History of the 339th Regiment of Infantry, 1917-1926 (with who's who in and roster of the regiment)
Moore, Joel Roscoe, 1879-

Page  [unnumbered] i i I 71 ( i~ — — _m. 'lai A V" - - THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE 339TH INFANTRY UNITED STATES ARMY ORGANIZATION DAY N U MB E R

Page  [unnumbered] - U-. --- -— sI luIt j "'

Page  [unnumbered] Organization Day April 2, 1926 ON THIS, the seventh anniversary of the Battle of Bolsheozerki, where American doughboys of the 339th Infantry, their backs to the wall, threw back with overwhelming losses the last big push of the Russian Bolsheviks, the officers and men of the 339th Infantry dedicate this edition of the POLAR BEAR CUB to our gallant dead on that field and on the other fields of the Russian Campaign.

Page  [unnumbered] The War Officers of the 339th Infantry Camp Custer, Mich., Summer of 1918 "Inform our troops that all America resounds with praise of the splendid record that the American Expeditionary Forces have made. The reputation of the American soldier for valor and for splendid discipline under the most trying conditions has endeared every member of the Expeditionary Forces not only to his relatives and friends, but to all Americans. Their comrades in France have not forgotten that the Americans in North Russia are part of the American Expeditionary Forces, and we are proud to transmit to you the generous praise of the American people... I wish every soldier in Northern Russia to know that I fully appreciate that his hardships have continued long after those endured by our soldiers in France and that every effort is being made to relieve the conditions in the North at the earliest possible moment."-John J. Pershing.

Page  [unnumbered] History of the 339th Regiment of Infantry 1917-1926 EDITOR'S NOTE-The bulk of the data which comprises this history of the 339th Infantry was taken from the book entitled "The History of the American Expedition Fighting the Bolsheviki," of which Lieut.Col. Joel R. Moore, 339th Infantry, was one of the three joint editors and compilers. Col. Moore served as a company commander in the regiment during its service in Russia, and is one of the two officers now assigned to the unit who saw actual service in its ranks during the war. Lack of space alone prohibits the publication in these columns of the volume in its entirety. For gripping interest and thrilling narra tive it stands in the forefront among similar organization histories on wartime experiences. It records a little known and less appreciated part which the American Army played in making world history seven years ago in such a manner as to make it desirable that it be placed beside those stories which record the larger but no more gallant actions of the American forces on other battle fronts. The editor acknowledges with gratitude the courtesy of Col. Moore in making the following summary possible. A small amount of the data has also been obtained from the official War Department records. *A *A * * * * The 85th Division, of which the 339th Infantry was and is a part, was organized at Camp Custer, Michigan, pursuant to General Orders 95 and 101, War Department, 1917, from National Army men of Michigan, Wisconsin, Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois, and was known as the Custer Division, the divisional shoulder patch, later adopted, bearing the initials C. D., in red. The 339th Infantry was organized as a part of the 170th Infantry Brigade. So large a percentage of its personnel was drawn from Detroit that it soon came to be known as "Detroit's Own." Trained for service in France, the Division was successively under the command of Major General J. T. Dickman, Brigadier General S. W. Miller, Major General James Parker, Major General C. W. Kennedy, and Brigadier General G. D. Moore. While under the command of General Kennedy, the advance detachment of the Division arrived overseas on July 26, 1918, and eight days later the first unit arrived. Upon arrival in England the 339th Infantry, together with the 1st Battalion, 310th Engineers, the 337th Field Hospital, and the 337th Ambulance Company were detached from the Division and were designated as a part of the Allied force operating in North Russia under British command. The Division thereafter never served as a complete unit, and the history of the regiment becomes a story in itself. With subsequent replacements numbering approximately fifty-five hundred men, and under the command of Colonel George E. Stewart, the regimental commander, the expedition, from this time on to be known as the American North Russian Expeditionary Force, re-outfitted for the climate and warfare of the Arctic, sailed from Newcastle-on-Tyne on August 25, 1918, in the British transports "Somali," "Tydeus," and "Nagoya." A fourth ship, carrying Italian troops, accompanied the convoy a portion of the way. Haste was essential. The Russian Bolsheviks, well equipped, well led, brave and confident, were threatening to overwhelm a meager force near Archangel composed of a handful of American sailors from the famous "Olympia," a battalion of French Infantry,

Page  64 64 THE-IE POLARt BEARH CUB 64 T P and a loosely organized force of British cripples. Full speed was ordered on all the ships, and zig-zagging their way to escape the ever expected submarine, the expedition crossed the Arctic Circle, entered the Dvina River and cast anchor off Archangel at 10:00 a. m. September 4, 1918. An attack of the flu had caused trouble on the trip north, medical supplies were none too plentiful, and the men suffered from the cold, which became more severe daily. The immediate and pressing need upon coming into port was the establishment of hospital facilities. On September 6th the first American medical personnel debarked at Bakaritza, and made what preparations were possible to care for the sick who had clogged the sick bays of the transports during most of the journey. The British hospitals were found to be inadequate, the food poor, and medical supplies so bound about with red tape that adequate quantities were almost impossible to obtain. American medical officers and personnel found themselves handicapped by the fact that they were frequently outranked by British officers, and the clash of authority often led to much misunderstanding and hardship. By dint of much hard work and diplomacy and the able assistance of the Red Cross officials, cleaner and more commodious hospitals were subsequently established, under more or less American management, but not before upwards of a hundred of American doughboys had died under the inhospitable leaden skies of the frozen north. Meanwhile, prompt military measures were necessary if the cause of the Allies was to be maintained. On the afternoon of the 5th the 3rd Battalion of the regiment debarked in full field equipment at Bakaritza, and immediately started south along the railroad in two trains of box cars toward the fighting front. The town of Obozerskaya marked the farthest advance of the Allied forces, and it was here that the American troops detrained on the morning of September 6th. Abundant evidence in the vicinity testified to the fact that here tile stern work of the expedition was to begin. Outposts were established, and the American sentries took over their first duties as guardians of the Allied front. On September 7th two platoons of Company "K" were detailed for the relief of tile American sailors near Tiogra, while the remainder of this company guarded the wireless station and railroad repair shops at Issaka Gerk. Obozerskaya, meanwhile, was established as a field base. Supply trains, munition dumps, and transport units were established. The expedition's only air force, a number of planes shipped from the Western Front, were assembled and a landing field prepared for them. It was early decided that the expedition must work offensively. Efforts were made to enlist the support of the native Russian population by enlisting the men in units under British control. On September 11th advance units of Company "M," reconnoitering in force, met a heavy force of Reds, and fought the first engagement, driving the enemy from their positions, and capturing a bridge at Verst 464. On September 16th the enemy launched a savage counter-attack on the outposts being held by Company "L." Supported by two platoons of Company "I," the untried doughboys passed through their baptism of fire like veterans, but paid with the loss of the first man of the expedition killed in action. MIinor engagements of outposts were of daily occurrence. On September 28th General Finlayson, the British commander, arrived and ordered a converging attack on the strongly held village of Plesetskaya. Company "K," which had been holding the Seletskoe Kodish front, was reinforced by Company "L," and directed to form one of the columns of the joint drive, while Companies "I" and "M," reinforced by a company of French Infantry, an armored train, and a detachment of Headquarters Company, hastily transformed into a Stokes mortar unit, and armed with three mortars, formed the other jaw of the pinchers. The latter column was further split into two sections. Company "M" and two platoons of Company "I," supported by a detachment of Engineers, were detailed to march many miles around the flank, with the purpose of cutting the railroad at Verst 455, while the remaining two platoons of Company "I" made a frontal attack on the enemy's positions. Thus split into three weak columns against a force of Reds variously estimated at from four to ten times as large as the attackers, unsupplied with maps or guides, and with the entire plan poorly conceived and planned by the Allied commander, the expedition was foredoomed to failure. The flanking detachment, after an all-night march through forests and swamps, were forced to return to their starting point at daybreak, it having been found impossible to proceed in the untracked wilderness. The column of a company and a half took up a position where they would support the main attack, which started at 6:00 a. in., September 29th. The first allied attack drove the Russians from their front lines, but a counter-attack soon brought all units into action again. The Stokes mortar gunners here gave a good account of themselves, and supported by machine gun and rifle fire, they repulsed the attack. Ammunition, however, was exhausted, and reserve supplies not having come up, a second counterattack was more successful, and the French and Americans were driven back over the ground captured during the morning. The withdrawal became increasingly serious, and field headquarters was in danger of capture. Much depended upon the defense of a bridge. One platoon of Company "M," and a half platoon of Company "G" were rushed in to hold this vital spot. Supported by a single machine gun, the bridge was gallantly held during the night and the following day, despite counter-attacks and persistent shelling from the Russian artillery and armored trains. Both forces now dug in to await developments. Positions were consolidated, and affairs settled down

Page  65 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 65 to a daily routine of artillery actions and minor raids. On October 13th a small Franco-American attack was launched in an effort to cut the railroad behind the Russian armored train. The Russian lookouts spotted the advance in time to hastily withdraw their rolling stock, but not until after they had been severely handled by the doughboys. The attack was not without value, however, as the worried Reds withdrew ten versts, the Americans moving forward all along the line. Company "I" held the position farthest advanced. On the 17th, Company "M" relieved Company "I," and improved the position, driving off a force of 600 Russians sent to oppose them. Here the fall advance of the Archangel-Volegda Railway ended. The objective originally had been set at Volegda, but it had been found impossible to progress that far in the face of stubborn resistance, and with the handful of men available. Winter was rapidly coming on, and plans were pushed for a final consolidation of the positions. The Allies dug in during the remainder of October and the first part of November, defeating several savage counter attacks during the process, and being constantly harrassed by the excellent Red artillery. Meanwhile the 1st Battalion remained on the transports until the morning of September 7th, when it disembarked and prepared for five days' trip up the Dvina River in ancient cattle barges. The river at this point is an extremely meandering stream, dotted with many low islands, and surrounded by vast areas of swamps-an exceptionally unpromising terrain for offensive military action. September 11th saw the force disembarking at Beresnick, and preparing to advance to the relief of a small British force farther up the stream. On September 15th the battalion left for Chamova, which was reached early the following morning, and it was here that the unit received its first taste of hostile artillery fire. The Russians retired on Seltzo before the American advance, and in the afternoon of September 19th the doughboys prepared for an attack on the village, across a swamp waist deep in mud and water, and utterly impracticable for artillery. Companies "C" and "D" formed the attack, supported by Company "B." Their advance was held up when within 1500 yards of the Russian lines, where they dug in as best they could in the mud and water to spend the night. The men were without overcoats or blankets, rations were unobtainable, and their sufferings were severe. Desultory attacks were made throughout the following day, Company "B" losing the first man of the expedition. In the afternoon friendly artillery arrived behind the American line, and covered by its barrage, the battalion attacked frontally and gained the village. It was found impossible to bring up the Allied Artillery and, in grave danger of being blown to pieces by the Russian batteries, the battalion returned the following morning to Yakovlevskaya. A few days later the advance was resumed, the outskirts of the village of Pouchuga being reached without serious opposition. Rain fell almost incessantly, and the column was wet, footsore, and weary. Supplies were difficult to get up, and emergency rations were the rule rather than the exception. Shortly afterward orders were received to proceed to the Vaga River front, where a third column of the Allied forces were operating. The trip was made by barge down the Dvina and up the Vaga, the battalion halting at Shenkursk. Conditions here were a great improvement over the Dvina lowlands, and the troops had the privilege of a week's respite, with considerably improved food supplies. At the end of this time, however, Company "B" was again ordered to the Dvina, and departed on the tug "Retvizan." This company, from October to April, was detached from the battalion, and formed a part of a mixed force under British control operating along the Dvina River. The unit guarded the left bank of the stream, and was quartered during the winter at Toulgas. Several spirited engagements were fought during the fall months, until the advent of winter made further advance impracticable. While the 1st and 3rd battalions of the regiment were pushing slowly southward on two fronts, the 2nd Battalion was called upon for guard duty in Archangel itself and the districts immediately surrounding. Disembarking on the afternooon of September 4th, under the command of Major J. Brooks Nichols, the troops were assigned the work of guarding the provisional Russian regime in the city, the docks, the public utilities, and in general the stabilizing of an increasingly delicate situation at the headquarters of the entire North Russian Expedition. Hardly had posts been established when an enterprising but misguided young Russian, Colonel Techaplain, undertook, on the evening of September 5, overthrow of the existing authorities by kidnapping the governor, Tchaikowsky. Great excitement prevailed as a result, a street car strike was declared, and it was not until the good offices of the American ambassador had been enlisted, and the strike firmly handled by the simple expedient of manning the cars with American doughboys, that the governor was released, and calm restored. The troops were soon busily engaged in mastering the intricacies of the British and Russian firearms with which they had been equipped. Knowledge of the Colt and Browning must be superseded by mastering of the British and Russian Vickers by the machine gunners. The Lewis gun, long the standby of the British Tommy, became a familiar weapon in the hands of the Yanks. The one-pounder, the French Chauchat, rifle grenades and their dischargers, Stokes mortars, and French machine guns made up the daily routine of study and drill. The platoon of Headquarters Company were equipped as gunners of a battery of Russian "75" field pieces. This company under the command of Captain Taylor, was established at Olga Barracks, with the Machine Gun Company, under Captain Kenyon, in Solombola Barracks. The latter was assigned the special mission of guarding the quays, and preventing the riot

Page  66 66 THE POLAR BEIAR CUB 66 THE POLAR BEAR CUB ing of a large group of disgruntled Russian merchant sailors. The Supply Company was quartered at Bakaritza, under Captain Wade. Regimental Headquarters were established in the Technical Institute, a vast old building with fourfoot walls, located in close proximity to Olga Barracks, where the Headquarters Company was stationed in constant readiness in case of the ever-expected uprising of the uneasy populace. The British Commanding General had established his headquarters in another part of the city, and from the first there were serious lapses of that co-ordination between the Allied forces which was so important in an expedition of this nature. The American doughboy chaffed when he was subjected to British orders; he resented the fact that his rations were poor, and were delivered to him by British supply trains; he could not put his heart into fighting under tactical plans drawn up by officers not his own. British high commanders were appointed and relieved often without the knowledge of the American commanding officer. The latter had extreme difficulty in distributing even his general orders to his units scattered over a front of four hundred miles. He lost touch with his battalion and company commanders. In general, administrative matters were anything but ideal. The 2nd Battalion pushed out its first offensive column when two platoons of Company "H," commanded by Lieutenants Phillips and Pellegrom, began an ascent of the Onega Valley on September 15. On the 18th Pellegrom's force of fifty-eight men began the trip up the Onega, reaching the village of Chekuevo, about fifty miles up the stream, on the following day. Three days later the remaining platoon joined this outpost, and reinforced by ninetythree Russian volunteers, repulsed a force of Bolsheviki of twice their number, who made an attack at dawn on the 24th. Supported by machine guns and attacking from three sides simultaneously, the enemy at first gained ground, but well handled fire from Lewis guns finally caused their retreat and dispersion. On September 30th orders were received from American Headquarters for the force at Chekuevo to open wire communication with the American column at Obozerskaya, and to move southward for a distance of about sixty miles to block the expected retreat of the enemy westward across the river. Unsupplied with Signal Corps personnel, and with the certainty of the southern movement being opposed by superior forces of the enemy, the two platoons of doughboys were faced with a herculean task. It was known that seven hundred Reds were entrenched at Kaska. The force under Lieut. Philips at this time did not number over two hundred and twentyfive effectives, of whom only half were Americans, the remainder being friendly Russian volunteers and Cossacks. At 2:30 a. m. on October 1, the march southward was begun, the attack on the enemy's lines being scheduled to begin at five o'clock. with eight miles to cover in the meanwhile. Most of the Rus sian volunteers deserted at the first shot, and the American advance was held up by the fire of several well manned machine guns. After a spirited engagement lasting all day the attackers withdrew to Chekuevo, where additional defenses were thrown up. A squad of men from Company "M," having fought its way through the forty miles of wilderness separating Company "H" from the 3rd Battalion at Obezerskaya, opened communications between the two commands. Soon afterwards the outpost was augmented by the arrival of the remainder of Company "H," under Captain Gevers, and a detachment of twenty-five French Infantry. Company Headquarters were established at Onega, with one platoon at Karelskoe, and two at Chekuevo. An advance to retain contact with the retreating Reds began on October 19th but after progressing some thirty-five miles up the rivei valley, orders from Headquarters recalled all Troops to their original stations on the 25th, and further offensive activities were abandoned, due to the rapid approach of severe weather. Company "G" saw its first active service in a flying trip to the lower Pinega River Valley, in an effort to recover large stores of flour which had been looted from the loyal population by marauding bands of Reds. Captain Conway and two platoons of his company left on a fast steamer on October 20th, arriving three days later at the town of Pinega, where the American officer was to assume command, organize the defenses, and co-operate with the local governmental officials in raising volunteers. The activities occupied the time until November 15th, when Lieut. Higgins, with thirty-five Americans and 210 Russian Volunteers, was dispatched to clear the Valley and occupy Karpogora. They advanced for ten days without opposition, but from then on daily combat patrol actions were fought, and on Thanksgiving Day the column occupied Karpogora. Two hundred miles from Archangel, and surrounded on every hand by a multitude of enemies, whose hatred of the foreign bayonets was daily increasing, the handful of doughboys held the town until December 4th, when, in the face of a severe attack, in which they suffered their first casualties, the Americans retired, moving in good order down the river valley, and taking up winter quarters in the various villages surrounding Pinega. The beginning of winter saw the scattered units of the 339th Infantry holding a vast horseshoe line some four hundred miles in length, its northern-most extremity at Pinega, about one hundred and fifty miles in an air line northeast of Archangel, its center at Ust Padenga, something over three hundred miles distant from Archangel, and its right at Onega. about a hundred and fifty miles southwest of Archangel. On this vast front only widely scattered outposts were garrisoned. Two platoons of Company "G" were in the vicinity of Pinega. Company "B" was at Tulgras, one hundred and forty miles distant. Companies "A," "C," and "D" were dug in in the (Continued on page 78.)

Page  67 Published Monthly at Headquarters 339th Infantry 85th Division 204 New Telegraph Building Detroit, Michigan Capt. D. A. Stroh, Inf. (D.O.L.) Editor Volume III. APRIL, 19296 Number 6 A Message from the Commanding Officer "The Bayonet Decides" (By Colonel Geo. W. Blackington, C. 0. 339th Inf.) Sixty years ago, at the time of the struggle between the North and the South,, war was everything that General Sherman said it was. At this date war is more terrible than it was at that time and it is doubtful if Sherman or anyone else would have in his vocabulary terms strong enough to paint the proper picture of war as it is conducted now and will be in the future. This nation should and will resort to all honorable reasons before committing itself to war with another nation. The best insurance against war is preparedness. The war department has worked out a very comprehensive scheme of preparedness and this regiment is a small but important cog in the machine. Should the day come when it is necessary for this military machine to function in war, our regiment must be as fully prepared as possible. The time we can give to training in peace time is naturally limited and must be made the most of. The greatest asset the regiment can have is "esprit de corps" and every means must be utilized to foster and build up this "esprit." Proper esprit de corps will enable us to be better prepared and will expedite COL. GEORGE W. BLACKINGTON the training of the regiment in case of mobilization 339th Infantry and will insure its greatest success in combat if the Assumed Command Jan. 1, 19H6 occasion demands. One of the things that has been

Page  68 68 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 68 THE POLAR BEAR CUB done to help build our "esprit de corps" is to set aside an Organization Day. This is a day on which the officers and men of the regiment are gathered together with former members of the Polar Bears and some of the distinguished citizens of Detroit to review the past accomplishments of the regiment and to instill a new pride in the personnel of the regiment and acquaint our citizens with the ideals of the regiment. Tradition is a wonderful foundation on which to build up an esprit de corps. Officers and men of the 339th Infantry, you have a noble heritage in the glorious tradition back of this regiment. The regiment was assigned one of the most disagreeable tasks given to any unit during the war and they carried the message in excellent shape. Let their sterling example spur you on to help build this regiment up into a harmonious, smooth working organization such that, if similar or greater tasks are ever assigned to us, Detroit will still be proud to call us HER OWN. Our regiment is fortunate in being located within the limits of a single city where it is easy to get the entire organization together, frequently, for such inactive training as is possible and for gatherings of this kind to build up moral. This fact is known to the War Department and to those responsible for the building up and training of the Organized Reserves. So a great deal is expected of us. We should and must be one of the units to set the pace for the great third line of defense of the United States Army. Ours is a real responsibility and we cannot shirk our duty now any more than we could in case of hostilities. Let us make the most of our inactive training and set a pace that the War Department may cite to other Reserve Regiments in order that our country may be well prepared for the day which must come again when we will have to defend our homes and our institutions from some ambitious or envious foe. Be proud of your regiment. Make it a point to attend your battalion and regimental meetings and take an active interest in working out the map problems which are conducted at these meetings. Carry on one of the Correspondence Courses offered by the Corps Area Headquarters. Believe in preparedness, talk preparedness and be prepared. For if each of you are prepared the regiment will be prepared, likewise, and the Nation will be prepared. EXTRA COPIES OF APRIL PO]LAR BEAR CUB A few extra copies of this issue were printed more than required. Anyone desiring extra copies may obtain them by addressing the publisher, Lieut. R. W. Curtis, 556 W. Larned ISt., or calling Main 0078. The Organized Reserves A Brief Outline of the Largest Component of the Army of the United States. The military forces of the United States consist of all citizens of the United States, male and female, who are able to render military service in any capacity, direct or indirect, as combatants or non-combatants. The organized land forces of the United States consist of the Regular Army, the National Guard, and the Organized Reserves. These three components of our military forces have a common mission-elements welded into a harmonious and efficient whole and constitute the Army of the United States. The Regular Army, the National Guard, and the Organized Reserves form, respectively, the first, second, and third echelons of this army. These are co-ordinate echelons, and each re-enforces the other. They will not be used as replacements one for the other, except in the case of unassigned officers of the Organized Reserves, who may be assigned to the Regular Army. Each echelon is distinct in its status and each has a specific mission, but at the same time is a necessary and co-relative part of the national military system. In an emergency requiring the maximum mobilization, the three echelons will furnish six field armies, each army consisting of two cavalry divisions and three corps each composed of three divisions. In addition to the field armies, each echelon will supply its pro rata share of the General Headquarters Reserve units, and the personnel necessary for the communications zone and the zone of the interior. Of the six field armies the Regular Army will furnish one, the National Guard two, and the Organized Reserves three. This scheme of mobilization contemplates, in principle, initial employment of each echelon in succession, but ultimately combines them into one effective and homogeneous force. The first echelon, the Regular

Page  69 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 69 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 69 Army, from the beginning opposes an invasion and thus gains time for the second echelon, the National Guard, to complete its mobilization and preparation and come to the assistance of the Regular Army. These two echelons, together, undertake to gain further delay in order to permit the third echelon, the Organized Reserves, to be mobilized, assembled, and trained. This plan precludes any adverse decision at the beginning of a war and permits, without interruption, the development of such additional military forces as the particular emergency may require. The Organized Reserves consist of the Officers' Reserve Corps, the Enlisted Reserve Corps, and the Organized Reserve Units. They include troops of all branches necessary to supplement the Regular Army and National Guard in order to complete the first line of defense in a mobilization of the Army of the United States. In time of peace, they are potential, rather than an actual fighting force. The peace establishment is capable of rapid expansion by the reception of trained and untrained men, but will require a period of training in mobilization areas before becoming available for combat operations. The Officers' Reserve Corps is composed of selected citizens who voluntarily accept commissions in that Corps as general officers and as officers of all grades of the line and staff branches of the army. It provides the great mass of officers required for war. In time of a national emergency expressly declared by Congress, the President may order reserve officers to active duty for any period of time. Under other circumstances, he may order them to active duty at any time, but not for more than fifteen days in one calendar year without the consent of the officer concerned. The latter provision, however, has never been operative, and officers are in practice not ordered to active duty for any period without their consent. The Organized Reserve Units are composed of officers of the Officers' Reserve Corps, enlisted men of the Enlisted Reserve Corps, supplemented by a small cadre of officers and enlisted men of the Regular Army. The projected war establishment consists of twenty-seven divisions, six cavalry divisions, the required corps army, GHQ reserve, and harbor defense troops, and the major portion of the communication zones and zone of interior troops. In peace time, Organized Reserve Units are maintained as cadres, with the war strength complements of officers and a limited number of non-commissioned officers. This personnel constitutes the nucleus of the war time unit. The units are localized as nearly as practicable so as to constitute complete higher units. In peace the Organized Reserves are at all times organized, so far as practicable, into brigades, divisions and corps. The peace organization forms the basis for a complete and an immediate mobilization for national defense in the event of a national emergency declared by Congress. For purposes of administration, training, and tactical control, the area within the continental limits of the United States is divided on a basis of military population into nine corps areas. Each corps area contains at least one division of National Guard and one or more of Organized Reserve, and such other troops as may be directed. In an effort to maintain organization pride and esprit, regiments, brigades, and divisions of all components of the Army of the United States, so far as practicable. have been assigned the same numerical designations as those which they had during the World War. As an example the Eightyfifth Division, which is allocated entirely to the State of Michigan, contains the same numerical brigades and regiments, less certain units which are no longer provided for in tables of organization, as it did during the War. The spirit of the war organizations thereby is perpetuated in the units which are a part of the present Army of the United States.

Page  70 70 THE POLAR BEAR CUB CALENDAR OF EVENTS April and May April 7 Army and Navy Club, 6:30-10:00 P. M. Unit assembly, dinner and tactical conference, "The Battalion in Attack." Open to all members, 3rd Battalion, 339th Infantry, regimental staff and special company officers. April 14 Army and Navy Club, 7:00-10:00 P. M. Group School: For Second Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company"; for First Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company." Open to all enlisted men and lieutenants of Infantry. April 17 Fort Wayne, 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, machine-gun, automatic rifle, 37-mm gun. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. April 18 Fort Wayne, 9:00-12:00 A. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol, rifle. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. April 21 Fort Wayne, 6:30-10:00 P. M. Unit assembly, dinner and tactical conference, "The Battalion in Defense." Open to all members, 339th Infantry and their friends. April 24 Fort Wayne, 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. April 25 Fort Wayne, 9:00-12:00 A. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol, rifle. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. April 28 Army and Navy Club, 7:00-10:00 P. M. Group Schools: For Second Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company"; for First Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company." Open to all enlisted men and lieutenants of Infantry. May 1 Fort Wayne 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, machine-gun, automatic rifle, 37-mm gun. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 2 Fort Wayne, 9:00-12:00 A. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol, rifle. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 5 Army and Navy Club, 6:30-10:00 P. M. Unit assembly, dinner and tactical conference, "The Battalion in Defense." Open to all members, 1st Battalion, 339th Infantry, regimental staff and special company officers. May 8 Fort Wayne, 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 9 Fort Wayne, 9:00-12:00 A. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol, rifle. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 12 Army and Navy Club, 7:00-10:00 P. M. Group Schools: For Second Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company"; for First Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company." Open to all enlisted men and lieutenants of Infantry. May 15 Fort Wayne, 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, machine-gun, automatic rifle, 37-mm gun. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 16 Fort Wayne, 9:00-12:00 A. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol, rifle. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 19 Army and Navy Club, 6:30-10:00 P. M. Unit assembly, dinner and tactical conference, "The Battalion in Defense." Open to all members, 2nd Battalion, 339th Infantry, regimental staff and special company officers. May 22 Fort Wayne, 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 23 Fort Wayne, 9:00-12:00 A. M. Marksmanship instruction, automatic pistol, rifle. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry. May 26 Army and Navy Club, 7:00-10:00 P. M. Group Schools: For Second Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company"; for First Lieutenants, "Combat Principles, the Rifle Company." Open to all enlisted men and lieutenants of Infantry. May 29 Fort Wayne, 1:00-5:00 P. M. Marksmanship instruction, machine-gun, automatic rifle, 37-mm gun. Open to all officers and enlisted men of Infantry.

Page  71 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 71 Who's Who In The 339th Infantry An Alphabetical Military Biography PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Characteristic of those who silently get into action and attain accomplishment without thrusting themselves into the limelight, our editor has modestly omitted any mention of himself in any issue of THE POLAR BEAR CUB. The publisher, therefore, takes this opportunity to print the following article: e4 --- —-— ^ DONALD A. STROH, Capt. Inf. D. O. L. (By Lt. Col. J. Gardner Stevenson, 339th Inf.) To begin with, on the 3rd day of November, 1892, Stroh was born. That's how we all begin. This happy event was chronicled at Harrisburg in the State of Pennsylvania. Reference to zodiacal lore acquaints us with the fact that he was born under the constellation Sagit The peaceful pursuits of agriculture offered little attraction to his martial spirit with a world war in the offing. Accordingly, we find him on May 25, 1917, shortly after the United States' declaration of war on Germany, enlisted in the U. S. Marine Corps in which he served at Parris Island and Quantico, Virginia, until August, 1917. Having taken an examination and qualified for second lieutenant U. S. A., he was thereupon transferred to the 2nd U. S. Cavalry and went to Fort Leavenworth for training with the 3rd Provisional Class, finishing the course of training in September, 1917, at which time he was ordered to Douglas, Arizona, for service with the 17th U. S. Cavalry. In November of the same year he was promoted to the rank of Captain and placed in command of Troop "H" at Naco, Arizona, where he acted as regimental supply officer until the regiment went to Honolulu in April, 1918. He continued to serve with his regiment at this station until August, 1920, when he was transferred to the 35th U. S. Inf. at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii, assigned to command the Howitzer Company. In May, 1922, he returned to the U. S. and was assigned to the 59th Infantry Howitzer Company at Vancouver Barracks. Capt. Stroh graduated from the Infantry School at Fort Benning after sucessfully completing the Company Officers Course. In June, 1923, he was made Executive Officer 339th Inf. Res. and later in 1925 was appointed Adjutant 85th Division. In a very real sense, the 339th Inf. is Capt. Stroh, since were it not for this officer's untiring, persevering efforts, the organization could not have been brought to its present high state of efficiency. His knowledge of military tactics and technique and his ability to impart that knowledge to others has won the unstinted admiration of every officer in this regiment. Those who have had the good fortune to enjoy the closer contacts of life in camp have perhaps been the better able to appraise the patient, painstaking attention to every detail of their instruction. Capt. Stroh's personality has won for him the esteem and friendship of every officer in the 339th Inf. Moreover, modesty which refrains from any assumption of superiority in dealing with officers, many of whom hold a higher rank in the reserve, further commends him to the regiment which is to be congratulated in having Capt. Stroh as its executive officer. (Continued on Page 74.) CAPTAIN DONALD A. STROH tarius (the Archer) which readily accounts for our Captain's deadly accuracy in all things, as is evidenced by the string of marksmanship medals he wears on his chest. With such an auspicious beginning, it is not surprising to find him in quest of knowledge matriculated at the then Michigan Agricultural, now Michigan State College, from which in 1915 he received the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.S.)

Page  72 72 THE POLAR BEAR CUB The Polar Bears at a Local Unit Camp The "local unit camp" scheme for active duty training of regiments of the Organized Reserves was tried for the first time in the sixth Corps Area during the summer of 1925 with the 339th Infantry. This unit, during the summer of 1924, similarly established a precedent for unit training with the C. M. T. C., and is gaining the reputation of a successful trial horse. The 1925 camp was established at Selfridge Field, near Mt. Clemens, Mich., from September 1 to 15. From the beginning to the end of the Camp Regular Army officers on duty there acted as instructors and in advisory capacities only. Lieut. Col. Joel R. Moore, 339th Infantry, the senior Reserve officer on duty, acted as regimental commander, and was by order commander of the camp for administrative and disciplinary purposes. Battalion and company commanders functioned in a similar manner, the greatest latitude being given them commensurate with carrying out the prescribed training schedule. Unit and sub-unit commanders functioned as such in the solution of tactical problems. The plan worked admirably. Training consisted of instruction in mobilization, administration, marksmanship with the rifle, pistol and machine gun, musketry, bayonet, grenades, automatic rifle, machine-gun mechanism, elementary drill, mathematics and field firing, close order drill, map reading, military law, physical training, and tactics. It was assumed from the beginning that the regi

Page  73 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 73 np at Seifridge Field, September 1-15, 1925 ment had actually been mobilized to meet a maj or emergency on September 1 at the contemplated rendezvous point, the Northwestern High School, Detroit. Based on this assumption a series of interesting and instructive administrative and training problems were solved. Each company maintained a morning report, sick report and duty roster, based on assumed personnel and assumed changes. These papers went through the usual daily routine between company and regimental headquarters. Tactical exercises were conducted over about twenty square miles of terrain in the vicinity of Selfridge Field. A special map of the area was prepared by regimental personnel, and every road, road junction, stream, patch of woods, etc., was named in honor of an officer or enlisted man of the war time regiment who had been killed in action in Russia. The local unit camp idea is believed a good one. The writer has been privileged to attend three successive Reserve camps where Reserve Organizations functioned as units, first as a part of a large general group of Reserve officers, second, superimposed on the C. M. T. C. and third, that described above. It is his opinion, and the unanimous opinion of Reserve officers attending each of the three types, that the last is by far the most desirable from many standpoints. Detailing a Reserve regiment to a camp "on its own" develops a sense of responsibility and esprit, the team spirit, that can be obtained from no other type of active duty training.

Page  74 74 THE~IE POLAR BEEAR CUB 74 THE POLAR BEAR CUB WHO'S WHO IN THE 339TH INFANTRY (Continued from page 71.) SECOND LIEUTENANT SAMUEL H. JOLLIFFE, attached for training to Company "L," served from April 1916 to August 1918 as an enlisted man in the West Virginia National Guard. Graduating from a training camp on August 26, 1918, he was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant and assigned to the 65th Pioneer Infantry in which organization he served until discharged in December, 1918. SECOND LIEUTENANT RAYMOND L. JONES, attached for training to the 2nd Battalion Headquarters, is an alumnus of Beacon College. Lieut. Jones served for nearly one year as an enlisted man in the National Army during the World War. FIRST LIEUTENANT RAY K. KELLY, second in command, Company "H," is an alumnus of the Colorado Agricultural College. He graduated as a 2nd Lieutenant of Infantry from the first training camp and was assigned to the 343rd Infantry. Lieut. Kelly served from September 1918 to July 1919 in the A. E. F., a part of this service being with the 4th Provisional Training Regiment, 83rd Division. CAPTAIN OLIVER KEMP, commanding Company "C," began his war service as a sergeant in the 124th Infantry. Commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant early in January 1918 he served as a Battalion Adjutant in that regiment until promoted to 1st Lieutenant three months later. He was discharged in October 1919. Captain Kemp attended the 1925 camp with the regiment at Selfridge Field. FIRST LIEUTENANT HANS B. KEYDEL, commanding first platoon, Company "F," is a graduate of the Michigan Agricultural College. At the outbreak of the World War Lieut. Keydel was a student at the Lansing school, a member of the R. O. T. C. Early in November 1918 he entered an officers' training camp, and was discharged January 15, 1919. Lieut. Keydel served as a student officer in the 1922 Reserve camp. CAPTAIN FLOYD W. KNOX, attached for training to Company "I," graduated as a 1st Lieutenant from a training camp in November 1917 and was assigned to the 335th Infantry. He was promoted Captain in April 1918 and finished his service in the 82nd Division the following December. FIRST LIEUTENANT CHARLES F. KORNEFFEL, Second in command, Company "F," served from 1914 to September 1917 as a sergeant in the Michigan National Guard. On September 24th, 1917 he was appointed 1st sergeant, 125th Infantry, and entered a training camp in August 1918. He was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in the latter part of September and subsequently served with the 60th Infantry and Prisoner of War Company No. 98. Lieut. Korneffel saw' combat service at Chateau-Thier vy, Meuse-Ar gonne, and was wounded in action on October 17th, 1918. FIRST LIEUTENANT ROY E. KRATZER, commanding 3rd platoon, Howitzer Company, is an alumnus of the Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College of Washington State University. His war service included duty with the S. A. T. C. at the Oklahoma School. Lieut. Kratzer attended the 1923 and 1924 Reserve camps. FIRST LIEUTENANT RAYMOND W. LABBITT, Second in Command of Company "G," is a graduate of Hamiline University. Lieut. Labbitt's war service extended from September 1917 to December 1918 as a sergeant, 2nd Lieutenant and 1st Lieutenant in the Army, most of his commission service being as a personnel adjutant. SECOND LIEUTENANT ROBERT E. LANDIS, attached for training to Company "D," is an alumnus of Vanderbilt University. Until August 1919 Lieut. Landis served in the S. A. T. C. at the University of Tennessee. On the latter date he entered a machine gun training camp at Camp Hancock, Georgia, where he was discharged on November 25th, 1918. SECOND LIEUTENANT RUSSELL H. LEACH, attached for training to Company "I," served from May 1916 to March 1918 as an enlisted man in the Michigan National Guard, participating in the Oise-Aisne and Meuse-Argonne offenses. FIRST LIEUTENANT HARRY LEBESON, regimental veterinarian, is a graduate of Ohio State University. From September 1917 until January 1918 he served as a veterinarian with the 316th Field Artillery. Transferred on the latter date to the 161st Infantry Brigade, he served with this organization until May 1919, seven months of which was in the A. E. F. FIRST LIEUTENANT CHARLES F. LENEWEAVER, commanding first platoon, Company "L," served as an enlisted man in the 10th Infantry from June 1917 to April 1918 when he was graduated from a training camp as a 2nd Lieutenant of Infantry and assigned to the 78th Infantry. FIRST LIEUTENANT ELI LEVIN, Medical Detachment, obtained his degree from the University of Chicago. He was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the Medical Corps on June 30th, 1918, and assigned for duty at Fort Riley, Kansas. In October 1918 he was transferred to Camp Hospital 91, with which unit he served until January 1919. Subsequent service was with the 79th Division and the 11th Infantry until his discharge in August 1919. Lieut. Levin served in the A. E. F. from October 1918 to June 1919. FIRST LIEUTENANT ROBERT H. LONG, attached for training to Company "K," has had many years' service as an enlisted man in the Regular Army. He served from 1899 to 1908 in the 8th Infantry and (Continued on page 84.) I

Page  75 THE POLAR BEAR CUB Rosters of the 339th Infantry THEN NOW and Col. George E. Stewart Capt. Marshall A. Goff Capt. Harry Carrier Capt. John Landowski Lt. Charles E. Lewis Lt. Roy Bricker Lt. Robert G. Watkins Regimental Headquarters Col. George W. Blackinton Lt. Col. Joel R. Moore Major C. E. Frazer Clark Capt. Guy G. Bratton Capt. Stanley R. Dickinson Capt. Clarence J. Mannebach Capt. Fred Beard Capt. Minot C. Morgan Lt. Horace I. Rogers Lt. Clarence W. Houser Capt. Joseph Taylor Lt. Ray E. McAllister Lt. Adolph Anselmi Lt. Emil Tessin Lt. Percival L. Smith Lt. Lawrence Keith Lt. R. H. Gleason Regimental Headquarters Company Capt. Louis H. Charbonneau Lt. Hugh E. Dean Lt. Walter C. Bleil Machine Gun Company Capt. Kenyon Lt. Harry E. Costello Lt. Woodhull Spitler Lt. Callaghan Lt. Lawrence P. Keith Howitzer Company Capt. Chat A. Picken Lt. Carl E. Huckleberry Lt. Walter C. Spain Lt. Roy E. Kratzer Supply (Service) Company Capt. Donald A. Wallace Lt. Harry J. Webber Lt. Charles C. Sherburne Lt. Edward C. DeVriese Lt. Frank E. Saalman Lt. Roy S. Brownrigg Capt. Chauncey Wade Lt. Dan Weller Lt. John E. Brown Lt. Milton J. Carpenter Lt. Jerry Collins Lt. Howard L. Welshofer Major John Hall Capt. C. A. Greenleaf Capt. Pyle Major Geiger Lt. F. B. Little Medical Detachment Major Samuel E. Cruse Major Daune W. Crankshaw Capt. Edgar C. Dunning Capt. George J. Schaller Lt. James K. Trumbo Lt. Eli Levin Lt. Theodor A. Tosch Lt. John E. Bakke Lt. Harry Lebeson

Page  76 76 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 6 TE PA B Lt. Col. James Corbley Lt. Daniel Steele First Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Co. Lt. Col. James G. Stevenson Major Raymond E. Alloway Lt. Hurd T. Valrance Lt. Owen F. Uridge Lt. Harrison C. Beebe Lt. Alexander C. Underhill Capt. Otto Odjard Capt. Charles D. Lewis Lt. Harry Meade Lt. Hugh D. McPhail Lt. Edward J. Saari Capt. Robert P. Boyd Lt. John Cudahy Lt. C. H. Christine Lt. Dresher Lt. Albert M. Smith Lt. Harry M. Dennis Capt. J. R. Fitzsimmons Capt. Milligan Lt. Lloyd L. Fay Lt. Harry S. Steele Capt. Walter H. Coleman Lt. Smith Lt. Henry Dresser Lt. McWallace Lt. Ray Durham Company "A" Capt. David L. Newlands Lt. Edward Rode Lt. Walter J. Cartwright Lt. Phillip E. Marion Lt. Frederick A. Cowley Company "B" Capt. Palmer W. Everts Lt. Francis L. Johnston Lt. Russell W. Curtis Lt. Laurence H. Waldrip Lt. John C. Evans Company "C" Capt. Oliver Kemp Lt. Allen C. Ludington Lt. Herbert G. Selby Lt. Garfield A. Nichols Lt. Curtis S. Wash Company "D" Capt. Albert G. Goetz Lt. John R. Valois Lt. Russel H. Palmer Lt. William L. Conway Lt. Bruce G. Booth Major J. Brooke Nichols Second Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Company Lt. Col. Gerald E. Cronin Major Walter H. Butler Lt. Loren C. Estes Lt. Earl C. Doyle Lt. Dwight 0. Becker Lt. Ernest C. Wunsch Capt. Bernard Heil Lt. John Baker Lt. James F. O'Brien Lt. Verne W. McClung Lt. Edwin L. Broer Lt. Jeffers Capt. Ralph E. Ramsey Lt. James T. Streng Lt. Dresher Lt. Phil. P. Sheridan Lt. Wallace Templeton Company "E" Capt. Raymond E. Alloway Lt. Howard S. Fox Lt. Adolph Anselmi Lt. Frederick P. Nash Lt. Lyman W. Oehring Company "F" Capt. Don R. Sessions Lt. Charles F. Korneffel Lt. Hans B. Keydel Lt. John J. Hamel, Jr. Lt. James H. Holden

Page  77 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 77 Capt. John J. Conway Lt. Arthur Wickham Lt. Higgins Lt. Birkett Lt. Beach Lt. Darnall Capt. Carl M. Gevers Capt. R. W. Ballensinger Lt. Clifford F. Phillips Lt. Homer Collings Lt. Howard H. Pellagrom Lt. Arthur B. Carlson Lt. H. T. Ketcham Major Charles G. Young Capt. Horatio G. Winslow Lt. Albert May Lt. Gordon Reese Lt. Gerald R. Danley Lt. Dwight Fistler Lt. Forest McKee Capt. Michael J. Donohue Lt. Charles F. Chappel Lt. Gilbert T. Shilson Lt. Lewis E. Jahns Lt. Charles B. Ryan Lt. John A. Commons Lt. C. J. Gardner Capt. U. S. Grant Cherry Capt. Samuel L. Woodward Lt. Charles H. Lennon Lt. Williams Lt. Neal Hallock Lt. Bradley Taylor Lt. Worland McMurry Capt. Joel R. Moore Lt. James R. Donovan Lt. George W. Stoner Lt. C. J. Primm Lt. Wesley K. Wright Lt. Robert K. Wieezorek Company "G" Capt. Harry C. Hanly Lt. Raymond W. Labbitt Lt. Owen C. Ruley Lt. Milton M. Clayman Lt. Vola C. Swearingen Company "H" Capt. Curtis L. Roop Lt. Ray K. Kelly Lt. Arthur Dinsmore Lt. Edward H. Wyatt Lt. William J. Felt Third Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Company Lt. Col. Haldeman Finnie Major Richard A. Booth Lt. Bruce N. Tappan Lt. Karl S. Betts Lt. William L. Graham Lt. Jennings B. Hudson Lt. William J. Merz Company "I" Capt. Harold M. Heigho Lt. George Anderson Lt. Stanton Fitzgerald Lt. Willis B. Goodenow Lt. James W. Bradley Company "K" Capt. Edward A. Burns Lt. Charles S. Scoville Lt. Frederick A. Cartmell Lt. Frederick H. Schacht Lt. Albert C. Doyle Company "L" Capt. Richard C. Daniels Lt. John J. Considine Lt. Charles F. Leneweaver Lt. George L. Brewbaker Lt. Louis H. Guenther Company "M" Capt. Ernest J. Rush Lt. John P. Buell Lt. Harold Glassford Lt. Clark E. Pease Lt. Charles F. Bahr

Page  78 78 THE POLAR BEAR CUB HISTORY OF THE 339TH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY 1917-1926 (Continued from page 66.) vicinity of Ust Padenga and Shenkursk, nearly sixty miles away. The 3rd Battalion was more or less complete on the railroad between Obozerskaya and Emsta, with a gap of a hundred miles to the troops on their left, and forty miles to those on their right. Company "H" was scattered along the river for thirty miles southeast of Onega. Regimental Headquarters and Headquarters Company, the Supply Company, the Machine Gun Company, and the 2nd Battalion, less Company "H" and two platoons of Company "G" were concentrated in Archangel, and the towns immediately surrounding it. With these perilous and disquieting dispositions the American doughboys awaited the onset of the Arctic winter, and the hazardous experiences which it was to bring. Armistice Day, 1918, brought no rejoicing to the Archangel front. While American troops in France were celebrating the final overthrow of the Prussian eagle, the men of the 339th Infantry in North Russia, and their Allies, were either actually hotly engaged with hordes of Bolsheviks, or desperately striving to erect fortifications to stave off annihilating attacks. The only news from home during the long succeeding months were reports of the triumphal arrival at American ports of Pershing's victorious legions, and the demobilization of the millions of the War army, back home with a hard task well done. There was no applause and less interest for the meager handful of doughboys at the Arctic Circle, facing a forlorn hope, their backs to the wall, their transports frozen fast in the harbor of Archangel, and with no line of retreat open in case of disastrous defeat. Company "F" was now guarding the lines of communication in the vicinity of Yemetskoe, on the Dvina a hundred miles south of Archangel. Under Captain Ralph Ramsay, the company was split into numerous small detachments from Kholmogori to Morjegorskaya, a hundred miles along the banks of the river, and took over the all important task of watching the trails and river lines leading to the remaining units of the regiment. Patrols of this Company also were frequently used to conduct columns of prisoners of war to the base at Archangel. Company "M" after an active fall offensive, in which it had borne the brunt of the fighting near Obozerskaya, was sent back to Archangel for a few weeks of well earned rest. General Ironsides, the British commander who now assumed charge of the expedition, early in November decided on a change of policy. The expedition had thus far been operating offensively. The prospect of reinforcements had, up until the time of the Armistice, made such a plan seem logical and correct. It had effectually kept the Russians guessing on the real purpose of the expedition, and had steadily forced them back on all fronts. With the attention of the home governments, however, centered on demobilization, and the problems of after the war readjustment, it was soon evident that no reinforcement would be received, and it became a question of holding to the ground gained, with the forces already in place, until such time as the Allied Commanders saw fit to abandon the entire undertaking. We have seen that Company "B" was in position at Toulgas. In addition to the American unit, the town was held by a Company of Royal Scots and several units of Canadian artillery. Toulgas was a typical north Russian village of log huts, scattered promiscuously over a large area. One portion of the town, known as Upper Toulgas, was separated from the rest by a narrow stream. About a mile in the rear a collection of buildings served as a temporary hospital. Early on the morning of November 11, while the troops were at breakfast, the Russians suddenly launched a severe attack from the vicinity of Upper Toulgas. Trenches were hastily manned and the artillery prepared to go into action. Hardly had the fire been opened on the frontal attack, when an even larger and more powerful assault was launched on the rear of the Allied positions, where little preparation had been made for defense. The hospital fell into the hands of the advancing Reds, and it seemed inevitable that they would capture the field pieces before they could be turned to the rear. Six Canadian artillerymen and eight Americans, armed with Lewis guns, alone faced hundreds of advancing Russians for some minutes. So valiant was their defense, however, that the onslaught was temporarily halted. In the precious moments thus gained, the artillery pieces were reversed, and firing shrapnel at point blank range into the dense masses of advancing Bolsheviks, decimated their ranks, and drove them back into the forest. The feint from the direction of the upper village had also been repulsed, the Russians losing in all a total of over five hundred killed and wounded, including several of their most able and successful leaders. An American counter attack about 4:00 p. m. followed by an artillery barrage and an advance of the Scots, cleared out the rear village and recaptured the hospital. The wounded and sick in the hospital were only saved from massacre by the daring of a friendly Russian woman, who guarded them personally while the building was in the hands of the Reds. At daybreak the following day the Russians moved a fleet of gunboats up the river and began a bombardment of the American defenses. Outranged by the more powerful Russian metal, the 3-inch pieces of the Canadians were helpless to reply, and the troops retired to the scanty shelter of the trenches and log block houses. The bombardment continued for three days, and caused great damage in the village, and more numerous casulties than had been suffered in the severe fighting of the 11th. Sleep was impossible, and the garrison was rapidly becoming exhausted. On the 14th a forlorn hope in the shape of a counter

Page  79 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 79 attack was decided upon, in hope of driving off the supporting Russian Infantry, and thereby causing the withdrawal of the gunboats. Company "B," under Lieut. John Cudahy, with one platoon of Company "D," under Lieut. Derham, was designated for the effort. At dawn the attackers stealthily advanced toward the Russian main position and took the besiegers completely by surprise. Their observation posts and ammunition dumps were destroyed, and the Russians driven out of supporting position, their river boats, which were forced to withdraw out of range of the town. Upper Toulgas was burned to prevent an unwise dispersion of the Allied forces. The rout of the attackers was so severe that no further attacks were made for some weeks and Toulgas remained safely in American hands. About Christmas time Company "D" relieved "B" at Toulgas for about a month, Company "B" returning to its old position late in January. The intervening time had been spent in strengthening the fortifications, detachments from the 310th Engineers giving valuable assistance in this work. Contact with the enemy was maintained by means of combat patrols. A night attack on January 29th was repulsed without difficulty, as was a similar effort early in February. On March 1 an American patrol was ambushed, and a platoon of the company was sent to recover the wounded. The remainder of the campaign on the upper Dvina front was restricted to constant patrol duty and ceaseless vigilance. The Russians, although more successful at other points, made no further attacks on the town of Toulgas, and the spring months passed with the village still under Allied control. Early in February Company "K" relieved Company "F" at Yemetskoe, the latter being pushed farther up the river. Late in March a detachment of French and loyal Russians at Bolsheczerki on the line held by Company "H" from Onega to Obozerskaya, were overwhelmed by the Reds, who wedged in a strong force at this point, seriously threatening the American column on the railroad. On December 18 it was found necessary to reinforce the two platoons of Company "G" holding Pinega. Company "M" at Archangel was detailed to make the perilous march of a hundred and fifty miles in the dead of winter. The first and fourth platoons of the company, guarding a sledge train, completed the trip in nine days, followed by the remaining two platoons of the company, who made the trip even more rapidly in the face of a temperature of forty degrees below zero. The order directing the march is so illustrative of the spirit of the entire expedition that extracts are quoted verbatim. "We march tomorrow on Pinega. We shall quarter at night in villages, some friendly, some hostile. We may meet enemy troops. We march one platoon ahead, one behind the 60 sleigh convoy. Ours is a two-fold mission: First to reinforce a half of another company which is now outnumbered ten to one; second to raise a regiment of loyal Russian troops in the great Pinega Valley where half the people are loyal and half are Bolo sympathizers. We hold the balance of power. Hold up your chins and push out your chests and bear your arms proudly when passing among the Russian people. You represent the nation which was slow in wrath but irresistible in might when its soldiers hit the Hindenberg lineremember not only to bear yourselves as soldiers of a powerful people, but bear yourselves as men of a courteous, generous, sympathetic, chivalrous people. We have no medical men. Prepare carefully and cheerfully." Early in December Companies "K" and "L," with the Stokes mortar sections of Headquarters Company, went into reserve at Seletskoe, leaving Company "E" holding the line along the Emtsa River. On December 28th Company "L" was sent up to take over the advance positions, Companies "E" and "K," supported by a platoon from the Machine Gun Company, a section of trench mortars from Headquarters Company, and one platoon of Canadian Artillery, being detailed for the recapture of Kodish. The attacking forces numbered 450 effectives, the Russian defenders having approximately 2,700 Infantry and four pieces of artillery. At 6:00 a. m. on New Year's Day, 1919, the attack was launched. Demoralized by the unusual fire from the trench mortars, and hammered in the rear by the Canadian field pieces, the Russians soon broke, and by 1 p. m. the American attack was entirely successful, and Kodish once more under Allied control. An advance to Kochmas was immediately ordered. The road of fifteen miles was vigorously defended over the entire distance. Nightfall found the combatants locked in a desperate fight. Two platoons of Companies "E" and "K," supported by two guns from the 1st platoon of the Machine Gun Company, held the advanced positions. The fight of a hundred men against two thousand was one of the most brilliant in the annals of the North Russian Expedition. Half of their number were killed or wounded. At midnight the fighting lulled, with the Americans clinging desperately to their hard-earned ground. Although strategically untenable, orders were received to hold Kodish at all costs. The men dug in, although suffering intensely from cold and fatigue. The trench mortars clogged repeatedly by snow and ice, were kept in action, and silenced the enemy guns. For seven days the doughboys fought cold, hunger, and determined enemy attacks. Finally relieved by a company of British Infantry, they were withdrawn to reserve at Seletskoe. Kodish was shortly afterward evacuated, and Company "E" in the middle of January was drawn back to Archangel for rest. The machine gunners and Stokes mortar men remained in Kodish in British support. Following the evacuation of Kodish, Company "K" was withdrawn to the lines of communication at Kholmogori and Yemetskoe, and the gunners to the railroad front, ending American participation on the Kodish front. The first two weeks of January, 1919, passed quietly for the members of Company "A" in and around

Page  80 80 THE POLAR BEfAR CUB 8E A A the town of Ust Padenga. In addition to the Infantry company, a platoon of the 310th Engineers, a platoon of Canadian artillery, a detachment of British signal troops, and several units of loyal Russian Infantry and Artillery comprised the garrison of the village. The position was in the form of a capital "V," the fourth platoon of Company "A," Lieut. Mead and 46 men, holding the right flank of the position at Nijni Gora, Russian troops occupying the left flank at Ust Padenga, and company headquarters with the remaining three platoons and artillery at the base of the "V," Netsvetiafskaya. The thermometer stood at forty-five degrees below zero, and the snow was three feet deep on the level plain between the three positions. Enemy activity rapidly increased. Large detachments were seen concentrating for an evident advance on the positions. The long nights were illuminated with frequent flashes of rockets and signal flares. Everything pointed to a vigorous renewal of the Russian push. At dawn on January 19th the Red artillery opened on the American position at Nijni Gora with great intensity. The platoon in defense there was split into sections of about equal strength, twenty-two men with one officer occupying the advance sector, with the remainder of the platoon in support. After an hour's artillery preparation, the Russians surged forward in an Infantry attack with 900 men in the assaulting columns. Well directed machine gun fire momentarily held up the advance, but in danger of being surrounded, the forward section withdrew to the support line, fighting from house to house throughout the streets of the town. The loyal Russian artillerymen who had been counted upon to combat the attack of the Reds deserted their guns and the enemy swarmed through the village. The remaining survivors of the united platoon now began a precarious withdrawal to the main company position. Floundering in waist deep snow across a plain 800 yards in width and destitute of all cover, forty men of the original strength of forty-seven fell dead or wounded. Exposed to the deathly cold, the plight of the latter was fatal, and few ever rejoined the American ranks. During the night of the 19th, the loyal Russians at Ust Padenga withdrew to the main position. On the 21st the Reds believing that Ust Padenga was still occupied, launched a heavy attack on that village. Coming under enfilade fire from the American rifle, machine gun, and artillery fire, they suffered severe casualties, and gained but a hollow victory. The hostile artillery fire on the Allied position at Netsvetiaskaya was now redoubled. A shell passed completely through and destroyed the temporary hospital. Much damage was done to the other buildings in the village, and the condition of the handful of defenders was desperate. At 10:00 p. m. on the 22nd orders were received to withdraw to Shenskursk, about twelve miles to the rear, where larger forces of Allied troops were stationed. The village was set on fire by incendiary shells as the movement started, but the retreat was at first unopposed, and Shelosha was reached the following morning. A day's halt was ordered here to give the exhausted troops an opportunity to recuperate, but at dark British headquarters directed another night march over the frozen trails of the black forest to Spasskoe, four miles from Shenkursk. Although already cut off by the advancing Reds, a successful ruse resulted in the arrival of the little column at their objective early in the morning of January 23rd. One piece of the Canadian artillery platoon had been abandoned in the retreat from the original position, and the remaining gun was destroyed by the direct hit by a shell during a heavy all day bombardment on the newly occupied positions, and soon telephone communication to the rear was severed. During the afternoon the retreat was resumed to Shenkursk, which was reached late in the evening. Shenkursk was garrisoned by the men of Company "C," 339th Infantry, several companies of supposedly loyal Russian volunteers, and some units of Canadian artillery. There had been collected at this point sufficient supplies and munitions for a period of sixty days. It immediately became apparent, however, that the town could not be held. Further, there was the grave danger that all lines of communication in the direction of Beresnik, over a hundred miles distant, guarded by but three platoons of Russian Infantry, would be cut and the force at Shenkursk annihilated without hope of rescue, thus exposing the rear of Company "B" at Toulgas. It was therefore decided, late in the afternoon of January 23rd, to abandon the town, and fall back on the stronger defenses on the river. Orders were received from the British base at Beresnik to retreat just before the wires were cut by raiding Reds, and all communication interrupted. In order to conceal the movement until the last possible moment, the stores and supplies were left intact, the troops being ordered to carry on their persons the necessary food for the long trip. Hasty Cossack reconnaissance disclosed a difficult and winding trail still free of the enemy. Before midnight the exhausted men of Company "A" were aroused and directed to prepare for the journey. The artillery, preceded by mounted Cossacks, led the retreat, and by 1 a. m. the infantry was under way, Companies "A" and "C" forming the rear guard. The trail was cut into countless holes and pitfalls by the wheels of the guns, and the doughboys floundered along as best they might in the intense darkness and bitter cold. They were hampered in their efforts by the fact that they were equipped with the Shackleton boot, entirely impracticable for use on the march. Many of these were thrown away, the men proceeding in their stocking feet. All that night and all the next day the march continued, with a halt for an hour in the morning for a meager breakfast at Yemska Gora. At five o'clock in the afternoon the weary column wound into Shegovari, garrisoned by Company "D," which had itself withstood a severe attack on the preceding day. Sundown on January 24th, 1919, found Companies "A," "C," and "D," 339th Infantry, assem

Page  81 THEE POLAR BEAR CUB 81 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 81 bled in the town of Shegovari, the first two organizations having just completed a twenty-hour forced march, and the last having recently defeated a spirited Russian attack. Outposts were at once established, and the artillery gotten into position to hold the town. The night passed with no renewal of the attack, but rockets and signal flares during the hours of darkness bore evidence of the intention of subsequent hostilities. The town was surrounded on all sides by a dense forest, and extremely difficult to defend. A single trail, kept open only by constant patrolling, led northward toward the base at Beresnik. At 5:00 p. m. on the 25th Shegovari was abandoned to the enemy, a small body of mounted Cossacks being left behind to burn the stores, while the doughboys marched in the direction of Kitsa, twenty miles away. At midnight the weary column halted at Vistavka and prepared to defend the position. Barbed wire was put out in front of the lines, but the frozen soil defied all efforts to construct field works, and log shelters and snow trenches were made to serve. Companies "C" and "D," with detachments of Royal Scots, Kings Liverpools, and other British units, held the town of Vistavka during the remaining days of January, all of the month of February, and for the first few days of March. Company "A," reinforced by Company "F" was in position across the Vaga at Maximovskaya, while a third unit of the defenses was garrisoned by loyal Russians at Yeveevskaya. Constant shelling during the six weeks of the occupation of these positions leveled the town to ruins, and a hot meal for the troops shivering in the exposed lines was a rarity. Frozen corned beef and hardtack furnished the bulk of the diet. Losses by death and disease reduced the effective strength of the defenders to little over four hundred men. On March 3rd the Allies were driven from Yeveevskaya, and on the following day the enemy began a renewed two-day bombardment of the American positions with six and nine inch guns. On the afternoon of the 5th the barrage lifted to the line of artillery a half mile in the rear, and a heavy infantry attack was launched. Although repulsed in their frontal drive, the Russians succeeded in completely surrounding the positions, and cut all wire communication with headquarters at Kitsa. It was forty-eight hours before a runner managed to get through with the information of the desperate plight of the defenders. A British relief column was immediately started to open communication with the beleaguered garrison, but were forced back by superior enemy resistance. A mixed column of loyal Russian infantry and mounted Cossacks, started later the same day, was more successful. Accidentally stumbling onto a new trail, they took a battalion of the Reds in the rear, dispersed them, and opened the route for the arrival of sorely needed ammunition and rations. Two more days of heavy shelling followed, and on March 20 a second heavy infantry attack, participated in by four or five thousand enemy troops, was repulsed. During the night Vistavka was abandoned, and a new position taken up about two miles south of Kitsa. Company "A" was sent across the river to hold Ignatovskaya. The fighting lulled and the remaining weeks of March and the first part of April passed uneventfully, while plans were being matured for the final evacuation of this portion of the front. From late in December until the middle of March Company "M" and a half of Company "G" held Pinega against threatening odds. Their primary mission there was to bolster the waning enthusiasm of the White Russians in their losing fight against the Reds, and to raise and train military units among the loyal inhabitants. The situation was handled with such tact and skill that complete confidence in their own ability was not only restored but a complete, fully equipped, and well-trained infantry regiment was raised from among the White Guards. This organization not only held the outlying positions, suffering all the casualties during this period, but gave a good account of themselves after the American troops were withdrawn. Minor actions were fought in the vicinity of the town on January 8th, 24th, 29th, and 30th, but no ground was gained or lost. Early in March, upon arrival of the news of Russian successes on the Kodish and Vaga River fronts, the danger of a large attack, and possible annihilation of the Allied forces at Pinega seemed imminent, but no offensive developed and the American doughboys were withdrawn to other fronts just before the arrival of the spring thaws. Meanwhile on the other end of the 500-mile crescent of defense, Company "H" was holding the Onega Valley. December and January were spent in almost constant combat patrol activities. Individual platoons, operating as detached units, fought minor engagements up and down the river, here capturing a village, there retiring from the savage Russian attacks. On December 22, Kleshevo was occupied, and held for the remainder of the campaign. On the 29th two platoons started in an attempt to outflank the enemy positions at Turchesova. After two days of indecisive action, the column retired to Kleshovo. Company Headquarters were moved to Chekuevo in March, it being necessary now to daily patrol the trail from this town to Obozerskaya on the railroad, over which mail, supplies, and reinforcements were received. Until the middle of March this patrolling was without incident, but the scouts who left Chekuevo on March 16 unexpectedly ran into a great force of the enemy at Bolsheozerki and were captured. This was the force that had just annihilated a Franco-Russian detachment holding the town, and was the first intimation which the Allied

Page  82 82 THE POLAR BEAR CUB commander received that his communications and flank were seriously threatened. Lt. Collins with 30 men and a Lewis gun was immediately dispatched to investigate the situation. At noon on the 18th, when within three miles of Bolsheozerki, the detachment met a sudden burst of fire from concealed machine guns, and retired to Chinova, where defensive positions were prepared to dispute the threatened advance on Chekuevo. Word having been sent back of the presence of the enemy in force, an additional detachment of forty Americans under Lieut. Phillips, and three companies of British infantry, were sent as reinforcements to develop the Red positions. It was still believed that this force in the town was only an unusually strong raiding party, which could easily be driven out. In reality the Russians had in the neighborhood of four thousand troops in position to threaten not only the Allied troops at Onega, but also the stronger forces along the railroad. The advance started at 2:00 a. m., and seven hours later the fight began. Two companies of British and the entire force of the Americans formed the assault wave, with one company in support. When within 100 yards of the Russian position, heavy losses and the impossibility of further advance through the deep snow caused the abandonment of the assault, and the attackers withdrew in good order. During the succeeding weeks both forces strengthened their positions, the Russians adding to their defences with wire and artillery. On April 2nd the Reds launched a vicious drive toward the east, in an effort to overpower the Allied troops on the railroad, and immediate steps were taken by Company "H" and their British allies to counter attack from the rear, and relieve the pressure. Two platoons of the company joined in the initial attack on April 2nd at daybreak. A company of British infantry, advancing on the Allied left, soon found itself in difficulties, and Phillip's platoon of Americans was sent in to support it. Soon after the doughboys found themselves bearing the brunt of the enemy resistance. By 9:00 a. m. the British troops had been driven from the field and a second platoon of Company "H" was sent in to stem a heavy Russian counter attack. Phillips fell mortally wounded. A British support company was rushed to the assistance of the hard pressed Americans, and checked the advance. A detachment of Polish machine guns assisted in the defense for a time, but was soon driven from the fight. The thin line of Allies held to the ground won all the remainder of the afternoon, but at dusk the line was withdrawn to the more sheltered positions in rear. The attack, although it failed to gain ground, yet accomplished its purpose in checking the Red push in the direction of the railroad, and causing the Russian commander to move with great caution. During the later spring months Company "H" retired to Chekuevo and later to Onega, being finally withdrawn to Archangel on June 5th, ending American participation on the Onega front. January and February, 1919, found a strong American force holding the railroad front south of Obozerskaya. Under the command of Major Nichols, the troops at this point included Companies "I," "L," two platoons of Company "E" and a similar detachment from Company "G." Under the able direction of the American commander, strong emplacements and blockhouses were erected by Companies "A" and "B," 310th Engineers, and the Pioneer Platoon of the 339th Infantry. Compared to the lively times on other fronts, the first two months of the new year passed uneventfully. Early in March a French battalion relieved the doughboys for a few weeks, but before the first of April, Major Nichols was sent back with Companies "E" and "L," when the threat of a Russian advance from Bolsheozerki began to materialize. General Ironsides took personal command of the situation on March 18th. The Allied forces in North Russia were threatened by probably the most critical situation in the history of the entire expedition. Company "I," 339th Infantry, was hurried out from Archangel, and arrived on the front in the face of a spirited machine gun and rifle fire. Company "M" of the same regiment was hastily withdrawn from Pinega to aid in the defense. Three companies of British, a company of Poles, and a Russian company of loyal volunteers were rushed into the breach. Company "C," 310th Engineers, were detailed to throw up hasty intrenchments. All available artillery was hurried forward. Preparations for the inevitable Red push became a race between the Russians on one hand and the Allies on the other. The winner of the grim event would determine to a great extent who would hold on longest to the advanced positions. The noise of almost daily battle on the west of Bolsheozerki, where Company "H" was striving to deflect the Russian advance, was clearly heard on the railroad, and acted as a spur to the efforts of the Americans there. On the last day of March the Russians began the expected drive on the railroad positions. Beginning the attack from the rear, they cut the wire communications, ambushed two working parties, and threatened to capture two pieces of 75's. The active support of a platoon of Company "M," reinforced by two machine guns and a Iewis gun, permitted the artillery pieces to be reversed, and the attack was stopped at this point. A stronger frontal assault met with similar failure, and nightfall found the Allied troops successful at all points. At 3:00 a. m. on April 1 the Reds again attacked with 7000 infantry. Again the Allies repulsed the drive with rifles, machine guns, Lewis guns, French Chauchats, Russian and French 75's, rifle grenades, and a motley collection of European arms collected for the occasion. The Americans slept on their arms that night and repulsed a third, but weaker attack on the following day, the same date on which Com

Page  83 THE POLAR BEAR CUB 83 pany "H" was having a more bitter struggle on the west. The Russian losses, admitted by them to have been in the neighborhood of 2,000, evidently discouraged them from further attempts. It was the high water mark of the Russian advance. No more attacks were made against the railroad. On April 4th the French took over the American positions. With the beginning of the spring thaws, grave fears were felt for the safety of the American defensive positions. It was known that the ice on the rivers to the south would melt sooner than that near the mouth of the streams, permitting the advance of the Russian gunboats before the Allied ships could steam southward to meet them. Once within range, it would be an easy matter for the heavy Red guns to blow up at leisure the American defenses, and cut off their retreat. It was feared that for a few days at least the Allied positions would be at the mercy of the enemy. Fortunately the Russians did not take advantage of this circumstance, and the withdrawals from all fronts were carried on with a minimium loss. On April 19th Company "F" was withdrawn safely across the ice of the Vaga, already heaving and cracking with the pressure of the melting snow. On the same night Kitsa and Maximovskaya were destroyed by fire and explosion, and the retreat northward begun under cover of ingenious and carefully prepared snares and ruses. The lower Dvina was cleared of ice unusually early, and on May 17th the first British gunboat, the "Glow Worm" proceeded up the river, and put to rest the fears of the Allied commanders. Early in April Companies "B" and "C" were relieved from Toulgas and Kurgomin, and the positions turned over to loyal Russian troops, in the ratio of about five to one. A mutiny among the latter on the night of April 25th resulted in tile evacuation of the town, and its occupation by the Reds. On the 26th the town was recaptured with the aid of the fire from a battery of six-inch guns on the opposite side of the river. Replacements of British volunteers gradually took over the positions, and on June 5th Company "F," the last to get into action during the preceding fall, had the distinction of being the last American unit to be withdrawn to Archangel. Company "K" steamed out of Kholmogori in the latter part of May. and Companies "G," "L," "M," "I," and "E," in the order named, were relieved from the railroad front at about the same time. A temporary embarkation camp was established at Economia, where the troops of the far flung battle fronts were assembled, deloused, stripped of Russian equipment, and prepared for the happy trip home. Beginning on the 3rd of June, the regiment sailed in several detachments. The first arrived in New York on June 30th, took part in a parade in Belle Isle, Detroit, on the 4th of July, and was demobilized at Camp Custer on July 7, 1919. Later detachments were mustered out during the month of July, and by midsummer the war history of the 339th Infantry was at an end. CASUALTIES Of Killed in action............ Died from other causes....... Died of wounds............. Missing in action........... Prisoners of war............ Died of disease............. T otal.................... Enlisted fficers Men 4 78 0 9 2 22 0 29 0 12 2 67 8 217 Military Decorations A merican Distinguished Service Cross... French 3 11 Iegion of Honor............ 2 Croix de Guerre............ 17 0 32 British Distinguished Service Order.. 4 Military Cross.............. 17 Distinguished Conduct Medal. 0 Military Medal............. 0 0 0 11 33 Russian St. Vladimir with Swords and Ribbons................. 2 0 St. Anne with Swords........ 15 0 St. Stanislaus............... 12 0 Cross of St. George.......... 0 23 St. Anne Silver Medal....... 0 1 St. Stanislaus Silver Medal.... 0 5 Totals................... 72 116 The 339th Infantry was reconstituted as a unit of the Organized Reserves under the provisions of the National Defense Act, passed by Congress in 1920. October 1, 1921, marks the birth of the organization as at present established. The regiment was rapidly filled with officers of the Reserve Corps, and by the summer of 1923 was up to strength in official personnel. At this time a stand of colors was issued to the regiment by the War Department, which received their official baptism when they were carried by members of the regiment in the Armistice Day parade in Detroit on November 11, 1923. In June, 1923, an officer of the Regular Army was assigned as executive, in conformity with regulations. The first meeting of the present regimental officers was held at Ft. Wayne on November 20th, 1923, which was followed by five other meetings throughout the winter. On December 6th a regimental pistol team captured first place among Reserve regiments in a match at Fort Wayne. Early in 1924 an official coat of arms was adopted and approved for the regiment by the War Department. It is officially described as follows:

Page  84 84_ THE POLAR BEAR CUB Shield-Azure a polar bear statant on an ice cake argent; on a canton or a fess sable between three martlets of the like two and one. Crest-That for the regiment of the Organized Reserves. On a wreath of the colors (argent and azure) the Lexington Minute Man proper. The statue of the Minute Man, Captain John Parker, faces the Common in Lexington, Massachusetts. Motto (In Russian)-The bayonet decides. A reproduction of the shield and motto appears on the front cover of this edition of the Polar Bear Cub. The polar bear on its azure background (the color of the infantry) is copied from the unofficial soldier patch of the North Russian Expeditionary Force, and denotes the war service of the regiment. The canton bears a part of the coat of arms of Cadillac, the founder of Detroit, and is symbolic of the origin of the regiment, and its present allocation. This coat of arms is embroidered on the regimental color. A copy was presented to the Chief of Infantry, the first Reserve regimental crest so presented. The coat of arms forms the basis of the approved regimental insignia, a metal pin, enameled in colors, about one inch square, the representation of the shield and motto. This insignia is worn on the shoulder loop of the uniform by officers and on the collar of the uniform by enlisted men. It is also worn on the front of the campaign hat by all regimental personnel. In August, 1924, the regiment was ordered to Camp Custer as a unit and served for two weeks under its own officers, assisting in the training of over 3,000 students of the Citizens' Military Training Camps. For this duty the regiment was selected from among twelve Reserve Infantry regiments in the Sixth Corps Area, based upon its strength, training, and esprit. Regimental meetings continued at frequent intervals through 1924-25, with the esprit constantly on the increase. Two successful regimental dances were held. The regimental pistol team again defeated all Reserve teams in a match at Selfridge Field in June, 1925. In September, 1925, the regiment was again honored by being selected to attend its own camp at Selfridge Field. There it functioned for two weeks as if actually mobilized to meet a major emergency. Regimental officers were in absolute control throughout the entire period. The post-war history of the 339th Infantry is short and not so stirring as that of the dark days of 1918-19. It marks, however, the establishment of the regiment as an integral cog of the indispensable defense plan of the United States; it has been a story of progress, and has placed the organization among the leaders of the regimental Reserve units in the country to-day. WHO'S WHO IN THE 339TH INFANTRY (Continued from page 74.) from 1911 to June 1917 as a corporal, sergeant and first sergeant in the 23rd and 34th Infantry. On June 10th, 1917 he was commissioned 1st Lieutenant and served until October 6, 1919, in the 16th Infantry, 1st Division, participating in the AisneMarne and the Montdidier-Noyon sectors, being wounded in action twice, on May 12th, 1918 and July 18, 1918. Lieut. Long is now a sergeant of the Regular Army, instructor with the Michigan National Guard. SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSEPH W. LOONEY, attached for training, 1st Battalion headquarters, is an alumnus of Illinois College. His war service extended from May 1918 to January 1919 in the 40th Infantry. SECOND LIEUTENANT WALTER E. LUCKENBACHER, attached to training to Company "I," is an alumnus of Carnegie Tech. He was appointed 2nd Lieutenant of Infantry after his graduation from a training camp in September 1918 and assigned to the 161st Depot Brigade. He was discharged September 1919. FIRST LIEUTENANT ALLEN G. LUDINGTON. Second in Command of Company "C," is a graduate of the University of Michigan. He served as an enlisted man in the National Army from September 1917 to May 1918, graduating from a training camp on May 27, 1918, as a 2nd Lieutenant of Infantry. He was assigned to the 166th Depot Brigade, and served with that unit until his discharge in April, 1919, being promoted to 1st Lieutenant in November, 1918. Lieut. Ludington served on active duty with the 339th Infantry in 1924 and 1925. SECOND LIEUTENANT JOSEPII B. MCCRACKEN, attached for training to Company "M," served from May 1918 to September 1918, as an enlisted man. He was discharged from the service while a student in a machine gun officers' training camp. SECOND LIEUTENANT MILTON M. MADDIN, attached for training to the Service Company, is a graduate of the University of Michigan, receiving his training in the R. 0. T. C. at that institution. CAPTAIN CLARENCE J. MANNEBACH, Regimental Plans and Training Officer, is an alumnus of the Detroit Technical Institute. Graduating from the first training camp in 1917 as a 2nd Lieutenant of Infantry, he was assigned to the 304th Infantry, serving in that regiment and in the 163rd Infantry until his promotion to 1st Lieutenant. Subsequent service took him to the 104th Infantry. He participated in the Aisne Marne, St. Mihiel and MeuseArgonne offensives with the 26th Division. Capt. Mannebach was on active duty in 1922, and attended camp with the 339th Infantry in 1924.

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