulus ravish'd the Sabin Virgins, And as for Hunting, how often have the Woods been privy to the secret Adultries of great Personags? In relation to which, Virgil takes a very good occasion to be merry, discribing the opportunity that Dido and Aeneas had when they lost their Company in Hunting. And Jupiter himself did oft-times make the Shepherds his Pimps. What great opportunities are got by go∣ing by Water, Venice can testifie. The Art of Cookerie gives also the same advantages at great Feasts and Dinners.

After the Feast was ended, all took down, They mighty Goblets place, and Bacchus Crown.

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Here rich with Gems and Gold, the Queen requires A Bowl with Wine; them merry be, desires. Then having gently kiss'd the swelling Cup, Gave't Bicias: be the full Gold soon turns up; Next other Peers.— Tyrians and Trojans praise with one consent, But the slow Night unhappy Dido spent In various talk, and long imbibed Love.
There are many other Artifices also of Bawds and Pimps: but above all, there is nothing like the temp∣tation of Gold, wherein if the Alchymist could satisfie our Expectation, they would be the most Invincible Panders in the World.

A Wife well Portion'd, high Repute and Friends, Kindred and Beauty, all Queen Pecunia sends.
The Jealous Husband is appeas'd with Gold, the inex∣orable Rival mollified with Gold, the most strict and watchful Keepers and Guardians are corrupted with Gold: there is no Dore, no Gate, but opens to Gold: no Bed-chamber, but gives entrance to Gold: Bars, Stone-walls, and the indissoluble Bonds of Wedlock, all yield to the Force of Gold: and what wonder if Virgins, Widows, Matrons, Vestal Virgins, are sold and bought for Gold, when Christ himself was sold for Silver? Moreover, under the Leading and good Conduct of this Captain of Pandarism, many have risen from ve∣ry low and mean Fortunes, to the highest degree of No∣bility. That man prostitutes his Wife, and is presently made a great Officer; another prostitutes his Daughter, and is presently made an Earl; another for procuring such or such a Lady into the embraces of his Prince, is streightway thought to be worthy of some great reward, and is presently made a Bed-chamber-man.

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Others are come to be great persons, for marrying the Kings Concubines; and being preferr'd to great Em∣ployments by the same Arts of Pimping and Pandar∣ing, make sufficient gain of Popes and Cardinals; nei∣ther is there any way more compendious to get an E∣state. Now how much Religion conduces to Panda∣rism, the History of Paulina a most Chast and Constant Lady, related by Aegesippus, most abundantly testifies, whom the Priests of Isis prostituted to a young Knight, whom they made her believe to be the God Anubis. What more powerful Charm for the advancement of Pandarism, than Auricular Confession? as is sufficiently manifest in the Tripartite History, and of which, were I so minded, I could give fresh Examples upon my own knowledge. For the Priests, Fryers, Monks, and Si∣sters, have a special Prerogative to be both Pimps and Bawds, having the liberty to wander where they please, and with whom they please, when and as oft as they please, to converse with all privacie and secrecie, with∣out any witnesses neer; so well and securely and their Bawderies personated and disguis'd. Some there are among 'um, who think themselves anathematiz'd, should they touch Money; yet the words of St. Paul nothing move 'um, That it is not good to touch a wo∣man: and yet they not onely handle 'um with their unchast hands, but secretly also haunt the publick Bro∣thel-houses, deflowering the Holy Nuns, vitiating Wi∣dows, and adulterating the Wives of their Host sometimes, which I both know and have seen; like the Trojan Ravisher, they carry 'um quite away, and pro∣stitute 'um in common to their Fellows, according to Plato's Law; & whereas they ought to gain their Souls to God, they sacrifice their souls to the Devil. Many other more wicked Crimes than these, their mad Lust com∣mits, which it is a shameful thing to utter; in the mean while, believing that they have sufficiently per∣form'd

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their Vow of Chastity, if they do but in words onely bitterly inveigh against Luxury, Fornication, Adultery, and Incest; not being able to talk of Ver∣tue without shaking their Buttocks. Such as these the great Ladies always keep neer 'um, the Contrivers of Court-marriages and Adulteries. There was in an∣tient time a Decree of the Senate engraven in two Ta∣bles, and kept in the Temple of Venus, a Law favou∣rable to Whoremongers and Bawds; a Copy where∣of we finde set down by Crinitus in these words: The Laws of visiting, courting, whispering, toying, in∣truding, saluting, discoursing, wooing, let them be per∣mitted by me. Let no man hinder them from all con∣veniences in the House, at the Windows, in the Garden, postico impluvio, let them carry their Messages, let them keep Faith, let them give all aid and Assistance. In the second Table thus: At Night let them mind their Vows, let them with their protestations mingle Complaints, let them put away all shame and fear; let them sup∣press sorrow, let them take hold of time and place, never give way to opportunity; in their Love-Letters succidunto; in them let them urge their hopes, their affection, their expectation, necessity and compassion, fraud, force or stratagem, let them moderately use; let them act prudently, or foolishly; from a Mistress, let them always take any thing as a Pledge or Pawn; by her permission let them proceed, or seek a new one; let them Court a Noble high-minded Lady with pomp and subtletie: His Conjectures let him silently pursue. Lycurgus also made a Law, That if any person stricken in Age, and unfit for Marriage, should happen to Wed a young Virgin, it might be lawful for her to choose any young Man strong and lusty, to hansel her Fruit∣ful Womb with a more generous Seed, provided that the off-spring should be her Husbands. There was also another Law made by Solon, which gave liberty

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to Wives, if their Husbands were grown infirm, and not able for the Venereal sport, to chuse some one per∣son, next of Kin, to lie with 'um, provided the Off-spring should not be alienated. And I onely touch upon it by the way, that there are many Noble wo∣men now adays, who are well known to make use of other men to get them with Childe, and impose their spurious Issue upon their Husbands: Afterwards being brought to Bed and up again, they return to the Society of their Adulterers: In that worse than Ju∣lia the Wife of Agrippa, who would never receive a Passenger till the Ship was laden. In the Sacred Writ also we finde the stratagems and devices of Lovers and Love-assistants, as of the Mother-in-Law of Ruth, in Jonadah whom the Scripture calls a Wise man, and in Achitophel a grave and prudent Counsellor. We read also, that Abraham when he sojourned with the Egyptians, knowing his Wife to be fair and young, I know, saith he, that thou art a fair woman to look up∣on, therefore it will come to pass when the Egyptians see thee, they will say, She is his wife; so will they kill me, but thee will say, keep alive: say, I pray thee, that thou art my sister, that I may fare well for thy sake, and that my life may be saved. So the woman was taken into Pharaoh's house, and Abraham was intreated well for her sake. The same subtlety he also us'd towards A∣bimeleck King of the Philistines; and so did Isaac the Son of Abraham. Thus you see the Art of Pandarism has been highly honour'd and advanc'd by the Gods, by Heroes, Legislators, Philosophers, Wise men, Di∣vines, Princes and Prelates. Pan and Mercury them∣selves were Pandars, and the little Boy Cupid: The Hero Vlysses, the Lawgivers, Lycurgus and Solon, were Pandars, who were the first that built Brothel-houses, and countenanc'd the Prostitution of young women to men. Of later days Pope Sixtus built up a most noble

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Brothel-house at Rome; the Emperour also Heliogaba∣lus fed whole droves of Whores in his own house, for the use of his friends and acquaintance. It has been the great care of Queens, Princesses, and great Ladies, to practise this Art, in so much that many Queens have been the procurers of Female-pleasure to their own Sons. Nor have the chief Magistrates and Bur∣gomasters of Cities disdain'd the Office; for the Co∣rinthians, Ephesians, Abydens, Cyprians, Babylonians, and many other Magistrates of other Towns, were all of them Pimps and Panders to their Subjects, buil∣ding and maintaining Bawdy-houses in their Cities, not a little inriching their Treasuries with the Tribute which they exacted from Curtesans: which is a thing common in Italy, and in Rome every Curtesan pays a Julio a week to the Pope, which many years amounts to above Twenty thousand Ducats; the hire and wages of Whores being a great part of the Ecclesiastical Treasury. Nay, I have heard some compting up their Estates in this manner: He hath, saith he, two Bene∣fices, one Curateship of twenty Crowns, another Pri∣ory of forty, and the tribute of three Whores in the Bordelli, which amounts to twenty Julio's a week. No less Pimps and Bawds are those Bishops and Offi∣cers, that exact a yearly Tribute from the Priests, to permit them the use of Concubines; which exaction is become a Proverb among the common people, who cry, Shall he, or shall be not have a Concubine? Let him pay a Crown, and take one. But in the Kingdom of Co∣vetousness, there is nothing accompted shameful by which Money is to be gotten. I pass over the inven∣tion of Toleration, which gives a woman liberty, by means of a little Money paid to the Bishop, to co habit in Adultery with another man. All which things are so manifest, that it is impossible to say which is most ap∣parent, the impudence of the Prelates, or the stupidity

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of the common People: so that it were very needful for the Princes of Germany to seek redress hereof, as one of the greatest grievances and oppressions of their Empire. Such Patrons has the Craft of Pandarism, who with no less power defend the mysteries of Puta∣nism; for which, to our great grief and shame be it spoken, there are such great Priviledges and Immuni∣ties throughout the whole Christian Commonwealth, such ample tolerations, contrary to the Divine Laws, and the Word of God it self: Humane Reason and the Power of Pandarism so potently contriving to give to Youth this wicked Liberty, under the pretence of kee∣ping them from acting higher Impieties. Take away Whores, they cry, out of the Commonwealth, and streight the world will be fill'd with Rapes, Adulteries, and Incests: no Matron shall remain unviolated, the Chastity of no Widow shall be safe, Virgin and Vestal Nuns will not escape their fury: From whence they conclude it to be impossible for a Commonwealth or Nation to be in a quiet posture of Government, with∣out the allowance of Harlots; without whom the Children of Israel however liv'd so Chastly and Con∣tinently for many Ages together: for such was the Command of God, There shall be neither whores nor whoremongers suffered among the children of Israel. Notwithstanding which, that beastly liberty before mentioned has endeavoured to invade the Pale of the Church under the pretence of Religion, and was the ground of the Nicolaitan Heresie, who to avoid the suspition of Jealousie, prostituted their own Wives, and by a Platonick custom maintained community of Wives. But we are bound to let all Princes, Judges, and Magi∣strates understand, that whoever they be that permit the use of Brothels, or by any way connive at their sufferance, though they themselves may perhaps not be guilty of the Crime it self, to them shall God speak as

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is spoken by the Psalmist: If thou didst see a thief, thou didst run with him, and didst set up thy portion with Adulterers. These things hast thou done, and I have held my peace; Thou didst believe I would be like thee, but I will convince thee, and set thy transgressions before thee.

CHAP. LXV.

Of Beggerie.

IT is a great part of the duty of Civil and Ecclesi∣astical Government, to be mindful of the Poor and Diseased, lest People should commit Sin, or Steal through Poverty, or by continual wandring should occasion the bringing in of Plagues & Pestilences into Cities, or should Perish for Hunger, to the shame of Mankind. Therefore there are Publick Alms-houses Erected in sundry pla∣ces at the Publick Charge, whose stipends daily increase through the Alms of well-disposed People. For Pub∣likely to beg and wander from place to place, was from the Beginning a thing prohibited by the Laws of all Nations. For in the Old Law, the Jews were com∣manded by Moses, Let there be no poor or begger among ye. And in the Roman-Law, Justinian hath very sharply Ordain'd against sturdy Beggars, that if any one stout in his Limbs should presume to Beg, he was presently to be Imprision'd, and set to Work. In the Evangelical Law, Christ commanded, that what was superfluous should be given to the poor, that so there might be no Begger among the People, but that there should be a kind of Equality, as saith St. Paul writing to the Corinthians: Let your abundance supply their want, that their abundance may also supply your want, and equality be among ye; as it is written, He that hath much has not abounded, and he that hath little hath

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not less. And Writing to the Ephesians, He that stole, saith he, let him steal no more, but rather let him labour and work with his hands the thing that is good, that he may have to give unto him that needeth. The same Apostle commands the Thessalonians to labour with their hands, and to endeavour to abound; confirming a severe Decree among them, That he that would not Labour should not Eat; Commanding Loyterers to be Expell'd from the Communion of the Faithful. And in his Epistle to Timothy, he condemns those who imagine Beggery to be Godliness. The Papal Decrees Ordain Alms to be given only to those who are past their Labour, accompting all others that receive Alms in the number of Robers, Thieves, and Sacrilegious persons. By which Authorities we are taught, not only to compassionate Poverty, but to detest Beggery. But those cunning Impostures daily practis'd to advance the trade of Beggery, are by all men to be Abominated, while their Contrivers rather choose to lye before the Gates of Churches, to the great shame of man-kind, and contrary to the Command of God, enduring all the hardships of the bitterest cold, the burning Sun, and Torments worse than Death, rather than to be con∣tented with the mean Allowance of an honest Alms-house; And which is far more Abominable, in the midst of all their Torments and Pains, Blaspheming, Swearing, Forswearing, Cursing, Banning, Fowl-mouth'd, Injurious and Drunk, using the Name of Christ, but neither Worshipping Christ, or regarding any thing of Sacred or Religious; filling the Ears of Passengers not with the cries of Martyrs, but with the bannings of Infernally-tormented Creatures. There is another most Impious sort of Beggers, who crusting over their Scars and Wounds with Bird-lime, Meal, and Clotted-Blood, expose themselves all full of Soars and Botches. And others that by counterfeit∣ing

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other sorts of Diseases and Sicknesses. Others there are, that under the pretence of Vows and Pilgri∣mages, wander up and down from Country to Coun∣try, designedly avoiding Labour, out of a wicked love of Poverty; begging from Dore to Dore, yet would not change their Lives for Princes, while they have liberty to Vagabond it where they please at their own pleasure; concern'd neither in War nor Peace; every where free from Taxes, publick Charges and Duties: And yet they are many times the causes of great and most pernicious Mischiefs, and by their means great Enterprises are brought to pass, while under the rags of Beggers many times Spies are sent to discover the secrets of Fortified Places; many times Beggers them∣selve are made use of to bring and carry Letters of Intelligence: By some of them Cities have been set on Fire, as we find by the late sad example of the City of Tryers; sometimes Wells have by them been poysoned, and the Plague it self brought into Kingdoms, to the Destruction of Thousands of People. Among these we must reckon that sort of Cattle which they call Cyngani or Gypsies.

They live on strangers, hate at home to 'bide; Abhor to know their own, no Land beside.

These having their Original from a certain Country between Aegypt and Ethiopia, of the Race of Chus, the Son of Cham, the Son of Noah, still suffer under the Curse of their Progenitor: These are they who Erecting Boothes in the High-way, or else taking up the next Barn for their Habitation, give themselves to nothing but Thievery and Whoredome, and by Thest and Fortune-telling maintain their idle Lives. Volaterran believes, that the first that set up this Trade, from whence it deriv'd it self into these Parts, were

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the Vxii, a People of Persis; following Scilates, who wrote the Constantinopolitan History. For he reports, that Michael Traul•••• obtain'd the Empire by the Fortune-telling of the Vxii; which sort of People being dis∣pers'd through Europe and Moesia, maintain'd them∣selves by telling people their Fortunes. Polydore affirms 'um to be Assyrians and Cilicians. But this Itch of damnable Lying doth not only possess the most pro∣phane and lowest sort of People and wandring Vaga∣bonds, but has also advanc'd it self among the Religi∣ous, and into the Orders of the Monks and Priests. Hence those Sects of Fryars, Monks, and other Religi∣ous Traders in Palmestry had their Original, who under a cursed pretence of Religion carrying about the Re∣liqus of the Saints, and making shew of great Holi∣ness, by the help of many feigned Miracles; threatning some with the Anger of the Saints, promising to others Indulgencies and Dispensations; instead of Alms, they get great Riches. For in this posture wandring from Country to Country, from silly Wenches and trimo∣rous Women here they get a Sheep, there a Goat, here a Kid, there a Pig, or a young Calf: sometimes Wine, Oyl, Butter, Pulse, Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Hens, Wool, Linnen and Money; as it were Plunder and prey upon the whole Country where they go, return∣ing home Laden with the rich spoils of their Villany, where they are receiv'd by their Companions with all expressions of joy and applause for the Triumphs of their most damnable Impositions: while on the other side, they who by their Fallacies and lying Devices have thus robb'd the Country, think they do God and the Saints good Service, to fat and cram the Guts of their idle Associates, with the fruits of their Cousening and Quacksalving devices, altogether neglecting and con∣temning to expend these Gifts upon Objects of Chari∣ty, to which intent they were both begg'd and given.

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Apuleius in his Ass is not forgetful to make them part of his Story, under the Title of the Priests of the Assy∣rian Gods. Among these we may number the whole Tribe of Mendicant Fryars, who laying aside the Sancti∣mony of their Profession, follow Gain in lieu of Godli∣ness; as if they made a profession of Religion for no other reason, but that under the pretence of Poverty they may have liberty to profess a wandring Beggery, and with an impudent and bold Hypocrisie to rake Money together; asham'd of nothing in all places: from which neither Courts of Justice, Temples, Schools, Courts, Private or Publick Societies, Consessions, Ser∣mons, Pulpits are free, where they are wont to sell their Indulgencies, extol the benefits of their Ceremo∣nies, extorting in that manner from Usurers and rich Thieves no small share of their ill-got Gains, and from the thick-scull'd Shop-keepers, and illiterate Rabble, squeezing good store of Money; beginning like the Serpent with the Women first, that by their Assistance they may the more easily Delude the Men. Who making a shew of Poverty with their affected Raggs, and every where Preaching the Contempt of Money, and the shunning of Ambition; yet themselves in the mean while make nothing more their utmost study and business than to rake money with their Profession; to which purpose they compass Sea and Land, in∣trude themselves into the houses of all sorts of peo∣ple, performing nothing of their Holy Function but for Hire, exacting Alms more Tyrannically than Tri∣bute; thrusting themselves into all peoples business, making up doubtful Matches, ordering Wills, com∣posing Suits in Law, informing and reforming the Holy Nuns; but nothing of all this, unless they find something coming. These are the Tricks and Deceits of the Friers, by means whereof they have arriv'd to so high a pitch of Authority, to the Terror even of

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Popes and Monarchs, rich beyond the Estates of great Merchants, or the Treasures of Princes, which has en∣abled 'um with great Sums, not only to purchase Mi∣tres and Hatts, but even the Papacy it self. So Pow∣erful is Religious Beggery; to which, how opulent soever, they will pretend, while they touch not the money with their bare Fingers, but have their Judas to keep the Keys of their Treasury, and to make up their Accompts; daring then, most bold Equivocators, to say with St. Peter and St. John; Gold or Silver have I none. Against these Apes of Christ and S. Francis, are Richard Bishop of Armachanus, Malleolus Governour of Tigurines, and John Bishop of Camot, whose Wri∣tings would have been more acceptable, had they not only condemned the Abuse, but also the very allowance of this Religious way of Begging it self.

CHAP. LXVI.

Of Oeconomy in general.

UNder the Title of Government-administration Oeconomy is contain'd, which is the Govern∣ment of a Family, Republick, or a private Monarchy; of which there are several sorts. For Oeconomy is partly Regal and Noble, partly Military, partly Pub∣lick, or in Community, as in Covents and Colledges, partly Private and Monastick. This Private Oecono∣my teaches how Wives, Sons, Nephews, Servants, and whole Families are to be govern'd; how to enlarge and increase an Estate; how to manage Expences. Under the notion of Publick Oeconomy, goes that Craft or Cunning which is us'd in ordering great Re∣venues, as Gabels, Customs, Tithes, great sums of Inte∣rest,

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Monopolies, and whatsoever other Arts of ad∣vancing the publick Revenue, or in the management of Treaties and Leagues. National Contests and Wars, which admitting of no certain Rule or Method, is therefore call'd Anomalous. Therefore cannot Oeco∣nomy be said to be either an Art or a Science, but a certain Domestick Discipline or Doctrine made up of Opinion, Use, Custome, Prudence, and Craft, whereto all your labouring Handicrafts, and Mechanick Arts relate; such as work in Linnen, Wool, Wood, Iron, Brass, and other Metals: as also the more servile Trades of Barbers, Cooks, and Victuallers: together with the several ways of getting Livelihoods, and in∣creasing private Wealth, which neither belong to Rule or Magistracie, nor conduce at all to the Government of the Commonwealth; aiming at nothing Divine, Ingenious or Heroick. Of which there are so many, and those mean and poor, that they are not to be numbred: some of these that get their Livings by mean things, are generally noted for particular Vices; as Car∣ters, Mariners, and Victuallers are commonly said to be very great Lyars and Tale-bearers, as likewise are Barbers and Bakers. So Songsters, Fidlers, and Pipers, men altogether Mercenary, made use of to Sing and Play at great Feasts and Entertainments, are gene∣rally of lewd and vicious Conversations. But the Life of a Mariner, as it is the most unhappy for hardship, so is it the most vitious and dishonest, who always live as it were in Prison, feeding hard and slovenly, their Apparel Nasty, unprovided of all sorts of Convenien∣ces, perpetual Exiles and Vagabonds, never at rest, tost with uncertain Waves and rage of Winds, ly∣able to all the hazards of Summer, Cold, Storms, Thunder, Hunger, Drowth and Diseases; to these we may add the dangers of Rocks, those Insects of the Seas, and Hurricanes; not omitting Tempests, than

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which there is nothing more dreadful or horrible: which makes it seem more strange, that as Mariners are the most unhappy of men, and always in most dangers, so they are the most wicked and desperate. But among the whole Croud of Mechanick Arts, there are none that bear so great sway as Merchandize, Til∣lage, Warfare, Chirurgery, and the meaner part of Law. Of all which we shall discourse in their Or∣der. Though before we begin, let us look into the Fundamentals of Oeconomy.

CHAP. LXVII.

Of private Oeconomy.

THE chief strength of Private Oeconomy consists in Matrimony; therefore Metellus surnam'd Nu∣midian being Censor, and exhorting the Romans to Marry, If, said he, we could live without a Wife, then we should all be willing to shift our selves from the trou∣ble: But since we can neither live commodiously with 'um, and that without 'um there is no possibility of living; we ought to choose the perpetual Multiplication of Man∣kind, rather than a short Pleasure. Thus Aulus Gellius relates. For indeed, without a Wife there is no Fami∣ly can either be maintained or long endure; for with∣out a Wife there is no Issue to be had, no Heir, no In∣heritance, no Kindred, no Family, no Master of a Fa∣mily can be. He who has no Wife, has no House, because he keeps not to his House; or if he have a House, he lives like a stranger and a sojourner in it. He who has not a Wife, though he be very rich, has nothing that he can call his own, because he knows not to whom to leave it, nor whom to trust

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to, and therefore he is afraid of every body; his Ser∣vants thieve from him, his Friends deceive him, his neighbours slight him, his Acquaintance neglect him, his Kindred seek to betray him: his Children, if he have any born out of Wedlock, are a disgrace to him, neither can he leave them the Name of his Family, the Arms of his Ancestry, nor his Inheritance, being re∣strain'd by the Laws: neither are they by the common Consent of all Legislators to be Advanced to any Place or Dignity in the Common-wealth; for he is not fit to Govern a City, that cannot Rule his Family; nor to Rule the Common-wealth, who never knew how to Govern a private Family, which is the true Pattern and Exemplar of a Republick. This the Gre∣cians well knew, who when Philip of Macedon studi∣ed to appease a Dissention among them, and that Leontias the Gorgion rehears'd a Treatise of Concord, which he had written in the City of Olympia, they were both Laught at, who sought to make Peace abroad, who had none in their own Families. For at home, the Son of Philip and his Mother were at Variance; and Gorgias his Wife could not agree with her Maid: therefore they thought that they who wan∣ted Prudence and Authority to quiet Domestick Brauls, could never be able to compose Publick Discords. That Person therefore who Commands a City, or a Common-wealth, unless he know how to Govern his own House and Family, is very inauspiciously pre∣fer'd. Lastly, this is the only condition of Humane-Life, wherein a Man loving his Wife, giving good Education to his Children, well-ordering his Fami∣ly, preserving his Estate, and encreasing in Children, may be said to live happily. Wherein, if any thing fall out of Burthen and Labour, as many times Crosses will happen, and there is no mans Life with∣out Misfortune; yet that very Burthen becomes light,

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and the Yoke easie: especially the Yoke of Marriage, if they prove not such Wives, whom Covetousness, Pride, Deceit, or Lust, but God hath joyn'd, for whose sake, a man is bound to forsake Father and Mother, Son and Brother, and Kindred, and adhere to his Wife, whose love ought to exceed the love of all others. So Hector seeing the Fate of Troy, which was to be De∣stroy'd, seems not so much troubled for his Parents, Brothers and Kindred, as for the loss of his dearest Wife. So we read in Homer,

I well fore-see the Fate of Mighty Troy, That Priam and his People shall Destroy; But nor my Countries nor my Fathers smart, Nor Priam's fall so much Afflict my Heart, Nor loss of Kindred many and Renown'd, Whom Hostile rage shall bury under ground, As care for thee my honour'd Spouse doth vex My grieved Mind.—
I confess, that unhappy Matches are attended with ma∣ny Evils and Miseries; which Socrates remembers us of, that is to say, perpetual Care, consuming Jealou∣sie, continual Quarrelling, upbraidings with Dower, the scornful looks and countenances of Kindred, the manifold Expences and uncertain dispositions of Chil∣dren; sometimes Barrenness, and Extinction of the Family, a strange Heir, innumerable Sorrows; many times the restraint of Election, Marriage being im∣pos'd; so that whether she be of a good Humour, a Fool, Perverse, Proud, Sluttish, Deform'd, Unchast, nothing of all this can be known, till after Consum∣mation, none of which are seldom, or ever after men∣ded. Of unfortunate Marriages there are many Ex∣amples. Marcus Cato Censor, in his time the Chief, and Prince of the Roman Commonwealth, who had

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scarce his equal both in Peace and War, having in his declining years Married a young Maid the Daugh∣ter of one Solomon, a man poor, and of mean Ex∣traction, lost all Mastership and Authority at home in his own House. Tiberius having Married Julia the Daughter of Augustus, Infamous for many de∣tected Adulteries, and not daring to Correct, Accuse, or Repudiate her, was forc'd to retire to Rhodes, not without manifest detriment to his Fame, and danger of his Life. M. Antonie the Philosopher having Mar∣ried Faustina the Daughter of Antonius Pius, was forc'd to be contented with her, though an Adulteress, for fear of hazarding the loss both of Dower and Empire together. But all these Inconveniences happen, not so much through the fault of the Women, as the neg∣ligence of the Men. For it seldom happens that the Women are bad, unless the Husbands are worse. Of whom, thus Varro discourses in Gellius. The Vices of Women are either to be endur'd, or to be taken away. He that forces a Woman to mend a fault, renders her more tolerable to himself; but he that endures a fault, makes himself the better Man. Of all which we have spoken more largely in our Declamation upon the Sacrament of Matrimony. Again, many times the Education of Children proves not so happy as it was intended, many growing stubborn and disobedient to their Parents, others become Contentious, others Mad, others Foolish, others dull and thick Scull'd, others given to all Debauchery, spending all in Luxury, Lust, and Gaming; Others prove Parricides, as Almeon and Orestes, and the Malleoli who kill'd their Mother. Therefore Artaxerxes, surnam'd Mnemon, having be got a Hundred and fifteen Children, was forc'd to put to Death the greatest part of 'um, for Plotting to take away his Life; and for this Cause, Euripides modestly supposes, what our Bernard positively vers, That it

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is an unknown good to want Children. Augustus also, the most Fortunate of Emperours in other things, yet beholding the behaviour of his Daughter and Neece, was wont to cry out in the Words of Homer:

—O that Vnwedded I had liv'd, And never all my dayes for Issue striv'd.
Of Servants also, thus saith Euripides: At home there is no greater Enemy; nothing worse or more unprofita∣ble than a Servant. Says Democritus, A Servant is a necessary Possession, but not pleasing. And Petrarch hath written, I knew, saith he, that I liv'd among Doggs, but never knew my self to be a Hunter, but by Admonition. Servants are called Dogs, as being snappish, devouring, and snarling. Plautus in his Pseudolus well expresses their conditions: A Pestiferous Generation of People, in∣to whose thoughts nothing enters that may at any time perswade 'um to do well; but when there is occasion, snatch, catch, carry away; this is their Practice, that a man had better leave Wolves among Sheep, than to en∣trust these Servants at home. And Lucian in his Pa∣linute; The Curses of Servants are alwayes ready against their Masters, and there is nothing more at hand among 'um than thievery, deceit, running-away, arrogance, negli∣gence, drunkenness, gluttony, sleepiness, sloth and laziness. From whence arose that Proverb, As many Servants, so many Enemies. But we do not so often find 'um Ene∣mies, as make 'um so; while Masters carry them∣selves proudly, covetously, cruelly, and contumeliously; becoming Lords and Tyrants at home, exercising a feverity over them, not as we ought, but as we please: concerning whom Plautus brings in Strophilus thus speaking in his Aulularia.

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Masters their Servants use injuriously, And as corruptly Servants now obey. So what is just on neither side is done. Your sparing Old Men with a thousand Keys, Their Cupboards, Kitchins, Cellars, Butteries shut: Which to their Children they will scarce unlock. But Servants, suttle, cunning, crafty Thieves, With Keys Two thousand open 'um again. And then by stealth they swallow and consume What rackt a hundred times they'l nere confess: Damn'd slaves, on their enslavers thus revenge With Jokes and Laughter take; which makes me say, Free Masters only faithful Servants make.
Many Commonwealths have egregiously suffer'd by reason of their Servants. As well those Historians testi∣fie who have written the Rebellions of Servants against their Masters: More especially the City of the Val∣sinenses, a City flourishing in Riches, famous for the excellency of her Laws and Government, afterwards a most miserable spectacle of the Insolency of her Slaves. For when the strict severity of the Citizens over their Servants decreas'd, insomuch that they sometimes ad∣mitted them to their Councils; afterwards a few of them presuming to take upon them the Order of Se∣nators, they Invaded the Commonwealth it self; they commanded Wills to be made at their own pleasures; they forbid the Publick Feasts and Assemblies of the Freemen; Married their Masters Daughters. Lastly, they Ordain'd by Law, that all Adulteries committed by them with Widdows, all Fornications with Un∣married Women, should be unpunish'd; and that No Virgin should be Married to a Free-man, whose Cha∣stity some one of them had not Defil'd before. Thus a most Opulent City, once the Metropolis of Caria,

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through her too kind Indulgence to her Servants, sunk into the Abyss of Injuries and dishonest Sufferings. For saith Aristotle in his Politick Orations, Omit se∣vere Discipline among Servants, and they streight pra∣ctise Treacherie against their Masters. So did the Helots against the Lacedemonians, and those of Praeneste against the Thessalians.

CHAP. LXVIII.

Of Regal Oeconomy, or Court-Discipline.

WE have now a fit opportunity to treat of Regal or Court Oeconomy. And to say Truth, the Court is nothing else but a Colledge of Gyants, that is, of noble and splendid Knaves, a Theater of a Wicked Life-guard, a School of most corrupt Man∣ners, where Pride, Arrogancy, Haughtiness, Extortion, Lust, Luxury, Envy, Gluttony, Violence, Impiety, Malice, Treachery, Deceit, Cruelty, and whatsoever other corrupt Customes and Vices rule and bear sway; where Adulteries, Rapes, and Fornication are the sports of Princes and great Persons, where oftentimes the Mothers of Kings and Princes are Bawds to their own Sons, where the Storms and Tempests of Vice cause an unspeakable Shipwrack of all Vertue, where every Good Man is oppressed, the worst of Men are advanc'd; where the Downright are laugh'd to scorn, the Just are Persecuted, the bold and Arrogant are Promoted. There only Flatterers, Whisperers, Detractors, Talk∣bearers, Calumniators, Sycophants, Lyars, Supplanters, Inventers of Evil, sowers of Discord prosper, and the worst of Crimes are openly Professed. Their Lives ••••d Conversations are the most dishonest of all Mens,

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and whatsoever Hainous is to be observ'd in the single Natures of the worst of Monsters, all seems as it were to be amass'd together in the Rout attending a Court. There is to be seen the fierceness of the Lyon, the cruelty of the Tygre, the rudeness of the Bear, the rashness of the Bore, the pride of the Horse, the gree∣diness of the Wolf, the craft of the Fox, the uncon∣stancy of the Camelion, the various colours of the Leo∣pard, the currishness of the Dog, the timorousness of the Hare, the petulancy of the Goat, the nastiness of Swine, the desperateness of the Elephant, the revenge of the Camel, the stupidness of the Ass, the scurrility of the Ape. There Inhabit the raging Centaures, the pernicious Chimera's, the mad Satyrs, the filthy Har∣pies, the wicked Syrens, the horrid Struthiocamels, the devouring Gryphens, the rapacious Dragons, and whatsoever fatal Monsters and destructive Prodigies at which Nature is Affrighted; where every particular Vertue finds a Tyrant and a Hangman. In fine, a man must fit himself for all Wickedness, Malice, and Impiety, or not come neer a Court.

It is not Lawful unless far from Court Vnpunish'd to be good.—

The provok'd Power of a Potent Courtier, is like a Comet, the Fore-runner of many Mischiefs, and a most Contagious Pestilence where it fixes; leaving be∣hind most uncurable Effects of its Venome, like the biting of mad Dogs. The Court is generally accom∣panied with scarcity, the price of things being en∣hansed, where men think to gain by the Confluence of People: it is accompanied by the excess of Luxury in Dyet, with new-fangled Dishes, driving out the customary Dyet of the Country. It is attended with the height of Pride, which when Men and Women

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strive to imitate, and seek in change of Fashions to out-vye one another, they consume and waste their Patrimony in Apparel. Now when a Court departs out of any City or Town, what a filthy Tail it leaves behind! Here Men find their Wives Adulterated, there their Daughters carried away for Whores, their Servants corrupted and abus'd: What follows? great Complaints, and the face of the whole City is be∣come as it were the Face and Countenance of a Whore. I know a Famous City of France by these means so corrupted, that there was hardly a Chast Ma∣tron or a Virgin left; so that it was counted a great Honour to be a Count's Whore: and the old Women were generally Bawds to the younger; and so shame∣less they became at length, that Modesty was quite Exil'd; so that Men never took notice of their Wives playing the Whores, so that, as Abraham sayes, It were well with them for their sakes.

CHAP. LXIX.

Of Noble Courtiers.

THE Inhabitants of a Court are two-fold. The chief are the Peers and Nobles, those Huffing Thraso's, who are mad with Pride, Luxury, and Pomp; clad in Purple and Silk, with their Plumes of Feathers, and Garments lac'd with Gold and Vanity.

Whom Whoring pleases and affected Gouts, Loose Hair, and strange new Names for gaudy Clouts.
For upon Whores they waste all the strength and heat of their Youth; nor is their Gluttony less active and

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ingenious, or their Palates less ingenious; and it is no small part of Honour which they look for, to be splen∣didly Invited, nobly Entertain'd, and gloriously Treat∣ed. And among them there are that count it no disho∣nour to be so prodigal at one Meal, as to be forc'd to be beholding to other mens Tables for a quarter of a Year after. To these great Entertainment-mongers resort your Fidlers of all sorts, Mimick Parasites, Play∣ers, Whores, Bawds, and Dancing-masters, Huntsmen, Faulkners, and such kind of Prodigies of Men. Dogs, Horses, Greyhounds, Hawks, Apes, Parrots must be kept; and for the greater state of the business, Bears, Lyons, Leopards and Tygres. Their common dis∣course is meer trifling Tittle-tattle, Detracting, Ac∣cusing, Giggling, Lying, and Bragging. Some are al∣ways twatling of their Dogs, of their Hunting, what close Woods they met with, how many faults their Dogs made, how they recover'd it, and what other casualties happen'd in the Chase. Others are always prating of their Horses, and what Races were late∣ly run; of the Wars, and what valiant Acts they themselves perform'd there. If any one has a mind to cross the other, he begins a Discourse quite con∣trary, to put the other out, though generally his Nar∣ratives prove as idle as the former; which another not brooking, undertakes to contradict him, and jee him out of the Pit; which many times turns to Wrath and Anger, so that the Feast proves at length a Ban∣quet of the Lapithae, which seldom ended but in the drawing of Blood, as if the end of their Invitations had been according to the Distick:

Cherish your Bodies with your choice of Fare, And then Pot-valiant for the Fight prepare.
Now the chiefest Lesson which they learn, is to ob∣serve

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the Princes times and seasons, for fear of Acting irregularly; wherein they do not advise either with Stars, Heaven, or Ephemerides, but consult the several Opportunities of the Princes Drinking, Eating, Ban∣queting, Hunting, Rising, and going to Bed; laying hold on his freedom of Humour, at which time Mirth yields a more easie Audience to discourse; and then beginning to tickle the Ears with some pleasing sto∣ry, they proceed by degrees to the sum of their Re∣quest. Observing the Counsel of Aristotle to Calisthe∣nes, That to a Prince a man should either discourse very wittily and pleasantly, or else be very silent; by silence either to keep himself secure, or by pleasing-Discourse to render him self more acceptable. Where∣fore if the Prince seem to be pleas'd with any one of 'um, to shew any liking of what they have spoken or done, if he trust him with any thing, or be plea'd to Discourse in private with any one, Then shall such a one be Magnifi'd in the Eyes of Men, he shall pre∣sume to do any thing, he shall revile all men, laugh at all men, slight all men, talk ill of 'um privately, rebuke 'um publickly; he shall speak great things, and all People shall fear him; he shall spurn at his Infe∣riors, contemn his Equals, disdain his Superiours, al∣together puft up, and seeking to enlarge his Power.

Freedom of doing ill is vertue thought, And high command—
Whoever is not pleas'd, and applauds him not when he has done evil, is therefore guilty, for he shall be thought either to envy his Good Fortune, or not give him his due Honour. Nor are they only troublesome to their Equals and Inferiours, but also most pestilent to their Princes themselves, whom under pretence of severity, prudence, and giving wholesome Counsel, they perni∣ciously

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Flatter, and cause to commit most horrid Crimes; as in Lucan, Curio instigates Caesar.

What remiss Power withholds thy Potent Arms? Is it mistrust of us thy Courage charms? While in my breathing Veins warm Blood doth flow, And brawny Arms the Massie Pile can throw, Caesar shall never brook the Senates Reign, Nor the Degenerate Gown.—
Such instigators had Alexander the Great, who being hot-headed enough of himself, when he was in his maddest humours, stir'd him up the more to Wars and Mischief: such advisers were the Councellors of Rehoboam the Son of Solomon, and such and too ma∣ny do the present Courts of our Princes abound with, who yielding and soothing 'um up in their Pleasures, obey and humour 'um to bring about their wicked Designs; and with such cunning they perswade or dis∣swade, that thereby with greater force they work 'um to their Ends; and where they would have things done, urging slender and impotent Reasons against the doing of it, that by seeming to be convinc'd, they may the better confirm the Error of the Prince: So deceiving, that they cannot be found out, but rather receive a Reward for their Perfidy. Such Councel∣lors Francis the King of France at this time makes use of; so prone to take all Evil Councel, that while they perswade him to act all sorts of Perfidie and Rigour against Caesar, are notwithstanding accompted Faith∣ful and Loyal Subjects. Thus far of Court-Nobi∣lity.

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CHAP. LXX.

Of the Vulgar sort of Courtiers.

THere are the Common sort of Court-Attendants, a very wicked Generation, who live in a perpe∣tual Slavery, visiting Noblemens Houses, and parasiti∣cally hanging on upon other mens Tables.

And as their chiefest Good they daily seek The Trenchers of another man to lick.
Therefore they are submissive to every body, flatter every one, studying to become all things to all, coun∣terfeiting more shapes than Proteus, whereby to gain the savour of a Lord: To which purpose they main∣ly study to remember Discourses at Table, that they may not want matter for Report; with great craft they inquire into the secrecies of such as are at odds, which they discover sometimes to their Friends, sometimes to their Enemies, so to render themselves acceptable to both, to both Treacherous; so much the fitter for Treason, as pretending a great deal of simplicity and harmlesness. For though there be no Crime so wick∣ed as Treachery, yet for the obtaining of Riches and Preferment, there is no way more ready nor more com∣pendious, nothing more pleasing or grateful to Prin∣ces.

They strive the Secrets of a House to know, To keep the Master under—
And if at any time any person make 'um privie to

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any Treason, then they are brave Fellows, and hold up their heads above measure.

Dear shall he be to Verres in whose power The Life of Verres lies.
Thereby familiarity and kindred is Contracted, in confidence whereof they aspire to great things. First therefore some greatly labour to be listed in the num∣ber of Noblemens Servants, though they serve 'um with∣out Salary: For they doubt not to get the favour of the Great Ones, having now fair opportunities of Flat∣terie, and to insinuate themselves with all manner of obsequiousness and small gifts: what duties others out of Laziness, Fear, or Covetousness omit, they greedi∣ly undertake; they watch day and night, run, ride, post to and fro with Messages, undertake and suffer any toyl.

Daring to Act, nor fearing to endure The Punishments provided for the Poor.
Till by this means they become Secretaries, Treasurers, or other very great Ministers of State. And now having pass'd the Straits and Difficulties of Labour, double diligence and fawning obsequiousness are quite laid aside, nor regarded by them in others, there be∣ing now nothing in esteem but Money. Their new Honours have chang'd their Manners; they forget what they were, contemn their Beginnings, they covet what is to come, and wholly devoted to Avarice, bend all their endeavours and studies in the pursuit of gain and riches; sparing in the performance of Promises, yet full of Words; Flattering, yet at the same time Treacherous; dark in their Sentences, and like Ora∣cles hard to be understood: whatever they see, what∣ever

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they hear, they consture to the worst sense: they trust only themselves, love only themselves, are wise only to themselves; they trust in no mans faith or friendship, they care for no Society, but for the love of Gain; their own Profit they prefer above all things; their Friends, their Guests, their Com∣panions, their Kindred, they Despise 'um all, and look upon 'um as barren Trees, if there be nothing to be got by 'um; and their former Companions and great Chronics, if they meet 'um in their Dish, they will take no more notice of 'um than if they had never seen 'um. If any one requires their Friendship or Assistance, they feed 'um with Words and Promises, promising Ten times more than they will perform; and perchance if there be no feeling in the Case, they will not only not help him, but ruine his Cause: all Kindness and Courtesie is vendible; they despise all Vertue, clouding the Praises of others with Ambiguous Sayings, and Feigned Detractions behind their backs; they themselves speak in the Praise of no man with∣out a Reserve, as the Orator said of Julius, That he was fortunate indeed, that he was a stout man, and had done many valiant Acts; but how he could evade being accounted guilty of Bribes, I should admire, but that I know the force of Elocution. And as another says,

Happy in Children Proteus, and a Wife, And bating Phocas crimes, that stain'd his Life, A man not to be matcht.—
After Gifts they are as greedy as Vultures, every∣where hunting after their Prey, which they snatch out of one anothers Chaps, as the Harpyes were said to tear the Meat out of the mouth of Phinaeus. If any misfortune befal a Rival, they rejoyce; they compassio∣nate no mans Calamity; they believe that they ought

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to keep promise and faith with no body, but for their own pleasure and advantage; never to acknowledge any kindness, judging all men equally unworthy of any favour, or not fit to be taken notice of, or else to be recompenc'd with hatred and envy: rather when they hate, they counterfeit kindness, and dissemble their Anger; unless the Prince or King, they give reverence or respect to no body, nor them neither but out of Fear, or for the hopes of Reward. At length growing grey in Fraud, Treachery, Labour and Toyl, and having by such base and sordid acts attain'd to high Honours and vast Riches, then they omit no breach of Law Divine or Humane, so that they may be able to leave their Sons Heirs of their Wealth, their Honour and Iniquities.

—With Serpents thus and Lizards sought In Fields remote, the Storks their young ones feed, Who streight the self-same Prey their Mothers did, Now taking Wing, by hunger prickt pursue. The Birds of Jove thus to their off-spring true, In shady Woods hunt out the Goat and Hare, And constant supper for their Young prepare: But for themselves now able to provide, Their raging Hunger is not satisfi'd Vntil they find the Prey they tasted first, So soon as Life their tender shells had burst.
And these are the Arts and Devices of the Common sort of Courtiers, by means whereof many of mean and low condition rise to the highest Preferments, Dig∣nities, and places of Profit, and the next places of Authority to Kings and Princes themselves; in Riches equal to their Princes, with which they build stately and Magnificent Structures and Palaces, while the more Noble Courtiers indeed, wast their Estates in

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Whoring, Gaming, Hunting, Horse-races, Entertain∣ments, Masques, and Gorgeous Apparel; selling their Lordships, Castles, Possessions, Inheritances, to those Upstart Courtiers, who by their wicked Practises and Contrivances are now mounted into the rank of No∣bility.

CHAP. LXXI.

Of Court-Ladies.

NEither are the Court-Ladies without their Vices. 'Tis very true, that we behold a great number of Women for Elegancy of Body and exactness of Beauty to be admir'd, splendidly drest, and apparel'd in Purple and Silks, set out with Jewels; but it is not easie for all men to see what wicked Monsters are con∣ceal'd under those fair shapes: Wherefore Lucian most fitly compares 'um to Aegyptian Temples; for there you shall behold a Structure most beautiful without, both for the Materials and curiousness of Work, but if you once look for the God within, you shall find there nothing but either an Ape, a Dog, a Goat, or a Cat. Even so it is with those Court-Ladies and Vir∣gins, who being bred up from their tender years in Dancing, Masquing, soft-idleness, and all manner of Luxury and Voluptuousness, and having suck'd the worst of Education out of those Books of Court∣love, and fine Histories of Lust, Adulteries, Fornicati∣ons, and Pandarisms, as also Comedies, Novels, and wanton Songs, are thereby season'd with all sorts of evil Manners, becoming Light, Insolent, Arrogant, Peevish, Impudent, Obscene, Contentious, Contradicto∣ry, Obstinate, Revengeful, Crafty, Petulant, Loquaci∣ous,

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Lascivious, and Shamelesly and Obscenely wanton. They have tongues to which silence is a Punishment, their Lips not to be wearied with tittle-tattle, gene∣rally the most idle, most impertinent, and troublesome to the hearers. For what can we think they should be able to talk for so many hours together, but Folly? for Example, how to shade the Hair, how to comb it, how to dye it, how to wash their Faces, how to pleit their Peticoats; what Gate to observe in walking, rising, or lying; what Apparel becomes such or such best, who and who are to take or give place, how far to bow in saluting, to whom the honour of the Lip is due, to whom not; who are allowed to ride a Horse-back, who in a Coach, and who in a Litter: Who ought to wear Jewels, Pendants, Necklaces, Bracelets, and who not; with a Thousand other trifling enquiries into the Laws of Semiramis. Neither are there wanting many of the older sort, who will tell ye how many Sweet-hearts they had, who sent her Gifts, who were most Courtly in their Addresses. This Woman talks of him that she Loves, that Woman can hardly for∣bear from speaking evil of him that the hates; and whatsoever they say, they think they are admired by the Company: sometimes they stuff their Discourse with unseasonable Scoffs and Impudent Lyes: neither do they want most desperate Malice, and quarrelling one among another; backbiting and flattery there is nothing more frequent: their Eyes, their Looks, their Glances are full of Allurements; their Nods, their Gestures, their Becknings full of Wantonness; they are full of Subtilty, and have studied words to deceive their Servants, and get gifts of value from 'um. Let 'um have any Ring, Jewel or Bracelet about them, these Females will never lin till they have flatter'd it into their own Possession; for which, they return Kisses, Embraces, and Amorous Discourses, which are their

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publick Ware, and the nutriment of Court-love. It were a shame to discover what Crimes are committed in secret Bed-chambers, as if Marriage had been Con∣secrated only in Derision of Nature; and that the put∣ting on their Cloathes, were sufficient to cover all their Enormities. Such Virgins how faithful think ye will they prove afterwards to their Husbands! Oh what a grief are they to all good Women! continually hit∣ting them in the Teeth with their Nobility, their Por∣tion, their Beauty, their Forraigne Matches; teazing their Husbands Ears with continual Clamours and Contumelies. They despise a frugal Table at home, and yet twit their Husbands with their Court-Ex∣pences; and being us'd to Pomp and Extravagancies, they wast their Husbands Wealth, ruine their Fami∣lies, compel their Husbands to undertake wicked De∣signes for gains sake; to which end, they are forc'd to omit no Fraud, Treachery, Dissimulation, and Hy∣pocrisie whatsoever, to compass their Ends. I will not speak of their Forrain Amours, their private Adulteries, their conceal'd Lyings-in, and Bastard Issue; which affection turning once into hatred, they then prepare for Poyson or some other Mischief. But the most fa∣miliar practises of Evil Women, (as St. Jerome Writes against Jovinianus) are Frauds, Treacheries, Witch∣crafts, Enchantments, and Magick Tricks. So Livia kill'd her Husband, whom she hated to Death. Lu∣cilia also kill'd hers; the first mixing Henbane with her Jealousie, the other drinking to him a Cup of Poyson instead of a Love-Potion. So that it is sa∣fer, (as Ecclesiasticus saith) to live with the Lyon and the Dragon, than with a bad Woman. He that would Marry, let him have a care of taking such a Courtier to Wife. It my Tongue hath been too free in Discourse, yet I have said what it was impossible for me not to have said: But I will put my hand upon my mouth,

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and speak no more of 'um; and therefore let us de∣part the Court, and fall to the consideration of those more useful parts of Oeconomy, Merchandizing, Agri∣culture, and Warfare.

CHAP. LXXII.

Of Merchandizing.

MErchandizing being the most subtile searcher af∣ter hidden gain, the most Covetous Devourer of her detected Prey, is never happy in Enjoyment, but alway most miserably Tormented with the desire of more. And yet it is not a little profitable to the Com∣monwealth, and usefully conducing to Contracts of friendship between Forraine Princes, and not a little advantageous to private Life; and as some have thought, absolutely necessary. So that Pliny relates it to have been invented for the support of Living. And therefore many famous and wise men have not dis∣dain'd to follow it. Of which number, as Plutarch testifies, were Thales, Solon, Hippocrates. But whatso∣ever Arts and Sciences we follow, some we admit for Pleasure, some we esteem for the Exercise, some we follow for Virtue and Honesties-sake, some for their Truth and Justice we admire: but Arts, how gainful, how pleasant, how necessary, how laborious soever, are not therefore to be presently accompted Laudable and Honest. Thus the Trades of Merchandizing, Usury, Money-changing, Bankers, are both necessary, pro∣fitable, and laborious; and yet they are accompted il∣liberal, srdid, and base ways of getting, because they are not Arts, but laborious Cheats that are bought and sold; which is the Office and Trade not of a

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clear-spirited, well-meaning, ingenuous, just good man; but of a crafty, close, deceitful knavish dealer. For all Merchants buy in one place, that they may sell dearer in another, and he is accompted the wisest that can gain most; among whom, Lying, Imposing, Chea∣ting and Perjury is most frequent; neither is there any way of attaining Profit which they think disdainful. Nay, they affirm it to be Lawful to Cheat their Chap∣men half their just price: neither is it to be doubted, but that seeing the whole course of their Lives is fit∣ted to follow after Gain, and to seek Riches, that they are forc'd many times for Lucres-sake to do many ugly and dishonest Actions: For no men grow Rich without Deceit, as saith St. Austin.

—And far beyond the value raises The Wares he striveth to put off with Praises.
And as another Poet hath it,
The Merchant only worthy Stygian Lake, Vpholdeth Perjury for Lucres sake.
One buyes, another sells; one carries, another brings; this man is Creditor, another Debtor; one pays, ano∣ther receives, another casts up the Accompts; but all of 'um guilty of Perjury, Cheating, and Deceit; ha∣zarding Soul, Body, and Estate, in hopes of Gain: re∣specting neither Kindred, Friends, nor Allies, but only for profits sake: and thus all of 'um all their Life∣long run after Gain and Riches, as if Rest and the Comforts of Living were no where else to be found.
The painful Merchant to the Indies runs, And proudly thorough Fire, and Surges Shuns.

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What Cheats Merchants put upon the World, in Wool, Linnen, Silk, Cloth, Purple, Gems, Spices, Wax, Oyl, Wine, Corn, Horses, and many other Creatures, and indeed in all sorts of Commodities, there is no person who is ignorant: who sees not, who feels not, that is not altogether stupid and insensible? But these are small matters, there are far greater behind. These are they who importing hurtful Commodities, which either for wantonness or rarity being coveted by Wo∣men, though they are of no use to humane Life, but only for the support of Luxury, Pride, for Sport, Effe∣minacy and wanton Pleasure, bring from the utmost ends of the Earth all Allurements to Wickedness. Kingdomes and whole Provinces every Year they emp∣ty of great sums of Money; they corrupt Native Good Manners, by introducing Forraine Vices; and quite Abolishing wholesome Paternal Customes, al∣ways inquisitive after new Inventions, fill the Land with most depraved Fashions. Thefe are they who in Guilds and Companies, contrary to Right and Law, set up Monopolies, trying, endeavouring, searching out all wayes and devices to rake to themselves the Wealth of the People; by vertue of their large Stocks, out-buying others, preventing others, detering others; by holding up, or enhauncing Prizes, they themselves engrossing all, which they retail again at their own Rates and Pleasures: many times having borrow'd great Sums of Money, they break Faith and Promi∣ses, flye their Country, and seldome or never returning, undo their Creditors; who oft-times thereupon des∣pair and Hang themselves. These are they who pry∣ing into the Secrets of Princes, the Councels of City-Senates, and laden with the news of their own Country, reveal all to the Enemy many times for considerable Rewards, lye in wait for the Princes Life; there being nothing which for love of Money they

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will not enterprise, endeavour, do or suffer. All the whole mystery of their Calling consists in Lying, dark Sentences, Siftings, Shiftings, Treachery, Cheating and Deceipt. This was the reason that the Carthaginians provided distinct Residences for Merchants, because they should not live in Common with their Citizens. The way was open for them to the Market; but where their Ships rode, and to the more secret parts of their City, they allow'd them not so much as to cast an Eye. The Grecians did not receive 'um within their Cities; but that their Inhabitants might be free from the suspicion of danger, they always kept their Mar∣kets for Merchandise in the Suburbs. Most other Nations forbid the Access of Merchants, as being the great depravers of all Good Manners. The Epidauri∣ans, as Plutarch Witnesses, when they saw their Citi∣zens corrupted by Commercing with the Illyrians, fear∣ing the Contagion growing from strangers, and a change of Government with the change of Manners, Elected every Year one grave and circumspect Person out of their whole City, whom they sent to Buy for the rest of the Citizens whatever Commodities of the Illyrians they stood in need of. Plato very much blames Merchandizing, as the chiefest corruption of Good Customs, and therefore would have it Ordain'd in a well-constituted Commonwealth, that the wanton Exuberancies of Forraign Countries should not be im∣ported into such a one, and that no Citizen should be permitted to Travel under the Age of Forty Years; and that all Forreigners should be sent home, knowing that there was nothing which sooner caus'd the Peo∣ple to forget and hate the frugality of their Ancestors, and their old Country-Customes, then the Contagion of Novelty brought in by Strangers, which generally makes Cities most wicked, filling 'um full of all sorts of Fornications, Adulteries, Luxury and Lust. Such

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are Leiden and Antwerp, at this time Cities of the great∣est Trade of any in these Parts: And Aristotle exhorts Magistrates to take all diligent care of keeping their Cities from being corrupted by the mixture of For∣rainers. For though Merchants may be necessary, they ought not to be receiv'd into the number of Citizens, and therefore to be detested, because they live altoge∣ther by Lying; and besides that, disturb the Markets, cause Tumults and private Discord. Therefore among many Common-wealths there was an ancient Law, That no Merchant should be a Magistrate, or be ad∣mitted into the Senate or Council. Beyond all this, Merchandizing is palpably condemned by the Opinions of most Divines, and by the Canonical Decrees, (as St. Gregory, Chrysostome, Austin, Cassiodorus, and Leon testifie) and by all true Christians utterly forbid. For as St. Chrysostome saith, A Merchant cannot please God; And therefore, saith he, let no Christian be a Merchant; or if he will be so, let him be thrown out of the Church. St. Austin also saith, That it is impossible for Souldiers and Merchants truly to Repent.

CHAP. LXXIII.

Of Paymasters.

PAymasters are little better than Merchants; a Thieving Generation of Men, and most com∣monly of servile Dispositions, Mercenary, and letting out themselves for Hire; rude and sloathful, but bold and impudent, knowing little but what concerns their own Trade, that is to say, Writing and Casting Ac∣count: but their chief study is an ordinary method of Stealing, somewhat more ingenious than the Common

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road of Thieving. And therefore of all men living, they are the most given to Filching Wealth by their Fingers Ends, with which they tell Thousands and Millions: which Fingers of theirs are so Birdlim'd, and stuck with so many infinite Hooks, that there is no Money, a thing so light, fugitive and slippery as an Eel or a Serpent, but if they touch it, it sticks so close to 'um, that it cannot be pull'd away. In this they are to be accompted less mischievous, that they only Prey upon the Treasuries of Kings and Princes, and then, that what they Steal from them, they liberally con∣sume in Whoring, Gaming, Banqueting, Building, Horses, Doggs and Plays. Or if they prove Older and Wiser, yet the Sons they leave behind 'um are such, that whatever their Fathers have heap'd together by Perju∣ry, Rapine and Theft, they in a short time scatter and lavish away in Gluttony and Riot, Whores, Hounds, Horses, fine Cloathes, and whatsoever Pleasures else their Luxury prompts 'um to. Nor is this all, for these Paymasters take Use-Money, delaying Payment in hope of Bribes, buying Debentures, holding in with the Captains, counterfeiting Original Bonds, opening Let∣ters and sealing 'um again, washing and counterfeit∣ing Money, and therefore very familiar with Al∣chymists, many of 'um Alchymists themselves; or if they want Wit, great favourers at least of the Art. Now whereas Cicero is of Opinion, That Merchan∣dizing, if a man drive a great and plentiful Trade, Importing many Commodities, and those not idle and unprofitable, is not much to be discommend∣ed; and that Merchants and Paymasters were to be commended, if knowing when they had enough, they would then retire into the Country to Husband and till their Lands; therefore let us now consider what may be thought of Agriculture.

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CHAP. LXXIV.

Of Agriculture.

AGriculture, to which feeding of Cattle, Fishing and Hunting is to be annexed, was so highly honour'd among the Ancients, that it was no shame for many Roman Emperors, and most Potent Kings and Princes to Till their own Lands, to Sow, Graft, and Plant: this course of Life did Dioclesian follow, having quitted his Empire; and Attalus forsaking his Kingly Throne. Cyrus also, that great Monarch of the Persians, was wont to glory very much, that when his Friends came to see him, he was able to shew 'um a Garden of his own Planting. Seneca also Planted Plane-Trees, digg'd Fish-ponds with his own hands, and made his own Water-works, and delighted to be no where more willingly than in the Fields. Hence the Sirnames of those most noble Families of the Fa∣bii, the Lentuli, the Cicero's and Piso's, from the Multi∣tude of that sort of Grain.

CHAP. LXXV.

Of Pasturage.

BY the same Reason, from the feeding of Cattle came the Families of the Bubulci, Statilii, Tan∣ri, Pomponii, Vituli, Vitelli, Porcii, Cato's, Annii, and Ca∣prae. Dioclesian was rais'd from a Shepherd to be an Emperour. Spartacus, that Terror to the Roman Pow∣er,

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was a Shepherd. Paris and Anchises the Father of Aeneas were Shepherds: so was the fair Endymion, so much beloved of the Moon; together with Polyhe∣mus and the Hundred-eyed Argos. Among the Gods, Apollo himself fed the Herds of Admetus King of Thessaly. And Mercury inventor of the Oaten-Pipe, was the Prince of Shepherds; as also his Son Daph∣nis. Pan was the God of the Shepherds; and Pro∣theus was both a Shepherd and a God: and that we may not forget some of the Hebrew Patriarchs, Judges and Kings, the greatest men among them, and most belov'd of God, were Shepherds. So was Abel the Just, Abraham the Father of many Nations, Jacob Father of the chosen People; also Moses their Law∣giver, a Prophet very familiar with God; and David their King, a man after Gods own heart. Among the Ancient Grecians every most Illustrious man was a Shepherd; whence some were call'd Polyarne, some Polymele, some Polybute, from the numerous Herds and Flocks of Lambs, Sheep, and Oxen which they possest. Thus that Italy was so nam'd from Vitulus a Calf, which the Ancient Greeks call Italus, as all men of read∣ing well know. So both the Bosphori, the Cimmerian, and the Thracian, the Aegean-Sea, the Ships Argos and Hippion, were so call'd from the Passage of Bulls, from Goats and Horses. And Numidia a Province of Africa hath its Name from the abundance of Pasturage there∣in. The first Course of Life that men led after the Fall of Adam, was the Graziers and Shepherds Life. For Pasturage, besides that it affords us all sorts of flesh for Food, it produces Milk, Chese and Butter, as also Wool, Skins and Hides, most useful and necessary for our humane Subsistance and Being: None of which man had the liberty of using till after, whereas man before was sed with the spontaneous Herbs that grew in Paradise.

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CHAP. LXXVI.

Of Fishing.

TO these we may joyn Fishing and Hunting. The Art of Fishing was so highly esteemed and set by among the Romans, that they were wont to stock the Italian-Sea, and as it were to sow it as men do Grain, with strange Fish, and unknown to those Coasts, brought thither in Ships from far distant parts of the Ocean; besides that they were at great Expences, and vast Costs to make Fish-ponds, and Store-ponds for all the choice sorts of Fish; from whence many Ro∣man Princes have deriv'd their Sur-names, as the Li∣cinii, Murenae, Serii, Oratae; which made Cicero to call Lucius, Philip, and Hortensius Fish mongers, from the great delight they took in Fishponds. We read, that Octavianus Augustus was wont to Angle with a Rod: and Suetonius writes, That Nero Fish'd with a Net wrought with Purple and Scarlet Silk. Ways of Fish∣ing there are but few: for what Fish there are, are ta∣ken either with a Hook, Nets, Weels, Nooses, Jack∣spears, and Darts. But Fishing deserves the less praise, for that Fish are of hard and bad Digestion, neither grateful to the Stomach, nor were they ever accepted in Sacrifices.

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CHAP. LXXVII.

Of Hunting and Fowling.

AS Fish are taken, so are Birds and Fowl, saving that there is a greater strength and exercise of the Body requir'd in Fowling and Hunting, than in Fishing; and a more industrious search after the Game. Besides several sorts of Nets, there are many sorts of Pitfalls, Traps, and Springes; nor must we omit the great use of Birdlime, Hawks, Hounds, and Grey∣hounds. A most detestable Recreation, a vain Exercise, and unprosperous and unhappy sport, with so much labour and watching Night and Day to rage and make War against the poor Beasts: A pastime cruel, and totally Tragical, chiefly delighting in Blood and Death. And therefore from the beginning it was accompted the chief Exercise of the worst of Men, and greatest Sinners. For Cain, Lamech, Nimrod, Ishmael, Esau, are reported in Scripture to be mighty Hunters: Nor do we read of any one in the New Testament that was given to Hunting; Nor of any Nations that were greatly addicted to the Sport, unless the Ishmaelites, Idumeans, and other People that did not know God. Hunting was the first Original of Tyranny, which can∣not find a fitter Author, than such a one, as by con∣tinually sporting himself in Blood and Murther, has learn'd to despise God and Nature. The Persian Kings however esteem'd it, as an imitation of Warlike Ex∣ercises: For Hunting hath in it self something fierce and cruel, while the Poor Beast overcome at length by the Dogs, becomes a Spectacle of Delight, in having

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its Blood shed and Bowels torn out; at which the Bar∣barous Hunter laughs, while the Foe-Beast rowted with an Army of Dogs, or entangled in a Toyl, is car∣ried home by the Triumphant Huntsman, with a great Troop at his heels; where the fatal Prey is cut up in bloody terms of Art, and proper words of Butchery, other than which it is not lawful to use. A strange madness of such kind of Men, a most renowned War∣fare, where they themselves casting off their Humani∣ty become Beasts, and by a strange perverting of their Manners, like Acteon, are chang'd into Irrational Crea∣tures. Some of these Hunters grow to such a height of Madness, that they become Enemies to Nature, as the Fables relate of Dardames. Now the Inventors of this Fatal Exercise are said to be the Thebans, a Nation infamous for Fraud, Theft, and Perjury, and no less to be detested for Perjury and Incest; from whence the practice thereof was transmitted to the Phrygians, a Nation equally Abominable, Foolish, and Vain, which therefore the Athenians and Lacedaemonians had in great contempt. Afterwards when the Athenians had re∣pealed their Law against Hunting, and that the Exer∣cise was admitted publickly among 'um, then was the City of Athens first Taken; which makes me wonder to find Hunting commended by Plato Prince of the Academicks. Unless the Event, honesty of the Inven∣tion, or Necessity should be occasions of its Commen∣dations. Thus Meleager slew the Caledonian Boar, not for his own pleasure, but to free his Country from a common Mischief. So Romulus hunted Deer not for pleasures-sake, but to get Food.

There is another sort of Hunting, which is call'd Fowling; not so Cruel, but not less Vain. Vlysses is reported to be the first Inventor thereof, who after the taking of Troy was the first that brought into Greece Birds of Prey manur'd for Game, to comfort with

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new Recreations those that had lost their Parents and Acquaintance in the Trojan War. And yet he com∣manded his Son not to make any use thereof. True it is, that these Exercises, so mean and servile in them∣selves, are come to be so far esteem'd, that now the chief Nobility and Gentry, forsaking all other Libe∣ral and Noble Studies, they are become their chief Learning, and no mean helps to Preferment. Now a days the whole Life of Kings and Princes, nay, which is a greater Grief, the very Religion of Bishops, Ab∣bots, and Chief Doctors and Overseers of the Church, is all consum'd in Hunting; wherein they chiefly experience their Ingenuities, and shew their Virtues.

Among the slothful Herds he longs to try A foming Boar, or from the Mountains high A Lyon make his fell descent—
And they who ought to be Examples of Patience, are the only Active Persons in seeking to Hunt and Prey upon what they are able to overcome; and those Beasts which by Nature are free, and by Law belong to those that can possess 'um, the Tyranny of the Great Ones hath by rash Edicts Usurp'd to themselves. Hus∣bandmen are driven from their Tillage, their Farmes are taken from them, their Meadows likewise; Downs and Woods are shut up from the Shepherds, for shel∣ter for Wild Beasts, for the Butcherly delight of the Nobility, for whom it is only Lawful to be Possess'd thereof; of which, if a Husbandman or a Country∣man do but only taste, he presently becomes guilty of Petty Treason, and together with the Beasts is made a Prey to the Hunter. Let us search the Scripture; certainly, neither in the Sacred Scripture, nor in any other Moral History, shall we read of any Holy, any Wise man, or Philosopher, that was addicted to Hunt∣ing;

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but many Shepherds, and some Fishers. St. Au∣stin affirms it to be an Exercise of all most Wicked; and the Sacred Elibitan and Aurelian Councels utter∣ly condemn'd it; and in the Sacred Canons Hunters are not only forbid Promotion to Holy Orders, but the Degree of Chief Priest is thereby taken from him that has attaind it. And therefore no man can deny Hun∣ting to be an ungodly Exercise, which is so Exploded and Condemn'd in the Opinion of all Wise and Ho∣ly Men. Anciently also, when men did live in Inno∣cency, there was no Creature that fled from 'um, there were none on the other side that Offended them, or were hurtful to 'um, but they had an absolute Obedi∣ence over all. Examples whereof are in latter Times apparent among those that led Holy and Religious Lives. Thus Daniel liv'd among the Lions; nor was St. Paul in any danger of the Viper. A Crow fed Eliab the Prophet, Paul and Antony the Hermites, and a Hart nourish'd St. Aegidius. Helenus the Abbot commanded a wild Ass, and the Beast obey'd, and carried his Burden: he Commanded a Crocodile, and the Crocodile carried him over a River. Many Ancho∣rites liv'd in the Deserts, and frequented the Dens of Wild Beasts, fearing neither Lyons, Bears, nor Serpents. But with Sin, entred also the mischief, dread, and fear of the Creatures, and upon that occasion was the ex∣ercise of Hunting sound out. For as St. Austin observes upon the 3d. of Genesis, No Animals were in their first Production Venomous, Terrible, or Mischievous to Mankind; but after Sin they became so, for the Pu∣nishment of Mans Transgression. Therefore saith God to the Serpent, I will put Enmity between thee and the Woman, and between her seed and thy seed: Out of which Sentence arose the Warfare of Hunting, and the Antipathy of Men with Beasts.

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CHAP. LXXVIII.

More of Agriculture.

BUT let us return. Of the Exercises of Husban∣dry, Pasturage, Hunting, and Fowling, Hiero, Philometer, Attalus, and Archelaus, all Kings, have severally written. Zenophon and Mago great Captains have done the like, together with Oppian the Poet. And besides them, Cato, Varro, Pliny, Columella, Virgil, Crescentius, Palladius, and many others of later times. Cicero believ'd there was nothing better, nothing more gainful, nothing more delightful, nothing more wor∣thy the employment of a generous Spirit, than the occupations above mention'd. Not a few plac'd the chief Good and Supream Happiness in them: There∣fore Virgil calls Husbandmen Fortunate, Horace Blessed. The Oracle of Delphos also pronounc'd one Aglaus a most happy man, who having a little Farm in Arca∣dia, never stir'd out of it; His Content keeping him free from the Experience of Evil. But miserable men that they are; while they so highly honour Agriculture, little do they consider, that it was the Effect of Sin, and the Curse of the most High God. For chasing Adam out of Paradise, he sent him to till the Earth, saying, Cursed be the Earth for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou Eat of it all the days of thy Life. Thorns also and Thistles shall it bring forth to thee, and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return to the Earth, for out of it thou wast taken. Nor are there any persons that feel the sadness of this saying more than Husbandmen and Countrymen; who after they have Plough'd, Sow'd,

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Harrow'd, Weeded, Mowed, Reap'd, Graz'd, Shear'd, Hunted, Fish'd; here one looses his Father for Grief, to see his Labours all on a suddain come to nothing, and wasted with Hail and Tempests: Another Mans Sheep dye, another man's Oxen, or else they are dri∣ven away by the Souldiers: Beasts of Prey devour his Lambs, and destroy his Fish: the Wife laments at home, his Children cry, Famine follows; and after all, with uncertain hope of benefit, he is forc'd to return to his hard Labour. Before the Fall there was no need of Artificial Tillage, no want of Grazing, Hunting, or Fowling, for the Earth was to have produc'd all things of its own accord, always flourishing with all sorts of Fruits, fragrant Smells, constant Summer, and verdant Meadows. Nor had the Earth brought forth any thing noxious, no Herb endu'd with poysonous Qualities, no venomous Toads, Vipers, or other Reptiles. And Man himself being then Lord of the whole Cre∣ation, having had the least occasion for the wild Beasts, had found none such, but all naturally Tame: had he but beckned to the Beasts of Carriage, they had willingly submitted to his Burthens. Man then but new Born, had had the use and strength of all his Mem∣bers and Limbs; not wanting Garments to hide his Nakedness, Houses for Shelter, nor Sawces to provoke his Appetite; and had prolong'd his happy days without the help of Physick, all things offering themselves spon∣taneously to satisfie his desires.

The Earth had been his Food, his Garments Air, And for his Bed, the Fields their Flowr's prepare.
But the mischief of Sin, and the necessity of Death, rendred all things incommodious to us: for now the Earth produces nothing without our Labour and our Sweat but deadly and venomous, and as it were

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upbraiding us that we live; nor are the other Elements less kind to us: Many the Sea destroys with raging Tempests, and the horrid Monsters devour: the Air making War against us with Thunder, Lightning, and Storms; and with a crowd of Pestilential Diseases, the Heavens conspire our Ruine. Nor are the Creatures only our Enemies: For Man, as the Proverb hath it, is to himself a Wolf. We are encompassed with in∣numerable Temptations of Unclean Spirits, whereby to draw us into the Dark Receptacles of Pain and Pu∣nishment, there to be Tormented in Eternal Fire. By all which it appears, that Agriculture with all its ap∣purtenants of Fishing, Hunting, Fowling and Grazing, is a loss of the greatest happinesses, the invention of Mischief, and a trouble to Humane Life. Those Ex∣ercises appurtenant to Agriculture being only incom∣modious means to restore the Barrenness of the Earth, to supply the want of Food, and defend us from the Rigor of cold, which puts us in mind of Death. And yet this Calamity and necessity of ours might in some measure deserve commendation, could it have retain'd it self within moderate bounds, and not shewn us so many devices to make strange Plants, so many porten∣tous Graftings and Metamorphoses of Trees; How to make Horses Copulate with Asses, Wolves with Dogs, and so to engender many wondrous Monsters con∣trary to Nature: And those Creatures to whom Na∣ture has given leave to range the Air, the Seas and Earth so freely, to Captivate and Confine in Aviaries, Cages, Warrens, Parks and Fishponds, and to fat 'um in Coops, having first put out their Eyes, and maim'd their Limbs; had it not also taught us so many varieties of Weaving, Dying, and dressing of Linnen, Woollen, Skins and Silk, which Nature only design'd for plain and homely Cloathing, but invented for the increase of Pride and Luxury. Pliny complaining of these inconveniences,

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gives for instance the Seed of Hemp, which being but a little Seed, in a short time produces a large Sail, that by the help of the Wind carries a Ship all over the World, occasioning men, as if they had not Earth to perish in, to perish in the Sea likewise. I omit the many Laws, and Maxims, and Observations of Hus∣bandmen, Shepherds, Fishers, Hunters and Fowlers, so ridiculous, and not only foolish and ridiculous, but Superstitious, and Repugnant to the Law of God; How to prevent Storms, make their Seed Fruitful, kill Weeds, scare Wild Beasts, stop the flight of Beasts and Birds, the swimming of Fishes, to charm away all manner of Diseases; of all which those Wise Men be∣fore named have written very seriously, and with great cruelty.

CHAP. LXXIX.

Of the Art Military.

BUT now from Husbandmen, let us pass to Soul∣diers chosen out of the Countrymen, and there∣fore more fit for Fight, as saith Vegetius: and whom Cate affirms to make the strongest and hardiest Soul∣diers: and we find in Scripture, That Cain the first Warrier or slayer of Men, was a Husbandman and a Hunter. Therefore the Art of War ought least to be despis'd, which, as Valerius remembers, made the Ro∣man Empire Mistress of all Italy, and of many Cities and Kingdoms of great and Warlike Nations beside; open'd the streights of the Pontick-Sea, forc'd through the close passages of the Alps and Taurus. And Scipio Africanus glories in Ennius, that by the slaughter and Blood of his Enemies, he open'd a way to Immortali∣ty.

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To whom Cicero assents, saying, that Hercules ascended to Heaven by the same means. The Lace∣demonians are said to be the first that deliver'd Rules for teaching this Art; and therefore Hannibal having taken a Resolution to Invade Italy, desired a Lacede∣monian General: Under the Power of Lacedemon ma∣ny Kingdoms and Nations grew great; neglected by her, or neglecting her, from large Dominion they fell to nothing: for under the Leading of rash Captains fell the Warlike Numantia, Corinth, the curious Proud Thebes, the Learned Athens, the Holy Jerusalem, and at last the most Potent Rome. This Art, writ with much more Blood than the Laws of Draco, teaches ye how advantageously and neatly to order a Battle, to Assail the Enemy, to use Stratagems, to move Vigo∣rously forward, to Retreat, to maintain a Shock, to strike to purpose, to avoid the stroaks to handle nim∣bly all manner of Arms, to pursue, when to leave Pur∣suing; when to Pursue far, when not too far; when to fall to the Spoil, to rally, make good Breaches, de∣fend Forts and Towns. It teaches ye also how to pre∣pare and Rig out great Navies, build Castles, fortifie Towns, place fit Garrisons; to Encamp, cast Trenches, Mine, Countermine, make Engines, Assault Ramplers, provide Provision necessary for the Army, to place and avoid Ambushments, and the like; also to Besiege Ci∣ties, plant Batteries, advance the Trenches, dig down the Walls, shake down the Towers, scale Walls, to burn and demolish Towns and Castles, to spoil Tem∣ples, plunder Cities, depopulate Countries, abolish Laws, adulterate Matrons, vitiate Widdows, ravish Virgins; to Wound, take Prisoners, Captivate and Kill. So that the whole Art studies nothing else but the subversion of Mankind, transforming Men into Beasts and Mon∣sters. So that War is nothing but a general Homicide and Robbery by mutual Consent. Neither are Soldiers

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other than stipendiary Theeves arm'd to the subversion of the Commonwealth. Now the Events of War be∣ing always uncertain, and that Fortune, not Skill affords Victory; to what purpose serve all the Stratagems, Ambuscades, and Rules of War? Yet the Divine Plato praises this Art, Teaches it to his Scholars, and com∣mands them to be enroll'd as soon as fit for service: and the Famous Cyrus affirm'd, That War was as necessary as Agriculture: Nay, St. Austin and St. Ber∣nard, Catholick Doctors of the Church, have approved thereof; neither do the Pontifical Decretals at all im∣pugne it, though Christ and his Apostles teach quite another Doctrine. So that contrary to the Doctrine of Christ, it has obtain'd no small Honour in the Church, by reason of the many Orders of Holy Soldiers, all whose Religion, consists in Blood, Slaughter, Rapine and Pyracy, under pretence of defending and enlar∣ging the Christian Faith; as if the Intention of Christ had been to spread his Gospel, not by Preaching, but by force of Arms; not by Confession, and simpleness of Heart, but by Menaces, and high Threats of Ruine and Destruction, strength of Arms, Slaughter and Massacres of Mankind. Nor is it enough for these Soldiers to bear their Arms against the Turks, Saracens, and Pagans, unless they Fight also for Christians against Christians. War and Warfare have begot many Bi∣shops, and it is not seldome that they Fight stiffly for the Popedome; which made the Holy Bishop of Camora Affirm, That seldom any Pope ascends the Chair with∣out the Blood of the Saints; and it is call'd constancy of Martrydome in those that dye Fighting desperately for the Papal Seat. Concerning the Art of War, Ze∣nophon, Zenocrates, Onozander, Cato Censorius, Corneli∣us Celsus, Iginius, Vegetius, Frontinus, Helianus, Mo∣destus, and many of the Ancients; among the Mo∣derns, Volturius, Nicholas the Florentine, James Earl of

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Porcia, and some few others. These are great Doctors in the Art, but Speculative, and therefore not so dan∣gerous as the Practisers. Now as to the Titles, Dig∣nities, and Degrees of the Scholars, there are neither Batchelors, Masters, nor Doctors; Neither are they, as they are vulgarly, to be call'd Emperors, Dukes, Earls, Marquesses, Knights, Captains, Centurions, Lieutenants, Ensignes, names begotten by injury and Ambition; but Thieves, House-breakers, Robbers, Murderers, Sacrilegious, Fencers, Adulterers, Panders, Whoremongers, Traitors, Gamesters, Blasphemers, Par∣ricides, Incendiaries, Pirates, and Tyrants. All which who ever would express in one Word, let him call 'um Soldiers, that is to say, the most barbarous dregs of Wicked Men, whom their own wicked Natures and Desires carry headlong to all Villany: among whom the Name of Dignity and Liberty takes the freedome to commit all sorts of Enormity and Cruelty, seeking all occasions of Mischief, looking upon Innocency to be a kind of likeness of Death, all of 'um being one body of their Father the Devil: Like the Leviathan, of whom thus speaketh Job, They are a body Arm'd with scales like strong shields, and which is sure Seal'd. One is set to another, that no wind can come between them. One is set to another; they stick together that they cannot be sundred, Job 41. They assist one another and are assem∣bled together against the Lord, and against his Christ, Psa.2. Neither are Purple, Chains of Gold, Garlands & Crowns the Ensignes of War, but wounded breasts, and bodies deformed with scarrs. An Exercise which is never per∣form'd but with the ruine and mischief of many, the destruction of Good Manners, Laws and Piety; dia∣metrically at Enmity with Christ, with Happiness, with Peace, with Charity, with Innocency and Patience. The Rewards thereof are Glory got by the Effusion of humane Blood, Enlargement of Dominion, out of a

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greedy desire of Rule and Possession, obtain'd with the Damnation of many Souls. For seeing that Victo∣ry is the End whereat all War drives, no man can be a Conqueror, but he must be a Murtherer; neither can any one be overcome, but he must wickedly Perish: Therefore the Death of Souldiers is the most desperate, sin writing but a bad Epitaph upon their Graves. They that kill are wicked, though the War be just; For Souldiers consider not the justness of the War, but what Plunder and Booty they shall get from those that they kill. If there are any who are justly slain, yet they that claim Honour by doing the Fact, make themselves but a kind of Butchers, or Hangmen, who while the Laws are so strict against Thieves, Incen∣diaries, Robbers, Homicides and Murtherers, yet pre∣sume under the Title and Pretence of being Warriors, to be accompted Noble and Virtuous.

CHAP. LXXX.

Of Nobility.

THus we find the Original of Nobility to spring from War, a Dignity obtain'd by Butchery, out of the blood and slaughter of the Enemy, and adorn'd with Ensigns of Publick Honour. This was the reason of so many sorts of Crowns among the Romans, Civil, Mural, Obsidional, Naval; so many Military largesses of Bracelets, Spears, Trappings, Chains, Rings, Statues, and Images; from whence the Pedegrees of Nobility took their first rise. Among the Carthaginians they had so many Rings given 'um as they had been present in Fights: the Iberians rais'd about the Sepulchre of the Dead so many Obelisques

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as he had slain Enemies. Among the Scythians, at their Publick Festivals, it was Lawful for none to re∣ceive the Cup that was openly carried about, but they who had slain an Adversary. Among the Macedonians there was a Law, That he that had not slain an Enemy, should be girt with a Headstal or Capistrum, in de∣ision of his Cowardise. Among the Germans, no man was to Marry a Wife, till he had brought the Head of a slain Enemy before the King. And many times the Indignity which many Persons have thought has been put upon 'um in not being rewarded accor∣ding to the Services which they presum'd themselves to have done in War, had urg'd 'um to take up Arms against their Country: Examples whereof we find in Coriolanus, the Gracchi, Sylla, Marius, Sertorius, Catiline and Caesar. Therefore is we do but Examine the Foun∣dations and first Beginnings of Nobility, we shall find it acquir'd by Perfidiousness and Cruelty; if the growth thereof, we shall find it increased by Mercenary War and Robbery. If we look into the Original of King∣doms and Empires, we shall meet with most Impi∣ous Murthers of Parents and Brothers, Tragical Match∣es, Fathers expell'd from their Kingdoms by their Sons: and therefore let us view a little the Infancy of Nobility, and we shall find it to be nothing but a stur∣dy Power, and robustious Dignity, a Happiness got by Wickedness, and the Inheritance of the worst of Chil∣dren: And that this is apparent, is evident out of Scripture, and no less manifest out of the Ancient and Modern Histories of the Gentiles. For no sooner had Adam at the first Creation of the World begot his First-born Cain the Husbandman, and his other son Abel the Shepherd, but there began a distinction of Power: Abel seem'd to resemble the Commonalty, Cain the No∣bility, who being according to the Flesh proud and cruel, and a Persecutor of him that was according to

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the Spirit meek and gentle, slew his Brother. But the Commonalty was again restor'd in the Birth of Seth, the third Son of Adam; so that Cain was the first Author of Parricide and Nobility together; who contemning the Laws of God and Nature, yet trusting in his own strength, and Usurping Dominion to himself, he built Cities, instituted Empire, and by Law began to curb Men Created free by God, the sons also of the Holy Generation; and to bring them into servitude and subjection, till they themselves contemning the Com∣mand of God, all Flesh soon growing Corrupt, by promiscuous Copulation begat Giants, which the Scripture seems to Interpret, men Powerful in their Time, and famous for their Deeds. And this is the most apt and real definition of Nobility; for these were they that first oppress'd the Weak, advancing themselves by Robbery and Spoil, and glorying in their great Riches, spread the greatness of their Fame by cal∣ling Regions, Rivers, Mountains, Cities, and Seas by their own names; of whom Cain the first Parent, by nature Wicked, enviously and inwardly malitious of God, incorrigible, a treacherous dissembler of his An∣ger, slew his own brother, adding Blasphemy to Par∣ricide. And thus we see the Primitive and most An∣cient Ornaments, the chief Vertues and Embellishments which continue to this very day, whose first Author was the Father of the Gyants whom God destroyed in the Deluge, reserving only Noah a Just Man, of the Generation of Seth. This Noah had three sons, Sem, Ja∣phet, and Ham, who restoring the World after the Flood, according to the Custome of the Ancient Gyants, be∣gan to build Towns and Cities; which is the Reason that from Noah till Abraham the Scripture makes no mention of Just Men: wherefore we are to believe, That all from Noah to Abraham were the Architects of Nobility, that is, of powerful Impiety, Confusion, Pow∣er,

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Warfare, Violence, Oppression, Hunting, Luxury, Pomp, Vanity, and such other marks of Nobility, with which the sons of Noah were stamp'd. Among others Cham, because he was wickeder than the rest, and the first that was disobedient to his Father, therefore he was thought fittest to be the sole Monarch of the World at that time: he begat Nimrod, whom the Scrip∣ture describes to be a mighty Potentate upon the Earth, a mighty Hunter before the Lord, some read it, against the Lord. He built Babylon the Great, and gave the first occasion of the Confusion of Languages; set down Rules how to Govern; distinguishing the degrees of Honour, Dignity, Offices, and Arms. After that, Laws being made to curb the Commonalty, then was slavery and subjection introduc'd, Taxes laid upon the People, Armies were rais'd, and cruel Wars were first carried on. From the same Cham proceeded Chus, from whom the Aethiopians; Misraim from whom the Egyptians; and Canaan, from whom the Canaanites. The most noble and populous Nations, but the wick∣edest, most reprobate, and accursed of God. At length, after some process of time, again God Elected a Just Man, even the Patriarch Abraham, from whose Loyns he might raise to himself a Holy Seed and People, whom he distinguished by the Mark of Circumcision, from the Multitude of all other Nations: he begat two sons, one of his Maid-servant, Natural, the other of his Wife, Legitimate. Ishmael became a fierce Hunter, a Po∣tentate, Prince of the Ishmaelites, giving from his own a lasting Name to his Nation; and God blessed him, and e∣stablished his Grandeur and Nobility upon the foundati∣ons of War & Rapine, saying, And he shall be a wild man; his hand shall be against every man, and every mans hand a∣gainst him; and he shall dwell in the midst of all his Bre∣thren. But Isaac observing the Religion of his Father, kept his Flock, and had at length by his Wife Rebecca two sons,

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Jacob and Esau; Esau a man whom God belov'd not, red and hairy, a Hunter, a Bowman, and a Glutton, insomuch that for one mess of Pottage he sold his Birthright; he became a Potent Man, and Prince of the Idumeans, receiving for his blessing the fat of the Earth and the dew of Heaven, but to live by his Sword and in servitude. Jacob being a Just Man, an Exile with his Uncle Laban, fed his Uncles Sheep, whose Daughters when he had both earn'd by an Apprentiship of Four∣teeen years for his Wives, he begat of their bodies Twelve Children; and his Name was called Israel, which Name he left to his Posterity the people of Isra∣el. By the names of his Twelve Sons, Reuben, Si∣meon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Ashur, were the Twelve Tribes of the whole Nation called: But Joseph was sold by his Brethren into Egypt, where he was instru∣cted in all the Learning of the Egyptians, made a most skilful Interpreter of Dreams; which he made use of in Prison. So skilful in Oeconomicks, that by his In∣genuity he found out new ways of increasing the Publick Revenue, and heaping up Riches to himself; whereupon he became a great Favorite of Pharaoh's, being constituted by him Lord and Governour over all Egypt: and of a Slave, was created Noble, after the solemn Custome of Egypt, for the King put his Ring upon his finger, and a Chain of Gold about his neck; clad him with Purple, made him to ride in his Chariot, the Crier proclaiming, That all men reverence and esteem him as one of the chief Nobility. The like manner of ennobling of men we finde the Persians to have used; of which Mordecai the Hebrew ennobled by Artaxerxes in Esther was an Example, from whence the Custome of creating Noblemen has continued to this day among the following Races of Emperours and Kings: of which some of 'um purchase their Nobi∣lity

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with Money, others by Pimping and Pandarism, others by Poyson, others by Parricide: Many by Trea∣son have been advanc'd to Grandeur and great Power, as we observe in the Histories of Euthierates, Philocra∣tes, Euphorbus, and Philager. Many more by Flat∣tery, Detraction, Calumny, and Sycophantry; many by prostituting their Wives and Daughters to Kings; many by Hunting, Rapine, Murther, and Witchcraft, have attain'd the highest degrees of Honour. But let us return to Joseph. He growing great in the house of Pharaob, and having begat his eldest Son Manas∣seh, pufft up with his unexpected Nobility, not with∣out blame, spake too severely in contempt of his Fa∣ther's house and his own Family: God, said he, hath made me forget all my labours and my fathers houshold: For which cause when Jacob blessed the two Sons of Joseph, he set Ephraim before Manasseh. Joseph also, although he were the Son of Jacob, yet by reason of his Nobility contemptible in the sight of God, was not honour'd to have any one of the Tribes bear his name, which was given to his two Sons Ephraim and Manasseh. After this the people of Israel liv'd in E∣gypt, and kept Sheep in the Land of Goshen; but when they grew numerous and populous, they grew also suspected and envi'd by the Potentates and Kings of Egypt, who thereupon thought to oppress 'um with continual hard labour and servitude. They also slew their Male-children, thinking to have quite extirpated them from the Earth: But one of those Children, be∣cause of his Beauty, was preserv'd by the Daughter of Pharaoh, who adopted him for her Son, and call'd him Moses, because she had preserv'd him out of the Water. Moses therefore grew up in the house of the King, and being bred up in all the Learning of the Egyptians, was accounted as the King's Son, was made a great man, and Captain of Pharaoh's Army against the AE∣thiopians;

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but having married the King of AEthiopia's Daughter, he got the ill will of the Egyptian Lords; and being banish'd out of Egypt, fled into Midian, where at a certain Well taking part with certain Dam∣sels against the Shepherds of that Country, for that kindness he had bestow'd on him for a Wise one of those Virgins, the Daughter of the Priest of Midian. At length increasing in Age and Wisdome, and remem∣bring himself to be an Hebrew, he return'd into E∣gypt, and renouncing his Egyptian Honours, encoura∣ged by God, he undertook to be Captain of the Chil∣dren of Israel; and by the assistance of many Miracles carried them out of Egypt: and when the people had sinned against God in making a golden Calf, Moses be∣ing angry, calling to his aid the strong men of the Sons of Levi, commanded 'um, saying, Put every man his sword to his side, go to and fro from gate to gate through the host, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his Neighbour. Now af∣ter he had made this memorable Slaughter of about three, some say three and twenty thousand persons, he bless'd 'um, saying, Consecrate your hands, or ye have consecrated your hands this day unto the Lord, every man upon his son, and upon his brother, that there may be given you a blessing this day; fulfilling what was said by Jacob of his Sons Simeon and Levi, calling them Instruments of Cruelty in their habitations, cursing their wrath, for it was fierce; and their rage, for it was cruel. And thus we finde this signal Slaughter to be the first Original of Nobility in Israel: For after that did Mo∣ses appoint Princes and Captains among 'um, Captains of hundreds, Captains of fifties and tens; famous Warriors & stout Fighters through their Tribes and Fa∣milies: Among whom if there were any that excell'd in valour and strength, him they made their Chief, giving him the power of Judgment and Command. For

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they had no King, but were govern'd by Judges; a∣mong whom Joshua a Nobleman, strong, warlike, a vanquisher of Kings, not fearing any man, after Moses was dead, held the most Supream Command; af∣ter whose death they liv'd under a Democracie, with∣out any Prince or Leader. But growing seditious, fell out one among another, and had almost totally extir∣pated the Tribe of Benjamin, insomuch that there were not above six hundred men remaining. And when they had forsworn to given 'um their own Daugh∣ters, they contriv'd a way to let 'um have four hundred of the Virgins of Jabesh-Gilead, and for the other two hundred they were permitted to take 'um by force from the men of Silo. And thus was fulfill'd the Blessing of Benjamin's Nobility, like unto a Wolf seizing his Prey in the morning, and diving his Prey in the evening. After this they return'd to Aristocracie, and the Government of Princes; among whom Abimelech the natural Son of Gideon, of the Tribe of Manasseh, having slain seventy of his legitimate Brethren upon one stone, obtain'd the Kingdom, and rul'd in Sichem. After this the people universally clamouring for a King, God gave them Kings in his wrath; very few good, very many wicked. For the Lord was angry with them, forewarning them of the high Preroga∣tive of Kings, and the subjection they must suffer un∣der 'um; affirming that Kings would take their Sons and their Daughters, and would make Carters and in∣feriour Servants of 'um; that they would at their own pleasure take their Lands, their Farms, their Men-servants, and their Maid-servants, and employ 'um in his own service; and that as often as the King was wicked and did evil, the people would suffer for his sake. The first King he gave them, was a young man of the Tribe of Benjamin, named Saul, a man of great strength, tall of Stature, insomuch that he was

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higher than any of the rest of the people from the shoulders upwards: and God struck such an awe upon the peoples Spirits, that they esteem'd and reverenc'd him as a sacred Minister of God. This man, before he began to raign, was as innocent as a Childe of one year old; but having obtain'd the Kingdom, he be∣came a wicked man, and a Son of Belial. Therefore God took the Kingdom from Saul, and gave it to Da∣vid the Son of Jesse, of the Tribe of Judah: He from a Shepherd was advanc'd to be King; but then being infected with the contagion of Nobility, he also be∣came a man of sin, Sacrilegious, an Adulterer, a Mur∣therer, though God in his mercy did not quite forsake him. He raign'd at first in Hebron, Ishbosheth the Son of Saul raigning beyong Jordan; after which he raign'd over all Israel in Jerusalem. Nor could he raign in peace neither; for while he was yet alive, his Son Absalon invaded the Kingdom in Hebron; who be∣ing slain, Siba the Son of Bochra rebell'd again: Af∣ter that Adoniah his other Son attempted to gain the Crown, at what time David on his death-bed appoin∣ted Solomon his younger Son, born of Bathsheba the A∣dulteress, to inherit his Throne. He being the first ab∣solute Monarch of the Hebrews, confirm'd himself therein by the Murther of his Brother Adoniah; but being once establish'd, he forsook the ways of God, and ell to Fornication and Idolatry. His bad Son Reho∣boam succeeded him, a great sinner against God; there∣fore the sole Monarchy of the people was taken from him, ten of the Tribes revolting from his Government, chusing to themselves Jeroboam for their King, a most wicked man of the Tribe of Dan, who poyson'd all Israel, seducing the ten Tribes to Idolatry, setting up Golden Calves in Samaria, that the Blessing might be fulfil'd, saying, Dan shall be a Serpent by the way, an Adder by the path, biting the horse heels, so that his ri∣der

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shall fall backward. As for the Tribe of Judah, it remain'd quite under the Posterity of David, accor∣ding to the Prophesie of Jacob, That the Scepter was not to depart from Judah till the Messiah came. Yet was Judah one of the worst of Jacob's Sons, and one that lay with his Mother-in-Law. His Sons also were most lewd and evil; wherefore the blessing of Power and Nobility was granted to him in the enjoyment of the Scepter, and his blessing to be as strong as a Li∣on. After that the people of Edom and Jobne revol∣ted from the King of Israel, chusing Rulers of their own at their own will and pleasure, and God promis'd to Esau that he should shake off the Yoak. Among all the Kings of Juda and Israel, scarce four were known to be good. At last their Kings and all their Nobility being ruin'd and overcome, the Jews were carried Captive to Babylon. In process of time, God taking compassion of their Calamities, where they erected a king of Popular Government, living happi∣ly under the command of their Priest, and the chief Heads of their Tribes, until Aristobulus the Son of Hircanus took the Regal Diadem, and renewed the Kingdom of the Jews, with the murther of his Mo∣ther and Brothers: To him many Kings succeeded, till at length, under Archelaus an insolent and obscene Ty∣rant, the Kingdom was by the Romans reduc'd into a Province, and last of all wholly ruin'd and laid waste by Vespasian and Titus; the whole Nation being scat∣ter'd over the whole world from that time to this day in a continu'd servitude. All this I thought conve∣nient to repeat out of the Sacred Scripture, to the end I might make it apparent that at the beginning of the world there was no Nobility whose Original was not evil even among the people of God, and that Nobility is nothing else but the reward of publick Iniquity; and by how much the life of a man is most polluted,

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so much the more famous it shall be accompted; the fuller of wickedness, the greater his Glory and Recom∣pence. As Diomed the Pirate, when he was taken, wittily pleaded before Alexander, I, said he, because I rob but with one Ship, am accus'd for being a Pirate: Thou, because thou dost the same thing with a great Navy, are call'd an Emperour: If thou wert single and a Cap∣tive, thou wouldst be a Pirate; if I had an Army at my command, I should be esteem'd an Emperour: For as to the matter we differ not, unless it may not be disputed whether he be not the worst that takes with greatest vio∣lence, who deserts Justice most manifestly, and contemns and breaks the Law. For those whom I fly, thou pur∣suest: those whom I honour, thou contemnest. The hard∣ness of my Fortune, and the narrowness of my Estate, makes me; thy intolerable Pride, and insatiable Ava∣rice, makes thee a Thief. If my wilde Fortune would grow more tame, perhaps I might be better; but if thou wert more fortunate, thou wouldst be worse. Alexander admiring the constancy of the man, caus'd him to be ifted in his Army, that he might lawfully fight and make War, that is, rob and steal. Now to proceed to the Histories of the Ethnicks, I shall from thence also hew, that Nobility and Greatness is nothing but Im∣probity, Madness, Robbery, Rapine, Homicide, Luxu∣ry; the sport of Hunting and violence arising from principles of disorder, prosecuted more wicked, and always coming to a disastrous end; all which shall be made out from the four famous Monarchies, as also from the success of other more petty Kingdoms. The first Monarchy then after the Flood, was that of the Assyrians, the Founder whereof was Ninus, who first of all not content with the bounds of his own Em∣pire, resolv'd to extend his Dominions as far as he could, made cruel Wars upon his Neighbours, subdu∣ng all the Eastern Nations, and increasing the vast∣ness

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of his Empire with new Acquests and successful Vi∣ctories. he brought all Asia & Pontus under his subjecti∣on. He also murther'd Zoroastes King of the Bactrians. Ninus had a Wife nam'd Semiramis; she begg'd of her Husband that she might rule onely five days; which being granted her, she took the Regal Ornaments, and seating her self in the Royal Throne, commanded the Guard to kill her Husband; who being slain, she suc∣ceeded him in the Empire, & not satisfi'd with the large extent of her Dominions, she conquer'd Ethiopia, and carried the War into India: she Wall'd Babylon with a most stately and magnificent Wall, and at length is kill'd by her Son Ninus the second, whom she had wic∣kedly conceiv'd, impiously expos'd, and incestuously known. Under these Murtherers the Assyrian Monar∣chy took its original of Grandeur, till extinguish'd by the death of Sardanapalus, a man more vicious and effeminate than any woman, whom Arbactus Prefect of Media slew in the midst of all his Concubines, and taking upon him the Kingdom, translated the Empire from the Assyrians to the Medes, which Cyrus afterwards translated to the Persians, among whom Cambyses his Son, founder of New Babylon, joyning and adding by conquest many Kingdoms to his own, began the second Monarchy, which he confirm'd to himself by the mur∣ther of his Brother and Son. This Empire declin'd under Narsus the Son of Ochus, who being slain by Bagoas the Eunuch, Darius succeeded him; and he being overthrown by Alexander, put a period to the Persian Monarchy, with his life; which the said Alexander, conscious with his adulterous Mother of his Fathers death, and indeed the contriver thereof translated again to the Macedonians. The fourth Monarchy was that of the Romans, the most powerful and of largest extent: but should we repeat the suc∣cessions of Governments from the building of the

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City, we finde it founded upon most wicked begin∣nings, and maintain'd by as bad principles: Let us therefore observe who were the Founders of this great City. Rome was built by two Twins, Remus and Ro∣mulus, incestuously begot upon a Vestal Nun. Remus at the beginning of his Government was murthered by Romulus, a second Cain; who suffering himself to be call'd the Son of the Gods, having gather'd toge∣ther a Crew of detestable Villains, ravish'd the Daugh∣ters of the Sabines to get themselves Wives; and from them sprung the Off-spring of Roman Giants so for∣midable to all the world. After this, thirsting after the blood of his Father-in-Law, he slew Titus Tatius, a good Old man, and Captain of the Sabines; having drawn him into a League, and associated him into Part∣nership of the Kingdom. These were the Originals of the Roman Empire, which for two hundred forty three years was govern'd by cruel Kings, and ended under Tarquinius the Proud, exil'd for the Rape of Lucrece. And as the Posterity of Cain ended in the seventh Generation destroy'd by the Flood, so these Roman Successors in the Seventh King from Romulus, were driven out of the City by Popular Tumult. Howe∣ver, though the Romans threw off the Yoak of Kingship, yet they could not shake off the Yoke of Servitude. For the Kings being now thrown out, and the Govern∣ment translated into the hands of the Nobility, Brutus a Nobleman was the first Roman Consul chosen. He to establish the Foundations of intended Empire, not onely labour'd to equal Romulus, the first Founder of the City, in Murther, but also to outdo him; for he slew two of his own Sons, and two of his Wives Bro∣thers in the Market-place, after he had caus'd 'um to be publickly whip'd. After this the Government con∣tinued for many Ages, sometimes in the hands of the Nobility, sometimes of the Commonalty, under the

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power and command of sundry Magistrates and pet∣ty Tyrannies; at length under Julius Caesar, a man I cannot say whether stronger in War, or corrupter in Manners; and afterwards under Antonius, a man in∣slav'd to Lust and Luxury, wholly determin'd: After which the whole Command of the Roman Empire fell into the sole hands of Octavianus Augustus. In him began the fourth Monarchy of the World, but not without Murther: for though Augustus was accomp∣ted one of the mildest Princes in the world, yet he put to death a Son and a Daughter of his Uncle Cae∣sar, begot upon Cleopatra, though his Uncle had A∣dopted him, and left him his Heir by Will, not regar∣ding Name, Kindness, Affinity, nor Childhood. And now the Roman Emperours held the Monarchy of the world, among whom behold these Monsters of Cruelty and Impiety, Nero, Domitian, Caligula, Heliogabalus, Ga∣lienus, and others, under whom the whole world was oppress'd, till Constantine the Great having slain Max∣entius, for his Lust and Cruelty hated of the Roman people, was proclaim'd Emperour. He, because he re-edifi'd Byzantium, making her equal with Rome, or else as it were a new Rome, and commanded it to be call'd Constantinople, from his own name, seems to have translated the Roman Empire to the Greeks, and at Constantinople, as Romulus at Rome, assur'd it to himself by the murther of the two Licinii, the Husband and Son of his Sister, as also of his own Childe and Wife. Thus the Empire remain'd among the Greeks till the time of Charles the Great, under whom the name of the Empire onely was remov'd into Germany. And thus far for Monarchies. Let us make inquiry into the beginnings of some other Kingdoms, and we shall finde them founded upon no better principles, nor up∣held by less impiety, nor the occasions of their disso∣lutions less remarkable. I shall omit the Murthers

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of Dardanus, and by what devilish contrivances ha∣ving besotted the Greeks to be his impious accompli∣ces, he laid the Foundation of the Greek Monarchie. I omit the Governments obtain'd by the murthers of their Husbands, as the stories relate concerning the Amazonians. I come to later times, and the verges of our own memories. In Spain, in the time of Theo∣dosius the Emperour, Alarick the Goth was the first that raign'd, at which time the Vandals also possess'd a great part of the same Country. The first King of the Goths that obtain'd the Monarchy of Spain, was Sytilla, which Roderick the King, because he had ravish'd Julia Daughter of the Prefect of the Province of Tingi∣tana, some while after lost to the Saracens or Moors, who after him possess'd Spain, till Pelagius having again recover'd some places, they were then call'd no more Kings of the Goths, but Kings of Spain, the Seat of the Empire being settled at Leon, until the raign of Ferdinando the Holy, who first call'd himself King of Castile, who having slain his Brother Garsias, by means of that parricide obtain'd the Kingdom of Navarre. Their Brother Romanus, whom their Father had be∣got upon a Concubine, being a warlike and fierce man, became the first King of Arragon. The first King of Portugal was Alphonsus the Son of Henry of Lorain and Terese the Bastard-daughter of Alphonsus King of Castile; A stout man at Arms, who slew five Princes or great Governours of the Saracens in one Battel; which was the reason that the Kings of Portugal carry five Shields for their Arms: yet was this Alphonsus curst and cruel to his Mother, whom because she mar∣ried a second time, he cast into perpetual imprison∣ment, nor could be mov'd to set her free by any per∣swasions, intreaties, prayers, or menaces of Ecclesi∣astical Censure. Thus all the Kingdoms of Spain have been obtain'd by unheard-of Villanies, and held

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by the same Arts. I omit the Kingdoms of the Bur∣gundians and Lombards, compos'd of the greatest and most famous people of Germany, and begun in Lom∣bardy by Alboynus, in Burgundy by Gondaicus, and in both places maintain'd and propagated by Murther and Bloodshed. Let us view the most Potent Kingdom of the Franks in Gallia, whose first Foundations were laid by Pharamond Son of Meroveus, who coming out of Germany into France, was made King of the Franks; excelling in nothing more than in Cruelty and Fierce∣ness: His Posterity remain'd till the time of Childe∣rick the Third, who for his sloth and libidinous wan∣tonness was depos'd from his Kingdom, and thrust into a Monastery. In his place was Pipin advanc'd, Steward of Childerick's House, who having got the Kingdom for himself and his Posterity by treason, establish'd his own Power by the Murther of Grifo his Brother. His Posterity continu'd to Lewis the Second, Son of Lotha∣rius, who for adulterating his Wife Blanch's bed, was poyson'd by her: at which time Hugh Capet laid vio∣lent hands upon the Scepter; a stout Warrier, and there highly esteem'd by the Parisians; but otherwise igno∣ble, as being the Son of a Butcher. He rebelling a∣gainst Charles the Uncle of Lewis, and right Heir of the Crown, scrapes together a loose Band of debauch'd fellows and Vagabonds, and having got the said Charles into his hands by treachery, thrust him into Prison, and there kept him till he di'd; and thus having most barbarously murther'd his King and Prince, he assum'd the Regal Diadem, changing a Kingdom into a Butch∣ers shop; whose Succession endures to this day. It would be too long and tedious in this place to enume∣rate the Originals of all Kingdoms, and discourse the Histories of all Antiquity. I have in another Volume writ more at large of what I have here but lightly touch'd, where I have painted out Nobility it self in

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its proper Colours and Lineaments; and I have shewed that there never was, nor is any Kingdom in the world, or famous Principality, the Foundations whereof were not built upon Particide, Treachery, Perfidious∣ness, Cruelty, Murther, Slaughter, and other most hor∣rid Crimes, the Arts and Utensils of Nobility, whereof when we see the Head, we may easily conjecture at the monstrosity of the rest of the Members; onely prompt and ready for the Execution of all manner of Vice, Violence, Rapine, Murther, Men-hunting, and Lust. Would any person become Noble, let him be a Huntsman, this is the first step to Preferment; or let him be a mercenary Souldier, and let himself out to commit Murther: This is the true Noble vertue, whereby he that shews himself the bravest and stoutest Thief, shall deserve the greatest Honour and Dignity. He that is a Fool or a Coward, let him buy Nobility with money; for Nobility is often expos'd at the Market: Or if he cannot do that, let him flatter Great men and Princes, Pimp for Noblemens Wives, prosti∣tute his own Wife and Daughter to the Kings plea∣sure, marry the Kings Cast-Mistrisses, or espouse his natural Daughters; and this is the highest Degree of Nobility, for then he becomes embodied to the Root. These are the High-ways, these are the Steps and Lad∣ders by which men most compendiously climb up to the top of Honour. Now they who would appear more magnificent and noble than others, boast themselves to be of the Race of those, which there is no body but would contemn, that is to say, Macedonians, Trojans, Va∣gabonds, Fugitives, and Exiles, infamous for thousands of Crimes and Misdemeanors: and yet forsooth we must magnifie & extol this Nobility, that had such nefa∣rious beginnings. Others deducing their Pedegrees from Whores and Concubines, cover their shame with some Fable, as we read in the Story of Melusina. There are

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others that have had other most wicked Originals, from Incest, Rapes, Fornications, and Adulteries. Thus Baldwin was made Earl of Flanders by Charles the Bald, who had ravish'd his Daughter. For the same rea∣son were those Marquesses of Piedmont, viz. Montfer∣rate, Saluces, Sena, and others, advanc'd by Otho the Emperour. For Kings and Emperours are wont, when they cannot for shame punish an Injury, to honour the Actors with some Title of Dignity. Moreover, there are our principal Gifts in Noblemen, wherein consists their chief Vertue and Knowledge, if not their onely Happiness: Their first is Rapaciousness, whereby they are taught and instructed to Desire, Gain, and Possess, contrary to all Law and Equity. The second is Plea∣sure, which carries 'um headlong to all Voluptuous∣ness and Luxury. The third is Liberty, whereby, guarded with the powers of Violence, they presume in contempt of the Law, to act according to their pleasures. The fourth is Ambition, which swells 'um to seek advancement beyond their Merit, and to stop at no wickedness or villany while they are in the pur∣sute of vain Honour. Lastly, the compleatness of Nobility is discern'd in these things: if he be a good Hunsman, if he be cunning in the wicked Arts of Gaming, if he be able to shew his great strength in Drinking, if the force and vigour of Nature become renown'd by his mighty Acts of Venery, if he be addicted to Pride, Luxury, and Intemperance, if he be an enemie of Vertue, or grow forgetful that he was born, and that he shall die. More noble yet, if these Impieties be but successive from Father to Son, and be inculcated into their Youth by great Authorities.

If the Old man be fortunate in Play, 'Tis fit the Hir should thrive the self-same way.

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These are the signal Vertues of Noblemen. But there is another sort of Industry among the Nobility, where∣in they are most excellent above others, to make them∣selves to be accompted all this while honest and good, famous for Prudence, Liberality, Piety, and Justice; to which end they faign themselves courteous, fair-spoken, affable, making a conspicuous shew of all Vertue: They steep their Speeches in Oyl: they ban∣quet splendidly from house to house, talk freely of State-affairs, observe the opinions of other men, from whence they gather what is good, and ascribe to them∣selves the same of other mens wisdom and prudence: By their covetousness they get an opinion of Libera∣lity, while what they take from one, they give to ano∣ther; bountiful Thieves; and what the Ancients write concerning Sylla, by the injuries which they do to some, they enrich others, being themselves in the midst of all their Rapine. The opinion of Justice and Pie∣ty they procure, by undertaking the differences among poor people, and maintain their causes against the rich sort; but they no longer give assistance to the af∣flicted; but while they can empty the Coffers of the wealthy. For their intention is not to do good to the Poor, but to injure the Rich; which they can more easily do, than do good: And under this pretence of Justice and Piety, sometimes they arrogate to them∣selves the greatest License in the world, on purpose to use violence to Cities and great persons, glorying in their sins like the ancient Giants, and like evil Spirits seeking all occasions of mischief, and then thinking that they do most good, when they do no harm; so be∣having themselves, to be a terrour to all, to be belov'd by none; combining with the wicked and flagitious, oppressing and ruining all persons that put their confi∣dence in 'um. Of whom Aristophanes thus writes, saying, That it is not convenient for a City to breed

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and nourish Lions within it; but if they be of a milde temper, then we ought to be obedient to 'um. The Switzers, formerly oppressed by the tyranny of these Noblemen, slew them all, and extirpated their Race by that memorable slaughter of their Nobles, obtain∣ing a lasting name with the recovery of their liberty, wherein they have happily flourish'd for above four hundred years, the hatred of that sort of Nobility yet remaining among 'um.

CHAP. LXXXI.

Of Heraldry.

NObility was the Foundation of that noble Art of Heraldry, and Philosophy has been very much employ'd in designing and ordering the Arms of No∣blemen, for whom it is unlawful to bear in their Coats an Ox, a Calf, a Sheep, a Lamb, a Capon, a Hen, or any of those Creatures which are necessary for the use of Mankind; but they must all carry for the Ensignes of their Nobility, the resemblances of cruel Monsters, and Birds of Prey. Thus the Romans chose to carry an Eagle, the most rapacious of all Birds: the Phry∣gians a Boar, a most pernicious Animal: the Thracians, Mars: the Goths, a Bear: and the Vandals invading Spain, carried a Cat, a creature most greedy, and trea∣cherous withal: the ancient Franks, a Lion: the Sax∣ons, the same. Afterwards the Franks remaining in Gallia, chose the Owl: the Saxons a Horse, a most warlike creature. The Cymbrians had for their En∣signe a Bull, the Emblem of strength and good for∣tune. Antiochus had for his Imprese an Eagle holding a Dragon in her pounces. Pompey bare in his Shield a

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Lion; Attila, a crowned Basilisk. The Romans, whose Capitol was preserv'd from the Gauls by the Geese that were fed therein, yet could not be perswaded to carry a Goose for their Shield. There are that admit Cocks and Goats into their Shields, because those crea∣tures are known to be proud and lustful. For the same reason Peacocks are receiv'd, because of their pride; and the Lapwing or Heath-hen, for that she seems to carry the Emblem of Majesty, wearing the resemblance of a Crown on her head: Nor is she re∣fus'd, because she makes her Neast in Excrements, for we know that Vespatian impos'd a tribute upon Piss, acknowledging, That the smell of Gain was always sweet. There be many of smaller Animals also that claim a prerogative in the Shields of great men, provided they be the Documentors of mischief: Such are Coneys, Moles, Frogs, Locusts, Mice, Serpents, Salpeges, Sco∣lopenders; through the multitude of which sort of A∣nimals, as Pliny testifies, people have been forc'd to forsake their Habitations, and Cities have been for∣saken: For the same reason, some have not been a∣sham'd to bear Lice, Fleas, and Flies; and some there are that count it a great honour to be mark'd with Blains and Botches, while there are those that hold them for the best Gentlemen that have been most pep∣per'd with the French Pox. Some there are that bear for their Arms Swords, Daggers, Faulcheons, Towers, Battlements, Engines of War, Fire-works, and what∣soever other Instruments of Murther and Mischief. The Scythians carry Thunder for their Arms, the Per∣sians a Bow and Arrows, the Coralli Wheels. Thus a∣mong the Gods Jupiter carried Thunder, Neptune a Trident, Mars a Spear, Bacchus a Thyrse, Hercules a Club, and Saturn a Scithe. And these Ensignes of Ar∣mory, as they are the Emblems of Cruelty, Rapine, Violence, Fortitude, Rashness, and other Heroick Ver∣tues,

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are by the judgment of the Heralds, some nobler than others. Now those Shields that are blazo••••d with things that are less noxious, as Trees, Flowers, Stars, as the Harp of Apollo▪ the Caduceus of Mercury, or are otherwise distinguish'd onely by variety of Co∣lours, these are accompted much more modern, and less noble than the other, as not being acquir'd by any Acts of War, or other Artifices of Ruine and Destru∣ction. However, 'tis a wonder to see how foolishly and idly these applauded Heralds play the Philosophers, Astrologers, and Divines, while they ascribe black and brown to Saturn; and therefore Perseverance, Pati∣ence, and Taciturnity to him also: But Saphyr, and Azure, Faith and Zeal, belongs to Jupiter. Over Red, which signifies Anger and Revenge, they give Mars dominion. The Golden Colour they dedicate to the Sun; and by reason of the Price of the one, and the Lustre of the other, think it signifies desire and joy. Over Green and Purple Venus is made chief Ruler; to Purple by reason of its Rosie beautie, ascribing the sig∣nification of Love, though the French will have it to denote Treachery: but Green by the consent of all, was the Emblem of Hope, seeing that from the green Fields Fruit is expected at the end of the year. White is ascrib'd to the Moon, which being simple without mixture, yet is it capable of all mixture, and there∣fore they will have it to denote Purity, Docility, and Simplicity of heart. All other mixt Colours they as∣sign'd 〈◊〉〈◊〉 Mercury, who being himself inconstant and of several humours, so they observe that those humours signifie the various Affections of the Minde: As Ash-colour being neer to Black, signifies Trouble: Flesh-co∣lour inward Grief of the Soul, or secret and hidden Thoughts: Straw-colour, Desperation and Suspition, or Jealousie. Too long it would be to repeat their Trifles of the same nature, feigned and digested into Emblems,

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from the Water, Days, corners of the World, Winds, Wood, Planets, Plants, Stones, and the very Mysteries and Sacraments of Religion: Nay, they have translated all the Apocalypse into Fables and Trifles of their own in∣vention: And this is that Heroick Philosophy of the Heralds. And here I had made an end of this Discourse, had I not met with the Original of these Heralds. Aeneas Sylvnius deduces the Original of the Heralds from the Heroes. Now these Heroes were old Souldiers, which they ought also to be; and Harald the Teutonick word, signifies an old man in Arms, or a Veterane Souldier. But now every Servile and Mechanick-fellow, fecial Messengers, and Caduceators, frequently are admitted to the Employment. However, the Priviledges and Offices of Heralds remain inviolable to this very day. Their first Institutor was Father Bacchus, who having conquer'd India, gave them their first beginning, in these words: This day I free you from War and Labour; I will that ye be called Veterane Souldiers and Heroes. Your busi∣ness shall be now to take care of the Commonwealth, to punish the bad and cherish the good. From other Offices ye shall be free, in whatever part of the world ye shall be found. Your Diet and Clothing shall be at the King's Charge: Ye shall be honourable among all men; Princes shall send ye Gifts: Firm credit and authority shall be given to your words; ye shall abhor Lying, ye shall sit and judge Tratyors; those who ill entreat their Wives, ye shall adjudge infamous: Ye shall be free in all Countries, secure in Travel and Habitation: Whosoever shall molest or injure any of you, shall be put to death. Alexander the Great, after many Ages following, added very much to their Priviledges, giving them liberty to wear Garments of Gold, Purple, and Scarlet; as also to bear Royal Coats and Escutchons in whatsoever part of the world they inhabited. If any person struck them, or injur'd them in words, they forfeited their Goods as guilty of Trea∣son.

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All which Thucydides, Herodotus, Didymus, Maga∣sthones, and Xenophon have related, as the same Aeneas reports. Thirdly, Octavianus Augustus, being settled in the Roman Empire, incorporated them, and gave them several Laws: Whoever thou art that has serv'd us in the Wars ten years, provided thou art forty years of age, whether thou wert a Footman or a Horseman, after that thou shalt be free from farther service; let him be a Heroe and a Veterane: Let free access be given thee to all Cities, Pleading-places, Temples, publick and private Houses: Let no man accuse thee of any Crime, impose any Burthen on thee, or exact any Money from thee. If thou hast done amiss, onely expect to be punish'd by Cae∣sar: Whatever foul act men commit, let them expect thee their Judge, and the Proclaimer of their Miscarriages, whether private or publick persons: what thou shalt af∣firm or say▪ let no man contradict, whether Prince or private person. Let all High-ways and places be open to thee. In the houses of Great men let there be a Table provided for thee. Sufficient to keep thee and thy Fami∣ly, receive out of the publick Treasury. Let thy lawful Wife take place of other women. Whom thou shalt contemn and name for infamous, let him be contemn'd, and esteem'd infamous. Let a Heroe bear the Ensignes, Arms, Names and Ornaments of Kings. What thou hast a minde to do or say, that do or say in any part of the World, in any Country or Nation whatsoever: be that injures thee, let him want a head. At last Charles the Great ha∣ving obtain'd the name of the Empire into Germany, and being stil'd Caesar Augustus, after he had overcome the Saxons and Lombards, honour'd them as follows: My fellow-Souldiers, said he, ye shall be call'd Heroes, Companions of Kings, and Judges of Crimes: Live henceforward free from Labour, consult and advise with Kings for the Publick good, reprehend soul Actions; be kinde to Women, and be tender over Orphans; encompass

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Princes with your counsels: From them demand your Food. Apparel▪ and Wages; whoever denies ye, let him be dishonourable and infamous: He that offers ye injury, let him confess himself guilty of High Treason. And for your parts, take you heed, that so great Honours, so great Priviledges acquir'd by the labours of War, that ye stain them not, nor defile them with Drunkenness, or any other Vice: that what we give for your Glory, may not redound to your Punishment; the infliction whereof, if ye exceed your bounds, we reserve to our selves and our Successors Kings of the Romans. And this is the mag∣nificent Degree of Heraldry, for which by ancient Custom, they esteem themselves so great.

CHAP. LXXXII.

Of Physick in general.

FRom War and Nobility let us hasten to Physick, which is it self a kinde of Art of Killing, altoge∣ther Mechanick, though she pretend to be shadow'd with the Title of Philosophy, and sits above the Law next to Divinity in degree and place; which hath caus'd great contention between the Civilian and the Physitians. For thus the Physitians argue: Seeing, say they, there are three sorts of Goods, the Goods of the Soul, the Goods of the Body, the Goods of For∣tune; of the first the Divine takes care, of the second the Physitian, the third onely belongs to the Lawyer: Hence it is that the Physitians claim the next pre-emi∣nence to the Divines, forasmuch as the strength and health of the Body is to be preferr'd far before the Riches of Fortune. But this strife was once deter∣min'd by a witty Question. For some one of these

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Contenders desiring to know▪ what order and method was observ'd in leading Criminals to Excution, which follow'd, and which should precede, the Thief or the Hagman? and when one answer'd that the Thief went before, and the Hangman follow'd, the other presently gave judgment that the Lawyers should go before, the Physitians follow; denoting the remarkable Robbery of the one, the rash Murther of the other. But let us return to Physick, of which there are many sorts of Heresies: For there is one which they call Rational, Sophistical, and Dogmatical, which was pra∣ctised by Hippocrates, Diocles, Chrysippus, Caristinus, Paraxagoras, and Herosistratus; approved also a long while after by Galen, who above all the rest following Hippocrates, brought all the Art of Physick to be com∣prehended in the knowledge of the Causes, judgments upon Signes and Symptoms, qualities of things, and the several habits and ages of Bodies. But this Here∣sie contending more for substance than shadow, I con∣fess to be the meaner part of Philosophy; but toward the cure of the Sick not at all necessary, if not altoge∣ther destructive, as that which rather sends us for Health and Cure to screw'd and forc'd Maximes, than to any sincere and real Medicines: and being employ'd in Scholastick Syllogisms, unacquainted with Woods and Fields, becomes altogether ignorant of Herbs and good Remedies. And therefore Serapion was of opi∣nion that this Rational Method of Physick did nothing at all avail to the Cure of diseases. Therefore there is another Faction of Physicians, altogether Mercenary and Mechanick; which is therefore termed Operative, and is divided into Empirick and Methodical; of which we are now to treat. They call it Empirical, because of the Experiments which it makes: whose chief Pro∣fessors were Serapion, Heraclides, and both the Apollo∣nii. Among the Latines, Marcus Cato, C. Valgius, Pom∣ponius,

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Leneus, Cassius, Felix, Aruntius, Cornelius, Celsus, Pliny, and many others. Out of this, Hierophilus the Calcedonian constituted his Methodical Physick; and by the help of long Experience, the Mistress of all things, fixed it to certain Rules, which afterwards Asclepiades, Themistion, and Archigenes confirm'd by most strong ar∣guments, and afterwards Thesillus the Italian complea∣ted; who, as Varro affirms, set aside all the Opinions of his predecessors, madly raging against all the Phy∣sicians of the former Age. After these, many Barba∣rous Physicians of forraign Nations ventured abroad in Writing; among which, the Arabians became so famous, that they seemed by many to have been the In∣ventors of this Art; and might have easily made it good, but, for the Original Greek and Latine words which they used, betraying another original of the Sci∣ence. This made the Volumes of Avicen, Rhasis, and A∣verroes, to have equal Authority with the Books of Ga∣len and Hippocrates; so that if any one presume the Cure of a person without their Rules, he seemed to throw away the life of the Patient. Now these Fa∣ctions among Physicians be not many, yet is the Con∣tention and Combate of Opinions not less among them, than among the Philosophers. For observe how idly they contend about the substance of the Seed. Pytha∣goras will have it to be the spume or froth of the most useful part of the Bloud, or the most useful part of the excrement of the meat. Plato affirms it to be a de∣flux of the Back-bone-marrow, seeing that the Back and Reins are pained by the over-much use of Copula∣tion. Alcmaeon asserts it to be part of the Brain, for that Copulation weakens the Eyes, which are nourish∣ed by the Brain. Democritus will have it to be deri∣ved from all parts of the body, and Epicurus to be as it were forcibly strain'd from body and soul together. Aristotle affirms it to be the excrement of the Sangui∣neous

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nourishment, which is last digested in the body. Others believe it to be bloud ripened and made white by the heat of the Stones, for this reason, That they who copulate too often, do eject drops of bloud. Adde to all this, that Aristotle and Democritus are of opinion that a Womans seed doth not at all contri∣bute to Generation, neither that she does emit any seed at all, but onely a kinde of Sweat. Galen affirms that they eject seed, but more imperfect; and that the seed of both sexes assists in generation. Though Hippocrates is of a contrary judgement, affirming that the bodies of all Animals are coagulated out of the four Hu∣mours. Yet Aristotle maintains that the Bloud is the next cause of Generation, and that the seed is genera∣ted out of the Blood. Many of the Arabians are of opinion that perfect Animals might be generated without the mixture of Male and Female, and be produced without the help of seed; and therefore did aver that there was no necessity of the Matrix, but by accident. Now speaking of the Original Causes of Diseases, Hippocrates places them in the Spirits, Hiero∣philus in the Humours, Erasistratus in the bloud of the Arteries: Asclepiades makes them to be certain Atomes entring in thorow the invisible pores of the body: Alcmaeon believes all diseases to proceed from the exu∣berance or scarcity of the Corporeal faculties: Diocles, from the inequality of the Corporeal elements, and temper of the air we breathe in: Strato, from the sur∣plusage and crudity of Nourishment, and the conse∣quent corruption thereof. Nor do they less differ a∣bout the alteration of the Aliment. For Hippocrates, Galen, and Avicen affirm the meat to be concocted in the Stomach by the heat thereof. Erasistratus believes Concoction to be perfected lower in the Belly. Plisto∣nicus and Paraxagoras affirm not onely a Concoction, but Putrefaction. Avieen also, and his Exposiors, Gen∣tiles

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and Jacobus de Ferlino, not without a manifest er∣ror, affirm that Ordure is made in the Stomach. But Ascle∣piades and his followers believe that the meat is not concocted, but distributed raw into all parts of the bo∣dy; and affirm the Opinions of all the former to be vain and ridiculous. I omit their Judgements of U∣rine, not yet perfectly known by any of um; and the beatings of the Pulses as little apprehended by um. Hip∣pocrates, whom they look upon as a God, has not onely differ'd from many in opinion, but erroneously mista∣ken: for, in his Book of the nature of Infants he saith, The Bird is generated of the yellow of the egge, but is nou∣rished by the white of the egge; which Aristotle proves to be manifestly untrue, in his Book of Animals: and in his Book of the Generation of Animals, writing a∣gainst Alcmaeon, who was of the same opinion with Hippocrates, he concludes the original of the Chicken is in the White; nourishment is suckt in thorow the Na∣vel out of the Yolk: to which Pliny adheres, saying, The creature is generated out of the White, his nourish∣ment is out of the Yolk. And is not that Aphorism of Hippocrates false? No woman hath the Gout, till her Terms forsake her; it being evident that many Men∣struous women have the Gout.

CHAP. LXXXIII.

Of Practical Physick.

THe whole Operative art of Healing is built upon no other Foundation than fallacious Experiments, and the slender Credulity of the diseased, doing more harm than good; there being generally more danger in the Physician and Physick, than in the disease: which the chief Doctors of this Art ingenuously con∣fess, that is to say, Hippocrates himself, who does not

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deny this Art to be both difficult and fallacious; toge∣ther with Avicen, who saith, that the Patients confidence in the Physician oft-times prevaileth more than the Phy∣sik it self. Galen also affirms, that it is very difficult to finde a Medicament that does very much good, but easie to finde many that do no good at all. There is another who tells us that the knowledge of Medicines is delightful, as of all other things that consist of Rule and Art; but that the effects of Medicinal operation are meerly for∣tuitous. Let the fortunate diseased therefore go and put their trust in dangerous Experiments, and habnab-Remedies. But so general is the sweetness of hoping well for a mans self, as Pliny saith, that he believes eve∣ry Physician that offers himself, though there be no de∣lusion more dangerous. Hence it is that generally men seek for help from Death; he being the best Physician e∣steemed, whom the Apothecary, that shares with him, recommonds, or deceives the person; whose servants are at the Physicians devotion, who like Pandars for reward commend him with praises to the sick. He is also accounted a most excellent Physician, whom a Velvet Coat, or two or three good Rings upon his fin∣gers shall make to be admir'd; or else his being a For∣raigner, or a great Traveller; or else his being of such or such a Religion. Of no less efficacie to give um credit, fame and authority, is a solid Confidence, and a constant bragging of his Receipts: adde to these a spirit of Contradiction, many Greek and Latine sen∣tences, and the names of Authors, which make him seem learned. Thus arm'd with a Leaden Gravity, but a Military confidence, he undertakes the Trade of a Physician: and first, he visits the sick, looks upon his Urine, feels his Pulse, considers his Tongue, feels his Sides, examines the Excrement, enquires into his cu∣stomary Diet; and if there be any thing more privately kept, he desires to finde it out, as if he would weigh the

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Humours of the Patient in a pair of Scales. Then with great boasting he prescribes Medicaments: R℞ Cata∣ptia, let bloud, give Clysters, use Pessaries, Oynments, Plaisters, Lozenges, Masticatories, Gargarisms, Fumes, Quilts; use Preserves, Waters, Treacles. If the dis∣ease be light, and the Patient dainty, then will the Phy∣sician invent fine pleasing Gugaws, fit for women and effeminate persons. Provoking Sleep sometimes with hanging beds; sometimes extenuating the disease with Baths, Frictions, Cupping-glasses; sometimes reresh∣ing the sick with delicate diet, and change of air. And to obtain greater fame and authority, observing times and seasons, and seldome administring Physick but ac∣cording to the directions of some Mechanical Ephe∣meris. He also claims a great authority over the A∣pothecary, many times ordering him to make his Me∣dicines before him; pretending himself to be at the choice of the best ingredients, when for the most part he knows not good from bad, nay hardly knows the things themselves when he sees them. But if the Pa∣tient be rich, and a great person besides, then for his greater fame and profit he prolongs the distemper as much as may be, although perhaps he might have cur'd it with one single Medicine: sometimes exasperating the disease, he brings the Patient to deaths door before he will cure it, that he may be said to have deliver'd the Patient from a most dangerous fit of sickness. If he meet with a Patient whose distemper is dangerous, and that he findes the effect of the Cure to be doubt∣ful, then he uses these Stratagems: severely he pre∣scribes Rules of Diet; he commands unusual things, prohibits things common: he extols with great argu∣ments what he offers himself; what others bring he ut∣terly condemns; on the one side threatning ruine, on the other hand promising life. If he doubt of the event, he perswades the Patient to call a Council of Doctors,

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desires an assistant, to proceed more warily in the Cure, for fear lest any one coming alone, should perform a Cure, and take from him the glory of the business. If any thing fall out amiss with the Patient, or that he has kill'd him by his most signal want of skill; then he excuses himself, by pretending some sudden deflux of Rheum, or some other chance, neither to be helped nor avoided; or else he accuses the Patient for not ob∣serving his directions, or else blaming those that ten∣ded for want of care; or else he blames his associates; or else throws all the blame upon the Apothecary: thereby endeavouring to prove that no diseased person ever died but through his own fault, nor that ever any was cur'd but by the help and art of the Physitian. But that Physicians are Knaves for the most part, we shall prove by Witnesses. For their own Reconciler, Peter Apponius, writes, That the Art of Physick is ascrib'd to Mars, which is the most odious of all the Planets, as being the author of Ingratitude, Quarrelling, and all wic∣kedness. Therefore are Physicians the cause of many mischiefs, both by reason of the influence of Mars and Scorpio, as also because they had their original from a lowe and barren beginning; growing proud and haughty, as they grow rich. This perhaps he learnt from the example of Aesculapius, whom Antiquity fa∣bles to have been the Inventor of Physick, the son of Jupiter, and sent to the Earth through the way of the Sun. Celsus confesses him to be a man, but received into the number of the Gods. Others assert that he was the Incestuous off-spring of Coronidis, a handsom Harlot, with whom the Priests of Apollo lay in the Temple, who therefore gave out that he was the son of the God. But all agree in this, that this God was so wic∣ked, that Jove was forc'd to curb and chastise him with his Thunder. Concerning which, Lactantius thus writes to Constantine the Emperour: Aesculapius the son of A∣pollo,

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a vicious person, what other thing did he do worthy divine honours, saving that he cur'd Hippolytus? His death was more remarkable, in that he merited to be struck with thunder. To say the truth, Physicians are the most wicked, quarrelsome, envious, lying persons in the world: for so they quarrel one among another, that there is not a Physician to be found, who shall ap∣prove one Remedy prescrib'd by another, without ex∣ception, addition, or alteration: whence it is become a Proverb, The envie and discord of Physicians. For what one approves, the other laughs at. There is nothing certain among them, but all their promises are meer trifles, and airy lyes. Hence the common people, when they would set out a noted lyer, they cry, Thou ly'st like a Physician. For it is their chief study, to follow their own new inventions, and neglect the wholesome pre∣cepts of Antiquity: and those few things which they do know, they conceal, as if it did not consist with the Authority of their Art to divulge their knowledge; and out of envie to others, deprive our lives of the Re∣medies which other mens Labours have found out. They are moreover superstitious, arrogant, unconsci∣onable, proud, covetous; having this Sentence always in their mouthes: While there is pain, take. And if the pain cease in one part, they take care that it increase in another, for fear the Cure should be too soon perfected. As we read of Peter Apponis, who professing Physick in Bolonia, was so covetous and arrogant, that being sent for one time to a Patient out of town, he would not attend under less than fifty Crowns a day: and being sent for by Honorius the Pope, he covenanted for Four hundred Crowns a day. Besides, we finde it re∣lated by Pindarus, that Aesculapius the parent of Phy∣sick was struck by Jupiter with Thunder for his Cove∣tousness, for that he had practised Physick with Extor∣sion, and to the hurt of the Commonwealth. But if

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a sick man happen to recover out of their hands, there is such an Applause, that the tongue of man can scarce suffice to express the wonder of the miracle, as if La∣zarus had been rais'd out of the grave; claiming the life of the Patient to be their gift, and that they have brought him back: ascribing to themselves what be∣longs to God, and believe that no reward can suffice to recompence their desert. Some of um are so swell'd up with pride, that they suffer themselves to be wor∣shipt as Gods, and be called Joves and Jupiters; such as Menecrates the Physician of Syracuse, who is said to have written in these words to Agesilous King of Spar∣ta: Jupiter Menecrates, to Agesilous, greeting. But Agesilaus lauging at his folly, thus answer'd him: A∣gesilaus to Menecrates, health. But if any one unfortu∣nately happen to die in their hands, then they blame weakness of Nature, the strength and fury of his dis∣ease, the unruliness of the Patient: that they are Phy∣sicians, not Gods: that they can cure those that are to be cur'd: that it is not their business to raise the dead: that they have nothing to serve the diseased with, in discharge of their duty, but their Experience: and with such vanities as these they maintain their pride. Others that die they accuse of intemperance: and when they have kill'd a man, yet they demand sa∣tisfaction for their Bills, from those, that might have been alive without um; depriving their Patients both of money and life at once; and yet preserving a safe Conscience to themselves, knowing their faults (as So∣crates says) to be covered in the earth; as also for that there is no returning from hell or the grave, to accuse them of their unskilfulness, exaction, and homicides. There are some nasty stinking Physicians bedaub'd with cast Urine and Ordure, more sordid than Midwives, using themselves to behold obscene and beastly sights, with their noses and ears to hear and smell the Belches,

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Farts, Stinking breaths, Steams and Stenches of the sick, with their lips and tongues to taste the black and loathsome Potions, with their fingers to search the Dung and Excrements. Lastly, all their studies and dis∣course is onely about the most sad, horrid, and ghastly spectacles of Death and Diseases. Exquisite Judges of the Ordure of men, which Hippocrates is reported u∣sually to have tasted, that he might thereby the better judge of the Disease: which Aesculapius also is said to have done, who is therefore by Aristophanes call'd Sca∣tophagus, or Excrement-eater, a Name generally given to Physicians. Hence Scatomancy, Ouromancy, and Dry∣niomancy, are said to be the Divinations or Prognosti∣cations of Physicians taken from Ordure and Urine. Wherefore, among many Nations, those Mechanick Doctors were formerly had in contempt, so that, as Sene∣ca witnesses, it was accounted a great piece of Infamy to exercise the Calling of a Physician: and at this day, there are several people that forbid Physicians, Midwives and Executioners from coming to their Tables; or else cause um to eat and drink in Dishes and Cups by them∣selves: much more abhorring that detestable custom of many Princes, who admit those Pestilential persons to their Chambers in a morning, and admit them infected with the Visits and Vapours of Pestilential people to their Meals, and at meat suffer their impertinent talk of Ordure, Urine, Sweat, Vomits, and Menstruous Courses, Leprosies, Ulcers, Scabs, and Plagues; and to be spew a noble Feast, furnished with choice dishes, with their impure and obscene discourse. Than to admit a Physician to civil Consultations, there is nothing more idle, or fuller of folly, seeing that the Art of Physick neither treats of Vertue or Good-manners; and for that a Physician naturally a good man, ought to b a person of ill Customs. And we know that in many Cities by publike Decrees Physicians are neither admit∣ted

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to their Counsels, nor suffered to bear any Office of Magistracie: perhaps not so much that they are foolish, vain, or ill tutor'd, as for their Sordidness, and their spreading Contagion, with the continual Visits of all sorts of Diseases; not onely infecting Men, but the very Seats and Stones, as Lucillus has very well said of a certain Physician, in a Greek Epigram.

Alcon but toucht Joves Statue, straight the stone, Though Marble, feels the hot Contagion: Whence from his ancient Temple they remove The Marble-god, so much their healths they love.
Now when they meet together in Consultation, then there is a strict examination what the Patient cack'd and piss'd that night; and going about like the Ephori of the Lacedemonians, to pronounce sentence of Life and Death, 'tis a strange, but sad thing to hear, with what Heats and Altercations, not one agreeing in one thing, they brangle about the sick-mans bed; as if they were hired not to Cure, but to Dispute; with no small trouble to the distempered person, according to the Verse of Menander:
A Prating Doctor is a new Disease Vnto the sick—
At length producing some Aphorisms, to shew their Scholastick Learning, which they have always ready fo use, and invoking Hippocrates, Galen, Avicen, Ras Averroes, Apponius their Conciliator, and the rest o their Deities, whose Names onely give them the credit of their Learning; when they have sufficiently contended and disputed about the Causes, Signes, Affection and Critical days, at length they come to the application of some Remedy, which ought to have been th

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head and tail of the whole business; but that they pass over with some impertinent Order: for out of Envie to one another, they will not communicate their Se∣crets one to another; as if that would be lost to them, which they discover to others: and therefore they have recourse to the Common Method, which if it fail um, then they flee to the Empirical part, as to a sacred An∣chor, by Rashness to help what Reason resists; affir∣ming it to better to try a Doubtful Remedy, than none. Or else they leave the Patient, if their courtesie be less toward him, to future Prognosticks, saying for excuse, that Hippocrates forbids Remedies to be given to those who are in a desperate condition. Or else if they be any thing Religious, they cast the fault of the Disease upon some of the Saints; or else prescribe this their last Antidote: ℞ one Proctor, Witnesses in num∣ber seven, one Priest with Holy-water and Oyl, and dispose of thy estate, for thou art a dead man. Hence Rasis, conscious to himself of the great stupidity of sick people, as also of the contentious stolidity of the Physicians, giving advice both to the Patient and to the Physician, perswades in his Aphorisms to take one∣ly one Physician: for the Errour of one, brings great shame; and the advantageous Success of one, is equal∣ly prais'd: but he that makes use of more than one Physician, commits the greatest errour. Thus Rasis. This is confirm'd by that ancient Inscription in the Monument, A Trop of Physicians was his bane; and by the Greek Proverb, The admittance of many Physicians lost the Patient: as also by that saying of dying Adrian; Multitude of Physicians has kill'd a Prince. Therefore there cannot be more profitable or more wholesom, Counsel given for the preservation of Health, than to abstain from Physicians: for we owe our Health to God, not to the Physicians. Therefore was Asa King of Juah reprehended by the Propher, because he

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sought not the Lord in his sickness, but trusted to the skill of the Physician; to whose directions they who give themselves over, can never be well. For there is no life so comfortless, as that which is governed by, and leans upon the confidence of their Art. Were it true that Physicians knew, and I would they did know, of the vertues and efficacies of the Elements, Herbs, Roots, Flowers, Fruits, Animals, Minerals, and of all things which Parent Nature produces; yet would they be so far from making a man immortal, that they would not be always able to cure a slight disease. How often has the Remedy fail'd, that ought to have cur'd! that which the Remedy ought to have thrown off, it hath not; and at last, after great pains and cost, the Patient dies, even in the presence of the Physicians. What hope then can we repose in the Physicians, whose experi∣ence, as their own Hippocrates confesses, is erroneous? What certainty can the Physicians promise us, if it be true that Pliny writes, That there is no Art more in∣constant than Physick, nor more subject to change? Many Nations there were of old, and now to this day living without Physicians, strong and lusty beyond the age of Decrepitness, exceeding an hundred years? Contrarily, those more soft and delicate people who make use of Physicians, for the most part grow old are they have liv'd half their years. And the Physici∣ans themselves we finde more crazie and short-liv'd than other people. Hence one answer'd Lacon, say∣ing to him, Thou hast no distemper. Because (said the o∣ther) I am not a Physicians wife. Another saying to him, You are a true old man. Because (said he) I never us'd Physicians advice. Shewing, that there is no way more certain to Health and Old-age, than to want a Physician. If any one shall say, that many have reco∣vered by the help of the Physicians; we answer, that many more have di'd, toward whose relief the Physi∣cians

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skill has nothing at all avail'd. And let um re∣member this Verse in Ausonius:

—They scap'd from ill By help of Fate, not of the Doctors skill.

The Arcadians, as Pliny relates, used no other Medi∣caments than Milk in the Spring, because then the Herbs were most full of juyce: and they chose above the rest Cows milk, as feeding most upon Herbs. The Laconians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Lusitanians, as Stra∣bo and Herodotus affirm, rejected all Physicians: but they brought forth their sick into the streets and Mar∣ket-places, that they who had scap'd the same disease, might advise them to the Remedies they had try'd be∣fore; believing, as Celsus delivereth, that nothing did more conduce to recovery than Experience, wherein we finde the most learned Doctors often overcome, by silly Country old women, one of which has done more good with one single Herb or Plant, than the most famous Doctors, with all their most elaborate Receipts: for they endeavouring the cure of diseases by a compounded mixture of several Drugs, go more by Conjecture, than by any true knowledge of the cause or reason of the distemper; rendring the whole Art of Physick meerly a thing of Chance and Guess: whilst the poor woman, knowing the vertue and effect of her simple Remedy, more easily by a natural force of a try'd Receipt shall overcome and cure a distem∣per. On the other side, the Physicians, by the help of Drugs and pretious Gums brought from India at great charge and expences, promise great Cure; the poor Woman, by cheap and easie Remedies that grow in her own garden, doth not onely promise, but restore Health. Nay, the Physicians themselves confess that they have several of them learnt more excellent Receipts from

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Women, worthy to be recorded in their Works, and be made publike to posterity; such as is the Receipt a∣gainst the pain in the Head, which Avicen so much ex∣tols. Now if Physick, which ought to restore the temperament of Health, consist in proportion and tem∣perament of things both between themselves, and also with the bodies to which they are attributed; and that it was the most diligent care of the Physician to pro∣portion and temper Medicaments, and to leave um so temper'd by just and harmonical weight and propor∣tion to the bodies and tempers of the sick: what a strange arrogance and impudence is it for others, not onely to change, but to adde, sometimes to neglect, sometimes to know nothing thereof! Whence it fol∣lows, that as the agreeing temperament of a Medica∣ment brings Health; so the disproportionate mixture causes Pain, increases the disease, and brings death. And therefore a Country-woman shall cure more safely with a Garden-receipt, than a proud Physician with all his prodigious costly and conjectural Medicaments. Many most excellent Physicians were of opinion, that the best way of Curing was by simple Medicaments. To which purpose having searcht into the qualities of Simples, and found them out, they have left us famous Volumes upon those Subjects, as Chrysippus of the Cole∣wort, Pythagoras of the Onyon, Marchion of the Rad∣dish, Diocles of the Turnep, Phanias of the Nettle, A∣puleius of Betony; and many others, of other Herbs and Roots. But your Shop-physicians so little regard these things, that they contemn um, call them Simple∣tons, that take notice of Simples. But those Physicians that make use of Simple Medicaments, I aver, are the persons to be both followed and consulted: But for your Shop Doctors, I wish all people to avoid um, as meer Hocus-pocus's and Witches, living upon our deaths, by means of their prodigious Compositions,

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and meerly making a Lottery of our lives. For seeing that compounded Medicaments must of necessity con∣sist of such things whose qualities are altogether dis∣agreeing and repugnant; it is very difficult, if not al∣together impossible, to promise any thing of Certainty, but onely by Thought, Conjecture, and Opinion; and when there are innumerable things which singly might be advantageous, the Physician onely jumbles those to∣gether which Chance and Fortune offer to his memory. Whence it happens, that that compounded Medica∣ment receives its efficacie not from the qualities of the Simple Ingredients, but from the Fancie and Unluckie choice of the Physician, while he by some secret and hidden motive, whether Natural, Celestial, Demonia∣cal, or Fortuitous, is prompted to chuse this or that thing before another. And indeed, this is the vulgar Saying, and which they themselves confess, that one Physician is more fortunate than another, and that ma∣ny times the Ignorant proves more successful than the Learned. I my self have known and seen a most Learned Physician, under whose Cure very few have escaped: I have known another half-witted fellow, that has happily cur'd not onely his own Patient, but those who have been left in a desperate condition by others. And I remember I have read of a Physician that cur'd all Noble-men and rich men that fell into his cure; but all his Patients that were of a mean condi∣tion, either dy'd, or run very great hazards. Hence we may easily see, that this Shop-physick, where the good Fortune rather than Learning of the Physician prevails, is to be lookt upon onely as a piece of Fortune-telling, and to be exploded and condemned onely as an art of Murther and Witchcraft. Which made the Romans when Cato was Cnsor to expel all Physicians, not one∣ly cut of Rome, but out of all Italy, as abominating their Cruelty and Lying, for that they kill'd more than

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they heal'd; and for that being very dextrous at poy∣soning, by Hatred, Ambition, or Gain, they were easily hir'd to administer Poyson with their Physick, and for Reward to entrap the lives of men. Thus the Physi∣cian of Pyrrhus, whether Timocharis, according to Gel∣lius, or Nacias, as others report, who promis'd Fabri∣cius to poyson his Lord and King: but Fabricius dete∣sting the fact, admonisht Pyrrhus in a Letter to have a care of his Physician: of which Clandian thus writes.

The Romans for their vertue ever fam'd, The traytor and his treason still condemn'd. Fabricius nobly to his foe declares What his own servant 'gainst his life prepares. He fairly taught to vanquish, that his War All acts of secret treason did abhor.
Cato in Pliny writes to his son about the Physicians of the Greeks: They have sworn to kill all the Barbarians with their Physick; but this they do for Money, to gain Credit, that they may make the quicker dispatch. And a little after the addes: Whence then proceeded so many cheats in Wills, the same means they have now to hide A∣dulteries; as by the example of Eudemus, in Livia wife of Drusus Caesar. Socates also in Plato advises not to let Physicians multiply in a Citie. It were very con∣venient for the Commonwealth, that there were none, or very few; and that there were a Law to make their Unskilfulness and Negligence capital. For it is a Ca∣pital crime; and it matters not whether a Physician have endangered a mans life by Folly or Negligence, by Ignorance or Malice, unwittingly or designedly: and that there should not be such an Impunity for Physi∣cians to destroy Mankinde, who have onely this com∣mon honour with the Hangman, to be hired to kill men, and onely to be rewarded for Murther, for

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which all other men are condemn'd without mer∣cy. This is the difference between the one and the other, That the Hangman puts none to death, but what have receiv'd sentence of death by the Judges; the Physician destroys the Innocent, without any sen∣tence past. Therefore the Pontifical Constitutions for∣bid Clergie-men to practise Physick, as if they might be as lawfully Hang-men as Clergie-men. Not im∣prudently also Cato prosecuted them, as being such as strive to increase the Fame of their Art by Novelty; and when they have nothing new, try their Experi∣ments with the hazard of our lives, and learn their Art by prolonging and increasing our distempers, to their own profit and advantage also. Therefore to remedy this mischief, the Aegyptians had a Law, that the first three days the Physician was to cure the sick, with the hazard of the Patients life; after three days, at the peril of his own.

CHAP. LXXXIV.

Of Apothecaries.

ANd now for their Cooks, whom they call Apothe∣caries, the Titles of whose Boxes contain Reme∣dies, the Boxes themselves Poyson, or as Homer signs,

Compounded Medicines, many hurtful, many good.

For when they themselves will be a no loss, they compel us to purchase our deaths at great prices; while they causing us to take one thing for another, or mix∣ing some old rotten Druggs whose vertues are quite lost, they many times give us a deadly Drink, in stead

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of a Restorative Potion: while they buy old Emplai∣sters, Unguents, Collyries, and Pill-messes, made for gain of the dregs of the Druggs; and not able to di∣scern otherwise, are cheated with the Sophistications of the barbarous Merchants. I could here shew their most pernicious Quarrels about the simple Medicines which they use, and their Errours about the Names of their Medicinal Druggs, by them misunderstood, and worse made use of: all which Nicholaus Leonicenus has discover'd in a large Volume. I pass over their prodi∣gious Compositions, their Mixtures of many external Simples; which while they jumble together, thinking to make one Medicament agreeing with all Constitu∣tions, they effect nothing but what is said of that Poe∣tical Chaos:

—A rude and undigested heap, A sluggish weight, and without form or shape. The disagreeing seeds of things ill joyn'd, While to one Lump confin'd: Cold fights with Heat, Drowth Moisture would deprive; Soft things with hard, and light with heavie strive.
Grant that there be some Compositions invented by the ancient Physicians which may have prov'd useful, and which by the Vote of Experience may be receiv'd; yet are they far from the true Method, and condemn'd by the Physicians, by the compulsion of their own Con∣sciences, and every way exploded by Pliny, Theophra∣stus, Galen, Plutarch, Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Erasistra∣tus, Celsus, Scribonius, and Avicen; whose words to repeat here, would be too tedious. Nor are they so much blamed by those ancient Authors, but also by many of the Moderns; among which, Arnoldus de Villa nova thus asserts, in one of his Maximes: When a man has Simples at hand, I doubt whether it be conveni∣ent

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to use Compounds. But while Simples are either wholly neglected, or else not known, all Medicaments are fetcht from those two great Luminaries of the A∣pothecaries and Druggists Treasuries, Mesues and Ni∣cholaus, and the gilded Pictures and Inscriptions of their followers. Hence it comes to pass, that while Physicians for their own ease submit the lives of men to their Confidence in the Apothecaries; and while they without Learning, without Knowledge, trusting to the barbarousness of Merchants for their own pro∣fit, make a strange and confused Medley in their Shops, that there is more harm got by the Medicament than by the Disease. Now as concerning the Sophistica∣tion of costly Druggs, which are sometimes counter∣feited with so much Art, that many knowing persons are deceiv'd; it would be better for the general Health of men, and for the Commonwealth, to forbid the use of all Exotick Medicaments, which are brought in by Pyratical Merchants, at such Miraculous prices, to the bane of the Inhabitants; to reduce the Physicians to a Method, and to binde up the Apothecaries by such a Law, as once Nero is said to have made in Rome, when it was better than now it is, by which they were com∣pell'd to use onely those Medicaments which the Coun∣try produces, as being most agreeable to the nature of the Natives, as also fresher, of more choice, and to be gotten with less cost and difficulty, and with less dan∣ger than those forraign ones, the greatest part where∣of are to be suspected as sophisticated, or damaged in the Ship, or else not gathered in due time and place; from which arises eminent hazard: for Coloquintida not ripe, causes Bleeding and Death; and that which grows alone, is absolute Poyson. So the Male Agarick is deadly, and by how much the more old, the more Le∣thiferous. Scammony and Terra Lemnia are both So∣phisticated, and there is no Credit to be given to the

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Seals. Now I would fain know what need there is to use these Forraign Medicaments, when our own Coun∣try produces those which are of equal vertue and effi∣cacie? Is it not an egregious piece of Folly, to fetch those things from India, which we have better at home? As if our own Soyl and Sea did not suffice; but pre∣ferring forraign things before the growth of our Coun∣try, Costly before Cheap, and hard to be got, before easie to be obtain'd. Is it impossible to cure the Spleen without Armoniack, or the Liver without Sanders? Is it impossible to cure the Ulcers of the inward parts without Bdellium? or to give ease to the head without Musk and Amber, or to the Stomach without Mace and Coral? Were these Medicaments convenient for our bodies, Nature, that provides abundantly for all things, would have provided um among us. Did not our forefathers live more healthy without um? And therefore it is the Slothfulness of the Age, that search not into the nature of our own Simples, but prefer the Trifles and Inventions of Apothecaries, who consult not the Common safety, but their own Profit; perswa∣ding us that there is no Health but in Costly folly: to whom the Prophet Jeremy thus speaks: Is there no Balm in Gilead? is there no Physician there? In all Lands and Regions, Nature produces Herbs, and ap∣propriates them to the Constitution, Age, and Climate wherein the people dwell. Should we grant that some Druggs are of greater force and efficacie in some places, and at some times, yet can we not be∣lieve um wholesome, but to the people in those Coun∣tries where they were produc'd. But there are some Robbing Empiricks that perswade us that none but strange and uncouth Medicaments are most available, without which there can be no Health; trying their Experiments at the expences of the miserable; ming∣ling the most hurtful Insects and Reptils in their Medi∣caments;

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and as if all other Remedies were defective, using humane fat, and flesh of men embalmed in Spices, which they call Mummy, which they cause men to eat, as it were to atone Nature.

CHAP. LXXXV.

Of Chirurgery.

CHirurgery remains, another part, which cures the external Deformities and Diseases of the body; whose Operation is manifest, and whose Remedies are certain: for all other Physicians work under ground. Chirurgeons see and feel what they do, and as occa∣sion requires, change, apply, and remove their Reme∣dies. And this among all the Arts of Physick was first in use. For men accustoming themselves to War, and to receive Wounds, it was necessary to seek out for Cure. They found that the evil proceeded from Man, and therefore expected the Remedy from him. Other Diseases and inward pains, as proceeding from the an∣ger of the Gods, they thought incurable by natural means. Therefore the first Inventor of Chirurgery is said to be Apis King of the Aegyptians, or, as Clemens Alexandrinus records, Misria the son of Cain, Nephew of the great Noah. Of the cure of Wounds Aescula∣pius was the first that wrote; after him, Pythago∣ras, Empedocles, Parmenides, Democritus, Chiron, and Paeon, became excellent therein. Pliny relates that Arehagatus the Peloponnesian was the first that practis'd Chirurgery in Rome; and that for his Cruelty in Cut∣ting and Burning, he was publikely named the Wound∣maker; afterwards the name was changed into Hang∣man, or Executioner; at length they despised the whole

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Art, and forbid it. Chirurgery therefore is no less fa∣mous for Faction among great Authors, and the Au∣thority of great men, than infamous for its bloudy Cru∣elty, and the Nastiness of its Practitioners.

CHAP. LXXXVI.

Of Anatomy.

HOwever it is excell'd by Anatomy in Cruelty, be∣ing the Slaughter-house of both Physicians and Chirurgeons, wherein they were formerly wont to cut up the bodies of condemned persons yet alive and brea∣thing, with most cruel Torments. At this day, out of reverence to Christian Religion, they are grown more milde, first suffering the body to die, then with their own hands, with all sorts of Cruelty, raging, and dis∣membring the dead Carcase, to observe the situation, order, weight, frame, nature, and all the secrets of the dead, thereby to understand how the better and more effectually to cure the living. A cruel kinde of dili∣gence, and a Spectacle no less horrid and abominable than impious!

CHAP. LXXXVII.

Of the Art of Curing Cattel.

THere is another sort of Physical practice which consists in the Cure of Cattel, more certain and more profitable than the rest, invented, as they say, by Chiron the Centaur, and wrote of by Columella, Cato,

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Varro, Pelagonius, Vegetius, and other eminent Au∣thors. But this your fine Physicians account so great a shame to practise, that they are utterly ignorant thereof; so delicate, that, like the Lapwing, they are never well, but when they are nestling in the dung and ordure of men: so that if any one require a Remedy for his Beast, in stead of a Cure, he shall receive no∣thing but ill words: As if it did not belong to them, to cure not onely men, but also other creatures, especi∣ally those which are profitable to men. For which purpose Alphonsus King of Arragon kept in pay two most expert Physicians, and commanded them dili∣gently to examine what Method of Cure, and what Remedies were most proper for the several Diseases of Beasts. Which they observing, put forth a most excel∣lent Treatise thereof. The same of late years did John Ruellus of Paris, a person skilful in both Languages, and the first Physician that compil'd a Volume of the Diseases of Horses, and their Cures, extracted out of the Works of most ancient Authors; Apsirchus, Hiero∣cles, Theomnestus, Pelagonius, Anatolius, Tiberius, Eu∣melus, Hemerius, Africanus, Emilius the Spaniard, and Litorius the Beneventan: a Work very profitable for all Parriers, and very advantageous to the Common∣wealth.

CHAP. LXXXVIII.

Of Dieting.

THere is yet the Dieting part of Physick, the first Au∣thor whereof was Asclepiades, who altogether re∣jecting the use of Medicaments, reduced all Cure to the Order of Diet, observing the quantity, quality, and

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seasoning of Meats; from whom other Physicians do not much disagree, yet believing that the one has want of the other, that Diet is assisted by Medicaments, and Medicaments by order and course of Diet. Upon these grounds, they command, forbid, curse, and discom∣mend the Meats and Drinks that God has created, fra∣ming Rules of Diet difficult to be observ'd; and those morsels which they forbid others to taste of, they them∣selves, as Hogs eat Acorns, greedily devour; and those Laws of living which they prescribe to others, they themselves either altogether neglect, or contemn. For should they live according to their own Rules, they would run not a small hazard of their Health; and should they permit their Patients to live after their own Examples, they would altogether lose their profits. But of these Diet-mongers thus S. Ambrose writes: The Precepts of Physick are contrary to divine living; for they call men from Fasting, suffer um not to watch, seduce um from opportunities of meditation. They who give themselves up to Physicians, deny themselves to themselves. And S. Bernard upon the Canticles, thus asserts: Hippo∣crates and Socrates teach how to save Souls in health in this world; Christ and his disciples, how to lose um: which of the two will ye have to be your Masters? He makes himself noted, that in his disputations teaches how such a thing hurts the Eyes, this the Head, that the Stomach; Pulse are windy, Cheese offends the stomach, Milk hurts the head, drinking Water is hurtful to the lungs: whence it happens, that in all the Rivers, Fields, Gardens and Markets, there is scarce to be found any thing fitting for a man to eat. But grant these words of S. Ambrose and Bernard were onely written to the Monks, for whom perhaps it is not so needful to take so much care of their Healths, as of their Professions: and that va∣riety of dishes and feasts may not be unlawful for civil men to use, with consideration of their Health; the

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first the Art of Dieting performs, the second the Art of Cookery, being the dressing and ordering of Victuals. For which reason Plato calls it the Flatteress of Phy∣sick; and many account it a part of Dietary Physick. Though Pliny and Seneca, and the whole throng of o∣ther Physicians, confess that manifold Diseases proceed from the variety of Costly food.

CHAP. LXXXIX.

Of the Art of Cookery.

THe Art of Cookery is very useful, and not disho∣nest, so it exceed not the bounds of Discretion. For which reason, very great and most temperate per∣sons have been induc'd to write of Cookery, and Dres∣sing of Meat. Of the Greeks, Pantaleon, Mithecus, Epiricus, Zophon, Egesippus, Pazanius, Epenetus, Hera∣clides, Syracusanus, Tyndaricus, Sicyonius, Symonactides, Chius, and Glaucus Locrensis. Among the Romans, Cato, Varro, Columella, Apicus: and among the Mo∣derns, Platina. The Asiaticks were so intemperate and luxurious in their Feeding, that they were known by the Sirname of Gluttons, which we therefore call Asotae. Therefore we read in Livy, that after the Con∣quest of Asia, forraign Luxury first ntred into Rome, and that then the Roman people began to make sum∣ptuous Banquets. Then was a Cook a most useful Slave among the Ancients, and began to be much e∣steemed and valued; and all bedabled with Broth, be∣daub'd with Soot, with his Pots, with his Platters and Dishes, Pestles and Morters, was welcom'd out of the Kitchin into the Schools: and that which before was accounted but a vile Slavery, was honour'd as an Art:

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whose chiefest care is onely to search out everywhere for provocatives of Appetite, and to study out in all places for Dainties to satisfie a most profound Glutto∣ny. Abundance of which Gellius cites out of Varro: as, the Peacock from Samos, the Phrygian Turkey, Cranes from Melos, Ambracian Kids, the Tartesian Mullet, Trouts from Pessinuntium, Tarentine Oysters, Crabs from Chios, Tatian Nuts, Aegyptian Dates, Iberian Ches∣nuts. All which Institutions of Bills of Fare were found out for the wicked wantonness of Luxury & Gluttony. But the Glory and Fame of this Art Apicius above all others claim'd to himself; that as Septimus Florus wit∣nesses, there were a certain Sect of Cooks that were call'd Apicians, propagated as it were in imitation of the Philosophers. Of whom thus Seneca hath written: Apicius (saith he) liv'd in our Age, who in that City, out of which Philosophers were banisht as corrupters of youth, professing the Art of Cookery, hath infected our Age. Pliny also call'd him the Gulph and Barathrum of all Youth. At length, so many subjects of Taste, so ma∣ny provocatives of Luxury, so many varieties of Dain∣ties were invented by these Apicians, that at length it was thought requisite to restrain the Luxury of the Kitchin. Hence those ancient Sumptuary Laws and Edicts against Riot; that is to say, Archian, Fannian, Didian, Licinian, Cornelian, and the Laws of Lepidus, and Antius Restio. Lucius Flaccus also, and his Col∣league, Censors, put Duronius out of the Senate, for that as a Tribune of the people he went about to abro∣gate a Law made against the excessive prodigality of Feasts. In defence whereof, how impudently Duronius ascended the Pulpit for Orations! There are Bridles, said he, put into your mounhes, most noble Senators, in no wise to be endur'd: ye are bound and fetter'd with the bitter Chains of Servitude. For there is a Law made, that commands us to be frugal: Let us therefore abro∣gate

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that Command, deformed with the rust of ghastly Antiquity: for to what purpose have we liberty, if it be not lawful for them that will, to kill themselves with Lu∣xury? There were also many other Edicts, all now antiquated and abrogated; so that no Age has been more indulgent to Gluttony, than this wherein we now live: and for that cause, saith Musonius, and after him our Jerome, we travel by land and sea, to fetch Wine, and costly Cates to pour down our Gullets. So many Taverns, so many Ale-houses, so many Victualling-houses among us, where men are destroyed by Gluttony, Drunken∣ness, and Luxury, that many times, to the detriment of the Commonwealth, they consume whole patri∣monies: so many varieties of Sauces, so many Rules, Observations, and Table-ceremonies, that the splendid Banquets of the Asiots, Milesians, Sybarites, Tarentines, of Sardanapalus, Xerxes, Claudius, Vitellius, Helioga∣balus, Galienus, and the rest of those ancient Gluttons, whom History records to have exceeded all other Na∣tions and persons in the pleasures of the Kitchin, are but meer fordid, rude, and rustick Junkettings, com∣par'd with the sumptuous Feasts of Great persons now adays. A neat and handsome Entertainment will not serve turn, unless there be an abundance, even to create Loathing, and to fuddle Hercules himself, who was wont to drink out of the same Vessel that carried him; meat more than would satisfie Milo the Crotonian, or Aurelianus Phago; the first of which was wont to eat up Thirty loaves of bread, besides meat, at a meal; the other at the Table of Aurelian devoured a whole Boar, a hundred Loaves, a Weather, and a Porkling. He drank in a Bowl that held more than a Tun. These things are now customary at our great publike Coun∣try-feasts, and Dedications of Temples. You would swear they were celebrating Orgia to Bacchus, they are so contaminated with Madness, Quarrelling, Bloudshed,

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and all the Impieties attending Gluttony and Drun∣kenness. You may there behold the Banquets of the Centaurs, whence none return without a broken pate. Thus we finde Ovid describing the Voracity of Eri∣sichthon.

Without delay, what Sea, what Earth, what Air Affords, at his command they straight prepare: Yet at full Tables he complains of Hunger, And for a Feast of Feasts he calls in anger. What a whole Citie or a Land supplies, For the content of One will not suffice. The more his guts devour, the more he craves, As Rivers are exhausted by the Waves, While the insatiate Sea, and thirsty Sands, Drink up the Flouds still rouling from the Lands. Or as the Fire no nourishment refuses, Burns all that comes, but neither picks nor chuses, And still the more 'tis fed, it feeds the more: Thus Erisichthon's prophane Chaps devour All sorts of food; in him food is the cause Of hunger; and he still employs his Jaws To whet his Appetite.—

Among the Greeks and Romans there were a sort of people call'd Wrestlers, men of most greedy and vora∣cious Appetites: but their Infamy was at length out∣vy'd and exceeded by Consular Magistrates and Empe∣rours. For Albinus, who formerly rul'd in Gaul, de∣vour'd at one Supper an hundred Peaches, ten Melons, fifty large green Figs, and three hundred Oysters. And Maximinus the Emperour, who succeeded Alexander Memmeas, ate forty pound of flesh in one day, and drank an Amphora of Wine, containing 48 quarts. Geta the Emperour was also a prodigious Epicure, cau∣sing his Dishes to be brought in Alphabetically, and

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would continue feeding for three days together. Now what greater Impiety, when God and Nature has pro∣vided Meats and Drinks for us, to preserve Health, and strengthen Nature, for us to abuse them with various artifices for Pleasure, and to devour them beyond the capacity of Humane nature? thereby contracting to our selves incurable Diseases, whereby we finde it ap∣parently true what Musonius says, That Masters are less strong, less healthy, less able to endure labour than Ser∣vants; Country-men more strong than they who are bred in the Citie; those that feed meanly, than they who feed daintily: and that generally the later sort live longer than the former. Nor are there any other persons more troubled with Gouts, Dropsies, Colicks, and the like, than they who contemning a simple diet, live upon pre∣pared Dainties. Of which opinion is Celsus: The most profitable diet for Man, saith he, is simple; multiplicity of tastes is pestiferous; and all spic'd meats are unprofita∣ble, for two causes: Because more is consum'd because of Sweetness, and less concocted than ought to be. There∣fore many grave and wise men have utterly condemned this indulging to the Appetite, as most pernicious. But as for those that under pretence of Religion, neither hate pleasing their Palates nor Luxury, but onely some sorts of meat; abstaining from Flesh, they fill and feast themselves with all sorts of Fish, and swill themselves with Wine; to which they bring their lips, tongues, teeth, and bellies armed, but not their pockets: these are certainly worse than the Epicureans themselves. But of these things enough. Let us now pass from Cookery to Geberica, that is, to the Alcumists Cook-room, where there is no less consumed than in excessive Feasting.

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CHAP. XC.

Of Alchymy, or Chymistry.

ALchymy, or Chymistry, is an Art, if it may not be rather called a Fucus, or Persecution of Nature, however of very great Fame, and the same unpunish'd Imposture; whose vanity easily betrays it self in this, that it promises what Nature neither can suffer nor perform: seeing that all Art is but an Imitation of Na∣ture, coming short thereof by many degrees; and that the force of Nature is far short of the force of Art. But Chymistry's

An Art which good men hate, and most men blame, Which her admirers practise to their shame, Whose plain Impostures, easie to perceive, Not onely others, but themselves deceive.
While they seek to change the natures of things, and presume to finde out the blessed Philosophers Stone, as they call it, which, like Midas, is to change whatever it touches into Gold: then they pretend to fetch down from the inaccessible heaven a Fifth Essence, whereby a man shall not onely gain the Riches of Croesus, but perpetual Youth and Immortality.

But among all the undertaking Crowd, Not one appears, whose Miracles allow'd The matter prove.—
However, they get a small Livelihood by some Physi∣cal Experiments, as also by some Paints and effeminate

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Fucusses, which the Scriptures call the Oyntments of har∣lots; whence the Proverb, Every Alchymist is a Physi∣cian or a Sope-boyler. They enrich the ears of men with vain words, but empty their Pockets of their Mo∣ney. Whence it appears to be no Art, but a Compo∣sition of Trifles, and inventions of mad brains. How∣ever, they finde out men so covetous of so much hap∣piness, whom they easily perswade that they shall finde greater Riches in Hydargyrie, than Nature affords in Gold. Such, whom although they have twice or thrice already been deluded, yet they have still a new Device wherewith to deceive um again; there being no grea∣ter Madness, than to believe the fixed Volatile, or that the fixed Volatile can be made. So that the smells of Coles, Sulphur, Dung, Poyson, and Piss, are to them a greater pleasure than the taste of Honey; till their Farms, Goods, and Patrimonies being wasted, and con∣verted into Ashes and Smoak, when they expect the re∣wards of their Labours, births of Gold, Youth, and Immortality, after all their Time and Expences; at length, old, ragged, famisht, with the continual use of Quicksilver paralytick, onely rich in misery, and so mi∣serable, that they will sell their souls for three farthings; so that the Metamorphosis which they would have made in the Metals, they experiment upon themselves: for in stead of Alchymists, Cacochymists; in stead of being Doctors, Beggers; in stead of Unguentaries, Vi∣ctuallers, a laughing-stock to the people: and they who in their youth hated to live meanly, at length grown old in Chymical Impostures, are compell'd to live in the lowest degree of poverty, and in so much calamity, that receiving nothing but Contempt and Laughter, in stead of Commendation and Pity, at length compell'd there∣to by Penury, they fall to Ill Courses, as Counterfeiting of Money. And therefore this Art was not onely ex∣pell'd out of the Romane Commonwealth, but also

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also prohibited by the Decreed of the sacred Canons of the Church. And if now there were a Law to forbid any of them to practise this Art without the special favour and license of the Prince, upon the forfeiture of their goods, and proscription of their persons, we should have less false Money made, wherewith many are now deceived, to the great damage of the Commonwealth. For which reason it is thought that Amasis King of Aegypt made a Law, whereby every Magistrate was compell'd to give an account what Art or Science he most favour'd; which he that did not, underwent a very severe punishment. Many things could I say of this Art, of which I am no great enemy, were I not sworn to silence, a custom impos'd upon persons newly initiated therein, which has been so solemnly and re∣ligiously observed by the ancient Writers and Philoso∣phers, that there is no Philosopher of approved autho∣rity, or Writer of known fidelity, who hath in any place made mention thereof: which hath caus'd many to believe that all the Books treating of this Art were made of late days; to which the names of the Au∣thors, Giber, Morienus, Gigildis, and the rest of the whole Croud, give no small confirmation; the obscure words which they use, and the unaptness of their lan∣guage, and their ill Method of Philosophizing. Some have thought the Golden Fleece to be a certain Chy∣mical Book written after the ancient manner in Parchment, wherein was contained the way of making Gold. Of which sort when Diocletian had got toge∣ther a great many among the Aegyptians, (who were said to be very skilful in this Art) he is said to have burnt them all, left the Aegyptians, confiding in their Riches, and easie means of obtaining Treasure, should at one time or other revolt from the Romans. And therefore was this Art by a publike Edict of the same Emperour rendered infamous. It would be too long to

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relate all the foolish Mysteries of this Art, and empty Riddles, of the Green Lion, the Fugitive Hart, the Vo∣lant Eagle, the Dancing Fool, the Dragon devouring his Tayl, the Swell'd Toad, the Crows Head; of that which is Blacker than Black, of Mercury's Seal, of the Dirt of Foolishess, (of wisdom, I ought to have said) and a thousand other Trifles. Lastly, of that one thing besides which there is nothing else, though as common as may be, the blessed subject of the most holy Philoso∣phers Storie, not to be spoken of without incurring Per∣jury; yet I will say somewhat of it obscurely, and in such manner, as none but the sons of Art shall understand me. It is a thing which hath a substance, neither too firy, nor altogether earthy; nor is it a watry, nor sharp nor ob∣tuse quality, but indifferent light and soft, or at least not hard; not rough, but sweet in taste, sweet in smell, grateful to the sight, pleasant to the ear, and delightful to think on. More I must not say, nor greater things can I. For I think this Art, by reason of my familiarity with it, worthy the same Honour as Thucydides gives to a good Woman, when he says, That she is the best woman, of whom there is least discourse. I will onely adde this, That Chymists are of all men the most per∣verse: for when God says, In the sweat of thy brows thou shalt eat thy bread; and the Prophet in another place, Because thou eatest the labours of thy hands, there∣fore art thou blessed, and it shall be well with thee: they contemning the divine Command, and promise of hap∣piness, endeavour to raise Golden mountains by Wo∣mens labour, and Childrens play. I deny not but from this Art many excellent Inventions have deriv'd them∣selves: hence Cinaber, Minimum, Purple, that which they call Musical gold, and the temperatures of other Co∣lours, had their beginning. To this Art Aurichalcum, the changing of Metals, Soders and Tryals, owe their first finding out. Guns are the terrible Invention of

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this Art. Hence sprung the Art of making all sorts of Glasses; a most noble Invention, of which Theophilus hath writ a most excellent Treatise. But Pliny relates that the temperament of Glass was found out in the time of Tiberius; but the Work-house was by Tiberius pull'd down, and the Artificer, if we may believe Iso∣dorius, was put to death, left the Glass should detract from Gold, and Silver and Brass lose their value.

CHAP. XCI.

Of the Law in general.

WE come now to the knowledge of the Law, that onely pretends to judge and discern be∣tween True and False, Equity and Iniquity, Right and Wrong. The chief Heads now-a-days are the Pope and the Emperour, who boast that they have all Laws written in the Cabinets of their Brests; whose Will is Reason, and who by their own Arbitrary opinions rule and govern all Sciences, Arts, Writings, Opinions, and whatever other Works of men. For which cause Pope Leo commanded that no person should dare to dispute or justifie any thing in the Church, but by the Authori∣ty of the holy Councils, the Canons and Decretals, of which the Pope is the Head. Neither is it lawful for us to make use of the Interpretations of any the most holy and learned Divines, but onely so far as the Pope permits, and authorizes by his Canons. And the Ca∣non further commands, that no Book or Volume what∣soever shall be received by any Divine, but what is first approved of by the Canons of the Pope. The same Authority the Emperour claims over Philosophy, Phy∣sick, and all the other Sciences, giving no countenance

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to any Art, till first all'owed by the skill of his Law, to which all sorts of Arts and Sciences compar'd, are of no use or value. This makes Vlpian say, The Law is King of all humane and divine things; whose Office it is, as Modestinus saith, to command, forbid, punish, permit; than which there are no greater marks of Superiority. Pomponius defines the Law to be, the invention and gift of God, and the Maximes of Wise-men. Because all the ancient Law-givers, that their Laws might gain the greater reverence among the Vulgar, feigned that the Laws they wrote were clictated to them by the Gods. Thus Osiris among the Aegyptians seigned to have re∣ceived his from Mercury, Zoroastes among the Persians from Oromazus, Chariundas among the Carthaginians from Saturn, Solon among the Athenians from Minerva, Zamolxis among the Scythians from Vesta, Lycurgus from Apollo, Numa from the Nymph Egeria. Thus you see how this knowledge of the Law arrogates to it self a Power and Soveraignty over all the Sciences and Arts, exercising a Tyranny over them, and advan∣cing it self above all other Sciences, as the First-born of Heaven, despises and contemns all the rest, being it self constituted out of the frail and infirm Positions and O∣pinions of men, of all things the most slender, and sub∣ject to alteration upon every change of State, Time, or Prince, and which deduces its original from the sin of our First parents, the cause of all our evils. From whence also the corrupt Law of Nature, which is cal∣led Jus Naturale, first descended; of which behold the chief Maximes: Keep off force by force. Break faith with him that breaks faith. To deceive the deceiver is no deceit. A deceiver is not bound to a deceiver in ought. A fault may be recompensed by a fault. Those that deserve ill, ought to enjoy neither justice nor faith. No injury can be done to the willing. He that buys may deceive himself. A thing is worth so much as it may be sold for. A man

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may provide for his safety with the damage of another. No man is oblig'd to impossibilities. Thou or I are to be ru∣ined, it is better that thou be ruin'd than I. With many more of the same nature. Moreover, the Law of Na∣ture is, Not to hunger, not to thirst, to suffer cold, or destroy ones self with Watching and Labour: which overthrowing all works of Piety and Penance, establi∣shes Epicurean Pleasure for Supreme Happiness. The first occasion of War, Bloudshed, Bondage, Separation of Dominions, was also the first occasion of the Law of Nations: after that, came the Civil or Popular Law, which every Nation appropriates to it self; From whence have arisen so many Contentions among men, that there are not words enough to express the subjects and matter which they contain. For seeing that men were so prone to quarrel, it was necessary that there should be an observation of Justice according to Law, that so the arrogancies of Impiety might be suppres∣sed, and that Innocence might be in safety amongst the Wicked, and that the Good might live quietly among the Bad: these are the grounds of Law, of which there have been Legislators innumerable. The first whereof was Moses, who gave Laws to the Je'ws; at which time Cecrops gave Laws to the Algyptians: after whom, Pheroneus gave Laws to the Greeks: Mercury Trisme∣gist gave Laws to the Aegyptians; Draco and Solon to the Athenians; Lycurgus to the Laedemonians. Pa∣lamedes first made Military Laws for the governing of Armies. Romulus first of all gave Laws to the Ro∣mans, which were called Curiatae. After whom, Numa invented the Ceremonies of their Religion; and all the rest of the succeeding Kings added their particular Laws, which being all vvritten afterwards in the Books of Papyrius, were afterwards called the Papy∣rian Laws. After that came the Laws of the Twelve Tables, the Flavian Law, the Helian Law, the Horten∣sian

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Law, the Honorarian Law, the Praetors Law; De∣crees of the Senate, Edicts of the People, Law of the Magistrates, and Custom, and the power of Law∣giving given to every Supreme Prince. I pass over all those Lawyers, good part whereof are repeated in the second Law of the original of Right. Among those who endeavoured to reduce the Civil Law into a Vo∣lume, the first was Cneus Pompey, next Caesar; but both were prevented by Civil War and untimely death. At length Constantine renewed those old Laws; and Theo∣dosius the younger reduced them into one Volume, which he called a Codex: and after him Justinian set forth the Codex now in use. But all the authority of the Civil Law rests in the People and Princes; neither is there any other Civil Law but what the people esta∣blish by Common consent. Hence Julian avers, That the Laws binde us for no other reason, but onely for that they are received by the Common Consent of the people, who by universal consent transferred the power and whole au∣thority upon the Prince; so that whatsoever is ordained by the consent and approbation of the Prince and People, has thereupon, partly by Constitution, partly by Custom, the force of a Law, though it be an Errour or a Falshood: for Vniversal Errour makes a Law, and matter adjudged be∣comes Truth. Which Vlpian teacheth us in these words: He ought to be taken for a free-man born, who is so ad∣judged by Sentence, though he were onely manumitted; because a matter once adjudged, is to be taken for Truth. The same person tells, that one Barbarius Philip∣pus, who was a fugitive at Rome, demanded the Prae∣torship, and had it: and when he came to be known who he was, yet was it taken for granted, that all what∣soever he had done by vertue of his Office should stand good, though he were but a servant. The same per∣son confesses, that no reason can be given for all the Decrees and Laws which were set forth by our Ance∣stors.

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Whence we finde, that all the Wisdom of the Civil Law depends upon onely Will, and Opinions of men; no other Reason urging, than the Regulation of Manners, conveniency of Converse, power of the Prince, or force of Arms. So that if the Law pre∣serve the Good, and punish the Bad, 'tis then a just Law; if otherwise, the worst of evils, by reason of the evils ensuing, either through the Toleration, Appro∣bation, or Negligence of the Supreme magistrate. And it was the Opinion of Demonax, That all unprofitable Laws were superfluous, as being intended neither for the Good nor the Bad; since the former want them not, the later are never the better for um. Furthermore, seeing that Cato confesses, that there is no Law that can be adapted to all Emergencies, but such where Equity and Rigor are at a continual variance; and that Aristo∣tle also calls Equity the Correction of a just Law, wherein that part is defective, which was generally agreed to; doth it not hence plainly appear, that all the force of Law and Justice depends not so much upon the Law, as upon the Equity and Justice of the Judge?

CHAP. XCII.

Of the Canon-Law.

FRom the Civil flow'd the Canon or Pontificial Law; which may to some seem a most holy Con∣stitution, so ingeniously does it hide and mask the precepts of Avarice, and rules of Rapine, under the pretences of Piety; though it contain very few Decrees that regard either Religion, the Worship of God, o the Ceremonies of the Sacraments. I forbear to make it out, that some are altogether repugnant to the Word

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of God: all the rest are meer matters of Strife, Con∣tention, Pride, Pomp and Gain; and onely Edicts of the Popes, not contented with those already made by Ho∣ly men and Fathers, unless they may adde new Decrees, Chaffie extravagancies: so that there is no end or limit of their Canons, which onely proceed from the Pride and Ambition of the Popes, whose Arrogancie has grown so bold, as to command the Angels, to rob Hell, and lay violent hands upon the souls of the Dead: ty∣rannizing over the Law of God with their Interpreta∣tions, Declarations, and Disputations; left any thing should be wanting or diminisht from the fulness of their power. Did not Pope Clement in a Bull, which is kept to this day at Vienna and several other places, command the Angel to free the soul of one that was going to Rome for Indulgences, and dying by the way, immediately out of Purgatory, and carry him to Hea∣ven? adding, It is our pleasure that the pains of hell be no farther inflicted on him: granting also power to those that were signed with the Cross, at their own pleasures to take three or four souls out of Purgatory. Which erroneous and intolerable Boldness, if I may not call it Heresie, the Parisian School then utterly con∣demn'd and reprov'd; repenting perhaps that they did not report that hyperbolical Zeal of Clement as a Fable, that the Story might live rather than die; seeing that for all their affirming or denying, there is nothing of injury done to the Authority of the Pope, whose Canons and Decrees have so pinion'd Theologie, that the most Contentious Divine dares neither dispute or think con∣trary to the Popes Canons without leave and pardon▪ as Martial says of Rusus.

What Rusus says, Rusus has leave for all, Although he laugh, weep, hold his tongue, or braul: He sups, drinks, asks, denies; yet still the brute Has your good leave; without your leave he's mute.

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Out of these Canons also and Decrees we finde the Patrimony of Christ to be Kingdoms, Donations, Foun∣dations, Wealth, and large Possessions; and that the Priesthood of Christ is Soveraign power and Com∣mand: that the Sword of Christ is Temporal Juris∣diction: that the Rock on which the Church is foun∣ded is the Pope; that the Bishops are not onely the Ministers, but Heads of the Church: that the Goods of the Church are not Evangelical Doctrine, Constancy of Faith, and contempt of the World, but Taxes, Tythes, Oblations, Collections, Purple, Mitres, Gold, Silver, Gems, Mannors, and Money. The power of the Pope is to wage War, dissolve Leagues, absolve Princes from their Oathes, Subjects from their Obedi∣ence, and to make the house of Prayer a den of Thieves. Well therefore may the Pope depose Bishops, who can give away other mens rights, commit Simony, dispense with his Oath, and no man be able to say to him, Why dost thou so? Well may he, for other weighty rea∣sons, dispense with all the New Testament, and send above a third part of the souls of the faithful to hell. But the Office of Bishops is not now-a-days to preach the Word, but to confer Orders, dedicate Temples, ba∣ptize Bells, consecrate Altars and Chalices, bless Vest∣ments and Images. But they who are more ambiti∣ous than these, if leaving those things to be performed by I know not what mean and titular Bishops, they can procure themselves to be sent Kings Ambassadours, to be their Chief Ministers of State, or to attend upon the Queen; such great causes may excuse um from serving God in the Temples, if they can serve the King well at Court. Out of the me Fountains arise those Equi∣vocations and Shifts to avoid Simony in selling and buying Benefices, daily in use; or for whatever other Monopolies or Markets are made of Pardons, Indul∣gences, Dispensations, and the like, whereby they set a

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price upon remission of sins which God has so freely granted; and have found out a way to gain by the ve∣ry pains of Hell. From this Law they borrow that feigned Donation of Constantine, which is quite con∣trary to the Word of God, seeing that neither Caesar can give away his own Right, nor the Clergie usurp that which is Caesars. To these we may adde so many ra∣venous Decrees, under the known Titles of Indulgen∣cies, of Bulls, of Confessions, of Testaments, of Dispensa∣tions, of Priviledges, of Elections, of Dignities, of Pre∣bendaries, of Religious houses, of Sacred houses, of The place of Judicature, of Immunities, of Judgements, and the like. Lastly, the whole Canon-law is of all the most inconstant, more various than Proteus, more changeable than a Chameleon, more full of perplexity than the Gordian-knot. So that the Christian-Religi∣on, by the Institution of Christ intended to put an end to Ceremonies, is now more clogg'd with Ceremonies than the Jewish Religion of old: the weight whereof makes the easie and sweet Yoke of Christ more heavie and burthensome than that of the Law, while Christi∣ans are compell'd to live more according to the Pre∣scriptions of the Canon-law, than the Rules of the Go∣spel. To say truth, the Learning of both Laws is wholly busied about frail, empty, and prophane mat∣ters, Bargains, and Quarrels of the common people; about Murthers, Thefts, Robberies, Pyracies, Factions, Conspiracies, and Treasons, Perjuries, Knaveries of Scribes, Abuses of Lawyers, Corruptions of Judges; whereby Widows are ruin'd, Orphans destroyed, the Poor oppressed, the Innocent condemned, and, as it is said in Juvenal,

The Crows are pardon'd, and the Doves condemn'd.
Thus blinde men run themselves into mischiefs, which

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they thought to avoid by the assistance of the Canons and Pontifical Decretals; because they are no Laws or Canons ordained by God, or for the honour of God, but onely invented by the corrupt Wit of men, for Gain, and the supply of covetous desires.

CHAP. XCIII.

Of Advocates.

THere is another Practice of the Law, which they call the Art of Pleading, of which they would pretend a very great Necessity: an ancient, but most deceitful Calling, onely set out with the gaudy Trim∣ming of Perswasion, which is nothing else, but to know how by Perswasion to over-rule the Judge, and to turn him and winde him at pleasure; to know how by false Interpretations and Comments, to wrest or a∣void the Law, or prolong the Suit; so to cite and re∣peat Decrees, to pervert Equity, and alter the sence of the Law, and the intention of the Legislator: in which Art there is nothing sooner prevails than Bauling and Confidence: and he is accounted the best Advocate, who intices most the people to go to Law, putting um in hopes of recovering great matters; and stirs them up by wicked and mischievous advice; who hunts out for Causes, and who is the greatest Scolder and Brauler, to make the things which are just and true, seem doubt∣ful and unjust; and by such Weapons as those, to chase and overthrow Justice: with whom Justice is nothing else but publike Gain; and the Judge that sits upon the Bench is forc'd to confirm, what Money makes appear just. Nay, they expose those things which are not, even privations of things, and Silence it self; seeing

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that as none will speak but for Gain, there's none will hold his tongue but for Reward: after the example of Demosthenes, who when he askt Aristodemus, a Compi∣piler of Fables, what Fees he had got for Pleading, an∣swered, A Talent. But I (replyed Demosthenes.) have got more to hold my tongue. So that the tongue of a Law∣yer, unless fast bound in Silver chains, is very mischie∣vous and pernicious.

CHAP. XCIV.

Of the Calling of Publike Notaries.

AMong these, Publike Notaries are to be reckon'd, whose Injuries, Falsities and Mischiefs continu∣ally by them wrought, all are bound to endure, while they pretend to have their credit, license and authority from the Apostolike and Imperial power. Among whom they are to be accounted the chiefest, who know best how to trouble the Court, perplex Causes, coun∣terfeit Wills and Deeds, to abuse and deceive their Cly∣ents, and, if need be, to forswear themselves; ventu∣ring at any Roguery, rather than be outdone in plot∣ting and contriving Cheats, Scandals, Quirks, Tricks, Quillets, Treacheries, Scylla's and Charybdis's, by any other person whatsoever. There is no Notary can frame an Instrument, from whence there may not be some cause of Quarrel pickt out, if any person have a minde to contest: for there will be some way or other found out, either to finde out a defect in the Writing, or to invalidate the faith of the publike Notary. These they call the Helps of the Law, which they teach the Contentious how to flie to, and lay hold of. These are the effects of their Watching and Labour, where∣with

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with they soften the rigour of the Law, when they finde their Clyents willing to contend: for he shall have so much Law, as he can by his power maintain; the Law averring, that we cannot be equal to those that are more potent than we are.

CHAP. XCV.

Of the Study of the Law.

TO this, those vast Gyants have relation, who con∣trary to the Edict of Justinian, have begot so ma∣ny innumerable. Volumes of Comments, Glosses, and Expositions, every one differing in their Interpretation. Besides this, they have gathered together such Storms of Opinions, so many Woods of dark and subtil Coun∣sels and Cautions, wherewith the Iniquity of Advocates is furnished, as if Truth did not consist more in Rea∣son, than in confused Testimonies rak'd together out of such a monstrous heap of Opiniasters, among whom there is so much Dissention, so much Discord, that he that knows not how to differ from another, to contra∣dict the Sayings and Opinions of others, call in questi∣on the justice of Adjudged Cases, and to wrest good Laws to their own Humours and Interests, is not to be thought Learned among um. Thus is the Study of the Law made a deceitful Net and Gin of Iniquity: these are the Crafts, and these the Arts by which the whole Christian world is governed; the Foundations of Empires and Kingdoms, and out of these Knaves are chosen Presidents of Parliaments, Senators, and se∣veral great Officers of Popes and Princes: as if wic∣ked Advocates would prove just Judges, when they came to be the Heads of the Nation! These, like the

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Titans to Jove, become formidable to their Princes themselves. Out of these come the swag-belly'd Se∣cretaries, and Purple Chancellors of Emperours and Kings; who govern all affairs of State, dispose of all Favours, Gifts, Benefits, Offices, Dignities and Patents of the prince; who sell all Right and Justice, all Law, Equity and Honesty, and compel others to purchase of them: According to whose will, such and such are to be Allies, such Enemies to the Prince; with whom sometimes they joyn in Leagues, sometimes make War according to their pleasures. And being rais'd from the lowest degree of Poverty, and meanness of condi∣tion, to so high a pitch of Dignity, meerly by prostitu∣ting their Tongues, at length they grow so bold and audacious, that without calling to answer, without or∣der of Council, they will convict and condemn men, and many times alter forms of Government; they themselves growing fat with Thievery and Robbery.

CHAP. XCVI.

Of the Inquisition.

HEre we must not omit the order of Predicants, Inquisitors after Hereticks; whose power when it ought to be founded upon the holy Scriptures, yet they derive it all from the Canon-Law, and Pontifical Decrees, as if it were impossible the Pope should erre; leaving the Scripture as a dead letter, and onely the shadow of Truth, and reject it, as the Buckler and de∣fence of Hereticks. Neither do they receive the Tra∣ditions of the ancient Fathers and Doctors, because they may both deceive, and be deceived; but preten∣ding that the Roman Church cannot erre, of which the

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Pope is the Head, and therefore the Authority of his Court is the Rule of their Faith; enquiring no further in their examinations, than whether men believe in the Church of Rome: which if any person refractory do grant, then, quoth they, the Church condemns such or such a Proposition, as heretical, scandalous, and offen∣sive to pious ears; and then compel the person to re∣voke and recant his Errour. If the offender continue to justifie himself by Reason or Scripture, or both, straight with great clamour and mouthing they inter∣rupt him, telling him he is not before the Chair of Doctors, or a Convocation of Scholars, but a Tribu∣nal of Judges: he is not to dispute there, but to answer directly whether he will stand to or abide the Decree of the Church, or renounce his Opinion: if not, they shew him Faggots and Fire, saying, Hereticks are to be convinced with Faggot and Fire, not with Scripture and Arguments; and so compel a man not convicted of any perverse obstinacie contrary to his Conscience, to abjure those things; which if he deny, they deliver him over to the Secular power, as a deserter of the Church, to be burnt; saying with the Apostle, Remove the evil thing from among you. In ancient times, such was the lenity and meckness of the Church, that they neither punisht those that relaps'd into Judaism nor Blasphe∣mies: and Berengarius revolting to a most damnable Heresie, was not onely not put to death, but continued in his Archdeaconship. But now, if a man slip into the least Errour, 'tis much more than his life is worth; and he shall be thrown into the Fire by these Inquisitors for a trifle. Perhaps it is now convenient for the Church to use such severe chastisement, for fear of losing its innate piety. Sometimes Hereticks are In∣quisitors after Hereticks; which was the occasion of the Decree which Clement made. But Inquisitors ought not to hold dark Arguments, and talk in wrang∣ling

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Syllogisms, with Hereticks; but to labour to con∣vince them by the Word of God, then to determine the matter according to the Decrees and Canons of the Church, and either to reduce him to the Orthodox Faith, or pronounce him a Hereticks: for he is no He∣retick, who is not obstinate; nor is he a favourer of Hereticks, who seeks to defend an innocent person con∣demned of Heresie, left he should be deliver'd up by these cruel and ravenous Inquisitors, to be butchered without a cause. And although it be expresly provi∣ded in the Law, that the Inquisitors shall have no pow∣er of Examining, nor any Jurisdiction over any suspi∣tion, defence, or favour of Heresie, which is not a He∣resie manifestly exprest, and absolutely already con∣demn'd; yet these bloudy Vultures, going beyond the Priviledges and Commission of their Office, against all right, and contrary to the Canons themselves, take upon them to meddle with ordinary things, arrogating and usurping the power of Popes in those things which are not Heretical, but onely Scandalous or offensive to the ear; most cruelly raging against the poor Coun∣try-women, whom being once accused of Witchcraft, and condemned without the examination of any lawful Judge, they expose to most strange and unheard-of Torments, till having extorted from them what they least thought to confess, they finde matter to proceed upon to condemnation: and then they think they do the Office of Inquisitors truly, when they never leave the business off, till the poor woman be burnt, or else have so far gilded the Inquisitors hand, until he take pitie of her, as sufficiently purg'd: for an Inquisitor may alter the punishment from penal into pecuniary, and convert it to the use of the Office; by which there is not a little Money to be got: and some of these poor creatures are forc'd to pay them an annual Stipend, for fear of being harass'd to Torment. And when the

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Goods of Hereticks are confiscated, then the Inquisi∣tor gets no small matter. The very accusation, or highest suspicion of Heresie, nay the very Citation of the Inquisitor, is enough to bring a womans credit in question, which is not to be salved without money given to the Inquisitor; which is no small gain. Thus while I was in Millain, several Inquisitors did torment many honest Matrons, & some of very good Quality, and privately milk very large sums from the poor affright∣ed and terrified women; till at length, their Cheating being discovered, they were severely handled by the Gentry, hardly escaping Fire and Sword. When I was President of the Commonwealth in the Citie of Mediomatricum, I had a very great Contest with an In∣quisitor, who being a loose fellow, had hal'd a poor Country-woman into his Slaughter-house, being a place of disrepute; and all for a very slight Accusati∣on; not so much to Examine her, as to Crucifie her. This woman when I undertook to defend her Cause, and found, and had made it evident, that there was no∣thing of Proof to make out the Crime, the Inquisitor made answer, that there was one proof not to be que∣stion'd, That her mother many years ago was burnt for a Witch. Which Article when I shew'd how imperti∣nent it was, and that it was not for the Law to con∣demn one for the fact of another; presently he, lest he should have seemed to have talkt out of Reason be∣fore, produces this Argument: That therefore it was so, and the Proof good, because Witches were wont to devote their children to the devil; as also because they are wont to Conceive by lying with the devil, and therefore there is an inherent Guiltiness in the Off∣spring. Wicked Father, said I, is this thy way of Theologie? Are these the Fictions for which thou har∣riest silly women to Torture? are these the Sophisms with which thou condemnest Hereticks? Thou thy

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self, in my opinion, art far worse than Faustus or Donatus. Grant it were as thou sayst, dost thou not hereby abro∣gate the grace of Baptism, if for the impiety of a Parent the Off-spring should be the devils due? And if it were true that Incubi did generate, yet was never any one of that opinion so infatuated, as to think those Spirits did mingle any thing of their own nature with the suffoced seed. But I tell thee upon the true grounds of Faith, and by the true natures of our Humanities, we are all one mass of sin, and eternal malediction, sons of perdition, sons of the devil, sons of the wrath of God, and heirs of hell: but by the grace of Baptism Satan is cast out of us, and we are made new creatures in Jesus Christ, from whom no man can be separated but by his own sin: for far is it from truth, that he should suffer for another mans sin. Seest thou not now how invalid thy most sufficient Proof is, how vain in Law, and indeed how absolutely Heretical it is? The cruel Hypocrite grew very wroth against me, and threatned to sue me as a favourer of Hereticks. How∣ever, I persisted in defence of the poor creature, and at length by the power of the Law I delivered her out of the Lions mouth; and the bloudy Monk stood rebuk'd and sham'd before um all, and ever after infamous for his Cruelty; and the Accusers of the poor wo∣man in the Capitol of the Church of Metz, whose Subjects they were, were very considerably Fin'd.

CHAP. XCVII.

Of Scholastick Theologie.

IT remains that we discourse concerning Theologie. I shall pass by the Theologie of the Gentiles, men∣tioned

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in Orpheus, Musaeus, and Hesiod, which all men ac∣knowledge to be Poetical and fictitious, and which La∣ctantius, and Eusebius, and many other eminent Doctors of the Christians have convinced by most strenuous Ar∣guments. Nor shall we speak of the Religion of Plato or the rest of the Philosophers, whom we have already shew'd to be the teachers of nothing but Er∣rour. But we shall here discourse concerning the Christian Religion. This onely depends upon the faith of its Doctors, seeing that it can fall under no Art or Science. And first of Scholastick Divinity, a certain Hodge-podge, or Mixture, of Divine Precepts, and Philosophical Reasons; looking like a Centaur; written after a new manner, far different from the an∣tient way of delivery; diffus'd into little Questions, and subtil Syllogisms, without any Elegancie of speech; and which has brought not a little profit to the Church in the convincing of Hereticks. The first Authors whereof, and who were most excellent therein, were Thomas Aquinas, Albertus sirnamed the Great, and ma∣ny other famous men; besides Johannes Scotus, a most subtil and acute Writer, though a little more given to Contention. Hence Scholastick Theologie sell into So∣phisms; while those newer Theosophists, and as it were Sutlers of the Word of God, never worthy of the title of Divines, but for their money, of so sub∣lime a Studie and Contemplation made a meer Logo∣machie; wandring from School to School, starting little Questions, framing Opinions, forcing the Scri∣ptures, inducing a strange sence with intricate words, and more nimble to ventilate than examine, presum'd to erect Seminaries of Strifes, out of which litigious Sophisters gain matter of Contention; distracting the Intellect, abstracting the Forms, and misrepresenting Genus and Species; what they take from one, adding to another; and every one striving to confirm their

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own Opinion: exposing our holy Faith among the Wise of the Age (of which Thomas Aquinas complains) to Laughter and Misbelief. For they neglect the Cano∣nical Scriptures of the Holy Ghost, and chuse onely hard Questions about Divine things, fit for Dispute; wherein they exercise their Wit, and consume their time; placing the whole Doctrine of Theologie in those things onely, wherein while they study to con∣tradict the Scripture, they may hear the Scripture say∣ing, The letter kills, is hurtful, is unprofitable. But they will say, We are to search out that which lies hid in the Scripture. Then binding all their mindes to ex∣pound, interpret, make Glossaries and Syllogisms, they rather chuse any other sence than that which is most genuine. If you require Reason, or be earnest in ap∣posing, you shall receive ill language, and be call'd Fool. What is hid in the letter you must not under∣stand, but must feed like a Serpent upon the dust. So that none are accounted Divines among them, unless they be such as ate egregrious Branglers, and can give an Instance upon every Proposition, feign readily, finde out new Interpretations, make a noise with uncouth words, not so much to be understood for the difficulty of the matter, as the strangeness of the word. And then they are call'd Doctors, when they are come to that pass that they can hardly be understood. These have a multitude of Followers, who whatsoever they have drawn from those men, believe it fetcht out of the hidden treasuries of Theologie: they swear to their Masters words, and believe it not to be within the com∣pass of thought, if any thing be unknown to him; and they are so captivated with his Opinions, that they are not to be overcome with any other reasons; will yield to no Scripture, but, like Antaeus, seek to renew their strength, while they repair to the brest of their mother who brought them forth, calling these Doctors to their aid.

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The Vulture carkass leaving then behinde, Hastes to his own, and takes away the best: This is the food the Vulture hath design'd, To feast his Palate while he builds his nest.
Hence it comes to pass, that the sublime Studie of Scho∣lastick Divinity is so subject to Errour and Impiety; these evil Hypocrites and audacious Sophisters have in∣troduced so many Sects, and so many Heresies; who as S. Paul saith, preach Christ not for good-will, but for contention: so that it is far easier for Philosophers than Divines to agree: who have eclipsed the ancient glo∣ry of the ancient Theologie with humane Opinions, and new Errours; and professing a detestable Do∣ctrine consisting in false Titles, and Labyrinths of Dispute, have usurpt the name of Sacred Theologie by Theft and Rapine; and abominating the Names and Institutions of the old Fathers, have increas'd new Fa∣ctions, as it was formerly said in the Church, I am of Apollo, I of Paul, I of Cephas; pretending altogether to their Studies whose Works they first learnt, and ad∣miring onely their own Masters, despise all others; not minding what is said, but by whom it is said. And yet are these men very much divided among them∣selves: for some of them, who are of riper ingenuities, and would be thought more skilful than the Prophets and Apostles, believe that they can finde out and de∣monstrate those things which are onely to be believ'd by faith; Philosophizing in Divine things in most mi∣serable Questions, and with a prodigious confidence contend about absurd Opinions; as, when some di∣stinguish the Divine Essence, some by the thing it self, or others by Reason: others constitute infinite Reali∣ties, as they call um, like Plato's Idea's; which some again deny, and some laugh at. Then they frame to

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themselves so many monstrous shapes of God, so many forms of the Divine Being, so many Idols and Phan∣tomes of their own Imaginations about divine things; and dismember their very Saviour Christ with the per∣versness of their Opinions. Him they dress in so many various Disguises of Sophisms, and like an Image of Wax, form and deform him with their absurd suppo∣sitions into what shape or figure they please; so that their Doctrine proves meer Idolatry. But those other, whose duller capacities cannot soar so sublimely, these make Legends of the Saints full of godly lyes, feign Reliques, make Miracles, invent plausible or terrible Examples; Number Prayers, weigh Merits, invent Ceremonies, sell Indulgencies, distribute Pardons, set to sale their Benedictions, and devour the sins of the people. As for Apparitions, Exorcisms, and Answers of the Dead, they are very exact in um; and being taught their lessons out of the Books of Tundal and Brandarius, they act the Tragedies of Purgatory, and Comedies of Indulgences and Pardons; and from the Pulpits, as from a Stage, with a Souldier-like impu∣dence, and boldness of Thraso, with confident eyes, countenance chang'd, extended arms, and more sorts of gestures than are ascribed to Proteus, thunder out their Vanities among the people. But those who pre∣tend to be more Learned, and to understand a greater Decorum of Elegancie; they, while they bawl, I should say declaim, rehearse Poems, tell Stories, dispute Con∣troversies, cite Homer, Virgil, Livie, Strabo, Varro, Se∣neca, Cicero, Aristotle and Plato: in stead of preaching the Gospel, and Word of God, making onely an empty noise of words; spreading a new Gospel, adulterating the Word of God, which they preach not to set forth Grace, but for Gain and Lucre; living in the mean time not according to the Word of God, but accor∣ding to the pleasure of the flesh; and after they have

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in the day-time made an erroneous Harangue or Ex∣hortation in the Pulpits to vertue, at night exercise their Buttocks in their lurking holes with nocturnal labour. And this is the way by which they go to Christ-Lastly, when Vices are to be reprehended, 'tis won∣derful with what ill language they rail, with what in∣solencie of gesture they behave themselves, with what scurrilous language their Choler rages, what loud Ex∣clamations they make; as if Christ rather chose to have the Preachers of his Word not Fishers drawing on the right hand with a soft Net, but persecuting Hunters and Archers, shooting and wounding from the left: or as if they themselves were not men, or not liable to the same faults, if not guilty of greater. Thus those Fishers of men, whose tongues ought to be a Net to draw sinners to salvation, become Hunters and perse∣cutors of men to their ruine: their mouthes are Bowes of falshood, their tongues are wounding Arrows. But let us now hasten to the Right Theologie, which is twofold; Prophesie, and Interpretation. Of the later first of all.

CHAP. XCVIII.

Of Interpretative Theologie.

INterpretative Theologists believe, That as by the li∣berality of Nature, Grapes, Olives, Wheat, Flax, and many other such things, increase and ripen, of which afterwards, by the wit and help of Man, Wine, Oyl, Bread and Cloth, and other works of Nature are compleated by humane Arts: so the Divine Oracles, delivered to us obscure and hidden, are to be explain∣ed by Interpretation; not by the force of our own Wit

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or Invention, but by the help of the Spirit, who di∣stributes his good things as he pleases, and where he pleases, making some Prophets, and some Interpreters. Therefore this Interpretative Divinity consists not in Compounding, Dividing, Defining, after the manner of the Peripateticks; neither of which belong to God, who neither can be defined, divided, or compounded, but leads to Knowledge by another way, which is in∣different between this and Prophetical vision, which is a kinde of discovery of the Truth to our purifi'd In∣tellect, as a Key to a Lock: and this, as it is the most covetous of all Truth, so it is the most susceptible of what things are to be understood, and is therefore called Possible Intellect; wherewith though we do not discover by a full light, what the Prophets mean, and those who beheld the Divine things themselves; yet there is a door open to us, that from the conformity of the Truth perceived, to our Intellect, and by the Light which illustrates us, out of those open windows we gain more certainty, than from the appearing Demon∣strations, Definitions, Divisions, and Compositions: and we read and understand, not with our outward eyes and ears, but with our better senses; and extract the Truth flowing from the sacred Scriptures, which the other delivered in dark sayings, and mysterious sentences; and thereby see what is hidden from the wise and great Philosophers, yet apprehend them not with so much certainty, as that all perplexity may be removed. And whereas there is a manifold. Truth conceal'd in sacred Scripture, holy men have gone a∣bout to try various and manifold Expositions of the same. For some gently walking along the back of the Letter, and expounding one place by another, and one letter by another, and making out the sence by the Order, Etymologie, and Propriety and Force of the signification of the words, hunt out the truth of

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Scripture: which is therefore call'd Literal Expositi∣on. Others refer all things written to the business of the Soul, and works of Justice; whose Expositions are therefore call'd Moral. Others remit them by va∣rious Tropes and Figures to the Mysteries of the Church; whose Exposition is call'd Tropological. Others given to Contemplation, refer all things to the Myitery of Celestia glory; and this Exposition is call'd Anago∣gick. And these are the four most usual sorts of Ex∣position; besides which, there are two more, of which the one refers all things to vicissitude of Times, Muta∣tions of Kingdoms and Ages; therefore call'd Typick. Wherein, among the Ancients, Cyril, Methodius, and Joachim Abbas did most exel: of Modern Authors, Jeremy Savanarola of Ferrara. The other enquires in∣to the nature and qualities of the Universe, the Sensi∣ble world, and of the whole Fabrick of the World and Nature: which Exposition is therefore call'd Phy∣sical or Natural; wherein Rabbi Simeon ben Joachim excell'd, who wrote a very large Volume upon Leviti∣cus, wherein discoursing of the natures of all things, he shews how Moses, according to the congruencie of the threefold World, and nature of things, ordain'd the Ark, the Tabernacle, the Vessels, Garments, Rites, Sacrifices, and other Mysteries, for the appeasing and worshipping God. Which Exposition the Cabalists fol∣low, especially those who treat of Beresith, or the Crea∣tion. For they who discoursing concerning the Judge∣ment-seat of God, by Numbers, Figures, Revolutions, Symbolical reasons, refers all things to the first Arch∣type, search for the Anagogical sence. And these are the six most famous Senses or Meanings of the holy Scripture; all whose Expositors or Interpreters are by a general word call'd Divines: among whom we finde Dionysius, Origen, Polycarpus, Eusebius, Tertullian, Ire∣neus, Nazianzene, Chrysostome, Athanasius, Basil, Da∣mascene,

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Lactantins, Cyprian, Jerome, Austin, Ambrose, Gregory, Ruffinus, Leo, Cassianus, Barnardus, Anselm, and many other holy Fathers which those ancient times brought forth: and some of later years; as Thomas, Albertus, Bonaventure, Egidius, Henricus, Gandavensis, Gerson, and many others. But now seeing that all these Interpretative Divines are but men, they are sub∣ject to humane frailties; sometimes they erre, some∣times they write things contrary or repugnant some∣times they differ from one another: in many things they are deceiv'd, all of um not discerning all things: for onely the Holy Ghost has the perfect knowledge of Divine things, who distributes to all men according to a certain measure, reserving many things to himself, that we may be always learning of him: for, as S. Paul saith, All of us know and preach by art onely. There∣fore all this Interpretative Theologie consists onely in liberty of speech, and is a Knowledge separate from Scripture, whereby every one has the liberty to abound in his own sence, according to those various Expositi∣ons recited before, which S. Paul in one word calls My∣steries, or speaking of Mysteries, when the Spirit speaks Mysteries; whence Dionysius calls this Significative Theologie, treated of by those holy Doctors in several Volumes. Nor are we to believe all that they say, see∣ing that many hold very Erroneous Opinions of Faith, which are exploded by the Church; as we may instance in Papias Bishop of Hierapolis, Victorinus Pictoviensis, Irenoeus Lugdunensis, Cyprian, Origen and Tertullian, and many others, who have err'd in the Faith, and whose Tenets have been condemned as Heretical, though they themselves are among the Canoniz'd Saints. But this requires a deeper spirit of considera∣tion, to judge and discern which is not of men, nor of flesh and bloud, but granted from above by the Fa∣ther of lights. For no man can utter any thing rightly

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of God, but by the light which comes from himself; which light is the Word, by whom all things were made, and who illuminates every man coming into this world, giving them power to become the sons of God whoever shall receive and believe. Neither is there any who can de∣clare the things of God, but his own Word: for who besides can know the minde of God, or whoever was made of his council, but the Son of God, being the Word of the Father? But of this we shall discourse no farther, till we have perfected the next Chapter of Prophetick Theologie.

CHAP. XCIX.

of Prophetick Theologie.

AS Prophecie is the speech of the Prophets, so is Theologie nothing but the Tradition of the Di∣vines, or men discoursing with God. However, not every one that can remember or repeat a Prophecie, or interpret the meaning thereof, is presently a Pro∣phet, but he that in divine things is endued with the knowledge of Piety, Vertue and Sanctity, who dis∣courseth with God, and meditates upon his Law day and night. For so S. John Author of the Apocalypse, in the Letters of Dionysius call'd The Divine, testifies from holy Writing; to whom the Truth it self has said, He that hears you, hears me; and he that despises you de∣spises me. Which words are not spoken to contentious Theosophists, but to the true Divines, Apostles, Evan∣gelists, and Messengers of the Word of God, who say, I dare not utter any thing which Christ doth not work by me. Therefore the Traditions of these Divines concer∣ning Faith and Godliness, are truely Theological. To

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the Writings and sayings of these men we give credit, as being founded, not upon contentious Syllogisms, or Opinions of men, but, as S. Paul saith, being divinely inspired: not in defining, compounding, dividing, con∣templating, after the manner of Philosophers; but in an essential contact of Divinity, apprehended through a clear vision in the divine light it self: of which visi∣on we finde several sorts in the holy Scripture: as the Prophets had several dispositions to receive. For we read how some saw God, or Angels in the forms of men: others in the shape of Fire: others in the simi∣litude of Air or Wind: others in the shape of Rivers or Water: others in the form of Birds, Precious Stones, or Metals: others in the forms of Letters or Chara∣cters: others in the sound of a Voice: others in Dreams: others in a Spirit residing within themselves: others in the work of the Understanding. And there∣fore the Scripture calls all Prophets Seers. Thus we read of The Visions of Isaias, The Visions of Jeremy, The Visions of Ezekiel, and the rest. And under the New law S. John faith, I was in the Spirit upon the Lords day. On the wings whereof he was carried, and beheld the Throne of God. And Paul witnesses, that he saw those things which it is not lawful for men to ut∣ter. And this Vision is called a Rapture, or Ecstasie, or spiritual death. Concerning this death it is said, No man shall see God, and live. And in another place, Preci∣ous in the sight of God is the death of his Saints. And it is more clearly expressed by the Apostle, where he says, You are dead, and your life is hid with Christ. And it is necessary for him to die this death, that will pierce in∣to the secrets of Prophetick Theologie. Now there is a double sight of this Deifick vision: One, when God is seen face to face; and then the Prophets see what S. Paul faith, Things which are not fit for men to utter, and which no tongue of men or Angels can express, nor Pen

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unfold. There is also a certain contact or union of the Divine Essence, and an illustration or enlightning of the pure and separate Intellect, without appearance of any shape or likeness. This Divines call The Meri∣dional Understanding. Of which S. Augustin upon Ge∣nesis, and Origen against Celsus, largely dispute. The other sort of Seeing is that by which we see the hinder parts of God; when the creatures, which are the hin∣der parts or effects of God, are understood with a more exalted judgement; as by the knowledge whereof the Creator, the chief workman, and the First Cause that moves all things, is the better known: as the Wise∣man faith, From the bigness of the kinde, and of the creature, may be known the Creator of things. And Paul also about the same subject: The invisible things of God are known, being understood by these things which are made. And it is an usual Saying among the Peripate∣ticks, that they who argue from the Effects to the Causes, are said to argue à posteriori, from the hinder part. Moses enjoyed both these Visions, as the Scriptures witness. Of the first, we read that Moses saw God face to face. As to the other, we read what God spake to him: Thou shalt see my hinder parts. And by the means of this later Vision, Moses made a Law, institu∣ted Sacrifices and Ceremonies, built a Tabernacle and other Mysteries, according to the most elaborate Exem∣plar of the whole world, comprehending all the secret works of God and Nature therein. This Vision is a∣gain twofold: for we either behold the creature in God himself, which Divines call The Morning-vision; or else we behold God himself in the creatures. There is also anot