The pilgrimage of the life of man, English by John Lydgate, A. D. 1426, from the French of Guillaume de Deguileville, A. D. 1330, 1335. The text ed. by F. J. Furnivall ... With introduction, notes, glossary and indexes by Katharine B. Locock ...

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Title
The pilgrimage of the life of man, English by John Lydgate, A. D. 1426, from the French of Guillaume de Deguileville, A. D. 1330, 1335. The text ed. by F. J. Furnivall ... With introduction, notes, glossary and indexes by Katharine B. Locock ...
Author
Guillaume, de Deguileville, 14th cent.
Publication
London,: Pub. for the Early English text society by K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & co., limited,
1899-1904.
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http://name.umdl.umich.edu/AJT8111.0001.001
Cite this Item
"The pilgrimage of the life of man, English by John Lydgate, A. D. 1426, from the French of Guillaume de Deguileville, A. D. 1330, 1335. The text ed. by F. J. Furnivall ... With introduction, notes, glossary and indexes by Katharine B. Locock ..." In the digital collection Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse. https://name.umdl.umich.edu/AJT8111.0001.001. University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. Accessed June 24, 2024.

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¶ And whyle I made my prayere, The Owgly Smyth / as ye shall here / Line 17036 y-callyd / Trybulacïoun, Whan She herde / myn Orysoun, And Saugh / by nōōn Occasyoun I wolde nat leue / my Bordoun Line 17040 Nor my Skryppe / ffor no manace; And sawh how / In the samë place I haddë Chose / to myn Entent / Reffuge / that was Suffycyent, Line 17044 In alle Trouble and dysese, Myn hertly Sorwys / to apese, And stynte / alle myn Aduersyte, Anōōn she seydë / thus to me: Line 17048
Trybulacion. /
¶ 'I am,' quod she / 'lyk off manere To thylkë wynde / (as thow shalt here,) That with his blast / maketh fful offte The levys Ryse / and fflen aloffte Line 17052 Toward the Skyes / hyh in the heyr. / Thus haue I / causyd thy Repeyr / Thurgh my Trowble / pryked tho, Vn-to Reffuge / ffor to ffle. / Line 17056
'Caste thy look / toward the hevene / [Stowe folio 301b] ffer abowe / the Sterrys Sevene / In thy Contemplacïon / That wer but / as a leff her doun, Line 17060 ffor-welkyd / and caste a-way, Wych by the ground ful lowë lay, [[Cotton MS. begins again.]] [folio 242a] But, thorgh my commyssïoun, I ha tournd the vp-se [[so St.]] -doun, Line 17064 And many a-nother ek also, With my trouble and with my wo; And with my toongës I hem chace, Ageyn the lord whan they trespace, Line 17068 That I cause hem for to ffle To god, on hem to han pyte.
'And somme I have ek causyd offte To fflen vn-to the sterre aloffte, Line 17072 To whom thow fleddyst with gret labour,

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'ffor to have off hyre, socour, Confort and consolacïoun, Ageyn al tribulacïoun; Line 17076 Wher-in thow erryst neueradel, But wrouhtest prudently and wel.
'Kep the wel in hyr presence, ffor, by verray experyence, Line 17080 As sone as thow art from hyr go, I shal nat longë be the fro, By vertu off my commyssïoun, ffor to don execucïoun, Line 17084 As I ha don to many on; With my toongës made hem gon, That wer out off the weyë ferre, [Stowe folio 302a] Resorte ageyn vn-to that sterre, Line 17088 Ther to haue proteccïoun In euery trybulacïoun.
'And thus I kan, in many wyse, With my yerdë wel chastyse Line 17092 Swych folkys as be dyssolut, And chace at hem in my pursut, Namly, folk predestynaat, And swych as be preordynaat Line 17096 To kome vn-to savacïoun, That kan in trybulacioun Suffren, and have pacyence.
'And yiff that thow, for thyn offence, [folio 242b] [[C. & St.]] Line 17100 Hast her-to-forn haad nede off me, [[C. & St.]] And, in partye, I ha to thè [[C. & St.]] Parcel declaryd off myn offys, [[C. & St.]] As thow mayst fele (yiff thow be wys) Line 17104 With-outen any gret owtrage Don to the, or gret damage, With-outen many wordys mo, A dieu! farwel! for I wyl go. Line 17108 And be war, in thy passage, That thow do wel thy pylgrymage, And in thy way be iust and stable, Lych a pylgrym good and hable.' Line 17112
The Pylgrym: [[St., om. C.]]

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And as I stood allone, al sool, [Stowe folio 302b] Gan compleyne, and makë dool, Havyng no thyng vp-on to reste, Saue (as me semptë for the beste) Line 17116 I lenede me on my bordoun; ffor thogh that Trybulacïoun Wer departyd in certeyn, She sayde she woldë kome ageyn. Line 17120
But I (wherso I wooke or slepte,) With my refuge, ay I me kepte, [[slepe . . kepe St.]] To have, by hyre, proteccïoun Ageyn ech trybulacïoun, Line 17124 But for that I, by gret owtrage, Was off my port, wylde and savage, Dyuers off my condycïoun,
And al day turnynge vp and doun, Line 17128 fful off chaung and doubylnesse, Havyng in me no stabylnesse.
And whyl I wentë thus musynge, With-Inne my sylff ymagynynge, Line 17132 I ffyl a-noon, in my passage, In-to a woodë ful savage; Me thouhte the weyë peryllous, And by to passë, Encombrous; [folio 243a] [[C. & St.]] Line 17136 I knew nat what was best to done, [[C. & St.]] ffor, in a woode, a man may soone [[C. & St.]] Lese his weye, and gon amys, [[C. & St.]] Or he be war; and thus yt ys, [[C. & St.]] Line 17140 As pylgrymes knowë wel echon, That on pylgrymagë gon: Passage they fynde, narwh and streyth; [Stowe folio 303a] Brygauntys lyn [[lyen St.]] ek in a-wayt, Line 17144 And wylde bestys many on, Tassayllë pylgrymes, wher they gon: ffolk expert, the trouthë knowe.
And in a valey that stood lowe, Line 17148 I sawh on stonden in my way, Old and owgly, off array Dysguysed wonder queyntëly, Off port and chere ryht vngoodly, Line 17152

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Line 17152 Semyng to me (yt ys no faylle) That she woldë me assaylle; Yt semptë so, as by hyr cher; And al my lyff, fer or [[nor St.]] ner, Line 17156 Radde I neuer, in book nor geste, Off so merveyllous a beste; Nat in the Book off Danyel, Nouther in Ezechyel, Line 17160 Nor in Thapocalyps off Iohan, Swych a bestë fond I noon.
I was abaysshed a-noon ryht, Whan fyrst off hyre I hadde a syht; Line 17164 In hyre I fond so many a lak: ffyrst, she hadde a brookë bak, Corbyd and haltyng, bothë two; Off rowh frese, she hadde also Line 17168 A garnëment shape lyk a sak, Wych she werede vp-on [[weryde on St.]] hyr bak: Gret noumbre ther-on I tolde, Off cloutys and off pachchys olde. [folio 243b] Line 17172
Aboute hyr necke, I sawh ek wel, [Stowe folio 303b] That ther heng a gret sachel; [[C. & St.]] She shop hyr no-thyng for the flyht; ffor, that poket (to my syht,) Line 17176 She felde yt ful (in éspecyal) Off Coper, yren, and off metal.
And as yt sempte to me also, Hyr ownë tonge halp wel ther-to, Line 17180 Wych heng out at hyr mouth ful [[ful om. St.]] long.
And aboute hyr neckë strong, Thys lady, with hyr corbyd bak, Was y-moselyd with that sak, Line 17184 Sowyd sore, that nyht nor day Yt myghte nat wel falle A-way.
In noumbre she hadde (I gan beholde [[as I . . holde St.]] ) Syxë handys, for I hem tolde; Line 17188 And tweyne (to myn Inspeccïoun) Wer the pawmys off A gryffoun.
And I beheld the samë whyle, In On hand she held [[hadde St.]] a ffyle, Line 17192

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Line 17192 fforgyd off ful myghty stel; And (as fer as I koude fel,) The ffylë was ymad and ment To ffylë brydles, off entent. Line 17196
Touchynge hyr other gouernaunce, [Here the 15th century hand in the Stowe MS. 952 stops, and old John Stowe's handwriting begins, and goes on to the end.] She held also a gret ballaunce, Only off purpos (yiff she konne,) To peyse the sodyak [[zodiak St.]] and the sonne, Line 17200 And caste hem in the wynd in veyn, And neuere to callyn hem ageyn:
A largë dyssh, ek I beheld, In hyr hand how that she held. Line 17204
And in hyr ffyffthe hand a kroket; And on hyr hed a gret mawmet.
Hyr syxthë hand she gan to launche Lowë doun vn-to hyr haunche, Line 17208 Wych causë was (vn-to my syht) [Stowe folio 304a] [folio 244a] She haltede, and wentë nat vp-ryht, Lyk as a crepyl, with potente; Evene me thouhtë so she wente. [[9 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.]] Line 17212 And, by maner off bataylle, Thys vekkë gan me to assaylle, [prose cap iii] Off malys and inyquyte, [[Cap. ii. is omitted.]] And felly saydë thus to me: Line 17216
The old Avarice: [[St., om. C.]]
'I swer to the, by my mawmet Wych vp-on myn hed ys set, In whom ys holy my plesaunce, My trust pleynly, and my creaunce, Line 17220 I have abyde vp-on thys way Tawayte on thè ful many a day.
'Ley doun thy skryppe and thy bordoun, And do homage to my Mahown! Line 17224 ffor yt ys he (thow shalt wel knowe) By whom that I, off hih and lowe Allowyd am, and off gret prys.

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Yholdë prudent, and ryht wys. Line 17228 ffor no man hath, with-outë me, Worshepe nor no dygnyte; In hih estat ys no whyht Set, But thorgh favour off my mawmet, Line 17232 To whom thow mvst submyttë the, Or thow shalt deye; so mot I the!'
Pilgrim: [[St., om. C.]]
"ffyrst, thow mvst declarë me [folio 244b] [[St. & C.]] Thy power and thyn Auctoryte, [prose cap iv] [[St. & C.]] Line 17236 Thow oldë, ryvelyd off vysage, [[St. & C.]] Thy kynrede, and thy lynáge, [[St. & C.]] Thy contre and thy nacïoun, And also off what regïoun Line 17240 That thow art born, (I wyl ffyrst knowe,) With bak and chynë courbyd lowe; The maner ek off thy mawmet, Shapë lyk a marmoset: Line 17244 Tel me hys condicïoun; ffor me thynketh yt no resoun Off equyte, nor by no ryht, Syth he ys dowmb, and blynd off syht, Line 17248 I that am born off good lynage, Sholde vn-to hym do now homage."
Avarice: [[St., om. C.]]
'Syth thow wylt fyrst yse, [prose cap v] And what my namë sholdë be, Line 17252 I wyl, as now, no thyng spare; But the trouthe to thè declare, That thow shalt (with-oute offence) Yive to me the mor credence. Line 17256
'Yiff thow lyst the trouthë se, Kom on a-noon, and folwe me, And thow shalt (yiff thow kanst espye) Herë me ful lowdë crye; Line 17260 ffor I shall [[shall St., shan C.]] sen, duryng my lyff, [Stowe folio 304b] The vale off sorwen [[sorow St.]] and off stryff, The woful Interieccïoun Most ful off lamentacïoun.' Line 17264
Pilgrim: [[St., om. C.]]

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And trewëly [[trewly C., truly St.]] (I took good kep,) She wente vp to a fosse kaue dep; And ther she bad me lokë doun; [prose cap vi] Wher I hadde inspeccïoun Line 17268 Off an abbey, wych euerydel (As I beheld the maner wel) [folio 245a] Was foundyd besyden a cheker, [[C. & St.]] Squar as ys a Tabler. [[8 lines blank in MS. for an Illumination.]] Line 17272 And I beheld [[lokyd St.]] also with-al, Ther wer esches, bothe gret and smal, fful wel ywrouht in allë thynges.
Ther sawh I rookys and ek kynges, Line 17276 And knyhtys (ek in verray soth) Drawen, as a ffers y-doth In travers wysë, by bataylle, Euerych other gan assaylle Line 17280 Wyth sharpë swerdys, thus thauhtë me, A dysguysë thyng to se; ffor at the ches, in al my lyff, Sawh I neuere swych a stryff, Line 17284 Nor so fers A contenaunce; ffor everyche gan hym sylff avaunce, Whan ther bataylle was ado, To make hem redy for to go Line 17288 To that abbay ther besyde, And, be surquedye and pryde, Ther to forreye, what they may, Robbe and spoylle, and ber a-way, Line 17292 And revë hem off ther rychesse, And brouhten hem in swych dystresse, That no thyng leffte to ther refut, But made al bare and destytut. Line 17296
Whan I hadde al thys yseyn, [folio 245b] How al was makyd wast and pleyn, [[C. & St.]] Quod I, "what thyng meneth thys, [prose cap vii] [[C. & St.]] That thys cherche destroyed ys? [[C. & St.]] Line 17300 Thys ys (to myn oppynyoun) The woful Interieccïoun, Wher-off pleynly (me semeth so)

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Euerych wyse man sholde ha wo, Line 17304 And compleyne (I the ensure) Thys vnhappy áventure."
Avarice: [[St., om. C.]]
'Wher thow be wel or evele apayd, [prose cap viii] Lo her ys al that I ha sayd. Line 17308 Thys mescheff (yiff thow kanst yt se) Ys ydon and wrouht by me, And acomplysshed vp in dede, Al-thogh that yt be no nede; [Stowe folio 305a] Line 17312 Wher-off, in hys prophesye, The nobyle prophete Ieremye (As he that lyst no thyng to feyne) Weptë sore, and gan compleyne: Line 17316 'Allas!' quod he, 'how the pryncesse, Off folkys allë cheff maystresse, Ys trybutarye, and bor doun, And brouhte in-to subieccïoun!' Line 17320
'The prophete wyste aforn ryht wel, That I sholde causen euerydel Thys gretë desolacïon And thys habomynacïon. Line 17324 I and myne (yiff yt be souht) Have thys gretë mescheff wrouht.
'Thys the custom (in substaunce), Holy the maner and vsaunce, Line 17328 Off al that to my scolë go, By my doctrynë to do so, And so to werke, by my techyng; ffor ther ys nouther rook nor kyng, [folio 246a] Line 17332 But ech off hem (for ther part) [prose cap ix] Sorë studyen in that art, Euerych off hem to fynde a waye, How they may to me obeye. Line 17336 Thow mayst me leve in sykernesse; Ther ownë werkys ber wytnesse.'
Pilgrim: [[St., om. C.]]
"I may nat levyn (fer nor ner) [prose cap x] Thow sholdest han so gret power, Line 17340 Wych that art so poryly

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"Arrayed, and so dysguesyly; Halt and lame, (as semeth me) Brokë-bakkyd, and foul to se. Line 17344 And with al thys (I the ensure), A verray monstre in nature, (Who lyst looke, he shal yt fynde,) And engendryd a-geyn kynde. Line 17348 How sholdystow, with al thys thynges, Ouer erlys, dukys, [[dukes earls St.]] kynges, Have power or domynacïon To brynge hem in subieccïon, Line 17352 Sythen they, by gret noblesse, Haven off kyndë swych fayrnesse, And brouht forth by engendrure, Kyndëly, as by nature?" Line 17356
Avarice: [[St., om. C.]]
'Yiff thow wylt a whylë dwelle, [prose cap xi] A good exaumple I shal the telle, Reporte me wel in euery thyng:
'Ther was onys a myghty kyng, Line 17360 Wych that hadde, to hys plesaunce, A lady in hys governaunce, Whom that he louede paramour, And took to hyre al hys tresour, [Stowe folio 305b] Line 17364 Good [[goods St.]] and Iowelles euerydel, Be-cause that he louede hyr so wel. [folio 246b] And shortly, thus with hym stood, She gouérnede al hys good, Line 17368 Whos name was Lyberalyte: She was benygnë, large and fre, Wych, in euery regïoun, Hadde gret fame and gret Renoun. Line 17372 And she dyde euere hyr labour, So to dyspendyn hys tresour, That hys worshepe on euery syde Gan encrece and spredë wyde; Line 17376 Gat hym honour and gret ffame, And with al thys, a ryht good name.
'The story doth also specefye, She made hys goodys multeplye, Line 17380

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Line 17380 'And causede also, how that he Was wel belovyd in hys contre; ffor love excellyth in worthynesse Euery tresour and rychesse. Line 17384
'But whan that I thys dyde [[dyd this St.]] espye, [prose cap xii] I hadde ther-off ful gret envye, And caste to fynde occasïoun ffor to tourne al vp-so-doun. Line 17388 I gan taproche the court ful ner, A-queyntede me with the porter And with thoffycerys euerychon; And in-to chaumbre I kam a-noon, Line 17392 Wher as the kyng a beddë lay. Whyl he slepte, I stal away (Throgh my sleyhte in prevyte,) Hys paramour Lyberalyte; Line 17396 And or the kyng yt koude espye, Benchauntëment And sorcerye I gan at hyrë so enchace, [[tenchase St.]] That she was voyded fro that place; Line 17400 And, by fals collusïoun, [folio 247a] I shet hyre in a strong prysoun, Wher I ha cast, (shortly to telle,) Whyl that I lyve, she shal ther dwelle; Line 17404 And in hyr stedë (off entente,) To bedde vn-to the kyng I wente, Whyl that he sleptë vnwarly. [[slept vnwarely St.]]
'And whan he wook al sodeynly, Line 17408 In stede off Lyberalyte, In hys Armys he took me; At wych tyme, by sorcerye, I blentë so the kyngës Eye, Line 17412 That I be-kam hys paramour, And hadde in guarde al hys tresour. Wherso that he wook or slep, Off hys worshepe I took no kep; [Stowe folio 306a] Line 17416 Hys honour, gold, hys goodë fame, Al I tournede yt to shame; ffor he ne myghte (who-so me knewe) ffynde noon offycere mor vntrewe. Line 17420

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Line 17420
'I am the samë (thys the cas,) Off whom that whylom wrot Esdras, Apemenen, wych, hyr sylff al sool, Made the kyng so gret a fool: Line 17424 Whan she was hevy, he was sad; Whan she lowh, than he was glad; She took hys crowne, and leyd yt doun, And he, by lowh subieccïoun, Line 17428 Al hyr lustys dyde obeye, ffor he durste hyr nat with-seye: Thus yt stood, and thus yt was, As thow shalt fynden in Esdras. Line 17432
'By wych exaumple, thow mayst se That yt fareth thus by me; ffor I kan, by my werkynges, [folio 247b] Deceyuë prynces and ek kynges; Line 17436 And al the meyne off the cheker, I kan make off herte enter, To robben abbeys euerychon, And to dyspoylle hem, on by on, Line 17440 With-outen any compassïoun.
'And touchyng ek my nacïoun, [prose cap xiii] And my name (yiff I shal telle,) I was engendryd fyrst in helle; Line 17444 And ther the pryncë Sathanas (Yiff thow wylt wyte,) my fader was; And in that Valey Infernal I was begete: lo her ys al. Line 17448
'And my name ek to devyse, I am callyd Covetyse (Off verray ryht, and nat off wrong,) And Avaryce, somwhyle Among; Line 17452 But Coveytysë, men calle me Off verray ryht and equyte, Whan I am mevyd in [[om. C., St.]] my blood To coueyte other mennys good. Line 17456 And Avarycë men me calle, Whan that I fro folkys alle Kepe al that euere I getë kan, And wyl departë with no man, Line 17460

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Line 17460 'Wher they be wel or evele apayed.
'And that I am thus evele arrayed, I do yt only off entent That my gold ne be nat spent, Line 17464 On clothys wastyd, nor my good. And levere me were, bothe gowne and hood Wer with wermys day be day Conswmyd, and yffret a-way, [Stowe folio 306b] Line 17468 Than porë folk (so god me spede,) Sholdë were hem in ther nede; ffor I caste me nat at al, [folio 248a] Neuere for to be lyberal Line 17472 Whyl I may walken on the ground; ffor I resemble vn-to that hound Wych lyggeth in a stak off hay, Groynynge al the longë day, Line 17476 Wyl suffre no beste ther-to to gon, And yet hym sylff wyl etë noon.
'Myn handys off merveyllous fasoun, [prose cap xiv] Lyk the pawmys off a gryffoun, Line 17480 Be mad (wher-so I slepe or wake,) Nat to yive, but for to take. To axe me good, wer gret foly; ffor thys my purpos, (fynaly, Line 17484 And as me semeth for the beste) To shette my gold vp in my cheste: Thys al myn hool entencïon, Offys and occupacïon. Line 17488 Al good, wher yt be grene or rype, I kan wel glenyn, I kan wel grype, Bothe to-forn and at the bak: What I may gete, goth in-to sak, Line 17492 Off entent (be wel certeyn) Neuere to taken yt out ageyn.
'My wyl ys euere vnstaunchable, And my desyr in-sacyable; Line 17496 My thouht nor myn affeccïoun Ha neuere ful replecïoun. I am the swolwh (who lyst to se) Wych that in the saltë see, Line 17500

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Line 17500 'Al that euere goth forth by, He devoureth yt Outterly, And neuere ne sent no thyng ageyn. Tawayte ther affter wer but veyn, Line 17504 ffor shortly, he devoureth al, Coper, yren, and metal; Al that peyseth or yiveth soun, [folio 248b] To the botmë yt goth [[botome it goythe St.]] Line 17508 To gretter wrak than on a rok.
'And as an Ape vn-to a blok Or to a clog, tyed with a cheyne, Ryht so I do my bysy peyne; Line 17512 I teye my sylff (by gret dystresse) And byndë me to my rychesse; I bynde yt nat; yt byndeth me, That I am bonde, and nothyng fre, Line 17516 ffor to have theroff plesaunce. ffor lak only off suffysaunce, I am so teyd (I may nat skape,) With a clog, ryht as an Ape, [Stowe folio 307a] Line 17520 Wych in soth so letteth me, That I ha no lyberte To gon at largë hih nor lowe.
'And yiff thow lyst also to knowe [prose cap xv] Line 17524 What my vj [[syxë 473/17666]] handys be, I shal declare a-noon to the, And make a demonstracïon: I Gryppe and streyne lyk a Gryffoun, Line 17528 And faste I holdë ther-with-al Coper, yren, and ech metal; Streyhtly kepe yt in myn hond, Bothe in water and on lond. Line 17532 And thow aforn dyst neuere se So cursyd handys as they be; Enarmyd abouten Envyroun With the pawmys off a Gryffoun. Line 17536
'The fyrstë hand (for to dyffyne) By ryht ycallyd ys 'Ravyne,' That sheweth Gentyl outward alway, Tyl that he [[it St.]] may cachche hys pray; Line 17540

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Line 17540 'Dyspoylleth [[dispoylyn St.]] pylgrymes est and west, Bothe in woode and in fforest, With-outen any excepcïon: [folio 249a] Thys ys my condycïon, Line 17544 To robbe and reue with al my myght.
'I cleymë al thyng myn off ryht; Myn hand ys lyk vnto [[lyk to C., lyke to St.]] a kyte: I takë chykenys that be lyte; Line 17548 Wher I ham fyndë, fer or ner, I ber hem hoom to my dyner. Gret robbery, on folk I make; Hors and cartë, bothe I take, Line 17552 With porvyaunce and wyth vytaylle. And off malys I wyl nat faylle: Yiff a pore man haue a kowh, Oxe or mare that draweth hys plowh, Line 17556 I make hem selle hem by duresse, ffor to staunche my gredynesse, Wher any swych I kan espye. And as an yreyne sowketh the flye, [prose cap xvi] Line 17560 And hyr entroyllës [[entralls St.]] draweth oute, Evene lyk I renne aboute, And cesse nat, whan I ha be-gonne, Tyl that I my pray ha wonne. Line 17564
'The tother hand, to do gret wrak, Ys set behynden at the bak, [prose cap xvii] That no man ne sholde espye The maner off my roberye. Line 17568 So secretly I kan yt vse, Outward my falsnesse to exeuse. Thys hand ful hih vp-on A tre Maketh many on enhangyd be; [Stowe folio 307b] Line 17572 And with hys ffeet (wych ys nat fayr,) ffor to waggen in the hayr [[ayre St.]] fful hih a-loffte, yt ys no dred.
'Thys hand, fro many manhys hed, Line 17576 Causeth the Erys be kut away; And thys hand, fro day to day, Ys the hand off gret dyffame, [folio 249b] Callyd Cuttëpurs by name, Line 17580

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Line 17580 'Wych hath a knyff ful 1sharp of egge,1 [[1_1 Stowe]] And yet he dar no glovys begge; [[Stowe]] ffor, to vse hys robbery Off the glovere openly, Line 17584 He kepeth hym cloos, al out off syht, And vseth for to walke a [[on St.]] nyht In narwe lanys, vp and doun. Whan that the monë ys go doun, Line 17588 Than he maketh hys ordynaunce (By gret mescheff and gret meschaunce) ffor to vse ther brybery, And for to havnte ther robbery: Line 17592 On no thyng ellys they sette her thouht, ffor off hyr owne they ha ryht nouht.
'Thys hand, by force, ageyn al ryht, Breketh vp howsys toward nyht, Line 17596 Bothe in bowrys and in hallys, And maketh hoolys thorgh the wallys.
'Thys hand kan dygge and makë mynys; Thys hand kan Royne also florynes; Line 17600 Thys hand ful selde hath any reste; Thys hand kan brake Cofer and cheste; Thys hand, (in cold and ek in hete,) Kan falsly selys counterfete, Line 17604 And the prent ther-off y-graue; And thys hand wyl also haue (By som Engyn, or sleyhtë weye) Vn-to euery look [[locke St.]] a keye. Line 17608
'Thys hand kan forge (I vndertake) ffals monye, and the prent make. Thys hand in frenshe [[frenche St.]] (I dar expresse) Ys callyd 'Poitevyneresse,' Line 17612 ffor yt forgeth (thys the ffyn) A monye callyd Poytevyn, [folio 250a] [Poitevine, monnaie de Poitou. 'Une poitevine, c'est le quart d'un parisi (1273 Carl de Ponthieu, Richel., l. 10112, 1o, 159 ro.).' —Godefroi. Sol Parisien . . as much as the Tornois & a quarter. Sol Tournois, The tenth part of one shilling.—Cotgrave, 1611.] Wych ys in valu (by a-countyng) fful skarsly worth halff a fferthyng. Line 17616
'Thys hand ek falsly beyth and sylleth;

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'And in reknynge, thys hand mystelleth. Thys hand also (yt ys no drede) Kan spoyllë folk whan they be dede. Line 17620 Thys hand kan al the nyht wachche, And ful streythly glene and kachche, [Stowe folio 308a] And rendyn vp (yt ys no nay,) Al that euere lyth in hys way. Line 17624
'Thys hand, thogh men haddë sworn, Kan robbe and bern away the corn Out off bernys and garnerys; Line 17627 Thys hand kan ferette in konnyngherys [[conyngers St.]] Be nyhtë tymë, whan men slepe; Thys hand, by holys kan in crepe, And bern a-way what he may fynde, And lyst to leue nothyng behynde; Line 17632 Thys hand maketh ydel offycerys And many falsë labourerys. Thys hand (ageyns al resoun) Doth many gret extorsïoun Line 17636 In euery lond and [[in struck out, a over C, and St.]] ech contre, Worthy enhangyd for to be, Yiff the falsnesse wer yknowe That he doth, bothe hyh and lowe; Line 17640 ffor thys hand wyl neuere spare Porë folk, to make hem bare And nakyd (off entencïon) ffrom al ther pocessïoun. Line 17644
'My thryddë hand, mad by gret wyle [[ [prose cap xix] ; cap. xviii omit|ted.]] With the wych I ber the ffyle, I shal, as kometh to remembraunce, Declarë to the (in substaunce) Line 17648 What thyng yt doth specefye. [folio 250b] [[St. & C.]] And the trouthe doth sygnefye, [[St. & C.]] Thys hand ys wrouht ageyn nature, [[St. & C.]] Wych euere doth hys besy cure [[St. & C.]] Line 17652 Alway (off entent vntrewe) To forgë money newe and newe, Other folkys gold dystresse, And hys ownë to encresse, Line 17656 By som fals collusïoun.

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'And euere in hys entencïoun He ffynt out weyës sotylly ffor tencresse hym-sylff ther-by; Line 17660 By maner off enchauntement He ffyndeth out (in hys entent) To tournë, by hys sotylte, Line 17663 A Tourneys to A parysee [[worth a fourth more: see note, p. 471.]] ; By hys engyn, wyl vndertake, Off fyvë, syxë for to make.
'Thys hand kan also (in certeyn) In gernerys shette vp hys greyn, Line 17668 Abydynge (with an hevy chere) Tyl ther kome A derë yere, At avauntage yt to selle, And the pans [[pens St.]] ful streyhtly telle, Line 17672 Vsynge ther-in ful many a whyle.
'And thys hand that halt the ffyle, [Stowe folio 308b] Wasteth bothë gret and smal, Consumeth and devoureth al, Line 17676 Off porë folkys, the substaunce: I pray god yive hym evele chaunce; ffor nothyng may thys fyle endure.
'Thys hand ycallyd ys 'Vsure,' Line 17680 Vsyd in ful many place, Wych ys to god a gret trespace, Bothe at marketys and at ffayres. And also provostys and ek mayres Line 17684 In tounës, [[touns C., St.]] borwys and cytes— [folio 251a] ffolk off hyh and lowh degres— [[St. & C.]] Echon they may nat hem excuse [[excuse St., C. burnt.]] But that somme off hem yt vse.' Line 17688
Pilgrim: [[St., om. C.]]
"Declarë to me (in substaunce,) [prose cap xx] Wher-off serueth thy balaunche. I trowe thow wylt ther-in ryht sone Peysë ther-in bothe sonne and mone, Line 17692 The sterrys ek, or thow ha do, And the zodyak / also."
Avarice: [[St., om. C.]]
'Lerne, and vnderstond me wel,

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'And I shal telle the euerydel: Line 17696 Gracë dieu, ful yore agon, Among the planetys euerychon, (As clerkys wel rehersë konne,) In the zodyak sette a sonne, Line 17700 ffor to shede hys bemys bryht, And to mynystre hys cler lyht Indyfferently (I the ensure) Vn-to euery crëature, Line 17704 And to be comoun, ther-with-al, To al the world in general; To make the Erthe with frut habounde, That ther wer no dyffautë founde. Line 17708
'Whér-off (yiff I shal nat lye) I hadde in herte ful gret envye; ffor, yt wente nat as I wolde; ffor, my wyl were, that yt sholde Line 17712 Vn-to my lust appropryd be, By exaumple as thow shalt se.
'ffyrst, ageyn[e]s al resoun, I wolde, by vsurpacïoun, Line 17716 ffro poynt to poynt in ech degre, The zodyak sholde obeyë me, [folio 251b] [[me St., C. burnt]] Sonne and mone (ageyns alle skyll), [[St. & C.]] Wynd and wether were at my wyll; [[C. & St.]] Line 17720 Al put in my governaunce, [[C. & St.]] Yt to weye in my ballaunce.
'Al thys thyng (as thow shalt se [[se St., C. burnt]] ) I vsurpe yt vp-on me: Line 17724 The yer, I weye yt in ballaunce, [Stowe folio 309a] And selle [yt] ek at my plesaunce; I selle the wyke, I selle the day, (To wych no man dar seyë [[sey C., say St.]] nay) Line 17728 Somtyme by twelue and by thryttene, By twenty ek, and by nyntene; And in a yer (who kan yt telle) The pound for xxty pans [[pens St.]] I selle; Line 17732 The moneth also, by reknyng, I selle for ix. or .x. shyllyng; [[C. & St.]] The wyke also for vj. or fyve,

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'At a-counte that we nat stryve Line 17736 Affter the somme, whan al ys do, That my loonë kometh to; And lyk as euery man doth take, Ther-on my reknyng I do make.' Line 17740
Pilgrim: [[St., om. C.]]
Than, quod I anon, "lat se [prose cap xxi] Touchyng that I shal axen the; I wolde ther-on have thy devys: Her ys a woode off lytel prys, Line 17744 Wych a woodeman selleth me; And in the salë, thus seyth he, 'ffor .xxx.ty shyllyng I wyl yt selle, So that a-noon (as I shal telle) Line 17748 That thow to me, (lych myn entent,) Makë to me thys payëment With-outen any mor delay. But yiff I graunte a lenger day, Line 17752 As thus, tabyde a yerys space, Thanne I wyl (withoutë grace [[without grace St., C. burnt]] ) [folio 252a] Have fourty shyllyng (by iuste reknyng) [[C. & St.]] By-cause off myn ábydyng:' [[C. & St.]] Line 17756 Vp-on thys caas I woldë se [[C. & St.]] Whér lyk (as yt semeth the) The sellere off the wych I telle, Outher peysseth or doth selle Line 17760 The tyme, outher the zodyak, Off the wyche to-forn we spak."
Avarice: [[St., om. C.]]
'Touchyng thys thyng, now herkne me, And I shal answerren vn-to the: Line 17764 Thys cas (yiff thow lyst to lere,) Ys vnderstonde in twey manere: Par cas som man, (as thow shalt se,) Off nede and off necessyte, Line 17768 Hys woode, that were by good reknyng Worth off valu syxty shyllyng, ffor verray nede and indygence, Off bothe to makë recompense, Line 17772 ffor fourty shyllyng doth yt selle;

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The causë pleynly for to telle, He muste haue redy payëment. [Stowe folio 309b] Thys marchaunt (to my Iugëment, Line 17776 Who-so off resoun lookë wel) The tymë selleth neueradel;
'But that marchaunt (with-outë wher,) That abydeth al a yer, Line 17780 Off hym the cas stant other wyse, As I shal to the devyse: By Oldë [[Old C., St.]] tymë (lyst my tale,) Chapmen that made off woodë [[of wood mad St.]] sale, They made her sale (who taketh hede) Line 17785 By A mesour off lengthe and brede; And to the byggere they wolde seyn: 'Yiff thow wylt my woddë beyn, Line 17788 At O word, (so god me saue!) At swych a prys thow shalt yt haue, [folio 252b] So that my payement be leyd doun With-outen mor dylacïon. Line 17792 And yiff thow byde a yerys day Off my payment by dillay, [[delay St.]] I shal the telle by short avys, I wyl yt sette at hiher prys; Line 17796 ffor yiff that I A yer abyde, My wodë shal on euery syde Wexe and encresse (I the ensure), And multeplyen off nature.' Line 17800
'And yiff the marchaunt, in bargeynyng, Telle hym thus in hys sellyng, To-forn, or that the wode be bouht, The tyme in soth he selleth nouht, Line 17804 Nouther weyeth yt in ballaunce; But yiff the wode (par cas or chaunce) Wer yhewe, or feld a-doun Tó-for ther convencïon, Line 17808 Wych affterward (wo kan espye) May nat encresse nor multeplye; Yiff he sette the sale vp sore, As thus to sellyn yt for more, Line 17812 By cause off bydyng off A yer,—

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'Than I suppose (with-outë wer,) He peyseth (as I rehersë shal,) Hys long abydyng tyme and al. Line 17816
'But whan the wode may multeplye, Wexe and encressen at the Eye, Than thencres and wexyng al Ys mesuryd in espécyal, Line 17820 And yweyed in ballaunce, Who loketh euery cyrcumstaunce.
'Now shal I make descrypcïon, And a cler declaracïon Line 17824 (Yiff thow kanst wel vnderstond): Thys dyssh that I holde in myn hond, [Stowe folio 310a] [prose cap xxii] (In ffrenche callyd 'Coquynerye' [folio 253a] And in ynglyssh 'Trwandrye,') Line 17828 Thys hand I vse in bryberye, In beggyng and in lasyngrye. At euery dore I axe and craue, My sustenauncë for to haue, Line 17832 And offtë sythe (yt ys no dred) I put vp many a lompe off bred In-to my sak, (so mot I the,) And kepe yt tyl yt mowlyd be, Line 17836 That yt may nothyng avaylle.
'And euery man I kan asaylle With myn Importáble cry, I sparë noon that goth forby; Line 17840 And thus I axë my purchace. And I wyl payen in no place, What vytaylle euere that I spende; And to nothyng I do [[that I St.]] entende, Line 17844 But for to axen and to crye; And al labour I do defye; I wyl nat travaylle in no wyse; I kan my sylff so wel desguyse Line 17848 With my mantel al-to-rent, That the peple ys verray blent With my fals illusïoun And feyned symulacïoun. Line 17852
'I crye and coniure al the day

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'On pylgrymes that passe by the way, As I wer fallyn in A rage; And wer that folk ha most passage, Line 17856 Ther I kan sytte in gret dystresse, And crye on hem for ther almesse With a pytous feyned face. And, in hem to fyndë grace, Line 17860 I feyne ful many a mallady, As I wer in A dropësy, Or sodeynly podagre falle; And alway, affter good I calle; [folio 253b] [[C. & St.]] Line 17864 I feyne me blynd, I feyne me lame; [[St. & C.]] And for to lye, I ha no shame; [[St. & C.]] I crye with bak ycorbyd doun, [[St. & C.]] And makë many a pytous soun. [[St. & C.]] Line 17868 And thogh I fele no maner peyne, I kan ful wel a causë feyne, That I am falle in indygence, ffor to beggyn my dyspence. Line 17872
'And yiff that folk ne yiff me nouht, Than with a gruchchynge hevy [[hevy om. St.]] thouht I curse hem in-to hellë pet. Myn herte on malys ys so set, [[pit . . syt St.]] Line 17876 On all I wolde avengyd be, That wyl no pyte han off me. [Stowe folio 310b]
'Thys ys the hand off faussemblaunce; [prose cap xxiii] And with thys hand, I kan avaunce Line 17880 Alle thys trwauntys euerychon Wych that on my dauncë gon, That, by her offyce and her name, ffor to axë, haue no shame: Line 17884 Brybours that gon vp and doun, Devoyde off occupacïoun, And lyst hem sylff nothyng avaunce, To travaylle for ther sustenaunce, Line 17888 As thow mayst sen ful many On That aboute the world so gon.
'Somme axë bred, somme axë chese; And for that they wer loth to lese, Line 17892 Somme axe clothys and cootys olde;

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'And some off hem arn ek ful bolde, Off dyvers housys to axe a rente, Wych on the byldyng neuere spente, Line 17896 As menstrallys and Tregetours, [[Trigetours St.]] And other feyned sowdyours, That with patentys aboutë gon; And among hem euerychon, Line 17900 I holde thys falsë pardownerys. [[Many leaves, Chapters 24-32 of the prose, are here out of C.]] [Stowe folio 310b] I will nat spekyn of no ffrerys, whiche, in every regïon, ar bound by theyr professyon Line 17904 vnto wilfull poverte. wherfore they haven lyberte to beggen, as them selff affyrm, and on this text they them confyrm: Line 17908 Christ axyd, when he was her[e] man, water of the Samaritan— I mene, the woman at the well— in erthë, when he dyd her[e] dwell; Line 17912 wherfore, befull [it] is to frerys, sythe they be no processionerys, to get theyr lyvelode wher they may.
'To ther beggyng I say nat nay, Line 17916 so that they fayn[ë] not in dede to axë nat, but for veray nede, thayr trewë sustentacïon, without all symulatïon, Line 17920 that wilfully men to them profrys; nat to shit vp gold in coffers, nor to setten ther labowr to gathar and hepe gret tresure. Line 17924
'as to myn opynyon, I hold it no perfectïon, thowghe that my dyshe & my sachell can techen them the craft [ful] well; Line 17928 for bothë two (in sothfastnes) be gret[ë] tookens of falsnes; [Stowe folio 311a] and who that evar dothe them vse, I ne can them nat excuse, Line 17932 bothe of hyghe and low degre,

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'but they be servants vnto me.
'And also, yf thow lyst to loke, touchynge myn hand eke with the crooke, Line 17936 I will the tell, or I ha do, in what wyse I cam therto: thou shalt know[ë] certaynly, that Symon Magus and Gyosy, Line 17940 bothë twayn, in theyr entent, made ther-of to me present. but the crooke, by óblacion, was gyven tó me of Symon. Line 17944
'and yf I shall the truthe atame, the fyrst[ë] letter of his name is an .s. (who takythe hede,) of shape y-krokyd in the hed; Line 17948 and of his name (be well certeyn) it is chefe capytall & cheftayn. thow wost full well thy selfe, ywys, that every .s. y-crokyd is, Line 17952 lyche a crose highe in the top, lyche the staffe of a byshope, or of an abot, wher it be, thow mayst example ther-of se. Line 17956
'and of an abbey, in sothnesse, I am callyd an abbesse. whiche abbey, by gret vyllenye, ys [y]callyd symonye. Line 17960 and as myn hand her with this hook, of the .s. his nam[ë] tooke, ryght so, in conclusïon, symonye cam of symon. Line 17964
'and fyrst thow shalt well vnderstond, that by falsnes of this hond, most horryble and odyous, was brought fyrst in-to christis hous Line 17968 the falsë vyce of symonye. and by his feyned trecherye, by his sleyhte, and by his gyn, at the dore he cam not in; Line 17972 but at some travas, lych a theffe,

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'wher he dothe full gret myschefe; for wher so evar he dothe aproche, with this staffe he can a-croche Line 17976 the herts of folks by covetyse, and ordeynythe in full cursyd wyse sheppards to kepë christis shepe, whiche of theyr offyse toke no kepe. Line 17980
'an herd man is [y]sayd, in dede, only, for he shuld[ë] fede his shepe with spyrituall doctryn; [Stowe folio 311b] but they draw by an othar lyn: Line 17984 they may be callyd, for ther werkynge, pastours only of fedynge. they fede them selff with háboundaunce, and let ther shepe go to myschaunce; Line 17988 I trow it is full well ysene, them selfe be fatt, ther shepe be lene. I trow, the most[ë] part of all, men shuld them rather wolv[ë]s call Line 17992 than trwë herd[ë]s; yong and old, they come to robb[ë] christis fold; they shuld ther shepe from wolv[ë]s were; the wool, the mylke, a-way they bere. Line 17996 I can not se wher-of they serue, that lat ther shepe at meschefe starue, and put them selffe in gret defame.
'and they would ekë makë lame Line 18000 gracë dieu of cursydnesse, lyke as I shall a-non exprese, ffrom the trone of hir mageste, by gyfte of temporalite: Line 18004 his fals office I can well tell; he can now byen, he can now sell, by bound[ë]s of collusyon; and all comythe in by syr symon. Line 18008
'yet at the last it shall be found that gracë dïeu is nat bound, nor, hathe not lost hir fraunchise by none suche fals[ë] marchandyse, Line 18012 as comythe in by symony,

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'nor couetyse of Gyësy.
'this hand also with his crochet, in swyche a maner is yset Line 18016 to sell and byen this gret vertwe whiche is callyd gracë dieu; but, kyndly to specify, the byggyng is callyd symony, Line 18020 and the sellyng in certeyn, (for to speke in wordës pleyn,) they that it sell, for gret or lyt, bene y-callyd Gyësite; Line 18024 but symony, (who can entend,) dothe bothe nam[ë]s comprehend; and all that woldë thus enchace gracë dieu out of hir place, Line 18028 to sellen hir for gold & good, they be mad, or el[le]s wood; and resemblen (in swiche cas, I dare affirm,) vnto Iudas, Line 18032 that ihesu christ for mony sold [Stowe folio 312a] full fallsly, and the panns he told.
'and suche folke (as thynkythe me) wers than iudas, yet thay be; Line 18036 for the pennis that iudas toke, aftarward he it forsoke, and restoryd it agayn; but this folke, be well certeyn, Line 18040 will for no predicatïon nevar make restitucïon, and cawsë why, (who lokythe well,) is only this, for the sachell Line 18044 whiche hangythe fro my nekë doune, of nature and condicïoun:
'what-evar into my sake ther gothe, (who that evar be lesse or lothe,) Line 18048 it will nevar ysswe out ageyn; the entre is bothe large and pleyne, and the mouthe to gon in by is evar open at the entry. Line 18052 but to comyn out, that wyll nat be

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'by no maner of sotelte; the way is narow & streyght certeyn, for to comyn out ageyn, Line 18056 lyke a wyle in a ryver, to cache the fysche bothe fer and nere; the entre large / the comynge out is so strayt, it stant in dout. Line 18060
'A-nothar hand I have also, with whiche I werkë mychë wo by a maner of roberye: and it is callyd 'trecherye,' Line 18064 withe the whiche, (who can conceyve,) full many folk[ës] I deceve. vndar colour of ryghtwysnes, I do to folke full gret falsnes, Line 18068 that be symple and inocent. withe my frawd they be so blent in marchandysë that I vse, I can my selffe nat well excuse. Line 18072
'in deceyt stant my labowr, by fals weyght and fals mesure: by largë mesure I can byen, and streight mesure I sell ageyn; Line 18076 in byggyng I wyll ha trwe wayt, but in my salle I do gret slayt, bothe in peys and in balance.
'with sobar cher and countenance Line 18080 my chaffér I can well sell, and to symple folke I tell that it is bettar than it is, and wittyngly I do a-mys Line 18084 touchynge the pris, how that it gothe, [Stowe folio 312b] and falsly swere many an othe, sober all-way, and sad of chere.
'and whan that I am a drapere, Line 18088 I hange out courteyns in the lyght, for to blyndë folkës syght, that men may not sen at ye full nothar the colowr nor the wull; Line 18092 set it at hyghë pris therto,

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and swere I myght ha sold it so the last[ë] day, to a chapman: thus I begyll many a man Line 18096 ¶ withe this hand of whiche I tell, bothë when I by and sell.
'this hand myght nat well be worse: some tyme ther-with I can sell horse, Line 18100 and lyke a falce coursar, I can with othis deceyue many a man.
'som tyme by borows and by towns I walke about[en] with pardons, Line 18104 with reliks, and dedë bones, closyd vndar glase and stons: I shew them vndar sell and bull, and thus the pore people I pull, Line 18108 of ther sylvar I make them quite, in falsnes I ha so gret delyght.
'to abbeys eke I can wel gon, stell ymagis of tre and stone, Line 18112 thowghe they ben old, & paynt them newe, and make them semë freshe of hewe, with colours bothë whit and redd; and at theyr brestis and at ther hedd Line 18116 I set berryls and crystall; vndar, I make an hole full smale; I put in oylë, wyne, and blood, and melke also, to get[ten] good; Line 18120 make the lycour round about, at small holes to rennyn out, as it were done by myracle, that ther nis balme nor triacle Line 18124 in this world, so ryche of prys, of foltyshe people that ben nat wys.
'I set eke out swyche ymagis, in stret[i]s and at hermytagis, Line 18128 and in subbarbys at many a towne, with bullis fret full of pardon; byshops seles be nat behynd: and thus I makë folk[ë]s blynd, Line 18132 by my sleyght and by my guyle.

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'and yet I vse a-nothar whyle: I go to faytours of entent, and make them eke of myn assent, [Stowe folio 313a] Line 18136 and, by fals colusyon, and cursyd dissymulatïon, I menë suche as ha no shame, to fayne them selffe bothe blynd and lame, Line 18140 crokyd, halt, and dome with all, on euery leg a gret mormall, full of plastars old and new, to make the people on them rew. Line 18144
'and, for more decepcïon, I make them to be leyd a-doun, ¶ to-forn the ymagys down to ly, and for helthë lowd[ë] cry, Line 18148 ther to have amendëment. and they and I of one assent, I lyft them vp my selfe anon, and make them on ther fet to gon Line 18152 with-outen eny more obstácle, as all wér wrowght by myrácle.
'the people, takynge none hede therto, supposythe pleynly that it wer so; Line 18156 with offerynge and with pilgrimágis come full oft to suche ymágis, for to done ther óbservaunce: and thus I can my selffe avaunce Line 18160 as othár loséngars can, with good that is full falsly won, whiche that the people obeyethe full sore. but of this thynge, as now no more Line 18164 I wyll nat makë réhersall.
'& for this hand may myche avayle to profet me bothe day and nyght, I take none hede of wronge or ryght, Line 18168 thowghe it to folks do gret domage, whill I ther-in fynd ádvauntage. it hathe of falshed many a braunche, and why? I [[MS. It]] put it to my haunche, Line 18172 and to my tonge reyse it agayne:

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'the cawse I woll vnto thè sayne: myn haunchë is callyd lesynge, and my tongë forswerynge; Line 18176 and, to this twayn, trechery is famylyar, and of aly, and to them bothe, of kyndly lawe, of custome she will evar drawe. Line 18180 wher they ben old or yong of age, they be echon of o lynage, and, by hyrë, fyrst, certeyne, myne haunchë cawhtë this spaven. Line 18184
'she made my tongë fyrst taplye to fynd out lesynge, and to ly; and of lyenge I made to-forne, was forswerynge fyrst yborn; [Stowe folio 313b] for wher that evar forsweryng be, lesynge is nyhe, as men may se; and wher-so-evar that they go, barret is nat fer them fro; Line 18192 all thre bene of on accord, with truthe evar-more at dyscord.'
pilgrim:
"Tell on, I pray, let me se in what wysë may this be; Line 18196 thow callyst thy tonge 'forswerynge,' and thyn haunche also 'lyenge,' whiche is so halt and corbyd doun; tell me here-on some reson." Line 18200
Avarice:
quod avaricë, 'lay to ere, and anon thow shalt well here, how that I this othar day mett with truthe vp-on the way; Line 18204 withe her was also equite, and bothë tweyn, I dyd se. of them, as I tokë hede, how they begged bothe ther bred; Line 18208 they were so poorë bothë two, for theyr frynd[ë]s wer all go. and yf I shall the truthë showe,

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'this day they ha but frynd[ë]s fewe, Line 18212 ne non ne shal, yf that I may.
'and when I met them on the way, I gan to turne the bake full sone; with them I had no thynge to done; Line 18216 for me sempte, to my plesaunce, they myght me no thynge avaunce, nor no profit done to me. therfore from them I gan to fle Line 18220 over the feld[ë]s as they lay, and I ne cept none hyghë way, but forthe, lyke myn opinïon. as I rann, I fell doune; [[as, I, each a foot]] Line 18224 and with that fall ther was no gayne, but that I cawht a great spavayne vpon my lege, whiche madë me for to halt, as thow mayst se; Line 18228 and sothly yet, (who lokë well,) to halt, I hate it nevar a dell. for when with haltynge I am dull, it makythe my sake to be more full; Line 18232 haltynge dothe me more avaunce; therby I makë chevysaunce, for in haltynge is no synne; who dothe vpryght, may nothynge wynn; Line 18236 haltynge me wynnythe many a grote, it maketh me hatter than my cote, [Stowe folio 314a] that I must my tunge in sothe cast out as a doggë dothe. Line 18240
'and than full offe it falleth so, that to the kyng[ë]s court I goo, and am ther, of no man afferyd. and whan I have the lawës leryd, Line 18244 and am come to hyghe estat, than I become an advocat, and makë folk[ë]s to me drawe, swyche as hav to don with lawe. Line 18248
'but first I swere, with-out[en] doute, my tunge I shall nat puten oute, for ryght ne wronge, ne for no thynge,

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'but wher I se ryght gret wynnynge. Line 18252
'on that party evar I hold, lyche a balaunce of whiche y told, whose tungë draweth to that cost, wher the weyht gothe dounë most: Line 18256 to that party he wyll nat fyne the balauncë to enclyne. and so fare I when I begyne, to holden ther I may most wyne. Line 18260
'whan folke me pray with all ther myght for to help them in theyr ryght, wher the cawse be grene or rype, a-non as I the money grype, Line 18264 than I dare swaryn, by bone & blood, that theyr cawse is trwe and good, thoughe I know the contrary. and than anon I wyll not tary, Line 18268 for gold and sylvar evar amonge, to makë ryght, thowghe it be wronge; for I can make, vnto hir syght, ryght of wronge, and wrong of ryght; Line 18272 tourne the matere vp se doune, and preue it out by good reson, that in the case there is no lake: and all I do, to fyll my sake Line 18276 withe gold and othar men[në]s good, how evar aforne the casë stode.
'thus haue I told the by resonne, and mad a demonstracïon, Line 18280 why that my tonge (by dyscryvynge) is [y]callyd 'forswerynge.' and withe lesyngs, (who lyst know,) vp and downe it is y-sowe; Line 18284 to falshed I do most avauntage, and to truthë gretyst damage. and in this plyht, as I the told, ever my purpos I shall hold, Line 18288 that yf the lawe ne chaungë nought, I will be fals of word and thought, in every place, wher evar I be, [Stowe folio 314b]

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'that no man shall levë me: Line 18292 now I ha told the of my sake.
'touchinge the bonche vpon my bake, I wyll to the now specifye what thynge it dothe signefye. Line 18296 this is the boch gret and hydous, with whiche this folke relygïous bene ybonchyd, full many on;| som, I say, nat everychon, Line 18300 suche as by transgressyon kepe not theyr professyon, as they be bound by theyr degre.
'and by example, (as thow mayst se,) Line 18304 so as a boche or a fellon ar cawsyd of corruptïon of wyckyd humours & corrupt blood, of colore adust, fervent and wood, Line 18308 and othar suparfluyte; ryght so, ryches and gret plente ar cawsë that a rychë man, as the gospell rehers[ë] can, [The readable part of MS. Cotton Tiberius, A. vii, begins here.] Line 18312 May in-to heven have none entre, [Stowe folio 314b] [Tib folio 39a] [[St. & Tib.]] But euen lyke as ye may se, [[St. & Tib.]] A camell may hym-silffe applye [[St. & Tib.]] To passen thorugh a nedelyes eye, [[St. & Tib.]] [Tib folio 39a] Line 18316 Whiche is a thyng not credible, [[St. & Tib.]] But a maner impossible, [[St. & Tib.]] Thys beste is so encomerous, [[Stowe]] [prose cap xxxiii] Off bak corbyd and tortuous, [[Stowe]] Line 18320 And so to passë, no thyng able. [[Stowe]]
'And euene lyk in caas sembláble, ffolkis off relygyoun, Bounde by ther professyoun Line 18324 ffor to lyue in pouerte Off ther ownë volunte, And to pouert hem [[hym C., them St.]] silffe proffesse, Ȝeue they be bocchyd with [[by St.]] richesse, Line 18328 To gadre vp good [[good St., and Tib.]] in ther bandoun, Tresoure, and greet pocescyoun; [[St. & Tib.]]

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'ffor hard it is ffor hem to trace, [[St. & Tib.]] Or by so smal an hoole to passe [[St. & Tib.]] Line 18332 Vp to that heuenly mansyoun, [[St. & Tib.]] To cleyme there habytacyoun. [[St. & Tib.]]
THis lytle hoolë (who kan se,) [[St. & Tib.]] Bytokeneth willefful pouerte, [[St. & Tib.]] Line 18336 Receyued with-outen eny stryffe; [[St. & Tib.]] ffor, pore we kam in-to this lyffe, [[St. & Tib.]] And nakyd, (who taketh heede ther-to,) [[St. & Tib.]] Out off this lyffe we schal eke go. [Stowe folio 315a] [[St. & Tib.]] Line 18340
'Wherffore late ffolkis good heede take, [[St. & Tib.]] (Swyche as han this world fforsake,) [[St. & Tib.]] Hem to preserue by holynesse [[St. & Tib.]] ffrom the bocche off ffalse richesse, [[St. & Tib.]] Line 18344 Whiche is a thyng (who kan discerne) [[St. & Tib.]] That wyl closë the posterne [[St. & Tib.]] Of Paradys [[St. (Tib. blurd)]] and the entre, [[St. & Tib.]] And stope the hole [[St. (Tib. blurd)]] off pouerte, [[St. & Tib.]] Line 18348 Whiche is, to parffyte ffolke, the gate [Tib folio 39b] [[St. & Tib.]] To lete hem in, erly and late, Alle that ben ffounden vertuous In ffolkis eke relygyous. Line 18352
Properte.
'THis bocche is callyd 'Properte,' [prose cap xxxiv] Whiche is afferd off Pouerte; ffor pouerte (as clerkys teche) Line 18355 Is bothë medicyne [[medcyne Tib., medisyn St.]] and leche To launche the bocche off Properte, And voyde alle superfluyte, And the bollynge in echë [[on eche a St.]] syde.
'But Properte dar not Abyde [[Tib. & St.]] Line 18360 To suffre Pouerte hym to kerue, [[Tib. & St.]] Leste off the wounde he schulyë sterue [[Tib. & St.]] Leuere he hathe, in peyne tendure, [[Tib. & St.]] Than pouerte schulde his bocche recure; Line 18364 ffor he is dredefful, and eke arwh, [[Tib. & St.]] To passe an hole that is so narwh [[Tib. & St.]] As hym [[it St.]] semyth in his devys, [[Tib. & St.]] Outher to heven or paradys: [[Tib. & St.]] Line 18368 His herte is no thyng ther-on set. [[Tib. & St.]]

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'Now wole I speke off my mawmet.
The Mawmet:
'ANd off myn ydol that is so oold, [prose cap xxxv] Made off siluer and off gold, Line 18372 In the whiche (I the ensure) Is the ymage and the ffygure And the prynte (as thou mayste see) Off the lord off the contre. Line 18376 This is the god whiche, by depos, [[depose St.]] Loueth to be schutte in hucches clos. ¶ Somwhyle, that men may hym not knowe, [Tib folio 40a] He wole hym hyde in erthë lowe. Line 18380
'This god kan makë ffolkys blynde, That to his óbseruaunce hem bynde; And causith hem, ageyn resoun, To caste her lokës lowë down Line 18384 In-to the erthe, ageyne nature, Hem-silffe so mykel they assure In eerthely tresoure, whiche at [[in St.]] o day Schal vnwarely passe away; Line 18388 ffor lawe [[low St.]] in erthe, on euery syde, [Stowe folio 315b] Lyche a mollë they abyde; In erthe is hoolly ther labour; In erthe ys also ther tresour; Line 18392 Erthe is ther Ioye and ther plesaunce; No thyng but erthe may hem avaunce; Gold and seluer makyth hem nygh wood; Gold is ther god, gold is ther good; Line 18396 I worschipe gold and my tresour As ffor my god and savyour; Saue gold, noon other god I haue. [[Illumination.]]
'I Thenke not how I schal be grave Line 18400 In eerthë lowe, ther to be ffreete, Corupcyoun and wormës mete, Hydous, stynkynge, and horryble, [Tib folio 40b] And to loke vp-on, odyble: Line 18404 What may my gold thanne me [[me than St.]] avayle, Whanne wormes han [[have St.]] with me batayle? But here, while I haue lyberte,

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'This thyng to-fforne I kan no [[nat St.]] se, Line 18408 ffor in no thyng I [[I St., that I Tib.]] kan affye, But gold and good to multeplye. Gold is my god and my Mawmet; Line 18411 ¶ And al on gold myne herte [[all [my] hert to gold St.]] is sette; ffor golde, I dyde fful greet offence, In colys to rostë seynt Laurence. For he, off pite (thus it stood) [[St. & Tib.]] Ȝaue the tresoure and the good Line 18416 Off holy churchë ffor almesse, To pore ffolkis he [[to folke that he St.]] ffonde in distresse. [[Illumination.]]
'BUt I, [[I St., om. Tib.]] in myne oppynyoun, am [[am St., I am Tib.]] not off that condicioun: To getë good is my laboure, Line 18421 And to awmentë my tresoure, And (as it is to ffolke fful kouthe,) More in agë thanne in ȝouthe, Line 18424 Som tyme with lesynges and with ffablys, Som tyme at [[at St., at the Tib.]] chesse, som tyme at tablys, At merels and the botevaunt, [Tib folio 41a] At hasard and at [[at St., om. Tib.]] [the] devaunt, Line 18428 And at these pleyës euerychon, My mawmet I worschipe euere in oon. ¶ ffor, wher-so [[so St., om. Tib.]] it be vyce or synne, I do no thyng but ffor to wynne; Line 18432 To good is al-way my repayre.
'And, ffor my Mawmet is so ffayre, And ffulffylled off [[withe St.]] alle plesaunce, Do [[Do St., To do Tib.]] ther-to som óbseruaunce, Line 18436 And knele anoon vpon thy kne, [Stowe folio 316a] Lowely to [[vnto St.]] his dëyte. ffor, but [[for but . . do St., But ffor . . a Tib.]] thow do with-out[ë] more, Thow schalt abyggen it fful sore; Line 18440 And I schal ellys verrey [[warreye St.]] the; Thow geteste no lenger trewys off me.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
ANd whilë sche gan me [[me Tib., me to St.]] assayle fful cruelly, as by batayle, Line 18444 Alle sodeynely I dydë sen,

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How that ȝouthë wente atwen, Bytwyxen Avarise and me, Cryed trewys, and bad let be. Line 18448
¶ Than ȝouthe spak: [[youthe St.]]
'DO to hym no vyolence, ffor I am komen in his diffence, Ageynse [[agaynst St.]] the to make hym stronge. Thow schalt to hym do now no wronge, Line 18452 (Thow [[thowghe St.]] thow be cruel off entent,) While that I am here present.'
¶ Auaryce:
'ȜEue [[yf St.]] thow ne were not ffastë by, [Tib folio 41b] Thow myghtteste trustë ffynaly, Line 18456 That I ffor no thyng woldë lette, But that I schulde vp-on hym sette. [[Illustration.]] ¶ Thy komynge is not to my pay; Thow haste me lettyd off my pray; Line 18460 ffor the whiche, I am fful wo; But now to hym I may nat do, ffor to ffulffillë my talent, While thow art with hym present. Line 18464 But go thi way, and late hym be, And anoon thow schalt wel se, I schal hem cacchen [[cachen St., cacche Tib.]] in a trappe, And aresten by the lappe, Line 18468 That he schal not skape away ffro my daungere, ȝeue [[yf St.]] I may.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
ANd whanne that I was at my large, And thought I woldë me [[me St., not Tib.]] discharge, Line 18472 ffrom allë daunger to go ffre, ffrom Auaryce at lyberte, [Tib folio 42a] Thorough helpe and ffavour (in this cas) Off ȝouthë that my guydë was, Line 18476 I wolde, as tho, no lenger byde, But in-tawodë [[into a wood St.]] there bysyde I entryd, whiche stood ffastë [[but fast St.]] by. And as I wente, alle sodeynely Line 18480 I herde oon wonder lowdë crye,

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And afftir me gan ffaste hym hye, As he hádde ben in a rage. And so straunge was his langage, Line 18484 That I ne vnderstood hym nought; ffor I conceyued in my thought, [Stowe folio 316b] How he that affter me gan gon: ffrenche [[ffrenchs Tib., Frenche St.]] nor Latyn he spak noon. And in his hand (I was wel war,) Line 18489 A nakyd swerde how that he bar, fful scharpë growndë ffor to byte, And redy as he woldë smyte, Line 18492 And bade, I schulde me ffastë dresse, Kome to speke with his Maystresse.
Amydde [[and myd St.]] the way, vpon a lond, With-in a cercle I hym ffond, [[Illustration.]] Line 18496
WIth-in whiche (so god me save,) [Tib folio 42b] I sawgh fful many a ffygure grave, fful meruelous, as in workynge; And he bare armys off A kynge, Line 18500 A Boxë, lyche a Messangere. And trewely, as I neyghed nere, By sygnës that I dydë se, I wendë so that he hadde be, Line 18504 Hopynge the bette, at lyberte, ffrom al daunger to skapë ffre: ¶ To whom I spake fful boldëly, Line 18507 And seyde, "I merveyl [[mervayll St., merveyled Tib.]] ryght greetly That thow byddeste me ffaste dresse ffor to kome to thi maystresse; And by no tokene that I kan se, I wote not what sche schuldë be; Line 18512 ffor whiche, I preye the not to spare, Off hir the maner to declare." ¶ And he to me in wordës ffewe, With his ffynger gan me schewe Line 18516 fful ffastë by, a mansyoun, Ryght vp, lyche a pávyloun; And on the pomel (who lyste knowe) Wonder hygh ther sate a krowe, Line 18520

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Line 18520 His whynges splayynge to and ffro; And with the noyse he madë tho, The messangere gan newe abreyde, And vn-to me ryght thus he seyde: Line 18524
¶ The Messangere:
'Byhoolde ȝone habytacyoun And the hyghë [[hyghe St., hygh Tib.]] pávylloun: In that place (I dar expresse) There abydith my maystresse, Line 18528 Whiche cessith, nowther nyght nor day, To teche hir scolers what sche may, [Tib folio 43a] fful many wonderfful lessouns, And many dyuerse cónclusyouns. [[Illustration.]] Line 18532
'ANd, therffore, I callyd the, That thow scholdeste the maner se [Stowe folio 317a] Off hir scole, and knowe it offte. And ffor this skele, the crowe aloffte Line 18536 Is sette, (ȝeue [[yf St.]] thow kanste espye,) Afftir hir scolerys ffor to crye; That fforby passe, bothe este and west; Line 18539 Thereffore sche hath made there [[ther made St.]] hir nest.'
¶ The pylgryme:
"CErtis me semyth it were ffolye To komë there, or go fforby, But ȝeue I knewë (in sentence) What doctryne or what science, Line 18544 To hir scolers sche dothe teche. Thereffore, opunly in thy speche, Declarë what it schuldë be, Or ellys I wole not go with the." Line 18548
¶ The Messangere:
4'A yerë,' quod he, 'and no mo, ther I had to scolë go;4 [[4_4 St., om. Tib.]]
COuetysë, off entente, [Tib folio 43b] To that scolë sche me sente; Line 18552 And sothely, as it semyth me, So I trowe sche dydë the.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
"CErteynely that is not so; Though sche and I (bothë two) Line 18556

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Line 18556 "Hadde I-ffere longe dalyaunce, Sche made no [[no St., me no Tib.]] maner off rémembraunce Off this scole, in no degre, Off whiche thow spekist off [[off, om. St.]] to me." Line 18560
¶ The messangere:
'THan I dar seyn (as thow schalt ffynde) That it was, out off hyre mynde; ffor at this scole ther comyth no wyght ffor to leernë, day nor nyght, Line 18564 But ȝeue that he, ffirste, (off entent,) Be ffro covetyse I-sent.
'Ȝit off this scole, (ȝeue thow wylte dwelle,) The maner, I schal the telle: Line 18568 ¶ ffirste, whanne I was heder sent, I wolde, by som experiment, Or by som schorte conclusyoun, Haue preued [[provyd St.]] out my lessoun; Line 18572 ffor speculatyff and the practyk Off this scolë be not lyk; ffor speculátyff (in sentence) With-outen good experience, Line 18576 Avaylith lytle or ellis nought, How longe euere that it be sought. ¶ Now take heede, and thow schalt se I wolde hauë [[haue a St.]] dygnyte, Line 18580 Or som other greet tresour, [Tib folio 44a] And ther-on settë my labour; And woldë knowe, to [[to to Tib., to St.]] this estat [Stowe folio 317b] Wher I schal be ffortunat. Line 18584 ¶ ffirste, with my swerd, vp-on the ground I make a cercle large and round, With karectis and with [[with om. Tib., St.]] ffygures, And knowë not the áventures, Line 18588 Nor the dirkenesse hydde with-Inne, Off the karectis, whanne I gynne To emprynte: al [[tyll St.]] they be sene, I wotë neuere what they mene; [[Illustration.]] Line 18592
SAue I conyecte yt may so be, That spiritis scholde obeye to [[obey St.]] me,

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'By my [[myne St.]] invocacyouns To answere to my questyouns, Line 18596 Swyche sperytis as I kalle; And ȝit I knowe noon off hem alle, Saue off entente, as thow mayste se, That they schuldë grauntë me Line 18600 Som maner gyffte, or som gerdoun, Concernynge myn oppynyoun, By vertu off the cercle round, And Carectis graven in the ground, Line 18604 By schewynge or by ápparence, [Tib folio 44b] Affter that I ȝeue credence.'
¶ The pylgryme:
"Alle that thow doste specyffye, Is but ffalsehed and ffantesye Line 18608 And cursyd ymagynacyoun, Brouth [[brought St.]] in ffirste by Illusïoun.
"This scole is nought, in sotheffastenesse, Whos doctryne is but cursydnesse. Line 18612 The scolers there-off, I holde hem wood; Swyche spiritis may don to the no good; And ȝeue thow koudeste the trouthe entende, Harme they may, but not amende: Line 18616 They wole wyrke in [[to St.]] thi damáge, But no thyng to thyne ávauntage, Who that kan lokë wel aboute.
"Also thi siluen [[my selffe St.]] stante in doute Line 18620 Where-off thi cercle scholdë serue; And thyngës that thow doste obserue, Alle is but ffoly and mysbyleve, [[fals beleve St.]] Towchynge the spiritis, thow mayste wel leve; Line 18624 ffor the they wyl no thynge do wel, ffor they the louen neuere a del."
¶ The Messangere:
'IDar afferme (with-outë [[with-out C., St.]] slouthe) In party that thow haste seyde trouthe, Line 18628 Excepte oonly (it is no nay) In many thynges they helpë may, A man [[man St., C. blurd]] greetly to magnyffye, Encresse also, and multeplye, [Stowe folio 318a] Line 18632

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Line 18632 Whanne they be cónstreyned to do so, And haue no power to go ther-ffro, Comaunded [[commaundyd St., comaunde Tib.]] to swyche óbseruaunce By hym [[them St.]] that hathe the gouernaunce [Tib folio 45a] Line 18636 I mene the kyng, to whom, eche weye, Mawgre ther myght, they muste obeye.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
"IConceyue, and se wel here, Thow art the kyngës messangere, Line 18640 By the armes that thow dost were, And by the sygnes I se the bere; But makë [[make a St.]] demonstracyoun To me off thi comyssyoun, Line 18644 By what power or by what peyne Thát thow mayste [[mayst St., muste Tib.]] hem so constreyne."
¶ The Messangere:
'COmmyssyoun I haue neuere on; And trewely I dar axë non; Line 18648 And though I dyde (as thow schalt se) He woldë grauntë noon to me.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
"THanne wote I wel, (ȝeue it be sought,) ffor the, that they wole do ryght nought." Line 18652
¶ The Messangere:
'HEre vp-on, what so ȝe seye, Wotë [[I wott . . .that they will St.]] wel they wole [[I wott . . .that they will St.]] obeye Pleynely vnto my byddynge; ffor they wene that, off the kynge Line 18656 I haddë fful auctorite, Commyssyoun and fful pouste, To maken them, lyche [[lyke St.]] myn entent, [Tib folio 45b] To óbeye [[or t'obeyë]] my comaundëment Line 18660 By vertu off myn orysoun, [[orisons . . .commyssions St.]] Karectys and coniurysoun [[orisons . . .commyssions St.]] ; ffor drede off whiche, (be wel certeyn,) I knowe they dar me not with-seyn.' Line 18664
¶ The Pilgryme:
"WHer thow be wel or yuel apayd, Take good heed what thow haste sayd: Thow haste ben ffalse in thi workyng,

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"And wrongely don vn-to thi kyng; Line 18668 Wher-ffore thow shalt I-ponysshed [[punishid St.]] be ffor thi greet Inequyte, [[iniquite St.]] To make spiritys the to obeye, [[tobbaye St.]] And swychë charges on hem leye Line 18672 By disseyte and ffalse tresoun, And, haste [[hast St.]] no commyssïoun ffor the to schewe on see nor lond, And haste [[hast St.]] I-made eke, with thyn hand, Line 18676 Karectis and cercle round, And compassid it vp-on the ground; And art so blynd, thow kanste not seen, [Stowe folio 318b] On no party, what they mene. Line 18680
"And swyche karectis (I dar wel telle) Be markis off the deuel off helle, ffirste ordeyned (who kan conceyue) Innocentis to disceyue. Line 18684 And thow mayste also (trustë me) There-with thow schalt dysseyued be; ffor this selis, thow schalt ffynde, Constreynë the, and sorë bynde Line 18688 By a maner állyaunce To do the deuel swyche óbseruaunce Made to thi conffusïoun, As bonde or oblygacyoun; Line 18692 By whiche he wole (off verrey myght) Cleymë the his man off ryght; By swyche a tytle, make hym stronge.
"And to spiritis thow doste greet wronge, Line 18696 Hem to constreyne in thi workynge To brynge thé other mennës thynge, (Be it by day, be it by nyght,) Vn-to whiche thow haste no ryght; Line 18700 Where-in thow art greetly [[gretly St., greet Tib.]] to blame, To bydde hem in the kyngës name Or constreyne hem, ageyne resoun, By karecte or by [[by, om. St.]] comyssyoun, Line 18704 To robbe or steele, to thi ffavour, Off other ffolkës [[ffolkis St., ffolke Tib.]] ther tresour, By verrey fforce, ageynë [[agaynst St.]] ryght.

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"And ȝeue thow loke aboutë [[about Tib., St.]] ryght, To the kyng, vsynge this vice, Line 18709 Thow doste fful greet preivdice [[preiudice St.]] Ageyne his lawefful ordynaunce, Where it is boden [[bodyn St.]] (in substaunce) Line 18712 And dyffendid, (who kan espye,) Alle maner theffte and robrye, [[robery St.]] In peyne off deth: take heede her-to, And with-drawe thyne hand ther-ffro Line 18716 With al thi myght and al thy peyne. Thow standeste [[stanst St.]] in daunger atwene tweyne; Outher off God or off Sathan Thow art off the leegë man; Line 18720 And therffore, ffor to lyue in reste, Leeue the worste, and cheese the beste; ffor (schortly I schal devyse,) Thow schalt be quytte lyke thi servyse, Line 18724 In hellë with dampnacyoun, Or heuene, to thi savacïoun." [[C. & St.]]
¶ The Messangere: [Tib folio 46b]
'OF thy wordës I [[words when I St.]] take hede, They puttë me [[me St., me not Tib.]] in fful greet drede: Line 18728 But, o thyng comfforteth me, Whanne that I considere and se There is so greet a companye, [Stowe folio 319a] Me to susteyne in my ffolye, Line 18732 Off ffolkis that to-fforne haue be Off wonder greet autoryte, As whylom was kyng Salamoun, And Virgyle, off greet renoun, Line 18736 Cypryan and Albalart, And many an-other in this art, [[Tib. & C.]] Maystres by experyence, And hadde also ther-to lycence Line 18740 (With-outen [[outen St., out Tib.]] eny noyse or stryffe,) ffor to vse it al her lyffe.
'And this ilkë craffte also (Who that takyth heed ther-to,) Line 18744 Is not in rewarde so perillous, Dredefful, nor superstycïous,

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'As som crafftis that haue be do With sacriffyce, and eke also Line 18748 With óbseruáunces, vpon mownteynes, In desérte, [[decrert St.]] and eke in pleynes, And in placis fful [[full of St.]] savage, Solytarye, and fful off rage, Line 18752 That, alle the maner ffor to noumbre, It wolde a man greetly encombre, As thow schalt se and knowe anon Ȝeue thow lyste with me to gon; Line 18756 And ffynally, thi pas to dresse [[Tib. & St.]] To hir that is the cheff maystresse [[Tib. & St.]] Off alle this thyng that I haue tolde, That, ȝeue thow be hardy and bolde [[Tib. & St.]] [Tib folio 47a] Line 18760 ffor to proche [[taproche St.]] to hir presence, Thow schalt haue fful experyence.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
"THat euere I schuldë this thyng se, [[shuld . . yse St.]] God, off his grace, dyffendë me; Line 18764 And he be my proteccyoun Fro [[fro St.,? Tib.]] thylkë habytacyoun! ffor, by opene evidence, And by recorde off thi sentence, Line 18768 Thilkë place, with-outë [[with out Tib., St.]] wene, To good [[god St.]] it doth no-thyng partene; ffor, by the crowe that sytte aloffte, Makyth noyse and cryeth offte, Line 18772 It schewith wel how thylkë place Is devoyde, and ffer ffro grace, And longeth (as I rehersë kan) To the Deuel and to Sathan; Line 18776 ffor, save the Deuel, noon other wyght Hathe power there, off verray ryght. Therffore I wole me holden heere, And to that placë kome noon nere; Line 18780 And trewëly, (to my devys,) Thi-silff also (ȝeue thow be wys,) Thow schalt wysely with-drawë the, [Stowe folio 319b] And abydë [[abyden St.]] here with me Line 18784 ffor thyne ownë ávauntage,

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"Leste it turne to thi damage; ffor, who gothe to that mancyoun, Gothe streytte to his destruccyoun, Line 18788 As ther haue do fful many oon, Whiche here-to-fforne haue theder gon, Resemblynge (as I kan devyse) Line 18791 To hym that was the Duke of [[of St., om. Tib.]] Fryse, Whiche, whanne he shuld ha be baptisyd, [Tib folio 47b] [[Tib. & St.]] (In storye as it ys devysed, And as bokës kan wel telle,) His o ffoot was putte in the welle, Line 18796 To haue receyved cristis lawe, But he in haste gan it with-drawe; [[Illustration.]]
FOr hym thought he herde a cry, That affermed certeynely, Line 18800 ffor synne and ffor Inyquyte, How mo ffolke schuldë dampned be At the day off Iugëment, Gon to helle, there to be brent, Line 18804 Ȝe mo (as in comparisoun) Thanne ffolk ffor ther savacyoun Scholde that day receyued be, To dwelle in heuene, that ffayre cyte. Line 18808 ¶ But this duke, hym-silff to encombre, [[tencomber St.]] Seyde [[Seyd St.]] with the gretteste nowmbre, And woldë go, [[he would go St.]] thorough his ffolye, And with hem holdë [[kepe St.]] companye, Line 18812 There-with affermynge, in his thought, That, off baptysme, he sette [[sett St.]] nought. ffor whiche, me semeth it were ffolye, The to halden companye Line 18816 With swyche ffolke in thyn entent, [Tib folio 48a] [[Tib. & St.]] Off whiche affter thow schalt repente.
"ffor I suppose that Salamoun (Off whom thow madest mencyoun) Line 18820 Wher in-ffectte, or hadde his parte, In his dayës, off swyche arte, As som ffolk seyne, (who kan entende,) That hym-silffe he dyde amende Line 18824

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Line 18824 "Off that and many another thyng, To-ffore the hour off his deiyng, And resceyued was to grace, And hath in heuene a dwellynge place. Line 18828 ¶ And semblabely, the tother man, The gretë clerke callyd Cypryan, To-fforne his deth, lyste to fforsake This craffte, and ffor Crystis sake, Line 18832 Suffred (as made is mencyoun) [Stowe folio 320b] Martirdam and passyoun, And is in heuene stelleffyed, And with seyntis gloreffyed. Line 18836 ¶ Take heede to hem, by reed off me, And not to hem that dampned be. Thenke on hem that ben in blysse; Line 18839 And where as [[what that St.]] thow haste don amysse, With-drawe thy ffoot, and do penaunce, And haue in hertë répentaunce."
¶ The Messangere:
'CErtys,' quod he ('ȝeue thow lyste se,) That thow seyste, ne may not be. Line 18844 Though thyne argumente be stronge, At that scole I haue ben longe, And fful wel lernëd my lessoun; And by sodeyne departysoun, Line 18848 (Who takyth heede, it is no nay,) So sone I may not part away, [Tib folio 48b] [[Tib. & St.]] As [[And St.]] I kan not (in myne entente) ffynde in myne hertë to repente, Line 18852 Nor to departe vp-on no syde; I am with-hoolde; I muste abyde, With other scolers mo than oon, Whiche that there to scolë goon, Line 18856 As ffolke may sen ther, gret ffoysoun.
'And eke my skrippe and my bordoun Ben I-leffte in that hostage, And lyne in maner off morgage; [[Tib. & St.]] Line 18860 And I ne may not hem [[them nat St.]] recure; And also (as [[eke St.]] I the ensure) I gyue no forcë, [[fors St.]] in certeyn,

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'Though I neuere hem haue ageyn.' Line 18864
¶ The Pylgryme:
ANd whanne that I these wordës herde, In maner [[St., Tib. blurd]] trewëly I fferde As though I hadde astonyed be; And, as it semed vn-to me, Line 18868 I stood in a perélous [[perillous St.]] cas. And therffore I abasched was, And sawe no bette reffute to me, But ffro that placë ffor to ffle; Line 18872 ffor he (schortely, in sentence) To whome I neuere dyde offence, Me to bryngen in-to [[in St.]] distresse, Gan to callen his maystresse Line 18876 To kome vpon [[vpon St., on Tib.]] me in greet rape, That I schulde hir not escape.
And sche, off ffalse entencyoun, Kam out off hir pávilloun [[pavylyon St.]] Line 18880 Affter me, that I wente abak, Hydous off look, oolde and blak, Off whom I greetly [[gretly I St.]] was afferd. [Tib folio 49a] Line 18883
In the [[In the, om. St.]] mydde off a book, sche heelde a swerd; Other scawberk hadde sche noon; And, as I byhelde anoon, Sche hadde (in sothe, as thoughtë [[thought Tib., St.]] me) [Stowe folio 320b] Largë whyngës ffor to ffle. Line 18888 ¶ And, by a maner ffelonye, Sche gan loudë ffor to crye; And, me manasynge off pryde, Bad me that I schulde abyde; Line 18892 And ellis, mawgrey al my myght, I schulde not skape out off hir [[his St.]] syght Til I haddë in partye Somwhat seyne off hir maystrye. Line 18896
And towarde me hir look sche caste, And gan to come vp-on fful ffaste; But as sche kam, it semptë me, That sche sate hygh vp-on a tre, Line 18900 And pleynely gan to speceffye, Hir namë was 'Nygrómauncye,'

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[[Illustration.]]
WHiche, by my craffte [[be craft St.]] (in substaunce) Kan ffolke encresse, and wel avaunce, Line 18904 That ben in my subieccyoun And lyste to leernë my lessoun. 2This ilkë book that thou [[that thou om. Tib.]] wolte se, [Tib folio 49b] Is I-callyd Mors Anime, Line 18908 Whiche is in englysche (ffor to seyn,) 'Dethe off the sowlë,' in certeyn.
And this nakyd swerd whiche I hoolde, (As thow mayste thi silffe byholde,) Line 18912 There-with (ffor schorte conclusyoun,) Whanne thow haste herdë my lessoun,2 [2_2 om. St. The good old tailor's eye caught the second 'lesson,' l. 18914, in his MS. instead of the first, l. 18906.] There-with thow schalt yslaynë [[yslayn St., slayne Tib.]] be.
And thus sche gan manassë me, Line 18916 Where-off I stood in fful greet drede; But off grace, (as I toke hede) A whitë dowuë I dyde se ffleen sodeynely towardës me; Line 18920 But with me, where as I stood, Sche ne made no lenger [[longe St.]] abood. And I ne made no greet delay, But wentë fforthe vp-on my way; Line 18924 And I mette (or I was war) An oolde oon, whiche that [[a St.]] ffagot bar Vpon hir bak, and eke therto, In hir hand sche heelde also Line 18928 A peyrë cysours scharpe I-grownde. And, to me-ward as sche was bounde, Sche bad (ffor schorte conclusyoun) ffor to leye my skryppe adoun; Line 18932 And gan vp-on me ffor to ffrowne, Lowdë cryed, hir lyste not rowne:
¶ Heresye:
'FOr but thow leyë here adoun, I schal, to thi conffusyoun, Line 18936 Schape thi skryppe off newe array, ffor it is not to my pay;

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'I schal it kutte in other wyse, Lyche as my-syluen lyste devyse.' [[Illustration.]] [Tib folio 50a] Line 18940
¶ The Pylgryme:
"THow ooldë vekke, as semeth me, That thow mayste not clerely se; Wherffore me lyste, by thi byddynge, ffor to do no maner thyng, Line 18944 But ȝeue to-fforne I knowe and se [Stowe folio 321a] Thy powere and thyn autorite; Thy worke also, and thyne office, I wole ffirste knowe in myn avyce." [[Illustration.]] Line 18948
Heresie: [[St., om. Tib.]]
'FOr pleynëly, off lasse and more, Evene afftir my ffadris lore, I wole (off bothë [[bothe of St.]] ffalse and trewe,) The skrippës kutte and schapë newe, Line 18952 Off pylgrymës greet and smale, Kutte hem alle on pecys smale; [Tib folio 50b] ffor it was I, my-silffe allon, That schope the skryppës ȝore agon; Line 18956 ffirste, off this Pellagyens, And also off these Arryens, And off other sectys newe, ffoundë ffalsë, and [[and full St.]] vntrewe, Line 18960 As ooldë bokës speciffye; ffor I am callyd 'Heresye,' The whiche do alwey [[all ways St., awey Tib.]] my labour To bryngë ffolke in greet errour, Line 18964 That ffolwe [[folow St., ffolke Tib.]] my condissiouns; Only by ffalse oppynyouns, Make her hertis to declyne ffro the trouthe off Iuste doctryne, Line 18968 And cause hem ffor to don ther cure, And amys to [[Amys St.]] expowne hooly scripture.
'And, trewëly, naddë bene The greetë [[greet Tib., gret St.]] counceyle at Nycene, Line 18972 Ordeyned by greet Constantyn, And nadde ben also Augustyn

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'And many other greet doctours ffor to anullë [[tanull St.]] myn errours, Line 18976 The skryppes off holy churche echon, I hadde ffor-don (fful ȝore agoon,) Off pylgrymes that passe by the way, Sythen goon fful many a day. Line 18980
'And ȝit I schal, what so byffalle, Assaylë thé amonge hem alle, And myn ooldë purpos holde, Line 18983 In ffyre, though that [[that om. St.]] I brennë schulde, I wole my wyttës alle applye, Hardyd with obstýnacye, Contynue til the ffyre be hoot; Therffore I berë this ffagot. Line 18988
'And ffirste, thow schalt me not escape, But newe I wole thy skryppës schape, [Tib folio 51a] Or ellis I dar vndirtake Thát thow schalt it here fforsake, Line 18992 And leve it with me vtterly [[entterly St.]] : My ffader is here ffastë by, [Stowe folio 321b] Whiche hathe power (as thow mayste se) And [[ye St.]] bothë vp-on londe and see, Line 18996 Thow schalt not skape hym (in certeyne,) But with daunger and greet peyne.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
Myne eyen tho [[then St.]] I gan vnffolde, And anoon I gan byholde Line 19000 In the weyë me byfforne, An huntë stoodë [[stood Tib., stode St.]] with his horne, Off chere and lookë [[look Tib., loke St.]] ryght pervers. And the passage, in travers, Line 19004 With cordes he gan it ouere-leyne, ffrette with nettys alle the pleyne.
And he brought in his companye The ffalsë vekkë Heresye. Line 19008 And, that men schulde hym wel knowe, His horne he gan fful lowdë blowe; As it were to catche his pray, Ryght so he blewë on [[blew vp on St.]] the way, [[Illustration.]] Line 19012

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Line 19012 Bad [[bad St., And Tib.]] his doughter Heresye, The passage so to [[so to St., to Tib.]] kepe and guye, That I scholde not, in no syde, [Tib folio 51b] ffrom ther damage my sylffe provyde. Line 19016 And trewëly (as I haue sayd) The nettys were so narewe layd, On [[on St., In Tib.]] lond, on water, and in the hayr, That I myght haue no repayr Line 19020 To passë ffreely that passáge. It was so fful off mortal rage, Off daunger and adversite, That, but yiff [[yiff that Tib., yf St.]] I amydde the see Durstë swymme, ther was no way Line 19025 ffor me to passë, nyght nor day.
And there he dyde also malygne To leyne out nettys, and assigne, Line 19028 There to stoppen my passáge; So that I ffonde noon ávauntage, ffrom his dawngere to declyne; ffor many an hook and many a lyne Line 19032 Were caste in-to [[in St.]] that peryllous se, Off entente to letten me; [[Illustration.]]
THat, mawgre alle my fforce and myght, But ȝeue I kowdë swymme aryght Line 19036 Amonge the wawys ffeerse and ffelle, [Tib folio 52a] I muste vndir his dawnger dwelle.
But ffirste, while he his trappys leyde, [[C. & Tib.]] Vnto [[St., Tib. blurd]] the huntë thus I sayde: Line 19040
The Pylgryme:
"Hvntë," quod I, "telle me now, What maner officere arthow, [[art tou St.]] Whiche [thus] lyggeste on the way, Vnlaweffully [[vnlawfully St., vnlawefull Tib.]] to cacchë pray, Thus to makë thyne arestis, Line 19045 Namely on the kyngës beestis? [Stowe folio 322a] I trowe thow haueste no lycence ffor to don so greet offence; Line 19048 I dar afferme (eerly and late), Swyche hunters, the kyng doth hate;

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"And it semyth, by thi manere, Off his, thow art noon officere." Line 19052
¶ The hunte [[huntar St.]] :
QVod he, 'what makystetow swyche stryff? Thow art wonder Inquysytyff, Besy also, by argument, To hoolde with me a parlement, Line 19056 By langáge, and longe pletyng; ffor, though I longe not to the kyng, (And thow conceyue aryght I-wys,) Som tyme I was oon off his; Line 19060 And though I hauë no congé [[liberte St.]] Off hym, to hunte in this contré, He suffryth me here, in this place, At his beestis ffor to chace, Line 19064 And assaute on hem to make. And whanne that I by fforce hem take, Be it by day, be it by nyght, [Tib folio 52b] I cleyme hem to ben myn off ryght.' Line 19068
¶ The Pylgryme:
ANd while I herde alle his resouns And ffrowarde oppynyouns, Myne herte abaschyd, gan to colde, Namely whanne I gan byholde Line 19072 Pylgrymes, by greet aduersite, fful many oon swymme [[swymmen St.]] in the see; And they were clothyd euerychon. And som off hem, I sawe anoon, Line 19076 Ther ffeet reversed vp so doun; And som (in myn inspeccyoun) Swommë fforth fful euene and [[a St.]] ryght; And som hadde whyngës ffor the fflyght, Line 19080 That afforcyd [[offeryd St.]] hem silff fful offte For to fflowe [[for taflowe St.]] fful hygh alloffte. And though ther [[the St.]] purpos was so sette, The see hath hem fful offtë lette; [[Illustration.]] Line 19084
SOmme, by the ffeet were boundë stronge With knottys, off [[of the St.]] herbis longe; And somme, with wawës wood and rage,

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Were ysmytt [[St., Tib. blurd]] in ther vysage, Line 19088 That they losten look and syght, [Tib folio 53a] And ffeble were [[wex St.]] off fforce and myght: And, by dyuerse ápparaylle, The ragë so gan hem assayle, Line 19092 In many another dyuerse wyse, Mo than I may as now devyse.
The Hunte: [[huntar St.]]
'IDo fful wel,' quod he, [[quod he full well St.]] 'espye Where-on thow castyste so thyne eye. Line 19096 ffor alle thy wylës and thi Iape, Thow schalt not so ffro me eskape; [Stowe folio 322b] I schal the cacchë by som crook; I haue leyde ffor the, las and hook, Line 19100 As thow mayste thy-syluen se: Thow schalt not skapen by this see.'
¶ The Pylgryme:
"TElle me anoon, and lyë nought, As it lythe, ryght in thy thought, Line 19104 These pylgrymes allë that I se, Who hathe thus putte hem in thys [[thy St.]] see?"
¶ The hunte:
'IS not this,' quod he anoon, 'An hyghë [[hyghe St., hygh Tib.]] way ffor ffolke to goon Therby, alle day in ther vyage, Line 19109 Swyche as goon on pilgrymage? I hadde not ellis (as I haue seyde) Myne hookys and my nettys leyde, Line 19112 To cacchen allë in this place ffolke that fforby here do pace; ffor this greetë [[greet Tib., gret St.]] largë see [Tib folio 53b] Whichë that thow here doste se,' Line 19116 It is the world, ay fful off trowble, fful off many wawys dowble, And fful off woo and greet torment, In whiche fful many a man is schent, Line 19120 With bellewys blowe on euery syde, Which that myne ownë douhter, Pryde, Is wontë, with hir ffor to bere, Good pylgrymës ffor to dere. Line 19124

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Line 19124
'And many a pylgryme thow mayste se Swymme in this perélous see: Sómme off hem, (whiche is not ffeyre,) Ther ffeet han vpwarde in the ayre [[hayr St.]] ; Line 19128 And allë swyche (ȝeue thow lyste se) Ben thylkë ffolke that charged be With the sak off couetyse, And ouere-lade in many wyse, Line 19132 That they, to swymmë be not able, Ther burthen is so Importáble; Whiche, by ffalse affeccyoun, Ploungith her heedës low a-down Line 19136 Vnder the wawys off this world here, That they may not (in no manere) Swymmë, ffor the hevynesse That they bere, off greet rychesse. Line 19140
OTher ther ben that swymmen ryght, And haue eke wyngës ffor the fflyght; And tho ben ffolkis whiche, in this lyffe, In hertë ben contemplatyffe, Line 19144 In wordely thyng haue no plesaunce, Save in ther barë sustenaunce: In this world, ther Ioye is nought; ffor alle ther herte and alle ther thought, Line 19148 And ffynal truste off ther workynge, Is sette vp-on the heuenly kynge.
'But ffor alle that, (I the assure, [[ensure St.]] ) [Stowe folio 323a] [Tib folio 54a] In this see they muste endure Line 19152 Bodily, by greet penaunce, In hevene hem sylffë [[them selven St.]] to avaunce. And, ffor the love [[love St., lawe Tib.]] off crist ihesu, They make hem whyngës off vertu, Line 19156 To ffleen (by clene affeccyoun) To the heuenly mansyoun; Whiche greetly displesith me, Theder whanne I se hem ffle. Line 19160
Swychë ffolke resemblen alle Vn-to a bryd that clerkes calle Ortigometra in ther bokys; And this bryd caste his lokys Line 19164

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Line 19164 'To-fforne hym prudently, to se Whanne he schal swymmë in the see: This ffoul hath whyngës ffor the fflyght, Be he [[to be St.]] anoon off kyndely ryght. Line 19168 Whanne he is wery off travayle, And that his ffederes do [[done St.]] hym ffayle, Anoon (off his condiscyoun) In-to the water he fallith doun, Line 19172 And thanne [[that St.]] to swymmë wole not ffayle: Off his o whynge, he makith a ssayle, Amonge the sturdy wawys alle To kepe hym silffe, that he not ffalle, Line 19176 Til he resume ageyne his myght, Off acustom, [[custom St.]] to take his fflyght. Thus stoundëmel ȝe may hym se, Som tymë swymme, som tymë fflee, Line 19180 In bokys as it is I-ffounde.
'But they that hauë [[haue ther St.]] ffeet I-bounde With herbës and with wedës greene, That they may not aryght sustene, Line 19184 Nowther to swymmë nor to fflee, They be so bounden in the see Off wordely [[worldly St.]] delectacyoun [Tib folio 54b] In ther inwarde affeccyoun; Line 19188 ffor alle ther hool ffelicyte Is sette in veyne [[veyne St., verrey Tib.]] prosperite Off the world, and in rychesse, fful off chaunge and dowblenesse, Line 19192 With whiche they be so [[so St., om. Tib.]] sorë bounde, That her soulis yt wole conffounde; ffor they haue power none, [[none St., Tib. blurd]] nor myght, Nowther to swymme nor ffleen [[flyen St.]] aryght; So sore the world doth hem constreyne, Line 19197 That it were to hem greet peyne, Her hertis ffro the world to vnbynde. [[tuunbynd St.]]
'And som also be makyd [[made St.]] blynde, Line 19200 Ther eyen cloos, they may not se, ffor to considere the vanyte Off this worldis ffalse veyneglorye, Euere vnsure and transitorye, Line 19204

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Line 19204 'And fful off mvtabylyte, [[mutabylyte St., mvtabyte Tib.]] Whiche schewith to hem fful greet bewete [Stowe folio 323a] By a [[a St., om. Tib.]] maner off ápparence, But it is ffalse in éxistence; Line 19208 That is fful ffoule, dothe schewë ffayre, Lyche a ffloure that dothe vnapayre [[Tib. & St. apayre St.]] Whanne it is plukkyd and leyde lowe, Or with som sodeyne wynde I-blowe. Line 19212 Whiche bewete (as wryte Salamoun) [¶ Prouerbiorum, 31o. Proverbs. 31. St.] Is but a ffalse decepcyoun; And ffolkis that beth there-with blente, Or they be war, beth offtë schente, Line 19216 ffor lak ther eyen be not clere. ¶ 'Eke som ther swymmes [[swyme St.]] (as ȝe may leere) With hand and armys strecchyd out; Swyche as parte her good aboute Line 19220 To porë ffolkis that haue neede; And swyche vnbynde [[vnbynd St., vnkynde Tib.]] her ffeet, in deede, ffrom wordely [[worldly St.]] delectacyoun, [Tib folio 55a] And off devoute entencyoun, Line 19224 By councel off her cónffessour, Vnbynde her ffeet, by [[with St.]] greet labour, ffor to goon in there vyáges, Barffote, to sekë pilgrymáges; Line 19228 Off ther synnës to haue pardoun, fforȝeuenesse and remyssyoun, Whanne ther menynge trewëly Is voyde ffrom al ypocrysy. Line 19232
ANd thus as now (withoutë [[without Tib., St.]] slouthe) To the I hauë tolde the trouthe. 'And trewely [[sothly St.]] ȝit, ouere alle thyng, I hatë trowthe in my workyng; Line 19236 And off malys, bothe day and nyght, Werrey [[werray St., Verrey Tib.]] trouthe with al my myght.
'By namë, callyd I am Sathan; The whiche, as ffer as euere I kan, Line 19240 I worke, in myne entencyoun, ffor to cacche, in my bandoun, Alle pylgrymes (as thow mayst se,) That swymmen in the wawy see Line 19244

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Line 19244 'Off this world, fful off disseyte.
'And euere I lye in greet awayte, And no moment I ne ffyne ffor to leyne out hook and lyne. Line 19248
'My lyne (by demonstracyoun) I-callyd is Temptacyoun; And whanne that ffolke (in ther entente) Off herte and wylle ther-to concente, Line 19252 Thanne on myn hook (by ffalse awayte,) They ben I-cacchyd with the bayte; And thannë, by fful mortal lawe, Tó my bandoun, I hem drawe. Line 19256
'I leye out nettës nyght and day, In water and lond, to cacche my pray.
'With nettys, I haue eke my repayre [Tib folio 55b] [Stowe folio 224a] ffor bryddes that ffleen eke in the hayre, Line 19260 ffor to make hem ffalle adown ffrom ther contemplacyown. And, thus ffolkys to bygyle, I am a ffoulere eke som whyle; Line 19264 ffor alle that hygh or lowë goon, I makë nettis ffor euerychoon, (In myne entente, it is no drede), To cacche hem, outher [[or St.]] by ffoot or hede, Line 19268 As an vreyne wewyth [[wevithe St.]] a calle, To makë fflyes there-in to [[to om. St.]] ffalle.
'But I ne may not do no wronge To ffolke that ben in vertu stronge. Line 19272 I venquysche (nouther nygh nor fferre) No man that halte ageyne me werre; And ffeble is my vyolence, Whanne ther is manly résystence. Line 19276
ANd ȝit I haue a thowsande treynes, And as many laas and cheynes, With [[om. St.]] whiche I compasse, day by day, To lettë pylgrymes on ther way; Line 19280 ffor I, by ffalse illusyoun And by dyssumylacyoun, [[dyssimilasyon St.]] Kan me [[me St., mys Tib.]] transfformë (anoon ryght,) To lykenesse off an aungel bryght; Line 19284

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Line 19284 'Take off hym the résemblaunce, The vesage and the contenaunce, So to disseyuen, in couert; And to an heremyte in desert; Line 19288 I [[And I Tib., I St.]] dyde oonës so appere, fful off ffetheres bryght and clere, And toke [[toke St., do Tib.]] on me the message Off an aungel, by my vysage, Line 19292 And bad vn-to that hooly man To kepe hym warly ffrom Sathan, ffor he was schapen, by batayle, [Tib folio 56a] The nexte morewe, hym to assayle; Line 19296 And tolde hym also, (ffynally, ffor to disceyve hym sotylly,) He woldë takë, (in sothenesse,) Off hys ffader the lyknesse, Line 19300 Bothe vesage and contenaunce, The maner and the résemblaunce. [[Illustration.]]
'ANd bad the heremyte anoon ryght To fforce hym, at the ffirstë syght, Line 19304 To smyte hym ffirste, with knyffe or swerde, And no thyng to ben afferde With al his myghtty vyolence, Whanne he cam ffirste to his presence. Line 19308 ¶ And so, vpon the nextë morewe, ffor to encresse his dool and sorewe, I made his ffader hym vesyte; Line 19311 And anoon, this seyde heremyte, [Stowe folio 324b] This Innocent, thys cely man, Wenynge hit haddë be Sathan, Vp sterte anoon, and toke a knyff, And raffte his ffader off his lyff, Line 19316 That he to groundë ffel downe deed.
'And thus I kan (who takyth heed) A thousande weyës, ffolke [[ffolke to St.]] dysceyue, [Tib folio 56b] Or they my treynës [[trappis St.]] kan conceyue. Line 19320 And therffore, [[therfore St., herffore Tib.]] be wel war off me, ffor I caste eke [[eke to St.]] dysseyuë the; Ȝeue I at largë may the ffynde,

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'In my laas [[lace St.]] I schal the bynde; ¶ ffor, as seynt Petre lyste endyte, [[tendit St.]] [¶ Prima Petri. 7o. Tanquam leo rugiens . . ] And in his pystelys ffor to wryte, I go and serchë, day and nyght, With alle my fforce, with al my myght, Line 19328 Lyche a ravenous lyoun, ffor to devoure, vp and doun, Allë ffolkys, ȝonge and oolde, That lambre [[lambes St.]] be off cristis ffoolde. Line 19332 I haue off hem, fful ȝore agoon, Off hem devoured many oon; Strangelyd mo than I kan telle; And that [[it St.]] were to longe to dwelle, Line 19336 ffor to rekene hem alle in nowmbre, Thousandis mo than I kan nowmbre; And trewely, in two hundred ȝer, I koude not tellë the maner Line 19340 Off alle my treynës by and by.
'And I warne the outerly, Thow schalt not lyghttely (ȝeue I may,) ffro my daunger skape away.' Line 19344
¶ The Pylgryme:
"WHer thow be wel or yuel apayd In the wordes that thow haste sayd, I haue ffounden a greet dyffence, To make ageyne thé, résistence, Line 19348 And conceyued [[conseyvyd St., conceyue Tib.]] it in my thought. Blowe thyne horne, and sparë nought, ffor thow schalt ffayle (ȝeue that I may) To make off me [[the St.]] schortely thi pray." [Tib folio 57a] Line 19352
And to be more stronge in vertu, With the crosse off crist ihesu, And off his gracë moste benygne, I gan me crossen, and eke sygne, Line 19356 ffor to assurë [[tassure St.]] my passage Ageyne his laas so fful off rage.
And by my crossynge, I anoon Gan to passe hem euerichoon; Line 19360 They hadde no power ffor to laste; ffor, by the vertu, they to-braste;

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And I anoon gan ffastë fflee, [Stowe folio 325a] And wolde haue taken anoon the see; Line 19364 But, longe or I entter myght, Whan [[St., Tib. blurd]] Sathan off me hadde a syght, He gan to crye (so stood the cas) 'Out and harow! allas, allas!' Line 19368
¶ Sathan the hunte weymentith [[huntar St.]] And tormentyth with hym silffe. [[sathan ye huntar St.]] [[Illustration.]]
'Vnhappy, [[St., I vnhappy Tib.]] and fful off meschaunce I was, whanne I dyde me avaunce In any wysë ffor to teche Vertu, or [[of St.]] trowthë ffor to preche; Line 19372 ffor, it longeth not to me To techë trouthe in no degre; But, off ffortune it happë so, [Tib folio 57b] That I be cónstreynëd ther-to, Line 19376 By vertu off som orysoun Or by som conyurisoun, [[coniurasion St.]] That greetë [[greet Tib., grete St.]] clerkës me compelle, The verrey trowthë ffor to telle, Line 19380 Mawgrey my wylle, off many a thyng, By vertu off the greetë [[gret St., greet Tib.]] kyng. ffor ellys (who that kan espye) My purpos is, euere ffor to lye, Line 19384 And [[I St.]] haue disseyued fful many a man, Ryght as dydë Iulyan.
'Though I were by hym constreyned, And by his charmës greetly peyned, Line 19388 Ȝit at the laste, whanne I abrayde, I lyëd, alle that euere I sayde. And now I oughte a-cursyd be, Whanne that I gan medle me Line 19392 To seyne a trouthe agaynës [[agayns Tib., St.]] kynde, Sethen men, in me may [[ne may in me St.]] noon ffynde; There-off I répente me fful sore, With trowthë, medle I wole no more.' Line 19396
¶ The Pylgryme answerth to Satan: [[pilgrim St.]]
"OSathan, thi displesaunce Was to me fful greet plesaunce,

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"Releuynge me off my distresse." I took there-off greet hardynesse, Line 19400 Made as tho [[thow St.]] no lenger lette, I spared nowther hook nor nette, But, trustynge (in conclusyoun) Vp-on my skrippe and my burdoun, Line 19404 And there-vp-on I bylened [[lened St.]] me Whanne I entryd in-to the see; And, in swymmynge to be more stable, [Tib folio 58a] Me thought my skryppë proffitable Line 19408 To kepe me sure in herte and thought, In my way, that I errëd nought. [[Illustration.]]
TRewely, [[yet truly St.]] in this dredefful see, Line 19411 Is [[om. St.]] greet myscheeff and aduersyte: Many a perel (I ȝou ensure,) And many a straungë áventure I ffeltë tho in my passage, Line 19415 Off wawys and off [[of St., om. Tib.]] rokkis rage, [Stowe folio 325b] And many a tempeste (in certeyn) Off thondrynge, lyghtnynge, and off reyn, And other perels that be-ffelle, That, ȝeue I schulde hem allë telle, Line 19420 Or the myschévës alle endyte, They were to longë for [[for St., om. Tib.]] to wryte.
But while that I, in my passáge, Byheelde the see, sterne and saváge, Line 19424 Me thought I sawe bysydë me, That there stood a greenë tre; And I was glad alle [[of St.]] thilkë while, Wenynge there hadde ben an yle, Line 19428 In hopë that I schuldë londe, Hastely, vp at som stronde, Whiche was to me fful greet plesaunce. [Tib folio 58b]
And as I gan my silffe avaunce, Line 19432 And thederward gan ffastë hye, Anoon my sylffe I dyde aspye (Whanne that I gan lokë wel) That I was caste vp-on a whel, Line 19436 Off whiche to-fforne I sawgh no thynge;

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ffor the ffloodes, in ther fflowynge, Hadde with his wawës euerydel Ouere-fflowyd so that whel, Line 19440 That I toke no heede there-at, Tyl sodeynely there-on I sat. And wyldëly the wawys smette Vp-on this whel, ay as they mette; Line 19444
ANd euere round, (as thoughtë me,) This whel wente aboute the tre, Where-off, I astonyed was, Whanne I sawe this sodeyne caas. Line 19448 Vp on whichë tre anoon, I sawgh nestys fful many oon; And bryddës (that I koudë knowe,) Sommë hyh, and sommë [[som Tib., some St.]] lowe, Line 19452 Ther nestis made (I toke good hede) Grete and smale (it is no drede). ¶ And I demëd, [[it semyd St.]] in certeyne, [Tib folio 59a] That this tre haddë hoolys tweyne; Line 19456 And on the hygher hoole aloffte, [[St. & Tib.]] I sawe an hand putte out fful offte. [[St. & Tib.]] And this hand (as to my look) [[St. & Tib.]] To the nestis put up an hook, [[St. & Tib.]] Line 19460 And (as to myne inspeccyoun) Was besy to pulle the nestis doun.
And as I stode a lytel throwe [[St. & Tib.]] At the hoole that stood moste lowe, Line 19464 I sawgh heedës lokynge oute Towarde the braunches rounde aboute, In purpos (ȝeue it myght haue be) To clymbe vp hyghë on that [[hygh . . that Tib., highe . . thilke St.]] tre: [Stowe folio 236a] They wolde haue take it ffayne in honde. Line 19469
And there I sawe a lady stonde Amonge the wyldë wawys trowble, Vp-on a whel dyuerse and dowble. Line 19472 Departyd was her garnemente, Halffe hool, and haluendel was rente; The to party, as snow was white To loke vp-on, off greet delyte; Line 19476 The tother party (ás thought me)

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Was ffoule and owgely on to se.
And hir vysage eke also Was departyd euene a two; Line 19480 The to party was amyable, And to byholdë délytable, Bothe off porte and off manere, Glad and lawynge off hir chere; Line 19484 ¶ The tother syde, hydous and old, Whiche was ryuelyd many ffold; And on hir schuldres rownd and square, A crokyd staffe in sothe sche bare. Line 19488
And whanne I gan al this aduerte, Dyscomffórtyd in myn herte [[Illustration.]]
THanne was I, greetly agaste [[I was, and gretly gan gaste St.]] ; [Tib folio 59b] And my burdoun I heelde ryghte ffaste, Line 19492 And dyde also greetly my peyne To grype it with myne handës tweyne; And seyde, (off sodeyne moscyoun,) "Bordoun," quod I, "bordoun, bordoun! Line 19496 But thow me helpë [[helpe now St.]] in this caas, I may [[may well St.]] wepe and seyne 'allas,' My peynës ben so scharpe and kene. And but thow helpë to sustene Line 19500 Myne nownpowere and inpotence, [[impotence St.]] That I may stonden at dyffence Vp-on my ffeet, and that anoon, ffare-wel! my Ioye is alle agoon!" Line 19504 ¶ But tho, thorough helpe off my bordoun, I roos vp as a champyoun.
But whanne this lady dyde espye That I was vp, sche gan to hye Line 19508 ffor to haue putte [[taput St.]] me doun ageyn; And I trowe ryght wel certeyn, That, but I haddë spoken ffayre, And off my porte be debonayre, Line 19512 I hadde ben to [[to St., fful Tib.]] ffeble off myght, Vp-on my ffeet to stonde [[tastand St.]] vp ryght.
BVt I abrayde, and bade in deede [Tib folio 60a] that sche scholdë taken heede Line 19516

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Line 19516 To thilkë party that was ffayre Off hir, and putte me ffro dispayre, And schewë, lyke hir contenaunce, Som counfforte or som plesaunce; Line 19520 And that sche wolde expownë me What lady that sche schuldë be, Hir name, hir power, euerydel, [Stowe folio 326b] Bothe off hir and off hir whel, Line 19524 And off the tre, and off the croppe, And off the nestis in the coppe, [[cop St.]] And do to [[done to St., do Tib.]] me som ávauntage, To ffurthre me in my vyage. [Stowe leaves a blank of 10 lines in his copy, and puts a side|note "fortune should be porturatyd."] Line 19528
¶ ffortune:
'IN me (schortely to expresse) There is no maner stablenesse; ffor, (be hereoff ryght wel certeyn,) Alle that I worke, is vncerteyn; Line 19532 Lyke my dowble contenaunce, I am so fful off variaunce. Therffore, to axe how I me guye, It is no wysdam, but ffolye; Line 19536 I worke no thyng in certeynte, But fful off greet duplycyte. I am what-euere I do provyde; ffor I lawe [[lawghe St.]] on the ryghtë [[ryght Tib., St.]] syde, And schewe a cher off greet delyte Line 19541 On the party that I am white. [[delyt . . . whit St.]] Thanne men me callë 'glad ffortune'; But, no while I do contune; Line 19544 ffor, longe or ffolke may aparceyue, I kan hem sodeynely disseyue, [The text is now again taken up from MS. Cott. Vit. c. xiii. leaf 253.] And make her Ioyë go to wrak [Stowe folio 327a] [[Cott. Vitell. C. 13.]] Wyth ffroward mowhës at the bak. [Tib folio 60b]
'Than y, lykned [[lykenyd St.]] to the moone, Line 19549 ffolk wyl chaunge my namë sone; And fro my whel whan they are falle,

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"Infortunë' they me calle. Line 19552 To ffolk vnworthy, and nat dygne, I am somwhylë most benygne, Lyggynge awayt in euery cost, Line 19555 Off ffolk whom that [[that Tib., om. C., St.]] I cherysshe most. And who that on me set hys lust, I kan deceyve hym off hys trust. Tak hed pleynly, and thow shalt se A pleyn exaumple off thys tre, Line 19560 How thys tre (at O word) May be resemblyd to the world.
¶ 'ffyrst, in thys world be grete estatys, Line 19563 Off kyngës, prynces, and off [[off om. Tib., of St.]] prelátys, Wych in thys erthë [[world St.]] chaungen offte. And the nestys hyh aloffte Ben degrëes [[degrees Tib., degres C., St.]] off lordshepe, That so offte on heihtë lepe, Line 19568 Bothe off hyh and lowh degre.
'And they that al by-nethë be, Loke vp-ward, and al day gaze, As yt wer vp-on A maze: Line 19572 Tho be they, that so offte Desyre for to clymbe aloffte To hih estat and hih degre, ffrom ther estaat off pouerte. Line 19576
'Somme [[(? None), Some Tib., St.]] off hem may longe abyde, ffor I sette hem offte asyde; Wych thyng to hym ys no thyng soote, Whan they be longe pút vnder ffoote Line 19580 Thorgh my double varyaunce. And sommë kan han [[haue St., som kan haue Tib.]] suffysaunce, And ben ryht glad in ther entent [folio 254b] Off the lytel that god hath sent; [Tib folio 61a] Line 19584 They ha [[haueth Tib.]] no care for [[of St., for Tib.]] ther dyspence. And somme haue euere Indygence, And kan with no thyng be content, With coveytyse they be so blent, Line 19588 Wych, for ther ounë wrechchydnesse, [Stowe folio 327b] Lyve euere in pouert and dystresse.
'Touchyng my whel (yt ys no doute,)

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'Wych tourneth euere round aboute, Line 19592 Ther may no man aloffte Abyde But yiff so be I be hys guyde. Yt turneth euere to and ffro; The pley ther-off ys meynt with wo; Line 19596 The wychë whel (who that [[C., St., whiche whel who Tib.]] kan se,) Ys a pereyl off the se, On, the grettest off echon, [[one . . . one St.]] ffor to rekne hem on by on; Line 19600 And, thys phylisoffres alle, 'Karybdis' lyst yt for to calle, Yt devoureth so many A man, Ye, mo than I rehersë kan.' Line 19604
¶ The Pylgrym [[Tib., pilgryme St., om. C.]] :
"Touchyng thy staff, tel on, lat se What maner tookne yt may be, That yt corbyd lych and [[an Tib.]] Crook, And mad in maner off [[lyke St.]] an hook." Line 10608
¶ Dame Fortune [[Tib., om. C.]] :
'With thys Crook, by gret vengaunce, ffolk, that to soon [[to fforne Tib., St.]] I dyde avaunce, Thorgh my transmutacïoun, Al sodeynly I rende hem doun, Line 19612 That sat in chayerys hih aloffte; To whom ther fal ys [[falls St.]] no thyng soffte. [Tib folio 61b] Reyse vp ageyn al sodeynly Other that be nothyng worthy, Line 19616 And cause ek sommë (Est and west) ffor to bylde fful hih ther nest [folio 255a] And ther habytcïoun; Somtyme, off wyl, nat off resoun, Line 19620 I take noon hed off no degre, But only off my volunte.'
¶ The Pylgryme [[Tib., om. C.]] :
"fful ffayn I wolde ek vnderstonde The menyng also off the hond, Line 19624 At the hoolë hyh aloffte, That reyseth vp his crook so offte, The nestys for to rende a-doun: Tel me thexposicïoun." Line 19628

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Line 19628
¶ Dame Fortune [[Tib., om. C.]] :
'The nestys hih vp-on the tre, That ben hyest off degre, Ben they off ryht and good resoun That entre by successïoun, [Stowe folio 328a] Line 19632 As kynges, by iust enherytaunce, Whom that trouthë lyst avaunce [[trouthe habundaunce Tib.]] Only by lyneal dyscent, Hys lyges echon [[leegis echone Tib.]] off assent; Line 19636 Or, [[Or Tib., Off C., of St.]] for lak off successïoun, Swyche as by elleccïoun Ben reysed vp to hih degre, As many princes and lordys be. Line 19640
'Thogh I to hem have envye, To reve hem off ther Regalye, Yet, thogh I ther-to haue no myght ffor to robbe hem off ther ryht, [Tib folio 62a] Line 19644 Yet (who lyst looke with Eyen cler) They be ful offte in my daunger; ffor they may nat assuryd be Ageyn my mutabylyte, Line 19648 Nor ageyn my mortal stryff; ffor offtë sythe they lese her lyff By compassyng off ffals Tresoun, By mordre also, and poysoun. Line 19652 And trewly, al thys frowardnesse [folio 255b] Ys tookned [[tokenyd St.]] by the crookydnesse Off my staff and off my crok, Wrong [[wronge St.]] at the ende, as ys an hook. Line 19656
'And whan I loke with Eyen cler, Lawhe on ffolk, [[folk, om. Tib., folke St.]] and make hem cher, Thanne lygge I rathest in a-wayt, ffor to don hem som deceyt. Line 19660
'Lo, her ys al; go forth [[fforthe Tib., forthe St., foth C.]] thy way; And trustë wel, yiff that I may, What weye euere that thow go, Or thy pylgrymage be do,— Line 19664 Tourne yt to sour, outher to swete,— Onys I shal yet [[ther St.]] with the mete.'
¶ Fortune is walkyd. [[Tib., om. C., St.]]

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And ffortune wente her way A-noon.
And also sone as she was gon, Line 19668 I stood in dred and in gret doute Vp-on hyr whel turnynge aboute, Tyl that, [[That I, Tib.]] by reuolucïoun, I [[I om. Tib.]] was cast fful lowe A-doun, Line 19672 By power off that [[the Tib.]] double quene; ffor, I myghte me nat sustene, In iupartye and in gret dred, Wysshynge that I hadde be ded. [Stowe folio 238b] Line 19676
And in trouble and gret peyne, [Tib folio 62b] Thanne I gan my sylff [[lyffe St.]] compleyne, Dysconsolaat off al vertu, Only for lak off Gracë Dieu, Line 19680 That was whylom to me ffrendly, Whom I ha lost thorgh my foly, [[Stowe]] Wher-off I felte ful [[ful, om. Tib.]] gret offence, That I forsook so penytence, Line 19684 Only (allas!) for lak off grace, By hyr sharpë heggh [[sharp highe St.]] to passe, Wher I myhte have had socours, And medycyne to myn Errours, Line 19688 By hyr spyrytual doctryne ffro the wyche I dyde enclyne. Allas, my woful aventure, [folio 256a] That I lefftë myn Armure Line 19692 Behyndë me, allas, in veyn!
But yiff I myhte hem gete ageyn, [[ageyn Tib., hole in MS. C., get them agayne St.]] I sholdë [[would St.]] lyue bettre in pes, Line 19695 And nó mor ben so rekëles; [[rekeles Tib., rekles C., recles St.]] But, allas my woful ffaate! I make my cómpleynt al to late; ffor I stonde in Iupartye Only off deth, thorgh my ffolye. Line 19700 Allas! what may I now best werche? O sacramentys off the cherche, I hope by gracë wel certeyn, I receyvede yow nat in veyn; Line 19704 But now, allas, that I am falle, I ha lost yow, [[yow yow C., ȝou Tib., yow St.]] on and [[and om. Tib.]] alle,

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And ha no sustentacïoun In my skryppe nor my bordoun, Line 19708 Wher-on that I may lenë me, Toward Ierusalem the cyte.
And thogh al day I studye and muse, How shal I my sylff excuse, Line 19712 Or what answere [Some leaves are out of Tib. A. vii, after these catchwords, 'Or what answere.'] shal I make, Off al that I ha vndertake, And behihte in my corage, To fulfyllë my vyage, Line 19716 What [[(? Whan,) what St.]] fyrst I hadde inspeccïoun Off that noble Royal toun, Wyth-Inne A merour, shene and bryht, Wych gaff to me so cler a lyht, Line 19720 That ther-wyth-al I was a-noon [Stowe folio 329a] Ravysshëd, thyder for to gon; But I may syngë 'weyllaway'; I am arestyd on the way, Line 19724 And dystourblyd her, wepynge.
And whyl I lay thus cómpleynynge, And knewh non helpë nor respyt, A-noon ther kam A dowë whyht Line 19728 Towardys me, by goddys wylle, [folio 256b] And brouhtë me a lytel bylle, And vndyde yt in my syht; Line 19731 And affter that she took hyr flyht, [[St. & C.]] And, fro me gan passe away.
And I, with-outë mor delay, Gan the byllë to vnfolde; And ther-in I gan beholde, Line 19736 How Gracë dieu, to myn avayl, In that bylle gaff me counsayl, 'That I sholde, ful humblëly Knelynge on my knes, [[on knes St.]] deuoutly Line 19740 Saluë, with fful good avys, The blyssede quen off paradys, Wych bar, for Our savacïon, [[savation St.]] Line 19743

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Line 19743 The ffrut off Our redempcïon [[redemtion St.]] And the ffourme off thys prayere Ys ywrete, as ye shal here, In Ordre pleynly (who kan se) By maner off An .A. b. c.; Line 19748 And ye may knowe yt sone, and rede, And seyn yt whan that ye ha nede.
the translator [[St., om. C.]] :
And touchynge the translacioun Off thys noble Orysoun, Line 19752 Whylom (yiff I shal nat feyne) The noble poete off Breteyne, My mayster Chaucer, in hys tyme, Affter the Frenche he dyde yt ryme, Line 19756 Word by word, as in substaunce, Ryght as yt ys ymad in Fraunce, fful devoutly, in sentence, In worshepe, and in reuerence Line 19760 Off that noble hevenly quene, Bothe moder and a maydë clene.
And sythe, he dyde yt vndertake, ffor to translate yt ffor hyr sake, Line 19764 I pray thys [Quene] that ys the beste, [folio 257a] [[C. & St.]] ffor to brynge hys soule at reste, [[C. & St.]] That he may, thorgh hir prayere, [Stowe folio 329b] [[C. & St.]] Aboue the sterrys bryht and clere, [[C. & St.]] Line 19768 Off hyr mercy and hyr grace Apere afforn hyr sonys fface, [[C. & St.]] Wyth seyntys euere, for A memórye, Eternally to regne [[regrne C., rengne St.]] in glorye. Line 19772
And ffor memoyre off that poete, Wyth al hys rethorykës swete, That was the ffyrste in any age That amendede our langage; Line 19776 Therfore, as I am bounde off dette, In thys book I wyl hym sette, And ympen thys Oryson Affter hys translacïon, Line 19780 My purpós to détermyne, That yt shal énlwmyne

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Thys lytyl book, Rud off makyng, Wyth som clause off hys wrytyng. [Compare Scogan's quoting Chaucer's Balade of Gentilnesse, though without its Envoy, in his Poem to his pupils, Henry IV.'s sons. Thynne's Chaucer, 1532, leaf 380, back, col. 1; Urry's, p. 547, col. 1.] Line 19784
And as he made thys Orysoun Off ful devout entencïoun, And by maner off a prayere, Ryht so I wyl yt settyn here, Line 19788 That men may knowe and pleynly se Off Our lady the .A. b. c. [The remainder of this leaf, 257 of the MS., is left blank, the scribe never having copied-in Chaucer's poem. It is printed above from the first of the Society's Parallel-Texts. John Stowe also left blank three leaves of his copy, putting A, B, C, etc., where the successive stanzas should start.]
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