The Biological Station
The University Biological Station was established in 1909 on the shore of Douglas Lake in Cheboygan County. For twenty years it shared with the surveying camp the use of the fourteen-hundred-acre Bogardus Tract, obtained partly by gift and partly by purchase from Colonel and Mrs. Charles Bogardus, of Pellston, Michigan, in 1908. Here the Biological Station and the surveying camp, first named Camp Bogardus and later Camp Davis in honor of Professor Joseph Baker Davis, for many years Associate Dean of the College of Engineering, operated side-by-side. In 1929 after Camp Davis was moved to Jackson, Wyoming, the entire tract was occupied by the Biological Station.
Through gifts from alumni and purchases by the University, but mainly through gifts of tax-delinquent land from the state of Michigan, the area of the Bogardus Tract has been increased until in 1954 it totaled more than 8,850 acres, situated in Cheboygan and Emmet counties, with frontage on both Douglas and Burt lakes. During the period 1930-50 a large part of the barren and cutover area was planted to various types of pines. With plantings and protective supervision, most of the tract is regaining natural forest condition.
The central and western parts of the Biological Station contain most of the buildings and retain the general layout established by Camp Davis during its twenty years of occupancy under the directorship of Professor Clarence T. Johnston of the Department of Civil Engineering. Originally a colony of tents, the surveying camp was soon laid out, with streets, sidewalks, fifty single-room residence cottages, five classrooms, a caretaker's residence, a garage, a covered harbor, two shops, a kitchen and two dining rooms, a recreation building, and other smaller structures. All of these buildings had steel-covered wooden frames, and most of them had concrete floors. An electrical distribution system, a well and gravity pressure water system, and a sewage system were installed.
The Biological Station was established through the initiative of Professor Jacob E. Reighard of the Department of Zoology (see Part IV: The Biological Station) and George P. Burns of the Department of Botany and was directed during the first years by Reighard. In the beginning, using two log buildings of the abandoned Bogardus railroad grading camp as laboratories and tents as cottages, the members of the Biological Station endured a rugged life. During the first twelve summers meals were obtained at the surveying camp dining room.
Under the directorship of Professor George La Rue, at the Biological Station in the years 1920-29 were constructed fifteen laboratory and other general service buildings and thirty-seven residences, all single-room houses with asphalt roofing and siding on wooden frames, and with concrete floors.
After the removal of Camp Davis to Jackson, Wyoming, the enlarged camp was laid out with two streets paralleling the lake shore, connected by five cross streets and radiating roads. A large administration building with offices, store, dining room, and kitchen, and two large laboratory buildings, one with two and the other with four rooms, all of concrete Page 1593and steel construction, were added. During the next ten years the camp and buildings were adapted to efficient use. An additional faculty house, of log construction, a forestry building, a saw mill, and a laboratory-area lavatory building were erected, and electricity was extended to the eastern part of the tract.
The enlargement of the plant introduced a period of increased interest on the part of students and research workers in outdoor biology and a consequent expansion of the scientific program. Enlargement of the physical plant again became necessary, but was delayed because of unfavorable economic conditions and World War II. Since 1945, under the directorship of Professor Alfred H. Stockard, steady progress has been made. By 1955 three more faculty houses of log construction, a large shop-garage, an adequate library, an animal house, a water-heater building, a laundry, a chemical storage building, and three community shower and lavatory buildings, all of concrete block construction, and a duplex guest house had been erected. In addition, during this period the caretaker's house was enlarged; one other building was equipped with showers; twelve faculty houses, seven investigator houses, three guest houses, and the three-unit health service were renovated and equipped with bathrooms; a new well was drilled; and the electrical system and sewerage system were modernized. All of the laboratories were renovated, and three buildings released by new construction were converted into laboratories. The kitchen was re-equipped with modern electrical appliances, and the dining room and store were refurnished. Numerous pieces of general and scientific equipment were acquired, including the purchase of twenty-seven boats of various sizes and the construction of a 35-foot cabin work cruiser adequate for use on the Great Lakes.
The scientific program at the Biological Station has been expanded as the plant has been improved. Teaching fields and research activities have been broadened and intensified until the major groups of plants and animals and the major types of environment now are included in the teaching and research program. In 1955 the fields of interest numbered eight in zoology, seven in botany, and one in forestry. The number of scientific books and articles based on work at the Station by 1955 numbered more than 850.
The Station has 148 buildings occupying a thirty-acre campus on a tract of 8,850 acres, with equipment and other facilities adequate for 250 summer residents and the teaching and research needs for 150 students, faculty, and other scientific workers.
Davis Engineering Camp
Before 1874 all University surveying instruction had been given at Ann Arbor. Professor DeVolson Wood had repeatedly requested establishment of a camp for advanced work in surveying. In the spring of 1872, when his requests were not granted by the Regents, Wood resigned.
He had six instruments at his disposal in 1871. These had been acquired from year to year since the early 1850's, when the first course in surveying was offered. A Buff and Berger transit 177 and a Gurley transit without number, a Green transit theodolite without number, a Stackpole level, an Eckel and Imhoff 178, and a Buff and Berger dumpy level were acquired prior to 1865. Four compasses and a Burt solar had also been acquired before 1865. An aneroid barometer manufactered in Philadelphia was purchased during the early 1860's, a Würdemann transit theodolite in 1871, a Page 1594Blunt transit in 1879, and Eckel and Imhoff transits 301 and 879 in 1873.
Joseph Baker Davis came to the University in 1872. The surveying camp was established by Davis in 1874, and the first session, attended by twenty-four students, was held at Whitmore Lake, Washtenaw County, in May and June of that year. The Clifton House provided food and shelter. An Eckel and Imhoff plane table and two Philadelphia rods were purchased in 1874. Davis had no assistants. The camp continued to run for four weeks during May and June of each year until 1900. From 1900 through 1908 the period was six weeks, and in 1909 became eight weeks.
Among the sites used for the camp in the early years were Thornapple Lake, Barry County; Simpson Lake, Crawford County; Village Green, Unadilla, Livingston County; Clear Lake, Jackson County; Maple River, Clinton County; Appleton's Lake, Livingston County; Old Mission, Grand Traverse County; Clam Lake, Antrim County; Frankfort, Benzie County; Carp Lake, Leelanau County; Fountain Point, Carp Lake, Leelanau County; Glen Lake, Leelanau County.
In February, 1908, $2,500, or so much thereof "as might be necessary," was appropriated for the purchase of a camp site for the surveying class in the field and $1,000 for moving the camp and fitting it up for use. The President named Regent Carey and Professors J. B. Davis and M. E. Cooley a committee to select the site.
In June, 1908, the following letter was received from Colonel and Mrs. Charles Bogardus, presenting to the University 1,400 acres of land at Douglas Lake for the consideration of $2,500 appropriated by the Regents. This sum was so small in relation to the size and value of the land, that the site has always been regarded as a gift:
Pellston, Mich., June 3, 1908
Hon. Henry W. Carey, Regent of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan:
My Dear Sir — After thinking over the matter of the needs of the University of lands, water frontage, etc., having certain essential requirements as expressed so clearly to Mrs. Bogardus and myself at our house last evening by Dean Cooley, Professor Davis, and yourself, and that in your opinion we have lands possessing all these requirements, and the further examination of those lands today proving, as your Committee tells me, that said lands are exceptionally well adapted — in fact, as they say, "ideal for purposes needed by the University"; and realizing that benefits to these young people will be of lasting value to themselves, to this and to the other states and countries they represent, and that the "cherished hopes" of your Committee may be realized for the acquirement of about fourteen hundred acres, mapped by them today, as their desideratum, and that the good work you contemplate may begin at once with ample grounds, therefore, Mrs. Bogardus and myself will accept your appropriation of Twenty-five Hundred Dollars in part payment, and it gives us great pleasure to ask you to kindly accept from us, as a gift to the University, the difference between the Twenty-five Hundred Dollars and the real value of this property.
You insisted that a value should be placed upon the property, which we much dislike to do, it being largely a gift. However, we should think approximately Twenty-five Thousand Dollars would be a low value for it; a part of it would not be priced or disposed of at all for other purposes…
Very sincerely yours,
Hannah W. Bogardus
Thus, the University acquired 1,441 acres in T. 37 N., R. 3 W., in Cheboygan County, on Douglas Lake. On motion of Regent Hill, it was voted that this property be named The Bogardus Engineering Camp of the University of Michigan.
In October, an additional sum of Page 1595$1,100, making $2,100 in all, was appropriated to move the camp from Burdickville to Douglas Lake. The Board appropriated $2,500 for the purchase of additional land desired in the development of the camp in January, 1909. In July, 1914, Regent Hubbard reported that he had secured options on five hundred and twenty acres of land adjoining the camp.
The President's Report for 1920-21 reported:
The Douglas Lake region is as favorable for field work in surveying as it is delightful in its climate. The tract of 3,200 acres, situated between Douglas and Burt lakes, affords with its hills and valleys, partly in woods and partly in clearings, excellent opportunities for practice in land, railroad, and canal surveying, and coast, geodetic, and topographic work. It is planned to add other parcels of land which will extend the tract completely around the east end and along the north shore of Douglas Lake; and further embrace Burt Lake to the east and west of the University's present shore line. These additional lands should be acquired as early as possible to prevent their occupation by summer residents, and to give the greater scope desired for the work without trespassing. During the past nine years permanent improvements have been made at Camp Davis having an estimated value of $7,244. As the labor involved was contributed by staff and students, the cost to the University has been only the $698 expended for materials. Through the camp fee of $10, which goes to the support of the camp, equipment amounting to $6,719 has been purchased. Thus the plant, exclusive of land, has cost to date in direct outlay $15,637; or, including staff and student labor (contributed), $22,881…
(P.R., 1920-21, pp. 191-92.)
In 1916 the name of the camp was changed to Davis Engineering Camp in honor of Joseph Baker Davis. At the March meeting of that year the Board voted that hereafter the lands owned by the University between Douglas and Burt lakes should be designated as the "Bogardus Tract." In the same year the sum of $3,750 was set aside for the purchase of 750 more acres on Douglas Lake adjoining the camp.
In 1928, Professor C. T. Johnston, who had been in charge of the camp since 1912, with Professors Carey, Brodie, and Bouchard, went to northwestern Wyoming under instructions to select a new site for the camp. Such a site was found in the valley of the Hoback River, seventy-five miles south of Yellowstone National Park. A complete report was presented, and the Regents approved the purchase of 120 acres of the land in February, 1929, for $2,500.
During the spring recess Bouchard, McFarlan, Young, Bonin, Johnston, and six student assistants went to Douglas Lake, where camp equipment was crated and shipped to Victor, Idaho. The twelve students who attended arrived in June. Instruction was delayed for two weeks in order that the students might assist in construction. During the summer fourteen buildings, all 14 by 14 feet, the keeper's house, a kitchen, dining room, the instrument room, a shop, and a storehouse were completed. A connecting road was built and a water system, a modern sanitary system, and a power plant were installed.
From 1938 to 1951 the field work in surveying and in geology was united at Camp Davis. Since 1951 instruction in geology has been limited to engineering geology.
In 1940 two new buildings were constructed, a residence cabin and a large laboratory and recreation building measuring 28 by 40 feet, named Johnston Hall. Three additional cabins were built in 1947.
In 1949, $4,000 was appropriated for necessary construction work and other items needed for the successful conduct of the camp. In 1950, $4,000 more was appropriated to provide funds for operating Page 1596expenses during the summer of 1950, $1,500 of this amount to be used for surveying equipment, $1,500 for geology equipment, and $1,000 for refrigeration.
Camp Filibert Roth
Soon after the establishment of the School of Forestry and Conservation in 1927 it was decided that the organization of summer instruction in forestry should be undertaken without delay. Accordingly, in 1928, Professor Robert Craig, Jr., was assigned the task of finding a suitable site for a camp in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.
As a result of the summer's investigation, Beaver Lake Basin in Alger County was selected for the proposed development. Because of the complicated ownership of the Basin and financial limitations, the University was not able to obtain immediate possession of it. At the suggestion of the Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company, it was decided to use a temporary site generously offered by that company.
The University opened its first forestry camp in June, 1929, at an abandoned logging camp eight miles west and south of Munising in Alger County, and one mile south of the Eight-Mile Corner on the road between Munising and Forest Lake. It was named Camp Filibert Roth in honor of Professor Filibert Roth, one of the pioneers in forestry in the United States and head of the Department of Forestry at the University of Michigan from 1903 until his retirement in 1923. Robert Craig, Jr., was appointed Director and continued in that position through 1947, when he was succeeded by Associate Professor John Carow.
The available buildings left much to be desired. They were a group of abandoned tar-paper shacks. The only source of water was a well 165 feet deep with a hand pump which required seventeen strokes to bring the first water to the surface. Washing and bathing accommodations consisted of the open-air "shelter" afforded by two buildings which joined each other at right angles. Benches with buckets of water from the well were the only equipment. When camp closed in the fall, everything had to be packed in boxes and hauled into Munising for storage in the paper mill. The mattresses were rolled, tied, and stored in the mothproof compartments in which the mill kept its woolen supplies.
In the fall of 1934 another inspection was made of some of the sites considered in the earlier survey. One of these was in Iron County on the west side of Golden Lake, some fifteen miles west of Iron River, where the Von Platen-Fox Company had built an unusually good set of camp buildings in the hope that some club or organization would use them after logging was completed. A careful inspection of the camp and the surrounding area led to the decision that the site had the natural advantages to make it a desirable permanent location.
The camp was on a beautiful lake entirely surrounded by timber, mostly hardwoods, but interspersed with some conifers. The buildings already there were large enough to meet immediate needs with a minimum of remodeling. The area around the camp would grow in value because it had been logged on a selective basis. In the meantime, the students could learn much from such a demonstration situation. It was within the boundaries of the Ottawa National Forest, and the Michigan Department of Conservation was active there, thus making it possible to observe how the state handles its forestry problems. There were also many wood-using industries within easy reach.
Through the interest and generosity Page 1597of M. J. Fox, president of the Von Platen-Fox Company, 10 acres were obtained. Purchases of 90 acres in 1942 from the Von Platen-Fox Company and of 114 acres in 1943-44 from the Lindahl Brothers of Iron River brought the area owned by the University to its present total of 214 acres.
The move from Alger County to the beautiful new site in Iron County was made in June, 1935. The buildings at that time consisted of a cookhouse, three bunkhouses, a shop, two garages, a large barn, one cottage, and a small office. The cookhouse was used with little alteration. One bunkhouse was converted into a classroom, and the other two were used as dormitories. The two garages were remodeled, the smaller one being used as an instrument room and the larger as a camp "Michigan Union." The only construction undertaken that first year was of a new toilet and a central washroom. The latter had an elevated tank into which the boys pumped lake water by hand, thus affording "running water." There were also a small stove and a system of pipes to provide both hot and cold water for washing. Kitchen and drinking water came from a shallow well. Although no trouble could be traced to the water, its use was never officially approved by the Iron County health authorities.
When the 1942 building program was begun, Professor Frederick O'Dell of the College of Architecture and Design was employed to draw plans for the new buildings. After 1943 the University Plant Department took over this work, which has since been under the immediate direction of Robert Aitken. The first student cabin was built in 1942.
The student cabins, of which there are eighteen, measure approximately 13 by 32 feet. Each includes three rooms, a small bedroom across each end and a study room in the center. Each bedroom has a double-deck bed and adequate shelves and cupboards for its two occupants. There are also two full-sized windows, one at either end of the room, and two 12-by-18-inch windows so placed that one comes about even with the top of each deck of the bed.
The study room has five full-sized windows on one side and three windows and a door on the other, all adequately screened. A large study table is on either side of the room, and over each table is a fluorescent light fixture with two 40-inch tubes. Against one bedroom wall are two large bookcases, and at the other end of the room is a wood-burning space heater. The bedrooms are lighted with incandescent lights.
The floors are of matched hard maple, and the window and door frames are of pine. The walls are finished with No. 2 common shiplap. The outsides of the cabins are covered by vertical cedar slabs, and seams are calked with asbestos roof cement.
Five faculty cabins fully equipped for family living have been built along the lake front north of the camp. As a result, faculty families are independent of the camp mess hall and kitchen. These cabins are of the same general construction as the student cabins but vary in size.
In 1944 a telephone line was brought eight miles from Beechwood, and in 1946 Wisconsin Power and Light Company put in electric power lines, also from Beechwood. The buildings are all electrically lighted, and the caretaker's house and faculty cabins have electric refrigeration and water-heating.
In 1952 the much-needed kitchen-dining room was finished in time for the summer session. It has a seating capacity of about 116. Bottled gas is used for cooking and water-heating, and there is a large electrically operated walk-in cooler. A hot-air wood furnace is used Page 1598for general heating. The basement has excellent living quarters for the kitchen personnel and also affords ample space for food storage and kitchen laundry.
It has been the aim of instruction at the camp to make it as practicable as possible, using the laboratory facilities afforded by the extensive forest areas in the vicinity.
Camp Filibert Roth has grown in a surprisingly short time from a few tarpaper shacks in the cutover slashings to a beautifully situated and strictly modern camp; from thirteen students in 1929 to seventy-three in 1950 (the largest enrollment to date). There are now twenty-eight new buildings.
Camp Killarney, an anthropology camp of the University, established in 1939, was situated about two miles from the village of Killarney in Rutherford Township, Manitoulin District, Ontario, Canada.
One of the major research interests of the Museum of Anthropology deals with Michigan Indian history and its relation to the Indian cultures of the Great Lakes area. This work was made possible by grants from the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. During the first two years the work was carried on as a research project, the field staff being made up of students who received travel expenses and did the work of excavation and survey, without instruction and without credit. Formal instruction for credit (six hours) was begun in 1940. Instruction was in archaeological field methods, archaeology of the Great Lakes region, the pertinent geology of the same region, and human osteology; credit was given on the basis of performance in the field, and a mid-term and a final examination. To 1954, about eighty students from various universities, both men and women, have taken the course. All have been anthropology majors. The seasons of 1943-45 were without formal instruction, and a very small personnel continued the work for about a month each summer. After 1946 there was an average of seven students every summer. They were housed in tents with wooden floors, and received all expenses except laundry and personal items, and did all the work of excavation, exploration, and survey in return for their expenses.
The work has resulted in the acquisition of a large mass of archaeological data and several hundred thousand specimens, now in the Museum of Anthropology. Several publications have been issued, and a comprehensive scientific report is being prepared on the early history and prehistory of the Manitoulin District.
Work in the Manitoulin District began first on Manitoulin Island. Camp Killarney is on the mainland, twenty-five miles east of the east end of Manitoulin Island. The project was begun by agreement with officials of the National Museum of Canada at Ottawa, and many specimens have been turned over to that Museum, and to the Royal Ontario Museum at Toronto.
The buildings included two log cabins and a pump house. The larger of the cabins measures 18 by 28 feet, has an eight-foot ceiling with a loft, and double pine flooring. There are two windows on each long side and an enormous stone fireplace at one end. This cabin was built in 1941 at a cost of $700. It serves many purposes, being used as a kitchen and dining room as well as for study, recreation, and as an office for the director. The other cabin measures 12 by 16 feet and has single pine flooring. Built in 1947 at a cost of $350, it is used as a laboratory, study hall, and for storage. The pump house, built in 1948 at a cost of $75, is 9 by 6 feet and 7 feet in height Page 1599without windows. It is built of squared timber frame and has planed siding and and a cement floor. The larger cabin was built with Rackham funds and the other buildings with funds supplied by the Summer Session budget. The camp was discontinued in 1954.
The University Fresh Air Camp
The University of Michigan Fresh Air Camp is situated twenty-four miles northwest of Ann Arbor, on Patterson Lake, which is one of a chain of seven small lakes near Pinckney, Michigan. The camp property comprises about three hundred acres of virgin hardwood adjacent to the George Reserve, in the Pinckney State Recreation Area near the state-owned Waterloo Recreational project. The camp is one of the best equipped of its type in the country. At present there are twenty-six permanent buildings, including a main lodge, women's dormitories, classrooms, cabins, a workshop, and a modern health unit. Boats, tents, and camping and sports equipment are available.
The camp serves a four-fold purpose: for children with behavior problems, a service to referral agencies, a training center for students, and a recreation camp for University students. For the camper it is a vacation camp. Every effort is made to give each boy all the fun that camping and outdoor life provide. Campers are selected on the basis of their need for the type of program offered. While the camping experience becomes a part of the boy's year-round socio-educational program he is never aware of the treatment aspects. The fundamental purpose of the Fresh Air Camp is to provide an outstanding camping experience for boys who, by reason of economic limitations and behavior aberrations, would not otherwise have a camping opportunity. The core of the program is the mental hygiene approach of utmost respect for the individual boy's personality.
About 240 boys between the ages of seven and fourteen come to camp each summer. Each boy is sent by one of some twenty-five co-operating school, social, and casework agencies. Each agency works with the boy before he comes to camp and selects him because of his need for specialized camping. The agency provides the camp with extensive material on the boy, his problems, and his background. When he goes home, the agency continues treatment, utilizing the record made of his camp behavior.
The boys themselves present a wide range of behavior problems. Some are having difficulties in school, some in the home, and some in the community at large. Occasionally, the camp represents merely the opportunity for the "regular boy" to be away from the pressures and stress of an unfortunate environment. Most often, however, the boys have already developed symptoms of maladjustment, sometimes severe and deeply rooted.
Some of the children come from institutional placement or foster homes. Many are the products of broken homes. Some have records as delinquents. As a consequence of their backgrounds, these boys present problematic behavior in a far higher incidence than would be true in the usual camp. Many times they are very difficult to manage. At all times they present a challenge to the insight and ingenuity of the adult. Of course, there are positive aspects. No counselor leaves camp without having experienced the satisfaction of seeing a boy respond favorably to healthful treatment and express his need for real affection. Often the attachment of a boy for camp and for counselor does not end with the close of the season, but continues for years.
Such boys give the student an opportunity Page 1600to telescope, into one brief summer, contact with a variety of personality types. Although the camp's therapeutic objective is to help the boy as much as possible, there is no expectation of complete treatment, yet on occasion surprising improvement takes place. The counselor must be tireless in his efforts to build a program which serves the need of the boys and must at all times relate to the boy in a nonpunitive fashion.
The Fresh Air Camp is, for the camper, a vacation camp. He comes for fun and expects to do the things which camp life offers. The diagnosis, study, or research carried on by the staff cannot interfere with his good time.
The camp serves the referral agencies and the campers, through the agencies, by submitting carefully compiled reports of a diagnostic nature on each camper.
As a training center the camp offers opportunities to fifty students for study of individual and group behavior on an undergraduate and graduate level. These students are able to earn as many as eight hours of credit for courses in sociology, education, psychology, social work, and physical education.
The instructional staff is constantly at hand to interpret and to help the counselor with behavior problems. The counselor is never alone. At every stage he works within a framework so that the situation will be one of learning and creativity. While much is compressed into the intense, brief period of nine weeks, it is done with plan and purpose for the student's advantage. The type of child attending the camp facilitates this learning. The staff's help and support make possible the student's rapid introduction to therapeutic relationships.
All staff members share the simple facilities of camp life. The men counselors sleep in cabins with the campers when on duty, and the women counselors are housed in separate dormitories. The counselors are responsible for sharing such work as may be necessary to keep the quarters and facilities in order.
The Fresh Air Camp is now in its thirty-fourth season. In 1921 a group of University students under the leadership of Lewis C. Reimann ('16) began a volunteer project to give city boys a camping opportunity. The University Summer Session in 1937, offered the counselors a series of graduate courses related to the camp program. The camp was officially accepted by the Board of Regents in June, 1944.
In January, 1946, the Fresh Air Camp was placed in the University's Institute for Human Adjustment in order that its program might be integrated with the other professional activities of that agency. The University provides the funds for the educational aspects of the camp. Other expenses such as food, equipment, and maintenance continue to be borne by social agencies and friends of the camp.
The directors since Mr. Reimann have included George G. Adler, F. N. Menefee, William C. Morse, and Edward J. Slezak. Control of the policies is vested in a University committee composed of representatives of such units as the School of Social Work. Various student groups are also represented.
Camp Cusino, near Singleton, in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan has been maintained by the University since 1950 in order to provide field-work opportunities in geography. Professor Kenneth C. McMurry has been in charge of the camp. The state deeded ten acres to the University for the purpose, with a clause of reversion to the state in the event the University no longer has use for the Page 1601property. Summer work in geography had formerly been conducted in Wilderness Park, near Mackinaw City, and elsewhere.
The Geology Camp from 1937 to 1951 was at Camp Davis, in Wyoming. Field work was carried on in 1952 at Marquette, Michigan. In 1953 the Geology Summer Field Course was moved to Boulder, Colorado.
National Music Camp
Established in 1928 as a summer home for the National High School Orchestra, the National Music Camp at Interlochen, Michigan, has greatly expanded its activities and services to the profession. Because the camp offers valuable laboratory facilities in music education, the University, in 1941, granted regental approval for giving courses for University credit there. The University Division of the camp is a branch of the University Summer Session, and the courses offered are given by the School of Music, the School of Education, the College of Architecture and Design, and the Department of Speech. Administrative responsibility is shared by the Director of the Summer Session, the deans of the schools of Music and Education, the College of Architecture and Design, the head of the Department of Speech, and the administrative officers of the camp. Courses are offered for credit in the same manner and with the same academic degree or transfer credit value and status as are the courses in Ann Arbor. The faculty of the University Division is made up of members of the regular teaching staff of the University, supplemented by teachers from other colleges and universities, including artist performers in the field of piano, voice, and orchestral instruments. Teachers are also provided for courses in radio, dance, art, camp counseling, and recreational leadership.
Speech Improvement Camp
A camp-clinic for the correction of speech disorders in boys and young men was conceived as an ideal to achieve three purposes: (1) To remove the boy from influences contributing to the factors of cause; (2) to provide a well-regulated program integrating intensive speech correction methods, personal counseling, and physical education; (3) to promote a carry-over of new speech habits used successfully in the classroom situation to the boy's life outside of class.
It was not intended that an out-of-door camping program of itself would necessarily contribute to speech improvement. Yet those intangibles of camping that teach normal young people to live with others, to acquire self-confidence, and to accept responsibility are obviously potential advantages to a boy overcoming a speech defect.
The camp has been restricted to boys and young men for two valid reasons. In the first place, since the camp serves a wide age group, eight through twenty-four, the daily program is easier to organize and conduct than it would be in a coeducational camp, and in the second place, some 70 per cent or more of speech problems occur in boys.
The camp was established as a private venture by John N. Clancy (Notre Dame '21, A.M. Michigan '37) and Mrs. Clancy in 1932. They are presently camp director and camp mother. The first enrollment numbered four campers, all from Michigan. The annual attendance in recent years has numbered approximately ninety-six campers from more than twenty states. About half of the campers are stutterers. Boys with other speech handicaps include those with Page 1602mild cerebral palsy, the hard-of-hearing, and others with postoperative cleft palate, voice, articulation, and language problems.
Throughout seventeen years of private ownership the camp was affiliated with the University and worked in close cooperation with the University's Speech Clinic and with the Department of Speech. In 1949 the camp was purchased by the University through a generous gift by the Kresge Foundation. In February of that year the following resolution was adopted by the Regents:
Resolved, That the executive officers be authorized to proceed with the purchase of Shady Trails Camp, … and that the Secretary be directed to express to the Kresge Foundation the sincere appreciation of the Board of Regents for a gift of $66,000 which is to be applied toward the purchase of the speech correction camp.
(R.P., 1948-51, p. 279.)
The Regents officially designated the camp "University of Michigan Speech Improvement Camp" although the popular name of "Shady Trails Camp" was continued. An appropriate plaque recognizing the generosity of the Kresge Foundation was installed in the main lodge.
Since the camp was acquired it has operated as a unit of the Summer Session. The camp management is responsible to an Executive Committee appointed by the Regents.
The camp, some 275 miles from Ann Arbor, is on Grand Traverse Bay about twenty-five miles northwest of Traverse City, on M-22 between the villages of Omena and Northport. It is a premise of the camp to remove a boy from the environment in which he has met with failure, and distance from home discourages frequent visits. As camps go, the site is comparatively small, slightly more than twenty-six acres with 1,325 feet on the bay. The camp program does not include many of those features of a recreational camp that require space, such as horseback riding, and thus far its site has been ample. The enrollment is divided into six age groups. Each group of sixteen campers is housed in a modern cottage with five sleeping rooms, living room with natural fireplace, and doublebathroom facilities. Each of the groups has the undivided attention throughout the eight-week session of three speech correctionists and a physical director (two physical directors for each of the two youngest groups).
The camp is modern and well equipped. It has a supervised water front for beginners and advanced swimmers. There is also a supervised athletic plant with junior and senior softball diamonds, basketball, volleyball, badminton, and tennis courts. The buildings, in addition to the six cottages for campers, include the lodge, containing the dining room, kitchen, and offices, a cottage for the women on the staff, the director's cottage, a cottage for visiting staff, the laboratory, an infirmary, the cook's cottage, the activities building, and a combination pump and storehouse. All buildings are comparatively new, having been erected since 1947. The University's investment in the physical plant is approximately $110,000.
The camp has contributed a rich experience in training speech correctionists through a course, Internship in Speech Correction, offered to a group of twelve graduate students each summer by the Department of Speech. Like other internships, this is a work-study program with emphasis on working with the camper. The camp draws its replacement of major staff in speech correction from its interns. The chief interest, however, is the rehabilitation of speech handicapped boys and not teacher training. In 1953 ninety-seven campers (one more than the camp's normal capacity Page 1603were in attendance. The gross income of the camp was the largest in the camp's history.
In its various departments the staff rarely has a member younger than twenty-one years of age and, other than the administrative members, rarely one more than thirty. The staff has developed the philosophy and the camp spirit which have led to a successful program and desired results. Many staff members of past seasons have distinguished themselves in their professions.
There are well-rounded programs of clinical and camp activities in groups small enough to allow adequate individual instruction and large enough to give experience in the group situation. Classes and programs are planned to provide for personal growth of the individual and for use of newly learned speech patterns in practical everyday living.
The resident staff approximates forty members, including twenty speech correctionists, ten counselors, a registered nurse, a camp mother, three secretaries, the director, and two assistant directors. This staff is assisted by a visiting staff of consultants (physicians, psychologists, speech pathologists) from the University of Michigan and from other major universities and colleges. The "service" staff (cooks and helpers) numbers ten members.
In 1954-55 the University Executive Committee for the camp included Dr. James H. Maxwell, Professor of Otolaryngology, Professor G. E. Densmore, chairman of the Department of Speech, Fedele F. Fauri, Dean of the School of Social Work, James R. Hayward, Associate Professor of Dentistry and Head of Oral Surgery of the University Hospital, and John N. Clancy, Assistant Director of the Speech Clinic and Director of the Camp.
The Campus and Lands
The first land to belong to the University after its establishment in Ann Arbor by the Act of 1837 was the tract of 40.3 acres constituting the original campus. One of the factors which influenced the legislature in locating the University at Ann Arbor was the promise of the Ann Arbor Land Company to donate a site for the new institution. The six persons who were first associated in this company are named in a circular, entitled "Articles of Agreement and Association of the Ann Arbor Land Company, Instituted September 15, 1836"; they were Captain Charles Thayer, William S. Maynard, Elijah W. Morgan, Dr. Samuel Denton, Augustus Garrett, and Daniel B. Brown. With the exception of Garrett, all were early and prominent citizens of Ann Arbor. William Maynard at one time served as mayor, and Samuel Denton, as Regent and Professor, played an important part in the establishment of the University.
The actual selection of the campus property took place at the first meeting of the Board of Regents, which met in Ann Arbor on June 5, the day appointed by Governor Mason, and continued throughout the sixth and the seventh. On June 5 a committee consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Edward Mundy, of Ann Arbor, General Isaac E. Crary, and John F. Porter was appointed, and to it was referred the Act to provide for the organization of the University and also the Act to provide for its location "in or near the village of Ann Arbor." On June 6 this committee reported as follows:
That they have, in company with the other Regents, examined several points, with the view of selecting a site for the University Buildings, and recommend that that forty acres contemplated by said act to be selected by the Regents as a site for said buildings, be located upon the farm called the Nowland Page 1604farm, commencing near the fence upon the brow of the hill near the river, bounded westerly by State Street, extending easterly about seventy rods to the center of the ravine, and extending southerly about ninety-one rods for quantity.
(R.P., 1837-64, p. 5.)
The report was laid on the table, and the next day, June 7, Denton submitted, as an amendment, the following resolution:
That the University be located on lands bounded and described as follows, — On the north by the road leading to Judge Fletcher's, the width of the Rumsey farm (so-called), west by State Street, east by lands of Judge Fletcher, on the old east line of said Rumsey farm, and south for quantity.
(R.P., 1837-64, p. 8.)
The area described in the resolution adopted, however, did not contain the campus as finally laid out, although it overlapped a good part of it. If this plot had been retained the original campus would have reached to Washington Street on the north, through which at that time ran the road to Ypsilanti. The road at this point angled toward the southeast so that the north border of the campus would not have been square. On July 18, 1838, the Regents appointed Chief Justice Fletcher and Dr. Denton, both of Ann Arbor, a committee, to effect an exchange of lands with the trustees of the Ann Arbor Land Company so that the site of the University would be a right-angled parallelogram. This was done by cutting off some of the north part of the plot and adding to the south part; the result was the present campus. Judge Fletcher and Dr. Denton at the same time were directed to cause a street 100 feet in width to be laid out "on the line" on each side of the University site and to see that these streets were properly recorded. We know them as North, East, and South University avenues, and State Street.
As the campus had originally been a farm, many traces were left of its original use. Ten Brook said:
The remains of a peach orchard were upon it, and years afterward some professors' families were supplied with fruit from these trees; while the whole ground around the buildings, as late as 1845 and 1846, waved with golden harvests of wheat, which the janitor had been allowed to grow, for the … purpose of putting the ground in a proper condition to be left as a campus.
(Ten Brook, p. 145.)
Trees were an early problem and remained one for years, for much of the early planting seems to have been unsuccessful. In April, 1840, the Regents appropriated $200 to be expended under the direction of Douglass Houghton in planting trees on the University grounds, and in the 1840's it is recorded that fruit trees and shrubbery were furnished for the gardens of the Professors' Houses. Hinsdale mentions that in the same year the Board of Visitors urged that trees be planted, "but its exhortations were not then heeded." He also speaks of the planting of trees in 1854 by Dr. Edmund Andrews, who was then Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds as well as Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Medical College. Dr. Andrews laid out the grounds according to a new plan; with the assistance of citizens, professors, and students, he caused the campus to be surrounded by two parallel rows of trees. The citizens set out a row of trees entirely around the campus on that side of the street opposite to it; the professors and students provided a similar row on Page 1605the side of the street next to the campus. One thousand trees were planted within the college grounds. Five hundred were already set out when the plan was made, and the Regents were asked to purchase the remaining five hundred (Farrand, p. 137).
Most of these trees died, but in 1858 a more successful attempt at landscaping was made. With the coming of the young Andrew D. White, who was appointed Professor of History and English Literature in 1857, the first effective effort for the improvement of the campus began. In his Autobiography White describes the campus when he arrived as "unkempt and wretched." He says:
Throughout its whole space there were not more than a score of trees outside the building sites allotted to the professors; unsightly plank walks connected the buildings, and in every direction were meandering paths, which in dry weather were dusty and in wet weather muddy.
..... Without permission from anyone, I began planting trees within the University enclosure; established, on my own account, several avenues; and set out elms to overshadow them. Choosing my trees with care, carefully protecting and watering them during the first two years, and gradually adding to them a considerable number of evergreens, I preached practically the doctrine of adorning the campus. Gradually some of my students joined me; one class after another aided in securing trees and in planting them, others became interested, until, finally, the University authorities made me "superintendent of the grounds," and appropriated to my work the munificent sum of seventy-five dollars a year. So began the splendid growth which now surrounds those buildings.
His example apparently was infectious, for the citizens of Ann Arbor resumed their tree-planting efforts around the outside of the campus in the spring of 1858, while a group of sixty trees received as a gift from Messrs. Ellwanger and Barry, of Rochester, New York, was set out inside. The seniors of 1858 left a memorial of concentric rings of maples about a native oak in the center of the campus, which has since become known as the Tappan oak. The juniors set out another group to the east, and Professor Fasquelle planted a number of evergreens east of the north wing to balance a similar group of Professor White's at the south. The maples outside the walk on State Street were also the gift of Professor White and were balanced by a similar row of elms on the inside, given by the faculty of the Literary Department. In 1864 the steward reported that there were 1,370 trees, in all, on the campus.
Water was an even more pressing problem, since the earliest buildings were residences for professors, and the first academic building, Mason Hall, was used as a dormitory for students. This was before the days of city water mains, and the Regents at once had several wells dug. The Building Committee's reports for January and November, 1839, mention two, the second of which was near the Professors' Houses on the south side of the campus. Two others were dug in 1840 and 1845, respectively. In 1847 the faculty recommended that a well be dug near Mason Hall for the use of the students. The Report of the Faculty for August, 1847, states:
A well for the use of the students near the University Building is much needed. It is highly inconvenient for the students to bring the water from so great a distance and doubly inconvenient for the Officer to have gates continually opened and gardens trodden by a constant train of applicants at the well.
(R.P., 1837-64, p. 381.)
Page 1606The Building Committee, consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Mundy, Judge Fletcher, and Chancellor Farnsworth (the latter was replaced by John J. Adam), appointed on March 3, 1838, was "to fix upon and recommend … a plan for the University buildings" (R.P., 1837-64, p.39). Their story in itself is a most interesting one, involving an agreement with two architects at once, the acceptance of the plan of Alexander J. Davis to erect a main building, and the reconsideration of this action barely three months later, accompanied by the decision, in January, 1839, to build four Professors' Houses.
An interesting old map of Ann Arbor, published by D. A. Pettibone in 1854, shows the central avenue with the Professors' Houses in place, a row of seven buildings along State Street, and the Medical Building at the center of the east side of the campus where later it was actually built. A few walks appear. The State Street front before the row of college buildings is labeled "Open Lawn," and the eastern third of the campus, with the Medical Building in the center, is marked "Botanic Garden." The so-called Professors' Monument is shown directly back of the Medical Building. The map also shows an elevation of the "West Front Michigan University," with the three central buildings of the row. The one to the left is Mason Hall, completed in 1841, and the one to the right the South College Building. The central building, from its churchlike spire, was apparently intended to be a chapel, but was never built in this form.
An article on this old map and picture, printed in The Michigan Alumnus of April 19, 1923, suggests that the arrangement and elevations might perhaps come from the first plan for the University buildings, prepared by Alexander J. Davis, of New York, but since that time Mr. Davis' drawings for the University of Michigan have been placed with his other papers in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and some of them have been published. Furthermore, the copy of the floor plan of the main building, which was sent to Governor Mason, was also discovered at Lansing and Regent Beal presented it to the University. From these materials it is easy to see that the elevations on the Pettibone map were not from Davis' original plan, which called for an elaborate building in the Gothic style very different from the plain architecture of Mason Hall or of the chapel which is shown on the map between it and the South Wing.
It is quite possible, however, that the Pettibone map preserves for us a set of plans which were prepared during the winter of 1840-41. On October 7, 1840, the Regents instructed the Building Committee to employ Mr. Harpin Lum "during the coming winter" when he would not be occupied in superintending the construction of the University Building (Mason Hall) to prepare and draw "such plans and profiles, building drafts, etc., as may be necessary … for the full execution of the general plan adopted for the University Buildings." That Mr. Lum did so is shown by an entry in the minutes of the meeting of April 16, 1841, whereby the drafts and plans for the college buildings which Lum had prepared in accordance with the vote of October 7, 1840, were accepted and he was directed to have them framed and deposited in the Library.
The Professors' Monument with the inscriptions on its base commemorating Professors Joseph Whiting, Douglass Houghton, Charles Fox, and Samuel Denton has had an interesting history. In September, 1845, the Regents resolved:
That one hundred and fifty feet square of land midway between a line running north Page 1607and south, across the University Grounds between the Professors' Houses and the east side of the Grounds and midway between the north and south lines of the Grounds be set apart for a cemetery for the University.
(R.P., 1837-64, p. 325.)
If his family consented, Professor Whiting, who had died the previous July, was to be reburied there. An appropriation was made for a monument to him, which was actually erected, for the Regents' Proceedings record that William E. Peters was paid $130.48 for the "tombstone," and, although it was first placed in the center of the space designated as a cemetery and is so shown on the Pettibone map of 1854, the campus cemetery never became a reality. The Professors' Monument has been moved five times during its history. In 1856 it was moved about ten rods due north to get it out of the way of the first Chemical Laboratory. In 1869 it was transported still farther north across the walk from what is now the northwest corner of the West Medical Building. In 1884 it was brought to the intersection of the campus walks in front of the Library, and in 1890 it was placed on the south side of the Library near its southwest corner. Then in 1918 it was brought around to the east side of the Library Building to within a hundred yards of its original site.
Until 1850 the only buildings on the campus were Mason Hall, the South College Building, later called South Wing, and the four Professors' Houses. At this time the old Medical Building was erected, and six years later the first Chemical Laboratory, which stood directly back of it, was built.
The first addition to the original university lands was the site of the Observatory, acquired in 1853. For many years the old campus and the Observatory lot were the total land holdings of the University. Before 1900 the sites of the Convalescent Hospital (1889-90) and of the South Department of the University Hospital (1899) had been added; the old University Hospital was built on the former and the Homeopathic Hospital on the latter. In 1890, also, the first tracts making up the present Ferry Field were acquired.
After 1900 the land holdings of the University grew rapidly so that the original 40.3 acres, by June 30, 1954, had expanded to 18,535 acres, of which 1,007 acres were in or near Ann Arbor.
The growth of the campus and the acquisition of other lands resulted, in general, in the development of four areas: (1) the property surrounding the original campus, (2) the University Hospital complex, (3) the athletic plant, and (4) the North Campus. In addition, a large group of lands, most of which are outside of Ann Arbor, provides botanical gardens, forestry farms, and summer camp sites.
Chemistry and Pharmacy Building
The University Chemistry and Pharmacy Building is on the north side of the campus, east of the Mall which extends from the General Library to the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies. It occupies the site of the first University Hospital, which incorporated one of the four Professors' Houses, the first buildings on the campus.
The original Chemistry Laboratory, later occupied by the departments of Pharmacology and Economics, was completed in 1856 and gradually expanded until the department moved into new quarters in 1909. Construction of a new Chemistry Building was approved by the Regents at their meeting of June 5, 1908. The Building Committee was authorized to prepare plans for the Page 1608building, the cost of which was not to exceed $225,000. This amount was insufficient to complete the building as designed, however, and the plans were revised by the architects, Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, of Detroit. This delayed construction until October of the same year. The final cost of the building, completed in 1910, was $271,000.
This structure is 230 feet in length and 130 feet in width, with a floor area of 114,600 square feet. It comprises two interior courts separated by a central wing or crossbar. An addition, designed by Louis Kingscott and Associates and built by Bryant and Detwiler, was completed in 1949. It was made an integral part of the original structure. The addition has one light court and consists of a basement and four floors; it has approximately the same amount of usable floor space as the original part. The building in 1954 was valued at $3,205,000 and the equipment at $521,000.
The building is four stories high with a basement under the new part, and is constructed of buff Bedford limestone and brick in varying shades of light brown. It is fireproof with reinforced concrete columns and floors and hollow brick and cinder-block partitions. It was one of the first buildings on the campus to employ the construction system of regularly spaced concrete piers.
In general, the arrangement of the complete building consists of three long corridors, one on the east and one on the west side of the older part and one on the east side of the new part; these corridors connect the large laboratories occupying the north and south ends of the building. The long west corridor (000) is connected to the central one (200) by a corridor (100) across the middle of the older part, and the long central one (200) is connected to the east one (500) by two corridors (300 and 400) on each side of the light court in the new part.
On the first floor, in addition to an amphitheater with a seating capacity of 290 in the south court of the older part, there are three lecture rooms with seating capacities of 131, 144, and 230, as well as two smaller classrooms. The offices of the College of Pharmacy and the Prescription Laboratory are on the east (500) corridor, and a large introductory pharmacy laboratory is at the southeast corner of the building. The dock for loading and unloading supplies is adjacent to the large receiving and shipping room of the Chemistry Store Department on the 300 corridor and the offices of the Chemistry Stores Department on the 500 corridor. The remainder of the first floor is used for work in physical chemistry — offices, research rooms, and four large laboratories including one which is specially equipped for teaching electrochemistry. The dispensing room on the 500 corridor handles student supplies for physical chemistry and pharmacy. Facilities for electrochemistry, comprising a general laboratory, research rooms, and instructors' offices, occupy the outside tier of rooms along the west corridor.
On the second floor, are the offices of the Department of Chemistry in the center of the 000 corridor. The well-equipped library, is at the south end of the older part of the building. It accommodates 108 readers and contains about 15,000 bound volumes. Four large laboratories devoted to organic chemistry occupy the north end of the building, and one large research laboratory for organic chemistry and a large pharmacy laboratory are in the southeast corner. Most of the remaining rooms on the second floor are for members of the staff of the College of Pharmacy, for research in pharmaceutical chemistry, and for faculty and student research in organic chemistry. A departmental glassblower and a dispensing room for supplies for organic Page 1609chemistry and for quantitative analysis courses and some pharmacy classrooms are on this floor.
Six large laboratories on the third floor are for the several courses in analytical chemistry, including qualitative, quantitative, and instrumental analysis; semimicroanalysis is taught in a smaller laboratory. Rooms for analytical balances are adjacent to the laboratories. Also on this floor are a lecture room seating about ninety, a College of Pharmacy laboratory for pharmacognosy, research laboratories for pharmacy, and a room where approximately thirty teaching fellows in chemistry have office space. Four rooms are devoted to studies involving radioactivity — one in which to teach students how to handle and use such materials, one, the "hot-lab," where experimental work with the more radioactive substances can be performed safely, and two rooms equipped with instruments for measuring the activity. The work of the dispensing room on this floor is directed toward supplying the reagent shelves of the student laboratories in the building.
General chemistry is taught in five large laboratories, qualitative analysis in two, and graduate research students occupy the eighth large laboratory on the fourth floor. A small laboratory is devoted to courses in advanced inorganic chemistry. A number of rooms are assigned to equipment and research work connected with electron diffraction and X-ray studies.
The basement under the east part of the building houses the units which heat the oil-filtered air supplied to the newest part of the structure. Electrical supply rooms and large areas for storage of glass equipment, chemicals, and other supplies handled by Chemistry Stores are also there. The College of Pharmacy has an area in the basement for equipment for the manufacturing pharmacy processes, and the Department of Chemistry also has its shops for the fabrication and repair of research apparatus there. A number of small laboratories in this area are used for research work; these include space for high-pressure equipment, special distilling columns, and other equipment for organic chemistry research. Two of the laboratories are designed for work requiring controlled temperature and humidity conditions. One is refrigerated for work which requires low temperatures, and several are lined with copper-coated paper to reduce electrostatic effects.
The main service lines enter through tunnels underneath the building and are distributed by means of accessible riser stacks from which they fan out to the separate rooms. In the new part of the building, the hoods are exhausted by fans in a penthouse. The motors on the exhaust system are two-speed and maintain a continual air flow at all times. Two water stills, one in the older and one in the newer part, furnish distilled water to the building and are connected so that in an emergency either one could supply the whole building.
William L. Clements Library Building
In May, 1921, Regent William L. Clements, of Bay City, entered into an agreement with his fellow Regents to give his collection of rare books to the University and to construct a building on the campus to house them. Land was provided on South University Avenue next to the President's House, and an old faculty house, one of the original buildings on the campus, was demolished to make way for the new structure.
The new building was planned by Albert Kahn, of Detroit, under the direction of Regent Clements. The latter specified a style of architecture in vogue Page 1610in northern Italy when Columbus left Genoa to plan his epoch-making voyage. As a result, the building is Italian Renaissance in general style, executed in Indiana limestone. In front a planted terrace leads to three rounded archways that open on a loggia with vaulted ceilings in blue and gold mosaic.
Bronze grilled doors give entrance to the Library's main room, which measures 35 by 90 feet. This room is lined with bookcases surmounted by fumed oak paneling two stories high. The curved ceiling was painted in vivid colors by Thomas di Lorenzo, of New York City. Two alcoves project at either end to enclose the loggia. The floor is covered with broadloom carpeting and furnished with upholstered chairs, sofas, and tables of eighteenth-century design. Four exhibition cases are placed in the center of the room, which is lighted by three large and two small chandeliers.
Beyond the main room are two offices, a reading room, and the rare book room. The last was built like a bank vault for greater protection against fire and theft. The tall oak doors are metal lined, and steel shutters may be pulled down over the windows. This room, also carpeted, is furnished with period chairs and tables and contains an unused fireplace with black marble hearth. This rear half of the building has a second story of three rooms — two for manuscripts and one for bibliography — and a balcony of five alcoves overlooking the main room.
The basement, or lower library, contains several rooms for maps, newspapers, reference works, lounge, rest rooms, and custodian's quarters. Fans in the attic blow washed warm air, properly humidified, throughout the building.
The building and its furnishings were estimated at the time of construction to cost about $200,000, but the final cost was considerably more. The cornerstone was laid on March 31, 1922, and construction was by the Owen, Ames and Kimball Company of Grand Rapids. In December, 1922, Mr. Clements entered into a definitive gift agreement with the Regents, setting forth what he conceived to be the duties of the University in maintaining the building, in providing a staff, and in enlarging the holdings of the William L. Clements Library of American History.
The new Library was dedicated on June 15, 1923, with exercises in Hill Auditorium. The addresses on that occasion and the address by William Warner Bishop at the laying of the cornerstone, were compiled and published by the University in book form: The Dedication of the William L. Clements Library of Americana at the University of Michigan.
The name William L. Clements Library is engraved along the top of the façade of the building. On either wing, made by the projecting alcoves, are short inscriptions, composed by Professor Ulrich B. Phillips, to fit the available spaces. One reads: "In darkness dwells the people which knows its annals not"; and the other: "Tradition fades but the written record remains ever fresh."
In June of 1923 the Regents accepted a gift from the Honorable James Couzzens, of Detroit, United States Senator from Michigan, of a sum "up to six hundred thousand dollars" for "the construction of a building for the housing of student … and graduate nurses" (R.P., 1920-23, p. 822).
The President's Report for 1922-23 recorded, "The need of a Nurses' Home, and the desirability of its very speedy erection has been too often pointed out in the past to be enlarged upon here… The Home is an indispensable part of the Hospital, and should by all means be Page 1611ready when the new Hospital building is opened." Later, in the same report, it was stated:
The gift … is the largest presentation made to us in the course of the year… Without the facilities properly to house its nurses the new Hospital would be placed at such a disadvantage that it could never be operated as we would wish to see it. It is interesting to note that the announcement of this gift seems already to be having its effect. Applications for admission to the Nurses Training School of the Hospital received during the summer in which this Report is written show a substantial increase, which is extremely gratifying and testifies to the fact that the provision of this fine Home will add immensely to the attractiveness and success of the courses for nurses. Senator Couzens' appreciation of the need in which we stood and his very generous aid at this critical point have won him the gratitude of all the friends of the University.
(P.R., 1922-23, p. 170.)
Albert Kahn, of Detroit, was chosen as the architect for the building, and H. G. Christman Company, of Detroit, was awarded the contract at an estimated amount of $600,000 in January, 1924.
Excavation for the building was begun in November of the same year, and in August, 1925, the dormitory was completed at a cost of $622,724.76.
In 1925-26 the Michigan Alumnus reported that owing to lack of funds only the bedrooms could be furnished at that time, but the Regents authorized the expenditure of $15,000 from the Woodward Avenue Lease Fund for furnishings and equipment (R.P., 1923-26, p. 623).
The building afforded a gross floor area of 87,262 square feet and had approximately 250 student rooms, most of them singles, with a few doubles, accommodating about 260 girls. The four-story residence, constructed of dark red brick with white trim, consisted of a center section and two wings in the form of a letter "H."
The basement contains facilities for instruction — an amphitheater, faculty offices, laboratories, classrooms, an assembly hall, and also a game room. In addition to student rooms, on the first floor are a lobby, the reception rooms, the living room, and a library; the lobby, living room, and library are beautifully paneled in walnut. The two upper floors are devoted entirely to student rooms.
At the rear of the building, overlooking a beautiful garden and, beyond that, the women's athletic field, are sun porches, one on each floor.
An addition to the building and remodeling of the present structure were completed in 1955, for which Ralph R. Calder was selected as architect. The building will now provide accommodation for 530 girls. The work is estimated to cost $1,754,000. The construction contract was awarded to Spence Brothers of Saginaw.
School of Dentistry Building
The School of Dentistry was established in 1875, the same year in which the Homeopathic Medical School was organized, and both schools were given quarters in the westerly of the two Professors' Houses which faced North University Avenue. For more than thirty years the Dental School was forced to shift from one building to another, but as a result it has the distinction of having occupied three of the four original Professors' Houses, which were the first buildings on the campus.
By 1877 the first quarters were crowded, and in June of that year the Regents authorized the removal of the College "from the building which it now occupies to the building occupied by Professor Frieze" (R.P., 1876-81, p. 133). This was the easterly of the two original Professors' Houses which faced South University Avenue at approximately Page 1612where the Clements Library now stands. The Committee on Buildings and Grounds was instructed to refit and arrange this building for the use of the Dental College and to have it ready for occupancy by October 1. The remodeling was not to cost more than $1,000.
The School continued to grow rapidly, and in October of 1878 the Regents authorized the immediate construction of a "permanent" addition. This move was prompted by the fact that the laboratory room, with facilities for eighteen students, was actually being used by thirty, and ten more were unprovided for. At the same time, the lecture room, with seating capacity for about fifty students, was regularly attended by fifty-five, and there was prospect of an early increase to sixty-five or seventy, so the addition authorized, therefore, was to provide a new laboratory and lecture room. The old lecture room was made into a dental museum, facilities for which were completely lacking. The Regents decided that the need was so pressing that favorable action by the legislature must be anticipated (R.P., 1876-81, pp. 304, 417). The new rooms were ready for use by winter of the year 1878-79, and the legislature justified the confidence of the Regents by appropriating $3,250 for the purpose.
In 1885 Dean Taft reported urgent need of more room for the Clinical or Operative Department; conditions had been crowded for several years, and at that time there were six chairs in the lecture room and twenty-eight chairs in the operating room. The lecture room also, he complained, was "too small, and of the wrong shape." He asked for an amphitheater with a seating capacity of 125 and presented to the Board of Regents a sketch of a plan for a building which would be two stories in height, with the lecture room on the second floor and the first floor devoted to classrooms, reading rooms, work in metallurgy, and other special work (R.P., 1881-86, pp. 562-63). He suggested that such a building might well be erected as an addition to the west end of the present building and estimated its cost at $2,542. Nothing was done at the time, however. In 1888 the Regents passed a resolution acknowledging the "extreme necessity" of more room but stating that "the way does not seem to be open at present, as it is deemed unwise to anticipate appropriations."
Relief was finally provided in 1891 when the University Hospital was removed from the easterly of the two Professors' Houses facing North University Avenue. During the summer of 1891 this building was overhauled and prepared for the use of the Dental School. The new quarters proved satisfactory, and the School found itself able to provide "with ease" for the increasing number of students.
The growth of the School continued, however. In 1903 President Angell stated that an entirely new building was needed for the Dental Department "which is wretchedly housed" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 225), and in 1905, when the Regents sought the services of Dr. W. D. Miller, of Berlin, as Dean, they assured him that a new dental building would be erected as soon as possible.
In 1906 Donaldson and Meier, architects, were requested to draw up plans and specifications for a new building, and in April of the following year the plans were accepted, and bids were authorized. In June the property on the east side of North University Avenue, adjacent to the Homeopathic Hospital, was purchased for the site (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 142-43). It was to cost not more than $18,500, and the three buildings then standing on the site were moved to vacant lots which the University proposed Page 1613to buy for $3,500. Later, $115,000 was set aside from the building fund for the erection of the new Dental Building. Construction was begun in 1907 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 158).
In September, 1908, President Angell reported that the Dental Building, which was almost ready for occupancy, would be one of the finest in the entire country (R.P., 1906-10, p. 349). It was occupied in October, 1908, but formal dedication exercises did not take place until May, 1909. More than sixty clinics were conducted by dentists from various parts of the country, with more than two hundred alumni in attendance. The formal exercises, held in the main amphitheater, were opened with an address by President Angell, followed by a banquet in Barbour Gymnasium.
The contractors were Koch Brothers, of Ann Arbor, whose bid totaled $84,988; changes in the plans, however, brought the figure to $90,259.82 (R.P., 1906-10, p. 170). Ultimately, most of the original amount of $115,000 was used. The value of the equipment in 1913 was given as more than $29,000.
In 1922-23 an addition to the Dental Building was built by John Bollin Company of Detroit. The contract price, subject to adjustment, was $67,800, and an additional amount of $44,226 was set aside for costs of services to be provided by the Buildings and Grounds Department. The building was enlarged to the north by an extension of 38 feet 5 inches, under the supervision of state architect Lynn W. Fry at a cost of $128,296. This increased the total floor space by 19,248 square feet and brought the cost of the building to $326,500. The valuation of the Dental Building in 1954, including the Kellogg Foundation Institute, is $674,110.
The structure, which consists of two stories and a basement, is 167 by 119 feet and has a gross floor area of 64,971 square feet. The basement is of dressed Bedford limestone; the upper walls of red vitreous brick are trimmed with Bedford limestone, and the roof is red flat tile. The building, which is fireproof, is heated from the central heating plant. Ventilation is supplied by two large fans in the attic and by separate vent pipes in every room. A humidifying system for the clinic is in the basement.
The basement contains large locker rooms for both men and women, as well as a dental materials laboratory, book vault, storeroom, photographic rooms, and a small lecture room.
The main floor is devoted to the library and reading room, administrative offices, the office of the stock and dispensing clerk, the dental bacteriology laboratory, and the temperature rooms. On the north side of the main floor are a lecture room, prosthetic laboratory, and the freshman and sophomore technic laboratories, each of which contains a large preparation room and storage rooms for the students' work.
A double stairway of marble and iron leads to the second floor, where a waiting room for patients occupies a central space. To the right are the X-ray Laboratory and Oral Surgery demonstration room, and to the left is an amphitheater, an examination and appointment room, and two rooms for the Department of Crown and Bridge Prosthesis. The entire north half of the floor is devoted to an operating room, 72 by 166 feet, well lighted by skylights and large windows, and equipped with 133 dental chairs. A gallery, ten feet wide, in the rear of the room is used for departmental offices and for special clinic work.
Although there has been no addition to the Dental Building since 1923, there have been several alterations since 1941. In 1942 the two technic laboratories on the first floor were rehabilitated under the terms of a gift from the W. K. Page 1614Kellogg Foundation. An amount of $113,000 was granted by the Foundation "for alterations and purchase of equipment for the undergraduate technical laboratories of the School of Dentistry and for the purchase of technical and clinical instrument outfits to be used by undergraduate dental students" (R.P. 1939-42, p. 887).
The entrance to the Dental Building was remodeled with funds donated by the members of the dental class of 1917. This gift was presented in honor of Dr. Marcus L. Ward, former Dean of the School of Dentistry, and suitable plaques were erected. The entrance was dedicated in June, 1947.
After the construction of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation Institute the Oral Surgery clinic was moved to new quarters in that building. This allowed an expansion of the X-ray Laboratory into that part of the Dental Building formerly used for oral surgery. The dental classes of 1918 and 1923 presented a gift of approximately $4,500 to remodel the X-ray Laboratory and to purchase new equipment. At the reunion of these classes in June, 1948, the laboratory was dedicated as a memorial to Dr. U. G. Rickert, formerly Professor of Diagnosis, Dental Therapeutics, and Radiology, who died on October 21, 1938.
The most significant change in the Dental Building took place in 1949, when the main operating clinic on the second floor was completely rehabilitated. New dental chairs, units, and cabinets were installed for the use of the clinic classes. The cost of this project was $295,000, and the clinic now contains ninety-four chairs, which are shared by junior and senior students on alternate days. There are also thirty-nine chairs for the use of dental hygienists. The clinic of the Dental Building is one of the most modern and well equipped to be found in the world.
Since 1950 several areas of the building have been remodeled to allow most efficient use of the available space for present instructional needs. In 1950 the Dental Materials Laboratory was expanded, and the West Laboratory was remodeled to allow a capacity of 185 student benches. In 1952 the West Lecture Room was replaced with a Prosthetic Laboratory containing the most recent types of equipment. At this time the men's locker room was also modernized and expanded. In 1953 the Crown and Bridge Laboratory adjoining the main clinic was remodeled, and the Examination Room was enlarged.
East Engineering Building
In April, 1920, the Regents received a communication from Dean Cooley "dealing with … the presumptive need for additional space and equipment" (R.P., 1917-20, p. 915). The following November they agreed, in accordance with their building program, to go ahead with construction of engineering shops and laboratories, which would require an appropriation of $750,000. To prevent confusion it was decided that the new structure would be named the East Engineering Building and that the older engineering building on the southeast corner of the campus would be designated the West Engineering Building. The new building was ready for use at the beginning of the 1923-24 school year.
The East Engineering Building, on East University Avenue south of East Hall, is shaped in general like a "U," with a front of 190 feet on East University Avenue and two wings, separated by a court, each 223 feet in length, running back to Church Street. In plan it follows the unit construction of the later buildings on the campus with regularly spaced reinforced concrete piers, affording Page 1615a maximum of light and space. The building has four floors, with a full-height basement under each wing and a storage basement under the front section. It contains 177 rooms and has a gross floor area of 167,800 square feet.
The architects for the East Engineering Building were Smith, Hinchman and Grylls, and the contractor was H. G. Christman. The building was constructed for $639,190.81. It is built of brick and stone with an ornamental terra-cotta and brick cornice.
In general, the departments which had been housed in the old Engineering Shops and the rapidly developing branches of chemical and metallurgical engineering, transportation engineering, aeronautical engineering, metal processing, and engineering research found new and adequate quarters in the new structure, occupying sections of the building through several floors. Such grouping of the various branches of engineering permits practical co-operation among the departments.
The East Engineering Building includes eleven recitation rooms, fifty-seven laboratories, thirty-one offices, seven shops, three drafting rooms, two libraries, and five locker rooms. The largest single room, the foundry, has an area of 6,193 square feet. In addition to these rooms, a darkroom, a museum, and storage rooms are also provided. The upper floors of the north wing are occupied by the general Chemical Engineering Laboratory, special laboratories for gas, oil, and fuel analysis and smaller rooms for special research problems in such fields as paints, textiles, and electrochemistry. Extending from the basement to the third floor is the Swenson Evaporator Laboratory. The remainder of this wing is devoted to transportation engineering, general classrooms, offices, the Transportation Library on the first floor, and laboratories in the basement.
In the south wing, the upper floors accommodate the various Production Engineering laboratories, with special rooms for heat treatment of metals and for electric furnaces. The basement of this wing contains a wind tunnel used for experimental work in aeronautical engineering, in addition to offices and a drawing room.
Construction of the East Engineering Building addition (a new south wing) was begun in the summer of 1946 and was completed in time for use at the beginning of the school year 1947-48, at a cost of $1,545,000. This addition afforded relief from the crowded conditions resulting from the heavy enrollment following World War II. It provided eighteen classrooms, as well as laboratories and offices for the departments of Aeronautical Engineering and Electrical Engineering. The latter was moved to the addition from the West Engineering Building.
A small laboratory, equipped for research work in explosives and chemical smokes, was erected on the roof of the East Engineering Building in 1941. In 1947 an Illumination Laboratory, which provided natural illumination for the study of such needs in schools, factories, and houses, was also constructed on the roof of the building. Another small structure, to be used as an instructional and research laboratory for work in meteorology, was built upon the roof in 1954.
East Hall, of brick construction with two floors and a basement, containing twenty-nine rooms, including 10 classrooms and a study hall in the basement, has 20,194 square feet of floor space. Erected in 1883 as a public school building, it was designated as the Tappan School. In 1922 the University offered to Page 1616purchase this building from the Board of Education of the City of Ann Arbor. In September "a price of $76,200 was agreed upon for the purchase … of all the property known as the Tappan School buildings and grounds … out of the general funds of the University." An allowance of $2,000 was made for alterations and repairs to adapt the building for use by University classes during the year 1922-23 (R.P., 1920-23, p. 572).
This building has been used continuously for classes and offices. By 1955 offices of the Engineering English Department were located there, and the classrooms for the courses in English and mathematics. The building is on East University Avenue, just north of the East Engineering Building.
East Medical Building
The East Medical Building stands at the angle formed by the junction of East University and Washtenaw avenues. Shaped somewhat like a "V," with a short arm facing on Washtenaw, a longer one on East University, and a blunted end at the angle formed by these streets, it rises five stories above street level. Dark red brick, faced with white stone trim, emphasizes its straight unadorned lines and helps achieve harmony with the East Engineering Building just to the south. The main entrance is on East University Avenue, in a section marked by four great engaged Corinthian pillars, with a smaller entrance on the Washtenaw side and two delivery entrances from the court.
The first steps toward construction of the building came in 1923, when the University requested the legislature for a general building appropriation of $7,277,000, of which $2,990,000 was to complete the new Hospital. On March 15 and 16 of that year the entire lawmaking body came to Ann Arbor to survey the campus and to listen to a plea for funds from President Burton. Subsequently, the legislature appropriated $3,800,000 for the building program for the biennium, the sum of $2,300,000 to be used for the completion of the University Hospital. Provision, however, for a new medical building was also made.
Ground was broken for this addition to the Medical School late in October, 1923, and the work, for which the University Buildings and Grounds Department acted as contractors, proceeded according to the plans drawn up by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit. The building, which was ready for occupancy eighteen months later, on February 15, 1925, cost $858,283.32 and provides 184,658 square feet of floor space, including space used on the roof.
The basement floor has two large rooms, one containing refrigerating machinery and an electrical switchboard, the other a completely equipped morgue. The first floor of the west wing includes research rooms for anatomy and quarters for the animals needed in the work, as well as rooms for photographic and wax-plate equipment. Also on this floor are rooms for receiving, refrigerating, embalming, and preserving bodies. On the northeast side is stored material for the Department of Bacteriology with rooms equipped with special lighting for bacteriological research. In addition, space has been allotted for photographic rooms, a general research room for advanced students, and quarters for the Pasteur Institute. The section joining the two arms of the building is taken up by classrooms and a large lecture room.
A general laboratory for introductory work in physiology occupies the second floor of the west wing, with accessory Page 1617rooms for individual work in respiration and mammalian physiology. The second and third floors of the northeast wing are devoted chiefly to general bacteriological laboratories and accessory rooms, with private rooms for the use of instructors and laboratories for advanced bacteriology and parasitology.
The space between the wings has a large laboratory with additional rooms for general histology on the second floor, and on the third floor this part of the building houses a general laboratory for gross anatomy for students in dentistry and physical education. Rooms for galvanometric studies, used by the general class in physiology for special work in X ray, are in the west wing of the third floor, and laboratories for advanced work in physiology, with additional research rooms, occupy the remainder of this section of the building.
On the fourth floor west wing provision has been made for the director's laboratory and, adjoining it, a secretary's office. Just to the north are a library, presented to the Medical School by Dr. Warren F. Lombard, Professor of Physiology (1892-1923), and the main research rooms of the Department of Physiology. Near the end of this corridor a large classroom, formed by a bay, is used jointly by the Physiology and Anatomy departments. The main Anatomical Laboratory for medical students, with accessory rooms, is at the junction of the wings; the northeast wing contains additional research rooms for the Department of Anatomy, as well as facilities for the study of embryology and comparative neurology. Quarters are also provided for special work in anatomy for juniors and seniors.
Animal quarters and rooms for work on animals occupy almost the entire fifth floor, with individual kennels opening on wide runways where the dogs may exercise. Preparation of human bone material is also carried on in specially designated rooms on this floor.
Economics and Pharmacology Building
In his report of December, 1855, President Tappan stated: "In respect to buildings, the true principle is to build as little as possible… It will be necessary, however, to erect a Chemical Laboratory for the analytical course. Such a building will probably cost from two to three thousand dollars" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 618).
In May, 1856, the Regents authorized construction of the first chemical laboratory at the University. In his report of October, 1856, President Tappan described it as "unquestionably … unsurpassed by anything of the kind in our country." It was situated on the site of the present Pharmacology Building. A. J. Jordan was architect for the structure, while Professor Silas H. Douglas, of the Department of Chemistry, superintended the construction. The total cost of the building, which provided 3,142 square feet of floor space, was about $6,000.
This building was one of the first in the world to be devoted exclusively to laboratory instruction in chemistry, and probably the first in this country, since such instruction at that time was being given at both Harvard and Yale in certain rooms set aside for the purpose. It was a one-story structure, consisting of three rooms in which there were twenty-six laboratory tables.
In 1861 the Regents adopted a plan proposed by Professor Douglas for an enlargement, appropriating $2,000 for the purpose. Another addition was constructed in 1866, but in the following year President Haven reported that the Page 1618building was still too small, and in 1868 a third addition was made, which made possible 135 tables. In 1874 President Angell announced the completion of a fourth addition, a wing 95 by 30 feet, stating that as many as one hundred students at a time had been forced to wait for tables, and asserting that there was a need for more instruction in metallurgy and assaying. He added that all of the additional space now provided would be used at once. In 1880 a Laboratory of General Chemistry was set up, and a fifth addition, in the form of a second story, was made to the building. This construction was done under the supervision of Regent Andrew Climie. Meanwhile, the School of Pharmacy, which had been developed within the Chemical Laboratory, had been growing, and in 1888, although congestion had been relieved by transferring the work in hygiene to the building constructed for the laboratories of Hygiene and Physics, President Angell stated that there was urgent need for further enlargement of the building. A sixth addition was, therefore, completed in 1890, the state legislature having appropriated $21,000 for the purpose. It was added to the west end of the building. The architect was E. W. Arnold, of Detroit. The addition provided tables for eighty students, three lecture-rooms, and a pharmaceutical and chemical museum. The cost of the additions and of the original building, including some of the equipment, through 1890 totaled $55,845. Between 1895 and 1900 a Laboratory of Physical Chemistry was set up in the building, and the seventh and last addition was constructed in 1901. The building now had 362 tables. In 1903 the West Medical Building was completed, and the laboratory work in physiological chemistry was removed to it.
The building, because of its additions, is very irregular in plan, with a main section (Pharmacology) on the north which includes the old first laboratory of 1856, and an L-shaped wing on the south. The building has a maximum dimension from north to south of 160 feet and from east to west of 180 feet.
Although the principal purpose for which the building was constructed was to provide laboratory space for work in analytical chemistry, it was later used for organic chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and chemical technology as well, and, until 1890, for electrotherapeutics. Later, the Hygienic Laboratory in the West Medical Building became headquarters for the work in physiological chemistry, but one laboratory, providing facilities for forty-eight students, was maintained in the Chemical Building. During the year 1896-97 more than 600 students received instruction in the laboratories of this building.
In 1909, with the completion of the new Chemistry Building, these laboratories were all moved, and the southern wing of the old Chemical Laboratory, which is in effect a separate building, was taken over by the Department of Economics, while the Department of Pharmacology occupied the northern wing. The basement of the southern section was transformed into an accounting laboratory and, until 1924, the second floor was used as a library.
With the erection of Angell Hall, provision was made for an economics-mathematics library on the third floor. The quarters in the Economics Building vacated by the library were thereafter used as a statistical laboratory, while the rear part of the pharmacology section was utilized as laboratory space for special research projects.
Mason Hall. — The first department of the University to be established was Page 1619the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, in 1841. Mason Hall, the first University building devoted to instruction, in the beginning was known as the University Building. In the course of a few years it was supplemented by an identical structure, placed on the same line but separated from it by a gap of about 150 feet, known as the South College Building. Later, these two buildings were joined by a large central structure, and the completed building was called University Hall, the earlier buildings becoming North Wing and South Wing, respectively.
On March 3, 1838, almost a year after the institution had been established in Ann Arbor, a building committee was appointed by the Regents, consisting of Lieutenant-Governor Edward Mundy, Chief Justice William A. Fletcher, and Chancellor Elon Farnsworth; the latter was replaced by Regent John J. Adam in January, 1839. This committee was directed "to fix upon and recommend … a plan for the University buildings," to prepare estimates, to make contracts for materials, and to deal with the question of employing an architect. In connection with this duty, the committee became involved in a curious misunderstanding, the story of which is told by Mr. Mundy, the chairman, in a report dated November, 1838, and presented to the Board on the following April 13 (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 82-83).
On advice, the committee through Mundy opened negotiations with Ammi B. Young, of Vermont, inviting him to visit Michigan with the prospect of being employed as architect. Young, who was engaged at that time in the erection of the Customs House in Boston, could not give full acceptance to the invitation, but offered, nevertheless, to produce a set of plans. On May 15, 1838, therefore, the committee, by letter, gave him a description of the site and commissioned him to furnish them with a design.
Mundy, during that summer, went to New Jersey. While there, he received a letter, dated July 19, from Judge Fletcher which asked him to consult with an entirely different architect, Alexander J. Davis, of New York, from whom the Regents expected a plan, and to ask him to visit Ann Arbor as soon as he could. Calling upon Mr. Davis, Mundy was informed that "a correspondence had existed between himself and one of the members of the Board, to whom anterior to the appointment of this Committee had been given authority to procure a plan for the buildings" (R.P., 1837-64, pp. 82-83). Davis appears to have observed all the professional proprieties, for he told Mundy that Young had, in a letter to him, expressed a willingness to relinquish his connection with the affair. Young, however, later wrote Mundy that he "had expended much time and study upon the designs for the University buildings, that he had completed the most difficult part, the designing … and forwarded … his bill for three hundred dollars …" (R.P., 1837-64, p. 83). Who had engaged the services of Davis, however, does not appear. At any rate, Davis, and not Young, became the first architect for the University of Michigan.
From Davis the University got prompt action. On September 16, 1838, the plan which he drew up was unanimously adopted, and it was determined to begin construction of "the Main Building and eight sections of the North Wing." It was voted to pay Davis $600 and to appoint Isaac Thompson, of Connecticut, as builder. One set of plans which Davis drew is deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; the set which was submitted for the approval of Governor Mason, after many vicissitudes, found its way back to the archives of the University. These plans call for a Page 1620Gothic structure very different from the severe style of the building finally erected (Mason Hall).
In Alexander J. Davis* the Regents had selected one of the most distinguished American architects of the midnineteenth century; he designed many buildings of national importance. The transaction, however, was doomed to be ill-fated, and his plans, although adopted and still in existence, were never carried out. Exactly what was said and done during the interval between September, 1838, and January, 1839, we do not know, because of the absence of explanatory documents. Although brick was purchased, the actual building, apparently, was not begun, and the action was rescinded as being "premature."
The plan for the original building, Mason Hall, was submitted on April 8, 1840. To take the place of the plans drawn by Alexander J. Davis, the Regents on April 7, 1840 (R.P., 1837-64, p. 128), directed the Building Committee to "procure and report to this Board tomorrow, a plan for a principal Building …, together with the estimates of the expenses for erecting and completing the same." The report, which was forthcoming and adopted by the Regents on the next day, was signed by Harpin Lum, the contractor for the Professors' Houses. This first building was completed in 1841, in time for the opening of college in the fall. The four Professors' Houses had been occupied in 1840.
The final plan was very different from the design presented by Alexander J. Davis, the first architect appointed by the Regents. His sketches, now preserved in the Metropolitan Museum, show an elaborate brick building in the so-called Gothic style of that period. This plan, although first approved by the Board of Regents, was finally rejected because of the opposition of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, John D. Pierce, who deemed it altogether too expensive. Whether Mr. Davis had a hand in designing the building actually erected is not known, although in some of its details it recalls other buildings designed by him. Isaac Thompson, who was associated with Davis, superintended the construction of two of the Professors' Houses; he was replaced by Harpin Lum, who not only completed the first two, but also the second two and the main building. In view of the fact that the plans for the main building were not submitted to the Regents until April, 1840 (whereas the Davis plan was adopted as early as September 16, 1838), and Thompson had been dismissed in July, 1839, it is possible if not probable that the design was worked out by Lum in conjunction with the Building Committee of the Board of Regents.
The structure, designed to be used for the most part as a dormitory, was 110 feet long, 42 feet wide, four stories high, and of brick construction with stucco facing. It provided 18,575 square feet of floor space. The plans called for thirty-two studies, each with a wood-room, and sixty-four bedrooms, each with a closet. Later, alterations were made to provide for classrooms as well as dormitories. Directly behind the building was a wood-yard, from which the students secured their own fuel. The cost of the building, according to Lum's estimate, was $16,000. Originally, the brick exterior was to have been painted, but after receiving favorable reports concerning stuccoing "in New Haven and elsewhere" by a Mr. Gill, the Regents decided to stucco the Professors' Houses, and it was felt that the Main Building should conform in appearance. The Page [unnumbered]
It would be easy to assume, today, that this first building was of cheap construction, evidence of an attempt to save at every turn, but those who were concerned with the matter at the time appear to have felt very differently. Thus, the Board of Visitors reported in 1841-42:
The plan and profile of the University buildings as marked out and adopted by the Board of Regents, will, when completed, present an imposing spectacle, worthy of the great objects for which they are designed… The age in which we live could not make a more noble and acceptable donation to the age which is to follow, than will be presented by these splendid monuments of taste and art, … The material, style and finish of these buildings [those already completed], combining convenience, solidity and elegance, are creditable to the architect, and well adapted for the uses for which they were designed.
(Rept. Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1841-42.)
Again in 1849 the college buildings were described as "admirably finished, after the most approved plan, the result of long experience and observation on the part of the college officers."
The students' quarters consisted of three-room suites or apartments, each with two bedrooms and a common study room. Originally, the building was divided into two sections, each a complete and separate unit consisting of sixteen apartments opening on a central stairway. A tutor, who occupied an apartment on the first floor, presided over each of the sections. The necessity of providing classrooms upset this scheme, since it seems to have been tried out only once, at a time when Andrew Ten Brook, who later became Professor of Philosophy, served as tutor. The faculty strongly and repeatedly recommended the adoption of this plan, but the eventual decision on the part of President Tappan to abandon the dormitory idea in order to secure more classroom space prevented its ever being put into operation.
In April, 1843, the Board of Regents named the building Mason Hall, in the following resolution:
Resolved, That as evidence of the feeling with which this Board cherishes the memory of the late Stevens T. Mason, by whom it was originally organized, the cottage edifice, now in use at Ann Arbor and known as the "Main Building," shall henceforth be called "Mason Hall."
(R.P., 1837-64, p. 264.)
The South Wing. — In January, 1847, the Regents decided to erect a second building, since additional accommodations were needed for a chemical and medical laboratory and for recitation rooms, as well as for the housing of students. The new building was to be "similar in its dimensions and general plan to the principal building now in use," and Kearsley and Owen were appointed a committee of two to carry out the plans for the building. It was completed in 1848-49, costing approximately $13,000, and was known as South College. The Regents' committee again recommended, in July, 1848, that the first building be called Mason Hall and that the new or South building be named Pitcher Hall for Dr. Zina Pitcher, a member of the first Board of Regents, and one of the founders of the Medical School. These recommendations, however, were laid on the table. In 1913 a communication was received from the Page 1622Sarah Caswell Angell. Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, requesting permission to place a tablet on the north building (called North Wing of University Hall) and asking also that the building be known thereafter "by the title by which it is said to have been originally designated, … 'Mason Hall.'" After looking into the records, the Regents consented, and the name again was formally adopted in July, 1913.
Thus, the first two units of what later became University Hall were designed solely for dormitories, to be conducted under a tutorial system. The immediate necessity for space, however, reduced the dormitory function to three-fourths of each building. The other fourth was devoted to lecture and recitation rooms, a chapel, library, and rooms for the Mineralogical Cabinet and the two literary societies.
In their report for 1850, the Board of Visitors noted that sixteen rooms in the "dormitory buildings" were unoccupied. Finding the doors to these rooms unlocked, they inspected them, and complained that they found evidence that the wood closets had been used for sawing and splitting wood, much to the damage of the floors, and of the ceilings directly below, from which much plaster had fallen. They were greatly surprised that such a practice should have been allowed in the University. They also thought it a great oversight that someone had not been provided to make the beds and keep the premises neat. The students were sweeping the dirt from their rooms into the halls, whence it was removed by the janitor once or twice a week.
The academic uses to which these two buildings were put varied from time to time. The Chemical Laboratory for Dr. Douglas was set up in the North Wing, probably in 1844. In 1848 it was moved to the South Wing, where it remained until the erection in 1850 of the first Laboratory Building, which eventually became known as the Medical Building. On one occasion the location of the faculty room and a janitor's room in the North Wing was the cause of much embarrassment. The doors to the two rooms, which were directly opposite each other, stood open. A rope was stretched from doorknob to doorknob. It was, of course, the janitor who climbed through the window and solved the problem.
In 1856, at a cost of $3,500, the entire central part of the North Wing was renovated and equipped, according to plans by Jordan and Anderson, architects, to house the Library and the Museum. The contractor was William Gibbings. This coincided with a decision to abandon the dormitory plan altogether and to encourage the students to find rooms in the town. The new arrangements provided a gallery around the room devoted to the Library, in which, and in rooms opening from it, the Museum and the art exhibits were displayed. The Mineralogical Cabinet was placed in the north half of the gallery, with the geological collections in the south half; the Fine Arts collection, begun in 1855 by Professor Frieze, was accommodated in three adjacent rooms.
The fourth floor apparently continued in use for a time as dormitory rooms. The last one on the campus, on the second floor in the south end of the North Wing, "directly under the bell," was occupied as late as the year 1870-71. Its various tenants acted in the capacity of caretaker for the Museum. The Chapel appears to have occupied the space, on the main floor at one end of the North Wing, that normally would have accommodated two student suites. When the Law School was established in 1859, the Law Library also had to be housed in the Library room, and this arrangement continued until the completion of the Law Building in 1863, when both the Law and the Literary College libraries were moved Page 1623to the new building. After the Museums Building was completed in 1880-81 the central part of the North Wing was renovated to provide classrooms. In the spring of 1899 the little room that had been attached in 1862 to the north end of the North Wing to house Randolph Rogers' statue of "Nydia" was cut away, and replaced by a bay window.
The first professorship in engineering was established in 1853, and much of the nonlaboratory instruction in this subject was given in South College until 1890. The Law Department also had quarters in this building. In 1861 a large room on the ground floor was given over to military drill. After removal of the engineering courses to the easterly of the two Professors' Houses facing South University Avenue in 1891, South College appears to have been devoted largely to classrooms, particularly in the natural sciences, with the Treasurer's offices occupying the ground floor. On the morning of May 28, 1913, a fire broke out in the Botanical Laboratory at the south end of the top floor, causing part of the roof to collapse, and resulting in damage estimated at approximately $47,000, including injury to, or loss of 2,692 books belonging to the Library, as well as a part of the University Herbarium. The Treasurer's records escaped harm. Restoration of the building was promptly voted by the Regents, and plans were incorporated for its use after the impending removal of the Biology Department to the new Natural Science Building.
University Hall. — The decision, in 1870, to ask the legislature for an appropriation for a new University building, appears to have been the result of repeated urgings on the part of Acting President Henry S. Frieze. In a report to the Regents in March of that year, he dwelt at some length on the need for a more perfect union "of the three grand departments of the institution," including both faculty and students. It was to further this end that the University Senate had been formed, and on November 17, 1869, at the suggestion of Regent E. C. Walker, a new anniversary, "University Day," was inaugurated. This day was celebrated only twice, in 1869 and in 1870. "It created strife rather than union" (Farrand, p. 208). The great need of the University, however, in Dr. Frieze's judgment, was "an audience room … suitable for all … occasions, … as well as for … exhibitions and annual commencements." He said: "The University has no roof under which to assemble her various Departments. She has a family of a thousand children without a shelter" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 25). At the same time he stressed the shortage of classrooms.
He pursued the subject further in his annual report of September, 1870, "Certainly no Union School District in this State would think it creditable, either to its enterprise or humanity, to shut up its youth in such rooms as the Academic Department of the University is now compelled to occupy." A further argument may well have clinched his case. The admission of women into the University had not given rise to the evils apprehended but it had presented an unconsidered problem. With no adequate space for the young men, how could room also be found for young women? Dr. Frieze said:
Any one who should witness the difficulty the large classes of this department find in moving along the narrow "gang ways," up and down the narrow stair cases of this building, a movement which must take place at almost every hour of the day, would hesitate to expose young ladies to all this embarrassment and discomfort.
You have believed it a duty to comply with the request of the Legislature, urged upon you by repeated majorities in both houses, and undoubtedly reflecting the will of the people. You can now in all fairness ask the Page 1624Legislature to furnish you with the buildings necessary to make their request effectual, and to carry out their wishes.
(R.P., 1870-76, pp. 76-77.)
The Regents accordingly agreed to approach the legislature, and that body almost unanimously voted an appropriation of $75,000. This action, following the establishment of the principle of the mill tax in 1867, marked a new era in the history of the support of higher education by the state. It was decided that the new building, "with its front of 347 feet, and its dome rising to a height of 140 feet from the ground" (R.P., 1870-76, p. 203), affording 61,903 square feet of floor space, should be a connecting link between the old North and South College buildings, making the whole one large University building. The name "University Hall" was probably adopted by the Regents at their meeting in June of 1871. After consideration of plans submitted by several architects, E. S. Jenison, of Chicago, was chosen as architect. The original plans showed a monumental archway above the main entrance and a dome which the Regents deemed "inexpedient." The dome, however, was retained in a modified form, rising approximately 60 feet above the building, 140 feet above the ground, and with a diameter of 30 feet.
The design provided for a chapel on the north side of the main floor, with a seating capacity of 550; across on the south side was the President's office, with a waiting room for ladies at the east side. The main feature of the building, however, was the large auditorium on the second floor, which seated 3,000 people — 1,700 on the main floor, and 1,300 in the encircling elliptical gallery. The building also provided eleven lecture rooms as well as offices for the Regents, the faculty, and the steward. This plan proved more expensive than expected, and the legislature was called upon for an additional $25,000, bringing the total cost to $105,459.61.
The cornerstone of the new building was laid on Commencement Day, June 28, 1871, which was also the occasion of the first official appearance of the recently elected President, James Burrill Angell. Two years later, on the evening of November 5, 1873, the dedication ceremonies took place, although the Chapel and lecture rooms had been in use since October of the preceding year. Thirty-four hundred people crowded into the new auditorium to hear addresses by Regent George Willard, the Honorable D. Bethune Duffield, of Detroit, and President Andrew D. White, of Cornell University, formerly a member of the University of Michigan faculty.
Criticism of various sorts arose during the construction of the building. Some people objected to making it a part of the two original college buildings, while others did not like the construction materials. The writer of an editorial in the Chronicle of September, 1871, said:
Every one must regret that a building, over which we have been more puffed up than any other college in the country and which would have been worth over one half million dollars, had to be built of brick and stuccoed; but the amount of capital and the style of the old buildings left no choice in the matter.
There was, too, a strong reaction against the appearance of the building. A very caustic editorial in the Chronicle of May, 1875, was directed chiefly against the dome. The sight of it "would have caused Michael Angelo to hang his head in shame." The writer remarked that it should always be viewed from the State Street side if one would get an impression of its beauty and grandeur as Page 1625"it shows at a great disadvantage from the rear." Reference was also made to the "pepper boxes" ornamenting the roof. Of this last criticism the Regents took notice and in 1879 ordered the removal of "the two circular corner turrets and the two turrets at the base of the dome," and provided for the finishing of "the said corners and said sides in conformity with the style of said dome." They also ordered the removal of the balustrade which bordered the roofs of the two wings (R.P., 1876-81, p. 398).
Finally, widespread fear arose that the self-supporting roof of the auditorium would not bear the weight of the great dome, which was estimated at 112,000 pounds. DeVolson Wood, Professor of Civil Engineering, reviewed the plans in detail, made independent calculations of the strains, and wrote two articles, which were published in the Chronicle, reassuring the public as to the safety of the building. After the dedicatory ceremony, the Chronicle (5[Nov., 1872]: 42.) noted: "The seats were full, but no signs of weakness could be detected, … The acoustic properties of the hall, we are happy to say, are excellent."
Regardless of its physical qualities, however, the erection of University Hall was of great moral significance. President White's dedicatory address, which made a profound impression, was an argument for state-supported colleges, and Acting President Frieze, in his annual report for the year 1870-71, referring to the almost unanimous vote of the legislature appropriating money for the new building, said:
If it is reasonable to regard the Legislature as representing the sentiment of the people, I think we may now feel assured that the University has at length reached that period which we have always desired to see, when it should be recognized and accepted by the citizens of the state as a genuine state institution, not only such by the organic laws of the state, but in the estimation of the people, and in their cordial sympathy and support.
(R.P., 1870-76, p. 113.)
Immediately upon completion, the new building became the center of all University activities. In 1894 the Columbian Organ, built by Farrand and Votey, of Detroit, and valued at $25,000, which had been used in Festival Hall during the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago, was purchased by the University Musical Society and installed in University Hall. The instrument was promptly named the Frieze Memorial Organ. With this began a series of vesper services, held twice weekly, at which a chorus of 100 voices, under the direction of Professor Stanley, sang. The spring of 1894 also witnessed the first of the long series of May Festivals which have been held since that time.
Early apprehensions concerning the weight of the dome increased, and in November, 1895, the Regents ordered the Committee on Buildings and Grounds either to repair or to remove it if this seemed desirable. Subsequently, after representatives of the H. George and Company, of Detroit, had inspected it, it was finally decided that the old dome should be removed. This was accomplished during the Christmas holidays of 1896, and plans for a new roof were prepared by Spice and Rohn, architects. The new dome was of iron, much smaller, and consequently less expensive, a fact which was sadly noted by an alumnus writing in 1899, "The mighty dome which we used to point out and look at fondly on our walks about the neighboring country has gone, and its place can never be taken in our hearts by its diminutive and bubble-like successor" (Michigan Alumnus, 6[Oct., 1899]:6). But he added that while it was inspiring to view the old dome in a tempest, to sit beneath Page 1626it, because of its many leaks, was damaging to body, raiment, and character.
At the time the roof was being recon-structed, the incline of the floor of the auditorium was lowered twenty-two and one-half inches, and the seats were replaced by opera chairs. As the Chapel exercises were gradually discontinued, the Chapel became a general assembly room, known as Room C, and was used for class meetings.
Once more in the early 1900's fears were entertained for the safety of those sitting in the gallery of the auditorium. The enthusiastic stamping of feet which greeted William Jennings Bryan when he spoke in the hall in 1902 led a member of the faculty to warn the audience that this was dangerous; he said, "The building shows its age. Its woodwork and floors are becoming dry and lifeless." The Inlander also called attention in 1905 to the shaking of floor, seats, and gallery during a performance of "David Garrick" by Leland T. Powers.
After the completion of Hill Auditorium in 1913, old University Hall ceased to be the center of University gatherings. The Frieze Memorial Organ was moved to the new building in 1913-14, and the seating capacity of the old auditorium was restricted to 1,500. Six years later, it was reduced still more in size in order to provide six additional classrooms, and what remained was used for classes in dramatics. In 1930 further use of the auditorium was prohibited on the grounds of safety. Later, all of the first floor and much of the second floor of the building were used as general University offices. The old Chapel became offices for the Dean of Students and the Registrar, and the rooms once occupied by the President were incorporated in the University's business offices.
The structure was removed to make way for the new Mason Hall and Haven Hall additions in 1950.
The Professors' Houses. — The first houses on the campus were those belonging to the former occupants of the land. These, however, were removed, and the earliest University buildings to take their places were the four Professors' Houses, built at about the same time as, but shortly before, Mason Hall.
Twenty thousand dollars was appropriated in 1839 for "such buildings as the necessities of the University may at present require." These "necessities" were stated to be "four buildings for the use of the Professors of the University"; they were to be used also for the storage of the "Cabinet of Natural History, the Library, the Philosophical Apparatus and other general purposes of the University" until the "main buildings" could be finished. At this time the contract with Messrs. Davis and Thompson was canceled, and a new one was made with Mr. Thompson, as superintendent of building operations, which remained in force until August 14, 1839. In February, 1839, on Thompson's advice, the contract to erect the remaining two houses and to finish the two already begun was given to Harpin Lum.* July 1, 1840, was the date specified for their completion. The first payment on this contract was made to Mr. Lum on February 11, 1839, and the final settlement on November 12, 1840, but as only two warrants were drawn on this account after May 20 it is probable that most of the work was completed by the summer of 1840.
It is not known who drew the plans for the four Professors' Houses. They are not included in Davis' preserved papers and in style are quite unlike the buildings Page 1627which he actually designed. The Regents' Proceedings state simply that the Building Committee, on February 11, 1839, "presented a plan for the buildings directed to be constructed … which plan was adopted." Since Isaac Thompson was superintendent of building at this time, it seems likely that he may have made the necessary drawings; the houses resembled in some respects, notably their porticos, a style not infrequently found in his native state, Connecticut. Business connections appear to have existed between Mr. Thompson and Mr. Davis, and the latter, in turn, was associated with Ithiel Town, of New Haven. On the other hand, Harpin Lum was capable of drawing building plans.
The contracts which the building committee made for the erection of these houses amounted in each case to $7,712.50 or $30,850 for the four. Each afforded about 4,800 square feet of floor space and measured 36 by 44 feet in size. Attention was given by the Regents to their location as well as to many details of their construction.
On February 11 a resolution was adopted which directed that an avenue one hundred feet in width should be run through the center of the campus from north to south and that the Professors' Houses should be situated in pairs on either side of this avenue, two on the north and two on the south side of the grounds. This location was adopted, but the avenue was never actually laid out nor opened, and on November 26, 1839, the resolution was rescinded.
When the Professors' Houses were completed in the fall of 1840, one of them was used temporarily as a library. Wood-houses, cisterns, and barns were provided for each. The occupancy of the houses by the professors apparently began in 1840. One is referred to as Dr. Douglass Houghton's house as early as March of that year (R.P., 1837-64, p. 127). From 1840 until 1845, when Professor Joseph Whiting died, Professors Houghton, George Palmer Williams, and Whiting were the tenants; for the first three years one of the houses apparently stood vacant except as it may have been used for miscellaneous purposes. It was probably this house, in the basement of which the janitor, Patrick Kelly, was permitted to live, which in October, 1843, was rented to Governor Alpheus Felch and occupied by him until May, 1846. Mrs. Whiting continued in residence until May, 1846, when she left for Buffalo and the Agnews took over her house. Professor Whedon lived in the Felch house, probably, until 1852, when Erastus O. Haven succeeded him in its tenancy. In 1852 the four houses were occupied by President Tappan and Professors Williams, Boise, and Haven, respectively. Upon Haven's resignation as Professor in 1856, his place was taken by Professor W. P. Trowbridge, and from 1858 through 1860 by Professor Andrew D. White. Professor Frieze began his long tenancy of one of the University Houses in 1861, and Mr. James Clements, father of Regent William Lawrence Clements, rented another of them, at least in 1861-62. Others who lived in the houses at various times were Mrs. Helen E. Putnam and Professors L. D. Chapin, Alexander Winchell, G. B. Merriman, and Benjamin F. Cocker. It is difficult to determine the years of the various tenancies and impossible to designate here the specific house occupied by each individual.
The use of the Professors' Houses for other purposes was early discussed. In 1861 it was proposed to use one for hospital purposes and another to house the Law Department, and in 1869, it was proposed to use the northwest dwelling for instruction in engineering. These proposals were all rejected. In 1869, however, the northeast house was taken over Page 1628for use as a University Hospital. Additions were made to it, both at that time and later. In 1876 two wooden pavilions 114 by 30 feet were built onto the rear of the old house, and in 1879 an amphitheater, matron's quarters, and kitchen and dining room were added. It continued in use as a hospital until 1891. From 1891 to 1908 the School of Dentistry used this building until it was removed for the erection of the Chemical Laboratory in 1909-10.
From 1875 to 1877 another of the Professors' Houses, that to the northwest, was used as the first home of the School of Dentistry. An addition to this building also was made, and in 1879 it became the hospital of the Homeopathic Medical College. Thus, it was used until 1899, when, on the removal of the Homeopathic Hospital to new quarters, its wooden extension was taken over by the Department of Pathology for three years, thereafter, from 1903 to 1915, by the Department of Psychology. The southeast residence was occupied by the College of Dentistry from 1877 until 1891. In that year a large brick addition was made to the building, and for the next thirty years it was occupied by the School of Engineering and was known as the Old Engineering Building. It was torn down in 1921-22 to permit the erection of the Clements Library, the southeast corner of which falls upon the site of the old Professor's House.
The fourth Professor's House, the southwest one of the group, is the only one which throughout the years has preserved its original purpose. It is now, as it has been since the time of President Tappan, the President's House, although the many additions which have been made to it in the interval since its erection have changed its appearance. It was not until President Angell came in 1871 that a hot-air furnace was installed. The chief alterations, however, were the addition of a one-story kitchen wing in 1864, the library wing, designed by E. W. Arnold, in 1891, the sun room, sleeping porch, and a further extension of the kitchen wing, including a garage, at the time of President Burton's arrival in Ann Arbor in 1920, and in 1933, the study which was added at the northeast corner. The house as originally built was a square two-story structure. The President's House was lighted by gas from about 1858, when gas was first introduced in Ann Arbor, until 1891, when the house was wired for electricity.
The iron fence surrounding the grounds, erected during President Angell's administration, was removed during President Burton's occupancy of the house.
Food Service Building
The Food Service Building on the corner of Glen and Huron streets was occupied in April, 1948. The combined building and equipment have involved a total outlay of $1,450,000. The building was constructed without the aid of appropriation by the state, the funds having been provided from a combined bond issue for residence hall refinancing and new construction.
The building serves as a centralized storage depot and processing point for food served in all University eating places except the Union. In the 1930's, when University residence hall facilities were increased, the need of a central receiving, distributing, and fabricating unit for food became apparent. As a temporary expedient the facilities of the Hospital Store, which was already providing food for the Hospital, were enlarged to service the residence halls. Further dormitory expansion after World War II overtaxed the limited Hospital facilities, and the need for the Food Service Building became imperative.
Page 1629The building is of reinforced concrete and red brick, with limestone trim, modern and attractive in appearance. Designed by Kalamazoo architects Louis C. Kingscott and Associates, it contains two floors and a basement, and the center section is designed to accommodate two additional stories when necessary. There are approximately 63,200 square feet of floor space in the building, and the over-all dimensions are approximately 120 by 220 feet.
Approximately 15,000 square feet of the total area are devoted to twenty-seven refrigerated rooms from 10 by 10 to 22 by 60 feet. The operation of these refrigerators, which are cork-lined, requires the use of nineteen large water-cooled compressors which operate at alternate intervals to assure equal wear on each unit.
The receiving entrance is at the front of the building, and the shipping dock is at the rear. The first floor contains the administrative offices, the receiving department, the bakery, the meat department, and the ice cream room. The building is equipped with a pneumatic tube system for sending messages from one floor to another and with an intercommunicating system.
The administrative offices, near the main entrance, are occupied by the manager, the food buyer representing the University Purchasing Department, the chief dietitian of the residence halls, and other staff.
The bakery, which covers an area of about 9,000 square feet, contains two refrigerated rooms for storing supplies and retaining dough temporarily. It is equipped with the most modern devices available and is designed on a production line basis so that the dough is prepared and mixed at one end, and the finished products come out of the ovens at the other end.
Across the corridor from the bakery is the meat department, which covers an area of 4,000 square feet and includes a well-equipped, modern butcher shop. Six refrigerators occupy more than half the area of this department.
At the end of the corridor is the ice cream room which occupies about 600 square feet and includes storage for flavors, a main room for the freezer, and two refrigerated rooms.
All incoming merchandise is delivered to the receiving dock. There is a platform scale for miscellaneous use as well as an overhead scale for weighing meat. Three tractor-trailers can be accommodated simultaneously. An electrically operated overhead door can be closed during inclement weather. Merchandise is unloaded from a freight car siding directly into the building. Overhead tracks for handling meat also lead into the building from the receiving dock and the freight car entrance. Meat is placed on hooks at the time of unloading and moved on these tracks directly into refrigerators near the receiving area. Mechanical lift trucks save much rehandling of canned goods, sugar, potatoes, and flour. As merchandise is unloaded both from freight cars and large trucks it is stacked directly on pallets (wooden platforms) which can be picked up, transported, and set down by the lift trucks anywhere in the building. Two heavy duty elevators, one at each end of the building, facilitate the movement of merchandise between the three floors.
The top or second floor is used entirely for storage of canned goods, paper goods, frozen fruits, flour, vegetables, and sugar. Four large refrigerators, each covering an area of 1,125 square feet, will accommodate fourteen freight car loads of frozen foods. The "flour room" is refrigerated and air conditioned.
The basement floor has further storage facilities for staples, canned goods, fresh fruits, and vegetables. It also contains Page 1630two compressor rooms, the mechanical equipment room, and the shipping department. There are, in all, twelve refrigerated rooms on this floor.
The shipping department at the rear of the building contains space for preparation of orders, an area for completed orders awaiting delivery, a storage area for trucks, and a shipping dock which will accommodate four trucks at a time. This entire area is enclosed, and two electrically operated doors can be closed during inclement weather or in non-operating periods.
Since the building was completed in 1948 much time and effort have been devoted to study of improved methods. The outstanding improvement after the building was occupied resulted from the utilization of the pallets described above. Much has been accomplished by the installation of other modern labor-saving equipment.
Eber White Woods. — In 1915 the Eber White tract of forty-three acres on West Liberty Road was purchased by the Regents and for many years occupied an important place in the instructional and investigational activities of the School. This area, a part of the former Eber White estate, was named the Eber White Woods.
Previous cuttings had been restricted, so that many of the older trees were still standing. In 1917 a plan to manage the area under the selection method was adopted, and cutting took place at five-year intervals on each of the ten compartments, with the result that there was an increase in the total volume of growing stock and in the percentage of the more valuable species as well as an improvement in the average quality of the trees. Cutting averaged about a cord an acre each year.
Because of the location of the tract, on the immediate outskirts of the city, many people felt that it would serve its greatest permanent use as a community forest and park for the people of Ann Arbor. This led in 1946 to its being given to the Ann Arbor Board of Education, with the understanding that its continued use by the University would be permitted.
The Saginaw Forest. — When the Forestry Department was established, one of the immediate needs was for land on which instruction and research in forestry operations could be carried out. The need was met by Arthur Hill, of Saginaw, a lumberman and Regent, who purchased an eighty-acre tract, two miles west of Ann Arbor, in 1903 and deeded it to the University, with the stipulation that it be used as a forestry demonstration and experimental area. The deed also specified that the official name should be "The Saginaw Forestry Farm." By 1919 the development of the plantations had reached such a stage that the name "farm" seemed inappropriate, so it was changed by the Regents, at the request of the Department of Forestry faculty, to "The Saginaw Forest."
Planting of the cleared parts began in the spring of 1904 and was completed in 1915. Later, some of the species proved to be unsuited to the sites on which they had been planted. Other species suffered serious damage from insects and diseases. Most of these unsuccessful plantations have been clear cut, and the areas have been replanted with different species. A few have been kept because of their demonstration value.
The total area of experimental plantations is fifty-five acres, with the balance of the area occupied by the lake, swamp, natural second-growth, roads, buildings, and a small arboretum. Most of the Page 1631plantings are now so far advanced that the history of their development furnishes much information that can serve as a guide for future operations in reforestation in southern Michigan. Even the failures have been valuable in this respect.
During the summer and fall of 1915, a stone cabin was built for tools and materials and as a shelter for classes and work-crews in inclement weather. It was unfortunate that the need for a caretaker's residence could not have been foreseen, so that a design better suited to the present use of the building could have been adopted. In 1947 the building east of the cabin was erected as a garage and to furnish supplementary living and storage space.
In the hearts of many of the older alumni there is much sentiment for the old "Forestry Farm." It was there that they struggled with grub hoes and spades to establish the first plantations, while arguing vigorously as to the feasibility of starting forests in such an artificial way. There they enjoyed the fellowship of the annual "Camp Fire" in the fall and of the weekend-long "Field Day" in the spring. On the hillside back of the present cabin, they sat and listened to the inspirational talks of "Daddy" Roth. A short distance from the cabin, a large stone with an appropriate bronze tablet was erected by the students in 1927 as a memorial to Professor Filibert Roth, the first head of the Department of Forestry.
Most of the tract of eighty acres consists of level to gentle slopes, with a few short, steep slopes. Toward the north end is Third Sister Lake, covering eleven acres, with about six acres of swamp around the west and south sides. A deep ravine runs southeasterly from the lake to the mid-point of the east boundary. The bulk of the soil is Miami loam.
Stinchfield Woods. — A gift of $10,000 from Mrs. Annie Tillson Stinchfield of Detroit, in memory of Jacob and Charles Stinchfield, made it possible in 1925 to purchase land for Stinchfield Woods. With the funds provided by Mrs. Stinchfield, and a small appropriation by the University, almost 320 acres in two separate tracts south of Portage Lake, about fifteen miles from Ann Arbor, were acquired. The westerly part, described on the acquisition map as the Bell tract, had an area of eighty acres, whereas the eastern tract contained approximately 240 acres.
In 1946 the Peach Mountain tract was purchased from the State Department of Conservation, and in 1949 the Carr tract of sixty acres, the Gardner tract of ninety acres, and the Ford and Pustay tracts of forty acres each, were added. Purchase of the Losey tract brought the area of the tract to almost 780 acres.
Across the Huron River to the east and bordering on the Strawberry Lake Road lies another University-owned property of 207 acres known as the Newcomb tract. This was purchased in 1929 for $30,000 from William W. and Esther M. Newcomb as the site for the Astronomical Observatory. Pending its use for this purpose, the administration of the land was handled by the Department of Zoology. For almost nineteen years the Newcomb tract was used chiefly for ornithological and limnological observations. During that period some plantations were established and cared for by the School of Natural Resources, and in 1949 the School was assigned the management of approximately eighty acres of the tract, including the farm buildings which are now used as headquarters for Stinchfield Woods and which are occupied by the assistant to the Manager of Forest Properties. Adjoining the Newcomb tract Page 1632on the east is the Murdock tract of thirty-three acres purchased in 1951. The Newcomb and Murdock tracts are considered part of Stinchfield Woods so that the total area now embraces 890 acres.
The eastern part of the original purchase in 1925 consisted of 165 acres of cleared land and seventy-five acres of severely grazed hardwoods. The soil varies from sand and gravel to clay, but the prevailing type is Bellefontaine sandy loam, which is of low value for crop production. When the area was acquired most of the cleared land was no longer cropped but did furnish some poor pasturage. Planting of the open land began in 1925 and was completed in 1940. Several cuts to remove trees of poor quality or of low-value species have been made in the hardwood stands on these two tracts, and some small, poorly stocked areas have been clear cut and replanted with pines. Black and white oaks and several species of hickory predominate heavily. Some seedling reproduction of white ash, black cherry, and sassafras has occurred in places, and some sprouting has resulted from the cuttings. Small areas have been underplanted with hard and Norway maples.
On the Peach Mountain tract were sixty acres of heavily grazed hardwoods and eighty-seven acres of cleared land when the land was acquired. One improvement cut has been made in the hardwood area, and planting of the open land was begun in 1946 and completed in 1952. With the exception of some scattered red cedar, there is practically no natural seedling reproduction. The tower of the University's broadcasting station is on Peach Mountain, and the School's sawmill is a short distance below the tower. Public access to the top of Peach Mountain is provided for in an agreement with the State Conservation Department.
The Carr tract is made up of forty-seven acres of hardwood and thirteen acres of old field. Improvement cuts in the hardwood area were made in the winters of 1950-51 and 1951-52. Site quality on parts of this area is very low for hardwoods. White ash reproduction is good in some places, but seedlings of other species are practically lacking. The cleared land was planted with conifers in 1952.
The Gardner, Pustay, Losey, and Ford tracts consist mostly of old fields with small areas of poor, over-grazed hardwoods. Until August, 1952, the Pustay tract was subject to a lease under which gravel could be removed. Another gravel lease of ten acres on the Ford tract expires when the gravel is exhausted.
The part of the Newcomb tract controlled by the School of Natural Resources consists of nineteen acres of hardwoods, fifty-one acres of old fields, and ten acres around the buildings, partly used as a nursery. A 15-acre field growing up to sumac, hawthorn, and poor Scotch pine, naturally seeded-in from trees planted to the west in 1915, was planted with conifers in 1950. The Murdock tract is completely wooded with a hardwood stand of potentially good quality.
There is a large variety of wildlife on the area. The greatest attraction is the deer which between 1945 and 1949 increased to such proportions that an open season was declared in the county. Other game animals and fur-bearers are rabbits, grey and fox squirrels, fox, woodchucks, badgers, raccoons, opossums, weasels, and an occasional coyote. Of the game birds, ruffed grouse and pheasants are present. Occasionally quail are seen. Songbirds, hawks, and owls comprise the remainder of the bird population.
Some wildlife management practices have been introduced with beneficial results. Multiflora roses have been Page 1633planted along the exterior fence lines as a source of food and cover for wildlife and also to provide a permanent stockproof fence that will not require maintenance. Since 1947 squirrel and raccoon den trees have been preserved.
The senior Forestry class of 1942 established a fund for the purchase of a portable sawmill. With contributions from the Forestry Club, succeeding senior classes, and alumni, a fund was built to about $2,000. With this amount on hand the University contributed enough to make possible the purchase and installation of the mill.
The building was constructed entirely by students, and the material came largely from the forest properties of the School. One notable exception is the corner posts and the posts around the doors, which are of wood from Chile brought here by a graduate student from that country. The equipment was also installed by student labor, and the building and installation were completed in the spring of 1947. The first lumber was cut in the fall of 1947.
A small nursery was begun on the Newcomb tract in the spring of 1949 immediately east of the caretaker's house. Each spring the establishment of seed beds and transplanting of older stock are done, as required work, by the class in artificial forestation. Water for irrigation through the overhead sprinkler system is pumped from the Huron River.
General Library Building
For many years the old library building, with its semicircular apse and twin towers, was adequate for the needs of the University. It stood at the center of the campus, and throughout a period of thirty-seven years the life of the University revolved around it. Eventually, however, it became too small and too crowded and because it was partly of wooden construction it offered a grave fire hazard to the University's book collections which were increasing in value every year. In January, 1915, therefore, the Regents asked the legislature for an appropriation of $350,000 to build a new library building. This request was granted, but the amount proved to be inadequate, and in 1919 an additional $200,000 was appropriated to which the Regents added $65,000, the final cost of the building and equipment being $645,000.
In 1915 William Warner Bishop became Librarian. He gave extended study, based on his long experience as a professional librarian, to the type of building which would best fill the needs of a rapidly growing university. The design evolved by the architect, Albert Kahn, of Detroit, in co-operation with Bishop, followed the plan of the University of California and the Harvard libraries and included many features unique at that time.
The contract for the construction was authorized by the Regents at their June, 1916, meeting. The University Buildings and Grounds Department served as general contractor, and Professor John F. Shepard represented the University as superintendent of construction. The Library was dedicated at exercises held in Hill Auditorium on January 7, 1920. Bishop, as Librarian, and Kahn, as architect, spoke preceding the principal address by R. R. Bowker, of New York, editor of the Library Journal.
The Library Building, which stands on the site of the first Library, is 177 feet long, 200 feet deep, and four stories high, with two bookstacks built at right angles to the old stacks, which were retained in the new structure. The two "new" stacks, the first part of the building to be crected, were used as reading and study rooms as well as for library administration during the construction of the main part of the building Page 1634By utilizing the old stacks, some $150,000 was saved, and it was possible to delay moving the books until the new stacks were ready to receive them. The old fireproof bookstacks were five stories high; the eight floors of new stacks on either side are so constructed that they may be extended to fifteen stories, bridging the old stacks by girders carried on specially designed columns.
The gross floor area of the Library Building is given in the University records as 151,206 square feet. It was so designed that the books were housed in the center and rear, with the reading rooms in front and special reading rooms and workrooms at the side. This brought the focal point for the delivery of books to the center of the building, where a book carrier was installed to take them to the delivery corridor on the second floor.
The building is constructed entirely of reinforced concrete and employs a system of regularly spaced concrete piers which afford an unusual amount of light as well as the necessary strength and protection against fire. These advantages were obtained at twenty-five cents a cubic foot, a very small cost, even in that period. Further protection from fire was secured by enclosing the stairways in the stacks with glass and steel, with every other floor cut off from those above and below. The stacks in the "new" part at either side were designed for workrooms as well as for book storage, and 122 cubicles or carrells containing shelves and tables for the use of research workers were provided. In the stacks are the Rare Book Rooms, and distributed among the carrells and book shelves are specially constructed cases for the folio material.
The basement of the building houses a receiving room, machinery room, and staff quarters; it also accommodates one study hall.
On the first floor the wide main entrance hallway, with floors and walls of marble, is attractively decorated in a Pompeian motif and lined with exhibition cases in which various selections from the Library are shown.
At the right of the main entrance is a large study hall. On the east side of the main hall are the offices and workrooms of the ordering, classifying, and cataloguing departments of the Library. This room affords flexibility of arrangement and avoids congestion. On the first floor, near the west entrance, there is also a lecture room, while beyond, on the lower floor of the west stack wing, is the study hall and library for graduate students registered in the Department of Library Science.
Broad marble staircases on either side of the hall lead to the main delivery corridor on the second floor, the heart of the Library, which contains the card catalogues, the circulation desk, and the delivery counter. An elevator is also available.
Opposite the delivery counter on the north side of the building, is the main reading room, which measures 175 by 50 feet, and is 50 feet high at the center of the barrel-vaulted ceiling. Huge windows 9 feet wide and 19 1/2 feet high afford ample light. The room seats about 300 readers. The general lighting system is indirect, with lights over the study tables and above the bookcases which line the walls. These bookcases contain a careful selection of reference books, available to all readers for consultation. In the lunettes above the windows at either end of the reading room are frescoes by Gari Melchers, "The Arts of War" and "The Arts of Peace," painted in 1893 for the Manufactures Building at the World's Fair in Chicago, and later presented to the University.
The administrative offices of the Library are at the east end of the delivery corridor, and at the west end Page 1635is a periodical reading room. On the third and fourth floors, three graduate reading rooms with libraries of 8,000 volumes are open to students. The fourth floor, in addition to the graduate reading room for history and political science and several seminar rooms, also houses the library and reading room of the Center for Japanese Studies. The seminar rooms on these two floors are used by the Department of Library Science and also, because of the shortage of classrooms, by other departments of the University as well. The Library Extension is also housed on the third floor. Altogether the Library, with its study halls, seminar rooms, and carrells, has seats for 1,000 readers.
Edwin S. George Reserve
A tract of land, comprising approximately 1,250 acres in Putnam and Unadilla townships in Livingston County, Michigan, twenty miles northwest of Ann Arbor, was given to the University in April, 1930, by Colonel Edwin S. George of Detroit. In presenting this gift the object of the donor was twofold: to make a definite contribution to education and to enable youth "to come in contact with the out-of-doors." Specifically, it was his intention to "further visual education in the natural sciences and for the purpose of preserving and demonstrating the native fauna and flora to the end that students interested in zoology, ornithology, botany, nature study and nature sketching, landscape studies, parks in the broad natural sense, or ecology, may here find material for observation and satisfy and develop the love for God's out-of-doors, — Nature" (R.P., 1929-32, p. 235).
The Reserve was to be administered by the Regents, who agreed to make it available to nature study groups and to provide a curator and such assistants as necessary "for the proper protection and care of the animals and plants, to provide for the upkeep of the necessary fences, buildings, and equipment, and to assume the expense of such planting, road building, and other developments as may be considered advisable" (R.P., 1929-32, pp. 235-36).
The Board adopted the following resolution in April, 1930:
Resolved, That the Regents of the University of Michigan with deep realization of its significance to the educational advantages of the State throughout the future accept with deep gratitude the Edwin George Reserve of the University of Michigan as tendered to this Board by the donor in his communication herein above appearing under date of April 4, 1930.
(R.P., 1929-32, p. 237.)
The Edwin S. George Reserve, protected from the ravages of man, is becoming of increasing importance owing to the gradual reduction of other natural areas for study within a reasonable distance of the University of Michigan. The Reserve is characteristic of many of the glaciated areas of southeastern Michigan. Rolling hills, steep slopes, and wooded ridges are intermingled with marshes and swamps. Numerous ponds, five permanent springs, and a small bog lake add to the types of aquatic environments. This out-of-door laboratory is protected by a firebreak and is enclosed with six miles of seven-foot, dogtight fence. A system of roads and trails enmeshes the whole. Facilities include houses for the curator, the custodian, and three student families. A modern, all-weather, four-man laboratory built with the proceeds derived from the sale of excess deer provides living and research quarters for investigators.
The Reserve was administered for many years directly by the Museum of Zoology. In August, 1950, the Board of Regents appointed the Director of the Page 1636Museum of Zoology as the Director of the Edwin S. George Reserve and chairman of an Executive Committee representing the various groups and fields interested in the use of the Reserve for research.
Colonel George never lost interest in the Reserve. Individual gifts of additional lands have increased the area to over 1,335 acres. Grants of money have supported field work, permitted publication of finished research, and paid for improvements of the physical lay-out. An Edwin S. George Reserve Fellowship Fund was endowed in 1941 to provide some financial support for outstanding and deserving students conducting research on the Reserve.
In 1841-43, on a hill west of the village of Dexter, Judge Samuel W. Dexter built a large, soundly constructed mansion of twenty-two rooms, in the Greek revival style. In 1950 this beautiful old house and the surrounding seventy acres were given to the University by Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick, of Chicago, granddaughter of Judge Dexter. The Regents' Proceedings for December, 1950, records:
The Regents accepted, with grateful thanks to the donor, the property known as Gordon Hall, and the surrounding seventy acres, together with $86,000 from Mrs. Katherine Dexter McCormick (Mrs. Stanley McCormick), of Chicago, the daughter of the late Judge Samuel William Dexter… It is estimated that alterations and improvements may cost $60,000 and that a four-car garage will cost in the neighborhood of $5,000.
(R.P., 1948-51, p. 1140.)
The house had had many uses. For years it had been used as a church; at one time, it served as many as four or five denominations, each holding services at scheduled hours. It had also housed Dexter's first post office, Judge Dexter carrying the mail on horseback to and from Ann Arbor. A unique feature of the building was a four-story tower; one story had housed each of Judge Dexter's four daughters. This tower, not a part of the original structure, was removed. The house was then rehabilitated and remodeled into four apartments for faculty members. Each apartment included two bedrooms, a bath, living room, and kitchenette. Authorization was given by the Regents in February, 1951, for a cost contract in a maximum amount of $79,253 to the Kurtz Construction Company of Ann Arbor. Preliminary work was begun in March, 1951, and the building was occupied in September of the same year.
The historical significance of the house is increased by the fact that Judge Dexter was prominent in the state's early history. He was Washtenaw's first circuit judge and one of the first Regents of the University. He was a publisher of the first newspaper in Washtenaw County, called the Emigrant, and served as minister without pay in many Unitarian churches. He was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts, in 1792, and came to Michigan in 1824, buying from the government considerable acreage in Scio Township, a few miles west of Ann Arbor. Part of this property became the village of Dexter.
Certain county, state, and national historical societies opposed the conversion of the mansion into apartments because of its historical importance and the fact that it is a prime example of Greek revival architecture and advocated, instead, that the house be made into a museum. President Ruthven emphasized, however, that the home was being remodeled to serve as faculty housing at the request of Mrs. McCormick and that "the exterior of the main section of the house would be preserved in keeping Page 1637with its place as one of Washtenaw County's historical spots."
Most experts believed, however, that Gordon Hall's artistic merit was even more important than its historic value. Its exceptional grace and symmetry for years had won it mention by picture and description in many studies of American architecture. Because of its architectural and historical importance, drawings and photographs of the building were made for permanent record in the Library of Congress.
Harris Hall, first called Hobart Hall, was built by St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in 1887. To obtain a home or a center for the activities of the Hobart Guild of Episcopal students, contributions and bequests were secured through the efforts of Bishop Samuel S. Harris, and the building at the northwest corner of State and Huron streets, constructed at a cost of $31,000, was formally dedicated in April, 1887 (The Michigan Book, pp. 90-91).
In 1946 the church leased it to the University for a seven-year period, with privilege of renewal for another seven years, for use as classrooms by the University School of Music, specifically the Band and Wind Instrument Department.
Extensive remodeling was done at that time. Practice studios were built in the basement, principally for wind instruments. The main floor was remodeled to include a comfortable lounge, a library, a uniform room, and an equipment room.
The building is still owned by the Episcopal Student Foundation, although the land on which it stands belongs to the church.
(Old) Haven Hall
Old Haven Hall was for sixty years the home of the Law School of the University. During that period it was twice remodeled to provide for the increasing enrollment. The original building was completed in 1863, and the law lecture hall was dedicated in October of that year with an address by Judge Thomas M. Cooley. The School, or Department of Law, was established in 1859. During the intervening four years classes had been held in the old Chapel in the north wing of University Hall, and the Law Library was housed in the Library room.
Owing to the rapid growth of the Law Department, it soon became apparent that more ample quarters would be necessary, and an effort was made to raise special funds for the erection of a law building. A subscription campaign proved unsuccessful, however, and the $15,000 eventually expended in the construction of the building was advanced from University funds.
The building, which was 70 by 90 feet in size, originally served not only for instruction in law, but also contained the University Chapel (until 1873) and the Library (until 1883).
The successive space increases for the use of the Law Department proved insufficient, however, and in 1893 the building was enlarged at a cost of $30,000. These much needed improvements, which included the addition of more class and lecture rooms and the erection of a brick tower on the northwest corner of the building, facing State Street, gave some relief, but within five years a further expansion became necessary. This time the improvements were much more extensive, totaling $65,000, and resulted in the construction of the building as it was from 1898 until 1950. While many of the rooms in the old building were retained, the exterior was completely altered to form a rectangular building 208 feet long, with 67,800 square feet of floor space, faced with sandstone on the first story and with Page 1638light-pressed brick on the upper two stories. The tower was removed, and a new wing was added which provided two lecture rooms in addition to the old lecture room on the first floor. Offices for the Dean and the Secretary were in the north wing, and a series of offices for other staff members occupied the central front of the building. A room for the Regents was also included in the south wing. Here the Board met regularly for more than thirty-five years, until the removal of the Law School to Hutchins Hall, when the Regents took over the room in Angell Hall adjacent to the President's office.
On the second floor the Law Library occupied the entire south wing of the old Law Building, with a series of special offices at the front. Lecture rooms, offices, and consultation rooms made up the remainder of the second and third floors.
In 1898 President Angell reported:
The Law Department is now housed in a fine building, fitted with modern conveniencies, and having ample accommodations for one thousand students. In 1892, the growth of the Department had been such that the original building had become inadequate, and a large addition was constructed. In 1895, a third year was added to the course, and soon thereafter the requirements for admission were materially increased… The enrollment of last year was seven hundred and sixty-seven, an increase of one hundred and eighty-one over the enrollment of the year previous. Enlarged accommodations became a necessity, and during the year the Board discussed and finally adopted plans that involved practically the reconstruction of the old building and an addition thereto that would more than double its capacity. The plans were so made and have been so carried out that the old building is completely lost in the present structure, which presents the appearance of an entirely new edifice… The building is provided with a fan system of heating and ventilation and is lighted by electricity. For the money expended, about $65,000 including the furnishing, the results are more than could reasonably have been expected at the time the work was undertaken.
(R.P., 1896-1901, pp. 302-4.)
With the completion of Hutchins Hall in 1933 the old Law Building entered a new period of existence. It was renamed Haven Hall in honor of Erastus O. Haven, President of the University from 1863 to 1869, and was made available for the use of several departments of the University. Seven of the rooms in the old building were assigned to the Department of History and an equal number to the Department of Sociology. The former offices of the Dean and Secretary of the Law School were assigned to the Extension Division, while the room occupied by the Law Library became a study hall for students and the Bureau of Government Library, with the adjacent suite of offices occupied by the Bureau of Government. The rooms at the north, on the second floor, were assigned to the Department of Journalism.
Haven Hall became one of the main buildings of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. It was destroyed by fire on June 6, 1950.
Health Service Building
The University Health Service Building, completed in 1940, is on Fletcher (formerly Twelfth) Street adjacent to the W. K. Kellogg Institute and across the street from the Michigan League. The building was erected as the result of action by the Regents in August, 1938, applying to the government for PWA funds to aid in financing its construction (R. P., 1936-39, pp. 638-40). President Ruthven announced in November of the same year, on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Health Service, that the government had granted the usual 45 per cent of the cost of the building. The University's Page 1639share was raised through the issue of $225,000 worth of Health Service bonds and the addition of $75,000 from the Health Service Reserve Fund.
Under the original plan the government was to contribute the sum of $213,750, which was later raised to $232,830, the University bearing the somewhat larger remainder of the cost. The site and building are valued at $380,718, bringing the total value of the building, site, and equipment to $572,557.07.
The site upon which the building stands was acquired, for the most part, by purchase from private owners and by condemnation. At the January, 1939, meeting of the Regents, plans submitted by the architect, L. J. Sarvis, of Battle Creek, were approved, and the Regents ordered the architects and engineers to proceed with construction.
The building, which was occupied in April, 1940, is similar in general design to the Kellogg Institute, which adjoins it; the two buildings thus form a harmonious unit. Both buildings are of red brick with stone trim.
The Health Service has four floors, an area more than three times that of the former Health Service Building, and twice the number of beds. Service quarters, such as dining rooms and kitchen, storage, linen and sewing rooms, and statistical workroom, in addition to pharmacy and allergy preparation stations, are on the ground floor, below the front surface level. The main entrance to the building is through large glass doors to the first floor, on which services most frequently needed are provided. On this floor is the lobby, with information desk and a section devoted to active records, business, and administration. Nearby is the drug dispensary, the staff room, and toward the rear of the building, along the main corridor, the offices of the dispensing nurse, an office for the supervising nurse, and a lecture room. Offices and examination rooms for general medical advisers, as well as a waiting room for patients, extend north along the main corridor. The stairway is easily visible from the entrance, and an elevator is accessible.
On the second floor, opening from a corridor which extends the entire length of the building, are offices for special services including mental hygiene, allergy, physical therapy, eye, ear, nose and throat, dentistry, and dermatology. The quarters of the surgery unit on this floor include offices and rooms for dressings, instruments, and operations performed without general anaesthetics, These are conveniently served by a dumbwaiter from the pharmacy below.
The rear extension on this floor is devoted to the radiographic and fluoroscopy department, with waiting rooms, film storage, film reading rooms, and basal metabolism tests. In the northeast section is the main laboratory with media kitchen and sanitation laboratory.
The sixty-bed infirmary on the third floor has an isolation ward at the north end, which is effectively cut off from the other rooms. It has separate furnishings and facilities for sterilization of trays and other articles. The remainder of this floor is made up mostly of double and single rooms with separate toilet and locker facilities. There are two small wards. Centrally situated on this floor is a nurses' station, and at the head of the stairway is a small waiting room. A section on the northeast side is specially equipped for disturbed or especially ill patients.
The fourth floor has quarters for resident physicians and orderlies, and a sun deck. Unfinished space provides for storage.
(Old) Heating Plant
The building near the southeast corner Page 1640of the campus, used until 1942 as the Reserve Officers' Training Corps headquarters, was originally the central heating plant of the University. From the central station the first tunnel system, of brick, was extended to the various buildings on the old campus. The conduit was 5 ½ by 6 ½ feet high. The floor was of Portland cement, and workmen could pass from one end to the other in making repairs.
The structure was built of cut stone in 1894 at a cost of about $57,000. In June of that year Regent Butterfield submitted the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That the proposition of A. Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Company, Limited, to construct a central heating plant on the University grounds for the sum of $44,150, be accepted, provided the said Harvey's Sons Manufacturing Company will make amended specifications, execute a contract, and give the required bonds and guarantees, all of which must be satisfactory to the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, and no liability shall attach to the University until all the necessary papers are executed. At which time the Committee on Buildings and Grounds are hereby authorized to proceed with the work, make estimates and authorize the payment of the same, and in all ways to act for the Board of Regents in the erection and completion of said works.
(R.P., 1891-96, pp. 314-15.)
The system must have proved to be highly satisfactory for in April, 1895, the following resolution was adopted:
That the Board of Regents commend the Heating Plant put in for the University by A. Harvey's Sons, of Detroit, as a work worthy the examination of practical and scientific men interested in such work and as a model to be copied by similar institutions and others requiring heating plants for detached buildings.(R.P., 1891-96, p. 422.)
The building had a gross floor area of 17,235 square feet and measured 85 by 93 feet. The smokestack connected with this old heating plant was a campus landmark for many years. It was originally 125 feet high, but the upper part was removed in 1924. After the erection of the present heating and power plant on Washington Street, the old heating plant building was used for some time as an engineering laboratory, but in 1923 it was turned over to the Reserve Officers' Training Corps as a center for their activities.
Heredity Clinic Building
The Heredity Clinic occupies a two-story wooden building, originally a private residence, that was moved to its present site in the court at 1135 East Catherine Street at the time of the University "building boom" which occurred during President Burton's term of office. It is not known just where the building stood when it was a private home, but probably on East University Avenue, either on the site of the present East Engineering Building or on that of the School of Education. For a number of years this building was the interns' residence for University Hospital. After the construction of a more adequate interns' residence north of the Hospital, the old frame building was unoccupied for a year or more before being assigned in 1941 to the Heredity Clinic. Although the wood construction is a constant fire hazard to the valuable clinic records and although the building is badly crowded and not well adapted for clinic purposes, it has provided space and shelter for this unit during its early years.
In 1894 Professor Stanley and two other members of the University Musical Society met and determined that something must be done to secure an adequate auditorium for the University. By January, Page 16411895, a set of plans for a new building had been drawn. For years these plans were submitted to various people who were considered possible donors.
In 1904 Arthur Hill ('65e), whose first term as Regent began in 1901, became interested in the project. In March of that year the Regents approved a plan for trying to secure outside assistance. The response was discouraging, and Regent Hill inserted a provision in his will, setting aside $200,000 to be used for such a building. He informed no one of what he had done, and his intent was not discovered until his will was made public. The University received his bequest in 1910 (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 815-16).
The auditorium was constructed on the site of the old octagonal Winchell house on North University Avenue. It was the fourth fireproof structure to be erected by the University. Completed in 1913, it cost, unequipped, approximately $282,000. Including equipment, the total amounted to $347,600. The contractor was James L. Stuart, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The massive and plain brick exterior of the building is relieved by the color scheme of dull reds and browns, with limestone trim. It measures 171 by 174 feet and contains 71,914 square feet of space.
The parabolic interior, with its balcony and gallery and its immense platform which has a seating capacity of 300, is impressive. When built, Hill Auditorium seated 4,300 people. On the second floor just back of the gallery, is a large recital and lecture hall, which has a seating capacity of about 400 and which would be ideal for a small concert hall. At present, however, it is used to house the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments. A bronze relief of Regent Hill was placed in the foyer by Mrs. Hill. In 1913 the Frieze Memorial Organ was moved from University Hall to Hill Auditorium, and a new front was provided for it at a cost of $2,500. In 1928 this organ was replaced by a new and modern instrument, but the name was retained.
The dedication of Hill Auditorium took place on June 25, 1913 (Alumni Day). President Angell presented the building in behalf of the Hill estate, and Regent Clements accepted it for the University. Governor Ferris represented the state, and Senator Charles E. Townsend delivered the main address.
Upon the completion of the auditorium a new problem arose with which the Board of Regents wrestled for years — namely, what restrictions should be placed upon its use. Should religious services be permitted? Should collections be taken, or subscriptions solicited? What of political addresses? The following excerpt from the will of Regent Hill reveals his wishes regarding the general use to be made of the building:
That the said sum of Two Hundred Thousand ($200,000) Dollars be expended in the erection of an auditorium for the gathering of the students and college body, and their friends, on large occasions such as graduating exercises and musical festivals; the property to be controlled by the proper officers of the University, and I request that it be open to the people of Ann Arbor, among whom I have enjoyed both when a student and during my connection with the Board of Regents a generous hospitality, upon such occasions and under such terms as shall seem reasonaable and right to the Regents of the University.
(R.P., 1906-10, p. 815.)
From the first, the Regents permitted the use of the building for religious services of a nonsectarian character, or for those representative of all the churches. The taking of subscriptions and pledges has never been permitted, and for years the Regents were reluctant to have the building used for the raising of money. This restriction has been somewhat relaxed since 1922.
As early as November, 1913, the Upper Peninsula Education Association requested Page 1642quested that Hill Auditorium be open to the free discussion of all topics. The Regents set up a committee to study the question, and in April, 1914, concluded that "the use of Hill Auditorium for free discussion of all topics is not now necessary nor expedient" (R.P., 1910-14, p. 966). In pursuance of this policy, they denied former Governor Sulzer, of New York, the privilege of speaking on prohibition in 1916 and refused to permit a series of lectures on the League of Nations in 1919. In 1923 a request that former Attorney General George W. Wickersham, representing the League of Nations Non-Partisan Association, be permitted to speak in the auditorium was also denied.
In December, 1920, the Regents adopted the following resolution, in an effort to make their policy more explicit:
Resolved, That the use of Hill Auditorium may be granted to student organizations for lectures or addresses by prominent men on topics of the day, under guarantee that during such addresses there shall be no violation of recognized rules of hospitality, nor advocacy of the subversion of government or of the state, and that such meetings shall be in spirit, and in expression, worthy of this University.
(R.P., 1920-23, p. 79.)
In May, 1924, at the request of the Regents, the several Deans of the University presented suggestions, arrived at in conference with the President, concerning the auditorium. Their report, which follows, was adopted as the policy of the Board.
- 1. No addresses shall be allowed which urge the destruction or modification of our form of government, by violence or other unlawful methods, or which advocate or justify conduct which violates the fundamentals of our accepted codes of morals.
- 2. Speeches in support of particular candidates of any political party or faction ordinarily shall not be permitted. The discussion of matters of public interest relating to our political, legal, economic, and general social institutions, if conducted in the right way, by proper persons, is of the very essence of education and is of as much importance as a discussion of any subject in the whole field of knowledge. It will not do to say that there shall be no discussion before our students of matters of public concern by intelligent, well-qualified, and honorable persons.
(R.P., 1923-26, p. 302.)
Two primary considerations, size and acoustics, were taken into account in designing Hill Auditorium. The University needed an auditorium which would seat approximately 5,000 people, but at the same time it was necessary that every seat be so situated that even a whisper from the stage could be heard. Throughout the country auditoriums noted for their acoustic properties were found to be much smaller than the one proposed for the University.
Hugh Tallant, of New York, was consulting engineer. It was decided that the exterior should be similar to that of the typical theater and that the interior should be shaped like a paraboloid of revolution. This plan made possible a sufficient intensity of sound so that every word from the stage could be heard in the most distant parts of the auditorium. Within a limited range of fifty feet, for instance, this occurs directly; beyond this range, reflected sound must be employed to supplement direct sound. Reflected sound must not be diffused, however, and it must arrive at the ear of the auditor within the necessary fraction of a second after the arrival of the direct sound in order to avoid confusion and echo. The curved surface served to prevent diffusion, and tardiness of arrival was avoided by preventing any reflected sound from traveling more than seventy feet farther than the direct sound. Unwanted reflections were avoided by padding the rear walls and the rear part of the side walls. The audience was calculated as padding for the floors. Provision for resonance was limited to the platform. Page 1643The design for this provided for a wood floor over a concrete slab, with a six-inch air space intervening.
As John T. N. Hoyt ('91), chief engineer for the architect, Albert Kahn, said, the principles to be observed were simple, but the execution of the plan so that every seat would have the proper acoustics was immensely difficult. The results, on the whole, were gratifying. Some difficulty was experienced because of an echo in the upper gallery, and in 1921 experiments were made to eliminate this. To prevent sounds from penetrating the auditorium from without, a combination of solid brick exterior wall, four-inch air space, and four-inch hollow brick interior wall was used. The roof was tiled.
In 1949 renovations were made and new seating was put in. The auditorium now has 4,200 seats. During the past year, 1954-55, the Frieze Memorial Organ has been rebuilt and reconditioned by the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company of Boston. Tonal changes have been made, the mechanism has been renewed, and a new console has been installed.
Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial
Unique among University buildings is the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial in Detroit, thirty-eight miles from the University campus. Situated in the city's famed Art Center, close to the Detroit Institute of Arts, this beautiful structure is the center for extension classes and other University activities in the metropolitan area.
The building is unique, also, in that it is owned and occupied jointly by the University of Michigan and the Engineering Society of Detroit, which grew out of the Detroit Association of Graduate Engineers of the University of Michigan, founded in the 1890's.
Ownership of such a building in Detroit makes it possible for the University to be host at conferences, meetings, and other educational activities in the metropolitan area as it is for similar affairs in Ann Arbor.
The chain of circumstances that led to this unprecedented arrangement began in the middle 1930's. The Detroit Engineering Society had for some time, through a representative committee, discussed conditions under which it would be possible for the group to receive aid from the Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund under the will of Horace H. Rackham. A delineation of the aims of the Detroit Engineering Society and a review of its past activities indicated that its purposes coincided with many of those for which the Rackham Fund had been established.
After discussion with trustees of the Rackham Fund, the Detroit Engineering Society reincorporated itself in April, 1936, as the Engineering Society of Detroit. Among the objectives outlined by the reorganized Society were those of providing a meeting place that would enable it to implement its educational aims, and "to co-operate with educational institutions by investigating candidates for scholarships and fellowships in engineering and applied science, and by supporting scholarships, special instruction, or research."
The Horace H. and Mary A. Rackham Fund created a $500,000 trust for the benefit of the Engineering Society, and a trustee organization was incorporated as the Rackham Engineering Foundation.
Within three months after its reorganization, the Society's membership had reached 1,000, and it became apparent that an adequate headquarters building would require additional funds. Early in 1937 the Rackham Fund presented the Society with a second grant of $500,000 for the purpose of erecting and furnishing such a building. Late in 1937, Mrs. Mary A. Rackham made a personal gift of $500,000 as an addition to the original trust fund. Further studies were then Page 1644undertaken as to building plans, but the project moved slowly.
At about this time a proposal was made to the Engineering Society that the University and the Society co-operate in planning and building a memorial structure to Horace H. Rackham, to house both the facilities of the Engineering Society and those needed by the University for the administration and execution of its graduate and extension program in Detroit.
The suggestion of co-operation with the University was accepted in principle by the Engineering Society, whose membership was now more than 3,000, and a period of joint planning began. After further study to determine the best possible arrangements for both parties to the proposed partnership, the Engineering Society held a special meeting in December, 1938, to explain the building plan. About 93 per cent of those voting in the letter ballot which followed favored the idea and indicated support of the project. Early in 1939 the Foundation appointed a committee to talk with the University. At the same time negotiations were begun with a view to purchasing the half block on Farnsworth Avenue between Woodward Avenue and John R Street, a piece of property which President A. G. Ruthven hoped that D. M. Ferry, Jr., an alumnus of the University, might sell to the University at a moderate figure.
In March, 1939, the Regents accepted an anonymous gift of $500,000 (from Mrs. Rackham) "to purchase land and to construct, equip and furnish a building in the City of Detroit … to serve as a headquarters for and to house the activities of the University of Michigan in said City of Detroit, including classroom work under the direction of its Extension Service and also of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies" (R P., 1936-39, pp. 878-80). This building was to be adjacent to or adjoining the building to be constructed by the Rackham Engineering Foundation for the Engineering Society of Detroit.
The donor further specified that "instruction shall be given in said building … (1) For students who cannot or may not wish to attend the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor for the full period needed for the completion of a required course; (2) For younger professional men who may wish to improve themselves in their chosen line of work; (3) For adults who desire to continue their general education." The University was to "maintain said building in first class condition at all times." It was stipulated also that the gift of $500,000 would be withdrawn unless the trustees of the Rackham Fund added at least another $200,000 from the Fund by June 30, 1939. A gift of $500,000 was made to the University by the trustees of the Fund in May of that year and accepted by the University Regents at their second May meeting.
Plans for the new building were approved in November, 1939, the University and the Engineering Society having agreed to adopt President Ruthven's suggestion of a central auditorium and banquet hall flanked by two equal wings. It was decided that the Society would have one wing and the University would have the other wing and the central part. This meant that the University would own two-thirds of the property and building and the Engineering Society one-third, the money to be invested by each in about the same proportion. The University and the Society worked out an agreement concerning the joint use of the banquet hall and the auditorium in the University's section of the building.
Harley and Ellington, Detroit architects, were selected to design the memorial structure. Plans were submitted that harmoniously reconciled the diverse requirements Page 1645of the two rather complex organizations that were to occupy it.
After seeing the design and viewing the site, Mrs. Rackham felt, however, that more land was needed to afford the building a proper setting. Consequently in January, 1940, she advised the University and the Engineering Society that she was giving them, jointly, $750,000 for the purchase of the southern half of the block and for landscaping. The design of the building was then adjusted to the enlarged site, which consisted of the entire block bounded by Woodward, Farnsworth, and East Warren avenues and John R Street. This gift was accepted by the University and the Rackham Engineering Foundation in a joint agreement that provided for the relocation of the dividing line and reaffirmed the operating agreement originally approved a year and a half earlier.
In April, 1940, though it was still not possible to let contracts for the building itself, the University and the Foundation reached an agreement to raze the buildings already on the site. Another two and a half months elapsed before the construction bid of the W. E. Wood Company, of Detroit, was accepted by both parties. This proposal called for erection of the building on a cost plus fixed fee basis.
Ground was broken on July 1, 1940, and the cornerstone was laid on December 20 of the same year. The completed building was presented to its joint owners on January 28, 1942, by the trustees of the Rackham Fund at a formal dedication ceremony held in the main auditorium of the new building. Dr. Bryson D. Horton, chairman of the trustees of the Rackham Fund, presented the memorial building to its joint owners. President Alexander G. Ruthven accepted the building for the University of Michigan, and Dr. Harvey M. Merker, president of the Engineering Society of Detroit, accepted on behalf of the Society.
The total construction bill from the W. E. Wood Company was $1,297,246.66, approximately $17,500 below the estimate. Of this, the University's cost was $750,057.55, the Engineering Society's $547,189. The building and land together cost the University $1,244,000 and the Engineering Society $710,000. The University put the balance of its $1,500,000 into a reserve fund for equipment.
Architecturally, the Rackham Memorial was designed to harmonize with other structures in the Detroit Art Center: the Detroit Public Library and the Detroit Institute of Arts. The Rackham Memorial combines classical conceptions of architecture with modern influences, and the result is a pleasing blend of traditional and modern lines.
Structurally, the building is of reinforced concrete, with the exterior of three basic materials. The facings and the ornamental sculptures which enhance it are of white Georgia marble. Dark granite forms the spandrels between the windows. Cast bronze ornaments enrich these spandrels, and the same metal is used for window frames and grilles, doors, and incidental trim throughout.
The building is 404 feet long on its northern exposure, which faces on Farnsworth Avenue, and extends 65 feet in depth on the ends to 150 feet in the center. The center section presents a curving façade, with two ornamental pylons flanking the main portal, which is approached by a wide flight of steps. To the right, facing the building from the street, is the University wing, with that of the Engineering Society on the left. Each wing is entered through a subordinate portal.
Sculptures by Marshall Fredericks, then of the Cranbrook Academy, add to the impressiveness of the exterior of the building. Surmounting the four piers of Page 1646the main portal are four sculptured reliefs symbolizing the purposes of the Horace H. Rackham Educational Memorial. Other reliefs about the building further illustrate its purpose.
The main auditorium, which is in almost constant use for University lectures, concerts, and other programs, for meetings and functions of the Engineering Society, and for community and civic programs of an educational nature, is situated in the center section of the building. It is reached through the Memorial Lobby, a large foyer directly within the main portals of the building.
Facing the doors as one enters is the bronze Horace H. Rackman memorial plaque, centered on the inner wall of the lobby. It is mounted on a background of creamy polished marble, on which is a tribute to the humanitarian life of Mr. Rackham.
The Main Auditorium has a seating capacity of 1,000 and is so constructed that all have an equal opportunity to see and hear perfectly. The public address system is of unusual flexibility, and the stage is large and excellently designed. Although not intended for theatrical productions, it has been used for that purpose. Screening facilities and a completely equipped projection room are provided. The stage is fully equipped for scientific demonstrations.
On the ground floor level, directly below the Memorial Lobby, is the foyer to the banquet hall, which is also used by both occupants of the building. Although this banquet hall is on University property, it is managed by the Engineering Society, since the University has no facilities in the building for handling and serving food. The room, with a banquet capacity of 650 persons, is serviced from a completely equipped kitchen at the rear; it is also used for classes, lectures, and meetings and as an exhibition hall as well as for luncheons and dinners. It serves, too, as a supplementary auditorium for meetings which tax the capacity of the main auditorium, since it has built-in connections to the public address system on the first floor.
The University's wing of the building is devoted to offices and classrooms. The offices occupy approximately half of the main floor, with classrooms and a lounge occupying the remainder. The ground floor of the University wing houses three large classrooms, one furnished with drawing tables, a lecture room, a science classroom with tiered seats so that all students may have a view of the demonstration platform, a studio classroom used for radio and television technique classes, and a seminar room. On the second floor are nine classrooms, a seminar room, and the library. As need has arisen through the years, some of the classrooms on all three floors have done double duty, serving as offices by day and as classrooms during the evening.
The Detroit Branch of the University of Michigan Library is a spacious, highceilinged room with a mezzanine providing additional study space. Tall windows line the gently curving front of the room (part of the curving façade of the central section of the building), offering a view of the Detroit Institute of Arts and Woodward Avenue.
All classrooms are furnished with specially constructed walnut desks or with tablet armchairs. The radio studio is equipped with broadcasting facilities (though it has no transmitter), and is isolated from the rest of the building. All the necessary aids to visual education, including projectors of various types, maps, and charts, are furnished for the use of classes.
The Rackham Educational Memorial was dedicated and opened in a war-time atmosphere. The programs of the University Extension Service immediately reflected this. When the building was Page 1647designed it was believed that ample room had been provided in the University's section for the expansion of programs. Within a year after the building was in use, however, demands for classes in war training programs were so great that space had to be rented from the Engineering Society. Many classes were offered in the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training Program sponsored by the United States Office of Education, as well as others in languages, including Chinese and Japanese.
The demand for instruction did not slacken after the war emergency was over, but was diverted into new channels. More than a hundred courses are offered each semester, and usually it is necessary to arrange for at least one of the larger classes to be held in the Engineering Society's section of the building. Enrollments have increased steadily and average between three and four thousand each semester.
The University offers various types of courses at the Rackham Memorial. Among the most important programs are those for students in engineering, education, and business administration. Classes in education and other subjects of interest to teachers were the first to be given in Detroit when a group of educators petitioned the University in 1913 for courses that would enable them to accumulate credits toward degrees without coming to the campus for the entire program. This service for teachers grew rapidly, but it entered a new period of expansion when the Rackham Memorial was opened and the University had its own classroom and library facilities. A qualified graduate student may elect courses for residence credit, Detroit having been designated as a Residence Center for Graduate Study by the University's Graduate School in 1935. In order to meet the requirements for a master's degree, however, the student is required to spend at least one summer session in full-time residence on the campus. In 1950 a program leading to a master's degree in engineering mechanics was established in Detroit in response to requests from engineers who could not attend classes on the campus.
An extensive program of graduate-level courses in business administration is offered each semester. Much of the work for an advanced degree in this field may be done in Detroit. Credit courses are also offered on the undergraduate level, although no complete programs in any one field or for any one year are available. Many courses are elected by persons who are more interested in course content than in academic credit.
Classes in still another category are those designed for persons who are interested primarily in work that will lead to increased effectiveness and advancement in professional or business fields, but who do not wish academic credit. Extensive programs are offered each year in insurance, business subjects, and real estate, often with the sponsorship of groups interested in establishing standards in businesses that approach the professional attitude.
The Rackham Educational Memorial has served as a center for educational and civic meetings from the time it was opened. The Detroit staff of the Extension Service has made every effort to see that activities at the building fit into the cultural pattern of Detroit.
In addition to offering a varied program of courses, arranged in so far as possible to meet the needs of the area, the University sponsors many projects and conferences at the building. Many more programs are held each year with the cooperation of such groups as the Detroit public schools, the Detroit Public Library, and Wayne University, all located in Detroit's Art Center. Building facilities are sometimes available also to Page 1648other institutions and organizations.
From time to time University concerts and other programs are presented in the main auditorium. The building is also used occasionally by the University of Michigan Club of Detroit and by the Detroit Association of University of Michigan Women.
Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies Building
One of the most beautiful and impressive of the University buildings is the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, situated on the north side of the campus at the north end of the Mall. This building, designed to be a center for the general activities of the Graduate School, was given to the University in 1935 by the trustees of the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, together with a generous endowment which affords graduate facilities enjoyed by few other universities (see Part VI: The Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies).
The Regents accepted this gift in September, 1935, in accordance with certain terms partly indicated below (R.P., 1932-36, pp. 683-87). Included in the total benefaction, which eventually amounted to more than $10,000,000, was an appropriate site, a building to be known as the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and a substantial endowment for carrying on graduate work and research. Administration of the funds and of the building is in the charge of a Board of Governors, of which the president of the University is chairman.
The endowment fund amounts to more than $7,000,000, the income of which is used for research projects, publications, and fellowships. The income of $1,000,000 is assigned to research on arthritis. Included in the above is the sum of $1,000,000 generously provided by Mary A. Rackham, which, together with an additional $900,000 from the Horace H. Rackham and Mary A. Rackham Fund, is allotted to sociological research administered through the Institute of Human Adjustment.
The site chosen for the Graduate School comprises the two city blocks bounded by East Huron, Fletcher (formerly Twelfth), East Washington, and Thayer streets. It was necessary to remove thirty buildings before actual construction could begin. Ground was broken in May, 1936. The cornerstone was laid on October 30 of the same year, and two years later, in June, 1938, the building was formally dedicated. After presentation by Bryson D. Horton, chairman of the trustees of the fund, and acceptance on behalf of the University by President A. G. Ruthven, the building was dedicated to the two great branches of learning, the sciences and the humanities. Smith, Hinchman and Grylls were the architects; the W. E. Wood Company held the construction contract; and Pitkin and Mott, landscape architects, laid out the grounds. The total cost of the building, including equipment, amounted to $2,500,000.
The building, which is 196 by 250 feet, is constructed of Indiana limestone with a granite base course; the window and door frames are of bronze, and the roof is of copper. The floor area totals 155,410 square feet.
The main entrance, on the south side of the building, is approached by a broad terrace of granite steps with flagstone paving, and planted areas at either side. The Graduate School is on a direct line with the University Library, and the area between the two has been developed as a landscaped parkway known as the Mall. Three pairs of bronze and glass doors give access to an entrance Page 1649hall, measuring 31 by 109 feet, with a floor of green and purple-gray slate laid in a rectangular pattern. The plaster walls are painted a Pompeian red, with a black marble base and trim, and the beamed ceiling is blue-green with stenciled decorations in polychrome and gold to harmonize with the gold and bronze lighting fixtures. Tables and benches of ebonized wood with blue-green leather cushions harmonize with three pairs of blue-green bronze-studded leather doors which open into a second lobby and from there into the main lecture hall.
The lecture hall is a semicircular room 100 feet deep and 29 feet high, with a lecture platform on the north and an arcade opening into the lobby on the south, giving access to six aisles which radiate toward the platform. Approximately 1,200 seats, upholstered in terra-cotta velour, are so arranged that one may take a place without requiring the occupants of other seats to rise. The floor is carpeted in dark blue, with terra-cotta walls and ebonized wood trim, while the flat ceiling is of a lighter blue with a pattern of overlapping radiating circular bands in gold leaf and polychrome. The unique lighting system is effected through a series of small openings in the ceiling which permit cones of light to spread over the room.
The elevated stage provides a speaker's stand, seats for eighteen, stairways to a robing room below, and a control pit for the public address system. Above the stage is a motion-picture screen covered with draperies, and, completing the facilities, a projection booth with equipment for electrical amplification of lectures, reception and transmission of radio broadcasts, sound on film, record reproduction, and television and microscopic projection.
On the east side of the building, on the main floor, are the administrative offices of the Graduate School, including a large waiting room, the business office, record room, and staff rooms. On the west are offices and conference rooms, the Graduate School Board Room, and at present offices for the Institute of Public Administration, the English Language Institute, and the Institute for Human Adjustment. These rooms have painted plaster walls, wood trim, and linoleumcovered floors. Two of the offices have walnut-paneled walls, and eight are carpeted. At each end of the entrance hall are checkrooms, retiring rooms, and stairways leading to the ground-floor corridors.
At either side of the doors to the lecture hall are monumental stairways of travertine leading to the second floor. Entrances to the elevators are on the landings of these staircases. The northern part, or rear, of the second floor is taken up by the upper part of the lecture hall, while on the south front of the building there is a high-ceilinged study hall 31 by 105 feet, with alcoves 22 by 40 feet at either end for books and periodicals. The study hall has twelve-foot wainscot of Appalachian oak, continued in a lighter shade of brown to the ceiling. The ceiling is divided by five great coffers in polychrome and gold, and from three are suspended chandeliers in antique green and gilt. These are supplemented by lamps on the study tables. The large study tables and chairs of oak harmonize with the wood wainscot. An abundance of natural light is afforded by five large windows which open toward the Mall.
The second floor has a circular foyer twenty-six feet in diameter, lighted from above. The color scheme of the foyer, dark terra-cotta red and travertine, is continued throughout the corridors which lead to the men's lounge on the east and the women's on the west. On the north wall of the foyer there is a portrait plaque in bronze, modeled by Page 1650Carleton Angell of the University Museums. The following inscription on the plaque was written by Professor John G. Winter:
- Horace H. Rackham 1858-1933
- Poverty did not embitter him nor wealth affect the simplicity of his life and the even tenor of his way.
- His mind moved always on a high plane, serene and noble, and his vision extended to the problems of human suffering and happiness everywhere.
- His broad humanitarianism and his pervading wisdom remain a living force, his memory a refreshing inspiration.
The lounges, at either end of the second floor, measure 26 by 69 feet and have two alcoves, each 17 by 28 feet, for writing and music. The men's lounge is furnished in rather heavy Chippendale and Queen Anne mahogany and walnut, with modified Georgian lighting fixtures of brass and pewter. In the women's lounge the lighting fixtures are gray-green and gilt, while the furniture is lighter Chippendale and Duncan Phyfe. Near the entrance to each lounge there is a small kitchen and serving room. Completing the rooms on this floor two council or committee rooms, approximately 15 by 20 feet, adjacent to the lounges, provide for student and faculty group meetings.
The east, south, and west parts of the mezzanine floor are taken up by the upper part of the high rooms on the second floor, while the north part is devoted to eight workrooms. In addition, there are two small but perfectly appointed lecture rooms, each accommodating fifty persons. The lecture rooms are carpeted and contain theater-type chairs, light-proof shades, and projection facilities. Trusses over the lecture hall pass through the mezzanine floor, and the inside spaces between these trusses have been adapted as exhibition rooms, the two central ones of approximately 30 by 52 feet and the end ones 25 by 47 feet. The former are connected by two doors in the separating wall. Twelve-foot-wide corridors, which lead to the end rooms, provide additional space for exhibits. The exhibition rooms and corridors have linoleum-covered floors and are painted a neutral gray; the walls are of wood covered with fabric to permit the hanging of pictures.
The third floor is much smaller, with an area only about half as large as that of the lower part of the building, the south part being occupied by the upper part of the great second-floor study hall. In the center there is a small circular amphitheater, sixty feet in diameter, which seats 250 persons. A laboratory table fully equipped for demonstrations can easily be seen from all parts of the room because of the steep inclination of the seats. Behind this table is a motion-picture screen with sound equipment, controlled from a booth on the north side. The walls of the room are of an acoustical material in medium brown, banded horizontally with bronze molding. The ceiling consists of a series of concentric steps which lead to an illuminated dome.
Also on the third floor there is an assembly room 63 by 26 feet, which can be extended by pushing back the folding cloth doors of the alcoves at either end. Decorations and furnishings of all three rooms are in a Pompeian style, with yellow and gray the predominating colors.
At the east and west sides of this floor are conference rooms 28 by 36 feet, carpeted in mottled gray, and with pin-grained oak paneling. The connecting corridors between have rubber-tile floors and plaster walls painted in a neutral color. These are furnished with settees and chairs and from them doors open to a large tiled roof terrace with deck-style Page 1651furnishings. Facilities for serving tea or light refreshments are available on this floor.
A basement floor extends underneath the entire building. Two inclined ramps lead down to this floor from East Huron Street on the north, joining in a driveway under the lecture hall. This provides a sheltered automobile approach for guests at social and other functions and parking space for the administrative staff. This part of the building has insulated walls and ceiling.
From the driveway metal doors on the south open into a U-shaped corridor, and on the north wall a small passageway leads to the robing room under the lecture hall stage. Rooms for heating, ventilation, and for other mechanical equipment as well as workrooms and storage rooms open from the corridor. The ground floor houses the Michigan Historical Collections, with stacks and administrative offices. The Collections occupy six rooms. Various other laboratories and offices also are housed on this floor.