THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND STATE SERVICE
THE School of Education recognizes as a primary obligation its responsibility to render educational services to the schools of this state. In addition to its functions in the education of prospective teachers the School has developed a program of instruction for teachers and administrators holding regular positions. Part of this service is furnished through courses given in Ann Arbor on Saturdays, and part of it is furnished through off-campus instruction. The School offers several courses at the Detroit Center for Graduate Study and co-operates with the University Extension Service in a program of instruction through extension courses. One of the newest developments of state service has been a field course which is offered through the co-operative efforts of the faculty of the School, with class sections provided in cities in the various areas of Michigan. In the University year 1940-41 this course was offered in eighteen cities, and the total enrollment was approximately five hundred and fifty advanced students. The major objective of the service has been to aid school authorities in their efforts to modify school practice in terms of the findings of studies and educational research.
As a further part of its program of state service the School has developed a series of special conferences. Since 1929 an annual conference on teacher education has been sponsored in Ann Arbor during the spring months, and a similar conference on important issues in state education has been held in Ann Arbor during the summer months. The School has also participated in an annual Parent Education Institute in co-operation with the University Extension Service. In addition to working in these regular conferences, staff members have participated in many meetings sponsored by the state professional organizations of teachers.
As another means of furnishing service to the schools, the School of Education Bulletin has been established. This monthly publication is sent to the heads of the public and private schools of the state, and much helpful information relating to educational problems is presented through its pages. The School of Education maintains the Bureau of Educational Reference and Research, a service agency designed to help schools in carrying forward testing programs and in studying local problems of instruction. The Bureau plays a part in initiating and carrying forward investigations of educational problems of state-wide significance. The staff of the Bureau gives a great deal of time to conferences with state educational authorities and to aiding professional groups interested in studying school problems. The Department of Vocational Education places its major emphasis on state service through a series of extension courses for teachers and special programs of instruction for workers in trades and industries.
The two laboratory schools of the School of Education, the University High School and the University Elementary School, provide a large amount of service to the schools of the state in a variety of ways, in addition to providing opportunities for student teaching and for observation. Much of this service is rendered through special conferences, consultations, writings, special reports, and demonstration teaching.
Announcement of the School of Education, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40.
University of Michigan School of Education Bulletin, Vols. 1-11 (1929-40).
THE BUREAU OF APPOINTMENTS AND OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION
THE University Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information is a University agency resulting from the union of the Bureau of Appointments of the School of Education and the Senate Committee on Vocational Counsel and Placement. It is now in its thirteenth year.
In the earlier years of the University, no effective medium between the superintendents of schools and prospective teachers had existed. The few students desiring to teach for the most part were known to the president and to members of the faculty. With the rapid expansion of the teaching profession, however, a better knowledge of the capacities of the candidates for positions and a more effective means of placing teaching opportunities before the students became desirable. This service the president and faculty were unable to render effectively.
Appointment committee. — The Bureau of Appointments, originally designated the "appointment committee," was created in 1898 by the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, "to devise a scheme for securing teaching positions for graduates and students of the University." The president of the University later was authorized to appoint a second committee to supervise the work of this body. Fourteen members of the faculty were appointed to serve on this supervisory committee, of which Professor B. A. Hinsdale was elected chairman and E. C. Goddard, secretary, succeeded the following year by Professor A. S. Whitney as chairman and J. W. Markley as secretary. Much of the work of this committee was performed by an executive committee composed of three members. In 1906 the Bureau was made one of the activities of the University's Department of Education. Its work was carried on in Tappan Hall under the active charge of A. S. Whitney, then Dean of the Department of Education, in co-operation with Professor Calvin O. Davis and an office force of four assistants.
The Senate committee on vocational counsel and placement. — The need for a similar agency for students interested in occupations other than teaching led to a proposal in 1923 that the Michigan Union establish a placement bureau. The conference of deans, however, disapproved this proposal, since the University itself was planning to undertake the work, and a committee to gather data concerning a placement bureau and related problems was authorized. Dean Edmund E. Day, of the School of Business Administration, served as chairman of this committee on vocational guidance and placement appointed by the president. The committee made a formal report in November, 1924, which was approved by the Senate and was referred to Page 311the Regents. It contained the following recommendations:
- 1. That a Senate Committee on Vocational Counsel and Placement be appointed by the President, the committee to consist of the Dean of Students, the Dean of Women ex officio, and one representative from each college and school.
- 2. That appointments to the Committee be for a term of four years the initial appointments being "staggered" so that the term of two members of the committee will expire each year.
- 3. That the Committee have the services of an executive officer and an adequate subordinate staff, the executive officer to give not less than one-half of his time to the work of the Committee.
- 4. That the Committee report at least once each year to the University Senate.
- 5. That the Regents of the University be requested to grant the Committee all necessary financial support for a period of not less than four or five years, that the work may be assured of a reasonable trial.
(R.P., 1923-26, p. 809.)
The committee on vocational counsel and placement was discontinued, and an advisory Senate committee of five for the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, to be chosen by the president, was authorized. The first such committee was appointed in February, 1930.
The present Bureau functions under three main divisions: teacher placement, general placement, and guidance and research.
Teacher placement. — Teacher placement — the oldest of the three divisions — has grown because of the demands of the people and because of the wide and continually growing range of acquaintances. Page 312In brief, the placement of teachers consists first of registration of all prospective teachers and alumni who want assistance; second, of keeping in touch with all educational institutions of higher learning outside the state and all educational institutions in the state: elementary schools, high schools, colleges, and universities; and third, in presenting the credentials of the people desiring positions to prospective employers.
The registration consists of bringing together in a folder such information about the individual as his age, place of birth, educational background, religion, experience, record, and recommendations for each step in his development.
The Bureau establishes contacts with educational institutions by correspondence at least once a year, calling attention to the service it renders and to the fields of work in which the University of Michigan prepares candidates. Representatives of the Bureau attend the state educational meetings, the national educational meetings when it is advisable, and in every way possible the Bureau keeps administrative officers in education informed of University of Michigan students and alumni.
The next step in teacher placement is to bring the credentials of the qualified registrants to the attention of the prospective employer; that is, when a call is received for an applicant in certain fields the credentials of those people meeting the qualifications are presented to the prospective employer, and where possible arrangements are made for interviews. The registrants are encouraged to keep their records up to date in order that they may be known and will be available for promotion, and it should be said that approximately four out of five of all placements in the teaching field are for the people who have had experience. In other words, the great number of calls which come to the University are those asking for people with advanced degrees and successful experience. Last year more than 12,000 sets of credentials were presented to prospective employers. This gives an indication of the amount of work which has to be carried on to render efficient service to the registrant, to the employer, and to the public.
Since the teaching division has been running for over fifty years, the Bureau has records of almost all the people who have gone into the teaching field and who have been successful. The Bureau aids those who have been successful by recommending them for better positions, and assists those who have not been successful by pointing out the errors which have prevented their advancement and by helping them to correct these errors.
At the end of each fiscal year, a card is sent to every registrant on the active list, asking him to give the Bureau his status regarding his position and desire for promotion. This is done in order that the University of Michigan men and women will not be overlooked when calls for trained people come in.
General placement. — General placement includes everything outside of teacher placement and calls for co-operation with business and professional institutions of all kinds. It would be difficult to say how wide the range is, because calls of every imaginable type come in, including those for factory work, business, and industry — for accountants, salesmen, and technicians. Representatives of a large number of companies annually come to the office of the Bureau to interview prospective employees. The arrangements are made beforehand and the prospective employers spend from a short period to three days interviewing a large number of candidates, in order that they may find just what they want. As in the teacher division, the various companies receive at least once a year a Page 313letter which is designed to inform them of the services rendered by the Bureau and how the services can be used to a good advantage. In addition to meeting the prospective employer, our students and alumni are given a few thousand cards of introduction to all types of organizations all over the world, and these cards, without exception so far as is known, have been honored by all organizations, such as banks, publishing houses, and laboratories.
The alumni organizations in many of our cities co-operate by organizing committees through which certain members of the group meet the Michigan graduate. A member will usually give him an introduction to employers in his own line of work, as well as refer him to the director of employment in other fields of work. This help has been most generously given and appreciated. However, it is kept in mind that at no time should any of these organizations or individuals be burdened with too many callers.
In connection with general placement has been the growth in the number of applicants seeking summer positions. Many of these people in summer employment are taken by the employer so that he may have an opportunty to look them over for permanent service, and in this sense, much aid has been rendered. Also, many students have been able to secure through the Bureau positions that help them pay their tuition for the coming year. Between four and five hundred in all are thus enabled to find summer positions which not only help them earn a living, but have a tremendous effect on their future lives through the opportunity given them to continue in school.
The Bureau does not have as many names in the general placement division as it does in the teacher placement division, because the latter is much older. However, it is adding to the general placement list as time goes on in order to be able to recommend applicants from the alumni when calls are received which demand mature people of experience and training.
The attendance by members of the staff at state and national organization meetings continually increases the number of registrants by calling attention at the meetings to the service rendered the alumni; this practice alone is helping to give more service to the alumni and to the public in general.
Guidance. — Since the reorganization of the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information in 1929, its guidance functions have increased steadily in volume and importance. It was realized that efficient placement could result only in proportion to a correct estimate and evaluation of the capabilities and personal qualities of the candidates who register for assistance. Thus the Bureau has become a central and official department of the University, organized to give personal guidance directed toward satisfactory vocational adjustment. This service is extended, not only to the students on the campus, but also to alumni, teachers, parents, and high-school students of the state. It was among the first of state university placement offices to recognize that guidance and placement are inseparable functions. The correctness of that view of its functions is evidenced by the fact that it is now becoming a general policy among college and government employment agencies to incorporate guidance and personal adjustment assistance in the services offered.
The guidance department renders a varied service, depending upon individual needs. For some it provides information about the various occupations and professions and about opportunities for useful work as graduates. It helps to analyze and solve individual problems by studying abilities, skills, interests, and Page 314personalities. For teachers and guidance workers particularly, information is provided as the result of research work in personnel problems constantly going on in the office of the Bureau. An effort is made to discover the factors affecting success or failure and to point out how the conclusions from these services may be applied to guidance work.
Not only has the Bureau constantly collected occupational information for students, but since 1933 it has also sponsored speeches and round-table discussion groups on vocational problems in an effort to arouse a more general interest in vocational planning for students. Student organizations have co-operated in the selection of occupational fields to be discussed and in informing the student body of the schedule of meetings; likewise, business, industrial, and professional leaders have willingly co-operated in the program. They have come to the campus at their own expense to present in a series of vocational discussions their views as to the personal qualifications and training required.
Today, ten years after the inauguration of this program, the large number of students coming voluntarily for these services far overtaxes the present staff.
A further development was initiated by the Bureau in 1935 through a guidance internship for qualified graduate students who have specialized in personnel work in their programs for advanced degrees. These internships can give the graduate students an opportunity to assist counselors in certain secondary schools. It is now planned to provide similar opportunities for field work in business and industry.
A twofold research program is continually under way in the Bureau. Not only the accumulation of personal and vocational data from records of students on the campus, but also follow-up information giving personal-experience records of alumni in permanent positions is being studied. These researches aim to discover the factors associated with success or failure and their practical application in helping students in the correct choice of a vocation, or a better adjustment or advancement for alumni.
In summary, the Bureau seeks to prevent students from pursuing an aimless, unfruitful, or wrong program and to help them to discover the right vocation and prepare for it.
MS, "Minutes of the Faculty Meetings of the School of Education," 1921-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Meetings of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts," 1908-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1898-1940. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Records of the Faculty … [Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts]," 1896-1908. Mich. Hist. Coll., Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1898-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
Vocational Information; a Bibliography for College and High School Students. Comp. by Willard E. Parker and Donald H. Moyer. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1929 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 30 , No. 15).
THE BUREAU OF CO-OPERATION WITH EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
UNTIL 1871, the one acceptable plan whereby graduates of secondary schools could gain entrance into colleges and universities had been that of the formal academic examination. In that year, however, the University of Michigan, then a small but growing state university, decided to try out a new plan, that of so unifying the educational system of the state that young men and women might proceed without interruption along educational paths from the kindergarten to college graduation. This was accomplished through the "diploma relationship of high schools to the University," inaugurated by Acting President Frieze and carried forward enthusiastically by President Angell and his successors. The Presidents' Reports and Regents' Proceedings are replete with passages explaining this new development in education and giving it hearty endorsement at every step of the way. The following brief account is taken very largely from the publications just mentioned, and is reported in the original language insofar as possible.
In 1869 Acting President Frieze in his annual report stated that while preparatory training of students was steadily improving, if a genuine university were ever to exist it would have to be "built on a much higher scholarship in the preparatory schools and academies." He felt that our colleges and universities were decidedly inferior to the European high schools, or Gymnasia. The remedy lay in gradually raising the requirements for admission to the Literary Department of the University until the local high schools "shall have occupied their proper ground and the university … [shall have been] enabled to take on its true character and functions." A year later he observed that conditions were favorable for the development of the equivalent of Gymnasia in America which would "secure to us the true university."
One high school already had sent to the University thirty-five well-prepared students, and, in general, high schools were sending increasing numbers of students to the University. Professor Frieze recognized that full co-operation between the school authorities and the University would be the work of time, but he looked forward to the possible elimination of elementary teaching on the part of the University, with the faculty of its Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts becoming a genuine faculty of philosophy and science. Hearty sympathy and co-operation on the part of the state union schools and high schools was assured, and he reported:
… Some of our best educators … have proposed that a commission of examiners from the Academic Faculty, should visit annually such schools as may desire it, and give certificates to those pupils who may be successful in their examinations, entitling them to admission, without further examination, to the University.
(P.R., 1870, p. 8.)
During the year 1870-71 there were 222 applicants for admission to the Literary Department. Candidates from the high schools of Detroit, Flint, Jackson, and Ann Arbor were especially well prepared and gave evidence of a gradual rise in scholarship standards. Also, requests had been received to send visiting committees from the University to several prominent schools, including those of Adrian, Jackson, Flint, Ann Arbor, and Detroit.
Page 316President Angell, in his first report (1872), mentioned the admission of women and the establishment of our relations with the high schools as two very important events in the development of the University which took place under the influence of his predecessor, Acting President Frieze. He also pointed out that the University was "gradually demanding a larger range, as well as a better quality, of preparatory work" and that "the superintendents and teachers … show a most praiseworthy desire to push up the scale of their work." Fifty freshmen had been received during the preceding year under the new certificate plan — three from a Detroit high school, eight from Flint, seven from Jackson, three from Kalamazoo, one from Adrian, and twenty-eight from Ann Arbor.
In commenting on this first year's experience President Angell said: "We see nothing in the result of the experiment to deter us from repeating it… Those who predicted filling up the Freshman class with poor material or the lowering of the standard of scholarship … have proved false prophets" (P.R., 1872, p. 10). The smallness of the number of students in this group "conditioned" or "failed to pass" made the success of the new system evident. He looked forward to a time when, with all the high schools in the state enlisted in the program, "we shall have a completely graded system of substantially free public education stretching from the primary school through the University." Five schools were visited during the year and others announced that they would be prepared to invite inspection the next year.
During the next four years the development of the new relationship with the high schools of the state was rapid. In 1873 Dr. Angell was able to report: "We are certainly approximating toward a more substantial unity in our system of public education than any other State in the Union." The following year, requirements for admission had risen so rapidly that in some respects they were higher "than [those] of any other institution in the country." Apparently the close relationship which had developed between the secondary schools and the University continued to be satisfactory, at least to the University. In 1875 President Angell acknowledged the indebtedness of the University to the public schools and reported again that "no other State in the Union, I think, has an educational system so nearly approaching to organic completeness and unity as Michigan." More than half of the freshman class by that time was coming from the inspected schools, and the average preparation of these freshmen was found to be better than that of the rest of the class. The net result of this program was a very apparent elevation of the standard of work in the schools and a corresponding rise in the standards of admission to the University (see Part II: Office of the Registrar).
The teachers' point of view of the diploma relationship, as set forth in a paper which J. C. Jones, Superintendent of the Pontiac Schools, read before the State Teachers' Association in 1875, is an indication of the way in which the school administrators of the state received this innovation in the relationship between the University and the secondary schools:
1st. It has intensified, deepened and dignified the work of the high school…
2d. The visits of the University committee are looked forward to … with excellent spirit and interest, which leads to much conversation about the University and its requirements… This increased amount of talk is one of the greatest benefits to the school, for it brings the University within the pupil's vision and constantly augments his desire to enter its walls …
3d. Parents manifest more interest and Page 317greater pride in the school and its success …
4th. It increases the number preparing for college …
5th. Then this method makes it better for the pupil physically as well as mentally … He becomes possessed of a certificate, which ends the worry and cram of the long vacation just previous to entering college …
9th. One of its best effects is upon the teacher. This is, perhaps, its very best. Considering, as they do, that their reputation rests upon well prepared pupils, they are induced to acquaint themselves with the best methods of instruction …
In conclusion, nothing has awakened a deeper sympathy among the people for the University and its prosperity, than this reciprocal relation of the high schools and the University, and it would be a sad blow to higher education in this State to sever it.
(P.R., 1875, pp. 7 n.-8 n.)
It must be admitted that the establishment of the diploma relationship was not carried out without formidable opposition. President Eliot of Harvard was critical of the innovation and was quoted by President Angell as saying: "That the University should have been willing to try so unpromising an experiment proves that the lack of connection between the secondary and the higher instruction in Michigan must have been painfully felt" (P.R., 1875, p. 8 n.). President Angell went on to observe that it was singular that it should not have occurred to President Eliot "that the University could have ventured on the experiment only because fortunately the connection between the secondary and the higher instruction is probably closer than in any other State."
From 1871 to 1876, high schools were accredited by the University only when they were so organized and equipped as to be able to prepare students simultaneously for all three undergraduate courses of study leading to the degrees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, and bachelor of philosophy (see Part II: Degrees). In 1876 it was decided that it would be better to encourage schools to train pupils well in one or two courses rather than, by undertaking more, to force them to do a poorer quality of work. After that date schools were accredited even though they were unable to prepare students for all the curriculums offered in the University (see p. 247). In the President's Report for 1876 (p. 7) Dr. Angell stated that "there seems no reason why a school which can prepare its pupils satisfactorily for our Scientific and Engineering courses alone should not be recognized by us as competent to do that particular work."
Not only had the movement for the admission of students on diploma spread to some of the other state universities by this time, but also some of the Eastern colleges were receiving students without examination from academies of established reputation.
While President Angell was on leave of absence in 1880, Acting President Frieze took occasion to comment again on the severe criticism the plan had received from some distinguished educators, who feared that it would bring down the standard of scholarship. He reported, however, that, just as in the case of the admission of women, experience proved there was no ground for fear "except that the thing was new, and not practiced in the mother colleges." His conclusions were borne out by the results of an investigation covering the nine-year period during which the new plan had been in effect, made by Professors Wooster W. Beman and William H. Pettee and presented as Appendix C of the President's Report for that year (pp. 26-30).
By this time sixteen of the most flourishing and important high schools of the state were included in the plan, and its success was evidenced, not only by an Page 318increasing number of high schools co-operating with the University, but also by the spreading of the plan to secondary schools and academies in other states. These developments led the faculty to recommend that the privileges granted to the schools of Michigan be extended to those of other states on equal terms, a suggestion which met approval by the Regents on March 18, 1884. Within a year schools in New York, Illinois, Minnesota, and California had availed themselves of the privilege of sending students on diploma to the University. A further step came in 1891, when the President reported that the diploma relations with high schools were so firmly established and the benefits so obvious that it had been deemed wise for the University to assume the expense of sending committees of the faculty to visit the schools in Michigan.
On February 13, 1899, the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts approved and submitted to the Regents a recommendation that the University have a "special examiner to inspect our diploma schools." It was not intended, however, "that our present system of inspection be wholly abandoned, but that it shall be used whenever it is found necessary or desirable." The Regents unanimously approved the plan and appointed Allen S. Whitney ('85, Ed.D. hon. '39) to the position. So far as can be learned, this was the first appointment by any university of a special high-school examiner.
With the appointment of Whitney as special examiner of high schools, the co-operative relationships between the University and secondary schools of the state seemed to take on new life. The years which followed saw larger numbers of schools asking to be accredited for diploma admission by the University. By September, 1903, the number of schools had increased to 127. President Angell's Report of that year states (pp. 6-7):
… Not the least important part of the work of the University has been its influence, exerted both directly and indirectly, in the development of the high schools. In its earliest days it accomplished excellent results by the establishment of the branch schools, which were finally transformed into the earliest high schools organized in the State … We have established this so-called diploma relation with a considerable number of schools in the states adjacent to Michigan. Since it is burdensome to us to visit schools in those states, the official examiners of this University and of our sister universities in those states are endeavoring, with good prospects of success, to fix upon some plan by which each university may safely receive the verdict of the other universities on the merits of at least the stronger schools in their respective states …
For the first time, I think, in the history of the University we can record the interesting fact that among our students were one or more representatives from every one of the states of our Union. All of our territories, except Alaska, and all of our new possessions, the Hawaiian Islands, Porto Rico, and the Philippines, and the following foreign states and provinces were represented, Japan, China, India, South Africa, Turkey, Austria, Germany, England, Bulgaria, Mexico, Jamaica, Ontario, Quebec.
Whitney served as Inspector of Schools until April, 1905. In that year Calvin Olin Davis ('95, Ph.D. Harvard '10) was appointed Instructor in Education and Inspector of Schools. In October, 1906, Irving King (Earlham '96, Ph.D. Chicago '04) was added to the Department of the Science and the Art of Teaching as Assistant Professor of Education and Examiner of Schools. The statement was made that "work falling upon that department is rapidly growing more heavy and important." In June, 1910, Davis was appointed Assistant Professor of Education and Inspector of Schools for the three years beginning the next October.
Page 319In December, 1913, after a rather prolonged discussion, a report was presented recommending that an "inspector be appointed who shall devote his entire time to the inspection of the secondary schools of the state, both accredited and non-accredited…"
In accordance with this action James Bartlett Edmonson ('06, Ph.D. Chicago '23) was engaged as Inspector of High Schools in February, 1914, to begin his work the next October.
It appears that no summarized report of activities of high-school inspection was made during the first forty-five years of diploma-school relations. The records in the Regents' Proceedings, in the annual President's Report, and in the files of correspondence exchanged with secondary schools were considered sufficient. After the appointment of a full-time high-school inspector an annual report was rendered, the report of 1915-16 being the first one officially recorded in the Regents' Proceedings (1914-17, p. 550).
In April, 1920, the Regents directed that the placing of a secondary school upon the accredited list of the University should thereafter be recognized by a suitable certificate, which should serve as evidence of the relationship between the school and the University for the period accredited.
James B. Edmonson, with the assistance of other members of the University faculty, handled the inspection of public and private secondary schools for the University, within and without the state, from 1914 to 1919. He received the additional appointment of Professor of Education in 1916. During 1919 he and the deputy state superintendent of public instruction worked out an arrangement whereby the University men inspected certain schools for tuition purposes for the State Department of Public Instruction and members of the high-school division of the state department inspected certain schools for accrediting purposes for the University. This plan, by eliminating duplication of activities, provided for greater efficiency in the work with the secondary schools of Michigan.
On the retirement of Whitney from the deanship of the School of Education in 1928 and the appointment of Edmonson to this position, it became necessary to secure another member of the faculty to care for high-school inspection, and in September, 1928, George Ezra Carrothers (Indiana '09, Ph.D. Columbia '24) was appointed High School Inspector and Associate Professor of Secondary Education. A further change occurred in February, 1929, when he became Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools, to succeed Dean Edmonson.
In 1929, after the resignation of Clarence C. Little from the presidency of the University, Alexander G. Ruthven was appointed to the position, and almost immediately the present administration began a study of the whole administrative organization of the University. Since that time, whenever pertinent information and sufficient thoughtful consideration of University problems have made it seem advisable, reorganizations have taken place.
In keeping with this policy, the work and the organization of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools received consideration by the University Council during 1931-32. A reorganization was approved which provided for a more efficient, unified co-operation between the University and other educational institutions.
The activities of the committee on accredited schools, the committee on junior colleges, and the Division of High School Inspection were consolidated by action of the Regents on February 26, 1932. A committee on co-operation with Page 320educational institutions supplanted the two earlier committees, the Division was renamed the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, and Carrothers was appointed Director of the Bureau and was asked to serve also as secretary of the committee on co-operation.
The University Council and the Board of Regents thus set up a central committee on co-operation with educational institutions as the policy-forming and unifying body with respect to the work of the subcommittees and of the Bureau. This central committee, of which the vice-president of the University in charge of educational investigations, the registrar, several deans, and the state superintendent of public instruction are members, co-operates with all educational institutions both within and without the state in the development of the work and in the promotion of co-operative relationships. The central committee appointed a subcommittee on relations with secondary schools, which took over the work of the former committee on accredited high schools and continued the work of inspection and accrediting. A second subcommittee on relations with institutions of higher education was appointed. This committee took over the work of the junior-college committee and of certain other committees and continued co-operation with institutions of higher education in matters which concerned these institutions and the University as a whole.
When the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions was organized in 1932, the high-school inspector, Wray H. Congdon (Syracuse '14, Ph.D. Michigan '30), was appointed Assistant Director of the Bureau, and Freda S. Kuebler, secretary to the director. In 1934 Congdon resigned, and Harlan Clifford Koch (Ohio Univ. '19, Ph.D. Ohio State Univ. '26) was secured as Assistant Director of the Bureau, with full professorial rank. Koch came here from the University of Nebraska, where he had been a professor of secondary education, chairman of the committee on graduate studies in the Teachers College, and a member of the Graduate Council. For the next few years he devoted full time to the work of the Bureau and was engaged primarily in co-operative activities with secondary schools. In 1939 he was appointed half-time Professor of Education in the School of Education in addition to his half-time assistant directorship of the Bureau, and Edgar Grant Johnston (Wooster '12, Ph.D. Columbia '29), while continuing his part-time professorship of secondary education, took up the duties of part-time High School Visitor in the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions in place of his former work as Principal of University High School.
As Director of the Bureau of Co-operation, and formerly as Director of the Division of University Inspection of High Schools, Dr. Carrothers has given one-half of his time to teaching in the School of Education, where he is Professor of Education. The other half of his time is devoted to the work of the Bureau, which consists of visiting secondary schools, junior colleges, four-year colleges, and any other educational institution which may make request, and to the numerous administrative problems which arise in connection with the work.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1869-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1864-1940.
THE MICHIGAN SCHOOLMASTERS' CLUB
THE Michigan Schoolmasters' Club was organized at Ann Arbor in 1886, by a group of forward-looking educators who desired closer personal acquaintance between the college teachers and the secondary-school teachers of the state, a better understanding of the problems mutually affecting the colleges and the secondary schools, and a serious co-operative study of the relationships between the secondary schools and the institutions of higher learning in Michigan.
For its first seven years the club met three times a year for one-day sessions. This arrangement proved so inconvenient for teachers throughout the state that attendance gradually dwindled to the vanishing point. One meeting a year was accordingly decided upon; the sessions were then extended through two, and eventually through three, days. The attendance rapidly increased from less than three hundred to between three and four thousand.
In the first years all the sessions were general, and the topics treated were largely those affecting secondary education — curriculum, electives, proper content of subjects, general methods of teaching, and proper uses of a library. As the attendance increased the program was divided into short, general sessions and many specific sessions or conferences stressing the various academic subjects, such as Greek, modern languages, mathematics, chemistry, and biology.
A graphic conception of the development of the club may be gained by comparing the program offered in 1893 with that of 1938. The 1893 program consisted of three general topics: Electives in the High School, German Below the High School, and Mathematics in the High School — What and How Much? In 1938 a twenty-seven-page pamphlet was filled with announcements of the six general sessions, the nineteen special conferences, and the several subsidiary meetings. The special conferences clearly indicated the aim of the club to meet modern educational situations and covered a wide range of subjects.
During the entire half century of its existence the club has exerted an exceedingly wholesome influence on the secondary schools. It has brought together the leading college and secondary-school men of the state for face-to-face discussions of their common problems and of prospective solutions and has drawn to this campus distinguished scholars of other universities — Toronto, Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Princeton, Cornell, Ohio State, Indiana, Missouri, Illinois, Chicago, Northwestern, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. One notable discussion was held in 1908: "Formal Discipline in the Light of Modern Psychology," by James R. Angell of the University of Chicago, Walter B. Pillsbury of the University of Michigan, and Charles H. Judd of Yale University. This discussion attracted the attention of educators throughout the entire nation.
The introduction of the special conferences has greatly increased the attendance and has multiplied the influence of the club. From their very inception these conferences have profoundly stimulated the special classroom teachers to higher academic attainments and to better methods of teaching and have also provided these teachers with proper library lists for their respective fields. The most notable conference has been the classical, under the leadership of the late Professor Francis W. Kelsey. This conference attracted Page 322classical scholars from all parts of the country, and in consequence it came to exert a nationally recognized influence in this field.
The benefits rising from the operations of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club were so helpful to the schools of the state that the club early desired to share these accumulated advantages with other states. Accordingly, at the Ypsilanti meeting on December 1, 1894, Principal W. H. Butts, of the Michigan Military Academy, offered a resolution requesting the University of Michigan, the University of Wisconsin, Northwestern University, and the University of Chicago to "unite with a committee of the Club in issuing a call for a meeting to form an association of schools and colleges in the North Central States." This request was accepted, and delegates from ten states met at Northwestern University, March 29 and 30, 1895, formed the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, and elected James B. Angell, of the University of Michigan, president (see Part I: Angell Administration; Part II: Office of the Registrar). This association has since become an exceedingly powerful factor in developing higher standards in the north central states.
From 1905 to 1936, the chief papers presented before the groups of the club have been published in its Journal. They form a very creditable contribution to educational literature.
Journal of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club, 1906-40.
MS, "Proceedings of the Michigan Schoolmasters' Club," 1894-1905.
THE MICHIGAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ARTS, AND LETTERS
LIKE most organizations, the Michigan Academy had its inception in the vision and the initiative of a few men. The idea was conceived by Professor Jacob E. Reighard in the early nineties, while he was head of the Department of Animal Morphology of the University of Michigan. His plan was to bring together the college and university teachers and other persons in the state of Michigan who were interested in research. The desirability of founding a state academy was obvious. The only question in Professor Reighard's mind was whether there was sufficient interest at that time. In order to reassure himself he broached the matter to various persons individually. Among them were Dean C. Worcester, then Instructor in Zoology at the University of Michigan, F. C. Newcombe, Instructor in Botany at the same institution, Frank McFarland, Professor of Biology at Olivet College, and W. J. Beal, Professor of Botany at Michigan Agricultural College. These men and others gave Professor Reighard enough encouragement to warrant the taking of further steps.
Page 323On March 22, 1892, Professor Reighard, together with V. M. Spalding, Professor of Botany, W. H. Howell, Professor of Physiology, and J. B. Steere, Professor of Zoology, all of the University of Michigan, addressed to a score of men well known in the state a proposal "to organize in Michigan a state society of naturalists to comprise zoologists, botanists, and physiologists." The chief purpose of this letter was to elicit expressions of opinion on the scope of the work that was to be done and on the character of the membership.
In the spring of 1894 the time seemed ripe for further action, but, owing to Professor Spalding's absence in Europe, Professor Reighard's preparations to go abroad, and Professor Howell's having left the University, the task of organization fell upon others. Under these circumstances Professor F. C. Newcombe, of the Botany Department, prepared, with the help of Professors J. B. Steere and W. P. Lombard, a circular letter, dated June 21, 1894, calling for a meeting of interested persons at Ann Arbor on June 27 for purposes of organization.
This meeting, which was attended by over twenty-five persons, was called to order by F. C. Newcombe, who nominated W. J. Beal for chairman. He was elected unanimously, and F. C. Newcombe was made the first secretary. The need of such an organization and its opportunities for usefulness were recognized by all present. "The general opinion expressed was that the society should hold stated meetings for the reading and discussion of scientific papers, and should also seek to forward the scientific [study of the] resources of the state as well as [that of] the fauna, flora and so forth."
A motion was made and carried "that the officers of the association with the addition of two members be constituted an advisory board to report a constitution and by laws, to arrange a program and to call the next meeting." The problem of a suitable name was referred to this board.
As officers of the temporary organization, W. J. Beal was chosen president, J. B. Steere vice-president, F. C. Newcombe secretary and treasurer. Professor W. B. Barrows, of the Michigan Agricultural College (now Michigan State College), and Professor I. C. Russell, of the University of Michigan, were elected as the two other members of the Advisory Board.
The organization of the society was completed at the first formal meeting, which was held, quite appropriately, in the Pioneer Room of the state capitol at Lansing on December 26-27, 1894. At that time the constitution and bylaws, which had been drawn up by the Advisory Board, were adopted. The constitution declared: "The objects of this Academy shall be scientific research and the diffusion of knowledge concerning the various departments of science."
The society was incorporated as the Michigan Academy of Science on February 6, 1895. Since 1894 meetings have been held annually, except in the years 1896 and 1914. All but the first, second, fifth, and sixth have taken place in Ann Arbor.
For the first few years of its existence the affairs of the Academy were carried on by a president, a secretary, a treasurer, and vice-presidents (chairmen of sections). Together they constituted an executive committee called the Council. In 1898 the past presidents were made members of the Council. The office of librarian was created in 1903, when G. P. Burns became the first incumbent. At that time only three Reports had been published. The offices of secretary and treasurer were combined in 1904, but they were again separated in 1926. In 1924 the title of the officer in charge of a section was changed from "vice-president" Page 324to "chairman," and the office of vice-president as it is now known was established.
At a meeting of the Advisory Board held prior to September 15, 1894, it had been unanimously agreed that the principal object of the Academy should be "the study of agriculture, archaeology, botany, geography, geology, mineral resources, zoology, etc., etc., of the state of Michigan, and the diffusion of the knowledge thus gained among men. It is not the opinion of the advisory board, however, that the work of the society should be restricted to the subjects named, but should be enlarged from time to time as occasion may require." In 1921, when plans were being formulated to have the University take over the publication of the Academy volumes, it was decided to widen the scope of activities by the formation of sections in arts and letters, an addition which caused the name of the Academy to be changed to "Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters." At the present time there are sections in anthropology, botany, economics, fine arts, folklore, forestry, geography, geology and mineralogy, history and political science, landscape architecture, language and literature, philosophy, psychology, sanitary and medical science, sociology, and zoology.
The enormous growth of the Academy in the half century since its founding is evidenced by the programs. Nineteen titles were announced on the first program, but some of the recent ones have listed as many as three hundred. The number of authors now far exceeds the total attendance ("thirty to fifty") at the first meeting. One may well recall the words of Seneca: "The world is a small place unless there is in it a subject for everybody to investigate."
The struggle for an adequate vehicle of publication, which began at the first meeting of the Academy, was destined to be a long one. It was not until 1900 that the First Report of the Michigan Academy of Science, consisting of 180 pages and a few illustrations, made its appearance. Twenty-two volumes of Reports were printed with the aid of appropriations made by the state legislature. When the University assumed the publication of the volumes the title was changed to Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters. Twenty-five volumes have been printed to date (1940). Reports are still being published, but they are devoted to the proceedings of the society.
At the present time a board of section editors, under the supervision of the general editor for the Academy, passes upon the manuscripts submitted for publication. The work of preparing the articles for the printer and of seeing them through the press is done by the editor of scholarly publications of the University of Michigan Press.
One of the most valuable results of the increased facilities for publication has been the growing exchange list. Before the outbreak of the second world war restricted communication with foreign nations the volumes of the Papers were being sent to about 550 learned societies and institutions. At the turn of the century the Reports were striving to attain state-wide importance; the Papers have now become cosmopolitan.
The influence of the Academy in proposing and encouraging certain kinds of legislation has been marked. It has always had among its members scientists thoroughly familiar with the natural resources of the state of Michigan and alert to the dangers which threatened them. If it was the first body which recognized some of the state's most complex problems and took action in regard to them, the explanation is simple, for it was organized just after the lumber industry in Michigan had passed its peak Page [unnumbered]
At the first meeting there were resolutions relating to a topographic map of the state, better registration of births and deaths in Michigan, passage of a bill in regard to forest reservations, endorsement of the work of the Michigan Fish Commission, increased appropriation for the continuance of the biological examination of the waters of the state by the Michigan Fish Commission, and the inauguration of a natural-history survey of the state. This was an ambitious program. Not a great deal was accomplished immediately as a result of it, but it was important in blazing the trail for future sessions.
Since the first meeting the Academy has never ceased to follow the precedent so well established by its early members. Copies of resolutions take up an increasingly large part of the minutes as the years go by. The Academy has urged or furthered legislation for topographical, archaeological, biological, geological, and land-economic surveys. It has worked for the protection and conservation of plant and animal life; the establishment of parks to preserve things of scientific, historical, and recreational value, as well as the setting aside of areas of natural scenic beauty; and the restoration to productivity of idle and waste lands caused by deforestation. Perhaps no subject has received more consideration than forestry and its attendant problems.
There are now about a thousand members of the Academy. Both officers and members deeply appreciate the University's part in fostering its growth and in enabling it to attain its present position in the world of scholarship.
McCartney, Eugene S."The Beginnings and Growth of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters."Papers Mich. Acad., 19 (1934): 1-19; Repts. Mich. Acad., 35 (1933): 118-33.
Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vols. 1-25 (1923-40).
Reports of the Michigan Academy of Science, Vols. 1-22 (1900-1921).
Reports of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters, Vols. 23-42 (1924-40).
THE NEUROPSYCHIATRIC INSTITUTE AND THE STATE PSYCHOPATHIC HOSPITAL
THE State Psychopathic Hospital. — Michigan has the distinction of being the first state to establish a psychopathic hospital in connection with its state university. In 1901, due in no small measure to the efforts of Dr. William J. Herdman, who was at that time Head of the Department of Nervous and Mental Diseases at the University (see Part V: Department of Neurology), the legislature passed an act (No. 161) to provide for the construction and equipment of a so-called "Psychopathic Ward" on the hospital grounds at the University. The stated purpose of this act was to establish an institution for the study and care of persons who were mentally diseased.
It was considered essential that there should be close co-operation between this psychiatric unit and the state "asylums." At the same time, it was felt necessary that the Psychopathic Ward should be an integral part of the University Medical School and Hospital. It was so organized that it might receive patients from any part of the state and that, when necessary, patients might be transferred between it and the other state hospitals. A sum of $50,000 was appropriated by the 1901 legislature for the purpose of building this unit. Before the building was completed, certain changes were made in the control of the institution by another legislative act (P.A., 1905, No. 140). This act provided that a joint board of trustees, composed of members from the boards of trustees of the "Asylums for the Insane" and from the University Board of Regents, should control the new institution and should employ an experienced investigator in clinical psychiatry as its superintendent. His duties were outlined as follows:
… To conduct clinical and pathological investigations and to direct the treatment of such patients as are inmates of the ward, as well as to guide and direct the work of clinical and pathological research in the several asylums of the State, and to instruct the students of the Medical Department of the University in the diseases of the mind.
This act also provided for the establishment of a clinical laboratory of research in which investigations should be continuously carried out with a view of determining the nature and causes of insanity and of developing means of prevention and cure of mental diseases.
The first meeting of the Board in Control of the State Psychopathic Hospital was held on August 9, 1905. At the second meeting, on September 13, formal organization of the Board was completed, with Chauncey F. Cook as chairman, F. S. Case and C. J. Linton, of the asylum boards, and Regents Charles D. Lawton, Loyal E. Knappen, and Henry W. Carey. This committee appointed Dr. Albert M. Barrett as head of the new institution. He began work on January 1, 1906, and the institution was formally opened February 7, 1906, by the transfer of thirty-seven patients from the institutions at Kalamazoo and Pontiac. By further legislation in 1907, the Psychopathic Ward became the State Psychopathic Hospital at the University of Michigan. Its control was vested in a Board of Trustees composed of eight members, four of whom were to be chosen from the boards of trustees of Page 327Michigan asylums, and four from the Board of Regents of the University.
Dr. Barrett remained in charge of the State Psychopathic Hospital from the day he began his duties on January 1, 1906, until his death on April 2, 1936. Animated by a passion for research, possessed of a scientific rectitude unexcelled by anyone in his field, and gifted with extraordinary administrative ability, Dr. Barrett organized the State Psychopathic Hospital at the University of Michigan, directed its medical research activities, guided its clinical and pathological research program in the several asylums of the state, and maintained a fine spirit of co-operation between the state institutions for the insane and the State Psychopathic Hospital. In his capacity as pathologist for the state hospitals and Professor of Psychiatry in the Department of Medicine and Surgery of the University, Dr. Barrett devoted the best years of his life to the administration of his institution, extensive programs of research, medical education, and care of the mentally ill. He created an epoch in the progress of psychiatry which will not fail of lasting recognition in the history of Michigan. At the time of his death in 1936, he was President of the American Neurological Association, a signal honor which comes only to those who have made very important contributions to neurology or psychiatry.
From time to time the legislature made certain changes in the control and function of the State Psychopathic Hospital. In 1929 it appropriated $330,000 for the construction of a new building and for the repair of the existing structure. The financial depression, with its attendant need for economy, resulted in subsequent repeal of this appropriation. In 1935, the control of the State Psychopathic Hospital was changed and was vested solely in the Board of Regents of the University.
Following the death of Dr. Barrett in April, 1936, Dr. Harley A. Haynes was made Acting Director of the State Psychopathic Hospital until the appointment of Dr. Raymond W. Waggoner as Director on January 1, 1937.
The Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University Hospital. — In 1937, by legislative action, the Neuropsychiatric Institute of the University Hospital of the University of Michigan was brought into being to replace the former State Psychopathic Hospital. Certain changes, primarily concerned with the admission of patients, were made in the functioning of the new unit, although its purpose remained the same as that which had been so well stated in the original enabling act of 1901. At the same time an appropriation of $400,000 was made for the construction of a new unit directly attached to the University Hospital. With this change, a larger number of yearly admissions to the hospital and a larger out-patient service were made possible. The physical connection with the University Hospital has facilitated co-operation and co-ordination with the activities of other hospital departments and has thereby benefited both institutions.
The purpose of the Institute is best defined by an extract from the statute which brought it into being. The adoption of Act No. 85 of the Public Acts of 1937 transferred to the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan all the properties of the State Psychopathic Hospital, on condition that the Regents maintain a neuropsychiatric institute as a part of the University of Michigan Hospital, to be devoted to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. The act provides (sec. 4):
The neuropsychiatric institute of the University of Michigan shall be open so far as facilities are available, and under rules and regulations to be prescribed by the board of Page 328regents of the university, for the care and treatment of persons suffering from mental disorders, but who have not been committed by the probate courts as insane, feeble-minded, or epileptic. It is the further purpose and intention to establish a clinic for the study of prevention of mental illness, and for the conduct of training and research in all phases of mental disease. With the approval and under the rules of the board of regents, there shall be maintained as a part of the neuropsychiatric institute a neuropathological laboratory, which shall be a central laboratory for the Michigan state hospitals for mental disease.
Its functions are as follows:
To study and develop methods of treatment of mental disease and pursue research in the field of psychiatry.
To serve as a center for the diagnosis and treatment of incipient mental disease in an effort to stress particularly the great importance of prevention.
To render special service to mentally ill children and to those who exhibit behavior abnormalities. The establishment of a children's ward provides for the segregation of children under conditions which will greatly facilitate careful examination, observation, and treatment of those who have shown mental symptoms.
To serve as a training center for physicians, nurses, and persons engaged in the study of psychiatry and charged with the duties of serving those who are mentally ill.
To provide a center for both clinical and laboratory research in the field of neuropsychiatry.
Every patient who is to be admitted to the Neuropsychiatric Institute must bring a letter from a referring physician or must come to the hospital with an order of conveyance issued under one of the public acts of Michigan authorizing hospitalization.
Patients may be detained in the Institute during a period of observation pending possible commitment to a state hospital.
Patients may also be transferred to the Neuropsychiatric Institute from other state hospitals on the approval of the superintendent of the hospital concerned and the State Hospital Commission.
Michigan. Public Acts [of the Session of …], 1901-40. (P.A.)
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1901-3, 1906-9, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1901-40.
"The Neuropsychiatric Institute."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull. (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 39, No. 68), No. 25 (1938): 3-4.
The Neuropsychiatric Institute. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1939 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 41 , No. 34).
THE MICHIGAN CHILD GUIDANCE INSTITUTE
LEGALLY distinct from the University and supported by a small, separate appropriation, yet administratively part of the University because it is under the control of the Board of Regents acting as trustees, is the Michigan Child Guidance Institute, which was established by a special legislative act, the Palmer-Flynn-Martin Bill, in 1937 (P.A., 1937, No. 285).
Created to inquire into the causes of child delinquency, to study methods of improving treatment of such cases, and to co-ordinate the work of public and private agencies in examining and caring for such children, the Institute was the outcome of a number of different influences working in the same general direction for several years. As early as 1932 President Ruthven had directed the attention of the Department of Sociology and of the School of Education to the need of studying the adjustment-status of boys treated at the University Fresh Air Camp. Out of this came a local co-ordinating council in Ann Arbor, the President's treatment planning committee, and later, through Dr. Ruthven's influence, a privately financed educational activity connected with the Department of Sociology, the Michigan Juvenile Delinquency Information Service, which for several years circulated a monthly Delinquency News Letter to several thousand officials and community leaders throughout the state. As a result of this interest, when the vice-chairman of the State Crime Commission, the late State Senator Herbert P. Orr of Caro, asked for technical assistance in 1934 in drafting a plan for providing clinical advice for juvenile courts in the state, the late Dr. Albert M. Barrett and other faculty members collaborated in preparing a plan which, with a few modifications, became the Palmer-Flynn-Martin Bill.
Under this act the Institute was set up as a research, educational, and organizing agency to study the causes of juvenile delinquency in individual children and in communities, and to carry on experimental research to improve methods of treatment and the efficiency of community organization. The first director, Lowell Juilliard Carr ('20, Ph.D. '24), Associate Professor of Sociology, was appointed November 1, 1937, and the Institute began examining cases March 1, 1938. By December 1, 1940, it had examined 995 cases from 35 counties and had assumed continuing responsibility for the ultimate adjustment of 271 of those cases, mainly in Oakland, Monroe, Montcalm, and Shiawassee counties, where local leadership had been organized to co-operate; and its educational and organizing activities had reached into 81 communities in 51 counties in all parts of the state. In its program for educating local leadership to assume responsibility for controlling delinquency at home the Institute was unique in the United States, and in its combination of research, education, and community organization to discover and prevent delinquency before it reached the courts the Institute was performing a function no other agency in the state was touching.
During its first three years the Institute staff consisted of twelve full-time persons and one or two part-time graduate assistants. The full-time staff included, in addition to secretarial assistants, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, a field sociologist, a field research man, and two (later, three) social workers.
Page 330In a report published early in 1941, the Institute estimated that 73 per cent of its cases under treatment had either made satisfactory adjustments or were showing improvement.
The Delinquency News Letter, 1934-40.
Michigan. Public Acts [of the Session of …], 1937.
THE UNIVERSITY HEALTH SERVICE
IN 1912, students and faculty members recommended that an organized medical service to students comparable to services at several other universities be established at the University of Michigan, Professors M. P. Tilley, L. A. Hopkins, and F. N. Menefee, Dr. C. L. Washburne, and Elizabeth Holt, R.N., taking especially active interest. Student petitions from the Union, the League, and the Druids probably hastened action. A unit for ambulatory patients was opened in the fall of 1913, under the direction of Dr. Howard Hastings Cummings ('10m), with a staff of two physicians, a nurse, and a clerk. A budget of $10,000 was provided. During the early years, a large administrative board was in control of what soon came to be known as the University Health Service. President Hutchins, Dean Vaughan, Dean Cooley, and Secretary Smith constituted the executive committee of the first board, with Mr. Benjamin Hanchett of the Board of Regents, chairman of the committee representing that body.
Attention was first directed to the sanitation of the campus, but care of student illnesses and efforts toward their prevention soon occupied all the time of the meager staff. Minor illnesses of students were cared for in the rooms of students, while the more critical conditions were provided for in the University Hospital. An addition of $2.00 annually was made to all tuitions and a small fee was collected for house calls. A converted residence located on the present site of the Burton Memorial Tower was the first University Health Service building. The meager professional staff required the assistance of senior medical students during the first few years.
In June, 1915, recognizing the inadequacy in building, personnel, and equipment, the Alumni Association urged an enlargement of the service. In October, 1917, an addition to the building was provided, services were extended, which included compulsory vaccination against smallpox, and upon resignation of Dr. Cummings, Dr. Warren Ellsworth Forsythe (Oregon Agricultural College '07, Michigan '08p, '13m, Dr.P.H. Johns Hopkins '25) became the head of the service. By 1919, a complete medical examination was required of all entering men students and six lectures on the more urgent health requisites were given for freshmen.
New quarters with infirmary beds. — The need for improved and extended service, including bed care, was becoming increasingly apparent. In 1921, Page 331the Division of Hygiene and Public Health was created and the University Health Service was included therein. This Division was planned to bring under one administration all interests and activities concerned with the physical health and welfare of students, and was directed by John Sundwall (Chicago '03, Ph.D. ibid. '06, M.D. Johns Hopkins '12). The annex of the Homeopathic Hospital was assigned to the Health Service; this provided a modern forty-by-seventy-foot building of three stories, twenty beds, offices for clinic purposes, including X-ray, laboratory, and pharmacy. With the increasing demand for service, enlarged quarters, and bed-patient care, the staff was increased to six full-time and two half-time physicians, five nurses, one clerk, two stenographers, a pharmacist, and a laboratorian. Since about 1922, each new entering student has received the complete medical examination during registration week. Since 1935, this examination has included an X-ray film study of the heart and lungs, and defects found at this time have been carefully followed and corrected whenever possible.
Expansion and reorganization. — Because of the growing student population and the ever increasing demand for improved service, funds were appropriated in 1928 to provide for a larger staff, more space, and modern equipment. The ground floor of the old Homeopathic Hospital was allotted to the Health Service. This provided a waiting room, two offices, and extended facilities for physiotherapy with a full-time technician and, in accord with the general policy, it was supervised by the head of that department at the University Hospital. Modern X-ray equipment and facilities were installed, and four infirmary beds were added.
At about this time it became apparent that the extreme cost for a few individuals restricted the services to the student body as a whole. It was thought necessary, therefore, to reduce the provision for sixty days hospital service to thirty days.
The desirability of employing physicians on a full-time basis had become increasingly apparent. Accordingly, part-time attendants were gradually replaced by full-time practitioners, except in the more highly specialized fields. In order to maintain a closer relationship with students, a full-time physician was appointed as adviser to each entering class and continued in that relationship throughout the four-year period of the college course. This more intimate acquaintance has fostered the ideal patient-physician relationship. Similar services are rendered to women students by full-time women physicians, one of whom devotes part of her time to the duties of Director of Physical Education for Women — Margaret Bell (Chicago '15, M.D. Rush Medical College '21), who was appointed with these dual duties in 1923. The staff also obtained the valuable services of a general medical adviser, James Deacon Bruce (M.D. Detroit College of Medicine '96), who is now Vice-President in Charge of University Relations. In 1928, a staff surgeon assumed full-time duty with athletes and in the treatment of surgical conditions at the Health Service Building.
Mental hygiene. — Staff service in personality adjustment began in 1927, with a part-time worker and psychiatrist. Since 1930, a full-time psychiatrist, Dr. Theophile Raphael ('13, A.M. '15, '19m), has directed the unit, with two full-time and one part-time psychiatric workers and a secretary. A full-time neuropsychiatrist and another part-time social worker were added in 1935. This work includes, in addition to time-consuming interviews with students themselves, numerous contacts with faculty Page 332members, administrative officers, friends, parents, and class medical advisers.
Allergy. — In 1928, a sensitization clinic which deals with the body's reaction to foreign proteins was established under the direction of a physician, on half-time service, with a clerical assistant. It has been necessary to secure a full-time physician, six assistants, and other clerical help. Intradermal tests are being made now by this unit at a small personal charge to the student, many desensitization treatments are given, and diets are arranged.
Health education. — The educational program includes six freshman lectures given by members of the staff, and health education is further promoted by the contact of students and physicians in their patient-physician relationship, and by the distribution of pamphlets on health topics in the waiting rooms. During their incumbency staff physicians are encouraged to avail themselves of educational opportunities in fields of special interest in the regular University program.
Sanitation. — From the beginning, campus sanitation has received attention by the Health Service. A part-time member inspects swimming pools, student eating places, and campus buildings. Proprietors are encouraged to adopt improved sanitary measures, without effort upon the part of the University to take over the authority of the city health officer. The deans of men and women are assisted with inspection of rooming houses, dormitories, sororities, and fraternities. The three University swimming pools have been regularly tested. The sanitarian acts as deputy health officer of the city.
Camps. — Since 1915, students in summer session camps of the University have had Health Service privileges. This has required the residence of staff physicians and, at times, nurses at two camps.
Dormitory nursing. — For several years registered nurses who were resident students in the dormitories for women have worked under the direction of Dr. Bell in the care of these students. This arrangement has proved to be valuable for all concerned.
In 1938, with a student population of 15,358 and a budget of $142,000, the total visits to the Health Service numbered 132,946. The staff consisted of about sixty regularly appointed members, including a dietitian, added in 1933. A small addition to the building provided five more offices and six additional beds. Every available square foot of building space was utilized to the utmost and much more was needed. Many ill students who required bed care and most major surgical cases were sent to the University Hospital. Some were hospitalized at private hospitals. In November, 1938, the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Health Service was observed, at which time President Alexander G. Ruthven announced a PWA plan for a new, beautiful, and ample building for the department. The new building was occupied in April, 1940. It is one block north of the campus on Fletcher Avenue. It is fifty feet by two hundred feet in dimensions, including a short rear wing, and has four floors. The ground floor provides kitchen, dining-rooms, and other service and storage facilities. The first floor has general physicians' offices, nurses' treatment space, a pharmacy, a classroom, an entrance lobby, and an administrative section. The second floor provides for special services to ambulatory patients, and the third provides a sixty-bed infirmary divided into small rooms. The use of the building with its new equipment has shown it to be the most satisfactory for the present program and suitable for expansion of activities.
Almost constant additions to staff and Page 333equipment have been made to keep up with demands and opportunities for service. Co-operation on the part of the members of the University Hospital and Medical School has from the beginning helped to make this very complete medical service available to students. Data have been collected upon which many reports have been given. More than forty papers dealing with these data have been published. These are of value in the study of many health questions in young adults. Many problems of research in this population have been recognized by staff members, but resources and energy have generally been so much absorbed by student illness that not much original invesigation could be fostered. Deaths have been much fewer than among nonstudents of the same age.
The University Health Service appears to be well recognized and established as a vital factor in student welfare at Michigan and is constantly improving its facilities for service.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1881-1941. (R.P.)
University of Michigan Health Service; Twenty-fifth Anniversary, 1919-1938. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. .
AS early as 1896, President Angell said in his annual report: "It would be of value to us to have a small fund, as many universities have, with which to bring scholarly lecturers on special topics before our classes." This suggestion was not carried out until fifteen years had passed, but in the meantime there were sporadic references in the Proceedings of the Regents to requests from members of the faculty for small appropriations to defray the expenses of lectures by specifically named visiting scholars. These were usually granted, but on some occasions, unfortunately, the money was not forthcoming, for lack of funds. In the summer of 1908 John R. Effinger, Dean of the Summer Session, and Secretary Edward H. Kraus had organized a regular series of afternoon lectures for the benefit of the students. The success of these lectures undoubtedly led to a reconsideration of the idea expressed by President Angell.
At the meeting of the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts on March 7, 1910, upon a motion by Professor William H. Hobbs, a committee of five was raised to report to the faculty a memorial addressed to the Board of Regents asking that the sum of $1,000 be set aside for the purpose of securing eminent nonresident lecturers. Accordingly, Professors William H. Hobbs, Fred M. Taylor, Joseph L. Markley, Fred N. Scott, and Lawrence S. Bigelow were appointed to present this memorial, of which an action taken by the Regents at their June meeting in 1911 was presumably the result. At that time $1,000 was added to the budget for the purpose of securing lectures by distinguished scholars, with expenditures Page 334to be made at the discretion of the president on recommendation of a committee of three members of the faculty. This money was to be available for lectures in any department of the University.
An appropriation of this nature, but of varying amount, has been included in the budget of each year mentioned since 1911, and the lectures have come to be called "University lectures." It is understood that the lectures so provided are to be regarded as a part of the instructional program of the several departments, though admission is always free and open to any student, teacher, or other person who desires to attend. The allotment of sums from the budget account, on request of the departments of instruction, is still made in the President's Office, but practical difficulties have made it impossible to organize the University lectures as a series with a fixed program of dates and lecturers. Ordinarily between twenty and thirty University lecturers come to Ann Arbor in the course of a year. The majority are professors or research scholars from other universities, American or foreign, but explorers, writers, and men in public life are also included in their numbers. The University lectures, it is believed, fulfill a useful purpose in permitting both students and faculty to see and hear eminent men of the time, and to get from them new and authoritative points of view upon questions of various kinds.
Bulletin of General Information, Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
The Michigan Daily, 1911-40.
MS, "Minutes of the Faculty of the Department [College, 1915 — ] of Literature, Science, and the Arts," 1908-40. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the Senate Council," May, 1908. Univ. Mich.
MS, "Minutes of the University Senate," 1907-22. Univ. Mich.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1896, p. 16.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1910-40.
THE term "adult education" has within the past few years become extremely popular with educators and others, and as a result it is used in widely different senses. What is adult education? This question was settled officially by the American Association for Adult Education a few years ago, when it decided to apply the term to that education which is given to adults who are studying but are not in residence in colleges and universities, and especially to those who, at the same time, are engaged in their regular life occupations. In other words, most of the people who are taking part in adult education programs are giving a very appreciable part of their leisure time to study.
Adult education, as the term is now understood, began in England in 1867, with the extension movement in Cambridge University (see Part II: University Extension Service). Today such instruction is carried on in the United States by practically every university and by many of the colleges. Enrollment in these off-campus courses, including correspondence courses, is equal to about Page 335one-fifth of the entire resident enrollment in these institutions.
Meanwhile, adult education as exemplified by university extension courses has been taken up and modified by other agencies. The work has a wide range in content and character. It includes instruction given to alumni groups, instruction groups classified as conferences and institutes, the public-night-school courses now conducted in most of our cities, and the more or less informal educational programs of the radio.
The present University Extension Service of the University of Michigan was established in 1911, and its extension credit courses were begun two years later in Detroit (p. 344). More recently, noncredit courses also have been given, and upon a rather large scale. Cities in the Upper Peninsula are among the larger centers in Michigan in which credit and noncredit courses are conducted.
A study has been made of the vocational and academic status of those who took University of Michigan extension courses in the first twenty-five years. Teachers comprised 45 per cent; business and profession persons, 35 per cent; and technical workers, 8 per cent. The remaining 12 per cent was miscellaneous or unclassified. Nearly one-third of the students (31 per cent) held college or university degrees, of which 85 per cent were bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degrees; 8 per cent, master of arts; 6 per cent, professional degrees; and 1 per cent, doctor of philosophy degrees.
The informal types of adult education, i.e., short courses, institutes, and lectures on topics of special interest, have also been utilized by the University. The Library Extension Service has distributed books, pamphlets, and bibliographies for such programs, both University-sponsored and otherwise, and the University radio programs on literary, professional, and vocational subjects disseminate useful information to the people of the state. The entire radio audience is estimated as six hundred thousand, on the average, and the number reached directly or indirectly by the University through its other agencies for adult education as five hundred thousand annually — more than one million persons each year, in all.
More specific descriptions of the University's program of adult education, in its various phases, are given in this Encyclopedic Survey under the headings of University Lectures, the Division of Extramural Services, the Department of Postgraduate Medicine, the School of Dentistry (section on postgraduate instruction), the Alumni University, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the University News Service, the University Broadcasting Service, the Library Extension Service, and the University Extension Service. All these articles are in Part II, except that on the Department of Postgraduate Medicine (Part V) and that on the School of Dentistry (Part VII).
Through the medium of adult education programs of the extension type, people in practically every county of the state are enabled to meet members of the faculty. So far as the benefits accruing to the University from this type of work are concerned, these personal contacts are most important. That this service has been appreciated by the people of the state is attested by the constantly increasing number of requests related to adult educational problems.
Annual Adult Education Institute …, Univ. Mich., 1-9 (1932-40).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1932-40.
THE DIVISION OF EXTRAMURAL SERVICES
THE increasing complexities of community life have been bringing to the University more and more requests for advice, guidance, and assistance. These relate to educational needs and personal and community problems in addition to those involving formal academic courses of study.
Interest in the general field of adult education, apart from the professional fields, has warranted a rather critical study of the operations of those various units within the University having to do with extramural service. This study also included frequent discussions with members of the teaching profession and various interested organizations of the state and revealed certain community educational needs as well as difficulties experienced by many school systems and by other local agencies in meeting these needs. Many schools have become centers of educational activities in addition to their formal classroom work. There has been an increasing demand, however, for new subject matter within the school curriculum, and also for instruction and educational guidance for those beyond local-school years, which reflects the needs of other members of the community as well as those of the school child.
The University has long maintained various agencies designed to assist in local educational and community problems. In order to assure the most effective operation of these various units and to guard against duplication of effort, at the January, 1937, meeting of the Board of Regents the following action was taken:
Resolved, That a Division of Extramural Services be organized in accordance with the general principle stated in the definition of a division as approved by the Board of Regents
(R.P. 1932-1936, p. 348). In view of the nature of the units involved in exercising advisory functions in accordance with the controlling definition of a division, special emphasis shall be placed upon co-ordinating the various allied activities and developing in a sound and progressive manner the educational services which can be properly rendered by the University to the citizens of the State. The administration of each unit included in the Division of Extramural Services and the responsibilities of the chief officer of each unit are not hereby affected.
Resolved, further, That there shall be included within the Division of Extramural Services all postgraduate activities, all of the sections and bureaus within the present University Extension Division, the Library Extension Service, the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, the extramural work of Student-Alumni Relations, the in-service training of the Bureau of Reference and Research in Government, the industrial teacher-training of the Department of Vocational Education, and such other units and activities which may from time to time by regental action be placed within the Division. Official representatives shall be the responsible heads but the Division may include, as regular members, additional representatives from the various bureaus and units; and
Resolved, further, That Dr. James D. Bruce, in his capacity as Vice-President in Charge of University Relations, shall act as Chairman of the Division.
(R.P., 1936-39, pp. 137-38.)
During the three years since its organization, the Division of Extramural Services has been helpful in clarifying the functions and responsibilities of the extramural service units within the University, and also has led to closer associations with other state and privately supported institutions. In this development complete autonomy is maintained Page 337within the various University units as well as by the affiliated institutions.
At present this community of interests is confined largely to adult education, but promises the inclusion of other fields as community needs become clearly defined and the effectiveness of extramural co-operation becomes more apparent.
The willingness with which our institutions of higher learning, both state and private, have accepted this obligation lends encouragement to the belief that many state-wide needs, social as well as educational, may be more adequately met by still closer collaboration.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1936-40. (R.P.)
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1937-40.
THE BUREAU OF ALUMNI RELATIONS
The Bureau of Alumni Relations is an agency developed by the University of Michigan to stimulate and maintain a co-operative relationship between the institution and its alumni on the basis of their educational and intellectual interests. It is designed as a means of continuing into postcollege years the educational experience and interests of the undergraduate period.
The history of the Bureau began with a plan for a postcollegiate, or alumni, educational venture to be denominated the "Alumni University," which was devised by President Clarence Cook Little of the University and Elmer J. Ottaway, President of the Alumni Association from 1927 to 1930. For some years the officers of the Alumni Association had recognized the need of a program in adult education as it concerned the college alumnus. It was gradually becoming recognized that there was a deeper implication in alumni relations than that comprised in the editorial, organizing, and financial activities of the usual alumni organization. Many discussions of this new conception appeared in the Michigan Alumnus during the years 1925-29. The object of the plan was described in 1928, in a sixteen-page supplement to the Alumnus, as "active participation by individual alumni in individual activities of the University in which they have a special and personal interest." This supplement carried the description of a rather elaborate plan of organization, as well as statements by University department heads with regard to the many opportunities which interested alumni had for co-operation and study in various university subjects.
In October, 1928, the Regents appropriated $24,000 for a two-year period "for the expenses of carrying on extension work through alumni fellows and other activities of the movement known as the Alumni University." At the next meeting, in November, a communication was received from the directors of the Alumni Association expressing their appreciation of the Regents' action and their readiness to co-operate in every possible way, and authorizing the appointment of a committee "to meet with the representatives of the Regents and Faculties in formulating plans for its establishment." The specific plan, as outlined by President Little, included the appointment of four officers, to be called Page 338"alumni fellows," who were to act as liaison officers between the University and the alumni in developing the program, and in accordance with his recommendation Wilfred B. Shaw was appointed as the first alumni fellow charged with the development of the plan.
President Little's resignation at just this time, however, left the details of its actual inauguration with Alexander G. Ruthven, at that time Dean of Administration. When the plan as outlined received more mature consideration, it seemed impracticable in certain respects, since the appropriation included $12,000 annually for the salaries of the four fellows, but made no provision for the equally important office personnel which would necessarily have been involved in such an effort. The result was a resurvey, which in turn resulted in the creation of the University Bureau of Alumni Relations, with a director and office staff and financial means to carry out the program. An advisory committee of five was also authorized, to be appointed from the faculty by the President.
To the position thus created Wilfred Byron Shaw ('04), who for twenty-five years had been General Secretary of the Alumni Association, was appointed by the Regents in the spring of 1929. For some years he had been interested in the concept of alumni education, and at the time of his appointment was engaged in a six-month investigation of the entire field for the American Association for Adult Education, under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. His published study, The Alumni and Adult Education, revealed that many university executives were interested in a comprehensive program of adult education as it refers to the college graduate, but that few specific measures had been taken. He returned in September, 1929, to set up the new program in the University of Michigan — a pioneering effort in that field.
Bulletins. — One of the first projects undertaken by the University was the issuing of a series of sixteen-page bulletins addressed to all its eighty thousand alumni, giving information upon such of the institution's fundamental concerns as would be of interest to them. These bulletins have been issued periodically and have formed the first regular message ever sent to the alumni on the part of the University. The first one bore the date of November 16, 1929, and contained the statement of President Ruthven upon his acceptance of the presidency on October 4, 1929. By the end of June, 1940, thirty-one of these bulletins had been issued.
An appropriation from the Carnegie Corporation in 1929 enabled the University also to finance an investigation of the possibilities of alumni group educational programs, lecture courses, and discussion groups in centers near the University. This resulted in the establishment of courses of lectures in Detroit and elsewhere held for a number of years under the auspices of the University of Michigan clubs.
The Alumni University. — There was also established on the campus throughout the week immediately following Commencement and before the opening of the summer session an annual program of classes and lectures known as the Alumni University. This week of study for alumni has preserved the name of President Little's original conception and has become an important part of the University's alumni program. The ten sessions since its establishment in 1930 have been attended by an average of about one hundred alumni students, a large proportion of them graduates of the University of Michigan.
Reading lists. — It became evident soon after the program was established that the University's great alumni body, being scattered all over the world, constituted a special problem in any extended program in alumni education, and it became Page 339increasingly clear that the ultimate objective must be, not specific educational efforts, which could by their very nature reach only a limited number of alumni, but rather, the creation of sympathetic understanding of the University's program and co-operative interest in the specific educational efforts and problems of the University.
Thus, a program of reading lists was developed in co-operation with the Extension Service of the University Library >(see Part II: Library Extension Service). Over a period of years about six hundred lists have been compiled in answer to specific requests from some five thousand alumni, who have learned of the service through announcements in the bulletins. In response to alumni letters, the Bureau of Alumni Relations has furnished help and suggestions in many different fields, and the co-operation of other University agencies — such as the Extension Service and the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information — has been enlisted. The Bureau of Appointments has found satisfactory positions for many alumni. By these means a closer fellowship between the University and the alumni is encouraged.
The scholarly, scientific, and literary interests of the University have been interpreted through the Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, edited by the director of alumni relations. This special publication was established in 1934.
To meet the constant demand of alumni for more detailed information regarding the University, the University News Service has also been located in the office of the Bureau and under the general charge of the director, although it is a separate University division and is not directly a part of the program in alumni relations (see Part II: University News Service).
The result of the efforts of the Bureau over the ten years of its existence up to 1940 have been positive, and there has been a constructive development in the relationship between the University and the alumni. No concrete assessment of its accomplishments, however, is practicable. Nevertheless, it is clear that the alumni, on the whole, have become increasingly aware of the University's desire to keep in communication with them on some basis more constructive than its need for financial support or their interest in athletics, and their response to that policy has become increasingly effective.
Speek, Frances V. (Comp.). "One Hundred Twenty-eight Outstanding Changes and Experiments."Nat. Soc. Study Ed. Yearb., 31 (1932), Pt. 2: 103.
The Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review, Vols. 40-46 (1934-40).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1929-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1929-40.
Shaw, Wilfred B."Adult Education for the Educated."N. Y. Times Mag., Dec. 29, 1929.
Shaw, Wilfred B."The Alumni." In: Higher Education in America. Ed. by R. A. Kent. Boston: Ginn and Co., 1930. Chap. XXII, pp. 652-90.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The Alumni and Adult Education. New York: Amer. Assn. Adult Ed., 1929.
Shaw, Wilfred B.The Bureau of Alumni Relations; a Review of Two Years' Effort in Developing a Program in Alumni Education. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1931 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 33, No. 10).
Shaw, Wilfred B."College Education Continued."J. Adult Ed., 3 (1931): 165-72.
Shaw, Wilfred B."Educating the Alumni."Scribner's Mag., 86 (1929): 515-20.
Shaw, Wilfred B."An Educational Week for Alumni at the University of Michigan."School and Soc., 32 (1930): 231-32.
Shaw, Wilfred B."The Intellectual Needs of Alumni."Amer. Scholar, 1 (1932): 163-66.
University of Michigan Bureau of Alumni Relations, General Bulletin, Nos. 1-33 (1929-40).
THE ALUMNI UNIVERSITY
THE Alumni University as it has developed at the University of Michigan forms one aspect of a broad plan designed to carry the educational and intellectual stimulation of student days into postcollegiate years. In concrete form it carries on an idea first expressed by President Clarence Cook Little, who advocated a broad program in continuing educational effort based on a co-operative movement on the part of both the University and the alumni, to which he gave the name of the Alumni University.
Upon the establishment of the Bureau of Alumni Relations in 1929, one of the first projects to be planned was a week of lectures and classes for such alumni as desired to return to the University for a period of recreative study under conditions similar to those of their student days. Such a project had been tried with great success by President William Mather Lewis at Lafayette College the previous year, under the name of the Alumni College. This was attended by Wilfred B. Shaw, at that time with the American Association for Adult Education, and on his return to Ann Arbor as Director of Alumni Relations he made plans for a similar project, the first to be held in a large institution.
The first session began on Tuesday, June 24, 1930, and ended on Saturday, June 28. Ten courses in all were given — American History, Modern Art, Heredity, the Far East, the Symphony, Investments, Geology, Aesthetics, Landscape Design, and Contemporary Drama — with five lectures in each course. In addition, there were special programs in the evenings, including a reception in the William L. Clements Library, lectures, and plays in the Lydia Mendelssohn Theater. The attendance at this first session was seventy-two.
In the ensuing years the attendance grew slowly. Although the general program of courses remained about the same, different members of the University faculty were asked each year to give the courses. In the 1938 session, the courses were grouped roughly into three sections: the World Abroad, which included a program of four lectures each on the Far East, the European Crisis, the Situation in Spain, and the Near East; Contemporary Society, with Monetary Policy, Security, and the Youth Problem; and finally, Science and the Arts, in which Evolution of the Earth, the Symphony, Modern Architecture, and Modern Drama completed the program.
The Alumni University has always opened on the afternoon of Monday of the week between Commencement and the summer session. At the 1938 session 115 alumni were registered, many of whom had attended previous sessions. The students represent all classes and divisions of the University, and in addition, a number of graduates of other institutions are always in attendance.
The programs have generally been arranged to meet the varied interests of a widely diversified group of college graduates, as well as to emphasize contemporary thought and problems. Reading lists have been furnished by the members of the faculty who gave the courses, and notes of some of the more recent lecture series have been published and distributed to those who have asked for them.
Since the establishment of alumni week at Lafayette College and at the University of Michigan, many other colleges and universities have begun similar efforts in alumni education. Although Page 341some institutions have been content with short programs of single lectures by different members of their faculties, the program of the University of Michigan has been unique in its emphasis on courses of lectures in related subjects rather than on single lectures. This integration has given a greater solidity to the work and has vitalized its serious educational purpose. The fee of ten dollars and the duration of the series for six days have limited the enrollment somewhat as compared with the attendance at similar enterprises in some other institutions.
The evening programs in recent years have included plays, an open house by President and Mrs. Ruthven, and visits to the Observatory, the William L. Clements Library, and the University Museums.
No Alumni University was held in 1937 because of the week's centennial celebration of the establishment of the University in Ann Arbor held in June of that year. The Alumni University, in June, 1938, was the first educational body to utilize the facilities of the newly dedicated Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1929.
Shaw, Wilfred B."An Educational Week for Alumni at the University of Michigan."School and Soc., 32 (1930): 231-32.
THE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION SERVICE
THE forms of education which a university conducts apart from its regular schedule of academic and professional courses for students who live in the university community and devote their full time to study come under the head of university extension service. Throughout the greater part of the nineteenth century certain adult education activities that have since been undertaken by the universities were being carried on outside such institutions. Among the speakers on lecture programs in the United States — lyceum programs, for example — were members of university faculties. In one sense they "represented" their institutions, for which reason the institutions were glad to have them take part in the work, but it appears that the universities left the planning and financing of such programs in the hands of separate organizations or of individual managers.
The event which may be regarded as the beginning of university extension work, in the strict sense of the term, occurred in England in 1867, when regular courses on the history of astronomy were offered, chiefly for workers, under the auspices of Cambridge University but outside the city of Cambridge. These courses were given in Manchester and in three other English cities by Professor James Stuart, a member of the Cambridge University faculty. The new kind of instruction was taken up by Oxford and other English universities, and also in Continental Europe, where, particularly in the Scandinavian countries, it was greatly developed.
At least as early as in the administration of President Haven, 1863-69, and Page 342possibly in the time of his predecessor, President Tappan, the University of Michigan was interested in the public-lecture movement. Andrew D. White, who joined the faculty in 1857 and left for the presidency of Cornell University in the very year when direct university sponsorship of adult education was begun abroad, has recorded having lectured frequently in the cities of Michigan and of neighboring states. He wrote:
It was the culminating period of the popular-lecture system, and through the winter months my Friday and Saturday evenings were generally given to this sort of duty. It was, after its fashion, what in these days [he was writing in 1906] is called "university extension"; indeed, the main purpose of those members of the faculty thus invited to lecture was to spread the influence of the university.
(White, I: 268-69.)
As a part of the same system and for the sake of the University — although the University's interest was probably not more than semiofficial — Professor White entertained the visiting lecturers in his home on the campus. He regarded the friendships which he made on tour, and also the privileges of having such men as Emerson and Bayard Taylor at his fireside and of bringing them into closer relations with the students and faculty, as more than compensating for the difficulties he underwent in lecturing outside Ann Arbor at a time when transportation itself was a difficult problem.
The first plan for university extension work in the United States known to be comparable to the Cambridge venture was that presented at a librarians' meeting in 1887 by Professor Herbert Adams of Johns Hopkins University, but the first university in this country actually to follow the lead of Cambridge and Oxford was the University of Chicago. When this institution, completely reorganized, opened its doors in the fall of 1892 under the presidency of William Rainey Harper, extension service constituted one of the five principal University divisions. Within a month, the University of Michigan was invited to join with other "western" universities to form a University Extension Association, but the invitation was "respectfully declined" by the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts.
This decision was based upon a year's experience in extension work, the administration and faculty having launched an extension program which had been outlined by a faculty committee and approved by the Regents in November, 1891. President Angell had foreseen many difficulties which the University was scarcely prepared to meet, and set them forth in his annual report of 1892, as follows:
So much public interest was evinced in what is called the work of University Extension that early in the college year the Literary Faculty matured a plan for entering upon it, and the plan received your [i.e., the Regents'] approval. It contemplated the offering of courses of lectures by members of the Faculty at a moderate rate to local organizations in towns and cities not too remote from us. Several of our professors offered their services at considerable inconvenience to themselves. Courses consisting of six lectures each were given at Detroit, East Saginaw, Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Hillsdale, and Toledo. Professor Demmon lectured on English Literature, Professor Adams on Political Economy, Professor Carhart on Electricity, Professor Hudson on the German Empire, Professor Steere on Zoology, and Professor Scott on Art. Quizzes and examinations were held on the subjects of the lectures. The experiment showed that there is at present a certain demand for such instruction, and the examination papers indicated, in the opinion of the lecturers, that a considerable number of the hearers were much profited by it. It is, perhaps, too early to say whether the interest in such lectures, which are given primarily for instruction rather Page 343than entertainment, is to be abiding. It is clear that the lecturers find the task, taken in addition to their regular duties, rather a heavy draught on their strength. It is also impossible for them to discharge this duty without some absence from their classes here. … It seems worth while, even at the cost of a little inconvenience, to repeat the experiment of last winter. Should, however, the demand for University Extension teaching become as general as some anticipate it will, it would be beyond our power to meet it, unless provision should be made for special lecturers who could give a large part of their time to the work. We can safely postpone for the present the consideration of that subject. It is, however, desirable to call attention to the fact that there is a limit to the amount of this outside work which a College Faculty can do without injustice to the regular college classes. The public should understand this, if we fail to respond to all the calls they may make upon us for courses of lectures.
(P.R., 1892, pp. 12-13.)
After the first year, Kalamazoo and Hillsdale were dropped from the list, but Cadillac was added. A brief restatement of President Angell's point of view in his annual report of 1894 was the last official reference to this project, the University's earliest genuine extension work. In 1897-98, however, by agreement with the Michigan State Board of Agriculture and at no cost to itself, the University sent out several professors to speak at the farmers' county institutes.
Extension work received no further attention for more than a decade, but was again brought before the Regents by President Hutchins in 1911. He apparently did this at least partly at the instigation of the Michigan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, which desired the University to conduct a preventive campaign.
After the subject had been considered at several meetings of the Regents, the sum of ten thousand dollars was allocated to extension service in the regular budget for 1911-12. In October, 1911, an administrative plan for the work was adopted. The President and the deans comprised a committee which selected the lecture subjects. The President personally directed the work.
Three objectives of the new extension service were set forth in the original announcement: (1) to serve the general cause of education and the advancement of culture, (2) to serve local communities insofar as the technical and experimental knowledge of the men doing university work might be available, and (3) to acquaint the members of the various faculties with local conditions throughout the state. Traveling expenses and a fee of twenty dollars for each lecture were paid to the speaker. Only the local costs were borne by the society or organization under whose auspices a lecture was given.
The Regents created the part-time position of director of University extension work in June, 1912, and appointed William D. Henderson ('03, Ph.D. '06), then Junior Professor of Physics. His connection with this work came about partly by chance. One day while passing President Hutchins' door he had been called in by the President, who said: "I have here a letter from a place called Gwinn, asking for a lecture on city planning. Where is Gwinn?" Henderson, who had formerly lived at Petoskey, replied that Gwinn is a small mining town in the Upper Peninsula, between Escanaba and Negaunee. "Why in the world," asked the President, "should a small town in the Upper Peninsula want a lecture on city planning?" Henderson explained that this was a newly organized mining community, and that some of the local leaders, instead of allowing the miners' houses to grow up in a hit-or-miss way, as is common in mining communities, had conceived the idea of building a model town. With this in mind, it was natural that they should call upon the University for expert counsel and advice. Page 344President Hutchins was so impressed by the circumstances under which the request had been made that he asked Henderson to give a half day each week to the consideration of requests for extension lectures. This half day a week grew into two days a week, and by 1918 the extension work had grown to such proportions that he was asked to sever his connection with the Department of Physics and accept a new appointment as Professor and Director of the Extension Division.
Begun as an auxiliary service of the President's Office, extension work in the University of Michigan has now become a task that involves the direction of the off-campus activities of some ten University bureaus and co-operation with them. It reaches every part of the state and brings the University directly or indirectly into contact with more than a million people every year. The University Extension Service furnishes single lectures and series of lectures outside Ann Arbor, radio broadcasts from the campus, and systematic extension courses conducted in person, as well as correspondence study courses and intensive short courses in Ann Arbor of the nature of conventions, known as institutes. It participates in the activities of the joint committee on health education and in those of the Michigan High School Forensic Association, described below, and, through the Library, furnishes library extension service.
When William D. Henderson reached his seventieth birthday in the autumn of 1936 he expressed the wish to retire from active service. The Regents granted this request, effective with the beginning of the second semester, and gave him the title, Professor Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the University Extension Division. When the Division of Extramural Services was set up in January, 1937 (see Part II: Division of Extramural Services), the University Extension Division was renamed University Extension Service, and Charles A. Fisher (DePauw '10, Ph.D. Michigan '30), Assistant Director for the previous ten years, was designated Director, beginning with the second semester of 1936-37.
Extension lectures. — At first, as requests were received, a few extension lectures were given by members of the faculty. The work has gradually grown. Representatives of the University now speak in many localities of the state on various subjects related to their specialties. For several years more than six hundred lectures a year were given — approximately four hundred of these by members of the regular University faculty and two hundred or more by selected members of the medical and dental professions, who were chosen by the Michigan State Medical Society and by the Michigan State Dental Society.
Because the sum allocated for this work is small, organizations have, as a rule, been charged for speakers, and the few free lectures have been reserved for those groups and communities that are unable to contribute toward the expense of bringing their speakers. Since luncheon clubs, women's clubs, and similar organizations have treasuries upon which to draw, it has been customary to ask them for a contribution ranging from traveling expenses to the entire cost.
Extension courses. — In 1913 a request for the organization of extension classes with regular academic credit was received from Detroit. After some consideration the University approved the plan. Accordingly, in 1913-14, courses were organized and given there — in philosophy by Professor Robert M. Wenley and in English and history by Assistant Professors Thomas E. Rankin and William A. Frayer. The enrollment was relatively large; there were more than one hundred and twenty students in Professor Wenley's course alone. Credit was Page 345given for these classes, which corresponded to similar courses on the campus. The fee established was five dollars per credit hour. Some fifteen hundred such courses were given outside Ann Arbor in the period 1913-19, with a total class enrollment of more than thirty-eight thousand.
Several colleges and schools on the campus accept some extension credit toward the bachelor's degree, provided all the residence, scholarship, and other graduation requirements are satisfied. The maximum of extension credit and the conditions under which it is granted vary from one unit to another; the School of Education and the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts accept a total of thirty hours.
In February, 1926, Charles A. Fisher, who was at the time Principal of Kalamazoo Central High School, was appointed Assistant Director of the University Extension Division. He began his duties that fall, it being understood that the organization and development of extension courses should receive the greater share of his attention. The growth of this work has not been phenomenal, but the enrollment has continued to increase regularly. In 1938-39 more than six thousand students were enrolled, and in 1939-40 there were 6,585.
An important forward step in the organization of adult classes has been the recent development of the noncredit phase of extension work. Nearly four thousand persons were enrolled in noncredit classes in 1939-40. The number and variety of requests for this type of work, as well as the educational and vocational status of the persons from whom the requests come, indicates that the future of adult classes lies more largely in this field than in the field of credit courses, although the latter will continue to be given. The noncredit class, by its freedom from restrictions regarding hours, examinations, and certain prerequisites, offers much more flexibility than the credit course and is therefore more attractive to adults who are interested in cultural advancement but have so little time that they are unable to meet more exacting requirements.
Because Ann Arbor is as far away from the western end of the Upper Peninsula as it is from New York City, it has been and still is difficult to organize extension classes in that section of the state. One way of overcoming this difficulty has been utilized in the field course in education. The class meets four times in the fall and four times in the spring, and thus the number of trips necessitated for a two-hour course is reduced by one-half. Another method was successful in the Upper Peninsula: a competent local person was appointed instructor, and his work was supervised by a member of the regular University staff who visited the class two to four times during the semester.
Correspondence courses. — At the beginning of his administration at the University of Chicago, President Harper organized a bureau of correspondence study, which for nearly fifty years has continued to function as an integral part of the adult education program of that university. Correspondence study, when properly supervised, seems to have established itself as a necessary part of any well-rounded adult education program.
During Henderson's term as Director of the Extension Division, he was instructed by a faculty committee to investigate the possibility of offering credit courses by correspondence. The faculty did not then feel disposed to go forward with the work, and nothing was done until the second semester of 1935-36. At that time the Michigan Works Progress Administration offered to finance a supervised correspondence study center at the University. The center was established in order to furnish instruction to certain individuals in the state who Page 346wished to go forward with some college work, but who, for valid reasons, were unable to attend the University.
The executive committee of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts gave the Extension Division permission to offer correspondence courses, and the courses were begun in January, 1936. It was decided that this work should give credit in the freshman year at the University. The Extension Division was also authorized to give certain noncredit courses of an industrial and vocational nature for the specific benefit of adults, including boys in the Civilian Conservation Corps camps, throughout the state of Michigan. The correspondence work, both in its credit phase and in its more vocational aspects, has grown very rapidly; the total number enrolled for one or more courses increased from 3,232 in 1937-38 to 4,915 in 1939-40.
Joint committee on health Education. — During President Burton's administration the Michigan State Medical Society and the University of Michigan entered into a joint program for health education within the state, under the name, Michigan joint committee on public health education. From the beginning the work has been carried on through the Extension Service. As years have passed, representatives of other organizations have been added to the committee, until at present twenty-four professional and nonprofessional organizations in the field of health education are represented.
The work of the joint committee is carried on under four main divisions:
- (1) Lectures on cancer control, on dental hygiene and child problems, on syphilis, and on mental hygiene are given to adult groups. One hundred and forty-two of these lectures were given in 1937-38.
- (2) The work of the subcommittee on school health education, headed by Dr. Mabel Rugen, has so far consisted in the preparation of two bulletins (School Health Bull.) entitled "The Problem Solving Approach in Health Teaching" and "Health Goals of the School Child." These bulletins have been widely distributed to schools throughout the state and the nation, and their popularity is attested by the fact that 20,590 of them have been distributed upon request.
- (3) The joint committee prepares a daily health-and-hygiene column for the Detroit News and for numerous other daily and weekly newspapers in the state.
- (4) A series of health talks is broadcast over Michigan radio stations, November 1-March 31.
The aim of the committee is aptly expressed by the following creed, which was adopted when the organization was formed:
The function of the Joint Committee is to present to the public the fundamental facts of modern scientific medicine for the purpose of building up sound public opinion relative to the questions of public and private health. It is concerned in bringing the truth to the people, not in supporting or attacking any school, sect, or theory of medical practice. It will send out teachers, not advocates.
Michigan High School Forensic Association. — In 1917, Thomas C. Trueblood, Professor of Oratory, suggested the advisability of organizing a highschool debating league. The suggestion was favorably acted upon. The work of the league has been carried on through the Extension Service by a manager who devotes a part of his time to the Department of Speech and a part to the Extension Service.
The name Michigan High School Debating League was changed in 1933 to Michigan High School Forensic Association, and the activities of the High School Oratorical Association and of the Extempore Speech Association were absorbed. The present organization sponsors contests in debate, oratory and declamation, Page 347and extempore speech in Michigan high schools. The Detroit Free Press and the Detroit News co-operate with the Extension Service in giving individual and school awards to the winners in these various contests. In 1939-40, 327 different high schools participated in contests sponsored by the Michigan High School Forensic Association. Twenty thousand students had a part in the work, and the total attendance at the various contests was nearly 180,000.
Library Extension Service. — The Library Extension Service was organized in 1916, and since that time has been carried on, in part through the Extension Service (see Part II: Library Extension Service).
The Library Extension Service plays an important part in the work of the Michigan High School Forensic Association. In 1939-40, 217 packages containing 4,340 pamphlets and bibliographies on the government ownership of railroads (the subject used for debate) were sent to schools enrolled in the debate contests. Many other pieces of material were sent to high-school students engaged in extempore speaking and declamation contests.
University specialists frequently furnish the information that enables this office to perform a requested service, and they are often called upon to deal completely with such requests; nevertheless, there remains for the Library Extension Service itself a large and highly specialized task, and its activities are widely appreciated and utilized by schools and adults throughout the state.
Radio broadcasting. — The University Broadcasting Service was organized in 1925 under the direction of Waldo M. Abbot, Assistant Professor of English. In 1933-34 the radio service was placed under the direction of the Extension Division. Its activities have multiplied many times in content and scope since its organization. During the academic year 1939-40, 315 programs were broadcast from Detroit — some over Station WJR and others over WMBC (see Part II: University Broadcasting Service).
In 1937-38, for the first time, Joseph E. Maddy, then Professor of Music Education in the School of Music, presented his "Fun in Music" series over a coast-to-coast hookup of the National Broadcasting Company, from Chicago. This program of music instruction is now broadcast from the University broadcasting station on the campus to the schools of the entire nation.
More than 936,000 radio homes in Michigan are reached by the University's educational broadcasts, which are also heard regularly in Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, western Pennsylvania, western New York, Ontario, and northern Indiana. This primary area, which has a total population of 8,743,399, is the one regularly served by Station WJR, of Detroit. Within the area are more than 3,777,000 homes in which there are radios, according to reports of the United States government.
Adult education institutes. — When the extension work was organized at the University of Michigan nearly thirty years ago, the term "adult education" was practically unknown, although most of the work of the Extension Division from the beginning would now be classified as adult education.
The first of the adult education institutes conducted by the Extension Division was held in the autumn of 1929 in co-operation with the Michigan Congress of Parents and Teachers and was organized by Charles A. Fisher, then Assistant Director. An institute brings many people to the campus for three to ten days' intensive study of a particular subject. The organization of institutes has grown so rapidly that it is now a major part of the Extension Service program. Page 348More than five thousand persons attended the eight institutes which the University held in 1939-40 in co-operation with the National Association of Foremen, the Foremen's Club of Michigan and Ohio, the Fuel Engineers Conference, the Ann Arbor Chamber of Commerce, and several state organizations of Michigan — the Congress of Parents and Teachers, the Council of Churches, the Board of Control for Vocational Education, the Federation for Women's Clubs, and the state district of Kiwanis International.
Similar work is carried on in other universities under the general head of "short courses," and it is rapidly assuming an important place in all state universities and agricultural colleges, as well as in many private institutions. In some universities — for example, the University of Minnesota — the work is considered so important as to necessitate the appointment of a full-time director and the erection of a building in which institutes may be held. No special effort has been made to expand this work at the University of Michigan, but the University has co-operated with groups which have requested that institutes be organized. An increasing number of adults throughout the state are arranging their work so that they are able to come to the University for a short period of rather intensive instruction each year. The institutes are of value not only to them but also to the University faculty. It is clear that requests for meetings of this sort will increase as the years go by.
Visual education. — The visual-education program of the Extension Service originated in 1916, when a small collection of slides was purchased and sent out on request to schools, churches, women's clubs, and other organizations. This service has continued uninterruptedly for a number of years. With a special University appropriation for educational motion pictures in 1937-38 the Visual Education Bureau of the Extension Service was organized, and forty silent films and thirty sound films were purchased for the Bureau. The silent films were shown by schools and adult groups 521 times during the first year, and the sound films 321 times. Reports from the organizations using them indicate that the teaching film has already taken its place as an important educational adjunct at the elementary, secondary, and collegiate levels.
Beginning in 1938-39 the University undertook to deliver a specified number of films during the year to any school or other organization in the state, provided a flat rental fee was paid and arrangements were made for the particular films and for exhibition dates. Before November of the first year, 135 schools had entered into this co-operative arrangement, and as a consequence the number of films on new subjects in the Extension Service film library was materially increased; there are now 300 member schools. The films, worth about $25,000, are used not for entertainment but exclusively as an instructional aid in school and college classes. Requests for their use on the campus and throughout the state increase daily.
Extension Credit and Noncredit Courses, Univ. Mich., 1911 — .
Miscellaneous pamphlets on broadcasting, highschool forensics, visual education, and numerous institutes.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1892-1909, 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1911-40. (R.P.)
School Health Bulletin, Nos. 2-3 (1937).
Shaw, Wilfred B.The University of Michigan. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920.
White, Andrew D.Autobiography … New York: Century Co., 1905. Vol. I.
THE LIBRARY EXTENSION SERVICE
IN May, 1916, Librarian William W. Bishop and the director of the Extension Division, William D. Henderson, brought before the Regents a suggestion that the University furnish an information service for debating organizations and other educational groups throughout the state. The Library Extension Service was established at the next monthly meeting of the Regents. An appropriation for its support was included in the General Library budget for 1916-17, and funds for its annual announcement were provided through the budget of the Extension Division.
Each year since the formation of the Michigan High School Debating League in 1917, the Library Extension Service has collected and organized the information on the topic specified for debate. The pamphlets and briefs, bibliographies, and clippings have then been distributed to the schools without charge. Quantities of free material have often been available, but the number of member schools grew from the original 66 to 327 in 1939-40, and the costs of the service were necessarily increased. Accordingly, funds were provided through the Extension Division, to which membership dues of the League were paid. Other organizations joined with the League to form the Michigan High School Forensic Association in March, 1933, and the Library Extension Service began to supply information for extempore speaking, oratory, and declamation as well as material for the annual debates (see Part II: University Extension Service).
Public-speaking classes have required the most attention, but classes in the social sciences, in English, and in current affairs also have been furnished with material supplementing textbooks and local library resources. The University has furnished communities that have inadequate local libraries, or none at all, with the core materials for class and reference work. As the facilities of the Library Extension Service were increased and as its work became more widely known, many adult-education groups such as granges, parent-teacher associations, women's clubs, and child-study groups, began to depend upon it for their study materials. Likewise, within the University, older units and newer bureaus and divisions which have been concerned with developing extramural study rely upon the Library Extension Service, regarding it as a medium for transmitting special lectures, study outlines, and reading lists. The University of Michigan Broadcasting Service, the School of Education, and the Bureau of Alumni Relations are typical of the University agencies with which the Library Extension co-operates in this way (see Part II: University Broadcasting Service, School of Education and State Service, and Bureau of Alumni Relations). Closely correlated as its work is with that of the University Extension Service (see Part II: University Extension Service), the Library Extension Service prepares the library materials for use in the institutes, in the special lecture series, and in the regular extension courses.
It has also provided steady assistance for a new branch of work undertaken by the University as an emergency measure in 1934-35, with the help of the Federal Government — the freshman or community colleges, from which have developed the present supervised correspondence study courses under the joint direction of the University Extension Service and the Works Progress Administration. Page 350The Library Extension Service has had charge of a special collection of books purchased for this purpose through a gift from the Rackham Fund.
From the carefully planned activities which make up the greater part of Library Extension work there have developed other and varied kinds of service which might be called collateral. Files of pamphlets and clippings have been maintained as a basis for the hundreds of reading lists and bibliographies compiled every year in response to specific individual requests, in order to help correspondents make good use of the magazines and books in their local libraries. A large collection of pictures, mounted on heavy paper and covering a wide range of subjects, has been built up, chiefly for use in the teaching of history, literature, and art.
The making of study-club outlines — some covering one subject for a single meeting but most of them sufficient for a year's study — has become such an important specialty that many club officers regularly rely upon the Library Extension Service for assistance with their programs.
The requests from teachers, students, and club officers have become so numerous that in the last five years more than five thousand letters a year have been sent out. Preparation of this correspondence demands much attention, for usually each letter contains an analysis of the specific problem presented, or suggestions for using the library material which is being sent. Although the range of information which the Library Extension Service can furnish is constantly being increased, many letters are received which can be adequately answered only by specialists in other offices and departments of the University. On the other hand, faculty members and staff members in other University offices frequently ask the Library Extension Service to answer requests for assistance they receive.
Alumni Reading Lists. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1931.
Alumni Reading Lists; Second Series. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1934.
Library Extension Service, Univ. Mich., 1933-40.
A List of Selected Books for Secondary School Libraries. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich., 1938 (Univ. Mich. Offic. Publ., 39, No. 71).
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1921-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1916-40.
What to Read. Comp. by Edith Thomas, Fred L. Dimrock, and Nelis R. Kampenga. Ann Arbor: Univ. Mich. Press, 1939.
THE UNIVERSITY BROADCASTING SERVICE
THE state of Michigan is justly proud of the part that it has played in the development of broadcasting, for in the summer of 1920 Station WWJ of Detroit took the lead in radio broadcasting by establishing the first station to broadcast regularly scheduled programs. The Extension Division of the University was prompt to enter the educational broadcasting field; members of the faculty went to Detroit in 1922 to broadcast over WWJ.
In 1923 the Department of Electrical Engineering constructed a small station, and on January 14, 1924, a federal license was issued, authorizing the operating of this equipment on 1,070 kilocycles, with 200 watts' power, for "unlimited" time. The call letters were WCBC. Ten months later the station's wave length was shifted to 1,310 kilocycles.
The equipment of this station was experimental and inefficient. Consequently a request was made to the Regents for $20,000 with which to build a broadcasting station and for an early appropriation of $3,000 for maintenance. The administrative authorities, believing that the University's broadcasting program could be carried out with less expense through the co-operation of a commercial station which had an established audience, refused the request. As a result, when the station's license expired in June, 1925, no application for renewal was filed, and the station privilege was canceled on October 24.
In the fall of 1925, Edward H. Kraus, Dean of the College of Pharmacy and Dean of the Summer Session, arranged with Station WJR, then owned by the Jewett Radio Corporation, for the broadcasting of twelve one-hour programs from the campus during the University year. Waldo Abbot, Assistant Professor of English, was appointed Director of the Broadcasting Service. The studio in which these programs originated was the top floor of old University Hall, and had been chosen principally because it contained a piano and a rug. As the acoustics were very poor, a tent of painters' dropcloths was constructed within it in order to reduce the reverberation. From this studio, in June, 1927, was broadcast the ninetieth-anniversary program, featuring such well-known members of the faculty as Mortimer E. Cooley, Victor H. Lane, Myra B. Jordan, and Clarence Cook Little.
Broadcasting was continued from this crude studio for three years, until a modern studio was built in Morris Hall, formerly the home of George Sylvester Morris, Professor of Philosophy (see Part VIII: Morris Hall). In this building were constructed an announcer's booth, a studio for ensemble groups, and a large auditorium from which the University Band and Glee Club could broadcast, as well as an office for the director, a mailing room, and a control room. Since 1925, broadcasting from the campus has been continued through the facilities of Station WJR, of Detroit, with the exception of two years when the facilities of Station WWJ were used.
In the fall of 1933 the Broadcasting Service was made a part of the Extension Division. Assistant Professor Waldo Abbot continued as Director of the Broadcasting Service. He was transferred from the Department of English Language and Literature to the Department of Speech and General Linguistics, in which he instituted courses in radio speech, dramatics, Page 352and writing. The functions of the Broadcasting Service were increased to include class instruction, the recording of speech for students and for faculty research, and the making of recordings to be used by the University of Michigan alumni clubs.
The music classes conducted by Joseph E. Maddy, Professor of Radio Music Instruction in the University Extension Service, constitute the University's only direct teaching by radio, the other programs having been designed chiefly to inform and inspire the general listener or to supplement the work of the local teacher.
In addition to the educational programs which were broadcast on the regular band over Station WJR, students of the University Reserve Officers Training Corps, in co-operation with the Department of Electrical Engineering, built a continuous-wave radio-telegraph station in the fall of 1927 and began broadcasts over it. This equipment was granted an experimental license under call letters W8AXZ.
The station was used chiefly for code practice for members of the Signal Corps and for communication with the University expedition to Greenland conducted by Professor William H. Hobbs. The transmitter was made possible by a grant of $100 from the United States Army and a gift of a 250-watt vacuum tube used as the main power amplifier, the latter coming from the General Electric Company. The Department of Electrical Engineering donated the room and the high-voltage motor generator used for power.
With this equipment, communication was maintained directly with the Hobbs expedition. Furthermore, contact was maintained with Bloemfontein, South Africa, messages being exchanged with a branch of the University's observatory situated there (see Part III: Lamont-Hussey Observatory). Contact is also maintained with the University summer camps and expeditions.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1928-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1926-40.
THE UNIVERSITY NEWS SERVICE
THE history of the news-service program began in 1897, when, on October 20, the Regents requested the faculty of the Department of Literature, Science, and the Arts, "to report to the Board some general plan for getting University news before the people of the State." A report was made at the December meeting of the Regents by a committee appointed for the purpose, which was composed of Acting President Harry B. Hutchins and six others. This committee recommended:
- 1. That a bureau of University news be organized with some member of the literary faculty in charge, who is to be known as the University Editor and who should receive "such compensation as may be commensurate with the extra labor imposed."
- 2. That the University Editor be placed in charge of a certain portion of the alumni news, and that this portion of the paper be regarded as an official publication of the University.
- 3. That the University issue every second week a small bulletin or newsletter, to consist of material which will appear the following Page 353week in the official columns of the Alumni News.
In actual practice, the official news appeared first in the Michigan Alumnus and then was published separately in the form of a newsletter.
The committee also suggested that while some might feel that no member of the literary faculty should accept this office, since it represented a division of the energy which the instructor should devote to his proper field of work, there was one department, that of English composition, to which such work as the organization of a bureau of news and the preparation of the newsletter might be said properly to belong. It was pointed out that a considerable amount of work of this character had already been undertaken by certain advanced classes, and that some of the matter thus prepared had been published as correspondence in local papers. This practice could be carried a step further, in the committee's opinion, and a small class of advanced students could eventually be organized to report, systematically and under the direction of an instructor, the various activities and interests of the University. Here we have the germ out of which the Department of Journalism eventually developed, since "the tedious labor of news gathering … could be performed to some extent by members of the class as part of their regular work." The report of the faculty committee also included a memorandum of costs which gave $120.60 for eight issues of the proposed newsletter. The report was concluded by a survey of methods in vogue in other institutions.
The Regents took prompt action, appointed as University editor Fred Newton Scott ('84, Ph.D. '89), Junior Professor of Rhetoric, one of those who signed the report, and appropriated $100 for the inauguration of the program. Scott had been for some time communications editor of the Michigan Alumnus, which at that time was published under private auspices. The magazine was purchased by the Alumni Association in 1897, and in the first issue under the new auspices, January, 1899, Scott's name appeared as news editor.
Under his direction the special news section in the Michigan Alumnus was reprinted and distributed to the editors of the state in the form of a newsletter. The first issue appeared January 6, 1898, and thirteen more issues appeared in the late winter and spring. The following year, second-class postal privileges were secured for the publication, and a number of special editions appeared. A meeting of the Michigan State Farmers' Institute in Ann Arbor in February, 1900, was the occasion of a double-sized, two-column issue, of which hundreds of copies were sent out over the state.
Fred N. Scott continued as news editor until the fall of 1900, when Shirley W. Smith ('97, A.M. '00) became General Secretary of the Alumni Association and took over the editorial responsibility of the News-Letter. In 1901 the Regents granted the Alumni Association an annual appropriation of $1,400, of which $300 was allocated to the editing and printing of this publication, enabling the Alumni Association to engage a special student editor. The first appointment was that of Reginald P. Dryer, an engineering student of the class of 1903. Later student editors were George Bion Denton ('07, Ph.D. '16) and G. William Barnum ('05, A.M. '06).
During this period the News-Letter gradually expanded. In 1904-5, twenty-five issues, 114 pages in all, appeared, and there were 2,000 monthly subscribers. It was first a small, four-page leaflet, which was printed on only one side of the sheet and folded so that the editors could clip the material easily. Gradually more pages were added, and eventually an illustration Page 354service was established, through which half-tone illustrations were distributed to the newspapers. In the year 1905 some seventeen half-tone blocks were distributed to eighty-two papers in the state, which used some or all of the material furnished. The News-Letter also undertook the continuation of the bibliography of publications by the University faculty. This had first appeared in the University Record in 1891 and had been continued in the Michigan Alumnus, where it appeared in the June and July issues of 1897. Later this bibliography was included for several years in the President's Report, and now it is published separately by the Graduate School (see Part II: Research Club).
Eventually the news-service program exceeded considerably the appropriation made by the Regents. In his annual report for June, 1907, the General Secretary of the Alumni Association observed that the News-Letter had cost $800 annually for the preceding three years, an expense which was in great measure responsible for the Association's deficit. In 1907, the Regents gave an additional $500 to balance the overdraft. This extra assistance, however, was not continued, and for the year 1907-8 only ten numbers of the News-Letter were issued. For some years the publication was continued on this basis, but eventually, in 1912, readjustments became necessary. At this time the service was taken over by the University. A special office was established, and John Lewis Brumm, Assistant Professor of Rhetoric, was appointed news editor.
The nature of the new office was indicated in a letter which President Harry B. Hutchins addressed to the Board of Regents and which the Board approved on January 26, 1912. The relevant items in the letter were as follows:
… I have appointed Assistant Professor John L. Brumm of the Department of Rhetoric as University News Editor, to take charge of the work embodied for a number of years in the University News-Letter. As it is believed that better results can be secured without the publication of a printed bulletin for general distribution such as the News-Letter, the News-Letter itself has been discontinued. In place of it, Mr. Brumm will furnish letters concerning the University at frequent intervals and as regularly as possible to newspapers in the State and elsewhere. The general purpose of these letters is to place the University before the public, especially of this State, and to approach the matter from the point of view of the interests of the local paper … It is not intended in any sense that his office shall be made exclusive for the giving out of news … In general it is understood that he will originate and plan methods by which proper publicity of University affairs shall be secured, all his efforts, however, being with due regard to our limitations as to money and time. The expense of this work will be kept within the allowance made for the News-Letter and every effort will be made to determine so far as it may be possible, the results actually achieved.
… Should he need any assistance in carrying on his work in the Department of Rhetoric, he is to make provision for that expense out of his allowance of $200. The University is to furnish him with such stenographic help as the work may require, together with such office equipment as may be needed.
(Hutchins, letter, Dec. 8, 1911.)
At the October meeting of the Regents in 1912 the sum of $700 was appropriated to cover the expenses of the University news editorship. In 1916 the Regents authorized the purchase of a "multigraph duplicating machine" and the fitting up of a room in West Hall for the news service. Lack of an appropriation for expenses resulted in the lapse of the news service in 1918, but it was revived, with an appropriation of $800, in 1919-20.
Page 355Owing to the economic stringency in 1920, the president raised the question as to the desirability of continuing the news bulletins. The Regents directed that the service be continued. It was carried on through the years 1921-23, as Brumm, then Professor of Rhetoric and Journalism, offered to do the work without editorial compensation. In 1924, the sum of $275 was added to the annual appropriation of $600 for the issuance of the news bulletin. The arrangement was continued until 1928, when administrative duties compelled Professor Brumm to give up this additional editorial work.
The need, however, for some agency which would serve as the distributing center for news of the University, particularly to the press of Michigan, was becoming increasingly apparent. As a result, in September, 1930, Wilfred B. Shaw, as Director of the Bureau of Alumni Relations, was requested to develop a program in this field, since it was felt that the dissemination of accurate news concerning the University was one desirable objective in any alumni program. A budget of $1,600 was allowed by the Regents and an assistant in news dissemination was engaged. For the first few years the program consisted largely of weekly mimeographed news releases, sent, for the most part, to the newspapers of Michigan.
Requests from editors all over the state for personal items regarding students from their communities also made it necessary eventually for the News Service, as it had by that time come to be called, to inaugurate a program to meet this demand from the Michigan press by the employment of Mrs. Ruth Trezise ('36, A.M. '37). In 1937 Donald K. Anderson ('37) was appointed assistant in general charge of the whole program, and by 1940 the services of three assistants and of some eight students under the National Youth Administration were required.
This rapidly expanding program has enabled the University to meet many of the demands of the state press, as well as of the larger newspapers outside Michigan for interesting and authoritative material regarding the University. A study of published items shows that a large proportion of the material published about the University has arisen from material sent out by the News Service. In addition to the personal items regarding students and the general information distributed through the weekly releases, special articles are continually prepared, pictures are sent out in answer to an increasing demand, and personal contacts are maintained, not only with newspaper editors throughout the state, but also with the correspondents of the various press associations and leading Michigan papers in Ann Arbor. The Service also acts as consultant to various University departments in developing publicity programs.
The Michigan Alumnus, Vols. 1-46 (1894-1940).
"Questions on the University."Univ. Mich. Bur. Alum. Rel., Gen. Bull., No. 30 (1939): 3-5.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1897-1909, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1896-1940.
University of Michigan News-Letter (title varies), 1898-1911.
THE OFFICE OF EDUCATIONAL INVESTIGATIONS
THE office of educational investigations represents one of the functions of the office of the president. Its budget is included therein. The vice-president in charge of educational investigations is a consulting member of the president's staff with respect to the general educational policy of the University. As such, he is in part responsible for studies which concern the interrelations of curriculums, their development, and their efficiency in attaining objectives finally agreed upon as appropriate functions of the University. He is a member of the committee on office personnel and of the committee on faculty personnel. In order that he may perform these functions, budget curves, salary ranges, teaching loads, faculty activities, and changes in curriculum are collected and recorded.
The staff is also charged with the duty of assisting in the general program of selection and progress of students. The office maintains oversight of the mechanical equipment such as sorting and tabulating machines used in these studies and in all research projects. Its technical staff is available for consultation on all such investigations. The program of selection is in part directly performed by this staff; however, they are also consulted with respect to all major studies and issue studies of their own. The function of examining includes testing for selection of students, achievement examinations, and aptitude measurements.
Historically, the several activities just enumerated stem from many sources, and in turn others once largely a function of the president have now become separate bureaus and University offices. The offices of the dean of students, the dean of women, the director of student-alumni relations, the counselor to new students, and the recently appointed director of residence halls have been developed in this way, as have the student advisory systems that have grown up in the several schools and colleges. Also from the general function of student supervision have arisen such specific activities as the University Health Service and the Bureau of Appointments and Occupational Information. The Board in Control of Physical Education and the Board in Control of Student Publications represent other types of subdivision. Likewise, the Bureau of Alumni Relations, the Bureau of Co-operation with Educational Institutions, the University Extension Service, and the office of the vice-president in charge of University relations indicate subdivisions of earlier presidential duties.
In general these varied activities had for many years been largely distributed among regular administrative officers and members of the faculty. During the administration of President Burton many of them were brought together in formal organizations. President Little continued the trend in the phases of student personnel, and President Ruthven's administration began the collection and study of data relating to the more general administrative and educational policies, while still continuing the development of services to the students.
The question of providing special facilities for the educational and vocational guidance of students was discussed by President Burton with the Regents and in his annual reports from the beginning. The University Senate appointed a committee which brought in a report in 1924 Page 357recommending that a bureau of placement and guidance should be established. The year before, a committee of students had requested permission to establish such a service in the Michigan Union. The autumn of 1927 saw the first steps of this program in action. William A. Frayer, Professor of History, was in charge of orientation work and of certain related problems in curriculum adjustment and housing (R.P., 1923-26, p. 805). The same year, a separate office for vocational advice and educational guidance was established. An all-University testing program for freshmen was also begun. In June, 1927, these functions and others were brought together under the general title "Bureau of University Research."
During 1911 and 1912 the Regents were especially concerned with the problem of obtaining satisfactory data on the general efficiency of educational administration. They passed a series of resolutions differently worded but with this same general import during this period. The final resolution of the series (Oct., 1912) empowered the president to secure information by departments on the teaching and consultation hours of each staff member, the number of courses taught, and the number of students in each course. This resolution also asked for room capacity and the frequency of use of each room.
Details of this sort were well known to the Regents in the earlier years of the University's history because of their close association with the smaller staff and their concern with all details of administration. Yet, as early as 1875, President Angell found it desirable to request members of the faculty to furnish data on all these activities. His request included a statement that these data were for information of the legislature. A more systematic method of reporting had become necessary.
No full report covering all the details requested was forthcoming until some years later. During President Burton's administration the need for additional space and for new buildings became so apparent that requests for them were prepared for presentation to the legislature. To demonstrate this need, the President and the deans requested Frank E. Robbins, then Assistant Professor of Greek, to obtain detailed data on existing capacity and its use. This report was presented in November, 1921, and constitutes the first complete summary dealing with use of classroom space of which there is record. At intervals, Robbins continued to prepare further reports of this nature until the work was taken over in 1927 by the Bureau of University Research.
The preparation of periodical reports on use of rooms was continued for several years by this bureau. These reports were gradually enlarged to include data on size of class, number of courses and sections offered by semesters, and number of these taught by each instructor. Later, additional reports were requested covering the activities of the staff of a University nature not included in the teaching function. Each year, or biennially, a fairly comprehensive view of the numerous duties of a staff member can be obtained from these reports. During 1929, a detailed study of the teaching and technical personnel below the rank of professor was prepared. The office-personnel study was also brought to a conclusion at this time.
The titles director of educational investigations and Bureau of Educational Investigations were discontinued in 1930 and the office of vice-president of educational investigations was created. The previous functions of the Bureau were continued under the new organization. In addition, this office began to assist the Page 358faculties in studying curricular changes, in improving examination procedures, and in developing educational experimentation.
President's Report, Univ. Mich., 1875, 1920-40.
Proceedings of the Board of Regents …, 1920-40. (R.P.)