A shorte and pithie discourse, concerning the engendring, tokens, and effects of all earthquakes in generall particularly applyed and conferred with that most strange and terrible worke of the Lord in shaking the earth, not only within the citie of London, but also in most partes of all Englande: vvhich hapned vpon VVensday in Easter weeke last past, which was the sixt day of April, almost at sixe a clocke in the euening, in the yeare of our Lord God. 1580. Written by T.T. the 13. of April. 1580.

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Title
A shorte and pithie discourse, concerning the engendring, tokens, and effects of all earthquakes in generall particularly applyed and conferred with that most strange and terrible worke of the Lord in shaking the earth, not only within the citie of London, but also in most partes of all Englande: vvhich hapned vpon VVensday in Easter weeke last past, which was the sixt day of April, almost at sixe a clocke in the euening, in the yeare of our Lord God. 1580. Written by T.T. the 13. of April. 1580.
Author
Twyne, Thomas, 1543-1613.
Publication
At London :: Printed by [John Charlewood for] Richarde Iohnes,
1580.
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Earthquakes -- Early works to 1800.
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http://name.umdl.umich.edu/A14104.0001.001
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"A shorte and pithie discourse, concerning the engendring, tokens, and effects of all earthquakes in generall particularly applyed and conferred with that most strange and terrible worke of the Lord in shaking the earth, not only within the citie of London, but also in most partes of all Englande: vvhich hapned vpon VVensday in Easter weeke last past, which was the sixt day of April, almost at sixe a clocke in the euening, in the yeare of our Lord God. 1580. Written by T.T. the 13. of April. 1580." In the digital collection Early English Books Online. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/A14104.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 13, 2024.

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¶A pithy discourse of the late Earth∣quake, on vvensday in Easter weeke, being the sixt of Aprill. 1580.

AMong the manifold sygnes and tokens, wherby it hath pleased our most gratious God, and mercifull Father, in these the later times of the worlde, and very ripe∣nesse of our sinnes, to call vs to repentaunce, we may not accoumpt as least this most dreadfull & daungerous Earth∣quake, which vnto the great terrour of all good consciences befell of late vnto the Cittie of London, and as I suppose to the most part of this Realme, vpon wensday in Easter week,* 1.1 which was the sixt day of Aprill. 1580. about six of the clocke in the after noone. Wherof, to the entent so merueylous a iudgement of the Lords may be known, to such as personal∣ly were not touched with the same, and also so wonderfull a worke may not want it due effect, where it shall be heard: I am resolued by his power, without whome we are able to doo nothing: and by your patience, to whome perhappes this knowledge may be aueyleable, to set downe somwhat brief∣ly concerning the same in wryting.

2. But before we enter any further into the bare bewray∣ing of the matter, it is expedient that I discouer vnto you the causes, and substaunce of euerie Earthquake,* 1.2 which I must be fayne to borrowe from the Prophane wryters, who haue most dilligently laboured in the search of naturall causes, whervnto doubtlesse they could not so clearly haue atteyned without the finger of God, which hath led men as well into the true contemplation of these matters, as of any other knowledge. And therfore following Aristotle as théefe in this behalfe: wée must vnderstand, that the effi∣cient causes of an Earthquake are thrée, to wyt, the Sun,

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the other sixe Planets, and a spirite or breath included with∣in the vowelles of the earth: and the materiall cause one, which is an Exhalation, that is to say, a certaine ayre, breath, or smoake drawne out of the earth, which of nature is hot and drie.

* 1.33. Thus it is not hard then, to describe the engendring of an Earthquake. For the earth is a drie body of it owne nature, and as dayly experience teacheth, it conteyneth within it great plentie of water. And when it is throughly heated by the beames of the Sunne, and also by bodyes of firie substaunce, whereof it imbraceth many: as Brimstone, and such like, partly by resoluing the water into ayre, and partly by receyuing the lyke into the emptie hollownesse thereof, it comprehendeth within it great slore of spirit and windie matter, which being very subtill, swyft, and vehe∣ment, wandereth here and there vnder the earth, striking the sides therof with great force, and most times causeth the earth to quake and tremble, for that it séeketh issue continu∣ally to depart into it owne place.

4. At somtimes therefore this spirit or Exhalation issueth wholly foorth together: somtime by laboring it conceaueth fire, and breaketh out in flames: otherwhiles, some part of it remayneth behinde, and is shutte vp againe within the earth, and ministreth matter for a new effect. And farther, as the searchers of nature haue reported of this kinde of ac∣cident,* 1.4 the Earthquake hapneth (for the most part) at a calme season, when as none or very small windes blowe, specially in the night, and at the dawning of the day: for that accustomably windes vse to rise at that time: or if in the day time it happen, then moste at high noone, the Sunne be∣ing then in greatest force, and driuing downe the Exhalati∣ons into the earth.

5. Moreouer, the places most conuenient and likely for Earthquakes, are cauernous and hollowe places, where the

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earth is loose and false vnder foote, by reason of vndermi∣ning or digging for Metal, Stone, Cole, or such like stuff, as vpon Mendeepe, Newcastle, and sundry other places within this Realme. Also the hollow cliffes by the Sea side, where the water somtime freatteth holes in the banckes, causing great peeces of the earth to fall in: As of late dayes it happened betwéene Douer, and Folstone, & most gréeuously may be séene euery day in experience, at the poore Towne of Whytstable in Kent. And agayne, the Countreis that are verye full of great Hilles and mountaines:* 1.5 so that (perhapps) the vplandishe people of Wales are better acquainted with such effectes than we are, as it standeth with good reason, and I haue heard also some to report by tryall and knowledge.

6 It chaunceth also many tymes, that by reason of repressing this Exhaltation, which is the materiall cause of the Earthquake, within the earth, there is hearde a noyse lyke the working of the Sea a farre of, whiche, ne∣uerthelesse, doth not alwaies importe an Earthquake: for that peraduenture the Exhalation is not sufficient in quantitie, or qualytie to shake the earth, but onely it bel∣loweth, or barketh at the departure: as a Gun being dis∣charged giueth the bygger or lesser crack according to the quantitie or ramminge, more or lesse of the powder, & yet maketh some noyse when it is discharged although the powder were not of sufficient force to make the péece shake, or recoyle.

7. As touchinge other Accidentes, that are noted ouer and aboue, to accompany and follow Earthquakes:* 1.6 one is eclipses, of the Moone, another Exhalatiue impressions in the ayre. Whereof the one may importe some defectt of heat, and then the colde byndeth vp the poares of the earth, & causeth the windes most times to blowe fiercely at such seasons: and the other giueth a taste of the plenty

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of hot and drie matter, which by probabilitie is concluded within ye earth, wherof that was some part which appea∣red, both which may minister great cause thervnto, as is already declared. And it is a thing specially and aboue all thing noted, that a lyttle before, and euen at the tyme of the Earthquake, the Sun is darkened without a cloude, which is long of the spirite that breaketh foorth, which fil∣ling the ayre: taketh away the bright beames of the Sun from our sight, after the manner of a thin myst.

8. The morning is calme and colde before an Earth∣quake happen, by reason of the hot spirite or breath which is included within the earth: and also after the Sun set, the Skie is cleare, for that the matter is soone dispearsed: and often tymes there is seene in the Element a long narrowe clowde stretched foorth, which is the forerunner of an Earthquake.* 1.7 But to speake of some consequentes that doo followe them for the most part, although God haue his speciall worke according to his good prouidence in them, yet are these such as the naturall Philosophers haue obserued most often to ensue, & may not conuenient∣ly be omitted by me in this recitall, for speciall purpose.

9. Sometimes therfore, after an Earthquake great sloare of water hath broken foorth of the earth, as béeing driuen out by the Exhalation,* 1.8 in so much that the Sea, and other Riuers haue ouerflowed theyr banckes, and procured certaine particular Dilugies or drowninges of Townes and Countreyes. And many times by reason of the forcible bursting out of the spirite, mightie heapes of Stones haue bene throwne out of the earth, to the great admiration of the beholders. The Sea lykewise hath bene séene to rage wonderfully, as if it had bene mo∣ued by verie fowle weather, and Ilands haue bene lyfted vp wheras were neuer any before, and mayne Landes deuided where before was neuer Sea. And moreouer, it

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hath bene knowne, that an Earthquake hath cōtinued the space of fortie dayes, almost without intermission: yea, of two yéeres, more or lesse about one place, which hapneth by reason of the multitude of the spirite, and strong resis∣taunce of the sides of the tauernous places wherein the spirite is conteyned.

10. To be short, the manner of the shaking of euerie Earthquake is of thrée sortes.* 1.9 For eyther it shaketh to∣wards one side, and is lyke a certayne trembling or roc∣king, & this is a token of great store of ye Exhalatiō: or else it lyfteth right vp in the middes, & letteth fall againe, af∣ter the manner of the Pulse, or other beating veines of ye body, and this kinde shaketh more, and is most daunge∣rous, and testifieth that there was much more plentie of the spirite or Exhalation lying déepe beneathe in the bot∣tome: or else it séemeth to be compoūded of them twaine, and at the same instant dooth bothe rocke and lyft vp the earth together, and with the diuersitie of motion & daun∣cing, as it were, it ratleth, and butteth the houses & buyl∣dings together, yet in such sort that none falleth, but the one is rather a stay vnto the other, & this discouereth plē∣tie of the substance after both the sorts placed, & mouing.

11. Yet the ende that any of these, yea the best,* 1.10 dooth bring where there is store of the matter, & continuance of the action and conflict betweene the conteyned & the con∣teyning, is most dreadfull quaking of the earth, trēbling of houses, shaking of buldings, amazing of the people, & doubt of farther harmes. But where it pleaseth God, that they rage with greater vehemencie: there followeth farre more outragious myseries, as suddein ouerthrowing of houses & buildings, subuersion of whole Townes & Cit∣ties, vnprepared death of thousandes of people, & somtime the vtter subuersion of whole Kingdoms & Nations. And this much sufficeth to be spoken of them in generall.

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* 1.1112. Nowe therefore, if by your patience it may be graū∣ted, let vs a while compare some parte of these generall tokens and Accidents, with this our particular Earth∣quake: since these for the most part, as I haue sayde, are in summe, the obseruations of the learned in Philosophie concerning such matter: and so shall wee bee the better able to discerne of this wonderfull worke of God, whe∣ther it be méere naturall, or no: and also take the better occasion to report of euery poynt thereof, according as I haue beene enformed by persons of credite. For why? for mine owne parte, I must thus protest before the ly∣uing God, whose matter wee haue in hande: that béeing not much past a payre of Butte lengthes without the li∣bertie barres of the Citie of London, walking with ho∣nest godlye companye, and to my lykyng, euen at the instant of the quaking, as it shoulde séeme, neyther they, nor I perceyued any such thing at all. But the Lorde hath his prouidence, and his workes are maruey∣lous.

* 1.1213 But that the Sun, the Planets, and other Starres are the efficient cause, aswell of an Earthquake, as of the raysing of a Comet, or any other firie impression or Me∣teor considering ye euident force of those heauenly bodies in daylye experience, it is no meruaile. For that hee which is the cause of al causes, in al his works of nature hath made them his vnder Deputies, remayning neuer∣thelesse at his checke, without any absolute aucthoritie of their owne▪ These therefore (but especially the Sun) because of his great heate about and since the feast of Ea∣ster last past, and chiefly since Wensday and Thursday before Palme sunday in Lent, might somewhat séeme to be of force to hasten the drying vp of some smal moisture. Howbeit, neyther the one, nor the other can appeare to be of such valure in reason, considering the great wet

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that hath fallen this winter, as to consume so great plen∣tye of water, without some other naturall cause be assig∣ned, are the speciall prouision of God admitted.

14. Neuerthelesse, touching the plenty of water, that to the generation of an Earthquake is required, to be con∣teyned within the bowelles of the earth:* 1.13 it cannot be de∣nyed, but there hath beene great cause to thinke there was, and is yet sufficient for this or a farre greater one yet to come, from which the Lord in mercie delyuer vs, if so be other causes also concurre, and the Lord doo con∣sent thereunto. But indéede, I am rather induced to feare some vnseasonable effects of the other smoake, or spirite which commeth from waters and moystie earth, and is called a vapour, and of nature is warme & moist, least when we little feare, we finde the distemperaunce thereof to our hurt in our fruites and Corne, and other necessarie prouision of the earth. Whereof if a man would set downe an example, they may be frostes, or sléete in Maie, and hayle in Summer, and towards Har∣uest, with such like.

15. But to procéede farther in our conference, whe∣ther this efficient spirite be wholy issued foorth with the Earthquake, or be in part left behinde to procure a news effect, or not, it resteth in Gods knowledge, and I truste not 〈◊〉〈◊〉. But I heare not yet of any fyrie flames that were séene to issue foorth of the earth, the Lord be praysed the more, for withholding that terror from vs. And for mine owne part, I am able to testifie of the calmenesse of that time wherein the earth is sayd to haue trembled,* 1.14 that if there blew any winde at all, surely it was but ve∣ry lyttle. Mary, in this point it differed from ecusto∣mable time of the like Accidents, in that it happened not in ye night tyme, which doubtlesse, would haue bene right gréeuous and terrible, although in déede it were in the

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euening and towards night, when as the Sun was past his force of heat, as going then to glade: which is also a poynt woorthy the noting.

16. And as for any holes, caues, or hollow places which might minister occasion of conueyaunce or lurking of the matter of an Earthquake vnder the ground hereabouts, as yet I doo not know, specially of any notable depth, such as are aboue mentioned or else are found in the partes of Italy,* 1.15 or Sicile, and elsewhere, vpon like occasiō, or by the continuall burning of the veines of Sulphur, Naptha, Bi∣tumen, and Sea coales which are a kinde of Bitumen: so that the ayre possessing the vnsearchable hollowe roomes, might in expectatiō bring foorth this effect. Neyther are ye banckes of the Thames so clyfty, & therby hollow, that it might be that way feared. And as for Hylles, Moūtaines, and Dales,* 1.16 the situation of London is so frée from them: that I haue heard some traueylers say, that there is not a Cittie in all Europe, that stādeth vpon a more rytch, plea∣sant, and fertile leauell than it dooth.

17. It may appeare also, that the Philosophers admyt the earth to bellowe, roare, cracke and make a noyse, som∣tyme without an Earthquake when as the Exhalation breaketh oorth, and yet is not of force to shake the earth. How chaunceth it then we heard no such matter, when as it appeareth, the efficient was of power to bring foorth the effect? It must be aunswered, Gods wyll was other∣wyse. For I heare no report of any such thing. Which if it had happened, would haue added great terrour to the feare that was otherwise procured by the shaking. Vn∣lesse we should vnderstand it to be verified by cracking & ratling of tymber, poass, walles, and wenscots, which I suppose wanted not, but we may not so take theyr mea∣ning, but rather of a voyce lyke the roaring of the Sea, or stroake of a Gun, when as the Exhalation issueth out of the earth.

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18. And as for other accidēts, true indéede it is, that not long since we had an Eclipse of the Moone, to witte,* 1.17 the one and thirteth day of Januarie last past, about eyght a clocke at night, at what time, to speake more Mathema∣tically, the furious planet Mars being found in the signe of Capricornus, in the fourth house, euermore fore sheweth and procureth Earthquakes within the time of that re∣uolution, as the learned in those most excellent sciences do affirme. And touching the apparance of Exhalatiue impressions, which I tearme by that name, for that the substance of them is hote & drie, although they be not ca∣ried so high where they might be set on fire, which is to the top of the vppermost region of the Earthe, and so take the name of fiie impressions.

19. Concerning such, I say, and other Meteors,* 1.18 I néede not stand vpon the recitall of some that haue bin séene of late, which as I am credibly enformed, haue bin many, and oftentimes seene by sundrie. And I my selfe also, vp∣pon the fifth day of March last past, being Satersday, al∣most at nine a clocke at night, in the company of certaine Worshipfull Gentlemen, beheld a strange, and great ex∣halatiue impression in the Aire, whiche in mine opinion was not fired, but very thinne and cleere, for I might ve∣ry perfectly behold the fixed Starres through it. The situ∣ation thereof was stretching endlong from the East to the Weast, ouer the Citie of London, or somewhat more Southerlie, and the forme therof was as the shape of the lath of a Crossebow without a string, whose backe bēded towards the North, and the bellie towardes the South. At what time I saw it, it was in my iudgemēt in ye tenth house, & raised specially by Venus, or Mercurie, or by some fixed Starres of their nature, and as I remember, the Lyra was not thē farre off, but by nine a clocke or a little past, it was quite vanished.

20. Truly, I must néedes confesse, the sight therof was rare, and whiche woorthelie drew the eyes of many into admiration of the spectacle, and from thence to lift their

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minds with thankes vnto the wonderfull Creator of all things. And for yt I was knowne to haue bin somtime in place wher lerning is professed, some yt stood by demanded mine opinion what it might be, & what also signifie? vnto whom I answered, yt in my iudgement, of nature it was an exhalation, & that otherwhiles it foreshewed ye follo∣wing of an Earthquake,* 1.19 but most cōmōly of fierce winds and drought, whiche howsoeuer they be presignified, the effect must be acknowledged to rest in Gods hands only.

21. Another adiunct token likewise, which is the darke∣ning of the Sunne,* 1.20 without any cloude, or Eclipse at the instant of the Earthquake, was euident to be discerned, and is commonly reported by as many as made any ob∣seruation thereof. And for my parte, I durst also affirme the same to be true, although I acknowledge, as before, mine inexperience of the strange accident. Notwithstan∣ding, I remember that the Sunne shined not as we were walking, which was the time that the Earthquake hap∣ned. And to confer yet farther, indéede the mornings be∣fore were cold and nipping, and afterwards at night the Skie was faire and cléere: but whether there appéered in the Elemente any long and narrow Cloude stretched foorth in length, eyther before or after, I can not say.

22. Moreouer, I heare as yet of no great and newe e∣ruptions of water by lande or Sea, but it is certainely tolde, of the strange vnquietnesse and working of the Thames at that time, without enforcement of winde or weather,* 1.21 euen vnto the hazarding of the liues of some, who, God be praised for it, escaped in safetie. But I heard none cōplayne of the thicknesse of their pump or conduit waters, by which meanes Pherecydes once foretold of an Earthquake to come. Ne is there any spéech of heapes of stones lately throwen out of the Earth and discouered, nor of the rising of any newfound Ilands out of the Sea, or fresh waters, as of the two Ilands of Theron, and The∣rea, in the time of Seneca: and before that of all Aegypt, as graue Authours do insinuate: nor yet of the drowning of any Iland or Maine, as it is written of Atlantis, in the

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Sea Atlanticum, whiche Sea afterwarde for a space was turned al into mudde: nor yet of maine lands rent asun∣der, as Europe was quite torne from Asia, sauing for a little necke or portion whereby they hang togither.

23. But for the shortnesse of the continuance of the Earthquake, we are of dutie to yéeld most hartie thankes vnto the Maiestie of our most gratious God, who, contra∣rie to the naturall custome that some Earthquakes do bring, hath preserued vs from so great dread and danger. The Citie of Constantinople was so wonderfully shaken with an Earthquake an whole yéere togither,* 1.22 that the Emperour therof, and all his people, were constreyned to dwell abroade in the fields vnder tents and pauilions, for feare their houses & buildings would fall on their heads. But I can not yet heare otherwise reported by any, to make me coniecture that our shaking continued aboue the space of one minute, which is the 60. part of an houre.

24. And yet farther to follow a while mine owne pro∣bable collectiō. I am induced to thinke, that this quaking was not at one instant in all places wheras it was fealt, but rather came by degrées, and distance of time, after the maner of the beating of the pulse, which the Phisitions call Serratilis, or Vermicularis.* 1.23 For comming from ye East parts where it séemed to begin, & to rage most fiercely, as with thē in Kent, & so procéeding to ye West, it was felt at Rochester & Grauesend about v. a clocke, at London almost at vj. at Stanes & Windsore almost halfe an hour after that, & so, by likelyhoode it procéeded farther yt way, perhaps ac∣cording to ye stretching foorth of ye strange exhalatiue im∣pression, wherof I made mētion before, & so bended Nor∣therly according to the proportiō of the bellie of the same.

25. But to determine of the thrée sorts of quakings felt commonly at the trembling of an Earthquake, and to say precisely which of them this ours should be,* 1.24 perhaps had it pleased the Lorde to haue made me as well partaker therof in sense, as doubtlesse I must be in signification, I might somwhat haue cōiectured. Although this Accidēt be rare, & I pray God may be rarer, hapning scarcely with

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vs in an hundred, yea, in a thousand yéere. But as I may probably gesse by others relation, surely it séemed to be the mixt kind, for that it was perceyued to rocke and lift vp both at one instant, and yet God be thanked, no houses nor buildings knowē to haue fallen, which may ye better be so, for that in this mixt kinde, as the expert in those Sciences write, the one part is a stay vnto the other.

26. And although by our former reasons it may apeere, that the matter of the Earthquake was but small that caused but so short a motion, yet am I perswaded that the same was general vnto all England and Scotland to, & so to the whole Iland of Britaine,* 1.25 with no more hurt doing, I trust, or rather lesse, than with vs héere. But where in former times and forraigne Lands it pleased God to let thē rage with greater furie, there what gréeuous outra∣gies haue ensued, antient Histories make mention. The Citie of Rhodes was wonderfully shaken with an horrible Earthquake.* 1.26 Twelue antient Cities in Asia were ouer∣throwen, & some also swallowed vp into the earth. Cam∣pania, and Naples in Italy were sore affrighted, and mole∣sted. The Citie of Basile in Germany was mightelie sha∣ken, and Castles and fortresses to the number almost of an hundred, were vpon the shoare of the Rhine vtterly o∣uerthrowen. The hugie Alpes haue trembled with the like, and Rome hath not once nor twice assayed, and esca∣ped that danger.

27. Indéede the suddainesse and strangenesse of the thing was such, that it tooke diuers men in diuers acti∣ons, and brought them into sundrie considerations of the matter. Some doubtlesse at their prayers, and hearing godly Sermons,* 1.27 whome, as men, it must needes amaze, or bring into a muse. Some at the Tauerne, and vpon their Alebench, and therefore might well suspect that it was long of their liquour. Some in earnest conference of worldly affaires, and so peraduenture they tooke small or no regard at all of it. Some in ydlenesse alone, and those of likelyhoode it might sorely abash. Some at game, and

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therefore not muche moued. Some at common Playes, who as I vnderstand, were horribly troubled. Some in wanton talke and disport, whom it might well affright. Some perhappes worse occupied, whome I would coun∣sell to be more carefull of the Lordes suddaine visitation. Some fast a sléepe, and therefore senselesse: and some walking the stréetes and fields, or caried on Horsebacke, or in Couches, and therefore not able to discerne of any such matter.

28. Some that were aboue in their Chambers,* 1.28 iud∣ged that some violence had bin done to their houses be∣neath. Some that remained below, foūd fault with tum∣bling and trampling aboue. Some imputed the ratling of wainescots to Rattes and Wéesels: the shaking of the beddes, tables, and stooles, to Dogges: the quaking of their walles to their neyghbours rushing on the to∣ther side. And as their opinions were sundrie, so were their spéeches therupon diuerse, vntill a common con∣ference beeing had, they were resolued vpon their com∣mon case & daunger. For many not trusting to their own iudgement, and partly also mooued with feare, ran out in∣to the streetes to know if the like had hapned vnto others.

29. I am assuredly enformed,* 1.29 that aswell elsewhere as in London, the very shakinge caused the Belles in some Stéeples to knoll a stroake or twaine. The toppes of halfe a dozen chimnies in London were cast down: many stone workes and buildinges, for that they would not yéeld, are shrewdly shaken. And to ad also the most gréeuous chance of all, I trust, that haue yet happened, or by Gods grace are like to be heard of, Alacke therewhile,* 1.30 was ye fore hur∣ting of two poore Children, by the fall of a stone from the roufe of Christes Hospitall Church in London: wherof the one béeinge a Boy of the yeares of sixteene, was slaine presently, and the other béeinge a Girle about the same age, and daungerously brused, is yet liuing and like to re∣couer & who were both seruauntes in one house, vnto Iohn Spurlinge a shoomaker, dwellinge in S. Botulphes parish

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without Aldersgate nigh London.

30. Now, perhaps some would expect at my handes, that I should set down my iudgement farther concerning the efficient causes, & also the consequents of this Earth∣quake by the position of the Heauens and aspectes of the Planets, and fixed Starres, for that presente time: which now I must needes omit for breuitie sake, till some other time more conuenient. And if likewise I were farther demaunded, what mine opinion is concerninge this Earthquake,* 1.31 whither I thinke it altogeather natu∣rall, or not? Surely, I am otherwise perswaded, and so I iudge many other to bée, that haue entred into ye déepe con∣sideration therof. But let it bee, as it is, surely it cannot bée without ye speciall finger of God, whither it bée for our comforte, or terrour, as euery mans conscience shal beare him recorde, although I am sure there bée none that can excuse them selues of sinne.

31. But whether the Angell of the Lorde in passinge by vs in visitation,* 1.32 hath shaken our habitations with his pre∣sence, as some haue reuerently iudged: or in respect of the ripenesse of our sinnes, our most mercifull God hath caused the earth to tremble, to the intente to mooue vs to repentaunce, as it may well bee coniectured: Let vs not stay, I béeséeche you in the bowels of his deare Sonne Jesus Christ, euery one to powre out his complaint bée∣fore the fountaine of mercy, and to call vpon him to turne from vs those plagues of Pestilence, Sword, & Famine, which by such quakinges are euermore foreshewed, and our sinnes doo woorthily deserue. For to admit that it pro∣céeded but of a méere naturall cause, so great and so many are the poysons,* 1.33 corruptions, cankers, and rustes of met∣talles and minerall bodies within the earth, that the ve∣nomous aire that issueth forth from them by the eruption of the exhalation in an Earthquake, is of sufficient force, without the speciall prouidence of God to the contrary, to infect and suffocate both Man, Beast, and Foule, immedi∣atly.

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* 1.3432. But shall wée now againe coniecture somewhat vn∣to our owne comforte, and not altogeather vnprobably? Since at all times these one and twentie yeares and vp∣ward, duringe the raigne of our most deere and dread So∣ueraigne, and most gratious Queene Elizabeth, the Gos∣pell hath béene sincerely and truely preached vnto vs, and that now duringe this time of Lente last past, and since Easter, not only in her Maiesties Courte, but also in her emperiall Cittie of London, as also in all other places of her dominions, most choice men for godlines and lear∣ninge haue béene appointed to sow the séede of life, and to open the way vnto the kingdome of Heauen: what if in token of consent, good liking, and conclusion of that which hath béene so manifoldly spoken, the Lorde would vouch∣safe to giue a nod with his head, wherat, as the holy Ghost speaketh by the mouth of the Prophet Dauid: All the earth doth shake, and the hilles doo smoake, and the whole frame of the world is mooued?

33. Neuerthelesse, if the giltinesse of our owne conscien∣ces cannot so content vs, but that, as rightly we ought,* 1.35 we be put in minde of most iust punishment for our offences: doubtlesse I am most enclined vnto that persuasion, which with al my hart I wish wée al followed, & that with spéed. And herein I pray you let no man flatter or falsely per∣suade himself with a natural cause, or with the mischance of two poore childrens death, for that shall not serue when the time cōmeth. For, was their death casuall thinke you? I know it was not,* 1.36 since there falleth not a poore Sparrow to the earth without ye prouidēce of God. Or were they the greatest sinners in ye cōpany? God knoweth, their yeares may somewhat answere for thē, & I think they were not, more than they vpon whom the Towre fell in Siloa. But surely if wee repent not, wee shall all likewise perish.

34. The iudgement, if wee perceiue it,* 1.37 is already begun at ye house of God, what fauour then shall others looke for? If it haue haned thus in the gréen trée, what shal become of the drie? Good brethren, let vs looke to this geare, yt the

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Lords mightie hand light not vpon vs vnlooked for. The Axe is not only set to the roote of the tree, but it hath now hewen many strokes, and some of the branches are fallen alreadie. The Lorde is comming in maiestie to iudge the Earth, and to auenge himselfe vpon his enemies, and doubtlesse hée is not far of. Our strange and hot and drie tokens séene of late time, as the wonderfull blazinge Starre, and the rare exhalations, shew that hée wl come shortly to consume all with fire. But how vnprouided hée shall finde vs: the sodaine comminge vpon vs of this Earthquake doth declare.

* 1.3835. Now I beseech you againe, let euery man call him∣selfe to an accompt, and looke narrowly into his owne life. Let the Blasphemer cease to abuse the Lords name and power, to his damnation: Let the Adulterer leaue of and sinne no more: Let the Usurer take heede how hee can answere the Lorde for his Brothers hurte: Let the Murtherer remember that Abels bloud crieth for ven∣geaunce: Let the malicious man know that the Lorde searcheth the harte and reynes: Let the Glutton learne that the holy Ghost forbiddeth him to make his belly his God: Let the Drunckard begin to abhorre the daunger and abomination of intemperance: Let the couetous per∣son perceiue that the rust of his money shall consume his fleshe: Let the hollow harted Christian and subiect, vnto God, and his Prince, vnderstand, that as the hollownesse was the cause of the shakinge of the Earth, euen so for his false and hollow hartes sake, the Lorde will shake him from out his beloued flocke of Israell, and cast him into that wofull place,* 1.39 where hée shal receiue his reward with Dissemblers and Hipocrites, and with Traytours and Atheistes, togeather with their great Maisters, Iudas and Iulian, that lye perpetually tormented in vnquenchable Hell fire.

36. And last of all, let the worldly man consider, what certentie he hath in his ritches, or assurance in any thing vpon the earth, when as euen that also is subiect to sha∣kinge

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and mouing, wheron hee reposeth his felicitie. And although the witte of man haue deuised remedies a∣gainst the threatninges of Heauen: yet when the earth quaketh, where shall hee repose himselfe in safety? Augustus Caesar had a Denne made vnder the ground to shrowd himselfe in from the rage of thunder,* 1.40 which re∣maineth yet to bée séene nigh Rome. But indeede, there is no fléeinge from the face of the Lorde, who, as the holy Psalmist sayeth, where euer wee goe to hide our selues, is present with vs: whether wee ascend into Heauen, or goe downe into Hell, or take the winges of the morning, or dwell in the vttermost partes of the Sea, or couer our selues in the darkenesse: for light and darkenesse are all one before him.

37. To conclude, I would wish that men liued not alto∣geather in securitie, as though it were no straunge thing that had hapned. But first, that they remayned in assu∣rance of Gods good will if they bee thankefull as well for the frée gifte of his liuely worde and Gospell, as for the life, reigne, and welfare of our naturall Soueraigne Quéene Elizabeth, whose dayes the Lorde for his mercy continue longe time ouer vs in all happinesse. Secondly, I would exhort that Sermons were diligently resorted vnto, and publique prayers made for all persons, specially for our vertuous Prince, as S. Paule willeth vs, her ho∣nourable Counsell, Bishops, Nobilitie, all Magistrates, and the whole Clergie. Thirdly, I counsell that there bée speciall care had vnto bodily health, chéefely béeinge now the most seasonable time of the yeare, wherin the Phisitions counsel may be taken and presently executed, for the auoyding of farther perill impendinge. And last of all, vnder God I assure vs, that if we liue in his feare,* 1.41 and in the loue of his worde, and in duetifulnesse to our good Quéene, and in loyaltie to our Countrey, and in cha∣rity one with another, wee shall not neede to feare the force of any forraine foes, nor the terrour of any Earth∣quake, nor the infection of any pestilence, nor stande in

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dread of any thing that the enemy can deuise against vs, but the Lorde abidinge alwayes on our side, surely there is nothinge shall, or can hurt vs. Which hee graunt for his mercie sake, to whom bee all honour and glory, now and euer more. Amen.

Reuelation. Cap. 22.20. and 16.15.
Come Lord Iesus. I come quickly. Behold, I come as a theefe. Happie is hee that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, least he walke naked, and men see his filthinesse.
FINIS.

Notes

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