The history of Sulu: by Najeeb M. Saleeby.
Saleeby, Najeeb M. (Najeeb Mitry), b. 1870., Ethnological Survey for Philippine Islands

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Page  [unnumbered] BUREAU OF SCIENCE DIVISION OF ETHNOLOGY PUBLICATIONS VOLUME IV, PART 11 THE HISTORY OF SU LU,,, lt y- — '* * NAJEf~B M. SA L9.EERY" *, Ls, ' ' f*.i f *'Pr p~~~~ f 41 *I MANILA BUREAU OF PRINTING 1908 71296

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Page  109 [1]~~~~~~~0

Page  110 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  111 CONTENTS PART 11 CnAr'mrEa I (ornAgnrcAL D.CRIPTION OF THE Suu AR EWO........................................ 121 InfET~JWI~ lk ~ ge er l.....................CH I I... -..... -.. ^.21....'...121 Island of Sulu............................................................... 12 Geographical features...,.,.....................................................27 Principal coast settlements..........................-.Districts of the island................................. 31 woJstricto of tlte,, 131 Town of Jolo,..............,.......... 133 Geernel plan, buildings and streets....................... 13 Trade................................-...13.......... 137 Population...................................144 CHAPTrM II GENEALOGY OF Su;u...................... 147 Translator's introduction....................147' uthor's nt ducti.... 147 Sului:uthor's.iatroduction ^:.....................<...-..-.-.....7..-.............Descendants of Asip....................... - 148 Desendants of Tuan Masha'ika.......-.................. 14 Original and later settlers of Sulu......,....... 149 Sulu historial notes....... —....... —.........:51 Introduction............1............1........... Sulu notes.......................-.52 RISE AND PROSPERITY OF SaXD.,-.-.......-.......R-I,,1... '.." 1 55 Sulu before Islam.................... 1 Introduction of Islam antd the 'rise of a Mohammedan dynansty in Sulu, 158 Esatalblishment of the -Mohammnedan Church in Sulu d the reign of Abu Bakr... —..... ---- 161. Early days of the sultanate............. ~Suessore s of Abu Bakr-................1................. 163 Figueroa:s expedition against Sulu...........164 Reasons for hostilitie.................-.... 1 Rule of Batara Shah Tangah................. 171 Figueroa's expedition against Mindanao.......................... 172 M oro raids................................. 5': First Spanish conquest and occupation of Sulu.................................... 177 Siulu suac i tlhe Archipela........................................ 179 Successors of Bungsu................................................ 1 Reign of Sultan Alimud Din I......................... 180 Reign of Sultan Israel.............-...........................-........... M oro pirates............................................................................1 [31

Page  112 -RIsnKs -Awp~rwY~wV0S~tU~n;. - - AND POSe 0?o Si 40 onth'; Treaty of 18 l with the tn of Text oithe ty. a ci of t trt t Q en t of Spin xpediftion of Governor Claveri.............;....a.... Visits to Jolo of Captain Henry Keppel and Sir James Broke........ Cnt nz IV DEIWLNE OF SULU.......... Expeldition against Jolo....................................... Treaty of April 30Q, 1851............... Translati of the Suu text of the treaty of 1851............. Politic-mlitary gov;ernntt of Mindanao and adjaeent islands.*-* Pol; tm-n!t. tr, government of.r....... SUL UND SPA H................................ wt...... Oceupation of Job 0........... ^ Rule of Sultanm anialul Al*. Cesion of possessions in Borneo to British North Borneo Coompoiny >:..................... 'treaty of July,,1878...' *Rule.of Sultan 'SHarunt..of Jl 7.8.......... Rule of Sultanr i JaBnalll Kiruam II.-:........-.............-...,...** CoxcxAjsx,.. - uSpanislh p... oliy: e *.................................. RAttitde of tfea H rosn:.,e,,o.......................-.*. - Mistakes afd diffie ltfes o K Spamni th a.... *......*.....,...r..... Views of Es pin, i...................... Purp e of Spaini........ --- - -.................................. CONCLUS ONN, Gtrau d.mr............................... Resource s of Spain:.......I... ResAPPoureD of i................................... APPNL-DIXES 194 190 IT0 ' 212 214 221 '22 224 225 226 i227 229 233 237 240 244 247 247 249 249 251 254 255 256 260 APPENDIX I. The pacification of Mindanao by Ronquillo.............................. II. The pacification of Mindanao............................................. III. The Moro raids of 1599 and 1600...-....... —.....-..................... (V. Gallinatos expedition to Jolo. WV. c lin tose~i n to r1...,....................................-........... V. Olaso's expedition in 1629.:.................................. VI. Corcueraas camipaigni in Jolo.................................. VII. Obando's report on the preparations to h undertaken to return Alimud Din to Sulu,....*i*.rxi.. b.-.................. VIII. Obando's report on the circumstances attending the attempt to return Alimud Din to Sulu................................. 1X. Report on the occupation of Palawan and Balabiak............ [41 269 275 279 283 289 291 307 313

Page  113 ABnPE~wnI) \X. Ah lrin a X tt 1helet rof thl Sn polt u.. a copy of te teaty: of pe, Xi *'with Suu X1* r.,frm Rlip f o, XIII. Royal directions r lative* o coiner aith fa thel -; i: sablty-: of makig n f rt........~...:..... - XIV. aniba's report on the ircumttdig - e trt 1830 awl itsbs........ t t 83 XV. Cainba's lot:on eommer with Sulu and the -vi:ability: of making Za an afree rt................................. r.... tj -U-C.1.o,....n;, XVI. Communicatio from the ver Z.mo.-:n. -t:.npraneo governt of th li a ai to the t-; XVII.' Comunication from the reme o of Sthilip- pines to- t*e seetary of state relt to the t rat of Sir JamesBtre-ok the Sutaln — o-u;,.-..-.35 XVIII. Regulations reltive t:o taxes and im t; n nfativea ai -: im e migrants in Sul....... 3:9 XIX. The yproteol of Sulu, of '877, between (Sp ai, Gea ny, an G reat B ritain 30.-:.:^ 7 -.;XX. The protocol ofSu of 1885, between Spain, Germany, and *n ';,um GreatBitin.M- 37 XXl. Decree of:the general government in regard to' payment0 of. -.. tribute byuS...........Sis.........:375 /XXII. Roya l communiationrelatie t th ri ig the perl filsherie of Su l,.....3 -I77 XXIII.* Royal directionsE reative to'he tre:tm t of foreignersen - ~ ' gad in ipearl fishing i:the '.Sui witers...:,.... 3.............. XXIV. La Torre's views:o-thle- poi-y that should be adopted- in 'Mindatnano and. Su l...............[...............38..........5,:..- 35 - [5]

Page  114 ' >'-N' ~I" - V .. '*H'' ,t>tXA yq 4t-~" 4 -' "-'6 -"-Ky' "" '-A 4 t.~ tin.

Page  115 MAPS AND DIAGRAMS MAx I. The Sulu Arehipelago F o..i.. IL. Suu: Isbland;..,1...... III. Sketch.of o before 1888........................ 134 IV Sketch f Joat the present time...............:.. DIAGRAl 1l Sultans and royal datus of S,,,-...,.,. 2. Datusof Sulu not deended from Ab Bakr............. -*~~~ -'^~~~~~~~ */:115 I B *

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Page  117 PREFACE knowledge of those significant histoical events of Sulu wdahicb hmAteoa the Spanish discovery and conquest of the Phlippine Islands, e nnection which those events might have had with the earlier hof 0 the other islands and the light that they might throw up the subject of prehistoric Malayan immigration to the Archipelago The ar (genealogies) of Mindanao show that events of considerable im rta had ocrrd in the Archipelago, especially in the south lo bore the Portuguese or the Spaniards reached Maysa Some tri such as the Samals, w were told, had emigrated from wIesteli a t Sulu Archipelago and Mindanao and indication were not wa oting t t probably other tri now abitiipp Ie fr the same place. trthe rinf i w direVe m -0 medanization of Hua and the possible connection that suci a mov t mi it have had fwith ted i rodletion of Ioam into umatra ea Malacca. o: o - i h a w o h m i s i a The research so conducted as well rewrded. The histoy of Sula was traced as far bk asthedes o ldest ettlet id organizati t nation was followed:: the primitive com munities out of whichthe Sn nationhas grown. Records of early Malayani exped itions andtof cmmunicao te id were traced to the earlit isionaries w re ah d th e Isans th way of Malascca anof d t wht h e sultanates of Mindanao and SneU were organ ise n similavr to toe o xila, ad P nale g A- fuller account of h lif hitry and rk of th nri I begiven in alaer paper:of this res. We here give only a narrative of the events n h partiiped and the part they played in making the history of Sulu proper. Many difficulties were eoCunterednte effort to secure an uthent copy of the Genealogy of Sului. Several trips of 20 to 40 miles were made in small MorO sailing craft to visitatus who were id to hav copies of this document. 'the Si authorities who had the manuscri t or copies of it denied this fact from time to te, but af r te o years and a half of persistent endeavor and inquiry, the rigi al nuscript was procured from the prime minister of the Sultan of S ul, 1ee Ethnologleal Surveey Pu"bltioanst Vol. IV, It. p. I, 17: 7 ", [9]

Page  118 118 whlns con tldeu:cwe gaind a elby a log peod oo )nO O:f wiat umaiAntc and frequent corn tun miatilon. Sooe after that; the Annals (e Sulu (t JIuotar,were obktainwd from tii sultan and some facts of im rta were kearned and made u4 of in the course of this work. Diligent (t was fhurthe.r made to c~ollect all interesting Su1i tr tio, aMnd.lot.cmeunts, and most of the best informed KS uls living were intr iewl. ()f these the author feels under special obligaion to lention Shet - VM ustafa: bin Aihma frmerly prim e min ster to Sltan lrla; Hadji Butu, plrimte minister (4 the- pre:ei t SultItnl of SuI:, IDatu Paira; L; and - adji: Miohaxmd: 1neTayib, oneof the pricipal av of the pren. ii isultan,...: AlteTr the first obje;::ht ha bee gaind, it i ame apparent: er s G -gal a...... th:at. al genr ubfic:ineraestl:i ulun and Mintarm had ben growing r"apidly..' f t;o;Il'etvisa -bleto complete the hstory of SU.a upf t #o ( daete of:Spr.;:ttshLc. acuati l fo no such work has as yet been 1p)UbliS ihd inthleugi ih lantgage.t It tis of speial iterest to: Americans pubhshedl-i~al!n': _h:g l:t,, ': living in Minda.na o Sifd:ouand ogeneral V in terestto Americans o.tihrs elsew hleo hae ea bett:er wdrsau ofs tile l Momsi geeral and to:a'quire some:id:.:::the h:isrof sl am in the P lippi -; s' lands;: T:hst-he hlsthoiof Suu makes pslfr the reader n a mst vi:vid: anmd. lealisticm maner t. Th; -his i w or:bi:;as and tte -appearvi.a' in llulig;htof facts, and one tepale of s:ing tiy mthe stadpointm i of a Suh as well as * of Sapatipaurdral,..1 h "4: aa-tin r ':: "':':'~:"' — " -:':;::' s: Nviothing:revealsthetruecharcterofanainits capabiie, ten-.denes, ad resorces, better than its history. T ]?here is' notie wheno such getraltein;tmateoedgeof a pe eis m...oe i.n.t r e gand mo- tneededla:than. during the pierodo ration7 and tere can be n:ot etime wh: lwen:EL f.thehi stor-y Ule-'i:::i.:::of th us w ing t at is t aheMorosu sabovereferred to, several authrs in pa ish;and lEn ish have been consulted and: quoted with due credit. Special indebtedness must however be, expressed to. Cot Miguel S. Espina, autho!r of: "'". Apuntes sobre Jolo," whose "admirable swork has been our chief athit.:y for: the majority:of t:il:e events which ourred after the Spani invasion of Sulu in,; '78., Espina saw considerable service: in Si:-, as n imatelly a c quaint ed _ wa intmately aainted with the Spanish administration of S u a: - fairs, and most of his information was derived fromi off ial documents antid other sources of equal authenticity. Most of the events reltng to the late perid of Spanish occupation of Sulu have ben c e b perslol inves tigaton, a te b eer ater oi gs~~~Et~t _T~esORrce1S"_i er -.1 Mj e has been studied and understood. M-6 A chap ter ono tihe, gogrph o of: Ardpel 's give a general idfieal o the ggrphic l' relai o the:t0]

Page  119 PREFACE t19 of Sulu, the location of its various islands and settlements,,d its commercial resources. Special attention haa been given to accurate spelling of names and the correct location of settlements and small islands. Unusual pains have been taken to get satisfactory maps of the Archipelago and Island of Sulu and sketches of the town of Jolo. These will help the reader and add interest to the succeeding chapters. In the Appendixes will be seen reprints of various documents, reports, quotations and letters of direct and significant bearing on the history of Sulu and Mindanao. They are arranged in chronological order and are intended to complete the record and description of important events in Moro history so as to throw light on the actual conditions of life among the Moros, the political motives of the int er s, and the real state of affairs in Mindanao at the time of the Spansh evacuation. The source from which each arficle is derived is given in connection therewlti. A considerable number of quotations or chapters have been taken from "The Philippine Islands," byv Blair and Robertson, for which specia obligation is hereby expressed. Many of the ofcial: documents given could not be conveniently incorporated in the text of the history proper, and are herein published, probably for the first time. They include protocols, capitulations, official letters, decrees, and correspondence relative to Sulu obtained from the Divisiontof Archives of the Philippin Islands. The originals of he copies can be seen in Spain in tle Indies Archives. - -: -:;; --; Some liberty has been taken in correcting the spelling of geographical and other proper names in orde r to render the history uniform in its orthography and to avoid confusion aind- misconnection of events perons, and places. The same system of orthography hasbeen seas that used and described in Part 1 of olume IV, Ethnologil Survey Publications. Diacritical signs to denote the long;sounds of vowels have, however, been very rarely used. The Arabic "hamzat," occurring in Moro words has been expressed by an apostrophe; while an inverted apostrophe has been used to represent the Arabic sound or character M ai the eighteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet. Annotations which occur in the original documents have generally been indicated by letters, while those made by the author are denoted by figures. MANILA, January, 1907. [11]

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Page  121 CHAPTER I GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SULU ARCHIPELAGO' IN GENERAL The Sulu Archipelago is a series of small volcanic islands which extends in a northeast and southwest dirtion between the meridians. of 119~ 10' and 12Z~ 25' ea and the parallels of 4~ 30' and 6~ 50'. north. It forms a continuous chain:f island, islets, and cora reef s,. which connects the peninsula of Zamboanga th the northest er x- tremity of Borneo and separates the Sulu Sea from the Celbes Se. It -: - marks the Southern line:of:nmunication btween: the 'Pilip e Is- lands and Borneo and i p the ef rormer igra t -s- The islands8: of the Arhipgare s dispose ato f s veralf:.;smaller ~groups, the:most imprhtantof wh^!ich arethe fl:loing: Theec^ -; of Basilan and fifty-six sll ent islands,' all of:.w.l no..:: —rt o:-f:: the pairalel off 6. 15:th -d easof eridian 121 -:: - This group, tder e ename: o Bsilnt:t.itt et:;:: -:: d-0 'E b- -.' - 1 8ei m i n e ^ 'tGover-nament in11. i tat d-tthei ds f t g-. havenot beenreognized: politically as" a prot: Sar A Basilan: i ea t in.:'d l s t point is about 1.::/0milesd:i l sth::.o:f::.Zamboan'ga.T isl;a::!nd is..'more or les circular in ouitneandhas a radius.approxima tlel Iimiles/":~:-:- - -: —_ long. Its i0area is:about 400:.squae miles. Two p rpminetm halands: -::/' projectimg, one-(on th s dohe weas::a eon.e w give t eisland a -. -- maximumni length; of36 mil.;:The greatest widt, n: is 24 miles.; The eastern headland is lon: s a pict uresqe co;n:::icl: peak, called:"Mount Matangal which rises about 66 48 3 8::6': -me above s:-:ea level. Thi. peak is a ery prominent landmark, vsibe to a great -:- disance from all potints i n thee CelbsSew and inthe0Straits of Easilai T hef western headland is less prominent,:It has an iolated pxk about 287 - The spelling pf roper names used throughout thi s pape hat adoptl by the author: and differs in some respects from that in se in the Division of thnology.r- -- r [1;3] ' 121:; ': _:~: -:xg_:~

Page  122 122 TUH H 1ISTORY (OF SIUtU meters above the sea, immediately noth of the settlement of Pangasa. The position of this peak makes it a conspicuous landmark to vFs entering the Straits of Basilan from the Sulu S e. The surface of the island is high and hilly. Twenty-three peak are recognized, fornnlg two distinct series or rages, ntral and periphera. The central region of the island is an elevated tableland, out of which rise a number of peaks forming the central serie n ranging from 609;to 1,019 meters above sea levd. A thick forest covers this region. The rivers are small: and dry up in the dry season. Few Yakas are to be found there, and tleir hlouse are isolatd and far apart. No cultivation:is carrted;0 in fite interior. On the outside of this region rises the peripheral series of hills or peaks which lies paralel and near to the coast. With the exceptrin of two, al of these peaks are below.304 meteri.M in height. lThe i dr'op fr this litne o)f nills to te coast is rapid in some place,- and:in general the shorle n is low and swampy and coverfed wit:h mangrove trees. The three: largest valleys in the jisand are those of Gubauwan or Lamitan on the nortleast, Kumaarang on the northwest, and Malusui on the west. This region is generally considered fertile, nut it has a marked dry season and droughts are not rare. The island is ve rrich in tinber; all its hills and mtountains are forest-clad to tiher sumxmit. Excellent boats are constructed on the south and west coasts of the island which rival the Tawi-tawi boats in every particrular. A:feW Americans have:startd hemp and coconut plantations on the north coast, but native cultiva&tt.a m not exatenive and compares very p ly h that f e Islands of lu, Tapul and Siasi. Most of the ctlti ation on the island is aFr; ed by Yakans, the Saimals living chiefly on the products of-tho sea. The stale produets of the soil are rice, tapioca, and corn. UWi (a kind of tuber used as food), camotes (sweet potatoes), and wild frits abound. The number of cattle is not inconsiderable, but -horses are few. M f -t: settlements on the island areon the sea cot and lie on the:rth antd west coasts. The larger ones, beginning at Isabela and going eafs, are, on the north, Isabela, Pat n or alatasann, Bl Malu'ung, Nipa, Lamitan,: Tagima, and Kandi'is; on ithe eastl, Tanibunan, Buhilubung, and Ubung; on the south, Amalwi, Giyung, and Mangal; on the west, Libuk, K3abkaban, Kanas, Maliusu, and Pangasa'an; on the north, Bulansa, Atungatung, Batanay, and Panigayan. The prominent chiefs of the island live at Lamnitan, IJbug, and Malusu, which form the principal enters of native power. The old name of Basilan was Tagima, so called after -the name of -the iod settlement ofTagima mlentioni above.;. —. Isahela may be conslidered as. the capital of aiIts old osea co d 1' nor~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~h"An'd -west~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. I This settlement is 6n a small adjacent Island of the same name. [143]

Page  123 G*iOU 4111 'AL TN J O;:123 is angn, whih is still tlhname of fe stream at the mouth of Mwhh it is built. Thle town is situate 4 miles inland, on the narrow c which separates Basilan om the small island of Malamawi. The cha nel widens a little at this point and fonrs an excellent harbor. Under Spanish jurisdiction iit w:as a naval; station with a dil dck for gnboats. An aqueduct furnishs town witl fres water brought from a mall stream in the neighborlood., The stone fort Isabel Ii, built on the hill in 1849, commands both en ranees of the channel It was desine to defend the town against the Moros. MThe ab ndonment of the town as a naval station has led to its present decline. An Amein awmill planted there has been the;chief source of lumber supply for the town of Zamboanga and neighbohood. The largest islands in this group, excepting Bilan are Baluk-baluk and Pilas, both of which lie west of Baian. A narrow hannel which lies in the direct route leading from Zamboanga to Jolo separate these two islands. Tapiantana, Salupin Bubwan, and Lanawan are the largest islands of the group oUth ofBasilan. The populatimo of-thiaswhole group is generally estimated at 25,000. Of the, 15,000 Iw ive-in Baslaen itself. The inh&obitants of Basilan proper are Yakans and Sals, wh lethe adjaen islandb ro upied entirely y b Samals. The Yakans are the aborigines of asan and extend father into the in terior than the SamalS. Basilan never enjoyed politica -independence. Before Spanish rtle it was governed by Sulu dats- and paid tribute to the Sultan of Sulu. Under the datus, subordina'te: Sanmal pnimarajas2 haad charge of the various communitis or ettlements.. The Samala of Basilan are at present stronger than other Samals and enjoy a greaterdegree of liberty and self-gpvernment; than their brothers in the Tawi-tawi Group., -, ', The Ialangingi Group lies east of the meridian of 121 28' est, and to the south of the Basilan Group, It has nineteen islands, the principal ones of which are Tonkil, Balaninng, Simisa, Tatalan, Bukutwa Bulim, Bangalaw. The islands -of this group are small and low and do not exceed 38 square miles i"m ar ea Their inhabitants are Samals.- The people of Balangingi and Tonkil were notorious pirates They built strong forts and once surpassed all other Samal in power, political organization, and prosperity. The Sulu Group lies west: of the 1Balngingi Group and north of the parallel of 50 46' north. Its western boundary may be sent athe' meridian of 120~ 46' east... It consists of about twenty-nine ilands wit a total area of 30 sqquare miles..The principal island of this 1 An officer next below a datu in rank. An officer next below a panglima in rank. 7 1296.-2 [15]

Page  124 124 14T U h, 0I Y Of UI V ioHE) HISOR OFsU:IAT Sidu. To the north oa f Sul lie Pangasinan,: rN ' bwan, Mimis, iHeg'ad,.a;few t er o e l ie t,~ 12'1: —:~~; i~~nm1 a and Ditinat;.toie.et: th;t,:soth lt:a t ya n. 'iltavan lies nirth of rliatII and is sparated from it b a ay row strait. It has a 0 good harbothr on th sourse. Is t wa:edt the EIngllish iln7i63 bySultan Aimntid Dixn I out: of apprciiatnion of the ftvor:djtone inB releasing hinm: fro prson in Manila and reiati him as SIlItaan of i8u. 'The Eglish,:1howevr nver e any uof the iaL tPata wi, next. to u1i, the lgest islaml (;::ro:up.- nIt is mott ntainous and welt poulat-t T:-:hedescri:teion of the sland o Muli is ';T. I S A-,h I I f t:little mnore 0 than itre:svisilile fain the se4:. They0 ale surrliued w ofgivt enh pe-piraet!-:as - the I;': t f t o wate.": Te!angtarn ithe fifth>1 dfn the Arclipeli n fie bein:g i iles settlementS Maglau.: I::ts:f nt teulrn andeastcr oats noar th o est 0Popipuated. IfThe inabitantsof this group are cVhie M als; few; Su lufs TII(a of 1, - s quarere u'f Vamre foundt mixedit athem Crout tr e s and tarp:io p antt a grow wt T: h SiaXrot0si Gir oup lies to0: thesonth andwest of the Mum Gwroupt east oft" nenidi arn f 120 3::'eas, and nth of parall of 5i024' nort. Iast -slandswit an ag atre araof: — A0t.w: X -S I: 0Xh~aMS - i hiT W~i 18181EC12- -:i —; 1:: -:this itgrou te: Siasio Pandau, Tul, Lhamina arsunda,:dbinga'a.:';lt:e first- fourl aeolcaiislandso- a.,so me size;. thelse t;:oa are iov a:n flat. Tapul;isthellneareast iland; vOfth g 0;uto;Sulu, It is more -n ':Or'lesa' rth- it with.:Or l.s rund:in c.irmereg'n.e:sand rs: itnh:ntheia mdl::dlee to apic'turesque "conical peak '50o mete3rs above thle sea4: t is ahout miles: in diameer and id separated from tugusi:b: a very: narrowpchaenl T e island is t8 ms lersoup otr Su::i san':i ugIs: n'i i'Well: ueltivaed:pe vry attractive fron the sea.It;::Xt ppts.nsidere popution an;. several fairly prOSxperouIissettlemenlts.00 Tbe 'p ople, aret.imostly Sulus; The chief sfettlement0 of thi's island:: is aai t whea:re o i ve Shwaifw Alawii the istrondge.tchief on the fil an and Pagatpat lie on the souithrn coat east f K:f awi. ** sfiemn on the westrn. coast are, beginning at the south SuN Pu, Kaim(16]; Pi;; * ' '!

Page  125 GEOGRAPHICAL D.ESCRIPTION1 125M pang, Tigbas, Banting, Kutabatu, Bagus; on the northern coast awirnpang, Pangdan; on the eastern coast, Sampunay, Tulaikan. Lugus is a larger island., Its long diameter extends 9 miles ast and west, andt it has an area of 18 square miles. It is hilly and roh; but the northern shore is fairly well cultiated. The chief settlements are on the western coast. They areB s where Datu Aimilihsin used to live, and Bulipunagpung. On the north lie, beginning at the east, Gapas, B'it-ba'it, and awit, the place of Maharaja Sharafud Din; on the eat Kalu'ukan, the residence of Panglima Salahud Din; and on the south Aluduyung, and the Island of Munupunu. -... Siasi and Pandamii are separated by a narrow channel which forms a good anchorage for vesessl. Siasi i prettier than Tapul in form and is larger, but not equally wooded. Ithas an isolated, eonical, and beautiful peak in the center rising to a height-of 59 meters above sea Ievd:*-The island is abou.t 7 miles in diameter and has an area of 39 square miles. Reefs and numerous islets form a fringe off the east and soth oast and these teem with Samal houses. t is thickly settled, fairly-well cultivated, and las, in proportion to its siz, a onsiderable number of horses and cattle. The majority of the people are Samals. but:theief rulers and some of their retinues are Slus In this respeet this island follows the general rule governing all the larger island:o f -the Archipelago outside of Sulu Iland. The town of Sii is on the western side. It lies on the Pandami Channel and has a good harbor. A sprng rising at the base of tfle western slope of the mountain supplies th town with fresh water.: - -:; - A detachment of Spanish trops occupied the town in 1882 and built a stone fort and barracks. American troops were there from 190 to 19.04, when they were relieved by a detachment of the Philippine Constabulary. An effort was made in 1899 by the present sultan, Jamalul Kiram II, to retain Siasi inder his own jurisdiction for the estabishment of a customhouse where he could collect duties on foreigngoods, as was formerly done by his father; but no such rights were conceded to hin. Siasi is a closed port at present. The residents of the town are Samals and Chinese traders. They vary from 500 to 700- i number. The other settlements on the island are, on the north, SiySndu, Pagatpat; and Manta; on the east, Pamunguan, Tanjun, Sipanding, and Blikulul; on the south, Dugu, Latung, and Musu; on the west, Nipanipa, Jambanganan, Dungus, and Sablay; in the interior, Kabuulo,, i, and Kungatad. Siasi and Laniinusa are important eenters of pearl-nd shell fishing.;. About 2,900 amals live R on Laminusa... ~.s Pandami is an attractive island. Its long diameter runs north and: south. Two round peaks, one at each end of the island, give itthe sape of a saddle and make a picturesque sight from the sea. The people 17

Page  126 126 12(TIE HISl:TORY 0OF 8UL U are ellieily Siha:ls ruletd by Sulu datus. Its ibet sttlemnts are n the west and south.l The nane given to this island on Spanish maps is Lapak, wliich is the name f on on f its southern settlements. The northern extremity of thle islanld is IDiaDi Point, tthe northeast prjection is Butunrt. Point,. The chlief settlements on the west are, biting t: a the north, Subaubai, Talbunan, Pari'an Pandamni, 'ubig-shina, Lai, and Sibtawud, whic lies on a reeff t lthe outhern point of the island. On the east lie Amhilan Baa,, and Lapak. L n ina nd Kabi a a lie to te eat of.Siasi.: They are sall tht thickl populated b ay S.::: The eh ief settlements of Lamninusa are Tamipan on the north and Klmgkung on the sorth.; The: Tzwta-zwi Group lies to the south and west of theTapul Group. and extedIsas'. far e st as h Siutu Ps This is is the largest group in Ilnuberand area-inluding eigy-ight islans with a combined area of 462 square mies:. I:t populaoti is esiated at 25,000. These:2 islands formn -two dstict diisions or subrup differing in:both extent and populatiom..-.., The first or northeirn:division includes Baigao, Sangnga, Tawi-.; tawi, Tandu-batu, and a:large:namber of smaller iansall of- whieh are rolgh, volcaniec,-tmono rselpoplated. 'Th1e -:*-'-1 second or southern: -di sion- is- a:res of low, flat: inds which are smaller in area but imre thicklv popaed than those of the northern d;vision. The pri l names, beginning at the east are the following Kinapuaan. Bintulan,;TaTaw n, Sui: Tandu, Siku La taan, MantabwBan, n.inMana.and Simnul. t:Ex'tensive 8reefs and:narrow channels anstha separate the Wislands f ro }Bangao, Sngana l Twi-tai are separated b vey narrow channels and are pratically one island. Bangao forms the ssothwest extremity and is substantially one solid rock which rises perpendienlarly to a height of 228 meters. It is a conspicuois landmark to vessels going through th e Sb Pa e. he town of angao is a militry station and an open port; it has an excellent landlocked harior and a very poor water supply. The town has been occupied by troops since 1882, but it has never attained any size or importance. Tawi-tawi: Island is -a continuos range of hills covered by thlick and rich forests. The highest points in the range are the Dromedary peaks (59 1 mleters) lying about: the center of.the island. T e t he e t f th island is about 34 miles and its greatest widtlh 14 miles, It is next in sie:to the Island off 8ull, butit is- very sp-aarsely popula I hie — f -. -,settlements are Tungpatung, Balimrbang, Lissut, and Bu'anl on the;; south coast, and Tawi-tawi, T'ata'an, Buitulng, '-rumhub ung, T:m Languyan, and -Bas on the north. At Baliribanlg are builtt e best (18]

Page  127 GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURS IF ~ AM R 127 types of Sulu and Samal boats. Good mber abounds in the neighbor ing hills, and the little bayis transformed into a shipyard. The town used to be a famous rendezvous for Samal pirates. Tata'an had formerly a Spanish garrison; the present Moro town is a little distance o the souith of the rnins of the fort and is called Butung. It is built on tihe hillside and commands a pretty view of the sea. It lies 100 mil east of Lahat Datlu, E'ast Borneo.::The anlhorae is deep ad safe, being well protedete by a large semicircle of reefs-, A boa 30 feet long was killed on the-iistland i1 1903.;: —Rber d r —ae fod o is island.- Tapioca and ubi.are the: Staple produets., - * — ': Sibutu lies in a little group of' th-e name, stuated, beteen the Tawi-tawi. Group 'and Born- and- at a distanceof about 15 mile from each. The Sibultu Pasage separates it fromM ianuk-manka, thsouhernmost island of the Tawi-twi: Group, andthe Alice nneefrom Boneo. This island did 'notie' w liie:heilippineIslands as defined in the' Treaty ofP e - Deembr: It:Spain with Kagayan S,te t in. close proimityo t nit ste for small Moro: at tig eenBor d nkian island 'and. town,.is;the. t-rade csnter:hof ti grop n has st ltl been made an-openpo —; a0 9 — rt.;;;;-. 0.I.S. (?...ISIAND-O-f -- L -U -L _-, 'WT..7;-;.; - - -. - -:.G;EOGR APH:I 0 ** ]Pii CAL FEATURES::;; Sulu is ian island of irreguflayr shapeand amongthe slands ofthe Archipelago is next mi -sizeto Basilan. it longe diameter runs -ea and west and approximaites37 mies whfile.its av lenh does not exceed 32 miles. Its greates width is l14mile and itsa.erage width about 10 miles. The m:ain: stuufrofhis solanic, but it is surroiunded with a eoralreef formation,:whih is most extnsive in the b ays a nd onf: dthe south.::: -;: - Two inidentations:of the northern shore at Jolo and Siit and two corresponding indentationsof the southern shore at Maymbug and Tu'tu', divide the island into.thre.e parts —western, middle, nd stern. The Bay of Jolo is:quite 'open and-faces the- nort-hwet. It is very shallow near the shore' and its head constitutes the a rodsfed Jolo. The Bay of 'Maymibung is a deeper.indentation, but it is narrower ard shallower than ti he Bay: of:Jolo The town of Mayrbumng lies, at the head of the bay.and is about 9 mles south of ' olo in a direct line. The Bays of Si'it and Tu't indent the island to h at t leave orly a neck of land less than 4 mis ide, te midle and eastern parts, of tie: island. The settiement of Siit lies at the. head of the bay and in the immediate vicinity of a small lake of the same name. 'The shores of the Bayof Tu'tu are marshy and a ere (&19]

Page  128 128 TE HISTORY OF 8 ULU with mangrove trees. The bay is very shallow to a considerable diNice from slhore. Tu'tu' is thle priincipal settlement near the head of e hay. The backbone of the island is a mountain range whih runs east and west and lies nearer tho e northern shore. Tle hihest point is nt PltIumanrgtlangis, at tll western extrenity of the range. This mountain reacl(es a hleight of 853 timeters above sea leavel and descends very rapidly to thel western coast near Timahu. A spur of the mountainterminates in IPoint Pugu t at the northwestern extremity of the island.' Toward the east, the ridge descends to a much lower level at Bud Datu, Budll AR, and1 Bud P la, which lie immediately to the south of Jolo. It rises again in Mount 1)ahu to an altitude of 716 meters.:Mount Dhu is a proirnent landmar k and forms the most picturesque lancape m T~mT the background of Jo.:It is a steen and conical extinct vfocano, tangis. EasMount of Mois another gai wn ihi iamb Pass. Beyondu this t;, range ises again atr Mount, Tainbig tinues uninterrupted toM:: ount Sinuma'an, at n the extreme endof I, iand Mount Bagshag.- Ater Mount, Bagshag the ge d en graally towardd St" nii.;: he:northerslo o Mount i a add Mount- DJ:::ahandhe crest (-f Bud 3)atu are:co-veedwitga forests, whie the cr:t ldower -TdA an From -the sh0resi f i o Bay' of 010toth nth e gaul a-n presents a 'beautif ul g:-n at c: nor'theern a: f: whole range an.d its.a ter apprprte derifed;y as Ifollows: B sh -;;;; 0 0;;;; - - - 0 There are few landscapes in the world that exhibit a more M.elig la ance than the seacoasts of SuT t.e luuriant varietof. h ting exhibits a scenery hardly ever equal ed and ertainly never sUrpas b t of the artist. Some with miajestic woods that wave their fth-i:t sumnmits; others withe rich: pasttrage delightfully verdint, with reand t patches burnt for cultivationlwhich form an agreeable c est ith e et meads; others, again, exhibit cultivation to the mountain top e groves affording a grateful variety to the eye-in a word, it'- only i decorations of art and civilized life to form a terrestria parade. To the south of Bagshag lies a small extinct volcanoi Pan n or Pandakan, whose crater is now a lake. Eat of Sitithie: Lu mitountains of I rut, Upao, and Tayungan. From thlese therae exten to Bud Tandu at the eastern extremity of the isldad. __~~~~~_. rmw s e $9_ _. _.'-;S.4.t —__t no The word- Tuman gtangis leans,-Shedder, of tears.", As the s;i it of t s mota is the last object to be seen by sailors leaving the island, they w fm when they lose sight of it. sQuoted in Keppels "Visit to the Indian Archipelag o,".. 0. * Some maps place this mountain near Tu'tu', but reliable Moos a pply b to the mountain west of Si'it and ntearer to Su' than to Tu'tu'. [20]

Page  [unnumbered] 4 04 cn 0-4 D,-Z D (n

Page  129 PRINCIPALJ, COASRT $$T'TTVIDMEN T he highlands near the slouthern coast of the island divide separate regions. Tle first and westTernmost lies west of and forms- the prneip al highlandsa of Parang.::The highst this region aare MoluntuTika euastI of the town of Parang, a MailngkangS, east of ukay. -To the east of Maymbu ng' rie li pao a:lt dMo un;t Kumapulltkut, w}hirb fom the iddl an s$o T'1he thild region i;tle: sou^thern part of t:he c'uk country. q'he thir d re "~ ' 01111t, BMI'llt4r~iI'r 21~ -"~krtmdru Pa t ant. point is Mount Bulag,:to the north of:Ta anan. t ctweeil Motu:n Tukly and Mount T umangtngisles; Bu Midway betxwee Mount ':T lipa a nd Bud: Da l Molut t he neighborhood;'ofL gb,:.::.: ' -:-!he T iEage st. treas o- te 4la are T big Pa agand Bin tfirstt is genr il kown a ll the iig i p;es t,, -settlem-ent -of0 MarxN,. t aties in tot head of the 1liula, D)iahu, andKun rtay. The iayn::st rtlangdi:sti: d; l *tn v -;:; la - iI i;M -a: ': - - -0 -:j:-:; -- t.- O — A A,~r'jart: ns:::th'~An' slopes o Mount Sinmua 'an and th orhrsoc of MI Begalning - atJ:::od o::nst:log th:rithen -- co..........~t: na:the followingpoints of ite t:Thfirst is P Bayl l imit of tlhe:-Bay of Jo. At the all::Iea bay ti the -settlemIent 'of LMatanda, wilrr pnereish b lockho 01. I e1tei w.': it'' ol:Mangalis and th: receding, beachtof B:: itHere and in te next bha, at MalinibmasyandK ansf semble in favorable w ther f iing. Bese land rnises rapidly tbo Mount:Tumangtangis.;- A:teak foresto c:size ies between:Tumangtangis and J olo. Outside:of the xa'wll:o Jvoba "o- the easjt lies theset Busbus,- where erimiinals-formerily:were c'h -;o ' death' tied 'to- a tree. A l. - beyond is: bu,: i rs te ld r Sulta H arun stands out prominently. ]Copious springs of i issue at tifs -place at a point neair the high-:water mark.: A n east we cone to Taindu (paint or cape), whilere I;att: point:i. generally known as 'T- an: Da pil0: eastern liit of the Bay of Jolo. The isolated hill f Pati mediately behind Tandu. The settlement:f Patikul li s away on the beach. h:ere lie Datu J-ulkarnayn.(Alexander the brother of Datu Kalbi. The beautifulrionlyig and thle mountains of Tambang and inu,ma'an s call', 4i: and trehe moutain of Tambang Z ~a n dmumaanis ora!ILar. Princess lpil and her followers were wrecked aad drowned at:this bodies are said to have turned into stone and tormed the rcks thaft lie -the of the rocks seemed to the, people to resemble petrified human biains. 1[21]

Page  130 '130 THI; HISTORY OF SU Buhianginan lie about midway b eten Patiklxl and Hi. th latter iplace, or; Tndu Mlauk-manuk the shore line t oard the soutLh.: Opposite this point:les^ tle sland of Bakungan. Net e the larger settlement f 'r'agliii above which risel Mout Taung; then Binbu, nearl a point whil mak tewestern entrance into the Bay of S~iti. Mi between B unbuinit and the hea d of ithe bay is Su', which may be said to0mark the Iomidary linebetwee TLati and tLuLuk. Sii:t::*:is a all settlement- near the heaof te b. ByondSi'itte she line tn: h ul t l ic til:nspa; Abot 2iles farthr seicrl cullar reef: o the shore mnakes the xc lent and:; wellrteteld sm a lllharborf f:iwal. AllarTgfsprge ofpefreh water ad s t his::: pl.ace another: tural advantage, one hch: e it the pronnei e it hd:.a.: in formter day. Tha 'rbor fis.very s.hhallow nd:.: allows: onl saibats of hwt drft. Th*: c nn-el:s lose to the:shorei '' o n ly.;,;b:..::';*... traft-;. S. Tl b.-z( 'e::.:.'...:.. t-h -:e- es;:: Oo;Tte.ani f l-ty:and -;:-le Tndbatu,and i;ji: /.a little far:r:inilandKt Mi mawliesab 3mies farther '; ' (on near.a pi ointoppsithfndof Xuti Be1 hint thi isa an a-t thh —. a nf aa ga-;tllowthicv les P l -thead't:f sten fi 0:.T:::::Tand:. -.:;:East. ofBud:.an d:ise Tand. Pn,the:- cearmt s t of- Pie sla T e r o i e e it o -s nor a -;.**::;:: Il;- 0::::~ li:e fit; pint i:n: the souther coast is Tann Pu bn: ' X/S.h: i:: n. Peand:: e: tlle -T;h;e -;;om dow t tb point;at the astern liit ofTu'tu' Bay iesbarin-,. ", —, ':6; 1 -_;3,:: bing adThe cotr d itasg: tove by' '' lal&'araja.Bayr oe tw td s i:; ' i a continUu mn'g:r ove: marsh," wi thecoutqierybind iis aboutn: '-'"' bottomu' toaeyh.ans extwpasof ioratance f h:endspe uresque:and hilyf, but not as wel populated as ote p:afrtsof:the i Lubuk, Kabun l s.. nd!athissl are twehebcief settle.::Beon^lam adhis poinm'ters of BuhanginPui', te lineben:ds ainnr and the Bay of Maymbunbegi ne.. here mnrove' swampsare extensive and extend a g"" ia Te":diand Th eater part.of Ma-y hung is built ona- piles Ox te water. it is Surrounded by swamp on all sides. After the' tide rc eodes strong ~odors e the mudd bottomo o such an extraor nalr gree as to render a osphe the place very disagreeable and' often" unb arable to straub r?Te center of the town is a small, open square of recaimd ue d I wh coral rocks. Around this square wer built thle hoses of ul na l A'lam and his mhinisters o tstate. TIe present ultan li o a h i t

Page  131 DISTRITS OF, THE ISLAND half a mile inland from te town. The square was probably siteof the Maymbung fort which was adestroyed. Arolas in 1887. Some Chinese traders live in the town and export hp,pearls, pel shells, etc., through Jolto.:The poplation of the towniand itimmediate suburbs varies cons deraby;:: ut it is generally estimated at 1,000. Beyond Mayfmbug the coast bends:sharply to the south. In the imamediate vicinity:of Mainbung:lies:Bwa A' mile west of ti- plac begins the district; of: Pag. After Lipid and Lapa comes- Kaba-.li'an, th wetern liit eBa ymbung Te shore- ine then takes a mofre westerly direction. P':Psing andulit andLakasan, we, reach dTandu. Pflitwhere the western coast of the iand begins This southern rgion of Pa' gi well:populated and is v ery pretty and productive. Cultivated areas are sn ontheside of the mountainS everywhere and they reach the vesumitofMount Tukay.......:r:;. The town of Parangisone ofthelarg emenonthe island and 1has^ f.at preseat, anestima popuion of000. - Itis situated: at thehead of a smallopenaytheouthwest and andsa beautiful -vie w. of Ta.pul ad i e It is 'the'capital: ofh d irict-a has::eof the: bt: ma:k: inth Archip^ elagor fish:, shells,!and p:eas.T:he dig w..at ithis n*.eighbohoo is bak A.: isltlies o he sooreear Taa:Bg.: Bond tis poit the sh ore line turns north to lwisan,:whichi:s:::one of:he most popru settlements::in:the district. B eyod.A. Pa 'the e coast:in cliesa little east and runs to s:Sil:ankanandTi:main. Extensive.eoo:nut roe and well-cultivated: fieldani fruit:- tr eesof various k bounda:: along the croastfrm Parang:T ahu:.~; '.-:' DISTRICTS CE' TH.E ISLAND..'....-:.:' The districts of i confor in gre easure t its ral divisions. Hodirabou aries and increased) the! dislicts:t:o s:'y division. Thqse districts are Parang, Pansul,:Lati, Gi' iing,u'uk andTn..: The f is istricton the west iss Parang. A lie joining the we stern:t liit of B u on ther south coast, with a poit s t o e summi.it of Mo antangis, and projected to.the e on the nohdelimits distriton th east and earses out of thi western natural divisio n the:districtofPansul. The eastern boundary of Pansul is: line running from a 'point2' or 3' miles east of Maymbung toMount-Pula:-and Busbus. T he cief- reason for separating Pansul from Parang.was to reserve:for the: sulta direct control over Jolo an d M a bung. This district has more.foreigners residing in it tian any oth er,.i '-.. -: ' -::-: -- A line joining Sn' and' Lubuk: arks the eastern limitof both Lati and (Gi'tng, tile third and fourtl districts. The watershed line joinin 23]

Page  132 132 THE HISTORY OF SJLU tele slilits of Molunlt Duahu, Tambang, and Sinuwman ad fallng on the east to the vicinity of Sn', divides Lati on the north from Gi'tng on the south, For all practical purposes the district of -ati ma se said to lie between.olo Iland St'i, ad thle district of Gi'tng or Taipao between 'lMaynibung adl tl'tut. Tle land joining Si'it and Ttu' is low.: Stullri tl tio sa tlat wlen the Smnals arriv:l i n the islid this n:k of land was submergtld and the islad wa divid b acannel *of water. ':The ex tiet volceano of Pald.aka n fferally,spoken of s the " ^Crater] Lake, which iel in i is vicinit~ may he of late origin and mna liave' b nl thes: t Boul f.cof theeoot 3 ic dtpos^it Wslhicfli helped o -t ll t.he chan4nel. Spanih records speak of a volcanic eruption in thl vicinity ^1of Je lob- adS late- aas 1840,- and litt isf veryl^ikeyta other volaniaction (: cu rred pr1,ior to;that dteq antd ater the arriv'f I oft0hlle Satuials in the fou'rtfeenth -entury. -,:::'-':,;. --.::, ln: t ejoning Linaa on ti n.. and Sukuban or Tandu.l Paun 'an: onii thle southdi v i:.les: tulk:frm: I m Tand u,:itlhus: foruill:g the fifth and sixth' dlistrict' resp:etiiv: Ae li joi i lounl Ta.ll'::'. and Bi Tandu:divid u'Tan into la northen ax d:a soucrn part.-:In1bo0th c6:: —the::: --:the rer tl:a::r mo fertile andbt:culti:vated and prob lyr: i:r i popula t h:norlern.::^|::'' e-......... The Siiis are principally agrieltusts T h'e greater part of the;people are ifar awl a coider prt ii or-of:the isla nd is unler cultiv tation. The i' -i Isea ho number ofcattle, eaifo, and hor cm. wIh::..v-:.d.t-l:d. hof^ hrssi the ut- ~.:-I;-:iliz o-ef for tli ttil ante;i0d. tranp'orting:aits- 'prod-.: nuets.:,; t Wa asd: 1ilan: sa-md eie e-o r na.f;Oeaesyt- rcFrt arc goa ulldant. Them for.ests.ar.e.rich l n je:le;prodteadn iember. S -me copra and Phep:i..s I r-ai '',p.and thfe:amont.,is bing- in st taple:s are ta a,0 rie a c. S r ane is ase i sml quan-;titiees.:(-Hfantitxoarc fai:ry abundant.^ S:-om coffisproduced, 'but 0'' 'Job is o.n o b:e. of t:the Pbesi:fins: Te -varieties of..fil i lt Sulu atersar....innu erabedof. excelent quait:y. The:Idand of Sul:surpasses Midaao i thequal and nporol nangkas(jack-fruit laune'marang ios of seeral varieties (marnmpalambawn-, and an i ) oranges, custard ppl, pieapples, h w amoting -iteis tfi^ tIn,the extt and:;ofd ulityvat i:oon the district:of tLuuk ranks ':.first, Para seand iati third.n t:df wa ons vr first, Parang: seconda, d Lai third,.:,ood rfe-stwater, abunds r where except on *the: western coast. onsiderable irrigation ispossible in many localitis.\:; Nmes of rui:ts with no Englias equivalents.' [24]

Page  133 BUILDINGS A'ND STREETS 133 TOWN OF JOLO. GENERAL PLAN, BUILDINGS AND STREETS Jolo is the Spanish representation (or rather misrepresenation) of the word Sul, sometimes written Sooloo. The early Spaniards wrote it "Xolo, which later changed to Jol6. The complete' form of the word is Sulug, as it is rendered in Magindanao. The BSulus prbnounee it and write it Sfag. Sg means a sea current. The flow of the tide through the innumerable narrow channels separating the numerous islands of the Archipelago gives rise to unusually strong currents which figure prominently in the seafaring life of the people. Therefore the term is an appropriate designation r the Archipelago as a whole. The rulers of the island state have changed their capital four times. The most ancient capital w as Maymbung, te second w-as Bwansa, which lies on the north coast of the island about 3 miles west of Jolo. Here ruled Raja Baginda and the first three sultans of Siulu: The fourth sultan moved to Sug, tb; third capital, and the town remained the capital of the sultanate unti. 1876 the date of the Spanish conquest and occupation. Sultan Jamalul A'lam then 0moved to Maymbg and the Spaniards occupied the town. Sine then theo has bem so intimately associated with it, that it is deemed preferable to use it as a name for the town, while the term Suin, which is more correct and more conmonly used, is retained in all other applications. The town of Jolo has been so closely identified with the history of the sultanate as to clainm considerable attention. The Spanish btuldings and improvements were sufficiently extensive to obscure the ancient ladmarks of the town and to render a eomplete and intelligent understand ing of the early history and traditions of the place impracticable.:A: few words describing the location of Jolo, its ancient landmarks, and the Spanish improvements will therefore be of primary interest. The town a it stands at present is divided into four istinct parts. The main or central part is Jolo proper or the "walled town." This is known to the Moros as Tiyangi Sag meaning the "shops or market of Suiu." The western half of this part bordering on Suba' Bawang fornerly was termed Luway. The second part, called San Remondo, lies back and south of the wailed town and is separated from it by a-little stream called Tubig Hiasa'an. The third part is Tulay and lies on the west side; the fourth is Busbus, on the east side. ' At the head of the roadstead separating the Pueblo nuevo or Tulay from Jolo proper or Luwa is a small tidal stream formerly called Suba' Bawaig. Some maps 'designate it as Rio del Sultan. This stream extends back into a swamp and divides into two branches..The main or direct branch extends in a more or less southerl direction to a point about 700 meters froin the mouth of the stream, where it rise in copious 125]

Page  134 134 THEI HISTORY OF SUILU springs of fresh water at the edge of the swamp. The other bnh is formed(l by the jutnction of the rivulet that rises in the Wrins of San; Remondo with Tubig I1asa'an. The latter has its origin at the foot of the hills above the cemetery and Blockhouse No. 2. sa es grindstonet Rand the springs are said to have burst out of the spot where a grindstone was set for use. Another stream, termed Suba' iyan, drains the- northern slopes of Buds Datu and Agad, and running north, pai'ses by Fort Asturias and through Tulay, and empties into the roadstead of Jolo at a point about 250 meters west of the mouth of Sub Bawang. A branch of this tream formerly issued at Asturias and conneeted with the main stream of Suba' Bawang. The land which thus lay betwee Suba' Bawang and Suba' JLigayan wias a deIta, It w called by tll Molos fil-aya (that is, the head of the net) because of its triangutlar psibin was mtaostly marshy, but it had a central longmituda strip of dr:t - ich practically connected Tulay with the base of tIe hills at:i. *li s. At th upper end of thisa strip there e:xwd at one tinie a wel-Aefined, s y spot, different in formation from th surrolunding land, which was considered saered an supposed to be the first land formed on the island. This spot was Sig propr; after it was named the w e w ettletment wlhih was built along the banks of Suba' Bawang and at the head of the roadstead. The Sultan's palace, termed itaa, -his kuta (fort) a:d- stckades were built along the lower left bank of the stream Bawag; hence the naime Rio del Sultan. On the right bank lay the houses and stockade of the other datus of high rank. Two bridges comected o side of the stream with t other* On the outskirts of the town lay various kuta belonging to subordinate datus, which defende d tlie approaches to he town. iThe most famous of these kuta was Daniel's Fort, the best stronghold of Sulu. On the site of this fort was built in 1878 the fort or redoubt of Alonso XII, which was lately replaced by tihe present headquarters building of the military post of Jolo. Another strong fort was built at the foot of the hills just above the head of the delta above described; it defended the inland approach to the town. This was Panglima Arabi's kuta, on the site of which Fort Asturias was erected. Another kuta was located on Point Baylam. The principal part of the town was formerly built over the shoal and beach at the head of the bay. Extensive rows of buildings stretched out into the roadstead and in front of the buildings now occupied as the clublhouse and military hospital. The present "Chinese pier' is constlucted on the same plan. This extensive row of houses and shops begins at the lower point of the Tulay delta and stretches straight out into the sea. The bay is very shallow here and appears to be fairly well protected from severe storms. A variety of fish called tulay, after which [26]

Page  [unnumbered] OVERSIZE FOLDOUT(S)~~~~~~~~~~~~~lm FON HEEI THE PRINTED EDITION OF TH~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~IS VOUM AR E FOUN FLOIG THLATPG OF TEXT IN HISIRFIH DIIN SEE FODOUT N

Page  135 BUILj)INGS A ND) 1tI F 1 ',.,; the IMro town of Tulay is named, is caught in the bay. A swamp bounrds the tsown on tle south and west, affording it con sid:le protec titon from assault. Htowever, it is open to attack from the sea and from - tle eaast. The land on the east is high and afforrds thie o y: desirable Aite for residence(. Here th.e strongrest forts and defenses weeere ted. l.'the Spaniards built the central part of Joo first. Tlhey raisd it considerably above sea level by extensive fillings, and surrounded it by a loop-holed wall, 8 feet high and 1: feet thick, for protection firom Morno assaults. The new town was beautifully laid out with boad, ean -- streets lined wit1h double rows of alrbol de fego (fire t ( re trees), ylang-yan aacaia, aind other varieties of trees, soime of wlhich are large and magm- -i *ce(it. Three parks, each one block in sie, added considerable piefur ': esqtleness to the place, Substantial quarters were built for the.::o: ers-. all houses were painted white or whitevwashedl and none of them had:the nipa roofs so cominmol in ithe Ardiipelago. Business places, store-::hou-ses, a lae aree martet place, a church, a theater, two schoolh s e, and a hospital weere erected and a public water supply provided. A Stne:: pier was built extending 120 mleters into the sea, and provided with-a -: light-house at its o-uter end. -- The town wall had five gates, two of which lay on the northest or::- - sea front, one at the foot of the pier, and the other dose to it, Through ':the latter gate cargo was admitted from small boats, which can always:.; come up to this point at high water. The three other gateslay on the land side, one at the south end of the town toward Tulay, another at the opposite extremity facing Busbls, and a third one at the outiern end of: -; Calle 2 Buyon, directly facing San JRernondo. This last is the only gate of the threl kept open at pre, en a nd is the only entrance into the town from the land side. A tower called Torre de la Fwrola surmounts the gate. Near the Busbus gate and forming the northeast angle of the town was the fort or redoubt termed Alfonso XII. It was built on a prominent eminence and commanded an extensive view of the bay, the town, and the surrounding country. In the immediate vicinity lay the Cutartel Espa'-a, which was a large and substantial building occupying the northern extremity of the town, facing the bay on the side of Busbus. At the extreme end of the wall - beyond' the barracks was the tower or blockhouse called Torre Norte. Another similar tower at the south gate was termed Torre Sur. At the intersection of the south wall and the beach line was a strong building called Ctuartel Defensivro de las Victorias. The block lying diagonally: between this cuartel and the market had eight buildings which were known as Cass de in Colonia pnra Deportados. 1 hlpiete rn h bosm fwihaprueI ma'e A Philippine tree from the blossoms of which a perfume Is maie. 2 Spanish word for street. [271

Page  136 136( TIHE {uISL'OIIY OF SULU,Two roads and two bridges connected the south and southeast gates with San RBelont o. 'iThe continuation of these roads formed the two 'main streefts of this plart of the town. San:,Iemondo has sixmall town blocks, nearly all of which are on reclaimed swamp land. The buildings here are mere nipa huts and the streets are muddy and narrow, unlike those of tie walled town. Back of the town lies a large coconut grove which,extenda toBlokhouse No. '2 on one side: and Asturias on tle other. A. straight anr well lai out road dire.tl" connects:these t)wo latter points and\l mariks:the/southen limit of the town. A good- road riunlls ouatide th wall connecting Busbus andl Tulay. Later usage has applted the terim Trula to all parts of the town lying west of,Suba' Bawang. Formerly the name Tulay was applied only to thar part lying westl of Suba' Ligavan, while the intermediate section was known as Pueb&l a ntevoa. ".he bridge across thle moutih of Suha' Bawang wast c med. petiie dr! s-nit a. On the otler side of.t w'bridge' this street extends through~ Puteblo. nc. vo and along the central -strip of -:''aalllg ~~ sturh, trthe u-iaya, or the delta, to Port AstUias, tlmsseparating tlhe waters of, Suba Bawang from. Si ha' Ligayan, Midway between Tulay and Aturias stands an obelisk-like monument erected by General Arolas aind bearing the date 1892. urther fillngs. in-.ulay: iave prid:ed. f several pier nnd thl en on to te blockhouse of the pia and the Ligaya iver A liarge bridge cTrosses this rivertoTulay proper. The road'ends atr tle beach a little beyond th. bridge. In the central pltaza atTulay stands a monument erected i bv Generall Arolas in 1891 in -:memory of 'tlhe three renowned conq. neror;: OfJolof: On one side tlie monument bears the inscription ".l Ia glria d los gu con sa esfarzo hiciern esta tierra EBpainola;' the second side bears the 'incription "Corcuera, 17 de Abril de 1638w the third side,:'l bistondo,:28 de Febrero de 1851;" the fourth side, "Malcamp0p, 29 d: I'ebrero de 187 6. A straight road about three-fourths of a mile long called tte Asturias Ioad directly connects Asturias withl the main entrance of the walled town. Another road tarts at tis latter point and running along the righ bank of Tubig IIasa'an reaches the cemetery on the opposite side of Blockhouse No. 2 Trhe old bridge connecting a branch of this road with the one running from Asturias to Bloc(lkhIouse No. 2' was washed away' by a severe freshet in 1904, thus tbreaking what had formerl.y been a complete circle of roads around. the town. Busbus is wholly occupied by Moros. Its houses are dilapidated nipa huts built on pliles over thle water. Back of the town is a marsh which extends a little way toward the base of the hills. The water from the marsh e a apes into the bay by two rivulets, the first of which runs through the settlement and is lknown 4.a Tubig 'l hang; the other is artificial, Beach at the head of the bay. [28] -:::;.i; * -

Page  137 TRADE 137, forms the outer limit of the town, and is called Buyung Canal. Persons convicted of capital clrimes in the days of the independent sultanate were tied to a tree at this place and there their bodies were chopped to pieces;; hence thmename "Ilusbts" which means to "chop up" or "dress wood. TRADE - - Jolo lies about 4 mniles from the point of intersection of latitude 6~ north and longitude 121~ east. It is about 540 nautical miles due south from Manila and 81 nautieal miles distant from Zamboanga. The liar- bor is deep and free from currents. The bay is well protected on the $ north bv the Islands of Pangasinan and Marongas and is safe from all storms except those from the northwest. Sulu occupies the most nearly eentral position of any island in eastern: Malaysia. It lies between Mindanao on the east and Borneo on the: west, and separates the Sulu Sea from the Celebes Sea. The commercial - advantages of this position are unique. To the north lie the Bisayas, Palawan, Luzon, Formosa, China, and Japan; to the east Mindanao - ae souaselebesand asilan; to the outtewese t, Borneo, Sumatra, and the: Malay Peninsula. Besides, the Sulus are natural-born sailors, and their famous pearl industry has prompted them e to trade since time immemorial. Their boas brought silk, amber, absilver, scented woods, and porcelain from China and Japan; gold dust, wax, dyes, saltpeter, slaves, and food stuffs from Luzon, the Bisayas, and Mindanao; gunpoder, cannon bras, ppr, in, ruies, p and ' diamonds from Malacca. and Bruney; pepper and spices from Java, the: Moluccas, and Celebes. Chinese merchants traded witth Sulu long before tne arrival of Legaspi, and while Manila and Cebu were stil small and - insignificant settlements Jolo had reached the proportions of a city and: was, without exception, the riehest and foremost settlement in the Philippine Islands. Jolo, with tie exception of Bruney, had no rival in north- east. [Malaysia prior to the seventeet centeury. Such commercial importance naturally attracted the attention:f the. early Spanish Governors-General and was one of the causes which led to the early invasion of Sulu. The long period of warfare which fol- lowed this invasion retarded. the progress of Jolo and reduced its trade. Again, the rise of Spanish commerce in the north tended to restrit the trade of Jolo. The growth of Manila, Cebu, and Iloilo naturally diverted the commerce of Luzon and the Bisayas and the north coast of Mindanao to those cities. The later commercial decline of Jolo was probably brought about more in this way than as a result of actual clash of arms. J olo, however, remained an important port and a transshipping station to - Mindanao until a late date. A sultanate in northern Borneo. [29]

Page  138 138 1TILtE HISTORY OF SUIJU i At piesei A t p trade las assumed new proportions and is following new rXotes. Z% nambotanga, 1Kotabatto, and IDavao are di rectly connected with Manila by regular:teamship lines, andl Jolo is fast losing its imortance was 'a tralsstippiJ g po t. ZaJtlboailga, on the other hand, is rsing in i:np.artam:ee andl seeis destinied to bei comle the port of Mindanao. It is te c pital of- tlte Moro Xlro,!vincc c and lies iin t e (e dlitet route conntintg (Cliia, Mantila, and Ailstra:lia. It htas tirect coruiunication with Maunila, i ogkhog,.3Silgapore and Australia, and is gradually diverting tthe tradle. of Miiianao i w from i 1rn Jo a. 1.. I: spitte-; of ie overwlBing:odds, lIowexer,- Jolo wrill m aillntai consilera(te:,;.w c!merciali o:..rtance.It ha1s well-eItablished trade relaio' witi Borneo- th Malay P insula, China, nd Luzon, and is tol nneet 4ed t;l Ilrtr steawhip I iIJS with Sariialka, nla i, ore, Manila, iad Zamboanga. PrIactic:ally the w lole trad of the. Sil rchipe ^p ses thrugh thisport, anrd it Stans nowV, as ever before, as te c tenter: of businmess,- )Ixwer,;and iinportanc of- the hotle distnt. t-;o. - In the early davs thle trade of: Sulu was -carried on:by:toros.and Chincse. The Chinleseappear to have entered the.Archip:lao prior to: its -mohiammiedtatiotB and the Bitcolmercual rlations- oef:Cina-and Snlu are reall prehistoric. As h ostilities betweet Spain aXd Slu lireased, Sl traers; beete:l e.s daring and grew fewr a er: fChinese tradturs, on t er:-han0d, were less: l tles: ted- and conditions encouraged: their increase. TIhe'. Chlnese pier i:. a very:old businesti estab ishment, andl Chinese traders: anrld ilmerchants have resided 'in lo for many generations. Tleir numbfer,: l n 1, exeeded 500. Atpresent Chinese:m erlchants have conplete ontrol of thea t ld e of t Sulu Archipelago. They arew. found everywhere: and ~o<mmald -all the avenues- of commlere.:The Sl~lus have aband:oned comimerce:as a i rade:and apparently have no in — elination to reslume-it'.on. any: large scale.:This is due mainly:to the decline of thleir power and the present abeyance of their national life. A new ptolitical revi val will no doubt change thleir attitude and may lbring ahunt a surprising development in arts and trades as well:asof commerce. The trade between Jolo and various islands and settlements of the A.rchipelago is carried on by means of innumerable small Moro boats and sloops termed sapits. Formerly such boats traded with Bruney, Sandakan, the Celebes, Java, and all the various islands of the Philippine Archipelago, but the stricter enforcement of the customs regulations, which followed the establislhment of open ports at Sitanki, Bangao and Kagayan St, ilad the efet of -checking trade with foreign countries ie c small boats and tended to concentrate 'the whole trade of the Archipelago at Jolo. A review of the imports and exports of the port of Jobo will therefore throw considerable light on the material resources of the 'Ar chipelago, its industries, and the enterprise of the natives. a; B 130]

Page  139 RAD. Port of1 Jo IMPORTS I.A Commodity Animais, ete...c. Brass, manufactures of.......^.. -.. BreadstuffsA Cement...... Coal...... Cofee 't_^_J-._^w^ Cotton cloths, close woven _...., Cotton cloths, loe woven. Carpets. -- - Yarn and thread- -. —. Knit fabries_ ' _ -J[Cott6n eotehs, all oth'er manufactures ofI -.. - Opium_- -----------— iEarthen ind stone ware -.....- Flbers, vegtanMe - - Dried. ish O A - T - hell fish.....Fruits, canned -- Fruits, not canned —.. — Glas and glassware Iron, steel and manufaetures of.- - Malt liquors._Matetse_.. _.... -—, MineXral ois-....- -- Vegetable oils..Paints. -.. Paper and manufetlres of Con.ensed mil -- K. R aic,.* -r t Silk and manufactures ofSoa~p-......'..>....,-,-..- ' Spirits, distilled& -*- -. Sugar, refined- -.. Tea'r-..... -.. Tobacco and manufactureso.. f ~Vegeta oble-....-.. —. Wearing apparel - - Wood and manufactures ofWool and manufaetures of -.. -. - 'All others,.,........ Total in U. S. currency.... - Total in Philippine currency -...-..-....... Fisl year $214 6,. 402 4,$881 745 4,-208 621 82,999 14, 053 5.. 79 -1, 059 949 2, 69 1,.4.94 216 37$5 272 362 3, 640 2,020 742 '. m;: 979: 2,123 1,516 76,17'2,t 2 1. 614 7..24 1,643 1,204 2,270 2,2. 28,1 62 989 872 8.,3 1 14,338 -~ T 19 *1,594 3,564 5-, 497 -. 407 416 24, 916 822 -372 1. I, 339 503 1,363 57,416 - l 610 1, 1 I-',88 2,9.87 489. 3,699 1, 6416 206 7 17,262 1,61^ 20t6.. ' ";'. ) $231,772? '463, 544 71296 —3 [31]

Page  140 * 140: THlE HISTORY OF SUtIa IPort Of iJoi/ —Continued EXPORTS ^*^:" *'. *...' **~~~~~~~,ra,Fiscal year- i;'' — * '., Commodity: ^...................................................,.............. gnlo:....,,....Ai.........~.~.^............: $2 1 * 17 A $70 X~~~:.'-..:~~~ * 'Hefmp'..___'................. 486 i 5, 561 elrdg_.......:..-...:_.;*Crdg ^ ^ -........... 5,084 d5,054 a Cod ag *h, - 7,893 13,1 51 C opa.. 17,870 30,0 52 opa _ _....... 3,793 4,4 58 Gu:ttapercha'.. 1. 3,:i:dH ia~,;: —,::.....:- -:t_4 ^.j..... 9:. 7i I -;.~r~Z~i::;' a ~~:/,.^', ':* *. 'Mother-oft-pearl (shels) - 88,51,: 60051 i:, - *'*: ~Tortoe selt- ' l, 971:2,8. S1'',..* 'hella, all othems -'. - 4,249 '- 1,864 I others-._._...:.... -...... 8,033 4.:.,61o:t. Total in Ph iippine u: rrency 277, 768: 5-066 ^ C: '^ ^^ _ ' - *'::...:,. " ':.;':; - O e m ep.-..^^.:: -..:~,;.^: * 8:. -;: -:: i:...... Agricultural imports..-,. ': Wheat fiur - i 6,048 18 1 ~ 66 1 C: opper,- l _ f.. cture of 3 Cotton cloth^s, c w 92,2,54 97,86' Cotton 0cltsloewoen -9,628 1 33,714 9 *Co lof' * ' ttonl.weari ng app e- -21 5,5 21J.Op-m — -898I 2254.~::/-..: E: a r-the(in andWt t ne war e.-016 1ro% sh4eet4-6, 1 12,786.*:'Cutl, 142I. ery, tabe --- 76^ 1 142i. Cutlery,all other..-. -.. '. ' * Nails, wire --- 5001 Z Of 530, d...:.......:.. Boots.adsho.es-....,.76_.2._ 2,o:::~884 ^.*; 1\.,\ *' * Beer'K 6(lf,:. — ^._, in wood..-^ —,None.e. CBeer in bottIes. -- ---,.. -...-.,4101' 42 618' Othernimat liquors - — 1,902 '548:. - Tinmanufactures dof-..:... 18,8_-,_.."^.__!: '.Oil, petroleum -~ _ —,._ ^ 4, 8,60::'Milk.,. Cott'i! c sondenisiedn- -- 3.200:. 5 T,?:2: 972;86: Brandy —::- 814 3212 -Whiskey, bourbo_-^-, -822 1,240 Whiskey, rye-.- -030 376 '.4!~~~~~~~~~5~ Whiskey, all other -.6,i 6,68 19, 566 Sugar, refined ------ 3,566 5,488.:;*:;/. ' ' *. Tea -~ ^ --- —---- I346J 84 Zinc, manufactures o. —,80 o8 14 All other Imports- ----— 4.,.- ".,712.86 Total In Philippine currencyj. --- —---- 8375,756, 613,118 'The Mindanao Herald, July 21, 190. B -' '; -.'(2::i 31:;*::: -a I:

Page  141 I TRADE JPort of Zamboatmga-Continued EXOI:owrs Commodity;/ L —:_ ~.C-L X~~ q-_..~..,,~~~lLI ~* —1__,~-i~I~ _ __,.~ ~_-^- I-~~ — rUIsUC i 3 1 i i it I Bejuco (rattan) ----—.,.,-., Fish... Coeonuts.:..-,,. Copra m,-..- —.. Almaciga. Copal- _... Gutta-percha - -... Rubber -—.*... -------...... All othetrgums tnd resins -...-*.Hides, earabao -,_.... ---,. --- -,. Beeswax _ -....,.-, Shells, mother-of-pearl - Shells, tortoise.I... Shells, all otlhe r -......-.* Salt., ^......,...,. Wood, all kinds - -..... - - -- - All other exports — -.- - Total in Philippine currency Gum copal. Fiscal yer- i 190 1906 ro700 'i,594 o. 1,88 None. 2,2, 125, 74 157,898 6'21 288, 31,582.:t2,282 28, t70 I None None.. - 9 1O, NIone. None. 3,02t 94 4 2, * 2,40 8-,708 7,:3:: 21224 10,32 None. 1,50 1,346 j,076 590. 1.. 8 90 174, 894:2595 J I ~~~" i~~~~"? The above statements of the imports and exports of the port of J0 for the fiscal years 1905 and 1906 have been obtained tirough th kindness and help of Mr. E. B. Cook, collector of customs for Jo.lo They represent the total value of the imports and exportt o f the town an from foreign ports only. They do not, however, give an idea of the grand total of the imports and exports of"thfe Archipelago.:Acounmust also be taken of the large amount of comodities smuggled ito the countr by means of small boats which continually run between the awitawi Group and Kagayan Suluon the one side and Borneo and aawa on the other. Moreover, t is difficult to tell what part: ofthe trade:of Basilan and the Samal group of islards is retained by Joo and t pat has lately been drawn away by Zamboanga. Beside, some tradebwe Sulu and Basilan, on one side, and Mindanao, NegrosT, mand buon;the other, is carried on by sailing craft; no account of this is taken ether at Jolo or Zamboanga. Since July 1, 1905, all boats under 15 to register have not been required to present at the custom-house manifests of goods carried. It is clear, therefore, that no correct estimate or opinion an be rendered on the strength of these figures, unless one is aided by persoal observation and knowledge of actual conditions previous to:Jly 1, 1903.: Estimating the population affected by the trade of Jolo, at 100,00, we note that the importation of cloths and woven materials amounted to P204,431 in 1905 and P196,836 in 1906, or 37 per cent and 42 per'eent [33]

Page  142 142 1 THE HISTORY OF SU;IU of total imports, respectively. There is no doubt that the weaving indtlstry amIong Sulus and Samals is far from being adequate to furnish clothing material, and European cotton cloths are therefore extensively used throughout the Archipelago. The importation of rice amounted to 1152,344 in 1905 and '1114,832. in 1906, or 27 and 24 per cent of the total imports, respectively. The Sulus are agriculturists and should be able to raise sufficient rice for themselves and the Samals a. The islands most fitted for this purpose are Sulu, Basilan, Tapul, Siasi, Pata, and Pandami. The Samals are not agriculturists as a rule and seldom raise anything except tapioca and corn. They generally live on flat, low islands, unfit for the cultivation of rice. The Archipelago as a whole should produce sufficient rice, tapioca, corn, anid camotes to feed the whole population. The importation of rice in 1905 was probably in excess of the average amount; less rice was raised that year because of war and general disturbances. The commnodities of next imp-ortance are varn and thread for weaving purposes. Importation of these articles amounted to 1-6it,3 in 1905 and1 319,188 in 1906, or 7 and 8 per cent, respectively. The country doers not produce silk, cotton, or wool. All other imports may be regarded as accessories. Of these opium conmes first, then dyes, breadstuffs, sugar, iron, steel, brass, paper, and earthenware. A considerable amount of tobacco is imported by the government free of duty, and quantities of tobacco, opium, and cloths formerly were smuggled in. The relduction of imports in 190f6 may be due to increased production to the depression that followed the disturbances of 1904 and 19105, and to a diversion of certain paIts of the trade to Zatmboanga. The exports, on the other hand, show a light increase in 1906. -They distinctly represent those resources of the country which are most capable of development. At the head of the list stands the shell industry, particularly the pearl shell, which amounted to.189,472 in 1905 and 1*149,542 in 1906, or 64 and 52 per cent of total exports, respectively. The exportation of shell has lately been greatly affected by the falling of the price of pearl shell in the market of Singapore. The exportation of other shells seems, on the contrary, to have increased. Pearl fishing is the principal industry of the country and forms the main source of its riches. The fishing is done exclusively by natives, but the trade seems to be wholly in the hands of Chinese. The figures given above do not include pearls. It is very difficult to obtain any statistics for this valuable product, but on the whole it is reckoned by merchants as equivalent to the whole output of shell. Second in importance cones copra, which amounted to ' 35,740 in 1905 and 1*60,104 in 1906, or 12 and 21 per cent of total exports, respectively. The marked increase of this export in 1906 may be explained [34] i

Page  143 TRADE partly by increased production and partly by the general daage done to the trees in 1905 by locusts. Increase in the cultivation of coeonttrees is not perceptible and can not account for the increase in exportation. Dried fish comes thirdin ord er, amounting to. 15,786 in 1905 ad t26,302 in 1906. This indlustryis capable aof unlimited developent.c The fertility of the Sulu Sea is uuual and can hardly be surpaed Nothing but enterprise ad organized effort is neede to render ths tra a source of enormou s wea lt to the country. The natives are exeed ngly skillful in fishing, but la'c ambiion ad initiaive The trade in fish is mostly in the hand' of Chinee -eran' -.: Fourtl in importaince:ome s henip. Both in fiber andordage ts exports amounted to l11,14:in0 -195 and:21230 -in 196.: Hemp ctlture has markedly improved during the lt;yr, and te ireaed production is sufficient: toe:pla inte, -inci exportahtion. -C-eoont trees and hemp grow splidilyon allthe lr - ilands-.of thArpelago, and their cultilation is eable of extensie developmnt. ' Coopal. and gitta-pereha are t. e prducts of ulu, Basila, and the TIawi-tAiawi Islands. Although sufficintmy pr nt in thmsevs th sink into insignifieance wen ompared with -the -for primary stleproducts an d lthe immense possibilities that ie in the li-ne:ther developmnent. *::;; The greater part of the trade of Job is handledi y i e 'itr (Copanyv, the firm of' Ilerinadez & Co., and the mmercalho-usesof Chaun Lee and Ban an,a f wrreotroll ^by Chinese smerchants- e following list -compiled\.in 'theo-ffc ft Jolo: Trading 'Company, for he: Far Bastern ei-is a fi estimate of the prospective exports of the town for the coming tw^ ears::; Article - ^ - Amuint P rice HemPp '_.I- ___-.. _, —.-. - 1,"000 t:21 t21, 00 Pearl shels.-... 1,50 45, 750 Trepang or bechb-de-mar s o —.t. 0: - Shark fins 1 20 - -t5 90-'Hemprope...... -' 30 2. 0 50: Caracoles (sea shells for buttons, et,.) 40 12 480 Black shells_ *._. - -, 10 8 0 I Copra- * j 50: 7:s oo COPM. — ---- ---— ~-. —. 7 l o ~! a,:: Seaweeds -- -0- 40 4' -- Hides --- —------ --- 10 Cacao..... 10 5, - 0.5oo': Tortoise shells-{.-_ —,._ _- 1, 1,800 2,7W Sea hores -- - ---------- ----.., Grand total... sS;:,m _ -. __. _ __i _. Hemp is generally exported M to Manila, while the other arie tioned in the above table are generally exported to Singapore. [351

Page  144 144 THE HISTORY OF SUl;A Trepangp, shark n se and sea whorses are foods highly prize by tye Chinee.,; If the value:of pearlstaken is estimated on the basis s ested by the president of: the Jolo: Trading Company, it wil bring the totl up to 158,V7i0 per month. ~::: -::.... POPULATION.. The present population o f Jobo is les than 2,000. This includes all following statistc s which- icue tfulav and SaI odoh n-o:. -....:....';.;M;ae s f ' o..ae -l * - f f l d.or f i, J. e i T-f e1 it,; d- 0 - - E d n -tt* —* h - ei_, ';:-;l~o^^|'^glI Ta -:. -'^ ^;-/"'; *'^..;*;:....fff.-0 0.;ff-:-^arial^ ^..................... - 0. *d (0;**: 0:y.:^-0-;:.:-::-.-0.-el 429 5-;-:6.,.-; ~ —: *,, 0;W l e o::n.-;- -- -, -.-:;.;\ --:VITT- f- - -T; ^ - -.To0I: --- - ' Total ---- 1)270 Moles of voting age;00 fft l o 0 t 0'f.: f0t f -. 'f 0't0f t 06 ~-~~:;; ~ ~ ~ ~.27.;;:-:: :-~;~: b; ~~;-.,.:,.; -.^.-.::;.. -,.:' -.\;.9.... Br;; own2::,. a -i,; 0 9.^....n-: Moro -- *'- - - 0 0 Fe~v i *E gi....,.,................. 1. ita:-:10Alotsll.......... 15 ilipino...hr...-..........( inoe e............ (Ihinese —. -Mixed- -!.ntinued.-:^ n- glis -l Yellow:; - '; Chinese -:-,- - 392. Japanese-;:,;:,-.......... -- --;'-:]:English-3;!...... *,.........,: _..*' 3 Whit#:i-te:Americ.....2 -'~.,-.*:' h:.':...o................. - Total;ff' 0"D''-6 - '.... - 641 As the great majority of the 'mixed: population h:ave inese fathe they,:as a rule, follow Chinese custom and trade and Imay, regardd as hinese. T1he Chinese elet.lme t-ay therefore be lasified a flows - [3

Page  145 _ iW POPULATION 145 ij ~Chines Males Females Total I P u.re.,.,.,,,,,,,I 452 56 4385 Mixed - 70 45 115 Total 499 1011 The Filipinos may be classified as follows: *,j. Filipinos T Males | Fm, ToI * - t e-__ j ___ _______________ Brown...........2.-.2i - 7. -----, 476. Mixe -.d,,..,l ri:- } 1 -- I Tot-,Ial --.The census statistics give a full ad, clear idea of the compsition the resident population- of the town' in 1903...The Cnesen, their offspring, amounting to 600-O,undoubtedly for. the prepnd e ele. ment. The Filipinas come next amounting to 483 oly. -de change has however, occurred sine tie cuensus ws ten; anid cessitates a revision of the above figures. The icrease of the ason an the construction of mainy Wew buildings for; the militay post-ha cased an influx of Filipinos fr Zamboanga -and-Kota moreChine lhave undoubtedly come: sincee 1903. The csus i ag include Mtores, some hundreds -of homl:live at p tesein Busbus. - The following, based on eloserrsonai observation,:is cosidered a0 fair estimate of the present populatiln:.Walled San Re-, +, |,,.-,!,da,, od Tulay Buisbus..IJolo l t ohn- ___ - - I Chinese -.....- -..... -. 0 680 - Total _ -, 4-0 - j- 141 oV.1 91; 0 _** '. _ *i./e o t a. _. '-:.,91 -..'- '.:.-,* m ost- of these are females.- - ' The inhabitants of the town aremoe e or les migratory i hacter mixuxre is chiefly of Sulus and Samls, with each other and with 'Cinese The Jolo type of Mforos is by no means pure Sulu and ha conseqently misled many authors and ethnologists. A large number of Samals frequent -Tulay and Busbus.ad often temporarily 'reside there, but'becase of their strong migratory habits no estimate. has been made of theB. - A few Arabians, Malays, and India: traders are married in the cunt ry, but their proportion is small and insigificant at present.,31a*.Of "t:-.; I'. 137]:.

Page  146 mw .vw_ mp-g, T, SM Sifpll;kl a 2`5 I - Ml M IN 1, I - M e', 7g` W.M.-M, I, ggm zll_ W_ R, "MR-i Al --- Wo M, t RON MAN M 4m MW N, all via g. Mt Fidelity, z ZION-' 2Z Al.51 M T-Z w.l. X iv, 71,,.,,'__,! wq J. ---

Page  147 CHAPTER II GENEALOGY OF SULU TRANSLATOR'S- IN TRODUITION 'The manuscript of which a translation follows is an exact copy of the original, which is in the possession of Hadji Butu AbMul Biai, the prime minister of ttie Sultan of Sulu. The genealo proper begins on page 6 of the manuscript and is written entirely in Malay. This was the rule among all old Moro writers and is a decided indication:: of the authenticity of the document. 1 adji Butu maintains that his ancestry goes back to Mantia' Asip,-: one of the miniisters of Raja Baginda, the Sumatra prince who emigrated to Sultu prior to the estailishment of Mohalnmedanism in the island. _Trhe Sulu ministryv seemis to have remained i.: Asip's lineage down to the present tim e. The first five pages of the original manmusript are the geealogyof.....7: Asip's deseendat nts. lis part is witten in Sulu a was-probably composed at a later period than tilhe Malay part of the book. J:it -i; — written by Ut Abdiur Rakmani the nephew of Imam Halipa, wh is the son of hakib Adak, the last person mentioned in the genalogy. Abdur:: Rakman is a cousin of: Haaji Butu. -:.:;:. The addition of these five pages to the Genealogy o:f Sul isfor the;;: purpose of giving promineee and recognition' to the sonsof Asip,: -:: who have been the righ-hxnd menof the Sultans of Suu se the organization of. che sultanate,.; -: -. SUL AUTHOR'S INTRDCTION; -Thi is the genealogy of the sultns and their descendants, who lived: — in the land of Sulu.:.; -: The writing of this book was finished at 8 o'clock Friday the 28th of; -::Thul-Qa'idat,2 1285 A. - I -:.: It belongs to Utu3 Abdur Rakmani, the son of Abu Bakr. It was given to him iby his uncle Tuan-5 Imam 6 Halipa 7 Abdur Rakman This is the genealogy of the Sulu sultans and their descendants. _ __.. -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:.:00-.. t See below, p S. 1 '48-....:The eleventh month of the Mohammedan year. - I aSulu; the head, the chief. 4 Arabic; the slave of the Merclffl.: Malay; sir or mister. s Arabic; leader, caliph, high priest- " A lu form. of the Arabic "Caliph.". - 147 [393 " *.. '.'. *. *. ' ^ " *' /./.. ''.' * ' '".:. ' * 1: ' ':. ' ' ' * " " * ''* -* *.\ *,, \, '-* ". '. " ' '. *. " ' '. * ' ' * * * '.. '. * ' - ': ' ' '*^..'- -: " '.; * ",,! *.i ^ -.^ s-y J~

Page  148 148 T g; HS TO:: I RY o SUtL: U DESCEN DANTS OF A$IP rThlis is te genealogy of Mant Asip, the hero and leamd man o Mengkaigabaw.2 Mantii Asip had the title of Orangkaya at the time 1e;caie to: Suu wi th: aja4; B aginda.:He maried a woman from Puirul: called S:andi and bgot Ongkaya Sumandak Suandak b-egot Orwngkja XManuk andl Oan nglaya JIba.ma Manuk bgot Orangy IayaBuddiman ain ()rnglaa Aka1 o and:Orangkaya LqU and *:~ ayaBulridina Sata Akimi. I is daughters we:e Santan,; Satan, Arm bang, Duwi,:Sitt," and P-rainwan. Orangkaya Buddiman begot Orangiayn Salimin " and ay gangr ' S;:liha5 The: fomer begot lda aar aptra aMi:tbU Il a Patima,' DangBahira and Pa,:ang Sawidra. DIMayang:Salia bore d [dO g a Muhaddi, who itiiida~ TIhrnan O-0rangicaga.Layu.bego.t P/)agag Jawsu a-Manalum, who beame famous. ri: Manah a Bu ng d Tila Jamnila bore itang.g'::MaSmrn begot R.a: y: i.- Blaih- begot: inda and-:and Si'walan::n'. Jaw; bjul biegt Na'iIa d: ilivjia$tmt -e bg tranglyat Sila j. Rajiy Tn S0Ainiiiud 220 Din.-a SAntanbo ren MA'mun.> Rah a tul...ahatlb.egaiot Xddul ft:adiY$.mnbangbor Oranlya a:iai aTheB centra i:Sma.nvi a: - am; a. -J::: --;- Malay; offic -er- of -: ~-!:-:Da -st:at. I -:means "i m n.:':Sulu;- ch en.,Sanskri-; wise.:t;.:-.:; 5- 0::: ~ A: t-hrabic0; w i fe.or h usband;0. /.-...... -..........::-.....;'. Arabic-; p. ' '-;:. "-q;:*Arab'i re ligint ~-, l, f. Arab - b rilliant. - ':Ar:,ai c 0w- o- r hI;,*. *s:':', -:/ i rabie; at fl.'?:: a ro e:n olm: -:'a:b;\,::- -.: - $'A rabi; reli:'gion;w.' /f?9 -Si: 7-;:-;,- ih 0\ -. - '.:..'-.;:~:;*- ':' 1? AraIbltpaiC,:i.$l yrat 't~ie^ r d 1**: 't A m1, hoaing.Td.-1 I 4' Arabic; trusted or trutworthy., Arabic;;guide, leader. i" Sulu; fruit. -. Arabic; intelligent s Arabic; feminine of "salim" or safe and sound. I::,;: [40]:i

Page  149 GCNEALOGY OF SU LU 149' Duwi bore Manduli and Immang. Manduli is the mother of Tuan Inan Anda and Na'ima.1 Immang bore Mali. Sitti bore Orangayas lTgu, Garu, Abu Bakr, Abu Saimmnia, Manawun, Sayda, and Suda. Allak begot Ha and Malum.2 Ila bore Andungayi. Malunt is the father of Inrming. Taimwan bore Ima. Ima begot- Angkala. Angkala begot ining. Inung begot Hinda Nakib 3 Adak. DESCENDANTS OF TUAN MASHA'IKA This is the genealogy of -Tuanii Masha'ika. It was said by thi men of old that he was a prophet who was not descended from Adam. He was born out of a bamboo and was esteemed and respected by all the people. The people were ignorant and simple-minded in those days nd were not Mohammedais s of the Sunim seet. Some of them wrshiped tombs, and some worshiped stones of various kinds Masha'ika married the daughter of Raja Sipad the Youger, vho ws a deseendaat of Sipad the Older. His wife's name was Idda 4 Indira. Suga. She bor e thre children Tuan tIakim/ Tuan Pam, and Aila.8 Tuan Hakim begot Tufli Da'im,' Tuan Buda, T' u:Buj.... rTlla il-, Tan laakmh T Bd T Ujng, a' J uanudTu uujauu, and a girl. Da'im begot Sa:ykaba. Saykaba begot Angkan.: Angkan begot Kamnalud o Din, and Katib Mu'allam 2 Apipud 3 Din,:and PakrudT 14 I)in, and many girls. Tuan May begot Datu Tka, who was suramed D)inma, Lama and Timwan. Dina begot Abi 15 Abdul Wakid 10 and MaryamYM& ORIGINAL AND LATER SETTLERS OF SULIU This chapter treats of the original inllabitants of the Iland of Sulu. The first dwellers of the land of Sulut were the people of Maymbung, whose rulers were the two brothers, l)atu Sipad and Datiu iarwagsa. After them came the people of Tagimalha, who foned another party, After these came the Bajaw (Samala) from Juhur. These were driven here by the tempest (monsoon) and were divided between both parties. Some of the Bajaw were driven by the tempest to Bruney and sonme to 1 ArabiC; sleeping. Arablc; known. 3Arabic; noble, subordinate officer of state. 4 Sanskrit; Iddha, kindled, lighted, or sunshine. 5 Sanskrit; Indra, the god of the heavens, or most likely Indira, name of Lakshmt, the wife of Vishnu. Sum;!light, sun. T Arabc; -wise. s The name of Mohammed's wife. A Arabic everlasting, eternal. 20 Arabic; ilerfection. l, Arablic scribe. 1' Arabie; educated, taught. is Arabic; virtuous. Arabic; pride, glotry.: r'bic; father. Arabic; firm, resolute, an attribute of God. ' Arabic; Mary. [ 41

Page  150 150 THE HISTORY OF SULl Mindanao. After the arrival of the Bajaw, thie people of Sulm biame four partties.' Some time after that there camtne Karimul 2 Makdumr Ile crossed the sea in a vase or pot of iron and was called Sarip. IHe settled at Bwwmsa,5 the place where the 'agiutaha nobles lived T. e the peeple flocked to him from all directions, and he built a houe for religious worship. rTen years later Raja Baginda " came from, Menangkahaw to Samluwangant. From there he moved to Basilan and later to Sulu. When le arrived at Sttu the chiefs of Bwama tried to sink his boats and drown himn in thte sea. He tlherefore resisted and fought themn During the fight l!e inquired as to the reason why they wanted to sink his boats and drorwn htiml. HIe told them thlat he had,ommitted no crime aginst themt atnd that he was not driven there by the tempest, but that he was siuply traveling, and came to Sutl to live among them bcausc they were Molhanimedans. When they learned that he was a Mo:lammedan, they resp.ecte(d him and received himn hospitably. The chiefs of Sutu who were living at that time were Datu Laxla 8 Ujan, I)atu Sana, Data Amnu, I uata Sultan,9 I )atlu Basa, and Datu LUng. Another class of rhiefs called Mantin tlwere Tua Jalal ta Tuan Akmat,1 Tuan Saylama, Tiuai Ifakim, ruan Buda, iTualn )a'i m, and Tuan Bujang. The Taimaha chietfs were SaEk 13 Ladun, Savk Sahdu, and Sayk Bajsala. The Baklaya chiefs were (Ortgktaya Simtt and a Orangayty a Ingsa. All the above cliefs were living at the time Taja Baginda eame to Sulu. There also eane to Sulu from Bwayan,' Sangilaya Bakti and Saigilaya 1Mansalah, The latter's wife was Baliyaa - yaga. Five years after Raja Baginda's arrival at Sulu the IRaja of Jawa14 sent a messenger to Suh1 with a present of wild elephants. Th e messenger's name was Jaya. lHe -died at Ansang, and two elephants only a rrived at Su lu. Aftertt i thr ticame thSayid Abu Bakr front Palenmbang to Bruney and from there to Sunu. When he arrived near the latter place he met some people and asked them: "Where is- or town and where 'The Baklaya party should have been mentioned after the Tagimaha, but It was evidently left out by mistake. 'Tagimaha is a Sanskrit word which means country. Arabic; generous, noble. 3 Arabic; served, master. 4 Arabic; noble, applied to a descendant of Mohammed. 5 Sulu, anchorage. The settlement lies 3 miles west of Jolo. 6 It is used here as a name. As a title it is higher than raja and is equivalent to sultan or emperor. 7 The Moro word for Zamboanga. sArabic; night, a common name. Arabic; power, superior authority, sultan. to Arabic; glory. 1 A corrupt form of the Arabic Ahmad. 12 rom the Arabic "Sheikh," meaning chief. s A place in Sumatra (?) I~ Java. I Arabic; master or noble, addressed to descendants of the prophet Mohammed. ' Town and state in southeastern Sumatra. lo, [42)

Page  151 , -.NEALOGY OF' SULU 1 is your place of worship: '" They said, "At, Bwansa." ie then came to Bwansa and lived with Iaja Baginda. The people respeced him, and he established a religion forl Sulu. They aecepted the new- relig n and declared their faith in it. After that Sayid Abu Bakr married Paramisuli, the daughter of Raja Baginda, and- he received the title of Sultan Sharif.' He begot. cildret, and his descendants are living to the present day. He lived about thirty years in Bwansa. After Abu Bakr, his s)on:Kamalud Din suceeded to the sultanate. Alawsad2 Din did not bewomee sulta;an. Putria Sarip 'lived with her brother Alawad Din. Alawad Din: married Tlan AMayin, the daughter of Tuan alayla. After the death of Sultan Kamalutd Din, i ahara j 'i pu succeteed to the sultanate. After the death of Upu, Pangiran:-: Buddiman became sultany. He was succeeded by Sult anTg. rI T.he. sultans who followed are, in the order of their sccession, Sultan Bung su, Sultan Nasiru, )in, Karma Sultan Kamatj Sula Shahabud Din, ISultan Mustafa O called Shapiuid l Din, Sultan Moi ammi NasaTd12 ia, - Sultan Alimud 13 Din 1, Sultan Mohanmmned Mu'lzidz4 4. Din, Sultan: Isra'il,' Sultan Mohlaimmi Alimud Din It, 'Sultan Mohammled-l Sara- - pud DO Din, Sultan Mohammied Alimud Din li.:: SiUL:U HISlTORICAL NOTES ' - -:' INTRODUCTION; N These notes were copied by the author from a book in the p osession. -:: of Hadji But11, prime minister to the Sultan of Su.ln Pages 1 2, and 3 form a separate article. They appear to be a supplment to the Genealog of Sulu, but they were undoubtedly derived from a different source. Their contents are well known to the public and are probably an attempt on the part of Hadji Butu to register what seemed to him a true and interesting tradition of his people. Page 4 was copied by the author from an old, dilapidated document which was torn in man places. It no doubt formed part of an authentic genealogy of Silu, older and more reliable than that of the manuscripts on pages i.48 and 149. It is written in Malay. Arabic; noble. This word is often pronounced by the Moros as "salip" or "sarlp.* 2 Arabic;:heigh t. -. Sanskrit; princess. 4 Sanskrit; greater king, emperor. sIn Malay it indicates rank or office; in Sulu it is used only as a name. 6 MalWy; young. 7 &rabic; defender. Arabic; honor, respect.. Arabic; star,' meteor, bright flame. Arabic; chosen (by God). f " Arabic; interceder. Arabic; victory. F rom the Aratic 'azeem or great; not from 'Allm, meaning learned 14 Arabic; exalter or defender. - Arab Israe el. t6 Arabc; honor. [43]

Page  152 152 TIlE U HISTWTRY OF SUI ',: -0 1 ilPage 5 is a c(o1py1 of a Stutl docum(tent issuttdl 1by SultanI Ja.mall-Kirant f i yar 121 il t L otr ) bout seventy-threle ears a g. t It lonfers l tlh title of lKhatib or Katib on a Suln pandila 2 named Adak. In coilfrrintg a title of thlis sort. it is custolary among the Sulus to give tihe }) prSOtl so honoredl a new. 1nrlI,! genert.ally an Arabic onea, slt as Abdur iazzaki." e'lfJ Stainc eulstoli! is oibservetd" ill thle aUs( of: titcCession to the s llitanl te ant otlmr hihli o ffices. I 'lte w-ritinlg attle top tof the page is the seal of JJarmalul Kiiran. l The ldate gitven in }tl iseal is thef l suate of Ttlh floulritsil at the t'end of f the signatilre jelow is the' ark of the writer. SULU NOTES t/7lralsfti lo of: palf/ I of ike o.tynriginal ruttcrii;pt. — The tfirt.R pers w}: l:ived on. the' Isls]aid of StI'l.u is" 'Janivivw Knlidsa.4 Hlis wife wasf. i l,ira i S ga. 'The. wee snt here by Alcxander tihe Great? Jad-ii..I urm Kuita bgt):j.:, 'T!nan Mash;{a'ika.Y'- Masha'ika begot Mawtmitin." Mawmlin's tdescsmndIants ilultIiplied gr:eatlv. They are lhe original inhabitants 'of Suttlu and chieft ancesto:s of thi plt lsntt generation. t: 7'a.htt of..l.. a'go e t2hof e original mwanwcript.-In thle days of r" 'he Tina::' Oftrntylg S ilI the S s reteived from Manila for;:: Bislaya:n captives,:flone silverII aiJgl'1. g, one gold huat, ne gold cane, and one silver vase, as a sign of friendship between the two: coitries.. Ole of the captives atad red eyes, -nOle had blacko eves; one, i-ue ees;:-, tlant one, white eyes....: Translation of pag.e 3 o' the - original ilan.uript..l-he re d-ed. -das ~.. -ar.,-..e re-y nmain was statioined at Paraing,M2:and is the forefaiher of all thle:-l e of Parang. Tlie ''white-eyed lan was stationaed at Lati,13 andi is the forefathler of all the people of Lati. The black-eyed n s statio at Gi'tung,'l and is the forefather of the people of Gi'tung. ThLe bhlet1eyed manEl was statione:d at Lt'uik,t5 and is the forefatfhr of the people 1Arabic; orator; the pandita, who reads the oration, a part of the religions services held on Friday. 2 See Ethnological Survey Publications. Vol. IV, pt. 1, p. 64. a The servant of the giver. 4 Jamiyun is Sanskrit and me*ans brother or sister's son; Kulisa Is Indra's thunderbolt. 5 ne of the names of the wife of Visheu. 6 Sulu; the sun.? The Sulus believed thlat Alexander the Great came to Sulu and that their ancient rulers were descended from him. V Sanskrit; the plant. Jamiyun Kulisa. Indira Suga, and Mashatika are the names of the ancient gods of Sulu. Prior to Islam the Sulus worshiped the Vedic gods and evidently believed them to be the forefathers or creators of men. The Sulu author was ignorant of this fact and used the names of the gods as names of real men. Arabic; faithful. 6 Chief. t A gong used for signals and in worship. 12 Western district of the Island of Sulu. 'The northern and central district of the Island of Sulu. * The southern and central part of the Island of Sulu. 'T The eastern part of the Island of Sulu. [44]

Page  153 I: '.;:^:,: -i -t s r l:;;:;::-... I.::. 7E;:: of Lu'uk. At that time the religion of Mohammed haad not come.to;:;~ -n Translation of page 4 do the origin l manuscrit.- -The first nh abit- i ants of the Island of Sulu were the people of Maymbung. They were followed by the Tagimnaha 2 and the Baklaya. Later cam e the Ba t Samals) from Jhur. Some 8 Bajaws were taken by the Sulus and were distributed among th ee thre divisions of the iland, while others drifte:d: 5:: to Bruney and Magindanao. Soie time after that there came Krimul4;.:.-:. Makduinm. HIe sailed in a pot of iron and the ancients called him:: Sharif Awliya. The Sulus adopted the Mohammedan religion and brought Makdum to Bwansa.t There the Tagimaha chiefs built a ros- m: o s: que. Ten years later there arrived Raja Baginda, who emigrated from. Menangkabaw.9 Baginda came to Zanlboanga first. From there he:- oltved to Basilan and Sulu. The natives met him on the sea for the: purpose of fighting hlim. He asked them, "Why do you wish to fight a Mohammedan who is coming to live with you?" He married there. Zhe commission of Khaiib tbdur Razzak. ranslation of page 5 of the otriginal mnanuscript.-Dated Wednesday, '' tile tenth of Ramadan, in the year "ID, " t irst, which correspnds to the: -- l year 121 of the Hegirah of the Prophet -0:: - hammred, may the best of God's mery and / lesseing be his. This day his majesty our 0 I Co master, the Sultan Jamalullo Kiraml has: The Conqueror.: /!!? By the order of granted Adak an official title by virtue of the Omniclient King, The Sultan which ite will he known as Khatib l2 Abdur '3. Mohammed Jamaiul Kira m.,. The year 1239. iazzak.' This is done in conference and;. \ onsultatio and with the consent of all tlie people, without dissent. By the will of God the most High. (Signed) The Sultan JAMAULt IKRAM.: [TIL EEND.] The town where the present Sultan of SWlu resides. 2 The inhabitants of the region west of the town of Jolo. t The inhabitants of the northern coast, east of Jolo. 4 iArabic; generous. - -; t Arabic; master or served., - e Arabic; noble; a title applied to a eescendant of Mohammed.' Arabic; plural of wall, a man of God. ', s Sulu; anchorage; the ancient capital of Sulu. 9A district in Sumatra. 0o Arabic; beauty. 1g l~t~~" Arabic; plural of karim, meaning generous. 2 Arabic; orator; a high religious title, allied to Imam...... a t Arabic; slave or servant. " Arabic; the Giver, referring to God. [45]

Page  154

Page  155 CHAPTER 11 RISE AND PROSPERITY OF SULU STULU BEFORE ISLAM The;eealogy of Sulu is a succinct analysis of the tribes or elements which constituted the bulk of the early inhahitantj of the island and is th}e mtost 'reliable record we have of tho historical events which antedated Islam. The original inhabitants of the island are commonly rferr d to as Buranfin or Budanir, which itmeans 'lountaineers" or hill people." This term is occasionally ustd svnonvmou slv with Gimbahan ln which means "people of the interior," an1 with Manubus in te sense of "sava hiil people" or "abornigine. Some of the old foreign residents of umaintain that they recognize considerable similarity between the Burafin and the Dayaks of Borneo, and say that the home utnsils and cl of the Sullus in the earlier days closely resembled those of the Dayas.L I The capital of the Buranun was Maylmbung. The earliest kno ruler of Xaymbung was IRaja Sipad the Older, of whom nothin is related except that he was the ancetor of Raja Sipad the Younger. In the:iay of the latter there appeared Tuan Mashaika, about ~whose anetry tere scents to be considerable mbigit and difference of opini. According to the Ceneaplog of Sulu he was supposed to have issued out of a stalk of bamboo, and was held by e people p as a prophet..rhe traditions stte that Tuan Mashal'ika wh the son of Jamiyun Kulisa and Indi:ra Sua, who came to Sulu with Alexander the Great. Jamiyun Kulisa and Indira Suga are mythological namess and in all probabilitv represent male and female gods relatedl to the thinderbolt and the: slun, respectively. The former religion of the Suis was of Hindu origin. It deified the various phenomena of nature and assigne the highest places in its pantheon to Indra, the sky; Agni, the fire; Vay the wind; Surya, the sun. The ancient Sulus no doubt had ian my:rth relating to the marriages and heroic deeds of their gods by whic natural phenomena were explained, and it is not unlikely that th e story Jamiyun Kulisa was one of those myths. Taken in this ighnt, the -.-.; V -!;;: --: - -^i —See p. 152. * -. - - 712;:;-; '-A ';: 155 t;D:.:^.1 -

Page  156 150 15 TLW HITORY }OF- SUiLl legend my expres:sthbelieff the i lus that, b.the.' riage of the gods, Jami vu Klisa and ndira, rain fell and life was 9 impare to the soil that plants grew. The word asha'ika is so written in the ala text a tosuggest its probable formation from two words Ms /ha and i/a.:The Sanskrit werd Msta means "puls" or "plant,." 'a or nc/ mes "ole. On the other hand ndsha-ia may represent the- two parts of the Sanskrit moehi!ka which means five ms-'ta." It may not therefore be iuprobable that msha'ka refers to tte subordinate deity which assumnc the form of a plant or signifies the first maan, whom the dity created from a plant. It is not an uncommon eature of Malay legend to ascribe a supernatural origin to the ancestor of the trioe, and Tuan Mashaika probaly repreent the asiission into thie Buranfin stock of foreign blood and the rise of a chief not descended from Rajah Sipad the Older. The tarla1 adds that he married the daughter of Raja Sipad the Younger, Iddiha,2 and bcame the forefathtr of the principal people of cu u. The common beief among the Sulus that Alexander the Great invaded lleir island is one of many indications which lead one to think fthat most of their knowledge and traditions came by the way of Malacca or Juihr, and possibly Tuan Masha'iika came from the same direction. It does seem therefore as if the dynasty of Sipad was supplanted by a foreign element represented by Tuan Masha'ika. Lhese two elements were later augmented by the Tagimaha who settled at Bwansa and along the coast wet of that point, and by the Baklaya who settled on the same cost cast of th present site of Jolo. The four tribes thus brought so closely togret her mixed viry intimately atd later lost their identity in the development of a single nation, which reihed its maturity under the guiding hand of a Molammedan master. In spite, of later immigrations to the island and il spite of conquest and defeat, the national character thus formed has remaned unechanged throughout history and the Sulu of to-day still maintains that same individuality which he acquired in his earlier days. The noted emigration of the Bajaws or Samals of Juhur must have begun in the earlier parts of the fourteenth century, if not earlier. 'T'hese sea nomads came in such large numbers and in such quick succession as to people the whole Tawi-tawi Group, the Pangutaran and Siasi Groups, all available space on the coast of Sul proper, the Blgigi Group, and the coasts of Basilan and Zamboanga, before the:seof the eentury and before the arrival of the first:Mohammedan-pionee. The Samals exceeded the Sulus in number and the effi ofsuch overwhelming immigration must have ee considerable; butnevertheless the Sulu maintained his nationality adl rose t:tohe:casin n a st remarkable manner. The newcomers were Len itoi - ' oenealogies; see 'Vol. IV, pt.', p.;I'IEhnologicatu P ublica 2 Sa it; sunshine,,- - 7;' '0 f,.f* S; '1 X,\,,_ vS S;f - [48],; f

Page  157 SUJLU B3ElPOI ISLAM given his protection, for hich thte -rndred notewor thy service; -bit: their relation was never alowed to xceed that of a slave to his mastr; or that of a subject to his ruler, and the Saals thus reained ke strangers or guests in the land ntil a atdate. - Besides the Samals, some: Bugis and Ilaan emigrantsgaine foothold on the northern an northeastern coast of Sum. The Bugis appear to have lost their identity, hut the lainun are still recnizale in many localities, and some'of' the principal datus of Suu still trae their origin to Mindanao. -- The numeros and extenive piratical expeditions dertakn by the Sulus from time immemorial must have been a great source of further influx of foreign blood. The earliet traditions y that, in the days of the Timway,' OrQngkai Su'il, saves or hostages wee sent by the raja of Manila to sure the friendship of the Sulus. These Aav were, according to some accounts, of six colors, but the written records give them as four —red-eyed, whie-eyed, blue-eyed and black-eyed. T" people do not entertain any doubt relative to the truth of thefe statements, and the custom is current en among the Sa oias o referring to the origin of some person as dcende from the red-eyed slave, in making; distinction as to whether he come from a noble or is of low birth d:: as to the part of the conty which he belongs. According to general opinion the red-eyed slaves lid at Parng, the western section of the islad; the whiteeyedi at ati, the norxn section lyin t the est of Jolo; the black-eyed at Gitung, the middle and southern secio;the blue-eyed at Lu'uk, the eastern section.This color distinction is difficult to explain, but it must have arisen out of the established custom of dividing laves and captives, after returning from a piratical expedition, among the great iefs of the various parties which composed the expedition. These parties as a rule belonged to four sections representing the four gret district of: the island, over each of which one chief formerly was in authority. The number of eements which have th entered into the constitution of the Sulu people must be great, for there as not a single island- in- -- the Philippine Archipelo hich was spared by these marauders. - Indeed, the nation:owes its rigin and its chief charaeters tol piracy As pirates these people ookrefuge in this island and livednd i: and as pirates they have -stmped their reputation on the annials of hito However, the Sulus do not:differ in this particular point frlt the Malays of other coutris. Malavs were eqally addic ted pr _ ___s of. n.s I ' 1 Natives of the Clebes; they^wi ofte called the Sniads-M lTaex or tu wa y etaiing "edeor l et: -ist the - tietle: give to:the chIefs of the land be;Islaum.-f;-: sw;i -:re S- it is psIble that th c e from an.-, ea. supersti tion o le of-;Hindu_:o t-:-in 'i:ann ttt: 'asrteisi:' -.to' th oras-:rss':: 'Ot~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~h' rme::"~ f wi [401

Page  158 *ste 1 as fte ia vllae,r in a h.abitati o.* * h' tn elct Pis it nmahy e Pt iied tiifir instint."~ ' 4.: tim Je m tleiear: -- -.-;"As surely as s abnd sihier i are nooks a:ndcotrnerW: saysx another "so have"pia: t sprng up whewrvcr there is a r f s islands oering crceks and shallows. headlands, rocks, and ir eb-s: f lities, in sfhort, r luing, for surr for atack, a:inl f or le. T e sei barat.roui; inhabitant of the Archipelago, hborn and bred in t: posi'tionna.It s natural n t li:i t onsder any well-flrelglte, il-prlotecedl Ibt his propert as it is to the fishing eae ahox e his htosw downu; p thole i weake i bit o0r* hrdworking bird and swallot hs t e iWtrOublef-. eateing..r' So we aret tol that btfore the days *of Makd.ul and Rajt B ainda, Sult had long been a et I Oriu lt only of regular t-ralders Iro: nst nlations, but the hedll uar t of he piraatica laraudt:s Ir, tl f,,ound a ready malrket for enslaved< vitt'i:ims, I NT RODIT C 1' ION AM AND IHE RISE OF A A8TY IN SuLV. 1380-140v T thois peri)d b, I f ite Buralamn i W I:) hpk hatilateristi the Taimah, and thte west, aid t l b dlue intluenu on Malay 'onqlerors practise in. their nei any change in tfis whic the Sum7 lha' the Archipelago. The ftwo proi oolantlmedan intaion (f ite SA a origin, they d eartnvll d id tot For inll p1 roiahilityj 'tani s ere Mala s who cal0 into isld wI M':.a"'iit iUst haxi i Whatver relition- or. i'c ir original land, thly no d4 It t 1es not ap" r tlia te nd lie same w *orhip atad s I uncianuged until the M-ha who era a, ruler.

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Page  [unnumbered] Kr kau rIYhxti Jul arritvn LI~~~~~~~a~ibi1

Page  [unnumbered] :T: v-:;:.-::l-^: ^ ^:: V:: V:: l

Page  159 fIalacca. (i ('ttinuiiilg Pfirtt the vyear 1380': In SIiuu thle Ar.h:pel as:go anal d Iade of Si b'itu cl aits Pht li' grave,:fuitl atre Bwaisa, the (hdi: I 1: i.ai(lt hIat1 tlle t i e-I oof: the- peiroe -ofs fthe: t4wI ae f. '.lakd l,ll: - i...... I,.! 360On1 Wam. t..toj ) or e.. Ow exeee eniga! hm: M very, hos::itabI ~ The! determination complete state ment wht sionaries in Sulu and M The. first historic Suimatira)', the capital Dictionary, R. J.. Wilki rt t If:seat,Y ndf; rule I:-A

Page  160 I16() BTHE HISTORY OF SULU he was diretedeto RaBja iBinda, who must have been the spreme ruler of Bwansa.::;Accordingly we find all the chiefs of Sulu enumeratd i the tarsila a t;le day: of Baginda's arrival suordinate in rank, havig no rajas among them. The UGenealogy of Sum is ass misleading as the tarsila of Magindanao in that it pictures the arrival of Baginda as peaceful as that of Kangsuwan.;: Some-o of. h chiiefs who were Mohammedans posBsibly intrigued their;oppont,;:l but tlhe dearth ofbinformation relative to this early P.ilippinel histoy renders it inpracticable to secre any more light on thea subjct.: It -may. not, howi.eer, be out of place to remind the reader tat't,:thie':fourteenth c etu wa marked by: unusual activity in mrethods of; warfare. Guntpowder,: which xwas known and used as an ex1ploxiv loIn:before pthat' datte had:not. been made se of-in th"rowing projwttie1; ii-n battle. -' "Th Arabsa, we knowx, usedfirearms' early in the:fourteeInth century, and we may conjectu re tha.lthey -introduced:suc wea)pons. into- alae a. and- other parts of Miasia as; they moved eat. It is not' iimprbable the' that a. prinee coming from Smara wa provtided with fireaim:whieh overawed the ignorant 'inhabitants ofBwansa and subdued the vaalor. ad.. ourage of the Sut and 0-Samalpirates of those 'days.: ie -Statement miade in —the tarsi-of Magidanatha, after t-:the,;~letf _ after the peopleof S:.,.anan came down the river to 'where Kaungsuwan! w.as amthormd', 'lie'- becloned (or poilt is:finted-hi er) to them but- one of themri died'on that. account, and:they were frightened and returned,' is theli only kind ofTevidence found which can possibly be interpreted to indicate that a firearnm was usedi. Lacking conflirmatio as this ay be, yet wxe positively know that when the Spaniards reaced ee Islands, th ese people had an abundance of firearms, muskets, lantak -' and other canon, and we iay be justified in saying that probably firearms existed in the land in the cntury preceding the arrival of the Spaniards. This brings us approximiately down to Baginda's days. ' ' In considering the etymologyof the titles of the Sulu chiefs mentioned in the time of Baginda, we observe that they are of three classes. The first class were the datus. These had mant' or niters and probahl represented the deenscldants of Raja Sipad and Tuan Masha'ika. The swond class were the sayk. "Sayk" is probably derived from the Arabic "Sheikh'" meaning ichiief." These were the Tagimnaha chiefs, and their rank was evidently subordinate to that of datu. The third class were the orargklya, the Baklaya chiefs. Thl'ese arelso subordinate in grade and could not have been higher than the sayck. The words datu and orangk7aya it must be remembered are of Malay origin, while raja and baginda are Sanskrit bagi'nda being the highest and, being often used tas equwivalent to emperor, while raja lmeans only king. I s Brass cannon used by lMoros. [52]

Page  161 S g. THE MOHAMM0SDAN CHURCH IN SULU m6 Jawa is the Malay-, term for Java. Tile incident related in the tarsil relative to the gift of two elephants sent by the ra of Java to the raja of Sulu is interesting, in that it explains the existence in Jolo- of the. elephants found there during the earlier Spanish invasions. It further indicates that Baja Baginda was not an insignificant chief and that he kept up some kind of communication with the rajas of westrn M'alaysia. The elephants received by Baginda were let loose, the story says, and they lived and multiplied on Mount Tumagtngis. On the declivity of this mountain there is a ple still called ublu aa, whichmeans the "habitat or lying-place of the eAphant. The people relate several stories which make m ention of the elephant, one of whih declares that the chief who killed the last wild elep t was given the had of the sultah's daughter in marriage in admiration of is standbrvery. ESTABLISHIMENT OF THE MOMMEDA CHURCHAIN SULUT AND THE REIGN OF ABU. BAR, 14.50-1480 Brevity is without exception a marked characterist f or writings. Their letters, unlike those of the Malays and Arabs,.e brief and devoid of compliment or. detail. It is very difficult to pick out a suprflus word or phrase: from he text of the Sulu tarsila. In fact, the narrative of eve hrougho the mtnuscript is so curtailed as to be reduced to a s omere syopis.of headlines. It gives a very dim view of the generalubject leaves out much that is desired. Thus, the whole question of establishing Islam in Sulu and organizing its sultanate is dispensed wth iii:one short paragraph briefly enumerating the following facts: That Sayid Abu Bakr came to Bwansa from Palembang by the way Bruney; that he lived with Eaja Baginda and taught and established a.new eligon for Sulu; that he was greatly respected by the people; and that he married Paramisuli, the daughter of Baginda, and became sultan. The traditions of the country, notwithstanding their brevit, add ome further but less reliable ginfomation It is the common belief tha Abu Bakr was born in Mecca and that he lived some time at Juhur (or Malacca). Others state that it was his father, Zaynul bidin, who came from Mecea and that Abu Bakr was born of the daughter of the Sultan of Juhur at Malacea. He came to Pangutaran first, the narrative continues, then to Zamboanga and Basilan. His younger brother, who had accompanied him, continued eastward to Mindanao, while he remained at Basilan for a short while. Having heard of Abu Bakr, the people of Sulu sent Orngcaya Su'ii to Basilan to invite him to Bwansa to rule over them. This invitation was accepted and A a kr wa-s inaugurated sultan over Sulu soon after his arrival there. 1 ~ ~ ~ - 1 1 * 1g. 1: *:.. [5 3 ]:1 *.'*:. -' *:: 1; **.: *. -

Page  162 162 auF ro)m iautili.,.rtl1 it'

Page  163 t*itS wet, called ansl at i'i'k. he boundaries which it seelednalessarr at that tiimre to define were makle by large 'trrees none of which is living at preset Thus a sangmay, tree separateld:ParanI from ifPau1l.;Thec ocatvion of this treewas -at at a. * point near Bud 1Agad tand the streamn Agahun, whiclhI'runs, down from;-; Tuianglt gis toward Mayimntn g A baw pl tr eeseparated Pansul frm. Lath i.Ts ' tree *was located: at a plae elled Itdung, inteledia. between Asturias and the walled. town rl~ folo. A manlpas'la^-m e te called Tarl 'sepaated. Lai u'k. t was tlhe vicinity of the - settlenient of 811. 'AAvaretofdian tree amed Siggniyagal formed" -.ntile boudary- a: Lati aid 'tg.;::According to later s Ileage,' Ethese districts "s aS 10tarel:: a arag; is the wxestern district lyig west ofline pang throg a oi east:: a of the! Buimnit of T'niQatu gs anid a ol o th;. thern t -m iles ws of Maymblun. A line passing throug h Mount and a, j)point asl littl e eastof Maym buniarks thebdundary beetweenPnsu o: the west tand Lati and swi'tiing o e east. T wae is genra considered as the dixiding labetwe1e Lqi a itg. d -iAng. A li-;ne j-:in Wl on the north: and Lu on the1 soth se Lapa i an from;3e eL *4um froma Lu'uk. A sixth dist-ict has lately been carved outand ftermdTandug e ete o the A joinnguku land contrary to Mham ed w ad ItLhe p t of th preserxe this consisteny, ta:ode of laws was miade andpr.omlgated-:b r Aln Bak. This, once-establishe:bwame the guide of al the suordi-: - nate officer of the s;tate: wo, as a rtule ohserxed 'it andlcariedoutitinlstructions. T The general iitnes 'wich Au Bar co i gx enrment seeml to have Ibeen followed veryv closev }y allhi ucciesors. Suceh an advrentrouis and agrssive man as letewas' cold nt have - stopped within the limits of the islaand. In all proaili:ty hepucse out;-. in various directions, ut no ecords 'have so far been found ich give -: Ab\u Ba~kr lived. thirty years in Sulu and dieabout 1480. - - m ': Om _ n — tItY l) S Oe BATd I E SLLTA NAT, -1480 —635 SUCCESSORS OFBU BAKRO hK The dynas ty foun ded by Abu Bkrlwth a tamed coiderable poweraid famni law and order, consolidated th foresofthete and inereased its t A~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~' ai -w, eA ~!~~-~33tinfluence AVO 'tI d

Page  164 ta InII-W

Page  165 That y which you, Capt tean R ri dFigu eroa, shall obrve on te expedition whic.h you are about io Iake, God our Lordhel.pi~ngis as follows: Flrom" this city and Islanid of:B3ozrneo, God wiling you s to the gIsland of Sulu, where'you.shallendaor.. reduie 'thatehieft d his people Itoathe: obedienee ofw.. his Majfe ty. 'ousha bargainwith them a to what tribute they shall pay, which'shall bet in s they are wont ' g to the Kingof Bruney, You shall exerciste grea care and, if osile much mil;dn.s; for-. it is of importance that hose islands should not become depopulated; therefore, in ease.they- receive- you -peceaby,: you sH treat them well.- And, in'addition to the above, you mxust orer 'that, besideS the tribute that they are tO pay. in pearls, they shall obtain as many:of:them a^s pobe,so thatwe, the Spaniards or Castilians, may buy them; -ithat they m trade fth us rom now on; that every year Castilians will -g their lands with cloths ard — merhandise fromChina, of wha er thtey- i deare h th may aeed. You shall inform yourself of their needs and if wi ce to r ttlemen you shalla give them^ permiseion to go freely to Manila and to come to Bornoathough n Q. --- - -— ott-ttL * /*;. o:;s t. --- -t ' =' Item: Yotu shall find out from them thie whereabot of the a l 4 anehors of a ship lot there some three years ago;and yui sha~ll sek it and see that it be brought you with al1 haste. You shall keep dose wth over the artillery, ammunition, vessels, sails, and other like things pertaining'to the armed fleet; and you shall depriye them Of thoses upp for it" i: -notrios that those people are' com-mlonf m ru - ' ' - -:; -.:' - - s. '::_: —.And because of my inmformtion that the echief who ealls himself lord of SiUt: is a Bornean, and owns houxes inthiS city of Bruney; that he fougt:against: us in the naval battle, and that he fled to Sulu,:here he- is: -nw and..sin I am told that h-e took two gatlleys and three small vessels, artillery aind ammnition, you shall exercise the utmost despatch to obtaina the sid galieys, vessels, artillery, and ammnition. If lhe acquiiesce, you sh.ll give him a pasortrL' You shall see whether he has any children; and if so, you shall take, one, and tell him that he must &ome -to see me in Brmuney in Februamry. t And, as I have said, t shis must be done if possible gently, in order that no people may be killed. You shall tell him.that it will be to their adv.tage to be assals of hisMajesty andour alli If theydo not at p etfully, and it sahall be neessary to punish them in anoth er maneyou sha:ldo so: And inasmuch as the Sulus, as is wel l known, are open -pira tesi e only ambition is to steal, and to assault-men in order "to sl elewher espeially as they go — anual r piunderamong all the PitadosIslnd which are under his M ajety ominioshall try to asertn"- t.Pintados slaves among: them,:t ore r - to retrn: s to their:hoi tes, e -who are -Chriatians. And, a:I: have' said,; t ive o vessels as seem to beuse d for raid,; leaving-them their "fishing vesel, that if the said lord- of Sulu so deire,( he cn - c confer r t m. Thus you *shall ascertain"w^o hasx vesels and who can inflic inur a yo.:shall comm'nd:.. them exprsly of:tt own on their n lan, to ci vtAe, and harvest, develop the prl industry, and ceset be pir ll order them to raise fomls and cattle. Your shal try to a ascrti eir.nmbert;and bring it to /me:in writing, 0in odr that I ma see it, togther with the distaneu from..thee:islands:.:the Sula Isls,- oationing ies waterv, eand,heathfulnes pod tht lnd, and- othe a. a ou t And you shall -toll. t tIhef a: le of elephants, and that hl nd for t e i als and..pfor them.

Page  166 ;fter PortugueSe take thl';tree.'. and if:. manfinner it shlouh I (dislricts in the: p:from these

Page  167 And, since it might;Iappen that the people will: notmakpeae offer. fight, alnd -show direspt, the you ll niys themn y ou dee bet, thel;'ifo't 't ihi_-` I " " 'be Ptor{ taking- spleial care no.t to: atru t t:hem;:tfr t is evd that befo I e wilI, if;fpossdible,,ommtit 'sone ttelry^ Yo tnot t await for we know already theirt; reet '..tom Villao rtai, crtain of wh'hls;en t-kll uneof thy seized a boat.I tlhat: tr heii: a;ll th ihi r; h particlpants; for. fou 'or'ortfivetosa od ti -ttcka e o:ne sma boat,:_which. iitaiie mab p.p. to pin -the" 3killingr ofthe'-h said.,llal}ob 'sf,, i that sawe year. You shiall remid t m o form nBOW on, we shail destro0y:^fl the m-et rg_ an'd: their gene ratin. - Aand: sinee it 'might happenth' t witht any oc csi of war or peac, thei'- said natives flee to,:-the, mountaHins,.:you' shll orer'that cwri &i thesa'-i natives summotnI tlhem' and, 'when ^tlhey *v:hae come, you s1ha disc.the mOatter with.them. * If- thtey a refUse to omae, you shall, in eonformity with i:your oers,remaint thlre a given timte. Anil if tley ntiue to refUse: t tome down,: you shall: lea ve' th i. and sha!l: return, without permitting t heir.hoitses to::be bure or their palm trees' -to.be'cut dwn. Neithero hall aythingbe stlenfom tlmr;.ltt your atll -ta oly wht ad l aiat ia ely-i^ necesusary for o and t foodni and otler things nececarx' to - rovisionyour vssels fr th: return You shalll try to seeat in.formation- of the islani-of' t.iboton, as ell as of atachita acnd Cele hes, to ae to' advise: e tereofi; and y.oushall. edo ths ins aseeord with: tie- time 'limit I.have set *fo you tomake thisexlrat ion, -ad yon shalla observe te tise raue ile as ia that of MintanLao.. -. -.:;-20 '/ -./.'.::In order that. we m nay allotin enconiteas' -whatevr people are found-i these distriets, you shal. bring ien' a. signd notarial vritTu'' s, as *thoe lands. lhave no other owner, the natives tllereof mlayC bereeedued toth.e obdieniee of his Majesty, acceordig to hisi* wiill-and by war, if the na.tives bgn it, otlh;at0 war o our part may b1e just, and thlat the samme j-utic o may eonitinue, so that iwe ean compel them to obey, ani impose tributes upon them. ou shwall exersemuch diligence in this and see to it that these orders be carried outca.refully and intelligently. ':' * -" ':-d,; i God willing, I shall be in Brnney bvy the endod ofthe monthof ry next — at the latest, by te eighth of:bruary-wit the:t fleet.and:allthe necessaries that must be brought from Manila, and that which-i liere,.And at t-at time your graee shall comne to Brney with the fleet that you have, and ith.'a e people that you have or hall hlave in the "Pintados, so that w-e:'may-:do ohere' whatever is proper for the service of his Majesty, to whiel we are bound.:These instructions must not be disregarded in any point, unless 1 advise you to. the contrary by letter. And to this end you shall sue that all who live and dwell there be commissioned for- the: aoe, in addition to their own duties. Given at Brney, May twent-three, one thousand five hundred and eventy-eight,... If the Inatives of Mindanao or o: any other place shall give:tribute according to the above, yo shall act according to the usual- custom in theseI islands — namely, you shall take one-alf aind place it to the account of his -Majesty, while the other half shall be distributed amonlg the soldi ers. Given ut supra. Doctor FRA NCISCO DE SANiDt. efore me:'' ' A OiN'oS}T BEL R A N?' ' His Majestyb's otar,!. ' tLarge estates assigned to Spaniards. 1 I [593

Page  168 [091:,j, I I-I I I, 1 ~. - I s~ I III 1 6 e_ I~r I II II' I I II iI I I I:: I I I I I I ~ I I. I I I I. I i~ II.:~l~fI R"a~I~ lo ~ -o~n I III II I~~lrr:, ~M3~~~lII I~~a~~ I-II IIr~p~II IIIII ajI ~ IIIIII: ~~srI'Wlj-, 19.M. I'll ~- ' ~~:I ----;::I II I I.; J~~3~4 CW A'' A ~I'll DI,__ IULT I,~~~~~~~l~3:: -~rr~l::, i ) I.I I: I I 11I-~1~ I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I~~)T 6 ~ -':I —I~i "~1~; ''xi&_ —:, ata: -:-:::'::: ~r ~ Ii jz~s~:40t — ~~ ItI, ~ ~ I~ ~,,!..I.1.I t I I I I ~~, I I " I ~ ~, ~ ~ - ",; iI ~ I - I I - -~I: II~::. I': ~;;III I I:, II ~ ~, I.II III ---:-I. I-~I ~::::; II l_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~I11 - I; I, I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~":'-:n _.1.i-I;-1-:: ---I:-~t ''IT~f~ I ~ ~ I r I Ow,~~~O UIOTT~~~4~~ ~~~rU,3i, 1 1 l.~: - I1.OI LEJ ~ jaI~ w I I'll, - I I. I -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ % II I I I 11 I 0 l r~~ P1 0kiI I. ~1; V:.:_- - 'I_:it")I I '", A UOD ~~~~~~~~~p ~~~~~~,ajqmn a"::; " I, 11 I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~, I I ll -.~~~~~~ - ~~~~~_. ll~~~~~..I~~~~: I ~~~~, ''. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - % ~ ~ ~ ~ I I I II:I: II V- ~~~':I~ — I::': ~I -;-I: ~:Ii: -:I.,~;~I~-:P: - I In I ~ "I,,,p~ I-, i.",I, 11.":., Ij II I I I —,, 11 11 II I.,,~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -~~::: ~: - -,I v I1.1: 1::' —~:::.:: — _ji~l~_.:;~~' —:::;:': _:_;:: —;-:::; i;::i: --::' t;:::-:-:: tI-4 - Iis Dulu::O ujI,01130JI, Iur;I "YI I ''I I I- -:I,8I:I:,:;.. -.,:I ~~II.,~~. ~ ~ ~ I ".., -. 1,..;::.x! _ -:11I' I I,:fi 1. ''I s~,~a I I( I I II I, " 1 - -. I I, 1. F, ~ I I I.~~~~~~-la.. I _-: I~~:::i -.::::'"::,::-. $OT I 01 "P~ I -:-xOUUU~. 0 A;. ri~ "I Ite::f:-,;-:_::: — IR-V ' ':: - ii:- P I, W I1: I-9an —la -: a,.Y;TS) ~ udi ~~~: I I11I~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ I, 7 ~~~~~~~~:: I I.:I-~ i:: i-::: ~ ~ ~ I. ~ ~ ~ ~,. -. ~~~~~~~~~-~~~~~~~ ~~~l.1 1-1 '.;~ ~ ~~~~~~~~4-:_ ~:;:: ~:- _:: —:::- - I-:.,::-: I~ ~- -:-.:: _; -_: II y.. " " —t!_IAI -''..,I ~,- ~ 7~a 11 Ol B:;. U Otl;~::TI- "I:.- I -,::.:I -1I 4 _~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-,: I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~: - ~ ~ — I1 w: Dj UA UR 011,. I ~ - nnrs:~yr";,~_~~~~::~::l.-l rsa-:Si~ir3;pa i( -~ --- —1~1::-~~:~, I~~~~~~~~~~,I II.~~~~~~~~~~~~~1 I:~:-:.:.I ', ~I:,,,-, ~I sf ~ i, -I~E1BdS; ~ —~:I "'')U: I,:. I, l;I""t a~l,.In i:: jo t141 0144.i.u~g n 4i d' qio su d 0111 04 'pf t siad o111 04fl4jo4 401:X:04 'p100,:r: $ 4 W TI 04 ~115 S31L^.o'flLSOH[a noa woa -aoiipqj v4D PI i3ep0a w *';:' '.-: ^0D1 *; '-..: 4;! a: 0 0o^ M aimss 3oI0XUfll tJ l axs;:<91

Page  169 sentiment wvas not sostrost i those day as:it is no;. for the Spaniards le ati were t di pursuing a p rofitable.tradein it: bewestco S Afa a the: West:Isndies and America: ra cr, but it can not e d e pr ipal le e of this war or: as' sfiien~t reasonin' t.. itsfo th lypcia such a deadly confliCt - between: Su!lu anion..ho... i,...r a declared overnor:Soandoe th inial reason for goig to their lands? lie ordehe Suluasnt aitt an oepearchers, Islam, but to allowthe Spanish prie 't bp -Christiaity:- to:-ihem. The Mohammedan preahe e diretedto..a ad bruht to him ad:themoque to brnedeor desty edand not to e reu - Part of the: i ructiod'nst h-he A-tado1 - Miguel L:pez deILeggasi received befor embark:ng.on his expedition to th Ph:ippi read as follows: Anhd you- shall hav-e espnalrealce at; or in lthli n thi- ationt thoe natives of those rgis some ofebto th*e rligious aceompaning yobea prent in order to -avail yourstelf- dof their do d aiei, and's aoht the natives miy see and u ndersa pinyore high estiaiong-o thet:fr seinesg ts, and the great reverence of the soldihers-taMrd thme y esve lo hol the relig in gra t - se.il- greatle mothat~ ment', soy that, wen'og - the reigiou shall uandertand their language, osr h itre- r:-:g wo they may lmake them snderstned oir holy Catholic Hfait the-ni an. sh a put entire faith in them; tsined you are aware ctha tein he eof thinag s htft by his Majestf is the incrcsae of or holy Caftholi faith, and the alvaiof the saous of the soue f those infldels.2re; i;:; - In 1566, a petition was-senit from 0Cd to the King of Spaii, hearing the signatures of Mating ode Goti Guido dWe iabezai andyo ite other leading officers under Legapi setting f orth, among othe frequ the following: - t - -;'That the Moros, ";because they try to prevent our.trade *with lthe natives and preach to thea the religio of Mohaolmed, may be enslanved ad lose their property. That slave traffic be allowed, "thatt he Spaniards may make use of them, as do the hiefs ad oatives of fhoso regions, both in mies ad other,. works that offere themrseolves.t"r o- o-w I In a letter addressed to Legaspi King Philip II said: We have also been pettitoned in your behalf oncerning the Meoro Islana in that land, and how those men come to trade and arry on commerc, hinderng the preaching of the hol;y gospel and disturbing you. We give you permxxision to make meh Moros slaves and to seize their property. Yu are ad that you can make them slaes only ifthe said More are such by Nrth and oie, and if they come to preach their Mohamedatn dctrine or to -mae war against you or against the Indian's, who "are our subjec.ts and in or: royal service. i An honorific titl!given' to' the.early governors of the Philippines. 2TheV PhilippinIslands, Blair and Robertson II, 98, 99.. bid., h p.: 156 -,, - [01]

Page  170 170 TtbE HITIIW Y O)r.UJI In a letter addreis tod t:ing Philip I Biihp SalS r w kr 17, 1S8, as fo llws:.The iseond int is that, in the Island of Mindanao, whic is u*jr to vtur IaMatj*, t andi for maty ytehrs hixs paid you tribute, the law of has eeia publiMly:proEacaiet for sonewhat tlre tihan three yeIrs by pr he fromt Itruney and lernate who have come there..some of thm even, it is thelievwd, havin g come front TMecca. They have erted and are nw bulding mosqites, and the bxys are beting cireucnised, and there is a schood where t are taught tihe Quran. I was promptly informed of this, and ured te president to *uppvl a nmtedy therefor at onwe, in ordser that that pestilential fre houd not s'pead in these islands. I could not persuade them to fg and ths the hatred of Ctshritlait is there; and we are striving no nore to remey this than if the matter did not concern ut. Suteh are the lamitie and mise to whiclh we have o me, and the punishiemnts which Gdl inflicts Upoln Its? In drawing a contract withl Capt. Eistean Irdriguez de l igueroa, in 11,^! for thie,)a('lieCatiro and (eon.jtues t of 1Minanao, the G(,vernor and CaJ)tain-t(, elera! Ood(Ine% tIZ erexz siarins nlla ikfs the following dg Earations ' ' 1l1is Manjesty ordters and eharge nste, 1V his rovt insltru tins an dce as the, most worthy and imxportant thling in these islands, to strive for t prtpagation of our holy faith among the natives herein, their conversio to the knowledge of the true G(;od and tleir rediuction to the obedience of fis holy church andl of the king, our sove:reign. * * Moreoverr " the Isla n of:Mindanao is so fertile and well inhabited, and teemin with Ill:i nan. settlemnents, wherein to plantte h faith. * * * and is rich in gold nines and pltaers and it wax. cinnamon, and other valuable drugs1 And althoiough the said islanld has teen seen, disculsseld, and explored * * effort lhas leaenI made to enter and reduce it, nor has it ben pacitied or furnished withl instrulction or. jststie-quite to the eontraLy being, at the preset time, hostile and reftising obedience to his Maje-sty; and no tribute, or vry litte, is being collected. * * 1Beitdes the above faets, b.; delayving Lthe acifieation of the said islad greater wrongs, t tthe offense and displeasure of God and of his Majesty. are resultl.daily: for I am informed that the king of that island has made all who were paying tribute to higs Majesty tributary to Ihimself by force of arms, and after pu)ttitg manys ofi them to dleath while doing it: so that now each Indian pay hintl oe. tfar 2 of gold. I am also told that lie destroyed and roke into piece wit! tmany insults. a 1cros that he found, when told that it wa dore by the Christians: alnd that in Magindanao. the capial and residnce of tihe id king, are lornean Indians who teach and preach publiely the false detrine of Mlolhamied. and have mosques; besides these. there are also pe ple fro Ternate- gunners, arinorers, and powder-makers, all engaged in their trades — wlio at divers times have killed many Spaniads when the lattr were gi, tos colle t the it * * whout our lwlng able to mete out punishimenwtit beeu}sre of lack of trcops, By reason of the fats allxne ree'i, and because all of the said wr'ritgs and troubles i will cee. with the sid pacificatimi: ad wlhen it is made. we are sire thatl t thie strrounding kingdons of Bruney.:,attIn. Java, alnd other provilnes, will become olbeientt to his Majesty:Wtherto in Ibid., VII p. 68, 69. S given in the text without explanation. It is prbably a weight [02]~

Page  171 BRUULB 0 BATA 8 HAH TANOAII order that the said islaad day be fied, sbidued a Vd t 4 an"d: te pet preehed to the natives; and thati Ju 1111a>y be b a-s t aind they be tught to lIve in a civil manner, and to ri - Go and sholy law, I have tried to entrust the sad pacifieation to a persn oif sc h e r that he may be entrusted wit it. ' It is plan, therefore that the sentiment of the tim justifi war on the Moros for the cause of religion lone, and tat, th ugh the primary object was conquest no doubt the religious otives of the Sp iards were stronger than their desire to heck piracy. But, of all thie Christian nations, the Spaniards should have ben most aware of the tenanity, determinatin, and courage with which the Mohamme d defend their faith, and the Sulus were no exception to the rl lifor th; had been born and reared in that religion for more than four generations. A wiser policy on te part, of Governor Sand would have either let the Moros of Snlu and Mindanao alone or effect.e a comlete nctioni of the state of Sulu and immediate occupation of the coasts of Mindn with strong fores; for it appears from all accounts tlat neither the Sulus nor the Maindanaos were as strongly organized thenas the were a generation later, and either alliance or war should have been easier then than afterwards. The Spaniards at that time were excellent warriors. Their conqu st of the Bisayan Islands and Luzon were rapid and brilliant, but it appears that the system of government which they inaugurated t ere met wih: distinct failure the minute it was extended to the more organd i cd onmunities and the greater forces they encolmtered in the south. The Sulus, on the other hand, fought in the defense of their national independence and religion, and never found life too dear to sacrfice in that cause. They resented the treatment of Spain, and in their rage and desire for revenge built stronger forts and fleets and became fiercer pirates. RULE OF BATARA SHAH TANGAH Pangiran must have died about 1579 and ws followed by Sulta Batara Shah Tangah, who je in all probability the Paglian or Paiai: Tindig of the Spanish writers. Tangah's claim to the sultanate was strongly contestsed by his eco.sin, Abdasallan2 who ruled over Basilan, The latter attacked Jo1o with a strong force but failed to reduc its9 forts. Tangah, however, felt insecure and went to Manila to ruest Governor Sand6's aid and returned to SulI with two Spanish arme boats (caracoaqs). Abdasaolan, whose povwer had in thle me antime increased, prepared for defense and watched for the adva ee of the The Philippine Iands, VIII, pp. 13-75. a Apunte sobre Jolo, spina, p. 56. A large canoe u d by the Malayan people wiith two rows of s ry U gt and fitted with a Luropean sail; its rigging of native nianufaeture. (Phiitppine Istais. 1I. p. 246.) 7 1X29(- 5 - [63]J

Page  172 172 TUE IFLI$(ItY P $1L1,4 anti (clistlatehed theJin witI spela to ilntereet Tangaa The Suln 's prty wao t eotmpdlettely N tstt'ff!iai' UlI in the 1tglG tuaLt EettttQ1t Tfallngl. Was killit. t)t rOn a,,ltiing.Jo!o thle Spanish fto'vres atiackaed 4te t wn. Tha Stliti fhoiglht valiaiitlyv utrt their fort was reduetl. The ofa i s in otlitllItaid of thle at'coi asseltlkd lthe pelotiplte aid had la4jta Bungsu w1II was Wouilllcdil itl thlt' fight, eleitedl siltafl th hilstece' d atiga}i. Tite full titile of lu1tgsutl was "rtlhe ltain Muwalll ls Wast Btungsu." FIGUEROA'S EXPEDITION AGAINST MINDANAO In 1t9!G; Cjapt. IstetPbat1 lolt'gl iitz le an t" xpcditioxn into rMidlainao, fr it 1: c(1t11nIet'S ad pt fiIttiI1). It is utaintiaitned thltt 11e proct-eeded up the Mlitdaimo Rvler as far as tw v^;yat:, t he capitall of the uipper Minudanao Valley lon Estelhan Rodrigtlez prepared IenI anid ships, and what els was weserrvy for the enterprise, and witli sane galle s, galleots, frigates, tro'ey btra g ziys a'nd lapis,a set ourrt with two undrltred and fourteen Spaniards for the Iland of Mindanato, in lFebhrarv of tih sam3e year, of 1596. Hle took C(apt, Juan de Ia Xara, usa his mnaater-of-canmp, and Isritie) religious of the Soiety of Jeus to give instruction, as wel a s well aty natives for the service of the camp an fleet. ife reached Mindanao Fliver after a good voyaget where the first settlenwats, named 1rttrnpaktn and Lumnakan, both hostile to the people of Bwavan. rereived Irin peaeefully anld in a friendly manner, and joined his fleet. Tiler were aito gether atinlt six thousand. men. Without delay they advanced about 8 leues farther up the river against Bwayan, the principal settlementhof the island, where its greatest chief l1ad fortified himself on many sides. Arrived at the settlem-ent, the fleet cast anchor and immediately landed a large prolortion of the troops with their arms. But before reaching the houses and fort, and while going thrntgh some thickets [ean Ital] b n ear the shore, tihe enouttered me of the mnen of Bwayan, twho were -coling to amt them wlith tleir kanipile!an carazeas and other weapons, and wx-ho attacket them on var14 sides The latter [i e., the Spaniards and their alliel], on acountt of the swampiness of the place and the denseness of ti thickets I tca tal]. coIIl not act initedly as the occasion demanded, although the master-of-eanmp atnd the captains that led thlent exerted thienielves to keep the troops together anti to encoulrag them to face the natives. Meanwhile Governor Esteban Rtodriguez de Filgero. was atebing events frontI hi's flagship bhut not being able to endurel the cnini of hisa men. siized his weapons anid hastened ashore with t bree or foltr ompanions ald a servant who carried his helmet in order that he ntiugt te less impeded in his movenments. But as lie was erossing a part of the thickets i eacat:al where the L Large Moro boat with outriggers. B ungsu, the sultan sire and intertnediator $ Name of boat used in the Philippine Islands A long weapon resembling a sword, use by Mo)ros Rizal cojn teros that htthis word Is a tralnfnriattio pf t Tvg&I word ftm pif a small boat still used in the Phi!lppian 't We follow Stnaleym t:ratslatton. lie detrvtes the wor: (v ata (z{ f f 4 mi 2*i. or s te, s ignifying... ` "hay,' or other ifnmilar gr wtht *aai 'b athus <e as place of r "# or a i'4thicketi"a r ln asid ttal i (]41

Page  173 XPI ITION AAOAINST MINMANAO fight was waging, a Ithtile ndiast oldut x p fro o si t t0 ground badly wounded. The vernor'm s followrs cut the n M it a o p: and rearin the oernor bck to the camp. Shory after the r Juan de la XNra, withdrew his troops th tth leavinrg bind 1 lards who had fallen in the encounter. The vror did i ness, for the wound w very severe, ad dii neAt y. The tlef; loss and failure left that plae, gan es tended tLe river W o 0Ta a, w it anichored aumong the friendly ihmbitants and their etti lement The mater-of -camp, Juan de la Xara, had himlf en by t ft a slamssor in the government and enterprise, lte buit a fort with twi ' anid palms nlear limpakan, and found a 8a sh slement to welh he te te name of Mureia. He began t m tlake what arrt gemets he ded t, in order to establish himself and run things indepently of and withot avledging the governor of MIniSla, without whow intervention and i e ti enterprise could not he continucd. lwavan Bwas 30 mills up the river and S5 miles above i or iKotabato where Bwuisan, the Sultan of Magindanao, was strongly orifi It is difficult to believe that Rodriguez could advance so far en with a smtall scouting party. A careful review otf the Spanish rors- rfer to these early campaigns il Mindanao indicates that Bwayan h n erroneously rsed in place of Magindanao, the ancint apital of te sultanate of Magindanao. Bent on the conquest of Mindanao, Governor Tello prepa another expedition under Gen. Juan Ronquillo and dispatched it by the:y of Cebu. At Caldera, it was joined by the fleet of Mindanao and the whe force proceeded east in the direction of the Mindanao Rier, on he 6th of February, 1597. Captain Chaves arrived with his frigate at t river on the 8th of January. In a battle fought at Simway to capttr Moro vessels going to seek aid from Ternate le had a leg offand received a shot in the helmet above the ear. onqillo arri at the mouth of the river on February 21, uid on the 17th of April he en a Moro fleet with 40 arquebusiers and defeated themr, ilingt a nu2ber of thleir brt vr men and some Ternatans without losing any of is:m except 5 Bisayans. Leaving a guard of 34 men under Chavs at the fr of Tampakan he advanced up the river withl a force of 230 sailotr: d gunners. The enemy retired behind some parapets as son a a rtibl 1try opened upon them. and brght some artilllery to ea1 on thefli hp (one of the galleys), but could not retard the Spanish advance. "I answered their fire with so great readinet," said Ronquillo in hi "*that I foreed them to withdraw their artillery. ut, as if they r E ias, they remailn here fwhinTd a btsh or a tree. firing at us without WV it," Argen*la Sys that this native, named VbaW, had mad- a ft t d at whiech b had promi to kill the paih ow rander (Rilal: t) Posts set upright in the round. Sureo is toIsls tp Dr. An de Mo MPe of; IV ittppi isia:, X, pp.0 2. * Ap mi I a ift, Paciation Mioansof

Page  174 174:7 It n TY W:u: flvaibford Lby Lb chief of the bill tribes, ui0 l With0 09 u tiv * rsumeod thie ighting af the delay of a few days. "FiWa d y" w t ilillo, "I plant mt y hattvry of eigt pie s somewhat over I( f O fort, Altbhugh I bttered the for t Wotly, I co1 t e t r th wlielh to, make an aI It. All tite damag that I did them byi da th r by night;. * *I as very shor t o ammunition, for I had only 3, arqueus h!00s ft *and very few caanno bl; ad both would wnt i one day'figtin duW Whichn whoc.d with we IN no P WT to whFich, should we not gain the fort, w;e woulkd b lostin wit e defend ourselves whle with f rawig our atillery and camp. * "I recnnoitered the fort adI ji a situation, for it is located at the entrae of a lag n, thus having j or tyr at the back, and swampy d marashy at the sides. It has a frontage of m"e than 1, O$ paes, is furnish with very good transversals, and is well supplied with artillery and arqu s. Moreover it has a dMitc of water m than 4 brazas' wide and 2 p, d thus there was a: spe of dry ground of only 15 pae w e t was iib to attack; antd thrs was bravely defendled an with the greatest fore of the eney. The inner parts were watr, where the sailed in essels, while had no footing at all" "Again, I riefletd that those who had awaited itl so Ion*, I wa 3te with the determination to die in defense of the fort; and if they suld: the contest ending unifavol by for them, no one would prevent thei flight. Frther if they awalted the assault i.t would cos me the greater part of my remining ammunitn, and my best mtn; while, if the enemy fled, nothi w uld be a complisheld, but on the contrary a ong, tedious, and costly war would elat upon. Hence, with the opinion and advice of the captains, I n tiated for peace, and told them that I would admit them to friendship under the foll owin conditions:. "First, that first and: foremost th ey must offer homage to his ajesty and pay something as reeogition," (a.gold chain),. Seond, "tlht all the nativ who had een taken from the Pintados la IItslands flisla st year, must b restored."' Third, "that they must break the ae and cnfeeraton me with thee peope of Tenate and must not admit the Iatter into their ountry." Furth, "that they must be friends with Daganlihor and Lumakan, and must not make war on their vassals." Fifth, "that all the chiefs must go to live in their old villages.". iontquillo later reported tlhe place inefetnsibe and sa athried to retire to Caldera. rlonquHilo must have advanced as far as the settlement of nKalan a or possibly Magindanao (Kotabato) the capital of Sul wn BwFn. The report he rnderd relative to the country, its peopto and chief, is very interesting and an excerpt of the samee is herewith quoted east of itS bearing on conditions throughout Moroland: The leading chiefs collec tribute from their vassals. * e ndians are not like those in Luzon, but are aceustomed to power and sovereity. S itherto it has not been ttell your lordship antta this country exept that It will be of but little advan to his aj t, but a sourc of great e s. It has fr fewer inabints than wa vs v and The Philppe lan, lair a Rora IX, pp. 28, rT;i >*t~~bAm ^'}TStFn 1Jrl ~t~ it gXSOdtk~ r~~ 9>;>

Page  175 all are very r, so that ther hakf t coniAsts only in ei ii tb r and their work ung them, and not in cultivating the land, whi is I swampy in this river. There is no chief who can rai 20 t of 0od. i is very scarce; in the hills ia found a smal amount, which is ed or: by the chiefs only. There are some swine, and a few fowls that are very and less fruit.' These early expeditiolls of the Spaniards agint the r Moros in ub arioused in the latter a great deire for veneaThe fore the Spaniards sent to conquer Mindanao and Sul were very small. Such orees would have been strong enough to reduce any island of th Bisa yan group, or even Luzon, but aginst the Moros they proved in fient and inadequate. Tihey T however succeeded in provoking bitter hostilities and marked the beginning of a long period of terror and bloodshd. MORO RAIDS" In 1599 combined Moro feets invaded and plundered the cots of the Bisayan Island, Cebu, Negros, and Panay. Captain Paches, who was in co.mand of the fort of Cldera, attacked the northern coast of thle Islad of Suju. After landing at some point it was observed by the Snlus that his fuses were wet and that his uns could not fire well. They then rushed his position, klled him, d dis persed his force-s. The following year saw the return of a larger and still more dr l xpedition. The people of Panay abandoned their towns and fled into th ountains under the belief that these terrible attacks had been inspired by t S iards. To check these pirates, Juan Gallmato, with a force of 200: p was sent against Sulu, but like so many expeditions that followed hi, he accomplished nothing. r * * "'From this time until the present- &g a the year 1800), wrote Zufiiga, "these Moros have not ceased to infest ourcoos; innumerable are the Indians they hae captured, the towns have the rancherias they have destroyed, and the vessls they have e. ses as if od has preserved them for vengeance on the Spaniards' tht the ben able to subject them in two hundred years, in spite of the x ti sent against them, the arnmments sent almost every year to pursue 1. aI a very little wh we nque all the islands o the Philippines, but t little Island of Sulu, a part of Mindanao, and the other islands nearby, ave not been able to subjugate to this day." ~ Gallinatos's expedition occurred in 1602.4 After firee months of protracted fighting at.olo, hbe was unable to redtn e the fortifications of the town and retired to Panay. In 1616 a large Sulu fleet destroyed Paao in the t arines and the shipyards of Cavite and exacted large sums for the ransom of Spanish prisoners. Moro fleets in 1625 sacked Katbalogan in Saar. p.,.....,. R_.@...,...:W....=%....'.P.,*X = I lt, IX, pp. 289, 290. See Appendx Il,. Moro Raids of 1599 and 1600. a Htitor of the Philipplne& Blarwt pp. 153. 154. Se Appendix IV. Gallnato's ex loaton to Jolo, 1471

Page  176 176:TH 11 'OAY OP l - In U6WnS t Governr 're nt g lts t ulti udeCr C Ide Lugo. Cristoha l diwmbarked hfa f f his 'jfat r}, e k the t of Joloet of it on ll, 4ke to,f t.Jloo, set part of it ' i tire ii siled back to Cebt. In 129) tlhe Mor raided Sarar and ittvte. In t0 an art compnsed of 70 3ves.ls nd havinS 350 Spansh and,) tie ddw, rtnder,lorenzo e (ao (ch;t, arrived at Jolo. Ola mnsdited his Pe$rtsf ard, advani too nea to the wall of the fort, wa wounded in Ii s side and fell. He w rescued by the officers who followed hli, but thl t roops were de ralized and reti red. The exedition, however, landed at various points on the coast and bulrned and pillaged small se (ttlemeents.' In the same ear P. Gutierrez came to Mindanao on a nision to Corralalt.2 (O his return he met TIan Baluka, wife of ja Bunu, at %Zarttloaga. Baluka urged P. Gutierrez to dely his dparture frem ZuulboaLngta and warned hint of the danger of meet h the $tu eSh tion uilnder Iatu Acthe. He, towveri, continued on his wa and was overtakenl by 1)atu A.hes force, but on account of theb mAsand flg ie delivered to Ache fro1) T'uan Bmuka, he was <ilo to safely.;.: For sotnetinwe the Jesulits hail Iben urging uon the Pipine Vernllent thle occuplatio of the southern coast of Mindanao. This nleant an advance: into t e enemy' s cam' and a bl1dy strugge for supre acy in the southern seas. The consequence of such a sfp were fo:resen by tel (e Governent and ve:~7 few governors w6ould have da undertake su h grave res:ponsblit. t I In: 163, Govemor uan zo dte SaSmhunea a w-pe itioted hy the Jesu to tablish a an ldvane e of the Spnishl fore at Zamboanga fr the prottio of misionari aid the Christians who had to naigat itihe soulthern s. Salamanc granted their ref1uest and, sent Capt. Juan die Chavs w io disebar at Zamboanga on the 6th of April, 1635. The force nder Captin vChrs consisted of 300 Spansh and 1,000 native ldiers. In Jue they began thie construation of a stene foort on a plan designed by the Jesuit issionary P. Melchor de Vera, who was a expert nginr. The advantages to bk derived from the posiation of t is grism w delmonstrated before tfie year was over. As a pirati l ft S turn ing ftom Cuyo, Mindoro, and the Kalamian Isl, t fv e opposrtunity was.watchted for, and as the two divisiOnss the fle serad thle Spamlsh forces pitrsued Corralat 's pirate and dealt them a 4a dly Ilow in the neigb ofl ood Iof Point Flechas killing about 300 or and saving 120 Christian captives. SV Appendix V, OaIo's extdition. ZThe gr tatest hltan of Mindanat, th son of Owisan, An acrount of this figt and the Morno axdtlon nuder T aI gis v in " Phillppiea slands," Btair Ean ad beson XXVII, pp. 25124. i fl a8

Page  177 ~o FIRS1T SPAN rIST (10RII11 -TAN] OCUAT Of Gen. Sbtian Hurtado de Coruera reliev befoire th (eld of the year 1635 and, cntied the plic W it io vgo r adl great ability. He quickldy resoed uapon tatkingta the o itn their own strongholds, and thought that by crushing their pver at home he would be able to put an etid to their piratical raids. He arrived at Zamboanga February 22, 136, proceeed first o Mindanao, fought Corralat and detroyed some of hi frts and sailed back to MIanila.1 (Corcuera returned to Zamboanga in Deember, 1637, and prepared for an expedition against Sul. On January 1, 1638, he etOubaried for Sul with 600 Spanish soldiers, 1,000 native tr, and mnany volunteers and adventurers. He had 80 vesels all told and arrived at Jolo on the 4th.. Anticipating an invasion, Sfltan Bungsu had strengthened his garrison;s ia(d calle d for aid and renforcements from Basilan, Tau and Tawi-tawi. On his arrival Corcuera found the town well frtified and the eneny strongly intrenched. The Moros were well disciplined and had a well organized guard. The forts occupied strategic points and were strongly- defended; the trenches were well la id,I and the I s shot well and fought, fearlesslty. - C(orcuera besieged the town with all his forces and attacked it re t edly and vaiently using powerful artillery, but 'he could not ed it. Several efforts to tunnel the walls or effec a breach in -them by mine were frastrated by the vigilance and intrepidity' of the Sl lu. The siege lasted three months and a half, at the end of whi1 time the Sulu evacuated _the town and retired to the neighboring hills where th intended to make tthe next stand. Corcue taking p sion:f theo town, reconstructed its fort s and etabis hed t p ss, on e on the hill, one at the river, and one on the andbak in front of the town. The garrison he estbelishei tOhere econtd od 2-0"0 Sp s sol d an equal number of Pampagans, untder the commann of Cap. Oins Ro and Gaspar do Morales. In ay Coruer eturned to i Man with a the triumph of a conqueror, leaving Gen. Pedro Alrmnt, the ior officer next to himselfif in command of the expedition as governor of Zamnboanga and Ternate and chief of the forces in t othe Soon after the establishment of the Jo C garrison, the Sulmus under I)att Achet attacked the soldiers in the quarry and killed a few Spiarids and captured 40 Chinese and Negroes (galley slaves). This and other depredations committed by 1the Sulus frot timne to time, s me of whi See "Ittter from Corcuera to Philip TIV. (The Philippine Islands, XXVII, 34& 359. ):See Appendix VI. Coreuera' campaign n in Jo lo to]1

Page  178 178 178TUEi ) Yrr Qr:ffllo>R ~ #*gw Km~t. swre praokd by W te ill Vemviojr of t Whe 1 i? it t fore' Ait t into coe or to $ tSub and k t0b a secnd tite. l 3 ae ins and t110 Spish 4d 'a v i hea a:rc hedovr t is!, atc the S its in eir na h their hous s ad killeld e er man he could r h It ias tht se Iung 500 fhend O the tre, liberatd 11 Crisian cpti an ca turedi quatiti of rms Whn he 1ke te 1 (imbaha MSis (tie of the settlementf of Parang) to submit to th.e J)ereig t of Spi, they refused to riconize his authority, cihllen X hi fnr te lhim deperatey. They wore hele and artor and i s a swords. On oela o nc asiOna Captain Cepeda e ed in ti l and returned with 300 ptives, leavina oc the field 1 00 de, f t:dW leson to tl:,eo who U:l:rvived. (q'epda lost 7 Spa iards ant 20 Vtiv t,.nltbut lie had l nmnber woanded. Not satii0ed with thehavoc hl wro r ulght on 1the Isnd of Suits, and drlesiriug toI follow ma ca"t the fugitive sultan, Aitonie mi'v i th otlter Iarge islans and folltowed the sultan and tie datus al over the Arctipelago. At Tawi-tawi, however, he met with a revere the captain who led the expedition returnd with considerable It. soon safter Al mte's depa:rture, the Sislliss who hs d led returned and lost no time or opportmnit in harassing thle garrison. Several pirMti excsursions invaded the Bisayas and Camarines. San J)uth I, invited,by lu emissaries sent to Java, appear in the vicinity of mboanga and. 1ol and fltlotened the panish garis nd ici the Moros to resist tile Spaniards Oand attack their fore Anticiting trouble with the Dutch, and, foreseeing the dnger of maintai a garrison at Jolo under the 'circmstnc, the ni evacuate the town.: Accordingly on the 14fi of April, 164, le Jolo. Before witIldrawig their ttroops, they mang to snake a trty with the Sulu,: which took the form of an allisc t ive eand defessix e. 'frhe purpose of t tte atwas del:aried to mainten of peace betwen:bth partie and nmtual aid aanst afoign en i In case of asEistanceagainst a foreign tin, the- arXeS of tihe wr were to be drayed b the party requesting aid. he $ ih ornment recognized the supreme authorty of the Sulan of SlU fmr Tawitawi to Tutup an d Pagahtak, esen sovei t r fr thie King of Spain over Tp ul, Sisi Balangin, and Panutga ony In retum for the acUuaton of Jolo, and as a si n of brothrl, Sultan of Sult promsid to send yerly to Za:nil h thibo $ S fatlshons ong, fu I of i, and to llow the Jenit prvi to to Sl iunmolestetd. Other provisions were n iserted in the tty for the - change and redemption of slav, criminals, othe who hIapM d to rmn away from Za Ioang t o Siul and vice vers.* Io]

Page  179 A This treaty dd not in in n force for any rg 1t i m -for we hear again ian 147 that the ISus Uavaded te Bi ad the vicinity of Zamboanga. SIJIATu SUPREMACY IN TIE ARC PHIJPAG, 1647 —q450 SUCCESSOR$ OF BUNOSU e16)40, succeeded by II ilunslu had a Very long reign marked, withI rve ni m1isfortuns. lie died before 1640, and w.as succidd by Sultan Nasirmd Din I and Sultan Salahud Din Karlamat. The latter was known to the Spnish riters as Baktial, which was his Sulu name beforthe ulte. ring the lrign of Karamat the Philippines were threatned by a Chi invasion front the north and by war with Hollnd, and the g et, unr the circumstanes, decided" to abalon Z b ad:th Mo T'his purpose they carried out in 1663. In the days of Krama the Sulus Ibecame very active and made many raids in various directio. The decline of Spain's politicl power and her iactivity in the cent th followed the evacuation of Zamboanga caused obscurity in the paish records of the history of Sulu and Mindanao. The events of this ace r are, with few exception laking in sinificace and interest. The sultnns who followed Karamat are, in the order of the i sucion, Shahabud Din, Mustafa Shafi'ud Din, BadarBd Din I, Nas d 4 D and Alimnd Din I, better known as Amirul Mu'minin (fer of Sulu). The first three were brothers, the sons of la t while: last two;.ere the sons of Badarud Dm.: In 1718 Governor Bustamante reoccupied Zanboanga fr the pu of wagingwar against -piracy.;The citadel (F a del Pi l) rebiilt on an elaborate plan uinder the direction of the e: In 1725, a Chinese naied Ki n was sent to M la Ito fr peace and retur ' with two Spanish:con ers, who: a ty with the sultan of Sulu providing for trade between AM l a o, return or ransom of catives, and the cdi to Sain of e I 4 of Basilan. N otithstandig is traty Mor ra either by toleration of the su ltan and datu or atheir iniga* In 1730 a brother of the sultan commanded an e ition o 31 v s, which att kedi the fot of Tyi y and ravaged the e t of Pa: Another expedition s t narty a whole year acruisina d among the Bis. In reftwlin a lar $pa sh ft Uitod t t uUn:i t1 lgnaeio do Idrebri and )Manuel del Rl, inva1 ti sho* f:SuI -tan m;fli t re n, *X p 2T 424. [73

Page  180 180 tu HI woTUY OF 8ULCA ravaged and bhtu o:e tletntwnts, At B l t hey found he *e p)sed Othe 4Subs brned tiPi settements, destroved mly (anus, the salt works, alld may boas, annd returne to Zamboanga. In 11 32 similar raids were made and hostilities contlnued until 1737. REION OF SULTAN ALIMUD DIN I Onae of tlle llealiet cvlft in tile reil of Alimud J)i I was risu1 t fication of the treaty of 1737. The sultan was represented in M ni by. I)attu iMoammned smeell dat Ja'tfar,; who sig thIe doument. 'The treatwasy dran in Januar 11T31', by GovererGenral Frando Valdes y Tanion and contined five articles. The first article declared the dermirnation of l0th parties to prere permanent peawe between the two states, all diferenees or grievances to be seattled amicably, and hoftitiie betwelM subjcts or vs to e strictly aprolhitd and piunishedo; the seCa provided for allia d mxutual aid ainst any foreign foe. Europac n nation; were ho r, exctuded froml te provisions of this article; the third providd for fre trade between the two6 states, restrited by the use of por to issued by supenror authority; e four rovied that eact s hud be: held rspnsoable fr all infractions of the peace omrlnited by its Subje( ts andB shouild bbond to p uni the same and mnake proper amnds to the proper pay; the fit'fh provided for the exchae of ctiv d retlur of all church images a nd ornalents in the po ion of the Sulus. 'To all appearances Aiud in was a man of peace ad a rfoer. lHe kept his pat of the treaty faithfully and piracy was tully sap pressed during the whole period in which he held the reins of goven nt.,He urvisedtheSu; e of laws system: of jstic. He cas to b trnslated into Stl parts of the Quran and seveal Aabi on law and religio,. Hestrongly urged the iple to oe fttull their religion and the ordained five daly prayoe. He even we s ar as to pres(cribe punishment for failure to observe this me He wanted all pandita to lean Arabic and pXrered A *aic-Sul vau as a pretlimiary ste to aking the abic the o d tIt of the state. lte.cined mo organize a all d t to establisl a nnavy. ils name is foremost in die tnemry o t Sult partly because of his able administration and: yn t i of f.t tlet h1e is the graTndofaer of all the p nt pri d of;Sulu. s. In September, 174t, a special coumission fi Mi it ' to Alimud in a lttr written by King Phl V in 17 admiion of t nii Mionarie to Jolo witht t t ion p (72]

Page  181 I Christian religion t he $Sulns. The sulll et ain the m very hospitably and gave i n their honor a royal r lone of the trops A counlil he in w hich a the leading datus of Sl d: gra the: requt f P:il. lte further authorized the buildin of a church d r om m m e te eretion of a fort at some convenie t liocity for the: etin of the missionaris In return for tis fvor he requyted tha the is (;overntinent give him, as an aid in building a nay, the smof 6,S 12 piCuls of gunpowder, 12 picls of ul, an1 pil of st. Thi, he represented, was needed to enable him to supprs pirc and to check the depredations of Iris enemies in Borne. This requet the Spanish Government granltd, and Jesuit missionaries ered Joib translated the catechism into Sulu, and distribue it freely og the people. The li brties exercised by the Jesuits in their endevor proselyte the Sulus and the strong friendship the sultan manifested toard created grveat dissataisfactionl amo'ng the people, and an opposition paty was formed. under the leadegship of Prince Bantian, for the purp of expellinlg the missionaries and depoing Alimnd Din. Bantilan w th son of Sultan Shahabud Di3n d had as much right tthe sulta e 9Slu as any son of Sultan Badarud Din. After the eath of ler the sultanate should have reverted to the line of Shahabd Di; t it happens very often that the:sols of the last ulan are either:der tllose of the former or meet with more favor and are as a rle, sor d by the majority of he council of datus; thu s the re ular rd o descent, hanges in favor of the str p on. Pbably Batilaaa preceded by both Nasrud Din and Alimud Din for some such eo as the above. This he resented at heart but suppr his t nt until this favorable opportunity offered itself. He th eahdeth opposition to the sultan and the missonanes and won the majori of the datus and pandils to his side. Hostilities oon inc d and vi war was imminent. In anffot to ssssinate the sultan, Banil a spear at Altimud Din and inflicted a serewound nhin side or During the disturbae and conu sion which followed it bame Id e o'us for the misionares to r i t J. One of he iniss the sultan provided them with a sali imn hich they;tf o harm sld withdrew to boa ga. This ured late in 1748. against Banilan. T aqttr p imed hrpIatlsel f sl with t 'tie of Muizzuad Din,2 stength ed te defnt ofa hs ap 1, 4 I A 8"anis meau of weight u i the Philippine Iian, I t a 1a33 pound. The demn er of t Pfix Fi. '[t81

Page  182 :82 E2 HUE 1 fY 8 0 4 a ' ' aw d wa:r on tlhr datu who:h ad:-supportd Alimad Dffin. i wer u hecame s3upreme, and " he i with a stron band. At Zms tin t6o bhv i veth o eats anof Goverr Zacharias 0 male Pap ua a, who xw ell dy. d Zaari, unreasonably prejudiced and distrwsfl, pr psoel ill degn and refused the pr t. Not l s me t attention and consideration at Zamhoanga, Ajliniud Jn asked I ye tgo to Manila. T:his adled, he sailed and arrived sat (iai J ry 2, 17149; At Man'la "he was recived with all the pomp d h r due to a pri f high rkt. A h ose for his Metertainment d l1,is retiW of seventy prsons was tprepared i Binondo. A public* t etnt Narranged which tok place some fi n y ft ds after he reed city. Triumhal a rches were erected acoss the streets which were lined with mnore ttan,000 natie militia under arms. The sultan was p iel receved in the ball of the Andieneia, where the governor pro t lay hiis e before te King of Spain. Thre sulta was h owr d with preents, whch iSncluded chains of gold, f i ne garments, prcius gems: and gold cane, ile the overnment sustained the of hi hous ehold." }101&d, '": ~ d e gr 0ei gem Following fthis reeptiro, s wee taken for his cnversion. is splirital advises ite to him the example of the 'Emperr Conrtine whose conversion eniab:ledim to ef: a ntrilumphnt conquests over his eneies. lder thons, expre his desire for baptism. sThseg orgnea,iho a t is tme waa:pe th the Sult's prof..th. "i n oeto ac ls his baptism, the governor st him to his o dise, where at P iki, onthe 9h of April, 1750, e t sultan was reeivfed wit h g:t pomp, and in his honor were ild mgam thtrical represntati, fors, k and bull fights. Thi w thie h - watr mark of* tth slta 's popularity. At hlis baptism the s n rei the name of Ferdn d, ad -,'t're: " D on9Fernando de- 1 imua DiI, ish ~authors often referred t:o him s "on Fernando de Alim in I t atoic ultan of o1t:" It is furter ta that two das id five of lis plW pal foill wers were baptizt. Th crown prin a Ma r Moauut dIrael and his sistkr Ftimahi attended dh I in mia 4,lead Spanishm niers d stoms. A and no a ton w taken!yX bthe ritiO t Hoy o t PblWps, 1ar w y p t 7 Iel*60n l e Sultn e y o i te J, At t 4tho I Vuli# I,;tV X 741

Page  183 8ULTAN AV4-U ~IN I to rtore Alimud Din. In the meantime Bantilan's flee were Wy ravagilg fand pillsging the Bisayas. In July, 1750, a new governor the maarquis of Ohbdoano (Francisco 4os6 de Obando) arrived in anila. jnarqm of n a Auinapn After some delibetration he resolved to reinstate Alitnd Din an puni Bantilan and his pirates.' Actordi'ngly, on May 19, 1751, te sultan and his retinue were sent on hoard the Spanish frigate San Fe; ndr o and were convoved by a squadron composed of seven war vy]eS i der thle command of Field Marshal Rnon de Abad. Falling i with bad weather off the shore of Mindoro, the Sn Fernando was d aled and made for Kalapan. The quadron, however, contnued its voye uninterrupted to Jolo arriving there on the 26th of June. After ome desultory fighting, Abad arrived at an nderst ading wi th e Sulf and arranged for Datu Asin to come to Zamboanga with sufficit boats to escort the sultan back to Jolo. The sultan in the meantime stopped at Iloilo where he a d boats. Meeting with contrary winds he was carried off his crse to Dapitan, and from there he set sail again for Zamboaga, whih e reached on July 12. Before Ferdinand I left Manila, he had addressed a letter to the sulan of Mindanao, at the instance of the Spanish Governor-General The or'gial wa written by Ferdinand I in Moro; a version in 9Spnish was dictaf him, and both were signed by him. These documents reached th goveo of Zanboanga, but he had the original in Moro retrnslated and found that it did not at all agree With the sultans Spanish rendering. The translation of the Moro text runs thus: - "I shall be glad to know that the Sultan Mohammed Amirud Din and all his ehiefs, male and female, are well. I do. not write a lengthy r as I intended, because I simply wish to give you to andersnd, in ease the su or his chiefs and others should feel agrieved at my writing this leer in this manner, that I do so under pressure, being underforeign dominion, and I am coml to obey whatever they tell me to do, and I have to say what t.ey - ll me to say. Thus the governor has ordered me to write to you in our-stye an language; therefore, do not understand that I am writing you on my owa'n but because I am ordered to do so, and I have nothing mor to ad. Writte in the year 1164 in the month Rabi'-ul Akir. Ferdinand I, King of Sulsu who seals with his own seal." This letter'was pronouned treasonable. Impressed with, or feignin this idea, Governor Zaharias saw real or imaginar indications of a desi n the of the sultan to throw off the foreign yoke at the frst opportunity. 2 After the landing of Datu Asin and his follwers at n the governor found out by his slies that they had may arms and p(ntiti of ammunition in tbher boatsa whi lay in the rodstead ite i town and, fort. Suspicios and distrustful fr nt t-e chanras interpreted th ese fa positive ps f of inn nt o } 8-ViiS tli. 01 tte o % (~K tke obs t b ^ mAppendix Vilt Oban report on ep tio t Alimud Din to Sub; aito Ap dix Vii, 0 it 's report on the ct the attempt to return Almud fin to, lu 'The Philippin Il and, Porean pp. 14$, 14 [751

Page  184 184 Tm 111W$"Y UW Vix1 part of the ljtan and; AOsin treaCeru l to a k Iwi an o ipprtuni:t lfterel itelf. ie then at 1zw I cn d u: acrmt s ordered thebt to lve the port, impri th0 s:al 4 1h Asia and all tleir retinue, and contnuncate his sus!p n and the ti (taken to Miantl Aimog the priner were the a of thie sultan1 sevel datus and dignitaries and pndid an n ', le and female followers and servants. it all 217 p cfen en~?r l)pr{ils (f the fort, most of whom w ere late' transfee to iManila and conned in Fort; Santigo. Zacharias'si: interprta:tio of the action of the sultan and Da An was simply abt rd and his bhlavior refleted considrl ble diwmit on his ability as an o: tcer and aimiistrator. It wv fut er m:nt trgrtable that hsie vws were accepte d as true hy higher autorit in um n where no delemecy or rdres was extended to the unfuorium sal By a degree of th~e Gvernor-Gent rtad ti. folowna iac cusa1tions wr,and daa s O. se(t:forth aainit the sult and l)at Asin, teiz: waB in Manila, new captive were me by the party wSho e lies d him fro the throne; 3. That the nmbeEr of ar brout lto Zarmna~ o tb a Sn l as' 4. Tat the letter to Sultan Mohammed Anmrud Din sinnt help wanted aninst the S03paniards; 5. That sevw eral Moh:amedn but:no - tian bolik were found il the sultan's a g 6. That durn the e to Zamanga he had refused to pray in Christin refo; 7i rt hte d attended mass twie; S.Tat te had elebrated Mohnmmdan ri, si ing a goat, and had given evidence in a hiundred ws of eing a Moa n; 9. That his conversati on gerally Udenotea a v want a of c nt t telards, and a con pt: for their treatment of him in hnila, and, 10. t S still cohabited with his c ubines:: The g reatest stress laid en the rDeovery of the f ie Chrii ain the e or t had, Atht altloug theb mission of the fleet was resto to fi sultan to the throne (which, by the way, he d not a pr to ham attimpt, the principal ojt was the rescue of Christian slavs. e t ree thatt liber of tho imprisond nobles and chiefs st th rte of 5 risian slaves for h one of the chi ad l t balance of tLhe tie fr Prince Ain and the eler. It is noth thermat e surprising o helrof iThe ext iuril reve actity which e Sulus 8 hib:e dur ing thte eidm of hamilt: to which their sultan annes we ec i M s. B lan w m tro p i, and a a I e exp ti he o ized ainst hisw werei u y and left havc ev hee. T he t le oilla t ad tv carri ed: awa la the Spanis Goverear et to a high i d A h The ltan li that he hd not 'wM tt. ti ta wrth 4ig ' l to his rank Ad aitt, and that eha, nstantly a ue a -lt t n iteance (this w pOlato he a a of honor) (701

Page  185 ouncl of war w convyenef inV it in 1750 ' wr ift unmerciful eantpai gn aid a war dof e rnlatlo n at, i, the utmost coneivableo cruelty. Voluns m id isay o0 i a cal.Ad to aid the reg!ar tol.s U nlimi W aufrity w g in to annihilate te foe. bu his vil i destro i y his ro, d his lands. le cos w ere e pt from all. ty allowed to keep or sell a1 feale c Aptives and ai R F all $ ' over 30) years of age. Old me and ipple p s wbe to kielo Male cptive between 12 and 30 ar of e wer t rbi i t"e the govPctrert; t ih ca to reive in compenti. on from P4 to r6 per man. Nuing children were ordrd to e atizd. At firt t h corsair wer required to tarn in to the governmen onfifh of all valuables looted, but thLs was oon afterwards revoked and all co irs who equipped themses retained all -their booty. As part of the general campaign, Field Marshal Abad made anot r attack on Jolo with foe amonting to 1,900 men. The flet c-" nsonsded the f rts for sevent-two catinu ous hours. A division of the troops landed and enged the Sulus, but after suffering toniderable loss retreated disastrulsly.: rhe raids of the Spaiards and Bisayans helped to incra the vi;i: ance of the Sulus and exeited them to extreme cruelty and an abunortl degree of revenge.l The year 1753 is stated to have been the bloodiest in the histoy of Mo-o piracy. No part of the Bisayas esaped ravaging in this yar, while Camarines, Batangas, and Albay suffered equally with the rest. The condi of the pirates was more than ordinarily cruel. Priests wvere slain, tows w ly destroyed, and thousands of captives carried south into Mtoro ver. Thi condition of the Islands at the end of this year was probably the most deplorle in thleir history.2 t2. the meantime Prince Asin died of grief in his pr ison Early in 1753 Alimud Din petitiored the govrnor to allow pin Fatimali to go to Joo for the prpose of arranging a p e th. B h This request was granted on condition that she deliver 50 sl the Spanish Government on her arrival at Jolo. This she topie w1ith aithfully, addi: one Spanish captive to the 50 Chr iati;s - THer mission was apparently successful and she returne wvifi:0< I)atu Mobammed Istma and Data Matlarajaital acoi 'o nt;W-i Ba:tilan. They bro t it letter from Bantilan, whit wa ta Iithed to the goernor b Ai Din togeer with a dr t f a t ifor the rt oration of e btw Sain and Sulu. Bani:l ex lt\'p reret for Alim"d Din the stin d cnitiOn o hility 4 In the mrpato of PitPawN n 4 X fla a00 k, Ap IX a X. a itory of the Philippin, tio p. 2 LhTJ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ '

Page  186 g eC stro ng of his d ire for eth of s1 re& 4ahbli'shment of c-c~ with Spain. tl14 o}vernor c t the petition of the sultan n4;n4 t leto r to6 Bantla n With t Ohe O imn O, rutin t ihat al htliti M for the period of on y pendig th coidera ion anz d p tf t new treaty. In0 1754 Governor Arandia assuln conm 4M 4 ap roa of the roposed rty. r Toe e sr mat.te he t the ma di ofcer of the southern fores to find out what had ben done by B toward the filent of the conditions uptnt tim is the cotdllndiug officer tin a rost fl iendly manner and di sen I the q h frankly and ably. lie explained in clear and impr ve manr the princil l cauases of hostility and strongly blame tl Overnor of mw bomnga for his unjust imprisonmlnt of the sultan and lDat. Asin an his utibearable treatrent of the messengrs and representatives of the Sul authorities. ie declared his wish and true desire for peae and dliverd to the commanding officlr 68 Cihristian captives and two S p s. Tlhle fli;er was stronly impressed with'the tfin trity of Bantia 4n with thle honesty of his' intentions and gave to the gvernor a wve favorable report of both Aliniud Din and Bantilan. He assured im that the sulttn was not a traitor at all, but a mann of god intntions, wiho W simply unable to Carry out sorme of his plans and proni ic se of the determined resistance of many of the principal datus. A general council washeld in Manila early in 1755, in which it w resolved to set the ltan free and return him to JSlo if the SOu authorit;hs carried out the terms of the following conditions: 1. That all captives within the sultanate of Sulu be deiver witMin one year. 2. That all valuable property and ornaments looted from the caurches be returned within one year. General Zacharias who had attended the council st out fr Manil in September to take charge of the government of Mindanao. He brouht back to Jolo 6 pinces, 5 princesses, 20 woen, and 130 men of the sultan's retilnte. He had letters from Alimud Din and the overnorGeneral to B1antilan and was authorized to conduct the preimaini es of a peaee treaty. Other ambassadors who aUomrpanied charias we emlipowered t ratify the same. The ships arrivi at o on toer 1t, and the tmbassadors were well reeiveed by Bantilan. The latter carr them out ut rte n stated that may captiv we ht ft Mindantao chiefs and were owned by deatu onPMilau id othe sible plac, who werew unwitllin to io the up nt th y I I I to gi t 1 up unksS.compensated. liRCe add tt many suc dats we" i igia datus in Mindtana and were pla Din to att et n 4 178]

Page  187 the tie w very nopoune for h to tfo~ t hg to i captive. The tenrms wee actually it ible of execution and the e v or to,' make the treaty and ratify it proved fruiti. Afimud Din mained in prison until 1763, when Xthe i ilt thneir conquest andl ocmupation of Manila, reinsted him on t tB of Sulu. DIring the perild of his inl onrament he felt grty h miated, but lived as a Christianand with one wif only. At the d th of his wife, in 1755, he was allowed to may a Sulu woman who hI een lhi's cncuhiln, hut who had professed Christinity d wa livi< at the Collge of Santa Potenciana. The Sulus ree ived their former sultan with a good heart and Airimud Din resumed his former authority as Sultan of Sulu. The p ie had evidently acquired strong sympathy for him and Bantila had either undergone a change of heart or felt convinced that it was of no avail to go against such strong popular sentiment and fight the English fo: Withdrawing from Jolo he moved to Kuta Gubang near Pragwhese, a few years later, he died. In return for the favors which he received from the English, Alim-d D)in ceded t themnl that part of North Borneo lying betwn Cape Inarstang and the River Frimanis with the adjacent Island of Bala gano and the Islant of tialayan. Balambanga as n ater that ocpied ald garrisoned by English forces. In the later days of his reign, Alinmud Din was addrssed as Amirul Mu'minin (The Prince of the Faithful) by which name he is btter known to the Sulus. Moro incursions increased at that time and the Sulus becamne so daring as to invadr e the Bay of anila in 1769, ca f away captives from the wharves of the city, and appear at the P1:z del Palaeio at retreat before they were repulsed or even deected. Be4 coming old and weak, Amirtl Mu'ninin abdicated the sultanate in favor of his son Israel, in November, 1773. REIGN OF SULTAN ISRAEL Sultan Israel followed the samne progressive policy whieh ehrct er iz; his fatler's adtminstration. However, his uccession was wintested by rivals, and the people were not unanimous in his support In his for iga relations with tlhe English and Spaniards hie was at the n n -n:;gun certain as to the side toward which to lean. Both powers had a e on Sulu and appeared interesed in its affairs. owever, bfore lo he refused the reuest of the Eaglish to be 1liw to mve toheir factor from Bablanmangan to Tand-diay ag in ti e naeghir fdJi 4 exchlangd 1me gsa of friendship with King -arlos th, 11 ho tu bated1 Isradl on hias u on to the tldtanate and thaked himra a bf flT*. 'fK 6 t *-:.;

Page  188 ' ~ Island. t he y tioa s I th consideratie wit whic ithe p on*i -t that timeo, helpd to win his h sympathies to t S: ' i 4 - a srt of aliix l lw n Su'U 4l t (4 Brii. 4Such an alianc was furt se ndd to strengten h: hand in for the purps of dchoking ay binsurrtion that Wri t be f i:l t y rival datus or ulfriendly chiefs. The Spaniar:d prorn to h p him ili his endeavors t organlize an and a navy, and he o his rt, agreed to open the ports of Sulu for fr comunerce with the Philippine Islands. lHe further asked the Spanis Government for capit o r his mines, promising to py back onel-fith of the output. in 1774 andl 177, Jolo was visited by Captain Thomas Forrst, ho in iis "'oyage to New Guinea" described the town d c4 ountry a he sawt ille. lHis account is so interestig and so cear that the following extracts 2 are quoted therefrom: T*hey lave a great variety of fine tropimil fnits; the oranr are fully as good as those of hina. They have also a variety of the fruit ca11 jac, or nangka, duriins, a kind of large ustard apple named madang, mangs, maustines * * *. Te Sulus ha.ving great connection with China, and. many Chineses being settled alonpt them, they have learned the art of fting and improving their fruits * *-. The capital town is called Bawanig, situated by the seacoast, on the northwt part of-the island, and containing about 6,000 inhabitants. Many of t am wer Ilanun- * This island * a* * is well eltivated, affodg a fine prospt from the sea, on every side far superior to that of Malay ountries in general * * HSere are wild elephants, the offspring, doubtless, of those sent in formnr davys from the continent of India* as presents to the kings of Suu. The animals avoid meeting with horned cattle, though they are not shy of hr. After harvest the Sulus hunt the elephants and wild hog, edeavorig to t them * *. Sul has spotted deer, abundance of gcts, and black cattle. The pearl fishery * * proves als to the Slus the cau of their csequence amongst their neighbors, as being a nursery for seamen, ready to man a fleet of praus upon an emergency * *. The praus [ t] of the Sulus are very neatly built, from 6 to 40 tons burden, sail well, and are all fitted with the tripod mast.a * * The 'arts are in greter forwardness here than at Mindanao.* * * In the common market is also a copper currency, a convenienc much wantd at Mindanao, where, as has een said, the market curirney is rice. The Sulus have in their familie man Bisayan, some S panish saves, who they purchase from the Ilanun and Magind&anao ruisera. Someties they pfrehase whole car go es, wi they carry to Passi r, on ItBorn, w heo, if the females are handsome, they are bought up for the Baavia market Te master tSee Appendix Mt, s Forret's "A Voyage to New Gu na," pp. 32035 Another natm for Jolo and the name of the ream which P throa h I It s more likely that elephants were obtaine frm orno a Stumattra. Some were mo than 90 f eet la ln.

Page  189 W4*~m Yt, e dpiows d 0 Ot S 0 te $Pns sttleent, I ye wo w ny y0 t y00 The ii yan slave play often b on the vlin, and tir S a: ofEuropia Music * I have oa the Sulta 1sra w w si and his oimee, * * * a e a toler Ic miniet, have at"o thie 44tu go down a country dan", but as thet wre heavy sliptr, they did ita dily The Sulas are not only neat in their clthes, hut dre fly.1 The m go generally in white waistti,* buttoned down to the wrist; wih white breeches, sometinies strait,, tetim wide. B* * t h e g a:e fIind of gaing. * * In the cool of the evening, I had the pleasure of seeing t,he 8ul 's Iee and another princess. 'They wore waisteoasts of fine 'muslxFin close d fitt ired bodies; their necks to the upper part of the breasts being Ianre. FrPo the: downwarId {they wore a loose robe, girt with &n embderd zone or belt < the middle, with a large clasp of gold, and a, preclous stone. This Iw r like a petticoat eaine over their drawers, and reached to the midde of the ar:; the drawers of fine muslin celing to the anklle They rode aeross with very shOrt stirrtlps, and wvore their hair clubbed atop, Chinese fahion. y often put sweet oils on their hair whichl give it a gloss. The ladies sat their hor - remalrkably well; and this is an exercise women of fashion indle all oer the island. "The Island Sulu is far from being large; but its situation lbetween [MB: i o awl Borneo makes it the mart of all the Mloorish kingdoms. I o not -find that the Portuguese ever pretended to settle. much less to netquer th il ands; but they visited them frequently for the sake of trade aned in the y s, there was greater commerce in these parts itn an well be ia For, while the trade was open to Japan, there came from thene two or the s s laden with silver, amber, silks, hests, cabinets and other curiosities ade sweet-sctnted wo(ods, with vast quantities of ilks, quilts, and rthenware, f China. For these the merchants of Gelconda exchanged theiFr diamondS, t of Ceylon their rubies, topazes, and sapphires; from Java and ISu atrea,^ pepper, and spices from the Molueeas, (Harris' History of thee ~Po rt Emupire, p.,85.) About fifteen datus * * * nake the greater part of the lei,: * * * They Fsit in council with the Sultan. The sultan has two i in this assembly, and each datu has one. The heir arelnt, * * * if e a with the sultan, has two votes; but, if against him, only one. re amret two; representatives of the pIe, called mantir"s, like the mili ry tribuna o to, Romans. The common people of Sulru en e* * *f enjnoy muh i. to the above representation. The state of Saiu is small, * *containing a yI inbv i i n habitants; yet are these powerful, and have under theni, not o mos f th islands th at cmporne that Arehipetl, but a t pt of eoa 9ie of wich they have granted to the English. T have the eharaer of bi O ne of ithe timnt oB us the town of a 'This w an erronea imprIon. It tno oubt so to C a who u rom his evatlons of u t Israel whto acqu a * or a ta anila. (813

Page  190 IlK) Only:vet y rs i a ~v Kvea * * *I of it northeast of t w Boith th t, a' One of thm appi to the Sal for s. e Al1t Nukila went; aiwa watching their op rtunity, ntk: bth e a W dered theum, tand arr t.l i with tteir wiV, ebldMwn, ay n r headmen to Sulu, Thy wer e ewtime after.t V k, on rd4itia ton t t should become tributary, which they are at this day. The intentions of the East India Company in fortifying Balaiban were regarded with suspilion by the Spaniiards, who employed every rnetlhlo possible to incite hostilities between the Sul l and tihe Eglih. the( English agents at Jol won the sympathy of a pary headed by the strong datus in chief command of the Sulu forces. The Spaniard hIa the sultan and his )arty on their side. This question of national policy was a matter of serious and important concern to the peole. It stirred up tlhe whole Sulu commulnity, and party issues were ardently an publ icy discussed. lThe jealousy wh:ich the English and Spaniards exhibited toward a other and the methods they used to secure alliance with Sulu, had the effect of exciting the suspicion of the Sulus toward both nation Besides that, the Spanish officials at Zamboanga shoved exeldingly poor judgment, and their action aroused the indignation of all paies in Su1n, and ld to the renewal of hostilities. In 1773 a majority of the leading datus favord an alliance with England against Spain. In 1775 the English party weakened and the garrison of Balambangan was treacherously attacked and destroyed by.Sulu agents and forces secretly sent there by Sultan Israel and Mis cotuncil. The conduct of the Sulus in this incideltt depicts ver dearly a marked trait of the Sulu character. A full description of tllis incident is'given herewith in the words of Captain Forret, who had an intimate knowlelge of the conditions at Balanbangan and the calses leading to the massacre. NWhen John HIerbert, esq. went to hlalazubangan early in the pre luing yer [1774 j, Ine found great want of buldilngs to aecomnmldate the corpnny's *ervants, civil and military; those gentlemen who had just ban sied fro the shipwreck of the Royal Captain on the shoals of Palawan, as 1 as the crew of that ship. About this time, one Tatilg, a Sulu datu, and first ousin to Sultan Israel, caiue with many of his vassals to lBlambang n, offer his rvk as a builder, was employved by Mr. Herbert, and, n the whole of his hi gave satisfaetion. The datk, falling sick, went home to Suuit for t reowry of his health. This blessin soon obtained, he retrn to the pro cutio of his task at Balam' ngan. He now brought from the sultan and counil letters mncmendig him a trustworthy person, to eret whateler wareho or builil m it m r wa.

Page  191 $urmi o. ver, h0 t lk f; i ting prpooed with such drss, t ht t eh S -d, }urmU hvet. without their uspe ap i, ppr n0 DEurin the niht striet watch kept a ov tfhe V fa, A the gun, usual, anno the morning, and for a f m- r V-i lity reignt. A house sat m distance suddenly fi pr the iga t Sulus. They rushed into Vt: fort1 killa th ntri,, and tumrn *t go against, the guard. The few settlers, lately rnde f r by th, were fain to make their espe in' wt v Is tey uld fint rhe governor and five oters pod on a v 1, leavinw hehx a glret quanlit of arms and wealt. The Engi fators who were at Jolo fled in a Chlnes junk. In the sme y r Tai a pted similar attack on Zamn, but faile. uring 177f0 1777 e anid other Sulus.1arasL th1 e Bisays and ravagod the cst of C.!'t o;. MORO PItRATES- Slltan Israel was poisoned in 1778 by his ousin Almud Di II, the son of Bntilan. During the reign of Sula Alimud Din II, ho tilitin Sulus and Spaniards inteasedr, and for the ia of tei ears o ore traffic between Luzon and the southerin islas paralvzed. About 500 Spanish and native Christianse were eveL y r rrid into captivitby by the Moros. The govenment ws gly ex over this grave situation, and in 1789 the Captai-Geeral Miqn reported to the King ihat "wart wit the oros w an evil wihut remedy." In the latter part of 178 Sharapud Dln, the son of Aimud in; ascended the trone of Sulu. While a youth he was imprisond with his father in Zamboanga and accompanied latr to ll& nl V little is known of his reign except that he was anmate by the spirit and principles whh carract sz hifer s ti dia his brother Israel. He coined mone and one of his i i w bltained from Jlo Iba the date 1204 A. H., whichH wag pro y &e late of his succe:ion. Sutan Sharapud in w followe b y his Alimud Din III and Aliyud in I. The cuntinuedl pres 'nof the o in eMindoro, where the antd ObyE and rivers of th et ad t ts for months a tim, ai t ft thisI isld n for attk in every diretion, w ially note by Ire nfl' A Y tV a to New Outa, Capt T, 183] *

Page  192 e., 0,.: /, ' -!/.:\:;::..*.; sltii of En1} 00 lnd P&4 we ri: caution thro mh the (N e, ha I thte southern t id / wMere ft wolve, w U plot have t r y d and Britih m nt vi just they ri ly r i of the PhiiAppine. Five hunidred captives nIlyrr see m t o to h s Mowso in tlhe Philippineslards, and s fart th an do a tive Filipilm wereO ld in the slave marts of the MatJ y- Thy e ao d ifi were inhumnly birtered to txe tri of or o who of0~ up in their cremonial rrifices The n asurs of the 4 is overn t constant and exsperive, were ieffective. Betwen 1778 and 1793 a l a half of tsos were expen: on the flets and eix ditions t dri rk: punish t Moros, ut at the end of the cntur a vaeritabl cli: of piral was attained. Pirates swarmled continully about the Of Mindoro, Butl a lhate, and even frequented the esteros of Manila ay. eF sort of is to have bn established with Jolo and a friends co ner was eg ine toward the end of the centAry, but the M oro of Mmida an d increasing enemies. In 1798 a fleet of 25 Moro baneas up t Psi coast of Luzon and fell upon the isolated towBs of Baler, Kasirafn, 4 Vi nan, destroying the pueblo and taking 450 captive. The cur of Ksigan was ransomed in ina ngaonr for the sum of 2,5 pe. For four yr this pirate feet hlad its rendezvous on Burias, whence it raided the a s and Katandu an sl.and. Governor Aguilar assumed command in 1793 and made ever effrt to reuwdvly this condition oEf affairs. Hle divided the Archila o into six livisions, each of which was provided with a fleet of six in ts. IHe repaired the fots of the Bisayas, Mindoro, Tayabs, Batan, and Zanlboanga. While preparing for defene, he negotiate with the Sulu and Mtindmanao Moros for peace ald partally succleded in tabhlishing a condition of trnce with Su1liu. In 1798 he cntvened a council to coifide r further easus r the suppression of pira'y. All records pertaining to Moro affairs we sutmitted to Rufino Suarez, "Asesor del Gobierno," who wa diiftl to report on tlis subject. The report was rndered in April, 1$, ad contained full inormnation and rPolmendations as to the et and rmethods that the government could undertake for tha pr Aguilar, however.,, lid not act on the recommendataons of Snu bu.t continued }is neotiations with the Morms wiho lnxame la fI and D~i~f)fi@Bn'Di:g. hation:sS@........................................... ~a..a.4S:.:li.........i7.X-._ij%=S >..9..2a9.xz.W4......... 'S''' Name given to the net k o channels by which te es of he tw tfid their way to the sea Hitatory of the Philippinesa, Barrows. pp. 24E-248. [$41

Page  193 uruic b ufuly i only. In 1805 a twaty hwt -t Rqftin0:; agreed that no foreig rsident wod be rn l * t t: consent of the Spanish overnmnt, a that in ftee r t a Spain and ay oreig country, the Sul po rwould e d i gai t Spain's enemies. Between 1805 and 1815 dtailed aeounts of piratic raids are infrequent. Sultan Aliyrud Din died in 1808 and was sueeed by his pios brother Shakirul Lab. It is related that Shakirul Lah slep on bard and covered himself with sarongs only. He used to lave his home at night, search for the poor and needy and fed them. In 1815, the raiders took 1,000 native prisoners and capturd veral Spanish, British, and Dutch vessels. In October, 1818, a Spanis flt under Pedro Esteban encountered 25 Moro vessels in the vic ity of Albay, seized nine of them and sank the rest. Sultan Shakirul Lah was succeeded in 1823 by Sultan Jamalul Kira I, the son of Alimud Din IItI. In the same yer, Governor Antoio Martinez, impressed by the superior policy and suc o Co er organized an expedition under Alonso Morgado and attacke the pirat in their home lairs, at Basilan, Pilas, Sulu, and M anao. The Spanish fleet consisted of 2 schooners, 4 gunboats, 6 tenders, 2 junks, and 1 transport schooner. The expedition reached Pilas in March, 1825, took the fort by assault and killed 50 Moros. At Jolo it cannonaded the town for ten hours and then left for Mindanao, here it inflicte considerable damage. It destrovye Moro boats at llana Bay, Pollok, and Dumankilis Bay. General Ricafort sent another expedition, in 1827, to Jo, consisti of 20 vessels and 500 troops; but Jolo was so well fortified and te Moro forces so numerous that the Spanish soldier could not disembark, and the expedition returned without a omplishing any reults. The seal of Su ltan Jamalul Kiram I bears te dat 123 At.., or about 1823 A.., which in all probability indicate the er of his suesion. Ie issued regular appointment forms for his subordinate off eeE of state and dated his communications, using the current Malay ad Mohammedan dt combined. In the stimation of the Suius he was a t and very prosperoias sultan. On the 23d of Septmber, 1836 A. I. or 12 A. HL, he s a commercial treaty with Capt. s t I MI aleon as the tire of

Page  194 an alliane va dAIrd u teeing gwerl eaare:i S rbats in Philippi wate and too Sp ianh Fipino raft i t Sul St The sltan further co nte to have a.SpnM t ng house con trueted at Jolo for the sa storae of erschandise uner the claWrge of a Spanisl resident cuet. TIREATY OF 183 ':1 THE U"LTAN OF SUt TEXT OF THE TREATY Articles of agreement rtaging t duties to e paid by Sul craft in Manila and Zdamixntnga and by SIanish eraft in Jolo, whitch hkule aot be changed exept by a new agreement. ARTncLE 1. Slltt craft whilh, with proper lienwi:, go tto hanil, m imipo prloduc of the Islands subject to the Sultan, by paying a comsu ption, duty of '2i%0. ARTICLt 2. Wax and cacao may be depoite the Manila CustomHoue by paying 1 %; but if these articles are imtprted the established 141 will e paid AwrzLz 3. Suu craft that trade in Zamboanga will pay a duty of { on prolucts of the islands subjet to the Sultan. AtlcwI 4. All thee duties will be paid in silver to the Protecting Sp sh overnment on the blsis of onhalf the appraised value. ARTILet 5. Spanish craft in Jolo will pay the following duties in kind: Ships of three masts front Manila, with Chinee passe rs.... 2,w The same, without passent gers,.~ ~..................................... 1,8 Brin ntine from MianlEa, with Chinese psse rs............I....... The sme, without paslng ers....11z FF.........0..................*..i Schooner from Manila, with Chinese passene rs r. 1,40 The same t, without penge *........................................ 1. 0 Ponthi (small trading boat) from Manila, with Chinese assenprs..............obtr~Ps.~.c..~ — - I.40.0...I..... —..4.0..0..^..,,-. The sme, without pas.................. be/ 1alley from Manila or 7othr rrts of the Philippin with caro of rice (. lay), ^sttr and 30eraes... The me for the Philippine Islands with oo methandi? 0 A te 0. T e duti fi for isl t will ie id i k ini n Wan ' with the values laid dow In the followi seb tel o half of wic wi-l be beItd y the Suln's vernment offieI from the ad the half shall:nsit of suhe artiel a the captan of t.e ot tiy st - S Ap p Xix t* X" II, XIV, ad XV tAn rftet PI tr wht

Page  195 lIlE OFaam not be ect from t eapin, tnor will e 00g sue ):. Ricet....... Sugar................. Co "onut * * -, * (to (ut cloth)...... bra-s...... (4-yads -..Javl dIe earanlan (cloth) ch (do )+.t ew~w*,:o_..^ew_. T Mana (sring) - fa - h* it sng. ~o3, blac k (t n d b~u(,eo,~ l -..,-..^^..<,. pulau /in n l, lot) i i n(12 yads)r... - Jai~ ~h: c < F i~in _ ( 4loth4...-... TPahe (cloth)_-......... Ordiary)^ cambri %O --- —---—. --- rdlai m i 12 c ic r bI. S o-* F: m i.............. Pr1af de C^'ta (cloth).^^-. ^,.^,,,,, -^.O~~~krdinrcabic clets.___...~-~-i I I ,Qopoq I I On1 pie. ple 04 I-j I piece -.. I pie",. I pla.e I P ie.. I piece ------ piee l... I Ie i.. I kerchief. 11,00 4.. i. m:l* i I LOO:: 1, S0 Ordinary stamped kerchiefs - r.... P doen, 200 | ^Wool.~ens. — 2, i1 piece.00 Common woolens I piece 500- &00 Printed cotton with flowers.-...._..I. plece- j- _-.00 Aanct7. 7Sulu ships found trading in ports without a license or i utraband will be treated a smugglers in ccordance waith thef Spnish lws down for suet. Spanish schooners and small trading craft (9aer ) that sow by manifet in Jolo that they carry a cargoe of Philippine produe, ad are afterward discovered to have, in place thereof, aar merchadie (gea) and to have discharged,such cargo in the port to iod therein, will be ft 500 ps as per values in Jol, two-thirds of said sum to go to the Sult, ad one-third to the Royal Treasury of the Protecting Spanish Gore Ct AruncL 8 Should the import duties on any artiles of eFomeree prod in the Sulu Islands be reduced in Manila or Zatooaga a lower rate t at now established, the Spanish Government will also make a reduct i sot t Sulu ships may always pay less, as has been agreed. Should the Sultan of Sulu collect maller duties from any f o' Ship an those established for Spaniards, either as a tax or by a reuction of the valtio of the dutiable articles, he wi be obligedo make such a redtion in, duel for Spanish craft as w1 ill e the a Rantage to the of His libe k y as stipulated.. LAST AwCI Should the ext of these arties of m V difer in the two la gua, the Spnish text will te literlly adhd to. Pal ae of Jol, o ptembr 23e, 13 which is the 14 of th J ul Akir, 152.-l. M. H n, —Rubrie.e-Sultn Moham Jamalul iaMouluk,-Ltu b r,- Lu m ahamlh, — Lu JnrA n,..LB u a. ra IAya,- tu by,U Muluk ab har,-D L ua, I 4 Jr M U o ny Hme y Men, riF e p oft t t IN tsi ]

Page  196 !96 nf. or *, tV '-''"' '1: - ^.-^ ete $8 1 C ~adt loer ap in t C i to eta-blit t rtic! of ugre"W t (;tuitCert fy that when I r i from the ad of t a i e herewi-th, In the ct of t exhange, w hich I h 1 hiW te dup i the flrtction of the G0o vernor General e red of t pr a writing i n te lp Mlowi that of the s *an *gh is the reverse of folio six, on which it can be a. I also crtify that ving exaied the contents of 14 improer It which, although unauthorizd, app*rs in writing in the pir nt d n;t was found to b th-e text of the circular of the Sultan to his pe in fr articles, whoe translation, mabde by the Dtu Muluk-lndaraa, and v fi eparately by} everal persons, reds as follows: AWEWL2e 1. The people of Sulm wthh o wi go to Zam n or a sa ask the ultan of Sulu for a passport that they may suffer no harm if t ey mn{et ships belonging to the Naivy. Awrwmz 2. Pasl orts shall he issued stating the number if pipe on rd and t the ca rgo when rluested Aarncux 3. 1 gIve this order for trhe iby e t indter of being pursued by the ships of the bNay, they shall be hAIe. ARTxCALE 4. give you the present pI nt so that when you met the hist -of the Navy of the King of Spain, my brother, thtey ay nomt han, but help,yoU And in proof thereof, I make out the preset tifiate, written Of my h antl attaceled to the Articles of Agreement (of which it is im ible to make a new copy, on account of the albenoe of some of the Datus, who were preat when they were agreed to, and approved them. Given ofn Ioard her Majesty's schooner "Tirol" in the roads d of J thre 29th of AM-arch t137. (His flourish). RATIFICATION OF THE TREATY OF 1836 BY THE QUEEN REGENT OF SPAIN;Iw 1 I f, lQueen of Spain, by the Grace of God and the Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy, antid in her Royal name 1n during her minority, Qhe en Dowager lher mother, oIXa Maria Cristina of lourbEn, Reg t of the King Whereas on the twenty-thirl of September of lat year, at the ofpaa Jo a treaty of peace, protection and monierc having been draw up, onclude and signed by the frigate-eaptain of the natial fleet, n Jo MartF 11. commander in chief of the naval force anchored in the rodstad of Jori, presenting the Captain General of th!e Philippine Islands, and the Sulta J.amalul Kiram ani Datus; whSich said treaty, comp of six artil r by word, s follows: (alpitulations of Peace, Protection and Commerce, exeuted to the t xcellentt Sultan and Datus of Sulu, by lbis higa txcelleny tihe Captain-Gemel. Governor of the Philippine Islands, in the name of the high and w: wul Sovereignty of her Catholie Majesty, bwing drawn up an a to by I t prties, xto-wit: repreuting the Spanish Governmnt as plenipteatsy of I s hligh Exeellency the Captan General, Don Pedro Anto Sal r, Gov r the Philippines, the fri taea-ptain of the roya fleet,:> n Jo aria a, commander in ehief of the naval fores anchoe in the rlst1 of J; a upon the other part, the Suta Jaswalul Kirni, jaJ of Sin a tu swcribe, whiel rti enacted ifollow:

Page  197 His hih celleney the $in Ce in r t o: ' -:0 Of the Phiblppine I uds, a V t a Il elt W) and V - for the proist and tore rE, of the m s iVa ib be:tw a the0 $ native of ill the ianlds ub t to the Cront of $In V ti ri t Wo the lands gverned by the S ltan AM tus. H ofers the pro6 F Of hI s Government and the aid of it and of ldirs for the war wihd V I is t fhall find neces ry to w age lat enemies who hall atk himt, or n or to accomplish the subjection of the iles who rbel in 11l the i of Vtt islands which are found withir Spanish jurisdiction, and which ex fen ho the western point of Mindantao far s Borneo and Palawan, afpk t it nI and the other lands triutary to the Sultan on the cost of Borneo The Sultan of Sulu, upon his part, aecepthiag the friendship of the S Is nish GTovernment, binds himself to keep peace with all the vaI of, her Catuhiec Majesty;, and further binds hbimself to consitder as his enemies thoe w hert after may be such to the Spanish nation, the Sulus proceeding with armed men to tise wars whinch may anrie, in the same manner as if they were Spnliards; in case of his furnishing such aid, the provisions for the suport of the Sl shall be supplied by the Royal exchequer of her C'atolic Majesty, h wy are for the other soldiers and people of her army and navy. The sense of the seond clause of the Capitulltions of one thousand seven hnndretl and thirty-seven, that they are not botind to furnish asistane for wars against European nations, isa hereby renw8ed and aflirmed. ARTIcLE, 2 In accordance with the friendsaip and proteetion which unite Sul wi th Spa:nish provinces of the Phitippines, tie Sulu ts shall igate-id ta d V e freely with the open ports of Manila and Zamboanga and the Snish vA Is with tfolo, where not only will both be well receivei but shall find pro don and the same treatment as the natives. In a separate Capitulation are determined the duties which the Spnish vessels shall pay in Jolo, and those which the Sulls shall pay ian ni and Zamboanga; hut by these Capitulations it is agreed that whenever the Sulus Eonvey cargoes of products of the islands, tthy shall pay in Manila anid Zai: axmnga leass thlan foreign vessels, and the Spnish vessels shall not y in o aS Much as is charged the shlips of other nations. Au1wxc3E 3 In order that the traffic of Spanish vessels in Jolo shall not suafer the injuries and delays occasionetd by the diffieulties of their market, the Sultn and a; consent to the construetion of a factory or trading house. w*ith safe hon:s where merchandise mayr he stored without risk: - and thle Sultan and t ag i* alwNays to rie t this place, in which there will be a resident S ish a twho shall assume charge, of all the ausiness entrmsted to him. If tfe Sul shouxld d(ire to do likewise in Manila, they T ll bpermitted; but the S n;i QGovernmxent reeives for sto n merclhantlise from the Cuts i Of that city upon payment of fee of bhut one per" tuM Thle Sultan shXiall desirgate the proper place for thte, 'ti on of# wathe n whichl hall he eonvenient fot loading and unilohiug *uS the Governent aI rnequ t e the Sulitn to furnish, and sil pay fr:, the steIls ia wo tahat mav e neh es.sfA

Page  198 19iS o sv L:' In order that the S 1 nies ad S v " s y ng ag 0t 0 tafety, free from the piracie of thae tIanuas an i ma0s thet /era t ill strenthen ist tl eeU In Rind war Whieh eo ill y ths of both nations; a id n order tha t g may a e I, i I persons, the following rules shall be os rved: lst. All Spanish vessels arriving at Joo shall show to the Siula t r; ipermit upon anchtoring, and the same shall he led un siingw; wit - t which the captain shall be punished at Manila. 2d. All Sulu vessels which proel to Manila or Zasnisin, shia cae the permit of the Sultan, and in tpoSession of the n e shatll e f a un molestid. M. All 8panish or Sulu vessels which shall proced for trai to i nw,shall go first to Zamhoauga to notify the Governor, who shall sign their peitr without cot. 4th. Every Spanish or Sulu vesse wvhieh shall e found by the flets of I1lana or Sindangan bays, ithout permit of the Goernor and Sultan as a f id shall be seized and shall lose all her merchandise, of which t wo-thirds s b awardedl to thfos making thle cature and one-third to the Sul a of Sub, if the vesl' is Shti, and w the Spanish Government if the vssel is Spannih. 5th. The Governor of Zamboanga shall determine tie prcdure in the ease of rinfas [small sail btsl of the towns of Pilas and Basilan ands f"iendly to said Plaza [Zamboana:. 6th. Stlu merchant vessels proeeding outside the islands of the Sultn or to Mindanao with a permit, should not l flrom the fleets which they eunter, because thte latter are intendedl to defend them and run down evil-doers. Commanders of the fleets shall be ordered to reeve and aid the adviceats of t Sultan. ARTILE 5 The Sultan and Datus of Suil pledge themselves to prevent the pirae f the lanuns antd Smals in the-Philippines.- and if they are unable, the Sulta shall so report in order that the Spanish Government may afford istane or undertakathe task alone. LAST AwrncLE If the seouse of these Capitulations is not crformable in ot. Ian, the ssame shall agree witl the literal Spanish text. Palace of Jolo, September 23, 1836, which is the fourtnth of the m Jamnadul Akir of one thousand two hundred and fifty-tw. The ses-Stlta Mohammed Jamalul Kiram.-Seal-signed.-Josd Mari Halo.-l Mo medl iIarun. —Seal. —Datu Mohammedl Enyn.- lltin Bntah la. Datn Amilahar. —Datu NMuluk.- Iatu Sa4lmnar.-Dau M --.luhan.-Datu Maharajah-l1ayla.-Datu Sabuwayan.- Datu Mu 1u Kal r.- tAn NayE. Tiherefore, te Government of our August Dauht r, havi t duly anu r-;zed by the decree of the (ore s of the tirteenth of ethe tp ue mme it m tho th ratification of thec inloed treaty, and the same having a s and ea. )by Us, we have approvel and ratifi and by tf pr nts do h and ratlif the contents thereof as a wholet in the t and ntt p1 t posihle, prEmising on tlhe faith and the o of iQ tan a Ui t te i th our Augut lughter. to comply with and ol eire the ame,

Page  199 the compuliauwe withf 4 a ra of the wr In wit w we ommand the dips rition of the *w ith our haw, ad i d wi own private sal by the First reary of SW t th, his r tweutyninth, one thound eight h randr and thirty ven. I the Q' RVR [A shield in wax.] s* m. M. EXPEDI'TION2 OF GOVERNOJR CLAVERA In 1,84 the Spanish Government built the stne fort at Ilbea d Blasilan. The Balangingi and Basilan Moros apear:ut ths time to have become a menace to the peace and to the co e of tioa To punish Datu Usak of Malusu for depredation ommittcd aainA French vessels Basila was blke by a Fren ft i 184 A piring for Chinese trade and for the- po sion of a port in tie neiht ing ses the French in 1844 concluded a teat with e Sultan of Slu for the cession of the Island o Bsilan for a cosiderab sum of m The terms of thils treaty do not appar tto have been car out, bt this act and the frequent appet, rne of English, Dutch, and Frl vessels in Sulu waters arousid the Spaniards to active mea fr e subjugation of the Sulu Archipelago. This year Jamalul Kiram I, died, and his son ohsx m=i slcceeded to the sultanate. Thie "Liuntar" or "Sulu Ann January, 1844, and appear to have been started by Sulan PuWl n. In 1845 a frigate attacked the Island of Balaningi, but it w W and gained no advantage except that of ascertaining the of the enemy. The shores of Basilan and the principal islands fi between it and the Island of Sulu had numerous fots, the sto of which wrere on the island of Balangingi, the chief stronghold d h & quarters of the Samal pirates. Realizing the seriousnes ofth stuatio Governor Claveria tok the matter in hand and with ener ad siasm made every effort to streLngthe the fleet and incr ifs ici y In 1848 he secured thire ste war v Is called Ai, cli la s and Reina de Castila, which were built by the Engli and e th first steam gunboats the Philippine Government ever employed. Stm was certainly destined to mark a now epch, ont whic he binni of the end of Moro piraey. With two additional pilot boats and three transport bri the et i* dition headed by Governor Claveia in peon, left Mania in Jan and, coming by the wy of Dapit, reunite at Wde y, e it received additional troops froim ZamIma flat, surrounded by sh Isd v^ o to e ae by swamps. Mt of its ttlemmts had wi he m buitr cv t buI e r anl little dry lad clid bm seen in the v'ciy. Pat tofi:a

Page  200 2.(-00O $)Thi JITORY LW $SU' Cover!ed with cout tm et t: A:llabyruh of s, n a rrow t to the varionus settl ent and divided thei0l in iur b ti Foiur strong forts wer it b lt Nor at p ints iit of.by L': and Nu rroundede ibyti, sw P f tie trunks of t driven into the il piles ndet elee oter and it 3:s rows of varving heights, to suitable p itio r t a artilley, part of which was set in Pove ired ino e conu nding the hanmnel leaditg to Pt. t' rt. The walls of these forts were 20 f high land could not be saeled without iMders. The immedia vicinity of the for t was set with salpened bamlboo sticks andlpits to hinde an a tr the attacking foce 1Ie: ort o Si pk, the strongest of the four, was the 'att'cking fofx t. The f providedl wit redollts andl towers ad showed considerAbleskill in ce tltstruetiln:. T'.'he Spanils)l troops coMnsiste of, tlree reular com:panies of infanty, two of volutntee:rs, an detachmnms of artililery, pikemen, enginlers, and laborers. They c sperienct sole difflicllty in lalnding and attackes the itosist accssible fort first..;The fighting was heic and despera on bot sildes. 'i The Moros it ls said. foight like fiends; but they w re conplettly overpo:wered in tie end,1 In tle fort of Sip ak nia nman o and clhildril e werea gatlierl a onicsitderabl e Iproperty was stored. The Morse hadl hTed to save ll w:Mtili its ilpregnable walls. Wh e t hese wall were etlered soelic of:the defenders in their desperation thlrnst their ss}a~." and krise into t(heir:-wives ad chilren killed them fi rs and tlhen tdasted tl selve ai st sure death at the point o Spaish bayomets. The Moros consider suc action ost rous an honorable and, do it in order not to aow teir wives and children to fall into slavey or be killed by the thaid of the 0emy. in the fight at: the fi- t fort 100 Mor perished and 14 pi of artillery were eapturTed.' The Spaniards 'li ot dea and 0 wunded. After the redunetio.n of tt e seond frt- at Sipak 340 Mos wre burnt in one pile and 150, mostly women and ehildrI, were tak s prisners; othlerso, who sought rfug in the wamps or tried to swim away, wew killed by the fire of the fleet and their; bodie we the waves. ThPe Spanish losses in this engagement amou: 17 d:ead 4 o ers and 13 men, and 155 wounded. The hundred slave apti were rescued and 66 pis of artillery were captured. Quantii of ammunition, silks, silver and gld vels, bracelets and other orni" jewels, utensils alnd arms of all sort and books of prae w fou inside the t fort The troop inveting the thfird fortification at Sungap found te fort evacuated, but the fir t Spania who scaled the wal fell detd f ai krn pidan blow at the- hand of the ony Moro0 ref to aw y 'an r ained at;to ei wht he 'ni t n Thirrcen canons of sm all ir wer fon hhs::rt. e

Page  201 who had fled to the fourth fort Bat utinal a did not nke i termined stand, but son fld leavin several nnon beind. The Spanlards desolated the sland, burned i fo and settl en, a cut down more than 8,000 ctoonut trus The conquest of the Ialangini SuMnls was complete uad the expedition returned to Manila in triumph. Here great reajcigs, p and festivities were held in honor of the event, Goveror Claveia w' tdecorated and romloted by the Queen and nany of the officers ad men were variously rewarded. The Balangingi Samals rivaltl the Sum in po r brav a watb but the signal victory of Claveria crushed then so completey that the have never since had any *onsiderable force. The Samals who were carried away were transplanted t he Province of agan S in nortern Luzon, where they remained until a late date. VISl'S 1`TO JOIO OF CAPTAIN LENIRY KEPPEI AND I811 J AfMES IBROOKE In l)eceleier, 1848, Jo[o was visited by Capt Henry Keppel, in crtmand of the Maeander, and his desecript1ion of the town containe in the* following extracts taken from his "Visitto t he Indian Archipelago will be of unusual interest:: The town is built partly on land and partly on the sea. That part which is on the land, and which mightalmost be calld the citadel, was at the timie of our visit, strongly stockaded and flanked with batteries mounting heay guns * t That portion of the town which is not within the stkades is built in regular Malay fashion, on piles. The houss run in rows, or strets; and outside of them is a platform about 6 feet wide to walk upon This is suppo underneath by a light scaffoldin of bamboo. These rows of birdc looking buildings extend into the sea for half a mile over a shoal which.s nearly dry at low water. The populatin is numerous, composed principally of fishermen and Chinese traders. The said platform runs the whole length of the rows: and its planks were so carelessly thrown across that it- semel Woderful how the children could escape, if they always did escape, lling throgh the yawnin spaces which invited them to a watery, or a muddy; grave.; -the were ing ahaut these rickety sag in vast numbers; if the tide was out when the fll, they would be received into 3 feet deep of soft mud, suppig lwa that lhey did not break their little backs across te gurwales of the o t h, whih were made fast to the scaffolding. * * *. What we sw of the country in the neighborhood of Jol] was ly cultivatertd, consisting, with intervals of jungle, of pasture grounds and' de very flourishing and pretty, with abundance of catl. * '* * The day after we had commen [watering] was a market i y. The montainxeers came down in partis of from Sixto wev, motn fond little h orses, aor oxenarding toW their r-k and Mns;t on tw m ey st with gaceful e, spear In hand-they were all well ame bth shield and kris; in some in es ao we observ the h t a Ilanun sword tkar'Itan]. They had a wild and Inpendent ri; a, a iton of 1858, pp 61- 9, 193]

Page  202 202 TI H1 uX r' ) w, mwhe"in sen in groume standt si, tohe w o dr i t1;under the wide sading tre, muc* ier* thin of e pieturesqu seenet. T: z ifhdieyt ato thu e of tV r ~ w was conductd chiefly by the won, who by no means lI favorS. The townsopl, w: mt d tr i nmuntanineer, were d e in yer clors, ut not wo * 0* Thougw the market on this sion wa w l *ate1nded, the tre a; but I doubt not that, in the palmy daysf active pify, a, iercl a tn of business was trnsacte under this old byan tr. * * December 30 waS tw day Lappoited for $ir Jan BrW sIenervie wift IN" the Sultn of Sulut. Wei landed in full costun at 10 o'cloc. w kedg over the ie stuburbs, and arrival at the ich, we found a grd of h o and attendnts witing to conduct Sir Jmes to the Sultns pr; were a motley group, hut made themselves ueful in cearing the way. Paasein witin th, We aterial, after a fe miYnutes wak, at the royal residrene. It was walled in and fortified: a large sc wa inel by double rows of lheavy piles drivn into 1th earth, about 5 f eart and th _ sIpace was fillted up with large tones and earth, aking very sold wal of alwut 15 feet in height, having ebraures, or rather porthol iln e nt PIlaes for cannon, oumt of which we notied the rsty muz les of some very h guls protruding. -A great part of the town ws skaded in a simlaS r way; and the country,ous of..the dtus and mountain chiefs of iorta were also wlledt inl and had guns m ountid.. lassing through a massive gateway, pretty well flanked with u n d l0phole, we enterid ] large court in which sotm 2,0 prsonsb were edI armed and in their best apparel, bult observing no sort of rdr; it was aa t w and novel sitt. MalayTs re always arrme. The kris to them is wat sword was to an Engiih gentleman n the feiudal times. Eveer sn who, by virtue of his rank or- o alny other pretext, could gain admit in attendance on thisW e ocion; for our Rtjah had bece a jtly celebrat in the great Eastern:Arehilag nd was an objet of -cur t y. We were eondutedt thhe crwd tow a cemorner of coure a buildings infe~rior'. tor.i a smnalli Engli barn, as ted t:as- the Sultti's palace. We entered it by a flight of brad wod en steps (fo the Ie a s a raised on piles ), through a narrow passage tLhro with gurds *.* * and we found ourMslves in the royal preence. - The audience chmber was not very large; a table, cov with grn ran across the center of it; above the table, and around the upper ed o t room sat a very brilliant semicircle of personage the Sultan o fuping a rais seat in the middle. The cortge consisted of his grand tfiel, t -ben: s o the royal family, and the t datus and officers of state. hin tese st the guards and attnnl ts, dressed in hsilkse colors bi aotri in toh fancy of their respective mWasters. The Sultan gave us a gracious reeption, shking hnds with ach offier as was presented. This ceremony ove, chairs ere plaed toir Jan an his suite; while those of our party, who could not get seats, f or a s micire on the o ther side of the table. The scene was striking and a'. The Sultan is a ayonglooking man, but with a dull and vanat exp produced by the too free use of opium: his lPs we red with the miret ot betel nut and e"r leaf, which he he ed. He was dres:ed inri r, siAks red and the predomint i A jewel sparkled in hii turban, andhe js also p uely is 0t 'A leaf ewed with bee nu.,i, C..... w. ka*rixe.....t] t t iit?\ \;d\0-\ 0 t. 0\00 StS 0 ff00 U iS.X~~~~~y ffy f iE \SX ( \? ~-i; — n00\000.:: A S 0EY tff; f400 0f0 00X0

Page  203 Yit>t T( JOtA) 203 The hlit of his kris, the grt distinguishing ornament of a ll aJay, beautifully decorated with gold wire, curiously twisd in. I mnlately ehi: the Sultan, in tiowsst attendance on his person, l the p rer, a f.ine yo man dresid in green si who held in his hand I purple fingr 1s, h was constantly held to his royal mater's mouth, to recive tie flthy-1 ki ~ m1nlxture which is in such favor with thlse p ple-om po of the jul Of betel leaf, with the areca nut and gambier. Th other persnae oem:ng i the circle were daressed wi;th equal gaudiness, in briht Asilk in th seleti o:, however, of their colors they displayed considerable tate. Many of the guards were dressed. in very ancient chain armor, consisting of skeull cas and t Itna covering the arms and reaching from the throat to the knee. Those armed with sword spear and kris did not look amiss but two sentr', placed to guard the entrance to this ancient hall of audience, eah shoulderi' a very shabby-looking old Tower musket, of. which they looked very p-a roud, an absurd effect. After a reasonable timle ptl by each ty in admiratioa of the other, the conversation. was opened by Sir James Brooke, who, as Her Majesty's comrmissioner in these regions submitted to the Sultan certain propositions on matters of business, To these His Majesty expressed his willingnss to accede; and he graciousy reminded Sir James that the royal family of Sulu were under considerable obligations to the English; inasmuch as his great-grandfather, Sultan,Amir having leen onee upon a time imprisoned by the Spaniardf. in the fort of; Manila, was delivered fiom durance vile and reinstated on the throne of his Oa nestors by Alexander Dalrymple —A.. D 1763. This was now the more liberal on the part of His Majesty, because his royal ancetor had not at the ti allowed the ervice to be altogether unequited; for he eded to the E ih Government a fin3 island adjoining Sulu (of which, by the bye, no use ap rs to have been made), together with the north end of Borneo and the south end of Palawan, with the intervening islands. - At length we took leave of his Majesty, retiring in much the same order as that in which we had entered. Although no actual treaty was concluded with the Sultan, Sir James paved the way for opening up commerce and for cultivating a better understanding with the natives. In the afternoon we visited one Datu Daniel, a powerful chief, r friendly, and well disposed toward the English. His stronghold was at a short distane in the country, at the foot of one of the montain lopes, f ied in much th: same way as the Sltan', bu on a smaller scale his stockades were, however, quite as strong, and his gns in better order. His inclosed court, ing likewise a farmyard with a good supply of live stock, looked as i'f he was better prepared than his royal master to stand a long siege; his wives looked happ, his hildren inerry, and, on the whole, his domestic life appeared tolerably comfortable. Considering that Sulu was the great commercial center of these, we -ere surprised at not seeing more large praus; there were none afloat, and very few hauled up; the umnber, however, of building sheds and blaksmithts fo% showed that they have the means of starting into activity at shor notice. WTfho could have thought that after su1ch devastiton and havo the Spaniards wrought on Balanginp, another chief would have theI oura to settle on such a hateful spot amn Yet we leam that ien spite of Atmirul Mu'mina r Altmud Din I 7129.7-T

Page  204 204 the and Kga.;Bu-t it appeal to send another sq main gu nboats and (i more lad to trik vif of at of er, at aked the Sp 0 repulsd. In 184 ettlement of B ros of Tnkil, tog4 and Kamigin and at I paniards retaliated and alalg, and Gumbalang. IU others, in 1850 ride the away more than t5 n atiesw,

Page  205 CHAPTER IV DECLINE OF SULU, 1851-1896 EXPEDITION AGAINST J Oi The fearilesse of the Moro in battle, their te tia sistence, and fortitude must have disheartened the Sp vry in their weary attempts to conquer and pacify Sulu. The k a never had anryst ding ry. a ble- odied male as a ldier and a sailor. Thousands of Sulus and Samat s stood reay a n otice to man a f4t ad defend a fort. Every for the r dIuced the Susl ould rebuild in a short time, eery fl t co:uld replace with little expense. They had enough po guns and ammiunition, and a few months after a delit Were W; fight again, better prepared than before. Wawith Si, in y a conducted, meant a war of termation and hi tlit end. Its worst evils befell the helpless nativ of the t t the Biayas and soutern Luzon to whom Spin ble to protection. The Moros would slip through in te niht or e vantage of a favorable wind nad attack the Spish fores ort fensele villages while they were unawar of d for a fight For a long while it seemed beynd e ponr of 'il: ippine Government to -retablish peae or rtrit h ili o to waters. The magnifint victory of Claveria hil ing the beginning of aa new ea of isfty d lo,bt i last long1 and the r of th Moros beset the hrts of the Bi more. In the lig t of s profound exe rie ine nc/ memnt had had ih- Moro aftaimrs Govei o r Urb:li4 tended himsl f witht ph M'g tbe _o" of nd6 and alli, but ano or t ofrit o nh6 rapid clieJ~il ~; -:n:t:of Ep eumie,< h otX,,tao f it n 0 ^: sIvable, but o in e oho. e It distur Id X d t it$xl ni n i 1849, Si 8: B r.i-e 'id: 0 J oi a b ft: ff:S \D t~~i:;:::::: -;:i:: -:: 0 \ tf 0 0000: X0::;::': (; S0X f::;~:: L0;t tS —;:g0000\0::0'S X:; ~ -.:-,: '~:: ' or r ~ ~ W ---:::::'- 1

Page  206 206 TWE IfS$TM Y OF SUI Sultatn of Suu,'f the sventh article of which dclari a promie e by the Sultan of Sului not to make y e ions of trritory within hi dominion nor reconi sovereignty rights nor prom i ty to y nation without th contsent of Great Britain. Thwe oe jwge of ti treaty was "to keep open for thee benefit of the mercn tile wrl that ittfprovable field for commerial eterprin,' but thle ultimae pu of such an agrrtment was not difficult to forete. The gvenor of Zunboanga wenrt to Jolo and protmted strongly declang such a trty an act of dieloyaty to Spain, for which the Sultan and Xis Council would be held responsib The subjet w debated witil wcosirderbe lfedi on both sides. The governor reained at Jolo twenty-cv en days nd returned without advantage. The treaty was never ratified y Great Britain, but such endevors on the part of a strong maritime European power made it nec r for Spain to act decisively and expeditiously. Urbiztondo then pr to the attention of Sultan P11aliun and his council the neceity of punishing the Sarnals of Tonkif l for their depredationls on Sar and Kansin and requested the return of the ctptives whom they carried away. Considerable controversy followed and the Sulus pretnded that they wer unable to punish Tonkil, but offered no objction to its casi o by the Philippine Government. Aware of the seriousness of the situation, Urbiztondo mde prep - tions for war and decided to attack not Tonkil only, but Slo l, repeating t herethe example of Balangngi, and to bring Sulu under the control of Spain. Referring to this cause, Catin Kiepp, his "Visit to the Indian Archipelago makes the following remarksi His [the Sultan's] fortified position gave him weight, which he h d frequently thrown into the scale of humanity: and it must now be fered that many whm he was able to hold in check will again follow their evil propensities unresti, as they did under previous dynasties. The resentment of Spain, as visited upon the Sultan of Sulu, mns equally impolitic and unjust. The pretext was piray, of which some slitry ista e may very possibly have been establihed against a Sulu prahu; but the Sulta was certainly sincere in his wish to coiperate against ha ss There is ground to fear that national jealousy was desirous of strking i puny bow at an European rival, through the deradatien of the Sultan of Sutlat t he has incurred, in fact, the resntment of the Spanish olouia governors, by thoe commercial treaties with ourselves which were but lately conclue by Sir James Brooke.2 On the llth iday of Decelnber, 1850, Urbiziondo left Maila it eM rand of a force consisting of 100 troops of artl leryv 500 of in tr 2 mountain howitzers and a nulmber of irregular p 4 r Two steamloats, one corvette, and one hriwntine rie I to Zamboanga, where they an'ivie on the 20t. H e of s Appendixes XVI and XV I A visit to the Indian AhIpa. p. (98]

Page  207 infantry d 102 yvolun te d 6 t doe un th d. governor of Znbtana joind the x di iL lun: 250 houes and 20 *vnt A mal:force o or s of whicl thlq killed 3 d:eatur 17 p6 no, o e e-" a panglima The chief of Bkutwan sur ere and pomi rei obedient to Spain. At Tonkil bad weter wa ensntre d d whole expedition turne toward Jolo. Joio was well fortified. It had fve forts on the efront, te strongest two of whih wer that of thee Sulta on the rih V d ta of Datu Daniel on the-hill. Three other forts were la roImm points at the base of the hills. The town was furter de dby a double line of trenches other fortfications and m population was estimated at 6,000 Moros and 500 Chin. The fleet suted the town and anhored in:th:ds. T:o cers were sent ashore to notify the Sultan of the p c of e Governor-General and of hi wish to have an teiew wifi the Sit and two of his datu, on board. The people were exited t suh a hi deree, that the mob grw violent and uncontrllable Was the: near the shore. Insults and weapons were hurled at the f v side, and the people shouted to them to return lest they b kied. hy, however, pushed on in the direction of the Sul s fort he datus came out to meet and cprotect them. Even;:h thrown at them, and th atus had to Mu his kan to enforce his orders. The Sultan at last: ca ne out perso y, h the officers, and conductd them to the audi.ene hai. the sage was delivered to the Sultan and his council, but tey al t go on board. The officers et the same dificulty in eaving e ulSa a house as in coming in, and as soon as they embarked S fie sho wrB: discharged. at thfem by the mob. officrs eport t haI1d more than 10,000 fighti m and that it a wel proisined well defended, and that all the women and children were removed to the mountains. Urbiztondo decided that his forces and proisi w inadequate for the occasion ad did not risk a combt On, 1851, as the fleet was prepring to sil away the Sulus as i iX killing seven, wounlding. four, and daging the hullso me of vessels. The fleet returnd the fire, but kept moving, and ied a in th direction of Tonkil. Here the epeition nof organ resistane. Six hundred en were disembarked, foht se partis, caught 4 and killed 25 men, and rmed 29 ap h. 1,000 hos an d 106 boats were burn ed, and the flt ti Zamboa iga... '..9Y; Here Urbi todto nmade furer and ext ive p: strengthe his eixpition. The Em dg COri Mania with specil inst ction to a flet the Vl ~ s

Page  208 208 ammunition and provisions. The Au gutinn friar:a raisI a force of 7 C ans a( c1 barangay, oCr rge, d volun!teetr his help. Lumber wa cut at aBilan, atd, and ladders were construeted. Vol were further le for, a large flee of war v ads nd tranpo wasd o a m February 12, 18t51.: h: Besides lhe staff egineers, surgeons, md 4 chaplain, te nfo expedition contained 11 oficers d 253 privats of rller, offer and 30 privates of sappers 123 officers nd 2,593 private ot int, 525 volunteers from Ceb, 100 from oilo, and 300 from Z ga in all 142 officers, 2,876 private, and 925 volunte besid rowers and other workmen. The vesels carrying the fore were 1 ervette, I brigantine, 3 steboats, 2 gunboats, 9 tenders, 9 transpo, and 21 baarn gay, with various linIta? lankcan and raft. On F eb 19 mass was celebrated and the expedition started for the haugt and arrogant city. Jolo was reached on the 27th and the leet anchred in two divis io opposite both sides of the town. The troops disembked at dawn next morning and engaged the enemy as both divisions of the afn simultaneous bombardment of the town and forts. The marksmanhip of the Sulus d Spaniards was splendid, and the unsof the forts were very active. The spectale was magnificent, the attack was mot valororu and the defense most valiant. In the heat of btle one riar wa killed as he was wcalng the wll and three offiers llb his side d lay surrounded by 70 orpses of Sulus. After sveral attepts n the forts on the no'rthe side was taken by storm and th espng Sul made ~for Daniel's fort. As they were admitted into the l it rushed by the Spanish troops who entered in spite of th desper resistnce the: Sulus made. As the in inn losu re w as gain the Sulus hurled themselves from the parapets and fled. The fihting ntinued until next day, when every fort was redluced, and the Sulus evacuated the town. The casualties of the attacking forces were 36 ded a 92 wounded, while the Sulus lost 300 dead. The whole town was burt to ashes and 112 piees of artillery were taken. fter four das, the Goveror-General and his council decided to evauate th tfe o nd sailed away, leaving it ungarrisoned. They eidently thought t hat their purp wasi accomlished and that they l not affor o lave a frc u ficiently strong to defend the place. On April 30 a teat was madith Sul Pulaluin by polifcow military governor of Zamboanga, Col. Jos6 Maria de C. The was delardtb act of incorportionth ua oS u to 'A big dulgiout ane. - ibow. They are f ssed with outrli e a a vo e t t slats)], (Note na Montr- y Vidae' s g 1i of' the P r'' oft t'-a [11001~]

Page  209 the Spnis Xonarhy.' The Sul$ under t:to be and fendly union with Spain. Thy, howeer, ap to 0v: ogized the supremy of Spainand aet her pro agred to use the Spanish l and proibt piry. The Iu bound themelves not to make any treaties with any natiron othe Spain nor to build rt nor to import: firear without her: Spain promised to respect and recognize the nks of the Sulta datus and to protect Suluboats everywher and to the exet as Spanish boats. Duties onforeign boats were to be paid to the Sul Religious liberty was guaranteed. The Sultan iued p sspo to the Sulus and countersigned Spanish passports given to people entering the ports of Sulu. It was agreed that Spain would build a ting post at Jo and establish a small arrison for its protection. The Sultan and the dat resumed their residence in the town of Jolo, with appatly litle change from former condition. In consideration of the losses incurred by the Sultan nd das throug the destruction of their houses and town, and on condition that the aid in the construction and protection of the Jolo tradigpot, uities were granted to the Sul three datus, and one subor e f. The treaty was written in both Spanish and Sulu n wa sid d sealed by both parties. Complete and eacttranlations f the Spl and Sulu copies of this treaty have been careful made and are he given in full. The Slu copy of Ithe treaty appears to hae b witte or dictated by interpreters not versed in Sulu, and the differece in is such as would easiexplai the requent misunderstanin b n the Spanish officials d the Su authoriti in cases pertain to the application of the terms of this treaty. TREATY OF APRIL 30, 1851 SULTANA or SULU Act of Incorporation ino tM, Ai 0, Act of incorpora ton t4-he, S J a M rhy, At&1F 30, 851 Solemn declaration of incorporation al e to the Sover gnty f er Catholic Majesty Isabel II, Constitutioal Queen of Sp in, an of s to the Supreme Government the Nation, made by is h ele e Sultan of Sulu, M ohammedl Pulalun, Datus Mohammed B,:a i Amil Bahar, Bandla, Muluk Kahar, AnilI Badar, Tuan gug, J jahan, aib, Mamanhaand S harif Mohamrmed Binarin, in ithe and in representation of th 0e oe islnd f Sulu, t Coonel Jo r a de 0 y OUoyle, Poticoli tany o vernor of the Proit n of of Basilan, Pilas, Tonkil, and thl e adjant he toe, l x ttasP liao autho -by Hlir E yt b b ado, ofe. and Capi.tnGeneral of the Plippine Ildand A 1. aEx e ye:y the St o Slu,tor hi hi Kafhar, Amtl wdr, M

Page  210 21( fTILE ISTRy o 8Uw Sharif MOUn 11 ydin, all of their own fromal, 0 for purp0 of ma amends to the nish NationS for e outr Pinrst it; n i f jiwr of Cr l thIs e, thet y d4es d r island of Join a I1 dpdenis bp rporti wit the C1n of i wkiih for severl n:turties has b ienr their oniy srov rel ad pr ir on thf day a new olvurn delaratn of he iion id sie Ian ad ter Cttholic jsty IsabeL t1,Constitutio anwh Of may,suCed hlerInthinsu;prerme digity, as their rightful S6*ga ye a A ProTtetors, in irtueof tl treatie made inn old time of the trey of and the andition mdie thereto b theresent governor of Za a in A at also a md vet paktie uargly of the frent est, cof meOoi toe it of February of the presnt year by Captin-Gnerlal sAntonio r LJrbiazton, of Solana and Gvernor-Gienera of the Philippine Islan3s AUTICe 2. The;ultan and 1abtus solemnly promitse to maXitain t u i it of the territory of Swlu and all its depende ies as a part of the Archie belonging to thle opanish Government. AwriCLE 3. The ilanle of Su and all itsdependencies havin be ior with tihe Crown of Spain, and h inhabitan thereof beig pt of the e Spanish family wehi lives in the vast Philippine Arehiplago, the Sultan and latus shall not be empowered to make or sign treties, com al agri ens or alliances of any kind vith Eulropean wr, cnnies, persns or corp ration,antid Malayan sultans or chiefs, under pain of nullity; they dcre l eai made with other powers to be null and void if they are petudicial the anent and indisputable risghts Sain hel y Spain oer the entiar Sul Archipel o as p of the Philippinea Islhands, and they ratify, renew and lave in for te all d containing clauses favorable to the Spanish Government tat may ave a drawn up before this date, however old they may be. ARTXcLe 4. They renew lthe solemn promise not to carry on piracy or allow anybody to carry on piracy within the dominions of Suln, ad to run down w who follow this infalntims calling, declaring themselves enemies of all islands thate n s of re enSpa' ind anmd isall her friends. AuRTIc^ 5. From this day. forth thle island of Suit shall fly the Spaish tional flag in its todwna andson it slips and the Sultan and other eonstitut authorities shall use eSpanish war flag, under the principles in ue isn other ih ossessions, and shall use no other either on lalXd or on s ARTICLE 6. The island of Sulu and its depen^dencies havinag declared an integral part of thi Philippine Archipelago, which belongs to Spain, c under the Spanish flag in all the ports of the Sultanate shall be fre and unmolested, as it isn all the ports elo 1tging to he Nation ARTIuE 7. The Sultan and Datus of Sulu? having regnUi the ere of Spain over their territory, which sovereigut is now strongly eslished not only by right of conquest but by the clemency of the c-l qewror. they Shannot erect fortifications of any kind in the territory under their com express pennission of Hlis Excellency the GovernorGeneral of these Islad; the purchase and ulse of all kinds of firearms shall be prohibited exept with a license ssued by the sane supreme authority, and cft found wiith ams other than the edged weapons which have fron tile immemorial llee n ina t Ie country shall be, considerled as enemies. ARTICLE 8. The Spanish Govvernment, as an untuioal pcf of the pe t ~ti which it grants the Sulus, willie the Stan ad )atns aduate Royal til establishing their authority and their rank. AaRrTICEK 9. The Spanish Govermnient uarant th ility to t Sultan and other inthfabitants of Sullta the f eci of; t V

Page  211 ^ * TO TY or APBA W, p 8M.;^: l.^ } which it will t not fr it in te ly t wl Ln n 10 t.: T $u a Uovernm the prs t Sultannd hi d in the or a: tlhey *erve th e i g wretmd y r ria* a; '400 of the privie la I, whi h ret in all their r.h xAvx I1. SuluI)4 gshis rhalJ1 j'Ioyin S wi u distintion whatever, t privileg and v- -: 0 of the Philippine I -and Aunctn 12. Exsept in fe case of tbpanish oip the, t dies t:t OC ituteV tinome with which the Sultan and tue Inatint. theirr rIaer Iha remiain in force, so that they may continue to keep up the propr ws r and decrum of their sttion; for this purpe said dulti es l d d.i all ships coming to their ports; other measures will be Ien later on; t enhance their dignity and increase their presti AarcLu 13. For the purpose of fassuring and itrengtheniag the authority of the Sultan, and also of promotin a rglar trade rhich m enrich th ie of Sulu, a trading pot, garfrisoned by Spai fo, sL be fhe t as the Government so orders, and in accordance with Article 3 4o te T:ty of 1836; for the building of the tradin pst the Sultan, PatuI, d nati shall give all the assistance in their power and furish native lbr, wi ch will be paid for, and all necessary materials, which the wEl cha t the regular market prices.- - ARTICLE 14. The trading post shall be established at the plae csl W:ed ' Kuta, next to the roadstead, as it is the most suitable place; but care aU Ia be taken not to eneroach in any way on the native cemetery, whieh to religiously respected, and no buildings whatever shall be eret d in sid J;'try, so as to avoid the trouble that would ensue to those who might build ARTIcLE 15. The Sultan of Sulu may issue passprts to all person s it his dominions that may request them, and fix the amount of the fee; he i aiso his place of residence.. AuTIcLa 16. In view of the Sultan's declarations regarding the 1oses sauffe by him in the destruction by fire of his torts and pale, and onvinced of the reality of the losses, the Spanish Government grants him an uity of I pesos in order to indemnify him in a certain way for tad it lfe a /t t:h e same time to help him toain, with proper splendor, the deom due his person and his rank. The sme oensiderations induce the S nip h Govern e to grant Datu Mohammed Buyuk, Muluk and Data ni Axil lahar 600 pesos per annum each, and 360 peos to Sharif Moha ed Binrin on tu; of his good services to the Spanish Government.. ARTICLE 17. The articles cntained in this solemn. Bt shall this day into f l:: effect, subject however to the superior approval of His Eellency the vG e-rrGeneral of these Philippine Islands. Any doubt which may arisse in re to the text of this Act shall be resolved by adhering to the literal mei ni of the Spanish text. Signed at Jolo on the 19th of April 1851.-S I of the S ltan.- f^i Datis Muluk Kahar; Tuna gung; SaMjahan; Maneha MIuuk; ula;k Aml-Bad r; Juhan; Naib, and signature of Sharif Moh a b —.*-<. The PoliticoMiltary vernor of th e in of:- Z 'fr —S doe Carlo y w(YXyle. 1, Don Antonio de Urthisndo y Egufra Ma, iis de la, t Cross of the Royal AMwrt n Oder of lI.hwt th holi, ht ofl e ig

Page  212 Roy order: approvingu thesalaries as sige t t Sultan and of SWi December r14. 11. The Queen (whom God sae), in viei of the letter of Your Exellent f My 3rd last, No, 1236, and of tit report of the cretary of State the subjt, has bheen pleasedto ap pgrove the salaries assigned 1y Artidle 16 Of the Capitulaion tthe Sultan and Datus of Su, and aounting to 1, for thle Sultin, 600 lpes fofor eaeh of the Datus Mohammed Luyuk Muluk and Daniel Amil BU ar, and1 3' for Sharif Binsarin. By Royal order etc. MmunD, DOecember 1,;851 The INTENI.DANT OF ftE, PHMIL INEi S. TRANSLATION OF THE SULU TEXT OF THE TREATY OF x85x Aistatement of firm: grelent and union (in friendship) made by the Qee Spain Isabel II, Constitutional Queen of all Spain, and the honorable oers of her government, with the Ma1wlana Sultan Mohanmed Pualun and the Ntus Mohammed Blunuk, Mululk, Amitl Bahar, Bandahala, Mulk at, Ami i r Tumanggung, J.uhan, Sawja'an, Na'i, IMamancha, nd Tuna Sharif Mohamm Binsarin. The King was represented here by Colonel Don Jos6 Marfa de Ca los y ODqle, Politico-Military Governor of the Province of Zamboang an islads of la Pilas, Tonkil, and others, who was given power and authorit y General Don Antonio de Urbiztondo, Marquis of Solana, Governor and Great Captan of the Philippine Islands.ARTIcrLE I. The Mahasari Mawlana Sultan of SWu and his ministers tther with t the dats mentioned above bhave the great desire to state that they had gool intentions toward the people of Spain, on January 1, of this year. T also state that the relation of Sula and its depe-ndenies to Spain sbeen one of intiate union from thefist until now. They make anew, to-day, a firm arement of unin in friendship ith the Queen of Spain Isabel II, Constitutional Quen oi All S.pina, nd A hr hblo I officers, to reaffrm the previous agreement of 186, as also the eent o 1t year made with the governor of Zamaboalga, in thle menth of Augt which fuy affirmed thie "Kunkista"' Iof VSWU which6 was effeted on the 28th of Februxa, Governor and great Captain of the Philippine Archipelao. ARICwtL -1. The Sultan and DaIks promise with firml intention and brother not to revoke their agreelnt to te t ocatioen of Suizau nd its ep uel, reording them dep tdecies of Spain. AwraztE 111. Sulu and her dependencies alike use the Sh P la; t* of Sulu and her deindeci are one with the ple of Sin. anaily th to the Philippine Islands. o he Spanb wod for quet tra iterat. Tho f a at c:a the Sulu. of~~~~~~~~~~I~ hw &re one the el ~ ~E. t~~~~nah~~~ ~~ "~OB,,1*'1'';^ - 0410

Page  213 I It E I itnot e tt fo0i S a W a W = datta or y tion oiter t mi ie t, notShould suh tre ti athe wo Id nube ll t any roatI with any 1TOll i contrary to the prevous on c en, I wi t I ecu* S:n is in all t s of Su i she is in her fPhill, *-e and Stun h previous fren hip treLi with inpai ATICl IV, New promise: irsht sha lnowed at all vi in N Should they.. tL any crim tey shall be pun h t y xttL V. The subordiate ruler n l ts W s the Spanh, Iut the Sultn and the Datus can war fla like t officials. They will not use any other flag. AsIcE VI. The Island of Sulu and all its de pndeiei large ad smal, i the me as the Philippine slands in that they long S 1n, all S i officers and all sips fl the Spanish flag may navi te thro the SuI Archipelago without any objection. ARTICL VII. It is reognized by the Sultan and the tus that the. f Spain is powerful these days and is just and mraexfl in nirig 1 i<i and that it is not right to build forts without informinthe Spanish Gor t nor to buy arms without having also informed the Spanish Gov, nr to have boats carry any arms exceptthe kris and the sar, for other a W signs of enmity. ArtICLE VIII. The Spanish Government, wishin to pmote fe p wi the people of Sulu, gives the sultan and the dahs tituie (titl ) to inc t r respect and honor. ARTICLE IX. The Spanish Govern nt assur the SultpshGan senda te aip a pl that it will let their religion alone, and that it will not try to ch it religion, nor object to the free exercise of their wNtlp ad the s their r ace. ARaTIUE X. The Spanish dovernment does also promise the e t Sultan that it will not break its word. It also promises to r z the i a of the Sultan and the Datus and also those of sutrdinate rue ad the ple ATICLE XI. Sulu boats and goos may go to Spansh counti wit t objection, in the same manner as if te belonged to that country. ARTaimL XII. All ships that come to Sulu, ee t th of Sin, p y as previously, in order that the Sulta and the atrs may a 0s of t income of their towns, and may adopt measures which will improve and e the town. ARTLE XUIII. If the power of the Sultan i well established he may be able to secure other profit besides this, by helpi the S ment, in ae rdnce with Artile 3 of the treaty of 1836, provii fo building of a tradin pst which would be guarded by S in It will be pt for the Sultan and the Dtus to help in the ereetion c this pst a all labr and lumber shall be paid for accordin te ustom of t ARTIC E XIV, This trading pot shall b built ner it e site: f Amill ahar.' It hall nt encroach upon nor icau any injy of the ohammed us, but out of due re t to their reli e erecd the and in Asea n y er ect e its be -t ye A cs XV. The Sulin of SulI has te righ t tto gi his I who reqt:c itga t h he Io a e n es i rm 0 t js: ingx to: n t, DA' t I te.

Page  214 214 AOth A XV The Span seron z to if p in the ion by rof hul ta fort, gr the Sal" a arly *su of PIO &" a i his a Gon ta hftel t Binsarin ~360 ot.n: ant of his:< serri ts t~ Spi;n. AasmT XV The artwt w of is te ha tako ' ' t b s*own to th (aptain General o the Philippiue W sn 1t 0 e: 0 tagre to toh e.T are al in Spnis. This treatyirnd its purpose in that it c httktmai t Sir James iro but it erinly did inot c sive m1ch ie at SJolo and Zanhloana as it did at Madrid and b n. It e temporarvy ony. As eary as 1854 a town on Kpl was burn byt Spanish force: froM Bo Iasilan. In 1855 the Siulus ma a dh u Zamboanga and burned the best part of the to Te "' htr I " issu frm Ihela de Basilan inl 1857, surpriJ' SinY r1 captives, and t 116 prisons. TThe chiefs t whom the e i: was directed presented themselves later to the goernor of and excha gedl th e Mor 60 eia ptiv,!tor cp0e 1rCh and I Europan woman. Many pilates continued to Ascor e 0 parts of the Arhipe In 1858 Governor-Ge.ral No agny pub lished a procla ation calling the attention of Ciefs of pro municipalties to the approach of the seasonat whi&h the pirates pi and invoking their aid to caution the people bnd to take proper me for the def ns of their towns. Rewards were also o fer for h ori killing pie and for seizing their bo wherever found, but is i no important e ffe t. In 1860: ao ut 40 Moros r ied the S: it of Bernardino and plundered sveral settlemn ts The year 1861 marks a new era in the htistory of pir& d a new in the organization of government o Mindanao l a lan. At timneX Spain adthei Phlippins wre pasi th 9 a period Alive to the tiuh that eomrce d pisay ctoxt the gove. went providd la cmpetint naval fore by whch ii: a ble ainTin unquestionle supremary in the Salu Sea It purhii gdh stE vessels in Engldand nd used them for chasin$g low pi s il for blokading the port of Joo. Tle opeations cucti by tIh vIs ltrose e wty hods dof pirates fro Phiippine t and, in th of a deae, tein atd that long term of p irac under w hic ltheIland s llatd sufferePd for three centuries. POlAlTI(-Q41LIITARfY G0OVEIINMENT OP INXI.) ADJACENT ISLANDS Affair in Mmidanao had prog d s tic ItoI Kotabto, and Daao re ocpid by m and traiqu lhi 'gn:ed o r t to c. A trnment wa then ilisl flithe iiVo

Page  215 GWEMItNN?T OF MINIDANAO 216 and Buii, and was signated as the evernment of a It comprised six districts, the first five of which lo entiry to t * Island of Mindanao. The sixth was c ld the distet of Baan ad detined as "omprising Basilan and the Spi pos S the Archipelago of Sulu.t Suhn wa not brouht under this org tio until 1878, when an additional district was creatd for thI prt Thre form of this govenment and its chief charateristics re bt dc&4:ribed in the words of the royal order creating it, which is herin give in full because of many points of interest which are contained in tde text and form of the decree, and which can not be well illtrate otherwise: SUPERIOR CIVIL GOVEINMEN'T Office of the Deputy Superintendent of the Philipine Trea y CIRCULAB The Minister of War and Colonies communicated to this Superior Civil Government, on the 31st of July of last year, the following Royal order Your Excellency: The Queen (whom God protect) has been pleased to isse the following Royal dcree: Pursuant to the reasons laid before me by the Minister of War and Colonies and in accrdance with the opinion of the Cunil of Ministers, I hereby decree the following: AaRTIcu I. A politico-military Government is hereby established for the isld of Minrdanao and adjacent islands. ARTICLE II. The Government of Mindanao shall be divided into six 1. the Zamboanga District, formed of t at part of the province of the which includes al! of Sibugay Bay, and the west oast of the isl t as Murcilago Poitt; 2. the District of the North, includin, in then part of the island, all the territory between the boundary line of the Ist District and Dapitan Point, on Tutwan Bay; 3. the Eastern Distric, etwee Dapitan Point, and araS a Bay; 4. the Davao District, b nnig on the boundary line of the 3d District and including the Bay of avao and all the southern extremity of the island; 5. the Central District, including I Bay, situated between the Ist and 4th districts; 6. the Disrict of Basi comising the Spanish possesions in the Archipelagoes of SulU and Basila. Te cpital of the Government shall be in the Central District, the most adus plac at the mouth of the Mindanao River being choen. These driicts i Ih be divided into two classes; to the first class shall beong the Norhe, Cent and stern districts, and to the second those of Zamben, Davao and z lan. ARnLE II. The Governor of Mindanao ihall receive 0,s W and 2,00 pesos as etertainment fund. The latter shall e supplied frm the revenues from Government real esta-te and licenses. The Governor's *r4iene shall also be supplied by the State. AnnieE IV. This Governorship shall correspond to the class of brigadier erals; but the first Governor appoited may be a colonel, who ill be tt, as a reard, to an appint aent as briadir eneral after thr yea AwrvT V. The Governor of Mindanao hall be sueedc in his by the offir of the highet rank in the island, diag the appointm et of ani er lover r, or h n the i pt in General m deem i lahle l ei distrites the Gvernor shall su m by to oOcFr t in tak l rloer r of Mindanso appoit an Acting row d xa a the n eral to ke su action as bes eall for b the r latid; ti107]

Page  216 216 THlE HtORY OF SIUU Autc VI. T * d td wers of the apin Gel in rd to * Govtrntmet of Minana, and those of the Governor of the is la au be1 t srame as tose providi for the fisyam in my Royal der- of thi dae A military authorities, they shallf observe the;uual relations t Cap s General and (Co "anders G:eneral of Province. The Govenmor of Mi lli forward each month to the Captain General of the Philippiae a t l record of the resol:futios taken by Im in the exercse of lhi authority, so tht the latter may be able to exercise with efficiency the gera superviion to which he is entitled. The Captain tGeneral shall forward to te Supreme Goverment, through the proer channels, both tahs tabulated record, and a sta of the actio he ha taken in the premises. AIwCz VII. The disricts of the first class shall we governed by Hlenuantcolonels and tho*e of th seonld class by senior majors. Awrtcn aVIIl. The duties of these distriet governors shall he those speifed, up to the present time, for the politieo-iilitary Governors ot the island. AaTnCLE IX. The Governor of Mindanao Yst.ul hve a Secretariat e with the fo lowing personnel: a Secretary at 2,500 pesos per year; one clerk, class one, at 1,200; one clerk, class two, at 1,000, and one clerk, els three at 8. 1,0 pesos are furthermore provided for the salaries of copyists, and 5 for ofce supplies. ARtIcLE X. There s hereb created for Mindanao a Revenue Offic which sai serve as depositary of the revenues and shall have charge of cllecting all taxes, and of the adminisstration of the Army. It shall have the followin personnel: an Administrator at 2,500 pesos; a Controller at 2, 0; ne clerk, class one, at,000Q; two clerks, elass two, at 800, and cashier at. 0. 500 pesos alre provided for the salaries of copyists and other auxliary empl s and 600 for office suppies.* -..- —.AwrT.aICLI XI. The chiefs of districts shall remain in charg of the colleitiofn taxes in the manner hitherto established, and shall be entitled to h allowanes provided for that purpo-se. The provisions of this article hall not inteere with those already made for the departments of the administration ewi exist at the present time in Mindanao and their dependenies. Ar XtrCE'XII For. expediting their oficia businss the i i rrs sa have a secretary at a salary; of S00 pesos in: districts of:te first, and 6 in those of the seon clai TIo each seretarys ofice75 are ignde for offie supplies, and 1500 for a opyist. ARTICU XIII. The mission.of the Jesuits, which has alyre n to Mindanao, shall look after the spiritual wants of the island, and Jeutsa take the place of the other priests as t oo as the mission has a sffiiet r - nel, and in the manner wh:hich may be deemed mot covenielt. ARTICLE XIV. The first and principal objeet of thel mission sall b e to ure the conversion of the raes which have not yet bn subjte and ev fa r the parishes of the island are provided for it shall maintain a su fenituit of missionaries for that purpos: eah missionary shall;e aided to the of 800 pe a year from -the Ro al Tr sury ATICE XV. The War ad Navy Dpartlnents toether wt th 0e shall decide what force of the army and na are reur or; b~~~~~~~ ~~~ r;, g& Captain-General shall have iuthority to ke such ch a ln the re may require, but he shall alws rport suh - ha to for approval. nat ry, with the asnt of the ic t ug o A Xwu iI. It shall be the eonsata t duty of theat 110s]

Page  217 COVYRNMENT OF MIN ANAO ocupy the country; for tha pu rpoto co at eIst sH. eh year from eaeh district, andl g through sid distri in diffe dir The chiefs of these ctlumns shall make ot a reprt abot e t the oitered by them said reports sh al be inludd in a geera reprt f the Governor, which shall he fowardd t o the B rtrent of War0-:4 through the Captaina-General of the Philippines; thi ifuorlmtion will alf the Governor i to, i n the followi years his instruetiosr to the o o s sent out to explore the euntry, without loing sight of the advanl of establishing friendly relations with the tribes which inhabit the is4, and the necessity of maintainin muni cation bet en the different disri coltls shall be provided with everything that my be required to overcme the obstacles they will nd on way; and uring the xpedition, oe and soldiers shall receive field rationssud i n kind, aceording to the advie of the Military Health Dpartment. iFr this purpose 10,000 p shall be cart on the budget for the first ear, and 10 pesos shll be given for each aediton to the officer eommanding eolumn, for ex traorinry expensns ARTICLE X III. Two speial agents shall be appointed by the gove t for the purpose of stuying means of developing all the natral resourc f he island of Mindanao.;i ARTICLE XIX. Inl order to encourage olonists to settle in such pr of the island as may I ded bt, t will be ishe, atheir request, the tools an implements required for their work., or'trade. The Gov is fu rther re authorized to pay the travel expense of i who ih the island withoiit exceedng the: sm hereinafter prvided, e epitre of which shall be duly accounted for. 'TheI new ettlers shall b entitledo foregoing privileges for ten years, and 12,00 pesos shall be eropra that purpose during the first year, from the revenues accruing" from go t real etate and licenses. The new settlers. shall be exempt from i same favor shall be granted: all trioea t submit fil y,;:; e ARTICLE XX. The laws and retions inorcein-the other isladsfhiePl l ippines shall be observd in all the offices.of the Treasury lIere t prohbitions mentioed in the^tfriff.all. apply: to -the cstom hs of:boanga; artides imported into the island:in Spanish ttoms, a ifor lotian smption, shall pay, durin the next ten years, 2 per cent ad V,f origin and 5 per cent if of foreiSgn oriin If brought nudier-a f a articles shall pay double thie am nts speifid above. I, afer for use in the islnd, it' is ported to some other-Spanish isnd, it a on arrival at the latter the difference between what has been pid in 'i and the regular duty estabishedd in the tariff. AaTCLE XXI. Lands now u.der ltivation, and those plac d i during the next ten years, shall pay no other impost than that rei by the regulations now in 'force, per quiion of land, as anat of: owne r~ship* = *." Y ' ~ *. *. A ~cr:XXII. The Gvemment shall a1lwtys he on man a r *e h o~ l0,000 pesos to meet any urgent and unexpected nee that may aris; in part of the same, and shaltl;ount foCr the expnditure, in the usua A wrcxT XXII. A sum d 3,000 Op os pe r r is p at thed Io Governor for presnts to the indepndet ti fr the purIof a their friendship; the s e amount is asso to e oifi 'e The:* fund shall be rpende 4 na for In the -tf of the A-tat *< -**

Page  218 218 drawn up, aB4 acto.ktio!1 k n ton efua~8., * A e XXV. No extra fy f f or allow sf a g v suth U~ are provided in the prernt decree, and the r dim usfly at preseMnt ecree in te rt which r0es ively contrn th d s*l wmk ni cxrnuton for the e tion of su pt thser a y be to two or eO:Ilep.rtmentst. AABTC XX 1.. many of the laws and oders in fo: are B in t with the proviTsios of the preet dree aro her iy re. Qirn at 18tn Jcfonto on the 30th of July, 18. Rubri of Hr Majesty. The Minister of War and loniw. ODonnel.-CoBnmunicated to you by Royal order for your infor tn and action. Sultan Pulaln was regarded by the Suls as an able mltrator and a just ruler. His ifluence and am nd that of his father end d the se houe of Jamall eiram to the people to uch an extt to tt the suc cesio of the sultanate to ther ir rect line of d t f a considerable priod of time. Fllowing the steps of his faer, he published a revised code of Sulu laws and conducted the afai of his government with cnre. Pulalun died September 2418, 1 ad w:: followed by his son, J amal Al am - 't;heo succes m asis on was contestd y Da u Jamalul Kiram, the grandsnof ul Sultan Shakirl Lah. The wife of Data Jamalul Kiram was the daughter of Dat Daniel Amil Bahr, nd the latter was ineline to port his son-in-law. Jamall A, however, had the maJorityiof t councl of the datus on his side, and a S ish eomn mission nt Joo in November, confirmed his sultanate. Fp states tha t athat time the sultan wa living with at sii, 4a that the portrait of Queen Isabel I was placed before the sultan wh e de his declaration before the conunission to recognize the authority 4 sovereignty of Spain over all the dominions of Su, including her dependencies in Borneo. It is noted in the Sulu Annals, under date of February 1 1867, that a Spanish war vessel arrived at Jolo and demanded the puniment and delivery of three men, one of whom was called Imam dg. The sultan arrested all these men and had them execued on February 9 in the presence of the officer in command of the vesse. I a that in spite of the vigilance of the Spanish navy, piratil expitions w kept up by discontented Moros not fully submisive to te st This lIe; to further activity on the part of Spanish guno d war consequently carried into Sulu water and rritory. Another note i the Sul Annalst, unde date of M h, i s that 13 Spaish v es a d Jldo, kled 3 m aod I wktl d ijXS00 1!0lm

Page  219 1875 co nier sidtag Irb de t of war to the S "I. In the etiation of &uth l, Ja rulers. He carried out m y publi i bridges qd inque einr publi att srvies, and eculawsi ant i a ruler as any sult Su had sine t da vicissitudes of fortune we certay aai ended, Spain's hand fel upon him strong wrested from him, and his power waned. 1296 -- 8 t[111 t

Page  220 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  221 SULU UNDER SPANISH SOVEREIGNTY OCCUPATION OF JOLO The Sulu sultanate remained practically independent for four hundred and twenty-five years. Its decline was not caused by national re trogression or political dissension, but by the hostility and iareon of its adversary. Sulu's power arose through the introduction of firearms into eastern alaysia an4 began to decline at the introductio of war vessels into the Philippine Archipelago. The mobility and speed of steam war vessels put to disadvantage all Moro sailing and rowig craft. Pirates were chased on the sea and hunted in their lairs. The fe which steamboats struck in the hearts of Moros made them run away from their homes and settlements antd hide in the jungles whenever they hrd the whistle of a steamboat, or saw it approaching from a distance. The steamboats purchased by Governor Claveria in 1848, which crushed the power of the Balangingi Samals, were referred to by Captain Keppel in the following words: "On the 14th of January [1849] we left Zamboanga, getting under weigh in company with such a fleet of gunboats as would have done credit to any ntion The vessels purchased in 1861 increased the efficiency of the nav to such a degree as to make it possible to carry war into Sulu territory, attack many remote islands and settlements and blokade the port of Jolo so effectively as to check the importation of firear and amunition, ar.d restore a condition of safety and peace on the sea. The campaign of 1876 was a very significant event m the histry of Sulu. It decided the fate of this state and definitely ed i relaon to the Philippine Archipelago. Spain's determination to conquer Sulu never waned and seemed stronger then than ever before. The GovernorGeneral was a man of great ability and aspired to the highest military honors. Moro raids recurred occasionally and the strained relatio of the two states became so tense that rupture was inevitable. In reviewing the history of Spanisl campain i' Sulu up to tbi time, one is strongly impresed with the futility of conquest withou occupation. To invade a Moro settlement, defeat its fo r-, bum its houses, kill some of its inhabitants, and carry some away as pr;sone fi 1113

Page  222 222 TB oiaOY WR SVIJ is ot very ditfint in chr ater and e fmethods 'initd the rs to xvena thm by w n tiheir invaders. This they did by raiin, wh is fir hI methh of warftar. tp to this ti naral lv; in the sife of the uts and pish fores could a pl Bou V results, in s of their suwror metiods of wa a e t military organizatiop I Since the 1ays of the grat (ocurat no S1 ns ral pi to have r'tcogni the imporane of thb ocupati of S au a U real sWlntion of th qutil n ht hae aruiin fro eonio their inability to povid an adequate force for thepr. eve that may haveb, the honor of su an ahievement# em for Govrnor-Gencral Macapo wh carried it ot witli -cit o hi f ald to the govemment which be rreented. With a dlr ndestan of the t Iak to 1beiacc1mpi1sed, he resolved to nqe Su iand p it. and then supprss pir lr y striking the pirates at homen. e left Manila on the 5Sth of FebruLar, 1876, ith a lage fo eorn of one battalion of the peninsular re ent of artillery, one cmpay ot mountain artill, five regiments of infantry, orn e gin, sanitary and prismr d etachmens and two companisC of the 0 rdi Civil.,1 At Zamnboanga, the expedition waa reinforcd by 864 volun nt 400 of wlom wer n Zamboan ald 46 from Kaan de iis commanded by the ugustinian friar, amnn Zu 0o. The hole exition, e smated at 9,000 tr s, lef t b r the 20th of Fluary. T shey conve yed in 10 o11 transports, ad wet by a fl t 12 goubnts e t ra l in command of e Pippine naval brces. The sl;: o Sula was reached on ie 21st, d morning a force dise Ptiku, 4 miles 0east of Jobel Mors at this place offered mtnee and cued sn c0 aies, but lratere inth day abndod the p d fled. ere a csiderable column was detaced t ro theiwrJ and advance on Jobo fm the land side. This plan proved i e and the c sulffered severey from heat d it and returned next day to the be at Tand, 2 miles eat of Jo. On the a general advae wast made on, Jo by land and sea. The fl t 4o fire on the twn, wle the lan forces rused the forts and itr the sides. The main force was directed aainst the of nie hi wa capturd afte a sharp fight. The M to *in teot0 fo i a f rceiitate, but wee so ovecome by te fire of he artillery fd te le t wa en by W t. On the fort oang o i a Ada, stuat the d of the l l, Not content ith this bil t vieto t;; a: ' A pc maia riltt th ti ti 1*11 St ~ ~ At tl 3 1 1 1 ff f0500A' T0f~ 0 t!l ~ '; ~SL t0'' V f\i'00

Page  223 OOOUPATION OF JOLO decisive and deadly blow, Malcainpo directed various expeditions against the other strongholds of Sulu. A force of marines and volunteer destroyed 80 kats and burned 90 houses on Tapul. On March 16 an expedition to Lpak destroyed its forts and reduced the settlement to ashes. On March 22 the forts of Parang were reduced, the settlement was burned, and many Sulus killed. On the 24 Maymbung was similarly destroyed. A lage garrison was established at Jolo, consisting of two regiments of infantry, one company of artillery, one company of enginers, and two companies of disciplinarios.l Capt. Pascual Cervera, a captain of frigate of the navy was given command of the garriso under the tide of politico-military governor of Sulu. General Malcampo was given the title of "Count of Jolo," wle emany decorations wer awarded to gallant officers, and a medal was struck for each participant in the campaign. The step thus taken by the Philippine Government appears to have ben well planned and firmly resolved. No sooner was a footing gained than measures were undertaken to quarter the troops and fortify the place. Barracks were constructed on favorable spots on the edge of the swamps, anti the forts Alfonso XII and the Princess of Asturias were erected on the site of Daniel's and Panglira Adak's kut, respectively. Plans were further laid out at this early ime for the bilding of a town and the founding of a colony. Governor Cervera, to whom this task was first entrusted, was a vigorous, prudent, and circumspect chief. He prosecuted the work with energy and kept a vigilant watch on the movements of the enemy. He began the construction of a military hospital and established the office of captain of the port. Small expeditions were made to Bwan, Mapaid, Balimbing, and South Ubian for the chastisement of pirates who took refuge there. The kdta of the first three of these settlements were destroyeand their armaments were taken. This year saw considerable sickness in the garrison of Jlo; a large number of patients were removed to Zamboanga and 318 to Cebu. On October 1, Governor Cervea was temporarily relieved as governor of Sulh by Col. Eduardo Fernandez Bremon, and on December 31, 1876, Brig. Gen. Jose Paulin assumed permanent command of the garr s the second governor of Sulu. The atter continued the peace negotiations which were commenced by Governor Cervera and expended a goo deal of energy in trying to conciliate some datus and their followers. His m easures were, howeve, resented by the Sulus and hostilities increaed. He left Joo April 30, 1877, and the command was temporarily held by Lieut. Lopez Nuio and Jos Marina, for thr month and one month and a half, respsetively. Troops made tp t men deported from or parts t Isand11 e [ | | ( 15

Page  224 224 I2 rMis HI T w swx RULE OF SULTAN JAMALUL V'LAM After the fall of Joo d ites dtrution by eneral Jamalul Aqam ro eoved to Bud Datu and later to Lik up. dispersed in all dietions, but 1)atus Asibi 4d Pula,!thestr t cX efs after the sulta, relmalned in the neighborl of Jtoa, a TW ad Patikul. The Sulus were united at that time and fora d o lrty, which was faitlful and lyal to the sultan. They rgarded tihe ta - ment of a Spanlsh garrison at Joo as an ituon aupon their i an intolerable humiliation and offense. The commoln pple nted the nvaion as bittery as the datus. A few years kfore they rear themselves the lords of te southern sas. The Bis and the a mirfan Islands, Pal,4wan, and eastern Borneo were their hunto g They sailed proudly on the seas and had the dignit of te f iMnumerable vassals and slaves. But now like fierce tigers drivoen k to their dens or packs of hungry wolves chased to their hunts they wai for no word of comm and or organized resistance but hurled the lv recklessly at the Spanish soldiers wherever they encountered em. individuals and small parties lost no hance of firing a rifle from hind the bushes or throwing a lanee from acros the ditche. Vendr in the market who saw a chance to strike a blow at the soldiers, could not est the temptation, but recklessly arted at the enemy wth a kris or baro brandished in hand. A vender from Tuuk who did not hav a ar of his own snatched one from a neighbor and rushed at the guard. Te soldiers were attked i-n the forest while cutting lumber or firewd at the river while getting drinking water and at the be whle ba, Juramtentados crept on the sentinels in the dark and from ditch awd the beach and inflicted considerable loss and damage. Some d characters entered the trenches and fought the soldiers on guard, hile others slipped into the barracks and caught soldiers and offcers off tir guard and threw torches on the roofs of the wareho ses. Jamnalul A'lam discouraged all overtures for peand for more uit two years could not be reconciled to the new conditions d liti I status. Eariy in 1877 he encouraged hostilities of all sorts. J -nentados and small attacking parties harassed the gf is-onfu f On the 25th of February a force of more than 2,000 Sulus against the garrison, but were easily repulsed. Small parties surp d pickets and attacked laborers. n the 9th of September bt 800 Sulus charged thed town from the land side and from the 4 a M attacked Fort Asturias. They were repuledin the aea bt resumed the attak at night rnd retreated with a rat o A gelerart lfgt oaurred on the llth, but the Mors we in a A large knife used by Mors in S htUng sMe who have taken an ot tx o kill on:Moh m tll6]

Page  225 225 driven back. r Und ut by thSI urs, the Sultan a u of the datus and plann ifor anoer at in te future. um - dos beat e more trea&deous ad intrepid. They hid their barongs e their trousrs d in d they ptend to be n to the and att aked the gurd unawar after a dmi n Into the p. This state of affairs continued until Jun, 1878. CESSION OF POSSESSIONS IN BORNEO TO BRITISH NORTH BORNEO COMPANY In January, 1878, Suln Jamaul Allam ceded the Sulu sa in Borneo to the Sabah or British North Boreo Compan. He grant the authorized representative of this company aron von Overbek, absolute ownership and dominion over that large territory for a money considrti of $5,000, Mexican currency, per a nnu. The S Company was preceded in 1865 y an American company arted by Mr. Torrey on the Kimanis River. The concessions of the Ameri company were obtained from the Sultan of Buruney; hat this enterprise prov a financial failure and its rihts were bought by the Austri Baron von Overbeck and the English merchant Mr. Alfred Dent, "In spite of the opposition of Spain, which claimed that the Sult of Sulu being a Spanish vassal could not dispose of his territory without her consent, the English company organized by Mr. Dent s dd in obtaining a charter of incorporation under Act of Parliament 1st Noveer, 1881, as the 'British North Borneo Company' with right to auire other interests in, over or affecting the territories or property compri in the sev eralrants." Baron oOverbeek and Mr. Dent obtained from the Sultans of Bruney and Sulu a series of charters conferring on tem sovereign authority in North Borneo under the titles of Maharaja of Sabab, Raja of Gaya, Raja of Sandakan, and Datu Bndahara. The territory governed by the British North Borneo Company has a c t line of over 600 miles and an area of more than 30,000 square miles. The for'm and text of the commission granted by Sutan Jamlul Alam apponting Baro von Overbeck Datu Bandahara and Raa of Sanda is herein quoted as given in the annual report of Gen. Geor W. DaVs, commanding the Depaitment of Mindanao, under date of August 1, 1902: "To all nations on the f of the earth whom these mat ten y:, e, Mahsan Padukka Mawlana as-Sultan Mohammed Jamalul A'1am bin aMar/tu Maha-san Peaduikka asSultan Mohamed Pulalune Sultan of u I its dependeni, send greeti: "Whereas, we have seen fit to grant unto our trusty and well-bo fri Gusta Baronm von gOver k and Alf et, uire, ce i orti wof the dominions owed by us, comprising all the lands on the north 4 Sf the Island of ro iron the PanI n River on the nortu to the ib River on the es cot, ItncludIg ao others e s of Pal n t Bangaya, Labuk, Sandakan, Kina Baatg U tumian 411 all the l ns t(I?]

Page  226 226 arnd tvr"i torl in1 rv Day wfar as ft Ivr, to t6 WI R3 t lans i inthrt wrain usid ti s twas "Wereas, t w said Baroa von Overbek is the h aend ly repro utative of his >mny in rne "Now, tkreore, know ye that we, Ma i Pd l SMu t-n of Sul 4 40a its dependenie hav nmina l x nd hereby noni n4to and appoint ithe id Baron von Ovter sup a pendent ruler of the ah;y amed territori, with the tile o f anid Itaj of Sandnt kawit absolute poer over life and 4 of in of the countr with all the abslute rights of property ov he il oft country vested i: n the rigt t dis of th e a well the ri oer the product ion of the count, wvhether minerl, getae, or i, the rights fnng laws, coining money creating an a and n le i customs du on home and foreign trade, and shipping and otter d4.tax" on the inhabitant as to him may seem good or exedient the r wi other pvoers 0 rit usually exercised by and blongi to vreii lers and which we here ddeat to him of our own free and soverign *il. " wAnd we cal0 to all reign nations with whom* w6e he fri treaties or alliancs, and we omanid all the datus, nbles governrs, cies I pewopIe oving alegiane Mt uin the said territries to rn vetd ' aw the said Dautl Bandahara as the supcreme ruler over, t aid state and to yq 'lis o s cmands d rpetis sauthority therein as our own. d in of X death or retirement fronm offic of the si Datu Ban han! r nhiEs d; u ointed sucessor in the offi of supreme ruler and Wgoernor-ichief of Ue ompany's territories in Borneo: shall likewise, if appitd:h by the company, suceed to the title of Datu Bandahar and SRaja of San i, and I the powers eumerated bove be vsted "in hi m. "Done at the palace of the Sultan at Likup, in the I sland of S, oa te nineteenth of Muharam, A.. 1295, being the 22nd day of January, AD. f 0; V 0 - 4q A A 18M. TREATY OF JULY, 1878 Col. Ct1'aos Martinez became overno of S on th 8th of tember, 1877. This distinguished commander a hi to his work with unusual enthusiasm and assiduity, and by tactand soiqy succeeded in restoring order and peace, in the fint of aty si d hinm and by Sult Jarlul A'lam in July, 1878. - t itor tie succes of the netiations belongs to Datu Harun ari d, ho no effort to convinc tlhe Sultan that peace na loyty to S in w preferable to a condition of continued hostiity, which m rin the state of Sul. The tret laid stress on the sumi of Sil to Spanish sovereignty, and the terms of the Sulub taet ep teow fairly well and without vasion. This being the 1a tV into by both states, it may be considerel to define the fina re l that exit d between them and the eact position which Sulu o ied l tihe Plliltppine Archipelago during the last riod of the S- The best account of Ais rlatio is give in ithe wors of the tri careful trarsli;tion of whi have ben preaw f i and Sulu text and are herein added for fi infomiti 'on: (t ls

Page  227 TREATY OF JULY, 187 TRANSLATIoN OF TE SPANISH CPY OF T T T Orrw OF Tmu Gov NoR-GNW or T Pawm:i Mantla, Autgut 19, 188. The Supreme Government having approved the ba8d of pci tion capitulation which[ are submtted throh me to h.is hjetyt the Ki, by te Sultan of Sulu and the Datus of Sul, and the act to a effet, h I confirned and ratified on the 15th instant havin been reand signd by the commissionl apportinted for that prpose by ne in repre tatin of my authority, and the Sultan and Datus, in representation of the sultnate of Sul I h direct that a copy of said act be published in the Official Gazette of Manila, in order that said bases e offiially ad publicly known. [Copy referred to.] An Act drafted on the bases of p4ciiatw. and atullation presented by th Sultan of Sum and the Datus to His Majety the King Alfoo X, thro t gh i Exlcellency the (overunwr-eneral of the Philtp e Isnd, atoledinge the sovereigtyof Spai over the territory of this sultoate. In the town of Likup, Sulu, and in the palace of His E llency the ulan of this Archipelago, on te 20th of July 1878, 23rd day of the moxlth Raabl year of the Hegira 1295: Present: Carlos Martinez y Romero, Colonel of Infantry and 1~litico-Mility Governorf o Frnade d laon y Garcia, Cone of iJolo rcis ernde de wi y GaeaColo Corps, Frigate Captain and Commander of the Naval Station of Jolo an in ter preters, Alejo Alvarez y Villasis and Pedro Ortuoste y Garcia, these constitt — ing a commission representing His Excellency, the GovernorlGenral of th Philippin;es: Also present: Padnkka Mahasari Mawlana, Sultan Mohammed Ja3 ul Ai and the Datus Padukka Raja Muda, Mohammed Badarud Din, the PadUI Mohammed Zaynul 'Abidin Raja -awut, the Padukka Datu Mohammed at=n ar-Rashid and the I)atu Padukka Miuluk Bandarasa, in the name and rep tion of the Sultanate of Sulu; The object of the meeting was to read and sign the arties of pafi on a capitulation presented by the Sultan and Datus to the Governo neral on February 24th, of this year, and approved by His Ma esty Alfs0 Xi, on 3rd ls; the reading of the articles being prceeed ith as fs: e of pacification and capitiulation presented by the Sultan and Datus of S-W, t oi Majesty the King of Spain Don Alfonso, XII, through His celleny the vernorGeneral of the Philippines, acknowledging the sovereignty of the oifg of Spain over the territory of the said sultanate. ARTICLE.L We declare that the sovereignty to Spain over all the Arehip of Suu and its dependencies is indisputable and as a nat t ene of this declaration we constitute ourselves Iy, subjects of His Majesty Ki Alfonso XII, and of his successors to the power. E 2. The Spanish Governmnm t shall give the Sult a^yearly sali 2,400 spesi 700 to the heir of the sultanate Dati BadadDiiton ad of the Datus Pukka aja wut Zaynul Abidin, Padukka tu I ar1a hldh Padu aflatt ulu B dam a mebro th S c 1a amem t ' to collr te thm in fs way for the los they have suffe 1 a A c 3. I ha the right to upyr su pointl ina the I t[ 119).,

Page  228 228 TUHEB HItMY OF VL and it~s deponi may sem nessary to the Sjnish ati Ities, r I towns, families and proprty; in eae of forciMe appro tim for t: wk good, ompenson all be paid acordin to appraii t; we ception he made for the land extendin fromi SinuR n Point the t t of Kadungdng, i which we would use for our residn it could o p bly the Government in esof war with a forein power, AwrcE A 4. The Sultan shall bhe i to co11et duti fm f er chants and ships trading with places not occupied by the Govermnt ARextIa 5. Thae Sulta shall be allowed to ctmmrncate dir3 iththe Co w. erniorGeneral whenever ho has a complaint to make inst the Governor, or t commander of war ships. ARTICLE (, The Sulta shall be authorized to issue licens to tary uzig loading firearms whe requested by Sulus, after presenting two honorably w i 6i ho will gua3rantee their proper use both on land and sea. alRTLEs 7, The Sultan shall be allowed to issue assprtsto Hulu craft; bu when any of said craft has to iave the Sulu Archipelago the owners will first t to go efrore ttlrr e I principal s and some ot" per servW under coL"n1.missi0n from the Sultan are to e excepted fro s t i fraityi i but thae Sultan shall report all Such cases to the Governor ATriuCr S. We will use alt our efforts to cause pirates and malefactrs to des st from their evil inclinations; and, if we can not prevet them, we will inform the Governor of Job1 for him t t take the necessary measures, whenever we ow th1e wheereabouts nof said pirates and malefactors but w ll t be held respoa l sible if w hae no information concerning them; we furthermoe ree to r er all assista;nce in our power in running down such pirates andm lefors ARTICIE 9. Whe sh, l e allowed he feerci f our rli and e utoas. Catholic missionaries will have liberty to ait and reside in an place in and its adependenci,.an w:ill give u: noteie beuore ging, so that in cae of danger we may furnish an esaort;. failure to give us ntie w. ie s f all responsibility for 'any- mishap, that may befall them. The a e aution applies to any European or. Christian Indian native wh ma wish to t the interior. ABRTICIE 10. We pledge ourselves to deliver to the Sp niards allI Chistian delinlquents and criminals, and all Moros in the same case be returned to us. ARTICLE I 1. Sulu and its dependencie shall rais the Spis on vIs aInd in towns; however, if a bat does not fly said flag it shall ntbe held at fault if it ha a passport; at the place of the Sultan's residence he sall fly the Spa ni war flag. sATICLE 12. All the articles of the foregoing capitulation shall be o r without alteration, except by mutual agreement Both commissions unanimously agreeingto the for ing artiles rea, id articles being identical with those whose copies were in the handsof the Gvernor and of the Sultan of Sulu, the latter and the persons with them thisi document on the spot, place, day, month and year aforId. Th"e Sualtan of Sulu,-tHis rubric and stamp —the Governor of u, h rs Alartinez.Mohammed Ilarun ar-Rashid, - the Commander of the Naval Stati Francisco Fernandez de Alarcon y Garctar ohammed Zanul 'Abidin, —Mo htammed Bladarud Din,-Mohammed Pula —interpreters, Aleo Alvarez, Pedro Ortuoste. T, Don Domingo Moriones y Murillo, Lieutennt-General of the National Marquis de roquieta, Knight Grand Cr of the Royal and Miitary O r o San Iermengldo, of the o yal and DistinIgushd Order of CraI 11, of tt of ilitary Merit, Red and White, and many othe for fIts of arm (120]

Page  229 and CaptainGeneral of the Philipine Islas, e, ec, ina te e h majety the King of Spain Alfonso XII, w1hm Gd do a rat the above act of pacifiation and capitulation, in all its pa Manila, August 15, 187 —P8om i_ Motriones -True copy.-To s Aguirre de Mena. TNS$LATION OF TwE SUL TEX OF TI TRgAY 1878 This document is Intended to corxm the the t which w a eed upo by Padukka Mahasari Mawlana Sutan Mohammed Jamalul A'lam and all the dat and chiefs of Sultu These statements which we mke shall be sent to His Majesty, the King of Spain, Don Alfonso XII, through Is Excellency the Coyernor-General of the Philippines. All the country that the Sultan nrle shal obey the orders of the King of Spain. This in Likup, in the palace of Padukka Mahasari Mawlana Sultan ohaik Jamalul A'lamn, on Monday the 22nd of July, 1878 A. D., or the 23rd of jab, 1295 A. H. There met the Politico-Military Governor of Sulu, Seftor Don Carlos Mrtinez y Romero Colonel of Infantry; and the Commander of the Naval Sttion of Sulu, Colonel of Marine Infantry and Frigate Captain, Seior Don Francisco Fernandez de Alarcon y Garcia and Sefior Captain Alejo Alvare and Sefor Don Pedro Ortuoste y Garcia, the representatives of His Excellency the GovernorGeneral of the Philippines. Also present: Padukka Mahaari Mawlana Sultan Mohammed Jamalul lam of Sulu, and Padukka Datu Mohammed Badarud Din, and Padukka Data ja Lawut Mohammed Zaynul:'Abidin, and Padukka Datu Muluk Bandar hammed Pula, and Padukka Datu Mohammed Harun ar-Rashid who are pr ly obeyed by all their subjects. The object of the meeting was to read, confirm, and sign the e presented by Padukka Mahasari Mawlana Sultan Mohammed Jamaul A'la and all the datus, to His Excellency the Governor-General, on the 22nd day of Safar, 1295 A. H., or the 24th of February, 1878 A. D., which was ppved by ilis Majesty the King of Spain, Alfonso XII, on the 3rd day of May, of thi year, or the 2nd of Jamadil-Awal. The following is the copy of the statements that were red: This is the treaty of Spain with the Sultan and Datus of Sulu whi wa sent to His Majety the King of Spain, Don Alfonso XII, through His Exlln the Governor-General of the Philippines. ARBTrs 1. All the people,, of Sul and its Arehiplago shall obey the King. of Spain, Alfonso XlI or whosoever shall succeed him. This bei our wish, we will not change or turn away to any other:ration. ARTICLE IL The r Spanish aGovernment shall pay the Sultan an ann a of 2,400 pesos, Mexican currency, and Padukka Data Raja Muda oham Badarud Din 700 pesos. It shall also pay 600 pesos to each of the three followi datus namelyt: Padukka Dpatu Raja btwut Mohammed Zaynul se, P uk Dat Muluk Bandarasal MBohmmed Pula, and Padukka Datu Mo edHarun ar-Rshid4; this is to compensate them for the losses they suff Ancrs III. The Spanish Government a oup an pl it the northern co t of the island, from Sinun to B l and as far dung, but the uthern coast of the island from Kadut Wt 8ug be left for the Sultan on coiti, however, tt it ay pQ tE Spansh overnenit in eae of truble with fore r at ay tU I cse the plantatons or fields of the poe a appropa for t i they hall e co ens d for House hovet, shall n be.

Page  230 230 AMtc 1 IV. Th Sun shtall ye wtr t to t do' f allt a r muerehant and shiO of wrenationality hy -y o in m t our ports but we hve no rilit to coiltc duties from m h to ports occupied by the Sp ish Government. Anne VI., In of i ment between 4 thve elof Xk or the mmaners of war-ship, the Sultan sall hve the right to with the Captain-e neral direct. AnTCLE VI. All the people of Sulu an if they ch, m rif les and antka They will, however, be reqired to prect a cerifiea fr two or throe free people, of good reputation, to the e they (who the firearms) are and wellkbehaving people and tht thy do a ot e ars for mischief. 'Under such conitions the Sultan may gve a lieme. XITCLE VII. Th Sultan has the right to give paso ts ulus si to trael for commercial purposes to whatever pl theey ay go, on conditi that they pass by J too to inform the Spanish governor of their destnation Ina case those of noe birth or the datus do not stop at Job, the Sula shall inform the Governor, for they, as a rule, have the former's e, t to travel. A.TiCLE VIII. We will try to suppress all pirates but in a we are unAb to do so we will notify the Governor of their location. But in ae we do not knoxw where they are, we can not be held responsible for such infor ion We will also aid the Government with as many men as we can afford to bri together, and we shall be pleased to ve guides who can tell the hiding plats of such pirates. ARTICLE IX. Our customs and usages, including our relgio shall not be changed. If ther is any prit esires to travel around in this eounr, he ought to inform tbe Sultan, so that he ma send a companion wi him; but in ease he fails to ask permission and travels around without ing this rule and is killed, the Sultan can not be held responsible for such results The same condition shall govern in the case of all Spanards and soldiers or one else who may desire to live outside of the places agreed upon. ABTICL X, We guarantee to deliver all Christians who run away on acun of crime; so al1so must the Spaniards treat us Mohammedans inase our va and people run away:t tthem. It would not be right for the Spaniars to d or protect them. ART1CLE XI. The Sulis and all the Sultan's subjects hare the right to V in small or large boats whether they use flags or not; this on condition t they have passes; but in case they like to use a flag thfi must use the Spanis flag. The Sultan shall not ue a flag of his own, but that of the King of Spain. All other datus and chiefs of the islands, whenever the use any must use the Spanish commercial flag. ARTICLE XII. The Spaniards and the Sultan shall fully observe the des of this agreement which has to be ratified by the Sanish Governmen sincerely beg that, whenever there is any disagreement betieen usad te Spanish Governor concerning some crime, careful an proper iv ntigat bef made, without any undue haste to fight. We have full trust and confidemn in the Spanish Government and expect that the Spanish Government ill hav similar trust in us. AiTICL: XIII. It shal c no t e to altr the aries of this without the nmu ual onnt of both parties. Both parties having understood all the articles of this ltrty do confirm it all and certify to it. Said articles beng identil with Vhf f.l 1 Moro canon.

Page  231 TREATY OF JU LY, 178s 231 we re prenated by Padukka MaLhari awlana Sultan Moha me Ja lul A'!wm, si by u1 s in the pa lace in tkup on the day mention4 above in t document. I, on Dmingo Moriones y Murillo, lieutenant-General of the Natio I Army, Marquis de Oroquieta, Knight Grand Cross of the yal and Mili ry Order of San Hermenegildo, of the Royal and Distinguished Order of Carls 1T, of that of Military Merit, Red and White, and rany others for feats of Governor and Captain-Genseral of the Philippine Islands, etc., etc., in te nae of Hlis Majesty the King of Spain, Alfonso XII, whonm od ketp, o ea nfirm and ratify the above act of pacification and capitulation, in all its parts. MANILA, August 15, 1878 A. D. (18, Sha'ban, 1295 A. H.) The status of Sulu as defined by this treaty resembled that of a protectorate rather than a dependency. The internal administration of Sulu, its customs, laws, and religion were fully respected and were not subject to Spanish jurisdiction,. confirmation, approval, or interference of any sort, except in matters pertaining to regulations r the use of firearms. The foreign political relations of Sulu were made subject to the full control of the Philippine Government. This controt (or sovereign right) was the chief motive for the war and was declared by the tr ty indisputable. On the strength of this both England and Germany, in 1885, concluded a treaty with Spain recognizing her full sovereignty over the whole Sulu Archipelago, including Balabak and Kagayan Sulu. In that same treaty Spain relinquished all claims to that pa of northeastern Borneo formerly ruled by the Sultans of Sulu; this being the territory administered by the British North Borneo Company. The commercial relations of Sulu with foreign countries were not submitted to Spanish supervision or control outside of the territory occupied by the garrisons, and the sultan was empowered to collect duties from foreign merchants and ships trading with Maymbung Siasi, and other places not occupied by the Philippine Government. The treaty on the whole secured for Spain the fruits of her conquest and established a stable condition of peace and safety throughout the whole Archipelago and-in the neighboring southern seas. Foreign nterference ceased, commerce revived, and trading routes were resumed without danger or risk. Governor Martinez had a brillant term of service marked by important results and excellent public improvements. He began the titanic labor of filling the swamps and brought the town of Jolo to its pr nt level. He laid out its streets, plazas, pars, and tre, finished the tower of the:. Queen (blockhouse No. 2), and constructed the blockhouse of the pt ya at Tulay, the military hospital, the light-house and various bridges A great part of this work waa done by prison labor, 400 prinsor ha-in been transferred from Manila to Jolo for this purp. i ad tion marked the beginning of a period of prospit to ay ad [!2]

Page  232 23, 2 b, THS HUIBTY O $ULUs tempolry peace with the Sulus. He reitabish friedly reitio the sultan and datus and had succe in m y undertkin. Ely in 1880 he fell sick ald to the regret of all parties left Jlt0 for ania (overnor Mrtin was relieved by Col. Rafael Gonzalez de era, the fourth governor of Sulu, on February 3, 1880. Rivera follow in the steps of Martinez, but circumstances changed as the sulta si It declined, and the sultana's political intrigues divided the state into two hostile parties. On Marl c 30 the scouts at the tower of the Qu were attacked- by a banl of SuWls, who killed 2 privates, and wounded I sergeant and 6 privates. However, the Sulus were repulsed, losig 12 men dead. The sultan, when calld upo to u nish the trasgre esponded promptly, went to Lu'uk and chastised them severely. In December of the same year Datu Pula reported some jurmentados in he suburbs, two of whom were encountered by the troops; one was killed and the ot]her fled: After the treaty of 1878, Jamalul A'lam estabished his official resid at Maynibung and acted in a dignified and creditable manner. He observed the terms of the treaty faithfully until his deth. He was intelligent, vigorous and willing to learn. He rceived Spani and ntive isitors with beittig courty and w respeted a nd endeared himself to everybody who knew him. Following the exanple of his father he published a, code of laws which is said to have ben milder than that of his predecessors. It is no doubt a modification or a reproduction of the code used by Pulalun and Jaimalul Kiram I. It was in current in the country at the time of the Spanmsh evacuation in 1899. Jainalul A'lam lived an honorable life and kt one wife only for the greater part of the time, He repudiated the mother of h is ldest son, Badarud Din, and loved tenderly Pangian Inchi Jaila, the mother of his second Amirul Kiram.- Inchi Jamila was not v beautiful, but she was attractive, intelligent, active, and comparatively young. She ssociated with her husband in the administration f affairs and wid considerable influence on the chiefs and council of state. She was very generous and tertaining, and on the respect of the majority of the datus. Wishing to secure the sultanate for her son, Amir l Kir, she attempted to alienate Badarud Din from his father d used her influence on the council to that end. Intrigees followed and the state divide into two factions, partisans of AmirTul Kiram and Pangian ILnchi Jamila and partisans of Badarud Din, the rightful heir. Jamalul iarn manag affairs with a strong hand and kept all parties united, but ely ine 1881 his health b o decine rapidly a his vorite wife meddled all the more with the ars of the tate. The knowledge of her hmes spread, and as it became known thfat J aul A'lam was atally falimg disorder aroe and a condition bordering on araly prvailed. Gn the 22d of February armed Sus attempt to of b e at I 1124]

Page  233 RULE OF SULTAN BADARUD DIN I11 233 they were repulsed and most of them wre killed. The sulan grew wor and disturbances increased. The frot of the plaza of Jol bame an arena of war, several attacks were made on the town, and ondition became so bad that Rivera requested renforements from the overnor General and permission to take the field against the hostile parties. The request was forwarded through the governor of Mindanao, who indo4ed the communication recommending that he be empowered to decide whether renforcements.were needed or not, and in cae they were needd, to lead the troops himself. This being grantld, the governor of Mindanao came to Jolo, reported unfavorably, and retLrned to Zamboanga. RULE OF SULTAN BADARUD DIN II Jamalul A'lam died April,8,:1881, but before his death he caused word to be sent to the governor of Sulu informing him that an attack on Jolo was imminent. At 3 a. m. on the 10th, the Sulus issued from the woods and made a general attack on the garrison, which resultd in failure and in the loss of 103 Sulus, who fell dead in the ditches. The garrison of Jolo amounted, at that time, to 7 officers and 753 men. All that Colonel Rivera could do was to protect the plaza and keep himself well informed about matters in general. On April 14, Panglima Adak brought: letters from Inchi Jamila relating to the succession to the sultanate. She announced that the late Sultan directed in his will that Amirul Kiram be ected sultan and she enavored influence the governor in his favor. Rivera expressed himlf in favor of Badarud Din, declaring thlis to be the only course he could take in conformity with the terms and intentions of the treaty. This put a quietus on the cause of dissension and the council of datus voted unanimously in favor of Badarud Din II who had just completed his nineteenth year. In the meantime, disturbances in Sulu had caused some alarm at Manila and prompt action was taken by the General Government. Brigadier-General La Corte, who was intending to inspect the fortifications of the south, was directed temporarily to assume command of the vemrnment of Mindanao and personally to conduct what operations it might be necessary to undertake on the Island of Sulu. La Corte e by the way of Cebu and Zamboanga and brought the Sixth IRe ent of Infantry from Cebu and two companies of the Second Regment of Infantry from Zamboanga. Soon after his arrival at Jolo, he addr a strong letter to Sultan Badarud Din requting the pnishment of the Sulus who attacked the Plaza of Jolo on April 10. Badarud Din responded promptly and commissioned Datu Pula to go to Lu'uk dt Tglibi and punish the stesors. This, however, was ot ied out, for Panglqm-a S dar of Luuk, who w boy e i toin pAae4l himself at the ief of Badruid 1)n and primi ttin e t125]

Page  234 234 TIE H$ELy o$ r Y SUL aggressors alive or ded The SultaE for of Maraja Abl d 11 4 ieulla, thre rad ki dat. The m and the of seve othe cie of Lu W then surrendl r themsliv and swore allegi ie to Spai. hi sa ando the chief datus later presett thsel before nte L C: and reatfirmed teir fealty to the SpaniSh (I0vernment. T Govo reneral subsequetly wrote a letter to the Sulta, chis I a and rtopigzig the sincere efforts of the later to C b tranquillity. In June, 1881, GeneraLa Co authorized the nstructi oi f the loopholed wall with towers anld mbrasures to omplethe the defen of the town. e recommende frc!uent reonrsissac of the intrior and target practi for the fores of thegaiso and ad the governor to strengen the hand of the Sultn and to rure from him at the fim time strict enforement of all obligations tha tended to prove the loylty of his ppe pe to the Spaish Gvr. G La Corte left Joo on the 29th of June, taking back thetroo of te Seond Regi nt of Infantry to Zamboanga. GoVemor Rivera was relieved on November 15, 1881, by COL XIir Gutierrez Soto. The new governor exhibitd nua' cooln and personal courage. He visited Mavmbung without mi it attempted in every way to strengten his friendship ith the Sultan and datus and to encourage dthem to have simnilr cnfide i e officials; but diensions among the Sulus and *t jealoy f Pd Inchi Jamila frusted al his efrs. Witou opposiion Din might, have ruled fairly well, but the plotti of nchi ah i and the nfriendliness of her party made a coward of hi. He beae inconsistent and &eemed at times to lack confidence in the S ih Government. le projeted a seret trip to Sandakan and te Spiars notified him that in case he left Sul without fthe pemission of the 'Government another sultan would be appointed in his ple. In January, 1882, Bangao was occupied by trops, an pt of the southern squadron was stationed there. In Ma Siai was similarly garrisoned. On April 29, 1882, Governor Soto b eme ill and left for Manila. He as relieved temporarily by Brig.-G.,s Pauin, was on a tour of inspection in the south and had come to Job to conduct some official negotiations with the sultan. On the 2d of Junl, Col. Eduardo Fernandez Bremon tl k o as governor of Sulu. Soon after this tiMe Sultan Barud left on a pilgrimage to Mecca and deleted his authrXity to D A id in conjunction with the Sultana Inchi amila. Govn B command was very eventful and diffiet. Colera me }=z and vrm th hle Arcipa Distinc ii e lent inh -nts Luk beame i 4rist tiland jts eat:o~~~~btbLbQ~~~18~ftl~Bp Il ^ f~~~~~~~~ttja~

Page  235 IULBE F SU LTAN BAPARUIP MN I came so frequently that they actually itd the town. The wall and towers and the defensive Barracks of V tory were fi e md completely checked the entrance of hotile Suls into the town. lrones and wandering part ies inftedl the suburlbs 4 hills an om munication with Maymxibung wasi broken. In August Governor fell ill and asked to be relieved of his command. In Septs a &eeral attack on the plaza of Jolo was planned by the Silu and confi assulmed a very serious aspect. For one whole month, it is id, the gates of Jolo were not opene. The charge of Sulu affairs at this critical stage was intrustd to Genel Panlin. who arrived at Jolo on October 1, accompanied by ol. Julian Gonzalez Parrado, who was appointed to relieve Colonel Bmon ernor of Sulu. The Suilt squadron was increased and the garrison of Jono reunforced. General Paulin conducted an expedition to Lu'uk to c fstie the rancherias of Tuntu' and Bwal, which were r portd to be the chief centers of hostility ad disturbance on the island. Ie first called at Maymbung, and pressl upon Datu Aliyud Di: n and the cucil the necessity of their th ng their part toward the punishment of:thegilt parties, and Datu Aliyud Din at.the head.of a small force mpanie the expedition. Troops were disemlbarked at Pandanlg-a ng, iKa dungdung, 'Tampukan, and Bwal; tley burned parts of these racheris and made some advances inland. lThe fighting was not sevre andthe Sulus harassed the troops to a considerable extnt. The navy cpeat with the troops, but the expedition was small and accomplished no signiicant results. - In his report to the Governor-General, General Paulin recommended the repetition of such expeditions in order to impress the Sulus ith the superiority of Spanish arms and to punish all transgressors. omeng upon the nature of the warfare the expedition experienced he onside the natural difficulties attending campaigns in the island asein dificlt to overcome. The art of war, hc said has no application as aanst Moros. The Sulus, he continued, are eiher treacherous wild beasts orfanatical heroes, according to the sentiment which at the time impels them to fight. They are savage warriors who hide in order to atta and rise at the feet of the enemy when least expected. The conl themselves in clumps of trees and cliffs or ditches, and when y to fight, diichargre their fireanes or throw* lances and bolos, while ig and dancing frantic war dances. They flee after an attack, but in their flight they attack the rear guard. Governor Parrado was a man of considerable ability and tact. o fidenee and peace were reitablished, the datus often cae to tw and thoe people attended the market in larg e nu e n Decebef, 1 Tata'an, on the nortlhwlstern cot of Tawi-tatw wi pib t Ont his way back fom Mecca, Sulta Badarud Din was fmet at S pore by a repreentative of the Philippine Gevermu neat ho urOe:

Page  236 236 TUl HISi lrTOy F rSuAj that he return to,olo by the way of Manila. The sultan dwinet Stating that tie orecent deatl of lis son made it in[rative for him to returnl dfireicly to Mavynhng, but he promised to visit Manila later. lie reached Sula ixn Jauarvy 13883. After his arnVval he exhibite vigor and watchfllflness and soon Irepared to go to Manila. This projat st'etled to exctie uinisu1Al dislurbanee, bohrering oil paluC at Parang and IiLu'lk, and for fear of undesirable consequences he changed hils mis-id aid gave Iupi the trip. Bty his pil'grimare to Me1ca, which was the first ever taken by a Sultan of Sulu, Badatrud I)in gained respect and influence, but no sa ty. Dl)esirl'n to strelgthel lis aulthority ad to imintate the EIuroean nation by organaizing a poelice Fforce for the sultalate. he brought 2 Egptian ofiicers aand 30 Sikhs filron Singapore Iand made artrangenelllts with an.nglith house in Sin gapore for the purchase of 2001( breech.-lloading rifles. The rifles cawused the Spantish i toverninent se tlanxietvy but throg investigatioll a, rid inqltuiry, prloved that they never went beyond Labuan-. lThie Sik'lls were lnot lpaid for tw moIno ths after arrival at Maymbung and left the s.erviel at once. Seucle organization meant a it step toward reform, but Badarud ')in lhad no education worthy of tle name and *lacked thle requisite abilllity, str-enIgthb, and character for carrying on such Ilneasures. SBoon he acquired tlhe opqtium habit and metrodl of licentious living,. H e finally lost his1 hold0 on affairs in general. Datu Aliyutd:)in remloved to: Matanda, whlere a large huse was built for hlim by the governor oflu;: Slll and a village of 400 people soo: ars) around his residence. The blokhouse -of Jovellar wa then built near the 'beach fo-r his protection and help. So far thle governor of Sulu addressed the sultan as his son, the sultn addressed tlhe governor: as h-is father and relations were frienday ud pleasant. But in J eune,.1883, three jurmetados slipped into the post killed two officers and wounded one officer and two soldiers before tIhe could be dispatlched. (:ovenllor Parrado addressed a strong leter to he sultan requlesting the ilmmdiate awnd proper punishment of the distrit from which the juralmcnteldos came. The sultan neither rsponde nor did he send in formation relative to the lace from which the jur enbda catne. Governor lParrado then took matters into his own hand, male an expedition to Taglibi and chastised its chief Sahibud Din. on aZter. two soldier-s were killed in tle vicinityit of 1jolf while ttting bamboo and another expedition wals iltudertajken to BuhlanginanI to punish the mnrderers. An expedlition was also made to S.oruth I bian, whre the pirate (ainjtma,umli was rported o have tPk ref ut. Jmni ws not forin at this place, but the local chiefs burned Jamn1's kuta and house an pTronised to deliverhim to the government when hie returne to Uhi Governor Parrado proved himself an efficient and ale administ to fHee reopized the absurdity of a policy of extermnation, and ft - scious of the lack f a uni'forttt, welk-plaund and setWtl policy on t t8:]

Page  237 $STUUiGL FOR THE SULTANATE part of the Genera Governme t toward Sutl. He rethaad t ate Moros posessed a form of civilization and culd not be trtd savags. He used his influene for igoo n tir of pea and emplo d his forces to reistablish peace with justic in tim of hostility. e wa strong and sagaious in most of the measures he undeok. Datu Pula, a strong chief worthy of trugt d a man of p, died before the expiration of the year 1883. Pula's influncee always tended toward peace with Spain and the support of Badarud Dm agpit hlis rival. His death was consequently a los to both sides. The slt and the governor continued on good terms of friendship during January and February, 1884, and the affairs of Sulu were conducted smoothly andt peacefully, but on the 22.d of Febary, 18l84 Badarud Din died; the state was soon rent by dissension and another period of trouble d disturbance followed. STRUGGLE FOR THE SULTANATE The question of a successor to Sultan Badarud Dn II proved to be very vexatious, both to the Sulus and to the Spanis Governent. At that date the eligibles to the sultanate belonged to three houof Sultan Jamalul Kira In 1,the house of Sult Shakirul Lh, and that of Datu Putung, the son of Sultan Alimud Din I. Thee houses were represented by the -three candidates, Raja Muda Amnirul Kira, Datu Aliyud Din, and Iatu i n arun arRashid.;: Amirul Kiram was the oldest brother of the three sons of Sultan Jamalul A'lam from Pangian Inchi Jamila. He was born on the 27th orf March, 1868, and w at one time the rival of Badaud Din I, his older brot her sultanateremained in the line of Jamalul Ki I for four consecutive generations and the majority of Sulus hd come to consider the sons of:JamalulA'lam s the direct heirs to the throne. The influence of Pagiang a ncJhi Jamila was a strong actor in itself and the claims of Raja Muda Amirul Kiram welr vigorously psed upon the council of state. ' Datu Aliyud Din was the son of Data Israel, the on of Sut Shakirul Lah. He uredthat the desenedants of Sultan Shl rul ah had an equal right to the sultanate with the decendants of Jamalul Kiram I, and protested against tihe injustice of eleting a minor in prefelrence to older and maturer mcnhers of the family. D)atu liarun ar-Rashid lhad nlo sultai ini his line for five generaions all, eonsequently did not press hisi claim to the succes He w a (:1'lioll of Pangan nand a close friend of Jamalul A l He was the only livi signer of the trea of 187$3 but since a tha t dat he had removed to Pa, where the Spanih Gov-vrn lent it s hint with the rute of the om populaion of Pala dal, d mmj

Page  238 238 THE HI)TORY OW SULLU tlhe neighboring southern islands, and where he had mde.e ry tcred itabl'e servic. I:)at't Aliyvud l)in and lis partv were so determnined in teir pi 0n;~ l~to 'angian Ell`d l'i Jlrnila anld Raja MAufd Amirul Kiran that theiy wold n. ot eltertain an plposals of comproi or ttn he coun l of at t Mayinhtlung. Trlhe country was agitate and all datus and su} rdinate chiefs took sides with o onor the other of the two (andidates. The na.jo itv of datls and li e were in fao r of Aniirul Ki arm. I)atus Pula-pa,.'- * UytmIltung, Martacln ak lhi, and Julkanvlayn, whlt were s a rule uni td and who wielded tei strongslt author-ity on the islan next to that of -*the sultal, retained almost neutral, but atllerit indlorsl the laim of Aliyud l)in. In genteral the southern and gretnler half of tie island sutipported Alirul Kiram of Maymillng, while tie nolertlern half favorl A livudl linu, who Ihad in the m3eantim e nloved his residei ce to Patiku OGovernor 'arriao offeredl is good offices and tried to overcome the -: **. dlifficultty hby ggesting that AmiA irual K ir eLCkted sultan, but that.-0;i xAliyutd Din should act as regen t during the iniori ly of the former.,.HlIe wentt so far as. to name a new and gert ll council of state to met at Mavylbung andt eide ide the qulestion. Hie sIb tte is p trs to boti parties threatening to leave thel ton their fate in case they did not comply with his atdvice. Thle Maxlbung artI accepted the gvernor's Jproposition, but the Patikul party did not;.nsequently both c andidate.s were proclaimied sAltans, one at Patikul and one aat Maymbung alnd both prepared to figh. Ambuscades, skiriish.es, surlprise, rhberi and cattle stealing followed. Governor Parrado remained neutra until -i^.::: July when he made friendlly visits to MNambu-ng and Patikl and in ~Ii t-0counseled concord and compromise. Datul Harun arrived in Siu on ^*'*-~ i the 17th of November and both parties solicited his supprt and co-.A:.n-suited himt; but he failed to effect any agebement. A little later he accompanied the governor of Sulu to Mtaila where he reited mulh alttention becaauie of th.le sueccess thiat attended hi s servies at Pilawan. lHe reanlained in M;nila abou0t one month and retlrned t liv t Iam;da filled with a strlog desire to better himself and his country. A year passed and no agreement could be reache., nor did the S1p idh iover r:0 a~n ment officially recognize any of the claimants. Amlirul Kinta indulge in licentiousness and Aliyud Din took to opilm.; (''Governor Parrado during his administratilon completed the iEf Cte Espa ad the mareket building aYd lmnprove thi: e fr M n XI1 a:nd the Princess of Asturias. The majority of the ni house we replaced by better structires of brick with iron roofs. A sytem of t r was~ 'works was put in and olo was de lad n opn por On July 23, 188 aParrado was suceeded by Col. Franio Caia. Goverlnr Astilla followed the polli of his pateawi or dna nrni I nreutral. Amirul iratm had in t ie nieantilne tnaI e. 111 flo d 13(0]

Page  239 USTRUQLE MO TU BE SIITAWATA attacked Aliyud Din. The lates p h e d d O remained to defend Patikul and its kuta. The M bug to tly outnumbered their adversarics, defeated them,, 4re d th, a dd burnmed the settlement. Datu Aliyud Din fled to Basil and hv for a while withl Sharif Aqil. Rja Muda Ami re then ruth d the1 Spanish Govelment to recogniz his sucal ion to M the 1 i a commilioJn l U W "as sen ftr(> anital to investiga the, matte rS on it. After five months serice as oveor of Sulu Uof Ie til skedl to be relieved at the end of the yer nd Col. Ju succeeded him in January, 1886. Governor Arols devoted himself to his work with ungual entusia and exemplary energy. Public works and a tion received his t attention. Trees were plante, the streets were inpro the gutrs and sewers were repaired and renewed, and the town was kept thoreghly clean. The deiatt list of- the garrison was rdced from 1 in 1885 to 51 in 1886. A good road ws constructed outside th w al d heautifu! street was extended from the southern gate of: t Tulay and Asturias on both sides of which coconut ad ade tr wr planted. 7Tlie streets of Tulay were planned on the sae sae as - of the walled town, and fillings on a large scale were co or this purpose. Excellent waterworks wer completed and iron pip wer laid throughout the waled town and Tulay for the use of the r nr an:d -the public. - As a result of the report f the commiion appointed o inge StIlu affairs and the subject of.iccession to the sultaae, directis were received from Madrid and Manila to the effect that laWu should nbe appointed; subsultan and Amirl! Kiram sultan, and both he requested o go to Manila, tke th oath offideli to a and,be invested with authorit by the Governor-General; D atu i had made lhimself very agreeable to Goverors Parrado ad Ctll d a strng friendship hadgrown up betwn them. Arola son to like Harun and trusted hl. Aminru Kiirm w then old and his age probably suggested the necesity of having a would be competent to tke chargge of afairs and who wld be fa able to the policy of the Splih Government. The wish and op' of the Sulu nation and the desire of the ambitious sul a to t herself were not fully respted and could not be approvd, dictate of the Spanish Goverment had tbe complid Wdith.Hu, as migt have been expected, obeed the royal di ti. irul Ki refused to go to Manila, considered it a humiliation fc& hia to ha a regent and to be compelled to visit Manila for the approval o t SpAnish Govermiet. He felt that he was tle rightful heir td he choice of the Sulus aid that the treaty of 1878 well g1irde h and gran the Sitlus the full privileg of lectg t r 'f e.~~~~~~rI

Page  240 240:)TI I Ti$~Y oF SUL!T Suu eIrnhanrurr vid itsf tin his ion and the ntlion W and eou*ast n:p to ndirecotions )Mrejndiea to their own rights tdt natio"inal honTr. RULE OF 3ULTAN HARUN DI)atu 1uartni went to Ma:nila alone and liovertor Arolas recoainste huis appotinltent B Sailtaint. (otWvert1-(Gewhral errer cabled to Madrid and obtatinetd authoriy for thias a fction on S,.eptember 11,t 186. Harun X*tI i tOMhtialv aItIy )1I U1 in Manila ai Sldtant tof Su bu ad i i appSg mnt on the 4thi of tSepten er was attae tile occasion of solal formaitv. Sultan ttairi platd his hliands upon thle Quran, his Minister Sheikh Mul aS bitl A tha d tiheia lng. anrd his high Excellency the Governor4eneral adminiastered to him the oath in the following form: "Do ye swear to uphod stefntly $ItI the tipulatons covetanted in the eapitulations and to gie fsitful owditince to Jiis Majesty the KingT" To this Sultan!hrun answered: I sar to complyV< with the term of the capitulations and with the commands Ef His Majesty, the King." And 1i is Excrt lency replied: "May God and men help ye if ye do this and if ye do not, then may God and the Government punish you!" Silt tan II a ririsVd at Jolo i Oct)obert and, es ttld by 20 Spani soldiers, one gunb)oat, and one steam launch, lie pr(oeded to Parang whelre he explcte~d the Suluis to declare their allegiane to lim. However, thloeir reftiplo wat not tas waras e exeted and he sor n found it to his advantage to rtire toi Jolo. Trie Sulu chiefs appealed to arns and prepa re4d to defend tlie. rights of Amirid 'K irami at the cot of their liveS Desiring to support * his nominee in the sulanate Gornor Arla visited ltarang in cllpany with Sultan HIarunl on the 2d day of November and an additional nutber of chiefs, including Pantlgi Damang. swor allegiance to Sultan Harun. *Sucih measures aroused the activ-ity of Amirnil irain and his rty and several places in Parang were attacked by the Ml bug fors and colnsiderable unrest prevailed. tlarun's sultanate snted unaeptabe to the great majority of datus, and hostilitie aroe in ma I iti. Mutlrders and jramentado attacks occurred in lthe vicinity of Jolo. The (da; of liw'isan and Timallm were attacked and redud, the sett emens burned, and nmutch blood was shed. Hoshtilii extende to Sil and the kuta of l)atu Iliyang was atacked. In February, 1887, a forc of 3,0 Sulus started from Maymbung and attacked Jolo. The grr son repuls<ed the attack, but juramenlados and hosile bands hara s the town. Sma expeditionts reconnoitered Tapul, Lugus, and Sias; bitt io active me is* couxld be taken against Mamhtlung until rcinforeeents could rive from Zamboanga and Kotabato. At that time General Terrero headed a capaign mi thhe upter M in danao Valleyt against Datu VW an d force were d wn rmmg and Sdlo to coiiperatu at Kotabato. Wilt the remun of*t h in Aptil the war yeels whitcw operate on th Ii o R ive I t to

Page  241 RWix OF $ULTAN HITARUN Jolo awnl GEvernor Arolas beWan prepartions at onc to t A I Kirar who was strongly intrenched in Maymbung. The gubo somue marines, and Sultan Ilaril'is small force atacked the settlem y sea. (4overnor Arolas led the ]and troops himself and marche a t MayImbung at night. The Morm of the interior haras the6 adv i troolpEs front all sides, bout everything that could be reahed wa burn and tre than 40 Sutts iere d'isabled or killed before fort of - blung was reached. The latter was a square 75 meters on eac side, built tartly on land and partly in the water. Tlhe walls on the land side were eontstructed of coral rock, while those toward the sea were built of doble rows of piles filled behind with stone and earth. Large cannon and breech-loading rifles were abundantly used by the Suls and one rapidfiring gun commarnedthe main approach on the land side. The fightin was fierce and heroic on both sides. Out of a large force of 8ulus defending the fort and town 250, lay dead after the battle -a over. The Spaniards lost 17 dead and 96; wounded. The se force, after cag or the Chinese population, set fire to the whole town and reduced it to ahs. Governor Arolas was },;ghly praised in Manila and Madrid and w laIr promoted to be a brigiadier-general. If military operations, war, and death are effiient and sutable mleasures to daunt the Sulus, coerce their will, and make thm yield to superior authority, this MLaymbung campaign should eertily have produced the desired result. Many thought that the moral ee t of itis victory was excellent beyond measure and for that reason entertin great hopes. Governor Arolas felt the cause of Spanish soverignty and suzerainty to be amply vindicated and Spanish honor strongly and proudly upheld, but as early as the 9th of Ma another fig red him in the face. Arolas and Sultan lHaun had to march againt Par andg invest the kuta of Panglitna Damang. After the surrender of Damag an expedition was sent to Lati and another to Tapul Island. This ltter campaign was extremely difficult and trying. The count a rogh the forest tlick, and the enemy fierce. Panglira Sayad would not recognize Harun's sultanate and would not obey the mandate of the governor of Sulu, so his chastisement was decreed and Tapul was attaee Sayadi and his men fought like tigers at baya and Governor Al w compelled to lead his troops in person. Sayadi was defeated ater wo dys' fighting, 90 of his men were killed, and the fort wa demoliid. The Spanish casualties were 13 dead and 155 wounded. Sultn Haun reonoitered ithe shores and interior of the island, detroyed small for and obtained the surrender of several chiefs. On the 29th of July, 1887, Pangian Inchi Jamila p sherlf at Jolo and expred her submision a4d that of Raj uda Amiral Kiram to the governor of Sulu and to Sultan Harun. Govemi Arrlot insisted that Amirul Kiram should come peonally ad pexn his [133]

Page  242 242 T " 0KTOV O SULUW surrender, and a ^lowed him t das i which he could coe with and impunity. After her return Pangi In&ci J nlIa ent S!it lHarun the 1f of the sulta; but neither the chies nr Amirl Ki ra himself greed to the ps onl surrender reqat. Gove or Arolas was disps oto make Spansh soverel fq over Sulu a f absolute a omplete, and required implclit obmiiefme The Sul:s Wl a diffrent vie of the rpetive rights of the two govermnts n continued their resistance. Anofier campaign was necessary on Siai Island, and atu iyang orand snwy Mom et killed. Another expedition was (lirected againtst Kadungdug and sothern Lu'ulk and another aginst the Island of P'ata. Innumerable hars ips were sustained by the troops and many Sulus vwere killed. Suit l an a and his forces coipwrated with tete Spanisll force and rennite inacessible place. Tthe partisans of the young laja Muda Amiru Niiram were supposed to have ben completely vanquiw and the you prine was expected to humiliate himself before Sultan Harun at y time. Such hope were, however, fal: s for on October 30 Biwal the nortlern Lun'u district had to be punished. After some ihtg the Sulus evacuated Bwal and fled to thte mountains and 53 house were reduc~d to ahes; n11or aS hiS slfflicient for in- 1888 expitions amoting in some caes to 1,500 troops, comprising f:om two to four zMparms of a-rtlery, were conducted against Purul, Pikl, Taglibi, Buhanginan, Pndan, Sari'ul, and lPigi-Dahu. Hundres ad probably tholulnds of Sulus were killed, but notwithstanding Arde's cruel efforts to fotrce Sultan Hlartun lpo the people resulte in filure Thle Sulrus scorned Sultan fluirun and higs patent suprema, penis in their 'tos....e.......... 'r in their resisteance and kept their aiteianee to Amirul Kiram. True to tleir traditions thle Iremained faithful to the candidate wh o righht to the sutcession was in their estimatio llad conviction strlonr than any other claim hacke byw the forces of General Arolas. Before the end of the year 1886 Datn Uyurg invid Ieu Alud Pin back to Patikul, where he remained for about one year. Datus Kalbi and Julkarnayn joined the party of Aliyud Din and dede him against Amirul Kiram and Sultan Hlarun. In 1887 Patikul and Lati were attacked by Governor Arolas and )atu Aliyud Din fled to Siasi and Laminusa, fron there hle returned, late in 1888, to Bunbun and Patikufl; th he lived quietly until hi deith, about 1892. The administrlation of Goevernor Arolas was the lon1 st in duration, the mtht eventful, the most interestin and the mnost warlike adtinistr tion Sulu had umder Spanish rule. The difficult station:the en found at his arrival his tmisunderstanding of the Sulu cha cr a underestimation of SuIu Public opinio, hi integrity, his exalted op of Spmnish s ereigntv and honor, his disregd of tr 4 p cut

Page  243 RULb OF SULTAN HA UN hits ability a comman er of trp, ad his warlie hra, I to make a picture vivid i its colors and unique m its mkeup vernor Arol ca not be hld responsible for wit di t i prior to his appointmnent us gveor and the p ylly he followed w proa ly dietated for hitn in general fom anila; but it is di ult to c exve of a man executing his duty with such vgor, earne d thorogW netS as General Arolas did, unl his heart and soul approved of sui1 a policy and added enthusiiam and zest to the impetus of duty. Furtier mo1Je, there are many re ons for believing that Governor Arol reeommnended the main lines of the policy he plrsued At all even he - personates, as far as the object of thi work is concerned, that cobined agency of government which is responsible for the significant events of tIis administration of Sulu affairs. In commenting upn his poli it would therefore be proper to refer to him personally, wit t the lat intention of fixing the blame on anybody, or indeed of finding fault at all, but with the sole imtention of eliciting the facts and wing the actual condition of affairs in their proper light. In going over the long list of xpeditions and campaigns educ by General Arolas and of the casiltes on both sides one can not h but epress admiration suprise, or blae ato the justice ori d;; vf. twe p.olicy iursue ts motie, conduct, land effect. ' if e. treaty of 1878 was still in force-and there is no reason to suppose h at it was abrogated-why did Governor Arolas institute n les and conditions pertaining t t the sutanate and render compliance with l he necessary for qualification and confirmation? If by virtue of e prerogative of sovereignty it was: deemed ncessrar to interfere wit Sulu internal affairs -and customs for a beneficial and g pr why was it not right then to oppose and heck Datu Ayud Din as on as it became evident tht e majority of the Suls wan t Kiram as sultan -and-Aiyud Din had refused to honor the gove \ proposals and recommrendations? Why was it not considered iht for the Government to object to war between the contening paries fr o the beginning and to assume for itself all the powers and prerog e of a protector or arbitrator? If the good of the Sulus ws the ultm obaect sought twhy was not the rightful heir sppo from h rning and advatage taken of such an opportunity to enlist th e smpaty of one party, at lest, on the side of the Government, strten -e weak head of the nation, and bring order and tranqillity out of and anarcht y? Apparenljy the worthy cause of peace and Sulu welf were comple ly overaooked, while thhemuain object of erting power id in SUre cy was pressed and prsceute at the oxp e of a mxd 4 ul and war with every trong chief throughout the hole Ahipel Gov ernor Alas trampled on the treaty, as arbit ry and

Page  244 244 TFEB HItiSrRit (0F S IUt 00;G 'authorlty, and treated noncomplianceb with his wig 1 as dis lty insurrection, This attitude might have been due to his ptenuli miliiTy training and id, but it was certainly unjust and overie ring. Na tions can not be tranmpled under foot without bringing about rntm nt andL retaliation and peple can not be treated as privatt in a cmpa of d;isp'tlhnari s or Jeportadoe. 'Ftie result of sul twrion hat a( nd.,;:XS tffth e t ffct of abuse is enmity, Suc ell itod do not tend to civilize a country or better its chances,f tIrogres. 'They kil: ambition, harden the lheart, and dull the sentses. The' tirst step towiard lte prog of a subordinate nation is imitation of its superior; but initation is generally engendlered! by admiration andl kindly inlfluence, and cruel warlik ar: to kills measures are ceraily i ton kill S(ch i to encies..',- *- Siulu militaryn operations ceased soon after the arrival of GovernorGenetral \Weyler ill Manila, aild sone of the Jolo force s were wididraln. ( rnetrli Arla. left Jolo! in 189;3 and was succeeied by Col. C r Mat tos who w s in turtn followed IbyX (:le Venanclo lternandez before he -end of tihe satre year. The scicessors of eneral Aroas did not have ilatr mlotiv s for lupholdling Ilaruis sultanate against overwhelming ods. Thl' sv in himl a wealk and vacillatin g sultan who was a burde to the state. Conseqruently SultHarn arn was relieved in 1894, and he retulrne to his i ome in Palawa n. l)uring his uincumleny Sultan Harun lived at Mubtu i thle vieiniVtyI of Jolo. The lhous }Ie ocupid ws the;ist building ever occupied by a Sutl sultan. ie was ambitious and illiug to refornt his peo ple bi le never had a strong fllowing and ~ir.'l;~w verwas veyri unfortunate in tha lie had to fight so hard and so oftet for a,' nomrinatl alale..giane and filis s upport from his people. RULE OF SULTAN JAMALUL KIRAM I11: Riaja Munda Amnirul iirain, who fought and suffered so long for the throne of his father and H brothler, suceeded Sultan larnt and asstn the nanme of Sultan Jamalul Kiral I I. Ie was not obliged to go to Manila in order to be vested with proper authorit y the GovernorGeneral, but it seems that lie pledged himself ill one way or another to pay so e tribute to the Spanish Government, and consequently a dcc was issuetl by Governor-General illanco on March 1 894, 4 directng a general censu's of the Moros of the Sulu Archipelag aind the colteion of a tax of 1 rel from each individual. The prtoeeds of this tribute, after edtlulting the allowances made for the iiaterpreters and collecto were to be-levoted to the development of the institutions of Jot, and especially to the construction of roads. It is said thsat the su was unable ntid unwilling to colleet the tribute so decreed, but that he p4 from his own purse the sulm of PV 1~O000 or its equlivalent on the sis of A:; ea population of 100,000 and at the rate o i real per i. Tbe About 5 cents, Unt. States currency. [13l]

Page  245 RIUi OF SULTAN JAMALUL KIRAM UX resunm I,ed.) The Sulus' adherence to the cause of Jamalu l Kiram 11 w: not based on any persnal influence he exerted on the paple, tut on the intfluerne of his iiiotlhtr and the people's devotion to thle house of a;lul iiram I. Daiu Aliyud Din's claim was tleretialy..strong,.t for various reasons his party weakened; while Amirul iram, though a: fugitive, gradually gained in influence and rose to poer. The administration of Governor Hernandez was the iongt n duration next to that of Governor Arolas and was, on the whole, peaceful and tranquil. (n one oceasion in 1895 hostiities broke out with Datus Julkarnayn and Kalbi, and the Sulus of Lati and Patikul attacked the town of Jolo causing. several asualties. Hlwever, peae was o. restored by Governor-General Blanco and no further hostilities urred. Governor Hernandez built the direct road, known as the Asturif: which leads from the gate: of Lthe walled tow to Fort Asturis. Abo ut 1897 General Hernandez was relieved by Col. (later Brig.-Gen.) Lis IHuerta, the last Spanish governor of Sulu. Spain evacuated Sull in May, 1899, and Jolo was garrisoned by Amer ican troops on the sa me day, On the. 2t Au t oe J. C. Bat concluded a treaty with Sultan Jamalul Kiram II, gener ally known the "Bates Agreementl," 'and the sovereignty of Sulu psedfrom pin to the United States of America.. 1 See Appendix XVIII, on regulations relative to taxes and imports on natives and im- migrants in Sulu; also Appendix XIX. on the protocol of Sulu of 1877t between Sa Germany, and Great Britain; Appendix XX, on the protocol of Sulu of 1885 btw; Spain, Germany, and Great Britain; Appendix XXI, decree of the General GoenmntIn regard to payment of tribute of Sulus; Appendixes XXII and XXIII on r igh;ts v foreigners engaged in pearl fishing in Sulu water. [1371

Page  246 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  247 II I i I 11. IHIAI lA I[S AT T F lE slME OF SPANISH EVA(' A'TION The the nacit Phe cauas for awich Governoxr Arolas shi4 the bl of ve h at panis01 s(ld1elN and killed some thousanc of Mor t f ny 4 * f 1 The tenacitr with lhich the Sulxs irested Spansh doination, ther obdurate opposition and bravery in battle, and their obstiiate aiwye resistance in peae, baffld all Spanish efforts to subvert their pliti l orgianization or gain a single pint of advantage without paying dearly for it. The Sulus succeeded at last in inagrating ther didate as Sultan of Sulu. Their laws and the administrati of their internal affair were not interfered with. Ther relgn ial con ditions, national usages. and cust ms were unaf ictd by any eh e haP soxever. Spanish influene and jutrisdiction did not.et nd yd the limitsf of tle garristn and no material reform or pro gres reh It the Moro communi ty through that clanlnel. o effort w made by Sin educate the Sulus and no adequate easure wi pro iby her goernor which was applicable to the needs of the Sulus and aptable to their ideas. The Sulus felt that there vws a strong inclination on the p of the Spanish Government or some of its recognized agen to cane the ir religion and destro their national unity, and consquently the4 never Ih complete confidence in Spanis n officers and rprentatites and rpulsei everr influenee that tended to establish close relations tw n them and the Christians of the Spanish garrison. No tax or tribute wa collcted from the SuBus, thd tert was exempted from the operation of the laws of the Philippine I nds. Sulu imports could come in Suln craft fre of dut and unhamll any vexatious regulation. Duties could be colltecd byv Sulus at allpot lnoccupied htlbr pain; and;if IStilities could have n blwruht t gan end, the SulUS in ttheir pur uit of the Iptful V'ations of life, might have felt no appreciable dificulty or inconvotieinw frotm i Sanish liaA tiln of JloI expept tile loss of tbe reventiues of tIe Irs of Jolf1 ani Siasi and ome control over t he trade f the Chin*. Slavery neman4ed an establishiX inststioe of t a d lit nm tinned practice aong the Mo w eier d noun r t The p arl udist eai a in th hands of t he tis asd 4 and ell deale paid a vanabl tax to ta e sultan nd lt adieti *i las:IO:.. o I I 0 -i ~*

Page  248 248 THoB HII T O 8ULU OCViai~iir, inv:1 of (:}:iriSoan P'iracy xWs completely sppfel. an:d 11e hitV t~~B;.. a;:r m unities and the capture of (hristia ns as l av bv S tts at the mcnquest of Job in 1876. Before the campaign of 186 the sultan ruled with a strong a: d, livt il state, ws pergo and had cons derable wealth. The pri ipm daturs lived at J, 0 and thie Sulu fores were unite Jamalul A remained rich until his deatlh, but subsquent war and liegltius reducled the estate of hi;s SonO. Trle separation and disperion of th datui, howeer, weakenedl tlhe Sultlg more thlan any odher ca A. b datu began to fel ore or lme independent of the other, their jaosia increased and bca re inten and effectul; their forces ere united, and eah chie f relied solely upon his own fortifati ons ad following.:lniated action was ignlred or Ibcame impractic l. the subordinate chiefs began to feel their importanc, gradually a.eed tleir rights, and assumed greater dignity and pow r in pro rtion to their pr perity an'd the following th1ey coul c mmand. Jamalul Alan: ruled firmly, h every chief under his control, and held the state intt Three chiefas outide of his hou were suRffiient to sign the trty he nmade with Spainp. Thew were I)atu Hlarun, Datu aja Lawut Zay ul 'Abidin (Asii),i thale fath of l atus Kaibi and Julkarnayn, and Dtt Mtuluk Bandaraa Pula, thle son of the famtous Datu Daniel, and the fatlher of the present Datu Pula-pula of Mubu or T1andl. No w araj or hadji fig ur ed^ pronlnently in those days nd the panglima serv as state m essnge;s. As soon as it became kinown that Jamalul Aam was dying a condition bordering on anarchy arose a nd disrder prevailed as in the days of Badarud Din. Things grew mworse iduring the regency of Datu Aliud I)in, and woe stll dring the civil strife between the latter and aja Muda Am:irul Kiram. tera. Ge Aolas and Sulltan Harun had to figt every chief in his turn and every island by itself. Each chief felt independent of he ret of the countlsy and hiad h own id as t who should be appointed sultan. Eacih datu was dcfended by his own men only and each had to meet the Spanish forces v himself 0 unaided. Even Maynlbung had to face the mighty foe with forces which could b assenmbled from the immediate neighborhood only. Small detachents did sometimes reinforce the forts of their neighbors% but the proportion of help so extended to te actual s trength of force that could have }t ' united was so insignificant tlhat no acco(ult canl taken of such cotprati on. Tl1hus the total or confmbinedI strength of Sulus was reducd to miallt insignificant and disunited entitiies; the er of sistance to u Atie invasion was diminished, but at the same time the Sutptiility of the country to foreign influenct bae mnil. It w a ter f w General Arola to defeat one party or chief alne, bhut thi of 1140]

Page  249 ATTU Ou F Tor bJO0 g 0; u iu s S fightig each chief -by himself defated his purp and efo in the Unconsciously, Spain brougt o an anormal condition o f aai in Sulu, extremely difficult to manage and for wih she never found the proper remedy. The ruling sultan, tough well support by the greer mass of the people, had neither the knowledge, the tact, nor the strength necessary to correct the w orong (one, and thinp in general te rater to the worse than to the better. ThIe parties c ated by the civil trife of 1884 existed in 1899 with very little change, and their enmity had become deeply rooted and ineradicable. The whole normhen prtion of the island east of Jolo and eastern Tandu reprented a distinct part unfavorable to Jamalul Kiranl II andat times seemed to wholly under the leadership of the two brothers, Datus Kilbi and Julkarnayn. Similar parties existed in Tapul, Lugus Siai, aI -the Tawi-tawi? Group M4y sett;lements having two chiefs, one representing the sultan md the other the hostile party. To add evil to existing wrong, the elliefs txk advantage of this condition and vacillated in their allian from one prl to another as it seemed to thlem mo advantageous for the time being. General Arolas fought both parties, incurred the bitter enmiy of all chiefs and gained for- himself and the cause of prosperity no advant whatsoever. All the Sulus. hated Spain at heart and welcomed the end of her sovereignty, with the hope of having more peace and bettr ations with her successor. SPANISH POLICY ATTITUDE OF THE MOROS.: The vivid picture presented by the history of Sul thrills the reader with seenes of horror, cruelty, and misdirected eres. On one page we read of how a rich -and mighty sove stre tched his hand aross the border of his domain into the territory of his weake r coveted his jewels and treasure, and, being refused, strk terror,:adolation, and destruction in the home of the latter. On anoter page we read how, as if possessed by a mighty demon, that weak and pettvy ki -neigh summoned the powers of the wind and sea to his aid, mared n his strong enemy in the night, assailed him while unaware, robbed his hous, and carried his people away to work for his homely sustenance. The mighty sovereign akens in the morning, d in his rage cuses his wiretehed neighbor and swears vengeance upon him anld Is wickd felow nomads of the sea, but the rich and mighty lord of the nolth has enemi and rivals in the west and far south and does not da lea his hm unguarded. Part of his available warrirs he thought woul sid ficient and ther valor and priotilsm er cont d o an addit nli aset and a sure guaranty of ictry. The sails o a ti fit w unfurled and chariots d steeds were prold Ir the tiu hal t into the enemy's pear la. But i mi hty sa rd e fafi (141]

Page  250 a cal we, time an at chapter \ r' The St s4id d ng of layjan of prominent tpe, ie:i:: Bralhan pntritand0 broult g ) p to rnaturitv utler the oteedan instructor. Ie retedt his idols as erly st I for more thn aIctllturyl prior to the artival of aspi and devoteld worshiippr o: Al)lalii Ta'ala," the Ahnig according to th:e tahi:ng of the proplet Mollamme aI Hle had laws,!n thlisheu governmltenti, an organizedI and a syts0 oIfedation. 1 tradtle lie wB a lint both land antid yielded him plety.1 e He d trtl the forests intot boa:s and utilized the:urrents f the s a ofj lie wind. aatin cane ural to him, an in h lands and trade lhisX parls for silks and sics:. s ti spce. 6He 'hi experience, andills knmle g Bof tim world wa by to one islan or:to one limnited group] of isleands. The: dominioni, of tthet Sultn: of:;.^lu was eompl wBorneo 1rle: tpeathroughout the Archipelago. Btw one man. True, he Sulbs had no stalndin aXmy, had innumerlle loatis, 0frts, and fireans, n was a. soldier and St4? a sailor, always armed, Ind aIwa~' to, asms. his imn'uwdiate neighbors w ~agans. or "i htimnd t ihuk lie wsora e maser of te of thfe southern as. W ws chivalrous in his ma his fTrien& wth iberal hos pitaity:i biut he wastd; kindness on hiss eemy. The enemy of the ta e;was "Allahui Ta ala. and n life was deeed too dar, cause of home aGod. It was th ide.f lis ort bIood rushing lthiough lhis veins d gn fiio tt lam e and heabtd ahis b bto h te boilin,int. Th amo(ng thieves, Band a -nation ma:e up cof.: w p[i Itm for adig nity, I, U~ anf spidel frl. I he Sub a;fire. wosie an he will"f0 "t0 j t on a his infi 15aa~0 and a hJ o at, lit0 '' state, an:er and fi mdtii m te andI a

Page  251 MI$ XTAK -F I $SPANISH W it T'lJe Shltlts watclitt the prore(s of 1*gjai at Cebu, Panay, and Itlzotl, saw hw tlher 1 agan chiefs n were suibugatl., and wita the Pufion of ioheir brothemr Moamnwledans fromt Manila, They had playL ttlis r1le theellin:~Ives, and witen th1e enemly reached their shores thty needed no word of explanation or stinllus to resist ex t tat whhheyh Uq 1alia iln their breeding and general make-up. Spain instigad til ities &lan c-veted tlleir domain; it wms not their part to yield but it was Sp'ain's cltear duity to rehsteablisl peace before the evils resulting from war outweighed the god obtined. This she failed to do, iad th S ulus were invaded repeatedly and harassed constantly. Bitter anim ity filled the hearts of the Sulus, and a desire for revenge prompted them t retaliate; and w-hat ca-n be expected frtni people of their rae and civilization except cruelty and barbarity in war! We know hat "war is hell" amlong highly civilized nations and why should we expfet of the Su1lus a moral conduct out of proportion to their intellectual development Iad the influences of their civilization and religion? The life an 'infidel" was not a matter of religious concern to them at all. The; Prophet himself led his people against nonconformis and pronmide tilem reward instead of pardon or tintresssio0n before God. The Quran taughrt themi that patriotism is a part of their religion, and ve of: 11home and family left no pllace for cowardie and no patienc wit hunliation. They therefore fouglit well and fought cruelly. They raided the enelmy's country, robbed him, and carried awy. man sla Slavery was also sanctioned by their religion and formed an established custom or method of punishment which took the place of imprisonment and saved the expense of jails and guards. Humanity called for different action on both sides; but it evidently made no impression on the Sulus.!Not satisfied with just measures of war and direct retaliation, they developed an abnormal propenit for piracy, invaded the Spanish domain frequently for the procureent of slaves and for other wicked purposes, and Committed unspeakble horrors: and atrocities. But to treat evil with evil adds no virtue: to th crdit of the other side. We rarely read of wounded 3Moro after an e e men, d, strange to sa all wrounds of Moros were invariab l;- I h atelv fatal. If few Moros were ever kindly trated after battle, crtainly many more wvre promptly dispatched in a manner that terminated, suffering and life at the same time. MISTAKES AND DIFFICULTIES OF SPANISH RULE IfHad Spain exerted more effort to increasie te Joo grnison in 1046 and trused the charge of this garrison to a able and ur have bee lost, and in all pro baility the trouble with Sum oul hae b ene ef th::f t: v' t:th hi 7i29~ ~,1l0h

Page  252 25*2 5 T IIR 1 TOR 8MI;' instead of this eourse, wea ei m mTe i rg with thwe na a g iat 4aftfairs U }]a&e of erma t and trog at an ilnsignifr t tya,! was tad-e wi: tht Subs wbt n in tio i he part of Spain of pig it perm y and with hno h t it out ibe ket the a bke b the lSuis. SimilarbWt; mistake were frequentlv' w pn an a eerue human sife marked with an tounding profu n of bsled and terrible0 I of life andr evil of all orts, w prol o for:th space of three hundred twet1y vear wi thout ay avan thats worth considering. In cnsue c iof all', this, the Sut! b K1i ptred to th- e Outi world as a bl]k devil tincanaNt borne) iln mishi and condi r in iniquity; wit'ut a:hulman IhaLracteriftic, barbamrlous a fi 9 ndsi second etousin the orang-u tan of Borneo. Thle Snub had no ma or.-^.chne of pleaig his cause bese n in;ternatio curt ai:ns etrr could ot hbe leard or registeredl I a for i hand r press. ie wa not met except wit a predetelrmiation taio gt him. lo was not appr except wiith thintetio ion of sharing l is treahsre. I e wsnot invdtf except to urreinder his right of government and noa! rn16 ative wa oeri him exCept tlitrie or deat. 1t is out:of rz n; tox t such pie to abandlon theirecustoms, traditioms, government and igion without a: struggle. Itt is out of reason t expctyi to ht an de 0 datinted by:0bot bhll ot: fr a distance. e jungle is thik amd?xtensive theirboaSad sails are ready and lighit; tey know the rite of:tht sea and -an; fo llow te c-rrents of te mc an o in r as in.e lmlight. The coasts ond the Cele are not t far corn on the hillside or catch fish along the beach. The as; of1l n a ar not ambi guous. and man is man whrether his skin is hite or I. Th3e cie difficulties Spain had to onted wffit:in the st oau outM of the nao..... out of thenatral weakne:s of ther st of adminio n Htr Vernors-enera1 changed frequly. Te Mor qe a sti i a tan; e e0 o ':.S = ondary attenton ad no dfinite policy or s ettl of aion wd hy General Terrero were d!approved by General eyerM a i )I.by Goeneal! nc. H ad G ovror-GeneralU no p ernor nal Caeria, Job might have I a 1 X3d1 8jg ~ W A S0-i i"; AS;,: 0:2: ':::0 00$ l X i::, j: *:::::: t::: 0. Ut bdho by ekt Treow 0~~~~~ Haiti, Onow~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ beforel$5181 and had Govr~nor-itnemI Malcaaap pecedd Ctewitt Gene Io Xt tnd, the ai of o( Io nf bha twenty a-fiie a w e l Ar. ndh s d g fh 0^I It) itt Id. ds0D0,:X00~~Insi: f w 4

Page  253 3MI TA1-KW 4W)F lA% NIlKI R? UL x sutressors. Treaties were made to he bok1 nirtter thaa (o ye 4t and at the ondf tthlree huded and twenty ye of prot lai wit Suu, tno tisfactrIt pol y can te said to have tn di e p at at eithier Madrid or Matila. The treaty of 1878 wa a tm e x:: ien. It was not intended to express a plicy nor did Sp in ndl, tX restrict her influence to the provisiXo r t reaty nor to tie I r han so fast for any length of ti e. Spain was intent on the compiet coquest of Sulai, the assimilation of all the Moro trib, ad the niA tion of g0x elrment, religion, and civilization throughout the Philippine Arch1Ppelago. This ideal was the hopeo of all gorernos of ulu and orm a concealed motive that prompted ilt"eir actieons d S ui and miwnded istration. The governaors of Sulu differed only in their ideas to the length of time which slould pa before the flus ihul1d be deni their autonomvy, and the methods by which thle change ourld te b rougt around. There were opportune and inopportune times to interfere, hich were left for the Governlor-(XnerDeal to dcide, and in fthe majority of c his decision was controlled not by the immediate ndtls of the ot ion but by intersts pertaning to t;e glal adinstration of the ago, which left partial attention and inadequateean s availabl e for the slution of the veatious diffiilti in the south. Gneras wo anxious to distinulish tf, emlvs, took thee first opportniy at of e itself, but satisfied theimselves wit the lmmediateresults of vich fr th simple correction of the wrong calling for ilit action, witt ioa awth in mind the general situto and the requieents the e s should be undertaen as pat of a course planned for the earr'g t of settled gneral policy. Thus boundto ob e te gene pvis of the treaty of 1878 and limited in the athority grantd fm Manila and in the strength f the arrison assigned to, the e e of Sulu felt their hands compltely tied, and consequeny they l not accomplish much ad left matters to drift with the n nt o: events, given a free hand and suffiient troops to crry out hi$s p1; h was not much more tha a figting mmQa n and exlentmnmander, and the evils of his strenuous m:u ontweih te he iaccomplised, and when the Jo garrison wa sub 1 en1tly by Goveror-General Weyler his policy could not ntei c n e nec arily doomed to utte failure.. However, nobody w quicker to note su mita needs of the situaton th. insp to eeral who were - ioned t it, a

Page  254 |21 ' ThU owner or ant:RPORT OF BALTASAR GIRAUDJER Of wfork ofe thhis nature we give brief atrsunt of te M Iep00iIA por Io f lattloar,traua!dier, Iireetort of t lheT "Pia de.aila, w1itwh W j ireselted to the lerOlr-General. JI}oingo MiriDon% in lI, a d the tnoteltorthx relarlkts alnd tumuitenl atios of the auhtor of l4pustv" stlre Jo.loJ,"^ Migtel A. Esjiu13 colroel of infantry. -I: laltastr iraudie r;..itj,a lit'l Ge eneral M.alXtunpo to rt,41 in 1g antl madlt sp ital itnquaire the i ti ituatio thle Multhl. ie sy stated. that tllI terms of tfhe tIeaty rf 1851 could rot 'e (arfitlv out (o advartlage). Failure {to observex tlis treaty pnroioked the sultan and SulNt to itrpatienlce, rei tc In a reibeltlious attitude. Referring to the Jol campajign of 1.876 lie estimated the stretgthl of tlhe attacking a at approximiatey 1 T,000 troops, and described Joao s an actual churtmxard, held in: a onsltant sate of Siege anud a grt t to the aution jint mlen and mnouney. N aked facts, lie asserted, did not justify forer expeditions, and hostilities were often provoked for ulterior mottivs. ('onsiderahlie hartia resutltd( folnsl nifis Irentedl nvt Imeasure*, while much golodf to both natioi ld have been derivedl from a poicy of attraction, frank, loyal, and disiitterested. Ile calli tlie attention of te authorititso to the nWcesity of a faithful observace ll of the tterni of treatie,* in order to expect and deteand with right and rtsp.ct a reprocal ance of suche ireatieO by the Moros; to the adlisahmility of honorig at strengthening the auiitholity- of the sultan in order to, s.ure his g will and coiiperation in maintaining peace and htarmonv and m rr ing the evil tendencies of rebellious datus and subhiefs: to h gret advantages that may arise from reestablishing the salary of the sultan and promoting those friendly relations which tend to stregthen he Sulu alliance and render this state a stronghold and a protecting wall against invasion fromn foreiign counitries. He condemned tIhe trt of 1878 as linmiting the vernns freedom of ction and chig the progress and succeWss of the nation's policy. I-e reiterated thKat there is great need and necessitv of defliug the policy of the nation reative to Sul t and the Moro country in geal. SucIh a grave question should he settled on a firm basis an shuld not be subject to the caprice of an individual governor or co:lmm ier of a war veel. No opportunity slould be allowed for ignornic malice false pretexts, and. ulterior motives that defame the national honor, weaken the policy of the government, or orrk to the detriment of the people and the country. Hle pointed to several incidents of wng conduct or imprudence on the part f officials which prov tr le and war and left on tle Moros an impresson that the S niads re acting dec"itffully and in bad faith. Tie gneral epliy he o utf ind for thre information of the government andtfor the unido 1 of (14:3

Page  255 all oficials wa sub it ill e of fmer C d atiol r n importat of which are briefly no:a: f1:..I 1. The sultan ad dats d b itr t:eated with rS N 2. Immediate justice and impartiality ahould li trictly ia and practiezd in all eass and uldr all conlitins, e iay wh en rior out is committed aig nst the Mors; for wsuch act wotuld de ntra in sive manneRr an upright conduct which Would omandtl the ffi t: of t Moros and obedience to law d prder. 3. It is of the utt iprtancr that the biet, toplea, rnd ern of the people be res pe td. 4. The spely punismet fall More miseoduct and rion shouM e secured through the dtu or: chief. 5. The fleet should make frint visits to va i to familiae the people witth the flag, to map tlh country, and to study colnditions: inenfera.1 6. Religion should be fully tlerated in the same manner as in U Ind and Java. Proelytism should be prohibited. 7. The sultan should bI uvitesd to live in Jolo; an iee d shouid c true for his residence which would increase his dignity in the e of his pi and he should be given a high ofce in connection with thbe government (as iretry which would engender and promote his interest in the governmnt i welfare and secure needed and sirable coperation betwen officers d ch In conclusion, Giraudier pointed to the wisdom of Englih and Duih polic in affording education to the son of native pri and b ie at public expense, to the necessity of lare scrifices at, the Binni whidh would be amply compensated for by a general paificion f the Arcipelago in the end. VIEWS OF ESPINA Colonel Espina assumed that retrogression was out of the queson and that the flag which was waving over Sulu must be defended supported. Sulu could not be andoned to her fate d Spais i sovereignty had inevitably to be exerised. Extmina tion of Moro held to be absurd and impossible, and measures so direet he r deod a.s injurious and unwise. He entertained strong hopes, amounting to actual conviction, that Mors cold become Spanih in poli orgnization, sympathy, and civilizatiion dtht their reigion did dt fo an obstatle to tleir reformation and assimilation Unle e ion mto thle,Chtristian religion was insisted upon and ri.goroly ket up. He thought that dhe cause of religion- lone wa sufient to polog the war indefinitely and lead the Governmelnt to a phlie o iterition and failure. Instead of that ie advised a pnldent andt oleat pohe de(laring absolute nointerferene ith rligion ad ltyitioH withl the Su;mts in matte Of en eral concmern and publli V I e considred it of great iJmporta t Occupyt 1l the pat ci I ir of the Arctlhpelao with risons and to establish cd Fulatn stati fS atte most dsirae localits h lie taiwl! t[147

Page  256 h1. The orgalzation of the l s hd Ib made or ntini in a with thle laws and customs of thie ountry, but in a maune r agreeable to iw inrests of the Spanish Government. Rank, order, nd religion shod nt e interfered with. 2. Te sultan an0 members of the courcil of state tould be appint by the GovernortGeneral and should have salariea. ' 3. A eaw trbeaty s4old he made in orler to rectify those chause of ti trety of 7 pertaininm:g to the mainteanc of pce anthe guarantee of safety of life and property. 4. Slavery should be abolished, radically and thoroughly. 5. Clmpldsory tribunals of justice or courts should bt estliblshed to l;dieve datus anld hiefs of the exercjse of such functions. 0. l Com5nmece shoul;d bo enlcIur4ged an rendered free for all boats for a ri of twenty4flve years. 7. Roads should be costrructed to facilitate cwmmunicaio ad transprtatio from the cntral region of:; t ilanld to its principal harbors. 8.. Agriculture should dlt d and eolonies encouraged. 9. Necessities should:be: reaed for the Moros, providing them at the sme time with means for satisfying then. Children of the sultan nd datus shold be educated in Manila, and sehools for: the' Moro diakt should hbe tabish and md ac cessible ^es to the 0opublic. PURPOSE OF SPAIN A few elosing relarks on the purpose and interests of Spain in Salu be out f place i rder 0 to give the reaaer a clear ida of the fin a whiclel Spaimn had for Su:l and to enale him to grasp the soe cleCxity, and lifities of this problem. However, in i ng the seubjts and the change tv were intended to bring about it must be em ered that every projeet on the part of the sovereign nation or Spal c4alls for consideraion from two points of view-te firs is w ther t employed was suicient and adequate to impn e the e ar it through; the scond is the amunt of resistane: such a pmjet - countered on t he wt of the subject nation or Sut, td n E S the resistauce could be overcome, whether or not a nation like that of he Sus was devlooped 0uietl for ll the wts aof the ei a for subsequmt aptti4 on l to the st it ws pro A t an Inasmuh as t t of 18t8 w a not l t: a nd stit e tt wa actually m ad to disa it it A should i~. u t official and mn t thlntic exprion of S p lis, a 11481

Page  257 P:i*RI08 orF SPAIN purp s in Sulu. The terms of this trty gave Span it putab Ptio in its suppression. Tlve degre or unoulnt of soeretignt Spain W to exerc ove r uZla was very indefinitely stated. The term "indisputable" do not signify eolmplete,", as some hasty reports on M oro have eaprap it. rimhe aiol of thel treaty was to; exclude Grelt initaif, Ger yanl d er foreign nations from the Spanish sphere of ineluc over Suk, and tihe wordl "cillndiosputable" should be interpretel in this sense, which i clearl expressd in the Sulu text o tthe treaty. At that e was no in ntion on the part of SpainS to assue the control of Sul interd a ais n11d the Slus elldeavoe to gupard thleir cmplete freedom ane right to continue their political organization, laws, and religion by specifyig those powers which Spain had a right to exercise over them and by decai emphatically a th their customs, usges, and religion should not be changed. The Sulu word for "customs" signfies laws, organization, d administrative methods. It is the political not te social sense of the word about whichl theyl wre so very particular. TI e raty did not entitle Spain to interferenx, or to instiute any masure that ten toward political change or reform in Suil. The sultan was left supreme in the exercise-of his authority over-Moros. The treaty simply secured undisputed Spanish control over Sulu's foreign relations and commerce and incorporated Suu idnto the Philippine Archipelago in this sense only. It further establishe peace within the Archipelago by checking any possible revival of Sunlu piracy. It appears that boh distingshed governors, Martine and Parrado, intpreted the treaty in this:sen and the Sulus certainly so understood it., Two important steps were taken by Spain later than 1878 in order to modify the relations established by the treaty. The frt of thes steps was a resolution to appoint the^-Sultan of Sulu or control the was cilred by the Spaniesh Government, in anse w-eo Ste reue Goverdnor-General Tertrero and Gloverm or Arolas, as the legitimae l sutan. By this act the Maidrid Governlment serted its right o a de of attal sovereteinty over Suu intelrnal affair ad baiced ip asrti onz with the necessary frce and parially carridl it t:ough at tife h d ofv erntor Arola. Jamalul Kiran II finally re:oglizied to a cerain extent Spain's authority in tis martter and accepted her right of approval or confirmation of the election, The second step was at M pt to exact tribute from the ils. This was (lone by a decree iue in: 1894 by Goiernor-Gene Bnc I di ' t i-r P: f:*

Page  258 2a8 258 'rru: in u1 u SUt, leted. lAt ata w ak n at that time of ie stwg ref tto4 ot 'that e th Mf: 4 t aja M uda An Kiram t bcome sultan. Sultan I u uaded ato wi;:, aw; l the me;tire adoped f r the olBti *a o f0 tribute su:in the p;yet of a slum of miy or i it l ti Amirul Ki-ram andtheltte tmen sultanT s m a Compromise bt xloth Sin a ttemJptd to a~ Uile e ctonto e SWy w hi as Slum, andAird Kirami sured his appintl:nenjt sul tan i t having to go ot Mnila for tll purpo. Ilotweer, attemp o im a te tut e on B us ae a toe hae failed 3enplely. fo was taken and no tribute was asked i'n later years. " Thi ul)rpoe of Spin, in aheeordlan( witl htr otficial 4if, may tlierefore tbe 1suned up as follows. C('am pl(te cntrol of Su foreign relations; 2. Coletel cotlltrol of Su 3il comrl. T to appoint thte rlt-an;4. The riglht to iuqspe tribute on tn11 SUns. Tlhle rst two propositions were legitimate aind poper. o aconliplished an retaiinetdby virtue of Spain ssn Io pwet, meI t mnarine. and friendl forei gn relations with th-et Em p nnation. The' Slu hisadl no navy and no steaam vessels. Tlheir native bats could not ofter any signlifilcan res. istan:e and were powerle to the Spa i navy. Ever sincie 1t44 thle latter was in the a:ce ndant and by 18i it ha completely ovepowereld tlhe:8ulu naval forc. e 3Both t propsi were concded:0to Spai in the treaty of 1878 and wern Justly hed eer ne~ sntren gthened the:n' sincte. rlThey strengtheneled tle itxni of tile Philippine Archipelago d seeured strength and pernanent internal pe. 4l he third propsition, the ritgh to appoint the sultan, w- i ia defeated.: It w^-,for policy At the end of the bhay struf ar3os~e because ifit, a Spain re d only the rigt to cfirm te of the natiion. Had Governor Arolas confied i:mislf to tis t h1e would have \Woni without a cnemst and without en rderin h ly and ill feeling t6wa id his Government. iad a tt of arms the *l larbiter of tlie question Govertnor Arols migt b st w h point ompletel, fr his forl ies defeatd tho of the Su:tu in encoulter. but the tenacity of purpowse, persistec and itri of the StUns on6tli fed his d0etermination and hat wamso by tony an cruelty was given up in the end as inadvisable an implii. The forth prpopostifon fell through. The est argument lat cn advanced in its favor is that a tribute wa ctu pad t Sui 'n Jamnalul K iran II in 1894 and tla tthe tax inp" in la years blecue of the etensi ve ampaign condu in indanao and t frequent chan4e of (Governor-eneral and at:0aue of insurre tio ofd 1896. Suclt argument is more i;n te tt re of n t hn a defete. There is some stignifican in exat tribue Sultan of Stul, but ti}e principal of the tibute an.Ie [I$t O: 1::1::i!f.

Page  259 p 0UI OE oF SPAIN; The sultan evidently evaded the questin entirely asOn m he felt in his office. Such a measure would certainly have n the Sulus. They would have risen to a man and sacrife me tr eaure in this cause than in the previous one of the appointment of their candidate for the sultanate. The nation was somewhat divi&dl in the forller caa, but in the matter of resisting the payment of a tribute there was not a dissenting vote. They would have fought most vigorously and unitedly. Governor Arolas did not exhaust their fighting wer; they could h1ave fought just a well in 1888 as in 1886-87. One party alone advanced against Joio in 1895, and a band attacked landing ldie in 1897. To pay tribute to a foreign power meant vaalage in their opinion, and this they could not tolerate. They would fight, not on the strength of a careful and intelligent estimate of their power as compared to that of Spain, but because they would not tolerate the idea and their national honor would prompt them to exhaust their strength before they would yield to such a humiliating proposition. Their fighting power was only one unit of their national resources; their national indepndendce, national character, unity and stability of organization were other units which added considerable strength to their resistance. What y could not defeat they would have left alone; what they could not tolerate they would have evaded; what they could not evade they would have run away from. An exaggerated degree of honor and self-pride, uncontrolled by a certin degree of intelligence, culture, and moral courage, is dangerous. Courage unencumbered by prosperity or wealth and spurred by abnormal relgious sentiment, becomes desperate, reckless, and fanatical. Moreover the treatment by a highly civilized nation of another limited in cultureand development is under moral restrictions similar to those pertaining to the treatment by a man of mature age of a minor. can not be blamed for lack of mature reason, and no more cat be expeted of him than he is able to do. He must further be treated with equity and justice, tlough he is weak and helpless. It was impossible for the Sulus to change their character at once. It was absurd to expect of them any action contrary to their natural disposition and national character. It was the duty of the sovereign nation to recognize the nati a of her inferior and treat her wisely and justly. Tact might have been pmightier than an army and wise r measure ight have wor wonders Nations can be educated and can develop like individuals d force is ax poor agent where the carrying out of a certain measure is intded to bring about reform. Spain imposed tribute upon the Sulus without being p to enforce its ollec tion and bfore the Sulus we dre ey for suh a mere and the relation it involved. Grantag that the f nd de tax were to he used for the benefit of the Sulu.the p iii mag

Page  260 260 2 11$ JT4)RY OFW: $EIU thie of tepu::nant to th e peOpe no rns to remedy tf g or train ti pupe for its tle. sa;age or smiCiv:i iU bioe rfomed ad governd with initial expene, norc n refr a be f in a day, altiugh for and fiuud4 are ava inabj ple y. In tslei arigo the sri t u rls erato the u of Spain may bdivie into three divi io- her fight r sg wer, rv erlnenlt machinery or system of0 governnmnt and her racial inlu. tIer figlti0ng pwer inclu!ies all thle forces of the army axnd nav swhi le csutld bring el ar and her tabilit to s le the s. The largest Spash force that ever a ssembed on the:sil of SuIu l,(;i; this w as estimated at 9,000 to 11,000 tro Inn Jnary l888, the miitary forces of the Philippine slan.ds numbered 1 00 men, of, 1,0 wpa s andthe rst nve. G40over r never cor tanded more thal 2,000 troops in is various e xpeditions d Jr^ v c: " " e ' never neded more tian:that numbr. A garri fo of 700 men proved sutti:cient to repulse age neral aack on Solo in 1881. We may thereSfore safely cclud: tha:atafor of 2,000 native trops sta6one in Sulha ws suw ici lneat ffia or al l purposes ad a should have tin` Suu al 's r shoulbd h iave llSn ke the otime. Tihe morl effe t of i - tendency to misieef:or rbel ion. The fact that there is a a 'dI tfoe behitnd an order or uest i prompti obe diece afo, deeit or plot can hve tie o grow. Wse measures ae ore e tie and peace is assurtd Besides, the honor of the oereign powr s - stantly maintained ad na o hawces for i or dis reonor are alow. bPuree b<ack of a wise administrato i a potent factor for good. It need not be used except rarely and when absolutely necesary. Force is e oliy whet it is allowed to rule the head of the aldministrtobr d, lie every other agency, it is good only when it is wisely dircted. It w therefbre necessary and, in as far as it was neede to back a cor iten administration, it should have been provided. Spain uld have ily kept such a force in Sulu all of the time. She had the;tw s andL the menUs to support them. She, however, did not do this, and only rt of the time did thl Su:n1 rson have the required srnh. How r the facility of tranporiting troops from Zambo: to lo ad the preponderance of her lnaval fors rduced this deficieny to a mini and the fighting power of Spain may, as far as our purs is e e be deemed to have n adequ t to nrle Sulu. The chief weakn in the Spanish rftime lay her tof n m t, Her gpvernmeut Tahinet.r3d roit l me iecv pa i [(1521

Page  261 tR B 01oF110? SPAIW No com petent en Wr e d into the *ic of the it to given permanent charge of SulI airs. Tenoray Ji;con manders were put in command without the necesy prepain for the rlquirements of the office, No spia ability was n d to t an offic alread y organized to execute laws air esta hed, or or out a system of governm ent alread laid out; but it requir higher abilities to tablish sovereigt over a new stat like Su lay o a definite, settled and wise policy, and carry out the egeneration and reform of a nation. Besides too frequent changes in the offe of Gov ernor-General, the governors of Sultu were also allowed too short terms. More than thirteen governors ruled Sulu in the course of tenty-tre years, from 1876 to 1899, Notne of these felt that it was his duty to institute a permanent policy f~or Sulu, or beieved that he oi to stay long enough to carry it through, and that he w gong to be held responsible for its conduct, whetherit failed or succeeded. The government of a state is entitled to as muc considertion any business undertaking and te is ra on why it shld not be conducted on sound Wand usmesslike principles. Such meh ds characterized the government of Sulu wouldhave ruin y ine establishment and could not have done justice to any nationor ody f men it represented. The menin responsible positions trusted the - mission of all official actions and communications to interpters of limited capacity and ^ strenigtAhlof eharacter. 0o governor c d s Sula and verify the translation of his letter:and der His. lkol of Sulu affairs and his ideas and opillons were necesarily c 1 opinions or designs of his interpreters. The strength of Spn' tion and declaration of her rights to rule Sulu, exclude foreign interests appoint the Sultan of Suhlu, and impose tribute on the Sus was ed on the meaning of the word "sovereignty whit app in the Sulu text of the treaty of 18378. The Sll copy of the treaty uses in this connection the word "agad, which means "follow." In the translation of this document from Sulu into English a point was stretched and "agad" was interpreted as obey." While the,Sulas of Sulu felt that they were independent and free in their administration of Sulu internal affairs, and that they were only obliged to give Spain prefernce, and ally themselves on her side when foreign nations interfere governo like Arolt read the word "sovereigty in the Spaiisxt and tried to inforce its full and actual snse. The Sulus ft t the Spanish golernors wdere thus transressing te limits of their adutheorit and the Spanis governors thought at the sme time that the Subs w un:reliable and deceaitful, a most undesirae md unfortunate ndition of affairs. The nmi sionaries in the northern islads t ditteffrney. 'ey talked the language of the natives and perormned their dut cri y 133

Page  262 *62 Toji at ~t OX F R!ULU nw msrmw ov xu * * ', r! and ith iuquestiontabe sue. They U d the p,.knei their retal coditi:, Ls, ympathi with lthem, a okid ot t it *W religio regene ration admirably. Tlhe gyverno: of Sulu id:: any such iew of their duties; tley had sme l but they w: understandin uof hua are and the fore of r no t the missionarics 'mastered. They had no ie of how a Sun aw or custom coultd be niodi tied an ti rfXormd, 13for they n"fledvr PX alq in t sl3ves sufficientlly with thle tlas nd customs of the p i e d neVe paid much attention to the feelings and public opinion of ehe Sui1. They trusted every neaure to fore and could not think of reform w it out compulsion. A missionary who observe the intense fear of demo on thIe lart of souse pagan filipinos conlverted several of tihm mby of a picture of hell and satan, and gradually taught them the pr ipei of (C'lristianity. But tle govrtors of Sulu could never "det y relation between Su Spl lltl:;and coult a.ner id a etver of approach from one side to tn other. Their form of governmm failedl to adapt ielf to the conlitions of the country and could neither nerge into the Sulu organization nor adapt the Su. orgiztio to its system. No sympathies ullnd the two raes or the two origacsa tions, and no foundllation for unification and subsequent assimilationl coud be laid. Spaniish jurisdictiotin the garrison and its t i aehinery coWui find no application outside he walls of Jolo ' the amnounllt of force n dede to reduce and refrm Sui vari in accordance wifth tle policy pu:rsued Considerale liht cn be thrown on thlis subje-t by a stuldy of the circumstances d case wheh ga rise to Datus Ayunan, Mandi, Piang, Ara, and Pedro Cueas or Kalun. I )atu Ayunat livedl at Taviran an was much lower in ra and iMfluente t an eie theSuan o Bag aa r Dat Ut. Having grievanes against; lDatu Utu he shrewdly allied himi lf wiith te ai forces and rendered them valuable assistance. In a short time he r to power, dignlity,. and fame and lied greater in the estimation of the c(Iuntr\y than his overlord, the Sultan of Bagumbaya-. Datu -Piang married tle daughter of DIatu Alnan anld ltr his methods. As so)mn as 1tu l tl's attitude toward him b'ame unbears able and hostile e e ofered his services to the Spanish at orities md won thleir protBetion and support. By shrewd tactis e dis s e hlis former manster t of lhits e st lalnds, attratted most of hiis follong and caused his downfall. At the time of the $vanish evacuation he had b)ecme the richelst Moro in Mindanuo and t}hwe mast influtial hief in the idland. l)atu Anra bad Clitlese btlo) in ilim. lie married hi:s tdaghtr to the rtuig,1 of Magindanao, won the favor of the vernor of K to, % A chief ubordinuat to a dat%. I' {5,4'19h(~ ~k.~X~aE~~t~gB~s ~ I ~lg: Irss%~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~S;:

Page  263 IREIK$oURBE OF SPAIN ruled over all Moros on the southern ban of the Midanao River lw Tnontaka. He ws strong and well respected. Datu. Mandi married the daulgter of a Sanl dlief of inbana ad through his tact and ability to peak Spanish esablisied for hi self a respectable position over the Sanals of Mindanao. He serv the interests of Spain faithfully and bore arms in her behalf gainst isvans and Lanao Moros. The recognition and support he obtained from the Spanisi Government raised him to the rank of a dat and ave him supremacy over all the chiefs of the peninsula of Zamboanga. A lose observation of Datuti Mandis ability and attitude toward the governent renders it clear that the influence this man could bring to bear on his people was immense. It is no exageration to state that had his influence been tactfully utilized, he could have easily, with the aid of one company of Spanish -troops, reduced to submission all Moros and Subaniuns livingr between Point Fleehas and Sindangan on the outskirts of Dapitan. There never existed -a Moro chief more tactful, pliable, forceful, and favorable to the reorganizsation of the Moreo colimunitv and its system of government along modern, and civilized lines. With little aid from the governor of Zamboanga, Pedro Cuevas made himself the real lord of northern Basilan. His power was further well respected throughout all the Basilan Group of islands. With no more than two companies of troops at his disposal he could have acted as the Spanish representative and subordinate ruler or governor of all the Basilan and Balangingi: Groups of islands and could have effected any reform desired. By tact and ability these men obtained Spanish influence and support and rose from the lowest ranks of the people to positions of great power and dignity. Had the Spanish Government employed such men to further its influence by enlarging their following and extending their territories and spheres of activity, there is no doubt that a very signifiant step would have been taken which would have made clear to the Spanish authorities successful methods of procedure and new lines of policy that lead to success. Similar lines of action could have been adopted in Sulu by taing advantage of existing parties and factions. Once the snpathy of one Sulu part was obtained and its forces bore arms on behalf of or on the same side with Spain, the door would have been opened for effective influence and wise measures direeted along the line of cleav would have been bound to produce results A minimum of foe woudth be needed, and strained relations and discord would give w to friend ship and concord. The history of Sulu is not wanting in proof that wise attractive methods hlave been more effective thamn force and arb'it y rule, and, once we reflect upon Abu Bakr's re and the wonderul reformatioln e worked out, then we realize what was and what w n a wise policy for Suw:,::. ": ' ' [151S 1', ' " ~

Page  264 264 THIa:Hu1T0rY 4OF St" 1r LI"' Little attention hlI a a, 1 ne gien to r crcr; tt a a poitnt actr i a nations poicy. ctThe raial car ter of the attion hars on the ided nation in eral w ay n tihe Cdwt and demeanor of oials ihn eir officia and ca relatio w itlthe e eb and common peoplle, in the demamnor of soldieirsan iian itn heir ja-ofreourse. Wl~th theiO ocia itereftourse with the m of the peop, an i the 1iuil or busines relations of the two nations. The Sulu Idats and chiefs are very courteous ani pwlite and are lnusullaly keen to notice personal discour t. Impulsive and unMoeiliat:ory miethod&s are bitterly resented, and 'an abrupt mxanner may in itself be sdTiciet to d4feat. aunv measure. The people in general hate no patience with an iMnpetuouis officer and hate to 1i 4iourteous treated even by their datus. Treatd wi sth disrespt b the aufhoriti or disrtegardfel by the rutlincg race, thley becomle exclusive, e xa4ve jilndif ferent, llx syiipatheic, and discotntente. Tle? ruling race can He omirteous, and civilt inll it, social relations with those nnder it and Oli 1 all.'it1 it retain its racial supremacy sle andi sbmission of tle rled race. If ordinar civil duties e: uire breeding and good manners, the duties of tlhe Spatnish ofier toward tie native chiefs certainly demtanded fle higfhest qualiti:e of a gentleman anrd the most sympathetic. Iu pright, a ld firm displgoition posible. 1ary Spanish offlicers possesed Ithese qu slahieis and conductedl their ofiicets w-it a fll ldigniti y and credit, but it can not be said that all officeT were so fully qualified. Sulch facts in ftherlsves are sufficient to determine ta'e quality of the person: to.whom stat ffairs in Suu should be trusted. Further, the reform of fa nation can never be fully acplishd without the aid of her chiefs and 1leaders. The coperation of the atives is a very potent factor for dgood and a ssterm of government whichel ainms at the levation of a coquered nation must find a in its machinery for the activities of natives of ablity ad inu Hence the necessity of successful coperaton with native a i te im. portanee of securing higher qualifications in men hodi'ng the hi offices of government. The fewer such offiers arc and the abler they are. the better and safer the relit will be. Sub me can ove me racial prejudices and national sentiments and grievances and b the manner in which they diseltare their dunties thi can onantd the approval and respect of the ruled nation, ain lt to the side of the governmTent, and maintain peace, properity sad a d tions between the vr g d the governed nations. oweer, t resuts were not obtained by Spain in Sulu. The reigion ad ie I preidices of the two nation were never ore me an the Sus mahi taindl a feling of rmvulson an1 distrust toward Spaia s an hri Filipino. t 158] 4 0~, putt]9~

Page  265 Great aid is rended 4he government when the:rling r:- r ~ r i- ' rcte ad rVoureful enonig to nUille the rvi.es of tow id r at thu e time egive it suient and tude for te I I I;, its energie and thse.tisft ion of its Oition. A wt favo industrial relation can be maitwined, if the capital of t wvereg nation can find opportunities to invest in tconquer i to, y up its crude produets, and promote its atural r es. e a tiv then find work to do, increse in pros perity, a4d loo upon he ex iste e n of the ruling r sae a ai ortle for r development ad pro, but i n; the subjugated nation w crowded out of ih ter ris 4 b of 1;e r urs by keen conmetition, fge, or undlue dminaon the ip; of the rling race, hostiliti are bound to ari a4d di tion:tends from industrial relations to politics ay lead to trouble nd lion. Many Spaniards seemed to regar Su as a very desirable co.f for colonization and offered many suggest s as to the t favo e - for factories, the best inutries that coul be deelope, nd the bt methods and means of exploitation. Several fams were,iem i,; e vicinity of Jolo, but they re abanoned even before the ev tio of the islands, and no.ecive step n b said t o have lbee tVke Sb pain to colonize Siul except te uilding up of the town of J its. is subject has therefore played no important part in the policy erL by Spain in Sulu and very little can be said in this connection. It muist, however, be stated that the lands of the Archipelago of Sulu are extren el limited in area and should have been reserved for the Sumts. Perfect disin tesdness should have been exhibited by the Spaniards in th:i regard.1 t See Appendix XXIV, on La Torre's views on the policy that should be adoptd In Mindanao and Sulu. [157] metho4 andf~~~~~~ men.f;x; U n ^'1::,

Page  266 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  267 APPENDIXES TO PART 11 72s — H 267 [159]

Page  268 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  269 "low$ Wu$ leftO t W O X1~fI r~ ~f Op ke~ Pp~Irl rPht rhk~~~ a I IIP~s~ ln;ei Z4 IV, 4au tig sr~r:krr,r or 4a W MKO~r~lr t 9:a~~bu~r~ ntrr~~~ar gfir li — iEl~ WA$~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. iitn P IdW~' Jtillim Tlb hWtl WkF~t ahi hif tWw~Ill ~C~:~, WtFuldnot refug'14 Jent a- Knw t *9 J; ^ 1> 5tt -!1 he~e -k?W>1 > *ew1ld hm '-X p PI tit Wi a ~t}X d &:n ta\;t'Ritv tli ~i g~nrl tic. 4 Wi. 9 w~ Ilrh aw 1 1 ~ 1 m3~ ~sn~~ ~I fa$p 1 7M v et A orl"l ( 1 thtWp ~~ ~ W S nt theleHt nT ntftail two, tt* d d h;rd 4 0 th: w.t|s~~ iuflr1 Wlhe w:~ht W r Ice wtu fd@Stth:ri(,2 f00 81 r rl4 ~~- As BgMnaXX~0Z+49< to X % id y WA$ to i tr" Airml ra~t~i,~nth-i r f u lattor~,tr Ir.t F lwtit F tt i tWa$ On} 6~ tiE or n(A to rsi:O e~~ a f i g Ma t i Uarvv Ire* ThL r u-m r$0 tuoasS n srni rr t > a nd iXh *r~ X Rs l } w ne k, reeti$:: t t~r Fu Wl t (pjdpl aer n b iabb er- W!. 11dkr oP ti~lxo~~~, X mstktriia It w.r\S1SE kPZ *t aJ } tlcal3 9}}4 i~a Ic@u~ X trlri tr*. taw~l g s I| hap *at when }uff an a ego t~el se tmy I alof ina! IV t~i) X f ntio Ate W wn l.|t:Kl ti~r wK1i o-% Ifi lcX n had ner in U)vo~ bi&u to a t Xm He:a b3 t Mtant Wh w d tle h' t al wa *Ing dtS A Cr the wT IprO(OmeXk t tt d a i*CO 0:IO Im"W t sent CatiasaE Ta I n io de I:Xra to Minxarf, wi; H to talke mtan of the a- m4 to rrn ugtixa ttre stld gree tW Wat}n*W tbs EntprsX Vhen k a:}vi at i d atvg *"I et * that Jfrn O e U a (le w Em hat 1t m.e e the latter wa* a prt<.Xer n ian-isra; aft i1ts of r to tutueg 09i. t To 4io raud anXt - i tk * i 06 rs tt he I t~u t. ~~~~4 ~ f,~ t - wwwv* Xw t t '* 't t " -' A poi **X sotwt oa th not '4A of tb MtXa Rie #at' fto mi * [tal

Page  270 270 It0: m s' Rn v o s U r In:~ M ntie iia 11 g rrwa iderng eartu llf y the n t r fw thet w r )inc t isEltlt 8dtlM I etia ast ". na'e the O th er paei fie d is ands, gAa rndi i' i sl an ik ejl*t co titained 5 1 s P " ce that Pfl~f&','tl c and were aptrt.otted a enco4tis:;alas and had Spaism, such as tihe riers of Butu an aita and Kara w thata ti o pacify the whole island and ltjweel it to His M~ajetL 'Caigtero ya l was t sent and could not hear the sxpense; antd steh Rodrigua1ez had hound, htui.s-elf 3by a lal1 rit to car ftle war0 t1: r vottip....letiot at his O\V. expe:nse, in a ccordance w ith the terms of his agee me n t. The guardian 4 hi.s children and hei rs brought "of I, llraiao: the matter band refused to fulfill tis lition on iac unt of Estiirl: Io g ezs dleatl. I order not t lo time, f wihat Ah d be tuamened; had to be Wcntinw': i one way or agnother the goerno-r d e to' prsecu]te it, dt.awing the necessary funds fron the noval tr I eatvrv, either fon;0its (owl aceount o on the T etuat of Esteba i A Ol t a Udrglez> heirs, uif s ih t0d11 be accrding to law.;'ri v19L WI 93,1~-t"o l.go A.t Juan lionquillo, gen eral of the gallie s.. 'he la.tter lwas lgiven th ne sary rcnforcemleln of men anl d other: things, with which the reached Mnittdanao. li e: cor mand o:f the Spanish cam -and fleet whica hei found in Tanp k n lie con imi ed:the:peae ant friendshi with- toe tie f s 'wlio1':ere-:o,:a cth.ie fs a t epe off- mp k n nd L maagn, res0f t ored and set in etter ofrder te h ettlt a rt, df t lar epa iion imaking a feinu:r e at sllb thi me tn o lndc-aad t - ntheir fors e hi t.o' i,. to1 ther an d an 1 'u *attac r but without any not: ate result, for the- enemy werere manyand tll g ldirs wit}h l)1ntv y of arqueuse s ant artillery, a nd 'had fortfie t e l sin Stron post. ad many" ': t h rl fortifications inland and wn front one to tFh other witnl nfitv. whenever they wished and g tl harassed the Spaniafmrds who were little used to so swampy a country. The l atter found themselves shfot (o prox i Its without the possibilit of g(etting them in the country on acco.unt of the war, inasmu, 1c as the watnmen, and it was not easv at all times to come and go foma one part to another m der to provide necessities. M eanwhile Don.1 nan lionqui~lo sHeIeing that. the war was advancing ver s)wlyv and w ith little resultt, and that the camp was suffering. lrew up a report of it, ant sent letters in all haste to (0onemon lon Francisco TIfelo ilnforiing h tim of the tonditon of affairs. Hle wrot t A rfl rvie of Rotquillos reports and letters on hia ficatio of Mindanao *ho"w an evint eror in the use of the word nwnyan to signiy Athe settle t or stronghold of the Eult " of Magindanao. Bwayan here. and probably in Figuero report, too, is u4 In pa of Magindlaao. whicht lay on the site occupied at prout by Kotabato. tiia wA the the Sultan of bMaaindanao and headed the opposton to R.onqillo's advane up the orth br h of th Mindanao River, tirunga, who is mentiod In this report mit te b a datu or subtu o Maindanso, not ne tly Sirug the IWaa of Jlwayan

Page  271 P IA'KOATIOP MiKANAhO '; that it twould h hetter to withdraw the p ftjrom Mindanao hier, sIt tat it aitght not eot rish; and that a presidio could bet tablished on the utIme islanl in the port of L-a Caldera, whii could 1 e left frtifie, i order not to abandon this enterprise entirely, and so that their friends of Tnampakan and lumagan mighlt be kept hostile to the people of lwaVlal. Meanwhilt he and tih rest of th camp and fleet would return to Manila, if rmitd, fo wic h ruted the governor to s nd him an order quickly. "Upon the reeipt of this dispatcl, Governor Don Fralnciseo 'ello retsolved to order l)tont J uait Ronquillo, since the above was so and lte camp culd not be maintained nor t]le war continu advantageouslv, to it' withra vith his whlole camrp froIll Mindanao River. lie was iir1st to tmake a great eTffort to chastise the enemy in Bwayan. alrd t:pn th to burn thLe 8ansl tlll settlell tent ant fiort anld g to La Caldera, foirtifv it. and leave there a sufficienIt garrison with artillery, boats, and l rovisits 1 fr its maintenance and service. hel lie was to return to Manila with thhe rest of his lmen, after telling their friends in Tanpakan: that the Span.iards would shortly return to tihe river better equipped and in reat nltuIbers.. Silonga and other ch iefs of Bwayan were not neglecting their defren, since, among nother measures taken, hey had sent a chief to Ternate to ask assistance against the Spaniards who had bro:ugt war into atrtillery, in order to fore t et panirs t and de rte could they do nothing else. When the news reached Bwayan fta tihis tleed wae coining to their defense and support, they ade ready and prepared to attack the Spaniards, whlo also having heard the same news were not careless. Consequently the latter turned their attention more to the main fort, and reduced the number of men a the sialler forts on Btile t c Rveroa and other posts, to ths an arms of the same riier. tles setrved to st rengthen hen e garrison of the main frt and the ared hght~ng men in a, &, -i rv rtalslers arin oer er to use the latter to resist the expcted aItthak of th elee e nemy. having gallantly advanced to ttfe ver fort ofn the Spaniards wi lth l eir vesels and men, attacke and lstormed it with great courage and resolution, in order to effect an erltralnce. The Spaniards within resised valiantly, and those outside in thee t galrleys on e e l it t tethem so effectitely t tuorgether, with artillerytd r an n arduelds, nl at timues in cl oe combat with swords and Butr il an ty made a a s ter rst slutr and hav o among the men of ernate anied to stre of Bwayan, whl were aiding the former. Tahey killed _.,,... —.. sss — ---~ --- —-BIU*pba,; The c t.name is Stirugan. Cachi or Kargil it a Mialy word signifying "little" or young, h a youth of daitinetion or a younger prince of the royal tline. a A tribuary or the Minds ano River which rises in Talayan, antd emptl at travlran. [1031

Page  272 272 T H~2 miwwyXn or J and wound4e a great iumt)er of them and captured a1lrntt alll the (w -s cOs and Vt l s of t h eanety, so) that very few boats eseap e, and wtre purued an4 burnel bl the Spaniards, Wlho mate many p' Urone and WiaZd imllmeWlt. hotv anId tnany weapons from tle enemy.n As sloon as posible apfter th i, tthe Spaniardnls turned against tilte ttleMi ts and forts of lwayan whert O s0 te of their results were of 4t> great moment that the enem, seig t lelwt)lves tlarld presse i anll ithout anyone to heltp tlWeml sint nltetges and 1)ropotsals f pteace to Ion.Iualn Bonquilo, which were ended by their renllIring trecognfitiotl and Iomlage, and the renewal of.friendship witih tlhe people of PTatpalkan.l their ancient enemy. In order to strengthen the friendlship, t hey stale, d it by thS e marri se of the greatet e ief f Blwava n withI tlhe daughter of anlotlher chief of Taltipakan, called )ungllli>nr. 'ri Theretupion the war was appareltly c(.nlletelvy ndel, 1 iovisilson were nl w ta,} toei had, antl tthe Spaniarld wxith little tpre autio:tn crosased and went about t the counttry wherever tley wished. tht peoplte of Bwayan pro(mtisel d to dislmantle all their fort imnmlediiately, for that was one to tle conditions of peae. Th1en the Spaniards retunled to tileir fort and settlemnents at Tampakan, wthenc I)Don uan Rlmonquio intne edialtely sent dispatches to Governotr Don Fran(isct Tello, informing hill of tlhe diff(ert tun thlit the enterprise had taken. In view of the present condlition lie requested the governor to issue new instructions as to hlis 1proedu((l, saing that he would wait without making any change, notwithstanding arra tie rival answer which he exp(ected to his first repo)rt, for conditions had now become so much bette han befrc tha t e tht e governors decision would be different. rlTe governor had al ead( answered l)on Juan Ronquillo's first dispatc'h, as we have said above, wlien the second dispatch arrived with news of the successes in Mindanao. Suspicious of the men in tfle camp whto lad constantly shown a desire to return to Manila, and little relish for the hardshtips of war, and fearing lest tthe would return at the arrival of tlh firist order, executing that order and atbandoning the enterprise which had reached s'uchl a satisfactorv stage: and thinking that it would )be unwise to aiandon tlie river, the governor mnae laste to send a second dispatch illtitediately Iby various roads, ordering them to pay no attention to his first orders, but to retain in Mindanao, and thalt 1e would soon send tlhemt what was necessary for fl frther operations. It seem th tt tiis mtessage traveled slowly, for, tlhe first having ar rived, they obeyed i t witlout any further (elay, and camp was raised andt the (c)nntry abandoned. ITo their former enemy of )wayan tlhe gave as a rea on that the governor of Manila had slummonnedl them; and to their;fiendls of TamtIp)akan they said that tlev would leave men in La C('atldra for their sccurity, and that assistance woutld e sent them from Manila. This news caused as niuch sorrow andt sadness to the latter P 4j

Page  273 *IACFIPCATYON IOt MINDANAO as joy to tl:e peple of Bwayan. Then, after }uning tleir fort and Sttl n1met, the Spaniards emmarrket all their forces a soefn as psiie, left the river, and went to L a Caldera., 4 leagues farther down in the dir, - tion of Manila. Having entered port, tlhe built a fotress and left there a garrison of 10f) Spaniards, with snome artillery, provisions, and liats for their use. At this jluncturel t'he overnor's second message to General )on Juan lRonquillo arrived, to which the latter repllied that he was already in La Caldera, and could not return to the river. Then, without any further delav, I oeln,ltJun ilotquillo went to Manila with the balanc of his fleet, bVy wy f thle Provinlces of Oton andi Panay. Th e governor, having heard of his cominng, sent to arrest him on the road befor e e entered the city, and proceeded against him by law for having withdrawn the camp and anrmv from Mindanao River, without awaiting the orders he should have expected after ti e favorable turn that affairs had taken. Don Juan Ronquillo was set at liberty on showing a private letter from the governor, which the latter had sent him separately with the first instructions, to the effect that he should return to Manila with his troops in any event, for they were needed in the Islands for other purpoes; and because of this letter Don Juan had determinied not to await the second order. 1165]

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Page  275 APPENDIX Il THRE PACIFICATION OF MINDANAO tMlwvr t te pftat o ot It llid ot AU I I Y 14 h:* to the relation om f ithe et y r you will have i tned h owur the dath, in the j.ik lron of the I*land of M oi, of! an slr doe Fien1 wthct 0 cn car o ut this p.ei cafion r he conditions wh:ich t he tipuatd wi th Gme Per D fii fonnerly gwvmor of tl isnt t, cop l of whih w t t Hit Majtty amd to Mtaat-ofm l p Juan ie d j4 termya of ma exjpithoa, who s d hioe pl e when the eamtp wm a on and lcame to Manil. )on c o Tlo, Governor and C pi eral of the said Phillppine slands, who at that tme h ad te si on f venment, wtas cosidering how to aid ( stimulate r"tsionf ~on the go cam t, aid pacification at thI xse of the hei of Esteb d igiez, d with the aree t f the captn and persons who were long idt and x periencLd in war i the itd islands. Don jSn U onqullo appointed t:mmander of tfe glleys to prsute the aid ifiati and in the meantime, in order to be lrst and cntinue e e it, 'pt. Torihio de Mi adaPI was t fo rward to enodure an iate the It, und cder to kep them in hi cha; and in h e: t shosuld e a bndone d, and retrtet made to M la, he shoul detai the troop nd return to Mindanao. The Xd a Tori de Mlra nda hating arrivn at he Island d of Ia Calder, i hic l 40 leau tfromt the river of Mindanao, tee found thlew cam, w hic wm returnin from the l id i:slad. Conformably to te oer w ih whe ha he turn k d foir fti n the sit whlre othe: winh s on tli r vet, 4 1faI from the f of the enemy. Jva3 iltronquillo hoavig va! dis'patchI to Mindane ha ke I p in h' la andi lI n to achit e m.e e ue he heyA via t In the batle ch wh he to wit t the l Tnsn * a W eh i mm, to to ye i4d to the 1 Iof 'm t iith;,a he ad writte n at in dispag ytent of that untry (a y of whinch $t tol His$i j tyP), 4amount of which, inc c f war b lit ate lr and atolw.* XI, 1 30 * Po or y. " W '

Page  276 276 THB HIST)ORIY IOF SInLIJ which lll ad ll held,i the G(lenerall Don I)n()l uillo lhadl een order(ed to atlake a last eftort againlst tle Minlanaosll, doing tlhemn aoll possih:le datage. lie e Wat tlhen to conl, t) tieslanl- of La (talIera aId tlhelre Ibutild a fort, to be garlisoned' w'ith a tllun ret Sl)panisl soldiers, with artillery, alntl, anl iunitions, aitnf; leave tihlle there as a ichctk upon 'TeIrlnatet anld Mintdalrlao, in cilar, ge' iof a go. soldier,' onle of the ca ptailns of titl eal cp, ansil withl the rest return to Manltila. Althoutgll )on JuanB itonqui.lt o I receivedl thi. ortlte, a;ter ha ving wgon colnsid erable victories, }le agaidn 'Iwrote t1:at11 he woulld not at)ain)ldon. that place, ven if suilt were tile order, lit ciuse it wotdldt lilt-e t spedixitlt t rtire efr tn ite catrrni nidf cornply wtil wlwlat ll. thad el )lorder'ted:, wletl:l l was Ia ving tile ISlaidtl ofl Millndanao alretady,!)aclif tied l the hie, wit:'4lo l a ued gentlee meains, that: t:hey I nighlt. all te more (ontente(,.having agatin rentdered aslut istsiosi( to-I is Maje sty andl lil ikewi as tlhe King )'f *u again reLnd.ered('.obetlience '1and.Bi sio, 'nf111' 1i. iiio. (:.fiing ipt. C rit a garrisoa of La- ('aiderat hl ad set. s;l; s t thle Islan 'of ulI 'r, gof the llKin ong o Mdanalland a h lotherin-la1:a ff. tle King of S 3ul. WhO h at1 ntI drieni;i:utt of' Mindantao beause. Ilhe was rebellious. lHe treachlerously: kiltd 13 Spn sl soldiers. Whe ws;of'this w' s:iroiryt, J0iai i Paeho, ws sLf to't t tetroops of La (Mdea i chilrge; aadr, when -it-t sl:hol ll bets to Ihilti, toit3ry to inflicet:'l ^.ptm ith 600" Spaiiards ti: thee ney unfortutinately. k1 ill:edt e tln said: J'ultanl Palcto. and 2.~. Spiai ards, 1t}w s onst 1.-them, retiring xitlhlolt Xny. Su.ecesi-.,:This' -news Iaiig -cone P to t the g)veror, he sent in plae of:Juan.Paeho, ('apt. Toribio t:e Miratda:. a;, peierso(m in whI'oh.mn lel had:' enti.re confidenc, withl an order (not- to attemp tt any punilsienit until he had.fore enough for it. s (t. o Art iboi die: Mir anda arri-ved' at La 'Caldera on: the 2($thi of' Aliugut,:1599. Whe the garrison w: s.-gi.ven inlto hi's care he plut tlhe defel.nsive. w orks- in ')*rder,.antd w'ith:- the -'arms which lhe l)rough t, and.t tlose whish he fou:nd in the fort,-he anred: all tlhe troops, amounting to 1.14 soldiers. As directet by an order of the governor, lhe sentt a chlief (of tlhe Pintadlos iBisavansil to Mindanao witlh letters to the chiefs of tihes islan n iwhich hle infornlw~d them 'that they would be plrotectel. fav 'ored,;ad up eldtld in justice, as vassals of Ils Majesty, and. thoat with ti] olject a garrisoln had bee placed in La C(alera; and thpat to aid in maintaining it, and in overing the etxpeses, whic tlhe ltiad crausedl in t5 Mhe war by thtleir dlisobedience, thle largest pssible jliantity of tributes would be collectled fotr lis Majesty, and that I Me would send for th l shlmrtly, whlich hlad not been done earlier because the Mindanaos td been so spent a lnd. afflicted. Having ai oni thie d of September at thte river of Mindanao, and deliverdl his dispatch,l this chief was 1 Point or )ay, not an Island.!. 1 ()s]

Page  277 PI ACXFIATION ( MIUNDANAO 277 well Iweived, and found the' p~ple in the settled state in whiTh Gen. Don Juan Ronquillo had left tileme. Ria Mnuda, the tmin chief of Mindanao, in the name of them allsent him back on the 15th of the o said mnld.t, gaoe ing to giveajet toe taibue ewhich thC Woud (ollect. At this t ihe news fromn the cdlief eaptain of Malacca havingra e the goveror4 to the effec:t that in the Sunda,' 150 learues from that port. t:hee had bXn se a number of Englcish ships whose dsigs we not known; and, a littl later, word ftroit the. ommader: f th' frt of Maluco that tlhere were tat trnatema, within the port two Engi:h hips with 40(0 men and 5- pieces of artillerv; a councie of war w:asheldas to what was best to do.. The: s-'aid' council decid(cd to ithdraw thg on frolm La C(adera to' (1 Ce, so that the e-neml y sbhtuldnot t:e that p'e and, if they shouhl atte)pt0 to dag tt provine,::they wuld fiid it inA a stat' of defnse.:; Ac:o;erdi:ly order was set to Capt. Toribio de Mi randa t itdre wt th trops rms ai, tlutyh dismantling the; a s d tha e could retrn rtlx P th ble~and;with m~ore troops and arrni in0 or icr to as1st inA Cit defense.':On tie 9th. fti Mda vat Cii,; wit& all tlie troops:t came -; r r&nforcemenrt frtomt e Jt s — m t came e t, th,t. a:is. I;:Jua WM leaving tLhe Pro*vaine: f t i n;; con n ith oop theicre are::i lly: k: pt0:::: tothe tgaron of:r ownF co eauntry by way Tof India, without doing a daimage to the isldands o:f the ne; ist therefo lei e e arre saentw stdi the new rteeivedi f those m~e 0;;1: n em:: i 1 The Straito Sudanwic seartsaea frtom. ta cif.. ' ea ing The i of C U in aProe rs eJavat ron t leav l kthe ':: ':of'::'-:i Afte~r.1a this, in June o 1(,00. te: governr~eeie:nw,: bny: y of::[alarca, that Uth ships whw! had pa~edt tt:Se toi utch merich ats who h ad oto load lwith spiacs in h:Maluea o received of those enemies OfTAhe Satrait t oe f Bud, which separates.;la a from4 Sumatra [1(691

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Page  279 APPENDI III THE MORO RAIDS OF i 59 AND i6oo [Sucesos de la Islas Filipias, Dr. Antozio de Morga, Mexico, 1609.1 The Spanish gariri1oU left iu. La Caldera, at the withldrawal of oln1 Ronquiillo's camp from the river of Mindanao, passe$ irto command of Captain Villagra at the death of Capt. Juanl Pact!ho in Jdol, and was suffering faor lack of provisions; for neither tle p le, of the river could give tlhe t to the Spaniarda, nor would the Sulue funi any on accoumnt of the war declared upon them. T'lretfre he garrison igent requested Governoor Don rancisco i -ello eitier to heir presidio with plovisions, soldiers, awl nmunition, or toi allow them to retire to Manila —a thing of whi;h ttyw ere most desirousteie there thfy gain no other speeial result fhan that of: famine.a'd ofI in:cart ro in that fort, and of no gphewhereai r ist nver in view of their isistenein t mttti lit V ney in the r l exee ith toi presidio-nd or: the:same 0reaso te ui nt ta t wli fiictel upon the Sulus for fheir t pote niars t: insurrection was deferred-and thiiing:that tfto innao and anxiety of maintainin the: presidio:of La CIda. XI o. e r to rt~ P '~....a:':e' do it with a reasonable excuse lie: onsuil:ted the A:- diencia:and. doter intelligent persons, and requeste tlime to!give: hm:ni B he first communicated his wishes to them and gave them some re.ons with which he tried to persuade them to give him the answer that lie htie t t ris t desired. T he Audiencia advised lhim not to remove or raise the garris~on of La ('aldera, but to rcenforce and maintain it, and to attend to the what was necessary for those two places should be withdrawn tfroinm soni othter section. t ey said that this wa the most urgent nee, and the one which required the greatest attention in the islands, both in order to pacify thos provinces and to keep tlem curbed; lest, seeing the Spaniards totally withdrawn, they shoulld gain courage and boldly venture The Philippine tlgnas, Blair and Robertson, XV, pp. 1O0-196. 279 ll7~]i

Page  280 280 rlTj tfIST(RY (OF HiUlK still farather and come (own to make captures among thel Pjilados IlBis.aytauj and Carry the war to the very doors of the Spaniarda. Notxiwithstandini this reply the governor resolvedi to raise and witraw tue rTrrison and sent orderss to (Captain Villagra immliat burn the fort which hal beeuilt in L (Caldera, to witldraw w all his men and sipsand sipreturn to Manila. lThis was quickly done, for the aptain and theli(ld's f iso it fw nothing more than to dismantle the frt and Pave. When 14 sutll s saw the Spaniards abaludoning the: coltr tre they tat the latter would retun to Mindanao no more, and thit th: lihad not sufficient forces to dso So. TheIreupl they gained frh utio anid tcoura and united c:.arTohas and, other craft n oier to descend upon the oast of Jn.d (lisayvas) to pillnlder thiem.andmake captivs6;.; peple of T'ampa-.an, who lost Iope o ing f urthere f te Spanar and of ofIa(latrtl and eft the coutr cine to tems with and joind the ololwv their nieigho:', i orde'r to avoid the war and injuries.:. J....... ll:_:tt te vr s rigr:om thelatter. Thent all: turned t heir arms in to thieir teriator antd gain. plunder leirfitet n pp of it two the,.:expcriet.e: I chif of the river of iMieuanao, called Sati and Sil ungan. htlcyt' left thfe:MindanaoRiver in the monthof July of the year 1599,:/,.-'f; ' I C/ *.,-..in, thescason of thev r d 1 with5 W)q cotainin r tapns ai 1('0(1soldiwuier rsJ arnmd Withul ( I. 'tcueio ns,::: n::m. '': with handle, andmany c in, dstered toward the islands of:... t..... of <.. '~o.ton and Panay, ard n Ighrn sad.Te.-y-:.. passed Negros Island... eantd w -to the river of Pac:ay, whch:they ascnd let for5 leagues to tlhe tchief slelttlnnt, wher e the alea!ade-maor and some Spaniards were living. They sacked the settlement, burned tie houses asnd churches, catr.ed many tnative (Ch)ristians-men, womemn and chiildrenupon " nall the Fo the Io.il Fom t alale- yOr, and those who could, ted inland lamong the mountains, and accordingly te enemy had a better opportunitytoo to do at they pleased. After they had brned all the vessels in the river, they left the river of l anay with their boats laden with )iag('ilgl goods and captive Christians. rhe\ did tlie sn in tie othe islandfs and towns which' thle tasssel. Then they returned to Mindanao, without any opposition, being offered, with a quantity of gold and goos anrd more than 800 captiveas besides the peole Iwhom thir had kill. This word Is as~ commonly used withba r-Ras with^ an -rc," as Sirungan. IA strong wind south by west. Shields.. [172J

Page  281 In Miatinaua thev dixidtfl the spoil, and agres t et r y fleet for the next year atd return to nake war etter pre P TPiS dari}tg attack of the;nMidannos worked grt injur to C I i islatnds [ Bisavas1, b8oth on accolnt of teir d{eds ther and a on act(ctunt of tIe fear ant terror wnt w1iJ l thev inpired the ti It Wau of the latter being it tlhe power of the Spniards whw kp the sulbcwt, tri'butary, and dlisarmeldt, aand neither lr)tted them fom their enemiiets,h nor left thent the mearis to defendl themselv as thy ud to do iwhen there were no Spaniards in the country. Therefor many tol w o4f waceful antl sulbljected Indians revolitd and witdirew to the tinf gu,' and refusedl to dlesend to their ouse.tlst agistrates, and encomtenders. As was reported daily, theV all hIad a great deire to revolt egel but t were appeas d and reduced again to subjtion bn V a few prma" and presents from tlheir enpoten(deros andl relidous who showed gn t pity and sadness over their injuries. Although in Manlla p e re ted tlese injuries, nd still smore thos wich were expected in th future from the enemy, the dlid nothing but reret them ---sinee the Pgover was ill providedl withl ships and oter neceP ities for the defed reck1on themt with tle loss which thev had1 sufred for eha l raid the calmp on the river of Mitdanao and lismantlle the preidi of oa Caldera. As so)n as tle weather permitted, tie Mindanaos and Sus I returned with a large fleet of imore than 70 well-equipped shis and mtorte ian 4,000 fighting men, led by the same Siltunigan and Sali, and oe Lif danaon alnd Sulu chiefs, to the salie slands of P1intados Bisay, with, the determination of taking and sacking the Spanish town of AMin, which is situated in Oton. (Capt. Jnan Garcia de Sierra, alealde myor of tllat province, taving heardl of this expeditim anid of te d ins entertained by the enemy, took thIe most naens precatis, ad gathering into ttle town all the Spaniards who lived - there nd in i nteighborltl, slhut himself up in it with all of thJ. Thn, ha ni repaired. as well as ptib}e, a woten fort thew, hle galred there the womlen and their possesions. lie andl the Spaniards Nmt 70 nearlatmedt with aruebls, awaited the enemy. The latter, who in telned to attack the river of Panay again paassd Ne g X s Island a made for the towt of Arevalo, wherew thiey ancllored to the natie ative word for mountain. to whom land had been granted with control over te nati who t* on It. This was the first piratial expditlon made ag Inst the Spaniards by the tnhaE bta of the $uthern islandsr (Rin t ftrrantae tuerraa Pirt leas) wrongly datee the adonment ot I* C vs-f,:a the lt o f i ro I ti 4h Cntinuin4 he yt 3T e folowi year t ht vr y r at the zxp ditotol w o that the di np eil to the den"et part of I w *b it 1 Vi noiderh1bblo trble to ladut thWem to: quid0, (r a woman, who pw fri tt er*n 1a sIbyl or PropheWt, pe t lhd to them thlt they ttuld ot y t At An"y lonr, fr the later lled t it th to, e i *lw t t h Pi"ntado

Page  282 M ttttf t 3'h tte l*1, a f fi a j.nm, and cr a, ani, without stopping Qo the *w ret i the Spanih town Te was the obj t of tNher ata. The divide M into t ps, saie f d d t ith thidr ulpon the enemy with st, veemen that they for ten to * and take r ef0uge on board their cr as. So gt w the (Idnfusion that many Minldanaos were killed bfref they culd ein * Ca pt. Jtian aride ia d ixo was on hto tak, n. eu m lo s 1 ly to the water's ge that the latter cut off thle lis of h f w nt with t;heir kampilan and brought hil to the grounds wherm the y kil htini. hm enemy elmarkedi with a axvvy I of Me, and haltt t the Islanid of GinmarAis.,en saight of Artval:o. lertlv ( their n, inalcuding the d and the undel, whla were not afew, 4 ng whoml was one of the mnot noted tiiefs and leader. Thel they iWe for Mindanlao, mak-ing a great s-how of grief asrd mo}w 4 nili tbheir bells 2 and tf.at ltahy made noa furtl:er ledaiy at Ptin [Agays j1 der~iving little profit or n f the expedition u c ijul- andl loss of men and reputation, whi i1 Was felt on d) ply u their arrivalt i Silit anld Mindanlo. In order to nemlx. this disaer, it w proipwo.id to renew their expedition against the 'iniPt d at ftei 11nonsoon with -more shlips mad fmen nd it was so deie. 1 Probably gongs. * The Isand of Gtmars, southeast of Pansy, and 0parst frm it b t mit of I bib01. b Neither Stanley nor Riza throws any lig o th word The Spta t dictioaa/ likewise tail to explai it, as does aso a limited e inattoAn of alay ad T diftio aries. Thre conjectures are open: 1. A delvatve ol; itast. a I of tl: hence a conc; 2. A Malay or Ta word 4for eithr a wind er in is ati Malay words for "to blow," "sound a musical instrment.b" tgS.lip d 3. A misprint for the Spanish piftv, a ptossble Shoteni d to ofifd at t 174] 0

Page  283 APPENDIX IV GALLINATO S EXPEDITION TO JOLO fhe:dar'g a nd a dae ity of te M iBn' d 8dsand S lcursions with the r Uflts into the Islands of Pin h B i h e sue a sate t t, wex 4el tht t*t w m as far a Muilal pnl andi devtatg In order;o~~i~~ t, a 4 t tIle begi'aning of the year 1602g, Go r D.~nor1n~ Frci. 'Tejo aevnvg strength from we, dete aat ne tti p 8ut: it, ith the and en C. a Xuar: Galinato held in Ce and in the Pein [ with more men, i, d p rviovns, whih, by the necary ':.doeents aand ioanstmt r io,:ns "fo r him Wfe:: -. chasti'iA ki* inait ann ctify t r. ch 'afIse its king and rs and pc.and r it:to t-he dienee of his M. t this e, until ld e portunit to the aff-wis otf Mthmde*l, h qite n $wulu, the audacit of tlhe emy would be *ke;kL$ y ri th ':r into his own country, he woul not e t o Ze Captain Oallinato se outu on this expditio h 2 a:: ships artillery, enouh pvisions for fout-mona n — th m e Was thought he expedition would lasi —an with d as T. f Sulu, at th l r bofts, e -iver ih this:, prineip town and d welig of the king, he landed bas men, hrtie:Iy, 0td the s provsioe and left his hips under a gA t Th islabdei we l n the t and tdwelx the kinI wh a situated o a very hi gh hill nve sme dl a iha d appr-acl through paths and ni ad s* narrow that tnicaW ea bV only in single file, They had fortifil the.oe p1i a~~ieng~~l ~~b ~fBF~ S~~ ~~i~i~Q~ C~ ~.~l~.dlS1 t nn i z itwand ir for ihei' rf arqucu pis anU ir sn th C 4 c 9aryrq%.X^'" at:Xt xn r ~a~a~%mE ""Fae kihol~ ' le l, ThoPM)POw tot Stai **4 3Zlo XV S v-~~- ~ ~~i'.s~t- s::.- -::d:i ~=: i- SE;;

Page  284 with thea, fa r t>heyv hIaIf tak tt o t is... Tih q *t aid Ifron te pie of Mind ig o, 1$!, d t waiting the same, sie tht had b informed of the ie w i beinp pred ainsit0hemt in the Pion tf Bf aisi0i tenrmineto Bpit h his fap near th the n f is aid ol arri and tn attak the fot. After ihe hadl lartere him X f at a did t of elil04f I uef mi a plain fauinag Ite asint, he at aw iWIre ith isagets to the king and cliefs of thl i sland, c aig on them U rtender, and telling o thli that good ternns would bl given them. hde aiting for i va asWer, 1p forti ied that spt, n himiseslf wherever ncessary. lie mtunted the arlwlery in the bt p-f iofl lE'ar s11, 1lnd kept his IIIa T forl any erget A fat and deceptive ansvwer ws re1illuned, inaking excuses for the ex( that hal beetl eoutnutitted-. and for not com plying just thouen wih hat I e akedl of them, and making- louId romises to do so later. All this w" withl the object of detai;iitng the captaill in tlat iplate whic is y ner nnh1ea4lthy,V until the rains Aolullti set itn. 11 is r isit iiot run short, and the arrival of the expeeted aid. After tlis answer ad e ve tie SuIlIs, thinking that thie Saiarids had become meore carel on atc unt of it, swarmed.down qluickly froln the said fort inl a largeb of probably soanewhat over onte thoiusand; and artmed with arquebbt and other wea)pons witlh handles,,tarnpitin, and carares, attack and ssaulted tle quarters anl ia. of the Spaniards. This could not e don o sectretly as not to be seen by the Sp)aniards and allow them oppoltunitv to prepare to re:eive the Sulus before their arrivalt This the S8aniars did, and heaving lernlitted the natives to come all tgether in a ly to thle very inside of the uarters and trenches as soon as the Si had diseharged thleir arqurebue te Spaniards opened ir upon tdwm, fit. with their artillery, and th}en withL their arquebuses, killig any, d forcing thte est to retire in fligt to the fort. The Spniards puuAled thenm, wotunding and killing to the liddle of the hill. But tht farther on the paths were so narrow and rough, they retreatd tievy artillerJy fire fron 1the heights and the large stones hurled down upon thet and returned t to their quarters. 1Upon miany other daw efforts were nade nto reat the fort, but without any rsult. T'hreupon Ga Ilinato, in considration of tlhe war bein prolon beyond what ih been, expecteds, uilt two forts, one where he kept his hips in orer -to camp The forts wr built of wood and faines and foifeda with the artiflerv frot the ships. The Spaniards shut t he lv p In th forts, Xwhene fomnt time to time they sallied, nt i king m s$ f rs the enemy's fort. The latter aiways emamie shut up in their f without evwr c sin to comte d'own ort toild; fr he w st vna t llt>)0 E i

Page  285 the Sptiards d ot: remain hmg i the is l t that the re fr t ittiwg in, tha hI we be g, a that his provisions were failing without rhi hig YSp4 l d desired task, and that it could not be cf omplitd; wi his resources, and that the enemy from Mmidanao with other altw of, tba were boasting that they were gathering a large fleet in order to driv the paniards frot Jolo, he sent news of all that had occul to te governor of Manila, with a plan of the islan d d f rt d a a rlation of th dificulties which the enterprie prested. He ent this in a v b1, by ('apt. and Sargento-mayor Pedro Coteo de Morale, toward the end of M4ay of the year 6l,l in order to obtain instructions a, to his pcure, and the necessary reenforcement of men and provisions. The capin was charged to return quickly with the answer. * * * At the same time that Governor Don Pedro de Acula enterd upon his administration, the captain and sargentomayor, Pedro Cotelo de Morales, arrived from Jolo with the advices and report of Juan Xua Gallinato concerning the state of affairs in that island, wither he had gone with the fleet at the begining of that same rear. he goeror, on account of the importance of the matter, wished to make evey effo po sible, and deternined to send him supplies and a rcenforement of solme men, wvhich he did as soon as possible. lHe was ordered to at lest make an effort to punish that enemy, even if le could do nothing moe, anld whenever the opt tunity presented itself, t o go the me thi in the river of Mindanao, and return to the Pintados [Bisaas]. When this commission reached Jolo Gallinato was already so worn out, and his smen so ill, that the reenforeements only made it possible or him to get away fromt there; accordingly without seeing to another thiing, he broke camp, burned tle forts whicl lie had built, embarked, nd went to Pintados, leaving the ptople of that Island of Sulu and their neighbor, those of Mindanno, enmboldened more than ever to make raids agaist the Pintados, and the islands within, which they did. The governor, without delaying any longer in Manila, hastily start for the Island of Panay and the town of Arevalo, in a gaiot and other smnall v eels, to r see their needs with his own eye., in order to provide for them. He left war matters in Manila, during his absenc, in cha of Licentiate Don Antonio de Ribera, auditor of the Audieneia. As son as the governor left Manila, the auditor }had plenty to lk after, bc ause a squadron of 0 rarwtcos and other ve wls frNm MindX ao entered the i8slads as far as the Island of uAzon and its Ci ta, ma k captures. Having taken e shhpll ps bound, from. Cabi to Ma ila, t caeptured 10 Spaniards in thent, among them a womans and a p6t ad *apt. Martin d(e Mandia, and tlhtey took tisem off with them. They e tel redlalItya, burned tlhe chaurh aid all the own and t apit mWa jnIIT

Page  286 286 jwprms of aIl c amoWIwg te ntive. TV, thed [ t * of alyan to do ths e tae, but te auditr, havsi f i enemy in hMil*t -ad 'it ir dyn a at of de i and a captai and stoe v W. Co uently, qdid not da ato enter the tiwn or its hay, but cr: over to Mindoro, whe in th the natives, seizing their gold ad po n, ad ai their h and chuird, hwere they captured the pr ndar C, cdy iofent fi t doctrina. They filled their own ships, ad others which they azd there, witl captives, geld, and property, staying in the rpoa of Milonm as leisurely as though in their own land, notwithtstdin that ait i but 14 leagues from Manila. Capt. arfin de Mendia, prisnr of th pirates, ofered, for himself and the other Spanish pi atr, if thv would let Pitn go to Manila, he would get the m for all, wod u take it, or would send it within six onth, to the river of Mim, or otherwise he would return to their power. The chie f in eomand of the fleet agreed tlhreto, with certain provisio an d eonditions, and caused the other captives to write to the effect that wht a ben agreead upol might hbe fulfilled, and then he allowe te captin o ic the fleet. The ltter came to the city, and upon reeiving his a, the auditor sent munitions, ships and more men to Balayan th ther were there already, with orde to go in pursuit of the enemy wih delay, saying that they would find him in Mindoro Capt. a who had charge of this in Balayan, did not start quiklyv he a ld have done in order to find the enemy in Mindotro, for w he e v he found that he had left tlat port six days efore, laden wfith ip booty, to return to Mindanao. Then he went in pursuit of hin, a ou soewhlat slowvly. The enemy put into the river of a little rninal i island to get water nd wood. Just at that time Governor Do P de Acufia, who was hastily returnming to M landilaef re the town of A v a. where he hlad learnd of the incurion of those prei,,t e passed oe near the mouth of the river, in two s l c Xra: i I and a virrey,' with very few men, that it was a wonder that he was not aa captured by the enemy. He leared that the enemy was the. f a bont of natives whiclh was ecaping therefrmn, and then ie met G r Perez going in search of the enemy with twele vt s ls-vct aid rrvey and some large chamr e. The governor made im make hate and gave him some of his own m en to him to we he le n left the pirates the day tbfom, Btwhereun they wnt t attack them. Bit the latter espied fthe fleet through their sentinels whom c had, dy stationre in the se, outsdee tle rniver. A ordlin ly t le the in hasti.. and totk to flight, throwng into the wa and at Ia

Page  287 &isted by r sails. T,. ca, d captu two, ut the Ves ap thoug wihgrs rtbe u IF r 1 ihpermol the reaunied o Mla w gt gvernor had emd, w,:atf:: disturl thit V ishuald he come eto s a, who had neve ared ledIe their ahouss sld h daing and Id astoc et othe vo erye ot they ciety din ge d mraling -c'ap-t 1s. [179] re

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Page  289 OLASO'S EXPEDITIO~N IN t629H1S~ (Relation of events in the Phlippin l8!anOd and other sur:tuni r*i: ttm, t nibth of July, 1629, until thato of 1:1* I s}all coinlmemn t ei a ffirs of thie islands with th expdiion to:Jolo. It is an island of the Arehipelago, wriillws for yearo rt, at, i its natives, who are Mohamnmedians, have made a t:saind eiMa M against uts in these islantls, pillagilng wwhnever opprtuniy a brming villages anlll hurches,t and capturing nuimerous Ipe In order to remedyv all thse evils, Governor Don Juan Nifo e TAIora detertnijed to equip a psowerful fleet in order tof d tny tat V v and conquer a stronghol(ld which nature has made in their iSand o lofty and so difficll t ofa approach tatt there is no ittter stone c%!le, for the approach to it is by one rpath and it laS some artillery which defens it. The people are couragtlous ad warlike. For our flet wee ollected I galey, 3 brigantfines 12 freight chamwnnfes (whict am like SMll Jtiachs.re and about 50 caracoa. The lst namnedI am: the sal crft of thfese islands, and generally have thirty or forty oar on a side. All itite vessels togetlher carr ie about t a0} Saiairds and t,( I din. and they had considerable appartus and war supplies. It w qute sumicient for another conquest of greater im prtance than the one on which they were going. All that fleet departed, then, from the port of Dapian on Marh 17. l)apitan s the wprt nearest to the enemy, an tnd the Isld of Sula reached in [blank space in thVe Ventura del Are MS. ] das. At dan our men were landed, and be1an the ascnt to the st glMd. The master-of-camnp, Don ltreno de (laso, ho w as comma4der in h of the fltt, preedat: the men. Tile Sulus defended their stwholg d with valor. They killed some of our men and woundl eIi ght, anmg t tlie master-of4<anip himself. He was overthown, as if d:: ai t rolling doxwn the hill. H1owever, he wa not deal but 1 oadi, 'The PhilippainM Itslan4, I8t4r wa: twot a,. XXII, I. p, p * A smalHl V^0 i M as a tsr to ar w *^" bSw ia5W rimic

Page  290 ar w1-they t i m, n d h ic X*re. wth A ot) to, -,gre*at faciUgty.....

Page  291 CORCUERAC~:OR $ CAM~PAIGN~ IN JO I l0i In my lIt lette r o to your Row 4 o th rmIofh atdtak, whelh t Xounate, b i tb oir Vt U, asai I t your Revermn. Not l fortnate will W the news 0 s o w rolate%, whick it is yet necess ry for m t, in orer io my duty and 4 trem v tiel alu ri4iu fro r n nd let 'aL go there. I am hem and f everythig and the; n ede a l k of thoselho tl mnnewtxpand matt.nrx h a a"nos great a the Willt ot and, 'Los ittii t r8 Wo etan dIcare what hm happ an. It i s foilows Sine that attak,we have madee w Th fi: v A" mines wic we ha mae, wi iwhicihl, we ex; Wee t wg rao of those walls All of the min were fired, and t in w cause the sa me effwts as the other our men rttir tha t'~ ought to have done. our of the mmind peo 1ad (dam age m the enemy They, full of flarm fle down Ir * r pation; but, t as the mines dld noa fit ink enea ot4, lerdin I, the reintie, tas e w. qmt oi d u fear let the mine do us ham. The MXoro k i:thir s that we were renukd is time,as we had b~n the othr, wth t death of a ptain, hile se me m w o left, nd dd no ode that time. He its mouth ws or, and having fouIr it we tfice two da r ateha to e asaTt. The assa~ult w' made after the mie had q d. d at Mnine w" t].ger tan it oth had beenmf, andlj cue Muh But the:Moros f~rtifM tefimIfyi agam, withat Um O qI lsd thel t ii f to lvtei thmdy iri ek m t: fortiaied with many kAdM a p so mth^A * Md b WIte as tl u a W * hil passed tid ain oftid d

Page  292 in tw da. Idn r: hi! ten w i to e asts and ee t t our men and earrv aw ay t w,n a alts-ii tdelyv,0, Captin Fmentl Cpt.a:in.uan Nicolas Cap l Wi edroX de Meai and Sargentofmayor o nza le de ( a el.:ii th three a it another misforttune happened teo won St. Matthes day, Whtch w As ftolrws: aptain Rafael taime, going with foti lysi mten and two h u r:eled Indians to }hake a f.a rlo ( we, nd having taken up llarters i a field, wiere there was a fortfiti hou* arradngerl his psts at iunterla s a1 rr his mren ll t to e on their rdai int since tni ] pimos t'I anis: d ody.li(. th ie "t were ti the t c or (od, ordailned it t:hus;:for suddletnlv thle enemn rusied uponel our mn, who cultd not unite?, as they were 1w tlhat time scatterei trowu te forest. T''lhe enemy. htving cauglt Illteu fT thelr guari, made a pt.me oIf it, killing twe:nty-esix n. and carrying off arlns, pi:wder, bals atnd fuses. I regard that event as the greatest of all (Iour 1 ss. Among thU. of our mnen kille{t there by the enemtS was ( Caltaiin 'nIpez SuaxreJi a fine soltiier. tur mlen were not dilsheartenetl bv these revers, excpt such andl silc mIelt. The governor well sustains the undertaking with iall his fowers of mind and body. He has suIrrunded the enare hilt with ta stoelde and i a ditc L has sown tre grlnd witi shar s e that th)e elley mlllay nier receie aid nor sally out from it. At i'nten'als there are seentry- posts and towers, so closre that they almo*t touch. t1we were six barracks alog it, so tlhat if any tower slould te in n a the soldie{rs iI thetn could go to its defelse. Sot1 Of tiren have six men, others four, and those whihclh hlav( least thrt men, as a ard: he encloslrre is onet league lotng and sturrounds the hill. T do not know which} causes the more wonder, tfhe fort of the Mor.o or the endcl tr of thle Spaniards whith restrains the Mfros. s( thlat the issue but, sld, and then at their peril. We are:day by day making gradal advan TrIoslay a roampart was clompleted wrvhich is jusAt even with t3heir st k so that we shall cormnxand the hill equallvwith the enemy. God helping, I hope that e shall reduce their trnches, and then al advanct fromn better to h1etter. May (G;od aid us; and, pomft""is e todieri tirit afem frustror digIaft qi rlolitot eam Fathe.r, praye and niany of thmn are ned1., Will. votur Reteen ave dsl in:ur hoy college, and excuse me and all of us for what w can not do. I forward this letter, fhopingj for 'its good fortune in the bobv 4 cr of von r Iteveree, etc. t Jolo, Matal 31 1tt:8 Ti the fftherprmr ofr M an il a. * tr pabity MOe w* " a *40 R h tn m of thtis i too "Ie Q* at w af tlo t w r* it Wii Itt" vaI." Tb 41 uy It$ IN *a nstI" I w "AfheW &Qtns

Page  293 (L0 UK C: MaPAYI J4.AX -C!! I*S TC, C I would like to W de tlberer of this letter, t my of iing your leverf ee and I the fathers 4 hd r of y Rerverences holy c.oleg ThMat is a prop tion for hich v reit,:my be given me, ut the time gives e only to suffer ad s we bge n, 11l but the to1WVs spa*i w halve to weorntmodate ourselves to it, and to check our d4ir d4aw stren h from wakness. m t must ctent mysi with writing, whi woulld be a pleamnt task, if I could do it at my leisu a not * htiastilY aEs I1 have iade knownl in certain lettrs th1at I havc t to your t Iteveenac — not losing or neleting any ocion at whi I od wri And so that this opportnity should not pas witlout a letr fr me I have hastened my pen bteond my usual custonm, and have writt x concisely and briefyi-altlhough I could write at greater leg th, 4 give accounlt of many things whlich 1 leve for a better ion. Ta will lt when it is the lbrd's pleasure for us to w ech other, Morover, I have no pleasant news to write. since that which I c wrl ite wou(ld a1l i)e to the effect that we have not gained tis eancha bial; anl tlhat, at the timtes when we have temptnl fortune, we have riI with loss of solm men and many woundtd. Continuing, then, in the satle style as the last letter, I dl that sijce the first assault, in which we were driven back with te IE of Captai'l 11on lPedlro Mena PIanlo, Adjutant Oli;v, and lf T we have lale two other assaults. One was on the twetv-fourt ox Marlch, the e of our Lady of the Assumption. rte seond w on the t wenty-eighth of the sante monthi. In the first, we trusteto the min tlat Ihad been mnade, by means of whichl we exIpct to make a sfe entrance. We woutld have made it had our fear of i ving harm fr them natclhed the little fear of the enemv-Who, as iararia did not prepare for flight, althoughll the knew our designs. Of the five mi four blew up; andt as was iso, an - as we k fteP? ard le we he f some captivet, there was a eat I to the enemy. As son as th e saw tite fire, tlhe tCoSk to flight- but our men,:,'inag at a di. ncold not come up to seize thie tiat enemy andoned, until Ir Iate Thlat gave the Moros time to take p autio, so that whie we had given us. On that o.,asion blbh side foughvt v i wounded on our side were not 111at, tiand our l d evem few our ln th later was Captain Pimienta. We were for I tow.n to our w dtbut hitind out more thanx thfe dla:np twrtit by thie ni lt}s ofa tbo jpe wa onsderable, bie not few of e V awve of til "vril of our fiit lnt n dlithe om mP tv X fifth mine wlhit I re"ain me (*blreb1 ul"(d nId Iitve 'It e, 1

Page  294 294 T2TH IHIST1)RY y OF JLILU hrew —thanrnel of the otes toked it), the third atk was e isd of two days, by frst setting fire to ht mne, d bya g the,dle"n better tthan aon the day of the prevtius asault. Tqy we t in arrty by the governor, wo i pe ron cane upj t t qu ar on tht (xtaion, ' e s fet re t t1le mine? and ltrte was att Omlkld than on thle preceding days. Many of the enemy were kille; but a the et-rarIWncewa so deeply refcessed, it could not be forced so fry by wu, for the Moros were able to defend it from ust with geat vor that we could not take it. ft e men fought with:so great spirit and Onuage that it was necesary for the leaders to use force with them order to get the men to retire, wlen they saw the so superior force of the eamyr On that occasion they killed seven of our- men, bouides woding many. Among the latter was Sargento-mavor Melon, who was shot throuh the lultg by a ball. He died on thle second dayto thte grief of all this army. IThereupon his Lords!lip made his men retire to their qua and commanded that the fort sould not be attacked, but tat they shou/ld pro eemld to gain it by the complete blockade of the en as we are doing. By thois method, I think Ithat we shall make an etran into the fort. Already we have one bulwark, which we have made level with their entrenchments; and we are raising our woks one and one half arars' above thlm, so that we are dislodging them with our adilrle'. They are retiring to the interior of their fot. By this mans we ope to guin entranee into all their forts; and, once maste of the, I t by God's help that we shall conquer their stronghold, and that they will humble themiseflv tvsi+ i4c od ad the klng. Before Matths ew'atthew's day, Captain Raphael Ome ve-on,0.t:.1 I X t:..^'c:x asSei:a ha ere, and to overrun the country.. h..ls....1ana:t;li' r.,,i;::::} s, lheavily wooed a nearly all of it is mountainolus. ^Te t'ookk in his company about fifty men (i.e., a iards) and two hundred Karaga Indians. The captain reached a field, nd having lodged in a fortified haoue such as nearly all those h n (for those Indians of the mountain, who are called Guimenno,m build them for their defense), hie placed hlis sentries and sezed; the p ftions that he judged most dangerous. But since non est vocint aeq currentis, etc., either because of the great multitude and the lin of the enemy, or (as is more certain) because the sn ics en er and the other men asleep, the enemy me suddenly and attek our soldiers-with so great fury that they killM twenty-six rmen, al-ong whom was Captain lopez Suarez, a brae ldier. The leader and eap tani, Ome, was in great danger. He fouht in peron with so t vIaor that, although run thronug with a r, he attkm and def.taC his oppo)nent, laying him dead at his fet. Few of ofur m en ided him, and a A Spth ars mitewn of length whieh a * aMut egial to yaH1 -:: aEl~A I I Th.e 1mtabahais or Saui aof th Interior mou"t ta(. 1r:$']

Page  295 CVliWIRUA' 8 JAMPAIGN IN JOA) imay of thel rtreat- im miately thum allowM the ee oy p frotm us twenty firearms, with fus, iowder, and is. Tha t w a great loss, and it is certain that we have not h thefro had gr t er. And if any loss lias ourred it has been dute to the n I ad cow fidene of the Spaniard. Today two Bailan Indians came down from the hil to ak for mercy and for passage to their own country. They say that they are nt by thle datus in the stronghold wlo cane from that island of iln aor Tagima; and that, if permission and pardon were given to th y he pai [i.e., Corcuera], one hundrd and thirty of the woud me down in the morning. We regard this as a trick of that oro; and, although it may be as they say, we are taking preautions, are watching for whatever may happen. If they should come, they wll b well received; and that will not be a bad begining to indu others to come from the hill. I shall advise your Reverence of such event on the first occasion. What we kno that they are sffering wiinthe fot] is the disease of smallpox and discharges of blood, toether with grt famine; because we have surrounded the entire hill with d and stockades, et with sharp stakes, which run around it ifo mor e ha one and one-half leagues, and within musket-shot [of their fort] is a sentry-post [garita] or tower in which three men and thre are staying. By that means the enemy cannot enter or go out tithiou being seen; and, when they do that, they re given such a bo r e that scarcely does any one dare to go outside of their wall. The h is a beautiful sight, and if it were enjoyng holy peace inste of ar it would be no small matter of entertainment and rereation to surv the landscape at times. The More does not like to see us, nd is I loki at us continually from his stronghold and yelling and scofing at uqas they say sometimes that the Spaniards are chickens agi that tc are sibabuesg and again that they will come to set fire to u al, atnd kill us. The Moro is a great rascal and buffoon. I trust in O i tlit in a little while He will be ready for our thanksiving [for the defeat of the Moros]. Will your Reverence urge His servants to aid s with their sacriices and prayers. Those, I believe, it will that mut gve us the victory, and that must humble the arroanc of this Moham dan. His Lordship is displaying great firmness and patience, as he is I grt a soldier. Already has he almost rais a stone fort on the bah, for ie intends o leave a prsidio here, and I think that it ill be almt finished before he leaves. N thing ele ceurs to me Of whateve el nmay happen, your Reverence will be adviS on the 6ft ion. If I have oe to considerable length in this lecker, it is use I ae knownah one (lay aead, of the departure of thliBs cKahamn I coyd f * 11Ub,i n th~ e iLnog e signif #"p1, app o iyty r il te panla a "sw"iea" aa expDreIa the aFtm of cot tmpt for their I ra.;.[t E ]

Page  296 296 THIE MtY orF sUIxU tllaiV ti Ititsto i-se l salv ricet Aso of Iur i lveet ll T I' to eti f, 1s() seErve hfar uithr a fprintrcial, etl* J*lo, April 5, v tlo d s ixlUlll:ndr and tI irt-viglt. Then Mora hlas returned today with a letter fromi the u'"m ai all thie stronghold, in wh-ich they beg pardsn and hutiliae tlhem v*. May (tod graant it, and 'rig thle to His knowled g I 1shall you of the restlt. I I ar ttthat Datut Adte is dead. If that is s, th the endl hlas comie. Tlodav, tile sixth of tlhe ablve month. PAX CI IR 1 ST1. /t /yratIls qlim dfedlit no)is rirctoriwI er JTesnPn ('lurisluma Ib Dona nostrfml." have written your I everence another letter, iv way of ()ton, telling you that- it wa our IArdi^'s pleasurX to give us a jou Lasterdti(te, the lteginning of what hs appened. IH I)ivine Majety has tchoseln to bestow tupom us an overflowing bless ing, hr te ruction of thlee Morms so that they should to:nte, abased andl ihumiliated, to b His governor, for mlercy; for, whether it was thie latters plan to go to treat for e at Basilan for their men, or whether they should *nd thtem- all, that they nmight see howtw the governor view their petition the following day thley eaise with letters from the queen b for Father Pat (Ctitierrez antl Itis I)rtlship. Thierein'let begge the father to protec heir, fr she wished to come to tIhrow herself at thle feet of thte eat f Manila, andt to 1beg Iis pardon for the obstinacy that they had shown hitherto. T 'lie father answvered for hlis Lordship, in rard to the par don, tflat if they agreed to d(o what was right, they would m be ve iladly pardoined but that in regard to their coming it was not timet antil they would1 Ihultly give tup tie arnls- which tley had taken from us, and the captives, vessels, and Itolv ornaments and that, even thoug the queen ead so great autlhority, so long as the king did not Ome, he muiiR-ideclare and show his willingness to accept what the ien had written. Accordingly, the king wrote to the same father and to his lord1ship next day, begging tle satne tlhing and more earnestly. But he was not allowed to (comie-Whih lie ur'genttlv entreated-unlil they should have givel up tle artS anf other tllhils of which they robt us. D)ifficulties auose over ftis point, as to whicll of tle two thing s Ws to be done first. The Moro delared that le wishei to treat fit of thew tae(, antd the points on whilch they were to agree; and therefo it as necessarv to see the hari of Manila first of all. But Don stian, tle was so exriet.ed in thest matters of war (in whidh rnd has iansa him h witq so w9se resolutions and given hiun evetn better dlgts) hel *"iThanks to who has given us the ictory throuh Otur Oi J3ls Cehfst " (oms s ys MHlt rst Mindano t ana's asd., column 2 that Sth qo, a * Bukao wsi a native of I han:, and t hate ad icsqui A FW" t roi husband that the government ot Sulu ws entirely in brhar. Ta a 1t *V the pretie of the Iastlan m1en I the, Stul atntbo!i [tssl

Page  297 firm to his proisals. woe day" p, but at I t t tei the terJtas by gving up tbe pi f aiy whih he ld froti us. There were fourla Ppiies; and, in pl of oe burst, one of bronze wa requted which mai ny min m hi buri t Afterwiardt we found thel broken pit, op ning thXe outli o ne of tthe ll1ines; andi he gave it to us willinglylaying that he h ths brouLght the broken piece, and that hw ought not for that rn to give amnothler in its place; and that whic ha l Ibn a ed fm>ln him hinad Ie outght for forty b nesof gold at Maassar. In order that the $ lards might see what an earxest fiesire for a prlrmanent peac wa in Iri heart, and that le was greatly inclineed to it, le sent also somet t although few and loxor ones. 1n what pertained to the aptives, he aid that he would surrender those that le had, but that he could not.rsumade hlis datils to give up tlheirs; still 1he would ask them ton give thir captives. At most, lie sent eleven COhristian captive, Cidtint mlnI women, and ch(iildren. He had already sent the holy e vessel, S' it was so long a ti le sine they had 1b n brought, le had s;ld t;ln to the king o f Malkassar; but lie said that lie and at ll his prpear were there, to satisfy thie Spaniards for:anyl ilnjur that they had - reeivi. The king petitioned his Lordship to allow him to visit him; and his Lordship granted such Wirlnission for Qulasinodo Sunda 'Thle (tatus [i we verv ang that the king w$so ibr, lecaulse lie humbled himself so deeply; accordingly, they oppol his leaving the hill to talk with the governor. The rie to v it, but the king overruimled by the reasons whiel he gave to tle dats, and which father (;regorio Belin gave to him. His Lordship gve htt for the king, and ordered Captaiin Marquez and Captain Rlaphal Omee to remain as such. They aked for Admiral I)on Ptedro de Almonte and two fathers, but that was not granted to them. Finally they wer satisfied with thie two said captains, persons of great estem and worth and te king came dIown to talk with his Lordship. accompanied by hief men. His TJLotship received }hiTlm with sueh display au lie could ar at short notice, under a canopy of dailask, anti seated on a velve chair, wit- a cushion of the satne at his fet. Anotser aushion was p la at his side upon a rug. As the king entered the hall, his Iorthip IP frt his l s a aadve anig two steps1 emb raced tlhe Moro kin then e made Bim sit down l te cushion that had l n pmrparld. Then his lao)rdship also seaited himself be.sidfle the king in his chair, while at his right side was Iis confessor, and at his left sood a captain of fe guns and the sargento-nmavor. Groueld aWhind the confosr w the feath who wer, in the quartera on that caion. The we e t o Awo Austin Itecollcts, and otne Frantlwan Rieolleet, andl a sxelar pmri. Then *amero Father (iutierre, and Fatler Gregorio Belix. The kinge td ptrlrmiioni I to rest a little first, for he came, one (f lus wTrgAnts fonning t s1t

Page  298 298 29 TlE III$4RY 0 SOUL hlin (Iadn Ude'.fl pyayp),i fli,!ng up from time to time the #ini whi lie woreo-pen in ftout, in order to ah te bree, ad to eae to shlt: r himstelefrio te hat, or t get rid of the fn w hih lie had ie. Iis ci:ef m1 seated theoselves after him on th O floor`, a se at verq sital4e for such nobiifty, who estrmed 'it as a faror. Then when the king was reted, or reau:rred from his fe, the egll thleir discourse or- btlhams, talkigx, after the manner of th i^eople{, by the medifi!, int frpreters-a:nl v, Falter Juan de Sant Josephl an Augusti 2 aian liecol tlet;, and Al-frez Mathias de Marn vlj, both good interpreters. T'le governor set forth his condition. The agreemlent mlale was: 1first, that the banners of the king our vereig, were to be hoisted on the stronghold; second, that the men from BLan were to be pemitted to leave the stronghol l and o to their cntry; third, that the Macassars and Malays were also to leave and return to their own lands; and fourth, in order that the first condtion might be fulfilled without the rattle of artris and the shedding of blood, all the enemy were to come down to our quarters while the king and quee and their family coul conloe to that of the governor. The Moro king did not like- this last oint b ut, as hle saw that matten were ill disp for his defense, he had to assent to everything. But. before its exeution, hle bgged his Lordship to communicate the terms with li men and datus, saying that lie would endeavor to get them all to agreek to the fulfilm:ent of what his Lordship ordere:; and that in a day and a half he would reply and, in wvhat Pertained to the other conditions, thev would be immediately executed. This happened, for tile Basilans dended in two davs with all their mel and fanMilies4-in all, one hundred and lftyseven. Some fifty or sixty did not then dscend, as the were able to do so. The Macassars refused to desend until they received pardon from his Lordship, and a passport to their own county. Therefore their captain camne to talk with his Lordship, who diselled with him what Xas to be done with him and his men. The latter are very hbe and comp1liant to whatever his Iordship should order. His lldship answered that lhe would pardon their insolent and evil f ations, and they could desend wFith. security of life; and t heat le would Pve them ts. so that they could go away. Thereupon the captain, giving a kris as seculrity a tha ey would come. retutnoed, and immediately gn to britng down his property and tme. Thbi, Malays came with them, for all those peoples had united against thle Castilians. They ai the os who have done us most harm witl} their firarms, and have fumti~Sh quantities of ammunition for all th e firmarms of the Su1lu. At the end of the time aigned to the king for answering his lotiship in' rg to the matters wlhich} he had ilIsc t;lse with }him, hle was summonted, in ordr that what had been recently concluded might not 1h hinderd, a his Tirdship had many matters to whieh to attend. If he would at M, 4.

Page  299 ('UCE '$A C AMPMAI JOi his tIsdshiip wa resolvei Imiadcly -toou hu b i fortifications, sayitg that e woulid maWe siV of so allwhoi W p With th:is resolution the qtm*n deteni to cW" toW vYit hi _ ship; and, so syg and doing, se summn her chair, 4a 1 h I f carried d tow to tf the quarters of n r e wichi t e lcated on their hill, and whi e htas given th o much to do. She t a nessage to the governr, beging him to grat her pe ismo a he wishld to see him. His Iordship sent a me ge to her, to the effec th hle would he very glad to see her, and that she would beoi at a seasonable time. She came to the hall borne on the holdes of her men, actcompanied by some of her ladis and by her kas s who w coming with pale face. She alighted at the door of his irdshp lie went out to receive her, and w ith marked indications of frienip and kindness led her to her seat which was a cushion of puple rey and his Lordship, sated in his own chair, welcomed her hro hi interpreter, Alferez Maltias de Marnolexo. She responded very Orteously to tle c(urtesies of the goveror; fr tie Moro womn m ver intelligent, and of great capacity. She did not seak diretly to the interpreters, but through two of her lien, one of whom w th k and often he, without the queen speaking; ans ered to what wa pro The queen petitioned and entreated the governor to desist frm enni g the stronghold, for the women, being timid creature, fear the silem greatly. And if his Lordship was doing it to oblig her and the kng her husband to desend, she said that they would descend inmdiately with all their people. Thus did she entrat from him whom his d I sip represented; and I desired that she should obtain this favor. is Lrship answered l er that he would do so very willingly; btt that i had an express mandate for it [i. e., to gain the fort] from his king, and that, if he did not obey it, he would lose his head. "I do not wish, said Tuan Baluka (for such is the name of the quen), "that te faor which I petition be at so great a price and dangr to your rdsp. Consequently, will you kindly grant me three days? and in that time x the king, and our people will deend without fail." His L ahip thanked her anew, and added that with this she oblid him to fufit strictly what he had prormid her. "ned," Sid the quin, "I hav no doubt of it; for, being in the gaze of so many nation that your t ship ha to conquer, it is clear that you must fulfi what yo h e plromised me; for vour Lordship's actions toward t e wold e uner stod by all to be thos that you would have to to rlijis terminated tle discussion. His lr ip ordered a coll-n to oI sp ad for the que n and her ladies; and then his Lm-hip retired, that they might rfr eh them lves without ty ebt. Tn having dinid, the queen return to her stronghld with the iue tat she had bought. Befoar she left the quartae se wa aut by t 7.. —. 1 3

Page  299 \ith this meolution, the qoen dotRnrind to cre to v rt hi W, s ship; an, so yitng and dixng, she umher chir e f varrieA dltown to the quarter of Don Pedro de w ich s the onkwated on tleir hill, and whic has given t so uch to do. She sentt a messae to the governor, beggig him to gat her permi ss w. &e wished to see him. His Lrdship ent a m to her to the eff t th; he would he very glad to her, and that she would be coming at a seasonable time. She came to tthe hall borne on the sholders of her; men, accompanied by some of her ladies and by her k., who wa eotling with pale face. She alighted at the door of his rdship's ha l. Hle went out to reeive her, and with marked indications of friendship and kindtness led her to her seat, which was a cushion of purpe velvt; and his Lordship, sea in his own chair, welcomed her through his interpreter, Alferez Mathis de Marnmolexo. She responded very corteouIly to the courtesies of the overnor; for the Moro worn 'i mv intelligent, and of great capacity. She did not speak dir tly to th interpreters, but through two of her men, one of who w a anl oftein he, without the queen speaking; ansyered to what was. p The queen petitioned and entreated: the ernor to desist from entering the stronghold, for the women, being timid creatures, feared the old iers greatly. And if his Lordship was doing it to oblige her and the king her husband to descend, she said that they would descend immeatelv, withall heir people. Trhus did she entreat from him whlom his Lordip represented; and I desired that she should obtain this favor. His Lordship answered her that lie would do so very willing; but that e ha: an express mandate for it [i. e., to gain the fort] from his kingt, and that. if he did not obey it, he would lose his head. "I1 do not wish, said Tuan Baluka (for such is the name of the quten) "that the favor whiel I petition be at so great a prie and dIangr to Lordshp. (lonsequently, will you Lindly grant me three days? and in that time I, the king, and our people will dlend without fail." His l'r hip thanked her cxv, and a dde that with this she blig him to fulfil strictly what he had promi d her. "Indeed," aid the qu t, " h3Iave no doubt of it; for, eing in the gaze of so many nations that your to ship has to conquer, it is eIr that you must fulfil what you h e promise me; for your irdshlips actions toward me w d be1 under stood by all to be th: that you would have to erfkrm to' N i." Th1is tenainatl thed diwuslion. His aoialip ordered a c ion to be spread for the quan and her ladies; and then hs Lrdship rti., that they might refrwsh thhemrilvw without iy nembarar nit. The, having dinwd, the quen returned to her strghold with the:ti ae tat she had brought, lBeore sh left the quarte abe wa- WtW: by t h yia ^^- i

Page  300 disharg? of two ae pi of artllery, which a e ly for that puTpn e. She wa gnatly plsd by tht, and te next to cary out her promises. b udding d&Il a potion of 1her ''ThMe Mak ars and Malays also brought dow n their t ith h and immediately embarked. I had writte up to this l it to this y Saturd y, the seventhttnl of tlis month of Apnil, hring fOrthie ead Of all ths ineipient results and expected erents rgarding thib$ trn the iuSe has, bee sch4 as we could expect front Him who has ak w pleased to arrange and bring it to ss. Last night the queen came don to sleep in our camp or quarters, with some of her ladie In the mo ing she went to report her good treet ent to her peoe; for he was received with a salute of mutsketry and lare artiller, andi a fie All that has been done to obli her to encourage her pple, fthey were very fearful, to deseend immediately. More than two thou nd have now des;ended and our banner are flying on the hill, and our men are fortified on it. May God be praimdt o hinbe a tho ad thallks given; for -He, w'ithout ounr klowledge or our tatioRs, has disposed- this matter thus —blindling this Moro and disherteing him, so that, having been defeated, he should surrender to fur goverora, nd give himself up without more bloodshed. W are trying to stv e I tu Ache; if we succeed in this, I shall advise yOu.. Now te im s nothing more to say, reverend Fathfer, expt to give God te thanks, for He is the one who has prepared and given this victory to u and to b ain your Reverence's holy college to give tlhanks that the colse h hld (as I am very certain) so great a share in the achieveelnts, [he]. The governor is very muhe pleased and we all regard him. in H prthep ligt The men are full of courage, atid even w1hat ws carefully done is now improved. I am the hulmble servant of your everence whom I that God may preserve as T desire, and to whoe snsfies I earnes commend mvself. Jolo, April 17, 1.638.- -Juan de Barrios. All the Sululs desendei, in lnumber albut four thou.and six hundred to the sea. Finding theniselves down and outside tle encloure, they all fled, under cover of a very leavy shower of rain-Ileavi all their possessions in ordwe not to be hindered in their flight. Many mothef even abandoned their little chldren. One abandned to us a little gl who had received a daggerstroke. who rctW eivd the waters of baptim and immediately died. There is much to say about this, and many th ks to give to God, of which we shall speak when i pleases 0 o let us e each other. Today, the nineteenth of this month o April, 163&8. Barrios. The govenror sent m ages too he kin and q by two asking lwhy thev had fled. Thi replied that since ai ther ple ha fled, they had gone ftler themn for ry shamne but tht they wot tr to bringd to theem hek 4d to come, and this wa the en f the at t

Page  301 JflS) ThI result was ex ingr our sold i; t; foe the Sulus, fIrful u te thog*ixug f t,i thy they would all W kil, abandone atever they were:~r quantities 'Of pods, d cebts o draweor&hich our I6die Above, in the strotgh ld, the found much plunder. t i l/vyd that the kng and queen will return, but not Datu A e; but this considered certain. tE UaEFLl:t- V lOU 1SANBgIOAN U AN PAX CHRISTI I am not writing to anvon [el, fore l ofrtime d me to do so. Therefore will yor:Reverence please ommuite ts to the father provincial, Father Hemrnandez Perez, Father J de Buer, and the father rector of Cavite. Whlen our men were most disheartened at n that the fortr on the hill was so extensiv, and that it was be:omlng stronge r dail; tht t mlines and artillery had seemingly nlade no impression on it; tat Ihad been repulsed four times; anl that our men wee alilW k:k very rapidly: in order that it might be very evident that it w: [ work of God, ambassadors came fromt the hill to beg his Lo ip fo nercy. He received them gladly, and aked them for tihe artey t they had plundered from the Christians, etc. They brought dow four pieces, which they had taken from tihe shipyard, and brouh t st e Christians. Next day, more than one hundred and ffifty pe fro Basilan descended, who surrendered their arms, and thel aou t fifty Makassars, who did the same; and all were embarked in the:e0 Next day the king and queen went down and slept in the p of u Sebastian. On the following day (which was the day ure po an when all were to descend from the hill), seeing that it was ready late, he king and queen said that they would go to et their peple. Te vernor gmnted them pernission, and went to a cp tht wI bd opposithea theat of the stonghold. All the Suls de ed, thleir oods arms, et., to the number of about four hund i id mnlore than one thousand five hundred women, children, n, ol en, e Thqy reachi the govrnofs camp and Don Pedro de Francia id Xe king that they must surrender ttheir arts. The latter rpi hat ei would surrender them to none other than to the governor. Ther u t hey went to summon his Lordship; but the Sulas, see that they going to summon blut, fled, under a eavy oer that aa f llin abandoned all tleir gods. A vast amount oft ches, m y i f artillemrx. and ti rews, falcons, ntiskeis, at ebu,uo e., w f Zr nsa. tMi crwt wMtn toi SmE o sd,~taat elr.O %r (19'3

Page  302 302 Tr: HBTOR"Y 1O f lY The.alia of tle Mom:s fllin g was thr ra tfr that tev we be k Oiltl. On otlr a rt, i 1l Se D bastia 1Hurtto 4l4t nil t ir str ongholl, adt Iad f 1 ft onl IIy thrt en in hi qurs (1 n o r W dser t i firenratd in,.... IJAns hiatui Ache m1,igh't not ecpe),and a. tt n br cldnot ri is a n people th Sitis hIwere, on, te rar alwed o wi t any U/read rut.s he zi d: *iset rgel ' Mre tlitn tw-o Itltleltl, arnd Iiftyt of tthel Suulls h!ave died, ani the were perishing in great nitmieres from ilvsenterv lectitn thee woen a childre.ln were Illatit nler groun for fear of thle alls. Tha t and t fear of them:ines 'ausel teirt surretdler for it was i ossibl0 to tae their fort bya sault.?1'tI initerior srengtl of that stronghold Is so grlteat t.llat e Spaniards were surpried; and all Srteognize that it h: a:s totally tl:e work ofr ttod, andl a result of] the persetr of lfon;Sebastia. who, ever saidO that-all must die or captur tle stronghold. tie.wlat uotei Ita:nr twoIhunidred Christian and more than one luindir Morlo wvomeni havl: e frt tle r th trongihold (uring h time All t Moro wo1men are fearfulI. Up to date eighltyv-tree Spanards have di fromt wouinds, an1 d manyv of tleliem froin diseaxe, TIlE KILLEl) Sairgento - imayor Aem l (Captain Don Pedro de Mena C(aptain Don J iua Nicolas Captain el)on Pimienta Captain Don l1ope SnIarez DIED OF )YSENTERY Captain 1)on Aregita Martin de Avila Adjutant Oliba Adjutant Calderon Alfrez SConeha Alftrez Alonuzo Gonzalez I shall, not niab;le others, as thev are not so well known, znd it willi e known later. 1Up to date about two hundred Bisayan Indials have did, mo~st of tlhen -from disases. l)on Pedro Cotoan died while en route from Jolo to Santlboanga., in ortder to take hack the Bisavans, Nwho aw a- mst cowardly race. lThose who ltave done deeds of valor are the Karaps, and the Sulus tremnb:e at sight of themn. Don Pedr Almonte rimais go(veirnr andi lieutentll for the captain-general at Sallbola l with one thundred and fifty Spaniards, as has ben rporAid. a in Ji Ro is to stav as eastepllan in Jolo with on'e hundret anl eighty men-Captai Sarnia being fortified ii the stiroghold withll ityr men and aa Jin R on the beach in a stone tower that is already eight stone t, with one hundred men. (Captain U larqtuez is going to BuatreWn w fitfaty S niards.8 lthough no succor had betn sent to o )m Sebtis t rm M:il. All ta hat has bei suplplid to exe is trily wonderful. for h ine ht sa [I:MI41

Page  303 ORCTUKC CAMSPAIN JIN brought (and it i inredib:l) many cham s, with e tn twy t tholusantd baskets of rice, innumerable fowls, and rk,, b, cheeses fronm Cebu, which hav e ae aver excellent provi-.io. They sk for F eather Martinlez and] Alexandro at Jiolo jand. ather Carrion at Buiatn, but without an aociate. I that, following even to the end of the world, I do not knowr to what to compare thee Mor0t of Samboangan. They have paid all their tributes. This is a brief relation. I pray your Reverence to pardon me and commend me to God, for indeed what I desire is neiessarv. SAMBOANGAN, April 24, I638. * This letter is unsigned; but the transcript of it made- by Ventura dol Arna ple it with others asribed to Barrios. See detailed accounts of the expedton againa Joo (Sulu) In ComMs's 1ist. Mindanao y JoIO (Retata and Pastelts cad, col. 349-3"; Diaz's Conquistas, pp. 388-01: Murillo Velarde's Hist. Phlltpinas, fo,. 92, 93; and La Coneeptions Hist. Philipinas. V, pp, 334-351. i1195

Page  304 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  305 OBANDO 'S- REPORT ON THE PREPARATIONS TO HE UNDERTAKEN TO RETURN ALIMUD DIN TO SULU, JULY 15, 751' Sina: Your Mtajsty will find in the e rt the adopted by the ('u ft lto of the War and Tr fo rh purpos of reinstating the king of MSlu, Fend the r, w hm found i tis capit, pti al d pro IteId by,o~al e IS g the continuation of the sme Ro gmwiel i long i a Christian and a friend of the nation, which ms to be is mt- itherk withF the help of 3 ael, 3 bar jg4r Cot? r i ando othe t r cft fr war and trion, er te od Mster -ofecip of pyur aj it fant t hew, to mf O: I h instrutions and orders contaid in aid refpor, to the eft s}hould make port at Zaon ga, and from th tere try to s ue the B vassals, blckade the island of Sulu by Ia, cut it off from al eOnMBieation with i neighbo, prevent food fro ing intr, tee punish all depredations, act of piracy and iniult on the pa f ta barbarous nation against the town and of yor of I receive pitiful coplaints ever da and we tt te a pt" ~ returned and that due obiervance is given the treaties a o tha agreents which we ade b y mpredMcesr but have not o e as sfisf tory m pht avebe heoi noil o ra of t ie which charaterize that nation. Before undertaking suh an imprta t oti tion, I deided to Wr the aconruction of th avera 9id Iacw a, a srIl of which there were none io Isla ds and to a Mth I to be cast 100 perier cannon of ealibe 2, w ith l, ordeing the tranfer to the ptiae of Ioilo of Domingo 0fLi, a>s Lideutatenadnti Icrnt, fie, i40. prjpare tori ions at lbe Ialt c, t -fort e TreT da him to I ie a p nlamation ( he did) c in fo r wouId be rewria~ Alorig t hliefir meKntr I the MaM1nila sd AepiUpt ad uthont-w ge in m MV" I:; e, m OaIi lb ong tft i i Jl xTsI d n

Page  306 x306 UOtv W In t$0 of a nipt PYur 14 e in to 'b m "IV p-Gr red r 6 de a laar dt life T6 orlog him to OW W4 * d of I abkad aAI Atv yo 4n other We plau P N at I A i pturjs of IMilding a fod I r pte tiol oSf c i i the ptooIje Cf Muli, Ti on rand Borni, and to hUhodd six 1ev aw ih he ple of Sd~a% Emm gi > 1 {nd n, 3 s 0| srMJ * to tfight the Mor witth a p o, the e me ojt pv" by the Provilnce of Saint Nichl of th)e Islands. 'bth of hk x ha re yea conmunuicted to id (\eitt o the War ar T iwr I and. to;w ns hwo hXad knoI Iy bye xriener of t he1 Oi rgurns; als,, in view of the poor ndition of the R Iy aI - hi pnrtluded the i:sility of gr ter exe it W d, Sn with tlhe o pinio of vuur M jt'ty's Fa rla fA —on Gey t 1 t-o lthe above mentionedo instrnmetn, to mt mr ote tw to u rer (or rtord)r,2 as they ar1 of;the e nature, to e n t they aw:k better opFnrtunit,7 the protr 'r ueu for *e 1noirgn m I favorahle ition for the inltend. fort, and to awat the t of the expaslition for the rein tateAn t of the king of Su, In, o htimt f the r&snt should he favortile, tol.isth d h is t O fort o:f IjpIote, anti,1 if not, to ru:e the t, of the ta l peo di te d sltrnd by 4nving themnut; and hIlag Mirny IerI, as I I hi $ #M the cottruetion of thlbeyls, wthlWdc wv aret a m 4 tyour Roali order, to entinne the work until the Isx we ba 111 *id wofrk I iag carnri on "ith tphe Utoin I c eo om, I always tear in mind in may zWeal or the *rti of your wIj ty wil sond ryour oill on the tg omft *ofthe d ein i oundertakings s, thadt your Royal orde i may let me know vor yaI plsure, which ill al as m It whith mv humble 4oftlie' G.( give thoe 1RoyM and (Catho ice Pe of yur Mua I. tyl ' m/a n y gyear of iri vhfid a're at* mired by (ihrhi tedt'o fom r the I appi & o vour vast ud m ionos MANitw, jat 15, 1751. RnW or,wt Au fluW 1M"a a rw &tstWr the WoO lo ot al..l I t * *0

Page  307 OBANDO'S REPORT ON THE CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING THE ATTEMPT TO RETURN ALlMUD DIN TO SULU, JUNE 18, 1752' SIRE: In a letter addre l to your Majesty I tt., 1Er, 1, forwared l a report and voueher B io the efft tat I ha.d m.i:, i t i h Kting of Sultu, Fernando the First, to the fodi f ied a ~ Of a let, of ot gialles, tSwo felucaswo gali and t wl with other raft, under the Ma3ter-of-anmp of the Rtoa tj' tn, Ipr the purl'pe of restorin t g t.id king to hirs t)ne and fo ig h b vatsal to submit, b mns of a hloei kade of the isand of i, i would cut it fft from all communication with ith 'Its and iif the imlpoortPti) n of food to the i land, other pr ist big f the urpose of protectin the C-hristluan enmanitiDst fur"r harm on the part of the Sulu p.ple and the Tim ns I 1have t to re now that thle said a M eP fe p arrived t most of the fleet, ahead of the Sul ta of SuIu, wh ho 1 t various auvidents, and sailed at once, in order to avoid the tor the Bay of Jolo, wher he anehored on the 6th of June of tha t lbout one mile from the forts. lie fmto e line f, I a, i g two (hims cit ampanes w itho ltt fing, th a we i&th river mouth and were stretching two line to g up 1 h two long-boats to g and remove them ftm n uner the ilery of t enlmy; the Jolo forts, four iau ntm'r, dais ai playd fire with canon of calibre 8 to 18 on the fIwa towing ta r~ ou3r feta awer tand Ic rws k ptop me time o i,6.s ut% the enenry hoisted the hit in ode r t tin time for w mig hi trenhes; the aater-of-. p n nt a le: tter to Prine i, InB A hm thbat his only purt. w'~ to to the ImaWte king of Slua It Whia dominin ouns, anl to hat Le the captives deliveeni; ttlhe pr' a:' we tt he had no eaptivw to delwvr; tbat he as waiting or t he u to king, who woul do alt he wnishdi witah tha, 'at he w '" ' th lropit to nd bIk the ki * * * F indmg X a itrom MO to Arze M t -t Mnl MUOM 4* Ct RBO 0 Tho labob"Ots of Kofwl ""to"t 90"000 "#" po"t" "boood tw ftIV ft I 1w 3K

Page  308 ,3( THB$ Hf:TOBY OF Sl tL and *iurti*nernt, tour l osxpenl fire awit a ulrb ws r t.. i:burned, and our tnoa found out tliat tie.wJgtit iin: wert $ pr ot to gail titnte to ple1 artillery )ehitind thle jaldit; tdhe Mo rpii* this purplose and agait requieted a truce in order to hmod a mW ii of their leaders and to deliberate as to what #hotuld b d Ie. Thi granted, and in a ecornd letter signed lb the )aitus Pirin.e A\s:n i:n that the Master-of-camp should retire to Zanboanga, promising bi bring over the captive; as the south-west moiSOOi was blowing hard and he was short of provisions, the latter decided to go back to i a; the )atus inforned their king Fernando in a letter addr to hie a Zamboanga of wlat lailad lben agreedt; Prince Asin also stated verlvy that he would bring to Zamnroanga soine captives whom hle was go ig to seek in the woods, and askel tice Master to leav the e ort, while lie went after the wives and children of the followeits of Kinlg Fernando, who had been frightened and scattered by the artillery. After a few more answer tand object ions which showed an utter lack of siteik, the Masterof-camp sailed back to Zlambanga. T.e King of Sulu had arrived there on June t2, and as soon as he heard about the truce requtet by his brother Asin, and other affairs of the fleet. he declared that the prince was his enemy. This statement was believed at the time, but soon afterwards good-sized boats began to arrive one after the other with many of his principal peple on the prete.xt of Prince Asin's visi t to the King, until there were 180 persons, including 32 women btwn concubiues and servants. When the Master-of-camp, Governor of ZmIboanga, remarked that all these boats were full of fireannm, powder, bait, coats of mail, helmets, and other warlike tijuipment, that the King ' Sultu had sere2tly sent to his b)rotbher Asin, at BIasilan, golden bucle and epaulets, and embroidered stockings to make a brilliant appearanc at landing in Zamboanga, while he feigned to be his eaemy: that Prine Asin lha failed to keep his word, since he said that he had been unable to get hold of the captives lie was to bring to Z boanga, when it was known that he was keeping the said aptives in a secMt plae, sx of them, including a womani, having esaped by swimming over t the tleet when the Iatter wans at Jolo, and reported that the Mo had many captives concealed in the woods; that Prince Asin had written to te King that all the captives seized during the latter's stay in anila were still in their power, not one having been sold while awaiing the roytl commands; and qnally: that the King and his brother wre dii1wing thte (concuble onl, telling the teihat the M ster-tf:- p w sending tthem away with contumely; he inferred that the Ki:g Wn pre r ing to sirpri'i the fort. T'his surmii was sItrenIli ed by tl fe that armed nan were steadily coming in tnia h dayes the M eat.mlps frietndly admonition to the King that his foilowe t ae fo unarm L l The hI: R. ad ds"g anonl A of thi Kin which on *t

Page  309 tndications were making pliner every mon t, w final! t: to w'rit the letter h e ha1 previously sei-nt hIim fWnIt ' ad enjyed comtplete freedom in this cWpi o in lie did not perform, during te voy hence to a of the Christian religion, as far as known, while hi s w to variouls Moro religious acts,, anld tok with hiu, tie Q in his own language, instead of the numerous Catholic b whih iv, him for his instruction. In view of all the foregoing evi Ele of faith, the Master-of-anap, Governor of Zamboang, ad the pi o the fleet decided to arrest at the same time the King, the i thei meltl, to seize their boaats, anus, and 1co4;nltdc am1munition, and to k6 thle whole under careful guard, thW mer n being detained in ut qu pending the decision of the Captain-General. In refecting on this impottant and critical change i the sitti I bore in mind that the said King of Sulu had n a fals fid d a consulmmate Machiavellian, who bad deceived yoalr Majesty's Gver Fernando Valdes Tamon with his eigned promises of pea, wich he never kept, and that, instead of releasing the captives and preven the cruel outrages of his v tassals tle Moros and Tirons, he hld ithe onsiderable supply of arms, which he received from the id s vernor fand Governor Gaspar de la Torre under the pretence of supprsng posed rebellions of his vassals, to keep our forces busy iM Sulu, so that his vassals the Tiron pirates might ravage the provoiner, while oi fi were engaged in the Sulu kingdom. He also dceived your ajey' s Governor and Bishop when a fleet was sent against the Tr; he went as an ally and a pilot for the fleet among the sallows, and the ani islands felonging to the enemy, nd prevented the destr n tie principal twns, by nsrepresenting to the commander of the a itin that said townas belonged to peaceful people who were friends of and pledging himself to have the prisoner return d,so hat t retired after burning ontly ninle villages without im po rtyl lt the cunning of the ling. The trouble caused b all thee o, a to his influecea is realy astounding, and hia nerly dprind te a treasury, as, since the last peace aeement made by ar or T 89$,7 pesos have been spent frnmm 1736 to an74 si:ce e expes ihave= far exlelded that amount. All th cmr in ia antecdenLts fully justify my distrust in aing ca itrue o W the Masrofcamp to, void a surprise of the fort und t I o ei ned fr ship; I really expcted this new act of t a on of what I alredy knte about fte said King of Sulu, rad W I a ly lbak by t1e fact that he haad Ien baptized, and the in tfor ato it hinm whib mvy prrdes hd ivo me in gwod fai. it

Page  310 310 E st;:V: the mem of the Borni t were glad that the o Ki g h: n for en and that he had:e a * In1 Z7a xg0a, afr his arrs: t? kri s, e in fSlnd lk'i in ltwo cushions belonging to him. * * * r; b....h t}:e bers of the ministry l I poce at once to explain t el 4eO t e un of war all t1e dlfficlty of n s th Iondign pun ishent that was (1esrved, and, $ui )d bup a M jor t of votes, ides to delare wr all the Sus, xrons aId K ko:s, with t e uPde Nt g that no ap;tulatins r d wouldl b Ind ut Ihat, they would be treatd as r s, in their persns their pro rt a eir an andnd the land put to the sword in a of r tesislultac;l that al theitr t town would beW estrled ad urned; the,:ission of our leet was not to make onqluests, but to puni ie rebelon and to blkae the iand of Suo so as to prevent any a t to ibring in food, or any other help. I ais directed tlat the King of Sutu,, who was under arrest at Zamb anga oldi an there to e t ept in confinelen t until the pleasure of your Maesty be known. 'rlie l)atus and other Moos were declared tIo b daves, ad orderel t!it thtey shoule1 he branded and marked, not s much for the pUt~i~nmwe of guaranteing tte ownetrsip f ti or pum nishing their obstinacy, as for that of avoiding all confusion efwen them and the numerous Indians of these Islands wh, l they rmsebe in lor, bearing and language, of crusting tl r ri their aprdl and their vin l spirit, experience having shown that 8 Sulus suffice to sujuga a hole town, and principally of rventig the clandestine ntrduction of the swet of Mohammed, wIhich would easily spread among the Indians, if the xrand did not niark them ans enemies frm Sulu, it ing kn it.hat the sect of Mo1hamtmed is daily extending its daerknes over ths regions. * * * 'Tle i~elaration of war aainst tlhe Moms was publisltd. in all the provin ies wthith were instruted to be constantly readv for attack or defense: to olrganize companiesif lof nilit, aith l leir ofwtiars in aI t:he ptuetlos, and liave them frequentil drilled anI rvi, so as to te skillful in the use of their arnts: to send a list of all ie atrm and sam mlunition on hand to Site (apta int.ene ral, wl will thus h& ade to m on to thewil t su'ply them wli tl all h e may dee nt wsry. I furthermoie oede I that no Ilvat should leave Manila or any otler lTn without e ing well provilde( with men n and arms, an ied isu proclamatin ct ilir for privateers, seve rat of wlhom have already een gien letters o.f ma e and have sailed wit} the hope of doing god aervi r e.r Ma I iiueld new ins ie tioins on every Slt-, to x M1wf I in their tfive parts acordling to cir"cumtan7; 1 1servtd tr f 1y m futuew Ositalm dotgrnia of the AsAdt wu tt ilt t t b plrAlteetny of thw (atfptin:Wr l. |1a14|

Page  311 the dispwI of o tirs V ti hO r e I to o, going to the oyal try uryt the rih t If i ni n: fret for 1a, l prriva tee fr'. l e * iy w re exem_; and I piromii them in tl nate of yw Mjrty or Moro, as an encouragement to purue and extermiat the A: as I heard the news from Zan imra. I sent there a supply lbf plenty of food, arrms and oldiets, in view of the next tai g; I w; on myself the are a of rdieing from t ime to tihe le vs d * * * and I can s:nce;ly a ure your Majest t I yehae e a* provoked and experated by the untamabie fieveen and t bt faith of the Moros, that I a:ll decided to spare neither work nor order to punish them thoroughly and to deli ver fom opp ion the ( 'lristian communinities, so tlt the glorious name of our m hI feared and respected all throulgh my Government, in iown p Otitmi for the gross decit practise b said Mors upon my priealea. I trst, with thle help of God, to um t hem as they f Srve, v and will report to your Majesty the )pr(gre of tle expedition. ((tdl keep tlhe Catholic and Ioyal Person of your PMajesty mavt v r' as (',hristendom and the Monarchy have need. MANIl.A, J.Ine 1i, ~n2. 1 2031

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Page  313 REPORT ON THE OCCUPATION OF" PALAWAN AND BALABAKt APRIL 3so, 1753' St: By letter forwardeto your Mjt 4 gt t;au, i nels under dateof * * I* r t rted that I had e VW emaheador to the King of Brun e, informinig hi, of the tf the King of Sulu for his inveterate faithlne, and pri;g hi o tinue our long standing frienship d to form a new afoinr,si tIhe said king a a usurper of par of his dominJliSns, ald 00 0 I hIf trnentis, and to cede to our Mjey e tohe I and Bala e territory of Palawan, for the purpose of better wag war t Sulus, Tirons and Kamukons; and that, the desiri end hav ng obtained I found it necsary to us the new rhts a r by t ceion referrd to. Conseuently, with the view of best pro ng y:.o Majesty' interests, I resolved to put into execution the ide of ao n af;rment composed of our galleys, a tender, three felucca, and two c:&spanes, supplied with two Spanish companie of one haundrd moo eacf, together with another company of Pamapnga Indiansi, whic, with the crelw, t ie convicts and the military officers, number ntnal a thoatbd persons, for the glorious object of taking possesion of a P a the ceded part of Balabak and the other adijant Wand, ti new district into a province alled Trinidad, with sarate ver ent from that of the Kalamians; for I have appointed a governor to take charge of nounrising this new plantation with the politial reIulation and Royal ordinance which the prudent zal ot 'our ajt s p vid for siiar a which, on my part, have been f ia -h him in the foar of brief and cl:r instructions diretd towards lMng those barb rous nati as t he tier to facilitate the of holy Gospl. NWith this in vew I am:t nd ing two re eend J it en inear of thlBs pl t fotr fthe of maikti ia si i capitai ld Poalaan, s wcl as th, IW I d ofbe oirj i; isig, and of 1mi thi 0 p o - 1| Io r u r X A;the M09 6 t Of rw 90 br.:"M; bu w 4'st

Page  314 314 THI HI":T OY OF 8sulta delts, it n orOer to nrst0ruct a fortrwht ih Willl be d naw t (o r of thle ( H4d-1l Ed in bthwe et healt:hful location, sere by land e tl as hr sa~, for the grri g f wllich a adequate force of artiery loi tbete (ieslatc:ltlI It will be kept guarded for the pr nt bL sia* l galtlc t wo fetluCa`s, a company, (o Spaniards.i and another Op ( f latulP:aitnl tias, btid es tie galley s1a ': and the suit of the d v enrj oi, lsrad! ratitotnedl for 'one vear-who will number thr htulH,# Itst }.i being returned to this capital when os n is once estat:lvsLi. Andm Pat the taking of posse ion may e unom, u rt, anlt lasting, i have pl1anne1 for tie strengthening of t1ie -t d fort, with thle primary obect of having our troops sally from it wal to ti h SultI rebels wlho have ben dwelling in certan districts of Palawan, or to extermtinate tlelt -pletely bh fire and sword, prevening by mean of the new Ifortress and. thew little fling uadron, thle Ktam ks, P ire anid otlhers, fro(ll laying waste tfle province of the Kalalians, d theadjacent islands; Pfor, tlere tbing aceiss to the eontire clain of and all the islands, tfailitating attacks, and our vessels leing on a constant cruise througar those regionsl, their expulsion will be:urte. ButL the greaStest gain of all will lie in becomling acqu4iaiaitl Iwitl their hland, rendlezvotus and plales of refuge, in view of the fact that the greatest -lefense wthict tlhey have had lup to the irent time L asb lour own ignorance and negligence in the p)renises, they soril ou armns without fear, in thie b)elief tat le are atu conquerable heau the places of their abode are unexplored; wherefotre tlhe Kiin of Suu, pretendling to serve us as a pilot amoing the Tirlon Islands laughed at our expedIition under the colnmmand of your Mfajest 's teverend' Bishlop of Nueva Segovia, leading tle Spaniards at it a hlter wherever he wished, and wherever he thought they would slffer most fatiuie. In view of all this, and of our present experience of the11unridked audacity witht wlicll tlhe ravage almonst all thle provinaS, I fet cmlelll to lproject this campaign of r'ct ail lc so t tst, b the abtorable resultst seenred, tse he surestl ouetsof neit i tl It heChristial eommni tiesi, for I ant in hopes of establishing, througl this new eolony, an inM pregnable mbulwark against thle whole Moro power and a sour' of rip roca Iassistante to thte fortress at Zalll|oantga. And 1 likewis pm"1p to introduce into those parts, by reason of their ox xit' m with orneo, Sianm, Cambodia, and ('ohind'hina, so thlatt, thri h i nter courae, the inhabitants of Palawan may bamte pacified and t table an their towns ewcotu e opulent; s that witih tle lfamili whicl in due time will he drafted fronti thle outtskirts of this capital, a p in-e ot substantial usefulnes maEyi be tformed, havina gre ter refwt for fi Majsties; for, by ereting churches to God, a new will b d to i $p.i frnti men conpeldtt to row In the RaflYe "lty b to^ r e Itte?.

Page  315 the oyal crown, amely Whe glory of gi many t while the savings of ti Rot Al t reaury will in im be app Itro jo Althogsh I intnded to mlake this jourey pe nil nle and the majorit of the cmmittee on war op:e thi, a i the sanction of the Audienia conaene i ex ive io I din::e de to delegate my authority for this act, in vie of the necesity of my re ing in the capital for the de spach of the urget Wa aidous air which frequently preent themslves. God guard the Royal Catholic Person of your Majety the many yr that Christendom needs him. MANILA, April 30, 1753. I Manila. The shorter form of its title of "La siempre noble y leal Ciud P,. 7 1296- - 4 [2071

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Page  317 APPENDIX X BRIEF REPORT ON THE EXPEDITION TO TAKE POSSESSION OF PALAWAN, JULY 17, 1753' SIRE: When the galleon was on the point of sailing for New Spain, the Palawan expedition returned to the port of Cavite, from where the commander of the expedition informs me that he has made a careful and exact survey of the Islands of Palawan and Balabak, beginng on the outward coast, from 9 degrees to Labo. On all that coast he ha only found mangrove swamps and reefs, the inhabitants being hostile to everyone and obeying no king; the land is miserably poor; there is no drinking water from Balabak to Ipolote; the climate is so bad that in two months and a half 116 men of the expedition died and?OQ were sick, and he finds that all that has been said about Palawan is false. I have also been informed by the Alcalde Mayor of the Kalamth, of the arrival there of one galley, and three feluccas, which had left the fleet since it sailed from Manila, as the Commander also now repo after the galley had been careened and food provided, one felucca sailed on its course convoying the ioanga of the father prior in charge of that district and two small vessels which had been sent by te Alcalde of Komboy and had suffered the misfortune of being captured by the Slu Moros, most of the people however, escaping, as explained m the enlsed letter from the Alcalde. The commander of the expedition has sent me from Cavite a report of the councils of war held by him for the purpose of carrying out his instructions, the most important of which was to take sseion of Palawan and adacent islands in the name of your Majety, id isla having been ceded by the King of Bruney; accordingly, our fleet took possession of the land with due solemnity, with the express kmowlege and consent of the inhabitants; I also received a log of the whole route which seems to have been well kept, with maps and a full explanati of the examination made of the said islands and the operations in connection therewith. A new map of the islands is being made, on Fro the Divi"lon of Archive, Exutive Buraa, Mfit. a A smali -illing v~.:il

Page  318 318 aUmo t of the; i i e 4 repodrt of th)eo n Cr t ot I caunot dde y de p of e It: repo to your oaj t; I m h t tion of al that hi ton I a to ese i best for the benefit of the I l a i orx tea 4U Maj tya full rel rt o, t cexition, wk y complete knowled of the f il te i your Maty for the pr:t.,iod kep the catholic Roy Per s of youtr aj ty ' Christendom has ne. MANtA, JL}I 17, 175-. [210]

Page  319 LETTER OF THE KING OF SPAIN TO SULTAN ISRAEL, DECEMBER 2, 1774 To the CAPTAlIN -GRNRAL OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. MOST ILLUSTRIOUS SlR In letters N. 322 and 325 your Excel cy sets forth th f En the idoslad of Balambangan, who are displeased with the unhealthfulnes of the country and petition that the Sultan of Sulu allow them to sette wi thi h dominion,. With No. 325, the letter of the Sultan was reived, and t Kin, thus informed of the attempts of the Englishmen, and also of the favorable inclination of the Sulu Sultan to l h with our thion friendship and alliance, commands me to direct you to listn to his proposals, to accee to them whenever thqaey resonable, and to grant him aid and favor far r posible, assuring him of Ry prottio ad delivering to him the enclosed communication in awer to hia own, in which his Catholic Majesty declares his entire atisfation with his reasonable conduct l and prom-i to reciprcate his friendship a you may understand through the copy of that letter which I enL o. God preserve your Excellenc many years. MADIIn, December 5, 1774. Dr. JULIAN DrB BtIaoA. [Copy of the communicaton referrd to in the fo ring leter.] Most illustrious and extllent prince Mohammed Israel, Sultan of Sulu. Most gratifying has been to me the announcement, which you conveyed to me in your letter of Januar 0th, of vour happy to the wiveringn of fSlu, on accant of whi Ip opnrs you man tnitrp ulatitsf wishing you happin in al things. The dissriton which n yo to ins h miy enap asid t aln, as also the friendly rellations whih you 'mintain wlth my overo:: of the Phil tppnes, whi & you desi to s l taWiblh and r;a t by tleaus of a mutua a -ment, whicXh may- um for the.a f uum fi:m |I2)

Page  320 THII HISTORY OF SULU peawe and a perpetual allian betw en your s tate ad mlme itnere-ft my just gratificntion, especially as m Governor h in ed me f the sublinme natural gifts whicheare united in your en, wi m y and mrost expressive eulogis thereof. In view of this, and to the constant fidelity w hih yon promitm in itr le tterl, 1 urtaflutl: il t god vassal, lon 8Imio ide Anda y azar, to l'lste.l to yo'r proposals, to accede io thetl whenever reas o le, and to grantt yo1 altl te fav:or andl assistance which thie forces a:d Ifilitie to b e found there mnav allow assauring you of my Royal protetion, wiwh I extend to you fromnt nw on, confiding in your r iproal friendhip, aln.d notl conduct, alndl. desi~rousf f opportunities of faavtring a of proving the interest which I feel in your good fortunes and the earntestness with whichl I pray God to preserve you i any years. MADRIDtt, /erccmber A, 1277. aT m tmr, sr r 4.t. 12121

Page  321 APPENDIX X1l1slg~6~18 LETTER FROM THE CAPTAIN-GENERAL OF THE PHILIPPINES FORWARDING A COPY OF THE TREATY OF PEACE, PROTECTION, AND COMMERCE WITH SULU, DECEMBER 25, 1836' SUPERIOR GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES MOST EXCELLENT Sin: After having reported to your B E4: C y in my three forimer conmmuications, the opinion which I have formed with regard to the countries in the vicinity of orT posesions in the oute part of the Philippines, of the relations which we ought to sustain with their governments and the policy we should follow until we shall obtain the immense advantages which our position offers us, I have the honor to deliver to vour Excellency a copy of the Capitulations of te reat of Peace, Protection, and Commerce, which I have concluded throh the captain of frigate, Don Jose Maria Halcon, ith the Sultan and Datus of Sulu. The articles which need some explanation, are the lat, 3rd and 4th. With reference to the 3rd and 4th, I mention them in my former communication and indicate their intent, and with respect to the 1st, I copy herewith what has been reported to me by the commssioner, D. Jose Maria Halcon, which is as follows: I must make clear an important point relating to the text of the Capituatiions in the wording of which your Excellency has noted perhaps some amb tie nd omissions in Article I, which while intended to make the Datus and Sultan of Sulu acknowledge and declare the extent of our rights, seems indefinite on n points which many irresponsible writers have asserted with confi den While considering the protection granted the Sultan, I recogn the inqdiency of making the same include the lands which he has Iay acqui:rd Borneo, and of detersmining definitely the line of the boundary in P the title to which island, as also that to Balabak annd Balahnga, isp Ve di tw able, though at. present, the lands where we have not established our sttle of the province of Kalanians are included de fact* in hin Is p ione Palawan was ceded to the Crown of Spain by the King of Bruy, and Ba k is likewise ceded by an inatrument brought back by D. Antonio FTb wn bt went there as Embassdor under the iadmm st tion of the Marquit of Obm4, t rom the Division of Archive. * utw BUe U Mf lX&at I::

Page  322 322 THE HISTORY OF SULU4 which should be in tlhe archives of the Philippine Government; but sine thee cessions were, made on an occasion when the Sultan of Sulu found hiself in lxssession of the lands by virtue of a former cession made in his favor by another King of Bruney, such documentary testimony cannot serve as the basis of our arguments, especially since we did not proceed to found any settlements. 'This matter of the cession of Balabak occurred upon the occasion of a visit to Manila, of Sultan Mokhamrmed Alimud Din (Fernando I) who, asserting his right to the island, executed and ratified upon his part the gift, at least in word, through 1). Manutel Fernandez Toribio, afterward Governor of Zamboanga, and the Secretary of the Government. Our writers have misrepresented the suibsequent conduct of the said Sultan, and concealed very important facts. but at any rate, the very concealment of the reasons for his fleeing from Manila hetokens the lack of liberty in all of the instruments he granted during his stay in that place; moreover the facts in the case justify his later actions, which gave occasion for ca.sting a doubt over the legitimacy of our title to the lands under consideration. The true reason for the actions of Mohannmed Alimudi Din, beginning with hi flight fromn MAanilawvas the fact that he hadl purchased the secret in a copy of the confidential letter which the First Minister of the Monarchy, Marquis de la Ensenada, wrote to the Ca'ptain-General of the Philippines on August 28, 1751, discussing the states of Sulu; which document, when brought to his knowledge, ~ could not fail to mrin all of our political moves, and to dispose him to take every defensive measure against our power, for MAohammed Alinmud Din was a man of no mean understanding. This was the origin of the lettersr wlich, on September 17, 1763, the said Sultan wrote from Sulu to the King of England ad to the English company,1 ratifying in favor of the latter the concession of the lands which form the strait of Balabak, in which is comprised the southern part of Palawan from Point Kanipaan to Point Bulilaruan, and this was the origin of their settlements in Balabak and Balambangan which have been abandoned since later events. Such are the antecedents which induced me to draw up the said article with such ambiguity that it may be construed to the advantage of the Crown without giving occasion to embarrassing objections. My aim throughout, most illustrious Sir, has been to promote the national welfare by carrying out the high designs of your Excellency, who: bypromoting this enterprise has attempted to open up one of the most abundant sources of wealth in the Philippines. I also deliver to your Excellency a copy of the Capitulations, in which. in consequence of Article 2nd, it has been agreed to determine the duties to be paid by the Sulu vessels in Zamboanga and Manila and ours in Sulu. For the better understanding of these stipulations, I have thought it expedient to inclose a copy of the explanation with which the said commissioner forwarded them to me. The present tariff rates have served as a basis for the duties imposed upon the Suilu vessels, it being beyond my authority to alter them. With reference to those which shall be paid by our vessels in Jold, although they may appear to be excessive it will be sufficient to inform your Excellency that all of tlle ship-owners who are accustomed to make voyages to Jol6, have been satisfied with the very favoralie trms we h ave The Honorable East India Company. [2141 '1

Page  323 LJTER FORWARDING COPY OF TREATY OF PEC 323 secured in the agreement, not only because of the high vauation set on the articles in wnlich payment will be made, but because of the relatio n and reduction to fixed 'rules of the charges, that until now have le n arbitrary and never less than the stipulated rates. It is true that they have desired not only a greater reduction but still more their plet abolition, as is natural, but it was necessary to conciliate the two parties as the commissioner says. Above all, one of the advantages of importance which our merchants recognize in the relatios now established, the benefits of which they have begun already to experience, is that the Sultan and Datus together guarantee the credits left in Sulu as a result of commercial operations which advantage they have not heretofore enjoyed, but waited on the will and good faith of the debtor, who paid if he pleased ad when he pleased, or Elrhlaps never, and there exited no means of ompellinghim as there now is by recourse tothe Governmenat*...:: -- Likewise through the preference they are Mnowacorded, our merchc have gained greatly, as your Excell mpenyd. - wIn-hort, thereis not ne o ofthem who is not well atisfied wit the reul ofthe negotiations, and all: appreiate' the skill and prudence wif: whi Halcon has conducted hiself upo a Imll he mors delicte:an difficult lnee hehas had to treat!with a G- overmnt.hose!ac: f enlightenment and poorness -of organiion eual the "barib, sm ofi people.;;:_ Finally, in the answer given y the Cha ere f I inclose a copy, your Excellency willperve the appetio Capitulations have b iroght himbtledhed ties by our vessels ind SfI, a ls -byi. haing sbihi: rh th e; Government of:;ttislanid.:-; trust tatyourxcellen ll de to bing all th^is to noti:ce of- her: *MajestyB th:a rh a::; - rov God' preserve your Fcln mea r s -;.f;;MANILAe, Deember 21836,..::- f.:' Most excellent Sir,: (Sgd.) PEDRO ANTO)NIO SALAZn. —Rubricated. The most excellent the SECRETARY OF STATE AND OF THE OFFICE OF (GOBERNACION" OF THE KINGDOM. ', [215]

Page  324 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  325 ~~~APPENDIX XIII ROYAL DIRECTIONS RELATIVE TO A GENERAL POLICY AND THE REGULATION OF COMMERCE WITH SULU, AND THE ADVISABILITY OF MAKING ZAMBOANGA A FREE PORT, JUNE 23, 1837', MOST EXCELLENT Sir: Your xcellency's p redecessor, Don Pedro Antonio Salazar, when he repored in detail, in letters of last Deember,all that he had done in the treaty of friendship and commerce entered into with the Sultan of Su, of the ercantile relations wich it behv:es us to maintain with the Mohammeda poessions to th -e suh Iof,; Philippines, of the opinion 'which he had fomed concerningthe war of enslavement and other matts pon whih your acelleny ve -due instructions under Royal orde ofn this date, forwarded se;prly and privately, a ery m er a co nion dated 1 of the same month, in which he 'set fbrh t he poliy, which, ccording to his belief, should be adopted towa d - saidingdom of-: Sulu in eonsequence: of.the said treaty. ' Her Majesty the QunRegenthaving been informed,of. all ths *and having mi at e r 0 made i the h said comti hat theSp ish p ess n e th re defective syste of admnstration h deided to dir hyectyomus Eellency f; to suppresse with strongha, these exceses of teacldes, itehtthe y ' -l y r om may not disturb the pece thappilyestablse withSu;ehotI-ng them to moderatioin and peaceablenesin order:thati the o'diu("m wich ^:the Moro race feels L toward: us: may vanish. N':oting also:;an aong his ^^:^ ^ l remarks his eonelusiof that while the war of enslavement is udoubtedly^ ap evil, it:producee nevertheless the advantae that those provinces:ae:: united more closely to the Government becase of their greate-r-ned of - l-S tPie sae ainst their enemies; and that by becoming used >0:to a Pieof freedom and licene those people become also inurd to captivit fr< vhieh they could sometimes escape but do no, many preferring to turn p~~~~~~~e~~~~~~~anj~~~~~~~~~~~~o~~~~~~~~~~ an order ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,Vwch-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 rom the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 325 [2171:,,*.*,.*~, ^ " '*',, '1,,/.,~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~:^1-':;*^1J'!'

Page  326 326 THNE HISTORY OF $ULU to piracy, tier Majesty holds these views erronepuis and harmful, since 1o just arid p:aternal governmrent shou-tld promote misfortunes among its subjects in order to make itself more necessary, and tlus keep them dlependentt; and, bectause though there iay be sonIe who are content with slavery ini Sulu because it affords them a life of unrestraint, it can not be ignored that their families and the Government suffer a great inji-iry from their situation, nor that morality would be greatly outrag if, for these reasons, countenance were given to slavery, which should be attacked and exterminated at all costs. The idea is advanced in the same coinnmmunieation, that in the Countries of the southern part of the Philippines, the system of protection, carried to the point of tablishing trading houses, will be almost equivalent io possession. and control, When once commercial interests are held to t tthe chief interestsand the is set forth a plan to dimimish or even cut off the trade ' with Mindanao, in order to confine the commerce to our channels. Her Majesty, on being informed of this policy of a protectorate, approves of the same, but desires that it be carried out frankly and faithfully with the Sultan of.Su,1u in order that he be convinced, through experience that the Spaniards are his loyal friends, our authorities keeping it in mind that the conquest of those countries is not to the interest of the nation, but rather the acquisition of isolated military and mercantile stations which may control indirectly without the disadvantages of great expense and of arousing the hatred of the natives. This alliance or friendship with the Sultan should 'be such, that in whatever war he may be engaged with his rebellious subjects, lie shall be aided in good faith, nless his adversary should be of such strength as to insure his triumph, for then the useless defense of the vanquished would subject us to the contempt of the conqueror and we should lose the benefits already acquired. In such cases we should remain neutral, under some plausible pretext of impracticableness or other honorable reason. In other wars, waged by the Sultan with other princes, we should attempt to mediate, with the purpose that, by settling new discords, we may obtain advantages from the two or more belligerents, as rewards for the services rendered them; but in the event of having to oppose some one of them, it should be that one who offers us the least advantages, and has the best chances of triumph, because with our ally victorious, the latter may. in the treaty of peace execute articles favorable to our commerce,-trying always, above all things, so to act that that the victor shall not become too strong nor the vanquished brought too low. With regard to the policy wbich it is best to adopt as a general rule in regard to commerce, your Excellen should remember that the best system consists in the reates possible liberty for our merchandise, and in securing, directly or indirectly, for our own merchandise, or foreign goods carried by the national v Is, I. e,, of tho Sulus. [218]

Page  327 ROYAL DIRECTIONS AS TO GENERAL POLICY. 2 the enjoyment of greater privileges than those of any other county, in order that they may be preferred and produce greater profits on ti markets. In the same letter he submits the opinion that the lack of omuni tion of the co-untries to the south withe the Philippines, is a most favorable political measure.:for1 Spanish omerce, and recommends tlat our relations with the Government of Sulu should be strethened in order to include ile same under our dependence at so me, it being necessary to act with cunning in order to separate it completely from the piratical warfare. Her Majesty commands me to state to y:u concerning these matters, that the communication of Sulu with the Philippines being purely commercial,' should not be restricted, but on the contrary, should be increased in every way possible, encouragement shlould be given to the establishment of traders and Spanish trading lhouseus in Sain, where our good ductand benevolence toward the natives m ay bring us profit. But it is always to be borne einmind that the GovernmTent of iHer Majety (loes not desire: th e subjection of othi|ersta'tes to itself, but a sincere:friendship and a-.aie and usefulalliance, and. that a just and discreet polMi crafty or artful, will acmplishi. I(ost in withidrawing tle SuIIta from tlhe interests of te leadersof the pirates..- - i::.: Your Excelleny wvill note in the 0f the omm iation.:fron your predecessor, to which I rmakteaswr proposal of vanruscihees for establishing our elves secumely in Si Suchw.w l be t;e establishment of a trading hoea 0 ithere, agre upon in ie anod posting there a garrison under the pretext thatoit is for e et indispensable the establishment te trading ho but it should. b done in such a manner as not to eause distruast, adfortifie andpr tected from any sudden attaeusing vin sl th eie ithe gpedt n and remenmbering that a ganrisontre, toigh it might be aeacceptablem bo the Sultan, might wound the selove of the people of the cuntry, hand so render odious bot the Sultan and his proteos. The most satial thing for the Spaniards, in order to become firmly established, is to ke themselves popular, to respect: the customs of the people, even-:'-.ith w veneration, not offending any one for any reason, treating all with courtesy and decorum; not sllowing themselves domineering nor covetous, not insulting any one, but being very respectful to women, the old ad children, not scoffing at anythiing in their public amuseents nor religious afairs, nor in their meetings. It sees to her ajety that trough these mueans would be sectred a consistent friendhip beten both countries, and that the most adequate plan for the support and defense of the tmding house would be to maintain in the safest harr a pemanent maritime force, in which should be stored all arms and [2191

Page  328 328 TE I ciSR Y OF SULU munlitions, and s uf icint soldiers, in it shod be neesary to defin the building, without arousing the suspicions that would be caul by pla ing these praration e or openly, in the house itslf and placing th'. p.. p1aor, ope inceal e d or since for fthis purple for the defense of the country aainst the pirats, and for maintaining the respect of the people and Government of the prot torate, it 1is ldi ale tokeep a well organized sea force, her:M ajesty had deterine that you deeide the manner of organizing this;:: maritime force, withoutito e losing sight of the great economy whih it is nces sary to obsere on acconlt of thIe enbarr ased onditi on of th Pe-; insuila, which. needs nw more than ever berfor the assistance of her c0 olonial provinces.:::; Finally,: thle r xwessor of' your Exce llency further stted that he;::..:.;:.ve the utri e,::Sll)tan;;::t Mn:,her MA: ajesityU aproesthis.;p:oi on nit t:i; its e ecution the urpos and 0measfureswhich are mentionedi above for Sulu, be a dopted. 11e M ajst;:::: T xc: ~by: whoe p R ordersI om your Excel lencytonv:inc e the9 or-; t for i;porn: ia;ainsa: you al: reblize the hi ntese of th04is mor: - ntiater, andd lra rdfngte prin es of justifee and rhrt welhics dir et; then; eof e es, tdditiueis of herd e aspv tot assuyou efforts tote accomplisient ottfert: the: reSultsnof'Aesd; aref:ly rtiga oyfopur ptroe in te afar:r the pinform ion of her cn. AMaesteyadfurther actin. Goed -irlast yMaDrID, ine 2 3, 1 8. 0 0: ^^: 000,'L0 -0;':,:';. 00V 0: }~ADIUIJ 0A460 > 0:.:: -:*:'I:; f:::::; ^^^^J^'^:;-';".< t:;',:0::; 0;:. -' 'affai:;0 00; txnIz- f;r.:tIt.-Rliiruhricated.:-: 0:: 0: t; The GOVERNOR CAPTrAthlN-GEN ERAL; 01THE PfiILFPINB -T Pnmrwx l ^;;^:f -:0';',: *,f, i:. -.:;f:-:^ * -' '**^ '- '. -: 1;':0 ' 0-E.,;;0;" f03 ' -0:': -'ri 0 -- ' 0 l- 0'-: -: ' MI-NISTR-Y O TIEl' NAX::v,: C:oMwwt i;.R AND COLO:NIAL AnIISmBTIOY;^^ ' 0. '"**,*:.- S ~ ~ h T ' A ' d;;i;d:;:::t:: 00Z:.::.Q... *;' m:; MOST EXCm.LENT R: Therdeessorof yur lici;;,:- - of the important advantages.to be dervd b th e lPhilippinBs, in xlking '::.,more intimate andnore secure our few and doubtful etiaions with t.the island of Sul, determined immediately upon assuming cmmand, to 0: '0 ''' negotiate with the Sultan of the said place, a treaty of pee and com-: ',;"* merce which he considerecld, in: every:-respect, not only useful bt indispensablet t fhe prosperity of the countfiry, After hag annou d this project in various of hiBs communications, he report in Dmber of last year, having aeccmplished the same, and furnished in seeral c munications, aii exat and detailed account of the history of his labors in the affair, the reaons which he had for underta ing thfe same, the benefits which b'e expects as resullts, and the measures whoe adoption deemrs necessary in olrder that tlhese resullts may be more eertin, d at [220J

Page  329 ROYAL DIRBCTIONS AS TO GENERAL POLICY 329 the same time profitable. There were received from him seven letters, all marked with the letter "A," numbered from 14 to 23, and dated from the 15th to the 29th of the said month; with so many points of analogy and similarity between them, that they should be considered as one only. The first, number 14, is intended to furnish information and data relative to Sulu, and the other Mohammedan islands of the-south (without which it would be impossible to know their importance) and to detail the relations which we should have with them, considering them both in relation to commerce and with respect to the war of enslavement. In the second, -of a confidential nature, he outlines the policy, which, in his opinion, should be adopted in order to obtain all tle advantages which our position affords. In the third, number 16, lie states the easures which should be adopted for the benefit of the national commerce in those countries. In. the fourth, number 20, lie transmits a copy of the treaty of peace, protection and commerce concluded with the Sultan of Suin, and of the stipulations made for the determination of the duties which our vessels should pay in Sulu, and the Sulus in Manila and Zamboanga. In the fifth, number 21, he relates the motives which have led him to direct these matters as he has done, transmitting to her Majesty all the plans referring to it, through this Ministry only. In the sixth, number 22, he gives account of some of the advantages which have been derived from our expedition to Sulu, and amongst others, a treaty of peace concluded between the pueblo of Malusu and the Governor of Zamboanga. And finally, in the seventh, number 23, he sets forth thenecessity of retaining at that station, the:frigate-captain, Don Jose Maria Halcon, who performed the duty of commissioner for the negotiation of the treaty. treaty,.. -.. '. - '" ' I have informed her Majesty, the Queen Regent, of the contents of all these communications, and in this knowledge she has seen fit to approve, -in a general manner, all the measures adopted by the aforementioned predecessor of your Excellency, giving suitable orders, that the proper Ministry provide the special approval which some -of them deserve, on account of their weight and importance, concerning which your Excellency will soon be informed, and deigning to -command me to submit in a separate and particular communication the following advice on the special subject of the letters referred to above. Her Majesty, feeling assured that conquests in themselves, 1and later their maintenance, absorb the profits which accrue from the countries already acquired, prefers to any conquest advantageous trade and commerce. Convincedl, therefore, that the most profitable and lucrative policy is to conquer or secure such places as on account of their fortunate location may prove to be at the same time strong military and mercantile [2213

Page  330 330 T;HTo HISTORY OF SULU posts tand o both. promote and protec.t commerce, she cannot but approve thei ideas your Excel1encys predecessor exprese in his communication nuumlberled a14, aid desires that tupol adoptinlg the syem in a rd with thoe ideas, you conefine yourself solely, in all elterprises of eonquest. to*eupatioa of territorv either abandoned or uninhabited, or to that wf.ihch notwithstanding its bI ig settled, would cost litte and would not ghe ocas.ln for '-tty. t var: In order to increase our cmmercial tant: O i dvanthag: in Sulu, and: io 0 raised:0m ri:a i tO hel. Portuguee it w de wtell:to grantprt tit oanad re cti om ina: dutii:t, the C:inee jtas -upder: the:specifeo l0ndition titat tic do not: sail Irde wthe:;fl: fany o. wtherl. nto (w u m o the,Portgese by n am.e in orde r t. toocasiton I.t re-cntni ttet of"*ffiis:;power).:; an'ld to< k im in Sul for hse, who adot te Spanih faga Hletin ofdutialto h.not as rmul:c tatwic od erated to Spansih via.- - Thuts it is o t o he r wiMl jesty yot oer; fl e direben co cm -and,:t e me e.pu: oe: in v. t ie- ffiwat youirf pryda. w ssr-. tat tao ayou expliMitly, whih are:- me rentde e iesl t lhized o do Portigul e. d rving esit t n- ' d bl e hti r taco iid Sing~tqJ'( reJ Sto S0, of theadvanftageovetafllothernfiations whic stillo 'the 'meaWns in yout p ower th a tionoite etent cminercial; housesofMantila wibth thoseof Macoad: Singapore, if th - With respet to t matter 'of the war gainst pirtaey, referred to also rwit'i Ait.in. letter 'numbe f;14, her Majes approves al te pex pressd: therein by the predessorof your Excelle: nc and commands me to: direct your Excellen:theit, without i ever r irrngto or the interruption of traffic with S^u -as means of aestroying or dilinishing piraey and traffic irn slaves, yotiu exert y oursel:to prs the ame and remen the evil which it inflicts on thl Philippines, y the various means at hand, to-wit; 1st, throg1 negoiations with the Sultan of SIuu; in which measulressuitable for the accomplishment of the purpo;e may be c.erted; 2d, securing l the increase, by ti: Sultan, of import duties on slaves who are Spanishl subjects, and the lowering of duties an slaves of otfher countries: 3d, reqiesti:ng of hi nassistance in driving out the pirates from their hants oft Balangingi and other places; 4th, watching the rendevous of th.e pirates in the Bisyas also, in order o destroy them. In this maniner and witl hard lessons, with the terie ai continuous warfare spoken of by the predecessor of your Excellency, the extermination of piracy will be accomplished without the evils whic I Sp. champanes

Page  331 ROYAL DIRECTIONS AS TO GNERAL POLICY 331. would follow upon an unwise and useless war against Sulu, and without the more serious result to which the same would expose us, and which: her Majesty desires your Excellency to avoid at any cost the result referrTed to being the removal of the Sultan to some other point, which removal England and Holland might turn to reat advantage agai;nst our trade. - As to the measures proposed in letter number 16, for the benefit of -'-' the national commerce, her Majesty will determine which is fit, noti f y- i your Excellency in due season. Meanwhile you should keep in mind,; 0 that as long as the Sulu man their s with -slaves, your Excell -enc should prohibit them from trading in Zamboanga and all other p:laces w*ithin the dominions of her Majesty, whenever the ships which they use::' shall be manned in whole or in part with slaves who are subjects of Spain. Concerning the treaty of peace, protection ad commere a copy of which is inclosed in letter number 20 her Majaesty has been plesed to resolve, after careful examination, that 'it be forwarded with favorale - comment to the Ministry of State for the approval of th Cortes and: the ratification of her Majestyv, all of which will be communicated to - Vour Excellency in due time, its policy being caried out ad its intent carefully observed in the meanwhile, for the purpose of determnining whether there is anythling to (rmend or corect by, a -of further:negotiation, which would be considered as an appendix to thefreaty. In:view of the explanations concerning the first article of the aforementioned treaty furnished by the commisioner of the negotiation, her Maesty commands me to repeat to your Excellency the necessiy for carr - yi out the policy which is prescribed to your Excellency with regar o. acquisition and conquest; in order to claim those lans referred to in the explanations, if perchance such Claim should be advisablefor the pirpose of acquiring some point of military or mercantile value: or in order to set up the claim of the Kingdom of Spain to those countries in order that by giving it up, we may secure other things which may be oft re al importance' to is, such as reduction in duties, some ecusivel privileg or the possession of some isolated point of great importance.: The predecessor of your Excellency by addressing to this Ministr y -. all communications bearing on this matter, has melited the approbaton of her Majesty, because he has avoided many unnecessary steps and useless delay, and thus your Excellency will continue to do, in the manner herein; indicated. - ' And fnall, her Majesty having noted with satisfaction the favorable results produced already by the expedition to Suiil, and app theei; idea of rot using the fifteen hundred dollars sent by the Bihop of Nueva Segovia for the redemption of slaves, she commands me to direct your Fjxcelency to clltivate the fiendship of all the chiefs ho, like the 7 1 2 9 t - 1 5'' *- ^ [223]

Page  332 orders bei t.:d u r-l;; tof:-i M: tne of this Min:ist7, not Monly:,tihat te- captat t ari~a laion, who ha s xv^elldischargdti:luty of negotiating-: the treaty,.:e aiged to station, h::utht It:e is hedly: repw ar.d oBr asi s unerthesas:h cor* aoreeAnitii A Salazar.A f his eomia nrnnicatedto:yourF 1 v y Rya order, for your due information IdidganMoe instrtigyo ithegardto fie ile thata yotucrry:out th dr to fowarded: you; separately under this dte:^MADRID, June 23, 187 '';".......:r:oEN;ZA::::: AL —R ubricatd.:: The Gw ExOt (IA:A TAING t 0 T Pt IINS.,[224]

Page  333 APPENDeIX XIV CAMBA'S REPORT ON THE CIRCUMSTANCES ATTENDING THE TREATY OF 1836 AND ITS BASES, NOVEMBER i6, 18371 SUPERIOR G(OVERNMENT OF THE PIuLPPINE EXCELLENT SIR: In compliance with the provision of the Royal order of the 24th of April last, reuesting, for the inforation of her Majty the record of the correspondence exchanged in regard to the treaty of commerce made by m predecessor with the Sultn of Sul, and he bases of said treaty, foIrard the same t your Excellency, ith a few personal observations suggeted by a reading of t said pape On the 31st of Jnuary, 183oj, the Tribunal of Commerce forwarded to the Captain-General, approved by it, a report presented by se business men who traded with Suu, setting orth thedeceitl methds of the Datus, or pricipal people of the island, in their agreements and contracts, and requesting, in order to restrain and intimida them, that the naval division of Zamboanga, or part of it, be stationed in the port of Jolo during the time the national merchant vessels remin there for the purpose of making their sales and purchases. A decree was ued on the 9th of M;larch of the same year, concurring in the opinion of the Assssor, and declaring that the request could not be graned at that time, but that it would be taken into consideration as soon as the circumstances allowed. This is a brief of the document marked Number 1. On the 9th of February, 1836, Jos6 Dugiols, who had sold go on credit to the amount of 8000 pesos to the Jolo people, and despaired of getting paid, presented a new petition, similar to that which had been sent 11 months before. The Chamber of Commerce approved it and requested that a fleet of launches be stationed at Jolo during the business season, there to gather information which would alow the Government to take proper acton in the matter; it also inist at the commander of the fleet be a capable person, who, without compromising the flag, would know how to conciliate the purpose of the naval demon stration with the spirit of peace and concord which he ought hto m tain rm the Divisin of Arehvs, Exeutiv Buau, Maita,. 333 -64*'*U ~~~~a~~~~~l l ~ ~

Page  334 334 THI HISTORY OF SULU between the crews of our ships and the people of Jolo. This uggtion, which had already been made in the petition present the year b6 was favorably endorsed one after the oter b)y all who intervend in the papers in the ease and resulted in the final resolution of-May 31st, which contains 1:4 articles. The first provides that it shall be one of the duties of the, conutnander of the naval division of Zam n to protect the Spanish ships while they are at Jolo, and instructions are given him to that effect. The secdnd appoints captain of frigate Jose Maria Haleon to take char ge temporarily, of the command of the Division1 of Xamboanga, and establish relations of friendnhip and conmlerce with the Sulu people. The third directs him to inform the Sulu Sultan of his visit in the way hemay dee most likely to convince him of the peaceful-, intentions of this Government. The fourth directs h to make himself recognized by the officers men of our ships, as the commanding authority who shall maintain them in peae and good order, The fifth -charges- him not to allow his men to land- so as -to avoid disorder. The sixth: directs him to take action in regard to any excess, as provided by the Code. The seventh, to hold in heck the crews of oir ships, so as to give the Sulus neither reason nor pretence for showing their bad faith. The ninth forbids the commander of the division and all the under hi ord to enters into any business speculation whatsoever. The tenth direts the. commander to be ever careful to keep all his men within the bounds of duty. By the eleventh he is directed to see that all eontraets are religiously fulfilled, and, if necssary, to complain energetically to the Sultan, and by the twelfth to see that our people fulfil their own. Articles thirteen and fourteen direct the commander to obtain information about the political and civil conditions of Sulu and its topographic situation. After acquainting himself withthe foegoing, Captain Jos Maria Halcon inquired what would be the minimum importaton duty in Manila for articles proceeding from Stiu, and asked for instructons in regard to the importation of armsand ammunition into Sul by our ships. In answer to the first question, the Board of Tariffs fixed at 2 per cent. the duty on all articles imported from Sulu to Manila in its own vessels,' except wax and cacao, which would have to pay 14 per cent under a foreign flag and half that amount under the national flag; in regardto the second the importation of arms and ammunition into Sulu by our ships was prohibited. A letter to the Sultan of Sulu as furthermore giventhe commander, acerediting him and explaining his mis8io the petition presented by Dugiols and endosed by the Chamber of Commerce, requesting thatour busing relations withi Sulu be granted a protection which experience made each day more necessary, being thus complied with. "E sue propios buques" (ie., of Sulu). taa

Page  335 TREATY OF 1886 AND ITS BASES On April 15, 1836, Halcon forwarded the capitulations of p: and - the commercial agreements made by him' in the name of this Government with the Sultan of Sulu. The first consists of 6 articles, which e Spanish Government grants the Sultan its protection, which s a by the latter, with a mutual assurance of coperation between them agat any nation not European. Spanish boats are to be admitted freely in Sulu, and Sulu boats in Zamboanga md Man ila. It id that, a: ' Spanish factory shall be established in Jolo, so as to avoid damages and delays to our commerce, the same right being given the Sulus in M.ani a.;:: Certain rules are established in order to distinguish friendly from: hostile boats. The Sultan is pledged to prevent piracy on the part' of ':-. those who recognize his authority; and it is furthermore agreed that in case of any doubt as to the meaning of any article, the literal Spanish text shall be followed. In accordance with the opinion of the overnment assessor, these capitulations were approved by decree of January 20 of this year. The commercial agreements contain 9 articles. The first establishes a duty of 2 per cent on all produts brought by the ^ Sulus. The second excepts wax and cacao, as recommended by th Board: of Tariffs. The third provides a duty of 1 per eent for the import- tion in Zamboanga of products brought by the Sulus. The fourth: provides that the payment of the duties shall be made in cash im silver. The fifth establishes the dues to be paid by our boats at Sulu. The / sixth fixes the value, in prc ucts, of those dues. The seventh, in its first part, declares, that all Sulu boats trading without a license shall be treated as smugglers, under the law of the Kingdom; in its second part it also requires our boats to show a bill of lading in accordance with the cargo, on pain of a fine of?500, two thirds to go to the Sultan and one third to our exchequer. The eighth provides that if the duties are reduced in Manila and Zamboanga on the articles coming from Sulu, the same shall be done in Sulu, and that if the Sultan reduces the dues on foreign ships, he shall do the same for ours. The ninth provide.that in ease of doubt the literal Spanish text shall be followed. After hearing the opinions of the Boards of Commerce and Tariffs, and in accordance with that of the assessor, the foregoing was approved by decree of the 20th of January of this year, with a small reduction of 4 per cent on the duties to be paid by the Sulus in Manila, and an ex-; planation of the proceeding to be followed for the appraiserent of th eir cargoes in Zamboanga and in Manila. Shortly before this ratification by the Government, it was decreed onl the 13th of January, at the request of Commissioner Halcon, that in order to avoid trouble between this Government and that of Sulu, the' captains and supercargoes of the Spanish ships should give no red it to the Sulus, except with the authorization of thile Sulta, under thepenalty of being barred from claiming his protection or that of the Sp i (227]

Page  336 336 THS HISTORY OF SULU |;,.. -:.E Government for tie olection of such credits and th al ttl I;i;;: 1,f ' of the pay of the crews of our ship should be so made as to avoid the abuse of paying them in kind, instead of currency. Such is the information which I have found, and an forarding to your Excellecy in regard to the treaties mentioned. The leading idea in said treaties is one of distrulst tonards the people of Sulu, on aount,'*: o: of their treacherous, crel anad perfidious nature. As this is the only idea whiich prevails in al our relations with the island, as well as in the Royal order of August 2.8, 1751, and the document attached thereto, without referrig to oler time, I can not be persuaded that the policy?:') *..:0.,of peace: and alliance adopted with i the Sultan of Sulu can give our:shipingf and commere any sa d permanentadvantae. e ea:l Royal:decrees find fault with such trelaties and even order them to be revked in case they have been made; and to justify departure 0*:' '..'*':;0; from thee sovereign instructions, given with a: true kntowledge of the facts, ard in accordance withl the opinion of the illustrious members of - '. ': ' the (Cabinet, there' must n:ow be some powerful polical ron whi I:an not disover... If w take into consideration the very weak: authorit ": / of the Sultan over his subjects, and the scarcitv of his means in the;";:;" * ' midst of datusor chieftains who with their faliesand slaves contitute:,'1',.:. distinct commrrunities which are haughty, abitious and dangerous to '.i'-^ '.;, *;:. Iilim, we find that there is in Sul no moral force on whichto rely for the t-::;S: execiution of a' treaty, ^even should thlere be t best faith and good will on,;'"' * 0:: on the part: of the Sultan.:.....::.:::..L*'nFurthermore;' Sulm;and the small adjacent islands-produce nothing;::_ * *. *** even the rice and fids whih the people use-for their food come fromn: —:t',.. '.. * our neighboring: possessions: what business reasons'are there therefore, - apable of calling our attention or whose profits would pay the expenses of a fleet placed 'in.observation there? All the produce of the islands;consists of bteche-dewer and shell which are gathered by the slaves te the ing and foodstuffs are furnished them, on credit, by our own ships; gold, wax and edible nests come from Mindanao. HenI e commere is confined to a season outside of which our ships never go near Sulu. There is therefore little advantage to be derived by our commerce from. these treaties, and this is confirmed by the eommunieation just received by me from the commander of the Zamboanga division, which I enclose as number 6, It betrays complete disappointment, ad shows the wisdom -: of the instructions given in the above mentioned Royal dere e. Tle policy which we ought to follow with the h t ls is one of continual and perspicacious caution, with well conditioned, well situated and well 0 omImamnded naval forces, ready to obtain at once satisfacton for offense to our flag and I believe that this could be done without much ~-;~ 'trouble, by sing steamshipsas the I)t have done in their settlements: This and the following statements are not coret. [2281

Page  337 etas, 4: i ma in the.Royal r er ofy, present communication May God keep your EX MAhNILA, November i la:t, a winc,, areh e:otjet ( 'documentsi w:ch I encose then ay years.;'"... AOF TRs OF THUt Ui. MWEiBA. t - -711',X:-*., His Excellency the SFETARY OF STATE ANDOF THE NAVY, COMERcE AND '.COtLONIES. [229]

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Page  339 APPENDIX XV CAMBA'S REPORT TO THE COLONIAL OFFICE DISCUSSING THE DIFFICULTIES OF COMMERCE WITH SULU AND THE ADVISABILITY OF MAKING ZAMBOANGA A FREE PORT, FEBRUARY 23, 18381 SUPERIOR GOVERNMENT OF Tl1B PHILIPPINES. EXCELLENT SIR: I acknowledge to your Excellency the receipt of two Royal orders dated the 23d of June of last year, which, with reference to the treaties made with the Sultan of SuIn, hae been transiitted by your ministry; 'one replying to the seven commiumcations marked "A" which my predecessor made in. connection wih"th e usame subjet; the other confidential, and indicating the policy and measures that should carried out with the said Sultan of Sn d and Sathe ltlenof Mianao.:In communication numbered 5, and dated Nov ber 6th l in compliance with oneof the provisions of Royal order of last April, I.made a minute repor a mccompanied by documentary evidence, of the antecedents which I encountered relative to Sulu affairs, and at the same time, could not but intimate in this connection how little I expectedas a result of our treaties, because experience had already caused me to be suspicious, and also because the variou- Royal orders toward the close of the past century confirmed me in this idea;2 and indeed the losses which all our commercial expeditions experienced during the first year of these treaties, the vexations they suffered.and the risks to which the crews as well as the vessels and their cargoes were exposed during their stay in Jolo, have fully borne out this 1view. Many are the measures and documents which we have here, in which this same fact is laid down; many are the Royal decrees in which, in recognition of this fact, the Governors of the Philippines have even been authorized, by every means in their power and without counting cost or difficulty, to punish severely the intrepidity of those infidel barbarians. In order to arouse and interest the Royal conscience on that point, it was tequisite that there should be repeatedly presented through various channels and at distinct times substantiated accounts, non-conflicting and extremely painful, of the various piracies, cruelties, and vexations, with From the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 2 Though inaccurate and biased, the ideas expre-d in this report repre ent the opinion and feelings of many Spanish officia s who were connected with Moro affairs. [231]

Page  340 340 which those barbarians have kept the Philippine Isl inthe south in a s tate of fear and depression; and needful also was it t there should have been employeed, in vain, on accountof the reliion and th e policy of our ancestor, those gentle measur of peace and nion which no,civilized people could resist; bIt which are ineffectual with brbrous natiions who know no other'right than thatof force. - Fr:b the 14th oadAp 1646of pnAildoned on of which our arm$s;, had so gloriouly conquered, making at opeace;: into a treaty' with them,:neither have te Flipino sue dd in freeing ";:",h ne::lves f:ro t:eir:Iara:m s nr; tthe oemnveentreapdan;fruit otherftha ln continl muenace STheEnglilsh have had th e eexa settlemeut detinedtohethe emporium: for the prducts of the East;'::': ';.... in conncti on:with eirChina:tr orwi is isla oes:.:good: p;s:: they ere tworw us.'^-^^.^.... " selves, who,. knowin.th:'e En h de e s advantage of.:theira absence:bytaking:p:: os i of the iland a n the t::ontr theren a de obootywhich ost theEng lisli-:East- XIndi Compan.yalossof more than — three hundredthousand: ': —;'. dollars.:In narratin hiseve Mr..i.Moor, iwho published last t- a year a brief ree oftredientconeerningthisands and lands;:0;- ';b:: ordering':on' tohe" CAhinai Sea,' aeswith e:views:I::have expressed, name, 0, t:h t a o'f te r andepirueltyo0n: tie part: of-the otSulus Al these facts thenwicovice Exllecythat the expectations of any great advantage: to our:comnerce. Allowing that the treaties in themselves to improve te brutal conditio of those isander Thi *ff,, / ' condition will always constitute, not only for the Spaniards'but also for. all civilised nations, a great drawback to erantle latos ih although founded on principles of utility and mutual adva cannot:ontinue nor be developed except under the most favorable raties. how would our merchants, or the foreign lerhants of mulu oba in theme where there is neither good faith nsor justice, and wthere cunni ofraudy mgkes even tahe Cohinese dangerous traders? Commer is t hetr movement and circulation of wealth. The later results o produc [232]

Page  341 p ADVISABILITY OF MAKINO ZAMBIOANGA A tion, and production from the:full and unrestrited utilization of property. Moreover, when property is inseure, whenthe law do not pro;t; it, when the agents of the Government arethe first to disregad it, the mercantile spirit is the first to become alarmed and, when defrauded,: to flee as far as possible from the place where it does not find that safe haven it requires to expand iand to pursue with skill and persever-ance the objects of its calling. Thus it is that during the period elapsed since - the year cited, 1646, up to the present time, no Spanish merchant has himself had direct dealings with the inhabitant of SxluN, the Chinese - alone being engaged in this trade, iley being tie only charterers of our:.'"r vessels, so that we do not obtain from said commerce more t haninterest on the capital invested, subject to great exposure and risk,which has made and always will make, tis commerce uncertain and f litle value.: While lack of security still sets a limit to theextent ofourpeculation in commerce with Sulu, lack of advantageous reciprocity ad another: factor no less appreeiafle. At the time -the Spaniars tcam e to the Philippines, Sulu seems to Iate been rich in her own natraland in-: dustrial products, and richer still through the large eommercewhich their exchange enabled her to carry on with the Chinese- veesvseshich in large numbers frequented her coasts. Situated almost midway: tween tfie Philippines and the Moluccas, close to two rich islands so ferile and densely populated as Mindao and Borneo, it seemed destined:: nature to be the emporium of the commerce of the south. Converted to Islamism by the Arab Sayed Ali, who laned there from Mecca, how: much ought this principle of civilization in the midst of barbalrous na tions have tended to their advancement But times have chanced greatly since then, and brought their always accompanying vicissitudes.: Spanish dominion was extended in the Philippines and the Portugu e penetrated into the Moluccas, they began attracting to their capitals: the wealth and traffic that was accumulating in Sulu, and here begins a new era. War and desolation, which for a period of eighty years we inflicted on -them, followed, and put in our power this island and its dependen-:.. cies, and though independence was later restored, it could not divert this:: rich commerce from the trend it had taken. Meanwhile, their wars and internal dissensions resulted in corrupting their customs, and nthere only remained for them the habit of piracy, which ever since our appearance, they had embraced for the purpose of harassing us. Since then Suhl has been converted into a refuge for pirates: lired by its favorable position, and these barbarians, being more solicitous of carrying on their devastations than of cultivating their land, have not ceased to be the greatest scourge of our inhabitants of the southi. This explains the impossibility ofobtaining from them by entreaty anything I The correct name is Abu Bakr. [2331

Page  342 342 THE HISTORY OF SULU in the way of peace and tranquillity, which to them as well as t us would be so beneficial. For this reason, Sulu, which contains a population of pirates and slaves, is nothing more than a shipping point where certain products are collected from the other islands of the south. It is surronded by islands and islets, which form the archipelago bearing its name, and has a length from east to west of about ten leagues a width of four and a half, and a circumference of thirty-two. The total population credited to the Archipelago is from 149,000 to 150,000 souls, 6,800 of which inhabit Jolo, and in this number are included 800 Chinese. The houses, or rather huts, of the principal place, are estimated to number 3,500, and that of the petty king, called Sultan, cannot be distinguished from the rest except for its greater size; all of bamboo and nipa, weak and poor as their owners, but with cannons of varous calibers which mark the residences of the datus, descendanta of the petty kings, and who themselves constitute the oligarchy of their Government. I have already stated that the Sultan can do nothing, all matters being decreed by the convention, or Rum Bichara of the datus, where the owner of the greatest number of slaves always decides the questions.' Wealth, influence and power, are measured among them solely by the number of slaves, and this is why they cannot but be pirates, in order to acquire this wealth, nor can they offer any guaranty, if it must be accompanied by the renunciation of this pursuit. By this picture, which is corroborated by the Englishman Moor in his description of Sulu, it will be seen that we can expect nothing from our present relations with Sulu in the way of securing' the tranquillity and prosperity of our islands of the south. Neither is a system of continual hostility the best way of procuring these precious gifts, but the promotion and throwing open of avenues of commerce, directing it to one of our ports, which, in view of its position, ought to be Zamboanga; and in this I coincide with the views of my predecessor-. Zamboanga, with a different organization, the concession of a free port for all the products from the south and those brought in champanes from China, and the free admission of the exiles who seek refuge there as well as the Chinese traders, aiding the former in establishing themselves, and exempting the latter from all taxes for the first ten years, would be, in all probability, the m6ost suitable point to which to divert from Sulu the little transit business which remains, to guard, from a shorter distance, against the piracy its inhabitants, and to bring them in the course of time, perhaps, to a more humane mode of living. But all this requires first the planning of a suitable and adequate system which, bringing nearer to the islands of the south the protection and vigilance of the Government of the capital by means of a subordinate Such a statement is uuduly biased. [234]

Page  343 ap.,...h... AI)'VJSABJlITY OF iA$AKINU ZAMBOANGA A EUR 43 Govemment embracing lts chief characteristcs, would relieve the pre cious islands,from the calamities which up to the present tite they have suffered by reason of their remoteness and possibl y b use of our neglect. ^; This plan, which I deire to combine with a forward movem t in the great and rich island of indanao, a large part of whose oast is surrounded by the districts of thecorregidors of Karaga d Misamis, will bring about without dubt; a new and happy era for the Fiipi nos of the south, and place, withou the sacrifice of people or money, a large number of fithful ubjec under he illustrious Government of her ajesty, furnishing the same also with a greater abundance of resources. To this end I shall hold -in view and faithful y observe the po: which her Maj utliesty ouines in her onfidential Royal order, to wi. I reply; its appliation will be the constant object of eveythig I deree:: and execte. And ey hap shall I be -this ma itre for the many proof of -co-operation aeste'em, which, forhi thirteen years I hatve eceive from the Filieni fi mo - n y ore a because working at the same time for the better seviceofher Majes in accordance with heroyal plans in which these people have a ways found.:their greatestxand sure stwel-being. - -:; Your Excll be con.vned th, tat these ae th iment: which impel me and the plans I contempla:. for the fulfillment of t:; important duties her Majesty has deignedto confer upon me, canfromi this reply assure'her tht as far- as I am concerned, noti ng s; shall b: Jeft undone to:arry out to the letter the policy she has b en pleased to outline to me, and to merit thereby her august confid, which I - earnestly desire. May God preserve your Excellency mny- years..:: MANILA, February 23, 1838.:::: 0: AN-DUs G CMBA.-G G' X: The most excellent the SECRETARY, OFFICE OF COLOwn ADIIS-: TKATIOH. ';*' ' '_;'* *].;-.'.. _ '. *./.i_ 'h *;-.,..... j 'A Spanish magistrate. [2351 -

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Page  345 APPENDIX XVI.: COMMUNICATION FROM THE GOVERNOR OF ZAMBOANGA TO THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES RELATIVE TO THE TREATY OF SIR JAMES BROOKE WITH THE SULTAN OF SULU, TOGETHER - WITH OTHER COMMUNICATIONS RE- h: LATING TO THE TREATY, 1849' OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF THE GOVERNOR AkND CAPTAINENEUAL OF THE PHILIPPINES. tT-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ OL -....t f849 JotO, May 284k, 1849.: Sr. Don CAYETANO FioiUwoAR-*',. Zamboanga. -- _ # ' DEAR SIR:-I think proper to inform you that yesterday, at three o'clock in the afternoon, the English war steamer "Nemesis" cast anchor-at this port, coming from Singapore. She brought on board Sir James Brooke, conimissioned to make a treaty of peace and friendship between Great; Britain and the Sultan. This treaty was presented to the Sultan to-day in the presence of the Datus and a majority of the people, and after being read in a loud voice it was immediately approved and ratified. I do not thi~~~~~~~~nk as 0 tls" aty,as3 think it necessary to inform you as to the tenor of said treaty, as Mr. Brooke has told me that he would go from here to your city for the purpose of communicating to you everything regarding this matter so that you will be thoroughly acquainted with all the details. I understand that they have hastened this matter in view of the recent advices concerning the destruction of Bali by the Dutch troops and their declared intention of taking possession of the entire coast of North Borneo, Sulu, and all its dependencies. In letters received from my partner at Singapore he tells nme that it is certain they are coming, and with a large fore, but it may be not for a month or two. The people here, in view of this news, have carried everything they have to the interior, and are ready, whenever the Dutch arrive, to leave the town. We shall se where these things will stop. Possibly we shall have another c like that of the French before you leave Zamboanga. Whatever you ay decdeto do From the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. [237]

Page  346 I 3 46 To IST O R Y OF 8ULU when you reeive this communication, you know tht qmy sei re always at your disposal, and A in th event of your i iIng to c thee isa house here at your disposifion; and I pr syou a Weny reception on the part of the residents. It is my sopiio t are in,:M- -d 'such a fright that t.ey do not kIow what to do and busin, of crs, i-entirely neglected. My brother-in-law, who is the bearer of thiswi inform ou in: regard to what is going on. He oes to yllr twn to purchase rice for our house, to provide against a siee; for rice dear and scaree here. I remain, your obedient servnt, who kise yur h frigatesad aorvettopera at t presagaint B are Baavia March:,49. —. ars h a expein:::;; i eadine t:oet sal thefirtpa rt of:July. - Ie e atthhe pubi; - -lishers of the Singapore paper will publish: anarticle entitled, "itan;:Sarawak, the nortlast clasty of Borneo and the Sultani of In"i by:::;::: Baron Hoe I publhed itlHollaidi te firstf th:lJourn lO for Nemtherlands Ind ia" duringthe h of Jaary lat, in which he in m S::hi s:compatriots that if eGoxr ente Jahad follo the counse:l of Resident;: Gronovius: of;Sambas _ini 1831 orthoe of: Resident Bloem of Sambasi 1838, th wouldslong oavel had tie;'::: ' * *;: with the Sulttan;f Brunev which would have ed Sarawak ad the n::Rorthem: coast to all- fla gs e xceptt ht dth;:t te questions with:^:-,: <:;;::;: the 'Englislh Government wouldnt h e; tisen butt:ha w it is not worth whil ie t disusst i h: t heourt of St. James. England is in ^:^^^:; *.:::: possession, and she will stay 'in 'po ion if she oiders it to her.....: m; AIIN t tied -Rpossesion '-ifb;;advantage: He telils them to be on:their aguard, beiausste if -theydo n'ot have a eare thi-English will-: make another;dhm: a indicates the: 0 point which ealls fr immed iadte and indisperisale protion, namely, the northeast coast of Borneo:::thatisto say from Sampan Majee Point to the Cape:of Kamongan (the Straits of Makassar), which he says are tributary to the Sultan of Suu. "I e gives information ocening the:,~ 'diferent sBtations for the principal departments: Malsedu (or inabalu): Manjedore and Tiroen, designating the bay of Sandakan for the frst establishlment, as son as they have taken possession of this side. He enmerates the products of this part of the world: the perls, the dia*'* 1g~ ~ monds, the iron- tand gold mines, the birds'-nst, the trepang et.; so that he has strongl influened the minds of the utch. And he eneludes by stating that in tie next artile of his paper he will discus th Sulta's possession in relation to the government of the Dutch Indie offerng some suggestions as to how his countrmenl may a vail th semis of the advantage of this rich territory. It is a truly interesting adle [23s]

Page  347 B1tOOKE.S8 TtVAVTY WITH THE SUIJTAN OF SULU 347 and appears to me no less curious than reasonable. The editor of the Journal of the Eastern Archipelago will do a good serice to his country *men by making a translation of it, but it must he done very soon. I am too busy to write a paper, of such length, otherwise it would have given me pleasure to send you one for your own use. I reiterate the necessity for despatch, for II really believe that the Dutch goernment will work for its own interests in accordance with the plans which the Baron h marked out. Tbhe English will not relish the idea of their oriental Government sleeping and permitting the Sultan to make, under coerion, a treaty such as m it be made in order to forward the plans of Van HoeveeL The vessels of the King of the Low Countries, the "Prince of Orange," "Sambi," and Argo," with five others, set sail on the 15th of this month, transporting 1,800 men in the direction of Bali. Afterwards they are to earry to Surabaya, on the 25th proximo, 5,000 men more, besides from 2,500 to 3,000 coolies, 12 cannon, 2 mortars, etc., etc. Receive, etc. These are notices taken from a letter to hand, from a trustworthy person in Singapore.-Figueroa. Military and Civil Government, Plaza de Zamboanga.-No. 101.Department of Government.-Excellent Sir:-Notwithstanding the fact that the lieutenant governor of this province informs me that he transcribed and forwarded to your Excellency, while he was in charge of the civil government during my absence i Malusu,:the letter which Mr. William Windham, a merchant of Jolo, sent me under date of May 28th, it seems to me well to send the original to your Excelleny, which I now do, retaining a copy of it for the purpose of reference at any time. As your Excellency may note if he will compare its content with the text of the treaty of the 29th of the same month of May, made with the Sultan of Sulu by the English Consul-General to Borneo, Sir James Brooke, there is, between the terms of the former and the spirit of Article 7 of the latter, a notable lack of agreement; wherefore it has not seemed to me well to place entire confidence in the offer of Windham, who may be suspected of partiality, and I have concluded, therefore, to move in such a delicate matter with all possible tact and foresight and in accordance with developments, which may become extremely complicated. Considering the-great interest which the agents of the English Government show in these questions concerning Sulu and the part of Borneo subject to the Sultan, I immediately suspected that the announcement of the imminent arrival of a considerable Dutch force in the achi pelago was only a strategem to obtain, through surrise ad r, the realization of the agreement or treaty referred to; but it having pos sible for me to secure frh data through a different chael, confrmi 7126O —16 t28],

Page  348 3j48 IT3: HIISTORY OF.SU14lU thi whtichl Windham furnished uieli-wich latter I obtained through Mr. Blrtxke andt the captain of the 'Nemess,li anld herewith transmit to vyor Extcellencvy,-l am of the opinion now that tle expedition of the It)utel to o lo i ls:n entrqplris fully (letterniined upon,, although it m1ay; erv welll e (letlayed or )tponed iy fortutllt-ous circumstanHes ditlults tts lfres~et. In tile event of the aptearalte of the )utch expediti;on; I sall itevei' believe that it is Iwith the obljet of conti field of action to, pnishingt t he llace of residence of the Sultan in a lor thorlough rianner tlhan wrats done in the attenpt made in April of last year; bu hat th:ey intend tlo conquer and occupy the Island and its (ependencies. If thlis should 1e* so, I arm equally of the opinion that the Government of yot r Excellencv, notwitistanding its ('onspicuous fiznness and wellknolwn energy. will not sIce'd in gettig t to recede fron their purpolse, as everything goes to s1o they liae deterined to ca rry it out i.t the face —most assuredlyl —of our known and declared rghts and claislls to the rule of thatt landl. I venture, therefore, t believe that the onri~il way to prevent tihe s erious; detrilent lich would result this I colonV, tinderl tlle wis and wort goterrmeit of yo.r- Ecelene, vfrom the,occupation of.: Sulua, avoid:ling at tle sa. e tinme a ceofl ct betw n the Salnish an Du lith el ChGoernnielts,,respeetivrely, wolId )e;y means o persuasion and by taking advantage of thle state of exttreme::alarm. no existifnl in Sti1u, to' alticipate them:l by a riecogAition of the:;so rei-nt of Splin, floating our national flag under guaranties which would make inmpossible (with oul t maniifcst violenece) this proposed unprecedented aggression. I ant onvin eed that beside s:flyipng the:national 'flag tand' (Iidled to embrk in the pilot boat "Pasig" and Iake my way to Job. hoving tiela where, if I do>n ot obtaiin the.reesin lts wiicha tIhael mere set, it will ertain ot e through lack of zeal and:activity but tprnoual earanterig oust aces be yond isly sctrol or influenceo ton wing to difficulties incident to the temperamet of those: people and 'the.ancient: prejudlie~s which, owing.to a series of events stretching:through eent 0i sineal fort olflul th e iresie lde n ca e uof t e elxpert and trust ordecithe oferandto eStarr out reonnaisanes and make an to whJi eatnt faloi, it wiaoll thnl e gatest ufu s to t th e l of actvity, lranuicI shai, owingvt tho a c iefs off t tthins place Don E lice tureies, toey feel ~ards us, ga s is only too well know n to your Excellency. To aid m hle in tltes e olrations and to meet possibl continge ncies — Bemraldez, to a t company nme,:if the exigencies of the serviee do not demand his preshence hebre and. at Pasartllan, All of which I have the [240]

Page  349 BRIKIOOKK TREATY WITH THI SUULTAN OF 8U:LU 349 honor to lay be:fire your ExhIellenc ln tle Ilope that it may merit your entire approval. May God preserve your Excellency many years. ZAM BOANGA, Jusnte 8, 1849. CAYETANO Fi UEROA, llls higlt Excellency the GOVER.NOR ANI) CAPTAIN-GENBRAL oF THESE PrltItPILP'INE ISLANDS. FFICE O F TIlEr r SEC IIETARY OF THE Go(EKMO AND CAPTAIN-GJENRA L OF THE PHILIPPPINES. rZamboanga, June 5th, 1849.-Mr. Consul-General:- have the honor to inform you that from notices received from Jolo, it has come to my knowledge that during your stay there with the steamer "Nemiesi" you legtiatedl a 'commtr erial treaty with the Sultan Mohammed Pulalun; and as I am entirely igiorant of its essential clauses, and as;my Governmnent has for a long time past, and especially of late, been i poession or enjoyment through solemn treaties, the firt made: with the-: Mal chiefs, masters of the coasts of Snilu of the right that our ommerial flag be at least as privileged as any otfer and in view of the indisputable rights which Spain has to the territory in question, rights notrmerely of prescription; I have the honor to request, in view of the clse frien:d,ship which unites our respective Governments and which I honor: mQylf in maintaining, that you have the kindness to give me, officially, kaow edge of the said treaty and a copy thereof in order that I may forwfar it to the most exceilent, the Governor-General of these Philippine Iands, without prejudice to my making before you, if the spirit of ny of these articles so requires, the remonstrances that may be necessar to uphold the rights of Spain. —Receive, Mr. Consul-General, the assuranee -ofmy consideration, etc. C. DE F0IGUEBROA. ' To Sir JAMEs BROOKE, Consul-General of her Britannic Mjesty in Borneo and Governor of Labt-nan./ I M. S. "Nemesis," June 3rd, 1849.-Sir:-I have the honor to reply to your communication of this date; and as the quickest way to furnishl your Excellency with the information desired, I inclose herewith a copy of the agreement recently made with the Government of Sulu. It wo)Ild be unprofitable to discus at this time the rights of Spain to which you make allusion, and the interests of Great Britain, which.are invoilveld, but as the best means of prMesrving the cordial relatieis which should always exist betwen ithe public servants of our respective goverIcnts, I propose to forward our present corrpondence to the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of her Britannic Majesty..NeVertheless, permit me [241]

Page  350 350 3 HISTORY OF SULU to say that my opinion i that the interets of Spa and of Great Britai in these seas should be consmidered entirely harmonious and equally op in:1 and equaell opposed to any system o ppreson or of monpoly. — hav the honor to be, with the greatest consideration, Sir, Your oedient srvant. BwTo ie Corninissnt. rr and Cn hOeneral. ro llis Excelleny C. DE FiouEroA, Governor of Zamboanga. Iler Majety, the Queen of the Unit Kindom of Great Briin and Ireland, desirous of encouraging commee btween her subjets and thlse of the inependent princ in the tert seas and of puting an end to the pirac. whie has up to this time hine red saie e::and his ihne the Sultan Miohamn Pulalun who ocei s thi e throne and governs the terrbtories of Sulu, by like snimen an desirous of coprating in the measur whkh may be for the achievement of the objets mentioned; -have resved to pla on their determination on these points by an eement which contains thes tete ofnagi ~ta tug ajesty the too of thle following arltileS: Article 1..From now on th hI: I ee, J friendship, and good nudeaudi g beitween her Mjt e of Gheat Britain d ieland and his Hlihnes Mob in PlfunSeultan o;f Sulu, and isbetwn their resp tive heins pand 8w, "er ed ton their subje. Article 2. e s of her i nic ajty shall have complete lbety to enter, reside, carry on and with their mericandise t;hrugh sall pars of the dominionsof his Hhny: the Sultan of Sull, and they shall enjo in them fal te pm iv and dvantages with respect to com erce or in connection ith any Other tter whatever which are at this time enjoyed by, or which mn the future y be granted to, the sbjects or citizens of the mi l t favored nation te subjets d his Ihi3ness the Sultan of Sulu shall likewise be fe to enter reside, carry os hbuines, and peswith their nerchdis to all parts of the dominions of her Britannic ajesty, in Europe as wdl as in Asia, as freely as the subjects of the ot favored nati, and they shall enjov in said dominions all the privieges and advt with respect to commerce and in conneetion with her mattrs whicare no enjoyed by, or which in the future may be granted ts, the subjects or citizens of the most favored nation. Article 3. British subjects he permitted to buy, lease, or aquinre i lawful way whalever all kinds of property within the dominions of His Highness the Sultan of Sulu; and his Highness extends, as far as lies within his power, to every British subject who establishe himself his dominios, the oyment of entire and complete protection and security to person and to property-as well any property which in the fture may acquired, as that which has already been acquired prior to the date of is ree Article 4. His Highness the Sultan of Sulu offers to allow the warvessels [2421

Page  351 BROOKE'S TREATY WITH THE SIJLTAN OF SUIJLU 351 of her Britannic Majesty and those of the India Company to enter freely dle ports, rivers, and inlet situated within his dominions and to permit said vessels to supply themselves, at reasonable prices, with the goods and provisions which they may need from time to time. Article 5. If any English vessel should be lost on the coasts of the dominions of his Highness the Sultan of Sulu the latter promises to lend every aid in his power for the recovery and delivery to the owners of everything than can be saved from said vessels; and his Highness also promises to give entire protection to the officers and crew and to every person who may be aboard the shipwrecked vessel, as well as to their property. Article 6. Therefore, her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Sultan of Sului, bind themselves to adopt suh measures as lie within their power to suppress piray within the seas, islands, and rivers under their respective urisdiction or influence, and his Highness the Sultan of Sulu binds himsel not to harbor or prtect an person or vessel engaged in enterprises of a piratical nare. Article 7. Hi's H1ihness the Sultan of Sulu, for the purpose of avoid in the future any roccasion for disagreent, promises to make no cession of territory within his dominions to any other nation nor tosub ect or citizens thereof, nor to acknowl dge vassalage or feudality to any other power without the consent of her Britannic iajesty- Article 8. This treaty must be ratified, and the ratifications will therefor be exchanged in Jolo within two years from date. Home Copy.-Brooke. Approved, etc.-Signed and sealed May 29, 1849. Zanboanga, June 5a 1849.-Mr. Consul-General:-I have received the letter which yon have done me the honor to send under date of the day before yesterday in reply to minen, and I acknowledge receipt of copy of the treaty which you negotiated with his Highness the Sultan of Sulu on the 29th May last. I have no remarks to make, Mr. ConsulGenera with respect to the first six articles of the treaty, for thela they contain are not of such an urgent character that my Government cannot postpone their discussion if it so deems advisable but I might perhaps create in the future serious embarrassment to our respective Governments should I allow Article 7 to pass unnoticed7 It establishes two principles of the most vital importance: (1st) His Highness the Sultan binds himself to recognize the sovereignty of no power without previousl notifying her Brtannic Majesty; and (2nd) to make, likewise, no cession of the least portion of the territory of his dominions to any State, person or corporation. With relation to the first point, and waiving for the moment the question whether, because the Sultan is in possession, with slight exceptions, of the coast of Sul, this island must be regarded as his exclusive dom t, it s my duty, Mr. onsu-General, to intorm you [243]

Page  352 352 THE HISTORY OF SUTILU tlat for a ong tim past the said Sultan f Sulu has admitted and acknowledged himlself to he under tle protection of her Catholic Majesty, recognizing the sovereignty of Spain in a pub1lic way and n offiial doen1mtlents 4 wL icl't hi s Excellency the Governor-General of these Philippine Islanlll will e able to produce at the proper time and place. As regars the stod p 'itt:I fd o. oletiol to to e pledge of his H iness having all the force of free rilit with respect to tose parts of his dominions yI 'ing out'side of- the island of Sul:t, namel1,.te north atn n1orthleat part of Bo1rneo, now 1under the ule the Ul tain; but u nd er no cuirelumstnces withl. respectto the said island of Suu and its neighb)oring islands; for not only ean Spain not recgnize - in ay pwer thle righlt to intervene in the matter vof cedini.B1ge or not ceding the island of Sul: and its surroundint slands, as it is elai i-ed eal be doae according r t) the te rms of Articte 7 of the Treaty; )unt Spain does not recognize this light even in the Sultal and )Datus of StUu, because, as 1 have hIa the honor to inform you, Mr. Coinsu-Genteral, these teitoriese - eo to Spain, by a righ t no presribed, bI a right in no way established by the conquest of tis i archipelago, but "itivel through the wiling su nussoitll of the real natives, th OGimbahans, awho do now, anld who at the end of the 17th centri uIdid, constitute tile most tu er prtion of its population, whoseI opp Iressor v were then and are now the 8ultai and'2 i)atus, lalay-Maussu liians. At this ver t im c tIe chief of the Gimlahans, this:unfortunate anld eLlslvd racc,' cherihe s witit respect: and venerati0on his loving remembrance of 'paiin Jd holds in. his possession tlhe proofs of' whlat f,'ase t. This fact establishetid Mr. Con u I- eneral I ait forcibly' censtlimed: -to lprotet1, hich.l acordi y Y i do,X nst every c lai iouont on the teim softi said:i rti le: of thle treaty referred to of Mayt )th of t he present year, since:it prejudice te ite otestable andi recognizedT igihts of 1th e crown of Spain to the sovereignty of the terrictoy of ite isanl of land s urrunding isl-ads, and tod its sovereignty i - over- the present poof Ohes coasts of tlhis archipelago begging that you wiill kindlyv: acknowledge receipt of this letter in order to cover my responsibility to ly zGovernmnent. eeceive, again, r. C onsull-Gelneal, tie assuranes, etc. *C. nE Fi.lOUEROA. I To Sir Ji;MsE, BR ooKE, ('otsai-( en-Generail fo(r hIri i'itait Mc Aajuesty-. it Borneo and Governuor of Labf tan. H. M. S. "'Nemesis" June 5, 1849.-Sir:-~ have thfe honor to acknowledge receipt of your corlmnnieationi and as the matter in question will probably have to be discussed betweel our respetive Governncnts, I think it better not to take up the objections raiserd )y you in connection [244]

Page  353 BROOKE'SS TREATY WITH THE SULTAN OF SULU 353 witfiT. Article 7 of thie treaty recently negotiated with his Highnes the Sultan of Sulu. I hlave the honor to be, with great consideration, Sir, Your obedient servant. Cormnil ioner and Consul-Ge neral To IHis Excellency, Col. (. tE IFUEslROA, GovernorT of Zanboanga. Mjilitar andl Civil Government, Town of Zamboanga, No. 100, Goverinment Depaiment.-Most Excellent Sir: —On reenbarking at Malhsu, March 31st last, returning from the operations wxhich I had conducted against the same on thatsame day, following instru ons receined from your officee in a communication of the 17th of the said month of May, the result of which I reported to the most Excellent the CaptainGeneral in an o.efil letter of the 2nd instant No. 209, the war veel f the ngli h East Indlia Conypakll the "N'emesis" was sighted and soon afterwards cast anchor in our vicinity. Aboard the vessel WMi Sir James Broke, Consul-General for his country in Borneo and Governor of Labuan; and as a result of a long conference I had with the latter gentleman in regard to recent events in Sulu —hich conference it was agreed to continue in this place inntefdiiately upon ny arrival here-I gave himr successively, the two communications of which I attach copies; with them I send to your Excellency letters dated the 3rd and 5th instant replying toIine in terms that your Excellency will see embodied in the two original letters of corresponding dates, which I likewise enelse herewith, retaining copies of them, as also an authorized eopy of the treaty or agreement of the 29th of last M'i, also enelosed; feeling confident that the indulgence of your Excellency will approve ni action in this delicate matter. May God preserve your Exeelleney many years. ZAMBOANGA, Junef 6th, 149-. CAYETAN.O FIGUEROA. The nost ]Exellent, The GOV'ERNOR AND C(APTAIN-GEN.NERAIl, OF T1: It PH-TILIPPINES. C-pies.-Jose Maria Penaranda: (his flourish). [2451_

Page  354 mw .vw_ mp-g, T, SM Sifpll;kl a 2`5 I - Ml M IN 1, I - M e', 7g` W.M.-M, I, ggm zll_ W_ R, "MR-i Al --- Wo M, t RON MAN M 4m MW N, all via g. Mt Fidelity, z ZION-' 2Z Al.51 M T-Z w.l. X iv, 71,,.,,'__,! wq J. ---

Page  355 APPENDIX XVII COMMUNICATION FROM THE SUPREME GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE, RELATIVE TO THE TREATY OF SIR JAMES BROOKE WITH THE SULTAN OF SULU; AUGUST 16, I8491 OIFICE OF ThIs (APTAIN-GE NEAL AND GoVE NOI O 'T HEP ILIPPINE., To hlls Excellency, The Seeta-ry of State and of the Office o:f Gobernacion of tie Kingdoem, I have the honor to state the following, on tVis date, and under No. 499.: By the communiciations which I hadthe honor to send yor Excellency fronm Zamboanga on 'the 23rd of June and 4th of July last, and that of the General second in command, No. 482, your Excelleny must ha:informed of the treaty which has been made in Joo by the Englishman Sir James Brooke, of the answer of tthe Governor of Zamboanga to the -latter and his negotiation witl the Sultan 4 andDaus to have the treaty left without effect, without obtaining the least satisfaction It will therefore be necesary that the question be settled between the two Cabinets, and I believe that Holland will take ourpart, as she has an illfeeling against England on account of th lattes usrpatio i Borneo, contrary to the spirit of the treaty.of March I,!1824, beweeiwn- t:he two countries, and must fear to see her rich possession su rrounded by those of so powerful a riva.: The communications of her Majesty's Consul in Singapore and his confidential correspondence with the Governor-General of Java, which he has forwarded to th Secretary of State, show thatl the Dutch Government wishes to maintainthe:mos rie y relations:with Spain. Although theEnglish pess ingaporessi oe and Hong-Kong are still speaking of a Pu tbh expedition against Jol, nothing has been done hitherto, and the favorable season for such an expedition has passed. -.. - ' - As the correspondence between Brooke and the Governor of Zamboanga will probably play an important part in the future correspondence with the Britishl Government, I believe it is my duty to submit a few remarks in regard to the action taken by the said Governor. Notwithstanding that the objections, which he submitted to Brooke in reghrd to From the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 355 F [247 I

Page  356 o50 THE HISTORY OF ST)"I'll, Art icle 7 of the treaty, were well founded, lIe ouglt not to have entered uponI such a tiseissioni a:lnd mil less to have )articularized it in such a way: he ouiguit to lave pro)tested ga inst the treaty as a whole, and to have declared. it nIll, t1a Ia consenit et of Spain, ch holds not only a p)rteectrate, blul soreoeighty or doninion over the terr tor IThe S..oni'. defect that I find in the sae letter to Bro oke is hi basing oilur right to the sovereignty over Stl on the '"free sumission of the true. natives of th:e (i imbaliTn r li(e iln the inte rior of the islInd and a(re opresed 'by the Sultan th' ' ult ar't '... r d- l the llatus." AlIthough ther e is some truth in that. statemlent, and we ighlt take advantage of this elment in case of a war with tle Su lt,. I1 elieve tlat it ought not to have been Iitatlde illder] tlihe presenlt ciplnInstanccs. as, oi the s-am principle, we wotuld invalidate the raig;t founded 1) u, on tle different treatles made byv Spain with. the Sulttanand 1Datus of Stilu. Tihe' aekiowledgment made b) the latter of the sovereignty of Spain urin g over two centuries: and mn(,ore espvecially in thle treaties of 1646, 1737 and 1836, by the firs' - of whiri they tht pledge t}lelinselves to pay, as vassals, a tri bute of three boailoadls of r ie, as rec orlded i the Archives, is a p)werful argument in Tfaxor o~, f our rights, which the SIIltan has often confilred in his con-. nItaic'itioins to th:is (0overnilnent and in' the passports whi he gives his isubjets, onl printe.l f rms suppl ied by tmy re(eessor;-1 enclose -ereith a (copy of one of said passports. -lh'e British, who doubhtleBss do:not feel very certain aobot eir rightis, try to excuse thelir conduct througli' the press, eas tshey did when they xcc upied Labuan by force.' Tliie Singapore Free Press of the '6th of July publis.i4ed atn 'article in whichl it alleges, for 'the pur)pse of proving that uli has 11 always'been considered as a sovereign independent p-ower, that we said inotting to England when slhe accepted the cession of the,island of Blaniaabangan, bet ween Borneo nd Pala wan. Even supposing tihe t fact, to be true there would be lotling astonishing about- it, consideri the distress and the lack of means of the Government at that time afte. the war which, buit a few years before, it had mtiracuIloutsly carried on against the Eingtlisl who held Mantla and many other places in the islands, and the work it had to do in order to put down interior rebellions, to reorganize tihe administration and to reestablish normal conditions in tle provinces - hich had been left uncontrolled during four y~ears and lhad suffered tlie con'sequences of circumstances so unfortunate. Furthermore, the cession of Balaibalngan cannot be considered as an act of free will onl t}he part of tlhe Sulus, since they took advantage of the first opportunity to drive the; British off the island, wvhen they ad hardly starte(t to firmly Cstablish their trading psts. The ewspaper also mentions the doctrine of Walter, which says that an agreement similar to that existing between thle Spanish andil Sul Governents does not entirely derogate the sovereignty of the protected state, which can [248

Page  357 BROOKE'S TREATY WITH THE SULTAN OF SULU 357 make treaties and contract alliances, except when it has exprsly renounced its right to dc so; and that if the first stat fails to protect the other, th treaty is invalidated; the author of the article adds that this is our ase, since we allowed the Dutch to attack Slu without 'interfering, or, as far as knowln, requiring a reparation or the ashurance that such an attack would not be renewed. With regard to tihe first point, the reference to Walter is eorrect but Walter adds in the same paragraph that "the protected nation is bound forever by the treaty of protection, so tlhat it can undertake no engagements whilch would )be contrary to said treaty, that is to say, that would violate any of the express conditions of the protec'torate, or be inconsistent with any treaty of the said class:" how then could Article 7 of the treaty made by Brooke be valid, when by sai article the Sultan pledges himrself to recogrniz te sovereignty of no power without the previous consent o f ritannic IMaesty, and not to cede the s lest prt o thle territory of his dolinions to any state person or corporation, said Sultan lhaving already recognized the sovereignty of Spain aid the rights of the latter over tihe greater part of his territorn in which te island dfi Palawani, which was ceded to us in the lat century by the kings of Brunev is inel uded bv mistake. In regard to the second point, the author of the article is also in the wrong: for this Government xwas neither aware of the intentions of the)utch, nor was its assistane requested by the Sultan; anld y our Excellency knows in whlat terms I wrote to the sGovernor-Cxeneral of Java about that Itmatter.-If I have given so many details, d espite their not being new to your Excellenev Jt is because the article of the Singapore Free Press mavy have been inspired by the British Government, and deserves therefore not to be left unnoticed. In the e-ent of which I amrt writing, your Excellenev will see the fuelfilrnent of nmi predictions, and it may perhaps be only the prelude of events of still greater importance. Thus I cannot but earnestly recommend to your Excellency's notice the necessity that thle Governor of the Philippines have very detailed instructions or very ample powers to proceed as regards the Southern regions in accordance with what lie believes best suited to her Majesty's interests and to tlle security of these richll possessions. In this conneetion I take thle liberty of recommending to your Excellency such action as our Sovereign the Queeon may rdeeem most wise on my communication (consult/a) number 359 and others relative to tle same subject. Perhaps, as I mentioned in ly commlun; tion of the 4th of July Ilast, the only advantaPgeous issue for us w'ould be to send a strong expedi tion and to occupy Jolo, our actiron being warranted by the piratical aes conlmitted( by several shmall boats of Bwal, Sulul; the Dutch may [2491

Page  358 358 THE HISTORY OF SJLU avail themselves of the same excuse and send an expedition before us, if, as is possible, other paneos 1 [Moro toats] have gone south for the sa:me purpose; but anyhow the behavior of the Sultan and Datus of Sulu would give us e xellent O reasons0 for taking aetion against them at any time. God keep your Excellencv InYtin years. M. ANJzA, A ugtst 16, 1849. The CoN rT OF MAN'ILA. His Exclic y theci T Y OF STATE A) C OBE IRNA CI6N." 'Vessels up to 80 feet length by 18 or 20 beam, made of wood, bamtbo, niphf and rattan. The Moros arm them by placing at the two sides Zittaka and falconets, mounted on iron swivels, aand at the bow and stern, cannon set in stout peces o timber. The sas are usually of matting lade o sagurm [a kind of palm-leaf, spread] on bambo poles:. (Note in Montero y Vidals Hiistory of th Piracy of the Mohammedan Malays.) f oq- 0

Page  359 ~~~~~~APNIXI IVIII REUAI O N EAIVTO A X S ADIM P O S T S IO NAT~I- I IVE I A N D - I MM IG R N SII U ' II;'"I' ' " -.-~. II4I-:.t._. I ~ ~ ~ I-,~h ehrie,m.teImigrati o n II..."i so I I~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- I. ~ ~t a ~ ~n.I I:... II I m o Is....... I-II1~~~~ —t!...m u ar ud to:::: N_ 1 111~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~!.I;-/;: —I. ~IIII II. o: en g ~ ~ ~ 1 —IIng,~ I: ~.r; r d, Io::o I:':!I;Io:.I IIIII~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~: IIIIIII~. ~..-: ' -. I.. _I es Ii'a:II establ iIh;...IIo I. II.I I I 11 I II.I II~~~~~puos"o ' ~ ' - " III~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~:ajII I e r s I::but shall le exempt from military srvic so long sthey resie the said island. 1 From the Division of Arehives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 2 Sp. Contaduria General, 359 [25 1],

Page  360 360) T3XrHlK HISTORY (F 8ULU rft'lii decrete sllall bhe publishoed in thle Official,Gazette and eomuRlllni- ' catedl to the council of.adminLisrtirn, t fio the fic o he captain-general, atlld tlhe imnsular lepartmlent of civil admillnitistration; andl slhall *be returnled to thle treasury:de)artrmlnt for such further action zas Iy be )row)peri ' MAL, tMAPO., EN E'A L ( OV ENM NT OF T 11t l I I I.l''l. N ES, M ANtILA, AugH t 10 ), 1887. lit view' of the ilnves.ti.atioin ct'nducted 1y the intendant-geeral of the trtleaslry witht thie t(bject of( determining whetlher it wulld be expeiielt to prolong t: t e terlof e xemption frotl all illnd of taxes and inlpl),sts. il favor,of Tnatiives and. of imllnigrants of1 whatever race or natifinallLitvy wo are) etablishede. otr who ll es tablish themselves, in Sulil Tfor 1(l the 'urpose of engagin in any; kind of ilndustrvi eol.mee, J)rt)fcssion, art, or tlradle, orr ill arielttlure': In view of tile repolrts i.suedtl:y thie said direc:-tive bureau of the: trl:easurylW a:nnd tlhe politi:o-mlilita:ry govternor o(:f Sulu. Anltd ctlonsi!itderinl that exeinptionl fronmlt all:biur(enBs constitutes one of 1 tilil l-e most effictac iosus means tf eneoragi.,lng thei mnllligration eldemanded lv the interest of the tarcttipelag: in questionl: this gen l go ver nment, l confortlittY with tse sutgestions miade tb the office of ":thle itfendalnt *o.f thlelt: treaasiury 1W:' atl tie polit;icot mi itary governor of Sitn, dioses tlat tlie termn of exempltio:n granted bty slerior decee of this generl govern 'menll~t of Febru'i arlyv;4tth. 1l8?'7, shall ble lInderstonl' as exrt ndetd or ano.r; trttler ofn ten yeas, tle said nin be reckond front the day follow- ing that on rwhill the first tenl sexpires that is, frot' thee,5t day of Febi)uary of the eurrenl t yeri.: " ar. Trhis dec:ree shall h:)e pii slhed in the. fficial Gazette; the Governii en olf is MaJestyshllall )e 1 inforled tliereof and a eopy of the records tra-istmitted;: it shall be cotmmunicated to the council of administration, the trilbunal of accoulnts, thle ffice of the Captain-General, and the insular department of civil aldniinistrationt; and shall be returned to the office of the intendant ofthe tetreasuryv for any further action that zmay be proper. Ovc or T! G xon-' or TERO. P NE. OFFICE: OF T.e (tOVENO-: NEAL OF THE 'I1 LI PPINES. M L0S1' EXC (',EIl'iN'T ANI ) MOST ILLUISTItIOItS SI: Ilhe politico-military v governolr of Sulu, in a communnicatio(n dated thle 9th instant, states as follows: - - * ' MIOST EXCELL.ENT S1It: As tle time expiration of the exemptions granted to SBuuI arnd its port Iyv d(wree of the general governnment under the able diretn [ ] [2521

Page  361 TAXEI; AMND IMPO(rTS ON IMMJIGSANT of your Excellency, dated February 24th, 1877, and extended by uperior order issued from the same office for anoltle term of ten years, on Augut 23rd, 1887, is drawing near, the person who has the honor to sign hereinder believes that the moment has come to call the attention of your Excellency the matter, and he take the lilwrty to set down some remarks in the premises, o tthe end that when your Excellentc determines what is dteemed nost expedient, they may be taken under advisement. In the exemptions grante d to SulU, it:must e xorne in mind that they affect two distinct elemnents, which constitute the life and favor the development of this locality. Some have reference to the exemption from all taxes, tributes, and gabels ilmpsed, or to be imposed, in favor of natives or foreigners taking up their abode in the Sulu archipelago. Others refer exclusively to the declaralion of a free port, with exemption from all taxes and customs formalities in favor of the capital of the island. In treating this question and in considering what ought to be done in the future, when the moment arrives for determining whether a fresh extension is expedient, or whether, on the contrary, this territory must enter upon the normal administrative life general in other localities of the Philippine Arhipelago, the: subject must be dealt with under the two aspects above set forth. In regard to the declaration of freedom of the port granted to Jolo, it is undoubtedly expedient to continue it for the prsent witot chanprotocol entered into with the other nations who are parties thereto, continues in force in which protocol our incontestable right of sovereignty over this archipelago, with the limitations therein stipulated, is declared-it would be highly impoliteto close the period of franchise granted to this port. Should there be established the embarrassing obstacles and difficulties to commere entailed by the formalities of custolms regulations, the English steamers which now carry on the trade with Singapore, would immediately cease to visit this port and would: make their destination some other port of the island, where, under the provisions of the protocol above referred to, no one could lawfully obstruct them until after the effective occupation of the new port selected for trading operations, and until after having allowed to elapse the requisite time subsequent to' pubisjhing this resolution in the official papers of the Peninsula. The distinguished inteligenee of your Excellency will perceive easily that after this had been repeated several times, we should find ourselves conmpelled either to occupy effectively all.tlhe islands of the Sulu archipelago where English steamers migh attempt to. establish their business, or, in the end, to allow them to carry on theii commercial operations at any place that- suited them, which, without doubt, would be much more prejudicial than what happens at- the present time; for,, at any rate, so long as steamers come exclusively to this port or to that of Siasi, as is the ease at present, the trade can be watched easily and conveniently and without the commercial operations which are carried ohi giving rise to diplomatic questions; it is easy, also to prevent the traffice of arms and war supplies, which would not be the case if they touched at other points where our sphere of action is not so direct and effective. Furthermore, the advantages of the present situation must also be taken into account. So long as these steanmers touch only at Jolo and Siasi, as happens now, these two points are the only markets, whither all the people of the archipelago must necessarily go to trade, not only to supply themselves with the effects which they import and are necessary to life, but also l to sell all the products tey gather in their fields and in the seas, which constitute the element of commnleree that justifies English vessels in visiting these regions, making it possible to olle ufficient i freight to maintin the two regular lines now established. It is obvious that, since we are masters [253]

Page  362 362 of the towns ofj Jolo and Si asith' - onlyporints of- dsthribtion for efft n ary,..to the life- of the- nativres here~we, can, en we consider it expedien prevent the ale- of these' efets to:te villag ostile to the.eity,.t m ost momento advantage resultingtherefrom nd a' means of govern e f insti ma e:val e, long as the: Mor os e to spply themselves from th.ese: mats our importance 1;i incontes ble; l thir outbreuk-s are esily chked without app to /violent m:method.;;nd.:: — n ti- civilizing: effwet which results from. the: co; n nt interou:rse which ist n eee.s i iatd by tleir coig to the irc t upie d po... is: extended, thereby modifying the anguinary and turbulent habits of this race. If- thi-trevenues;from the duties which would be imposed. wre- of suffiient 'ImportanNc-to cwver t:he epenses entailed by the Iocupation- of Situ, the;arigu: supiorting the pinion above expressed could e asily t set- aside. But unfortunatdly there: can ot be expcted from. the cusitom house of Jolo, i the event of its establishimeBt even the expenses necessary to covwr the sala ries of athe persomnel engaged therein. For, r the foreign steamers which now visit this:port would irmmediately disontinue their voyages, and even though it were possible to preverit t.hem from making port at some other place for the purpose of earrying on toheir merantile operatios —a thiing which would not be easy so long a the treaty i in:frcee-what would happen? Why, tlat the trade would b ontinued by means of smaller bats which. would come from Borneo, anld it would notr he feasible to prevent this except by the posting of a very large:numberof coastguards alongt the shores of the:innumierable islands of Sllu, a m:ethd- hic it w uld be altogetheer 'imnpossIl c adto alopt. It,is- thefo, tii naly - Pedient to maintain te preretsn statxust, whether- the:matter be: co:ndered un:der its ecnomicwe aspet or unider.that of the policy it is neeessa-ry todeveo is te-r~ritory. 'A very diffqerent course must, the opinion- of:: the undersig, b folllowed in: the matter of the exemution from taxation: granted tothe inhabitants o{0f Sub. - Th~ese exiss here a numerous Chi nese colony,:wh te elment real ly' enjoys:the bnefit of the advantages flowing:from.the::pent; re port.onditions, and it is 'neiter st nor. vequitable. that whilte h- Chinese.fi sin.us the support' and protection prwhich enable them to carry -on anyd: eop 'the traAe _in which they alone engage;. they should: not contribute.-in atny-.w-ay-tards:the expenses of the Government which furnishes theam somany:advantags. It is,.........therefore, expedient to.' impose: upon all:-Ch-inaman' residging in.the -Sulu iterrito.. the obligation 'to -pay. he same taxes as are paid by-' those of:hesamera in: other 'parts f the-.Phiflippines. The establishment of this: ystem promises not otnly the profit of the sums which would be collected as a consequenee thereof, t: also trhe desideratum:of iroducing orer hnto ie t wanuareiar'l masn ne flife obtaindiang- amorg the Chinee here. h Aslsoon a the obligton to pay taxes is imposed upon all and the lists of tax- ayers are made up, individual iterest will see to it,that al persons lin ithe country are inlded therei; for it is unquestionalble that, since each desires to be placed under the same eonditiodns as the the other, the Chinamen themseves: wllM be of ery great- asistainee in discovering those who now are not ncuded te incomplete and untrustworthy censu^ lists existing in the offies o~ the Government ofe Sulu. 4It is:beIeved, then, that it is expediext and just to disntinue t e franchi now enjoyed by -the Chinese here, and that they shliuld bnegin to contribute at 'onee towards fdefrayingth n of the expei::f tletreasury, paying at st as much ais paid by their countrymen in other parts of the Philippines. It *would appear also equitable that tlhe Indians residing hIere should also begin to pay the du s' of the Personal registration fees. [254]

Page  363 TAXS AND- IMI'OSTS ON IMMIGRANTS class to which they respectively belong; bt there mut be borne in mind the:::i-: limited number of individuals of this race residing here; the expediency of.. encouraging by this means the immigration of fresh residents; 'and, above, all, -- /:the services they render in any case of alarm, whether caused by juramen::ados or by moaggressions attempted against the city; all of which eireumr- - -::! stances make it proper that they should continue enjoying the exemption from the payment of poll-tax which they now enjoy, as also exemption from all the - other taxes upon the insignificant industries from which they'gain aS i 'ubsistence. i. 'lohe treasury could not hope for any ha'ppy results in this' direction; and, on-:/ *::! the other hand, if such a tax were imposed, the place would, in a very short time, be left entirely without any civilian population; for only with difficulty, and thanks to the frainehises, can persons be found who will face the Constant -- danger in which residents in Jolo are placed-especially those who engage in the cultivation of the soil in the outskirts of the town; of which class the eivilian! ' population is, in a very large majority, composed. > It remains, only, most excellent Sir, to discuss the expediency, or otherwise, of establishing taxation upon commerce, industry, and property. All the urban - - property of Jolo is in the hands of the Chinese, with so few exceptions that —; there are not more than three property holders who do not belong to that race.: i In their hands is all the commerce, with the sole exception of two Spanish houses: every thing relating to business is in their power; so that any burden imposed in this direction would not be borne by them, but'twouild be paid by the - the garrison of Jolo. For, united as tjhe Chinamen are in every thig that relates - to the avoidance of tax-paying, _they would come to a perfect understanding tosurtax every thing,-not in the same proportion as the contributions they woY 6uld -.. pay, but with a considerable increase, with the result that the only- tx-payer't-: - l: the treasury and for the Chinaman would be the unfortunate inhabitanof tol. - And since the population here consists almost entirely of tlhe garrison, whih ch renders such arduous services at this place, I believe that it would- not:be just.. '-: to add to the other disadvantages that the service here offers, the very serious. one that would result from the imposition of taxes in this capital. urthermorew '.- - one must not lose sight of what might happen or rather what would immediately happen, when, by taxing the commerce of the city, the majority of the Ohinamen. l now established here would go to Maymbung, with a tendency to store their -.:: merchandise at other important points in the island, in which places our rule is, it may be said, nominal, and it is unnecessary to insist upon the undesirable: i consequences that would follow; for we should return to the condition in which - i Maymbung stood in April of the year 187, when this town was a very important:'.-. center of resistence to our rule, due to tlhe facility afforded in that place for the ^. purchase of unlimited arms and ammunition, a business carried on by fthe foreign:-. - steamers who anchored there at that time. And all this without takIng into account the undesirability, from a political point of view, of affording the Mors,: the opportunity of purchasing their supplies at prices lower than those in this city; since, if the merchants in that town did not pay taxes they would be able,: to sell at lower prices than those in the capital. Summing up what I have stated above and recapitulating the questions herein treated, I will conclude by - submitting to the distinguished intelligence of your Exeelleney that I consider necessary and of the highest political expediency the maintenance of the freedom of the port granted to Jolo; that this franchise should be extended to Siasi,: which enjoys this privilege in fact though not by right; and that care should be taken to prevent the slightest obstacle fromn interfering with the trade at both points, to the end that foreign steamers may, in their own interest, touch only 71296 ---17 [2&55]* 1,a

Page  364 364 THt') HISTORY Ofl SULUI at these two points of the archipelago of Sul;ui tha the Chinamen shuld i formed into guilds or ass:aotiaios, after the pattern of the orglnizatins prevailing in other part;of the: Philippines, thes being ncessary, further, to thle making up of the l1ists of: taxpayers; tha, as aa cnsequence of the formation of these aXsciations, they should i cowpelled- to p taxes t the same xtent as all other China r esidng in the contr, unless yl:r B xcellency is of the opinion tlit the quota should b increasd in consideration of the other advwtages they enjoy; that' there should be imped a tax upon smokers of opiim and upon the imprtation thereof.: This tax would be a source of revenue of:some considteration i i it were farmed as wats the intention four years go, when ale to the: highst bidder was desisted from in view f the decree of franhises which is the subject of this communication. Finally', tht prope0rty, comnere, and industries should not- the taxed, nor should the civilian population be burdened with the poll-tax, since the latter ldeerve consideration by reason of thearduous services they render in this place; and this applies to the garrison, as well as to the civilians who make up lth te towt, who, in the end, wouldl bel the persons who alone would have to bar these butrd(eae. Such, most excellent Sir, is the opinion, expressed as succinctly as possible, of the undersigned in regard to these mnatters, which, at no distant date, will lpresentt themselves for resolution and which your Excelleny will determine with your well-known abiity and good j ud tlent. lWhich Ih aves the. pleasulre to tranlsliit to you r Ilost lllust 'iollsl lxcellencvy, to thle end-tha t you imay take ifote of the part relating to the e,0nmom0ie side of this question. God: preserve your m1st illustrious Exceel 1clen for many years.MANtKILA. l.utidy S3st, 1S9. B.JAN:. CO. To the most excellent anod it ost illustrious thle INTENDANT —GE NERAL OF 'IE TREASURY. OFFICtE OF f liE INTENAXT T-ENERAL OF T-.E rTi - UY DIVxIS~ION OFP D)IECT IMPOSTS. MOST EXCELL N:T AND MOST ILLUSTRIOUS SIi: The just considerations set forth by the politico-military governor of Sulu in a conmmunication addressed to his high Excellency the Governor-General of these islands on July 9th of last ye ar, fo arded to your most illustrious Lrdship on the 31st of the same month and year, reveal a close study of the questions treated, based upon practice and experience. The ehief of thel division of direct imposts, who signs hereunder, in ' presenting the report ordered by your most illustrious Lordship in your decree of the first day of the following August, must begin by expressing at once his confoity with the views given by the governor of Sulim, in the part relating to this division Indoubtedly considerations of the highest political moment led the high authorities of the Archipelago, on August 23rd of 1887, to extend for another term o ten years tlle franchises granted to S ulu. and sinee [25%j

Page  365 TXAXE$ AND IMIPOSTS ON' IMMIG RANT these gconsiderations have not ceas*d to be of moment, to dgfrom th enlightened views expressead by the- said J' poliicmiitary governor, it is to be presumed that i.t isexpedient to grant a fresh concession 0 franchises; but not, at tiis time, for a period of time equaI to that about to expire, Tough for a period that might well be half that ofthe previos term; for, regarding the matter prudently, it m ight happen that during this lapse of time the condiions in der' ussion alter in such a way as to counsel either the total suppession ofthe liberties in question or their partial modification.: But if there are considerations in favor of this new concession, equity counsels that there be excluded therefrom the Chinese in so fr as relates to the imposition of the poll-tax since they eontro all the business and are the only persons who really exploit that region. Consequently, the chief of the division of direct imposts hathe honor. to report to your most illustrious Lordship: 1. That it be recommended to his high Excellency the GovernorGeneral.of these Islands, that, to take the place of the present franehie, there be granted again, at the proper time, to the ports of Jlob and Siasi, the exemption front the payment of all urban and industrial taxes in favor of the natives aud of the Chinese established at those pints. 2. That there be created at once the imposition of the poll-tax' pon the Chinese. 3. That the -natives and the civilian population be exempt from the paynient of pol0-tax. Your most illustrious Lordship will, however, determine whatever he deems most expedient. MANILA, A. ugut 6th, 1897. MARCELINO PACHECO. OFFICE OF TIHE INTENDANT-GENERAL OF THE TREASURY DiVISION OF INDIRECT IMPOSTS MTOST EXCELLENT AND MOST ILLUSTRIOUS Sia: In compliance witf the decree which, under date of August 10 of the current year, your most illustrious Excellency saw fit to issue, to the effect that, in the shortest possible space of time the divisions of imposts should report upon the matters concerning each one in the proceedings set on foot by the politico-military governor of Sulu in regard to the expediency or the inexpediency of the renewal of the exemption from taxation enjoyed by t h at place, I have to state to your illustrious - Excellency that: 1. The undersigned chief, fully agreeing with the enlightened views set fortl by thie governor of Sulu, elieves tlat tHe naintenance of the [2571

Page  366 366O THrrii HISTOlRY OF SULU declaration of freedom of the port granted to Jolo is of the highest political roment and that the frainhise should be extended to Siasi. 2,. That in regard to indirect imposts which are of such a nature that, whible they are a asourceof profit to the state they bring also no small benefit to the tax-payer, these should be made applicable to tJhle Sul: i archipelago, as undoubtedly has been the case, as a matter of fact, up to the present time in rgard to the stamp and lottery revenues. 3. Both for the reasons set forth by the governor of Suln as well as for these given by his predecessor on June 11, 1893, in favor of a tax upoln opiutm smnoker, tlhe undersigned chief believes that it is not only juist but a matter of the greatest necessity to continue the impositilon of this tax. Your most illiustrious Excellency will, however, order whatever he deens most expedient. MANIa, A Septentber 10 th 1.. 3'osSE C GAnGCES DE MARCI.fLA. ()OFFI.E OF IIIE NTENh)ANT-U ENEI Ah, OF TiE Iiti A, TIEASY MIv AILA, )Decermnber 28, 18t97. Lt tlle rexport of the (1Camlber of C(ommerce and of the ad:minitration of (cilustois of Man:lila lie heard, within one and. the same period of five (days. 258] - -Do.: NGUEZ.

Page  367 APPENDIX XIX THE PROTOCOL OF SULU, OF 1877, BETWEEN SPAIN, GERMANY, AND GREAT BRITAIN, MAY -30, 877' GENERAL GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES ROYAL ORDER Colonial office.-No. 281.-Excellent Sir: The Secretary of State sent the following comnmunication to this office on the 26th of March last: By Royal order communicated by the Secretary of State and for such action as is indicated therein I deliver herewith to your Excellency a copy of the protocol signed on the 11th inst. by Sefior Manuel Silvela, Secretary of State, and by the representatives of Great Britain and Germany, for the purpose of establishing the lilerty of trade and commerce in the Salu seas; said protocol takes effect on this date, as specified in Article 5 of the same.-Referred to your Excellency by Royal order with a copy of the protocol, for its execution.-God keep your Excellency many years. MADRID, April 2, 1877. MARTIN DE HERRERA. The GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. MANILA, May SO, 1877. The ab)ove order shall be executed, communicated and published. MORIONES. [Protocol referred to.] The Hon. Austin Henry Layard, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of her Britannic Majesty; and Count Von Hatzfeldt, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of his Majesty the Emperor of Germany, commissioned by their respective Governments to terminate the difficulties which have occurred in the Sulu seas and to establish for that purpose, in a final way, the -liberty of commerce in those seas, acknowledged by the Secretary of State of Spain in the Notes which he sent on April 15, 1876, to the representatives of Great Britain and Germany; 1 rom the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 367 [2591

Page  368 368 THUE UISTOR Y OF SULU After having examined: wih due atention the pre-liminaries of tie question anmd epecpialythe negtiations frme rly carried on betwctn the Govern mn ts of Great Britain antd Germany and that of Spain, have agreed to draw up 'the following Protocol: Thoe Secrett ofState of Spain, in the name of his (over ment, says: Considering the preliminary fact that the German ships "Marie Ikui"se and "Gazelle" were returned and anll inldemnity paid for their cargoes in 1.873 l and 1874, and that the German ship- "W4inna"~' was D.uty appreciaing the inreasig rluirecnlets of navigtion and commere, annd above all e t ehIr statis tconstituted lby the N'Qotes o the Spanish Secretary (fof tate dated the 15thi of April last and by the official publication of said Notes by the Governments of Great Britain and Germany, as also byO the instructios gren ao.rdimglt by said Governments to their onsuls, agents and commande'rs of their nval forces; Trherefore the Goveriellxt of his Aln, y tlie King of Spaie recognizes that the merctnt ships going to the SulNu archipelago cma no lonlger be require to aall e first at Zaboanga, to pay the harbor due there and to plrovide thenselves with a navigation permit defivered at said port. lItfulthermore believes that it must acknowled ge, provided in the Noes of the l15th of Apri las, the complete lierty of direct trasde and com nree f. r shiPps andf subjects of Great Britain:, the Gern Empire and the oi.t e r poxrs, with the Sulu archipelago. ' ' Considering tliat the Governhnts of Great Britain and of Germany ave maintai all their laimr s in rgar to the liberty of navigation, Conre and direct trade with the Sulu acipelago and within the archlipelago; that the Qover nmeIt of his Majesty the K oing of Spain admits thlat it cannot gmarantee tihe security of commerce at iunoccupied places of the arehipelag& in return for duties and dues paid, but will gu arantee perfect security to tohe ships and subjects of Great Britain, Gernn and the other powers at places occupied by said 'Government, and provide the establishments necessary for the proteetio of their trade,r the Spanish Secretary of State remark s that tlere is no reason wlhy saZ-id ship s ands t s oldJ:u e exemptedS at places occupied by Spain, from t.he formalities, general regulations and ordinary duties, whose nature will be explained in the present Protocol. Thle uindersigned representatives of 'Great Britain and of CGerrnany refer, on their part to the Notes and official communications sent bv them on thfis matter to the Spanish {Government, and requsting the latter to acknowledge the absolute liberty of commnnerce and trde in all parts of the Sulu a rchipelago, said aicknowledgment having been tmentioned by tlie Spanish Govevrnment in the Notes of April 15, 1876. [2r;o0

Page  369 PROTOCOL OF SULU OFS 1; 77;...:369/ In consequence of what precedes and as the result of their conferenes, the undersigned have agreed on the following declaratios:' -.: Commerce and direct trading by ships and subjects of Great Britain, /:: i:)i G(ermnany and the other powers are declared to be and shall be absol utefree with the Sulu archipelago and in all parts thereof, as well as the e:-.;'! right of fishery, without prejudice to the rights reogizto Spain by o.- Sa the present Protocol, in conformity with the following declarations ' *. II.;; ''. " E ' '^ '; The Spanish authorities shall no -longer require ships ald subjects of Great Britain, Germnany and the other powers, going freely to the archipelago of Sulu, or from one point to another within the Sublwaters, or from such a point to any other point in the world, to touch, before or, after, at any specified place in the archipelago or elsewhere, to pay anyv;. duties whatsoever, or to get a permit from said authorities, which, on....i-;;L their side, shall refrain from obstructing or interfering in any way with the above mentioned trade.;: It is understood that the Spanish authorities shall in no way and - <-: under no pretense prevent the free importation and exportAtion of all:.:'.:: sorts of goods, without exception, save at such places as are occupied, - and in accordance with Declaration III, and that in all places not oc -.-. cupied effectively by Spain, neither the ships and subjects above men-, tioned nor thleir goods shall be liable to any tax, duty or paymient what-:-. soever, or any sanitary or other regulation. -::;In the places occupied by Spain in the archipelago of Sulu the. SpanishGovernment shall be empowered to establish taxes and saniMty anr d an — other regulations, while id places are effectively occupied; but Spain i pledges herself on her part,. to provide in such places the offces and-' employees necesary to meet the requirements of commerce and the ap- - plication of said regulations. It is however expresly undetod that the Spanish Government, while it is resolved to impoe no estctive - regulations in the pacs cupied by it, pledges itself voluntarily ot to establish in said places taxes or duties exceeding those provided in the Spanish tariffs or in the treaties or conventions bektwten Spain and any other power. Neither shall it put into force in said places exeptional regulations applicable to the commerce and subjects of Great Brnitain Gennaly and the other powers. In case Spain should ocupy effectively oter places in the archipelago of Sulu, and provide thereaat the offlces and 12B1].~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~..-'

Page  370 THE, HISTORY OF SULU I mploTee s necesary to: meet: e requilrment of commerce, the Go v- ernlnent. ofl Great ritin:and Grermrany shal not object to the applica- lition f te les lready; tipulated for 'placese oe eupieel t present. But, in oruer to avoid tlhe possblhity of new claims (le to the uncertainty of bu3siness ens in regard to the fl asllLwhidh are occupied and subject to egrelations and tarifs, the Spanishil Govelrntle sall, whenever a place is occupied in the Shulu archipelago, communicate the fwct to thl~e o vernientsof Gt ariatain n Gen an, and inform commerbce at large by means of a notifiationl whi ich shallb be published in the official journals of Madrid and Manila. In reard to thle tariffs and regulations stipulated for plale which. lare ocupied at the present time, they shall only be appli-cable to the places which may,be subs)equently occupied by Spain six mlonth:s after tlhe date' of publication in the Official Gazette of Madrid. It remain s agtred that no shlip or sulbjlect of (,reat Britain, Germany and othiler pow'ers sh~al4l he required to call at onle of the occupied plces, when ging to lor from a place not occupied by Spain, and that they shall not be iale to suffer riejtdi:e ol, tlhat account or on account of any class of mterlchandise sthipped to an unoccupied place in the archipelago. IV The thlree Governments represented by the undersigned pledge tlheimselves respcctively to publish tite present declarations and to havve them strictly respected by their representatives consular agents and commanders of the naval forces in the seas of the Orient. if the Governments of 'reat Britain and Germny do no re:use their I15~~~~ Ie:rat Britain and Germany do not refuse their -adhesion to the present Prtocol within 15 days from tis date, or i they notify their acceptaence be fore th exp:iration of said period, through deir undersignedR representati, ptre p ernscut Di)c larations shall. then come- into force. MA NUElj SaLVA, Scecretary of State of his Majesty the Kifng of Spain'. )one at Madrid, the llth of March 18. true Facop.-Mt, 18 7.- co.-Tle to:ry, Francisco lniuio. 6 j 2:1 |

Page  371 APPENDIX XX THE PROTOCOL OF SULU OF I885, BETWEEN SPAIN, GERMANY, AND GREAT BRITAIN, MARCH 7, 18851 GENE/RAL GOVERNMENT OF THE PlHILIPPINES: ROYAL ORDER:. ' Foreign Office.-No. 312.-Excellent Sir: The Secretary of State sends me the following communication on March 29th, 1885:-Excellet Sir: I have the honor to forward youa a translated copy of the prooo between Spain, Germany and Great Britain, the latter two nations recognizing the sovereignty of the first over the archipelago of Suml, signed in Madrid on the 7th of March, 1885.-I send you this commniecation by Royal order, and enclose a cop of the treaty referred to. God keep your Excellency many yars. adrid,April 8, 1885.-Tejada. Manila, June 17, 1885.-To be xecuted ad published in te fii Gazette. -.. *.a: 10 \:;' sa;y:t: '::::B; A seal which says: Office of the Minister of State.-ran The undersigned, his Esel.lency Senor sJo E duayen,:rqis de Ia Merced, Minister of State of his Majesty theKing o f Spain;His: Excellency Sefor Cout Solms Sonnerwad1, En:t E tr ry and Minister Plenipotentiary of his Majesty the Emperor ofGerany, and His Excellency Sir Robert B.- D. Morier, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of:her Briaty, authrz fo to carry on the negotiations followed inLodon an lin ngthe years1881 and 188182by the representatives of hisM t e Kin of Spain with the Government of Geat Britind a I Ge;rmn, f thei purpose of obtaining from these two powers the solemn recognition of the sovereignty of Span over the archipelago of Sulu, have agreed on the following articles: The Governments of Germany and G nd G Britin recognize the sovereignty of Spain over the part which are effectively occupied as well as over those which are not yet occupied, of the arhipelago of Sulu, whose limits are stablished in Artie-e II. * irom tihe Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 871 [263]

Page  372 372 THE IHISTORY OF SULU As expresed in Article I of the treaty signed on September 23, 1836, between the Spanish Government and the Sultan of Sulti, the arhipelgo of TSu include all the islands between the wern extremit of the island of Mi indanao on one side and the -mainland. of Borneo and the island of Palawan (on the other, except those mentioned in Article 11. It: is undterstood that the islands of Balabak and Kagayan Slu t1 Ielong to the arelhipelago. III ' hne Spanish Go.vernmenlt renounces, as far as regards the British Government, all cliams of sove(reignty overE the territories of the mainland of Bornleo whiclh belong (r 1:ay have belonged to tl Sultan of Sulu, including the neighboring islands of Balambangan, Banguey, Malawati, and all those cotliprised witlhin a zone of three maritime league frolrn the e-oast, atd whic h are part of the territories administered by the (coIpany lknown as "Thle British North Borneo Comnlpany. IV The Spanisil Go veminent pledges itself to carry out in the archipelago of Sulti the stipulations contained in Articles I, II, and IIt of the protocol signed in Madrid on March 11, I877, viz.: (1) -Commieree and direct trading by ships and subjects of Great Britain, Gleran an d the other powers are decared to be and shall be absolutely free with the archipelago of Sulu and in all parts thereof, as well as the right of fishery, without prejudiee to the righlts recognized to Spain by the present Protocol, in confornity with the following declarations: (2) The Spanish authorities shall no longer require sips and subjeets of Great Britain, Gennanyv and the other powers going freely to the archipelago of Sulu, or fron one point to another point ill the world, touch, hbefore or after, at any spfied place in the archipelago or elsewhere, to pay duties whatsoever, or to get a permit frosm said authorities, who, on thleir side, shall refrain fron obstructing or interfering in anm way with the above mentioned trade. It is understood that tle Spanish authorities shall ini no way and under no pretense prevent the free importation and exportation of all sorts of goods, withont exception, save at such places as are occupied, and -in accordance with- Declaration 3, and that in all places not occupiedt effectively by Spain, neither the ships and subjects above mentionedt nor their goods shall be subject to any tax, duty or payment whatsoever, or any sanitary or other regulation. (3) In the places ccupied by Spain in the archipelago of Sulu, the Spanish Government shall be em powered to establish taxes and sanitary and other regulations, while said places are e ffectively occupiedp; b ut S aie- b rp d l h f n h r pa r: I

Page  373 toprovide in sch pces e ofies ad empoyees neery to meet requirements of cmmerce and the apliication of said regulations. It is however expressly understo ta the Spanis. Gove nt, w is: m+ resolv:d t mpose no restrictive regulao:m in the plac it, pledges its voluntrilnot:to establish in said places taxes or duti. exceeding those provdi inthe Spaish tariffs or t in the treaties or conventions between Spain and any other power. Nither shall it put into force in id places excepttonal regulations applicable to the commerce and subjects of Great Britain, Ger any nd thb other poiwe. In case Spain should occupy effectively other plaes in the arhipelago of S0:u ad provide thereat the offi-es and employees necessary to meet the requir ments of dcommerc the Governments of Great Britain and Gemany shall nlot objet to the applcation of the rues alre:ady stipulat for ples cupid at present. But in order to avoid the possibility of new claims due to the uncertainty of busines meni in rgard to the plaes which are oceupid ad subject to regulations and tariffs, the Spanish Government shall whenever a place is cupied in te Sulu archipelago, comm icate the fact to the Governm ents of Great Britain and Gerany, and inform commerce at large by means oi0 anotification whichshall be publihed i in the Offieial aze f Madrid d: ard o ta Treglations stipat of h e pl ae w4edh e ouitel at th antdfe, ther shall onlry e applio cabl re t anh-e pacswiach w mhayt be dubqently a tplei by SpaiEL six monthis af.^ r the dateof; publicati;on in theOffic:; ialI Gaz^ t he ofr drd It remats agre tht noe shior su ject of Grne Bartaini termny an the ohb eerpoers sfhall reaquire toi cllatonera of h otcufpie tplei whe igo io n ptoe orcomiing aiae ots ocopiedm tby Sai, or if they shillf nti be aeto sbre pexudic on f 'aidat peic r on account o any css of.mer ie addssedo a uid pe in the archipelago. -: there is entire:freedom of commere ana n a ithoutndisinction of ag, in th territryf North Bioreoadministeredbyithe"British North Borneo Company."':':'>-;-:-'V.X:0; — 0 —00- — V-:-:;-:s 00:;:;0g-:c|; —00; their adheion to the preent protcolwithin fifteen days from this date or iaf they notify their acceptance before the expiration of id: priod through their undersigned representatives, the present declartins shall then ome into force. Done at Madrid hd e 7th of March, 1885.-Seal (Signed) J. Elduayen. —Seal.-(Signed) C(. Solms.-Sei.-(Signed) R,. B. D. Morier. C265]

Page  374 mw .vw_ mp-g, T, SM Sifpll;kl a 2`5 I - Ml M IN 1, I - M e', 7g` W.M.-M, I, ggm zll_ W_ R, "MR-i Al --- Wo M, t RON MAN M 4m MW N, all via g. Mt Fidelity, z ZION-' 2Z Al.51 M T-Z w.l. X iv, 71,,.,,'__,! wq J. ---

Page  375 APPENDIX XXI DECREE OF THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT IN REGARD TO PAYMENT OF TRIBUTE BY SULUS, MARCH i, i894' OFFIce oF THE GOVERINORI-(ENERAL OF THE PHILIPPINS, MANrILA, Marc h 1 1894. In view of the obligation incurred by tfhe Sultan of Sulu by virtue of which the Moros of all the Sulu archlpelago have to pay from the first day of January of next year, one real each, as a tribute of vassage; and since it is necessaiy to organize this service in a regular manner and in harmony with the customs of the races living there, I decre the following:. 1. The Sultan of Sulu shall direct at once all the Datus and Chiefs of the MNoro rancheriam.s to make up lists of the names of the inhabitants composing each aggregation, giving therein, besides the names, the status of each individual. 2. These partial lists shall be fused in one single general census which the Sultan of Sulu shall deliver to the politico-military governor of that archipelago before October 1, of the current year. 3. The interpreters of Joo, Siasi, Tata'an, and Bangao shall assist the Sultan in the work of making up these lists and shall translate them into Spanish; and for this extra work they shall receive the allowances designated below, the amounts being deducted from the total proceeds of the liege-money above referred to. Afoowances To the interpreter of Jolo..................... P2........0 per month. To the junior linguist of Jolo................................6 Do. To the interpreter of Siasi... —............... " 8 Do. To the interpreter of Tata'an... ........ -.. " 8 Do. To the interpreter of Bangao........8.............' 8 Do. 4. As soon as the lists are completed and have been examined by the politico-military governor of Sulu, certified copies shall be sent to this office. 1 rom the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau Manila. 2 Settlemeants., 375 [2673

Page  376 of:; hid nn0a 0.,- U r:X e colaction ti trli:bute:shal he mad;e by ia o ertain, / G. ^e-d ^'dpyoeis^^1: a-liag'. 7 7 Pan in; fspecie at tho' ofthe po.ltco;miltry governo of Su.0 go: Ti. Theo ta tpdsfote id tribu,aftrdd Un t ieamot tof the0 0iealloaes t 0theintters hal k 1ev tea for the preent cot te le mo fr;o:o:: ads&.d of^;'!::^;: cTo b ommtIunicated 0 -1: —.,.:::;:;.; f.: -;..:0..:;:::l i; - X ^.: 0; ^;- ^ ' ^1::'*;:-,^ ^ ^'''*LA CO 91W ~ ~ [48

Page  377 APPENDIX XXII ROYAL COMMUNICATION RELATIVE TO THE RIGHTS OF FOREIGNERS ON THE PEARL FISHERIES OF SULU1 LMANILA, PDecember 25, 1895. EHis high Etxceflelen te, M INirsER F COLfoNIeA A FF AIRS. ~Exc vlti4rT S-I: In eompliance with the Royal order communicated under date of the t3rd of October last I haTe tylhe honor to $send to your * - Excelltcwy a copy of the previous record of i nvestgatons tr.nsmitted by the ofice of this Generl venment togeher with the report of the -i offie of the secretar the remittance of which our Exce11ncy requs:ts. The inquirny formula tby the politico-military governor of Sulu, arising out of a rioluticn of the fiery board of te n aval station relative to the order prohibiting foreign subjects from engaging in the pearl fisheries in the waters of the Sulu archipelago, did not call for a. - speedy resolutimon nor a close study, it being sufficient to bring the matter ' to the knowledge of your Excellency without entering deeply i to the::: question involved, in order not to prejudice the resolution of tlhe same,:; leaving to the supreme judgment of his Maestv's Government the entire appreciation of its reach and co nsequences, as the only authority acquainted with the demands of our international relations and the influence thereon of a decision in regard to a matter of such recognize importance as is that of the interpretation to be given to )eclaration I the Suin. Protocol of lay 11th of 1877 contained in Article IV of the Protocol.*: between Spain, Germany, and Great Britain, siged in rid on Mar: 7th, 1885:-hence the brevity of the data contained in the communica- tions above referred to and even the forbearance of this office from e pressing a concrete opinion (in any case, not called for) in regard to a question as vital as it is complex. But cirumstanes, which are:: alvways superior to every will and every calculation, now make prompt: action necessary, and not onrly forbid any delay, but impose upon this (enelral Government the duty of enitting an opinion which sall conm)pement the data furnished by the office of the secretay of the sa e, which data were less extensive and explicit than the would certani l lhave heen had not a respect. for the free initiative of the Supreme Govern meant acted as a restraineing influence. The incident arising out of the presence in the city of Jolo of the British subject Mr. H. W. Dalton, ' From the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 377 [260 1

Page  378 378 THE HISTORY IW USLU from Sandakan, awaiting the arrival of, a fleet of b of light torna g belonging to the English concern, The Pearling and Trading Co. Ltd,/ of which he is the reprtesentative for the purpoe of using the same in the mother-of-pearl shll fishery, which fact I communicated to your Excellenev by cablegram on the 3rd of the current month, makes more urgent the sovereign deci'sion in ar d to the concrete point as to whethdr foreign subjects are allowed to engage in the pearl fishery in the archipelago of Sulu. In the judgment of this office (2which has, on various occasions, inspired only by a regard for the obesst interests of the nation, expressed the opinion that the Sulut Protocol is too prejutdicial to the said interests to per'rit of the points of doubtful interpretation in the same being interpretedt liberally), the point in regard to the right of fishery which foreigners lay claim to exercise freely in waters under the jurisdiction of our sovereignt.- is not a doubtful one at all, but is entirely contrary to their uretensions. The claims are founded, according to the statements of those who agree with the views which they involve, in Declaration I of the said Protocol of 1877, reproduced in the Protocol of 1885 and in tliat signed in Rome in the same year, relating to the Caroline and Pelew Arcliipelagoes. 'jljtis declaration runs as follows-ratified by Article IV of the second of lthesei in portant diplomatic documents: The direct commerce and trade of boats and subjects of Great Britain, of Gertmany, and of the other powers, is declared, and shall Ie, absolutely free in the archipelago of Sulu and in all its parts,. as also the right of fishery, without prejudice to the rights recognized as belonging to Spain in the present Protocol, in conformity with the following declarations * III. At points occupied by Spain in the archipelago of Sulu, the Spanish Government may establish imposts and sanitary and other regulations of whatever kind, during the effective occupation of the said points * * From the transcript it is evident that Spain may regulate the exercise of the right of traffic and commerce, not with the purpose of restricting, and much less of denying, the principle of commercial liberty recognized in Declaration I, but with that of conditioning the exercise of that right in such a way that her own rights as a sovereign nation shall not be infringed. And what she may do in regard to mercantile trade, with greater reason she may and should do in everything referring to the right of fishery, a right which is declared only in general tennrms, and one of which the protocol does not treat except in making the affirmation of the principle itself, whereas in regard to commerce, it descends to minute details. And this could not be otherwise, for anything else would be equivalent to impairing the sovereignty of Spain; and this, in an agreement in wvlic ih this sovereignty is openly recognized and proclaiimed, would preThe Gearling & Tradin (sic.). [2701

Page  379 RELATIVE To TtlE: It WI! 0F to-LNV upp a contriction w: palpable and absurd that it is not worth while suppo~ a contra an so eveinx to di. uss it. Spain, as a sovereign and indelpendent state, holds and exercisces her sovereignty not only in her terriori and on the coasts of the sar, but in her jurisdictional waters, aind can, therefore, reglate te exeise therein of l any right granted to foreign s bjects, and nmay, r in the exercise of her sovereignty, prohibit the enjoyent of such right altogether; this is an indisputable principle of internatioal lawN though there is nothing to prevent a state from liiting the same in favor of another or other states; but t 'is a s-ne qua non condition to this that there shall be an express and clear declaration of her will on this point, and no one can reasonably affirm that Spain has made in the Sulu Protocols, neither in that of 1877, nor in that of 1885, a total or partial surrender of this right in regard to that of fishery; there is, it is true, a declaration in general terr-s that the fisheries are absolutely free in the archipelago of Stul; but this absolutenes of the principle is immlediately qualified by the condition that it shall be without prejudice to the rights recogned as belongfring to Spain in the protocol, and it has alrealdy been pointed out that one of these rights-the principal one and thiat which contains all the otllers, the right of sovereignty- is proclaimed and rcognized at ithe he ad of the agreement. Outside tis declaration in general terms, there will not be found in all the protocol a provision or regulation referring to thle exercise of the right of fishery and much less a coerete and express declaration on the part of Spain that she will pemait the exercise thereof freely on her coasts and in her territorial waters. To permit of this a cncorete, clear, and definite declaration would be necessary, such as is to be found in the Morocco Treaty, signed on November 30, 1861, Article 57 of which establishes qualifiedly "That Spanish subjects shall have a right to fish along the coasts of the Moroccan 3Empire;" and even so, in Article 60 of the same treaty, it is stipulated that, inr order to facilitate the coral fishery, in whichl the Spaniards engage on-the coast of Morocco, fishers shall pay the sum of 150 Spanish dollars for each coral fishing boat, and that through the representative of Spain they shall request permission from the mintaTer of foreign affairs. of His Majesty the Sultan who shall issue the necessary authorization. From which it may be seen that even in the case of declarations in regard to the right of fishery which are concrete, clear and definite, there is needed, for the free exercise of the same. something more than a declaration in general terms, such as is that contained in the Sulu Protocol of 1877. Furthermore, it is always customary in international agreements which refer to fishery rights to lay down regulations and provisions which shall regulate the exercise of such rights, as is proved by a multitude of agreemeniets, anmong which are: that already cited of Morocco, that of February 71296 —1S [271]

Page  380 380 THE HITOfY SOF SULU 18th, 1886, betwn Spain and Francer i thefishery and naviga tion of the JBida oa, ill whihicng tihe rgt f.Otfishg. estrictd, its absolute prohibition einig made psible; as also that of 1889 atifing the pPreceding one, the Portu "guse convention of Mare, 27th of 1893 a d: the coast police and fisery regulations; as wll as thiat of August 22ild of 1894, in regard to the fisieries in the wates of the Algarr of, etc.: all of which is well known by the illustrious Governmentt of His Majesty, and attention is called to it here only in support of the opinion maintained, namely, that tile right to aut}orize, condition, restrict, and even prohibit the engagenent in fishery on its coast and in its jurisdictional watters is inherent in the sovereigntv of an independent state; and i it has this right in regard to fishelies in general, with greater reaso ust it preserve and exercise the saine in regard to oyster fisheries, by reason of the changes which iavy be plroued in the sea bed, and even for the purpose of preserving the breeding ground(s of tlhe precious pearl-shell tnollusk, the Aviculea Maregaritifera, tle banks being the property of the nation, and like all its territory, inalienable and non-prescripti ble; both so tfhat they sliall not be exshausited and tOhat thleir exploitation may be reserved for the national industry. ]From the preceditng, written with lesos det4til than would have been the ease had the pressure of time permitted, it may easily be inferred that, in tlie opinioin of this General Government, Spain in spite of Declaration I of the Sulu Protocol-perhaps it would be more correct to say, by virtue of that very declaration, tihe terms of which really determine the mneaning of Declaration iII and Article I of the Treatypreserves intact her right as a sovereign nation to restrict, condition, and even prohibit engagement in the oyster fishery on her coasts and in her jurisdictional waters, without further limitations than those which she may deem expedient to self-impose. Admitting her rights as a sovereign state, there arises a question of a political nature, which the circumstances above indicated convert into a problem demanding an early resolution. To what extent should Spain exercise this right? On this point, the views of the General Government will be expressed as concisely as possible and with thq soberness demanded both by the respect due to the hig preroati of the poiblic authorities and y an ignorance of many of the elements which enter into the question, witlhout a knowledge of which it is difficult to determine to what extent it is expedient to restrict the exercise of the right to engage in the oyster fisheries which foreign subjects claim to exercise freely in the Sulu archipelago, a pretension which tlis General Government regards as entirely opposed to the rights of Spain and her moral, and material interests in the Far East. Our prestige with the Malay races here, our noral influence over these seni-civ ilized Mohamledan people, who rec[272]

Page  381 REiLAIVE TO, TIE RIGUB T OF lOEI(*MNEUS oguize no right or supremacy but that of might, demand that Spain, as a colonizing ' ~..~. -n.* as a c~lonizing nat:ton, shall maintain the integrity of her sovereignty anXd shall xot seemm to be Isubjiugated to the will of other Powers, as would appear if, in er terriories and om her asts with tIiknowledge and vpermission of her autoritties and of her war ship, and withouteven heedi ng theml, foreignea should perform.a cts whiieh,'ke that of gang iI the mother-of-pearl fishery, beiagcontrary to, our m-atial interest, eannot be, c arri out without paying tribute to the Mro sultans and ehieftains themselves. '*. a -;. There is no doubt that the need for presrrving eordial relation' with (Germainy and England and for maintaiinig the most perfect understatnding bet:ween the European owers in mticipation of some o rt action in regard to the Enpires of China and of Japan, whi h will lli.er e,,essar inL th e future tie expansive jHlicy of the iatt r towarIs tile southl, as well as the hegemlony claimed by the latr in th Orien, cou tse circu spe)et "nternational,o'ticy an d a t0erate exerc' of our sovereign rights in the arichipelago of Sul; and for this r&u; pellrhaps it would be inexp)edient to forbtid the r'igt of fisiery to frd giI sbjecuts, as wsudh action old w certainly give rise to diplomatic questi ons and remonstrances, whichl should be avwoided at any cost; hut this General (hxovernment (leems it indispensable to conditiol an rnulate the exerci',, of this fishery right, ecially in so far as it relates:to the pearl-producing oyster, the exploitation of which should be governed by considerations of our prestige and of the advantage and benefit of our material interests. Supported therefore by our right of sovereignty, by international practice, and by tlie terms of Declarations I and '!II of, the Protocol of 1877 and. of Articles I and IV of that of 1885, there should be issued certain coast police and fishery regulations for the Sulu archipelago, laying down elearly the relations whiceh are to exist between the Spanish (overnment and foreign subjects engaging in the fishery industries along our coasts and in our jurisdictional waters; which industries should, not be engaged in, especially in the case of the oyster, withoutt the necessary authorization of the Spanish autorities, and after the payment of the corresponding industrial. patent or license, or of the dues which it may be deemed expedient to exact. Much more might be said in regard to this important question, as unexpectedly presented as it is.urgent of resolution, giv tle conditions created by the claimn of the British subject Ir. II. W. Dalton and this General Government appreciates fully the deficiency of its suggestions, which will be advantageously supplemented 1)y the great wisdom of -his Majestv's (Government, its exalted patriotism, and the solicitous care that it gives to everything touching the tigh interests of the nation, by which elevated sentiments they are inspired' [273]

Page  382 w 0 00 M 09 w IR M w 4t 11 m z;;471

Page  383 APPENDIX XXIII ROYAL DIRECTIONS RELATIVE TO THE TREATMENT OF FOREIGNERS ENGAGED IN PEARL FISHING IN THE SULU WATERS, MARCH 23, I 961 COIxNIAL OFFIC EXCELEi.NT SIR: Examined by.this office of the government the papers transmitted by your Excellency wvith the official conmunication No. 1967^ of Septembe 16th l ast, in the question raid by the politicomilitary gouveror of Sulu, by reaon of a communication addresd t the stine by the office of the commander-general of the naval station at Manila, directing the prohibition of the mother-of-pear-fishery in the waters of Sulu and the Carolines; sudied so te eprt ofth e Government, and that of the council of adliTistation of the Philippines, and heard als the illustrious opinion of the Department of State, to secure which the papers were sent there, accompanied by the Royal order of the 7th of January last; bearing in mind tha our presig among the natives in those islands would perforce suffer seriously if foreigners were to perform, without any intervention on the part of our authorities acts, wil, lik e that of tengaginIg in the motherof-pearl shell fishery, they cannot carly on without paying tribute to the' Moro Sultans and chieftains; though it is not less true that the- absolute prohibition of the right of fishery to foreigners would arouse, as, wsely foreseen by your Excellency, diplomatic remonstrances based upon the Protocol of Sulu of March 7th, 1886; his Majesty the King (whom God protect), the Queen Regent of' the Kingdom acting in his name, has seen fit to direct that your xcelleney be informed that he has seen with pleasure tact and prudence with' which this question has been dealt with, in the first place by your Excellency and afterwards by all theI authorities who have intervened in the same; that so long as the representative of the English Pearling and Trading Company, the. captains of their boats, or other foreigners, do not uge with imporunit the right to carry on the industry of the mother-of-pearl hell fishery within the zone of jurisdlictional waters and at occupied places, an t From the Division of Archives, Executive Bureau, Manila. 383 [Z,'o]Y

Page  384 e, deasor must ben made to vent their doing so, in orer, if p ihie, b et a rp ent; favorabe to our i;nterests;and tht in te event of r insistin, itE will: be ne.essary^ to pwltte onag Eth:industry o(f the inmothler-ottpearl f ishr w with thes obliaion to submit 0in0 s to the rules and regitdio h o w iin force oor which may be put into force hereafter. It-i also: the wish: of-'hi s Maje t thati Iour E Jxc llencyy b appriHsed. of the expediency of formulating, with:. lthe: greatest poasible despatch, coast police and fishery regulations for thearchipe ags of SuTlit and t.he Carohlu.es: in which regulations care mIust be. taken i:t t-o make: special mentio of the Protocols, nor to recognize expressly the rights of foreigners, and, on the other hand, not to depart dep from the trmns of the provisions of these international agreements, so tlhat inl tie event of any foreigners claiming the right in question, they shlall not be above referred to.::::;;;,:*; -::: ---: ' — 0f - X-:-\:.; re t:;0 t Bli Itoa el ode r I (c nieatte e the to vx afon:ef.r p roe tiElon God p raotct ur i tExcellleney wtln t Iyearset ':... MmADmn, wutrcih Pro,, 189G.:1 ';^'; 'W' ': ',:L0rds '.fcor t ~ 0 1 0 0~ /~ ':: ' \^;/; T ( OMAs/ A T lff iA;l: l. 4 T sLA rut ri - t. ri o the n fnhorable;;; t VEVRPNOI (U LENTBIIAL OF TitPIIIITPlI JNFeS b Ms 1276]

Page  385 APPENDIX XXIV LA TORRE'S VIEWS ON THE POLICY THAT SHOULD BE ADOPTED IN MINDANAO AND SULU, JANUARY 11, 1893' OnFICE OP T'E (OvERNOR-GEBNERAIL OF THE PIILIPPINES A seal with the inscription: "Office of the Captain-General of ile Phiilippines. Headquarters:." ExiELLEN T SIR: At all times tle condition of the uniubduet regions of thi,. island. of Aindanao and, in general, of the whole archipelago, has ocumpied the close atention of the Goveors-Gener of;these Islands, uand they have studied, according to their resptive views, the best mletlhot for' the emplete subjection of the same. Fo>r my part, I have mleditated d tply upon every thing relatng to this important matter, and judging both from past expeiene and from observations that I have been able to make personally, as I pprised your tExcel leny after my return from visit to the aforementione island on 1Ma)y 29th last, I believe it is evident lthat the adeption f the same systvtsr for the subjection of different races wi13 not be roductive of good results. In the island of Luzon, a properly understod policy ofconeili;ation, accomaLnied by slight displa 's of foree, wil be successful in eoneiliating and subduing tihe people sooner or later; for it may be observed at once that here there does not exist thmt gre racial antagonism x which nearly always makes compromise impossible. Suh a pol.icy, linked with prtldenee and particularly with justice on. the ptrt of the delegates of authority, will always be productve of great results aside from the fact that there are here many vilags whose inhabitants ar. not warlike, -but, on the contrary, are docile, and awai only some s 'ght indication on our part to regard us as protectors and allies ainst their enemies. Much has already been d(one in tthis direction, as is shown by the many pclitico-military provinces existing in this island; buat we should not stop in this island of progres; and in order to carry forrd and consummate the complete subjugation of the extensive disticts not yet sbhdred, troops must be detailed,-not in very large numbers, but still in From the Division of Archves, Executive Bureau, Manila. 385 [277 1 0

Page  386 386 THE HISTORY OFP SULU numbers sufficiently ltarge to affect appreciably the service, equally necessary in. otheer regions of the archipelago. Tllis is one of fte reasons whichl make requisite an increase in the army force stationed here; furthler, if the nuanber of the comandh' l ts is to be increased, it is obvious ft at, in order to garrison then, nore troops are needed. I have pointed out the need there is for emrploying different methods for the subjection of the different races; and in fact, in regard to the races inhabiting Mindatao, I believe that it is obvious and unquestionable that favorable results will never be secured without employing mtethods other than those of attraction. flhe Moro rae is cfaomlpletely antithleti to the Spantish, whether the i latter be penitnsular or indigenouats, and will ever be outr eternal enemy. T'Ithe past proves clearlly th at those ostensible and ephemlera l subnbis- Minlaso a )parently guaranteed by otthsl and agreements, do.not bind the Moraes in the slightest degree; for, knowi n n otbirl of the first prin- cs iples of gorod-faith artln loyaltvy they do not hesitate to break their promlises wlenever a favorable opportunity offers and tlcy think it possible to defteat o11r troops. rliley miake a pretense of bering trlstingr and attentive evein to our sIallest suggestio, bult they are always wattching for a g(xood chance to open up hosititities, and will resort to treason and cunning. Fior these reasons it is well that theate sthould know that we are the stronger; that our frienidsip suits t1heir interests because we are backed by force-which is the only argument thiev can understand; that their friendship is of no muei, tlllt to us; alndr a e inln tht th in nt h antagonize us. they will be proptly anll sevee sver nished. Having taken up tis l)int f view, tie i t he litat we shcould adopt may be inferred. It is not necessary to undertake operationls on a large scale, or to oC)en iwhlat mighlt be ternmed a regular compaign, as has been done everv two or three years in the past; but, with our troops established at a number of fortified places, it may be seen at once from what has been said above, that we ought to maintain them there at any cost, and that, abandoning 1ian attitude entirely passive, we should advance little by little in our onquest, alwvays establishing ourselves firmly on the territory conquered. In this wav we shall, step by step, bring under our dominion a large area of territory, at the same time extending our sphere of influence towards the interior. Given the conditions above described, it will be understood at once how much we should lose in importance in the eyes of such an enemy if, in response to their frequent attacks, we confined ourselves entirely to a defensive policy, for they would interpret suchlan attitude as an indication of weakness; consequently it is impos 'A term used by the Spaniards to designate certain governmental districts in the Philippines. C[2781 U I

Page  387 POIJCY IN MINDANAO sible for us to maintain an attitdeof inactivity rather, taking avan tage of the treacherous conduct of the enemy, we should eastiga them by means of rapid and unexpected excuions lasting a few days, and for this purpose it is indispensable that small columns of troops be sttioned at two or- three well chosen points. That the Moros are not disposed to be our friends is evident: and while frequent examples in the, history of these islands, in addition to what has been said above, are sufficient to prove this assertion, it is further corroborated by the many despatches I have addressed to your Excellency, apprising you of the attacks made by the Moros upon our troops and especially of the incidents which have taken place during the last months of the year 1892. These I will recapitulate succinctly, as they show that, far from breaking the rebels, the events have only increased their strength. On the morning of October 28th, while a reconnaissance was being made at the post of Baras, the detachnwent making the same was attacked by some fifty or sixty Moros, who were awaiting them in ambush. The latter were, however, repulsed, and ou troops being reforced by a detachment from the fort, the enemy fled, leaving five dead on the field, besides two spears, three krises, three kampilan, and two daggers, the losses on our side being one dead and five wounded. On the morning of November 9th, again at the time of making a reconnaissance at the post of Malabang, our men were attacked by some sixty Moros, who, being repulsed, fled, leaving six dead on the fieldthree others dying later, according to reports receivxd-besides four kampila-n, three krises, one tabas, one lance, and four daggers; the losses of our side being one soldier killed and six wounded. These two posts being afterwards visited by the -military wommander of Ilana Bay and the politico-military governor of Mindanao, by reason of reports having been received. that some thousand Moros had banded together for the purpose of attacking these two places they informed me that excellent discipline prevailed among the troops of the said garrisons, and that the Moros must have beaten a retreat, since they had not been seen in that country. On my part I have directed that the greatest possible vigilance, care, and watchfulness be exercised at all the posts, never losing sight of the fact that they are always in the presence of the enemy, as is proved by the frequency with which they Fave been attacked. I have ordered, further, that, when making reconnaissances or upon any other occasion when it is necessary to separate a detachment from the main body, the greatest number of soldiers that the circumstances permit be emnployed, so as to prevent a surprise or ambuscade, which aside fromn the direct loss that it entails, might have the effect of demoralizing the troops, and [279]

Page  388 388 THE IIStlORY OF SUiLU so of increasing the Ioldnemi s and temerity of thle enemy; I have iven spiecial iinstructions, too, that tle offeerts display in tle field the greatest p}ossibtle et.er gy, so as to kt ep ip thie spirits iand confidence' of the me.. IIn thet norttlerl portil of M:inidanao, between Iligan and 'uMtlnungan tlbe Moms lI t.av al: oe ien active iti nmaking attacks, and altholughl beaten iJn 1..W case(1, t;l: anks to the goo,:d di:cipiline pretailing" among the men.r1t, til judgment shown by thle odiiers, xw1ho inspire the former witht con lifidellce and afford thenl a good exa-mple at aall tinmes, th ey. till hope to i have\ bQ ett luck ine tl in.i r fture raids., as i iproved: by fthe despatches Ireceiv\ed f'rom lte poiti,)littico, nlii:ary colrnlander of Mumunall gan. Flhese: dlespatcthes shlow tlhat our soldiers no() longer fear the Moro race, nor ev\-v t t:ie tJiira.ll)t!ado(s;.an;d thait ou):r n1en' always await. the attack of. - tlhe enenlr Iwit geat c-Ihli i ies andIi brai vserho, as is showyl y)r the aecoints O' i(>t uietent(I(t ai ct ei tic l aldI wl( Sutpiser S a5ttemnIpted b V the Mor os.. llready at the,begin in g of 18Sd thie attitude of the suiltansi and 'atus in::the neighlborllod of M-inlungal as vS qsuestionable i that Captain Abad, - I-tbsen conianlder of the fort t1hre, having attempted to go up the rver Agils. aclon. tlanxll only one offieci and t four mlen-thus in the guise; t'f a'ltOliit:te peace-Dlata Ala,, (of Ballid. who i i.,W our friend, stopped.: liin w.ihe ll. e: approached his territory. telling him - that t altholuh he wishle:' t.o live at pcacea witht us., hte coiuld lot allow hitm to advanice further, t:,oLr lany part of our trot.os to doo sc. In. spite of this, two imonths after: tilis nIiden t, (en rtertal (,atstillGa, following c(losely nmy instructions; and::an d tkxhIing- advatltac of th circm talne iftaeforeseen )by me —that upon Ii s arrival at M; l ungantil.lli lie wa's visited by thle neighboring datus and sultas, -; ";: ilci dlli.:. tlhe S"ultan of I:lanltar, he announced to the latter, acting under inlstiuctions from mnem, his intention of returning the friendly visit. IAet''illk M.nlinia-gang arl cay in splite of a contimuous heavy rain storm he readciied Palantar at albout eleven in tle morning witfut making any stpl, accl:ompan ied, t)by Ala andt another datu, tand while e he was holding an itfectitonate intervie;w with tie Sultan of Pantar and the troops were rest ing,' the '..: captain of enginee:rs, Navarro, nmale a clandestine inspection tf thle grolund and took a rough sketch of the best site for the future fort, close to a bridge that c;an be built across tle river Agus, with a turret or Irougth defensive fortific:at ion on the ol)posite blank; this done, General 'astilla retlurned that same afternoon to Munmungan, which he reachd before nilght, without having fired ai sh ot, in spite of the tpredictions of the datus tihat he might easily meet with resistance on tihe road. Later, all the datus living in the region lying between Pantar and Iligan rIeiterlated to 0me, personally, in May last, at Mumungan, aand later to the military commander, their protestatiols of adhesion to Spain. Afterwards there cane the evisit that a goodly number of datus, among thlen the Datu of Pantar, made me in Manila, where they remained [280J

Page  389 LA TORRE ' POLICY IN MINDANAO S389 and we-re entertained during fifteen days; and with the consistent approval of these, the road from Iligan to Mumungan was bilt, in consequence of which work the weekly attendance of Moros at the market of Iligan increased, and the Datu of Bukaiar and another from: Marawi presented themselves in that place. Thither also the Datu Amay-Pakpa, now an old man, promised to send his son. The concurrence of Moros at that place was further increased by the assistance that was given to a wounded Moro; until, at last, a solemn oath of allegiane was sured, heing taken, in the presence of the aforementioned ilitary commander, by a great number of datus and sultans, in accordance with their ritual. On November 8th, the militarv commander of Mumungan, under the pretext of a wedding to which the Datu of Padtar had invited him and which lie attended, made an inspection of the country in the neigborhood of the said rancher a1 of Pantar, lying to the south of Mumungan, and had an opportunity of seeing that, ini conformitv with the reorts I had received, Pantar possessed advantAgeous conditions for the establishment there of another advance fort, the construction of which could be commenced upon the continuation and completion, up to that point o the new road built from Iligan to Mlumungan. But in spite of the good intentions of the military commander not to break. into hostilities except in the last resort, in accordance with the positive instructions I had given him, he was unable to prevent his troops being attacked upon the return journey, and therefore they opened fire upon the enemy; which proves once again the difficulty of following the path of conciliation and attraction with an enemy who pays absolutely no heed to reason; in spite of the fact that with this method there had been joined that of warning the neighboring Moros who profess to be so friendly, that the only genuine proof of adhesion to which I should give credit would be that of the moral and collective support of all of them against any act of aggression within their territory committed by Moros from other rancheri-as, whether in large or in small numbers. On November 25th- I was informed by the same military commander that, while the convoy was transferring supplies from fMumungan to Iligan, there appeared a juramentacdo, who attempted to wound a soldier; but the latter, waiting for him with great calmness, defended himself valiantly, and the Moro was despatched with the assistance of some other soldiers who came upon the scene. On the 10th. of December I was informed that a detachment of the troops stationed at Mumungan, while on its way to the market of Iligan was attacked by a body of fourteen juramenataos who, however, were repulsed with a loss of two killed, while, on our side, one man was lost. At Baras, also- while making the reconnaissance on December -0th t Settlement. [281]

Page  390 390 30THI "HISTORY OF SULEU there,aplpeared a band of:Mores in an attitude of hostility; but they were c)npelle,.d 1t retire at the first volley from olur troops. Nevertheless, two jytrau~enta dous separated thlcmylvese ftrom the main body and attacled an equall nTumber of our en; i the latter awaited themn firmly and killed them with bayonet thrusts. Another Mor wa also slain while attepting a precipitate fligiht. Remently, on the:15th of Dcaemb er, the military commnander of Miunungai, learing of the intentions of the enemy, which were far fromn peaceable, determined, in order to guard against all coniagenecis, to continue the extension of the road and to comuplete and close the palisade around the new inclosure at the fort, made so as to- accommlodate the inereased. nmlunberI of troops.:For the first of these two pulrpos, h e left!the flort at half paIt fiv e i tie morning, wel-armed and ready:to piunish1 tle Moros if' tlhev prst)letedl themselves, setting;out witt one hultiredl anld fifty men of the 73rd regrient and sixteen convicts, *besides a corporal and eiglt i,('rsons1 of the 73rd in charge, of a company of engineers, alnother tomillany of thle 73rd and sixty convicts, who martched without arms and equipped for work.;:. At ten oceloek in the iorning the" advance guard reached the entrance to the wood, and as the intentlion was toa collect lumber thathad already been cut alnd drgged to the roadto thle troops advaneed4 At this- moment there appeared ina tile middle of the road some eiglht hundredMores brandishing their ar1ms1 and uttering'war-crices, who immediatlya ired to sole defensiv ev works whih s }lth had eons:trctd.l out of thevery t above, referred to. Tn view of this, our troops continuedltheir m:arcl, o1)pening fire at bt)out one' hundred yards: fromn the defensi e works; of the eneyv i a little whlile, ceaptur ed the sane routi he denes, as well as some moref of the enemy: who appeared on the tw no flanks of tle colulnn, tcasilng s eide:aths. igh oyur:.side:e: had one h okilled ianl to; wounied convictsI After:t hlise incident, the said military conmander madel his way to li.gas n without su sering anty rtack in spites of the fact that the: Mores hacd constructed other d:fensive works on the road, which latter were ydetroyed without ang c&siuati es Thle conduct of the troops on this march was brilliant, and I wish to recomtImend to the consideration of your Exellency fthose who espe iall distingulished themselves:; h):utI-s:e- hlave againt direted: the *military conmmander of Mnlmungan to avoid as far as possible all necessity for fresh combats, extending; but without any compromise of dignity, the policy of conciliation which l hlave so stronTgly recommniended to hin. From all the above your Excellency will understand with how much foresight I requested from the Government of his Majesty, on the 24tl of April pls e:rmission to place on a war footing as many of the seven regimeats lwlichl make up the infantry in these Islands as had not yet b1een placed on this footing, setting forth the estimnateld cost of the sane *[282]

Page  391 LA TORUEK: VOLIUCY IN l INi)SNAO 391: ill the plans which I.sent for approval and if the icrease was necesary then, it is evident that at the present time it is much more necessary; for, as your Excellency will see from what I have cominunicated to you in this extensive document, the condition of the Moros, justifying the predictions made by lme at that time, has become steadily more hostile -h as they never rest nor miss any opportunity of causing us the greatest ' - possible harm, endeavoring to obstruct all the vwork we plan to carry out for the improvement of the means of comrunication between our present passessions; and while it is true that they are not successful in their attempts, still we must put a stop to their increasing audacity.. I take the liberty again to call the attention of your.Excellency to: the absolute necessity of placing on a war footing the three regiments now on a footing of peace, in accordance with the permission alreadv - granted by the Department —without waiting until next July. In this wViy, without undertaking a regular campaign as I have already stated, and without expense to the Government, it will be possible to improve the - present condition of things, which is gradually becoming somewhat dis- creditable to the honor of the flag. I do not doubt that your Excellency will so understand it, and I thank you in advance, in the name of this -- suffering armvy for tle immediate concession of the credit necessary for: tle reeinforcement above mentioned. God protect your Excellenc y na ny1 years.. -.:::. MANILA, January 11th, 1893.:. Most Excellent Sir:-Eulogio Despojol.-Followed by a rubric. The -; most Excellent the Minister of War.-A copy.-The Acting Colonel in (Commandim l of Headquarters.-Pedro de Bascaran.-A seal with the in- —; scription: Ofice of te C tan-Ge of te apain-of the Philippines.-Head- -:: quarters."..: - A copy.-Luis de la Torre: rubricated. [2831 - - 0,.-. i. 'L, -" *... -~ t,. - 1

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Page  [unnumbered] 'Atiq lllldrild Din II*'I I Jmnnlul Kiram I*28 I Ih'u.I ar- llahI,.!7 I~lmkuhl, ('l1lni Kifil I l3yplk Jlll l 'I*Y PuUrit In-lli Jda l'iit I'ulalllnl*"Asili Hnisah -- Jii fnr fJill Mudh Hirun Bandung 1.usu ]3~ltni~tiht~la |~Pt g 31111tilnll 1 -____. '. I'uyll Nns_.rld D. Sitti Jlhallht! Unding Dkllla. Ilhtml!d Ilwil ---- -, —, -.- Jnm:l l Arananml dding I PIanglran Aliyud Din 3Iohamt Tambuyung i Uy-n-g Andar I IJaialul Buyuk _ - Jalllulul Kiram I*3' Alimnd in. il*3I Aliyul Din* ~ I I _ _ _ _. _. _ _ _. _.... I _i'. 1 s ml~lrnl ud )inl*n,! Shaklrl Lah*" Alimud D)iln 1* 8 Mll'izzud Din Tl, 1.intiltn * 1o I$.hbd Din* __ Nasr.tl, D.in. *I14 Alilnnd Dill D, Amiru l MuA. 'm-ini *I. _._ _..__.. _af t...... Bdrl I~ii*^ J )h: Mlistafa Shafli'd 1)in* 1 1 N nasirud Dlin Akir*o Slahhudl Dinl Kinrmalt*" Inllvallil Wnait, Bngsu*8 Batara Shlin Tangal* Molihnmnecdll Haliml Pnngirnn liuddimiln* o Nlisirld Din Awal, Dig]inmiig* TllI'izZl]l Muttwildi'il,, Mlharaja Uptl*4 Amiirul Umnra, anharaja Diraja*!: Alawdtl Iin KlamnlId Dill* I'tri Sharif Putrit Kharjif Sayil,l lSlnkr, nsih-Shriful Halili* --- - r Raja agilldn