Naturall and artificial directions for health deriued from the best philosophers, as well moderne, as auncient. By William Vaughan, Master of Artes, and student in the ciuill law.

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Naturall and artificial directions for health deriued from the best philosophers, as well moderne, as auncient. By William Vaughan, Master of Artes, and student in the ciuill law.
Vaughan, William, 1577-1641.
London :: Printed by Richard Bradocke,

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Health -- Early works to 1800.
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"Naturall and artificial directions for health deriued from the best philosophers, as well moderne, as auncient. By William Vaughan, Master of Artes, and student in the ciuill law." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed May 20, 2024.


The second Section, concerning foode.

Chap. 1. Of bread and drink.

VVhat is the vse of bread?

BRead made of pure wheat floure, well boulted frō all bran, sufficiently leauened, and finely moulded & baked, comforteth and strengtheneth the hart, maketh a man fat, and preserueth health. It must not be aboue two or three dayes old, at most, for then it waxeth hard to be cōcocted. Howbeit neuerthelesse,

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the pith of new hot bread infused into wine, and smelt vnto, doth much good to the spirits, and greatly exhilarateth the heart.

What is the vse of beere?

Beere which is made of good malt, well brew∣ed, not too new, nor too stale, nourisheth the body, causeth a good colour, and quickly pas∣seth out of the body. In summer it auayleth a man much, and is no lesse wholesome to our constitutions then wine. Besides the nutritiue faculty, which it hath by the malt, it receiueth likewise a certaine propertie of medicine by the hop.

What is the vse of Ale?

Ale made of barley malt and good water doth make a man strong: but now a daies few brewers do brew it as they ought, for they add slimie and heauie baggage vnto it, thinking thereby to please tossepots, & to encrease the vigour of it.

How shall I discerne good ale from bad?

Good ale ought to be fresh and cleere of colour. It must not be tilted, for then the best qualitie is spent: It must neyther looke mud∣die, nor yet carie a taile with it.

Which is the best drink?

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The most pretious and wholesome ordina∣rie drink as well for them that be in health, as for sicke and impotent persons is made after this maner:

Take halfe a pound of barley, foure mea∣sures of water, halfe an ounce of Licoras, and two drachmes of the seede of Violets, two drachmes of parsley seed, three ounces of red Roses, an ounce & a halfe of Hysop & Sage, three ounces of figges and raisins well pickt: Seeth them all together in an earthen vessell, so long till they decrease two fingers breadth by seething: then put the pot in cold water, and straine the ingredients through a cloth.

Shew mee a speedie drink for trauellers, when they want beere or ale at their Inne?

Let them take a quart of fayre water, and put thereto fiue or sixe spoonefulles of good Aqua composita, a small quantitie of sugar, and a branch of Rosemarie: Let them be bru∣ed well out of one pot into another, and then their drink is ready.

What shall poore men drink, when malt is ex∣treame deare?

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They must gather the toppes of heath, whereof the vsuall brushes are made, and dry them, and keepe them from moulding. Then they may at all times brue a cheap drink for themselues therewith. Which kinde of drink is very wholesome as well for the liuer, as the spleene; but much the more pleasaunt, if they put a little licoras vnto it. There is ano∣ther sort of drink, of water and vineger pro∣portionably mingled together, which in sum∣mer they may vse.

How shall I help beere or ale, which beginne to be sowre or dead?

Put a handfull or two of oatemeale, or else of ground malt, into the barrell of beere or ale, stirre the same well together, and so make it reuiue a-fresh. Or else, if you please, bury your drink vnder ground, in the earth, for the space of foure and twentie houres.

Teach mee a way to make beere or ale to be∣come stale, within two or three daies?

This is performed, if you burie your beere or ale being filled into pots, in a shadie place somewhat deepe in the ground.

What is meath?

Meath is made of honey and water boyled

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both together. This kinde of drink is good for them, which enioy their health; but very hurt∣full for them, who are afflicted with the stran∣gurie or colick. Braggot doth farre surpasse it in wholesomenesse.

What is Meatheglin?

Meatheglin is made of honey, water, and hearbes. If it be stale, it is passing good.

Chap. 2. Of Wine.

What is the propertie of wine?

Wine moderatly drunk refresheth the heart and the spirits, tempereth the humours, in∣gendreth good bloud, breaketh fleagme, con∣serueth nature, and maketh it merie.

What is the vse of white wine?

White wine, drunk in the morning fasting, cleanseth the lunges. Being taken with red O∣nions brused, it pearceth quickly into the blad der, and breaketh the stone. But if this kinde of wine be drunk with a ful stomack it doth more hurt then good, and causeth the meate to des∣cend, before it be fully concocted.

What is the vse of Rhenish wine?

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Rhenish wine of all other is the most excel∣lent, for it scoureth the reines of the back, cla∣rifieth the spirits, prouoketh vrine, and driueth away the headache, specially if it doth pro∣ceede from the heate of the stomack.

What is the vse of Muscadell, Malmesie, and browne Bastard?

These kindes of wines are only for maried folkes, because they strengthen the back.

What is the vse of Sack?

Sack doth make men fat and foggie, and therefore not to be taken of young men. Be∣ing drunk before meales it prouoketh ap∣petite, and comforteth the spirits maruel∣lously.

How shall I know whether hony or water be mingled with wine?

Vintners, I confesse, in these dayes are wont to iuggle and sophistically to abuse wines, namely, Alligant, Muscadell, and browne Bastard, but you shall perceiue theyr deceite by this meanes; take a few drops of the wine, and powre them vpon a

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hot plate of yron, and the wine being resol∣ued, the honey will remaine and thicken. If you suspect your wine to be mingled with wa∣ter, you shall discerne the same by putting a peare into it: for if the peare swimme vpon the face of the wine, and sinke not to the bot∣tome, then it is perfect and vnmingled, but if it sinke to the bottome, water without doubt is added vnto it.

Shew mee a way to keepe Claret wine, or any other wine good, nine or ten yeeres.

At euery vintage, draw almost the fourth part, out of the hogshead, and then rowle it vpon his lee, & after fill it vp with the best new wine of the same kinde, that you can get. Your caske ought to be bound with yron hoopes, and kept alwaies full.

How might I help wine, that reboyleth?

Put a peece of cheese into the vessell, and presently a wonderfull effect will follow.

Chap. 3. Of Milke.

What is the vse of milke?

Milke purgeth superfluous humours in the belly, and nourisheth the body: but soure things must not in any case be presently taken

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after it. Also, for feare it should cōgeale in the stomacke, put a litle sugar, salt, or honey into it, and so stirre them together. It agreeth well with cholericke persones, but not with the flegmatick.

What is the discommoditie of milk.?

Milk often vsed, of them that are not wont to laboure, causeth headach, and dimnesse of sight: it annoyeth the teeth. Which discom∣modities may be corrected by adding rice & sugar vnto it.

Which kinde of milke is best?

Womans milk is wholesomest and purest, because it is a restoratiue medicine for the braine and the consumption. Next vnto it, goates milk is best.

What is the vse of Creame?

Creame with strawberies and sugar taken of hot cholerick persons will not much hurt.

What is the vse of sower Whay?

Sower whay is a temperate drink, which mundifieth the lunges, purgeth bloud, and a∣layeth the heat of the liuer.

Chap. 4. Of Flesh.

What kinde of meate is best.

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That kinde of meat is best, which ingen∣dreth good bloud, and is easie to be digested, as mutton, beefe, lambe, pigges, capons, chick∣ens, partridges, woodcockes, young pigeons, thrushes, and such like.

What meate is of an hard digestion?

Venison, duckes, geese, together with the kidneyes, liuers, & entrailes of birdes do breed cruditie in the stomack, and fluxes.

Shew mee a way to preserue flesh and foule, sound and sweet, for one moneth, not∣withstanding the contagiousnesse of the weather?

Maister Plat, whose authoritie not only in this, but in all other matters I greatly allow of, counselleth huswiues to make a strong brine, so as the water be ouerglutted with salt; and being scalding hot, to perboyle their mutton, veale, venison, foule, or such like, and then to hang them vp in a conuenient place. With this vsage they wil last a sufficient space, with∣out any bad or ouersaltish tast. Some haue holpen tainted venison, by lapping the same in a course thin cloth, couering it first with salt, & then burying it a yard deepe in the ground,

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twelue or twentie houres space. Others doe couer their foule in wheat.

What is the vse of mutton?

Young mutton boyled and eaten with o∣pening and cordiall hearbs is the most nouri∣shing meate of all, and hurteth none, but only flegmatick persons, and those which are trou∣bled with the dropsie.

What is the vse of beefe?

Young beefe bredde vp in fruitfull pasture, & otherwhiles wrought at plow, being pow∣dred with salt foure and twentie houres, and exquisitely sodden is naturall meat for men of strong constitutions; it nourisheth exceeding∣ly, and stoppeth the fluxe of yellow choler. Howbeit Martlemas beefe (so commonly cal∣led) is not laudable, for it ingendreth melan∣cholike diseases, and the stone.

What is the vse of veale?

Veale young and tender sodden with young pullets, or capons, and smallage, is very nutritiue and wholesome for all seasons, ages, and constitutions.

What is the vse of swines fiesh?

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The leane of a young fat hogge, eaten mo∣derately with spices and hot things, doth sur∣passe all manner of meate, except veale, for nourishment: it keepeth the paunch slipperie, and prouoketh vrine: but it hurteth them that bee subiect to the gout and Sciatica, and an∣noyeth old men and idle persons. A young Pig is restoratiue, if it be flayed and made in a ielly. To be short, bacon may be eaten with other flesh to prouoke appetite, and to breake flegme coagulated and thickned in the sto∣macke.

What is the vse of Kid?

The hinder part of a young Kid roasted is a meate soone digested, and therefore very wholesome for sick and weake folkes. It is more fit for young and hot constitutions, thē for old men or flegmatick persons.

What is the vse of Venison?

Young fallow deere, very well chafed, hangd vp vntill it be tender, and in rosting being throughly basted with oyle, or well larded, is very good for them, that be troubled with the rheume or palsie. Yet notwithstanding it hur∣teth leane folkes and old men, it disposeth the body to agues, and causeth fearefull dreames.

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Some say that venison being eaten in the morning prolongeth life; but eaten at night it bringeth sodaine death. The hornes of deere being long and slender are remedies a∣gainst poysoned potions: & so are the bones, that grow in their hearts.

What think you of Hare and Conies flesh?

Hare and Conies flesh perboyled, and then rosted with sweet hearbes, cloues, and other spices, consumeth all corrupt humours and fleagme in the stomack, and maketh a man to looke amiably, according to the prouerb: He hath deuoured a Hare. But it is vnwholesome for lazie and melancholick men.

What is your opinion of Capons, Hennes, and Chickens?

A fat Capon is more nutritiue then any other kinde of foule. It increaseth venerie, and healpeth the weaknesse of the braine. But vn∣lesse a man after the eating of it, vse extraor∣dinarie exercise, it will do him more hurt thē good. As for chickens they are fitter to be eaten of sick men, then of them that be in health.

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Shew me a way to fallen capons in most short time?

You must follow Maister Plats aduise, name∣ly, to take the blond of beastes, whereof the butchers make no great reconing, & boyle it, with some store of branne amongst it (per∣haps graines wil suffice, but branne is best) vn∣till it come to the shape of a bloud pudding, and therewith feede your foule so fat as you please. You may feede turkies with brused ac∣ornes, and they will prosper exceedingly.

What is the vse of Pigeons?

Pigeons plump and fat boyled in sweet flesh broth with coriander & vineger, or with sower cheries & plummes, do purge the reines, heale the palsey proceeding of a cold cause, and are very good in cold weather for old persons, & stomackes full of fleagme.

What is the vse of goese?

A young fat goose farsed with sweet hearbs and spices doth competently nourish. Not∣withstanding, tēder folkes must not eate ther∣of:

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for it filleth the body with superfluous hu∣mours, and causeth the feauer to follow.

What is the vse of Duckes?

Young duckes stifled with borage smoke, & being eaten in cold weather, strengthen the voyce, and increase naturall seede.

What is the vse of Partridges?

Young henne Partridges eaten with vine∣ger doe heale all manner of fluxes, and dry vp bad humours in the belly.

What is the vse of quailes?

Quailes eaten with coriander seede and vineger doe help melancholick men.

VVhat is the vse of woodcockes and snites?

Woodcockes and Snites are somewhat lightly digested. Yet hurtfull for cholerick and melancholick men.

What is the vse of swannes, turkies, perockes, hernes, and craes?

These birdes if they be hanged by the neckes fiue daies with waightes at their feete, & after∣wards eaten with good sauce, doe greatly nou∣rish and profit them, which haue hot bellies.

What think you of larkes and sparrowes?

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Larkes and sparrowes are maruellous good for them, that be diseased of the colick.

What is the vse of egges?

New henne egges poched doe ingen∣der good bloud, extend the winde pipes, and stoppe bloud spitting. If the white of them being rosted be strayned, there will pro∣ceede a kinde of oyle, which being applyed to the eyes will heale their griefes.

Chap. 5. Of Fish.

What is the vse of Carpe?

A fresh Carpe salted for the space of sixe houres, and then fried in oyle and besprinkled with vineger in which spices haue boyled, in all mens censure is thought to be the whole∣somest kinde of fish. It may not be kept long, except it bee wel couered with bay, mirtle, or cedar leaues.

What are salmon and trouts?

Salmon and trouts well sodden in water and vineger, and eaten with sowre sauce doe help hot liuers and burning agues.

What is the vse of Barbles?

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Barbles rosted vpon a gridiron or boyled in vineger are very wholesome. If any man drink the wine, wherein one of them hath beene strangled to death, hee shall euer after despise all manner of wines. Which conclu sion were fit to bee put in tryall by some of our notorious swil-bowles.

What is the vse of sturgeons?

Riuer sturgeons sodden in water and vine∣ger & eaten with fennell, do coole the bloud, and prouoke lecherie.

What is the vse of Cuttles?

Cuttles seasoned with oyle and pepper doe prouoke appetite, and nourish much.

What is the vse of Lampreyes?

Riuer Lampreyes choked with nutmegs and cloues, and fryed with bread, oyle, and spices, is a princely dish and doth very, much good.

What is the vse of tenches?

Femall tenches baked with garlick, or boyled with onions, oyle, and raisins may be eaten of youth, and cholerick men.

What is the vse of Pikes?

Pikes boyled with water, oyle, and sweet hearbes will firmely nourish.

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What is the vse of Eeles?

Eeles taken in spring time, and rosted in a leafe of paper with oyle, coriander seede, and parsley, doe breake fleagme in the stomack.

What is the vse of Perches?

Riuer Perches will prouoke appetite to them, that be sick of the hot ague.

What is the vse of Oisters?

Oisters rosted on the imbers, and then ta∣ken with oyle, pepper, and the iuice of Oren∣ges, prouoke appetite and lecherie. They must not bee eaten in those monethes, which in pronouncing wante the letter R.

What is the vse of Cra-fishes?

Cra-fish rosted in the imbers, and eaten with vineger and pepper purge the reines, and help them, that be sick of the consumption or Ptisick.

Shew mee a way to keepe Oisters, lobsters, and such like, sweet and good for some few dayes?

Oisters, as Maister Plat sayeth, may be pre∣serued good a long time, if they be barrelled

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vp, and some of the brackish water, where they are taken, powred amongst them. Or else you may pile them vp in finall roundelets with the hollow partes of the shelles vpward, casting salt amongst them at euery lay which they make. You may keepe lobsters, shrimpes, and such like fish, if you wrappe them souerally in sweet and course ragges first moystened in strong brine, and then you must burie these clothes, and couer them in some coole and moyst place with sand.

Chap. 6. Of sauce.

What is the vse of our common salt?

Salt consumeth all putrified humours, and causeth meate to keepe sweet and sound the longer.

How many kindes of salts are there?

The number of saltes are infinit, as, niter is a salt, allome is a salt, suger is a salt, salicor is a salt, copperas is a salt, vitriol is a salt, tartar is a salt, and diuerse other, which to rehearse were bootlesse at this time.

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What is that salt hearb which killeth wormes in childrens bodies?

That salt hearb is named Salicre, where∣of the fayrest glasses be made. If it be boyled, and with a little meale made into paste, and thē fryed in butter, it will (being eaten) expell out of the body all kinde of wormes.

What is the vse of sugar?

Sugar mitigareth and openeth obstructi∣ons. It purgeth fleagme, helpeth the reines, and comforteth the belly.

What is the vse of vineger?

Vineger made of the best wine, a yeere old, with Roses steeped in it, represseth choler, and closeth weak gummes.

What is the vse of mustard?

Mustard is very good to purge the braine. It must be taken only in cold weather.

What is the propertie of oyles?

All oyles, except the oyles of nuttes and o∣liues, doe loose the belly.

What is the vse of oyle of Oliues?

Oyle oliue fatneth the liuer, and augmen∣teth the substaunce thereof.

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Chap. 7. Of graines, spices, and pulse.

VVhat is the vse of rice?

Rice sodden with milke and sugar qualifieth wonderfully the heate of the stomake, increa∣seth genitall seede, and stoppeth the fluxe of the belly.

VVhat is the vse of pease?

Pease being well dressed with butter and salt are very wholesome. For they prouoke appetite, they take away the cough, and mun∣difie the lunges.

VVhat is the vse of beanes?

Beanes well sodden, and eaten with annise seede or commine seede doe fatten the bo∣dy, and cleanse the reines of the back.

VVhat is the vse of Cinnamon?

Cinnamon corroborateth all the powers of the body, restoreth them that bee decayed, purgeth the head, and succoureth the cough.

VVhat is the vse of Cloues?

Cloues taken moderatly, when the stomack aboundeth with fleagme in cold weather, and with moist meates, doe strengthen the bo∣dy, stay vomits & fluxes, & correct a stinking breath.

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What is the vse of pepper?

Pepper not full of wrinckles, vsed in cold weather and with moyst meates, breaketh winde, heateth the sinewes, and strengtheneth the stomack.

What is the vse of ginger?

Ginger sharpneth the sight, and prouoketh slothfull husbands.

What is the vse of saffron?

New saffron well coloured vsed in cold seasons comforteth the heart, and driueth a∣way drunkennesse.

What is the vse of parsneeps, and carrets?

Parsneeps and carrets, if they be spiced with annise seede, or Cinnamon, and eaten with peniroyall, doe increase seede, and breake the stone in the reines.

Chap. 8. Of herbes.

What is the vse of Tobacco?

Cane Tobacco well dryed, and taken in a sil∣uer pipe, fasting in the morning, cureth the megrim, the tooth ache, obstructions procee∣ding of cold, and helpeth the fits of the mo∣ther.

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After meales it doth much hurt, for it infecteth the braine and the liuer.

What is the vse of borage?

Borage is a cordiall hearb. It purgeth bloud, maketh the hart merrie, and strengtheneth the bowelles.

What is the vse of Cabbages?

Cabbages moderatly eaten do mollifie the belly, and are very nutritiue. Some say that they haue a speciall vertue against drunken∣nesse.

What is the vse of radish?

Radish rootes doe cleere the voyce, pro∣uoke, vrine, and comfort the liuer.

What is the vse of cucumbers?

Cucumbers are of a cold temperature, and fit to be eaten only of cholerick persons.

VVhat is the vse of onions, leekes, and garlick?

They are only fit to be eaten of fleagmatick folkes. They clarifie the voyce, extend the winde pipes, & prouoke vrine and menstruall issue.

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Shew mee the best sallet?

The best sallet is made of peniroyall, parsley, lettice, and endiue. For it openeth the obstruction of the liuer, and keepeth the head in good plight.

Cap. 9. Of Fruit.

VVhat is the vse of figges?

White figges pared, and then eaten with o∣reges, pomegranats, or seasoned in vineger, in spring time doe nourish more then any fruite, breake the stone in the reines, and quench thirst.

VVhat is the vse of raisins and cur∣raines?

They are very nutritiue, yet notwithstan∣ding they putrifie the reines and the bladder.

VVhat is the vse of prunes?

Sebastian prunes doe loose the belly, and quench choler.

VVhat is the vse of straweberries?

Red garden straweberries purified in wine, and then eaten with good store of sugar doe asswage choler, coole the liuer, and prouoke appetite.

What is the vse of Almonds and nuttes?

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Almonds and nuttes are very nutritiue, and do increase grossenesse▪ they multiply sperme, and prouoke sleepe. But I would not wish any to eate them, that are short winded, or trou∣bled with headaches.

What is the vse of Apples?

Old and ripe Apples roasted, baked, stew∣ed, or powdered with sugar & annise seede, do recreate the heart, open the winde pipes, and appease the cough.

What is the vse of peares?

Ripe peares eaten after meate, and powde∣red with sugar, cause appetite and fatten the body. And if you drink a cup of old wine af∣ter them, they will doe you much good.

VVhat is the vse of Orenges?

Weightie Orenges are very good for them that bee melancholick, and keepe back the rheume.

VVhat is the vse of plummes and dam∣sons?

Plummes and damsons doe qualifie bloud, and represse cholerick humours.

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