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The more historians use Manchu sources, the more balanced, complete, and complex become their narratives of Qing history.[2] Building on Bartlett, Fletcher, and other Qing historians who paved the path, publications in the past decade by Crossley, Elliott, Rawski, and Rhoades have more than proven this case.[3] The same point holds true for the Jesuit-Chinese exchange in the sciences and medicine practiced in the Manchu court. Yet, scholarship on the subject has been sparse, sporadic, and largely biased toward Manchu translations of European science and medicine. For most of the past century, if scholars discussed medical sources in Manchu at all, they focused on the one exceptional example of early eighteenth-century European anatomy translated into Manchu during the Kangxi reign sometime between 1710-1722. Officially titled in Manchu the Dergici toktobuha Ge ti ciowan lu bithe (Imperially-Commissioned Complete Record on the Body, #51 a-i), this Jesuit translation has generated considerable attention since the beginning of the twentieth century to the present.[4] In 1980, a fragment of this text stored in Copenhagen was made more readily available through a mediocre publication of a facsimile and partial translation titled simply The Manchu Anatomy.[5] As one of the earliest examples of the diffusion of Western anatomical knowledge to China and the first to use Manchu as the medium for Western anatomy, this Manchu translation is indeed one of the more illuminating sources on the process of scientific exchanges between early-modern Europe and China within the Qing court. It was nonetheless just one of Kangxi's Jesuit projects that despite its extraordinary scope and quality, had restricted circulation with no evidence of influence beyond the court. Furthermore, the greater scholarly attention to The Manchu Anatomy reflects a biased interest in the transmission of European medical knowledge into the Manchu court rather than the even more interesting questions about the actual practice of medicine within the court and the greater complexity of medical exchange and translation that the range of medical sources in Manchu reveal.

Fortunately, in the past decade, a few medical historians, Manchu scholars, and bibliographers have approached the subject from a broader perspective that embraces the full range of medical knowledge in Manchu. With the realization of a considerable corpus of Manchu sources on medicine, scholars are now beginning to explore new avenues of research. Instead of just illuminating the diffusion of Western medical knowledge into China through Manchu translations by Jesuits, one may examine the reverse process of Chinese medicine going to Europe through the medium of translations and interpretations. Chinese medical texts began to be translated into French as early as 1671 in the late seventeenth century and continued apace through the end of the eighteenth century.[6] Based on the extant Manchu sources on medicine, however, Russians diplomats, priests, physicians, scholars, and possibly merchants clearly played the most significant role in the transmission to Europe of Chinese medicine through Manchu translations during at least the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. For example, thirty Manchu medical texts are now preserved in four libraries in St. Petersburg-just over half of the known extant texts in the world. The largest holding is in the library of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg, which alone has twenty-two known titles. In comparison, twenty-four texts are preserved in Chinese libraries, with eight in the library of the Palace Museum, another five in the Beijing Library, and the remaining eleven scattered throughout five other libraries.[7]

Manchu was not only the primary language of intercourse between the early Qing rulers and their Jesuit guests, it was the most important diplomatic language with Russia and one of the principle linguistic mediums through which knowledge about China reached Europe.[8] The clearest example of the Russian transmission of popular medical practices from China to Europe is in a Manchu version of arguably the most popular eighteenth-century Chinese treatise on childbirth. The Boo-can da s'eng bithe (#31) was based on a popular version of a Chinese manual on midwifery originally published in 1715 and titled the Baochan dasheng bian 保產達生編 (On Safe Pregnancies and Successful Births). This text did not represent the classical Chinese medical approach to obstetrics and gynecology, but rather was a practical guide to childbirth with a simple message. The author taught that childbirth was naturally easy, offered women a set of basic restrictions to follow while pregnant, and gave them a subset of the standard Qing repertoire of medicinal formulas to aid childbirth.[9] A Minister by the name of Fu in the Bureau of Colonial Affairs (Lifan yuan) sponsored the Manchu version of the childbirth manual located in the Institute of Oriental Studies in St. Petersburg. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, this Manchu version (or possibly one similar to it but no longer extant) was translated into Russian, German, and Polish between 1810 and 1812.[10] It was not until thirty years later in 1842 that The Dublin Journal of Medical Sciences published an English translation of the same midwifery text by Dr. William Lockhart, which by then he had based on an 1825 Chinese edition.[11] The earliest versions of this Chinese midwifery text to reach Europe were in Manchu.

The Russians were also interested in Chinese smallpox inoculation methods.[12] From at least the early sixteenth century-nearly three centuries before Jenner's discovery of cowpox vaccination-the Chinese inoculated uninfected children with processed scabs from infected children to reduce mortality from smallpox. Following upon the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, the Russian Tsar sent students in 1694 to Beijing to learn Chinese smallpox inoculation methods. It is not entirely clear whether they actually learned inoculation methods, but the primary source does state that they were trained as smallpox doctors.[13] Evidence that is more concrete places the transmission to Europe of Chinese inoculation methods sometime between 1714 and 1721.[14] Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762), wife of the British ambassador at Constantinople, is credited with being the first recorded European to allow her family to be inoculated from smallpox using Chinese methods.[15] Against this background of the transmission of Chinese smallpox inoculation methods to Europe in the early eighteenth century, it is not surprising to find six of the seven extant editions of Manchu smallpox texts preserved in European libraries- five in St. Petersburg (#7-9, #12a, #12b) and one in Paris (#10).

By the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, the transmission of medical knowledge on smallpox prevention switched direction. Within a decade following the publication of Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of Variolae Vaccinae by Edward Jenner (1749-1823) in 1798, one of the czar's physicians Dr. Rehmann helped bring Jennerian vaccination at least to Siberia and Mongolia during a Russian embassy to China from 1805- 1806.[16] The Manchu language was also used to introduce the Jennerian method of vaccination to China in a text titled the Dasamefoloho mama yabure ice arga (#8). This Manchu version was adapted from a Chinese text published in 1836 and titled Chongding yindou xinfa 重訂引痘新法 (Re-engraved New Method for Extracting Pox).

In addition to Chinese midwifery and smallpox inoculation methods traveling through the linguistic medium of Manchu from China to European readers, the St. Petersburg libraries also include Manchu sources on the following medical topics: basic concepts underlying classical Chinese medicine (#1-3, #5), longevity practices (#4c), pulse taking and diagnosis (#13-14), pharmacology and formulas (#17-18, #21-22), acupuncture (#25-26), macrobiotics (#28), pediatrics (#32), medical-related philosophical discourses (#33-34), alchemy (#38), medical prognostication (#44), and even veterinary medicine for horses (#35a).[17] During the two centuries before the transformations in scientific medicine of the twentieth century, one sees an exchange through Manchu language texts of medical ideas and practices across the Central Asian trade routes and through the Russian diplomatic and religions missions. Rather than the simple story of diffusion of European medicine to China through Jesuit translations into Chinese and Manchu, there was both an interaction between Chinese and European scholarly tradition within the court[18] and multiple nodes of exchange about Chinese and European medical practices in Manchu well beyond the Jesuit-Chinese encounter.

Another avenue of research that historians are beginning to examine concerns the medical practices, drug therapies, and knowledge within Manchu culture and what they translated from the Chinese medical corpus into Manchu during the Qing dynasty. The Chinese historian of medicine Yu Yongmin has been the most prolific on this subject, yet he remains unrecognized outside of China among scholars of Manchu and Qing historians. His first two articles focused on Manchu medical culture, cuisine, and food therapy.[19] His discussion of the Manchu preference for and use of ginseng is particularly insightful. He also published a bibliography of Manchu medical texts that combined titles listed in Chinese and international catalogues with his own discoveries of manuscripts not previously recorded.[20] Most recently, Yu has written on a newly discovered Mongolian manuscript on medicinal formulas that the Manchus may well have also used.[21] Chuang Chi-fa wrote an essay on shamanism and popular medical therapy that sheds further light on the range of healing practices among the Manchus.[22] Another Chinese scholar, on the other hand, has written recently on the rare Jesuit translation into Manchu of Western medicinal substances preserved at the Palace Museum library.[23]

In Europe, Hartmut Walravens has made the greatest contribution to this new field that combines Qing history, Manchu studies, and Chinese medical history by publishing two bibliographies of Manchu medical texts.[24] The first 1996 article focused on the editions of The Manchu Anatomy, but also discussed the three other extant examples of European medicine in the Manchu language. His second bibliography published in 2000 casts a larger net by covering all known medical titles in the catalogues of Manchu sources from Chinese, Japanese, European, and especially, Russian libraries. Walravens argues against an independent Manchu medicine beyond basic drug therapies acquired through interaction with other nomadic cultures on the steppes. He finds that medical sources in Manchu have the greatest potential to inform historians about both the transmission of Chinese medical knowledge to Europe and the assimilation of Chinese medical concepts and practices among the Manchus.

The bibliographies of Volkova of Manchu literature in Russian libraries and Tatjana A. Pang on the Manchu collections in Paris are particularly useful for Manchu medical texts in the most important European collections.[25] Pang's article about a rare Manchu manuscript on acupuncture she found in the Institute of Oriental Studies Library in St. Petersburg is particularly illuminating about the portrayal of Manchu ethnicity in the colored illustrations of acupuncture and moxibustion points.[26] Unlike the classical Chinese medical texts on acupuncture upon which this translation was clearly based, however, the artist did not follow the standardized drawings of points connected along specific channels on the body; rather he drew in just the few point locations that were directly related to the specific treatments discussed in the text. The explanations that relate point locations to certain illnesses and step-by-step instructions on how to apply moxibustion further reflect the pragmatic orientation of this manual. It was intended to be present at the clinical encounter between the Manchu physician and his patient. Judging from the quality of the manuscript and the content of the illustrations, the patient, if not also the physician, was of high social status and wealthy. This rare acupuncture manuscript in Manchu shows how translation is a form of negotiation that transforms knowledge in the process of communicating it into another language for practical purposes. Not only did the Manchus have their own medical practices from living on the steppes and through their interactions with other frontier cultures, they chose what they found useful to translate within the classical Chinese medical corpus and adapted some of this medical knowledge to their own priorities. Manchus under the Qing dynasty lived in a pluralistic medical system drawing from their own healing practices and those of other non-Han frontier cultures as well as what became available to them through both Jesuit translations of European medicine and the classical Chinese medical corpus.

We are only now beginning to see the complexity of the world of medicine among the Manchus and within the imperial court of the Qing. This bibliographic survey is intended to aid further research on the subject. It synthesizes the information on Manchu medical texts in the foundational sources discussed above with all relevant material in other published bibliographies, library catalogues, and articles on Manchu literature. In this synthesis, the final number of Manchu medical texts increased from the 31 titles-which were recorded separately in Yu's bibliography and in Walravens' two articles put together-to 58 distinct titles.[27] Of these titles, nine are probably lost,[28] but 49 of these are still extant and available in 66 separate editions preserved in 17 libraries and institutions throughout the world.[29]

To facilitate cross-referencing, this bibliography follows the categories and order of the 29 texts listed in the most recent bibliography of Manchu medical sources by Hartmut Walravens (2000). All additional titles have been added to one of Walravens' eleven categories or to the following eight new categories: XII Materia Medica, XIII Medical Prognostication, XIV Religious, XV Personal Hygiene, XVI Forensic Medicine, XVII Western Anatomy, XVIII Western Medicine, and XIX Unknown. The 58 titles in this updated bibliography are arranged under the following 19 categories: I General (6), II Smallpox (6), III Pulse Diagnosis (4), IV Pharmacology (8), V Acupuncture (2), VI Macrobiotics (3), VII Gynecology and Midwifery (2), VIII Pediatrics (1), IX Medical-Related Subjects (2), X Equine Medicine (3), XI Alchemy (1), XII Materia Medica (5), XIII Medical Prognostication (1), XIV Religious (4), XV Personal Hygiene (1), XVI Forensic Medicine (1), XVII Western Anatomy (1), XVIII Western Medicine (3), and XIX Unknown (4). The nine editions of the Manchu Anatomy listed in Walravens (1996) are listed under XVII Western Anatomy. The three other extant Jesuit medical translations are listed in XVIII Western Medicine. All of the titles in XII Materia Medica and XIX Unknown are recorded here because they were catalogued in Julien (1889), and von Möllendorff (1890), respectively, and give a better sense of the range of medical knowledge in Manchu at the end of the nineteenth century. There is no evidence, however, that these nine titles survived into the present.

The main entries of the bibliography are organized according to the following format: 1) the Manchu title, when known, and English translation; 2) the Chinese title of the original, or given by bibliographers, in pinyin followed by Chinese characters and English translation; 3) the other titles of texts or fascicles when the main text is a compilation; 4) the title of the original Chinese source and author, when this can be verified, otherwise a statement that the origin is unknown; 5) when the text is known to have a Chinese origin, the index number according to the Quanguo Zhongyi tushu lianhe mulu (LHML) and the earliest known date of publication; 6) bibliographic data about library editions (if text still extant) and indication of whether it is a blockprint or manuscript; 7) relevant secondary scholarship, 8) current library locations of editions; and 9) references to catalogue and bibliographic identification.

All library holdings are indicated below with the unique numbers designated to each text in the main bibliography. To facilitate reference, the totals for each category are in alphabetical order with roman numerals indicated in parentheses. A preliminary chronology of 33 of the 58 texts directly precedes the main bibliography and is arranged according to the reign periods that largely follow designations in Yu (1993).

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

*In Julien (1889) or von Möllendorff (1890), but no longer extant.
GilesA Catalogue of the Wade Collection of Chinese and Manchu Books in the Library of the University of Cambridge, 1898. Repr., 1948.
HessigMongolische Handschriften, Blockdrucke, Landkarten, 1961.
IakhontovMan'chzhurskie rukopisy i ksilografy gosudarstvennoi publichnoi biblioteki imeni M.E. Saltykova-Shchedrina, Leningrad, 1991.
Julien“Bibliographie Tartare: Traductions Mandchoues d'ouvrages chinois,” Mémoires de la Societe Sinico-Japonaise, Paris, 1889.
LHMLQuanguo zhongyi tushu lianhe mulu, 1991.
LiLi Teh Ch'i, Union Catalogue of Manchu Books, 1933.
Pang (1998)A Catalogue of Manchu Materials in Paris: Manuscripts, Blockprints, Scrolls, Rubbings, Weapons, 1998.
Pang (1997)“Manchu Collections in Paris,” Manuscripta Orientalia, 1997.
Poppe/Hurvitz/OkadaCatalogue of the Manchu-Mongol Section of the Tôyô Bunko, 1964
PuyraimondCatalogue du Fonds Mandchou. Bibliothèque Nationale, 1979.
QuanguoQuanguo Manwen tushu ziliao lianhe mulu, 1991.
ShijieShijie Manwen wenxian mulu, 1983.
Simon/NelsonManchu Books in London: A Union Catalogue, 1977.
StaryManchu Studies: An International Bibliography, 1990.
Volkova (1965)Opisanie Man 'chzhurskikh Rukopisei Instituta Naradov Azii AN SSSR, Moscow, 1965.
Volkova (1988)Opisanie Man'chzhurskikh Ksilografov Instituta Vostokovedenyja AN SSSR, Moscow, 1988.
von Möllendorff“Essay on Manchu Literature,” Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1890.
Walravens (1996)“Medical knowledge of the Manchus and the Manchu Anatomy.” Etudes mongoles et siberiennes, cahier 27: 359-374.
Walravens (2000)“Mandjurische Medizin-eine Bibliographie der originalsprachigen Quellen,” Zentralasiatische Studien, v. 30, 2000.
WK“Handschriftlicher Gesamtkatalog der russischen Mandjurica,” unpublished handbook.
YuYu Yongmin, “Zhongguo Manwen yixue yizhu kaoshu,” 1993a.

LIBRARY HOLDINGS

St. Petersburg, Institute of Oriental Studies22 (#1, 2, 3, 4c, 5, 7, 8, 9, 12a, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 25, 30, 31, 35a, 44, 51a)
St. Petersburg, University Library6 (# 12b, 26, 32, 33, 34, 38, 51b)
St. Petersburg, Instituta Vostovedenija1 (#51c)
St. Petersburg, Public Library1 (#28)
China, Library of the Palace Museum8 (#4b, 11, 16a, 24a, 37a, 45, 48, 53)
China, Beijing Library5 (#15, 16b, 24b, 37b, 49a)
China, Central Minorities College3 (#27, 50a, 51i)
China, Yonghegong Library2 (#46, 49b)
China, #1 Historical Archives2 (#4a, 36)
China, Nanjing Library1 (#29)
China, National Library of Inner Mongolia3 (#6, 35b, 47)
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale5 (#10, 19, 20, 51e, 54)
Paris, Muséum Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle2 (#51f, 52)
Tokyo, Tôyô Bunko2 (#51g, 51h)
England, British Library1 (#23)
England, SOAS1 (#51d, fac. of Copenhagen copy)
Denmark, Copenhagen1 (#51d, see also SOAS copy)
Titles listed but no longer extant (Julien, 1889)6 (#39-43, 50b)
The Imperial Russian Legation of Peking (See von Möllendorff (1890): #228-231)4 (#55-58)
TOTALS76 editions (66 still extant)

MANCHU MEDICAL TEXTS BY CATEGORY

Acupuncture(V)2 (2 eds.)
Alchemy(XI)1 (1 ed.)
Equine Medicine(X)3 (5 eds.)
Forensic Medicine(XVI)1 (2 eds., 1 no longer extant is listed in Julien 1889)
General(I)6 (8 eds.)
Gynecology/Midwifery(VII)2 (2 eds.)
Macrobiotics(VI)3 (3 eds.)
Materia Medica(XII)5 (All 5 no longer extant)
Medical Prognostication(XIII)1 (1 ed.)
Medically-Related Subjects(IX)2 (2 eds.)
Pediatrics(VIII)1 (1 ed.)
Personal Hygiene(XV)1 (2 eds.)
Pharmacology(IV)8 (9 eds., 1 compilation has 3 titles)
Pulse Diagnosis(III)4 (5 eds., 1 text has 2 titles)
Religious(XIV)4 (4 eds.)
Smallpox(II)6 (7 eds.)
Western Anatomy(XVII)1 (9 eds.)
Western Medicine(XVIII)3 (3 eds.)
Unknown(XIX)4 (All 4 poss. no longer extant are listed in von Möllendorff 1890)
TOTALS58 distinct texts, 76 editions (66 still extant)

PRELIMINARY CHRONOLOGY OF MANCHU MEDICAL TEXTS

This chronology of 33 of the 58 titles in this bibliography largely follows the reign periods given in Yu Yongmin (1993). When dates are known and provided in the catalogues or articles by Von Möllendorff (1889), Pang (1997, 1998), and Walravens (1996, 2000), these are also note below.

Shunzhi (r. 1644-1661) 2 texts

#11 Smallpox: Olhoro baitai dasara hacin be hafumbure bithe

See Yu #15, Yiliao tongshu 醫療通書(Comprehensive treatise on medical

treatment).

#21 Pharmacology: Untitled Manuscript related to food therapy.

See Yu #12, Shiliaofa 食療法 (Methods of Food Therapy)

Kangxi (r. 1662-1722) 15 texts

#1General: Dasara o oncho isabukha bithe. Sudala fu

See Yu #4, Yiyaojilan 醫要集覽 (Collectanea of the Essentials of Medicine).

#2General: Eiten nimeku leolen bithe

See Yu #6, Zhubing lun 註病論 (Discussions of Various Illnesses).

#3General: Mangga i ging

See Yu #9, Nanjing 難經 (Canon of Problems)

#4General: S'eo s'i boo iowan

See Yu #2, Shoushi baoyuan 壽世保元 (Preservation of Primordial Qi to Prolong Life)

#14 Pulse Diagnosis: Me giowe (Maijue脈訣)

See Yu #5, Mailun 脈論 (On the Pulse).

#15 Pulse Diagnosis: Mangga i ging me giowe

See Yu #19, Nanjing maijue 難經脈訣 (Formulas for the Pulses of the Canon of

Difficulties)

#16ab Pulse Diagnosis: Wangxu ho me giowe

See Yu #3, Wang Shuhe maijue 王叔和脈訣 (Wang Shuhe's Secrets of the Pulse)

#17 Pharmacology: Oktoi baitalara arga

See Yu #8, Yongyao gejue 用藥歌訣 (Lyrics and Formulas on Using Medicines)

#18 Pharmacology: Oktoi baninfu bithe

See Yu #7, Yaoxingfu 藥性賦 (Verses on Medicinal Properties).

#24ab Pharmacology: Lei gung pooj 'i bithe

See Yu #1, Leigong paozhi shu 雷公炮制書 (Leigong's Treatise on Decoction Methods)

#50abForensic Medicine: Feye tuwara bithe

See Yu #21, Luliguan jiaozhengxiyuan lu 律例館校正洗冤錄 (Corrected Record of

Washing Away the Wrongs' from the Codification Office), also Xiyuan lu 洗冤錄

(Record of 'Washing Away the Wrongs')

#51a-I Western Medicine: Dergici toktobuha Ge ti ciowan lu bithe

See Yu #1, Geti quanlu 骼體全錄 ( Imperially-Commissioned Complete Record on the

Body) and especially Walravens (1996): #1-9.

#52 Western Medicine: Baicara ba be tucibume gisurehengge

See Puyraimond #289; Pang (1997): 35; and Walravens (1996): 10.

#53 Western Medicine: Si yang-ni okto bithe

See Yu #23; Walravens (2000): #21. Xiyang yaoshu 西洋藥書 (Treatise on Western

Medicinals)

#54 Western Medicine: Hi du s'i wehe-i turgun be fetehe baitalara be tucibuhe bithe

See Puyraimond #288; Walravens (2000): #19. Xidushi yuan you yongfa 吸毒石原由用法 (The origin and use of the stone that attracts poison)

Yongzheng (r. 1723-1735) 2 texts

#5 General: Harkasi be dasara

See Yu # 16, Rezheng zhenzhi , 熱證診治 (Diagnosis and Treatment for Hot Syndromes).

Listed in Walravens (2000): #4, as Shanghan huoren zhizhang 傷寒活人指掌 (Mastery

of Cold Damage to Save People's Lives).

#7 Smallpox: Sogiya sekiyen be mohobume leolehengge

See Yu #13, Tianhua tanyuan 天花探源 (Inquiry into the Origins of Celestial Flowers).

#55 Unknown. Jeng biyan i bithe. 1724. von Möllendorff (1890): #228.

Qianlong (r. 1736-1795) 9 texts

#25 Acupuncture: Sabsire suiha sindaraferguwecuke arga, jen jiyu ci fang (Extraordinary

Formulas for Practicing Acupuncture and Cauterization) Zhenjiu qifang 鍼灸奇方

(Extraordinary Formulas for Acupuncture and Cauterization). Neither Pang (1999) nor

Walravens (2000) date this manuscript.

See Yu #14, Jing xue buwei tu 經穴部位圖 (Illustrations of the Locations of the

Acupoints and Channels).

#27 Macrobiotics: No Manchu title given.

See Yu #20, Walravens (2000): #23, Yanshou geyan 延壽格言 (Maxims on Prolonging

Life), 1779.

#29 Macrobiotics: No Manchu title given.

See Yu #18, Sun Simiao weisheng ge 孫思邈衛生歌 (Rhymes on Sun Simiao's

Defending Life)

#30 Gynecology/Midwifery: Seng si chu nio

See Yu #17, Fuke liaofa 婦科療法 (Treatment Methods for Women's Medicine)

#31 Gynecology/Midwifery: Boo-can da s'eng bithe

Baochan dasheng bian 保產達生編 (On Safe Pregnancies and Successful Births).

For discussion of early translations of this text into German (1810), Polish (1811), and

Russian (1812), see Walravens (1996): pg. 359-60. Text also listed in Walravens (2000):

#24.

#35ab Equine Medicine: Be lo Morin be tuwara bithe

See Yu #25, Xiangma Jing 相馬經 (Canon on Evaluating Horses).

#36 Equine Medicine: Morin be dasara bithe

See Yu #26, Majing 馬經 (Canon on Horses)

#37ab Equine Medicine: Morin-i ging-ni yongkiyaha bithe

See Yu #24, Majing quanshu 馬經全書 (Complete Treatise on the Canon on Horses)

#49ab Personal Hygiene: No Manchu title given.

See Yu #31ab, MuyuJing 沐浴經 (Canon on Bathing).

Jiaqing (r. 1796-1820) 1 text

#56 Unknown. In liyan juwan i bithe. 1804. von Möllendorff (1890): #229.

Daoguang (r. 1821-1850) 2 texts

#8. Smallpox: Dasamefoloho mama yabure ice arga

See Yu #10, Chongding yindou xinfa 重訂引痘新法 (Revised Edition of New Methods

to Extract Poxes). Based on an 1848 ed. of Qiu Xi's 1817 publication.

#9. Smallpox: Olhoro baitai dasara hacin be hafumbure bithe

See Yu #11, Douzhen zhengzhi tongjie 痘疹證治通解 (Comprehensive Explanations of

Diagnoses and Treatments for Pox Syndromes)

Tongzhi (r. 1862-1874) 1 text

#23. Pharmacology: Bikin-e tusalqu eldeb jiil em-an nayirulYa kemeka orosibai

See Walravens (2000): #18, Puji zafang 普濟雜方 (Miscellaneous Formulas for the

General Welfare), 1873.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MANCHU MEDICAL MANUSCRIPTS AND TEXTS

I.GENERAL

1. Ho z'in j'i jang bithe (Collectanea of the Essentials of Medicine)

Dasara o oncho be isabukha bithe, Sudalafu (Collectanea of the Essentials of Medicine, and

Verses on Pulses)

Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽 (Collectanea of the Essentials of Medicine), Anon.

Chinese compilation of same title with 6 titles, LHML 11605, 1643 comp.

The 6 titles in Chinese version are the following:

a. Mayue 脈訣附夏真劉三點先生脈訣;, attrib. Wang Shuhe 王叔和. LHML 01413

b. Zhubing lun 諸炳論, Anon. LHML 04974, 1644.

c. Yaoxingfu 藥性賦 , attrib. Zhang Yuansu 張元素.Closest match is Li Gao 李杲,

LHML 02659, 1622.

d. Yongyao gejue 用藥歌訣, Anon. LHML 03340, 1643

e. Nanjing 難經, attrib. Qin Yueren 秦越人 LHML 00214

f. Shanghan huoren zhizhang 傷寒活人指掌. Wu Shu 吳恕 LHML 01150, 1337.]

Ms. 6 fasc., 88 fol. 14 lines/page. Dated 2 August 1699. Collection of M.I. Brosse.

Institute for Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18014; Volkova (1965): B 84 #203; Yu #4; not listed separately in Walravens

(2000)]

2. Eiten nimeku leolen bithe (Treatise on Discussions of Various Illnesses)

Zhubing lun 諸病論 (Discussions of Various Illnesses)

Anon., LHML 04974, 1644 ms; LHML 06203.

Text #lb in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽, LHML 11605, 1643.

Man. ms. Fasc. 1: 70 fol.; 2: 63 fol. 14 lines/page.

Yu Yongmin argues that this manuscript was written during the Kangxi reign.

Institute for Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shyie #18015; Volkova (1965): B 82 #207; Yu #6; Walravens (2000): #1; WK 920;

Banzarov (1948)]

3. Mangga i ging (Canon of Problems)

Nanjing 難經 (Canon of Problems)

Attrib. Qin Yueren 秦越人 (Bianque 扁鵲), LHML 00214.

Earliest extant edition listed as text le in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽, LHML 11605, 1643.

Man. ms 2 fasc. Fasc. 1: 75+2 fol.; 2: 77 fol. 16 lines/page.

Institute for Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18022; Volkova (1965): B 81 #208; Yu #9; Walravens (2000): #2; WK 923]

4a. S'eo s'i boo iowan (Preservation of Primordial Qi to Prolong Life)

Shoushi baoyuan 壽世保元 (Preservation of Primordial Qi to Prolong Life)

Gong Tingxian 龔廷賢, LHML 04939, 1615.

Man. blockprint, 4 fasc.; juan 8, 9, 10, 11.

#1 Historical Archives

[Li #412.1; Shyie #18002a; Quanguo #0996b; Yu #2a; Walravens (2000): #3b-1]

4b. Same title as 4a.

Incomplete man. ms. 22 fasc., 21 j.,Juan 5-7, 13-32 still extant.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Shijie #18002b; Quanguo #0996a; Yu #2b; Walravens (2000): #3b-2]

4c. Same title as 4a.

Incomplete Man. ms. Fasc. 1: 11 fol.; 2: 11 fol;. 3: 12 fol. 14 lines/page.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18002c; Volkova (1965): B 78 #210; Yu #2c; Walravens (2000): #3a; WK 935;

Banzarov (1848)]

5. Harkasi be dasara (Treating Influenza, i.e., Cold-Damage or of Hot Syndromes)

Rezheng zhenzhi 熱證診治 (Diagnosis and Treatment for Hot Syndromes)

[As listed in Shije and Yu]

Shanghan huoren zhizhang 傷寒活人指掌 (Mastery of Cold Damage to Save People's Lives)

[As listed in Walravens]

Wu Shu 吳恕 LHML 01150, 1337.

Text if in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽,LHML 11605, 1643.

Man. ms. 72 fol., 14 lines/page.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18016; Volkova (1965) B79 #201; Yu #16; Walravens (2000): #4; WK 934;

Banzarov (1848)]

6. Hacin hacin-i nimeku be dasara bithe (Treatise on Treating Various Illnesses)

Zhiliao fa 治寮法 (Treatment Methods)

[Chinese title in Quanguo, Walravens]

Chinese origin unknown

Ms. 1 tome, ill.

Inner Mongolia Library

[Quanguo #1000; Walravens (2000): #5]

II. SMALLPOX

7. Sogiya sekiyen be mohobume leolehengge (Thorough Discussion of the Origin of Smallpox)

Tianhua tanyuan 天花探源(Inquiry into the Origins of Celestial Flowers)

[Chinese title in Shijie and Yu]

Chinese origin unknown.

Ms. 69 fol., 20 lines/page. (Slg. Brosset)

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie # 18007; Volkova (1965): B 61 #199; Yu #13; Walravens (2000): #6; WK 932]

8. Dasamefoloho mama yabure ice arga (Re-engraved New Method for Extracting Pox)

Adapted from Chongding yindou xinfa 重訂引痘新法 (Revised Edition of the New Method of

Smallpox Vaccination), by Bao Xiangao 飽相璈, 1836.

Poss. based on Qiu Xi 邱焴 LHML 07947, 1817.

Manchu-Chinese ms. 14 fol., 24 lines/page. (Slg. Krotkov)

This text may have helped introduce Jennerian vaccination from Russia to China.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18005; Volkova (1965): B 75 #200; Yu #10; Walravens (2000): #7; WK 919]

9. Olhoro baitai dasara hacin be hafumbure bithe (Comprehensive Treatise on Drying Up and Treating Kinds [of Smallpox])

Douzhen zhengzhi tongjie 痘疹證治通解 (Comprehensive Explanations of Diagnoses and

Treatments for Pox Syndromes)

By Li Lianyi 李連漪. (No LHML# for the book title and no biography in Chinese medical

dictionaries)

Ms. Preface, Index. Fasc. 1: 74+ 1 fol.; 2: 76 +2 fol. 16 lines/page.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Sh jie #18006; Volkova (1965): B 84 #202; Yu #11; Walravens (2000): #8a; WK 928; Brosset

XI, 33, 3-4; Banzarov (1848)]

10. Same Manchu title as #9.

Douzhen yaoshu 痘疹藥書 (Treatise on Medicines for Pox Syndromes)

(Manchu title differs from the Chinese one)

Chinese origin unknown.

Ms.juan 2, 3.

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris: FM 223 #2

[Puyraimond #223c; Walravens (2000): #8b]

11. Same Manchu title as #9.

Yiliao tongshu 醫療通書 (Comprehensive treatise on medical treatment)

(Manchu title differs from the Chinese one)

Chinese origin unknown. Yu places this text in the Shunzhi reign.

Woodblock print, 6 fasc.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Shyie #18012; Quanguo #0999; Yu #15; Walravens (2000): #9a-2]

12a. Qihoro baitai jergi hacin-i gonin be sume banjibuha bithe (Treatise Explaining the

Drying Up and Healing of Various Aspects of Smallpox)

Douke leibian shiyi 痘科類編釋意 (Explanation of the Meaning of the Classified Essays

on Smallpox), 3j.

Poss. Zhai Liang 翟良 (Yuhua 玉華), Ming, LHML 07760, 1628.

6 fasc., 1 tao, 227 fol. Fasc. I: 5, 90 fol.; II: fol.; III: 55 fol.; IV: 109 fol.; V: 55 fol.; VI:

114 fol.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18006; Volkova (1965) B 80, #202; Volkova (1988) #108; Walravens (2000):

#9a-1; WK 926].

12b. Same title as 12a.

Poss. Zhai Liang 翟良 (Yuhua 玉華) Ming, LHML 07760, 1628.

3 juan

University Library, St. Petersburg: Md 40; Xyl 386.

[Walravens (2000): #9b; WK 922]

III. PULSE DIAGNOSIS

13. Dasara oyonggo isabuha bithe. Sudalafu (Assembled Writings on the Essentials of

Medicine and “Verses on the Pulse”)

Contains Maijue 脈訣 (Formulas for the Pulse), attrib. Wang Shuhe 王叔和 (Jin 3rd c.).

Ms. 6 fasc., 88 fol. 14 lines/page. Dated 2 August 1699.

Text 1in Yiyao jilan 醫藥集覽 (Collectanea of the Essentials of Medicine) [Pulse]

Prob. from Chinese compilation of 6 titles of same title, LHML 11605, 1643 comp.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18014; Volkova (1965): B 84 #203; Yu #4; Walravens (2000): #10]

14. Oktosi bithe. Sudalaifu. (“Treatise for Physicians” and “Verses on Pulses”)

Maijue 脈訣 (Formulas for the Pulses) [Pulse]

Liu Kai 劉開 LHML 01483, 1241.

Expansion of text 1 in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽, LHML 11605, 1643.

Ms. 75 fol., 14 lines/page. Also has a section titled Oktosi bithe “Treatise for

Physicians.”

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18010; Volkova (1965): B 86 #204; Yu #5; Walravens (2000): #11; WK 933;

Banzarov]

15. Nan ging me giowe (Formulas for the Pulses of the Canon of Difficulties)

Nanjing maijue 難經脈訣 (Formulas for the Pulses of the Canon of Difficulties)

a. Tuzhu nanjing maijue 圖注難經脈訣

b. Tuzhu maijue 圖注脈訣

Title changed to Qingwen nanjing maijue 清文難經脈訣

Zhang Shixian 張世賢 LHML 11620, 1693. Also includes Shen Jing 沈鏡, Shanzhu

maijue guizheng 刪注脈訣規正

Ms. 4 fasc., 4 j.

Beijing Library

[Shijie #18011; Quanguo #0995; Yu #19; Walravens (2000): #12]

16a. Wang s'u ho me giowe (Wang Shuhe's Formulas for the Pulses)

Wang Shuhe majue 王叔和脈訣 (Wang Shuhe's Formulas for the Pulses)

Attrib. Wang Shuhe 王叔和 (Jin 3rd c.), Xiong Jun 熊均 (Zongli) 宗立, LHML 01399, 1449.

Ms. 4 fasc., high quality.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Li #411.2; Shijie #18013a; Quanguo #0997a; Yu #3a; Walravens (2000): #13b]

16b. Same title as 16a.

Man. ms. 4 fasc. Republican period blueprint edition based on the Gugong manuscript.

Beijing Library

[Shijie #18013b; Quanguo #0997b; Yu #3b;Walravens (2000): #13a]

IV. PHARMACOLOGY

17. Oktoi baitalara arga (Methods for Using Medicines)

Yongyao ge jue 用藥歌訣 (Lyrics and Formulas for Using Medicines)

Anon. LHML 03340, 1643;

Text ld in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽, LHML 11605, 1643.

Ms. Fasc. 1: 102 fol.; 2: 101 fol.; 3: 13 fol. 14 lines/page. (Slg. Brosset)

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shyie #18021; Yu #8; Volkova (1965): B 85 #205; Walravens (2000): #14]

18. Oktoi baninfu bithe (Treatise of Verses on Medicinal Properties)

Yaoxing fu 藥性賦 (Verses on [Medicinal Properties)

Attrib. Li Gao 李杲, LHML 02659, 1622; also attr. to Zhang Yuansu 張元素.

Text ic. in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽, LHML 11605, 1643.

Ms. 55 fol., 14 lines/page. (Slg. Brosset).

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18020; Yu #7; Volkova (1965): B 83 #206; Walravens (2000): #15a]

19. No Manchu for title of compilation

Lun tan zhubing yaoshu 論談諸病藥書 (Treatise of discussions on various diseases and

medicines)

Fasc. 1. Okto-i banin fu. Jen ju nang kamcihabi,

Zhenzhu nang yaoxing fu 珍珠囊藥性賦 (Satchel of Precious Pearls Verses on Medicinal

Properties) [Chinese title first proposed by N. Kanda].

Attrib. Li Gao 李杲 ,LHML 02659, 1622. But could also be from Gong Tingxian's

Shoushi baoyuan (4ab). Or Luo Biwei 羅必煒, Zhenzhu nang yaoxing fu yifang jiejing

珍珠囊藥性賦醫方捷徑 LHML 04969, 1644. See also lc in Yiyao jilan 醫要集覽.

Ms. 148 fol.

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

[Puyraimond #223a; Kanda (1968); Walravens (2000): #15b-1]

20. Same compilation title as 19.

Lun tan zhubing yaoshu 論談諸病藥書 (Treatise of discussions on various diseases and

medicines)

Fasc. 2 Harkasi fu (Verses on Influenza, i.e., Cold-Damage or Hot Disorders)

Rebing fu 熱病賦 (Verses on Hot Disorders) [Chinese title first proposed by N. Kanda,

also in Puyraimond, Walravens].

Chinese origin unknown.

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

[Puyraimond #223b; Kanda (1968); Walravens (2000): #15b-2]

21. Untitled Manuscript. [Related to the healing properties of food]

Chinese origin unknown. According to Yu, the Chinese title is Shiliaofa 食療法.

Damaged handwritten ms. missing beginning and conclusion. 8 fol. 12 lines/page.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18003; Volkova (1965): A 43 #211; Yu #12; Walravens (2000): #16]

22. Silenggi. Silenggi muke be fuifufi omici (Boiling Dew and Water When Drinking)

Ms. manuscript, 1 vol., 84 fol.

Chinese origin unknown.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Slg. Brosset X, 17; Walravens (2000): #17; WK 931]

23. Bükün-e tusalqu eldeb jüil em-ün nayirulYa kemekü orosibai

(Walravens' translation: “That which is called the compendium of remedies of various sorts,

helpful to all, is contained therein”)

Puji zafang 普濟雜方 (Miscellaneous Formulas for the General Welfare), 1873 [Form.]

Attrib. Gao Shige 高世格 (Goosige), LHML 03785, 1873.

Man. ms. 1 fasc. in a case, 66 fol. Acc. to catalogue this is a collection of prescriptions in

Mongolian, which includes at ff. 55-64 a list of herbs in Tibetan, Mongolian, and Chinese, with a

Manchu transcription of the Chinese term. Compiler's name given in Mongolian and Chinese on

colophon. Mongolian gives the date as (Tongzhi 11) 1872; the Chinese as (Tongzhi 12) 1873.

British Library, London

[Heissig (1954) 171, Nr. 214; Poppe, Hurvitz, & Okada (1964) 120; Simon/Nelson (1977)

11.149; Poppe #120; Walravens (2000): #18]

24a. Lei gung pooj'i bithe (Treatise on Leigong's Decoction Methods)

Leigong paozhi shu 雷公炮製書 (Treatise on Leigong's Decoction Methods)

Prob. from a Chinese compilation of three texts, LHML 02264, 1593.

a. Leigong baozhi lun 雷公炮製論, Lei Xiao 雷斆

LHML 02858, 1932 reprint.

b. Leigong paozhi yaoxing jie 雷公炮製藥性解, Li Zhongzi 李中梓

LHML 02275 (with 6c), 1622, LHML 02276, 1622.

c. Leigong paozhi pianlan

雷公炮製便覽, Yu Ruxi 俞汝溪

Man. ms. 2 tao, 16 fasc., 16 j.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Fuchs (1932) #11; Li #412.3; Shijie #18018a; Yu #la, Walravens (2000): #20b]

24b. Same title as 24a.

Man. ms. 2 tao, 16 fasc, 16 j., post-1925 blueprint edition of the Gugong manuscript.

Beijing Library

[Shijie #18018b; Quanguo #0994; Fuchs (1932: 474), 11; Yu #lb; Walravens (2000): #20a]

V. ACUPUNCTURE

25. Sabsire sȗiha sindara ferguwecuke argan (Wonderful Methods for Applying Moxa and

Acupuncture)

Zhenjiu qifang 鍼灸奇方 (Extraordinary Formulas for Acupuncture and Cauterization)

Chinese origin unknown.

Title according to Shijie and Yu., Jing xue buwei tu 經穴部位圖 (Illustrations of the Locations

of the Acupoints and Channels)

Man. ms. 52 fol., 11 lines/page. 23 ill., 26 items of commentary.

(Whereas Pang (1999) lists 23 illustrations, Shijie, Yu, and Walravens only list 21).

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

See T.A. Pang, “A Manchu Manuscript on Acupuncture,” Manuscripta Orientalia 5.2 (June

1999): 65-70. See also Weires (1980) for an article on a fragment of a Manchu acupuncture text

whose origin is unknown.

[Shijie #18009; Volkova (1965): B 92 #213; Yu #14; Walravens (2000): #22a; WK 930]

26. Sabsire suihe sindara arga (Formulas for Practicing Acupuncture and Cauterization)

Fanyi zhenjiu shu 翻譯鍼灸書 (Translation of a Treatise on Acupuncture and

Cauterization)

Chinese origin unknown.

Man. ms. 2 fasc. 12 lines/page. 38 cm x 22 cm.

University Library, St. Petersburg

[Walravens (2000): #22b; WK 929]

VI. MACROBIOTICS

27. No Manchu title given.

Yanshou geyan 延壽格言 (Maxims on Prolonging Life)

Chinese origin unknown.

Ms. Manchu & Chinese, dated 1779.

Central Minorities College, Beijing

[Shijie #18001; Yu #20; Walravens (2000): #23]

28. No Manchu title given.

Shiwu bencao 食物本草 (Materia medica of food stuffs)

Several possible Chinese sources of same title: LHML #02742, 1520 ed. by Xue Yi 薛已

1520; #02743, 1521 ed. by Lu He 虜和; #02750, 1620 ed. by Wang Yi 汪疑; #02752,

1621 ed. by Li Shizhen 李時珍.

One of three works translated from Chinese into Manchu by Kamenskii.

Ms. 1 fasc, fol. 30-45, 49-54, 56-59.

Public Library, St. Petersburg

[Iakhontov, 1991, #12.2]

29. No Manchu title given.

Sun Simiao weisheng ge 孫思邈衛生歌 (Rhymes on Sun Simiao's Defending Life)

Chinese origin unknown.

Man. ms. attrib. Sun Simiao (Tang)

Nanjing Library

[Yu #18]

VII. GYNECOLOGY, OBSTETRICS, & MIDWIFERY

30. Seng si chu nio

Fuke liaofa 婦科療法 (Treatment Methods for Women's Medicine)

(Chinese title given in Shijie and Yu, but not on title page of original).

Possibly extracted from the Yizong jinjian, LHML 11645, 1742.

Man. ms. 33 fol. 14 lines/page.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18017; Volkova (1965): B 24 #209; Yu #17;]

31. Boo-can da s'eng bithe (On Safe Pregnancies and Successful Births)

Baochan dasheng bian 保產達生編 (On Safe Pregnancies and Successful Births)

Poss. LHML 06983, 1715. The most popular book on midwifery thereafter with many editions and multiple versions.

Final page records that Minister Fu of the Lifan yuan (Bureau of Colonial Affairs) gifted this book.

1 fasc., 58 fol. 8 lines/page.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Volkova (1988): B 224 #109; Walravens (2000): 24]

VIII. PEDIATRICS

32. Nimeku dasara bithe (Treatise on Treating Illnesses)

Xiaoerke zhengxi 小兒科正系 (Orthodox Lineage of Pediatrics)

[Chinese title given in Walravens]

Chinese origin unknown, possibly derived from the 1742 imperial publication Yizong jinjian, LHML #11645.

University Library, St. Petersburg: Md 223, Xyl 414

[Walravens #25]

IX. MEDICAL-RELATED SUBJECTS

33. Mujilen be dasara oyonggo hacin-i bithe (Treatise on Treating Important Affairs of the Heart/Mind)

Chinese origin unknown.

Ms. 1 fasc, 49 fol.

University Library, St. Petersburg: Md 230, Xyl Q 615, Pozdn. No 55

[Misig (1959): 175; Walraven (2000): #26]

34. Da sukdun bisire be leolerengge (Discussion on the Existence of the Primordial Qi, i.e., 元氣)

Chinese origin unknown.

Ms. 5 fol.

University Library, St. Petersburg: Xyl Q 967

[Walraven #27]

X. EQUINE MEDICINE

35a. Be lo morin be tuwara bithe (Treatise for Evaluating Horses)

Xiangma jing 相馬經 (Canon on Evaluating Horses)

Poss. Xu Xian 徐咸 (Ming) Shuofu 說郛

Man. Ms. 20 fol. 24 lines/page. Divided acc. to spring, summer, fall, winter.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18024b; Yu #26; Volkova (1965): B 66 #214; Walravens (2000): #28a: WK 917]

35b. Same title as 35a.

Xiangma jing 相馬經 (Canon on Evaluating Horses)

Poss. Xu Xian 徐咸 (Ming) Shuofu 說郛

Ms., 1 fasc., ill.

Inner Mongolia Library

[Quanguo #1003; Yu #25; Walravens (2000): #28b]

36. Morin be dasara bithe (Treatise on Treating Horses)

馬經 (Canon on Horses)

Man. ms. 3 fasc., 4j.. 30 x 19.9 cm. Divided acc. to spring, summer, fall, winter.

#1 Historical Archives, Beijing

[Shijie #18024a; Quanguo #1001; Yu #26, however, states there is no PRC copy;

Walravens (2000): 29 (mistakenly refers to the two editions listed under Quanguo #1002)]

37a. Morin-i ging-ni yongkiyaha bithe (Complete Treatise on the Canon of Horses)

Majing quanshu 馬經全書 (Complete Book on the Canon on Horses)

a. A version of Majing 馬經 by Yu Gan 喻紺

b. Yuanhengliao majing 元亨療馬經 by Yu Ren 喻仁

Man. ms. 8 fasc., 8 j.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Shijie #18023a; Quanguo #1002a; Yu #24a; Walravens (2000): #30 (mistakenly refers to the

edition listed under Quanguo #1001)]

37b. Same title as 37a.

Man. ms. 8 fasc.

Rep. era blueprint edition based on the Gugong manuscript.

Beijing Library

[Shijie #18023b; Quanguo #1002b; Yu #24b; Walravens (2000): #30 (mistakenly refers to the

edition listed under Quanguo #1001)]

XI. ALCHEMY

38. U jen piyan bithe (Treatise on the Awakening of Truth)

Wuzhen pian 悟貞篇 (Essay on the Awakening of Truth)

Chinese origin unknown.

Zhang Boduan 張伯端 (984-1082), 1705. On inner alchemy.

Ms. 6 fasc.,

University Library, St. Petersburg: Md 225

[Walravens (2000): 31]

XII. MATERIA MEDICA

*39. Manchu title unknown. No longer extant.

Bencao shiming 本草釋名 (Explanations of the names of plants in materia medica)

Chinese origin unknown.

[Julien, 1889, #52]

*40. Manchu title unknown. No longer extant.

Bencao gangmu 本草綱目 (Systematic materia medica)

Li Shizhen, LHML 02261, 1578?

[Julien, 1889, #53]

*41. Manchu title unknown. No longer extant.

Bencao jijie 本草集解 (要?) (Compiled explanations of materia medica)

Poss. Wang Lun, LHML 02252, 1492.

[Julien, 1889, #54]

*42. Manchu title unknown. No longer extant.

Bencao faming 本草發明 (Clarification of materia medica)

Poss. Huang Fusong, LHML 02260, 1578.

[Julien, 1889, #55]

*43. Manchu title unknown. No longer extant.

Bencao yanfang 本草驗方 (Materia medica of proven-effective formulas)

Chinese origin unknown.

[Julien, 1889, #56]

XIII. MEDICAL PROGNOSTICATION

44. Yuwan hai za ping ni bithe

Yuanhai zapin 淵海雜品 (Bottomless Ocean [of Knowledge about] Various Things)

According to Volkova, this is a collection of auspicious signs and predictions based on a work by

Li Gong 李龔 (Tang), but no specific Chinese text has been compared with it.

Man. ms. 320 pgs, 16 lines each.

Institute of Oriental Studies, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18004; Volkova (1965): B 68 #215; Yu argues that this is not a medical text and

Walravens (2000) does not mention it.]

XIV. RELIGIOUS

45. No Manchu title given.

Shangyaowang yuanliu 上藥王原流 (Origin and Transmission of the Ascendant God of

Medicine)

Chinese origin unknown.

Man. ms.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Yu #27]

46. No Manchu title given.

Da yi fang ming 答醫方明 (Clarification of Replies [to Questions about] Medicine and

Formulas)

Chinese origin unknown.

Man. ms.

Yonghegong library, Beijing

[Yu #28]

47. No Manchu title given.

Qimen 奇門 (Gate of the Extraordinary)

Chinese origin unknown. Possibly related to acupuncture or religious healing.

Man. ms.

Inner Mongolia

[Yu #29]

48. No Manchu title given.

Changshou fojing 長壽佛經 (Buddhist Canon for Prolonging Life)

Chinese origin unknown.

Man. ms.

Library of the Palace Museum

[Yu #30]

XV. PERSONAL HYGIENE

49a. No Manchu title given.

Muyu jing 沐浴經 (Canon on Bathing)

Same title is listed as having 3juan but without an author in the Nan Shi 南史 (History of the

South), by Li Yanshou 李延壽 (av. 601-ap. 675). There is no evidence, however, that the two

titles are the same book.

Man. ms.

Beijing Library

[Yu #31 a]

49b. Same title as 50a.

Chinese origin unknown.

Man. ms.

Yonghegong library

[Yu #31b]

XVI. FORENSIC MEDICINE

50a. Feye tuwara bithe ('Washing Away the Wrongs')

Luliguan jiaozheng xiyuan lu 律例館校正洗冤錄 (Corrected Record of 'Washing Away the

Wrongs' from the Codification Office)

Chinese original, Song Ci 宋慈 (1186-1249), Southern Song, 1247.

Appended to Wang Kentang 王肯堂, Da Ming lu fu li jian shi 大明錄附例箋釋 as the Xiyuan lu

洗冤錄 and was later published as a separate edition and appended to the Da Qing luli 大清錄例

Man. ms. 4 fasc, 4 j.

See translation by McKnight The Washing Away of Wrongs (1981).

For Jesuit interest in this text, see Standaert (2001): 793, 796.

Central Minorities College, Beijing

[Li #412.2; Fuchs (1936), pg. 99; Yu #21]

50b. Feye tuwara bithe ('Washing Away the Wrongs'). No longer extant.

Xiyuan lu 洗冤錄 (Record of 'Washing Away the Wrongs')

Chinese original, Southern Song, 1247.

See translation by McKnight The Washing Away of Wrongs (1981).

[Julien, 1889, #118]

XVII. WESTERN ANATOMY

(This survey of the 9 extant copies of the Manchu Anatomy follows Walravens 1996)

51 a. Dergici toktobuha Ge ti ciowan lu bithe (Imperially-Commissioned Complete Record on the

Body)

Geti quanlu 骼體全錄 (Imperially-Commissioned Complete Record on the Body) Comp. by

French Jesuits Dominique Parrenin & Joachim Bouvet based on Pierre Dionis and Thomas

Bartholin. Three copies made for Wenyuange, Changchunyuan, and Bishu shanzhuang are no

longer extant.

Man. ms. 12 fascicles. 25,6 x 17,7 cm.

Paper without lines. I vol., 12 fascicles. Fasc. I: 55 fol.; 2: 65 fol,; 3: 47 fol.; 4: 43 fol.; 5: 41 fol.;

6: 46 fo.;7: 56 fol.; 8: 57 fol.: 9: 68 fol.; 10: 61 fol.; 11: 62 fol.; 12: 61 fol.;

7 lines/page. At the beginning of fasc I table of contents. The work consists of two parts: dergi (4

debt.) and fejergi (4 debt.).

See Clod-Hansen, A. (1906); Thomsen, Vilhelm, trans. (1928); Johnsson, John W.S. (1928);

Young and Sask (1974); Saunders and Lee (1981); Walravens (1996); and Standaert (2001).

University Library, St. Petersburg: 02340, Xyl. 1642

[von Möllendorff #227a; Fuchs & Gimm #97; Kanda p. 91; Yu #22a; Walravens (1996):1]

51b. Title same as #51a.

Without t'ao. Fasc I: 61 fol.; 2: 72 fol.; 3: 52 fol.; 4: 46 fol.; 5: 48 fol.; 6: 55 fol.; 7: 64 fol.; 8: 67

fol.; 9: 68 fol.; 10: 71 fol.; 11: 69 fol.; 12: 72 fol. 7 lines/page, Chinese pagination. Russian

interlinear translations are added to the table of contents.

University Library, St. Petersburg: 306.Md 222; dbl Xyl 1642.

Acc. to Walravens (1996) this may be the copy Emile Bretschneider referred to as being in the

possession of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking.

[Cited only in Walravens (1996)]

51c. Title same as #52a.

656 fol. 16 lines/page.

Asiatic Museum (Az Dep. 445)

Institut Vostokovedenija, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

[Shijie #18008; Volkova (1965): B 39 #212; Yu #22b; Avvakum #445; Walravens (1996): 3]

51d. “Treatise on anatomy by P. Joachim Bouvet (1656-1730) and P. Dominique Parrenin (1665-

1741) after Thomas Bartholin (Lyon, 1677), Manchu translation 1723.”

[W. Anat.]

40 fol., 90 pl., 31,5 x 24 cm. Facsimile MS no. II, Fonds oriental (fragm.)

Hand I: standard style.

Hand II: running style: pl. 23, 24, 33, 34, 39, 40.

Pl. 11 contains only the text for pl. 10 so there are only 89 illustrations on 90 pl.

See facsimiles in Anatomie Mandchoue, 1928, and Saunders and Lee, The Manchu Anatomy and

Its Historical Origins, 1981.

Facsimile is also listed as Zhoushen xue mai tu 週身血脈圖 (Illustrations of the blood and

vessels of the entire body) in the School of Oriental and African Studies, London

[1 1094.e.9, SOAS EX. 43. (23203)]

Royal Library, Copenhagen; A copy is also in the SOAS Library, England

[Simon/Nelson III.79; Fuchs/Gimm: #97; Yu 22d; Walravens (1996): 4]

51 e. Wargi namu oktosilame niyalma beye giranggi sudala nirugan-i gisun

(Explanations and Illustrations of the bones and vessels of the human body in Western medicine)

Xiyi renshen gumai tushuo 西醫人身骨脈圖說 (Explanations and Illustrations of the bones and

vessels of the human body in Western medicine)

Comp. by French Jesuits Dominique Parrenin & Joachim Bouvet based on

Pierre Dionis and Thomas Bartholin.

16 fasc., 299 +288 fol., 135 pl. Many corrections. Copy seems to have belonged to Paul

Pelliot. Cf. TP 26 (1929): 404. Acquired from the bookseller Maisonneuve.

Bibliothèque nationale, Paris: FM 191.

[Puyraimond #289, Cordier #3672-73; Pang (1998): #50; Pang (1997): 34-5: Walravens

(1996): 5]

51 f. Ge ti ciowan lu bithe (Complete Record of Anatomy)

Geti quanshu 格體全書 (Complete Record of Anatomy)

Comp. by French Jesuits Dominique Parrenin & Joachim Bouvet based on

Pierre Dionis and Thomas Bartholin. Worked on it from 1710-1715.

8 fasc. Sent by Parrenin to the Royal Academy.

Bibliothèque Centrale du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris: MS 2009.

[Puyraimond #289; Volkova I, 212; Pang (1998): #50; Pang (1997): 34-5; Yu 22e;

Walravens (1996): 6]

51g. Title same as #52a.

Geti quanlu 格體全錄 (Complete Record of the Body)

Comp. by Pierre Dionis and Thomas Bartholin.

8 + 4 fasc. Without plates.

Tȏyȏ Bunko, Tokyo 100656

[Poppe/Hurvitz/Okada: #478; Walravens (1996): 7]

51h. Title same as #52a.

Geti quanlu 格體全路 (Complete Record of the Body)

Comp. by Pierre Dionis and Thomas Bartholin.

Blueprint, 6 fasc.

Tȏyȏ Bunko, Tokyo 112812

[Poppe/Hurvitz/Okada: #479; Walravens (1996): 8]

51i. Hesei toktobuha Ge ti ciowan lu (Complete Record of the Body by Imperial Order)

Yinding geti quanlu 飲定格體全錄 (Imperially-Commissioned Complete Record of the Body)

Comp. By French Jesuits Dominique Parrenin & Joachim Bouvet, 1710-1723, based on

French anatomists Pierre Dionis and Thomas Bartholin.

1928 blueprint, 6 fasc.

Central Minorities College Library, Beijing

[Von Möllendorff #227b; Quanguo #0993; Yu #22f; Walravens (1996): 9]

XVIII. WESTERN MEDICINE

52. Baicara ba be tucibume gisurehengge (Explanations of Issues Asked)

This is a treatise on poisons and remedies that Father Parrennin wrote in response to Kangxi's

order on March 3, 1715. Was possibly completed around 1722, the year of Father Parrennin's

death. Kangxi is said to have checked and corrected it every 10th day.

(Acc. to Pang (1997), see 4th fasc. to the texts of the first four juan, in the 7th fasc. to the fifth-

seventh juan, in the 8th fasc. to the eighth juan).

For discussion of the context of this text, see Walravens (1996) and Pang (1997, 1998).

Bibliothèque Centrale du Muséum Nationale d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris: MS 2009.

[Puyraimond #289, Pang (1997, 1998): 35; Walravens (1996): 10]

53. Si yang-ni okto bithe (Treatise on Western Medicinals)

Xiyang yaoshu 西洋藥書 (Treatise on Western Medicinals)

Father Jean-Francois Gerbillon.

Ms. 4 fasc., Imperial Household vademecum (pocket) edition, 40 items.

For the only article devoted to this text, see Li Huan 李歡, “Qing gong jiuzang manwen”Xiyang

yaoshu” 清宮舊藏滿文西洋藥書 Zijin cheng 紫禁成 (1999): 4. Also discussed in Standaert

(2001)

Library of the Palace Museum

[Shijie #18019; Quanguo #0998; Yu #23; Walravens (2000): #21]

54. Hi du s'i wehe-i turgun be fetche baitalara be tucibuhe bithe

Xidushi yuan you yongfa 吸毒石原由用法 (The origin and usage of the stone that attracts the

venom)

Father Ferdinand Verbiest 南懷仁 (1623-1688).

Ms. 1 fasc., 6 fol. (1-2 fol. damaged).

According to Libbrecht (1987), pg. 210, was written between 1686-1688; after 1685 when

Kangxi asked for Jesuit physicians in his court and 1686 when the Chinese version the Manchu

version followed was completed.

For translations of the Chinese text, see Ulrich Libbrecht, “Introduction of the Lapis Serpentinus

into China,” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 18 (1987): 209-237.

For the Manchu version, see Lode Talpe, “The Manchu Text of the Hsi-tu-shih or Lapis

Serpentinus.” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 22 (1991): 215-234.

See also P. Pelliot, T'oung Pao, vol.17 (1916): 380; vol. 25 (1928): 191.

The Chinese edition is listed in L. Pfister, S.J. (1932-34), vol. 1, 357, no. 32.

Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

[Puyraimond #288; Walravens (2000): #19]

XIX. UNKNOWN

*55. Jeng biyan i bithe. 1724

Imperial Russian Legation in Peking

von Möllendorff (1890): #228

*56. In liyan juwan i bithe. 1804

Imperial Russian Legation in Peking

von Möllendorff (1890): #229

*57. Tiye guwan tu.

Imperial Russian Legation in Peking

von Möllendorff (1890): #230

*58. Sung bing bithe.

Imperial Russian Legation in Peking

von Möllendorff (1890): #231

REFERENCES

A. LIBRARY CATALOGUES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

  • Avvakum. 1843-44. Katalog knigam, rukopisjam I kartam na kitajskom man 'czurskom mongol 'skom, tibetskom i sanskritskom jazykax, naxodjascimsja v biblioteke Aziatskogo departamenta. St. Petersburg, Eduard Prac.
  • Banzarov, Dorzhi. 1848. Katalog knigam i rukopisam na mandzurskom jazyke, nachodjascimsjav Azijatskom Muzee imperatorskoj Akademii nauk. Bulletin de la classe historico-pjilogique, Academie imp. des sciences de St. Petersbourg 5: 83-92.
  • Cordier, Herbert. 1893-95. Bibliotheca Sinica: Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages relatifs a l'empire chinois,; rev. edition, 4 vols., Paris: Guilmoto, 1904-8. Rep. New York: B. Franklin, 1968.
  • ———. 1901. L'imprimerie sino-europiene en Chine. Bibliographie des ouvrages publies en Chine par les Europeens au XVIIe et au XVIIIe siecle. Publications de l'Ecole des langues orientales vivantes. Ve srie, tome III. Paris.
  • Fletcher, Joseph F. Jr. 1973. “Manchu Sources,” in Donald D. Leslie, Colin Mackerras, and Wang Gungwu, eds., Essays on the Sources for Chinese History, 141-146. Canberra: Australian National University.
  • Fuchs, Walter. 1932. “Neues Material zur Mandjurischen Literatur aus Pekinger Bibliotheken.” Asia Major 7: 469-482.
  • ———. 1936. Beitrage zur Mandjurischen Bibliographie und Literatur. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fir Natur- und Vlkerkunde Ostasiens. Tokyo.
  • ———. 1942. “Neue Beitrage zur Mandjurischen Bibliographie und Literatur.” Monumenta Serica VI: 1-37.
  • Fuchs, Walter; Martin Gimm. 1991. “Die manjurische Sammlung der Koninglichen Bibliothek zu Koenhagen.” Aetas Manjurica 2: 43-116.
  • Giles, Herbert A. 1898. A Catalogue of the Wade Collection of Chinese and Manchu Books in the Library of the University of Cambridge. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Rep. Leyden: E. J. Brill, 1948.
  • Hessig, W. 1961. Mongolische Handschriften, Blockdrucke, Landkarten. Verzeichnis der Orientalischen handschriften in Deutschland, I. Wiesbaden.
  • Iakhontov, K.S. 1991. Man'chzhurskie rukopisy i ksilografy gosudarstvennoi publichnoi biblioteki imeni M.E. Saltykova-Shchedrina. Leningrad.
  • Ikegami, Jiro. 1962. “Y6roppa ni aru Manshugo bunken ni tsuite,” T6y gakuh6 45.3: 105-21.
  • ———. 1964. “Y6roppa ni aru Manshugo bunken ni tsuite (hoi),” Toy gakuh6 47.3: 144-46.
  • Julien, Stanislas. 1889. “Bibliographie Tartare: Traductions Mandchoues d'ouvrages chinois,” in Mimoires de la Societe Sinico-Japonaise (Paris): 5-19. This is posthumously published list of titles that were either in the possession of Stanislas Julien or in libraries he had visited. He gave no indication where these titles were located and many are now lost, including the five materia medica titles.
  • Kanda, Nobuo. 1968. “Present State of Preservation of Manchu Literature.” Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko (The Oriental Library) 26: 63-95.
  • Laufer, Berthold. 1908. “Skizze der Manjurischen Literatur,” Keleti Szemle 8: 1-53. Republished in Hartmut Walravens, ed., Kleinere Schriften von Berthold Laufer (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner, 1976).
  • Li Teh Ch'i 李德啓; ed. by Yu Dachyuan 于道全.1933. Union Catalogue of Manchu Books in the National Library of Peiping and the Library of the Palace Museum. Beijing: National Library of Peiping and the Library of the Palace Museum.
  • Ligeti, Louis. 1952. “A propos de l'ecriture manchoue.” Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 2: 235-98.
  • Matsumura, Jun. 1976. “A Catalogue of the Manchu Books in the Library of Congress,” TG 57.1-2: 230-53.
  • Ning Chia. 1992. “The Manchu Collection in the Johns Hopkins University” Central and Inner Asian Studies 6 : 34-43.
  • Pang, Tatjana A. 1998. A Catalogue of Manchu Materials in Paris: Manuscripts, Blockprints, Scrolls, Rubbings, Weapons. Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden.
  • ———. 1997. “Manchu Collections in Paris.” Manuscripta Orientalia: International Journal for Oriental Manuscript Research 3.1 (March): 33-39.
  • Pfister, Louis. 1932, 1934. Notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les Jesuites de l'ancienne mission de Chine 1552-1773. 2 vols. Shanghai.
  • Poppe, Nicolas, Leon Hurvitz, and Okada Hidehiro. 1964. Catalogue of the Manchu-Mongol Section of the T6y Bunko. Tokyo, Toy6 Bunko; Seattle, University of Washington Pres.
  • Puyraimond, Jeanne-Marie, under the direction of Walter Simon and Marie-Rose Sguy. 1979. Catalogue du Fonds Mandchou. Bibliothèque Nationale Departement des Manuscrits, Division des Manuscrits Orientaux. Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale.
  • Quanguo Manwen tushu ziliao lianhe mulu 全國滿文圖書資料聯合目錄 (National Union Catalogue of Manchu Literature in Mainland Chinese Libraries). 1991. Ed. by Huang Runhua 黃潤華, et al. Beijing: Shumu wenxian chubanshe. Abbr. Quanguo.
  • Quanguo Zhongyi tushu lianhe mulu 全國中醫圖書聯合目錄 (National Union Catalogue of Chinese Medical Books). 1991. Xue Qinglu 薛清錄, et al., eds. Beijing: Zhongyi guji chubanshe. Abbr. LHML.
  • Shijie Manwen wenxian mulu 世界滿文文獻目錄 (International Catalogue of Manchu Literature). 1983. Beijing: Zhongguo minzu guwenzi. Abbr. Shijie.
  • Simon, Walter; and Howard G. H. Nelson. 1977. Manchu Books in London: A Union Catalogue. London: The British Library.
  • Sinor, Denis. 1963. Introduction to Manchu Studies. American Council of Learned Societies, Research and Studies in Uralic and Altaic Languages, Project no. 104.
  • Stary, Giovanni. 1985. Opere Mancesi in Italia e in Vaticano. Wiesbaden: Kommissionsverlag Otto Harrassowitz.
  • ———. 1990. Manchu Studies: An International Bibliography. Wiesbaden: Kommissionsverlag Otto Harrassowitz.
  • Volkova, Majja Petrovna. 1965. Opisanie Man'chzhurskikh Rukopisei Instituta Naradov Azii AN SSSR (Description of Manchurian Manuscripts at the Institute of Oriental Studies). Moscow. Catalogue of Manchu texts in the Library of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.
  • Volkova, Majja Petrovna. 1988. Opisanie Man'chzhurskikh Ksilografov Instituta Vostokovedenija AN SSSR (Description of Manchurian woodblock printed editions at the Institut Vostokovedenija). Moscow. Catalogue of Manchu texts in the library of the Vostokovedenija Institute in St. Petersburg.
  • von Möllendorff, Paul Georg. 1890. “Essay on Manchu Literature,” Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, v. 45, XXIV no. 1: 1-45.
  • Walravens, Hartmut. 1976. “Vorlaufige Titelliste der Mandjurica in Bibliotheken der USA,” Zentralasiatische Studien 10: 551-613.
  • ———. Unpublished. “Handschriftlicher Gesamtkatalog der russischen Mandjurica.” Handbook.on Manchu Materials in Russia.

B. SECONDARY SOURCES

  • Acherknecht, Erwin H. 1982. A Short History of Medicine. Revised Edition. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Bartlett, Beatrice. 1985. “Books of Revelations: The Importance of the Manchu Language Archival Record Books for Research on Ch'ing History.” Late Imperial China 6.2: 25-36.
  • ———. 1991. Monarchs and Ministers: The Grand Council in Mid-Ch'ing China, 1723-1820. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Chu Ping-yi 祝平一 .1996. “Shenti, linghun yu tianzhu: Mingmo Qingchu xixue zhongde renti shengli zhishi” 身體靈魂與天主:明末清初西學中的人體生理知識 (“Body, Soul, and God: Knowledge of Human Anatomy at the end of the Ming and early Qing”). Xinshi xue 7.2: 47-98.
  • Chuang Chi-fa 莊吉發. 1996. “Saman xinyang yu minsu yiliao” 薩滿信仰與民俗醫療 (Shamanism and the popular medical therapy). In his Qingshi suibi 清史隨筆 (Jottings on Qing History), 152-162. Taibei: Boyang wenhua shiye.
  • Clod-Hansen, A. 1906. “Die manschuische Übersetzung von Bartholin's Anatomie.” (“The Manchu Translation of Bartholin's Anatomy”). Skandinavisches Archiv fur Physiologie 18: 321-322.
  • Crossley, Pamela Kyle. 1990a. Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • ———. 1990b. “Thinking About Ethnicity in Early Modern China.” Late Imperial China 1: 1-34.
  • ———. 1997. The Manchus. The Peoples of Asia Series. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell Publishers.
  • ———. 1999. A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Crossley, Pamela Kyle; and Evelyn Rawski. 1993. “A Profile of the Manchu Language in Ch'ing History.” HJAS 53.1 (June): 63-102.
  • Elliott, Mark. 2001. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Fletcher, Joseph. 1975. “Manchu Sources,” in Donald Leslie, et al eds., Essays on the Sources for Chinese History (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press): 141-146.
  • Goodman, Howard L; Anthony Grafton. 1991. “Ricci, the Chinese, and the Toolkits of Textualists.” Asia Major Third Series III: 95-149.
  • Grover, Mme. Y. 1977. “La Correspondance scientifique du Père Dominique Parrenin (1665- 1741),” in Actes du 1ie Colloque Internationale de Sinologie. Chantilly, France.
  • Guy, R. Kent. 2002. “Who Were the Manchus? A Review Essay.” JAS 61.1: 151-164.
  • Hsieh, H.T. 19221. “A review of ancient Chinese anatomy.” Anatomical Record vol. 20: 97-127.
  • Huard, Pierre. 1953. “La diffusion de l'anatomie européenne dans quelques secteurs de l'Asie.” Archives internationals d'histoire des sciences 32: 266-278.
  • Huard, Pierre; Ming Wong. 1967. La Médicine des Chinois. L'Univers des connaissances, 23. Paris: Hachette.
  • Ishida Mikinosuke. 1953. “Shin no Kȏki tei to kaibȏgaku: Fukuseisarata kikȏsho.” (K'ang-his and His Study of Anatomy: On the Reproduction of a Rare Manchu Book). Buka kȏryȗ 2: 17-20.
  • Johnsson, John W.S. 1928. “L'anatomie mandchoue et les figures de Th. Bartholin: Etudes d'iconographie comparee” Kgl Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske meddelelser: 7.1. Published as a 42 pg. book in Copenhagen: A.F. Host, 1928.
  • Li Huan 李歡. 1999. “Qing gong jiuzang manwen 'Xiyang yaoshu”' 清宮舊藏滿文西洋藥書 Zijin cheng 紫禁成: 4: 30.
  • Libbrecht, Ulrich. 1987. “Introduction of the Lapis Serpentinus into China, A Study of the Hsi-tu-shih of F. Verbiest, s.j.” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 18: 209-237.
  • Lockhart, William. 1842. “Art. XI.-A Treatise on Midwifery. A new Edition published in the fifth Year of Taou Kwong (1825),” The Dublin Journal of Medical Science vol. XX, no. 60 (January): 333-369.
  • Madsen, Victor. 1928. Anatomie Mandchoue. Facsimilé du Manuscrit No. 11 du Fonds Oriental de la Bibliothèque Royale de Copenhague. Publié sous les Auspices de M. Abr. Clod- Hansen, par Victor Madsen. Translation by M. Vilhelm Thomsen. Copenhagen.
  • McKnight, Brian E. 1981. The Washing Away of Wrongs: Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth- Century China. Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan.
  • Needham, Joseph, with the collaboration of Lu Gwei-djen. 2000. Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 6 Biology and Biological Technology, Part VI: Medicine. Edited and with an Introduction by Nathan Sivin. Cambridge University Press.
  • Pang, T.A. 1994. “An Introduction to the Literature of the Sibe-People.” Central Asiatic Journal 38.2: 188-213.
  • ———. 1999. “A Manchu Manuscript on Acupuncture.” Manuscripta Orientalia 5.2 (June): 65-70.
  • Pang, T.A., G. Stary. 2000. “On the Discovery of a Printed Manchu Text Based on Euclid's “Elements”.” Manuscripta Orientalia 6.4: 65-70.
  • Rawski, Evelyn. 1996. “Presidential Address: Reenvisioning the Qing: The Significance of the Qing Period in Chinese History.” JAS 55.4: 829-850.
  • ———. 1998. The Last Emperors: A Social History of the Qing Imperial Institutions. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Rhoads, Edward. 2000. Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861-1928. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  • Saunders, John B de C.M. and Francis R. Lee. 1981. The Manchu Anatomy and Its Historical Origins. Taipei: Li Ming Cultural Enterprise.
  • Shapiro, Hugh. 2003. “How Different are Western and Chinese Medicine? The Case of Nerves,” 351-372. Helaine Selin, ed., with Shapiro, asst. ed., Medicine Across Cultures: History and Practice of Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Spence, Jonathan. 1974. Emperor of China: Self-portrait of Kang-hsi. Repr. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.
  • Standaert, Nicolas. 2001. “Late Ming-Mid Qing: Themes, 4.2.7 Medicine,” Handbook of Christianity in China, Volume One: 635-1800, 786-802. In Handbook of Oriental Studies, Section Four, China, ed. by E. Ziircher, S.F. Teiser, M. Kern. 15/1. Leiden/Boston/K6hn: Brill.
  • Talpe, Lode. 1991. “The Manchu Text of the Hsi-tu-shih or Lapis Serpentinus.” Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica 22: 215-234.
  • Walravens, Hartmut. 1996. “Medical knowledge of the Manchus and the Manchu Anatomy.” Études mongoles et sibériennes, cahier 27: 359-374.
  • ———. 2000. “Mandjurische Medizin-eine Bibliographie der originalsprachigen Quellen.” (“Manchu Medicine-A Bibliography of sources in the original language”). Zentralasiatische Studien 30: 91-102.
  • Weiers, Michael. 1980. “Fragment einer Anweisung zur Moxibustion oder Akupunktur in mandschurischer Sprache” (A Fragment of Instructions on Moxibustion or Acupuncture in Manchu). Heilen und Schenken Festschrift für Ginter Klinge zum 70, H. Franke and W. Hessig, eds. (Geburgstag, Weisbaden, 1980): 139-44. A description of the fragment, which was kept in Marburg (sign. Ms. or. fol. 1593-7), can be found in Hessig (1961): 79, no. 122.
  • Wu, Yi-Li. 2003. “The Idealization of Easy Childbirth and Its Influence on Classical Chinese Obstetrics,” Paper presented at “A Conversation about the Future History of East Asian Science, Medicine, and Technology,” The Johns Hopkins University, Sept. 12-13.
  • Young, Kue-Hing T; Regina Sask. 1974. “French Jesuits and the 'Manchu Anatomy': How China Missed the Vesalian Revolution.” Canadian Medical Association Journal 111: 565-568.
  • Yu Yongmin 于永敏. 1990. “Youguan Manzu zaoqi yixue wenhua chutan” 有関滿足早期 學文化初探 (Preliminary survey of things related to the early medical culture of the Manchus), in Li Di 李迪 ed., Zhongguo shaoshu minzu keji shi yanjiu 中國少數民族科技史驗究 v. 5, (Hohhot: Neimenggu renmin chubanshe): 160-172.
  • ———. 1992. “Manzu yaoshan yu shiliao jingyan” 滿足藥膳與食療經驗 (The Manchu Knowledge of Medicinal Cuisine and Food Therapy), in Li Di 李迪, ed., Zhongguo shaoshu minzu keji shi yanjiu 中國少數民族科技史驗究, v. 7, (Hohhot: Neimenggu renmin chubanshe): 165-169.
  • ———. 1993a. “Zhongguo Manwen yixue yizhu kaoshu” 中國滿文醫學譯著考述(Annotated Bibliography of Manchu Medical Texts in China). Manzu yanjiu 2: 54-60.
  • ———. 1993b. “Zhongguo Manwen gu yiji yizhu kaoshu” 中國滿文股醫籍譯著考述 (Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Ancient Medical Texts in Manchu). Zhongguo keji shijiang 4: 91-97. (Same article as 1993a in Manzu yanjiu).
  • ———. 1996. “Xin faxiande 'Menggu yaofang' kaoshi” 新發現 ‘蒙古藥房’考試 (Examination of the newly discovered “Mongolian Medical Formulas”), in Di 'er jie zhongguo shaoshu minzu keji shi guoji xueshu taolun huilun wenji 第二屆中國少數名族科技史國際學術討論會論文集 (Proceedings of the Second International scholarly meeting of the history of minority science and technology in China): 308-312.

1. I thank Mark Elliott for sending me on this path, lending me his bibliographies of Manchu sources, and inviting me to discuss my research on medical knowledge in Manchu first at Harvard in the spring of 2001and then in Portland in May of 2003. I want to acknowledge Doug Stiffler for going to St. Petersburg to purchase microfilm copies of several Manchu medical texts in the Institute of Oriental Studies collection and for his assistance with the Russian materials. I also thank Rebecca Markovits for assistance with the German sourcesreturn to text

2. See especially Fletcher (1975). For Manchu sources in the imperial archives and the light they shed on early-Qing imperial institutions, see Bartlett (1985, 1991). Crossley and Rawski further strengthened this position in their "A Profile of The Manchu Language in Ch'ing History" (1993). Rawski synthesized the scholarship on how the Manchus made the Qing dynasty different from all previous dynasties in her "Presidential Address: Reenvisioning the Qing: The Significance of the Qing Period in Chinese History"(1996)return to text

3. In addition to Crossley (1990a, 1990b, 1997), see more recently Rawski (1998), Crossley (1999), Rhoades (2000), and Elliott (2001). See especially the review of these four recent books by Guy (2002).return to text

4. See, for example, Clod-Hansen (1906); H.T. Hsieh (1921); Madsen (1928); Johnsson (1928); Ishida (1953); Huard (1953); Tsang (1959); Huard and Wong (1967); Spence (1974); Young and Sask (1974); Grover (1977); Saunders and Lee (1980); Chu (1996); Standaert (2001); Shapiro (2003).return to text

5. I refer to the publication by Saunders and Lee (1980).return to text

6. See "La Medicine" in Huard and Wong (1966): 163-175.return to text

7. See the list of Library Holdings following this introduction.return to text

8. Crossley and Rawski (1993): 88-89.return to text

9. Yi-Li Wu made these assessments of the Dasheng bian in a paper "The Idealization of Easy Childbirth and Its Influence on Classical Chinese Obstetrics," delivered at The Johns Hopkins University, Sept. 2003.return to text

10. Walravens (1996): 359-360, fns. 2-5.return to text

11. See Lockhart (1842). I thank Yi-Li Wu for sending me a copy of this article.return to text

12. See discussion in Needham (2000): 149.return to text

13. Editor's note to Needham's discussion of the Russians learning smallpox inoculation (2000): 149, fn. 131.return to text

14. Needham (2000): 116return to text

15. Needham (2000): 116. See also brief reference to this situation in Ackerknecht (1982): 142.return to text

16. On Jenner, see Ackerknecht (1982): 143; on Rehmann, see Walravens (1996): 360, fn. 7.return to text

17. See the Bibliography following this introduction.return to text

18. The best argument for this interaction is in Goodman and Grafton, "Ricci, the Chinese, and the Toolkits of Textualists," (1991).return to text

19. On Manchu medical culture, Yu (1990); on Manchu medicinal cuisine and food therapy, Yu (1992).return to text

20. This bibliography was published twice in separate journals. See Yu (1993a, 1993b).return to text

21. See Yu (1996).return to text

22. See Chuang (1996).return to text

23. See Li Huan (1999).return to text

24. See Walravens (1996, 2000).return to text

25. For the Russian collections, see Volkova (1965, 1988); and for Manchu medical sources in Paris, see Pang (1997, 1998).return to text

26. For the Manchu acupuncture manuscript, see Pang (1999).return to text

27. See Yu (1993) and Walravens (1996, 2000).return to text

28. I refer here to the Manchu medical titles listed in Julien (1889) and von Möllendorff (1890).return to text

29. A separate article that reviews the literature on this subject, discusses specific titles in this bibliography, and offers new interpretations of the material is forthcoming as "The Significance of Medical Knowledge in Manchu" in the Proceedings of the North American Conference on Manchu Studies, Portland State University, May 9-10, 2003 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag).return to text