The Summer SessionPage 
THE SUMMER SESSION
At a meeting of the Board of Regents in March, 1890, Dr. Albert B. Prescott, Dean of the School of Pharmacy, presented a plan for a summer school of chemistry of six weeks' duration, July 7 to August 16. He suggested that the fee be $25 and that the director of the chemical laboratory be placed in general charge. The instructor, to be appointed by the Board, was to receive compensation proportionate to the funds realized from fees, but neither more than 80 per cent of the amount collected nor more than $300. The University was asked to advertise by card in a few periodicals of the public schools and to print an announcement in the form of a leaflet. William F. Edwards was appointed Instructor for the course, with the understanding that the work of the students was to be restricted to one room of the chemical laboratory.
This was not, in fact, the first evidence of local interest in summer study. Summer work in surgery was given in 1857 and 1858. The University participated indirectly in a venture known as the Northwestern Summer Institute at Petoskey in 1882. The Institute was organized at least partly on the initiative of University of Michigan faculty members who spent their vacations there, and on its first teaching staff, in addition to professors from Hillsdale and the State Normal School, were Professors Gayley, Payne, Steere, and Stowell, Mr. Hennequin, and Mrs. Stowell. The University even loaned its microscopes. According to the Argonaut, the Institute was patterned after the older summer schools of the East, such as those held at Martha's Vineyard, where Professors Winchell, Harrington, and Adams had taught.
In December, 1893, through a committee composed of Elmer A. Lyman, John O. Reed, William F. Edwards, Ernst H. Mensel, and Moritz Levi, and endorsed by Burke A. Hinsdale, the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts asked for the establishment of summer courses six weeks in length for teachers and students who could not attend during the regular year. The Regents decided, in accordance with the plan proposed, to provide for advertising and for faculty compensation out of the summer student fees and to require each instructor to bear the cost of janitor service for the rooms he used. They promptly advanced $300 for the advertising, and in time a bulletin entitled Summer Courses of Instruction was printed.
Although the organization proceeded rather slowly and the program for 1894 was therefore not well publicized, eighty-eight students attended that session. The administrative committee for the summer was composed of Burke A. Hinsdale, Albert B. Prescott, George Hempl, John O. Reed, and Elmer A. Lyman. Courses were offered in English literature by Isaac N. Demmon, in the English language by George Hempl, in composition by Fred N. Scott, and in the science and art of teaching by Burke A. Hinsdale. It was announced that Francis W. Kelsey, Henry A. Sanders, and Clarence L. Meader would teach Latin; Fred M. Taylor, political economy; and Frank N. Cole, Alexander Ziwet, and Elmer A. Lyman, mathematics. George W. Patterson and John O. Reed constituted the physics faculty. Frederick C. Newcombe taught botany; Moritz Levi, French; George O. Higley and William F. Edwards, chemistry; Herbert F. de Cou, Page 754Greek; Ernst H. Mensel, German; Sidney D. Townley, astronomy; and Webster Cook, history. Miss Alice L. Hunt taught drawing, and Herbert S. Jennings offered work in morphology. General public lectures by President Angell and Professors Carhart, Thomas, Demmon, Trueblood, Kelsey, and Hinsdale were announced.
In December, 1894, provision was made for a second session. The tuition fees were fixed at $15 for one course, $25 for two courses, and $30 for three, and again $300 was set aside for advertising. The range of subjects in the Literary Department was extended in the summer of 1895, and summer work was first offered in the Department of Law. There were twenty-three teachers in all, and the number of students attending the session was 191.
President Angell was authorized by the Regents the following year to choose the faculty in the order of seniority for the next summer, and this group of instructors was permitted to elect a chairman, a secretary, and three others to constitute an executive committee. To the chairman and secretary were given the responsibility of advertising and of conducting the correspondence, as well as the right to withdraw courses elected by fewer than three students. This first executive committee consisted of Elmer A. Lyman, chairman, Ernst H. Mensel, secretary, and Joseph H. Drake, George O. Higley, and Earle W. Dow. The faculty members numbered forty-two, and there were 231 students enrolled, of whom twenty-six were in the Department of Law. Several public lectures were given, including one by President Angell on the war between China and Japan; also, Professor Albert Stanley gave recitals on the new Columbian organ. In the same year, 1896, the second program of summer work in the Department of Law was undertaken. It was administered by a special committee with Bradley M. Thompson as chairman and Elias F. Johnson as secretary. Seventeen law courses were offered, in addition to special training in elocution and oratory by Thomas C. Trueblood. A course of free lectures by the law faculty on such topics as the Magna Carta, the judicial system of the Jews, and the trial of Jesus, and a lecture by Judge Johnson on the right of a teacher to inflict corporal punishment were given.
At the close of the 1896 session the faculty was satisfied that the experimental stage had been passed. President Angell pointed out that the success of the Summer School warranted its permanent establishment, especially because of the service it rendered public education. It improved the teachers' preparation and naturally raised the quality of the instruction they gave; also, through their interest, it bound the schools more closely to the University. But a better form of organization, especially as to the method of appointing and paying the members of the summer faculty, was needed.
No important changes were made, however, until after the summer of 1898. Angell recorded that throughout these first five years the Summer Schools were "conducted by permission of the Board under a voluntary organization of such members of the literary and law faculties as chose to teach" (P.R., 1898-99, p. 7). There were also one or two instructors from the engineering faculty, whose few courses were listed in the bulletin with those of the Literary Department, although as far as the work of the regular academic year was concerned the Department of Engineering had been made a separate unit in 1895.
Before the summer of 1899 the single Summer School of the literary and engineering faculties was put under the direct control of the Regents, who assumed Page 755the financial risk, agreeing in advance on definite salaries for summer appointees at fixed rates per course for the various ranks, and appointed John O. Reed chairman of the executive committee of the Summer School of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts. Professor Reed had been a member of the committee of 1898 and also had helped to plan the first organized session in 1894. Continuing in charge of the summer work until he was appointed to the deanship of the Literary Department in 1907, he served first as chairman of the executive committee until February, 1905, and then as Dean of the Summer Session through the next three summers. During these nine years the enrollment rose from 263 to 1,070, a strong organization was built up, and the work for advanced students was developed.
The experiment of 1899 was a success. President Angell then ventured to suggest that the fees be reduced — though not, he warned, at the expense of faculty compensation. His view was that many of those most interested in summer instruction were teachers with small incomes, who found the fees prohibitive, and that the resulting increase in attendance would probably more than offset the loss to the University per student. Furthermore, graduates do better work; an increase in their number would probably improve the prestige of the Summer School.
In January, 1900, the Summer School committee laid before the Regents a set of plans designed to put the summer work "on a scale commensurate with the rank and dignity of the University," and the Board approved all provisions of the report, including even a guarantee of $2,500, or so much of it as might be needed, to defray any expenses not covered by tuition. According to this outline the University formed a summer committee on graduate work to maintain a constant relationship with the Graduate School Administrative Council. Plans were made to introduce courses "suitable for graduate students" and to fix the amount of credit allowed for summer work toward graduate degrees. At the same time provision was made for the appointment of outstanding men from other institutions, a new salary schedule was devised, and the name "Summer Session" was first used.
The new plan was tried in 1900, and evidently Angell's prediction of a larger and more mature company of students proved correct. Also gratifying was the fact that several full professors remained to teach.
The Department of Medicine and Surgery began its regular summer work in 1902, and in the following summer the Department of Engineering for the first time gave its courses separately, offering work in civil, mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering. Though the Biological Station was not authorized until 1909, the possibility of establishing such a camp was first discussed by the Regents in April, 1900, and was again drawn to the Board's attention by Professor Reed in October, 1903, in the regular report of the Summer Session.
The support of President Angell and of the Regents enabled Reed to bring under the direction and control of one Summer Session the University's summer courses in all departments. In February, 1904, the Regents provided for the amalgamation of the summer offerings under one chairman and three secretaries — John R. Effinger, who represented the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts and the Department of Engineering; G. Carl Huber, the Department of Medicine and Surgery; and Edwin C. Goddard, the Department of Law. Before the summer of 1907 James P. Bird was added to this executive Page 756committee as secretary for the Department of Engineering; otherwise, the administrative organization and personnel remained the same until the end of Reed's service to the Summer Session. Throughout this period all of the summer work was carried on in a session of six weeks except that in the Department of Law, which continued to hold eight-week sessions.
A rule was adopted by the Regents at the time of the amalgamation, permitting leaves of absence on the basis of accumulated salaries; by this regulation, an instructor who had taught during four summer sessions without compensation could obtain a leave of absence for a full academic year. The summer reception was first held in 1904, under the management of the wives of faculty members. The first summer courses in pharmacy were given in 1905, and the first in the Homeopathic Medical College in 1907.
John R. Effinger, who had become a member of the summer faculty in 1897 and a member of the committee in 1900, served as secretary of the executive committee of the Summer Session from 1902 until the end of Reed's administration, and in October, 1907, was made Dean of the Summer Session. Edward H. Kraus then succeeded him as secretary of the executive committee and as the special representative of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
The attendance grew from 1,077 to 1,324 during the five summers of Dean Effinger's administration, 1908-12, and within the same period longer sessions were introduced, summer library courses were begun (1909), experimental summer field work in botany and zoology was undertaken, and the engineering field work was strengthened.
Though field work in surveying offered by Howard B. Merrick and his assistants had been listed in the Announcement of the Summer Session for three years, the first Summer Session announcement of a surveying camp was made in 1908, when the work was carried on at Burdickville, Leelanau County. At Douglas Lake the Bogardus Engineering Camp was firmly established in 1909 and the Biological Station was set up in a preliminary way. The next year the Biological Station offered regular work.
Dean Effinger had urged in February, 1908, that the summer session be extended to eight weeks, and in the Literary Department and the Department of Engineering the longer term went into effect the following summer. The Department of Law changed from one session of eight weeks to two sessions of five weeks each, beginning in the summer of 1910. This was done to provide for all courses of the first two years, one-half of each in alternate summers.
Edward H. Kraus became Acting Dean of the Summer Session in 1911, permanent administrator in 1913, and Dean in 1916. Kraus's active leadership covered the twenty-one years 1913-33 inclusive. Thoms E. Rankin became the first secretary of the Summer Session in 1916 and was succeeded by Carlton F. Wells in 1929. Louis M. Eich, the present secretary, began his work in 1933.
Among the important advancements in the Summer Session program during Dean Kraus's long administration were the establishment of summer courses in architecture in 1913, the first summer work of the School of Business Administration in the summer of 1917, and a southern Kentucky field station in geology and geography in 1920. The camp was directed first by C. O. Sauer and later (1924-35) by George M. Ehlers.
In 1916, the University Engineering Camp came to be called Camp Davis, in honor of Joseph B. Davis, formerly Page 757Professor of Geodesy and Surveying and Associate Dean of the Department of Engineering. In 1923 the administration of Camp Davis was put under the direction of the Office of the Summer Session, and the camp budget, previously a part of the budget of the College of Engineering, was included in that of the Summer Session. The Bogardus area, in which this camp had been conducted, grew from 1,600 acres to approximately 4,000 acres. The camp was moved to Wyoming in 1929.
Summer plays were developed in 1930 by the Department of Speech and proved to be the introduction of the later summer dramatic programs of the play production classes. The social and physical education programs of the University were also greatly improved by the construction of the Michigan League and the Intramural Sports Building in 1929. An annual gathering of notable research physicists known as the physics symposium and later as the symposium on theoretical physics was begun in 1923.
It is as true as it was in Angell's day that teachers and school officials look to the Summer Session for special training and inspiration. Besides professional courses in education and advanced academic work for teachers — the solid curriculum which has grown slowly, but very steadily, for a period of nearly half a century — a special summer program has in late years been sponsored by the School of Education. Begun in 1929 and dealing with such topics as guidance, remedial reading, and curriculum problems, this program consists of "clinics," special conferences, and short, intensive noncredit courses or institutes.
Other steps in the expansion of the summer program were the inclusion of the School of Music in 1930 and the adoption of the Michigan Daily as an official publication of the administration in 1932. It was in this year, too, that a group of teachers of international law held their first conference in Ann Arbor under the auspices of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Throughout this period the Biological Station was developed under the active interest of Dean Kraus, who in 1933 joined with Director La Rue and G. Carl Huber, then Dean of the Graduate School, in the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Station's activities.
At the beginning of the period in 1913 there were about 175 members of the summer faculty; in 1933 there were 435. The largest number while E. H. Kraus was Dean of the Summer Session was 518 in 1931. Within this same period the student body grew from 1,402 in 1913 to 4,328 in 1931; the total registration in 1933 was 2,962. The largest attendance of undergraduates in the years 1913-33 was that of the summer of 1927, when 1,190 were enrolled.
At first the graduate students formed only a small percentage, but by 1918 the proportion had grown to 11 per cent. At the same time the number of students with college degrees, including not only graduate students but also students enrolled in the professional schools and others not seeking advanced degrees and therefore enrolled in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, constituted 21 per cent of the total summer registration. Of the total enrollment in 1926, 26 per cent were graduate students; in 1928, 33 per cent; in 1930, 42 per cent; and in 1933, 44 per cent. In 1930, 60 per cent of all the students had college degrees, and in 1933, 64 per cent. The importance of summer graduate studies was consistently emphasized during Dean Kraus's administration: he served as the first secretary for the executive committee of the Graduate School in the summer of 1928.
Dean Kraus worked unremittingly to Page 758make the Summer Session an integral part of the University — a principle applied more extensively at Michigan than at most other institutions. He also insisted that teachers of advanced rank be retained on the Summer Session faculty in order to provide courses of the same standard as those given during the regular year. The practice of securing an early adoption of the Summer Session budget permitted the working out of the programs carefully and unhurriedly, with an early announcement of the program for each year. Kraus also advocated a salary scale proportionate to the winter pay schedule. Finally, in December, 1927, this scale, the highest in the history of the Summer Session, was adopted by the Regents.
In 1917 the deans and directors of the summer schools of the principal universities of the country came to Michigan and formed an association. This organization has assisted materially in the development of an appreciation for summer study, in large increases in enrollment, and in the placing of summer session programs upon a footing equivalent to that of the regular sessions. In all this work Dean Kraus took an active part, and college and university executives have expressed appreciation of his constructive, persistent, and patient labors.
The first summer session administered by Louis A. Hopkins, the present Director, was that of 1934. During the seven-year period extending through the summer of 1940 the enrollment of undergraduates in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts increased from 577 to 717, while the College of Engineering had a much larger relative growth, from 250 to 400. In the Medical School, the Law School, the College of Pharmacy, the College of Architecture and Design, and the School of Business Administration the summer attendance has remained constant for many years. The enrollment in the School of Forestry and Conservation, on the other hand, grew from thirty-two in 1934 to sixty-two in 1940. But the two units of the University that have had the greatest rise in summer enrollment are the School of Music, in which attendance increased from 101 to 321, and the Graduate School, in which the attendance was more than doubled in this seven-year period. There were 1,645 graduate students enrolled in 1934 and 3,438 in 1940. The total attendance of these seven years was as follows:
The well-established activities previously carried on by the Summer Session have been continued — the conferences on international law, the symposia on theoretical physics, the programs of special interest to educators, the work of the Biological Station and of the other summer camps, and the excursions conducted for a number of years to points of scientific, industrial, or scenic and general interest. Among these are Niagara Falls, the island of Put-In Bay in Lake Erie, Greenfield Village and the Ford automobile plant in Dearborn, and Page 759the Cranbrook School near Bloomfield Hills.
Since 1935 the W. K. Kellogg Foundation has co-operated with the School of Education in giving varied programs of in-service education for teachers. These have included scholarships for study at the University as well as grants for the support of workshops provided in selected communities in the Michigan Community Health Project. This is the name given to the program in seven counties in western Michigan in which the Kellogg Foundation has been supporting numerous undertakings for community betterment. In the summer of 1938 a special curriculum laboratory was established in Ann Arbor in co-operation with Wayne University, Michigan State College, and the four state teachers colleges. In the same year, on the invitation of President Webster H. Pearce, the University established a graduate center at Marquette in the buildings of the Northern State Teachers College.
The Departments of Geology and Geography operated their last joint summer camp in southern Kentucky in 1934. In 1935 the Department of Geography carried on its field work in the Upper Peninsula near Menominee, and since then, with the generous co-operation of the State Department of Conservation, has maintained a field station at Wilderness Park, fifteen miles west of Mackinaw City. The Department of Geology for three summers, 1935-37, used State Bridge, Colorado, as its base. Since the summer of 1937 the field work in geology has been given with that in surveying at Camp Davis near Jackson, Wyoming. Camp Filibert Roth at the site near Munising had outgrown its capacity by the end of 1935. Obtaining generous terms from the Von Platen-Fox Lumber Company, the University adapted for instructional purposes a lumber camp on Golden Lake, Iron County, Michigan, to the west of Iron River, and opened it as Camp Filibert Roth in 1936. Recently the same company deeded a small tract of land on the lake front to the University, thus making possible a permanent establishment in the Ottawa National Forest. Since 1936 the applications for admission to the Biological Station have exceeded the available accommodations.
With the assistance of the Chrysler Corporation the College of Engineering has in recent years usually brought in outstanding men from other universities to conduct extra graduate work and the symposia in theoretical mechanics. In 1937, with the co-operation of five large electrical industries, the College developed a special program in electronics. Special emphasis in 1940 was placed on internal-combustion engines, advanced thermodynamics, and mechanical engineering.
The music clinic for high-school students, a successful annual event organized by the School of Music, was first held in 1936; in the same year the French House was established, and this also was successful and has been continued in later years. Professor Elmer D. Mitchell led a group of students in physical education on a study tour in Europe that summer, visiting eight European countries and concluding the journey at the Olympic games in Berlin. It was in the summer of 1938 that the Detroit program of the University in social administration came under the direction of the Summer Session.
In the period during which the present Director has served, the general program has been changed. Formerly the several departments arranged their programs somewhat independently, but at present emphasis is placed on groups of co-operative studies with each group under the direction of a joint committee selected especially for the purpose. A most Page 760interesting development of recent years, which serves well to illustrate the use made of co-operative committees, is that of the Summer Session institutes and programs of emphasis.
The annual Linguistic Institute, sponsored by the University, the Linguistic Society of America, and the American Council of Learned Societies, was organized in 1936 and has served as an occasion for bringing to the campus outstanding authorities in linguistics from other universities. The Institute of Far Eastern Studies, organized in 1938 and conducted again in 1939, has capitalized a long-standing tradition of the University's interest in the Orient. In the summer of 1935 Professor Robert B. Hall and a group of advanced students of geography went to Japan and carried on intensive studies of the densely populated area of the Yamato basin. With the assistance of the Institute of Pacific Relations and of the American Council of Learned Societies, schools of emphasis were carried on during the summers of 1937 and 1938 in the Chinese, Japanese, and Russian languages. The graduate conference on Renaissance studies was organized in 1938, and a second such conference was held in 1939. The Institute of Latin-American Studies, sponsored jointly by the University and the committee on Latin-American studies of the American Council of Learned Societies, with the co-operation of that council and of the Rockefeller Foundation, was begun in 1939. In the summer of 1938 the auditorium of the new Rackham Building became available for special lectures, which have been arranged in several series corresponding to the various institute programs. In 1940 a graduate study program in American culture and institutions was organized under the auspices of the Summer Session. It included courses selected from the programs of the Departments of Economics, English, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science, and Sociology. In addition, a number of public lectures were given throughout the period by qualified members of the University staff and by special lecturers brought from other institutions. Round-table discussions of the general topics, each of which formed the subject of a week's work, were part of the general program.
Through this development of summer institutes the enthusiasm and devotion of the younger members of the faculty have been encouraged, and by means of the constructive attitudes of the departmental organizations there has been developed to a higher degree a stimulating and interesting atmosphere which has enabled the University to use more effectively the riches of its intellectual life.
Announcement of the Summer Session, Univ. Mich., 1900-1940.
Bouchard, Harry. "Engineers Trek to Ideal Spot for Summer Work."Mich. Alum., 36 (1930): 735-37.
Craig, Robert, Jr."Camp Filibert Roth — in the Upper Peninsula Woods."Mich. Alum., 36 (1930): 749, 751.
"Every Department Open This Summer."Mich. Alum., 37 (1931): 485-86.
"The Growth of the Summer Session."Mich. Alum., 23 (1917): 188-90.
"Institutes Feature 46th Summer Session."Mich. Alum., 45 (1939): 443-46.
La Rue, George R."Biological Station …"Mich. Alum., 36 (1930): 737, 747-48.
The Michigan Daily (Summer Session), 1932-40.
Miscellaneous bulletins of institutes and conferences; special announcements of summer camps and of summer courses in College of Literature,Page 761 Science, and the Arts, College of Engineering, and School of Education.
[News notes.]Argonaut, 1 (1882): 5-6; Mich. Alum., 1 (1895): 60; 2 (1896): 93; 4 (1898): 276; 5 (1899): 201-2; 10 (1904): 258-60; 13 (1907): 365-66; 14 (1908): 228; 16 (1910): 507; 17 (1911): 493-94; 26 (1920): 232-33; 28 (1922): 552; 33 (1927): 416, 784; 34 (1927): 120; 35 (1929): 746; 36 (1930): 685; 37 (1931): 275, 661, 706; 38 (1931): 30, 134; 38 (1932): 340; 39 (1933): 625, 627-28; 40 (1934): 488; 41 (1935): 295 (map); 42 (1936): 459, 508; 43 (1937): 471, 563, 572; 44 (1938): 465; 45 (1939): 529; 46 (1940): 351, 462, 542; Mich. Alum. Quart. Rev., 42 (1935): 649-50.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1894-1909, 1920-40. (P.R.)
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1881-86, 1890-1940.
Summer Courses of Instruction …, Univ. Mich., 1894-99.
The Summer Michigan Daily, 1922-32.
"Summer School Enrollment Totals 3,159."Mich. Alum., 30 (1924): 1101-3.
"Summer Session Is Big University in Itself."Mich. Alum., 36 (1930): 735-37, 747, 751.
Watkins, Herbert G."Regents Set Summer Session Budget."Mich. Alum., 43 (1936): 127-28.
Watkins, Herbert G.. "Regents Set Summer Session Budget."Mich. Alum., 44 (1937): 141-42.
"What's What in the Summer Session."Mich. Alum., 35 (1929): 759-61.
The Wolverine, 1910-22.
THE BIOLOGICAL STATION
IN the spring of the year 1900 Professor Jacob E. Reighard of the Department of Zoology appeared before the Board of Regents to discuss the establishment of a biological station on the Great Lakes, to be under University control but maintained by the government. The Regents then asked President Angell to take the matter up with Senator James McMillan in the hope of obtaining favorable action by the government. Apparently the project came to naught. The idea was not entirely abandoned by the University, however, for in October, 1903, Professor John O. Reed included in his plan for the betterment of the Summer Session a suggestion that a biological station be established at some suitable place on the lakes of Michigan, "for the study of Botany and Zoölogy and for accommodation of persons desiring to do advanced work in those lines" (R.P., 1901-6, p. 270). But again no immediate action resulted.
Authorization of the establishment of a biological station was finally secured and was recorded thus in the minutes of the Board of Regents for April 28, 1909:
On motion of Regent Carey it was voted that a teaching or research station in Botany and Zoology at a total appropriation for equipment, salaries and other expense for 1909 not to exceed $2,000, should be established at the Bogardus Engineering Camp,* provided at least twenty students should elect the course for the coming Summer Session.
(R.P., 1906-10, p. 472.)
During the summer of 1908 the University had acquired a tract of land of nearly fourteen hundred acres, on the south and east shores of Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, partly by purchase and partly by gift from Charles and Hannah W. Bogardus, of Pellston (R.P., 1906-10, pp. 274-75, 348). According to Reighard, Colonel Bogardus and his wife had expressed the wish that scientific work be done on the site:
With that remark, the biological station was conceived. Dean Cooley wanted still more land and thought that the founding of a biological station might lead Colonel and Mrs. Bogardus to offer it on the same favorable terms as before. He took the matter to the Page 762Board of Regents and, largely through the efforts of Regent Carey, they were persuaded to send a committee from Ann Arbor in the fall of 1908 to look over the proposed site.
(Reighard, p. 5.)
The personnel of that committee does not appear on the records of the Regents, nor is their report acknowledged or published. Reighard stated that he was not a member and that he did not know its membership, but that Frederick C. Newcombe of the Department of Botany represented the science of biology, and he believed that the secretary of the University and several Regents were members of the party. The committee recommended that the Regents found a biological station to be administered by the Summer Session. George P. Burns, of the Department of Botany, who may have been a member of the committee, strongly urged the establishment of a biological station.
Although only fourteen of the required twenty students applied for admission, the Biological Station was permitted to go ahead under the directorship of Reighard and with Burns as the other member of the teaching staff and Miss Frances J. Dunbar as general assistant.
For buildings the Station had one of the two small, old log buildings which had been hastily built about 1904 for use as a railroad grading camp. The surveying camp was located a third of a mile farther west on South Fishtail Bay of Douglas Lake. About six miles to the west and a little south was the village of Pellston, eight miles southeast was Topinabee, and thirteen miles northeast was Cheboygan.
A plague of black flies delayed the opening of the session for a week, and this delay gave much-needed time for erecting the tents for living quarters and for installing shelves and windows in the log laboratory and a platform and a hand pump for the aquarium. Photographs taken at the time record these preparations and the barren appearance of the landscape, which had been repeatedly burned over. Gaunt black stubs twenty to fifty feet high were prominent features of the landscape, and huge pine stumps showed that a magnificent pine forest had been removed some thirty years earlier (1876 and 1877).
The women students lived in tents pitched near the engineers' dining tent on the hill behind the surveying camp. The men's tents were pitched along the shore west of the log laboratory. The log laboratory had shelves for equipment, books, supplies, and specimens, also tables for classes, research, and office work.
Those few tents, some of them borrowed, and the old log building used as a laboratory, with a small shed attached at the rear, a platform, a water tank, and a hand pump for the aquarium, constituted the physical plant. The fleet consisted of three rowboats. There were no automobiles nor trucks for transportation overland. Students and staff boarded at the dining tent operated by the Bogardus Engineering Camp.
Since the Biological Station was still considered an experiment, at the close of the session the students were asked to report on the value of their work and their experiences during the summer. Without exception, these reports (in the Biological Station files) were enthusiastic in their praise of the character and quality of the instruction, of the type of courses offered, and of the value of the work accomplished in preparation for teaching and research. All placed high value on their experiences. Most of the students preferred living in tents to living in dormitories. Their suggestions in these letters had considerable weight with Director Reighard and with the administration in evaluating the Page 763Station as an experiment in biological education.
Although the Station was considered to have been successful, there remained much uncertainty regarding its permanence and, particularly, its location. From 1913 to 1916 inclusive the very existence of the Station was endangered; it lacked the strong support of the Departments of Botany and Zoology. A majority of its staff and students came from other institutions. The comprehensive and vigorous report of Director Otto C. Glaser at the close of the session of 1916 brought it the needed support of the departments and strengthened the determination of the Summer Session authorities to continue its existence. Since that time the Station has been looked upon as an established part of the Summer Session and well past the experimental stage.
The Station had been situated on Douglas Lake because the University owned the land and on that particular site because of its proximity to the Bogardus Engineering Camp and the availability of the log buildings. There had been no survey of the state to determine the best area for a biological field station, nor had the Bogardus tract been carefully surveyed for the best site. As early as 1911 parties from the Station had examined Burt Lake and had reported on its nonsuitability as a location. Adverse reports were made following examinations of Pine Lake in Charlevoix County in 1917 by members of the staff and of a tract south of Williamsburg in 1927 by members of the staff and Regents Beal and Hubbard. In later years much of the shore line of Douglas Lake was carefully examined, and reports were made on part of Section 29, Munro Township, lying at the northwest corner of the tract. Again and again the directors and their staffs examined Grapevine Point, about three-fourths of a mile north of the Engineering Camp, and brought that site to the attention of the Board of Regents. Plans were prepared for the development of a physical plant on that site, and repeated requests for funds for that purpose were presented to the Board. In turn, the Board, no less than twice, requested funds from the legislature for the development on Grapevine Point.
Meanwhile, after the World War, the growth in the enrollment at the Biological Station had been rapid and continuous. Many small buildings had been erected on the narrowly limited original site, bounded on the front by the lake and on the side and back by the engineers' base line and an old dry beach pool. Roads and streets had not been built and could not be cheaply constructed on the soft beach sand. A water supply under pressure, sanitary toilets, and other conveniences had not been provided. The old site was recognized as intolerable, and the need for expansion became greater year by year.
In the fall of 1927 a party consisting of President Little, Secretary Smith, Regent Beal, Deans Huber, Kraus, and Dana, Professors Bartlett and Ruthven, and Directors La Rue and Johnston inspected the two camps on the Bogardus Tract and examined Grapevine Point as a site for the Biological Station. By that time the staff members had become convinced that no better area for biological study would be found in the state, and the great value of the accumulated data was recognized.
Following that trip of inspection it was made known that Director Johnston and the staff of Camp Davis desired to give up their location on Douglas Lake and to build a new camp in Wyoming. Growth of trees and underbrush, since fires had been prevented, had been so great as to interfere seriously with the practice of surveying. The old Page 764engineering camp thus became available for the Biological Station, and the plan to erect buildings on Grapevine Point was abandoned.
The summer of 1928 was spent in preparing plans for the occupation of the Camp Davis site. In February, 1929, the Regents set aside the sum of $70,000 for the development of camps for surveying and biology. That summer and fall and the spring of 1930 were spent in carrying out these plans. On the old Camp Davis site this work involved the cutting and grading of new streets, the extension of the water and sewage systems, and the erection of several buildings. New water tanks and septic tanks were built, and two two-story laboratory buildings were constructed, in addition to an administration building to house offices, with a stockroom-store on the first floor and a dining hall and a kitchen on the second. Ninety-nine other buildings were moved or put onto foundations. Although work had not been completed, the session of 1930 was held in the new location, which included the old Camp Davis site and extended as far to the east as the old log laboratory.
On this site there is a central campus area which includes the laboratories, the keeper's residence, the aquarium building, a small animal house, a garage, the library, the clubhouse, and the administration building. Immediately to the west on the main street (State Street) is a group of eighteen small houses set aside for married students, and on the hillside behind and west of this area is a group of twenty-three small houses for men students. At the west end of State Street are a garage and the covered harbor and boathouse. Immediately east of the campus area along State Street are the three Health Service buildings, an office and living quarters for the dean of women, living quarters for the kitchen force, and thirty-one houses for women students, guests, and investigators. Along East State Street, extending from the guest houses to the log laboratory, are a dozen houses for faculty members.
Since 1930 many unfinished construction jobs projected on the original plans have been completed. These include additions to the aquarium building, the conversion of the basement of the Camp Davis kitchen into a photographic suite with five darkrooms, the insulation of the dining hall and kitchen, the wiring of many buildings for electric light or power, the construction of retaining walls and of stone paths from broken concrete floors, the development of clayed paths, the construction of terraces in front of the administration building, of log stairways outside certain buildings, and of a tower on which insects can be collected at night with the aid of an arc light, and the reconstruction of the baseball diamond.
Except for the construction of fire lanes around the two stations and attempts to prevent forest fires, no efforts had been made for more than twenty years to improve the forest on the tract. Natural reseeding was in process on certain areas, but on others there were only scattered clumps of bushes and aspens. In 1930 the forest was placed under the supervision of Professor Willett F. Ramsdell, of the School of Forestry and Conservation, in order that the existing forest might receive expert care and be improved by planting and by the removal of the less desirable trees. This was made possible through the generosity of the George Willis Pack Foundation and of members of the Pack family. Before June, 1937, approximately one thousand acres had been planted. A program of long-term studies on the Biological Station forest has been instituted by Ramsdell and his colleagues.
The fire lanes built around the two stations in the early years had long gone Page 765untended. In 1931 the co-operation of the State Department of Conservation was secured in the construction of certain fire lanes on the property; later, with the aid of the Civilian Conservation Corps, the University was able to have some miles of work roads built and the fire lanes extended and improved. These are maintained by annual cultivation. The CCC in 1933 constructed a building for the forestry equipment and in 1934 erected an eighty-five-foot fire tower which had been donated by the Department of Conservation.
The original tract of nearly fourteen hundred acres has been extended by purchase and by acquisition of tax titles. In 1940 it comprised about four thousand acres. Early in 1942, by means of a special legislative act, the State Department of Conservation was enabled to transfer to the University for the purposes of its Biological Station more than three thousand acres of tax-reverted lands which the Department of Conservation had earlier acquired from the state. Nearly half of this new tract is adjacent to the old one, but other parcels are separated.
Instruction at the Biological Station. — Teaching is an important function of the Biological Station. With few exceptions the courses offered have supplemented instruction given in colleges and universities, and emphasis has been placed upon field work, but not to the exclusion of work in the laboratory and the library, the degree of emphasis upon each aspect depending upon the course and upon the special interests of the instructors and the students.
In the following brief account of the courses subject matter can be indicated only by titles. It is impossible to describe clearly the changes in content, method, and emphasis as the professors changed.
Zoology. — Courses treating the field aspects of vertebrates have been an important part of the offerings of the Station from the beginning. The first course was entitled the Natural History of Vertebrate Animals. With some changes in title and emphasis this course was given by Jacob E. Reighard (1909, 1911-12), Norman H. Stewart (1910), Max M. Ellis (1913-17), and Frank Smith (1919-22) for two hours of credit. Reighard emphasized behavior and evolution in lecture and library work, but field studies received attention. Stewart gave emphasis to field studies, Ellis and Smith to ecology and taxonomy. This course was replaced by Ichthyology, two hours, and Herpetology and Mammalogy, two hours, both offered by Francis Harper in 1923 and 1924 and by Charles W. Creaser since 1925.
Birds were included in Natural History during the years 1909 and 1910, but in 1911 became the object of a separate two-hour course, the Natural History of Birds, given by Smith and continued by Smith and John S. Dexter (1912), Ellis and James S. Compton (1913), Compton alone (1914), Norman A. Wood (1915), and Reuben M. Strong (1916). The title was changed to Ornithology in 1917, and under this name the course was given successively by Strong (1917), Roland F. Hussey (1918), Dayton Stoner (1919-20), Zeno P. Metcalf (1921), Frank N. Blanchard (1922-27, 1929-37), Alfred O. Gross (1928) while Blanchard was on leave, and Olin S. Pettingill (1938 — ). Because of increased interest in the subject, Advanced Ornithology was started by Blanchard in 1923. For many years the enrollment in the elementary ornithology course was higher than that in any other course except Entomology.
The invertebrates have always received their share of attention. Reighard gave a course entitled Fresh-Water Biology, two hours credit, in 1909. This course gave way in 1910 to the Natural History of Invertebrates, by Arthur S. Page 766Pearse. Without change of title this course was given successively by Frank Smith (1911-14), Robert W. Hegner (1915), and Otto C. Glaser (1916). Then the title was changed to read, the Natural History of Invertebrate Animals with Reference to the Principles of Ecology, and it was given by Walter N. Koelz (1917) and by Paul S. Welch (1918-22), who emphasized the limnological aspects and introduced quantitative methods. In recognition of these changes, the course was renamed Limnology in 1923. The Natural History of Vertebrates was re-established in 1933 as a four-hour course, and it has been given regularly by Frank E. Eggleton, with emphasis upon taxonomy and ecology of invertebrates exclusive of insects and parasitic worms.
Limnology, as indicated above, developed from the course known as Natural History of Invertebrates and was first given under its new name in 1923 as a four-hour course. Since its inception it has been taught continuously by Welch, although Eggleton was associated with him in this work for three years (1931-33). The need for additional training in methods of limnological research led in 1931 to the establishment of a two-hour course named Limnological Methods and given by Eggleton. Repeated in 1932, it has been given in alternate years thereafter.
Instruction in entomology began in 1912, when a two-hour course entitled the Natural History of Insects was offered by Smith and Welch, with Welch giving the instruction. It was given by Welch in 1913, by Ellis in the years 1914-17, and in 1918 by Welch, as Ellis had been called to war service. Stoner gave the course in 1919 and 1920, and Metcalf in 1921. Without undergoing any change in content, it was renamed Entomology in 1922, and Robert Matheson was put in charge. It was made a four-hour course in 1923, when Herbert B. Hungerford took charge of it. Hungerford has continued to give the course except in 1928, when he was on leave and Clarence H. Kennedy gave it. For years this course had been deservedly popular, and usually there were more students enrolled in it than there were in any of the other courses.
A course in helminthology was established in 1927 and has been given every year since by William W. Cort and Lyell J. Thomas.
In 1910 Arthur S. Pearse and Miss Mary T. Harmon gave the course entitled Zoology for Teachers, and Horace B. Baker gave Natural History of Mollusks in 1911. Neither course has been repeated.
In the early years students who had had no previous biological training were sometimes admitted to courses in zoology. Only once, in 1915, was the elementary course called General Zoology given, and then Cort was in charge. With few exceptions since that date students taking zoology courses have been required to present one or more courses in biology or zoology for entrance.
Botany. — During the first three years there was a complete change of the botanical staff (one professor) each year, resulting in extensive changes in courses.
During the first session, however, three important lines of botanical work were begun which have been pursued almost without interruption to the present. These are ecology, systematic botany, and a botanical survey of the region. From time to time there have been changes in emphasis, new aspects of these major fields have been undertaken, and new courses have been added as the staff grew and demand warranted.
The Teachers' Course in Ecology, which was given by George P. Burns in 1909 for two or for four hours of credit, was never repeated in that form; in 1913 Page 767and 1914, however, a course called Ecology but which dealt with the ecology of plants, two hours, was given by Henry A. Gleason. It was enlarged to a four-hour course in 1915, when it was given by Gleason and Frank C. Gates. Since that time it has been given annually by Gates. In 1930 the title was changed to Plant Ecology. A two-hour course known as Advanced Ecology was given by George E. Nichols in the summers 1926-30 inclusive.
The first course in systematic botany (1909) was Burns's Identification of Trees and Shrubs, two hours, which was superseded in 1910 by a more general course, Systematic Botany of Seed Plants, two hours, by Pool. Since that time it has been called Systematic Botany and has been given by Gleason (1911-14), Frank C. Gates (1915), John H. Ehlers (1916-38), and William C. Steere (1939 — ). Advanced Systematic Botany, two hours, dealing with grasses and sedges, was instituted by Ehlers in 1915 and was given annually thereafter until 1932, since which time it has been alternated with Aquatic Flowering Plants, two hours, also given by Ehlers and continued by Steere (1939 — ).
The systematics of the lower plants have also been the subject of courses. Taxonomy of the Bryophytes, two hours, and Taxonomy of Fresh-Water Algae, two hours, have been given by Nichols (1920-38), Hempstead Castle substituting for him in 1931 during his illness. The algae course has appeared under a variety of titles. The two-hour course named Mycology and given by R. J. Pool in 1910 has never been repeated, although the present staff has been on record for many years as favoring the re-establishment of such a course.
During the early years some students without previous biological or botanical training were admitted. For them in 1910 Pool gave a four-hour course designated the Course in Field and Forest Botany. This was continued by Gleason and Fred A. Loew during the summers of 1911 and 1912, and was given by Harry N. Whitford in 1913, by Gleason and Frank T. McFarland in 1914, by McFarland in 1915, and by Richard M. Holman in 1916 and 1917. For students with only laboratory training in botany this course served as an introduction to field work and became the vehicle for ecological training during the summers 1910-12, when a regular course in ecology was not given.
Plant Anatomy was a two-hour course established in 1915 by Gleason and Walter E. Rogers, and was enlarged to a four-hour course in 1930. Those who have given it are Holman (1916-17), Ehlers (1918), Bert E. Quick (1919), Nichols (1920-22), Gleason (1923), William Seifriz (1924), and Carl D. La Rue (1925 — ). A second course, Ecological Plant Anatomy, two hours, was given by C. D. La Rue in the summers 1926-35 inclusive. The latter course gave way to Plant Tissue Culture and Morphogenesis (1936 — ), also given by La Rue.
Plant Geography, a two-hour lecture course, was begun by Seifriz (1924) and was given after the first year by C. D. La Rue (1925-29).
Research. — From the very beginning, qualified students have been invited to undertake research on the flora and fauna of the region, under direction. Among the subjects offered in botany may be noted ecology (Burns), taxonomy and ecological relations of bryophytes and algae (Nichols), ecology of flowering plants (Gleason, Gates), taxonomy and distribution of flowering plants (Ehlers), plant anatomy, tissue culture, and morphogenesis (C. D. La Rue).
In zoology research has been offered in these fields: systematic and faunal zoology (Pearse), behavior of animals in relation to their environment (Pearse), Page 768evolution and behavior (Reighard), fishes (Reighard, Ellis, Smith, Francis Harper, and Charles W. Creaser), Sporozoa (Ellis), Oligochaeta (Smith, Welch), mollusks (Baker), insects (Welch, Ellis, Stoner, Metcalf, Matheson, Hungerford), sponges (Smith), arthropods (Hegner), birds (Strong, Stoner, Metcalf, Gross, Blanchard), amphibians and reptiles (Blanchard), parasitic worms (Cort, George R. La Rue, Thomas), aquatic organisms (Smith), mammals (Harper, Creaser), limnology (Welch), and natural history of invertebrates (Eggleton).
Graduate students, staff members, and visiting investigators have published no less than 450 scientific papers based on the fauna and flora of the Douglas Lake region during the years 1909-39, making that region well known to biologists of the world.
Personnel. — The Biological Station has developed under the directorship of six men: Jacob E. Reighard, 1909-14 (not in residence in 1910, 1913, and 1914); Arthur S. Pearse, Acting Director, 1910; Henry A. Gleason, Acting Director, 1913 and 1914, and Director, 1915; Otto C. Glaser, 1916; George R. La Rue, 1917-39; and Alfred H. Stockard, secretary, 1931-39, and Director, 1940 — .
It is impossible to list all the faculty members and give a full description of what they have accomplished for the Biological Station. A number of men taught for a single session, others for two or three, a few for many years. In general those who served the Station for long terms have made by far the greatest contributions to the development of research and teaching programs. Professor Reighard was in residence during three sessions only, but he exerted a profound influence on all aspects of the Biological Station program. He emphasized research, insisted that the courses be based on the fauna and flora of the region and that they be scientific, and set up the daily routine which has since been followed with only minor variations. Gleason (1911-15) developed a course in plant ecology and ecological methods. His branch of teaching and research has been ably carried on since his time by one of his students, Frank C. Gates (1916 — ). Frank Smith, of the University of Illinois, was a member of the staff from 1911 to 1914 inclusive and again during the summers 1919-22 inclusive. During his first period of service he developed courses dealing with invertebrates, and in the second period he took over vertebrate courses, which he ably conducted.
Faculty members who have served the Biological Station for many years and have made important contributions to teaching and research include Frank N. Blanchard, who had charge of the teaching in ornithology and of the research in both ornithology and herpetology in the years 1922-37; William Walter Cort of Johns Hopkins University (1915-16, 1927 — ), in parasitology; Charles W. Creaser of Detroit City College, now Wayne University, in ichthyology, herpetology, and mammalogy (1925 — ); Frank E. Eggleton (1929 — ) in limnological methods and the natural history of invertebrates; John H. Ehlers (1916-38), in systematic botany and aquatic flowering plants; Frank C. Gates of Kansas State College (1915 — ), in plant ecology; Herbert B. Hungerford of the University of Kansas (1923 — on leave, 1928), in entomology; Carl D. La Rue (1925 — ), in plant anatomy, plant tissue culture, and morphogenesis; George E. Nichols of Yale University (1920-38), in the taxonomy of algae and bryophytes; Lyell J. Thomas of the University of Illinois (1927 — ), who was associated with Cort in parasitology; and Paul S. Welch (1918 — ), in limnology.
Announcement of the Biological Station, Univ. Mich., 1909-40.
Announcement of the Summer Session, Univ. Mich., 1909-40.
"The Growth of the Summer Session."Mich. Alum., 23 (1917): 188-90.
Harmon, Lucie. "Life at the Biological Station."Mich. Alum., 16 (1910): 416-18.
La Rue, George R."Biological Station …"Mich. Alum., 36 (1930): 737, 747-48.
La Rue, George R."The University of Michigan Biological Station."Collecting Net, 6 (1931): 169-73.
La Rue, George R., , Peter O. Okkelberg, , and John F. Shepard. MS, "Jacob E. Reighard."In MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty … College of Literature, Science, and the Arts," Univ. Mich., Apr. 6, 1942. 1940 — , pp. 834-40.
[News notes.]Mich. Alum., 15 (1909): 375-76; 16 (1910): 351-52; 29 (1922): 90; 33 (1927): 815; 39 (1933): 625; Mich. Daily, Mar. 25, 1910; Mar. 16, 1912; Mar. 23, Apr. 15, and May 18, 1919.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
Reighard, Jacob E."The Biological Station's First Year."Mich. Alum., 40 (1933): 5-6, 9-10.
"A Scientific Laboratory in the Wilderness."Mich. Alum., 31 (1925): 307-10.
Shull, A. Franklin. "Jacob Ellsworth Reighard."Science, n.s., 95 (1942): 344-46.Page [unnumbered]