The University of Michigan, an encyclopedic survey ... Wilfred B. Shaw, editor.
University of Michigan.

When Harlan Hatcher assumed the presidency of the University of Michigan in 1951, the United States was at war in Korea, but college students were deferred from the military draft. In Washington Senator Joseph McCarthy was loosely accusing various people of being Communists or "fellow travelers" until he was censured by the Senate. In 1954 the United States Supreme Court made its monumental decision that "separate but equal" facilities for Negroes were not equal because they were separate, and steps toward desegregation must be taken. Two years later Congress passed the Federal Highway Trust Fund which ultimately would cover the country with broad throughways. In 1957 the Russian "sputnik" or satellite was launched into space, and the United States began a concentrated race to catch up and take the lead in rocketry and space exploration. The National Defense Education Act authorized federal grants for advanced study in science and foreign languages. The first American completed an orbit of the earth in 1962. President Kennedy started the Peace Corps in 1961, but his invasion of Cuba against the Castro tyranny failed. In 1963 the State of Michigan wrote and adopted a new constitution, affecting all schools and universities. Before the year was out, President Kennedy was assassinated. The struggle for equal civil rights provoked confrontations everywhere. Military advisers sent to South Vietnam took part in resistance to invasion, and casualties started to mount; anti-Vietnam demonstrations began late in 1965 and continued. Seven cities suffered race riots in 1966. The six-day war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 realigned power in the Middle East. It was against this kaleidoscope of turbulence that President Hatcher took over the leadership of the University.

He had been chosen from among many distinguished candidates and, at the time of his appointment, was Vice-President of Ohio State University. There he had also served as Professor of English and Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Besides his administrative duties he had published works on Browning, the American novel, and modern drama. His four regional studies are of particular interest: The Buckeye Country (1940), Lake Erie (1945), The Western Reserve (1949), and A Century of Iron and Men (1950).

Page  9At his inaugural address November 27, 1951, President Hatcher said: "It is so effortless and tempting to be merely good or mediocre in this great democracy and to lose the pride in fine workmanship. The margin of difference is so small and yet so vital." Thus he sounded the trumpet for quality in higher education, which he never ceased to advocate and maintain.

When his administration began, resident credit enrollment stood at 17,226 students plus 2,926 in Extension courses, for a total of 20,025. Of the first figure, 9,867 were undergraduates, 4,844 were graduates, and 2,515 were in graduate professional schools. The average salary of a full professor in the undergraduate colleges was a little more than $9,000. When President Hatcher retired at the end of 1967, enrollment stood at 34,514, plus 2,769 in Extension courses; of the first figure 21,087 were undergraduates, 9,729 were graduates, and 3,698 were in graduate professional schools. Full professors were earning $16,800 on the average. The faculty had nearly doubled from 1,191 (full-time equivalents of all ranks and teaching fellows) to 2,194. The total University budget had grown from $44 million to almost $220 million. Sources of that money included the state appropriation, federal contracts and grants, student fees, interest on endowment funds, gifts, and auxiliary activities. These basic physical measurements of growth demonstrate the expansion of the institution for whose operations the President is primarily responsible.

The job of president of a large, state-supported university has been called "impossible" because of the several constituencies that must be satisfied and rarely can be. They are the Regents, the faculty, the state legislature, the students, the alumni, and the citizens of the state. Seldom do they agree on the kind of university each wants. The President's position is that of a leader without power. He must explain, persuade, inspire, set an example, and show his integrity. Time will tell how well President Hatcher succeeded, but when he left office he held the respect and often the affection of a majority among each of the constituencies noted above.

As provided by law, President Hatcher presided at the Regents' meetings. He never brought business before the board without a recommendation for action. He arrived at his recommendations usually after consulting his executive officers (the vice-presidents and secretary), who met with him weekly (his innovation), or by consulting Page  10with the deans and directors, who met with him monthly. From these experts and fact finders he was able to analyze and clarify issues for the Regents, answer their questions, and justify his recommendations.

He realigned and enlarged the top administrative positions. The position of Provost was abolished and replaced by a Vice-President and Dean of Faculties. Marvin L. Niehuss, who had been Vice-President for University Relations under President Ruthven, was appointed to the post while still keeping responsibility for seeing the University's appropriation request through the state legislature. University relations with the public were placed under a director, Arthur L. Brandon. Wilbur K. Pierpont, newly-appointed Vice-President for Business and Finance, was continued in that position. Hatcher found that the Deans of Men and Women, the Health Service, the Registrar and Admissions Office, the International Center, and the Bureau of Appointments were all reporting directly to him; these he now placed under James A. Lewis, a new Vice-President for Student Affairs. Professor Erich A. Walter became Assistant to the President and then Secretary of the University.

In 1957 William E. Stirton was appointed to a new vice-presidency for liaison with industry, business, and professional groups. It was he who headed the Dearborn Center when it was organized. The Director of University Relations was elevated to a Vice-Presidency in 1969 when Lyle Nelson was serving. He was followed by Michael Radock. The same year a Vice-President for Research was authorized, and Dean Ralph A. Sawyer of the Rackham Graduate School took on this duty. Upon his retirement in 1964, A. Geoffrey Norman succeeded him as Vice-President. A new Vice-President for Academic Affairs was created in 1962 to take over the duties Vice-President Niehuss had exercised as head of faculties. Dean Roger Heyns of the College of Literature, Science and the Arts presided over the monthly meetings of deans, relieving the President of this duty. When he left in 1965, he was succeeded by Allan F. Smith of the Law School. Richard L. Cutler followed Lewis as Vice-President for Student Affairs. Professor Niehuss's title was changed to Executive Vice-President, and he acted as the chief executive officer in the absence of the President.

State Relations. — No president can escape the task of fund raising, whether it be among alumni, foundations, business corporations, or state legislatures. Although Page  11Vice-President Niehuss and his assistants met with legislative committees and supplied them with factual data on needs, President Hatcher himself was actively involved.

The state appropriation grant in the summer of 1952 was $16,900,000. In 1957 the sum voted was $30,250,000. But in 1958 the University suffered an unexpected reduction in appropriation when the state was not able to finance its obligations. The University was forced to borrow to pay its suppliers and meet its payroll. Two years later the University's annual budget reached $100 million, and the state appropriation amounted to $33,367,000.

The new state constitution, written and adopted in 1963, maintained the constitutional status of the University, but created a State Board of Education for planning and coordinating requests from the several state universities and for advising the legislature. A proviso was added that "the power of the boards of institutions of higher learning" — like the Regents — "to supervise their respective institutions and control and direct the expenditure of the institution's funds shall not be limited by this section." Pessimists feared that the State Board, far from confining itself principally to primary and secondary schools as the constitution intended, would try to manage the state universities. For the first few years, the State Board was beset by internal troubles, but after President Hatcher's retirement it did try to usurp the powers of the governing boards until it was sued for clarification of its powers. The State Supreme Court ruled in favor of the complete authority of the several university governing boards. (See Constitutional Status of the University.)

The President welcomed the interim report of the Governor's Citizens Committee on Higher Education in November 1963, prepared under the direction of former Congressman Alvin M. Bentley. It recognized the problems created by surging enrollments, rising costs of operation, restricted capital facilities, and inadequate appropriations. It recommended an immediate increase in grants for higher education of "not less than $135 million for the year 1964-65" and capital outlay appropriations of "about $48 million to $49 million per year for at least several years". The state legislature was rocked by the report and did not meet the recommendations, but did recognize the documented need with increased money bills.

The last fiscal year for which President Hatcher was Page  12responsible, 1967-68, the University budget was $219,413,916, of which the state appropriated $59,161,000. University expenditures had multiplied 3-1/2 times from his first year in office.

Faculties. — Shortly after taking office, President Hatcher had to fill several deanships. The new School of Social Work, organized in 1951, was put under Dean Fedele Fauri from Washington, but formerly director of the Michigan State Department of Social Welfare. Professor George Granger Brown of the Chemical Engineering Department was named Dean of the College of Engineering and remained until his death in 1957. Dean Tom Rowe, from Rutgers University, was brought in to be Dean of the College of Pharmacy, which embarked on a five-year program for its degree. Charles E. Odegaard, secretary of the American Council of Learned Societies, was appointed Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts in 1952. Richard G. Folsum of the University of California succeeded A.E. White as Director of the Engineering Research Institute. Both men left in 1958 to assume the presidencies of other universities.

In his second year President Hatcher appointed several new directorships. John C. Kohl of the College of Engineering was made Director of the new Transportation Institute of that College. Alan MacCarthy was named Director of a new Development Council which grew out of the successful Memorial Phoenix campaign. He became the first permanent official devoted to private fund raising. Dr. Frederick H. Wagman, from the Library of Congress, was made Director of the University Libraries, and Howard H. Peckham, Director of the Indiana Historical Bureau, and formerly a curator in the William L. Clements Library, was appointed to head that Library. The University Press was reorganized, and Frederick Wieck was named director.

A new succession of deans occurred in 1957-58. Allan F. Smith succeeded E. Blythe Stason as Dean of the Law School. Floyd A. Bond succeeded Russell Stevenson as Dean of the School of Business Administration. Dr. William Hubbard followed Dr. A.C. Furstenberg as Dean of the Medical School, and Dr. Myron Wegman was named Dean of the School of Public Health. James B. Wallace was made Dean of the School of Music upon the retirement of Earl V. Moore. Stephen Attwood succeeded Dean Brown as head of the College of Engineering. Philip Youtz was named to succeed Wells Bennett as Dean of the College of Architecture and Design. Charles Sawyer of Yale was made Director of the University Art Museum. Roger Heyns of the Psychology Department and Associate Dean was promoted to Dean of the College of Page  13Literature, Science, and the Arts when Dean Odegaard resigned; Heyns was made a Vice-President in 1962 and was succeeded as dean by William Haber of the Economics Department.

A scholar himself, President Hatcher looked for great scholars to add to the faculty and rewarded veteran ones. To keep pace with enrollment, 66 new faculty were added in 1953, 100 in 1954, and 123 in 1956. Because Ph.D. holders were scarce, the number of teaching fellows (candidates for the doctoral degree) had to be increased, rising to 20 percent of the faculty in 1957. The University found itself in stiff competition with private industry and with government not only for academic teachers and researchers, but also for secretaries and artisans. Besides salary improvements, the University had to offer fringe benefits competitive with private and federal employment. The University contribution toward pensions, Blue Cross-Blue Shield health coverage was raised, and protection against major medical expenses and group life insurance was offered. Travel insurance became automatic for faculty moving about on University business. The University placed itself under Social Security and contributed to retirement insurance. Periodic health examinations were offered free of charge to senior faculty in 1956.

Certain University professorships named for former scholars on campus had been initiated in President Ruthven's time as honorary awards to distinguished professors. President Hatcher increased this number and persuaded the Regents to add an extra stipend. He made suggestions to a Needs Committee of the alumni which resulted in the creation in 1956 of five Distinguished Faculty Awards of $1,000 each, given annually from funds provided by the alumni. Four years later the Chicago U-M Club began providing $500 each for five Distinguished Service Awards to younger faculty. President Hatcher was also remarkably lenient in allowing faculty members who obtained Foundation grants to take research leaves in addition to the usual sabbatical leave. Hatcher was deeply committed to the liberal arts program for all students. He felt the University was not a place for vocational training, and he did not favor remedial courses. He believed that faculty should excel in teaching and research, and he advised the deans to emphasize teaching ability in assessing promotions.

As President, Hatcher did not dodge painful decisions. Page  14He was presented with a distressing situation in 1954 when a Michigan Congressman, who was a member of the House Subcommittee on Un-American Activities, decided to hold a one-man hearing in Michigan. Three faculty members — an instructor, an assistant professor in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, and an associate professor in the Medical School — were called before him and refused to answer some of his questions, citing the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution. The Regents had provided certain procedures for faculty dismissals, and President Hatcher did not hesitate. On May 10 he suspended the three faculty members "without prejudice and with pay." The Senate Advisory Committee appointed committees to investigate each case and hear each suspended professor and submit recommendations. They advised dismissal of the instructor and censure but reinstatement of the assistant professor; by a vote of three to two they also favored censure and reinstatement of the associate professor. The Medical School Dean and executive committee, however, submitted a unanimous recommendation for dismissal of their colleague. With conflicting recommendations on one man, President Hatcher met with the Regents in August. They concurred with his decision to dismiss the instructor (subsequently jailed for contempt), to dismiss the associate professor (who migrated to Canada), and to censure the assistant professor. The American Association of University Professors made no objection to procedure or judgments.

In the early 1950s a veritable parade of Far Eastern officials visited the United States President, usually in search of economic aid. The State Department arranged a tour for them as they returned to the West Coast. The favored route included New York City, Niagara Falls, the automotive factories of Detroit, and the University of Michigan. In succession there appeared the heads of states from Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Ethiopia, and The Netherlands.

Upon the crushing news of President Kennedy's assassination on Friday, November 22, 1963, Hatcher consulted his executive officers and conferred with the president of Ohio State University, then canceled the Ohio State-Michigan football game scheduled for the following day. On Monday, the day of the President's funeral, classes were dismissed, and Hatcher conducted a memorial service at Hill auditorium for students and faculty.

Page  15Hatcher had previously invited President Kennedy to speak at the 1964 Commencement. He repeated that invitation to President Johnson who accepted. The President delivered his address on "The Great Society," forecasting some directions his administration would take.

In an effort to utilize campus buildings continuously and to meet rising enrollments, President Hatcher and the Regents proposed a steady year-round operation by means of either the quarter system or trimester system. Either proposal required shortening of semester courses or lengthening them to cover three quarters. The faculty was deeply affected and was reluctant to abandon the two-semester calendar which had been in effect for more than 110 years. Faculty members did not favor the quarter system, with which Hatcher was familiar at Ohio State, and somewhat reluctantly agreed to three terms a year. The new calendar was worked out under Vice-President Heyns and put into effect with the 1964-65 year. Semester offerings were slightly shortened, and the third term — May through August — was broken in half to accommodate school teachers and students from other colleges who could attend only the second half of that term, corresponding to the traditional Summer Session.

Campus Development. — The Regents' acquisition of 700 acres on the north side of the Huron River just prior to President Hatcher's appointment, left to his judgment the recommendations as to the buildings to be erected there and the priorities of construction. Architect Eero Saarinen was chosen to plan the development of a second, or North, campus.

The first building — the Mortimer E. Cooley Laboratory, named in honor of the former Dean of the College of Engineering — was dedicated in 1953. Next to it rose the Michigan Memorial Phoenix building, for which funds had been raised after the war; it housed an atomic reactor given by the Ford Motor Company. When it was finished in 1955, the Atomic Energy Commission allocated uranium for the operation of the reactor, dedicated to research on the peaceful uses of atomic power. The next structure to be erected was a storage library for little-used books, and quarters for the University Printing department. Two buildings for the College of Engineering followed: the Automotive Laboratory and the Fluids Engineering Laboratory. Apartment housing for married students developed rapidly on the far north hilltop. A new School of Music, housing departments previously scattered in a dozen locations, was opened in 1966.

Page  16Meanwhile, on the Central Campus the Undergraduate Library of open stacks was built and opened in January 1958. Two wings had been added to the rear of Angell Hall in 1952. In 1957 a new Student Activities Building was completed, and the former Ann Arbor High School was taken over by the University, renovated and named the Frieze Building. A building for the University Press was built. The Pharmacy Research Building was built in 1960, and the Physics-Astronomy Building opened in 1963. In President Hatcher's last year, the new Dental School building was begun.

At the Medical Center there was great development with state and private funds. An Outpatient Clinic was erected in 1952. The Kresge Medical Research Building opened the next year, and a second unit was added in 1964. A Children's Psychiatric Hospital was constructed in 1955, and a Mental Health Research Institute building was completed four years later. A Medical Science building was added in 1958, and the Kresge Hearing Institute opened in 1962. The School of Nursing obtained a building of its own in 1958 adjacent to the newly-completed Medical Science I Building.

Student Relations. — Student activities were under the supervision of a Dean of Men and a Dean of Women. Occasionally there were outbursts of high spirits among the students (such as the much-publicized "panty-raids") which caused a public uproar and made demands upon the President and the administration to take action. Hatcher, however, while not defending such conduct, refused to make an issue of it, and eventually this pre-war exuberance wore itself out. Politics attracted little student interest in the 1950s. Although the Michigan Daily endorsed Adlai Stevenson for President in 1952, a straw poll showed that 64 percent of the students favored Dwight Eisenhower. It was in 1956 that the first "beatniks" emerged on campus. They rejected all political and social concerns, were proud of "dropping out," and showed their contempt for the Establishment by such things as wearing sloppy clothes and growing unkempt beards. They exhibited an adolescent anti-intellectualism which made their presence on campus somewhat disturbing. This, too, leveled off in time, and in 1960 John F. Kennedy attracted young people to politics again, with particular enthusiasm for the Peace Corps.

With the appearance of the Russian "Sputnik" in October 1957, student interest was challenged and there was an upsurge in enrollment in engineering and science. Page  17The faculty responded with a proposal to man an "Institute for Science and Technology," where graduate students might concentrate in basic research. The state funded a new building for the Institute in 1959. The federal government created a National Science Foundation to encourage faculty research and to subsidize graduate students of scientific promise. The National Defense Education Act of 1958 encouraged science and language instruction and allowed grants to needy students.

By 1961-62 students were rebelling at obsolete rules of conduct and their implication of immaturity. Dissatisfaction centered on such things as the ban on automobiles, restrictive hours for co-eds, and the authority of the offices of the Dean of Men and Women. To meet this growing rebellion Hatcher appointed a commission, under John Reed of the Law School, to review the philosophy of student policy. After a long study, the commission, in February 1962, recommended restructuring the office of Vice-President for Student Affairs to serve only the financial and housing needs and the organized activities of the student body. Union and League activities were to be combined under a University Activities Center. It was also suggested that students be appointed to serve on certain University committees. Enrollment had grown so large that the administration was forced to modify its position in loco parentis and to adopt the more sophisticated attitude of European universities toward student behavior outside the classroom. The offices of the Dean of Men and the Dean of Women were abolished.

The fledgling Students for a Democratic Society, founded in 1960 at the University of Chicago, had no impact here until after its meeting in Port Huron in 1962. Tom Hayden, who had served as editor of the Michigan Daily while in school, was the principal host and author of a statement or manifesto. Shadowed by fear of the atomic bomb and distressed by racial bigotry, the Society planned to remake America. It deplored student apathy and called for a participatory democracy, even to suggesting that students and faculty take the control of universities away from the "administrative bureaucracy" so as to make the campus a base for general social change. As a matter of course, the Society was an enthusiastic participant in the anti-Vietnam demonstrations. But by 1969 S.D.S split into quarreling factions and, because of unwarranted violence, lost much of its influence.

The Michigan Daily became an ardent supporter of S.D.S. Page  18and in 1963 grew voluble in denouncing racial and religious clauses in the national constitutions of fraternities and sororities. As early as 1952, President Hatcher had refused to punish local chapters for the rules of their national organizations, and he remained firm in this view. Student attention also focused on racial bias in the South as it affected jobs, restaurant service, and schools, even going so far as to picket a local dime store because in the South this chain did not serve Negroes. In March of 1965 about fifty students joined the protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, over discrimination in seating of city buses. That same month a group of fourteen faculty announced that they were canceling their classes on March 24 to protest the United States policy in Vietnam. The whole State reacted in objection, and Hatcher, who personally was opposed to the Vietnam venture, declared that "dismissing classes is certainly not an acceptable method of registering a political opinion." He did, however, support Dean Haber's offer of a building in which to stage an all-night "teach-in" about the war. The speeches and discussions, all against U.S. policy, attracted some 2,500 students whose enthusiasm and numbers dwindled to less than 500 after midnight.

In the fall of 1963 the University opened two coeducational dormitories as part of an effort to promote greater maturity among students. Men's and women's wings were separated, but the residents shared dining rooms and study areas. It was hoped that both manners and dress would improve. Senior women were allowed to live in apartments. For a time it was difficult to fill the dormitories, but the later recession caused a demand for more rooms than were available. The responsibilities assumed by students showed up in a falling drop-out rate among freshmen from about 8 percent down to 5 percent. In 1966-67 the University had 244 National Science Foundation fellowship holders, making it rank fifth in the nation and second among state universities. At the same time subsidies for graduate studies by the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation were impressively large. For disadvantaged students, the University developed an Opportunity Awards Program. New courses and new curriculums challenged all students. With a generous Ford Foundation grant, new studies in the Near East and Far East were developed. Area studies in general flourished.

Continuing enrollment pressures raised the question of how additional students in the College of Literature, Page  19Science and the Arts might be accommodated in the manner of a small school. President Hatcher endorsed the curriculum committee's recommendation of a separate residential unit within the College. Students would live and attend classes in the same building, and a common core of courses would be required. A few teaching fellows and counselors would also live in. The Residential College opened in 1967.

The military draft became somewhat of a student problem, although the Student Government Council favored the policy by which students in good standing would be deferred until graduation. Nevertheless, a group of 32 students and five junior faculty members staged a "sit-in" at the Ann Arbor Draft Board office in October 1965. When they refused to leave, all were arrested and ultimately convicted and sentenced to fines or jail terms. It was a simple and hard lesson with which the University did not interfere. President Hatcher declared that, while as citizens, the students had the same freedom of speech and petition as is guaranteed to all citizens by our Constitution no matter how obnoxious they might render themselves, by the same principle, if they violated a law, it was the responsibility of the law enforcement agencies to take action and dispense punishment.

Further protest disruptions followed, however. In September of 1966 a group of students invaded Vice-President Pierpont's office and held a "sleep-in," without any results. The following year they turned their attention to opposing classified research within the University that might possibly have military uses. The Daily lashed out editorially proclaiming that the "movement" was going to "restructure the University." In spite of Vice-President Smith's efforts to explain the University's aims and motives in frequent meetings with their editorial staff, they failed to understand the purpose and philosophy behind certain University policy decisions. President Hatcher bore this behavior with patience and humor.

Relations with Alumni. — The Michigan Memorial Phoenix Project — to raise money for research on the peaceful uses of atomic energy in memory of the University's war dead — was still in progress when President Hatcher arrived. The goal was $6,500,000. In 1952 this amount was surpassed by a gift of $1 million from the Ford Motor Company for a nuclear reactor. President Hatcher visited alumni clubs around the country to thank them for their contribution to the first big financial request ever made by the Page  20University to its graduates. If the alumni were agreeably impressed by the new president's idealism and dynamism, he, in turn, was struck by the loyalty and enthusiasm of this immense body of graduates.

The Phoenix fund raisers, their job well done, were reorganized into a Development Council to encourage annual giving to an Alumni Fund. President Hatcher appointed President-emeritus Ruthven as adviser to the group. In the first year $110,000 was raised — not much more than expenses, but by 1964 the total had jumped to over $1 million and would keep rising.

In 1969 another $2 million was raised to continue atomic research at the Phoenix Memorial.

In 1964, when President Hatcher offered proposals to the Board of Regents for the observance of the University's founding — a Sesquicentennial celebration for 1967 — his plans included a major fund-raising campaign and a goal of $55 million was adopted, and the Development Council supervised the drive under Vice-President Radock. To everyone's astonishment a total of over $74 million was raised. This bespoke the deep and wide-spread loyalty of the alumni to their University, but it also indicated that President Hatcher's even-handed administration and devotion to excellence were highly respected.

The campus office of the Alumni Association was largely self-supporting. The University provided space in Alumni Memorial Hall. But as the Development Council grew more active and alumni not belonging to the Association were drawn into giving, the University extended support to this office. New programs were developed, and the growing staff was moved to the Michigan Union, allowing Alumni Hall to be used exclusively as an Art Museum. Summer camps for alumni families and alumni trips abroad became a popular feature of the Association.

Since 1923 the Flint Junior College had been offering preparatory and preprofessional courses with the expectation that students would complete the requirements for the bachelor's degree elsewhere. As early as 1944 there were suggestions that the University establish a branch in Flint. After many exploratory surveys, it was decided in 1956 to open a branch of the University of Michigan in Flint, with its own dean and resident faculty as a degree-granting center. In a similar move, the Ford Page  21family deeded to the University the Fairlane estate of the late Henry Ford in Dearborn, with the understanding that the University would establish there a senior college to supplement the neighboring Henry Ford Junior College. It was to be a degree-granting, two-year institution in engineering and business administration primarily. It was also geared to enlist the interest and support of Detroit area manufacturers through a student work program. President Hatcher again recommended acceptance of this challenge. Vice-President Stirton took charge of this Dearborn Center on its inception in 1959.

Of benefit and delight to the Ann Arbor community and southeastern Michigan was the inauguration in 1961 of a Professional Theater Program to which President Hatcher gave his enthusiastic backing and support. The several series of concerts and the May Festival, sponsored by the University Musical Society, had already made Ann Arbor a musical center and now this new program brought professional actors and current theatrical productions direct from New York runs.

In 1958 the presidents of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago pioneered a program of mutual benefit by forming a Committee on Institutional Cooperation. Each of these universities had varied facilities for graduate concentration, and it seemed reasonable to permit students at any of the member universities to use these facilities. Traveling fellowships and dual enrollment were offered. Certain summer programs of limited appeal were rotated from one university to another. The same department at all eleven institutions might combine to sponsor a research project too big for any one university to undertake alone. The Committee also acted as an agent to deal with the federal government.

In 1959 the United States State Department and the Ford Foundation sponsored a special educational mission to Soviet Russia. President Hatcher was appointed to head the delegation. After a visit of several weeks, Hatcher reported that the U.S.S.R. was putting 2.5 percent of its budget into higher education, exclusive of medical training, while the United States was putting slightly less than 1 percent into all higher education, including medical training. Furthermore, 80 percent of all Soviet students received a stipend for attending a university and paid no tuition or fees. President Hatcher felt strongly that the State of Michigan should do more for its universities.

Page  22The University of Michigan belongs to the Association of American Universities in which the members are represented by their presidents. Dr. Hatcher served as secretary and vice-president before being elected president of the Association in 1963 for a three-year term. He moved independently of the Association to inaugurate a mutual assistance project with Tuskegee Institute. It was to show what one large northern university could do to help one southern Black college by exchange of students and faculty and joint programs of mutual benefit. The connection began in 1963 and proved to be a dimension of integration far beyond that of enrolling more Blacks at our University.

In 1966 the State Department again chose President Hatcher as their representative to attend the third United States-Japan Conference on Cultural and Educational Exchange held in Tokyo.

Following a series of symposiums and numerous ceremonies in celebration of the University's Sesquicentennial throughout 1967, President Hatcher retired at the end of the year. He left a physical plant more than doubled in buildings and facilities, a student body that had nearly doubled in size and, despite the pressures and temptations of the time, had never rioted or successfuly dictated to the administration, an enlarged faculty of great distinction, the largest living alumni body in the nation, and a state government convinced that its University deserved steady support. It was a brilliant accomplishment of devoted application and sound judgments.