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A Chinese emperor (whether he was in favor of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, or a combination of two or all of them) was, ideally, responsible for "educating" (jiao, Ma. tacihiyan) and "civilizing" (hua 化, Ma. wen) his people such that every individual in his empire could have a disciplined and peaceful mind, and thereby the entire state could be placed in order and harmony. The Shunzhi emperor, the first Manchu monarch in China, embraced this philosophy wholeheartedly. Thus the imperially-commissioned Yuzhi quanshan yaoyan 御製勸善要言 / Han-i araha sain be hûwekiyebure oyonggo gisun (1655), a book of selected moral precepts emphasizing "retribution" (baoying 報應, Ma. karulara acaburengge), was compiled for encouraging the common people to perform good deeds, whereas the Renchen jingxin lu 人臣靜心錄 (JXL) / Han-i araha ambasai mujilen be targabure bithe (1655) was addressed to the government officials to urge them to maintain a cautious and dutiful mind:

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