Instead, it seems that I have a special kind of epistemic access to my own psychological states. This first-person access is unavailable to other people. They can never know about my psychological states in the special way that I typically do. However, having this special mode of access makes it much less clear whether my psychological states are wholly distinct from my beliefs about them. Indeed, many philosophers think the two are not wholly distinct existences.1 For example, Matthew Boyle denies that “being in a given mental state M and believing oneself to be in M are two distinct psychological conditions” (2011, pg. 235). Instead, Boyle thinks the two are simply different aspects, or “ways of conceiving”, the very same psychological state. Thus, on Boyle’s view, the relation between a subject’s psychological state and her higher-order belief about it is identity. 0
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