Minor products of Philippine forests, ed. by William H. Brown. [Vol. 1, no. 3]
Brown, William Henry, ed. 1884-, Fischer, Arthur Frederick., Guerrero, Leon Ma. (Leon Maria), 1915-1982., Merrill, Elmer Drew, 1876-1956., Reinking, Otto August, 1890-, West, Augustus Price, 1876-

Page   - L P 1 Minor Products of Philippine Forests r. DTb, By i ~ tyWilliam H. Brown, Ph. D., C':ief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, I 7,.. -., I. Y Department of AgricilttFre and' NatutraI Pesources Bureau of Forestry-..E VtBulletin No. 22.: |rthur F. rischer, Director of' Frestry 177; -_,'4' ~, 7'- ~ -.| _ t {. ' * '' s *.- *,..:''.."^'.*,~' ''.' - J ' *' s....,; *.* s,s.,.r.,.,* ^S I.' ' - - ' * ^MANILA ' I

Page   III III 1111111 11111111 11111111 11 11 11 III In lll[= Il 11111111 THE GIFT OF . I. Drrcror -o Paresl ififlillfri- flln'f[I'llillillillllllrllllililll'IT[Il-fTr[FrF[TIITI

Page   14 " 4-3

Page   PANDANS IN LAKE REGION, AGUSAN, MINDANAO.

Page  1 Minor Products of Philippine Forests EDITED BY William H. Brown, Ph. D., Chief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, University of the Philippines; and Plant Physiologist, Bureau of Science VOLUME III Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources Bureau of Forestry Bulletin No. 22 Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry MANILA BUREAU OF PRINTING 1921 177674

Page  2 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES BUREAU OF FORESTRY Bulletin No. 22, Volume III ARTHUR F. FISCHER, Director of Forestry 2

Page  3 6fU^. S^ woI - 3t/4gZ I CONTENTS ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE FORESTS. William H. Brown -------------------------------.... ---..-......-........................................ PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTITUTES OR SCOURING MATERIALS. William H. Brown.................. OFFICIAL PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS. William H. Brown............ POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS. William H. Brown ---......... MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE PLANTS. William H. B row n............................................. --- —-------------------------------- PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI. Otto A. Reinking.............................. MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS. Leon Ma. Guerrero........ INDEX.......................................................................................................... --- Page. 7 49 63 - 79 85 97 149 247 3

Page  4 I i

Page  5 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE FORESTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN 5

Page  6 6 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS FIGURE 1. PLATYCERIUM BIFORME.

Page  7 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE FORESTS CONTENTS Page. ILLUSTRATIONS......-....................-............-............. 9 INTRODUCTION.........-.....-...... 11 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES........-.................................. 11 Family Polypodiaceae.........-....-.......-..... —..-.. 11 Asplenium nidus.............-............................... 11 Drynaria quercifolia.....................-.......-........ - 11 Platycerium biforme...........-............................ 12 Family Lycopodiaceae.-........-......... —.....-...-... 12 Lycopodium spp.....-...................-..... -12 Family Cycadaceae...........-..........................................12 Cycas rumphii...................................................12 Family Liliaceae...............................................................12 Lilium philippinense.......................................- 12 Family Orchidaceae..................-.................-.... 12 Aerides quinquevulnerum.-.............-.................... 14 Calanthe veratrifolia.............-.................... 14 Cordula argus................................................ 14 Cordula philippinensis.............-................................... 18 Dendrobium acuminatum...................................................18 Dendrobium amethystoglossum............................................18 Dendrobium anosmum......................................................18 Dendrobium aureum..........................................- 18 Dendrobium crumenatum...................................................22 Dendrobium dearei.............................................. 22 Dendrobium lyonii.....................................22 Dendrobium revolutum.................................... 22 Dendrobium sanderae.................................. 24 Dendrobium schuetzei.-............................. 24 Dendrobium taurinum......................-............... 24 Eria m errillii................................................... 24 Grammatophyllum measuresianum....................................... 30 Grammatophyllum multiflorum............................................. 30 Grammatophyllum wallisii...................................... 30 Phalaenopsis am abilis................................................................... 30 7

Page  8 8 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Description of species-Continued. Family Orchidaceae-Continued. Page. Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana................................................... 36 Phalaenopsis schilleriana....................................................... 36 Renanthera storiei...................................................................... 36 Rhynchostylis retusa.................................................. 36 Spathoglottis plicata.......................................................... 40 Vanda lamellata............................................. 40 Vanda sanderiana................-4................................. 40 Vandopsis lissochiloides.....-................................................. 40 Family Nymphaeaceae............-........-...................... 46 Nelumbium nelumbo.......................................-........-........ 46

Page  9 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE FORESTS ILLUSTRATIONS Page. FIG. 1. Platycerium biforme. From Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 28.-.....-.....-......... --- — ----—.. -..... --- 6 2. Asplenium nidus growing in the forest........................ 10 3. Lilium philippinense....................... --------------—. 13 4. Aerides quinquevulnerum...................... -----—... 15 5. Aerides quinquevulnerum..........-...... --- —----- ------—. 16 6. Dendrobium acuminatum. From Ames, Orchidaceae, II, Plate 17.-.................. —....-.. —. 17 7. Dendrobium anosmum..........-.................. ------— 19 8. Dendrobium aureum. From Ames, Orchidaceae, II, Plate 176.-.. ---—.... —.......- 20 9. Dendrobium crumenatum..-.....-.-...-....-.. ----—. - -. 21 10. Dendrobium lyonii.-............................. 23 11. Dendrobium sanderae..-.... -.... ------—. — -------- - 25 12. Dendrobium schuetzei..-.. -—............. -----------—...-. 26 13. Dendrobium schuetzei. From Gard. Chron. LII, Fig. 102... 27 14. Dendrobium taurinum.....-......... ----------------------. 28 15. Dendrobium taurinum..-.....-....-.. ------------ 29 16. Eria merrillii.... —. --- —-----—.-.... 31 17. Grammatophyllum multiflorum. From Phil. Agr. Rev., Vol. 5 (1912), No. 9, Plate IV..........-... ---..-. 32 18. Grammatophyllum wallisii.....-.. —...... —... —............. 33 19. Phalaenopsis amabilis......-..................... --------—.34 20. Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana ---.............- 35 21. Phalaenopsis sp. --- -------------------------------—. — 37 22. Rhynchostylis retusa..........-........... — —... 38 23. Spathoglottis plicata. From Bot. Register 1838.-........ -- 39 24. Vanda lamellata. —...... —........ ----—. -----—. 41 25. Vanda sanderiana.-...... ------—.. —...-. 42 26. Vanda sanderiana —.......-..... ---------------- --------- 43 27. Vandopsis lissochiloides. From Ames, Orchidaceae, II, page 221 --- -.......................................:....... 44 28. Nelumbium nelumbo -.. ------... —......... —...-..... --- —--—. 45 9

Page  10 10 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 'E3_~~~~~~~~~fi v< _1 v"- t''~ I FIGURE 2. ASPLENIUM NIDUS GROWING IN THE FOREST.

Page  11 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM PHILIPPINE FORESTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN The forests of the Philippines contain a large number of species which are decidedly ornamental, and are suitable for cultivation. These usually occur in the forest as very widely scattered individuals. As the seeds are ripe for only a short space of time and are usually quickly scattered by animals or the wind, it is frequently difficult to collect seeds from a given species. However, when once introduced into cultivation it is generally easy to obtain material for propagation. This is particularly true of species which grow high up in the mountains, and which will not live under lowland conditions, but have been successfully introduced into Europe and America and grown in greenhouses. Owing to these circumstances, most of the ornamental plants in Philippine forests are of little commercial value. For this reason, it seemed desirable to include in this section only such wild ornamental plants as are collected in the forest and sold commercially. Family POLYPODIACEAE Genus ASPLENIUM ASPLENIUM NIDUS L. (Fig. 2). BIRDS'-NEST FERN. This species is frequently collected in the forest and sold in Manila, where it is used as a hanging plant. The leaves are 40 to 120 centimeters in length and 6 to 20 centimeters wide, and radiate in all directions from a common center, from which habit it gets its name. It is the commonest native fern found in cultivation in Manila. In the forest it grows in the crotches of trees or along the trunks. It thrives in cultivation as long as it is watered at fairly regular intervals, but does best when somewhat sheltered from the wind and the direct rays of the sun. Genus DRYNARIA DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA (L.) Bory. This species is collected in the forest, made into hanging baskets and sold in Manila. It has very stout, somewhat fleshy 11

Page  12 12 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS stems which are densely covered with narrow, brown scales about a centimeter in length. The leaves are of two kinds; small, brown, concave ones which gather humus, and large ones which are 40 to 90 centimeters long and pinnately lobed, with lobes 2 to 4 centimeters wide. Genus PLATYCERIUM PLATYCERIUM BIFORME Desv. (Fig. 1). STAG-HORN FERN. This species is collected in the forest and cultivated in Manila as a hanging plant. There are two kinds of leaves; large leaves which bend upward and cover the mass in which the roots are growing, and long, branched leaves which hang downward. Family LYCOPODIACEAE Genus LYCOPOD I U M The species of this genus are collected in the forest, and brought to Manila to be sold. They are pendant plants with slender branches and very small, densely crowded leaves, and are grown in hanging baskets. Family CYCADACEAE Genus CYCAS CYCAS RUMPHII Mig. PIT6GO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The young plants are collected and sold in Manila for ornamental purposes. Family LILIACEAE Genus LILIUM LILIUM PHILIPPINENSE Baker. (Fig. 3). BENGUET LILY. Local names: Lup-lupak, suia-soi (Benguet). Lilium philippinense is a plant 50 to 80 centimeters in height. The leaves are numerous, very narrow, and 8 to 14 centimeters in length. The flowers are about 20 centimeters long, white, and very fragrant. Lilium philippinense is cultivated in Baguio and has been exported. This species is very common in Benguet and has been collected in Bontoc and Pangasinan. Family ORCHIDACEAE This family is the largest, in number of species, of any in the Philippines. Most of the species have small and inconspicuous flowers and are of no value as ornamentals. A large number,

Page  13 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 13 "~~~~13Y q~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~, _ D; ''^"S's ~~~% S S 67~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. i~~~ " Im FIGURE 3. LILIUM PHILIPPINENSE.

Page  14 14 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS however, are brought to Manila and sold for cultivation, and many have been exported to Europe. A description of all the individual species which are cultivated would require more space than their value warrants. The following list includes the more important commercial species. Genus AERIDES AERIDES QUINQUEVULNERUM Lindl. (Figs. 4, 5). Local names: Fracitas (Rizal); ualing-ualing (Tayabas). Aerides quinquevulnerum is an epiphytic herb with stout stems. The leaves are 10 to 30 centimeters long and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. The very fragrant flowers occur in considerable numbers on long, pendulous, flowering branches. They are about 2 centimeters across and white marked with crimson magenta. This species has been reported from the following provinces: Bataan, Benguet, Bulac.n, Rizal, Batangas, and Tayabas. Genus CALANTHE CALANTHE VERATRIFOLIA R. Br. Local names: Biniunga (Rizal); maraniok (Cagayan, Isabela); lirionggubat (Tayabas). Calanthe veratrifolia is a terrestrial orchid with large, green, prominently nerved leaves, which are pointed at both ends. The flowers are white, medium in size, and are borne in clusters at the ends of long, flowering branches. This species has been reported from the following provinces: Bataan, Benguet, Mindoro, Misamis, Nueva Vizcaya, Occidental Negros, Pampanga, Sibutu Island, Tayabas, and Zamboanga. Genus CORDULA Members of this genus are known popularly as lady's-slipper orchids. Two of them are worthy of note. CORDULA ARGUS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe. Cordula argus is a terrestrial orchid. The leaves are somewhat elliptical in shape and arranged in two rows. The lower ones are 12 to 20 centimeters long and pale green variegated with dark green. The flowering stem is 30 to 40 centimeters high and madder purple. The flowers are 6 to 8 centimeters in vertical diameter. The petals are whitish at the base and have green veins; near the apex they are madder purple and spotted. The margins of the petals are hairy. This species has been reported from the following localities: Benguet, Lepanto-Bontoc, and Tayabas.

Page  15 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS g,,w;,'e \ — t7 -1%1 p 6 ug9 / l/ I FIGURE 4. AERIDES QUINQUEVULNERUM.

Page  16 o s 0 To d t3 M 0 I'l HGIjUKL 5. AtHlIUtb YUINYUtVULNtIUM.

Page  17 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 17 I ip~~~~~~~ I~~I i, v 'I ~~~~/ ~ i 1t 'I, "Av -1I '. l jA, II' I II i 'i I i \ I N, I pI ' ''/ 1",, I I:~ i FIGURE 6. DENDROBIUM ACUMINATUM. 177674 —2 -- ~" I

Page  18 18 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS CORDULA PHILIPPINENSIS (Reichb. f.) Rolfe. Cordula philippinensis is a striking orchid with large leaves. The flowering shoot bears several showy flowers. The upper sepal is nearly white with prominent, longitudinal, dark-purple stripes. The lower sepal is nearly white with a yellow tip. The lateral petals are elongated, spiral, and purple, except near the base, where they are yellow with three lines of large, purple dots. The sack is white on the back, and the apex and margin lemon yellow. This species has been collected in Palawan. Genus DENDROBIUM DENDROBIUM ACUMINATUM Rolfe. (Fig. 6). Dendrobium acuminatum is an epiphytic orchid with bulbous stems. The leaves are thick, firm, smooth, 9 to 12 centimeters long, and 3 to 4 centimeters wide. The inflorescence often exceeds 20 centimeters in length, and bears 7 to 20 or more flowers. These when spread out are 4.5 to 5.5 centimeters across and white, with a yellow center which is streaked with lavender. This species has been reported from Abra and Bataan. DENDROBIUM AMETHYSTOGLOSSUM Reichb. f. Dendrobizum amethystoglossum is a robust, epiphytic orchid a meter in height and has 15 to 20 canes. The flowers are milk white, the lip deeply stained with amethyst purple. This species has been collected in Benguet. DENDROBIUM ANOSMUM Lindl. (Fig. 7). SANGGUMAI. Dendrobium anosmum is an epiphytic orchid with bulbous stems. The leaves are about 10 centimeters long and 3 centimeters wide. The stems make a yearly growth, after which the leaves drop off and the flowers appear. These are fragrant, about 8 centimeters across, and light purple with a darker purple center. After the flowers fade, the stems bearing them dry, and new ones are produced from the base of the plant. This species has been reported from Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Lepanto, Leyte, Rizal, and Nueva Vizcaya. DENDROBIUM AUREUM Lindl. Local name: Nito (Benguet). (Fig. 8). Dendrobium aureum is an epiphytic orchid with cylindrical stems which are 30 to 50 centimeters long. The leaves are about 15 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide. After they have fallen, the flowers appear on the stems. The flowers are large and cream colored, with yellow lips.

Page  19 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 19 I I I I p FIGURE 7. DENDROBIUM ANOSMUM (SANGGUMAI). I'C /s C XIy

Page  20 20 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS FIGURE 8. DENDROBIUM AUREUM. /

Page  21 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FIGURE 9. DENDROBIUM CRUMENATUM.,3/A

Page  22 22 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS This species has been reported from Benguet, Albay, and Mindanao. DENDROBIUM CRUMENATUM Sw. (Fig. 9). IRAU. Local names: Ddpo * (Tayabas); irdu (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon); karamosi (Ilocos Norte); karausi (Cagayan); karulai (Isabela); magimpal, magimapau (Bohol); man'dn (Leyte); sanggumai (Laguna). The stalk of Dendrobium crumenatum is up to a meter in length and, for a distance of about 20 centimeters from the base, is bulbous and fluted. The leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters long and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. The flowers are 2.5 to 3 centimeters in length, white with a pale yellow center, and very fragrant. All the plants of this species in the same region flower on the same day, the flowers lasting one day or less. This species is common and widely distributed in the Philippines and is frequently cultivated for ornamental purposes. DENDROBIUM DEAREI Reichb. f. Dendrobium dearei is an epiphytic orchid with cylindrical stems which may be more than 50 centimeters in length. The leaves are about 5 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide. The flowers are white with a lemon-yellow center, and about 7 centimeters in width when spread out. The stalks of the individual flowers are about 4 centimeters long so that they project beyond the leaves. The flowers remain on the stems for a long time. This species has been reported from Benguet, Mindoro, and Mindanao. DENDROBIUM LYONII Ames. (Fig. 10). Dendrobium lyonii is an epiphytic orchid with bulbous stems. The leaves are leathery, about 17 centimeters long and 3.5 to 4 centimeters wide. The flowers are wine red at the base, lighter colored at the edges, 4 centimeters long and 8 centimeters wide, and are borne on special leafless branches. This species has been reported from Bataan Province. DENDROBIUM REVOLUTUM Lindl. Local name: Sanggumai (Bataan). Dendrobium revolutum is an epiphytic orchid with pendant stems. The leaves are 3 to 4 centimeters long and 1.5 centimeters wide. The flowers occur singly along the stems opposite the leaves. They are 2 centimeters long, odorless, and white. The lip is pale green. * The word dapo, which occurs so frequently, alone or in composition, in the names of orchids and other epiphytic plants, means "to roost," "to perch" and is commonly and quite properly applied, therefore, to any epiphyte.

Page  23 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 23 -VI, \ -Nz \1 A*1 z 0 -J =: 0 cr 0 z w 0 CD I If f 4 -Ct c.

Page  24 24 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS This species has been reported from the following provinces: Bataan, Laguna, Negros Occidental, Leyte, Surigao, and Mindanao. DENDROBIUM SANDERAE Rolfe. (Fig. 11). Dendrobium sanderae is an epiphytic orchid with cylindrical stems which may be nearly a meter in length. The leaves are from 4 to 8 centimeters long and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. The flowers are borne on short branches, which are among the leaves at the end of the stem. They are white with purple lines on the throat, and about 6 centimeters long. The petals are 4 centimeters in length and nearly 3 centimeters wide. This species has been reported from Benguet, Bontoc, and Lepanto. DENDROBIUM SCHUETZEI Rolfe. (Figs. 12, 13). Dendrobium schuetzei is an epiphytic orchid 15 to 40 centimeters in height. The stems are erect and somewhat cylindrical. The leaves are somewhat spreading, leathery, about 8 to 10 centimeters long and about 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide. The flowers are large, showy, white, with a green blotch on the throat and a few dark spots at the base. DENDROBIUM TAURINUM Lindl. (Figs. 14, 15). Dendrobium taurinum is an epiphytic orchid with stems which are a meter or more in length and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. The leaves occur on the upper half of the stalk and are 6 to 10 centimeters long and about 4 centimeters wide. Growing near the end of the main stem are special flowering branches, which are 25 to 50 centimeters long and which have 6 to 20 large flowers. The sepals are cream white, tinged with green. The petals are twisted and crimson magenta. This species has been reported from the following localities: Albay, Batanes Islands, Benguet, Bukidnon, Davao, Laguna, Rizal, Leyte, Mindoro, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Tayabas, Guimaras Island, and Zamboanga. Genus ERIA ERIA MERRILLII Ames. (Fig. 16). Eria merrillii is a terrestrial orchid with a bulbous base about 10 centimeters long. The leaves are 30 to 60 or more centimeters in length, and about 4 to 7 centimeters wide. The flowering branch is 30 to 40 centimeters long and bears numerous, large, nearly white flowers, which are tinged with purple. This species has been reported from the Provinces of Rizal and Sorsogon.

Page  25 25 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FIGURE 11. DENDROBIUM SANDERAE. -.?/

Page  26 26 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS w m D CD DIL

Page  27 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 27 A.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~i~ +~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~.~. G _ o~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ t: -. I-,,.b_ b- iii r ~ ~~z- -v;~,ci,,,,_ I ~~ - S: -.i', ~~~41 ~ ~ ~. -.-&dg I,; _,o.

Page  28 28 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS FIGURE 14. DENDROBIUM TAURINUM.

Page  29 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 29 FIGURE 15. DENDROBIUM TAURINUM.

Page  30 30 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus GRAMMATOPHYLLUM GRAMMATOPHYLLUM MEASURESIANUM Weathers. Grammatophyllum measuresianum has many bulbous stems, which are slightly compressed and vary in length from 20 to 40 centimeters. When young they are more or less furrowed, and when old, deeply wrinkled. Each bears at its summit from 4 to 6 deep-green leaves, which are from 45 to 60 centimeters long. The flowering stalks bear many flowers, which are about 10 centimeters across, yellowish, and marked with dark brown and purple. This species has been collected in Mindoro and Palawan. GRAMMATOPHYLLUM MULTIFLORUM Lindl. (Fig. 17). Local name: Looi-looi na dako (Sorsogon). Grammatophyllum multifiorum has many large, bulbous stems and very numerous roots, the whole sometimes forming an immense mass. The leaves are about 30 to 50 centimeters long and 6 to 10 centimeters wide. The flowers are large, and are borne in great numbers on long flowering shoots. They are pale green with large, dull, purplish-brown spots. This species has been reported from Mindoro, Tayabas, Camarines, Catanduanes Island, Sorsogon, Leyte, and Palawan. GRAMMATOPHYLLUM WALLISII Reichb. f. (Fig. 18). Grammatophyllum wallisii is an epiphyte and the largest Philippine orchid. The flowers are borne on large flowering shoots and are large and pale greenish, with dark purple-brown blotches. Genus PHALAENOPSIS PHALAENOPSIS AMABILIS (Linn.) Blume. (Fig. 19). BUTTERFLY ORCHID. Phalaenopsis amabilis is an epiphytic orchid with a few green leaves growing on a short stem. The leaves are somewhat ovalshaped, wider near the apex than near the base, and 14 to 30 centimeters in length. The flowers are borne in varying numbers on flowering branches, are white, and 7 to 10 centimeters across. The butterfly orchid is very commonly cultivated in Manila. This species has been reported from the following localities: Albay, Bataan, Bohol, Cagayan, Camarines, Davao, Igar Island, Ilocos Norte, Laguna, Lanao, Lumbucan Island, Mindoro, Negros 'Occidental, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Rizal, Tayabas- and Zamboanga.

Page  31 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FIGURE 16. ERIA MERRILLII. (7

Page  32 32 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS a cc L -J Nor~~~~:D C -e~Ji~eP ~4sa~~Jna 0 0T w3 ~~~t~~~~tg r;~~~~~~E 0r 03 r/i: -I C3~~~~

Page  33 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 33 FIGURE 18. GRAMMATOPHYLLUM WALLISII. 177674 —3

Page  34 34 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS FIGURE 19. PHALAENOPSIS AMABILIS.

Page  35 1 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS y~~~~xi i?^~~~~~~S m~~~~~ wls')0~~.0.HLEN I LUDEAN1N - ' _~^^. _]~~~~~~~~~~~~ * A- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~20. PHALAENOPSIS LUEDDEMANNIANE12S~ 35 I i, FIGURE 2 k.

Page  36 36 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS PHALAENOPSIS LUEDDEMANNIANA Reichb. f. (Fig. 20). Local names: Flor de la macana (Spanish); manan-du (Samar, Leyte). Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana is an epiphytic orchid with usually two to six oval leaves growing on a short stem. The flowers are borne on special, branched, flowering shoots, have a faint odor, and are variable in size and color. They are white or yellow marked with purple or brown, and are about 6 centimeters in diameter. This species has been reported from the following localities: Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo Island, Leyte, Palawan, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, and Zamboanga. PHALAENOPSIS SCHILLERIANA Reichb. f. Local name: Ddpong-tigre (Laguna). Phalaenopsis schilleriana is an epiphytic orchid with a few somewhat oblong-oval leaves growing on a short stem. The leaves are mottled above, purple beneath, up to 20 centimeters long, and 6 centimeters wide. The flowers are borne on large, branched, flowering shoots, are odorless, large, and pinkish purple. This species is found in Tayabas and Laguna Provinces. Genus RENANTHERA RENANTHERA STORIEI Reichb. f. Renanthera storiei is a stout, epiphytic orchid 2 to 3 meters in height. The leaves are leathery, arranged in two rows, 10 to 14 centimeters long and about 3.5 centimeters wide. The flowering shoot is very large and bears many flowers, which are 4 to 4.5 centimeters across. They are odorless, dark red, and remain fresh on the stem for a long period. This species has been reported from the following localities: Bataan, Rizal, and Dinagat Island. Genus RHYNCHOSTYLIS RHYNCHOSTYLIS RETUSA (Linn.) Blume. (Fig. 22). Rhynchostylis retusa is an epiphytic orchid with green leaves which are about 25 centimeters long and about 2.5 centimeters wide. The flowers are crowded on a flowering shoot about 20 centimeters long. They are pale pink or nearly white and have a pale-purple lip. The lateral sepals are about 7 millimeters long and about 6 millimeters wide. The petals are much shorter and narrower.

Page  37 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 37 FIGURE 21. PHALAENOPSIS sp. 4 -e ~ ~ \a,

Page  38 38 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 4,11 ~r- LI';f FIGURE 22. RHYNCHOSTYLIS RETUSA.

Page  39 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 39 I, I / /" I 1' I %. 11 I 'I ii,-1 II t, I~~~ I I I. I A / I;i.I]!1J X} i. I C' i I i i..,i t V'$ V VoVc r qo FIGURE 23. SPATHOGLOTTIS PLICATA.

Page  40 40 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS This species has been reported from Bataan, Nueva Ecija, and Rizal. Genus SPATHOGLOTTIS SPATHOGLOTTIS PLICATA Blume. (Fig. 23). Local names: Balum-balum (Bukidnon); kanovog (Batanes Islands); talu-ang (Bukidnon); tabu-dapi (Tayabas). Spathoglottis plicata is a terrestrial orchid with a few long, rather narrow leaves growing from the bulbous base of the stem. The leaves are 20 to 60 centimeters long and 1.8 to 6 centimeters wide. The flowering shoots are 30 to 70 centimeters long. The flowers are purple or deep pink, and about 3.5 centimeters in diameter. This species has been reported from the following localities: Albay, Batanes Islands, Lepanto, Benguet, Bukidnon, Laguna, Leyte, Mindoro, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Tayabas, Lanao, and Zamboanga. Genus VANDA VANDA LAMELLATA Lindl. (Fig. 24). Vanda lamellata is an epiphytic orchid. The leaves are about 2 centimeters wide and 25 centimeters long. The flowers are borne on special branches, which may have 20 or more flowers. These are about 3 centimeters in vertical diameter, fragrant, and yellowish with purple-brown markings. This species has been reported from the following localities: Cagayan, Bontoc, Benguet, Abra, Zambales, Bataan, Cavite, Tayabas, Mindoro, Babuyanes, Camiguin, Capiz, and Sulu Archipelago. VANDA SANDERIANA Reichb. f. (Figs. 25, 26). Vanda sanderiana is a large epiphytic orchid. The leaves are trough-like and 15 to 30 centimeters long. The flowers grow in clusters and are 6 to 8 centimeters in transverse by 10 to 11 in vertical diameter. The upper three petals are lavender with dullpurple spots in the lower part. The lower two petals are tinged with yellow and there are very numerous, dull-purple nerves and reticulations which give a general, dull-purple color. The lip is dull purple and yellow. This is the showiest orchid found in the Philippines. This species is found in Mindanao. Genus VANDOPSIS VANDOPSIS LISSOCHILOIDES (Gaudich.) Pfitz. (Fig. 27). Vandopsis lissochiloides is a terrestrial orchid with leafy stems up to 2 meters in height. The leaves are about 25 to 50 centi

Page  41 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 41 (L: ~ a —.-, ~/. ~" -oJ,,"\ 7 FIGURE 24. VANDA LAMELLATA /' I I,

Page  42 42 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS 7!1 r VA FIGURE 25. VANDA SANDERIANA.

Page  43 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 43 a_~~~~~~~~~~~ z w r "_~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~c 0 2 CD, 0 2 -~~~~~~~~ iBBP\ > tJJ

Page  44 44 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS I (I FIGURE 27. VANDOPSIS LISSOCHILOIDES.

Page  45 ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 45 FIGURE 28. NELUMBIUM NELUMBO. \ Iv

Page  46 46 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS meters long and about 5 centimeters wide. The flowering shoot is 1.5 to 2 meters long, and bears numerous flowers which are 5 to 6 centimeters across. The back of the flower is purple and the inside yellowish green with purple spots. This species has been reported from Bukidnon, Panay, Sigaboy Island, and Zamboanga. Family NYMPHAEACEAE Genus NELUMBIUM NELUMBIUM NELUMBO (L.) Druce. (Fig. 28). A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. This plant grows in immense numbers in Laguna de Bay. The flowers are gathered in considerable quantities and brought to Manila to be sold. Nelumbium speciosum grows in shallow water, the leaves and flowers extending above the surface. It has very large, rounded leaves and large, pink flowers.

Page  47 PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTITUTES OR SCOURING MATERIALS By WILLIAM H. BROWN 47

Page  48

Page  49 PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTITUTES OR SCOURING MATERIALS CONTENTS Page. INTRODUCTION.... —.............-....-. —................. 49 ILLUSTRATIONS......-...... —. ----- ----—....... 51 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES.-................. --- ——.. ----- 51 Family Moraceae -..................-.....................- - -... 51 Ficus ulmifolia. ---....-... —..-...... ----. —.. --- —----—........ --- —--- 51 Streblus asper......-......... —..............-............................... 51 Family Leguminosae.... - --------------------- ----------- —....... --------—...... ---—... 52 Albizzia acle —... —... --- —-......... --- —. 52 Albizzia saponaria... —.................. — -. 52 Entada phaseoloides... —........-............................. 54 Family Oxalidaceae.. ---... --- —.................. 56 Averrhoa bilim bi —...... -....-... --.......-.......................... 56 Family Polygalaceae...-...... ----... --- —........ --.... —..... 56 Securidaca corymbosa... --- —. --- —-.....-. -----—. ---.. --- —...... 56 Securidaca philippinensis..-..... -........... ---- 58 Family Sapindaceae...............-..................-...-. 58 Ganophyllum falcatum...............................-... 58 Harpullia arborea........... --- —-..-......... --- —-------—... 58 Sapindus saponaria —.......... --- —-...-.... --- 59 Family Rhamnaceae.... --- —----—......... --- —.. --- —----------—.....-..... ---.. 59 Gouania tiliaefolia-.. —... ---... —........ --- —-.. -.. —.. 59 Family Dilleniaceae.. ----..... --- —-------------------—.- -------—. --- —. 59 Tetracera scandens. —... -—....... --.....-..-...-.. —....................... 59 ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1. Albizzia acle (akle)......................... -.... —. 53 2. Albizzia acle (akle)....... —................................. 55 3. Entada phaseoloides (gogo)...-. —. --- —--------------—............. —.. —.. 57 177674-4 49

Page  50 I, z

Page  51 PHILIPPINE PLANTS USED AS SOAP SUBSTITUTES AND SCOURING MATERIALS By WILLIAM H. BROWN In the Philippines there are a number of plants which contain saponin and are used as soap substitutes, especially for cleansing the hair. The most important of these is gogo (Entada phaseoloides) which is an important article of commerce. Other plants have very rough leaves which are used as material for scouring cooking utensils, etc., and as substitutes for sandpaper. Family MORACEAE Genus FICUS FICUS ULMIFOLIA Lam. Isis. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves of this species are very hard and rough, and are used for cleaning cooking utensils and scouring hardwood floors, stairs, windowsills, etc.; and also in place of sandpaper in polishing wood, when sandpaper is not available. Genus STREBLUS STREBLUS ASPER Lour. KALIOS. Local names: Alasiis (Zambales, Mindoro); alasis (Surigao); aludig (Ilocos Sur, Union, Pangasinan, Zambales); ampds (Pampanga); bugtdl (Negros Occidental); buntatai (Guimaras Island); kagasaka (Cagayan); kdlios (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro); lasiis (Bataan); malakddios (Zambales). The leaves of Streblus asper are very hard and rough and are utilized, like those of Ficus ulmifolia, for cleaning cooking utensils and as a substitute for sandpaper. Streblus asper is a tree reaching a height of about 15 meters and a diameter of about 30 centimeters. The leaves are alternate, 4 to 12 centimeters long, with a narrow base, pointed tip, and toothed margin. The fruits are ovoid, pale yellow, 8 to 10 millimeters long, fleshy, and with seeds 5 to 6 millimeters long. This species is very common and widely distributed in the Philippine Islands. 51;

Page  52 52 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family LEGUMINOSAE Genus ALBIZZIA ALBIZZIA ACLE (Blanco) Merr. (Figs. 1, 2). AKLE. Local names: Akle or akli (Nueva Ecija, Union, Pampanga, Bataan, Bulacan, Zambales, Tayabas, Camarines, Laguna, Sorsogon, Mindoro); anagep (Ilocos Norte and Sur); banzyo (Occidental Negros, Tablas); kitakita (Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Zambales); mabuinga (Laguna); laigin (Masbate); sauriri, taulili (Palawan); tabaldcigi (Bisaya); tili, tilis (Zambales). This species is reported to have been employed locally as a soap substitute, but seems to be infelior to Albizzia saponaria and is little used. Albizzia acle is a tree reaching a height of about 30 meters and a diameter of about 1 meter. The leaves are twice compound. They usually have two pinnae, each of which bears three to six pairs of leaflets, the terminal pair being much larger than the others. The leaflets are inequilateral, pointed at the tip, usually rounded at the base, 4.5 to 18 centimeters long, and 2 to 7 centimeters wide. The flowers are yellow and green, about 1.5 centimeters in length, and are borne in small, rounded heads. The pod is 4 to 5 centimeters wide and up to 25 to 30 or more centimeters in length. The seeds cause a bulging of the pod, while between the seeds the pod is constricted. This species is fairly common and distributed from Luzon to Palawan. It is intolerant of shade. ALBIZZIA SAPONARIA (Lour.) Blume. SALINGKUGI'. Local names: Bai6go (Bataan, Agusan); banaibdnai (Cagayan); banogbdnai (Cagayan); g6go' or gigo (Isabela, Tayabas, Masbate, Agusan); g6go-kdsai (Tayabas); gogong-malatoko, laigil (Rizal); gogong-toko (Pangasinan, Pampanga, Camarines, Bataan); malatoko (Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna); maratekkd, maratigd (Ilocos Norte and Sur); pipi (Negros); salangkugi', salingkugi', salungkugi' (Zambales, Bataan, Mindoro, Catanduanes, Masbate, Ticao, Surigao, Zamboanga); salukigi (Samar, Leyte); salunggigi, tagurarit (Pangasinan); sangginggi' (Agusan); siankugi, tinagi (Surigao); tambing (Benguet); tigian (Guimaras Island); unaki (Camarines). This species is a small or medium-sized tree with a saponaceous bark which is used locally in much the same way as gogo (Entada phaseoloides). The fresh wood lathers freely with water. Albizzia saponaria reaches a height of 20 meters and a diam

Page  53 SOAP SUBSTITUTES 53 FIGURE 1. ALBIZZIA ACLE (AKLE). ClF /C

Page  54 54 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS eter of 80 centimeters. The bark is about 5 millimeters thick, light gray to dark gray, and densely covered with corky pus. tules. The inner bark is slightly pink colored and somewhat spongy in texture. The leaves are alternate and doubly compound. This species is found throughout the Philippines, especially in second-growth or open forests. Genus ENTADA ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L.) Merr. (E. scandens L) (Fig. 3). G6Go. Local names: Ball6go (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan); Balogo (Samar, Cuyo, Bisaya provinces, parts of Bikol region); go6g, ggo6, or gugu' (Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Bataan, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Mindoro, Marinduque, Leyte, Negros); ipol (Zambales); kalit (E. Pangasinan); lipai (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Union, Bulacan); lotog (W. Pangasinan). In most parts of N. Luzon, the name lipai is given to the plant and its large, round seeds, and ball6go to the crushed stem used for washing the hair. The bark and stems of Entada phaseoloides (gogo) contain saponin. Gogo is used extensively in the Philippines and other oriental countries for washing the hair and is on the market as an ingredient of hair tonics. The vine is cut in lengths of about one-half to 1 meter and pounded into thin, flat strips, the width of which depends on the diameter of the piece treated. These strips when dried are ready for market. When soaked in water and rubbed, gogo produces.a lather which cleanses the scalp very effectually. Very large,quantities of gogo are used in the Philippines, but it is very difficult to determine the amount. Many people cut and pound material for their own use, while others prepare a small quantity and peddle it from house to house. There is no organized trade in gogo, but it is sold in small stores throughout the Islands. In Manila it sells at retail at prices ranging from 40 centavos a kilo upward. A forest charge of 10 per cent, or 2,pesos per 100 kilos, is collected on it. The chemical composition of gogo has been investigated by Bacon.* Gogo is used as a fish poison, the active principle, according to Bacon, being saponin. The bark is also used for cordage. The kernels of the seeds are mashed and used by the Filipinos * Bacon, R. F., The physiological active constituents of certain Philippine medicinal'plants. Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. 1 (1906), page 1021. Bacon, R. F., and Marshall, H. T., The toxic action of saponin. Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. 1 (1906), page 1037.

Page  55 SOAP SUBSTITUTES 55 FIGURE 2. ALBIZZIA ACLE (AKLE). (: a ~: J

Page  56 56 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS for poultices for children having colic. According to Bacon the seeds contain a fatty oil which is extracted and used in the Sunda Islands for illuminating purposes. Bacon says that in some places they are roasted and eaten after the active principle has been removed by washing. Gogo has been cultivated for a long time in the highland towns of Cavite, namely, Silang, Amadeo, Alfonso, MendezNufiez, Bailen, and Marigondon. A large proportion of the inhabitants of Indang, perhaps a majority, cultivate Gogo to some extent. The vines are propagated partly from seed and partly by layering, and are trained over trees, coconut palms, etc. At three years of age, a vine is large enough to be cut. If not cut too close to the ground, the stump sends up several sprouts, which are either allowed to grow up, or employed as layers. The vines very rarely die as the result of cutting. Entada phaseoloides is a large vine with compound leaves. The flowers are yellow and borne on slender spikes in simple or compound inflorescences. Perhaps the most striking features of the vine are the large seed-pods, which are about 7 to 10 centimeters wide and up to a meter in length. They contain hard, circular seeds 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter. This species is common and widely distributed throughout the Archipelago. Family OXALIDACEAE Genus AVERRHOA AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. KAMIAS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The fruits of this species are used to remove stains from clothing and also in washing the hands. Family POLYGALACEAE Genus SECURIDACA SECURIDACA CORYMBOSA Turcz. HINAKI. Local names: Gogong-bisdya (Tayabas); hindki (Negros); oyangyd (Mindoro). This plant is used as a soap substitute in the same manner as Entada phaseoloides (gogo). Securidaca corymbosa is a woody vine or undershrub. The leaves are alternate, pointed at the tip, rounded or abruptly pointed at the base, and from 6 to 9 centimeters in length. The flowers are small, and red and white. The fruit resembles a half maple fruit and is about 8 centimeters long.

Page  57 SOAP SUBTITUTES 57 ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (GOGO).. ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (GOGO). - ) 3.

Page  58 58 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS This species has been reported from Luzon, Mindoro, and Negros. SECURIDACA PHILIPPINENSIS Chodat BALIUNOS. Local names: Baldg.on, balinos (Sorsogon). This vine has a thick, white bark containing saponin. The bark is used locally in certain regions as a soap substitute. Securidaca philippinensis is a large, woody vine. The leaves are bluntly pointed at the base and taper to a rather sharp point at the tip. The flowers are small and borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are oval and slightly over a centimeter in length. At one end there is a long wing about 7 or more centimeters in length, resembling that of a maple fruit. This species is distributed from southern Luzon to Mindanao. Family SAPINDACEAE Genus GANOPHYLLUM GANOPHYLLUM FALCATUM Blume. ARANGEN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark of this tree is used in the same manner as gogo (Entada phaseoloides). Genus HARPULLIA HARPULLIA ARBOREA (Blanco) Radlk. UAs. Local names: Ambuyan (Ilocos Sur); baydg-kalabdu (Tayabas); bunsalak (Mindoro); dulis, magantimus (Cotabato); huds (Ticao Island, Masbate); kuds (Rizal); mag-alad, ringis (Palawan); malalubds (Camarines); malapalikpik-hito (Tarlac); pods or puds (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Mindoro); uds (Cagayan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Tayabas, Camarines); uds na purdu (Ilocos Norte). The bark is pounded and used as a substitute for that of gogo (Entada phaseoloides). Harpullia arborea is a tree reaching a height of about 20 meters and a diameter of about 60 centimeters. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. The leaflets are pointed at the tip, oblique at the base, and 7 to 15 centimeters in length. The flowers are small and white. The fruit is red and is divided into two lobes, each of which contains a few seeds. This species is common and widely distributed in the forests from northern Luzon to the southern limits of the Sulu Archipelago.

Page  59 SOAP SUSTITUTES 59 Genus SAPINDUS SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L. TIKAS-TIKAS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fibers. Tobacco workers in Abra use the crushed leaves for removing the stain of tobacco leaves from their hands. The bark is used for cleansing the hair. Family RHAMNACEAE Genus GOUANIA GOUANIA TILIAEFOLIA Lam. Local names: Literan (Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna); pahampak (Pampanga). The root of this species is a soap substitute. Gouania tiliaefolia is a woody vine. The leaves are alternate, somewhat hairy, pointed at the tip, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, and 6 to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers are small and greenish or whitish. This species is distributed throughout the Philippines. Family DILLENIACEAE Genus TETRACERA TETRACERA SCANDENS (L.) Merr. Local names: Malakatmon (Tarlac, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal); ople-bdking (Palawan). The leaves are very rough and are used for cleaning dishes and various instruments. Tetracera scandens is a woody vine. The leaves are alternate, pointed at both ends, larger near the apex than near the base, the margins toothed. The flowers are rather small, white, and borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are small and red. This species is apparently common and widely distributed from central Luzon to southern Mindanao. a

Page  60

Page  61 OFFICIAL PHILIPPINE MEDICINAL PLANTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN 61

Page  62 I

Page  63 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS CONTENTS Page. ILLUSTRATIONS.....-..-...................... —........... 64 INTRODUCTION. —..............-..-............-................... 65 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIE -S.. —.......... ----............................................- 6... 65 Family Cyatheaceae...................-.................... 65 Cibotium barametz.......................................... 65 Family Palmae............. --- —-...........-.. --— 65 Areca catechu......... ----............................... 65 Family Araceae....-.......-.. ----..... ----.. ----.. --- —-.............................- - 66 Acorus calamus. --- —-----—.......... ---.......-.... 66 Family Zingiberaceae -.........6..-......6........... ----.-. 66 Curcuma zedoaria.-.......................................... 66 Family Piperaceae.................. -....... 66 Piper betle..........-............-......-.................................. - 66 Family Chenopodiaceae..-................... -67 Chenopodium ambrosioides.. ---.........-.............-........ 67 Family Menispermaceae. ----............... --- —-—.. —...... - 67 Archangelisia flava -.............................. 67 Family Leguminosae.-.............-.... ---.... 67 Abrus precatorius... --- ——....-......-....-..-... 67 Caesalpinia sappan................-...-........ 67 Tamarindus indica...........-...............-..................... 67 Family Simarubaceae -........... -............ 68 Brucea amarissima.....-........-.....-...... —..... 68 Family Euphorbiaceae —.. —...... ----....... --- —........ 68 Croton tiglium...............-.............. 68 Mallotus philippensis..........................-.-........................ 68 Ricinus communis ---—......... —.... 69 Family Anacardiaceae..... ---........... —... —. 669 Anacardium occidentale -..-......... —......................... 69 Family Myrtaceae...................... --- ——.... --- ——..... ----..... ---........... 669 Eugenia cumini.... ---........... ---............... 69 Psidium guajava...................................... ----........ 69 Family Umbelliferae...........-........................................ 69 Centella asiatica............................-..............-............ 69 63

Page  64 64 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Description of species-Continued. Page. Family Sapotaceae............................ 70 Palaquium spp....................................................... 70 Family Loganiaceae..................-.........-................. —.... 70 Strychnos ignatii............................-.............0.................... 70 Family Convolvulaceae.................................................. 70 Operculina turpethum..........................-.......... 70 Family Labiatae.............................................-.... 70 Ocim um basilicum..........................................-................ 70 Orthosiphon aristatus............................................... 72 Family Solanaceae.................. 72 Capsicum frutescens............... ---................... 72 Datura fastuosa var. alba.................................. 72 Solanum nigrum.................... ------—. -............... —................. 74 Family Bignoniaceae......................-........-........... 774 Sesamum orientale.......................... 74 Family Plantaginaceae....-........................ 74 Plantago major.................................. 74 Family Compositae......................................................75 Artemisia vulgaris......................................................75 B idens pilosa.......................................................................75 Blumea balsamifera...... -----—................................................- 75 ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1. Fruit of Strychnos ignatii (St. Ignatius bean. From Twelfth Annual Rep., Bur. of Sci., 1913, Plate XXXVII. 71 2. Datura fastuosa var. alba (talongpunai)................................ 73

Page  65 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN INTRODUCTION In the Philippines, a great variety of plants furnish material for medicine. Some of the substances are apparently of little or no value, while others would seem to be useful. In a separate section, Dr. Leon Maria Guerrero, of the Bureau of Science, has given an account of the local medicinal uses of Philippine plants. For this reason there are included in the following list only such wild spe ' as '1- official in twentieth-century pharmacopoeias, and -. e -hice: contains a high percentage of berberine. ivlost of such plants tfand in the Philippines are of little or doubtful value, so no attempt has been made to discuss their uses. Gathercoal * has recently prepared a list of botanical drugs which are official in twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. The species mentioned in the following discussion are taken from his list, with the addition of the one containing berberine. Family CYATHEACEAE Genus CIBOTIUM CIBOTIUM BARAMETZ (Linn.) J. Sm. SALAGfSOG. Local name: Salagisog (Camarines). This plant is official in the Austrian Pharmacopoeia. The long hairs are used in preparations for coagulating the blood to arrest capillary hemorrhages. Cibotium barametz is a large fern. The lower parts of the leaf stalks are covered with long golden-yellow hairs. This species is distributed in the mountains from Luzon to Mindanao. Family PALMAE Genus ARECA ARECA CATECHU L. BUNGA OR BETEL NUT PALM. A description of this species and its local names are given it, the section on palms. * Gathercoal, E. N., Pharmacopoeial botanic drugs of the twentieth ci ntury. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association for March, A oril, and May, 1916. 177674 —5 65

Page  66 66 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The seeds are official in the German and Swiss Pharmacopoeias. The powdered seeds are used as a vermifuge. Family ARACEAE Genus ACORUS ACORUS CALAMUS L. LUBIGAN OR SWEET FLAG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The rhizome is official in many pharmacopoeias, and the oil in the German Pharmacopoeia. According to Greenish * the rhizome has stimulant and tonic properties, and has been used for ague and for atonic dyspepsia. Family ZINGIBERACEAE Genus CURCUMA CURCUMA ZEDOARIA (Berg.) Rosc. BARAK or ZEDOARY. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The rhizome is known as zedoary and is official in the Austrian, Croatian, French, German, Hungarian, Japanese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, and Swiss Pharmacopoeias and in the American National Formulary. Family PIPERACEAE Genus PIPER PIPER BETLE L. BUYO or BETEL PEPPER. Local names: Buyo or buyobuyo (Camarines); gaued (Lepanto Subprovince); ikm6 itw6 (Tagalog); ikm6ng Il6ko (Bulacan); letlet or litlit (Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Cavite, Tayabas); samdt (Pampanga). The leaves are official in the British Pharmacopoeia. They are extensively used in the Philippines for chewing with the seeds of Areca catechu sprinkled with lime. Piper betle is a smooth, climbing vine reaching a height of 2 to 4 meters. The upper leaves are 10 to 13 centimeters in length. The apex of the leaf is pointed and the base somewhat inequilaterally rounded or heart shaped. This species is extensively cultivated, but is also wild. It is distributed throughout the Philippines. * Greenish, H. G., A text book of materia medica, page 453.

Page  67 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 67 Family CHENOPODIACEAE Genus CHENOPODI U M CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES L. APOS6TIS. Local names: Alpasotes (Pampanga, Manila); alpas6ti (Bontoc); apasites (Union); apos6tis (Pampanga, Tagalog, Bisaya); pas6tis (Mindoro, Tagalog). The top of the plant is official in the Austrian and Mexican Pharmacopoeias. The oil is used as a cure for worms. Chenopodium ambrosioides is a branched herb nearly a meter in height, with angled stems. It has an aromatic odor when crushed. The leaves are 3 to 10 centimeters in length and have lobed margins. The flowers are very small. This species is widely distributed in the Philippines, both cultivated and wild. Family MENISPERMACEAE Genus ARCHANGELISIA ARCHANGELISIA FLAVA (L.) Merr. ABUTRA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. This plant contains about 5 per cent of berberine. Family LEGUTMINOSAE Genus ABRUS ABRUS PRECATORIUS L. KANSASAGA or PRAYER-BEAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fibers. The seeds of this species are official in the Spanish Pharmacopoeia, and the leaves in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. Genus CAESALPINIA CAESALPINIA SAPPAN L. SIBUKAU. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. The heartwood is official in the British Pharmacopoeia. Genus TAMARINDUS TAMARINDUS INDICA L. SAMPALOK or TAMARIND. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants.

Page  68 68 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The fruits are official in nearly all the twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. According to Greenish * the pulp is used as an acid refrigerant and a gentle laxative. Family SIMARUBACEAE Genus BRUCEA BRUCEA AMARISSIMA (Lour.) Merr. Local names: Bogobog6 (Negros, Surigao); magkapdyas (Leyte); paraiso, selte (Basilan). The flowers are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. Brucea sumatrana is a somewhat hairy shrub reaching a height of about 3 meters. The leaves are alternate and pinnate. The leaflets are pointed at the apex, rounded or pointed at the base, have prominently toothed margins, and are 4 to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers are small, reddish, and occur on axillary inflorescences. The fruits are oval and about 0.5 centimeter in length. This species is distributed from central Luzon to southern Mindanao. Family EUPHORBIACEAE Genus CROTON CROTON TIGLIUM L. CROTON-OIL PLANT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oil is official in all the twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. According to Greenish: * Croton oil is a powerful irritant, producing, when applied to the skin, a burning sensation and redness, followed by severe pustules; it is used, diluted, as a counter-irritant. Internally it is a very rapid drastic cathartic, and is given in certain cases of apoplexy. Genus MALLOTUS MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. BANATO. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. The glands and hairs which cover the fruits are official in many pharmacopoeias. This substance, known as kamala, is an efficient remedy for tape-worm. * Greenish, H. G., A texbook of materia medica, page 122. ~ ' ~ ~~:~ ~ j ~:

Page  69 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 69 Genus RICINUS RICINUS COMMUNIS L. TANGAN-TAN'GAN or CASTOR-OIL PLANT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. Castor oil, which is obtained from this plant, is official in all the twentieth-century pharmacopoeias. Family ANACARDIACEAE Genus ANACARDIUM ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. KASUI or CASHEW NUT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The leaves are official in the Mexican and the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeias. Family MYRTACEAE Genus EUGENIA EUGENIA CUMINI Druce. DUHAT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The bark is official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. Genus PSIDIUM PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. BAYABAS or GUAVA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves of this species are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. Family UMBELLIFERAE Genus CENTELLA CENTELLA ASIATICA (L.) Urban. (Hydrocotyle asiatica L.) Local names: Tagaditak (Batanes Islands); botbotonis (Bontoc); takaip (Polillo); takip-k6hol (Tagalog); yabong-yabong (Samar). The leaves are official in the Mexican, Netherlandish, and Spanish Pharmacopoeias. Centella asiatica is a prostrate, slightly hairy herb. The stem produces roots at the nodes. The leaves are rounded at the tip, kidney-shaped or heart-shaped at the base, and 2 to 5 centimeters in diameter. The petiole is very long. The flowers are dark purple, with petals about 1 millimeter in length. This species is distributed in open places from Luzon to Mindanao and Basilan.

Page  70 70 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family SAPOTACEAE Genus PALAQUI U M PALAQUIUM spp. The Philippine species which yield gutta-percha are described in the section on resins, gums, and oils. Gutta-percha is official in many pharmacopoeias. Family LOGANIACEAE Genus STRYCHNOS STRYCHNOS IGNATII Berg. (Fig. I). ST. IGNATIUS BEAN. Local names: Igasod or igasud (Samar, Leyte, Surigao); kabal6nYga, leite, San Ignacio (Surigao). The seeds are official in the British, Mexican, and Spanish Pharmacopoeias. They are a source of strychnine. The demand for Saint Ignatius beans is small and the supply irregular. If there were a greater demand, they could probably be collected in considerable quantities. Strychnos ignatii is a large, woody, forest vine. The leaves are opposite, oval, pointed at the tip, pointed or somewhat rounded at the base, prominently three-veined, and 8 to 20 centimeters in length. The fruit is rounded, pale yellowish and brown, and 10 centimeters or more in diameter. It contains a number of seeds, which are embedded in a soft pulp, having a squash-like odor. The fresh seeds are greenish straw-color, with a somewhat satin-like appearance. This species has been reported from Samar, Leyte, Surigao, Agusan, and Lanao. It is a native of, and is confined to the Philippines. Family CONVOLVULACEAE Genus OPERCULINA OPERCULINA TURPETHUM(L.) S. Manso. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fibers. The roots and stems are official in the British, French, Mexican, and Spanish Pharmacopoeias. Family LABIATAE Genus OCIMUM OCIMUM BASILICUM L. BALAN6I or SWEET BASIL. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The upper part of the plant is official in the French and

Page  71 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 71 L jI. i i I I I j 10 cm. FIGURE 1. FRUIT OF STRYCHNOS IGNATII (ST. IGNATIUS BEAN). i ' r

Page  72 72 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS I.z. Mexican Pharmacopoeias. The plant is aromatic and is used as a condiment. Genus ORTHOSIPHON ORTHOSIPHON ARISTATUS (Blume) Miq. The leaves are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. They are said to be a powerful diuretic. Orthosiphon stamineus is a tall herb. The leaves are opposite, pointed at the tip, widest near the base, and have toothed margins. This species has been reported from Luzon. Family SOLANACEAE Genus CAPSICUM CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L. SILI or CHILE PEPPER. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. This species, frequently known as Capsicum minimum, is a source of Cayenne pepper, which is official in the British, Japanese, Mexican, and American Pharmacopoeias. According to Greenish,* Cayenne pepper is used externally as a stimulant and counter-irritant, and internally to dispel flatulence and rouse the appetite. Genus DATURA DATURA FASTUOSA L. var. ALBA Nees. (Fig. 2). TALONG-PINAI Local names: Kamkammaulau (Union); katsubong (Capiz); talampunai (Manila, Rizal); talong-punai (Bikol, Tagalog). The leaves are official in the French, Japanese, and Netherlandish Pharmacopoeias. and the seeds in the British Pharmacopoeia. The alkaloid content has been investigated by Brill.t Datura fastuosa var. alba is a coarse, erect, branched, smooth or slightly hairy herb or tree-like shrub 0.5 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are 9 to 18 centimeters long, the apex pointed, the base inequilateral, the margins irregularly and shallowly lobed. The flowers are very large, axillary, and solitary. The calyx is green and about 6 centimeters long. The corolla is white, about 15 centimeters long, and 8 centimeters in diameter. The fruit is rounded, green, about 3.5 centimeters in diameter, covered with short, stout spines, and contains many seeds. * Greenish, H. G., A text book of materia medica, page 149. t Brill, H. C., Datura alba. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 11 (1916), page 257. i: i

Page  73 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 73 FIGURE 2. DATURA FASTUOSA VAR. ALBA (TALONG-PUNAI)., '("t v/ c,(N

Page  74 74 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS This species is common and widely distributed in the neighborhood of towns in the Philippines. Genus SOLANUM SOLANUM NIGRUM L. KONTI OR BLACK NIGHTSHADE. Local names: Ainti (Bontoc); bulagtdb (Bisaya); kaldinga (Misamis); kamakamatisan (Tagalog); k6nti (Tagalog); lubi-lubi (Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya); malasile (Samar); nateng (Batanes Islands, Benguet); 6nti (Laguna). The leaves are official in the French, Mexican, and Spanish Pharmacopoeias. Solanum nigrum is an erect, branched, smooth or nearly smooth herb 1 meter or less in height. The stems are green and somewhat three-angled. The leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, the margins subentire or undulately toothed or lobed. The corolla is white and about 8 millimeters in diameter. The fruit is a dark purple or black, smooth, rounded berry about 5 millimeters in diameter. This species is widely distributed in waste places from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Family BIGNONIACEAE Genus SESAMUM SESAMUM ORIENTALE L. (S. indicum DC.) LINGA OR SESAME. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oil is official in many pharmacopoeias. Family PLANTAGINACEAE Genus PLANTAGO PLANTAGO MAJOR L. PLANTAIN. Local names: Lanting (Bontoc, Manila); llanten (Spanish); plantain (English). The leaves are official in the Mexican and Spanish Pharmacopoeias. They appear to be of little value. Plantago major is a perennial herb the leaves of which occur in a rosette near the ground. They are 5 to 10 centimeters long, about five-nerved, with a petiole often as long as the leaf-blade. The spikes are 6 to 12 centimeters long, erect, slender, and have crowded flowers. The capsules are ovoid and about 3 millimeters long. This species was introduced by the Spaniards and is now naturalized in some localities in Luzon.

Page  75 OFFICIAL MEDICINAL PLANTS 75 Family COMPOSITAE Genus ARTEMISIA ARTEMISIA VULGARIS L. DAM6NG-MARIA or MUGWORT. Local names: Artamisa (Bisaya); daml6ng-maria (Manila); kamaria (Tagalog); gilbas (Negros Oriental); herbraka (Bontoc). The upper portion of the plant is official in the French and Swiss Pharmacopoeias. Artemisia vulgaris is an erect, hairy, rank-smelling, often halfwoody herb 50 to 80 centimeters in height. The leaves are pinnately lobed, 5 to 14 centimeters long, gray beneath, and nearly smooth above. The flowering heads are numerous, ovoid, 3 to 4 millimeters long, and occur in large numbers on branched inflorescences. This species was introduced from Europe into the Philippines. It is widely distributed in cultivation and is thoroughly naturalized in some regions. Genus BIDENS BIDENS PILOSA L. PURIKET. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia. Genus BLUMEA BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC. SAMBONG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The leaves are official in the Netherlandish Pharmacopoeia.

Page  76

Page  77 POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN 77

Page  78

Page  79 POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN A large number of wild Philippine plants have been used for poisoning fish, others yield arrow poisons, and still others are used for poisoning dogs. The use of fish poisons is prohibited by law, so that these plants are of more scientific than practical interest. The use of arrow poisons is confined to a very few people belonging to wild tribes, and is also of little practical importance. For these reasons, local names and descriptions have not been given for these plants. The following account is little more than a list of poisonous plants known to have been used in the Philippines. Family MENISPERMACEAE Genus ANAMIRTA ANAMIRTA COCCULUS (L.) W. & A. The powdered fruits of this species are put in water to kill fish. In preparing the poison, the fruit is heated until dry and then crushed and powdered. The fruits are poisonous not only to fish, but also to other animals. Family CONNARACEAE Genus ROUREA ROUREA ERECTA (Blanco) Merr. The wood of Roturea erecta is poisonous. It is pounded, boiled, and mixed with the food of dogs in order to kill them. ROUREA VOLUBILIS (Blanco) Merr. The fruits of this vine are used for poisoning dogs. Family LEGUMINOSAE Genus DERRIS DERRIS ELLIPTICA (Roxb.) Benth. The roots of this species are used to poison fish. Cattle have died from eating this plant. DERRIS PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. The roots of this plant are used as a fish poison. Cattle have died from eating this plant. 79

Page  80 80 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family EUPHORBIACEAE Genus ALCHORNEA ALCHORNEA SICCA (Blanco) Merr. The leaves and fruits are used for poisoning fish. Genus CROTON CROTON TIGLIUM L. The crushed leaves are used for poisoning fish. Genus FLUGEA FLUGGEA VIROSA (Roxb.) Baill. The bark is used to poison fish. Genus HOMALANTHUS HOMALANTHUS FASTUOSUS (Linden) F.-Vill. The leaves are used for poisoning fish. Genus JATROPHA JATROPHA MULTIFIDA L. This plant is used as a fish poison. Family BUXACEAE Genus BUXUS BUXUS ROLFEI Vid. The fruits of this species are dried and finely cut, and then scattered on water as a fish poison. Family SAPINDACEAE Genus HARPULLIA HARPULLIA ARBOREA (Blanco) Radlk. The bark of this species is chopped fine and put in fresh. water streams to kill fish. Family STERCULIACEAE Genus KLEINHOVIA KLEINHOVIA HOSPITA L. In Marinduque the bark and leaves are used to poison eels. Family THEACEAE Genus TERNSTROEMIA TERNSTROEMIA TOQUIAN (Blanco) F.-Vill. The fruit and bark of this species are used for poisoning fish.

Page  81 POISONOUS PHILIPPINE PLANTS 81 Family LECYTHIDACEAE Genus BARRINGTONIA BARRINGTONIA ASIATICA (L.) Kurz. The bark and fruits of this tree are used as a fish poison. BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) Gaertn. The bark of this tree is used as a fish poison. BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA (L.) Blume. The bark of this species is put in streams to poison fish. The fruits are used to poison wild pigs. Family ARALIACEAE Genus SCHEFFLERA SCHEFFLERA BLANCOI Merr. This species is used for poisoning fish. Family MYRSINACEAE Genus MAESA MAESA CUMINGII Mez. The bark of this species is used for poisoning fish. MAESA DENTICULATA Mez. The whole plant is used to stupefy fish, which are afterward collected from the surface of the water. MAESA LAXA Mez. The fruit of this species is used to poison fish. Family APOCYNACEAE Genus KICKXIA KICKXIA BLANCOI Rolfe. The bark and leaves of this species are used for killing fish. Genus STROPHANTHUS STROPHANTHUS CUMINGII A. DC. rhe bark is employed as an effective arrow poison. Genus VOACANGA VOACANGA GLOBOSA (Blanco) Merr. i 'The pounded fruits are used to stupefy eels. Family VERBENACEAE Genus CALLICARPA CALLICARPA FORMOSANA Rolfe. Ilie leaves of this plant are pounded and then used as a fish 177674 — 6

Page  82 82 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS poison. They are also sometimes eaten by cattle with fatal results. CALLICARPA CANA L. The leaves of this species are pounded and then used as a fish poison. CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA Sch. The leaves of this plant are used as a fish poison. Family COMPOSITAE Genus BLUMEA BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC. The leaves of this plant are used with other plants for poisoning fish. Their efficacy is questionable.

Page  83 MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE PLANTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN 83

Page  84 i I

Page  85 MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE PLANTS CONTENTS Page. ILLUSTRATIONS.8.. ----..... --- — --------— 85 INTRODUCTION -...8.... --- —---------- 87 I)ESCRIPTION OF SPECIES........-...-............................ — 87 Firewood - ---------------- - 87 Leucaena glauca....-................ --- —-------- 87 Ink -....... ----....... ---....... —........-.................. --- —...- - 90 Phyllanthus reticulatus................ —. --- — 90 Lye.....................................................-....... 90 Acanthus ilicifolius --—................ ----. 90 Paper Substitutes.-..............-................. ---. 90 Homalomena philippinensis...-.................... 90 Musa spp............. -..................-......... 92 Sphagnum.................... --- —-------—... 92 Sphagnum sp...........-.....-................. 92 Tannins..- -.. ---—............. 92 Pinus insularis... --- —-—........... 92 Weinmannia luzonensis.. ---................................. 93 Pithecolobium dulce --........ -- -.... ---- 93 Canarium luzonicum. --- —....................... 94 Calophyllum inophyllum.-.................... 94 Ardisia serrata.................................. 95 Tobacco Substitutes ------- ---....................................... 95 Astilbe philippinensis.............................................. 95 Solanum inaequilaterale............. —..................... 96 Tree-fern Trunks ----------—................ —....... - 96 Cyathea spp. -----.. --- —-—....-............-................ 96 ILLUSTRATIONS Fir:. 1. Stand of ipil-ipil surrounded by cogon.-................................ 86 2. Interior of 2-year-old ipil-ipil stand -..-.......... ---...... 86:. Root system of ipil-ipil showing tendency to develop long taproots —...-.. ---.......... ----.. --- ---—.. 89 4. Ipil-ipil sprouts 1 year old...- -—......-.............. 89 5. Strip 10 by 50 meters in interior of 1-year-old sprout stand of ipil-ipil from which 4.4 cubic meters (1.2 cords) of firewood was cut.. —..,. —........ —........... ---- 91 6. Two-year old stand of ipil-ipil. Yeild 125 cubic meters of firewood per hectare (132 cords per acre)..-........... 91 85

Page  86 86 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS FIG. 1. STAND OF IPIL-IPIL SURROUNDED BY KOGON. FIG. 2. INTERIOR OF 2-YEAR-OLD IPIL-IPIL STAND.

Page  87 MISCELLANEOUS USEFUL WILD PHILIPPINE PLANTS By WILLIAM H. BROWN In preparing this bulletin, most of the useful forest plants are included in special sections. There are, however, a few which do not fit into any of the preceding sections, and which are brought together here for the sake of completeness. FIREWOOD A large number of miscellaneous trees in the Philippines are used as firewood. The most important species are found in the mangrove swamps, and have been treated in a separate section. There is one dry-land species, Leucaena glauca (ipilipil), which deserves special mention. This species has been the subject of a special bulletin by Matthews, from which the following information is taken. Family LEGUMINOSAE Genus LEUCAENA LEUCAENA GLAUCA (L.) Benth. (Figs. 1-6). IPIL-IPIL. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. Ipil-ipil never attains a large size, and a tree 25 centimeters in diameter and 10 meters tall would be exceptionally large. Even in stands which have not been cut for a long period, the average diameter of the trees would be about 10 centimeters, the stand as a whole not exceeding 10 meters in height. This species produces seeds in great abundance, the seeds germinate quickly, and even under adverse conditions the seedlings grow rapidly. The result is that the trees are usually found in dense stands which often contain no other species. The long slender poles are especially suited for the firewood needs of the Philippines. Ipil-ipil is particularly valuable for planting in kogon areas as it can compete with the grass and, if not disturbed by fires, drive it out. About 25 liters of seed, if broadcasted, will plant a hectare. This should be done at the beginning of the rainy 87

Page  88 88 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS season, and the grass should be burnt at the last possible moment before the rains begin. As the tree begins to shed seeds at the end of the first year, any vacant places will be filled; and by the end of the third year, ipil-ipil should fairly dominate the area and be well started toward the production of the first crop of firewood. Much quicker and better results would be obtained if the area were plowed once, just after the grass is burned. This would prevent the quick return of the grass and do away with the competition between the small trees and the fast-growing kogon, which often sets the crop back a year or more. Plowing would also give a much better seed bed and would result in a greater number of young plants at the start. If the seeds cannot be had in sufficient quantities for broadcasting, they can be sown in seed spots, drills, or with a corn planter. If any of these methods are adopted, 5 to 10 liters of seeds will plant a hectare. If ipil-ipil is planted in a grass area it should be protected from fires, as the burning of the surrounding grass would destroy the crop at any time up to the end of the third year, at which time the stands should be dense enough to prevent the entrance of fires. The management of a closed stand of ipil-ipil is very simple. It would probably be most profitable to cut the stand every three years, when the trees should average 10 centimeters in diameter and 5 to 6 meters in height. The yield should average from 120 to 130 stacked cubic meters per hectare, which is equivalent to 13 or 14 cords per acre. The only rule necessary for the successful management of a stand would be to cut the stems at the lowest practicable height, preferably 10 centimeters or less, and to make the cuts as clean and smooth as possible so as not to damage the bark. It would appear that the cutting may extend over as large an area as is desired, as sprouts are developed at once and grow rapidly enough to preclude the entrance of undesirable species. Fires can be avoided by harvesting the stand during the rainy season. In 1914, Matthews estimated that after allowing for compound interest at 5 per cent, a three years' rotation should give 39 per cent interest on the investment. With the present price of firewood, the rate should be greater. Leucaena glauca has not only been grown successfully as a firewood crop, but has been of great advantage to the Bureau of Forestry in its reforestation projects as a nurse crop for forest trees.

Page  89 FIGURE 3. ROI FIREWOOD 89,~ OT SYSTEM OF IPIL-IPIL SHOWING TENDENCY TO DEVELOP LONG TAPROOTS. FIGURE 4. IPIL-IPIL SPROUTS, 1 YEAR OLD. I^ I<

Page  90 90 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS. INK Family EUPHORBIACEAE Genus PHYLLANTHUS PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS Poir. MATANG BUYUD. Local names: Bagbagutot (Camiguin Island, Union); bubabot (Abra); matdng-buyud (Camarines); pagbaotot (Ilocos Norte); tinatindan (Manila); tologt6log (Laguna, Negros). Ink is prepared from the ripe fruits of this species. Phyllanthus reticulatus is a shrub 1.5 to 5 meters in height. The leaves are alternate and occur on the stems in two rows. They are 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, rather pale beneath, and have short petioles. The flowers grow singly or in clusters of a few in the axils of the leaves. They are green, tinged with purple, and 2 to 3 millimeters in length. The fruit is rounded and somewhat flattened, soft, fleshy, smooth, 5 to 12 millimeters in diameter, and is black when mature. Phyllanthus reticulatus is very common and widely distributed in open places and thickets from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. LYE Family ACANTHACEAE Genus ACANTHUS ACANTHUS ILICIFOLIUS L. DILIUARIU. A description of this plant and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. According to Tavera this plant is used in the soap-making industry, lye being prepared from the ash. PAPER SUBSTITUTES Family ARACEAE Genus HOMALOMENA HOMALOMENA PHILIPPINENSIS Engl. TAHfG. Local names: Alupayi (Polillo); salet (Pangasinan); salet iTga nalabaga (La Union); tahig (Camarines). The large leaves of this species are used extensively in Camarines for wrapping articles of food. Homalomena philippinensis is an herb reaching a height of about 1 meter. The leaves grow in a cluster from the ground and are large and somewhat heart-shaped. The "flowers" are green or whitish and about 6 centimeters in length.

Page  91 FIREWOOD 91 FIGURE 5. STRIP 10 BY 50 METERS IN INTERIOR OF 1-YEAR-OLD SPROUT STAND OF IPIL-IPIL FROM WHICH 4.4 CUBIC METERS (1.2 CORDS) OF FIREWOOD WAS CUT. FIGURE 6. TWO-YEAR-OLD STAND OF IPIL-IPIL. YIELD: 125 CUBIC METERS OF FIREWOOD PER HECTARE (13-1 CORDS PER ACRE).

Page  92 92, MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. Family MUSACEAE Genus MUSA MUSA spp. WILD BANANA. The leaves of a number of wild bananas are used extensively for polishing floors, for lining pots in which rice is cooked, for lining baskets and similar articles in which food is stored, and for wrapping various articles sold in markets and shops. SPHAGNUM Family SPHAGNACEAE Genus SPHAGNUM This moss, which is extensively used in other countries for surgical dressings and for packing living plants, fish, eggs, etc., is of very little commercial importance in the Philippines. It occurs only at high altitudes, at and above elevations of 2,000 meters, and generally in inaccessible regions. The supply of this moss in the Philippines is limited, and it would probably be cheaper to import the small quantity used than to attempt to collect it locally. TANNINS The most important commercial sources of tannin in the Philippines are the mangrove swamps, which have been treated in a separate section. The species which is locally used in greatest quantities is Pithecolobium dulce (kamachile). According to Gana, the mangrove swamps and Pithecolobium dulce yield the only barks used by Philippine tanners. Gana investigated a number of species and found a few which have commercial possibilities. These are mentioned in the following discussion. Family PINACEAE Genus PINUS PINUS INSULARIS Endl. SALENG or BENGUET PINE. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. Gana * examined the bark of this species as a tanning material and reported that it contained a very low percentage of * Gana, V. Q., Some Philippine tanbarks. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 11 (1916), page 262.

Page  93 ii TANNINS 93 tannin, 3.8. It gave a satisfactory leather of reddish tan with firm texture and good grain, but the process of tanning was slow. Gana believed that owing to the good quality of the leather produced and the availability of pine trees, the utilization of this bark as a tanning material was commercially important. Family CUNONIACEAE Genus WEINMANNIA WEINMANNIA LUZONIENSIS Vidal. It has been found by the St. Louis College at Baguio that this species furnishes good tanbark. Weinmannia litzoniensis is a tree reaching a height of 20 meters and a diameter of 50 centimeters. The leaves are opposite, and compound with three to seven leaflets, which are leathery, pointed at both ends, 4 to 10 centimeters in length, and with toothed margins. The flowers are fairly small, white or pinkish, and borne on racemes. This species is found in the mountains of Luzon and is apparently fairly common in some localities. Family LEGUMINOSAE Genus PITHECOLOBIUM PITHECOLOBIUM DULCE (Roxb.) Benth. KAMACHILE. A description and figure and the local names of this species are given in the section on food plants. Gana,* who has made a study of Philippine tanneries, writes as follows concerning this species: Camanchile bark is used almost exclusively by Filipino tanners, who prefer it on account of the light-colored leather it produces. Because of this demand the price of air-dried camanchile bark has risen as high as 10 pesos per 100 kilograms. The tree is widely scattered throughout the Islands, although nowhere systematically or extensively grown. The present annual consumption of bark amounts to about 1,500 tons. Exhaustion of the supply is threatened, as the trees are commonly killed by too extensive stripping of the bark. The bark is brownish gray and rough outside and reddish brown inside. It produces dull but light-colored leather, which reddens on exposure to light. An infusion of it contains a tannin of the catechol class, which gives a green-black precipitate with iron salts, a light brown precipitate with bromine water, and crimson line when in contact with one drop of concentrated sulphuric acid. Upon analysis a representative sample of the bark gave the following results, * Gana, V. Q., The leather industry of the Philippine Islands. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 10 (1915), page 353.

Page  94 94 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS calculated on water-free material: Total extract, 34.77 per cent; non-tannin, 9.41 per cent; tannin, 25.36 per cent. Camanchile bark infusion soon ferments and decomposes in this climate, resulting in the destruction of tannins, the development of a disagreeable odor, and a thickening of the liquid due to a viscous gelatinous formation which accumulates and grows on the surface. A few experiments with phenol as a preservative showed that a concentration of 0.01 per cent does not check the fermentation appreciably, as in a control infusion the tannins were destroyed, the color became a deep wine red-at least three times as intense as the original red orange-a somewhat penetrating smell was given off, and a gelatinous formation and a slimy sediment developed, which made the infusion viscous. After four months the loss of tannin amounted to 15 per cent of the total tannin content. An infusion containing 0.1 per cent phenol at the end of the same period showed a practically unaltered tannin content and an acidity equal to 0.0714 gram acetic acid per 100 cubic centimeters. A little fermentation which soon ceased had produced some slimy sedimentation, but had not altered the appearance or odor of the clear supernatant infusion. Camanchile bark contains irritating principles, which are believed by laborers in the tanneries to indicate roughly the stength of infusions. Infection of the eyes, producing weakening of the sight, and irritation and swelling of the lids are attributed to them. Family BURSERACEAE Genus CANARIUM CANARIUM LUZONICUM (Bl.) A. Gray. PfLI. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. According to Gana * the bark of this species contains 7.8 per cent of tannin and gives a satisfactory leather, which is yellowish tan, with firm texture and good grain. The tanning process is slow. On account of the value of the nuts and resin produced by this species, Gana did not believe that the bark would be available on a commercial scale. Family GUTTIFERAE Genus CALOPHYLLUM CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. BITAOG or PALOMARIA DE LA PLAYA. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. Gana * found that the bark of this species contained 11.9 * Gana, V. Q., Some Philippine tanbarks. Philippine Journal of Science, Section A, Volume 11 (1916), page 262.

Page  95 I j I:Z I I I!t~.i 4i I I i I TOBACCO SUBSTITUTES 95 per cent of tannin and that it gave a satisfactory leather similar to pine-tanned leather in color, texture and grain. This species is fairly abundant. The trees are, however, widely scattered, and the collection of bark from those felled for lumber would be difficult and expensive. Family MYRSINACEAE Genus ARDISIA ARDISIA SERRATA (Cav.) Pers. Local names: Dapui (Nueva Vizcaya); labat, rukrukso (Cagayan); malaputat, panabon (Pampanga). It has been found by the St. Louis College at Baguio that this species furnishes good tanbark. Ardisia serrata is a tree reaching a height of about 10 meters and a diameter of about 20 centimeters or more. The leaves are opposite, smooth, 10 to 22 centimeters long, 4 to 8 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, and with rather small, pointed teeth along the margins. The flowers are fairly small, pinkish, and borne in considerable numbers on compound inflorescences. The fruits are round, about a centimeter in diameter, and contain a single round seed. When young the fruits are green, but as they ripen they turn red and finally black. This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao and is apparently very common. TOBACCO SUBSTITUTES Family SAXIFRAGACEAE Genus ASTILBE ASTILBE PHILIPPINENSIS Henry. KAUAN. Local names: Kanan (Benguet); tugtugi (Bontoc). This species is used by the Igorots for smoking. They sometimes mix with it a little tobacco. Astilbe philippinensis is a hairy herb, 1 to 2 meters in height. The leaves are compound, with leaflets which are pointed at the tip, usually oblique at the base, and prominently toothed. The flowers are small and white, but are borne on large, conspicuous inflorescences. This species has been reported only from the Mountain Province.

Page  96 96 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family SOLANACEAE Genus SOLANUM SOLANUM INAEQUILATERALE Merr. Local names: Tabaco-tabaco (Lanao); talantalogan (Bukidnon). The leaves of this shrub are used by the Moro-Subanuns tor smoking. Solanum inaequilaterale is a thorny shrub about 2 meters in height. The leaves are large and hairy, the margins toothed with large lobes. The fruits are borne in clusters and are bright scarlet. TREE-FERN TRUNKS Family CYATHEACEAE Genus CYATH EA CYATHEA spp. Local names: Atibangddl, mlarapdko (Benguet); manapo (Benguet); palaing (Camarines); pinit (Samar). The tree ferns are always ornamental; but, on account of climatic conditions, cannot be successfully planted in cities and towns at low altitudes. The trunks of these ferns are very hard and durable, and for this reason are sometimes used for house posts. Owing to the peculiar arrangement of the very large vascular bundles, their durable qualities, and their hardness, which allows a rather high polish, sections of the trunk are often prepared for vases or other objects of utility such as pencil holders and even umbrella holders. The stems may be split, and the harder part used for inlaying or for making small ornamental boxes, frames, etc. In general, however, tree ferns occupyr a distinctly inferior place in the list of Philippine economic pl nts. The tree ferns are abundant in many parts of the Philippines, although they are rarely found at low altitudes except in regions where there is abundant rainfall.

Page  97 PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI By OTTO A. REINKING 177674-7 97

Page  98

Page  99 PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI CONTENTS Page. ILLUSTRATIONS.... —....................................... 101 INTRODUCTION..-1...........................................-.....- 103 TYPES OF EDIBLE FUNGI.-......-...........-..-......... 109 Family Auriculariaceae............... -—... ----. 109 Auricularia polytricha -......... —...-.....-... ----—... —110 Auricularia auricula-judae -.......-....-..-....... -........ 112 Auricularia cornea -....-.... -------—.. -—.. --- ——. —. --- —--------- 112 Auricularia tenuis.-..-..................................... —...- 114 Auricularia brasiliensis.-...-.......... --- —---- --------—. 114 Auricularia mo'ellerii -........................... —. 114 Family Tremellaceae....... —.........-......-................-........... 114 Tremella fuciformis.-....-...................-...........-...114 Family Hydnaceae..........................-....... 116 Hydnum spp... —.....-........... --............ ----—...... —..-... -. ---- 116, Family Polyporaceae... —............ --- —--—... -.. --- —-------- - ---—.. —... 116 Boletus spp...-........-....... ---..................- 116 Family Agaricaceae.............................. 116 Coprinus ater --......................-....-..... 117 Coprinus bryanti.. —. —..- --........... - —...... 117 Coprinus concolor.. --- —........... —..... —....... 117 Coprinus confertus..............-......... —. 118 Coprinus deliquescens -.....-........... —...................... 118 Coprinus flos-lactus..... ---- ---—.....-..........-. 118 Coprinus ornatus....-...-....-.....................120 Coprinus plicatilis...................-..-.-..-.- -.... 120 Coprinus pseudo-plicatus.-.......... —........... -........... 120 Coprinus revolutus -..... —................ 121 Coprinus rimosus.. —..........-.. ---...-..-........-. 121 Coprinus stercorarius.-...................... —... 121 Coprinus volutus...-........ -—.....-.... -122 Panaeolus panaiense.....-...................-.. —.... 122 Panaeolus pseudopapilionaceus..-......................... 122 Lentinus exilis -..1....................-.................... 124 Marasmius spp..................... -.. —............................... 124 Cortinarius spp....-....-...............................-..-......... 126 Volvaria esculenta.-....................................... 126 Agaricus argyrostectus.......-...........-........... —................... 132 Agaricus boltoni...-........-......-.....-.....-....-... -—.......... 132 Agaricus luzonensis.-....1...-...-.. —.....-..... 132 Agaricus manilensis...-..............-....................... 134 Agaricus merrillii............1...........................-.. 134 Agaricus perfuscus —......18..........-........ 134 99

Page  100 100 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS TYPE OF EDIBLE FUNGI-Continued. Family Agaricaceae-Continued. Page. Pleurotus ostreatus...................................................................... 136 Collybia albuminosa....-.....-.................................1.............. 136 Tricholoma tenuis.............-1.............,.... 138 Lepiota candida......-........................................- 138 Lepiota chlorospora (poisonous).......-....-......................... 140 Lepiota elata...-................................................... 140 Lepiota fusco-squamea..-...-.. --- —.....-.... —... ----...... — --... --- —---- ----- 140 Family Lycoperdaceae......-..-.......-.... 142 Lycoperdon lilacinum.-..................... —......... 142 Lycoperdon pusillum -..........-............ 142 Lycoperdon pyriforme.............-............................... 144 Scleroderma verrucosum.-.1...........................- ----- -. 144 PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES —.................................................. 144 USES AND METHODS OF COOKING........-1.......................,. 147

Page  101 PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI ILLUSTRATIONS Page. FIG. 1. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taifigang-dag:.) Fresh, gelatinous specimen growing on a dead branch of a Canarium. Natural size......-.............................. 105 2. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) The same specimen as Fig. 1, but dry and hard. Natural size....................-...................................... 105 3. Cortinellus shiitake SchrSt. Dried mushrooms from Japan. Purchased on Manila market. Natural size-................ 107 4. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taiingang-daga.) Upper surface of a large specimen. Natural size....... —. 111 5. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taingang-daga.) Lower surface of a large specimen. Natural size............. 111 6. Auricularia auricula-judae (Linn.) Schroet. Dried specimens sent from China and purchased in the markets of Manila and Los Banios, Philippine Islands........................... 113 7. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taifngang-dagi.) Mass of fungi growing on dead branch. Width of largest specimen is 4 centimeters.............................................. 115 8. Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. (Taiingang-daga.) Group of fungi growing on dead stump. Natural size..... 115 9. Coprinus confertus Copeland. Deliquescing stage. From Copeland, E. B., Bureau of Government Laboratories, Publication No. 28.-....................1....1........ 119 10. Coprinus friesii Quelet. Grows on decaying Cocos nucifera trunks. Natural size.-.....-..-.......... ----... 123 11. Panaeolus. Different stages of growth...................................... 123 12. Lentinus exilis Kl. growing on decaying stump of bamboo (Bambusa spinosa Roxb.). Slightly below natural size... 125 13. Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. growing on dead stump. N atural size..................................................................... 127 14. Volvaria esculenta Bres. Upper surface. Note volva. Slightly reduced....................................................... 128 15. Volvaria esculenta Bres. Under surface. Note volva. Slightly reduced..............-......................... 129 16. Volvaria esculenta Bres. Sun dried. Slightly reduced........ 131 17. Agaricus boltoni Copeland. Natural size. From Copeland, E. B., Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 28.................................. 133 18. Agaricus merrillii. Copeland. Natural size. From Copeland, E. B., Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 28....-.-................ —........... 135 19. Pleurotus ostreatus Jacq. Oyster mushroom. Natural size.. 137 101

Page  102 102 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Page. FIG. 20. Collybia albuminosa (Berk.) Petch. Upper surface. Grown from termite nest............... —..................................... 139 21. Collybia albuminosa (Berk.) Petch. Lower surface. Grown from termite nest...........-.................................. 139 22. Lepiota chlorospora Copel. Poisonous. Various stages of development. Slightly reduced...-..-.............-...-... 141 23. Lycoperdon lilacinum (Mont. et Berk.) Speg. (Giant puff ball). Old, purpled, dried specimen. Too old to be eaten. Grows on soil. Reduced -.... —................ ----------- 143 24. Scleroderma verrucosum Pers. (Puff ball.) Grows on soil. N atural size —...-.. -......................................... 143 25. Fairy ring of edible fungi growing on lawn........................ 145

Page  103 PHILIPPINE EDIBLE FUNGI BY OTTO A. REINKING * Mushrooms and other edible fungi are an important forest by-product of the Philippine Islands. The culture of these useful fungi is not extensively practiced, but vast numbers are collected locally as they grow in the wild state. Instead of practicing definite cultural methods, as is done in Japan and China, the people of the Philippines depend upon imports to supply the general commercial demand. According to the Insular Collector of Customs, dried mushrooms in bulk were imported at the port of Manila during the year 1918 as follows: From China, M11,981, and from Japan P9,097. Canned mushrooms are also consumed in large quantities. The entire supply for home consumption could be easily produced in this country, by special methods, where conditions for growth and development are ideal. The first grade of the Auricularia type of fungi sells on the Manila market for T3 a kilo, and the second grade for P1.80 a kilo. The price of the Japanese and Chinese form of Cortinellus varies from P2 to P4.40 a kilo according to the season. At these prices the latter fungi cost in a dried state, about two centavos each. Local Chinese merchants will pay P1.60 a kilo for a good grade of the Auricularia type of fungi grown in the Islands. With such prices the mushroom and edible fungus industry could be easily established to supply the local demand with home grown products. Edible fungi grow wild abundantly in the forests on decaying wood. They are found also in small clearings and on lawns, where they derive their food from organic matter in the ground. One excellent form develops from abandoned termite nests. The common cultivated type, Volvaria esculenta Bres. is grown on piles of abaca, banana, or rice straw refuse which has been prepared in a shady and damp place such as in abaca and banana plantations or in old overgrown wood-lots. In China and Japan a more extensive system of culture is practiced. Shipments from China consist primarily of the dried Auricularia type. This fungus grows on decaying wood, everywhere in the Philippines. In the Tagalog regions it is known as taingang-daga, * Professor of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Los Banios. 103

Page  104 104 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS meaning rat's ears, due to the general resemblance of the mushroom to the rat's ear. It is reddish brown to black, homogeneous, gelatinous, collapsing when dry and reviving when moistened (Figs. 1 and 2). The form generally shipped in the dry state from Japan is the Cortinellus type (Fig. 3). Similar fungi, just as good in flavor, can be produced in the Philippines. Commercial attache Julean Arnold,* of Pekin, writes as follows in regard to mushrooms as an article of commerce in China. The Chinese use many varieties of fungi in their dietary. Dried mushrooms are popular with Chinese everywhere. They are gradually assuming a position of importance in the export trade. In 1917, China exported 200 tons; it is likely that this amount includes fungi other than mushrooms, as the customs authorities probably do not distinguish. Foochow is the center of this trade. It exported to other ports in China and to foreign countries a total of 300,000 pounds of dried edible fungi. They are grown in the mountainous ditrict in the interior of Fukien, on hardwood logs felled for the purpose. Incisions are made in the logs, liquid manure is poured over the incisions, straw is covered over them, and when this is well rotted the fungi spring forth. In Japan even more scientific methods of culture are practiced. Mimura,t forest expert of Japan, comments on mushrooms culture in, Notes on "Shiitake," (Cortinellus Shiitake Schrot.) The Shiitake mushroom which is an important forest by product to this country, is produced to the extent of 2,000,000 kilograms a year, of which annually over 700,000 kilos valued at $500,000 are exported. The study of this important product in the forest industry should not be disregarded. I. SHIITAKE CULTURE AS HITHERTO KNOWN. The Shiitake is known to have been used as a nutritious article of food for over 1,000 years. The people in ancient times seem to have learned how to grow Shiitake having noticed its occasional appearance on fallen trunks and rotten woods after fall of rain. They, then, began to fell trees in autumn, on which the mushroom grows better than the trees felled in other seasons and lately they learned to grow the mushrooms by the so-called "soak and strike" methods. The Shiitake is a saprophyte and the wood on which it is to be grown should become thoroughly seasoned. The Shiitake can grow on almost any broad-leaved tree trunk, but it is mostly grown on the wood of oak or birch. In the case of deciduous trees, they should be felled early in the fall, evergreen oaks * Arnold, Julean. Mushrooms as an article of commerce. Daily Consular and Trade Reports, No. 299, pages 1117-1118, December., 1918. Washington, D. C. t Mimura, Shozaburo. Notes on "Shiitake" (Cortinellus Shiitake Schr6t.) culture. Extracts from the Bulletin of the Forest Experiment Station, Meguro, Tokyo, Bureau of Forestry, Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Tokyo, Japan, pages 109-114. 1915.

Page  105 c~7gc -Cllk-: ~, PI" i f r t r -- ~ ~ - - ~ -- rr, ~ -~ 'rLPk FIGURE 1. AURICULARIA PO ETIBLE FUNGI 105 'LYTRICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) FRESH SPECIMEN. NATURAL SIZE. 'RICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) THE SAME SPECIMEN AS DRY AND HARD. NATURAL SIZE. I'.:.: / '. I FI(URE 2. AURICULARIA POLYT FIG. 1, BUT I

Page  106 106 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS should be felled in the mid-winter, and both cut into sticks 2 meters long. The bark should be cut to accelerate incisions as the "arrangement of leaf." The well-seasoned wood so prepared is then piled up in shady places and covered them with leaves and branches of the tree so as to ensure successful development of spores. In the old method the people attached much importance to the time of felling trees and the place in which the billets are piled. The cause of the parasitic fungus, however, remained little known among the country people and consequently no artificial inoculation was ever tried prior to 1903, when the author undertook for the first time close study of the nature of the mushrooms as well as of its spores and mycelium. The result is the inoculation of spores and mycelium on seasoned wood was successful. The particulars of the work so effected have appeared in the "Journal of the Forestry Society of Japan" of April, 1904. IV. ECONOMICAL METHOD OF SHIITAKE CULTURE. We have so far described the nature of spore and mycelium of the Shiitake mushroom and can immediately proceed to set forth a rational mode of culture. Such the method would not pay if tried as a secondary industry in the country and we shall here below give the details of the method found practicable in our own experiment. (a) INOCULATION WITH BILLETS ON WHICH MUSHROOMS HAD GRWWN. The starch within the leaves of a tree generally moves toward the roots at the end of autumn, hence, trees felled in the autumn are naturally richer in starch. Further, the billets obtained from trees felled between the fall and the time of budding in spring firmly kept their bark. Billets, rich in starch and with a good bark covering are the most favorable for culture of mushroom. Therefore deciduous trees to be used in the culture should be felled before the fall of the leaves in localities, where there is no deep snow while in regions where snow falls heavily, trees should be felled early before spring buds set in. The felled trees should be cut into appropriate lengths and well dried. The dried billets are then taken to a wet shady place, and among them the billets that already bore mushrooms are inserted. The spores from the mushrooms grown on the mother billets disseminate on the fresh billets and so ensure successful inoculation. The matured billets give ordinarily a harvest of mushrooms both in spring and autumn. Previous to the season, however, the billets should be kept in water for 24 hours and then struck heavy blows on both ends, the practice being termed "soak and strike." After this operation, mushrooms will appear only 1 week. (b) DISSEMINATION OF THE SPORE. Mushrooms grown in spring are generally collected when the fruitbody has fully developed. They are much used for home consumption and are termed "Spring mushrooms" ("Haruko"). The "Winter mushrooms" ("Toko") are collected in the late of autumn or early in winter before the cap (thallus) is fully developed. They are much sought for in the Chinese market. Both kinds of mushrooms should immediately after collection be dried either in the sunlight or by fire, any delay in this work spoiling the flavor of the product. During the drying, spores fill in quantities from the matured caps and they should of course be cllected for use in dissemination. For this purpose, rotten wood is ground

Page  107 I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~t-4 z FIGURE 3. CORTINELLUS SHIlTAKE. DRIED MUSHROOMS FROM JAPAN. PURCHASED IN MANILA. NATURAL SIZE. Itd --- (7:~~~~~~~~~ 2M FIGURE 3. CORTINELLUS SHIlTAKE. DRIED MUSHROOMS FROM JAPAN. PURCHASED IN MANUILA. NATURAL SIZE.

Page  108 108 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS into a meal and strewn over the mats on which mushrooms are placed for drying. The same meal loaded with spores may be used many times for this end. The mixture thus obtained is kept and can be used in inoculation by mixing with water and sprinkling it upon fresh billets. (C) PROPAGATION BY MEANS OF MYCELIUM. It is impossible in practice to obtain mycelium as is done in culture. The most convenient method to obtain them is to remove the outer coating of old billets that have been used in mushroom growth. The rotten part of the wood in which mycelium is abundantly found is ground into a meal. This meal is mixed with water and be spread on fresh Konara billets. The work is best done in winter when strong mycelium able to resist the cold can be produced. The mushroom can be propagated by inoculation, but the method is of so scientific that is could hardly be comprehended by country people who remained ignorant of the possibility. After the results of study of spores and mycelium of the mushroom made by us became fully known, they gave a great impetus everywhere to the culture of Shiitake. An increase of over 20% in amount was obtained by the adoption of the methods. Not only this but in districts where Shiitake culture had hitherto, failed, the success was obtained as elsewhere by the adoption of our new method. There is no doubt that the artificial inoculation of the mushroom as now carried on throughout country redounds to the credit of this discovery and adds to success of the forest industry. V. CONCLUSION. The spore of mushrooms loses its germinative power after a short interval, so it should be used immediately after collection and this is best done by inserting "mother billets" among the new billets to be used in culture. The spore of the winter mushroom resists the cold well and therefore spores grown late in winter by the "soak and strike" method may be used in propagation to advantage. Mycelium grown on mother billets is also available for propagation. To this end, old mother billets declining the growth of mushrooms should be made into meal, and this meal, mixed with water, should be spread on fresh billets. This is best done late in winter or early in spring. As the mushroom can be propagated either by the spore or by mycelium, there is no place where the culture cannot be carried on, contrary to the belief generally held prior to our investigations. With culture methods essentially like those practiced in China and Japan enough mushrooms could be produced not only for home consumption, but also for export trade. In the discussion of the edible fungi of the Philippines particular stress is placed on those forms that can be used commercially. Since a large number of other delicious mushrooms are commonly found during the rainy season, the most important of these are also described. The paper takes up the fungi in their systematic arrangement and not according to their economic importance.

Page  109 EDIBLE FUNGI 109 In the Tagalog provinces the general name for all edible mushrooms is kabuti. Specific names are applied to particular forms, often according to the place in which they are produced. Kabuteng mamarang is the meadow mushroom; kabuteng ginikan is the mushroom grown on the rice straw; kabuteng saging is the one growing on bananas; kabuteng taingang dagd is the common rat's ear fungus or the so-called Jew's ear in America. Bukui and kulat are terms also applied to rather leathery fungi. In Pampanga the ordinary umbrella like mushroom is called kuat or payung-payungan, and the rat's ear type commonly known as bukui is frequently termed balugbug daguis. In Kalinga Province it is called talinga ti otot; in Leyte, ulaping; in Negros and Iloilo, oh6ng; in Camarines, tobo; in Zambales, dakaakan; in Cagayan and Isabela, karulu.-In Pangasinan and Iloko dialects the word o6ng is used. The following fungi are most generally eaten and many could be grown on a commercial scale. Family AURICULARIACEAE Genus AURICULARIA Hymenium inferior, distantly and vaguely ribbed and plicate, swollen when moist, and rather tremelloid, collapsing when dry. Spores oblong, hyaline.* The genus Auricularia is found generally throughout the Philippines as well as throughout the entire world. The fungi are commonly called taingiang-daga or rat's ear in the Tagalog dialect and Jew's ear in America. All forms are foliaceous, gelatinous plants when moist and leathery when dry. The spore bearing body, or hymenium, is normally on the lower side. The Auricularia types may be purchased in the markets of almost every large town in the Philippines. Large shipments are imported each year from China. In many of the famous Chinese dishes the taingang-daga is always present along with other vegetables and meat. It is shipped in the dry state, as one of the characters of the fungus is that it dries into a hard brittle form, but upon soaking, it again assumes its normal gelatinous character. These fungi are not very highly esteemed by Europeans, for when cooked they are tough and lack flavor. While the fungi grow as luxuriantly in the Philippines as il any other part of the world, little commercial use is made of * Descriptions of genera have been taken from Cooke, M. C. Handbcok of Australian Fungi. 1892.

Page  110 110 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS them. The people seem to prefer to purchase the forms shipped in from China. The fungus grows readily on any type of rotting branches. The writer has cultivated them, back of his laboratory near a creek, with comparative ease (Figs. 7 and 8). As will be seen from the following account, the various forms are not at all particular as to the species of wood upon which they will grow. In the culture work the primary point to be considered is that an abundance of moisture must always be present. A location in a dense jungle near a creek is ideal. Except for slight variations, all edible forms are distantly and vaguely ribbed and plicate, swollen, and somewhat tremelloid when moist, with a violet brown color, and collapsing and becoming hard when dry. They may also be cup-shaped. The following species are edible. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (Mont.) Sacc. Auricularia polytricha is a tropical form of Auricularia auricula-judae. Frequently the A. polytricha assumes a large form, measuring from five to fifteen centimeters in diameter (Figs. 4, 5, 7, and 8). The usual forms measure five centimeters in diameter. They are rather thin, leathery, lobed plants with none, or a very short stalk. The designation of rat's ear or taingangdag, is rather appropriate as the fungus assumes this general shape. Auricularia polytricha merges into the Auricularia auricula-judae. The former type is, however, usually thicker with longer hairs and frequently more purplish than the temperate zone form. Auricularia polytricha develops in abundance and has been grown by the writer on the following woods: Acacia farnesiana (Linn.) Willd., Alangium longiforum Merr.. Aleurites moluccana (Linn.) Willd., Allaeanthus luzonicus (Blanco) F.-Vill., Allamanda cathartica Linn., Annona muricata Linn., Annona reticulata Linn., Annona squamosa Linn., Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn., Bambusa spp., Bauhinia malabarica Roxb., Bixa orellana Linn., Canarium villosum (Miq.) F.-Vill., Castilloa elastica Cerv., Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (Citrus decumana Linn.), Cleidion javanicum Blume, Clerodendron minahassae Teysm. and Binn., Coffea arabica Linn., Columbia serratifolia Blanco., Cordia myxa Linn., Diplodiscus paniculatus Turcz.: Elaeis guineensis Jacq., Ficus angustissima Merr., Ficus benjamina Linn., Fluggea virosa (Roxb.) Baill., Garcinia binucao (Blanco) Choisy, Gliricidia maculata HBK., Gliricidia sepiurw (Jacq.) Steud., Graptophyllum pictum (Linn.) Griff., Hevea brasiliensis (HBK.) Muell.-Arg., Koordersiodendron pinnatum

Page  111 EDIBLE FUNGI 111 FIGURE 5. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA. (TAINGANG-DAGA). LOWER SURFACE OF A LARGE SPECIMEN. NATURAL SIZE. FIGURE 4. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA. (TAINGANG-DAGA.) UPPER SURFACE OF A LARGE SPECIMEN. NATURAL SIZE.

Page  112 112 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS (Blanco) Merr., Lagerstroemia speciosu (Linn.) Pers., Leucaena glauca Benth., Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob., Mangifera indica Linn., Manihot utilissima Pohl., Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr. (Parkia timoriensis (DC.) Merr.), Solanum grandiflorum Ruiz et Pav., Streblus asper Lour., Sumbavia rottlerroides Baill., Tamarindus indica Linn., Tecoma stans (Linn.) Juss., Tectona grandis Linn. f., and Theobroma cacao Linn. AURICULARIA AURICULA-JUDAE (Linn.) Schroet. Auricularia auricula-judae is also found on dead branches. From a standpoint of edibility, to the ordinary layman, there is no difference from the other of Auricularia. The A. auriculajudae type is present in greater abundance in the temperate regions. It usually does not attain the size of the tropical form and is lighter in color, being light brown to gray. The shipments of fungi from China are primarily composed of Auricularia auricula-judae. When dry they are hard and brittle (Fig. 6), but upon being moistened they become soft and rather gelatinous. The quality is approximately the same as A. polytricha. A. auricula-judae has been successfully grown by the writer on the following woods: Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. B., Annona muricata Linn., Annona reticulata Linn., Artocarpus sp., Bixa orellana Linn., Caesalpinia sappan Linn., Capparis sp., Clerodendron minahassae Teysm. et Binn., Diplodiscus paniculatus Turcz., Evodia sp., Ficus spp., Fureraea gigantea Vent., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud., Hibiscus sp., Jatropha curcas Linn., Lansium domesticum Correa, Leucaena glauca Benth., Mangifera indica Linn., Manihot utilissima Pohl, Melia azedarach Linn., Parameria sp., Pterocarpus indicus Willd., Streblus asper Lour., Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir., and Triumfetta bartramia Linn. AURICULARIA CORNEA Ehrenb. According to C. G. Lloyd, Auricularia cornea is not distinct from Auricularia auricula-judae, but is a younger stage, smaller, and paler colored. This fungus is quite common in the Islands and from field observations it appears to be the same, only an immature form of either Auricularia auricula-judae or more probably Auricularia polytricha. The writer has grown it successfully on the following woods which were placed in a damp location near the river in the rear of his laboratory: Aglaia sp., Alangium chinense (Lour.) Rehd. (Alangium begoniifolium Baill.), Albizzia acle (Blanco) Merr., Aleurites

Page  113 EDIBLE FUNGI 113 if X, FIGURE 6. AURICULARIA AURICULA-JUDAE (TAINGANG-DAGA) DRIED SPECIMENS FROM CHINA. NATURAL SIZE. 177674- 8 ~1v

Page  114 114 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS moluccana (Linn.) Willd., Allaeanthus luzonicus (Blanco) F.Vill., Annona muricata Linn., Annona reticulata Linn., Clerodendron minahassae Teysm. et Binn., Eriobortrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Erythrina fusca Lour., Ficus hauili Blanco, Jatropha curcas Linn., Mallotus moluccanus Muell.-Arg., Melochia arborea Blanco, Mussaenda philippica Rich., Psidium guajava Linn., Pterocarpus echinatus Pers., Pterocarpus indicus Willd., Sapindus saponaria Blanco, Solanum verbascifolium Linn., Streblus asper Lour., Tecoma stans (Linn.) Juss., Theobroma cacao Linn., Trema amboinensis (Willd.) Blume, Urcna lobata Linn., Vitex negundo Linn., and Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. AURICULARIA TENUIS Lev. Auricularia tenuis is rather common and can be used directly with the other forms. It is thinner, not so cup-shaped, smoother, and lighter in color than the common Auricularia polytricha. As to quality it compares favorably with the rest. The writer has grown this species successfully on the following woods: Bambusa spp., Columbia serratifolia Blanco., Cratoxylon sp.. Diospyros sp., Diplodiscus paniculatus Turcz., Euphorbia hypericifolia Linn., Ficus spp., Leucaena glauca Benth., Meliaceae Indet., Parinarium sp., Psidium guajava Linn., Pterocarpus sp., Pterospermum obliquum Blanco., and Zea mays Linn. AURICULARIA BRASILIENSIS Fr. Auricularia brasiliensis is a rare, smooth, tropical form of taingang-daga. It has been grown successfully on Prosopis vidaliana Naves. AURICULARIA MOELLERII Lloyd. Auricularia moellerii is also a form of Auricularia auriculajudae. The former fungus differs primarily in having a strongly reticulate hymenium. It is not common. Family TREMELLACEAE Genus TREMELLA Pulvinate or affused, brain like; spores, conidia, and sporidiola, globose or ovoid, always continuous. Gelatinuos, tremellous, immarginate, hymenium not papillate, surrounding the whole of the fungus. TREMELLA FUCIFORMIS Berk. Tremella fuciformis is a common white form of Tremel!a found in the tropics. It is characterized by being caespitose,

Page  115 EDIBLE FUNGI 115 FIGURE 7. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) ON DEAD BRANCH. NATURAL SIZE. q FIGURE 8. AURICULARIA POLYTRICHA (TAINGANG-DAGA) ON DEAD STUMP. NATURAL SIZE., I

Page  116 116 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS and may attain a size of about five centimeters high, and the entire cluster fifteen centimeters in width. The fungus is re. peatedly lobed or furcate; with the lobes, except the last, dilated in a fan-like manner. A cock's comb effect is produced. It grows readily on dead wood and has been found on dead branches of Koordersiodendron pinnatum (Blanco) Merr., and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.) Sw. It is homogeneous, gelatinous, collapsing when dry, reviving when moistened. The fungus is not abundant enough to be of any commercial importance, but when found it is highly prized by those who are in the habit of eating these forms. It is lacking in flavor, otherwise being rather soft, and iS frequently used especially by the Chinese in the preparation of various dishes. Tremella foliaceae Fr. may also be found growing on dead wood. Family HYDNACEAE Genus HYDNUM Hymenium inferior, aculeate, spines subulate, separate at the base. Fleshy or woody fungi, stipitate, sessile or resupinate. A number of species 'of Hydnum grow in the Philippines and the fleshy ones are edible. Usually they are too small to be of any economic importance. Family POLYPORACEAE Genus BOLETUS Hymenium tubular, distinct from the hymenophore and easily separable. Tubes crowded in a porose stratum, without trama, easily separable from each other. Mouth of the tubes round or angular, except in a subgenus, sinuous. Spores normally fusiform, rarely oval or subglobose. Terrestrial putrescent fungi. The Boletus fungi have a pileus or cap with pores underneath, and a stem. Few of these forms are found in the Philippines, but all present are edible. Family AGARICACEAE Genus COPRINUS Hymenophore distinct from the stem, gills membranaceous, at first crowded, coherent, sessile, at length deliquescing into a black fluid, trama none. Spores even black. The inky caps belonging to the Coprinus group are all edible and found in abundance. The fungi are characterized by their ovate cap, somewhat expanded, dark gray to brownish, smooth

Page  117 EDIBLE FUNGI 117 or with scales (Fig. 10). The gills are broad, crowded, white, later pinkish, finally black and changing into an inky fluid. The stem is smooth, shining, whitish, and hollow. The annulus or ring about the stem may disappear. They become liquid or deliquesce when old and never dry naturally. The members of this group are frequently found growing in abundance on decaying vegetative matter and on manure piles. Various forms have been described and are given below. The descriptions given have been taken primarily from those by Copeland.* COPRINUS ATER Copel. Coprinus ater has a pileus which at first is obtusely conical, later becoming plane. It is 14 millimeters broad with a tawny disk, varying from the periphery from dark gray to very black. Minute, deciduous, dark-brown scales are produced on the top. The flesh is thick, with gills free, narrow, and black. The spores are black, 15 by 9 microns, and are exstipitate. The stipe is fistulose, smooth, white, equal or narrowed upward, and at most 5 centimeters high, and 1.5 millimeters thick, but most often 2.5 centimeters high and 0.8 millimeter thick. The fungus is odorless with a fairly agreeable taste and grows on horse manure. COPRINUS BRYANTI Copel. Coprinus bryanti has a pileus which passes from white through brown to black, and is smooth, campanulate, 6 to 8 millimeters high and 5 millimeters wide. Its gills are free, but touching the stipe, from 1 to 1.5 millimeters deep, dark brown, and obtuse. The stipe is straight, white and solid, from 2.5 to 3 centimeters high and 1.5 millimeters thick. It is thick, equal, smooth, substriate at the top, with the base scarcely thickened and surrounded by white hairs 1.5 millimeters long. The veil is obsolete. The spores are smooth, brown, 8 by 4.5 microns, with hyaline truncate apexes. The cap is thin, odorless, and fine flavored. This species may grow on rotted wood, being collected from a rotted Ficus trunk. COPRINUS CONCOLOR Copel. Coprinus concolor is characterized by a conical pileus with spreading margin, about 2.5 centimeters high and wide. It is subfleshy, brown, very smooth, naked, and deliquescing first at the lacerate margin. The disk is brownish and subumbonate, * Copeland, Edwin Bingham. II. New species of edible Philippine fungi. Department of Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 28, pages 141-146, July, 1905.

Page  118 118 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS with gills 2 millimeters deep, free, crowded, obtuse, remaining a long time pale and then turning dark first at their edges. The spores are dark brown and 8 by 4.5 microns. Cystidia are wanting. The stipe is about 9 centimeters high, and 5 millimeters thick or a little more at the base. It is white or brownishsmooth, hollow, and without an annulus. No odor is observed and the taste is mild. They are eaten by the Bagobos, who call them ligbuk. The fungi grow terrestrial in the forest. COPRINUS CONFERTUS Copel. Coprinus confertus is gregarious and caespitose, varying greatly with the weather. The pileus is fleshy, conical, and when grown in dry weather it is very thick. Oppressed, whitish, cottony flakes cover the cap, the margin of which is entire or cleft a few times. During rainy weather, it is thinner and clothed with an evanescent, silky net, and is grayish black, striate, with a tawny or stramineous disk, and lacerate margins. The gills are grayish-black, crowded, lanceolate, free, but close. The spores are ovate, truncate, black, and measure 14 to 16 by 7.5 to 9 microns. The stipe is white, smooth, hollow, and in dry weather turbinate, 2.5 centimeters high, 1.5 centimeters thick, but when rainy it is as much as 16 centimeters high, and 6 to 15 millimeters thick. The base may be slightly subbulbose and has a strong radical cord. The fungus grows on horse manure. (Fig. 9.) COPRINUS DELIQUESCENS (Bull.) Fr. Coprinus deliquescens has a submembranaceous pileus, which is ovato-campanulate, then expanded, being 8 to 11 centimeters broad, and 4 to 5 centimeters high. It is subrepand, broadly striate, smooth, with a top studded with innate papillae. The stem is hollow, corticate, smooth, and 11 centimeters long, 4 to 8 millimeters thick, at length remote, and linear. The spores are lurid black and 12 by 8 microns. This species grows on old stumps. COPRINUS FLOS-LACTUS Graff.l Coprinus flos-lactus grows solitary to gregarious. The pileus is hemispheric, with age becoming flatly expanded. It is 2.5 to 4 centimeters in diameter, a light creamy brown and remnants of a universal veil remain as a few scattered floccose scales. It-is sulcate with the margin entire at first, but later splitting. While young the cap is crisp and brittle, crumbling 1 Graff, Paul W., Philippine Basidiomycetes, II. The Philippine Jourmal of Science, Section C, Vol. 9 (1914), pages 235-254.

Page  119 EDIBLE FUNGI 119 1! i I i I FIGURE 9. COPRINUS CONFERTUS. DELIQUESCING STAGE.

Page  120 120 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS on being handled, and on becoming mature tends more toward drying up than deliquescing. The lamellae are pale-gray at first, but later change through grayish-brown to dark brownishblack. The darkening begins first at the margin of the pileus and slowly advances toward the center. The edges of the gills usually remain conspicuously white even at maturity. They are slightly adherent to the stipe at first, and then become free after the pileus has become expanded. It is 3 millimeters broad at the broadest part, and somewhat obtuse at either end. The stipe is cylindrical and of an equal diameter throughout, being 2.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, and 3 to 4 millimeters thick. It is shining white, hollow, fibrillose, with an unthickened base. The spores are ovoid to pyriform, very dark brown at maturity, smooth, 3.5 to 5.5 by 7.5 to 11.5 microns, and are vacuolate usually with a single vacuole. The basidia are clavate, 9 by 23 microns, and the sterigmata are 4 microns long. The fungus grows on burned over ground. COPRINUS ORNATUS Copel. Coprinus ornatus is characterized by having a pileus which is campanulate to broadly conical, obtuse, 12 millimeters wide and sulcate. The disk is tawny, ornately beset with dark brown granules. The periphery is smooth or pulverulent, changing from white or tawny to black. The gills are 7 millimeters long, 1.2 millimeters deep, and have no cystidia. The spores are black and 10 by 7 microns. The stipe is straight, 2.5 centimeters or less high, and 1 millimeter thick. It is equal or slightly contracted upward, smooth, white or hyaline, with a ferruginous base, and is scarcely hollow. It is odorless and has a fair flavor. The fungus grows on rotted wood of various kinds. COPRINUS PLICATILIS (Curt.) Fr. Coprinus plicatilis has a pileus that is very thin, oval, cylindrical at first, then expanded, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters broad. The cap has a tendency towards splitting and is sulcato-plicate, somewhat smooth, with a broad disc which finally is depressed. The stem is equal, smooth, white, and 2 to 8 centimeters long. The gills are adnate to a distinct collar, and are distant, and grayish black. The spores are 12 to 14 by 8 to 10 microns. This species develops in pastures and on horse dung. COPRINUS PSEUDO-PLICATUS Copel. Coprinus pseudo-plicatus has a pileus which is early flattened out, about 3 centimeters wide, being thin, at first scaly, and becoming black because of its thinness. It is deeply split down

Page  121 EDIBLE FUNGI 121 ward through the gills, making the structurally entire margin cuspidate-dentate. The disk is brown, subumbonate, or in age concave. The gills number about sixty, are 3 millimeters deep, adnate to a narrow collar, and black or pale after the spores are cast. The spores are obtuse, thickest toward the base, black, and measure 20 to 22 by 11 to 12 microns. The basidia are 30 microns high, disposed regularly over the hymenium, and 15 to 20 microns apart. The stipe is 10 centimeters or less high and 1 to 4 millimeters thick. It is equal, straight, smooth, and hollow. The fungus grows on horse manure and rotted leaves. COPRINUS REVOLUTUS Copel. Coprinus revolutus has a pileus 2 centimeters or less wide, which passes from campanulate through plane to broadly revolute. The disk is flat and brown-granulose with a sub-furfuraceous and sulcate periphery. The gills number up to seventy or less and barely touch the stipe. They are narrow, acute at both ends and black. The spores are black, apical at the base, and measure 11 to 13 by 8 microns. The stipe is about 10 centimeters high, 1 to 1.5 millimeters thick at the top, 2 to 2.5 millimeters toward the base, and is white, hollow, fragile and velvety below. This species grows on dung. COPRINUS RIMOSUS Copel. Coprinus rimosus is characterized by having a pileus 1.5 to 2 centimeters high and wide, being thin, cylindric, campanulate or conical, truncate, and naked. It splits very early downward through the gills and consequently is plicate in appearance. It is tawny-gray outside, turning black in clefts. The tawny disk is flat or concave. The gills are free and somewhat remote, cut away towards the stipe, obtuse at the margin, black, becoming pale with age and have no cystidia. The spores are 15 by 13.5 microns, black and typically subangular and broadest toward the apex. The stipe is hollow, white, naked, and equal. The fungus grows on horse manure. COPRINUS STERCORARIUS Fr. (Coprinus stercorarius has a pileus that is very thin, ovate at first, then companulate and covered with a dense white micaceous meal. Later it is expanded, being 2.5 centimeters broad and 2 centimeters high. The margin is striate. The stem is at first ovately bulbous, then elongated, attenuated, at first pruinale, and white. The gills are adnexed, ventricose, and black. The spores are 14 to 15 by 8 microns. This species grows on rich soil and dung.

Page  122 122 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS COPRINUS VOLUTUS Copel. Coprinus volutus is characterized by having a pileus from 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide, being thin, naked, early explanate and later revolute or involute. It turns gray to black and the flat disk is ferruginous and warty. The gills are free, but very close and at first obtuse at both ends, soon splitting from the top of the pileus, but not from the margin. The spores are black, narrowly ovate and 12 to 13 by 6.5 microns. The stipe is 4 centimeters high, 1 to 1.5 millimeters thick, slightly attenuated upward, and is white, naked, and hollow. The fungus grows on rotted leaves. Coprinus fimbriatus B. et Br., Coprinus friesii Quelet. (Fig. 10), and Coprinus nebulosus Zoll, may also be found. The first two are commonly found growing on decaying Cocos nucifera Linn. trunks. Genus PANAEOLUS Gills not deliquescing, not waxy, united above to the hymenophore. Cap fleshy, not striate, with variegated gills exceeding the margin. Spores globose to elliptic. Stipe not annulate. The descriptions given have been primarily taken from those by Copeland.* PANAEOLUS PANAIENSE Copel. Panaeolus panaiense has a pileus which is 7 centimeters or less wide, conical, tawny, and fleshy. The surface is flocculose when dry and like blotting paper when wet. It has a fugacious veil. The gills are deep, adnate, and ashy gray. The spores are elliptical, 7.5 to 9 by 5.5 to 6.5 microns, and appendiculate. The stipe is 12 centimeters or less high, 1 centimeter thick, being equal, solid, and brittle. This species grows on horse manure. PANAEOLUS PSEUDOPAPILIONACEUS Copel. Panaeolus psedopapilionaceus has a pileus 1.5 to 3 centimeters wide, hemispherical, without umbo, whitish, not zonate, dry, naked, and subfleshy. Its gills are narrowly adnate. The stipe changes from nearly white to black and is 6 to 10 centimeters high, 1.5 to 3 millimeters thick in the middle and thicker toward both ends. It is white, powdery at the top, firn, with a narrow axial canal. The spores are 6.5 to 8 by 5 to 6 microns. This species grows on manured ground. * Copeland, Edwin Bingham. II. New species of edible Philippine fungi. Department of Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 28, pages 141-146, July, 1905.

Page  123 i / Ii ~ ~ ~ &L~ I I I t?, -I, A ': P '"S I - FIGURE 10. COPRINUS FRIESII. NATURAL SIZE. FIGURE 11. PANAEOLUS. DIFFERENT STAGES OF GROWTH.

Page  124 I 124 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Panaeolus papilionaceus (Fr.) Graff and Panaeolus veluticeps Cooke et Mass. are other edible species. (Fig. 11). Genus LENTINUS Pileus fleshy, coriaceus, tough; when old, hard and dry. Stem hard and often obsolete, when present continuous with hymenophore. Gills tough, simple, unequal, thin, edge acute, generally toothed; trama none. The Lentinus group of fungi are commonly eaten by the Filipinos. In general these fungi are rather tough and lacking in flavor, but a number are more or less tender and are rather highly prized. LENTINUS EXILIS KLOTZ. Lentinus exilis is the best of the edible types. It grows on putrescent wood and frequently on decaying bamboo roots and culms. The fungus has been cultivated on the dead roots and stem of Bambusa spinosa Roxb. (Bambusa blumeana Schultes.) (Fig. 12). In this picture Lentinus exilis, from first observation, resembles a Pleurotus, but this is due to the fungus growing from one side of the bamboo. Other specimens in the same group have a distinct stalk and a funnel-shaped pileus. It is a large white form. The pileus is papyraceous, rigid, infundibuliform, regular, and even. It is a radiately striate under a lens, pallid tawny, 7 to 10 centimeters broad. The stem is very short, smooth, 12 to 20 millimeters long, and girt by the vestiges of a ring. The gills are crowded, very decurrent in lines, nearly equal, tawny, and not torn. Besides this species the following are eaten, but are rather hard and tough: Lentinus connatus Berk., Lentinus leucochrols Lev., and Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Fig. 13). Genus MARASMIUS Fungi tough, dry, shrivelling, but not putrescent, and reviving when moistened. Hymenophore continuous with the stem, but homogeneous, descending into the trama. The veil is absent. Stem cartilaginous or horny. Gills tough, rather distant, and with acute edges. The fungi dry up instead of decaying when old. Some forms of Marasmius may be eaten. None are dangerous, but most are too small and tough. Marasmius equicrinis Muell. and Marasmius pilovus Kalch. are two small forms, not edible, that grow on dead wood. Marasmius capillipes Sacc. has been found growing on decaying Streblus asper Lour.

Page  125 ' a' 3bL... ~P rn 6,x.~~:, 1.. -rL1 'f' H ~a ~, C s*,~ b *:.. ib'~ 1"9 'i a"lr br ~i~ C ~iri9BP( c aYYLP - m 0 -w Q m I'l FIGURE 12. LENTINUS EXILIS. ON DECAYING STUMP OF BAMBOO. SLIGHTLY REDUCED.

Page  126 126 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Other species of Marasmius found, but which are too small to be edible, are Marasmius erumpens Mass., Marasmius patouillardi Sacc. et Syd., and Marasmius siccus Schw. Genus CORTINARIUS The spores are rusty-ochre, resembling in color peroxide ot iron. A veil is universal, like a cobweb, distinct from the cuticle of the pileus, of a different texture to the pileus, and consisting of arachnoid threads. A similar veil is found in Agaricus, but it is there either partial, or continuous with the cuticle of the pileus. The stem is superficial and confluent with the hymenophore. The gills are adnate, membranaceous, persistent, cinnamon-colored and powdery. The trama is floccose. Various species of Cortinarius found in the Philippines are edible. Genus VOLVARIA Fleshy, gills free, at first white, and later pink; spores ellipsoid, smooth and pink. Annulus none; volva present. It is easily distinguished from all other pink spored genera by the volva. The chief characteristics are that the bottom of the stipe of the mature fungus is borne in a cup or volva and that no ring or annulus is present. VOLVARIA ESCULENTA Bres. Volvaria esculenta is the most important and common edible species of the Agaricaceae found in the Philippines. It grows well on the decaying stems of abaka and banana, on rice straw, and other waste organic matter. The mature fungus is easily recognized by having pale, pinkish gills and a distinct volva or cup at the bottom of the stipe. No annulus or ring is present on the stem (Figs. 14 and 15). A complete description of the species is as follows. Pileus fleshy, nearly plane or slightly raised into an umbo, becoming broadly convex when old, slightly fragile, buckthorn brown, bearing fine, hair-like scales, flesh white, turning brown when dried; lamellae thin, free, white, becoming brown after six hours exposure to light; stipe tapering or slightly narrowed towards the top, white, becoming pale brown when old, solid and fleshy; volva mummy brown. No part of the volva remains on the top of the pileus in the form of scales; annulus absent; spore print pale brown; spores ovate, almost white, size 10 x 5 microns. Pileus 5-12 cm. broad; stipe 5-13 cm. long; 0.5-1.5 cm. thick; average weight of each mushroom 25 gm. Volvaria esculenta is highly prized by all the Filipinos and is collected during the proper season of growth. It is also cultivated in the abaka and the rice regions of the Islands on the de

Page  127 EDIBLE FUNGI 127 ~e.-6: ~s ~~~~~~~~~~cn -j C' 0 U, D!~ ~ O7 _1 rc z,~ ~~~~~~~~~~3 c o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r 'I.4 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~. '., ~ Z

Page  128 128 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS FIGURE 14. VOLVARIA ESCULENTA. SLIGHTLY REDUCED.

Page  129 EDIBLE FUNGI 129 2 \ FIGURE 15. VOLVARIA ESCULENTA. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. 177674-9 ^'/C I,,/ I14/

Page  130 130 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS caying hemp and rice trash. Vicencio,* who carried out preliminary studies on mushroom culture in the Philippines, gives the following as the local methods of culture. There are four methods of growing mushrooms in Pampanga; namely the rice-wash method, common salt method, bagasse method and banana method. The first two methods consist in piling chopped rice straw in a favorable place, usually under bamboo trees. The rice straw must be ten inches thick above the surface of the ground after being tramped by the feet. Those two are the same in all respects except that the solutions used for keeping them moist are different; for example, in the rice-wash method, the solution used is the washings from the rice before cooking. This liquid looks milky and contains water and starch. For the common salt method, the liquid is a weak brine, a solution containing one spoonful of salt to every eight liters of water. The bagasse method consists in piling together fine pieces of sugar-cane bagasse and heavily watering with sugar cane juice scum at least daily for one month, afterwards keeping the bed moist with water. The banana method consists of piling chopped banana trunks, stumps and leaves to a thickness of about one foot and a half or sometimes more. It is said by the natives that the thicker it is the better. As in the other cases, it should be watered to keep it moist. In all parts of these methods, it is important to note that no previous spawning is to be done in the bed. The growers have only to attend to the preparation of the bed, its care and the gathering of the mushrooms. Volvaria esculenta has an excellent flavor and a strong, pleasant, rice-straw odor. It will dry down well and can be kept in this condition for a long period (Fig. 16). Its odor and flavor is not lost in drying. These mushrooms can be successfully cultivated in the Philippines and this industry could be developed to such an extent that it would be unnecessary to import from China and Japan. Volvaria pruinosa Graff. grows on sandy beaches near salt water. Genus AGARICUS Spores of various colors; gills membranaceous, persistent, with an acute edge; trama floccose, confluent with the inferior hymenium. Fleshy fungi, putrifying, and not reviving when once dried, hence differing from such genera as are deliquescent, coriaceous, or woody. The general characters are the color of spores and the presence of a ring on the stipe and no cup or volva at the base of the stem. The genus is divided into five series according to the color of the spores. Species of Agaricus are found throughout the world and they comprise the chief edible mushrooms of commerce. * Vicencio, Arsenio Santos. A study of mushroom culture in the Philippines. The Philippine Agriculturist and Forester, Vol. 5 (1916), pages 119-128.

Page  131 EDIBLE FUNGI 131 "7... IGURE 16. VOLVARIA ESCULENTA. DRIED SPECIMEN. SLIGHTLY REDUCED. /~-,/ 5/ J

Page  132 132 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The descriptions of the various species have been taken primarily from those by Copeland.* AGARICUS ARGYROSTECTUS Copel. Agaricus argyrostectus is recognized by a pileus 3.5 centimeters wide passing from conical to convex-plane and by being shiny white, always naked, subfleshy, with unchanging gray flesh. It is without odor and has an agreeable taste. The gills are 3 millimeters deep, free, obtuse at both ends, gray at first, but later turning dark. The spores are 5.5 to 6 by 4 to 4.5 microns and without guttules. The stipe is 3 to 4 centimeters high, 4 to 3 millimeters thick, firmly attached to the pileus, terete, scarcely enlarged downward, and solid or nearly so. The annulus is membranous, pendent, and early breaking up and disappearing. The fungus is not common, growing in sunny pastures, and described from Davao. AGARICUS BOLTONI Copel. Agaricus boltoni has a pileus 10 to 15 centimeters wide, passing from globose through cylindrical and conical to more or less plane. It is clothed with brown scales, which are denser and larger toward the disk. The disk is fissured, plane, or subumbonate. It is fleshly, white, well flavored, and about odorless. The gills are numerous, crowded, free, 6 millimeters deep, white when young and ultimately dark brown. The spores have short basal appendages and are 8 to 9 by 5 to 6 microns. The stipe is 18 to 16 centimeters high, stout with g]obose base, and becoming hollow with age. The annulus is fixed, ample, persistent, declined, and subentire. The species is common in sunny pastures in Davao. (Fig. 17). AGARICUS LUZONENSIS Graff. The fungi of this species t are solitary and have a slight odor. The pileus is fleshy, convex to expanded, clothed completely, except for the solid red-brown center, with delicate red brown fibrils, the outer two-thirds showing the white flesh of the cap between. It is soft, smooth, with a thin margin, 7 to 9 centimeters in diameter. The flesh is white, 5 millimeters thick. The margin usually has remnants of the membranaceous veil attached. The stipe varies in diameter from 9 millimeters just * Copeland, Edwin Bingham. II. New species of edible Philippine fun.iDepartment of Interior, Bureau of Government Laboratories Publication No. 28, pages 141-146, July, 1905. t Graff, Paul O. Philippine Basidiomycetes, II. Philippine Journal of Science. Section C, Vol. 9 (1914), pages 235-254.

Page  133 H tri we td m M cc N FIGURE 17. AGARICUS BOLTONI. NATURAL SIZE.

Page  134 134 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS above the slightly swollen base to 6 millimeters at the insertion into the pileus. It is long, solid, fibrous throughout, white to light brown, and smooth except above the annulus, where it is slightly flocculent. The annulus is well up on the stipe and is membranaceous and persistent. The lamellae are white, but appear very dark at maturity of the fungus because of the color of the ripe spores. The lamellae are 6 millimeters broad, both ends obtuse with the margins minutely notched and showing the white color of the gills even at maturity. The basidia are club-shaped, 5.5 by 19 microns. The spores are dark brown, small, elliptic, 2.5 to 3 by 5 to 5.5 microns, often uniguttulate. AGARICUS MANILENSIS Copel. Agaricus manilensis has a convex, smooth, aquamulose pileus with a disk that is flat and dark brown. It is subfleshy and becomes white toward the margin, where the scales are sparse. The gills are free and rounded toward the stipe, turning from rose to dark brown. The spores are about 7.5 by 4 microns, are obtuse and oblique at the base. The stipe is 5 centimeters high, 2.5 centimeters thick, equal, naked, smooth, and hardly solid. The annulus is fixed, entire, and convex upward. The fungus grows in lawns. AGARICUS MERRILLII Copel. Agaricus merrillii is a large species, sometimes 10 centimeters high and wide, almost without taste or odor, the pileus is naked or scaly, turning from white to brown, shining, subfleshy, and truncate or with concave apex when young. Sometimes umbonate in the middle of the depression, when old it is plane, with a horizontal, entire, or incised border, 1 to 2 millimeters broad, derived from the veil. It has about 250 gills that are crowded, 5 millimeters deep, subacute at the margin, salmoncolored when the veil ruptures, finally turning black brown. The spores are minute, uninucleate, 6 by 3.5 microns. Tile veil ruptures late. The annulus is high up, white on both sides, floccose without, very lacerate and pendent. The stipe is somewhat contracted toward the top, abruptly enlarged at the base, solid or nearly so, and whitish or turning brown outside and inside. This species grows terrestrial under trees. (Fig. 18). AGARICUS PERFUSCUS Copel. Agaricus perfuscus is characterized by the entire fungus being brown, darkening with age, odorless and with a good taste. The pileus is early expanded, 3 to 4 centimeters widec undulate, squamulose, subfleshy, with disk slightly depressed,

Page  135 ~ z FIGURE 18. AGARICUS MERRILII. NATURAL SIZE. FIGURE 19. AGARICUS MERRILII. NATURAL SIZE. co

Page  136 136 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS and the margin strongly but deciduously appendaged. The gills are free, close, obtuse at both ends, and 4 millimeters deep. The spores are elliptical, 6 to 6.5 by 4.5 microns, and obscurely 1 or 2 guttulate. The stipe is 3 to 4 centimeters high, and 3 to 4 millimeters thick, also equal, firm, naked, and subhollow. The annulus is high up and fugacious. This species grows on manured ground. Agarics growing on the lawn frequently produce "Fairy Rings" (Fig. 25). Genus PLEUROTUS Edge of the gills entire, not canaliculate or split. Fleshy, putrescent, not reviving when wet. Trama of the pileus not vesiculose; spores typically smooth, gills more or less fleshy, readily separable into two layers. Stipe excentric or none. The general characters of Pleurotus are that it grows like a shelf fungus with a stalk from one side, instead of a central typical stalk as with other mushrooms. All species are edible. PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS Jacq. This is one of the most sought for forms. (Fig. 19). It varies in shape according to where it is growing, either on the side or on top of a log. In some cases the plant may have a definite lateral stem, but frequently no stem is produced. The cap is white to gray and varies from 4 to 20 centimeters broad. It is soft and fleshy, being thicker towards the place of attachment. The gills are broad and white, not crowded and decurrent if a stem is present. The spores are white, or a pale purple. The stem if present is short, white, and without ring or volva. Pleurotus noctilucens (Lev.) Sacc. grows on dead wood, and Pleurotus striatulus Fries, has been found growing on dead parts of Urena lobata Linn. var. sinuata (Linn.) Gagnepain. The latter fungi are rather small. Pleurotus applicatus Fr. var. cytidiatus Pat. may also be found on dead wood. Genus COLLYBIA Pileus between fleshy and tough, at length rather leathery, sulcate, or corrugated; margin at first involute. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, mycelium floccose, sometimes not manifest. The fungi of this genus are commonly found growing from termite nests. COLLYBIA ALBUM INOSA (Berk.) Petch. Collybia albuminosa is the common form of Agaric that grows from termite nests. It is found throughout the tropics (Figs. 20 and 21).

Page  137 i FIGURE 19. PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS. (OYSTER MUSHROOM) NATURAL SIZE.

Page  138 138 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus TRICHOLOMA Edge of the gills entire, not canaliculate or split. Fleshy, putrescent, not reviving when wet. Edge of gills acute, not foldlike. Trama of the pileus not dehiscing; spores typicaly smooth. Gills more or less fleshy, readily separable into two layers. Stipe central or nearly so. Hymenophore homogeneous and confluent with the fleshy or fibrous elastic stipe. Stipe not annulate or volvate. Gills adnate or sinuate, not decurrent, stout and fleshy; stipe and pileus of the same substance. Tricholoma tenuis Graff grows in lawns. Genus LEPIOTA Fleshy putrescent, not reviving when wet. Edge of gills acute, not fold-like. Traxma of the pileus not vesiculose; spores typically smooth. Gills more or less fleshy, readily separated into two layers. Stipe central or nearly so, not volvate, but annulate. Hymenophore discrete from the fleshy stipe. The general characters are the presence of a ring or annulus and the absence of a cup or volva on the stipe. Some species are edible, but others are poisonous, being especially toxic to certain people. Lepiota chlorospora has been reported as an edible species. This form, however, is extremely poisonous to certain individuals and consequently should always be avoided. It can easily be recognized in the mature stage, by the greenish gills (Fig. 22). The descriptions of the species have been primarily taken from those by Copeland. LEPIOTA CANDIDA Copel. Lepiota candida has no odor and a mild taste. The pileus is 7 centimeters wide, flat, strongly umbonate, dry, shining, and almost naked. The disk is fleshy, the margin thin, substriate, minutely crenate, and the flesh is unchanging. The gills are free, close, very crowded, lanceolate, subacute at both ends, thin, and white. The spores are 9.5 by 6 microns, hyaline, guttulate, and apiculate. The stipe is 15 centimeters high, 5 millimeters thick near the top, with a narrow axial hollow, much enlarged, but not bulbous in the solid lower part. It is naked, shining white, deeply sunken into the disk, but not confluent with it. The annulus is high up and deciduous. It is well characterized by the strongly fusiform lower third of the stipe. The fungus grows solitary in sunny grass plots.

Page  139 EDIBLE FUNGI 139 FIGURE 20. COLLYBIA ALBUMINOSA (TERMITE FUNGUS). X 1/2. FIGURE 21. COLLYBIA ALBUMINOSA (TERMITE FUNGUS). X 1/2/' I, I i t( ^

Page  140 140 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS LEPIOTA CHLOROSPORA Copel. (Poisonous). Lepiota chlorospora has a fleshy pileus, passing from globose through campanulate to broadly conical. It is 8 centimeters wide and 4 centimeters high, with the periphery sometimes explanate. The disk is brown, with an entire or fissured cap. The periphery is sparsely clothed with pale brown scales and fibers. It is white near the entire or subciliate margin. The gills are free, remote, 5 centimeters long, 8 millimeters deep, and are crowded, narrowed toward the stipe, white at first, turning a greenish blue. Their edges are made of hyaline vesicles, 25 to 35 by 20 microns. The spores are hyaline-green, 8 by 5 microns, smooth, short stalked, each with a single large globule containing the green pigment. The stipe is 8 to 10 centimeters high and 6 to 8 millimeters thick. It is straight or crooked, knotted, firmly attached to the pileus, and brown outside and inside, with a white pith. The annulus is 1 centimeter broad, conspicuous, fixed, persistent, split in its own plane, and white above until discolored by the spores. The fungus grows in lawns. This species is poisonous to the majority of people. It can be readily told by the green gills of the mature forms (Fig. 22). LEPIOTA ELATA Copel. Lepiota elata has a mild odor and taste. The pileus is conical at first, but soon flattens. It is 4 to 6 centimeters wide, umbonate, fleshy, silky-squamulose about the disk, elsewhere naked. The margin is substriate, broadly reflexed when old. The disk is brownish with white periphery, but turning dark red. The gills also turn from white to dark wine colored. They are free, close, crowded, and ventricose. The spores are hyaline, symmetrical, from 9 to 10 by 5 to 6 microns. The stipe is 5 to 8 centimeters high and 5 millimeters thick at the middle, somewhat thickened downward, but not bulbous, and is naked, with an axial canal. The ring is attached midway, and is free, convex, narrow, entire, brown, fugacious, and sometimes attached to the margin of the pileus. The fungus grows in manured lawns. LEPIOTA FUSCO-SQUAMEA Peck. (Leviota manilensis Covel.) Lepiota fusco-squamea has an excellent flavor and almost no odor. The pileus is 5 to 9 centimeters wide, campanulate-conical, later flat, subumbonate, and striate near the margin. The disk is densely clothed with minute brown scales which become sparse toward the margin. The flesh is whitish and unchanging. The gills are free, not attached to a collar, crowded, deep, whitish, I

Page  141 0, ^. *-i aF ^'.^~rrsc '~.-*; '" ^r" L p~~~~r ri ~4 a~~~~~~~*~,. an~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~4 'o~~~~~~~~% V l ' 1 ll;~ e C z t-l til ci FIGURE 22. LEPIOTA CHLOROSPORA. POISONOUS. SLIGHTLY REDUCED.

Page  142 142 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS and subacute at both ends. The spores are variable, commonly 10 by 7 microns. The largest are 13 to 15 by 7.5 to 9 microns and hyaline. The stipe is 10 centimeters or less high, 1 centimeter thick, firm, equal or somewhat thickened downward, with an axial canal. It is white or pale brown, and naked. The ring is movable, or half fixed, entire, with a dark brown margin. The fungus has been observed growing around Pithccolobium and Terminalia. Lepiota cepaestipes (Sow.) Quel., Lepiota pulcherrima Graff, Lepiota revelata B. et Br., and Lepiota sulphopenita Graff are other edible species. They have the general external characters of the other described forms. Family LYCOPERDACEAE Genus LYCOPERDON Peridium membranaceous, single, the subpersistent cortex becoming broken up into warts or spines, dehiscing by a small apical mouth, or the whole of the upper part evanescent, capillitium dense, springing from the more or less developed sterile basal stratum; spores globose or elliptical, externally rough or smooth. The Lycoperdons are commonly called puff balls. All species are non-poisonous, but some are unsavory. LYCOPERDON LILACINUM (Mont. et Berk.) Speg. Lycoperdon lilacinum is broadly obovate or turbinate, 5 to 10 centimeters high, 5 to 8 centimeters broad (Fig. 23). It is contracted below into a stout, cellular, stem-like base. The peridium is thin and evanescent above, dehiscing by large irregular opening. The cortex is white, polished, and breaking away in papery patches. The threads are thinner than the diameter of the spores. The spores are violet with a tinge of ochre, echinulate, globose, and measure 6 microns. The fungus grows on the ground and is the largest edible form. LYCOPERDON PUS ILLUM Batsch. (Lycoperdon todayense Copel.) Lycoperdon pusillum has a peridium that is obovate, or pyriform, 1 to 2 centimeters in height, and 1 to 1.5 centimeters in thickness. It is plicate at the base, entire above, and clothed when young with deciduous warts or flakes which are hyaline when moist, later finely and obscurely areolate. They are while at first, turning yellow, and opening by a small aperture at the top. The fertile gleba is very distinct from the sterile. T1he base is cellular. The spores are globose, smooth, 3.5 to 4 mn

Page  143 EDIBLE FUNGI 143.JpW FIGURE 23. LYCOPERDON LILACINUM (GIANT PUFF BALL). OLD SPECIMEN. REDUCED. FIGURE 24. SCLERODERMA VERRUCOSUM (PUFF BALL). NATURAL SIZE. I,

Page  144 144 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS crons in diameter. The capillitium is rudimentary, irregular and thick. The fungus grows in tufts about the base of a Musa and is rather small for eating. LYCOPERDON PYRIFORME Schaeff. Lycoperdon pyriforme is pyriform, membranous, 3 to 8 centimeters high, and rather umbonate. It is dehiscent by a small, torn mouth covered with minute pointed warts, but becoming smooth. The roots are composed of numerous white, long, branching fibers. The threads are thicker than the spores, branched, continuous with the slightly cellular, sterile base, and forming a columella. The spores are olive, smooth, globose, and 4 microns in diameter. This puff ball grows on stumps or on the soil and is one of the larger forms. Lycoperdon cepiforme Bull., Lycoperdon furfuraceum Schaeff., Lycoperdon polymorphum Vitt., Lycoperdon plicatum Berk. et Curt., Lycoperdon pratense Schum., Lycoperdon roseur Zoll., and Lycoperdon vanderystii Bres. are other forms which are edible, but which are usually small. Genus SCLERODERMA Peridium firm, corticate, dehiscing irregularly; flocci adhering everywhere to the peridium and forming minute cells, in which are produced the glomerules of spores, without peridiola; rooting, but without a distinct stem. SCLERODERMA VERRUCOSUM Bull. The peridium of Scleroderma verrucosum is rounded, at first rigid, and then fragile. It is dehiscent determinately at the apex, covered with an adnate persistent cortex, and is smooth, rather verrucose, areolate, or even, and a dingy yellowish. It is usually produced downwards into a short stipitiform base, or it is sometimes sessile. The gleba is dark purple, and the flocci are lax and a greyish tawny. The spores are at first brownish, then pale purplish, globose, and rough. Scleroderma verrucosum is one of the common puff bulls growing in abundance on the soil (fig. 24). Scleroderma aurantiacum Pers., Scleroderma dictyosporu'n Pat., and Scleroderma vulgare Fr. are other puff balls that may be found growing on the soil. PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES The edible fungi are not confined to one general group, but range from low forms, the Auriculariaceae, to the higher forms in the Agaricaceae and Lycoperdaceae. These groups include the taingang-dagd or rat's-ear types, the pore fung,

Page  145 P-3 -< OS t 0 01 FIGURE 25. FAIRY RING OF EDIBLE FUNGI.

Page  146 146 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS the gill fungi, and the puff balls. Practically all taingangdagd or rat's-ear types are edible and a large majority of the pore fungi and gill fungi can be eaten with safety. The puff balls can all be safely eaten. Some of these forms while not poisonous can not be used as an article of diet on account of a lack in-flavor and a tough texture. Since a few mushrooms are poisonous, the only safe way to use particular forms as food is to become acquainted rith the individual species of fungi that can be used as an article of diet. While a large number of the edible forms have been described and pictured in the preceding pages, a few practical methods of determining whether or not the fungi are poisonous may not be out of place. The physiological test is advocated for persons who are willing to practice upon themselves. This test consists in first tasting a small piece of the fungus without swallowing any of the juice. If after one-half of an hour no discomfort is noticed, a larger piece, the size of a small pea, may be chewed up and swallowed. If no poisoning symptoms arise after one-half hour the fungus may be regarded as edible. All fungi that have a disagreeable flavor would naturally be discarded in this test, even though they were not poisonous. Besides the physiological test, a number of other rules should not be neglected by beginners. The structure and spore color of the gill mushrooms is often an indication of their edibility. These mushrooms all have a cap and stem. Some species may have a volva which is a membranous envelop or sac at the base of the stem; while other species may have an annulus or ring about the stem just below the cap. The color of the gills in mature mushrooms depends upon the color of the spores. Various colors such as white yellow, brown, purplish, dark brown, or black may be found. There are mushrooms which have a cup at the base and a ring on the stem. Fungi having white spores, indicated by white gills, and both a cup at the base and a ring about the stem should be discarded as poisonous. Mushrooms with black spores or gills are generally edible. They frequently have a ring around the stem, but no cup at the base as is true of the agarics. The Volvaria edible forms described have pinkish spores and gills, no ring about the stem, but a distinct cup or volva at base of the stem. Other precautionary measures that should be observed by beginners are the following: Avoid fungi when in the button or unexpanded stage. Avoid those in which the flesh has begun to decay, even if only slightly.

Page  147 A! 1I PI rI 1, L.,t, i' I tI I EDIBLE FUNGI 147 Avoid those forms which have white spores or gills as well as a ring and cup on the stem. Avoid fungi in which the cap, or pileus, is thin in proportion to the gills, and in which the gills are nearly all of equal length, especially if the pileus is brightly colored. Avoid fungi having a milky juice, unless the milk is reddish. Avoid all tube bearing fungi in which the flesh changes color when cut or broken or when the mouths of the tubes are reddish, and in the case of other tube bearing fungi experiment with caution. Fungi which have a sort of spider web or flocculent ring around the upper part of the stalk should in general be avoided. USES AND METHODS OF COOKING The Auriculariaceae are most generally eaten by the Chinese. The fungi are first soaked in water and when soft they are thoroughly cleaned in several changes of water. They are then commonly cooked with rice and noodles. Another method of preparation is, after thorough cleaning, to fry with grease in a pan and then to add to meat, shrimp, rice, and noodles. Frequently they are eaten alone after frying. Various receipts for cooking mushrooms are used. The gill fungi and puff balls are best eaten after frying or stewing with no seasoning except some grease for frying and pepper and salt. The caps of the agarics should be carefully washed. Peeling is unnecessary. The stems, unless too tough, should be cooked up specially in the form of stews. The mushrooms should be prepared as soon as possible after picking. The time required for stewing varies from 5 to 40 minutes according to the variety and tenderness. Mushrooms may be canned in glass jars, after thorough boiling. They may also be preserved by drying in the sun or in an oven. After all moisture has been removed, they should be packed in perfectly tight containers. The Auriculariaceae are generally collected in the fresh state and then dried in the sun. They remain in perfect condition indefinitely when placed in proper containers. After a preliminary soaking in water, during which they assume their normal fresh state, they may be cooked as if fresh. The common commercial mushroom, Volvaria escalenta may be dried successfully in the sun and then stored in a perfectly tight vessel (Fig. 16). Before cooking, these forms should first be soaked in water and then cooked as if fresh. Little flavor seems to be lost by this species in drying, e I i i I:, L k iI 6' I I II,I I I I

Page  148 N

Page  149 MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS By LEON MARIA GUERRERO 149

Page  150

Page  151 I MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS CONTENTS Page. INTRODUCTION.......-........ —. 163 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIE S................ ----------—................167 Algae..-..-..........-............... —... 167 Gracillaria lichenoides (gulaman)...............^..................... 167 Family Polypodiaceae.................-.. —...........-.. 167 Acrostichum aureum (lag6lo).....-.......-................ 167 Adiantum philippense (kaikai)..-....-.................. 167 Asplenium macrophyllum (pak6ng-gubat).................... -167 Drynaria quercifolia (pakpdk-lduin)....... —.......... -................ 168 Oleandra neriiformis (kaliskis-dhas).................................. 168 Onychium siliculosum (pak6ng-anuang) -.. -.......................... —. 168 Family Schizaeaceae....................................-............ ---. 168 Lygodium circinnatum (nito)...-..... —...-.......-............ 168 Family Cycadaceae.......-..... —.......-.... ---...... 168 Cycas rumphii (pit6go)..... —.................. -..... —........... --- -- 168 Family Typhaceae..-..............-......................................... 169 Typha angustifolia (cat-tail) -...........................-..,- 169 Family Pandanaceae.....-............................. 169 Pandanus tectorius (common or beach pandan).......... —.... 169 Family Hydrocharitaceae...................... —...................-. 169 Ottelia alismoides (kalab6a)...... —................. 169 Family Gramineae...-... —........-.......... 169 Andropogon aciculatus (tinldi).............................................. 169 Andropogon citratus (tangldd or lemon grass).. —........ 169 Andropogon sorghum (batad) -........-.. -..........-......... 170 Andropogon zizanioides (vetiver or moras).-......-...... 170 Bambusa spinosa (spiny bamboo).-.....-....-............................ 170 Bambusa vulgaris (kawdyan-kiling).............-.........-.. 170 Coix lachryma-jobi (tigbi or Job's tears) --—.... —.......... 170 Cynodon dactylon (bermuda grass).......-............................... 170 Eleusine indica (palagtiki or yard grass) ----—.. ---------—.... 170 Imperata cylindrica var. koenigii (k6gon).............................. 171 Oryza sativa (rice)...............-.............-......-.. 171 Panicum stagninum (urar6i)............ —................... 171 Paspalum scrobiculatum,.........................-.............. 171 Schizostachyum dielsianum -...... ---... -.............. 171 Zea mays (corn).....- -............................. 172 Family Cyperaceae —.............. ---.................... 172 Kyllinga monocephala (busikad).........-........-.................. 172 Family Palmae........ —.......-.. -............................ 172 Areca catechu (bufiga or betel palm).-.. —.. -.................. 172 Areca hutchinsoniana (pisa) -......-.......... ---............. 172 151

Page  152 152 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Family Palmae-Continued. Page. Arenga pinnata (kaong or sugar palm)............................... 172 Cocos nucifera (coconut palm)..................................-......... 173 Corypha elata (buri)............................................... 173 Family Araceae............................................................ 173 Acorus calamus (lubigan or sweet flag)................................ 173 Alocasia majcrorrhiza (biga).......................-............- -....... 173 Amorphophallus campanulatus (pufngpuin)......................... 173 Cyrtosperma merkusii (palau&n)...................................... 173 Homalomena philippinensis (tahig)........................................... 174 Rhaphidophora merrillii (aml6ng)....................................... 174 Typhonium divaricatum................................................. 174 Family Flagellariaceae.......................................................... 174 Flagellaria indica (baling-uai).-.................................. 174 Fam ily Comm elinaceae.......................................................................... 174 Commelina benghalensis (sabilau)................................... 174 Family Liliaceae............................................................ 175 Allium cepa (onion)....-............................................175 Allium sativum (bauang or garlic)............................ —.. 175 Sanseviera zeylanica (sinawa)............................-......... 175 Smilax bracteata (banag)............................. 175 Smilax china (ubi-ubihan)........ —........................ ----..175 Smilax leucophylla (hampas-tigbalang).............................. 175 Family Amaryllidaceae........................................................ 176 Crinum asiaticum (bakong).............................. 176 Curculigo orchioides................................................... 176 Eurycles amboinensis (katainal).......................... 176 Hymenocallis littorale..............._............................. 176 Polianthes tuberosa (azucena or tuberose)...............-....... 177 Family Diolscoreaceae..................................-. 177 Dioscorea hispida (nami).........-.....-.................. 177 Fam ily M usaceae...................................................................... 177 Musa errans var. botoan (butuhan)..-..................... -— 177 Family Zingiberaceae........................................... --- —----—. 177 Alpinia pyramidata (langkauas).-.....-............................ 177 Costus speciosus.................................................................. 177 Curcuma longa (dilaui or turmeric)...................................... 177 Kaempferia galanga (dos6l)....................................... 178 Kaempferia rotunda.................................._....... ___...... ',,____178 Kolowratia elegans (tagbak)....................................... 178 Zingiber zerumbet (bar k)...................................................... 78 Family Cannaceae................................................. 78 Canna indica (canna)................................ 78 Family M arantaceae.......-.................................-........-..- -- 179 Donax cannaeformis (bamban)................................... 179 Fam ily Orchidaceae..........1................................................. 179 Geodorum nutans...................-........................................ 179 Family Casuarinaceae........................................................... 79 Casuarina equisetifolia (ag6ho).......................... 1..179

Page  153 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 153 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Page. Family Piperaceae.-.....-.. ---.- -....-............. 179 Piper betle (bfyo or betel pepper)....................................... 179 Piper nigrum..-........................................... 180 Piper retrofractum......-......-.................................. 180 Family Chloranthaceae -...-........................... 180: Chloranthus brachystachys.. —........ —.......-... 180 Family Moraceae......-..................................... 180 Artocarpus communis (antip6lo).................................................. 180 Artocarpus cumingiana (anubing) -.....................-.............. 180 Artocarpus integra (nangka)....-.....................-............... 180 Fatoua pilosa (sikkir) -..............-.................................... 181 Ficus hauili (hauili)......................................................181 Ficus minahassae (hagimit)............................................. 181 Ficus payapa (payapa)........................................................... 181 Malaisia scandens (malaisis)..................................-.....-.... 181 Streblus asper (kali6s).........-.................-........ 182 Family Urticaceae........................................................ 182 Fleurya interrupta (lip&ng-aso).................................................. 182 Laportea meyeniana (lipang-kalabau)...............-1..................... 82 Pilea microphylla...................... —..................... 182 Pouzolzia zeylanica..................-.................. 182 Family Aristolochiaceae.......................-. -183 Aristolochia sericea (pang-gisi) —.........-..........-........ 183 Aristolochia tagala (timbangian)........................................... 183 Family Polygonaaceae............................ — 183 Polygonum barbatum (subsuban)..........-......-.........-..........183 Family Chenopodiaceae..........-........ —..................... 183 Chenopodium ambrosioides (alpas6tes)................................. 183 Family Amaranthaceae........-........................................................ 184 Achyranthes aspera (rag-ragadi) -........-...............1.......... 184 Aerua lanata (karlakem)..................................-...............184 Amaranthus spinosus (kalunai)............................. —......... 184 Celosia argentea (kadai6han)..................-................ 184 Family Portul acace ae.......-................-...................................... 185 Portulaca oleracea (gulasiman)..................-................... 185 Family Basellaceae....-............-...............-....185 Basella rubra (libato)..-.................-......................... 185 Family Nymphaeaceae..............-...............................-................. 185 Nelumbium nelumbo (b&ino or lotus)............-.....-.........-...- - 185 Family Menispermaceae -----..-...-.... --- —-----------—......... --- —------ - 185 Anamirta cocculus (ligtang)................1..............................85 Arcangelisia flava (abutra)................................................. 185 Arcangelisia flava (abutra)..................... —..............-......... 185 Cissampelos pareira (kalaad).............................1.............. 186 Pycnarrhena manillensis (ambal).....-.................................... 186 Stephania japonica (maratugi).-............ _.....-......... 186 Tinomiscium philippinense (baiating)...................................... 186 Family Annonaceae....-...........................187 Alphonsea arborea (bol6n).................................-.............. 187 Goniothalamus amuyon (amuiyong)....................1................ 187

Page  154 154 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Page. Family Lauraceae............................................................ 187 Cinnamomum mercadoi (kalifngag).-......................... 187 Cinnamomum mindanaense (Mindanao cinamon).. —..... ---. 187 Litsea glutinosa (sabl6t)....... -......-..-.. - —...-.. ---—...... 187 Family Capparidaceae.................................-..................188 Capparis horrida (halubagat-bdging)............. ---. —.............. 188 Capparis micracantha (halubagat-kahoi)..-............-............. 188 Crataeva religiosa (balai-lam6k)......... —.........................188 Gynandropsis gynandra (manabo)........................................ 188 Family Moringaceae....................-......-............................. 188 Moringa oleifera (malunggdi or horse-radish tree).... --- —- 188 Family Pittosporaceae...............-.................. 189 Pittosporum pentandrum (mamalis)..........-.....-................... 189 Family Leguminosae................-................................... 189 Abrus precatorius (kansasaga or prayer-bean)................. 189 Adenanthera intermedia (tanglin)......................................... 189 Bauhinia malabarica (alibangb&ng)......... ......................... 189 Caesalpinia crista (kalumbibit)..-... —........-...................- 189 Cassia alata (acapdlco)................................................................. 190 Cassia fistula (cania-fistula)..........................-.............. 190 Cassia mimosoides (kalanda)....-............................... 190 Cassia occidentalis (andadasi).............-.............-............ 190 Cassia sophera (tambalisa)........................-.............. 190 Cassia tora...-.... --- -.-.-.... ---....-...................... 191 Dalbergia cumingiana (tahid-labuio)...................................... 191 Dalbergia ferruginea (kamut-kabag)..-.................................. 191 Entada phaseoloides (g6go)..-.................................................. 191 Euchresta horsfieldii.... ---...... ---..................... 191 Mimosa pudica (makahia)................................... 191 Mucuna nigricans (nip&i)..................................-.........., 192 Phaseolus aureus (balitong).....-........................... 192 Pongamia pinnata (bani).....................................................192 Pterocarpus blancoi (Blanco's narra) -----..................... 192 Sophora tomentosa (sandalaitan)..................-.................. 192 Family Oxalidaceae.................................-.,,...... 193 Averrhoa bilimbi (kamias)..........-...-....-.................... 193 Averrhoa carambola (balimbing)...... --- —.....-.................... 193 Biophytum sensitivum (mahihiyain)......-.................................. 193 Fam ily Rutaceae.................................................................................. 193 Chaetospermum glutinosum (tabuiyok)...........-.......-........ 193 Citrus maxima (pomelo or lukban)....................................... 193 Clausena anisum-olens (kayumanis)................................... 194 Lunasia amara (lunas).......................-............................194 Micromelum minutum......................................................- 194 Murraya paniculata (kamuning)......................................... 194 Toddalia asiatica.-1.......................................................... 194 Zanthoxylum avicennae (kiangai)..........-1............................... 195 Zanthoxylum rhetsa.......................................................................... 195

Page  155 I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 155 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Page. lamily Simarubaceae,.,,,,,..-..,,,....... 195 Brucea am arissim a.......................................................................... 195 Harrisonia perforata (mamikil)........................................... 195 Samadera indica (manunggal)......................................... 196 Family Burseraceae.....................,,...............-..... — 196 Canarium luzonicum (pili)....................-...-....-..-.-.... -- 196 Canarium villosum (pagsahifn gin).......................................... 196 Garuga abilo (b ogo)....................................................................... 196 Family Meliaceae.................. —....-... 196 Chisocheton pentandrus (katong-machin)..............1................ 196 Dysoxylum decandrum (agaru)...... —..................................... 197 Melia azedarach (paraiso)..............1.......... —..................... 197 Sandoricum koetjape (santol)............................................... 197 Xylocarpus granatum (tabigi)............................ 197 Family Euphorbiaceae....-........ -..... ---- --------------- 197 Acalypha indica...................................... 197 Aleurites moluccana (lumbang)..........................................- 197 Aleurites trisperma (bagilumbang).............1.......................... 198 Breynia rhamnoides (matang-hipon)....................................-. 198 Cicca acida (iba).......................-......... ---.... —..-.... 198 Croton tiglium (croton-oil plant)..............-..-........-.......-...... 198 Euphorbia hirta (gatas-gatas).................................................. 198 Euphorbia neriifolia...............1.............. --- ——......... 198 Euphorbia thymifolia............................... --- —- 199 Euphorbia tirucalli (consuelda)...........-....-. —...................- 199 Excoecaria agallocha (buta-buta)................................... 199 Homonoia riparia (mafngagos).................................-.......- 199 Jatropha curcas (tubang-bdkod or physic nut)............. —. 200 Jatropha multifida (mand)................................................ 200 Macaranga grandifolia (biingabing).....-... —............. -........... 200 Macaranga tanarius (biniiunga)...............................,,.-....... 200 Mallotus philippensis (banato)................................. 200 Manihot utilissima (kamoteng-kdhoi)..................................... 201 Melanolepis multiglandulosa (alim)..-....................... -----— 201 Phyllanthus niruri (talikud).........................-............. 201 Phyllanthus reticulatus (matang-buyuid)........20 —...-1.....-..-.. - 201 Ricinus communis (tafngan-tiangan or castor-oil plant)...... 201 Family Anacardiaceae......................................... 202 Anacardium occidentale (kasui or cashew nut). —........-... 202 Mangifera indica (mango)............................................ 202 Semecarpus cuneiformis (ligas).....,......,................ 202 Spondias purpurea (siniguelas)........-......-............ ----.... 202 Family Celastraceae.......................... ----.. -202 Celastrus paniculata (langitngit)..-.-........-..... —...... —......... 202 Lophopetalum toxicum (abuab)........-...-....-.......... ---—.. —. 203 Family Hippocrateaceae................. —....... 203 Salacia prinoides (matang-ulang)...,............-......-...-.....-. 203 Family Icacinac eae..................................................................... 203 Gonocaryum calleryanum (taiingang-babui)............................ 203 I i i

Page  156 156 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. I'age. Fam ily Sapindaceae......................................................................... 203 Cardiospermum halicacabum (lagup6k)...... ---.. --- —--------.... 203 Dodonaea viscosa (kasirag)............................-............................. 204 Guioa koelreuteria (alahan).................................................... 204 Harpullia arborea (uas)........................ ---------— 204 Lepidopetalum perrottetii (dapil)........................................... 204 Family Balsaminaceae............................................................ 205 Impatiens balsamina (kamantigi)............................................ 205 Family Rhamnaceae...............-...........-............. 205 Colubrina asiatica (kabatiti)..................................................... 205 Ventilago dichotoma (salapan)............................................. 205 Zizyphus jujuba (manzanitas)................................................... 205 Family Vitaceae.....-............................................... 206 Cissus quadrangularis (sugp6n-sugp6n).............................. 206 Columella trifolia (ariuat).............................................. 206 Leea aculeata (mali-mali).....................................206 Leea manillensis (amamali).................................... 206 Tetrastigma harmandii (ayo).............................................. 207 Family Tiliaceae.................2.......... 207 Corchorus acutangulus (pasau na haba).................................... 207 Corchorus capsularis (pasau na bil6g).................................... 207 Corchorus olitorius (pasau or jute)......................................... 207 Muntingia calabura (datiles)............................................... 207 Triumfetta bartramia (kulot-kul6tan)...................................... 207 Fam ily M alvaceae............................................................................ 208 Abelmoschus moschatus (kastuli)............................................... 208 Abutilon indicum (giling-gilifigan)................................. 208 H ibiscus esculentus (okra)............................................................ 208 Hibiscus mutabilis (mapula)...........................................208 Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (gumamela)............................................ 208 Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle)............................................ 209 Hibiscus tiliaceus (balibago)................................................... 209 Malachra capitata (bakembakes)........................................... 209 Malvastrum coromandelinum (salsaluyut)............................. 209 Sida acuta (takim-baka)...............................................209 Sida cordifolia........................................................209 Sida javensis (S. humilis) (igat-igat)...................................... 209 Thespesia populnea (bandlo).................................................... 210 Urena lobata (kollokoll6t)..........................................2.....10 Fam ily Bombacaceae................................................2...10 Bombax ceiba (m alabdlak)..................................................... 210 Ceiba pentandra (cotton tree or kapok)................................ 10 Fam ily Sterculiaceae.............................................210 Abroma fastuosa (anab6).......'..............................211 Kleinhovia hospita (tan-dg)....................................................... 10 Pentapetes phoenicea (flores de las doce)............................ 211 Pterocymbium tinctorium (taluto,)....................................211 Pterospermum diversifolium (bay6k)................................2... 11 Sterculia foetida (kalumpang)....................................... 211

Page  157 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 157 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Family Sterculiaceae-Continued. Page. Theobroma cacao (cacao) -................................-........... 211 Waltheria americana (barubad)............-......................... 212 Family Dilleniaceae........-.............. --- ——...........-.. 212 Dillenia philippinensis (katm6n).. -..........212 Family Guttiferae........................................................... 212 Calophyllum blancoi (bitanh6l)...............-..-............-....... 212 Calophyllum inophyllum (bitaog or palomaria de la playa).. 212 Cratoxylon blancooi (guyong-gfiyong)................-.................... 212 Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen)...................................-..... 213 Family Bixaceae.-....-........-...................... 213 Bixa orellana (achuete or annatto).-.............................. 213 Family Caricaceae........................................................ 213 Carica papaya (papaya).......-..............,.........213 Family Thymelaeaceae......................................................213 Gyrinopsis cumingiana (butl6).....-............................. 213 Wikstroemia ovata (round-leaf salago).......................-........ 214 Family Lythraceae.-... -—...................................... 214 Ammannia baccifera (apoi-ap6ian)...................-.............. 214 Lawsonia inermis (henna or cinamomo)..........................-..... 214 Family Lecythidaceae........................................................ 214 Barringtonia acutangula (kalambuaia)...........................-......... 214 Barringtonia asiatica (b6tong)...................-.......... 214 Barringtonia racemosa (pitat)......-...................................... 215 Family Combretaceae.......-.......................... 215 Lumnitzera racemosa (kulasi)..........................................215 Quisqualis indica (niug-niugan or tafngolon)........................ 215 Terminalia calamansanai (malakalumpit)....................-.......... 215 Terminalia catappa (talisai).......................................... 215 Terminalia comintana (binggas)...................................... 216 Terminalia edulis (kalumpit)............................................... 216 Family Myrtaceae................................................216 Decaspermum fruticosum (patalsik)............................... 216 Eugenia cumini (duihat)........-.....................................216 Psidium guajava (guava or bayabas)...................................... 216 Family Melastomataceae..-........................................217 Memecylon ovatum (kulis) -................................................... 217 Fam ily A raliaceae...........................................................217 Nothopanax fruticosum (papua).......................-....-........ 217 Schefflera cumingii (kalang-gamat)............-..................-......... 217 Schefflera elliptifoliola (galamai-amo)........-.....-.................... 217 Schefflera odorata (tarangkang)............................................ 217 Schefflera piperoidea (himainat)....................-....................... 217 Family Umbelliferae ------—........................ 218 Apium graveolens (celery or apio) -.... -—.......-....-.......... 218 Carum copticum (damoro).-...............................-....... 218 Centella asiatica................................................................218 Coriandrum sativum (coriander or culantro)........................... 218 Foeniculum vulgare (fennel)............................................... 218

Page  158 158 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Page. Family Ericaceae................................... -- -.................. 218 Rhododendron vidalii................................................... 218 Family Myrsinaceae............................................................... 219 Ardisia boissieri (tagp6)..........................................219 Family Plumbaginaceae........................................... 219 Plumbago indica (pamparapit) —... --- —-... - ------------------------ 219 Plumbago zeylanica (sangdikit)................................................ 219 Fam ily Sapotaceae.........................................................................219 Bassia betis (b6tis)................................................219 Mimusops parvifolia (bansalagin)................................................ 219 Family Ebenaceae.........................................................................220 Diospyros ebenaster (zap6te).................................... 220 Diospyros multiflora (kan6moi).......................................... 220 Fam ily O lea ceae................................................................................... 220 Jasminum sambac (sampaguita) -... --- —........- ------------------- ---- - 220 Family Loganiaceae....................................... 220 Buddleia asiatica (taliknno)....................................... 220 Fagraea cochinchinensis (urung)...................................... 220 Fagraea racemosa (bulubu ia)................................................. 221 Strychnos ignatii (St. Ignatius bean)..........-................ 221 Strychnos multiflora (bukuan)........................... 2221 Family Gentianaceae..... —... ---......................... - 221 Canscora diffusa (chang-bat)................................ 221 Family Apocynaceae.............................................................. 221 Allamanda cathartica (campanero)........................................ 2221 Alstonia macrophylla (batino)................................. 221 Alstonia scholaris (dita) - ---—.........................-.. —............. --- —--- 222 Cerbera manghas (baraibai).............................. 222 Kibatalia blancoi (pasnit)e..........-....................... ---------------— 222 Lochnera rosea (atai-bia)............................ 222 Nerium indicum (oleander or adelfa).. —..-...-....-................ 222 Paralstonia clusiacea (malabatino)........................ 223 Parameria barbata (dugting-ahas).................................... 223 Plumiera acuminata (kalachiche)................................... 223 Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia (maladita)....................................... 223 Tabernaemontana pandaaqui (pandaakaki)........................... 223 Thevetia peruviana..........-......-................ 224 Family Asclepiadaceae.... —......... 224 Asclepias curassavica (bulak-dam6)...................................... 224 Calotropis gigantea (kapal-kapal).............................. 224 Streptocaulon baumii (hinggiu-na-puti).... 224 Tylophora brevipes (pasuika)................................. 224 Tylophora perrottetiana (kullafngem)...............-............. 225 Family Convolvulaceae................................................... 225 Calonyction muricatum -.-.....-..-....................... 225 Evolvulus alsinoides...............-............... 225 Ipomoea digitata (kamkamote).................................... 225 Ipomoea hederacea..-... -.....-....2................... - 225 Ipomoea pes-caprae (katang-katang)................................-2..... 225 Ipomoea pes-tigridis (rafngrafng u).......................................... 226

Page  159 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 159 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Family Convolvulaceae-Continued. Page. Ipomoea reptans (kangk6ng)........................................................ 226 Merremia emarginata (kupikupit)................................... 226 Operculina turpethum........................................ 226 Quamoclit pinnata (cypress vine or cabello de angel)..........- 226 Family Boraginaceae................................................ 227 Coldenia procumbens (tabtab6kol)................................-.. 227 Cordia myxa (an6nang).................................................... 227 Ehretia microphylla (kalamog ).................................................. 227 Ehretia navesii (talibunog)............................................................ 227 Heliotropium indicum (ikoi-p6sa)............................. 227 Rotula aquatica (buntut-buaia)............................................. 228 Tournefortia sarmentosa (salsallakapa).......... ---... —..... —... — 228 Trichodesma indicum.................................................... 228 Trichodesma zeylanicum (dilang-usa)...............-............ 228 Family Verbenaceae............................................. 228 Avicennia officinalis (api-api) —......................................... 228 Callicarpa caudata....................................................................... 229 Callicarpa erioclona (palis)........................................ -229 Callicarpa formosana (timbabasi).......................... ---.... -. 229 Clerodendron bethuneanum (guant6n).................................... 229 Clerodendron cumingianum (talumpapait)..........-........... 229 Clerodendron inerme (afngangri)................................. -— 229 Clerodendron intermedium (lar6an-anito)........-..................... 230 Clerodendron macrostegium (malapot6kan)..... —................ 230 Clerodendron minahassae (aiam-aiam)................................... 230 Clerodendron quadriloculare (bagauak)..................-.............. 230 Lippia nodiflora (chachahan)..-.................................. 230 Premna cumingiana (manaba)......... --—......... -..-............. 231 Premna nauseosa (mulauin-aso) -.................. —..............-.. 231 Premna odorata (alagau)............................. 231 Tectona grandis (teak)...................................... 231 Vitex negundo (lagundi)................................................ 232 Vitex trifolia var. ovata (lagunding-dagat)............... 232 Family Labiatae.................................................... 232 Anisomeles indica (taling-harap)............................... 232 Coleus amboinicus -.......................................... 232 Coleus blumei (maiana)..................................... 232 Hyptis suaveolens (bangbangsit).................................... 233 Leucas lavandulifolia (pansi-pansi)...........2.-...... 233 Mentha arvensis (mint or yerba buena)............................ 233 Ocimum basilicum (balan6i or sweet basil).......-....................... 233 Ocimum sanctum (sulasi or holy basil).................................... 233 Pogostemon cablin (patchouli or kablin)............................... 233 Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary or romero).-................ 234 Scutellaria luzonica (sidit)... -.....-..................-.........- 234 Family Solanaceae............................................................................. 234 Datura fastuosa (talong-punai na itim)........................... 234 Datura fastuosa var. alba (tal6ng-pfinai).............................. 234 Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco).................................................. 235

Page  160 160 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Family Solanaceae-Continued. Page. Solanum cumingii (taloffgtalongan).........-...-.... --- —---- 235 Solanum melongena (egg plant or tal6ng). ----.. —...-........ -... 235 Solanum nigrum (k6nti).......................... - 235 Family Scrophulariaceae -.-........-....-......... —..... 235 Bacopa monniera (ulasiman-aso).....-..... ---..... —..... -—.. 235 Limnophila indica (inata).-......-..........-........ -------— 235 Scoparia dulcis (malaanis)................-... --- —-------------—....236 Family Bignoniaceae........-.................. ---------------------- 236 Crescentia alata (hoja-cruz)................-.................... 236 Dolichandrone spathacea (tuwi).-...............-....... 236 Oroxylum indicum (pingkapingkahan)..... —..-..-................. 236 Family Pedaliaceae.................................................. 236 Sesamum orientale (sesame or lifng)....-........ ---.....-..... 236 Family Acanthaceae --—............-...-..-................. --- — 237 Acanthus ilicifolius (diliuariu)...................-......-....... 237 Barleria prionitis (kukong-man6k)...........-..... -.... 237 Blechum brownei (sapin-sapin)...................... --- —----—.......-.. 237 Graptophyllum pictum (atai-atai)...................-.............. 237 Justicia gendarussa........................-..-.................. 237 Justicia procumbens......................-....................... 238 Pseuderanthemum pulchellum (limang-sugat)...................... 238 Rhinacanthus nasuta (tagak tagak)....-..................... —. 238 Family Plantaginaceae............-......-....-......-....... 238 Plantago major (plantain).....-.............................................. 238 Family Rubiaceae..................-.......................238 Borreria hispida.-...................................... 238 Gardenia pseudopsidium.................................................... 239 Hydnophytum formicarium..-........ —.................. 239 Hymenodictyon excelsum (aligfango)..-............................. 239 Morinda citrifolia.....-...................................... 239 Mussaenda philippica (tinuluan-gatas)..-................ 239 Nauclea junghuhnii (mamb6g).............-............................. 240 Nauclea orientalis (bangkal)....................................... 240 Oldenlandia corymbosa......-........ —................. 240 Paederia foetida --- -........-............ —......... 240 Pavetta indica (lumb6i-manik).....-............................ 241 Psychotria luzoniensis (alitakb6)....................-................. 241 Psychotria mindorensis -......................................... 241 Rubia cordifolia (m fangil)...........................................241 Family Cucurbitaceae........-.....-.............................................. 241 Benincasa hispida (kond6l or waxgourd)................................. 241 Lagenaria leucantha (upo)................................................ 242 Luffa cylindrica (pat6la)......................-............... 242 Momordica charantia (ampalay ) -......................................... 242 Momordica cochinchinensis (tabog-6k)................-............... 242 Trichosanthes quinquangulata (katimbau).......................... 242 Family Goodeniaceae.............................................- 243 Scaevola frutescens (bokabok)....................................243

Page  161 I II MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 161 DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES-Continued. Page. Family Compositae......................................................... 4243 Ageratum conyzoides (bulak-manfk)........................................ 243 Artemisia vulgaris (dam6ng-maria or mugwort).................. 243 Blumea balsamifera (samb6ng).................................... 243 Centipeda minima (harafgan).....-..........-...........-................. 244 Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum).............................. 244 Crossostephium chinense....-............... ---......................... 244 Eclipta alba (tultulisan).............. ---..... —............... 244 Elephantopus scaber (pagbilau)..... -—....................... 244 Elephantopus spicatus (supsfput).................................... 245 Emilia sonchifolia (tagulinau)..... ---.................... 245 Enhydra fluctuans..........................................:...... 245 Eupatorium triplinerve (aiapana).......................................... 245 Grangea maderaspatana (pakpak6-ti-alog)............................ 245 Pterocaulon redolens (sub6sub)....-................................ 245 Siegesbeckia orientalis............-.-................. 245 Sphaeranthus africanus (samb6ng-dam6)..................... 246 Spilanthes acmella (palumai)...................................... 246 Tagetes patula (marigold or ahito).............................. 246 Vernonia cinerea (agas-m6ro)........... —......-...............-....... 246 W edelia biflora (hag6noi)............................................... 246 177674 —11 I

Page  162 I

Page  163 MEDICINAL USES OF PHILIPPINE PLANTS By LEON MARIA GUERRERO * INTRODUCTION These notes are the result of several years of investigation into the use made by the natives, for medicinal purposes, of certain plants belonging to the rich Philippine flora, as well as of those of other, foreign species introduced into this country in a prehistoric period and since. The list of such plants seems unnecessarily long; nevertheless, it does not include all of the species in the list of Philippine medicinal plants. Many already recorded have been purposely omitted, as their inclusion here would occupy too much space. Though it is a long one, it covers only investigations conducted among the Christianized natives, segregated in towns or villages, who have for some time enjoyed the advantages of modern civilization and culture. Similar investigations will be carried on later among the scattered tribes living in the forested mountains in various regions of the Archipelago. The Philippine flora comprises not only an astonishingly large number of timber and other useful species, but also a no less astonishing wealth of medicinal plants, the great therapeutic possibilities of which will become apparent once empiricism gives way to the practice of scientific pharmacology. This subject has scarcely been touched, so far as native drugs are concerned, notwithstanding the reasonable demand that our native products be utilized in preference to those of other countries which frequently are no better than those of our own land. To prepare a genuinely Philippine Pharmacopoeia is not a simple task, for it involves a thorough chemical and pharmacodynamic study of the most important drugs already known to medical practitioners. Not only this, but careful selection must be made from among those tested in order that the formulas shall not contain several drugs that possess the same or similar curative virtues, and that the proposed Philippine code shall include such foreign drugs for which no equivalents have yet been found here. * From the Botanical Section of the Biological Laboratory; Bureau of Science, Manila. 163

Page  164 164 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS From our present knowledge of this matter it seems ad. visable to condense the list so as to include only the most important material; that is, such plants as have proved efficacious, either medicinally or toxically, according to the general conception of these two terms. There is no doubt that much of folklore has entered into the belief in the great virtues of plants reputed to be medicinal. This fact portrays clearly the primitive mentality of a part of our people who have not yet entirely thrown off the ethological traces which at one time characterized them. What might at first glance appear to be of secondary importance or even without value, may often prove the stepping-stone to chemical investigation; because a belief that may appear to be mere opinion without foundation in fact is, in reality, the result of practical observation. A thing observed may be inexplicable to one of primitive intelligence; but such observation may develop into superstition, since his mind is incapable of interpreting correctly the phenomenon he has observed, and he can only explain it as having occurred through the mysterious intervention of some deity who possesses the key to the enigma. The mediquillos,* not really understanding the causes that produce disease, simply utilize the plants herein described in the treatment of symptoms. For this reason, the descriptions of their curative uses are usually given here in terms of symptoms rather than as remedies for the treatment of specific diseases. The formulas used by the mediquillos for the administration of their vegetal drugs are the simplest. Their officinal and galenic preparations consist of decoctions and infusions that are more or less concentrated, recently adopted sirups, oily unguents or embrocations, watery or alcoholic macerations, poultices, plasters that have for their base pure wax or resinous substances, inhalations, fumigations, empyreumatic products, etc. Their methods of manipulation are rudimentary and inspired by false principles or by a faulty understanding of the immediate component parts of the plants. The mediquillo is not given to mixing many ingredients in one prescription; this fact makes it easier to detect the effects of the drug employed by him, and eliminates all doubt as to whether the effect can be attributed to the principal medicament or to some other one used in connection with it. * A word used in the Philippine Islands for one having medical experience but no title.

Page  165 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 165 In conclusion, it may be stated that this list of Philippine medicinal plants includes many, the curative virtues of which have been tested by missionaries who for a time exercised their calling in localities lacking the indispensable means for treatment of their sick parishioners. However, it should be remembered that the missionaries owed their knowledge of these native remedies largely to the mediquillos. Notwithstanding the aversion of the missionaries to certain superstitious practices with which these mediquillos sometimes accompanied the internal or external administration of some therapeutic remedy, the former were frequently compelled to request the services of the latter when the life of a patient became endangered.

Page  166 . I

Page  167 I DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES ALGAE Genus GRACILLARIA GRACILLARIA LICHENOIDES Grev. GULAMAN. Local names: Guldman (Tagalog, Sambali, Pangasinan); gulamdn (Bicol); gurcdnan (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Cuyo); gurgurdman (Cagayan). The gelatine extracted from this seaweed is used as a pectoral and antidysenteric. Family POLYPODIACEAE Genus ACROSTICHUM ACROSTICHUM AUREUM L. LAG6LO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. The rhizomes are vulnerary, and are especially used in healing inveterate ulcers. The leaves used in topicals are emollient. Genus ADIANTUM ADIANTUM PHILIPPENSE L. KAIKAI. Local names: Culantrillo (Spanish in the vicinity of Manila and Pampanga); kaikdi (Tagalog). The fronds either in decoction or a sirup are, in European therapeutics, utilized for the same purposes as is Adiantum capillus veneris. In the Philippines they are administered to women in childbirth in the same manner as are the species of Aristolochia. Distribution: Central Luzon to Palawan. Genus ASPLENIUM ASPLENIUM MACROPHYLLUM Sw. PAK6NG-GUBAT Local names: Bunt6t-kapon (Tagalog); culantrillo (Bukidnon); pako (Palawan, Bukidnon, Isabela); pak6ng-gubat (Manila and vicinity). The fronds in the form of a decoction are a powerful diuretic, used in the treatment of defective urinary secretion, especially that induced by beriberi. Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 167

Page  168 168 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus DRYNARIA DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA (L.) J. Sm. PAKPAK-LUUIN. Local names: Baga-baga (Pangasinan); gona tibdtib (Pampanga); kabkdb, kabkdbin, kabkcbon (Bisaya); kabkab (Bicol); kappa-kappd (Iloko); pako (Tayabas); pakpdk-lduin, paipdi-amo (Tagalog); saga (Benguet). A description of this species is given in the section on ornamental plants. The rhizomes in decoction are used as an astringent. In concentrated form they are said to be anthelmintic. Genus OLEANDRA OLEANDRA NERIIFORMIS Cav. KALISKIS-AHAS. Local names: Kaliskis-dhas, lunas (Tagalog). The stipes in decoction are an efficacious emmenagogue. They are believed, among the Filipinos, to be a good remedy for venomous snake bites. Distribution: Benguet, Zamboanga, Basilan. Genus ONYCHIUM ONYCHIUM SILICULOSUM (Desv.) C. Chr. PAK6NG-ANjANG. Local names: Dila-dila, pakong-anuang (Tagalog); pako (Bulacan). The fronds in decoction are good for dysentery. Distribution: Apparently confined to the provinces of northern and central Luzon. Family SCHIZAEACEAE Genus LYGODIUM LYGODIUM CIRCINNATUM (Burm. f.) NfTO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The stipe is chewed and applied to the bites of venomous reptiles or insects in order to neutralize the poison. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines from the Batanes Islands to Zamboanga. Family CYCADACEAE Genus CYCAS CYCAS RUMPHII Miq. PIT6GO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The whole seed is roasted, pounded into small pieces, put into coconut oil, stirred, and applied to wounds, boils, itches, and other skin diseases.

Page  169 I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 169 Family TYPHACEAE Genus TYPHA TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA L. CAT-TAIL. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The woolly inflorescence is employed in the healing of wounds, yet it ought rather to be considered as hemostatic by mechanical action. Family PANDANACEAE Genus PANDANUS PANDANUS TECTORIUS Soland. COMMON or BEACH PANDAN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The aerial roots yield a decoction used as a beverage in cases of blennorrhea. This decoction, together with urethral injections of the sap of the base of the banana plant, is said to be a rapid cure for this malady. Family HYDROCHARITACEAE Genus OTTELIA OTTELIA ALISMOIDES (L.) Pers. KALAB6A. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves are used in topicals to cure hemorrhoids. It has been claimed that this plant has rubefacient properties. Family GRAMINEAE Genus ANDROPOGON ANDROPOGON ACICULATUS Retz. TINLAI. Local names: Amor-seco (Spanish-Filipino, Tayabas, Bataan); tinldi (Bataan). The entire plant in decoction is regarded as a diuretic. Distribution: Common in central provinces of Luzon, but found also in the Mountain Province of Luzon, and the Islands of Palawan and Mindanao. ANDROPOGON CITRATUS DC. TANGLED or LEMON GRASS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The roots yield a decoction used as a diuretic. The leaves are employed for aromatic baths.

Page  170 170 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS ANDROPOGON SORGHUM (L.) Brot. var. VULGARIS (Pers.) Hack. BATAD. Local names: Batad (Tagalog, Bikol, Cuyo, Occidental Negros, Davao); bukdkau (Bontoc, Iloko Provinces, Pangasinan). The fruits yield a decoction much like that of barley and which is used similarly. Distribution: Cultivated, on a small scale for local consumption, from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. ANDROPOGON ZIZANIOIDES (L.) Urban. VETIVER or MORAS. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The decoction of the roots is used for tonic baths, and is taken internally as an efficacious lithotriptic. Genus BAMBUSA BAMBUSA SPINOSA Roxb. SPINY BAMBOO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on bamboos. A decoction of the roots is administered in cases of anuria. BAMBUSA VULGARIS Schrad. KAWAYAN-KILfNG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on bamboos. The aqueous sap of this plant is much esteemed by the natives as a remedy for phthisis. Genus COIX COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L. TIGBI or JOB'S TEARS. The local names of this species are given in the section on fibers. The starch obtained from the fruit is considered as a tonic which is restorative in convalescence. Distribution: Widely distributed in the settled areas of the Philippines. Genus CYNODON CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) Pers. BERMUDA GRASS. Local names: Galot-gal6t (Pangasinan); grama (Spanish-Filipino). A decoction of the entire plant is an effective diuretic and is also considered a pectoral. Distribution: From northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus ELEUSINE ELEUSINE INDICA (L.) Gaertn. PALAGTIKf or YARD GRASS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants.

Page  171 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 171 The entire plant, mixed with gogo, is used to cleanse the head of dandruff, and to prevent loss of hair. Genus IMPERATA IMPERATA CYLINDRICA (L.) Beauv. var. KOENIGII Benth. K6GON. Local names: Buchid (Batanes Islands); gaon (Benguet); gogon (Bikol); k6gon (Bontoc, Tagalog, Pampanga, Bisaya, etc.); pan'du (Iloko). The fruiting spikes are regarded as vulnerary in decoction, and as a sedative when taken internally. Distribution: Widely distributed from Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao. Genus ORYZA ORYZA SATIVA L. RICE. Local names: Ammai (Ibanak); humdi (Cebu, Misamis); pcgai (Iloko, Cagayan); pdgii (Pangasinan); pdkii (Igorot); pclai (Tagalog); pale (Pampanga); pali (Sambali); pdroi (Bikol, Bisaya, Cuyo). The roots and rhizomes yield a decoction employed in cases of anuria. The lye produced by the burned culms is considered by the Ilokos to be an abortive. The fruits in decoction or poultices are emollient. Genus PANICUM PANICUM STAGNINUM Retz. URAR6I. Local names: Lagt6m na puld, uraroi (Camarines); timsim (Chinese). A decoction of the pith is used as a diuretic. Distribution: Widely distributed from Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao. Genus PASPALUM PASPALUM SCROBICULATUM L. Local names: Ang-angson (Benguet); balili (Lepanto); perag'is (Tagalog)'. A decoction of the roots and rhizomes is used as an alterative in childbirth. Distribution: Mountain Province of Luzon to Basilan. Genus SCHIZOSTACHYUM 6CHIZOSTACHYUM DIELSIANUM (Pilger) Merr. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on bamboos. A decoction of the rhizomes makes a refreshing beverage. The young shoots are used to dissipate the opacity of the cornea. Distribution: Very common in the central provinces of Luzon.

Page  172 172 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus ZEA ZEA MAYS L. CORN. Local name: Mais (Spanish-Filipino). A decoction of the fresh or dried stalk, as well as that of the stigmas, is a diuretic much used by the natives of the Philippines. Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Philippines. Family CYPERACEAE Genus KYLLINGA KYLLINGA MONOCEPHALA Rottb. BUSfKAD. Local names: Anuang, muthd (Tagalog); bagi-bdgi, pun~gs (Samar); basikad, botoncillo (Laguna); borsa i75a dadakkel (Union); bosbot6nes, busikad (Bisaya); katutu (Cotabato); malaapulid (Pampanga); mustra (Tayabas); sudsud (Bisaya). The rhizome yields a decoction employed as a diuretic. Mixed with oil, it is externally employed to combat certain forms of dermatosis. Distribution: Common and widely distributed throughout the Philippines. Family PALMAE Genus ARECA ARECA CATECHU L. BUN~GA or BETEL PALM. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on palms. The seeds, besides being chewed, are also much employed externally as an astringent. The tender seeds are said to be purgative, and the ripened ones grated are a vermifuge. Some care must be taken in grating, as the seeds contain poisonous elements. ARECA HUTCHINSONIANA Becc. PISA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on palms. The raw terminal bud is given to children to be eaten as a vermifuge. Genus ARENGA ARENGA PINNATA (Wurmb) Merr. KAONG or SUGAR PALM. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on palms. The unripel fruit is edible, but when ripe is said to be a violent poison for dogs. The fuzz of the petioles is used as a hemostatic and cicatrizant.

Page  173 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 173 Genus COCOS COCOS NUCIFERA L. COCONUT PALM Figures of this species and its local names are given in the section on palms. This plant, besides its many medicinal uses, gives an empyreumatic product used generally in toothache caused by caries, and in cutaneous diseases. It is obtained by burning the endocarp in a receptacle, and condensing in another the volatile products which separate. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines in cultivation. Genus CORYPHA CORYPHA ELATA Roxb. BURL. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on palms. The young plants are brewed in decoction and administered in cases of febrile catarrh. Family ARACEAE Genus ACORUS ACORUS CALAMUS L. LUBIGAN or SWEET FLAG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The rhizomes are administered as a stimulant and carminative. They are said to be antirheumatic when used as an embrocation. Genus ALOCASIA ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA (L.) Schott. BIGA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The petioles, in a nearly decayed state, are ground together, placed in a piece of cloth with live coals, and used as an application to alleviate toothache. Genus AMORPHOPHALLUS AMORPHOPHALLUS CAMPANULATUS (Roxb.) Blume. PUNGAPUNG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The corms are caustic, and are employed, in antirheumatic poultices, as rubefacients. Genus CYRTOSPERMA CYRTOSPERMA MERKUSII (Hassk.) Schott. PALAUAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants.

Page  174 174 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The spadix is used in decoction as an emmenagogue and ecbolic. Genus HOMALOMENA HOMALOMENA PHILIPPINENSIS Engl. TAHfG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on miscellaneous plants. The rhizomes are reputed to be antirheumatic if used in the form of an embrocation. Genus RHAPHIDOPHORA RHAPHIDOPHORA MERRILLII Engl. AML6NG. Local names: Amlhng (Camarines); amulong (Iloko); balamai, malapakpdk, tampinbanal, tibdtib (Tagalog); balikukup bisano, dibatib, daila, garban, horag, takoline, tirbdtib (Bisaya); dukup (Bontoc). The sap is employed for the cure of snake bites. The spadix of this plant is valued among the natives as an emmenagogue. perhaps on account of its form. Distribution: Mountain Province of Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus TYPHONIUM TYPHONIUM DIVARICATUM Decne. Local name: Gabigabihan (Tagalog). The corms have a rubefacient quality, but are very rarely used. Family FLAGELLARIACEAE Genus FLAGELLARIA FLAGELLARIA INDICA L. BALING-UAI. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The stem and rhizome in decoction are considered diuretic. Family COMMELINACEAE Genus COMMELINA COMMELINA BENGHALENSIS L. SABILAU. Local names: Alikbangon (Tagalog); bias-bids (Pampanga); kuhdsi (Batanes Islands); kutkuldsi (Union); olikbdngon (Tagalog); sabildu (Bisaya). The entire plant, in decoction, is used as an emollient collyrium. It is also employed to combat strangury. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Palawan and Basilan.

Page  175 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 175 Family LILIACEAE. Genus ALIUM ALLIUM CEPA L. ONION. Local names: Aldonises, sibuiyas (Tagalog). The bulbs, cooked and mixed with cocoanut oil, are used in the form of an ointment applied to the abdomen to provoke diuresis. ALLIUM SATIVUM L. BAUANG or GARLIC. Local names: Ajos (Spanish); bduang (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Union, Zambales, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Batangas, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines Norte and Sur, Albay, Leyte, Marinduque, Misamis); lasond (Cuyo). The bulbs, when applied to the temples in the form of a poultice, are considered to be revulsive in headache. They are used also to mitigate the pain caused by the bites of insects, scorpions, centipedes, etc. Genus SANSEVIERA SANSEVIERA ZEYLANICA (L.) Willd. SINAWA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The leaves when roasted are used as an emollient. Genus SMILAX SMILAX BRACTEATA Presl. BANAG. Local names: Bandg (Benguet, Union, Abra); bandl (Benguet); hampdstigbdlang, karmagsd, sipit-oldng (Rizal); kolot-bdbui (Bataan). The rhizomes and roots are regarded as depurative when used in the form of a decoction. Distribution: Benguet, Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Bataan, Sorsogon, Davao. SMILAX CHINA L. UBI-UBfHAN. Local names: Buanal (Benguet); ubi-ubihan (Tagalog). The roots and rhizomes taken in the form of a decoction are used as depurative in cases of herpetism, syphilis, etc. Distribution: In the mountains of Benguet, Lepanto, Ifugao, Bontoc, Mindoro, Zambales, Negros. SMILAX LEUCOPHYLLA Blume. HAMPAS-TIGBALANG. Lacal names: Banal (Benguet); hampcs-tigbdlang, kdmot-kabdg (Rizal); ronas (Bisaya); zarzaparilla-puti (Laguna). The roots and rhizomes of this species are used as a purifier

Page  176 176 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS of the blood, as is the case with all species of Smilax. They are considered as antisyphilitic and antirheumatic, and are generally effective in cutaneous affection. Distribution: Benguet, Pangasinan, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Balabac, Palawan, Culion, and Agusan. Family AMARYLLIDACEAE Genus CRINUM CRINUM ASIATICUM L. BAKONG. Local names: Agubdhan (Bisaya); bdkon (Polillo, Mindoro); bdkong (Bataan, Union, Pangasinan, Camarines); kalagukon (Bisaya); salibangbdng (Bisaya). The bulbs are prepared as an ointment, and the leaves as an emollient, both in the form of topicals. The bulbs have emetic properties. Distribution: Batanes Islands, Bontoc, Ilocos Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Union, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Polillo, Palawan, Davao, Zamboanga. Genus CURCULIGO CURCULIGO ORCHIOIDES Gaertn. Local names: Estrella, tala7ngi, tatalua~ngi (Bukidnon); kogon-kogon (Rizal); sulsulitik (Bontoc). The plant is used as a cure for skin diseases and for headache. The root when powdered and used pure, or mixed with other tonic or carminative vegetable drugs, is considered tonic, pectoral, diuretic and aphrodisiac. Distribution: Bontoc, Pangasinan, Rizal, Mindoro, Sorsogon, Antique, Semirara Island, Biliran Island, Palawan, Bukidnon. and Davao. Genus EURYCLES EURYCLES AMBOINENSIS (L.) Lindl. KATANGAL. Local names: Abud (Bisaya); katcdngal (Bisaya); katungal (Tagalog); kosol (Bisaya); dausum (Bisaya); pandbor (Bisaya); talaunur (Bisaya); taliunud (Bikol); tambdl (Tagalog); tanual, tonuar (Bisaya). The bulbs are employed as emeto-cathartic in small doses; the leaves are used externally as antirheumatic topicals. Distribution:.Cavite, Laguna, Camarines, Mindoro; often cultivated as an ornamental pot plant. Genus HYMENOCALLIS HYMENOCALLIS LITTORALE (Jacq.) Salisb. Local names: Ajos-djos nga maputi (Bisaya); bdkong (Tagalog); lirio (Spanish-Filipino). The bulbs are used as a vulnerary.

Page  177 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 177 Genus POLIANTHES POLIANTHES TUBEROSA L. AZUCENA or TUBEROSE. Local name: Azucena (throughout the Philippines). The bulbs are used in a decoction to cure gonorrhea; and in the form of a poultice are employed as a maturative. Distribution: Cultivated from Luzon to Mindanao. Family DIOSCOREACEAE Genus DIOSCOREA DIOSCOREA HISPIDA Dennst. NAMf. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The tubers, raw or cooked, are used as an anodyne and maturative in cases of tumors and buboes, and also against arthritic and rheumatic pains, etc. Family MUSACEAE Genus MUSA MUSA ERRANS (Blanco) Teodoro var. BOTOAN Teodoro. BUTUHAN. Local names: Butuan or butzhan (Tagalog, Bikol); but (Iloko); pdkol (Bisaya). The sap is vulnerary. The sap exuding from the base of the cut trunk is used for urethral injections in gonorrhea. Distribution: Widely distributed and occasionally cultivated. Family ZINGIBERACEAE Genus ALPINIA ALPINIA PYRAMIDATA Blume. LANGKAUAS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The rhizomes are carminative and stimulative. A decoction of the leaves is used for antirheumatic and stimulant baths. Genus COSTUS COSTUS SPECIOSUS (Koenig) Sm. TUB6NG-USA. Local names: Baston de San Jose (Spanish in Iloilo); lunas (Bataan); tambdk (Batangas); tubong-usd (Camarines). The rhizome is an aromatic medicine. It is not much used, though it sometimes replaces the species of Kaempferia. Distribution: Very widely distributed throughout Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao. Genus CURCUMA CURCUMA LONGA L. DILAU or TURMERIC. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The rhizomes when cooked in oil are stomachic and vulnerary. 177674- 12

Page  178 178 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus KAEMPFERIA KAEMPFERIA GALANGA L. DUs6L. Local names: Disol (Bontoc); duso (Tagalog, Rizal); dusol, gusol (Tagalog); kis6l (Bukidnon). The rhizome is carminative if used in decoction. When chewed, it is said to be useful in alleviating coughs. The pounded rhizome is used in curing the irritation produced by contact with stinging caterpillars. Distribution: Bondoc, Rizal, Bukidnon. KAEMPFERIA ROTUNDA L. The rhizome is used internally in gastric complaints, as are the species of Galanga. Used externally, it is a powerful cicatrizant if mixed with coconut oil. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Philippines, both cultivated and wild. Genus KOLOWRATIA KOLOWRATIA ELEGANS Presl. TAGBAK. Local names: Tagbdk (Rizal, Laguna, Camarines); tagbdk-bdbui (Batangas); talbdk (Pampanga, Bataan, Laguna); tugbdk (Tayabals). The leaves, after having been pounded and mixed with a little salt, are rubbed on the affected parts of a paralytic patient. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Philippines. Genus ZINGIBER ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (L.) Sm. BARAK. Local names: Bangldi (Tagalog); bardk (Tayabas); kalaudg (Albay); langkauds (Polillo); tamohilang (Bukidnon); tumbong-dso (Tagalog). The pulverized rhizome is administered as an antidiarrhetic. Distribution: Bontoc, Apayao, Bataan, Cavite, Manila, Batangas, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Albay, Bukidnon, Lanao; occasionally cultivated. Family CANNACEAE Genus CANNA CANNA INDICA L. CANNA. Local names: Kakuintdsan, kuintas-kuintdsan (Tagalog); tikas-tikcas (Tagalog, Bisaya); lasd (Batanes Islands). The rhizome in decoction is used as a diuretic, and when macerated in water is said to alleviate nosebleed. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Lanao.

Page  179 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 179 Family MARANTACEAE Genus DONAX DONAX CANNAEFORMIS (Forst. f.) K. Schum. BAMB.AN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The roots when brewed in decoction are said to act as an antidote for snake bites, and in blood-poisoning generally. Family ORCHIDACEAE Genus GEODORUM GEODORUM NUTANS (Presl) Ames. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The tuberous base is regarded as emollient when utilized as a poultice. Family CASUARINACEAE Genus CASUARINA CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA L. AG6HO. Local names: Ag6ho (Tagalog, Bisaya, Bikol, Pampangan); ago (Palaui Islands, Cagayan); agok (Cagayan, Babuyanes Islands); agoko (Pangasinan); agoso (Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Tayabas); ak-o (Cagayan); aro (Iloco, Benguet); arobo, aroho (Abra); aroo (Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Ilocos Sur); karo (Ilocos); malab6hok (Bisaya); maribuhok (Leyte, Surigao). The bark, in decoction, is employed as an emmenagogic and ecbolic when taken in large doses. Distribution: Very widely distributed from northern Luzon to Palawan and northern Mindanao, along the coast and sandy river valleys. Family PIPERACEAE Genus PIPER PIPER BETLE L. BOYO or BETEL PEPPER. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. The leaves, together with lime and betel nut, constitute a masticatory in general use among the Filipinos, who consider it a preservative of the teeth and a prophylactic against certain complaints of the stomach. The leaves when greased with lard or sesame oil are much used by Filipinos as a carminative medicine applied to the abdomen of children suffering from gastric disorders.

Page  180 180 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS PIPER NIGRUM L. Local name: Malisa (Tagalog, Bisaya). The fruit is used as a condiment by the Filipinos; and also, when applied externally, as a stimulant and rubefacient. Distribution: Cavite, Batangas, Surigao. PIPER RETROFRACTUM Vahl. Local names: Amarcs (Pangasinan); buyo-buyo (Bisaya); kamara (Abra, Union); kayun-go (Manila); litlit (Cavite, Pangasinan); sabia (Cavite, Rizal, Laguna); saog-machin (Rizal); subon-manuik (Bataan). The root is chewed and the saliva swallowed, or the root is brewed in decoction as a cure for colic. Distribution: Babuyanes Islands, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Mindoro, Antique, Palawan. Family CHLORANTHACEAE Genus CHLORANTHUS CHLORANTHUS BRACHYSTACHYS Blume. Local names: Apot, gapas, umu-um (Benguet); gamuk (Bukidnon); tolal (Basilan). An infusion of this plant is said to be good for headache. Distribution: Common and widely distributed at medium and higher altitudes throughout the Archipelago. Family MORACEAE Genus ARTOCARPUS ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS Forst. ANTIP6LO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. A decoction of the bark is used as a vulnerary. ARTOCARPUS CUMINGIANA Trec. ANUBING. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark is boiled and used as a remedy for stomachache. ARTOCARPUS INTEGRA (Thunb.) Merr. NANGI:A. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The leaves, charred, and powdered, are used as an effective cicatrizant for the wound resulting from a surgical operation for the removal of congenital phimosis.

Page  181 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 181 Genus FATOUA FATOUA PILOSA Gaudich. SIKKfR. Local names: Malbas-dam6 (Batangas); poro (Uni6n); sarungkdr a babassit (Ilocos Sur); sikkir (Union). This plant is said to be used for swollen gums. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. It occurs in dry thickets, on walls, cliffs, etc. at low altitudes. Genus FICUS FICUS HAUILI Blanco. HAUILI. Local names: Diudiu (Benguet); hauili (Benguet, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro); kauili (Tayabas, Bataan); labn6g (Mindoro, Occidental Negros, Guimaras Island); lagne6b (Bataan); lagmut, lamnog (Occidental Negros); lapting (Pangasinan); lillau, tuliau (Cagayan); Iiuliu (Abra, Bontoc, Pangasinan); raiya-rdiya (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra); yabn6i (Batanes Islands). The latex is used to cure certain varieties of herpes. The leaves applied externally are said to be antirheumatic. Distribution: Very abundant throughout the Philippines, from Batanes Islands to Basilan Island. FICUS MINAHASSAE (Teysm. & De Vr.) Miq. HAGIMIT. Local names: Arimit (Abra); ayimit (Polillo); aimit, ayumit (Tayabas businai (Ilocos Sur); hagimit (Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Capiz); hugimit (Bukidnon); sabfog (Bontoc); tambis-tambis, taisan (Basilan); tambuyogan (Masbate). The leaves are used as an antirheumatic topical. The sap is employed as a beverage. Distribution: From northern Luzon to Basilan Island. FICUS PAYAPA Blanco. PAYAPA. Local names: Balete or balite (Zambales, Bataan, Rizal Mindoro, Laguna, Batangas); dalagita (Bisaya); daldkit (Oriental Negros); laingaban (Cotabato); paydpa (Tagalog, Pampangan). The roots are an effective vulnerary when powdered and applied to wounds. Distribution: Common in northern and central Luzon, and also collected from Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Cotabato, and Lanao. Genus MALAISIA MALAISIA SCANDENS (Lour.) Planch. MALAISfS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The leaves are administered in decoction to women after childbirth.

Page  182 182 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus STREBLUS STREBLUS ASPER Lour. KALI6S. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on soap substitutes. Water in which the bark of this tree has been boiled is used for disinfecting wounds; also internally for the skin disease called "culebra." The bark is chewed as an antidote in snake poisoning. An infusion of the leaves is drunk as a tea. Family URTICACEAE Genus FLEURYA FLEURYA INTERRUPTA (L.) Gaudich. LIPANG-ASO. Local names: Dalamo, damoro (Bisaya); langdila, liping-acso, lipdngkastila (Tagalog); lipa (Pampanga). The leaves, applied locally, are said to be good as a cure for carbuncles. A decoction of the root is an efficacious diuretic. Distribution: Apayao, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillos Albay, Sorsogon, Antique, Misamis, Butuan, Camiguin Island, Davao, Palmas Islands. Genus LAPORTEA LAPORTEA MEYENIANA (Walp.) Warb. LIPANG-KALABAU. Local names: Aparigua (Bisaya); liingdtong, lipa, lipdi, lipdng-kalabdu (Tagalog); lippng-dutong (Pampanga). The root and leaves are used in infusion as a diuretic in cases of urinary retention. The leaves are said to cure carbuncles if applied locally. Distribution: Cagayan, Mountain Province, Union. Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Batangas, Mindoro, Guimaras Island. Genus PILEA PILEA MICROPHYLLA (L.) Liebm. The entire plant in infusion is used as a diuretic. Distribution: Union, Pampanga, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Albay, Palawan, Malamaui Island, Jolo, Cotabato. Genus POUZOLZIA POUZOLZIA ZEYLANICA (L.) Benn. The leaves are used as a vulnerary, but more especially as a cicatrizant for gangrenous ulcers. Distribution: Batanes Islands, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Union, Bontoc, Apayao, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Rizal,

Page  183 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 183 Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Negros Oriental, Butuan, Bukidnon, Lanao, Zamboanga. Family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Genus ARISTOLOCHIA ARISTOLOCHIA SERICEA Blanco PANG-GUISI Local name: Pang-guisi' (Iloko). The entire fresh plant is used as a carminative, emmenagogue, and febrifuge remedy. In cases of very painful gastralgia, the root is chewed and the saliva swallowed. The root macerated in native spirituous liquors is administered post partum as a uterine tonic. It has been asserted that this drug is a violent abortive. Distribution: Cagayan, Union, Batangas. ARISTOLOCHIA TAGALA Cham. TIMBANgGAN. Loaal names: Malaubi, timbdngan, timbangtimbdingan (Tagalog); kamkamaulau (Benguet); ncag-erus; (Union); parol-par6lan (Polillo); tauen-tauen (Iloko). The roots are said to be tonic, carminative, and emmenagogic; and a very efficient remedy for infantile tympanites if they are pulverized and applied to the abdomen. Distribution: Widely distributed from the Mountain Province of Luzon to southern Mindanao. Family POLYGONACEAE Genus POLYGONUM POLYGONUM BARBATUM L. SUBSUBAN. Local names: Kanubsuban, ligan-lupa (Pampanga); subsuban (Tagalog). The sap of the pounded leaves, applied directly to wounds, is an effective cicatrizant. Distribution: Mountain Province of Luzon to Basilan. Family CHENOPODIACEAE Genus CHENOPODI U M CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES L. ALPAS6TES. Local names: Alpasotes (Spanish-Filipino); alpasoti (Bontoc); apas6tes (Union); pasotis (Mindoro); all corruptions of the scientific name. The leaves and tops, crushed and mixed with cooked rice are used as a carminative in poultices applied to the abdomen of children suffering from dyspepsia. This plant is considered also to be an emmenagogue. Distribution: In waste places throughout the Philippines.

Page  184 184 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family AMARANTHACEAE Genus ACHYRANTHES ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. RAG-RAGADI. Local names: Afngud (Pampanga); garem (Ilocos Sur); guella (Palaui Island); han-gog (Balabac Island); hdcngor (Tagalog, Bisaya); hadngot (Tagalog); hdingug (Mindoro, Bulacan); higad-higad, igad-igad (Ilocos Norte); libai (Tagalog); rag-ragadi (Pangasinan); sardmo (Bisaya). A decoction of the leaves and roots of this plant is used locally as a diuretic. The sap is said to be useful in dissipating the opacity of the cornea. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, a weed in open waste places. Genus AERUA AERUA LANATA (L.) Juss. KARLAKEM. Local names: Karlakem (Union); pamainap (Mindoro,). A decoction of this plant is a very efficacious diuretic, and is said to be useful in catarrh of the bladder and in gonorrhea. Distribution: Union, Central Luzon provinces, Mindoro, and the Visayas. Genus AMARANTHUS AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS L. KALUNAI. Local names: Akum (Cotabato); ardi (Batangas); ayantoto (P'ampanga); ba'uan (Bontoc); bayambdng (Mindoro); iting-iting (Davao); kalunai (Iloko); karlunoi (Iloko in Bontoc); kuant6ng (Iloko); kulitis, kilitis (Tagalog); ori (Polillo); siitan (Union); urdi (Mindoro, Tayabas). A decoction of the root is useful in the treatment of gonorrhea. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Vizcaya, Union, Nueva Ecija, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Polillo, Palawan, Davao, Cotabato. Genus CELOSIA CELOSIA ARGENTEA L. KADAI6HAN. Local names: Kadaiohan, (Tagalog); sansandok (Ilocos Norte); tagughug (Occidental Negros). The seeds when in a decoction, or as fine powder, are considered antidiarrhetic and aphrodisiac. The leaves are edible; but are not eaten by women during menstruation. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte and Sur, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Negros, Bohol, Palawan, Lanao, Davao.

Page  185 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 185 Family PORTULACACEAE Genus PORTULACA PORTULACA OLERACEA L. GULASfMAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves and tops, in poultices, are used as an antihemorrhagic. In the form of an infusion they are taken as a diuretic beverage. Also they are employed to heal burns and cure certain skin diseases. Distribution: Very common in waste places throughout the Philippines. Family BASELLACEAE Genus BASELLA BASELLA RUBRA L. LIBATO. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The roots are employed as a rubefacient, and in poultices to reduce local swellings. The sap is used to anoint any part of the body affected by acne in order to diminish the irritation produced by that malady. Family NYMPHAEACEAE Genus NELUMBIUM NELUMBIUM NELUMBO (L.) Druce. BAINO or LOTUS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The roots, rhizomes, and flowers are employed as an astringent. The leaves and seeds are used in poultices. Family MENISPERMACEAE Genus ANAMIRTA ANAMIRTA COCCULUS (L.) W. et A. LIGTANG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The seeds, which are very poisonous, are used to kill lice in the hair. They are also employed in fishing. Genus ARCHANGELISIA ARCHANGELISIA FLAVA (L.) Merr. ABUTRA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes.

Page  186 186 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS A decoction of the roots and stem is used as a febrifuge, tonic, emmenagogue, or abortive, according to the quantity administered. In Zambales it is also employed as an expectorant in bronchial affections. This plant contains about 5 per cent of berberine. Genus CISSAMPELOS CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA L. KALAAD. Local names: Batang-bctang (Cebu); kaldad, kalkaldcad (Tagalog, Iloko in Union and Cagayan); kalakalamdian (Batangas); kuskusipa (Iloko); gulagulamanan (Tagalog); hampapdre, himpdra' (Bisaya); makabu (Bulacan); malarutto (Apayao); pare'-pdre' (Laguna); pari', sampapdre' (Bisaya); sansdu, sansau-sansduan, sinsau-sinsduan (Tagalog). The root when brewed in decoction is considered diuretic, lithotriptic, pectoral, and febrifugal. The pounded leaves are used to cure snake bites. They are a good antiscabious remedy. Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the Philippines. Genus PYCNARRHENA PYCNARRHENA MANILLENSIS Vidal AMBAL. Local names: Ambal (Tagalog); bdgo (Negros); halikot, halot (Bisaya); mamonggol (Tayabas). The powdered root, taken internally, is used as a tonic medicine. It is very efficacious as a cicatrizant. It is said that it is also an excellent vulnerary and a remedy for snake bites, and that the infusion is good for women in parturition. Distribution: Central Luzon to Zamboanga. Genus STEPHANIA STEPHANIA JAPONICA (Thunb.) Miers MARATUGI. Local names: Kuren (Batanes Islands); maratugi (Bontoc). This plant is said to be of value in the cure of itches. Distribution: Batanes Islands, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Batangas, Rizal, Laguna, Camiguin Island. In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes. Genus TINOMISCIUM TINOMISCIUM PHILIPPINENSE Miers BAYATfNG. Local names: Bayating (Pampanga); lagtdng (Laguna); timbangtimbang (Tayabas). The white milky sap diluted with water is used as an eyewash. Distribution: Pangasinan, Laguna, Tayabas, Biliran Island, Lanao, Davao. In forests at low and medium altitudes.

Page  187 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 187 Family ANNONACEAE Genus ALPHONSEA ALPHONSEA ARBOREA (Blanco) Merr. BpL6N. Local names: Bolon (Camarines); kaldi (Zambales, Laguna); lanutan (Leyte, Mindoro, Tayabas); lanutan-itum (Ticao Island); sapiro (Cebu). The fruit of this tree is boiled and used locally as a cure for fever. A decoction of the fruits is a good remedy in amenorrhea. Distribution: Central Luzon to Davao. Genus GONIOTHALAMUS GONIOTHALAMUS AMUYON (Blanco) Merr. AMUYONG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The seeds cooked with oil make an effective liniment in rheumatic complaints. In decoction they are used in tympanites. Family LAURACEAE. Genus CINNAMOMUM CINNAMOMUM MERCADOI Vidal KALINGAG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark has rubefacient properties and is utilized as a remedy for headaches and rheumatism. It is also chewed for stomach troubles, and is used in tuberculosis. It is sometimes substituted for cinnamon as a condiment. CINNAMOMUM MINDANAENSE Elm. MINDANAO CINNAMON. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark is used in the same manner as is Ceylon cinnamon. Filipinos use it in decoction with ginger, star anise (Illicium anisatum), and sugar as a stomachic beverage, and also at breakfast. It is a very agreeable and hygienic drink. The leaves yield a stimulant and carminative medicine. Genus LITSEA LITSEA GLUTINOSA (Lour.) C. B. Rob. SABL6T. Local names: Bala'ngdnan (Mindoro); butus (Bataan); dalduen (Isabela); duingul (Cagayan); lauat (Masbate); lokblut (Amburayan); lomdngog (Guimaras Island); nmlakakdo (Bataan); marang (Polillo); mipipi (Ticao Island); olos-olos (Pangasinan); parasablut (Zambales); sabl6t (Union, Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Isabela); sibl6t (Cagayan); tagutugan (Camarines); tayakpok (Agusan); tubjus (Batanes Islands). The bark is used in decoction for the cure of intestinal catarrh. Distribution: Cagayan to Cotabato.

Page  188 188 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family CAPPARIDACEAE Genus CAPPARIS CAPPARIS HORRIDA L. f. HALUBAGAT-BAGING. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves are employed as a counter-irritant. CAPPARIS MICRACANTHA DC. HALUBAGAT-KAHOf. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. This plant is said to be used for asthma and for pains in the breast. Genus CRATAEVA CRATAEVA RELIGIOSA Forst. BALAI-LAM6K. Local names: Baldi-lam6k (Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan); banugan (Masbate); duli~ngatok (Pampanga); leting-pako (Nueva Ecija). The leaves of this plant are said to be useful in cases of irregular menstruation. They are considered stomachic. The root is employed as an alterative. The sap of the bark is used as a cure in convulsions and tympanites. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Masbate and Palawan, probably also in Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago. Found in waste places, along streams, and in thickets near the sea, sometimes planted. Genus GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA (L.) Merr. MANABO. Local names: Mandbo (Abra); tantandok, tantandok niga dadakkil (Union). The leaves are used externally, as are the seeds of mustard, and are taken internally in certain bilious disorders. The seeds are considered to have properties similar to those of mustard. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Union, Pangasinan. Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Mindoro, Sorsogon, Panay, Negros Oriental, Davao, Zamboanga. Family MORINGACEAE. Genus MORINGA MORINGA OLEIFERA Lam. MALUNGGAI or HORSE-RADISH TREE A description of this species and its local names are given ir the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark is used as a rubefacient remedy. It is said that the roots of this tree, if chewed and applied to the bite of a snake.

Page  189 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 189 will prevent the poison from spreading. A decoction of the roots is considered antiscorbutic and is also given to delirious patients. Family PITTOSPORACEAE Genus PITTOSPORUM PITTOSPORUM PENTANDRUM (Blanco) Merr. MAMALIS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. An aromatic decoction brewed from the leaves is used by women in their baths following childbirth. The powdered bark is employed, in small doses, as a febrifuge. If taken in larger dose's, it is considered a general antidote. It is also effective in bronchitis. Family LEGUMINOSAE Genus ABRUS ABRUS PRECATORIUS L. KANSASAGA or PRAYER-BEAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. A decoction of the leaves and roots of this plant is used as a cough cure. Genus ADENANTHERA ADENANTHERA INTERMEDIA Merr. TANGLIN. Local names: Bagiroro (Albay); bdhai (Antique, Zamboanga); bugdyong-china (Ilocos Sur); butdrik (Cagayan); hahop (Samar); ipil, pamiasin (Zambales); kinasaikdsai (fide Blanco); malasdgad (Rizal); matdng uldng (Laguna, Tayabas); kaagdhan (Laguna); sagun-sagun (Masbate); tadlaingdu (Camarines); tanglin (Zambales, Bataan, Laguna); tanglon (Pampanga). The bark and seeds are employed as a cure for snake bites. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao, in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes. Genus BAUHINIA BAUHINIA MALABARICA Roxb. ALIBANGBANG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. A decoction of the bark is considered antidysenteric and antidiarrhetic. The leaves are used in topicals applied on the head in fevers which are accompanied by headaches. Genus CAESALPI N IA CAESALPINIA CRISTA L. KALUMBIBfT. Local names: Banbang (Cebu); baydg-kambing, kalumbibit (Tagalog, Sambali); bebit (Misamis); dalogdog (Rizal); dalugdug (Bikol, Bisaya).

Page  190 190 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The seeds when administered in the form of a powder are a febrifuge and are regarded as a tonic. Distribution: Union, Pangasinan, Tayabas, Bataan, Rizal, Camarines, Mindoro, Palawan, Cebu, Misamis, Davao. Genus CASSIA CASSIA ALATA L. ACAPULCO. Local names: Acapulco, kapurko (Zamboanga); andadasi ng~a bugbugtong (Union); andadasi nfga dakkel (Pangasinan); kasitas (Camarines); pakayonk6m (Bataan); palo-china (Negros, Busuanga); sunting (Surigao). The sap of the leaves is an efficient antiherpetic, especially when the herpes is of the furfuraceous form. Distribution: Throughout the settled areas of the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, locally abundant. Occasionally planted. CASSIA FISTULA L. CANA-FfSTULA. Local names: Baldyong (Mindoro); cania-fistula or cana-pistula (Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, Mindoro); fistula (Cebu); tindalo (Mindoro). The pulp of the fruit is employed as a cathartic. Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Cebu, Occidental and Oriental Negros, Palawan; in cultivation only. Not to be confused with the much more widely distributed native Cassia javanica L., which is almost everywhere known by similar names. CASSIA MIMOSOIDES L. KATANDA. Local name: Katanda (Bukidnon). The roots are used as a cure for diarrhea. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, in some regions ascending to 1,500 meters. CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS L. ANDADASf. Local names: Andadasi (Union); baldtong-acso (Tagalog); sunting (Samar); tambalisa (Zamboanga). The seeds are used as a febrifuge. The leaves are purgative and antiherpetic, though not so efficient as those of acapulco (Cassia alata). Distribution: Throughout the Philippines, from Cagayan to Zamboanga. CASSIA SOPHERA L. TAMBALfSA. Local names: Andadasi (Ilocos Norte, Union); tambalisa (Tagalog). The seeds are used as a febrifuge.

Page  191 I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 191 Distribution: Babuyanes Islands, Ilocos Norte, Amburayan subprovince, Union, Rizal, Laguna. CASSIA TORA L. Local names: Andadasi n~ga dadakkil (Union); baho-batho (Bisaya); baldtong (Laguna); baldtong-dso (Tagalog). The entire plant, in decoction, is taken as a vermifuge and purgative. Distribution: Very common in Batanes Islands, Luzon, and Mindanao, but does not seem to occur in the Visayas except in Cebu. Genus DALBERGIA DALBERGIA CUMINGIANA Benth. TAHfD-LABujYO. Local names: Bulanini, kanndk (Cagayan); kauilan (Camarines); tahidlabuyo (Tayabas). This vine is employed in curing the stomach pains of small children. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes. DALBERGIA FERRUGINEA Roxb. KAMUT-KABAG. Local names: Bolidtadhan (Agusan); kdmut-kabdg (Mindoro); kipuskipus (Zamboanga); kulik-mandr (Pampanga); maldsang-salve (Bataan); manaon (Tagalog); malumalunggdyan (Rizal). A decoction of the wood of the stem or root is an emmenagogue, and is an abortive if the administered dose be immoderate in size. Distribution: Isabela Province to Zamboanga. Genus ENTADA ENTADA PHASEOLOIDES (L.) Merr. G6GO. A description and figure of this. species and its local names are given in the section on soap substitutes. The stem macerated in cold water makes a cleansing soap. It is also used as an emetic. Genus EUCHRESTA EUCHRESTA HORSFIELDII (Lesch.) Benn. Local names: Laguan (Tayabas); katdnda, makahilub (Bukidnon). The roots are chewed as a cure for snakebite. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Of local occurrence on the higher mountains. Genus MIMOSA MIMOSA PUDICA L. MAKAHIA. Local names: Andibaing (Pangasinan); bain-bain (Iloko); dikut-malamarine (Pampanga); dilgun-szsu (Union); harupai (Leyte); hia-hia' (Cu

Page  192 192 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS yo); huia'-huia' (Bisaya); huiag-huiag (Occidental Negros); kipi-kipi' (Bisaya); kirom-kir6m (Samar); kokol-ddien (Iloko); makahia' (Zambales, Pangasinan, all Tagalog provinces); tdlo-magdlau (Rizal); torogtorog (Bikol). The entire plant in decoction is considered as an alterant and antiasthmatic. Distribution: Common throughout the Philippines in open waste places at low and medium altitudes. Genus MUCUNA MUCUNA NIGRICANS (Lour.) Steud. NIPAI. Local names: Alilipdi (Zamboanga); bukitkit, ipdl, lipdi (Tagalog); balukt6t (Polillo); danipai (Samar); duglo (Bataan); nipdi (Alabat Island); nipoi (Bikol); sagapok (Capiz). When this vine is cut, watery sap exudes freely. This water is used as a cure for many kinds of fevers. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes, locally abundant. Genus PHASEOLUS PHASEOLUS AUREUS Roxb. BALATONG. Local names: Baldtong (Union, Pangasinan); m6nggo, munggo, baldtong (Tagalog). A decoction of the seeds is an effective diuretic in cases of beriberi. The seeds are employed either raw or cooked in maturative poultices. Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Islands. Genus PONGAMIA PONGAMIA PINNATA (L.) Merr. BANI. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark is used as an abortive by the natives of the Island of Guimaras. Genus PTEROCARPUS PTEROCARPUS BLANCOI Merr. BLANCO'S NARRA. Local names: Apilit (Pampanga); asand (Bulacan); ndrra (Union, Bulacan). The resin is used as an astringent in aphtha or thrush. Distribution: Union, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal. Genus SOPHORA SOPHORA TOMENTOSA bL SANDALAITAN. Local names: BaTngil, sambalagisai (Bisaya); sipon (Batanes Island); sandalaitan (Tayabas, Palawan); tabagisa (Negros, Zamboanga); tam

Page  193 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 193 balisa (Mindoro, Masbate, Negros); tambaleta (Mindoro); tambiligisa (Negros); A decoction of the root, stem, or seeds is considered as anticholeric. The seeds are used as a purgative. Distribution: Along the seashore throughout the Philippines, abundant in some localities. Family OXALIDACEAE Genus AVERRHOA AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. KAMIAS. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The fruit is used in the same manner as is that of the following species. AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L. BALIMBING. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The sap of the fruit is prepared as a syrup which is administered in fevers as a cooling drink. Genus BIOPHYTUM BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM (L.) DC. MAHIHIYAIN. Local names: Dam6ng-bungkalat (Batangas); dam6ng-hiya, macahiya (Tagalog); mahihiydin (Tagalog); makahiyang-laldke (Laguna). The leaves, placed under the pillow, are reputed to act as a soporific. The seeds, applied in the form of a powder, are used as a vulnerary. The roots in decoction are administered in cases of gonorrhea and of stone in the bladder. Distribution: Cagayan to Cotabato. Family RUTACEAE Genus CHAETOSPERMUM CHAETOSPERMUM GLUTINOSUM (Blanco) Swingle TABUYOK. Local names: Kabuyau-dso, tabog (Bataan); kalatan (Isabela); tabiuyok (Pangasinan). The juice of the fruit is rubbed into the hide of a dog to cure itch. It is also used as a hair tonic. Distribution: Isabela, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Bataan, Manila. Genus CITRUS CITRUS MAXIMA (Burm.) Merr. POMELO or LUKBAN. Local names: ArasnTgd (Cuyo); baon~gon (Misamis); barangfhds (Union); bobonotdn (Zambales); kabugau (Iloilo); lukbdn (Cagayan, Benguet, 177674-13

Page  194 194 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines Norte and Sur, Albay, Marinduque); naranja (Spanish-Filipino); sud (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Tarlac); suha' (Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Bataan, Batangas, Tarlac, Polillo, Sorsogon, Iloilo). The leaves, flowers, and pericarps are employed, in the form of a decoction or infusion, as a sedative in nervous affections. Distribution: Cultivated in almost all provinces. Genus CLAUSENA CLAUSENA ANISUM-OLENS (Blanco) Merr. KAYUMANIS. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The leaves, stuffed into pillows and placed under the head, have a soporific effect. They are also used in baths, in cases of rheumatism. Genus LUNASIA LUNASIA AMARA Blanco. LuJNAS. Local names: Apd6ng-kdhoi (Laguna, Batangas); labau (Masbate); lubilubi (Cebu); lunan (Pampanga); lunas (Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Mindoro, Palawan); lu1nas-bondok (Bataan); marmdngga (Cagayan); paitan (Ilocos Sur); papait (Camarines); saltiki (Rizal, Laguna); santiki (Laguna). The leaves and bark are used for stomach troubles. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Basilan. Genus MICROMELUM MICROMELUM MINUTUM (Forst.) Seem. Local name: Makabdingon (Camarines). This plant is said to be used for curing stomachache and headache. Distribution: Laguna, Tayabas, Catanduanes Island, Samar, Leyte, Lanao, Sulu, Basilan. Genus MURRAYA MURRAYA PANICULATA (L.) Jack. KAMUNING. Local names: Bandsi, banacsi, bancti, etc. (through almost whole range, except Tagalog provinces); kamdin (Pangasinan); kamuning (Tagalog); lukbdn-balit (Pangasinan). A decoction of the leaves is used as a mouth-wash in cases of toothache. Distribution: Widely distributed, from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus TODDALIA TODDALIA ASIATICA (L.) Lam. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils.

Page  195 I I I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 195 A decoction of the root is antidiarrhetic and dynamogenic during convalescence from fevers. The bark is used in infusion as a bitter stomachic tonic and febrifuge. The leaves when chewed fresh are said to be useful in stomach disorders. Genus ZANTHOXYLUM ZANTHOXYLUM AVICENNAE (Lam.) DC. KANGAI. Local names: Bagatambdl, marbdar (Bisaya); bungai (Palawan); itingan (Benguet); kcngai (Pampanga); kayutdna (Batangas); sdlai, sdlai-k'ngai (Pampanga). A decoction of the stem is used as a stomach tonic and as a counter-poison for snake bite. Distribution: Benguet, Zamboanga, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Batangas, Misamis, Cotabato. ZANTHOXYLUM RHETSA (Roxb.) DC. KASABANG. Local names: Kasdbang (Ilocos Sur, Nueva Ecija, Zambales); watdna, kaietdna (Bataan, Batangas, Negros); kaitdna (Rizal); kaiutina (Laguna); palo-kaitdna (Zambales, Zamboanga); sagai-kdangai, salddai, sclai (Bisaya); sdrai (Masbate). The bark, pounded and mixed with oil, is used externally as a remedy for stomach pains. A decoction of the bark is taken internally as a cure for paleness. The bark is also used as a cure for pains in the chest. When chewed it is applied to snake bites. Distribution: Cagayan to Camarines, Masbate, Negros, Palawan, Basilan. Family SIMARUBACEAE Genus BRUCEA BRUCEA AMARISSIMA (Lour.) Merr. Local name: Bago-bdgo (Negros). The fresh fruits are said to be good for stomachache. The dried fruits are considered by European and Chinese physicians as a very efficacious. antidysenteric remedy. Distribution: Pangasinan, Leyte, Negros, Palawan, Surigao,?Misamis, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Basilan. Genus HARRISONIA HARRISONIA PERFORATA (Blanco) Merr. MAMIKIL. Local names: Asimau (Tagalog); baguit, bauit (Pangasinan); bokit [locos Sur); mamikil (Batangas, Rizal); sap-sapdng (Ilocos Sur). The bark of the root in decoction is a very efficacious remedy f'r diarrhea and dysentery. It is employed also against cholera.

Page  196 196 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Distribution: Ilocos Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Benguet, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Batangas, Samar, Butuan, Davao, Zamboanga. Genus SAMADERA SAMAD ERA INDICA Gaertn. MANUNGGAL. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark and wood are a febrifuge, tonic, stomachic and emmenagogue when administered in the form of a maceration or decoction in water, alcohol or wine. Family BURSERACEAE Genus CANARIUM CANARIUM LUZONICUM (Blume) A. Gray PILI. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oleo-resin is a stimulant medicine used externally. CANARIUM VILLOSUM (Blume) F.-Vill. PAGSAHINfGIN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The resin is used medicinally. Genus GARUGA GARUGA ABILO (Blanco) Merr. B6GO. Local names: Abilo (Tagalog); bio (Ilocos Sur); bugo or b6go (Mindoro, Masbate, Negros Occidental, Cebu, Misamis, Zamboanga, Cotabato); bunus (Ilocos Norte); lami6 (Rizal); libds (Tayabas); talingdnan (Zamboanga). Blanco says that a decoction of the root is administered to those suffering from consumption. Distribution: Ilocos Norte and Sur, Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Negros Occidental, Mindoro, Cebu, Misamis, Davao, Cotabato, Zamboanga. Family MELIACEAE. Genus CHISOCHETON CHISOCHETON PENTANDRUS (Blanco) Merr. KATONG-MACHIN. A description and figure of this species and its local name3 are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. An oil extracted from the fruit of this species is used as a hair cosmetic.

Page  197 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 197 Genus DYSOXYLUM DYSOXYLUM DECANDRUM (Blanco) Merr. AGARU. Local names: Agdru (Pangasinan); bagulibds (Basilan); bohdue (Masbate); buntugan (Camarines); igiu (Batangas); pamatdgin (Cagayan); kugyug (Mindoro); malaaduds, paludhan (Occidental Negros); tadidngkalabdu (Laguna); taming-tdming (Basilan Island). The bark administered as a fine powder is a safe emetic. Distribution: Cagayan to Basilan Island. Genus MELIA MELIA AZEDARACH L. PARAfSO. Local name: Paraiso (Spanish-Filipino). The bark is considered a vermifuge. Distribution: Cultivated in all parts of the Archipelago. Genus SANDORICUM SANDORICUM KOETJAPE (Burm. f.) Merr. SANTOL. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The fresh leaves applied to the skin are sudorific. In decoction. they are used for baths in cases of fever. Genus XYLOCARPUS XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM Koenig. TABfGl. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. The bark is astringent. The fruits and seeds, powdered or in decoction, are employed as an antidiarrhetic. Family EUPHORBIACEAE. Genus ACALYPHA ACALYPHA INDICA L. Local names: Bugos (Tagalog); naraotong (Iloko). The juice of the root and leaves is given to children as an expectorant and emetic in bronchitis. It is also administered in decoction. Distribution: Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro, Palawan, Balabac Island, Davao, Zamboanga. Genus ALEURITES ALEURITES MOLUCCANA (L.) Willd. LUMBANG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils.. The seeds yield an oil used as a mild purgative.

Page  198 198 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS ALEURITES TRISPERMA Blanco BAGILUMBANG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oil extracted from the seeds is an effective insecticide. The sap of the bark is employed as a cure for scurf of the head. Genus BREYNIA BREYNIA RHAMNOIDES (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. MATANG-HIPON. Local names: Gungumayi (Bontoc); matdng-hipon (Bulacan, Manila, and vicinity); matdng-ol6ng (Tayabas); matdng-sdga (Cuyo Island); matdng uldng (Butuan); santing (Basilan); sintug (Zamboanga); s'ungut-oldng (Bisaya); tang'isan-bagio (Davao). The bark is an astringent used to prevent hemorrhage. Distribution: Very widely scattered throughout the Philippines from northern Luzon to Basilan. Genus CICCA CICCA ACIDA (L.) Merr. fBA. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The bark yields a decoction which is employed in bronchial catarrh. Genus CROTON CROTON TIGLIUM L. CROTON-OIL PLANT. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The seeds and the oil extracted from them are violently drastic, and are used as revulsives in cases of rheumatism and cough. The plant is also used to poison fish. Genus EUPHORBIA EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. GATAS-GATAS. Local names: Botobot6nis, sayikan (Tagalog); bott6nis (Bontoc); bugayau (Samar); buyaydra, taudua (Bisaya); gatas-gdtas (Tagalog, Bisaya); golondrina (Spanish-Filipino); magdtas, malimalis, sisi6han (Pampanga); maragctas (Union); soro-soro (Camarines); tairas (Batanes Islands); taua-tdua (Occidental Negros). The entire plant is used as an antidote, being considered haemostatic, sedative, and soporific. In decoction it is very efficacious for allaying the dyspnoea of asthmatics. Distribution: Batanes to Basilan. EUPHORBIA NERIIFOLIA L. Local names: Bait (Tagalog, Pampangan, Bisaya); karimbudya (Bontoc); soros6ro, sorog-sorog (Tagalog, Pampangan).

Page  199 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 199 A fluid extracted from the roasted leaves is used in earache. Distribution: Cultivated in gardens; apparently nowhere spontaneous. EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. Local names: Golandrina (corrupted Spanish); makikitot (Bontoc). The leaves are commonly employed in poultices to counteract the effects of bites of poisonous snakes; also as an efficient vulnerary. The latex is sometimes used to dissipate the opacity of the cornea. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines in waste places along roads and trails, in fallow rice-paddies, etc. EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI L. CONSUELDA.* Local names: Balibali (Iloilo); consuelda (Spanish); gaton (Benguet); katuit (Tagalog); solda-s6lda (Leyte); solsoldong (Pangasinan); soros6ro (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Rizal, Iloilo); sosueldo (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Union); susuerdo (Zambales); suelda-consuelda (Bulacan, Manila, Cavite, Camarines Sur, Zamboanga); sueldo-consueldo (Camarines); suerdo-consuerdo (Cagayan, Bataan, Marinduque). The stems are used in poultices to aid the healing of fractures of the bones. The latex is said to be an energetic revulsive. It is also employed as a cure for wounds. If allowed to get into the eyes, it is said to cause blindness. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Occasionally planted in gardens, but apparently nowhere spontaneous. Genus EXCOECARIA EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA L. BUTA-BUTA. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. The latex is known as a caustic; nevertheless it is used in healing obstinate ulcers. Genus HOMONOIA HOMONOIA RIPARIA Lour. MANGAGOS. Local names: Ago6i (Bulacan); agoioi (Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Tayabas); oguktik, kagoi6i (Rizal); dumdnai (Tagalog, Iloko); lumdnai (Tagalog); apoi6i, maingdgos (Tayabas); baldnti (Bataan, Zambales; hai7ngarai (Samar); liuhon (Sambali); lumandia (Tagalog); malabugos, miagook, miagus (Occidental Negros); mandgos (Mindoro). * The Spanish name of a European medicinal plant (Symphytum offtcinale L.) which, in the original form or various corruptions of it, has become the almost universal name of Euphorbia tirucalli in the Philippines.

Page  200 200 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS In the southern part of the Philippine Archipelago it is used, like sarsaparilla, as an efficient stimulant in the treatment of certain venereal diseases. A decoction of the roots is used as an emetic. Water running at the foot of these shrubs is considered as having depurative properties. Distribution: From northern Luzon to southern Mindanao, on banks and in beds of streams. Genus JATROPHA JATROPHA CURCAS L. TiBANG-BAKOD OR PHYSIC NUT. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oil of the seeds is a drastic purgative. A decoction of the leaves is a good antidiarrhetic. A decoction of the roots is also used as a cure for diarrhea; while that of the leaves is employed as a cough remedy. The bark of this plant is pounded slightly and placed in the mouth as a cure for snake bite. It is apparently also applied to the bites of various animals. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA L. MANA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The seeds are an energetic and dangerous cathartic. Their use has been almost abandoned in native medicine. Genus MACARANGA MACARANGA GRANDIFOLIA (Blanco) Merr. BINGABING. Local names: Biluak (Bataan); biingdbing (Tagalog); binzngas (Batangas). The resin is used as an astringent gargle for ulcers in the mouth. Distribution: Rizal, Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Mindoro. MACARANGA TANARIUS (L.) Muell.-Arg. BINUNGA. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The powdered root is used as an emetic in fevers. In decoction, it is administered to cure haemoptysis. Genus MALLOTUS MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. BANATO. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. The red glands of the fruit have been used as an antiherpetic. but are more useful when taken internally as an anthelmintic.

Page  201 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 201 Genus MAN I HOT MANI HOT UTILISSIMA Pohl. CASSAVA or KAM6TENG-KAHOI. Local names: Balingh6i (Mindoro); kamote-kdhoi (Moro); kam6tengkdhoi (Sambali, Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya); kam6te-m6ro (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Union, Pangasinan); kamoti-ti-moro or kamotit-moro (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan); kam6teng-bisdya (Pangasinan); kam6teng-dutong (Pampanga); kamote-sa-m6ro (Bikol); kam6teng-kdui (Cuyo); kdnggos (Bikol); kdong-m6ro (Sambali). A decoction of the bark of the trunk is considered antirheumatic. Distribution: Cultivated in almost all provinces. Genus MELANOLEPIS MELANOLEPIS MULTIGLANDULOSA (Reinw.) Reichb. f. & Zoll. ALIM. Local names: Alom (Pangasinan, Cuyo); dlim, takip-asin (Tagalog); dlom or alum (Bikol, Bisaya); pasalkdl (Pampanga); tres puntos (SpanishFilipino). The bark and leaves when slightly heated and applied to the skin are used as a sudorific. Distribution: In thickets and waste places throughout the Philippines. Genus PHYLLANTHUS PHYLLANTHUS NIRURI L. TALIKIJD. Local names: Malakirum-kirum (Samar); sampaloksampalokan (Rizal, Manila); San Pedro (Occidental Negros); surusampdlok, turutalik6d (Camarines); talikud (Ilocos Norte); taltallikud (Iloko); yerba de San Pablo (Bisaya). The entire plant is used in decoction as a tonic for the stomach. It is also an emmenagogue and is considered as a febrifuge giving positive results in cases of ague. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Amburayan, Union, Pangasinan, Rizal, Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Pampanga, Camarines, Batangas, Panay, Negros, Butuan, Lanao, Davao, Basilan. PHYLLANTHUS RETICULATUS Poir. MATANG-BUYUD. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on miscellaneous plants. The bark and the leaves are considered diuretic and alterative They are also reported to be purifiers of the blood. Genus RICINUS fIlCINUS CO M MUNIS L. TANGAN-TANiGAN or CASTOR-OIL PLANT. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils.

Page  202 202 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The leaves, fresh and whole, are used externally in headache. The seeds are purgative and are regarded as antirheumatic. The leaves, cooked with milk, are employed in poultices for certain varieties of ulcers. Family ANACARDIACEAE Genus ANACARDIUM ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. KASUI or CASHEW NUT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oil of the pericarp is used as a powerful escharotic. Genus MANGIFERA MANGIFERA INDICA L. MANGGA or MANGO. Local names: Mampala (Balabac); mampdlang (Basilan); mangga (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Cagayan, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Isabela, Vizcaya, Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Marinduque, Masbate, Leyte, Cebu, Iloilo, Agusan, Misamis, Cotahato, Davao, Basilan); pdho (Iloilo, Capiz); pumdngga (Cuyo). A decoction of the root is considered diuretic. The bark and seeds are astringent. The leaves are prepared as a tea. The resin is used as a cure for aphthoes. Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Philippines. Genus SEMECARPUS SEMECARPUS CUNEIFORMIS Blanco. LIGAS. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The oil of the pericarp is used as a caustic or escharotic, and sometimes in the treatment of certain indolent ulcers. Genus SPONDIAS SPONDIAS PURPUREA L. SINIGUILAS. Local names: Ciruelas (Spanish, "plums"); sarguelas (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Union, Cagayan, Pangasinan, Zambales); sinigquelas (Tagalog provinces, Marinduque); siriguilas (Bikol provinces, Misamis); sirgudlas (Iloilo, Cuyo). A decoction of the bark is an efficacious antidysenteric and is also used in cases of infantile tympanites. Distribution: Cultivated from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. Family CELASTRACEAE Genus CELASTRUS CELASTRUS PANICULATA Willd. LANGITNGfT. Local names: Laguete, la7ngitn~git (Tagalog). A description of this species is given in the section on resins. gums, and oils.

Page  203 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 203 The seeds when pulverized are administered as an antirheumatic, and are also used in cases of paralysis. The sap of the leaves is given as an antidote in cases of opium poisoning. Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus LOPHOPETALUM LOPHOPETALUM TOXICUM Loher. ABUAB. Local names: Abuab, bantigi (Tagalog); dayanddng (Mindoro); ditd (Tagalog, Bikol); alibambangan (Davao); puti-i babdye and laldke (Lanao); tand6' (Zamboanga). The thickened sap of the bark is used by the Negritos and other hillmen to poison the tips of their arrows. Distribution: Central Luzon to Zamboanga. Family HIPPOCRATEACEAE Genus SALACIA SALACIA PRINOIDES (Willd.) DC. MATANG-ULANG. Local name: Matdng-uldng (Tagalog). The roots are used in decoction in cases of amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. They are regarded as an abortive. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Philippines. Family ICACINACEAE. Genus GONOCARYUM GONOCARYUM CALLERYANUM (Baill.) Becc. TAIN~GArNG-BABUI. Local names: Ampcdlcng, gozzdng-kalinga (Isabela); bitotu (Tayabas); busigan (Cagayan); duhatduhdtan (Bataan); karasoko (Cagayan); lunas (Bataan, Rizal, Laguna); malagozzdn (Isabela); malaikm6-laldki (Nueva Ecija); malaikm6 (Bataan, Bulacan, Batangas, Tayabas); malapandakdki (Zambales, Tayabas); malapinggdn (Laguna); maragauak, maragaued (Cagayan); malasamdt (Cagayan, Bataan); malatapdi (Camarines); rogro/s6 (Union); tain~ga'g-bdbui (Tayabas); saling-bato (Laguna); uratdn (Ilocos Norte); ydya (Cagayan). Hunting-dogs after having been subjected to the smoke of the burning flowers or fruits of this species are said to be very good at catching wild hogs or deer. This plant is said to be used as a cure for stomach troubles. Distribution: Batanes Islands and all provinces of Luzon. Common in virgin forests at low and medium altitudes. Family SAPINDACEAE Genus CARDIOSPERMUM CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM L. var. MICROCARPUM. LAGUP6K. Local names: Angelica (Iloilo); bangkilong (Tagalog): far6l (SpanishFilipino); lagup6k (Cuyo); lobo-lob6han (Batangas); palpaltoog (Ilocos

Page  204 204 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Sur); paltdk-vdka (Zambales); paltuk-paltukan (Pampanga); paputukdc! (Cavite); parid-dso (Union); parparid (Ilocos Norte); purpurdok (Pangasinan). A decoction of the root is regarded as diaphoretic, and is used for catarrh of the bladder. The leaves are considered antirheumatic whether taken internally in the form of a beverage or applied externally in oil embrocations. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Zamboanga. Genus DODONAEA DODONAEA VISCOSA (L.) Jacq. KASIRAG. Local names: Alipdta (Tagalog); dumdnai (Benguet); hagui-ui (Tayabas); kalapinai (Tagalog); kasirag (Sambali); ligad (Palawan); tabdu (Tayabas). The bark employed in decoction is an efficacious astringent in humid eczema and for healing simple ulcers. It is also considered a good febrifuge. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Bontoc, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Mindoro, Palawan. Genus GUIOA GUIOA KOELREUTERIA (Blanco) Merr. (G. Perrottetii Radlk.) ALiHAN. Local names: Aldhan, aldsan, bilde-mariang-itim, mamalis, nisi-nisi (Bataan); andngin, malasangi (Rizal); angset (Ilocos Sur); bdngil, gisi-gisi, malahdbi (Zambales); basai (Guimaras Island); busikag (Balabac Island); cha (Cebu); imdlis, kaningning (Mindoro); kamutolen, pamutolen, vibres (Pangasinan); malauds (Nueva Ecija); ngisi-ngisi (Zambales, Bataan, Mindoro); paksion (Iloilo) stlab (Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo); sdlub (Bataan, Rizal, Polillo); uds, uwds (Ilocos Norte); ulds (Benguet). An oil extracted from the seed is used in the cure of certain skin diseases. Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus HARPULLIA HARPULLIA ARBOREA (Blanco) Radlk. UAs. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on soap substitutes. The bark and fruits are used to prevent leech bites. The bark is also used as a substitute for Entada phaseoloides as a hair tonic. It contains an active substance which stupefies and kills fish. The oil of the seeds is sometimes used as an antirheumatic. Genus LEPIDOPETALUM LEPIDOPETALUM PERROTTETII (Camb.) Blume. DAP'L. Local names: Bigds (Occidental Negros); ddpil (Nueva Ecija); diladila (Pampanga); malakakdo (Zamboanga); marinsidno, paga-paga (Cora

Page  205 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 205 bato); ualis (Tagalog); uas (Pangasinan); sagddan (Manobo); sdlab (Tagalog); tolotigre (Occidental Negros). The powdered seeds are used to kill wild hogs. Distribution: Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Batangas, Camarines, Negros, Biliran, Lanao, Davao, Cotabato, Zamboanga, Basilan. Family BALSAMINACEAE Genus IMPATIENS I M PAT I EN S BALSAM IN A L. KAMANTfGI'. Local name: Kamantigi' (Tagalog). The leaves are pounded and used in poultices to dissolve felons. Distribution: Bontoc, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Bukidnon. Family RHAMNACEAE Genus COLUBRINA COLUBRINA ASIATICA (L.) Brongn. KABATITI. Local names: Kabctiti (Tagalog, Palawan, Polillo); kaycakds (Union); palid-ldut (Tawi-Tawi); uatitik (Bisaya). The leaves are used in decoction to alleviate the irritation of and to cure certain diseases of the skin. The fruits are used as a fish poison. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Tawi-Tawi and Palmas Islands. Genus VENTILAGO VENTILAGO DICHOTOMA (Blanco) Merr. SALAPAU. Local names: Saldpau, silipau (Tagalog); pakpdk-tutubi (Rizal). The bark, pulverized, and mixed with oil, is useful in certain cutaneous diseases. Distribution: Rizal, Laguna, Polillo, Sorsogon. Genus ZIZYPHUS ZIZYPHUS JUJUBA (L.) Lam. JUJUBE or MANZANITAS. Local names: Manzanas or manzanitas (Spanish-Filipino throughout the Philippines). A decoction of the bark and leaves is employed as an effective astringent in dysentery and diarrhea, and is used in bowel trouble of all kinds. Distribution: Pampanga, Tarlac, Bataan, Cavite, Rizal, Marila, Batangas, Negros Oriental, Zamboanga.

Page  206 206 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family VITACEAE Genus CISSUS CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. SUGPON-SUGPON. Local names: Sugpon-sugp6n, sulpa-sulpa (Bisaya). The sap is applied in the form of drops in cases of otorrhea and epistaxis. It is also used as an alterative in irregularities of menstruation. Distribution: Luzon (Cagayan, Batangas, Rizal), Negros, Cebu, Siquijor. In dry thickets in and about towns at low altitudes. Genus COLUMELLA COLUMELLA TRIFOLIA (L.) Merr. ARIUAT. Local names: Ariuat (Union); grapokol, kabilan, kalit-kalit (Tagalog); kagundi, kikindi, lagini, laii-gingi, lupo (Bisaya); kalut-pamo (Pangasinan). The leaves yield a decoction which is considered as antiscorbutic. The sap of the leaves is regarded as having similar properties. Distribution: Bontoc, Union, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Mindoro, Biliran, Iloilo, Negros, Cebu, Palawan, Misamis, Lanao, Davao. Genus LEEA LEEA ACULEATA Blume. MALI-MALI Local names: Amamali (Samar, Agusan); balinaundu (Tayabas); hara (Laguna); kemamdle, memam6le (Bukidnon); mali-mali (Laguna); m(amdlig (Cotabato); sipit-kahig (Tayabas). The leaves are said to be used for purifying bad blood. Distribution: Babuyanes Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan, in most or all the islands and provinces. Common in thickets and second-growth forests, especially along streams at low and medium altitudes. LEEA MANILLENSIS Walp. AAMAMALT Local names: Abang-dbang (Laguna); alumani (Union); alumamdvi (Abra, Ilocos Sur, Lepanto); amamal (Pangasinan); amamdli (Bisaya); aydman-kildt (Zambales); kalldkal (Igorot in Benguet); kaliantdng (Bataan); kaliantdn (Mindoro); kuldtai (Palawan); mali-mali (Pampanga, Laguna); mamangal (Palawan); taliantdn (Rizal, Bataan, Cavite); tun!bosut (Occidental Negros); vodadin (Batanes Islands). The roots, branches, and leaves, used in decoction, are considered vulnerary. Distribution: Very common throughout the Philippines.

Page  207 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 207 Genus TETRASTIGMA TETRASTIGMA HARMANDII Planch. AYO. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. A decoction of this plant is taken internally as a powerful diuretic. Also, it is employed externally as a lotion to cure scabies. Family TILIACEAE Genus CORCHORUS CORCHORUS ACUTANGULUS Lam. PASAU NA HABA'. Local names: Pasau na hdba' (Tagalog); salsaluyut (Union). The seeds are employed in the same manner as are those of Corchorus capsularis, and for the same affections. Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Union, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Mindoro, Palawan, Lanao. CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS L. PASAU NA BfLOG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The leaves are used as a cure for headache. The seeds, either as a powder or in decoction, are used as a tonic, carminative and febrifuge. CORCHORUS OLITORIUS L. PASAU or JUTE. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The seeds are said to be employed as a purgative. Genus MUNTINGIA MUNTINGIA CALABURA L. DATILES. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The flowers are used in infusion in the same manner as are those of Tilia europaea. Genus TRIUMFETTA TRIUMFETTA BARTRAMIA L. KULOT-KUL6TAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The roots and leaves are used in decoction as an emollient in the same manner as are Urena, Abutilon, etc. It is also employed as an antiblennorrhagic.

Page  208 208 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family MALVACEAE Genus ABELMOSCHUS ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medic. KASTILI'. Local names: Dalupang, kastiokastiogan, kastuli' (Tagalog); dukum, marikum, maropoto, sapinit (Bisaya); kalupi (Tayabas, Laguna); kastokastolian (Pampanga). The seeds after being pounded and prepared in decoction are administered as a diuretic, tonic and carminative. A mucilaginous decoction of the root and leaves is used in the treatment of gonorrhea. The seeds are also employed as an antihysteric. Distribution: Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Sorsogon, Catanduanes, Capiz, Camiguin Island, Surigao, Bukidnon, Palmas Islands. Genus ABUTILON ABUTILON INDICUM (L.) Sweet GILING-GILfNGAN. Local names: Dulupang, malvas de castilla, malvis (Bisaya); gilinggiliigan, kiuakuakohan, kuako-kuakohan (Tagalog); lulupdu (Iloco); lupluppdu (Union); malvas (Cagayan, Manila, Mindoro, Agusan); mdrbas (Tayabas, Polillo, Agusan); taratakupis (Bisaya); yampong (Bisaya). The leaves yield an emollient decoction. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Genus HIBISCUS HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS L. OKRA. A syrup which is useful in sore throat attended with hoarseness is made from the mucilaginous fruit. HIBISCUS MUTABILIS L. MAPULA. Local names: Amapola (Spanish for "poppy"; so called in Manila); mapuld (Tagalog, Bikol). The flowers are considered pectoral when employed in decoction. Distribution: Reported from Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Misamis, Surigao, Davao, but probably found cultivated in many other regions. HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS L. GUMAMELA. Local names: Arogd7ngan, antoldangan, kaydinga, gumame'la, tapolongaa, tarakdcingan, taurdcngan (Tagalog, Pampanga, Bisaya); gumamela (Tayabas, Manila and vicinity, Basilan); kaydanga (Bontoc); kaydinga-rosa (Iloko). The roots, bark, leaves and flowers in decoction are used as an emollient. Distribution: Cultivated in almost all provinces.

Page  209 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 209 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. ROSELLE. The root is bitter, and is regarded as tonic and aperitive. Distribution: Bontoc subprovince, Manila and vicinity, Laguna. HIBISCUS TILIACEUS L. MALUBAGO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The bark is used as an emetic. The flowers boiled in milk are employed for the cure of earache. Distribution: Common throughout the Philippines. Very easily propagated by means of cuttings. Genus MALACHRA MALACHRA CAPITATA L. BAKEMBAKES. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The root and leaves, used in decoction, are considered emollient in enemas and for bathing purposes. Distribution: Common in waste places throughout the Philippines. Genus MALVASTRUM MALVASTRUM COROMANDELINUM (L.) Garcke SALSALUYUT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The leaves are employed as a cure for carbuncles. Genus SIDA SIDA ACUTA Burm. f. TAKLING-BAKA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The roots and leaves are emollient in decoction, which, taken internally, is considered a specific against hemorrhoids, fever and impotency, and also as a general tonic. As a demulcent and diuretic, it is used in gonorrhea and rheumatism. SIDA CORDIFOLIA L. A description of this species and its local name are given in the section on fiber plants. In decoction, the leaves are regarded as. emollient and as having diuretic properties. SIDA JAVENSIS Cav. (S. humilis Willd.) IGAT-fGAT. Local names: Hapunan-niknik (Rizal); igat-igat, padda-padddk-pusa, m( r-maraipus (Union); kol6tane-6bging (Tagalog). 177674 —14

Page  210 210 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The entire plant in decoction is used as a specific for gonorrhea. Distribution: Union, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna. Genus THESPESIA THESPESIA POPULNEA (L.) Soland. BANALO. Local names: Bancgo, malibdgo, tuba-tuba (Tayabas); bandlo (Cavite; bubui-gubat (Tagalog); malobdgo (Zamboanga); marabdgo (Ilocos Norte); vdlo (Batanes Islands). A decoction of the bark is regarded as alterative if administered internally. It is used externally as an embrocation. A decoction of the leaves is reputed to be emollient and a cure for itches. The juice of the fruit is sometimes used in certain herpetic diseases. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Basilan. Genus URENA URENA LOBATA L. KOLLOKOLLmT. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The roots and leaves are emollient when prepared as a decoction. Family BOMBACACEAE Genus BOMBAX BOMBAX CEIBA L. MALABULAK. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The roots are considered astringent, restorative, alterative, and aphrodisiac. They are used as a restorative in pthisis. The gum is very astringent. Genus CEIBA CEIBA PENTANDRA (L.) Gaertn. COTTON TREE or KAPOK. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The tender fruit is used as an emollient. The bark is employed as a vomitive. This'bark is preferred to that of the malabuilak (Bombax ceiba) as an aphrodisiac. Brewed into a decoction it is regarded as a specific in febrile catarrh. Family STERCULIACEAE Genus ABROMA ABROMA FASTUOSA Jacq. ANAB6. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants.

Page  211 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 211 The root is frequently used as an efficient emmenagogue, especially in the different forms of dysmenorrhea. Its use usually gives speedy relief. Genus KLEINHOVIA KLEINHOVIA HOSPITA L. TAN-AG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The bark and leaves are poisonous. In Marinduque they are used to poison eels. A decoction of the leaves is said to be antiscabious. Genus PENTAPETES PENTAPETES PHOENICEA L. FLORES DE LAS DOCE. Local name: A las doce (Union, Tayabas). The fruit in decoction is used as an emollient. Distribution: Cagayan, Union, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, Negros, Samar, Surigao, Davao, Cotabato. Genus PTEROCYMBIUM PTEROCYMBIUM TINCTORIUM (Blanco) Merr. TALUTO. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The bark and the fruit are poisonous. Genus PTEROSPERMUM PTEROSPERMUM DIVERSIFOLIUM Blume. BAY6K. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The bark and flowers charred and mixed with the glands of Mallotus philippinensis are employed in smallpox to cause suppuration. Genus STERCULIA STERCULIA FOETIDA L. KALUMPANG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. A decoction of the bark is used in cases of dropsy and rheumatism as an aperient, diaphoretic and diuretic. A decoction of the fruit is astringent. Genus THEOBROMA THEOBROMA CACAO L. CACAO. A decoction brewed from the root is an emmenagogue and is regarded as ecbolic. Distribution: Bontoc, Lepanto, Manila, Mindoro, Polillo Island, Leyte, Surigao, Lanao, Palawan, Cotabato.

Page  212 212 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus WALTHERIA WALTHERIA AMERICANA L. BARUJBAD. Local names: Barubad (Union); kanding-kanding (Occidental Negros). This plant is considered as a febrifuge and also as an antisyphilitic. Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Nueva Vizcaya, Bontoc, Union, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Camarines, Mindoro, Negros Occidental, Antique, Culion, Palawan. Family DILLENIACEAE Genus DILLENIA DILLENIA PHILIPPINENSIS Rolfe KATM6N. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The acid juice of the fruit, when mixed with sugar, is used as a cough cure. It is also employed for cleansing the hair. Family GUTTIFFERAE Genus CALOPHYLLUM CALOPHYLLUM BLANCOI PI. & Tr. BITANHOL. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. The sap of the bark of this plant, especially when mixed with sulphur, is used locally as a cure for boils and wounds. A cloth kept moist with the sap is applied on the breast of a patient suffering from asthma. CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. BITAOG or PALOMARIA DE LA PLAYA. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The oil obtained from the seeds and the oleo-resin from the bark form a very energetic cicatrizant; the latter is used as a balsamic in affections of the lungs. The leaves are used to cure affections of the eye. The oleo-resin is employed on wounds. Water in which the leaves have been pressed is said to be an efficient astringent against hemorrhoids. Genus CRATOXYLON CRATOXYLON BLANCOI (Blume) Mus. GUYUNG-GOYUN:; Local names: Bansilai (Surigao); baringkok6rong (Ilocos Sur, Nue; a Ecija, Pangasinan, Camarines); guyung-guyung (Pangasinan, Cavite, Rizal, Basilan); kansilan (Bisaya); kansilai (Pangasinan, Negros Occide 1 -tal, Negros Oriental); uging (Abra); oringon (Masbate); pagulting f

Page  213 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 213 (Rizal); pagulingon (Negros Oriental); salingg6gon (Camarines); ugiingan (Cagayan). A decoction of the bark is used as a galactagogue. Distribution: Cagayan to Basilan. Genus GARCINIA GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. MANGOSTEEN. Local name: Mangostan (All regions where it is known). The leaves and the bark are used as an astringent for the cure of aphtha, or thrush, and also as a febrifuge. The pericarps are regarded as very efficacious in curing chronic intestinal catarrh. Distribution: Sorsogon, northern Negros, Mindanao, Sulu. Family BIXACEAE Genus BIXA BIXA ORELLANA L. ACHU~TE. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. A decoction of the bark is employed in febrile catarrhs. The red resinous substance of the seeds is considered an efficient remedy for certain skin diseases. Family CARICACEAE Genus CARICA CARICA PAPAYA L. PAPAYA. Local name: Papdya (Spanish-Filipino); otherwise known as kapdias, tapiias, papias, and similar corruptions, throughout the Archipelago. A decoction of the outer part of the roots is digestive and tonic and is much used in the cure of dyspepsia. Distribution: Very widely distributed throughout the Philippines, usually in cultivation. Family THYMELAEACEAE Genus GYRINOPSIS GYRINOPSIS CUMINGIANA Decne. BUTLO. Local names: Aldhan (T'ayabas); bdgo (Agusan); binuko (Capiz); butl6 (Tayabas); dalakit (Samar); lanutan (Sibuyan); magadn (Tayabas);,nalagdpas (Samar). The bark and roots are used for stopping the flow of blood from wounds. The bark, wood and fruits are used as a substitute for quinine.

Page  214 214 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Distribution: Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Catanduanes, Samar, Sibuyan, Leyte, Panay, Mindanao, Jolo. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Genus WIKSTROEMIA WIKSTROEMIA OVATA C. A. Mey. ROUND-LEAF SALAGO. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The leaves are emeto-cathartic, and are dangerous to administer. The fresh bark or branches of this plant are tied about the neck of a patient to relieve bronchial catarrh. Family LYTHRACEAE Genus AMMANNIA AMMANNIA BACCIFERA L. APOI-APOIAN. Local names: Apoi-ap6ian (Pangasinan, Rizal); parapit anggit (Pampanga); bias-pugo' (Tagalog). This plant is caustic, and is used similarly to cantharides as a substitute for blistering plaster. Distribution: In open wet places, old rice fields, etc., throughout the Philippines. Genus LAWSONIA LAWSONIA INERMIS L. HENNA PLANT or CINAMOMO. Local name: Cinam6mo (Spanish-Filipino). This shrub is said to be antiherpetic, but is rarely used. Distribution: Cultivated for ornamental purposes in most towns in the Philippines, but scarcely naturalized. Family LECYTHIDACEAE Genus BARRINGTONIA BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA (L.) Gaertn. KALAMBUAIA. Local names: Kalambudia (Pangasinan); latuba, tuiba (Cagayan); pztad (Pampanga, Laguna); putat (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Pampanga, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Mindoro); sako (Agusan). The bark of this species is said to be used on wounds. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Philippines along streams, in thickets, etc. BARRINGTONIA ASIATICA (L.) Kurz B6TONG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The fruit is employed to stupefy fish. The leaves when fresh are used in topicals for rheumatism. The seeds are employed as a vermifuge.

Page  215 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 215 BARRINGTONIA RACEMOSA (L.) Blume PUTAT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark is used externally in decoction as an antirheumatic. Family COMBRETACEAE Genus LUMNITZERA LUMNITZERA RACEMOSA Willd. KuLAsf. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. A fluid substance which is obtained from incisions made in the stem is employed, mixed with coconut oil, as an antiherpetic and a cure for itches. Genus QUISQUALIS QUISQUALIS INDICA L. TANGOLON. Local names; Babi-bdbe (Pampanga); balitadhdn (Bisaya); niugniugan (Tagalog); pinoines (Bisaya;) tallong, tangidlon (Marinduque); tan.qolon (Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya); tartardok (Iloko); tortordok (Tagalog). The fruit is used as a vermifuge. The plant is also used as a cough cure. Distribution: Common and very widely distributed in the Philippines. Genus TERMINALIA TERMINALIA CALAMANSANAI (Blanco) Rolfe MALAKALUMPIT. Local names: Amdrgo (Ilocos Sur); bangkalduag, kalamansdnai (Tagalog); bunlos (Rizal); kalamansali (Zambales, Nueva Ecija); kalumpit (Tayabas, Bataan); lankug (Surigao, Agusan); magatalisai (Masbate); mabantut (Bataan); malakalumpit (Bataan, Laguna, Camarines); pangalussiten (Abra); sdkat (Nueva Ecija); scket (Benguet); salisai (Lanao); samburdgat (Palawan); saplid (Surigao); talisai (Cotabato). The bark is astringent and is used both internally and externally. It is known to have lithotriptic qualities. Distribution: Very widely distributed from northern Luzon to Cotabato. TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. TALfSAI. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The red leaves are used to expel worms, while the fruit is said to contain a purgative substance. The leaves are mixed with oil and rubbed on the breast to cure pain. The bark is astringent and is used against gastric fevers and bilious diarrhea, also as an antidysenteric. The sap of the tender leaves mixed and cooked with the oil of the kernel is, according to P. Blanco, a specific against leprosy.

Page  216 216 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS TERMINALIA COMINTANA (Blanco) Merr. BINGGAS. Local names: Bangles (Nueva Ecija); banigids, hinabuai (Mindoro); binggds (Bataan, Zamboanga); boingds (Leyte, Occidental Negros); dinglds (Tagalog); lasila (Cagayan); lasilak (Cagayan, Ilocos Sur); lasilat (Apayao); maglolop6i (Pangasinan); naghubo, saplungan (Rizal); rubian (Laguna); tiroron (Camarines); yunu-yunu (Surigao). The fruit is astringent and is used in decoction to cure thrush and obstinate diarrhea. Distribution: In nearly all parts of the Philippines from Cagayan to Zamboanga. TERMINALIA EDULIS Blanco KALUMPIT. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The fruit is used in eye washes in the same manner as the fruit of aroma (Acasia farnesiana). It is also used in lotions in cases of humid herpetism or eczema. Family MYRTACEAE Genus DECASPERMUM DECASPERMUM FRUTICOSUM Forst. PATALSfK. Local names: Agem, dgim a babde (Cagayan); alungkagai (Bisaya); patalsik (Laguna); dugay6n, salilihan (Dinagat Island); guyong-guyong (Polillo Island); kamigrin (Lanao); kansilai (Zamboanga); kuldsi (Bisaya); kilis, malagiting-giting, tayom-tdyom (Rizal); lardze, saliingsingi.an (Benguet); taroingatingan (Samar). The fruit is used as a remedy for stomach pains. Distribution: Common from the Batanes Islands to Basilan. Genus EUGENIA EUGENIA CUMINI (L.) Druce (E. jambolana Lam.). DUHAT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The bark in decoction is astringent. The leaves steeped in alcohol, and the seeds when pulverized, are used as an efficacious remedy in diabetes. The fruits, cooked to a thick jam, are said to be an efficient astringent in acute diarrheas. Genus PSIDIUM PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. GUAVA or BAYABAE. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The bark and leaves are astringent, vulnerary, and when used in decoction are antidiarrhetic.

Page  217 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS Family MELASTOMATACEAE Genus MEMECYLON MEMECYLON OVATUM Sm. KULIS. Local names: Kand6n, kand6ng (Iloko); kulis (Tagalog); malabanggi (Cuyo Island); sagingsing (Bisaya). The roots in decoction are used in certain irregularities of menstruation, and the leaves in infusion are employed as an astringent in ophthalmia. Distribution: Central Luzon to Basilan. Family ARALIACEAE Genus NOTHOPANAX NOTHOPANAX FRUTICOSUM (L.) Miq. PAPUA. Local name: Papud (throughout the Philippines). The leaves powdered and mixed with salt are vulnerary and are considered by the natives to be very efficacious. Distribution: Widely cultivated. Genus SCHEFFLERA SCHEFFLERA CUMINGII (Seem.) Harms KALANG-GAMAT. Local name: Kalang-gdmat (Cagayan). This plant is said to be useful for stomach troubles. Distribution: Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Laguna. SCHEFFLERA ELLIPTI FOLIOLA Merr. GALAMAI-AM6. Local names: Balete (Laguna); galamdi-am6 (Tayabas). A decoction is used by mothers after childbirth. Distribution: Tayabas, Laguna, Camarines, Catanduanes. SCHEFFLERA ODORATA (Blanco) Merr. and Rolfe TARANGKANG. Local names: Galdmai-am6 (Rizal, Laguna); taglima (Cebu, Basilan); tarangkdng (Ticao Island). The bark is used as a cough cure. The leaves yield an effective antiscorbutic decoction. The resin is employed as a vulnerary. Distribution: Laguna to Basilan. SCHEFFLERA PIPEROIDEA Elm. HIMAINAT. Local name: Himaindt (Tayabas). This species is used as a tonic for mothers after childbirth. Distribution: Tayabas, Laguna.

Page  218 218 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family UMBELLIFERAE Genus APIUM APIUM GRAVEOLENS L. CELERY or APIO. Local names: Apio (Spanish); kinintsdi (Chinese-Tagalog); kimchdi or kintsdi (Chinese). The decoction of the entire plant is said to be diuretic and an emmenagogue. Distribution: Reported only from Benguet; also cultivated by Chinese gardeners about Manila. Genus CARUM CARUM COPTICUM (L.) Benth. DAM6RO. Local names: Dam6ro (Tagalog); lamudio (Batangas). The fruits are employed with "buyo" for chewing when carminative effects are desired. Distribution: Manila and Batangas. Genus CENTELLA CENTELLA ASIATICA (L.) Urban (Hydrocotyle asiatica L.) TAKIP-KOH6L. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. The sap of the leaves is employed as a curative for wounds of the sclerotic. The decoction is considered a diuretic and is said to be useful in gonorrhea. Genus CORIANDRUM CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. CORIANDER or CULANTRO. Local names: Culdntro (Spanish); ongs6i (Chinese). An infusion of the fruits is used to cure dyspepsia. When pounded, they are inhaled to dissipate giddiness. Distribution: Collected only from Union; commonly cultivated by Chinese market gardeners of Manila. Genus FOENICULUM FOENICULUM VULGARE Gaertn. FENNEL. Local names: Anis (Manila and vicinity); haras (Tagalog). The fruit in infusion is carminative. Distribution: Manila and vicinity, Negros Oriental, Misamis. Family ERICACEAE Genus RHODODENDRON RHODODENDRON VIDALII Rolfe Local name: Ayalea (Ifugao). This plant is used as a cure for itches. Distribution: Isabela, Cagayan, Abra, Ifugao, Bontoc, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas.

Page  219 I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 219 Family MYRSINACEAE Genus ARDISIA ARDISIA BOISSIERI A. D. C. TAGP6. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves are used on wounds. Family PLUMBAGINACEAE Genus PLUMBAGO PLUMBAGO INDICA L. (P. rosea L.). PAMPASAPIT. Local names: Hanigad n~g babde (Bataan); laurel (Manila, Camarines); panting-panting (Cotabato); pampasapit (Tagalog). The roots are scraped and employed in poultices for headache. The bark is a very effective blistering plaster, and is applied to the spine in certain fevers. It is also said to be an antidyspeptic. Distribution: Bataan, Manila, Camarines, Laguna, Palawan, Cotabato. PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L. SANGDIKfT. Local names: Bangbaing, talangkdu (Iloko); sampdga (Laguna); sangdikit, sangdidikit (Tagalog). The pounded roots are used for blistering. In decoction they are employed as an antiscabious remedy. They are said also to be ecbolic. Distribution: Northern and central Luzon, Palawan, Zamboanga. Family SAPOTACEAE Genus BASSIA BASSIA BETIS (Blanco) Merr. BETIS. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The bark and leaves of this plant are said to be useful for curing the stomach pains of children. The latex applied to the abdomen is said to expel worms. The powder of the bark provokes sneezing. Genus MIMUSOPS MIMUSOPS PARVIFOLIA R. Br. (M. elengi L.) BANSALAGIN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. The bark, as well as the unripe fruit, yields a powerful astringent remedy. Both are used as a gargle to strengthen the gums. They are further employed in lotions for ulcers, and in urethral injections for gonorrhea.

Page  220 220 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Family EBENACEAE Genus DIOSPYROS DIOSPYROS EBENASTER Retz. ZAP6TE. Local names: Zapote or zapote negro (Mexican, in all regions where found). The pounded bark and leaves are employed as a blistering plaster. Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Manila, Cavite. DIOSPYROS MULTIFLORA Blanco. KAN6MOI. Local names: Dupiingan, kamomi (Nueva Ecija); kanomai, kanomei (Ilocos Sur, Union, Pangasinan); kanumai, kanomoi (Rizal); kanumi (Bataan). The bark and leaves are caustic, and are used as a cure for furfuraceous herpes, ringworm, etc. Distribution: Luzon, the Visayas, Mindanao. Family OLEACEAE Genus JASMINUM JASMINUM SAMBAC (L.) Ait. SAMPAGITA. Local names: Hubar (Balabac); kanmppot (Pampanga, Manila); kuIdtai (Pampanga); lumabo, malul (Cotabato); manul (Bisaya); sampdga (Tagalog); sampagita (Spanish-Filipino); sampagita doble (SpanishFilipino). The flowers are applied as a poultice to the breasts of women to reduce the secretion of milk. Distribution: Cagayan, Bontoc, Lepanto, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Palawan, Misamis, Davao, Cotabato, Zamboanga, Basilan. Family LOGANIACEAE Genus BUDDLEIA BUDDLEIA ASIATICA Lour. TALIKN6NO. Local names: Ammugin (Benguet); lagundi-saldsa (Bisaya); lakien-tisubusub (Union); malasamb6ng (Tagalog); maligus (Bontoc); samb6ngk6la (Rizal, Tayabas); taliknono (Tagalog); tokmdn (Abra); tugndng (Iloko). This plant is used locally for abortion. Also it is used in skin diseases and as a cure for loss of weight. Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus FAGRAEA FAGRAEA COCHINCHINENSIS (Lour.) A. Chev. URUNG. Local names: Dolo, teka (Palawan); susulin (Mindoro); urung (Palawan). The bark is used as a febrifuge, especially in agues. Distribution: Mindoro, Palawan.

Page  221 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 221 FAGRAEA RACEMOSA Jack. BULUBUAIA. Local names: Badgu (Bagobo); bago-sala (Samar); bulubudia (Negros); hambudia, himbubudia (Capiz); kabdl (Tayabas); kibudia (Laguna); kukodm6n (Camarines Norte); libdkan (Laguna, Polillo); magusiak (Zambales); makatibuha (Subanun); malabudia (Negros); malabago (Cebu); talob-dlok (Tayabas). The bark and the flowers are used as an antidote for snake bite. Distribution: Central Luzon to Basilan. Genus STRYCHNOS STRYCHNOS IGNATII Berg. ST. IGNATIUS BEAN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. The bark and seeds, in small doses, are used as a febrifuge, and are said to be anticholeric and tonic. They are reported to be effective in some forms of paralysis. They are very poisonous. STRYCHNOS MULTIFLORA Benth. BUKUAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. This plant is said to be used for throat troubles. Family GENTIANACEAE Genus CANSCORA CANSCORA DIFFUSA (Vahl) R. Br. CHANG-BAT6. Local names: Kubdmba, chang-bat6, tsang-bat6 (Tagalog); malenggal (Rizal). The entire plant, administered in the form of a decoction, is tonic and antigastralgic. Distribution: Ilocos Norte to the central Luzon provinces and Mindoro. Family APOCYNACEAE Genus ALLAMANDA ALLAMANDA CATHARTICA L. CAMPANERO. Local names: Campanilla, campanero (Spanish). The whole plant is poisonous. When brewed in decoction ana administered in small doses, it is used as an antidotal. Distribution: Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Albay, Occidental Negros. Genus ALSTONIA ALSTONIA MACROPHYLLA Wall. BATINO. Local names: Basikilang, basikdrang., daldkan (Ilocos Sur); basikdllang, pangolaksien (Cagayan); basikdlon (Isabela); batikdlang (Panga

Page  222 222 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS sinan); batino (Tayabas, Laguna, Rizal, Batangas, Mindoro); itang-itang (Guimaras Island); kuyau-kuydu, malatapdi (Camarines); paingalisokloen (Pangasinan); paingalamutien, pangalanud-dien (Ilocos Norte); sulusilhigan (Palawan); tambal-tuz'gan (Tawi-Tawi); tangitang (Capiz). The bark is used in the same manner as is that of dita (Alstonia scholaris). Distribution: Throughout the Philippines, from Cagayan to Tawi-Tawi. ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R. Br. DITA. Local names: Alipduin (Ilocos Norte); andardyan, dilupdon (Cagayan); bita (Iloilo); dalipduen, lipduen (Abra, Ilocos Sur, Amburayan subprovince); ditd (Zambales, Tarlac, Tayabas, Rizal, Laguna, Bataan, Batangas, Camarines, Mindoro, Sorsogon, Samar, Leyte, Sibuyan Island, Negros). A decoction of the bark is used as a tonic and febrifuge and is said to be an emmenagogue, anticholeric and vulnerary. Distribution: Very common throughout Luzon and the Visayan Islands. Genus CERBERA CERBERA MANGHAS L. BARAIBAI. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. The seeds are toxic, and are used in fishing in small streams. Genus KIBATALIA KIBATALIA BLANCOI (Rolfe) Merr. PASNfT. Local names: Kagpadian (Ilocos Sur); laneting-gubat (Batangas); laniti (Guimaras, Negros); pasnit (Ilocos Sur); tibig (Cavite, Batangas). The leaves are used to cover the head in case of headache. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Leyte, Guimaras Island, Negros. Genus LOCHNERA LOCHNERA ROSEA (L.) Reichb. ATAI-BIA. Local names: Chichirica (Spanish-Filipino); kumintdng (Bisaya); lau5 rel (Cagaydn); atai-bid (Rizal, Manila); rosas-sa-baibai (Bisaya); San Pedro (Polillo); sanda (Bikol). The roots in decoction are used as an effective emmenagogue. It is said that they may produce abortion. Distribution: Widely distributed from Batanes Islands to Palawan and northern Mindanao. Genus NERIUM NERIUM INDICUM Mill. OLEANDER or ADILFA. Local names: Adelfa (Spanish); ginatadn (Tagalog). The bark and leaves are poisonous. With an admixture of

Page  223 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 223 oil, they are employed as an external application in skin eruption or irritations in herpes, etc. Distribution: Occasionally cultivated for ornament in various regions. Genus PARALSTONIA PARALSTONIA CLUSIACEA Baill. MALABATINO. Local names: Basikdlang (Ilocos Sur); batikoling (Rizal); bayag-usd (Mindoro); ditd (Bataan); kuyau-ydu (Masbate); malabatino (Baler); maladitd (Batangas, Tayabas). The bark is used on swellings. Distribution: Cagayan to Camarines, Mindoro, Samar, Masbate, Negros, Palawan, Surigao. Genus PARAMERIA PARAMERIA BARBATA (Bl.) K. Schum. (Parameria philippinensis Radlk.) DUGTUNG-AHAS. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The bark macerated in oil is an efficacious vulnerary and is also used internally for the cure of tuberculosis. Genus PLUMIERA PLUMIERA ACUMINATA Ait. TEMPLE FLOWER or KALACHfTCHE. Local names: Kalachuche or kalatsitse (Zambales, most Tagalog provinces; Camarines, most Bisaya provinces); kalasuche (Cavite); kalatuche (Tagalog); kalunache (Iloko, Cagayan); kalisichu (Pangasinan); kardkarikucha (Pampanga); kulaloche (Iloko); talisocho (Pangasinan). A decoction of the bark is used as a purgative, emmenagogue and febrifuge. The latex is also employed for the same effects. Distribution: Cultivated in the majority of provinces. Genus RAUWOLFIA RAUWOLFIA AMSONIAEFOLIA A. DC. MALADITA. Local names: Alibutb.t (Masbate); ban6gan (Masbate); batikoling (Bukidnon); maladitd (Camarines, Bukidnon); maraandardyan (Cagayan). The young buds are used for the stomach disorders of young babies. Distribution: Cagayan to Camarines, Lubang Island, Mindoro, Masbate, Bukidnon. Genus TABERNAEMONTANA TABERNAEMONTANA PANDACAQUI Poir. PANDAKAKI. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. The milky juice is said to be good for swellings. A decoction

Page  224 224 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS of the root and the bark is used to cure certain affections of the stomach and intestines. Women use it also at childbirth. The leaves are used in bathing. Genus THEVETIA THEVETIA PERUVIANA (Pers.) Merr. Local name: Campanelo or campanero (Spanish). The decoction of the bark, in regulated doses, is employed as an emetic and febrifuge, said to be effective in intermittent fevers. Distribution: Isabela, Baguio, Manila, Basilan. Family ASCLEPIADACEAE Genus ASCLEPIAS ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA L. BULAK-DAM6. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The roots are employed, both in decoction and pulverized, as an emetic, having effects similar to those of ipecacuanha. Genus CALOTROPIS CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (L.) Dryand. KAPAL-KAPAL. Local name: Kapal-kapdl (Tagalog). The bark and thickened latex are used a ^ -lterative in certain diseases of the skin. They a!i vermifugal properties. Distribution: Manila, Batangas. Genus STREPTOCAULON STREPTOCAULON BAUMII Decne. HINGfU-NA-PUTf. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The latex is much used as a vulnerary. Genus TYLOPHORA TYLOPHORA BREVIPES (Turcz.) F.-Vill. PASUKA. Local names: Bugnei (Cagayan); sarungkad, sarungkdr (Ilocos Norte); pasuka (Tagalog in Zambales); dail, sayongkdl (Pangasinan). A decoction of the roots is used as an emetic. The root is a substitute for ipecacuanha in all its uses. It is also considered as an emmenagogue and as a specific for colic. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Zambales, Mindoro.

Page  225 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 225 TYLOPHORA PERROTTETIANA Decne. KUL-LAN~GEM. Local names: Kul-langem (Union); maraipus ti bdkes (Iloko). The leaves are used with wonderful effect as a vulnerary. Distribution: Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Laguna. Family CONVOLVULACEAE Genus CALONYCTION CALONYCTION MURICATUM (L.) G. Don Local name: Tonkin (so called by the friars). The seeds are vulnerary and are considered a very efficacious antidotal remedy for poisoning. They are also said to be purgative, as are those of the Ipomoea nil Roth. Genus EVOLVULUS EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES L. The entire plant is used in infusion to cure certain irregularities of the bowels. It is also employed as a vermifuge and a febrifuge. Distribution: Very common in northern and central Luzon, but also collected from Semirara Island, Antique, Bukidnon, Davao, and Cotabato. Genus IPOMOEA IPOMOEA DIGIThTr,". (I. paniculata R. Br.) KAMKAM6TE., * Local names: Bidl.',. (Culion); kamkam6te (Union); puntas-puntas (Tagalog). The fresh, fleshy root, in infusion, is used as a purgative. It is said that the root dried and pulverized is good for emaciation in children. It is also regarded as alterative, tonic, aphrodisiac and galactagogic. Distribution: Union, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Culion, Butuan. IPOMOEA HEDERACEA (L.) Jacq. Local names: Campanilla azul (Spanish); kam6te-kamotehan (Manila and vicinity). The pulverized seeds are administered as a purgative and are said to be anthelmintic. Distribution: Abra, Lepanto Bontoc, Rizal, Manila. IPOMOEA PES-CAPRAE (L.) Roth KATANG-KATANG. Local names: Arodaiddi (Bisaya); badino (Batanes); balimbahin (Polillo); daripai (Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya); kabaikabii (Tayabas); 177674-16

Page  226 226 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS kamkamotihan (Bataan); ka/kamote (Union); katang-katang, lagairti, lampdyong (Tagalog); lagildi (Davao); langbdyong (Iloko); palangpdlang (Iloilo). The leaves are employed as an escharotic to extirpate the fungoid growth of ulcers. They are cooked and used as an antirheumatic topical. Distribution: Along the beach from Batanes Islands to Basilan. IPOMOEA PES-TIGRIDIS L. RANGRANGAU. Local names: Rangrangadz ng abududn, rangrangdu (Union); malasandid, salasandia (Bisaya). The leaves are employed in the form of poultices as a resolvent of pimples, boils, etc. Distribution: Cagayan, Amburayan, Lepanto, Union, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Cavite, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Antique, Guimaras Islands, Bukidnon, Zamboanga. IPOMOEA REPTANS (L.) Poir. KANGK6NG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The tops are edible and are mildly laxative. Genus MERREMIA MERREMIA EMARGINATA (Burm. f.). Hallier f. KUPI-KUPiT. Local names: Bato-bato (Tagalog); kupi-kupit (Iloko). The leaves and tops in decoction are sometimes employed as a diuretic. Distribution: Rizal, Bataan. In dry open grasslands and waste places at low altitudes. Genus OPERCULINA OPERCULINA TURPETHUM (L.) S. Manso A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. The root, either pulverized or in alcoholic tincture, is employed as a drastic purgative. Genus QUAMOCLIT QUAMOCLIT PINNATA (Descr.) Voigt. CYPRESS VINE or CABELLO DE ANGEL. Local names: Cabello de dngel (Spanish-Filipino); lumpitan (Cotabato); malabohok (Bisaya); malmardma (Cebu); pabellon de cngel (Pangasinan); pisos-pisos (Oriental Negros); tartardok (Ilocos Norte); tentened6r (Union). The leaves are prepared in poultices and employed as a remedy for bleeding hemorrhoids.

Page  227 I I i i I i i I i i MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 227 Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Cagayan, Bontoc, Union, Nueva Vizcaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines Norte and Sur, Albay, Sorsogon, Iloilo, Antique, Oriental Negros, Cebu, Bantayan Island, and Cotabato. Family BORRAGINACEAE Genus COLDENIA COLDENIA PROCUMBENS L. TABTAB6KOL. Local names: Oregano-lalcki (Tagalog); papait ti nuiang (Union); tabtab6kol (Ilocos, Abra); tapiasin (Tagalog). The leaves are applied in poultices to mature abscesses. The dried leaves when pulverized provoke sneezing. Distribution: From Cagayan to Manila, and in Mindoro. Genus CORDIA CORDIA MYXA L. AN6NANG. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on fiber plants. A decoction of the bark is said to be antidyspeptic and a febrifuge. When reduced to a powder it is used as a cure for ulcers in the mouth. Genus EHRETIA EHRETIA MICROPHYLLA Lam. KALAMIOGA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The dried leaves are boiled and the resulting fluid is used internally as a cure for stomach trouble. A decoction of the leaves is used as a cough cure. EHRETIA NAVESII Vidal TALIBUN6G. Local names: Alimbungug (Surigao); kalambon6g (Pangasinan); malatadidng (Nueva Vizcaya); maragaued (Ilocos Norte); talibunog (Lepanto). This plant is used in the cure of fever. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines from Cagayan to Basilan. Genus HELIOTROPIUM HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM L. fKOI-PISA. Local names: Apos6tes (Basilan); buntot-le6n (Tayabas, Albay); hinlalai6n (Tagalog); higad-higdran (Nueva Ecija); ikog-ikog-sang-kuti (Bisaya); ikoi-pusa (Sambali); kabra-kdbra, kambra-kdmbra (Bisaya); kuting-kutitngan (Tagalog); makabra o puntalefante (Negros);, malakudkuran (Zambales); pen~gn~g (Abra); peng-nga-peng-ngad (Pangasinan); pefnga-pengai (Union); trompa-elefante (Manila, Marinduque); trompalipante (Iloilo).

Page  228 228 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS A tea made from the leaves is used for bathing cuts and sores; also for the treatment of cholera. The leaves are applied to wounds and boils. The leaves in decoction are used as a pectoral and as antiscabious. The sap of the leaves mixed with salt is said to be useful for clearing the vision. The plant is said to be also used for ear and skin diseases. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Basilan. Genus ROTULA ROTULA AQUATICA Lour. BUNTUT-BUAIA. Local names: Apos6tes (Basilan); buntut-budia. (Bulacan); kuldtai (Tagalog); makabra, puntalefdnte (Negros); tdkad (Rizal); trompalipdnti (Iloilo). The stems are used in decoction as a sudorific and diuretic. Distribution: Cagayan to Basilan. Genus TOURNEFORTIA TOURNEFORTIA SARMENTOSA Lam. SALSALLAKAPU. Local names: Kalangun~gug (Bisaya); salsallakcipu (Union). The leaves are specially employed in destroying the larvae found in the ulcers of cattle. Distribution: In most or all islands and provinces from Babuyanes Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Genus TRICHODESMA 'TRICHODESMA INDICUM (L.) R. Br. This species is used in the same manner as is the following. Distribution: Rizal, Laguna. TRICHODESMA ZEYLANICUM (Burm. f.) R. Br. DfLANG-USA. Local names: Dilang-usa (Tagalog); mabulo (Rizal). The flowers are employed by natives, instead of those of Borago officinalis, as a sudorific and pectoral. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pampanga, Rizal, Manila, Laguna. Family VERBENACEAE Genus AVICENNIA AVICENNIA OFFICINALIS L. API-API. A description and figures of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. A resin from the sapwood is used locally on snake bites. The seeds cooked with water are used as maturative poultices, and as a cicatrizant of ulcers.

Page  229 I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 229 Genus CALLICARPA CALLICARPA CAUDATA Maxim. Local names: Amgup, anayup (Benguet); haraihdi (Palaui Island). A decoction made from the fresh or dried leaves is used as a cure for stomach trouble. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Albay, Misamis. CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA Schauer PALfS. Local names: Alinau (Mindoro); malasamb6ng (Laguna); palis (Laguna); sulingdcsau (Nueva Ecija); tambalabdsi (Batangas); tigau (Mindoro, Negros). This species is said to be used for the cure of itches. Distribution: Throughout the provinces of Luzon, Mindoro, Leyte, Negros, Davao, Zamboanga. CALLICARPA FORMOSANA Rolfe TIMBABASI. Local names: Anandhin (Benguet); annoyop (Pangasinan); tubai-bdsi (Laguna); palis, tubang-daldg (Laguna, Tayabas); talambdsi (Batangas, Mindoro); tigau (Laguna, Mindoro, Tayabas); timbabdsi (Laguna, Tayabas); tutba (Bulacan). The leaves are smoked like stramonium to combat dyspnoea. Also, when fresh and crushed, they are used to stupefy fish. Distribution: Cagayan to Davao. Genus CLERODENDRON CLERODENDRON BETHUNEANUM Low GUANT6N. Local names: Anoran (Palawan); guanton (Surigao); kalikal (Surigao) matd-kuo (Masbate); parida (Zamboanga). An infusion of the leaves is used by women during pregnancy. Distribution: Isabela in northern Luzon to Basilan. CLERODENDRON CUMINGIANUM Schauer TALUMPAPAIT. Local names: Dakutung (Jolo); talumpapdit (Lanao); tanogo (Zamboanga). The leaves of this species are used for stomachache. Distribution: Ilocos Norte, Capiz, Negros, Camiguin de Mindanao, Agusan, Butuan, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga, Basilan. CLERODENDRON INERME (L.) Gaertn. ANG'ANGRf. Local names: Ang'an~gri, busel-busel (Union); balisin (Bisaya); baliskWg (Bisaya); maingotngot (Bataan); taban~go'ngo (Iloilo). The root is administered in decoction as a febrifuge and general alterative. The leaves are used in poultices as a resolvent. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Davao.

Page  230 230 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS CLERODENDRON INTERMEDIUM Cham. LAR6AN-ANITO. Local names: Aloksok (Bisaya); balantdna, bantana, bolongtambdl (Bisaya); iginiga (Tagalog); ikap-ani-dni (Sambali); kaalaaucan (Bataan); kasopdng~il (Laguna, Tayabas, Batangas); katungatum (Cotabato); kolokol6g (Bisaya); lar6an-anito (Tagalog); libintdno (Occidental Negros); makalaldnang (Tagalog); pakapis (Bisaya); salingudk (Mindoro). The root is known to be purgative. The leaves, either whole or pounded, are applied on the abdomen of a parturient in certain complications. Distribution: Babuyanes Islands to Cotabato. CLERODENDRON MACROSTEGIUM Schauer MALAPOT6KAN. Local names: Agboligan (Iloko); bagduak, malapotokan (Tagalog); bagak, kasopdngil (Mindanao). The leaves are employed, in decoction and as poultices, to cure carbuncles. Distribution: Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Tayabas, Mindoro, Sibuyan Island. CLERODENDRON MINAHASSAE Teysm. and Binn. AIAM-AIAM. Local names: Am-amboligan (Pangasinan); aiam-diam (Iloko); bagduak (Bataan); bagduak-itirm (Rizal); bagduak-puld (Rizal); bokobok6 (Union). This plant is used as an external remedy for chest and stomach pains. The leaves are said to be boiled and applied to boils. Distribution: From Cagayan to Basilan. CLERODENDRON QUADRILOCULARE (Blanco) Merr. BAGAUAK. Local names: Bagduak na morado (Tagalog); bagduak na puld (Rizal); baligtanin (Batangas); saling-udk (Occidental Negros, Mindoro). The leaves in topicals are used for healing wounds, ulcers, etc. They are also employed in tonic baths. Distribution: Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro, Ticao Island, Capiz, Negros Occidental, Siargao Island, Bucas Grande Island. Genus LIPPIA LIPPIA NODIFLORA (L.) Rich. CHACHAHAN. Local names: Busbusi (Union); chachdhan (Manila); loplopzi (Iloilo); nakulad (Batanes). An infusion of the leaves and tops is employed by the natives as a carminative and diuretic remedy. Distribution: Batanes Islands, Cagayan to Laguna, and Panay to Zamboanga.

Page  231 I i I MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 231 Genus PREMNA PREMNA CUMINGIANA Schauer MANABA. Local names: Banabd (Cagayan, Isabela); maladpi (Tagalog); manabd (Camarines, Leyte, Bukidnon); kilig (Bataan); magilik (Rizal); palandiduan (Cagayan). The leaves in infusion are employed as a remedy for dropsy, and also as a diuretic. Distribution: Cagayan, Central Luzon provinces, Camarines, Leyte, Surigao, Lanao, Davao, Basilan. PREMNA NAUSEOSA Blanco MULAUIN-ASO. Local names: Agrdu (Abra); alagdu-gubat (Laguna); anainghit (Rizal); malamulduin (Bataan); mulduin-dso (Tarlac, Bataan, Zambales, Batangas, Rizal, Laguna). The leaves are said to be used as a cure for stomach troubles. Distribution: Cagayan to Camarines, Capiz. PREMNA ODORATA Blanco ALAGAU. Local names: Adgdu (Camarines, Guimaras Island); adiyo' (Marinduque); alagdu (Union, Abra, Bontoc, Zambales, Pampanga, Tarlac, Bulacan, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Tayabas, Laguna, Negros); argdu (Negros); atinge (Nueva Vizcaya); lagan (Cotabato); lassi (Cagayan); tangle (Pampanga). A decoction of the roots, leaves, flowers, and fruits is used as a sudorific and pectoral, and is said to be carminative. The leaves with coconut or sesame oil are applied to the abdomen of children to cure tympanites. The leaves are boiled in water and the water used for bathing babies, and also as a treatment for beriberi. In the latter case the boiled leaves are applied to the affected part of the patient's body. The plant is used as a headache cure. Distribution: From Batanes Islands, throughout the provinces of Luzon, and southward to Cotabato. Genus TECTONA TECTONA GRANDIS L. f. TEAK. Local names: Dalanddng (Occidental Negros); dalondon, kalaydte (Bisaya); jcte (Zamboanga); hadlaydti (Agusan); jdti (Jolo); teca (Rizal, Laguna, Zamboanga); tikla (Tagalog); ydti (Port Banga). The leaves, either fresh or dried, are used in decoction as an excellent remedy for haemoptysis. The same decoction taken as a gargle is said to cure sore throat. Distribution: Rizal Province to Jolo.

Page  232 232 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus VITEX VITEX NEGUNDO L. LAGUNDI. Local names: Agno-casto (Spanish-Filipino); dcngla (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Zambales, Pangasinan, Laguna); lagundi (Cagayan, Zambales, Bulacan, Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Masbate, Pampanga). A decoction of the bark, tops, and leaves is said to be antigastralgic. The leaves are used in aromatic baths; also as an insectifuge. The seeds are boiled in water and eaten, or the water is taken internally, to prevent the spreading of poison from the bites of poisonous animals. The infusion is also used for disinfecting wounds. Wine in which the seeds have been soaked is said to be good for dropsy. The leaves of the tree applied to the forehead are said to be good for headache. The plant is also regarded as a febrifuge. Distribution: Common and widely distributed in thickets. VITEX TRIFOLIA L. var. OVATA (Thunb.) Merr. LAGUNDING-DAGAT. Local names: Agubdrau (Bisaya); daldallagni (Union); kalapini (Union); lagunding-ddgat, lagunding-gapdng (Tagalog). The leaves in decoction are used for aromatic baths. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Amburayan, Isabela, Union, Batangas, Catanduanes. Family LABIATAE Genus ANISOMELES ANISOMELES INDICA (L.) O. Kuntze BANGBANGSIT. Local names: Pdling-hardp, taling-hardp (Tagalog). A decoction of the leaves is said to be antirheumatic and stomachic. Distribution: Widely distributed in open waste places in the Philippines. Genus COLEUS COLEUS AMBOINICUS Lour. Local names: Oregano (Spanish-Filipino); sugdnda (Tagalog); torongil, limon (Spanish-Filipino). The leaves in infusion or as a syrup are used as an aromatic carminative, administered in cases of dyspepsia and also to cure asthma. Distribution: Cultivated in many regions. COLEUS BLUMEI Benth. MAIANA. Local names: Badicra, maidcna (Tagalog, Bisaya, Pampanga); maidnau (Bikol); malidna (Tagalog, Bisaya, Pampanga); lapondia (Bisaya). The pounded leaves are said to be valuable as a cure for headaches, and for the healing of bruises. Distribution: Widely cultivated.

Page  233 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 233 Genus HYPTIS HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS Poir. BANGBANGSIfT. Local names: Bangbangsit (Bontoc, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan); kalingkabdyo (Dumaran Island); litdlit (Union); suub-kabdyo (Polillo). A decoction of the roots is valued as an appetizer. This plant is also used for affections of the uterus. The root in decoction is said to be emmenagogic, and a stimulant if employed in rheumatism. Distribution: In waste places throughout the Philippines. Genus LEUCAS LEUCAS LAVANDULIFOLIA Sm. PANSI-IPANSf. Local names: Kaskasumba (Pangasinan); langa-langac (Camarines); pansi-pansi (Laguna); salitcb (Polillo); sampdran (Bulacan). The leaves are crushed and used externally in dermatosis. Distribution: Very abundant throughout Luzon, and collected also from Mindoro, Polillo, and Surigao. Genus MENTHA MENTHA ARVENSIS L. MINT or YERBA BUENA. Local name: Yerba buena (Spanish). The tops and leaves are carminative and when bruised are used as an antidote for the stings of poisonous insects. Distribution: Reported from Pangasinan, Manila, Batangas, Tayabas, but known to be commonly cultivated. Genus OCIMUM OCIMUM BASILICUM L. BALAN6I or SWEET BASIL. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The leaves are used in infusion or decoction as a carminative and stimulant medicine. OCIMUM SANCTUM L. SULASI or HOLY BASIL. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils. The leaves in decoction are used for aromatic baths. A decoction brewed from the roots and leaves is said to be a specific for gonorrhea. Externally it is used in baths to cure rheumatic pains and paralysis. A decoction obtained from the seeds is said to be demulcent. Genus POGOSTEMON POGOSTEMON CABLIN (Blanco) Benth. PATCHOULI or KABLfN. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils.

Page  234 234 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The leaves and tops serve as a preservative against moths. They are employed also in baths, when they are said to have antirheumatic action. Genus ROSMARINUS ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS L. ROSEMARY or ROMERO. Local names: Dumnro (corruption of Spanish "romero"); rosmiro (Bontoc). The leaves are used in the Philippines in the same manner as in European therapeutics..Distribution: Reported from Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, Marinduque, but widely cultivated. Genus SCUTELLARIA SCUTELLARIA LUZONICA Rolfe SIDIT. Local name: Sidit (Benguet). The plant is said to be used as a cure for stomach pains. Distribution: Northern and central Luzon, Mindanao. Family SOLANACEAE Genus DATURA DATURA FASTUOSA L. TALONG-PINAI NA ITfM. Local names: Siva (Batanes Islands); talampunai (Marinduque); talampunai na itim (Batangas). The species is poisonous, as is the variety alba. It is utilized for the same purposes as stramonium. The leaves and flowers are smoked for dyspnoea in bronchitis. Distribution: In open places in and about settlements throughout the Philippines. DATURA FASTUOSA L. var. ALBA (Nees) C. B. Clarke. TALONG-PUNAI. Local names: Kamkammaulau (Union); katsubong (Capiz); tarampunai, talam-ptunai, talong-punai (Tagalog, Pampanga, Bikol); kachibong (Bisaya, Marinduque), The leaves are much used in resolutive and mitigant poultices. They are also smoked like stramonium in cases of dyspnoea produced by asthma. The seeds and roots have the same uses. They are sometimes used for criminal purposes. The Moros are said to intoxicate themselves with this plant before they commit their massacres. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines in waste places in and about towns. Much more common than the purple-flowered form.

Page  235 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 235 Genus NICOTIANA NICOTIANA TABACUM L. TOBACCO. Local name: Tabaco (Spanish). The fresh leaves are used in poultices as a sedative and maturative. A decoction of the dried leaves is used for enemas for expelling certain intestinal worms. Distribution: Cultivated, either on a commercial scale, or for local use, in almost all provinces. Genus SOLANUM SOLANUM CUMINGII Dunal TALONGTALNGAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves used in poultices are said to be mitigating and resolvent. The seeds are employed as a sedative, and are sometimes used to cure toothache. SOLANUM MELONGENA L. EGG PLANT or TALONG. Local names: Talong or tarong (wherever cultivated); berengena (Spanish). The roots in decoction are taken internally as an antiasthmatic and as a general stimulant. The leaves are employed to cure piles. Distribution: Cultivated in almost all provinces. SOLANUM NIGRUM L. K6NTI. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. The leaves when prepared in poultices are said to have sedative and healing properties. Prepared as an alcoholate, they are said to alleviate neuralgic pains. Family SCROPHULARIACEAE Genus BACOPA BACOPA MONNIERA (L.) Wettst. ULASfMAN-ASO. Local names: Alasiman, olasiman (Cebu); ulasiman-dso (Tagalog). The entire plant in decoction is utilized by the natives as a diuretic. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Manila, Laguna, Cebu. Genus LIMNOPHILA LIMNOPHILA INDICA (L.) Druce INATA. Local name: Indta (Tagalog). An infusion of the leaves is used in the cure of dysentery and dyspepsia.

Page  236 236 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Bontoc, Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal Laguna, Leyte, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao. In shallow, slow streams at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters. Genus SCOPARIA SCOPARIA DULCIS L. MALAAMfS. Local names: Is-isa (Pangasinan); kacha-kachdhan, hibi-hibihan (Tagalog); malaamis (Pampanga); malismalisan (Polillo); samnpalokan (Laguna). An infusion of the leaves and tops is used as a tea in certain affections of the intestines. Distribution: From Batanes Islands to southern Mindanao. Family BIGNONIACEAE Genus CRESCENTIA CRESCENTIA ALATA H.B.K. HOJA-CRUZ. Local names: Krus-krusan (Rizal); hoja-cruz (Spanish-Filipino). A decoction of the leaves is employed as an astringent and antihemorrhagic, and is much used in haemoptysis and dysentery. Distribution: Rizal and Tayabas. Genus DOLICHANDRONE DOLICHANDRONE SPATHACEA (L. f.) K. Schum. Tuwf. Local names: Pdta (Union); tang as (Palawan); tanghds (Mindoro, Masbate, Negros Occidental); tivi (Butuan); tiwi (Camarines, Tayabas, Mindoro, Agusan); tue (Tagalog); tui (Zambales, Bataan, Mindoro). The seeds are administered in the form of a powder, generally for some nervous complaint. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Basilan Island. Genus OROXYLUM OROXYLUM INDICUM (L.) Vent. PINGKAPINGKAHAN. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The leaves are used for the cure of female irregularities. The bark of the root is said to be antirheumatic if used in decoction, and also antidysenteric and diaphoretic. The leaves are generally used in antirheumatic baths. Family PEDALIACEAE Genus SESAMUM SESAMUM ORIENTALE L. (S. indicum DC.) SESAME or LINGA. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils.

Page  237 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 237 The oil extracted from the seeds is used as an antirheumatic in massage treatment. Family ACANTHACEAE Genus ACANTHUS ACANTHUS ILICIFOLIUS L. DILIUARIU. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on mangrove swamps. The leaves and roots are used in decoction as an antiasthmatic. A decoction of the leaves is considered as emollient. Genus BARLERIA BARLERIA PRIONITIS L. KOK6NG-MANUK. Local names: Kolintd (Manila); korrintd (Mindoro); kokong-manuk, kuldnta (Tagalog); kurdnta (Mindoro). A decoction of the leaves and tops is used for bathing in cases of febrile catarrh. Distribution: Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Mindoro, Cuyo Islands. Genus BLECHUM BLECHUM BROWNEI Juss. SAPIN-SAPfN. Local names: Bumburrua (Baguio); ddiang (Tagalog); damong-sambdti' (Bataan); garem nga purau (Union); karis-busuk (Ilocos Norte); sapinsapin (Tagalog); tarre-tarre (Pangasinan). The entire plant in decoction is used as an antiblennorrhagic. The pounded leaves are employed as a vulnerary. Distribution: Batanes Islands, throughout the provinces of Luzon, Polillo, Leyte, Occidental Negros, Cebu, Misamis, Lanao. Genus GRAPTOPHYLLUM GRAPTOPHYLLUM PICTUM (L.) Griff. ATAI-ATAI. Local names: Antolang (Tagalog); balasbads, pasau (Bisaya); atai-dtai, balasbds-mal6mai, ternite, yovas (Tagalog); kalupueng (Laguna); morado (Spanish-Filipino); sardsa (Tagalog). The leaves are used as an emollient poultice on ulcers of the hand and for keeping open artificial ulcers made for medicinal purpose. Distribution: Batanes Islands, Cagayan, Lepanto, Pampanga, Bulacan, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Palawan, Lanao, Davao. Genus JUSTICIA JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA Burm. f. KAPANATULOT. Local names: Bugndu, bugno-negro (Palawan); bunldu (Bisaya); hulingbdingon (Balabac Island); kadpaidn (Union); kapanatulot (Tagalog);

Page  238 238 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS malabulak, San Francisco-bund6k (Bataan); padir (Abra); paritulot (Rizal, Cavite, Tayabas); pulpulto (Cagayan); tuhod-manuk (Cavite). The fresh leaves are used in topicals to cure the oedema of beriberi and are said to be useful in rheumatism. In decoction they are used for bathing during childbirth. Distribution: Bulacan, Biliran Island, Leyte, Capiz, Bohol, Palawan, Balabac Island, Butuan, Lanao, Cotabato, Zamboanga. JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS L. The leaves are used externally as an astringent in the cure of certain eruptions of the skin. Distribution: Batanes Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces. In open places at low and medium altitudes. Genus PSEUDERANTHEMUM PSEUDERANTHEMUM PULCHELLUM (Hort.) Merr. LIMANG-SIGAT. Local names:, Aliopiop, mopio, malados6dos, panaptum (Bisaya); cincollagas (Spanish-Filipino); kinatuluan, pasioki (Bataan); limdng-sugat, silisilihan (Tagalog); pulpulto (Ilocos Norte, Union); sinkilladas (Pangasinan, Rizal, Tayabas); tuldng-manuk (Negros Occidental and Tagalog). The roots, stems and leaves in decoction are used against aphthoes and also as a cicatrizant of wounds, ulcers, etc. Distribution: Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Western Visayan Islands, Mindanao. Genus RHINACANTHUS RHINACANTHUS NASUTA (L.) Kurz TAGAK-TAGAK. Local names: Cinco-llagas na puti, silisilihan, tagak-tagdk, taging-tagdk (Tagalog). The sap of the root and leaves, or a decoction of the same, is efficient in certain obstinate forms of dermatosis. Distribution: Rizal, Manila, Cavite, Laguna. Family PLANTAGINACEAE Genus PLANTAGO PLANTAGO MAJOR L. PLANTAIN. A description,of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. A decoction of the leaves is used as an emollient. Genus BORRERIA BORRERIA HISPIDA (L.) K. Schum. (Spermacoce hispida L.) Local name: Landrina (Tagalog). The leaves brewed in decoction are used as an astringent in hemorrhoids.

Page  239 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 239 Distribution: Batanes Islands, Cagayan to Batangas and Laguna, Mindoro, Panay, Basilan. In open dry places at low and medium altitudes. Genus GARDENIA GARDENIA PSEUDOPSIDIUM (Blanco) F.-Vill. Local names: Baydg-usd (Masbate); butunalaga (Cagayan); kasablan (Cotabato); kasikas (Benguet); lamog (Cotabato); malabayabas (Tagalog); sulipa (Bataan). The fruit is used as a cure for smallpox. Distribution: Northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. Genus HYDNOPHYTUM HYDNOPHYTUM FORMICARIUM Jack BANGHAI. Local name: Banghdi (Bisaya). The swollen woody bases of the plants are used in the form of a decoction as an efficient remedy in liver and intestinal complaints. Distribution: Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Surigao. Genus HYMENODICTYON HYMENODICTYON EXCELSUM (Roxb.) Wall. ALIGANGO. Local names: Abdr (Abra, Ilocos Sur); alig6ngo (Bulacan); aligpdgi (Davao); balang-kori (Nueva Ecija); higdu (Rizal); kamatalong (Basilan Island); matalisai (Guimaras Island); tubo-bato (Palawan). The bark is used as a substitute for cinchona bark in its antiperiodic effects. Distribution: Abra to Rizal, Palawan, Guimaras Island, Davao, Basilan. Genus MORINDA MORINDA CITRIFOLIA L. BANGKORO. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on dyes. The fruit is used as an emmenagogue. The leaves when fresh are applied on ulcers to effect a rapid cure. The sap of the leaves is antiarthritic. Distribution: Widely distributed in thickets and secondgrowth forests in the Philippines. Genus MUSSAENDA MUSSAENDA PHILIPPICA A. Rich. TINULUAN-GATAS. Local names: Agboi (Bisaya); aghoi (Guimaras Island, Negros, Mindoro); ayaunikilat (Cotabato); balai-lamok (Iloko); balikaran (Tayabas); bogon (Samar); buyon (Samar, Palawan); darumabi (Cotabato); gatas virgen (Cavite); gibuian (Misamis); hagbui (Palawan); kdhoi-daldga (Zambales, Bataan); malacafe (Camarines); matcng-drau (Bisaya); mu

Page  240 240 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS yon (Agusan); taba-tabc (Camarines); talik-hardp (Tayabas, Polillo); taua-taud (Camarines, Butuan, Bukidnon); tiTnga-tingd (Tagalog); tinuluan-gdtas (Rizal). This plant is said to be used against snake bites and to cure dysentery. The roots and leaves in decoction are used for certain affections of the chest and lungs. The root is employed in cases of jaundice as are also the white, full-grown sepals. The leaves, employed externally in decoction, are used as an emollient. Distribution: Common and widely distributed in the Philippines. Genus NAUCLEA NAUCLEA JUNGHUHNII (Miq.) Merr. MAMB6G. Local names: Bangkdl (Tayabas, Sorsogon, Masbate); kabdk (Samar, Leyte); mamb6g (Camarines); sapaun (Davao); tiroron (Camarines). A decoction of the bark is used in connection with menstruation. Distribution: Isabela, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon, Albay, Masbate, Leyte, Negros, Misamis, Lanao, Davao, Zamboanga. In primary forests at low altitudes. NAUCLEA ORIENTALIS L. BANGKAL. Local names: Balikkakak (Cotabato); bangkdl (Zambales, Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, Leyte, Iloilo, Butuan, Cotabato, Palawan); buldla (Babuyanes and Batanes Islands, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Benguet, Union, Pangasinan); kabdk (Butuan). The leaves are applied to boils and tumors. The bark in decoction is said to be vulnerary, antidiarrhetic, and a cure for toothache. Distribution: Northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan Genus OLDENLANDIA OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA L. Local name: Ulasiman-cso (Tagalog). The entire plant in decoction is used as a febrifuge and a stomachic. Distribution: Throughout the Philippines. Often common in and about towns, in waste places and gardens. Genus PAEDERIA PAEDERIA FOETIDA L. Local names: Bangogan (Bikol); dikut na buluk (Pampanga); kantukai (Tagalog, Pampanga); kantutak (Tayabas); kantutan (Tagalog); lilitan (Bisaya); matabdng-dikut (Pampanga); taitdi (Bisaya). A decoction of the bark is taken as an emetic, while that of the leaves is used in antirheumatic baths. Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the Islands.

Page  241 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 241 Genus PAVETTA PAVETTA INDICA L. GUS6KAN. Local names: Galauan (Bukidnon); gesges (Cagayan); gus6kan (Cebu, Bataan); malakape (Zambales, Bulacan); paingapatoten (Cagayan); sangkilan (Negros Occidental); tamayan (Negros Oriental). The bark in decoction, or pulverized, is administered, especially to children, to correct visceral obstructions. The leaves in decoction are used externally to alleviate the pains caused by hemorrhoids. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Basilan. Genus PSYCHOTRIA PSYCHOTRIA LUZONIENSIS (Cham. and Schlecht.) F.-Vill. TAKPO. Local names: Alitakb6, burubugndi (Camarines); altoko, dumamai (Nueva Vizcaya); kadpadyan (Union); kalabubo-labdyo (Zambales); katagp6 (Pampanga, Bulacan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna); katagp6ng-gubat (Rizal); kombateo (Tayabas); n~guspul (Benguet); takpo (Tayabas, Laguna, Batangas, Cavite). A decoction of the root is administered as an antidysenteric remedy. Distribution: Laguna to northern Mindanao. PSYCHOTRIA MINDORENSIS Elm. Local name: Tagulinau (Bikol). This plant is said to be a cure for certain eye troubles. Distribution: Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon, Mindoro, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Mindanao. In primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Genus RUBIA RUBIA CORDIFOLIA L. MANGIL. Local name: Mingil (Benguet). The roots in decoction are used to cure certain disorders of the urinary organs. Distribution: Abundant in the Mountain Province of Luzon, and occurring also in Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Lanao, Davao. Family CUCURBITACEAE Genus BENINCASA BENINCASA HISPIDA (Thunb.) Cogn. WAXGOURD or KOND6L. Local names: Gond6l (Pangasinan); kondol (Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pampanga, Zambales, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines Norte and Sur, Marinduque, Iloilo, Cebu, Misamis, Cuyo); malii~gga (Cavite); sekoi (Tagalog); tambulok (Tagalog); 'tangkoi (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Isabela, Union); tangkud (Rizal, Camarines); tibaidiong (Bataan). 177674-16

Page  242 242 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The fresh fruit, made into a syrup, is administered generally in all disorders of the respiratory organs. Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Islands. Genus LAGENARIA LAGENARIA LEUCANTHA (Duch.) Rusby COMMON GOURD or tPO. Local names: Barantiong (Albay); calabaza blanca (Spanish); goboi (long variety: Pangasinan); kalabdha-maputi (Zambales); kalabdsangputi (Camarines Norte and Sur, Misamis); kalubai (Iloilo, C'uyo); kondol (Cagayan); tabdiag (round variety: Manila, Camarines Sur, Marinduque); tabidiong (long variety: Pangasinan); tabuingau (both long and round varieties: Ilocos Norte and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Union; round variety: Pangasinan, Zambales); 6po or upo (Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Tarlac, Bataan, Rizal, Manila, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines Norte and Sur, Leyte, Iloilo, Marinduque). The green fruit, prepared as a syrup, is employed as a pectoral. Distribution: Cultivated in all provinces. Genus LUFFA LUFFA CYLINDRICA (L.) M. Roem. SONGE GOURD or PAT6LANG LIGAU. Local names: Batutang-udk (Rizal); kabatiti (Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Union, Mountain, Zambales, Pangasinan); kabatititi-dso (Union); pepinillo de San Gregorio (Spanish-Filipino); patolang ligdu (Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, Manila, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Tayabas, Mindoro, Marinduque); tab6bog (Tagalog); tab6bok (Tarlac, Bulacan). The dried fruit is steeped and the resulting liquid used as an effective emetic. Distribution: This wild form occurs in many provinces. Genus MOMORDICA MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. AMPALAYA. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The sap of the leaves is used as a parasiticide, and the fruit when macerated in oil as a vulnerary. MOMORDICA COCHINCHINENSIS (Lour.) Spreng. TABOG-6K. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. The seeds are used as a pectoral when pulverized or prepared in the form of a decoction. Genus TRICHOSANTHES TRICHOSANTHES QUINQUANGULATA A. Gray KATIMBAU. Local names: Kabalon-ga (Laguna); katimbdu (Benguet); pat6la-sigaidng (Nueva Vizcaya); tabau-tabdu (Pangasinan); tabug6k (Bulacan); timon-timon (Abra).

Page  243 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 243 The mature seeds, finely powdered, are cooked with coconut oil. After cooling, the oil is applied externally to cure itches. Also, the powdered seeds are put in wine and taken internally for stomachache. Distribution: Camiguin Island, Babuyanes Islands, Cagayan to Laguna, Masbate, Antique, Lanao, Davao. Family GOODENIACEAE Genus SCAEVOLA SCAEVOLA FRUTESCENS (Mill.) Krause MOSBOR6N. Local names: Agusuhin (Zambales); balok-balok (Polillo); bokabok (Tagalog, Bisaya); bosbor6n (Tagalog, Bikol, Bisaya); b6to (Tagalog, Bisaya); dudukduken (Ilocos Norte); linog, linu (Zambales); malmalukung (Union); mosboron (Tagalog, Bisaya); panab61ong (Tagalog, Bisaya); tagustus (Bisaya). The roots yield a decoction used in beriberi and in certain syphilitic affections, also in dysentery. The leaves are smoked like tobacco. Distribution: Sea coasts throughout the Islands. Family COMPOSITAE Genus AGERATUM AGERATUM CONYZOIDES L. BULAK-MANOK. Local names: Asipukpuk (Pangasinan); bahug-bahug (Negros); bulakmanuk (Bulacan); damong-palids (Manila); gamot-tulisdn (Tagalog); damong-kambing (Rizal); damong-paildya (Laguna); kamubuag (Batanes Island); karokanding (Leyte); kolong-kogong (Camarines); pagpdgai (Bontoc); si'ngilan (Cagayan). The stem, roots, and flowers of this plant are boiled and the resulting fluid used for stomach trouble. The leaves pounded and mixed with salt are a very effective vulnerary. Distribution: Batanes Islands, throughout Luzon, Mindoro, Culion, Palawan, Iloilo, Leyte, Antique, Occidental Negros, Siargao Island, Davao, and Cotabato. Genus ARTEMISIA ARTEMISIA VULGARIS L. DAM6NG-MARIA or MUGWORT. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on official medicinal plants. The leaves are used as a carminative and emmenagogue. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Philippines. Genus BLUMEA BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.) DC. SAMB6NG. A description and figure of this species and its local names are given in the section on resins, gums, and oils.

Page  244 244 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS The roots are used locally as a cure for colds. The leaves are applied to the forehead to relieve headache. An infusion is used as a bath for women in childbirth. A tea made from the leaves is used for stomach pains. A decoction of the leaves is used as antidiarrhetic and antigastralgic. The decoction is used also for aromatic baths in rheumatism. Genus CENTIPEDA CENTIPEDA MINIMA (L.) A. Br. & Aschers. HARANGAN. Local names: Harangcdn (Tagalog, Bisaya); pisik (Bisaya). The leaves, squeezed between the fingers and inhaled, clear the head by provoking sneezing. Distribution: Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Pampanga, Rizal, Manila, Lanao. Genus CHRYSANTHEMUM CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM L. CHRYSANTHEMUM. Local names: Mansanilla a babassit (Union); manzanilla (SpanishFilipino); dolontas (Tagalog). The heads, in infusion, are used as a carminative. Distribution: Lepanto, Bontoc, Union, Manila, Camarines, Malamaui Island, Occidental Negros. Genus CROSSOSTEPHIUM CROSSOSTEPHIUM CHINENSE (L.) Merr. ABSINTH or AJENJO. Local name: Ajenjo (Spanish). The leaves and tops in infusion are a carminative and are said to be an emmenagogue. Distribution: Widely cultivated as a pot-plant. Genus ECLIPTA ECLIPTA ALBA (L.) Hassk. TULTULISAN. Local names: Higis-mantuk, tinta-tintahan (Tagalog); karimbudia (Bontoc); salsalida (Mindoro); tinta-tinta (Iloko); tultuliscn (Pangasinan); yayaod (Batanes Islands). The leaves and tops brewed in decoction are used in cases of hepatitis. Pounded they are employed for healing wounds. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Cotabato. Genus ELEPHANTOPUS ELEPHANTOPUS SCABER L. PAGBILAIU Local names: Kabkdbon (Union); pagbildu (Tayabas). A decoction of the roots and leaves is used as a diuretic, febrifuge, and emollient. Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the Islands.

Page  245 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS 245 ELEPHANTOPUS SPICATUS Aubl. SUPSUPUT. Local names: Ardatag (Bisaya); dila-dila (Laguna); dilang-usd (Tagalog); supsuput (Bontoc); maratabdko (Union). The leaves are used as a vulnerary. Distribution: Batanes Islands to Davao, but particularly abundant in northern Luzon. Genus EMILIA EMILIA SONCHIFOLIA (L.) DC. TAGULfNAU. A description of this species and its local names are given in the section on food plants. A decoction of the leaves has proved very efficacious in cases of fever. It is also used in combating infantile tympanites. Genus ENHYDRA ENHYDRA FLUCTUANS Lour. The leaves are pressed and applied to the skin in the cure of certain herpetic eruptions. Distribution: Manila. Genus EUPATORIUM EUPATORIUM TRIPLINERVE Vahl AIAPNA. Local names: Aiapdna (Manila); apdna (Tagalog). The leaves in infusion are used as a sudorific and tonic, particularly in fevers. Distribution: Manila, Laguna. Genus GRANGEA GRANGEA MADERASPATANA (L.) Poir. PAKPAK6-TI-ALOG. Local name: Pakpako-ti-dlog (Union). The leaves in infusion are used as a stomachic and antispas. modic. Distribution-: Union, Pampanga, Manila. Genus PTEROCAULON PTEROCAULON REDOLENS (F!orst. f.) F.-Vill. SUB6SUB. Local names: Samb6ng-gald' (Tagalog); sambzng (Mindoro); sabosoba-blang (Pangasinan); subosub (Ilocos Norte). The leaves in decoction are used for stimulant baths. Distribution: Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Benguet, Bontoc, Lepanto, Isabela, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, Mindoro. Genus SIEGESBECKIA SIEGESBECKIA ORIENTALIS L. Local names: Kaedeo (Batanes Islands); put (Bontoc). The leaves in decoction are used as an alterative and, when applied in the form of lotion, as a vulnerary. Distribution: Batanes Islands, Abra, Benguet, Bontoc, Rizal, Lanao.

Page  246 246 MINOR PRODUCTS OF PHILIPPINE FORESTS Genus SPHAERANTHUS SPHAERANTHUS AFRICANUS L. SAMB6NG-DAM6. Local names: Botobotonis, palpalsuut (Union); malasambong-damo (Tayabas); sambong-gald' (Tagalog); talatabdko (Bisaya). A decoction of the leaves and tops is taken as a stomach tonic and is also employed as an antiblennorrhagic. Distribution: Babuyanes Islands, northern and central Luzon, Mindoro, Biliran, Basilan. Genus SPILANTHES SPILANTHES ACMELLA (L.) Murr. PALUMAI. Local names: Pilet-pilet (Balabac Island); palumdi (Pampanga). The roots, leaves, and tops brewed as a decoction are used as a vulnerary. Distribution: Cagayan, Benguet, Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Balabac Island. Genus TAGETES TAGETES PATULA L. MARIGOLD or AHITO. Local names: Ahito, amarillo (Spanish-Filipino). A decoction of the flowers is used as a carminative and is said to be refreshing. Distribution: Cultivated throughout the Islands, naturalized in parts of the Mountain Province. Genus VERNONIA VERNONIA CINEREA (L.) Less. AGAS-M6RO. Local names: Agas-m6ro (Union); kulong-kugon (Samar); magmansi (Pangasinan); sagit (Bontoc); tagulinai (Tayabas); yayulinau (Polillo). An infusion of this plant is taken internally as a cough medicine. This plant is also said to be used on wounds. The leaves are used in decoction against humid herpes, eczema, etc. Distribution: In open waste places throughout the Philippines. Genus WEDELIA WEDELIA BIFLORA (L.) DC. HAG6NOI. Local names: Agonoi (Visaya); anaoi-6i (Batanes Islands); hagonoi (Union, Batangas, Tayabas, Polillo, Mindoro, Iloilo, Agusan); hago-onoi (Davao). The leaves used in decoction are vulnerary and antiscabious. A tea made from the roots and leaves is said to be a remedy for stomachache. The plant is also said to be useful in case of fever. Distribution: Common in thickets and along the shore throughout the Philippines.

Page  247 INDEX [This index embraces Volumes 1, 2, and 3. The numbers of the volumes are given in Roman numerals and the numbers of the pages in Arabic. Scientific names are written in italics and official local names in black-faced type.] A Abaka, see Musa textilis. Abang-ibang, see Curculigo recurvata. Abang-abang, see Leea manilensis. Abang-dbang, see Oroxylum indicum. Abar, see Hyinenodictyon excelsum. Abelmoschus moschatus: Distribution, iii, 208. Local names, iii, 208. Medicinal, iii, 208. Abelmoschus multilobatus: Description and distribution, i, 386. Local name, i, 386. Rope, i, 386. Abiang, see Livistona rotundifolia. Abigi, see Arenga tremula. Abig6n, see Pterocymbiun tinctorium. Abiki, see Arenga tremula. Abiki, see Pinanga spp. Abilo, see Garuga abilo. Abkel, see Pittosporum resiniferum. Abkol, see Pittosporum resiniferum. Abroma, see Abroma fastuosa. Abroma aususta, see Abroma fastuosa. Abromna fastuosa: Description and distribution, i, 396. Local names, i, 395. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 395. Medicinal, iii, 210. Tensile strength, i, 321. Abrome, see A broma fastuosa. Abrus precatorius: Description and distribution, i, 378. Local names, i, 378. Fiber, i, 378. Medicinal, iii, 67, 189. Absinth, see Crossostephium chinense. Abtab, see Lophopetalum toxicum. Abud, see Eurycles amboinensis. Abukai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Abukobuk6, see Strychnos multiflora. Abfstra, see Archangelisia flava. Abutilon indicum: Distribution, iii, 208. Local names, iii, 208. Medicinal, iii, 208. Abfitra, see Archangelisia flava. Acacia farnesiana: Description and distribution ii, 208. Figure, ii, 205. Local name, ii, 204. Gum, ii, 204. Perfume, ii, 304. Acalypha indica: Distribution, iii, 197. Local names, iii, 197. Medicinal, iii, 197. Acanthaceae: Dyes, ii, 404. Lye, iii, 90. Mangrove swamps, i, 82. Medicinal plants, iii, 237. Acanthus ebracteatus: Description, i, 84. Distribution, i, 24. Local name, i, 84. Acanthus ilicifolius: Description, i, 84. Distribution, i, 24, 101. Figure, i, 85. Local names, i, 82. Lye, iii, 90. Medicinal, iii, 237. Acapilco, see Cassia alata. Ach6te, see Bixa orellana. Achras sapota: Local name, ii, 73. Gum chicle, ii, 73. Achu6te, see Bixa orellana. Achyranthes aspera: Distribution, iii, 184. Local names, iii, 184. Medicinal, iii, 184. Acoelorrhaphe wightii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Ac6ro, see Acorus calamus. Acorus calamus: Description and distribution, ii, 182. Local names, ii, 181. Calamus oil, ii, 181. Condiment, ii, 252. Medicinal, ii, 66, 173. Acrostichui, aureum: Description, i, 32. Distribution, i, 24, 32. Figure, i, 33. 247

Page  248 248 INDEX Acrostichum7 aureumn-Continued. Local names, i, 32. Medicinal, iii, 167. Actinorhytis calapparia: Description and distribution, i, 139. Local name, i, 139. Adang, see Eugenia calubcob. Adelfa, see Nerium indicum. Adenanthera intermedia: Distribution, iii, 189. Local names, iii, 189. Medicinal, iii, 189. Adgau, see Premna odorata. Adiaingau, see Agathis alba. Adiantumb philippense: Distribution, iii, 167. Local names, iii, 167. Medicinal, iii, 167. Adiy6, see Premna odorata. Adlii, see Coix lachryma-jobi. A donidia merrillii: Description and distribution, i, 139. Figure, i, 141, 142. Local names, i, 139. Areca nut substitute, i, 139; ii, 252. Ornamental, i, 139. Aduas, see Dracontomelum edule. Adupong, see Sterculia crassiramea. Aegiceras corniculatum: Description, i, 72. Distribution, i, 22, 72. Figure, i, 74, 75, 77. Local names, i, 72. Firewood, i, 116. Aegiceras floridurn: Description, i, 76. Figure, i, 78. Local name, i, 76. Aerides quinquevulnerum: Description and distribution, iii, 14. Figure, iii, 15, 16. Local names, iii, 14. Ornamental, iii, 14. Aerua lanata: Distribution, iii, 184. Local names, iii, 184. Medicinal, iii, 184. Afi, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Afulut, see Urena lobata. Agagai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Agagbulin, see Tabernaenontana pandacaqui. Agamid, see Ficus palawanensis. Agamit, see Ficus palawanensis. Agandfng, see Trenza orientalis. Agaru, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Agas, see Palaquium philippense. Agas, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. Agas, see Scirpus grossus. Agas, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. Agas-as, see Flacourtia rukam. Agaricaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 116. Agaricus argyrostectus: Description, iii, 132. Distribution, iii, 132. Edible fungi, iii, 132. Agaricus boltoni: Description, iii, 132. Distribution, iii, 132. Figure, iii, 133. Edible fungi, iii, 132. Agaricus luzonensis: Description, iii, 132. Edible fungi, iii, 132. Agaricus manilensis: Description, iii, 134. Distribution, iii, 134. Edible fungi, iii, 134. Agaricus merrillii: Description, iii, 134. Figure, iii, 135. Edible fungi, iii, 134. Agaricus perfuscus: Description, iii, 134. Edible fungi, iii, 134. Agas-m6ro, see Vernonia cinerea. Agat, see Zingiber officinale. Agathis alba: Description and distribution, ii, 29. Figures, ii, 19, 21, 23. Local names, ii, 18. Analysis of Manila copal, ii, 24. Distillation of Manila copal, ii, 27. Export of Manila copal, ii, 20. Oxidation of Manila copal, ii, 28. Method of collecting the resin, ii, 22. Uses, ii, 20. Varnish, Manila copal in, ii, 26. Abave cantula: Distribution, i, 362. Local name, i, 362. Fiber, i, 362. Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Paper, i, 415. Tensile strength, i, 322. Agave sisalana: Distribution, i, 362. Local name, i, 362. Fiber, i, 362. Agb6i, see Mussaenda philippica. Agb6i, see Pterospermumn obliquun. Agboligan, see Clerodendron macrostegium. Agdang, see Grewia stylocarpa. Agelaea everettii: Description and distribution, i, 376. Local names, i, 376. Fiber, i, 376. Agem, see Decaspermum fruticosuzm. Ageratum conyzoides: Distribution, iii, 243. Local names, iii, 243. Medicinal, iii, 243. Agh6, see Leucaena glauca. Agh6, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Aghoi, see Mussaenda philippica. Agiktik, see Desntodium heterocarpum. Agim a babie, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Agkfi, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Agl/i, see Coix lachrymna-jobi. Aglaia everettii: Description and distribution, ii, 302. Figure, ii, 303.

Page  249 INDEX 249 Aglaia everettii-Continued. Local names, ii, 302. Food, ii, 302. Aglaia glomerata: Description and distribution, ii, 302. Local names, ii, 302. Food, ii, 302. Aglaia harmsiana: Description and distribution, ii, 304. Figure, ii, 305. Local names, ii, 304. Food, ii, 304. Agnaia, see Lumnizera littorea. Agnaya, see Stenochlaena palustris. Agno-casto, see Vitex negundo. Ag6, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Ag6ho, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Agok, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Agoko, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Ag6noi, see Wedelia biflora. Ago6i, see Homonoia riparia. Agoso, see Cascuarina equisetifolia. Agp6i, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Agp6r, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Agrau, see Premna nauseosa. Agsam, see Lygodium circinnatum. Agsam, see Lygodirum japonicum. Agsam, see Lygodium scandens. Agtimaloi, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Agubahan, see Crinum asiaticum. Agubarau, see Vitex trifolia. Agukfk, see Hononoia riparia. Agufiaaiing, see Abrus precatorius. Agunyany&ng, see Abrus precatorius. Agusahis, see Panicum palmaefolium. Agusais, see Panicum palmaefolium. Agusuhin, see Scaevola frutescens. Agu-u, see Pinus mnerkusii. Ahito, see Tagetes patula. Aiam-aiam, see Clerodendron minahassae. Aiapkna, see Eupatorium triplinerve. Aimit, see Ficus minahassae. Aizoaceae: Food plants, ii, 276. Ajenjo, see Crossostephium chinense. Ajos, see Allium sativum. Ajos-ajos inga maputi, see Hymenocallis littorale. Akat, see Bruguiera conjugata and Bruguiera sexangula. Ak-o, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Akum, see Amaranthus spinosus. Alag&si, see Leucosyke capitellata. Alagau, see Premna nauseosa. Alag&u, see Premna odorata. Alagau-blanco, see Premna nauseosa. Alagau-dagat, see Premna nauseosa. Alagau-gubat, see Premna nauseosa. Alagosi, see Grewia acuminata. Alahan, see Guioa koelreuteria. Alahan, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Alai, see Bruguiera sexangula. Alaka, see Palaquium philippense. Alakaak, see Palaquium philippense. Alal, see Pinus insularis. Al-alinau, see Grewia multiflora. Alangabun, see Macaranga tanarius. Alaingasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Alangigan, see Canangium odoratum. Alangilan, see Canangium odoratum. Alangki, see Canarium luzonicuam. Alasan, see Guioa koelreuteria. Alasas, see Pandanus copelandii. Alasis, see Pandanus luzonensis. A las doce, see Pentapetes phoenicea. Alasiman, see Bacopa monniera. Alauihau, see Dracontomelum edule. Albahaca, see Ocimum basilicum. Albahaca, see Ocimum sanctum. Albahaca, see Sida cordifolia. Albahaca de caballo, see Lantana camara. Albangbang, see Bauhinia malabarica. Albizzia acle: Description and distribution, iii, 52. Figure, iii, 53, 55. Local names, iii, 52. Soap substitute, iii, 52. Albizzia lebbekoides: Description and distribution, ii, 288. Figure, ii, 289. Local names, ii, 288. Fermented drink, ii, 288. 'Albizzia saponaria: Description and distribution, iii, 52. Local names, iii, 52. Soap substitute, iii, 52. Albitra, see Archangelisia flava. Alchornea sicca: Fish poison, iii, 80. Alcohol: Areca caliso, i, 147. Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Arenga tremula, i, 158. Caryota cumingii, i, 182. Caryota majestica, i, 182. Caryota mistis, i, 182. Caryota merrillii, i, 182. Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Aldonises, see Allium cepa. Aleurites fordii: Distribution, ii, 120. Extraction of tung oil, ii, 120. Properties of tung oil, ii, 123. Uses of tung oil, ii, 120, 122. Aleurites moluccana: Description, ii, 133. Distribution, ii, 124, 133. Figure, ii, 125, 127, 129. Local names, ii, 124. Analysis of kernels and oil, ii, 130-132. Extraction of oil, ii, 126, 128. Fertilizer, ii, 128, 132. Growth, ii, 132. Lumbang oil, ii, 123, 124. Medicinal, iii, 197. Oil cake, ii, 128, 132. Planting, ii, 132. Separation of shell from kernel, ii, 126.

Page  250 250 INDEX Aleurites moluccana —Continued. Storage of nuts, ii, 128. Uses of oil, ii, 126. Aleurites montana, see Aleurites fordii. Aleurites trisperma: Description and distribution, ii, 137. Figure, ii, 135. Local names, ii, 134. Analysis of oil, ii, 134, 136. Baguilumbang oil, ii, 134. Fertilizer, ii, 137. Growth, ii, 137. Medicinal, iii, 198. Planting, ii, 137. Uses of oil, ii, 123. Alibabag, see Allaeanthus glaber. Alibabai, see Allaeanthus glaber. Alibambiangan, see Lophopetalum toxicum. Alibang, see Bauhinia malabarica. Alibangbang, see Bauhinia malabarica. Alibhon, see Blumea balsamifera. Alibutbut, see Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia. Alibutbft, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Alig&ango, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Aligpagi, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Aligpagi, see Phaleria perrottetiana. Alikbangon, see Commelina benghalensis. Alilipai, see Mucuna nigricans. Alim, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. Alimbuingug, see Ehretia navesii. Alim6n, see Blumea balsamifera. Alimpuying, see Curcuma zedoaria. Alimudias, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Alinang, see Cyperus radiatus. Alinau, see Callicarpa erioclona. Alinau, see Columbia serratifolia. Alinau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Alinau, see Grewia acuminata. Alinau, see Grewia multiflora. Alindag6n, see Tremna orientalis. Alinfgaro, see Elaeagnus philippensis. Alinsago, see Agathis alba. Aliopi6p, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Alipata, see Dodonaea viscosa. Alipata, see Excoecaria agallocha. Alipauin, see Alstonia scholaris. Alismaceae: Food plants, ii, 246. Alitagtag, see AUaeanthus glaber. Alla-allagat, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Allaeanthus glaber: Description and distribution, i, 368. Figure, ii, 263. Local names, i, 368; ii, 262. Fiber, i, 368. Food, ii, 262. Tensile strength, i, 321. Allaeanthus luzonicus: Description, ii, 262. Local names, ii, 262. Food, ii, 262. Allagat, see Grewia acuminata. Al-lagat, see Uvaria rufa. Allamanda cathartica: Distribution, iii, 221. Local names, iii, 221. Medicinal, iii, 221. Allium cepa: Local names, iii, 175. Medicinal, iii, 175. Allium sativum: Local names, iii, 175. Medicinal, iii, 175. Alluloi, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. Alm&ciga, see Agathis alba. Almaciga babae, see Agathis alba. Almendra de Indias, see Terminalia catappa. Alocasia macrorrhiza: Description and distribution, ii, 253. Local names, ii, 253. Food, ii, 253. Medicinal, iii, 173. Ornamental, ii, 253. Alogbati, see Basella rubra. Alokasok, see Clerodendron intermedium. Aloko, see Garcinia dulcis. Alok6n, see Allaeanthus glaber. Alolokd6, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. A1im, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. Alpai, see Nephelium mutabile. Alpas6tes, see Chenopodium ambrosioidea. Alpasoti, see Chenopodium ambrosioides. Alphitonia excelsa: Description and distribution, i, 380. Local names, i, 380. Rope, i, 380. Alphonsea arborea: Distribution, iii, 187. Local names, iii, 187. Medicinal, iii, 187. Alpinia pyramidata: Description and distribution, ii, 259. Local names, ii, 259. Beverage, ii, 259. Condiment, ii, 259. Medicinal, iii, 177. Alstonia macrophylla: Distribution, iii, 221. Local names, iii, 221. Medicinal, iii, 221. Alstonia scholaris: Distribution, iii, 222. Local names, iii, 222. Medicinal, iii, 222. Altok6, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Aluluan, see Pistia stratiotes. Alum, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Alum, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. Alumamani, see Leea manillensis. Alumani, see Leea manillensis. Alungkagai, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Alupag, see Euphoria didyma. Alupag-amo, see Euphoria didyma. Alupai, see Euphoria didyma. Alupak, see Euphoria didyma. Alupayi, see Homalomena philippinensis.

Page  251 INDEX 251 Alupi, see Terminalia edulis. Amag6ng, see Thespesia lampas. Amai-it, see Flacourtia rukam. Amamali, see Leea aculeata. Amamfili, see Leea manillensis. Am-amboligan, see Clerodendron minahassae. Amap6la, see Hibiscus mutabilis. A maranthaceae: Food plants, ii, 274. Medicinal plants, iii, 184. Amaranthus spinosus: Distribution, iii, 184. Local names, iii, 184. Medicinal, iii, 184. Amaranthus viridis: Description and distribution, ii, 274. Figure, ii, 277. Local names, ii, 274. Food, ii, 274. Amaras, see Piper retrofractum. Amargo, see Terminalia calamansanai. Amarg6so, see Mornordica charantia. Amarillo, see Tagetes patula. Amaryllidaceae: Fiber plants, i, 362. Medicinal plants, iii, 176. Ambal, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. Ambobianga, see Orania palindan. Amboi-uan, see Grewia acuminata. Amb6long, see Metroxylon sagu. Amb6ng, see Abroma fastuosa. Ambulong, see Metroxylon sagu. Ambfing, see Arcnga ambong. Amgup, see Callicarpa caudata. Aml6ng, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Ammai, see Oryza sativa. Ammannia baccifera: Distribution, iii, 214. Local names, iii, 214. Medicinal, iii, 214. Ammugin, see Buddleia asiatica. Amomum sp. Rope, i, 365. Tensile strength, i, 322. Amongyang, see Pygeum preslii. Am6ra, see Andropogon zizanioides. Am6ras, see Andropogon zizanioides. Amorphophallus campanulatus: Description and distribution, ii, 253. Figures, ii, 255. Local names, ii, 253. Food, ii, 253. Medicinal, iii, 173. Amor-s6co, see Andropogon aciculatus. Ampalaya, see Momordica charantia. Ampaleng, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Ampaleya, see Momordica charantia. Ampelocissus martini: Description and distribution, ii, 328. Food, ii, 328. Amugan, see Pygeum glandulosum. Amugan, see Pygeum preslii. Amugauen, see Sapindus saponaria. Amugis, see Dracontomelum edule. Amilong, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Amfiyong, see Goniothalamus amuyon. Amfyong, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Anaau, see Livistona rotundifolia. Anabi6ng, see Melochia umbellata. Anabi6ng, see Trema orientalis. Anabling, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Anab6, see Abroma fastuosa. Anab6, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. Anab6, see Melochia umbellata. Anabong, see Abroma fastuosa. Anabu, see Abroma fastuosa. Anabun, see Macaranga tanarius. Anacardiaceae: Food plants, ii, 312. Medicinal plants, iii, 69, 202. Oils, ii, 146. Anacardium occidentale: Description and distribution, ii, 146. Local names, ii, 146. Cashew nut oil, ii, 146. Medicinal, iii, 69, 202. Anacolosa luzoniensis: Description and distribution, ii, 274. Figures, ii, 272. 273. Local names, ii, 270. Food, ii, 270. Anafi, see Abroma fastuosa. Anagas, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. Anagas, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. Anagas, see Sterculia luzonica. Anagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Anagdfing, see Trema orientalis. Anagep, see Terminalia edulis. Anagfim, see Trema orientalis. Anihau, see Livistona rotundifolia. Anahauon, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Anahiuan, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Anakseng, see Grewia edulis. Anamirta cocculus: Description and distribution, i, 375. Local names, i, 375. Fish poison, iii, 79. Medicinal, iii, 185. Rope, i, 375. Tensile strength, i, 322. Ananas comosus: Distribution, i, 356. Local name, ii, 256. Fiber, i, 360. Food, ii, 256. Anandhin, see Callicarpa formosana. Ananggi, see Canarium ovatum. Anangging-puti, see Dracontomelum edule. Anaingilan, see Canangium odoratum. Anangin, see Guioa koelreuteria. Anangiran, see Canangium odoratum. Anaoi-6i, see Wedelia biflora. Anari6ng, see Trema orientalis. Anar6ng, see Trema orientalis. Anau, see Livistona rotundifolia. Anayup, see Callicarpa caudata.

Page  252 252 INDEX Andadasi, see Cassia occidentalis. Andadasi, see Cassia sophera. Andadasi iga bugbugt6ng, see Cassia alata. Andadasi inga dadakkol, see Cassia tora. Andadasi snga dakkel, see Cassia alata. Andang, see Eugenia calubcob. Andarayan, see Alstonia scholaris. Andibaing, see Mimosa pudica. Andropogon aciculatus: Distribution, iii, 169. Local names, iii, 169. Medicinal, iii, 169. Andropogon citratus: Description and distribution, ii, 176. Local names, ii, 174. Condiment, ii, 174. Distillation, ii, 175. Medicinal, iii, 169. Oil, ii, 174. Paper, ii, 176. Perfume, ii, 174. Andropogon halepensis: Description and distribution, i, 338. Local names, i, 338. Fiber, i, 338. Andropogon nardus: Distribution, ii, 177. Oil, ii, 176. Andropogon sorghum: Distribution, iii, 170. Local names, iii, 170. Medicinal, iii, 170. Andropogon zizanioides: Description and distribution, i, 339; ii, 181. Figure, ii, 179. Local names, i, 338; ii, 177. Fiber, i, 338. Medicinal, iii, 170. Vetiver oil, ii, 177. Aneg, see Dioscorea esculenta. An-g'afngri, see Clerodendron inerme. Ang-angson, see Paspalum scrobiculatum. Ange, see Curcuma longa. Angelica, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Anggit, see Ammannia baccifera. Angguat, see Bidens chinensis. Ang-niguad, see Bidens pilosa. Angset, see Guioa koelreuteria. Anguar, see Bidens chinensis. Angud, see Achyranthes aspera. Anias, see Andropogon zizanioides. Anias de m6ras, see Andropogon zizanioides. Anibong, see Asclepias curassavica. Anibong, see Oncosperma filamentosum, Anibong, see Typha angustifolia. Anibung, see Oncosperma filamentosum. Anilai, see Lumnitzera littorea. Anilau, see Alphitonia excelsa. Anilau, see Columbia blancoi. Anilau, see Columbia lanceolata. Anilau, see Columbia serratifolia. Anilau, see Grewia eriocarpa. Anilau, see Grewia multiflora. Aniinga, see Agathis alba. Aniingat, see Agathis alba. Aniniguai, see Euphoria didyma. Anipa, see Nipa fruticans. Anis, see Foeniculum vulgare. Anisado: Clausena anisum-olens, ii, 212. Anis de m6ro, see Andropogon zizanioides. Anisomeles indica: Distribution, iii, 232. Local names, iii, 232. Medicinal, iii, 232. Anisoptera thurifera: Description and distribution, ii, 52, 64. Figure, ii, 53, 55. Local names, ii, 52. Dimensions of fibers, i, 423. Palosapis resin, ii, 52. Paper, i, 423-425. Anitap, see Commersonia bartramia. An-nab6, see Abroma fastuosa. Annabo, see Malachra capitata. Annabo, see Malachra fasciata. Annab6 a dadakkel, see Abalmoschus multilobatus. Annatto tree, see Bixa orellana. Annonaceae: Fiber plants, i, 375. Food plants, ii, 280. Medicinal plants, iii, 187. Oils, ii, 189. Annoyop, see Callicarpa formosana. Annuad, see Flagellaria indica. An6nang, see Cordia myxa. An6nang-bakir, see Cordia myxa. Anonang gum: Cordia myxa, ii, 88. An6nang-lalaki, see Cordia cunmingiana. Anonongkot, see Urena lobata. An6pol, see Conocephallus violaceus. Anoran, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. Anos, see Schizostachyum lima. Ansa, see Eugenia mananquil. Antagan, see Pterocarpus spp. Antel, see Canarium villosum. Anteng, see Agathis alba. Anteng, see Canarium luzonicum. Anteng, see Canarium villosum. Antiaris toxicaria: Description and distribution, i, 369. Local names, i, 368. Fiber, i, 368. Antidesma bunius: Description and distribution, ii, 308. Figure, ii, 309, 311. Local names, ii, 308. Food, ii, 308. Antip6lo, see Artocarpus communis. Antip6lo, see Artocarpus elastica. Antipolong lalaki, see Artocarpus communis. Anto, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. Antol, see Garcinia vidalii. Ant6lang, see Graptophyllum pictum. Antolanggan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Ant6n, see Lygodium semihastatum. Anuad, see Flagellaria indica.

Page  253 INDEX 253 Anuang, see KyUinga monocephala. Anubing, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Anubing, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Anubing gum: Artocarpus cumingiana, ii, 70. Anubing-kadi6s, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Anubing na nangka, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Anubling, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Anubling, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Anugau, see Leucosyke capitellata. Anunang, see Cordia myxa. Anunga, see Ficus benjanina. Anunong, see Cordia myxa. Anupol, see Conocephallus violaceus. Aon-o, see Bambusa spinosa. Apagi, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Apakapaka, see Palaquium philippense. Apalit, see Pterocarpus blancoi. Apalit, see Pterocarpus spp. Apalung, see Euphoria didyma. Apalya, see Momordica charantia. Apana, see Eupatorium triplinerve. Aparigua, see Laportea meyeniana. Apas, see Ficus ulmifolia. Apas6tes, see Chenopodium ambrosioides. Apatot, see Morinda citrifolia. Apatut, see Bixa orellana. Apd6ng-kahoi, see Lunasia amara. Api-&pi, see Avicennia alba. Api-&pi, see Avicennia officinalis. Api-api, see Avicennia spp. Apio, see Apium graveolens. Apiot, see Ardisia boissieri. Apitan, see Pygeum preslii. Apitong, see Anisoptera thurifera. Apitong, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Apitong, see Dipterocarpus vernicifloruus. A pium graveolens: Distribution, iii, 218. Local names, iii, 218. Medicinal, iii, 218. Aplit, see Grewia multiflora. Apluda mutica: Description and distribution, i, 339. Local names, i, 339. Hats, i, 339. Apnig, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Apnit, see Anisoptera thurifera. Apocynaceae: Dyes, ii, 403. Fiber plants, i, 406. Food plants, ii, 370. Mangrove swamps, i, 76. Medicinal plants, iii, 221. Oils, ii, 168. Poisonous plants, iii, 81. Apoi-ap6ian, see Ammannia baccifera. Apoioi, see Homnonoia riparia. Apong, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. Apos6tes, see Heliotropium indicum. Apos6tes, see Rotala aquatica. Apot, see Chloranthus brachystachys. Apulas, see Ficus ulmifolia. Aptlid, see Eleocharis dulcis. Apung, see Grewia stylocarpa. Apung-apung, see Kleinhovia hospita. Aquilaria malaccensis: Distribution, i, 403. Fiber, i, 403. Araceae: Fiber plants, i, 353. Food plants, ii, 252. Medicinal plants, iii, 66, 173. Oils, ii, 181. Paper substitute, iii, 90. Arachis hypogaea: Distribution, ii, 108. Local name, ii, 108. Peanut oil, ii, 108. Uses, ii, 109. Aragasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Aragau, see Premna nauseosa. Arai, see Amaranthus spinosus. Araka, see Palaquium philippense. Araliaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 217. Poisonous plants, iii, 81. Arand6n, see Trema orientalis. ArAfngen, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Arangen oil: Ganophyllum falcatum, ii, 147. Arasnga, see Citrus maxima. Aratan, see Donax cannaeformis. Archangelisia flava: Description and distribution, ii, 388. Local names, ii, 388. Dye, ii, 388. Medicinal, iii, 67, 185. Archontophoenix alexandreae, i, 243. Ardatag, see Elephantopus spicatus. Ardisia boissieri: Description and distribution, ii, 364. Local names, ii, 362. Food flavoring, ii, 364. Medicinal, iii, 219. Ardisia serrata: Description and distribution, iii, 95. Local names, iii, 95. Tannin, iii, 95. Areca caliso: Description, i, 143, 147. Local names, i, 147. Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. Areca nut substitute, ii, 252. Beverage, i, 148. Buyo substitute, i, 148. Areca camarinensis: Description, i, 143. Figure, i, 149. Areca catechu: Description, i, 140, 144. Distribution, i, 144. Figure, i, 145, 146. Local names, i, 144. Buyo chewing, ii, 252. Medicinal, iii, 172. Vermifuge, iii, 65. Areca costulata, i, 143.

Page  254 254 INDEX Areca hutchinsoniana: Description, i, 144, 148. Local names, i, 148. Medicinal, iii, 172. Areca ipot: Description, i, 143, 148. Distribution, i, 148. Figure, i, 149. Local names, i, 148. Areca nut substitute, i, 148; ii, 252. Ornamental, i, 148. Areca macrocarpa: Description, i, 140. Figure, i, 149. Areca parens: Description, i, 143. Figure, i, 149. Areca vidaliana: Description, i, 144, 148. Distribution, i, 148. Local names, i, 148. Ornamental, i, 148. Areca whitfordii: Description, i, 143, 148. Distribution, i, 148. Local names, i, 148. Arenga ambong: Description and distribution, i, 150. Local names, i, 150. Blowguns, i, 150. Food, ii, 252. Arenga mindorensis, see Arenga tremula. Arenga pinnata: Description and distribution, i, 150. Figure, i, 151, 153. Local names, i, 150. Alcoholic drinks, i, 155. Fiber, i, 152. Medicinal, iii, 172. Starch, i, 155. Sugar, ii, 156. Uses, i, 150. Vinegar, i, 156. Arenga saccharifera, see Arenga pinnata, Arenga tremula: Description, i, 150, 158. Distribution, i, 158. Figure, i, 157. Local names, i, 158. Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. Beverage, i, 158. Fiber, i, 158. Argau, see Premnna nauseosa. Argau, see Premna odorata. Aribu-bu, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Ariman, see Pothoidium lobbianum. Arimit, see Ficus minahassae. Arinaya, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Aristolochiaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 183. Aristolochia sericea: Distribution, iii, 183. Local name, iii, 183. Medicinal, iii, 183. Aristolochia tagala: Distribution, iii, 183. Local names, iii, 183. Medicinal, iii, 183. Ariuat, see Columella trifolia. Ariuat, see Tetrastigma harmandi. Ar6, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Arobo, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Arodaidai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Arogangan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Arogbati, see Basella rubra. Aroho, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Ar6ma, see Acacia farnesiana. Aroo, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Ar6ro, see Andropogon halepensis. Artemisia vulgaris: Description and distribution, iii, 75, 243. Local names, iii, 75. Medicinal, iii, 75, 243. Artocarpus communis: Description and distribution, i, 369; ii, 262. Figures, i, 371; ii, 264, 265. Local names, i, 369. Fiber, i, 369. Food, ii, 262. Medicinal iii, 180. Tensile strength, i, 321. Artocarpus cumingiana: Description and distribution, ii, 70. Figure, ii, 69. Local names, ii, 70. Chewing gum, ii, 70. Medicinal, iii, 180. Artocarpus elastica: Description, i, 370; ii, 72. Figure, ii, 71. Local names, i, 369; ii, 70. Bird lime, ii, 70, 72. Chewing gum, ii, 70. Fiber, i, 369. Food, ii, 262. Artocarpus integra: Description and distribution, i, 370. Local names, i, 370. Figure, ii, 265, 26r7. Dye, ii, 387. Fiber, i, 370. Food, ii, 266. Medicinal, iii, 180. Preserves, ii, 266. Artocarpus odoratissima: Description and distribution, ii, 266. Figure, ii, 268. Local name, ii, 266. Food, ii, 266. Artocarpus rubrovenia: Description and distribution, i, 370. Local names, i, 370. Fiber, i, 370. Arundinaria niitakayamensis: Description and distribution, i, 258. Figure, i, 279. Local names, i, 258. Pipestems, i, 258.

Page  255 Arunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Arupag, see Euphoria didyma. Arupai, see Euphoria didyma. Asam-asam, see Pithecolobium subacutum, Asana, see Pterocarpus blancoi. Asana, see Pterocarpus spp. Asclepiddaceae: Dyes, ii, 404. Fiber plants, i, 407. Food plants,, ii, 372. Medicinal plants, iii, 224. Asclepias curassavica: Description and distribution, i, 407. Local names, i, 407. Medicinal, iii, 224. Pillows, i, 407. Asimau, see Harrisonia perforata. Asipukpuk, see Ageratum conyzoides. Asis, see Ficus ulmifolia. Aspe-hspe, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Asplenium macrophylum: Distribution, iii, 167. Local names, ii, 167. Medicinal, iii, 167. Asplenium nidus: Description and distribution, i, 24; iii, Figure, iii, 10. Local name, iii, 11. Ornamental, iii, 11. Astible philippinensis: Description and distribution, iii, 95. Local names, iii, 95. Tobacco substitute, iii, 95. Asute, see Bixa orellana. Atai-atai, see Graptophyllum pictum. Atai-bia, see Lochnera rosea. Atfangen, see Toddalia asiatica. Athyrium esculentum: Description and distribution, ii, 241 Local name, ii, 241. Figures, ii, 242, 243. Food, ii, 241. Atibangdal, see Cyathea spp. Atibuln&k, see Rubus pectinellus. Atibutbut, see Tabernaemontana pandaca Atilang, see Cubilia blancoi. Atinge, see Premna odorata. Atsuete, see Bixa oreUana. Attai-na-baka, see Sida acuta. Attakai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Attalea cohune, i, 243. Auai, see Flagellaria indica. Auai si gayang, see Flagellaria indica. Auricularia auricula-judae: Description, iii, 112. Figure iii, 113. Local name, iii, 112. Edible fungi, iii, 112. Auricularia brasiliensis: Description, iii, 114. Local name, iii, 114. Edible fungi, iii, 114. Auriculariaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 109. INDEX 2i Auricularia cornea: Description, iii, 112. Edible fungi, iii, 112. Auricularia moeUerii: Description, iii, 114. Edible fungi, iii, 114. Auricularia polytricha: Description, iii, 110. Figures, iii, 105, 111, 115. Local name, iii, 110. Edible fungi, iii, 110. Auricularia tenuis: Description, iii, 114. Edible fungi, iii, 114. Ausiman, see Portulaca oleracea. Averrhoa bilimbi: Description and distribution, ii, 294. Figure, ii, 298. Local names, ii, 294. Food, ii, 294. Medicinal, iii, 193. Soap substitute, iii, 56. Averrhoa carambola: Description and distribution, ii, 296. Figure, ii, 298., 11. Local names, ii, 296. Food, ii, 296. Medicinal, iii, 193. Avicennia alba: Description, i, 82. Distribution, i, 22, 82. Local names, i, 82. Stands, i, 94-100. Timber, i, 82. Aviccnnia officinalis: Description, i, 80. Distribution, i, 22, 80. Figure, i, 23, 81, 83. Local names, i, 80. Medicinal, iii, 228. Stands, i, 94-100. Timber, i, 80. Ayalea, see Rhododendron vidalii. Ayaman-kilat, see Leea manillensis. qui. Ayamgilan, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Ayantoto, see Amaranthus spinosus. Ayaunikilat, see Mussaenda philippica. Ayimit, see Ficus minahassae. Ayo, see Cissus repens. Ayo, see Tetrastigma harmandii. Ayumit, see Ficus minahassae. Ayupag, see Euphoria didyma. Azafran, see Curcuma longa. Azucena, see Polianthes tuberosa. B Baagu, see Fagraea racemosa. Boba, see Eugenia mananquil. Babara, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. Babayan, see Allaeanthus glaber. Babayan, see AUaeanthus luzonicus. Babe-babe, see Quisqualis indica. Babui, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Babui, see Schizostachyum diffusum. 55

Page  256 256 INDEX Bacopa ronniera: Distribution, iii, 235. Local names, iii, 235. Medicinal, iii, 235. Badang-badang, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Badiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Badiara, see Coleus blumei. Badino, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Baeg, see Allaeanthus glaber. Bafe nfga bunsing, see Kleinhovia hospita. Baga-as, see Cyperus malaccensis. Baga-as, see Scirpus grossus. Bagabag, see Eugenia mananquil. Baga-baga, see Drynaria quercifolia. Bagak, see Clerodendron macrostegium. Bagakai, see Schizostachyum brachycladurn. Bagakai, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Bagakan, see Schizostachyum brachycladum. Bagikan, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Bagambang, see Macaranga tanarius. Bagang, see Amzorphophallus campanulatus. Bagang, see Phragmites vulgaris. Bagangga, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Bagarilau, see Columbia serratifolia. Bagasant6l, see Aglaia everettii. Bagatai, see Corypha elata. Bagatambal. see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Bagatbat, see Arenga pinnata. Bagiuak, see Clerodendron macrostegium. Bagauak, see Clerodendron minahassae. Bagauak, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. Bagauak, see ConocephaUus violaceus. Bagauak-itim, see Clerodendron minahassae. Bagauak na morado, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. Bagauak na pula, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. Bagauak-pula, see Clerodendron minahassae. Bagbagutot, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. Bagbal6go, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Bagiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Bagi-bagi, see Kyllinga monocephala. Bagilumb&ng, see Aleurites trisperma. Bagilumbang oil: Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. Baging, see Gnetum indicum. Bagiod, see Grewia edulis. Bagir6ro, see Adenanthera intermedia. Bagli, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. Bago, see Abroma fastuosa. Bago, see Gnetum gnemon. Bago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Bago, see Phaleria perrottetiana. Bago, see Pycharrhena manillensis. Bago-bago, see Brucea amarissima. Bagobal6ng, see Anisoptera thurifera. Bagohon, see Grewia multiflora. Bag6ng, see AmorphophaUus campanulatus. Bago-sala, see Fagraea racemosa. Bags: Corypha elata, i, 192. Musa textilis, i, 364. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Pandanus radicans, i, 334. Pandanus simplex, i, 336. Bags-Continued. Scirpus grossus, i, 353. Typha angustifolia, i, 330. Bagsang, see Livistona rotundifolia. Bagsang, see Metroxylon sagu. Bagtik, see Agathis alba. Bagt6an, see Pinanga spp. Bagu, see Gnetum gnemon. Bagu, see Terrninalia edulis. Bagu-balanak, see Pothos spp. Baguit, see Harrisonia perforata. Bagulibas, see Dysoxylum decandrunm. Bagun, see Grewia acuminata. Bagusalai, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Bahai, see Abrus precatorius. Bahai, see Adenanthera intermedia. Bahai, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Bahi, see Caryota cumningii. Bahi, see Livistona rotundifolia. Baho, see Terrinalia edulis. Baho-baho, see Cassia tora. Bahug-bahug, see Ageratum conyzoides. Bahug-bahug, see Lantana camara. Bain-bain, see Mimosa pudica. Baino, see Nelumbium nelumbo. Bainuid, see Columbia serratifolia. Bait, see Cycas rumphii. Bait, see Euphoria didyma. Bait, see Euphorbia neriifolia. Bakad, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakalas, see Nephelium mutabile. Bakalau, see Euphoria didyma. Bakalau, see Nephelium mutabile. Bakan, see Sterculia oblongata. Bakao, see Bruguiera conjugata. Bakau, see Bruguiera conjugata. Bakau, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakau, see Rhizopora mucronata. Bakau, see Sterculia oblongata. Bakauan, see Bruguiera conjugata. Bakauan, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Bakauan, see Ceriops roxburghiana. Bakauan, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakauan, see Rhizophora mucronata. Bakauan-babae, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakauan-babae, see Rhizophora mucronata. Bakauan-lalaki, see Bruguiera parviflora. Bakauan-lalaki, see Bruguiera sexangula. Bak&uan-lalaki, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakauan-lalaki, see Rhizophora mucronata. Bakauang-lalaki, see Rhizophora mucronata. Bakau bankita, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakau-lalaki, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakau taggai, see Rhizophora mucronata. Bakbak, see Pygeum glandulosum. Bakeles, see Euphoria didyma. Bakembakes, see Malachra capitafa. Bakembakes, see Malachra fasciata. Bakhau, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bakhau, see Rhizophora mucronata. Baki-baki, see Scirpus grossus. Bakkalau, see Euphoria didyma. Bako, see Rhizophora spp. Bakon, see Crinum asiaticum. Bakong, see Crinum asiaticum. Bakong, see Hymenocallis littorale.

Page  257 i INDEX 257 Iiakong, see Pandanus dubius. Bak6og, see Canarium luzonicum. Bakting, see Lumnitzera littorea. Bakto, see Cephalostachyum mindorense. Baku, see Rhizophora spp. Bakuit, see Sporobolus elongatus. Balabalanggitan, see Cyperus radiatus. Balagan, see Grewia acuminata. Balii-lam6k, see Crataeva religiosa. Balai-lam6k, see Mussaenda philippica. Balai-uak, see Oroxylum indicum. Balak, see Livistona rotundifolia. Balakbak, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Balali, see DiUenia reifferscheidia. Balamai, see Rhaphidophora merrilUii. Balanai, see Ocimum basilicum. Balanga, see Eugenia calubcob. Balafnganan, see Litsea glutinosa. Balangg6t, see Cyperus malaccensis. Balangg6t, see Triumfetta bartramia. Balangg6t, see Typha angustifolia. Balangohg, see Ipomoea reptans, Balang-kori, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Balan6i, see Ocimum basilicum. Ialantakan, sec Coix lachryma-jobi. Balantana, see Clerodendron intermedium. Balanti, see Homonoia riparia. Balasbas, see Graptophyllum pictum. Balasiai, see Scynphiphora hydrophyllacea. Balasugan, see Eugenia polycephaloides. Balatbit, see Licuala spinosa. BalJtcng, see Cassia tora. Balitong, see Phaseolus aureus. Balatong-aso, see Cassia occidentalis. Balatong-aso, see Cassia tora. Balau, see D;pterocarpus grandiflorus. Balau, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Balau resin: Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, ii, 56. Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, ii, 62. Balaungan, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Balayong, see Cassia fistula. Balayong, see Sindora supa. Bal-bal-lusa, see Solanum cumingii. Balbal6sa, see Solanum cumingii. Baleau, see Pandanus copelandii. Balebagum-gubat, see Grewia stylocarpa. Bale6, see Pandanus copelandii. Baleo, see Wikstroemia indica. Bal6te, see Ficus benjamina. Bal6te, see Ficus forstenii. Bal6te, see Ficus pachyphylla, Balete, see Ficus palawanensis. Balete, see Scheffiera elliptifoliola. Balete or balite, see Ficus payapa. Rlaleteon, see Ficuo benjamina. Balete-pula, see Ficus benjamina. Balewe, see Pandanus copelandii. 3aliaro, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Haliaro, see Schizostachyum diffusum. IBalibago, see Grewia eriocarpa. Balibago, see Helicteres hirsuta. Balibago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. B3alibhgo, see Trema orientalis. lialibali, see Dracontomelum edule. 177674 — 17 Balibali, see Euphorbia tirucalli. Balibo, see Pinus insularis. Bali'gang, see Eugenia polycephaloides. Baligtanin, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. Balikaran, see Mussaenda philippica. Balikau, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Balikau, see Schizostachyum diffusum. Balik-balik, see Pongamia pinnata. Balikn6ng, see Melochia umbellata. Baliku, see Pandanus copelandii. Balikukup bisano, see Rhaphidophora merrilii. Balilang-uak, see Oroxylum indicum. Balili, see Eleusine indica. Balili, see Paspalum scrobiculatum. Baliliuan, see Grewia eriocarpa. Balimbahin, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Balimbing, see Averrhoa carambola. Balimbingan, see Nephelium mutabile. Balinad, see Sterculia crassiramea. Balinad, see Sterculia cuneata. Balinad, see Sterculia luzonica. Balinad, see Sterculia oblongata. Balinaunau, see Leea aculeata. Baling-agta, see Diospyros discolor. Balingh6i, see Manihot utilissima. Balingkauayan, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Balinl-uii, see Flagellaria indica. Balinkafngin, see Euphoria didyma. Balinsarayan, see Bruguiera sexangula. Balinsiagau, see Aglaia harmsiana. Balios, see Ceiba pentandra. Balisayin, see Terminalia edulis. Balisin, see Clerodendron inerme. Baliskug, see Clerodendron inerme. Balit, see Euphoria didyma. Balit, see Grewia stylocarpa. Balita, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Balitadhan, see Quisqualis indica. Balitagtag, see Allaeanthus glaber. Balite, see Ficus pachyphylla. Baliting,-ibon, see Ficus benjamina. Balitn6ng, see Grewia eriocarpa. Balituk, see Capparis micracantha. Baliu, see Pandanus copelandii. Baliudn, see Columbia lanceolata. Balld, see Livistona rotundifolia. Bal-laayang, see Cyperus radiatus. Bal-lai, see Piper umbellatum. Ballaing, see Livistona rotundifolia. Ballast retainers: Mangrove swamp species, i, 26. Bal-liba, see Vallisneria gigantea. Ball6k, see Garcinia binucao. Balobago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Balobal6, see Pongamia pinnata. Balobayauak, see Dillenia philippinensis. Balob6, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Balobo, see Grewia stylocarpa. Baloi, see Pandanus copelandii. Baloi, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Balok-balok, see Scaevola frutescens. Balokl6k, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Balonggat, see Cyperus malaccensis. Balongkahinai, see Pothoidium lobbianum.

Page  258 258 INDEX Balongo dilang-ahas, see Grewia acuminata. Balongsaging, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Balopo, see Grewia stylocarpa. Balsakan, see Grewia stylocarpa. Balsaminaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 205. Balsbas-mal6mai, see GraptophyUum pictum. Baltik, see Agathis alba. Balubad, see Anacardium occidentale. Balubar, see Anacardium occidentale. Balubat, see Anacardium occidentale. Balubit6on, see Barringtonia asiatica. Balubog, see Anacardium occidentale. Baluganos, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Balukanad, see Aleurites trisperma. Balukanag, see 'Aleurites trisperma. Balukanag, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Balukanag oil: Chisocheton cumingianus, ii, 117. Baluk-baldik, see Pongamia pinnata. Baluk6k, see Grewia edulis. Balukt6t, see Mucuna nigricans. Balukut, see Garcinia binucao. Balulau, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Balum-balum, see Spathoglottis plicata. Balunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Baluno, see Camptostemon philippinense. Balfino, see Mangifera caesia. Balutbalut, see Pongamia pinnata. Bamban, see Donax cannaeformis. Bambusa blumneana, see Bambusa spinosa. Bambusa cornuta: Description and distribution, i, 258. Figure, i, 280. Local names, i, 258. Bambusa glaucescens: Description, i, 259. Distribution, i, 258. Fishing rods, i, 259. Ornamental, i, 259. Bambusa lumampao: Dimensions of fibers, i, 422. Bambusa merrillii: Description, i, 258, 259. Distribution, i, 259. Figure, i, 281. Bambusa spinosa: Description, i, 258, 259. Distribution, i, 259. Figure, i, 282, 283, 284. Local names, i, 259. Medicinal, iii, 170. Paper, i, 419. Planting, i, 266-278. Uses, i, 259-260. Bambusa vulgaris: Description, i, 258, 260. Distribution, i, 260. Figure, i, 285-287. Local names, i, 260. Medicinal, iii, 170. Planting and growth, i, 266-275. Uses, i, 260. Banaasi, see Murraya paniculata. Ban&g, see Smilax bracteata. Banago, see Gnetum gneron. Banago, see Thespesia populnea. Banaken, see Elaeagnus philippensis. Banal, see Smilax bracteata. BAnal, see Smilax leucophylla. Banalo, see Thespesia populnea. Banana, see Musa paradisiaca. Banana (wild), see Musa spp. Banasi, see Murraya paniculata. Banati, see Murraya paniculata. Banato, see Mallotus philippinensis. Bandto-maliit, see Malotus philippinensis. Banato oil: Mallotus philippinensis, ii, 142. Banban, see Donax cannaeformis. Banbang, see Caesalpinia crista. Bandabok, see Geodorum nutans. Banga, see Orania palindan. Bafngar, see Sterculia foetida. Bangat, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Bangat, see Sterculia foetida. Bangbang, see Plumbago zeylanica. Bangbangsit, see Hyptis suaveolens. Banghai, see Hydnophytum formicarium. Bangias, see Terrminalia comintana. Bangil, see Guioa koelreuteria. Bangil, see Sophora tomentosa. iangkal, see Nauclea junghuhnii. Bangkal, see Nauclea orientalis. Bangkalauag, see Terminalia calam)ansanai. Bangkdu, see Rhizophora candelaria. Bangkau, see Rhizophora mucronata. Bangkilong, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Bangkoang, see Pandanus simplex. Bangk6k, see Garcinia binucao. Bangk6ro, see Morinda citrifolia. Bangkuang, see Scirpus grossus. Bangkuit, see Sporobolus elongatus. Banglai, see Zingiber zerumbet. Bangles, see Terminalia comintana. Banglua, see Pygeum preslii. Bangogan, see Paederia foetida. Bani, see Pongamia pinnata. Baniakalau, see Sterculia crassiramea. Baniakau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Banig-banig, see Pluchea indica. Banikad, see Sterculia, crassiramea. Banikad, see Sterculia philippinensis. Banilad, see Columbia serratifolia. Banilad, see Sterculia crassiramea. Banilad, see Sterculia oblongata. Banilad, see Sterculia philippinensis. Banisan, see Arenga tremula. Banitan, see Mangifera altissima. Baniti, see Garcinia dulcis. Baniti, see Palaquium philippense. Banitis, see Bassia betis. Bankudo, see Morinda citrifolia. Banlot, see Columbia serratifolia. Bannakalau, see Sterculia crassiramea. Bannakalau, see Sterculia philippinensis. Banogan, see Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia. Banot, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Bansalagin, see Mimusops parvifoli. Bansalagin-mujer, see Mimusops parvifolia.

Page  259 lansalagon, see Mimosops parvifolia. 1ansilai, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Bantana, see Clerodendron intermedium. Bantigi, see Lophopetalum toxicum. Banugan, see Crataeva religiosa. Banukalag, see 'Aleurites trisperma. Banut, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Bany&t, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Baoba6, see Pongamia pinnata. Ba6ogon, see Citrus maxima. Barabak, see Eugenia calubcob. Baraibai, see Cerbera manghas. Baraibai oil: Cerbera manghas, ii, 168. Baraies, see Terminalia edulis. Barak, see Curcumna longa. Barak, see Curcuma zedoaria. Barak, see Zingiber zerumbet. Barakbak, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Baralang, see Rourea volubilis. Baralauik, see Capparis horrida. Baralta, see Pothoidium lobbianum. Barangan, see Eleusine indica. Barangau, see Oroxylui, indicum. Barangg6i, see Orania palindan. Baranggot, see Cyperus malaccensis. Barangg6t, see Urena lobata. Bara-nghas, see Citrus maxima. Baranin, see Andropogon citratus. Baranti6ng, see Lagenaria leucantha. Barasbarasan, see Donax cannaeformis. Baraybay, see Cerbera manghas. Bar6u, see Pandanus copelandii. Bari, see Phaleria cumingii. Baria-an, see Grewia eriocarpa. Barigaua, see Jussiaea linifolia. Baringkok6rong, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Barini, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Baris, see Arenga tremula. Barit, see Heritiera littoralis. Bariu, see Pandanus copelandii. Bariu-an, see Grewia eriocarpa. BariuatuAt, see Tetrastigma loheri. Bariu-bariu, see Rhynchospora corymnbosa. Barleria prionitis: Distribution, iii, 237. Local names, iii, 237. Medicinal, iii, 237. Barob6, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Barobo, see Grewia stylocarpa. Baroi, see Pandanus copelandii. Baroi, see Pandanus tectorius. Baroi, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Baroi, see Pterospermum niveum. Baroi, see Pterospernmum obliquum. Barringtonia acutangul: Distritbution, iii, 214. Local names, iii, 214. Fish poison, iii, 81. Medicinal, iii, 214. Barringtonia asiatica: Description and distribution, ii, 162. Local names, ii, 161. Fish poison, iii, 81. Illuminant, ii, 162. Medicinal, iii, 214. INDEX Barringtonia racemosa: Description, ii, 162. Distribution, i, 26; ii, 162. Local names, ii, 162. Fish and wild pig poison, iii, 81. Illuminant, ii, 162. Medicinal, iii, 215. Baruan, see Grewia eriocarpa. Barfbad, see Waltheria americana. Barub6, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Basai, see Guioa koelreuteria. Basakla, see Ficus forstenii. Basangal, see Calophyllum blancoi. Basanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. Basbasot, see Sida acuta. Basbasot, see Sida rhombifolia. Basellaceae: Food plants, ii, 278. Medicinal plants, iii, 185. Basella rubra: Description and distribution, ii, 278. Local names, ii, 278. Medicinal, iii, 185. Spinach substitute, ii, 278. Basi, see Termainlia edulis. Basiid, see Can'arium ovaturl. Basikad, see Kyllinga monocephala. Basikilang, see Alstonia macrophylla. Easikalang, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Basikalon, see Alstonia macrophylla. Basikarang, see Alstonia macrophylla. Basilalag, see Grewia stylocarpa. Baskets: Agave cantula, i, 362. Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Arenga tremula, i, 158. Baebusa spinosa, i, 259. Caryota cumningii, i, 182. Caryota majestica, i, 182. Caryota merrillii, i, 182. Caryota mitis, i, 182. Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Dendrobium crumenatum, i, 365. Donax cannaeformis, i, 365. Dryopteris pteroides, i, 323. Epipremnnum spp., i, 354. Flagellaria indica, i, 356. Gleichenia linearis, i, 326. Heterospathe elata, i, 210. Lygodium spp., i, 326. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Musa textilis, i, 364. Nephrolepis hirsutula, i, 323. Pandanus copelandii, i, 332. Pandanus luzonensis, i, 334. Pandanus radicans, i, 334. Pandanus simplex, i, 336. Pandanus tectorius, i, 336. Pericampylus glaucus, i, 375. Pothos spp., i, 354. Raphidophora spp., i, 356. Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. Schizostachyum diffusum, i, 264. Schizostachyum fenixii, i, 265. 259

Page  260 260 INDEX Baskets-Continued. Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. Scirpus grossus, i, 353. Stenochlaena palustris, i, 323. Typha angustifolia, i, 330. Bassia betis: Description and distribution, ii, 166. Figure, ii, 165, 167. Local names, ii, 166. Illuminant, ii, 166. Medicinal, iii, 219. Bassia obovatifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 364. Local name, ii, 364. Food, ii, 364. Bast6n de San Jose, see Costus speciosus. Basuit, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Batad, see Andropogon halepensis. Batad, see Andropogon sorghum. Batad-bat;ran, see Andropogon halepensis. Batag-batag, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Batakan, see Barnbusa spinosa. Batang-batang, see Cissampelos pareira. Bat'ano, see Cerbera manghas. Bat'ino, see Excoecaria agallocha. Batarau, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Batbat, see Arenga tremula. Bat6te, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Batete incense: Kingiodendron alternifolium, ii, 208. Batikalang, see Alstonia macrophylla. Batikoling, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Batikoling, see Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia. Bating see Castanopsis philippensis. Bating, see Lumnitzera littorea. Batino, see Alstonia macrophylla. Bat6-bat6, see Merremia emarginata. Batuakan, see Chisocheton cuningianus. Batuan, see Garcinia binucao. Batuban, see Anacardium occidentale. Batukanag, see Aglaia harmsiana. Batutang-uak, see Luffa cylindrica. Bauan, see Amaranthus viridis. Ba'uan, see Amaranthus spinosus. Bauang, see Allium sativum. Baugin, see Bambusa spinosa. Bauhinia cumingiana: Description and distribution, i, 379. Local names, i, 379. Fiber, i, 379. Bauhinia malabarica: Description and distribution, ii, 290. Figure, ii, 291. Local names, ii, 288. Food flavoring, ii, 290. Medicinal, iii, 189. Bauing, see Ocimum basilicum. Bauit, see Harrisonia perforata. Baunal, see Smilax china. Bauno, see Mangifera caesia. Baut, see Heritiera littoralis. Bayabas, see Psidium guajava. Bayabas-ufk, see Capparis micracantha. Bayag-kabayo, see Heritiera littoralis. Bayag kambing, see Caesalpinia crista. Bayag-usa, see Cerbera manghas. Baydg usa, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. Bayag-usa, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Bayambang, see Amaranthus spinosus. Bayangbang, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. Bayanti, see Aglain glomerata. Bayanti, see Aglaia harnsiana. Baya6, see Pterocynbium tinctorium. Bayating, see Tinumiscium philippinense. Bayauas, see Psidiumn guajava. Bayayat, see Sterculia cuneata. Bayit, see Cycas rumphii. Bayog, see Aglaia harmsiana. Bay6g, see Bambusa spinosa. Bay6g, see Dendrocalamus merrillianus. Bay6g, see Pterospernmum diversifolium. Bay6g, see Ptersopernlmu niveum. Bay6g, see Pterospermum obliquum. Bay6g-bay6g, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Bayog-bay6g, see Pterospermum obliquum. Bay6k, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Bayok, see Pterospermnum niveum. Bayok-bay6k, see Monmordica cochinchinensis. Bay6k-bay6kan, see Pterospermum niveum. Bay6ng, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Bayongb6i, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Bayugtin, see Pterospermum niveum. Bayik, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Bayuk6, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Bayuk6, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Bayuk6, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Bayuk6, see Pterospermum obliquum. Bayuktuan, see Castanopsis philippensis. Bay-yating, see Anamirta cocculus. Bayyet, see Euphoria didyma. Beach pandan, see Pandanus tectorius. Beads: Corypha elata, i, 192. Ocimum sanctum, ii, 218. Bebit, see Caesalpinia crista. Begoniaceae: Food plants, ii, 352. Begonia spp.: Food flavoring, ii, 352. Belis, see Arenga tremula. Belisan, see Ptychoraphis elmeri. Belts: Gleichenia linearis, i, 326. Musa textilis i, 364. Benglaling, see Grewia multiflora. Benglar6ng, see Grewia bilamellata. Benguet lily, see Lilium philippinensis. Benguet pine, see Pinus insularis. Benincasa hispida: Distribution, iii, 241. Local names, iii, 241. Medicinal, iii, 241. Ben oil: Moringa olcifera, ii, 104. Berberidaceae: Dyes, ii, 388. Berengena, see Solanum melongena. Bermuda grass, see Cynodon dactylon. Betel nut palm, see Areca catechu. Betel palm, see Areca catechu.

Page  261 I INDEX 261 Betel pepper, see Piper betle. Betes, see Anisoptera thurifera. B6tis, see Bassia, betis. Betis-laldki, see Bassia betis. Betis oil: Bassia betis, ii, 166. B'eus, see Bruguiera parviflora. Biao, see Aleurites moluccana. Biaog, see Pterospermum obliquum. Bias, see Gnetum indicum. Bias-bias, see Commelina benghalensis. Bias-pugo, see Ammannia baccifera. Biatiles, see Leucaena glauca. Biau, see Miscanthus sinensis. Biayo, see Agathis alba. Bidai, see Ocimunm basilicutm. Bidai, see Ocimum sanctum. Bidens chinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 376. Local names, ii, 376. Rice wine, ii, 376. Bidens pilosa: Description and distribution, ii, 377. Local names, ii, 377. Medicinal, iii, 75. Wine, ii, 377 Bidiangan, see Agathis alba. Biga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Biga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Biga, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Biga-biga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Big&ho, see Miscanthus sinensis. Bigao, see Miscanthus sinensis. Bigas, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Bignii, see Antidesma bunius. Bignai-kalabau, see Antidesma bunius. Bignon, see Melochia umbellata. Bignoniaceae: Food plants, ii, 375. Medicinal plants, iii, 74, 236. Bi-idu, see Miscanthus sinensis. Bikal, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Bikal, see Schizostachyum, diffusum. Bikal-babui, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Biknong, see Kleinhovia hospita. Bilabila, see Eleusine indica. Bilde-mariang-itim, see Guioa koelreuteria. Bilis, see Garcinia vidalii. Bilia, see Macaranga tanarius. Biluak, see Macaranga grandifolia. Biluan, see Macaranga tanarius. Bildan, see Macaranga tanarius. Biluang, see Kleinhovia hospita. Biluan-lalaki, see Macaranga tanarius. Bilukau, see Garcinia binucao. Bilukau, see Garcinia venulosa. Bildunga, see Macaranga tanarius. Bingibing, see Macaranga grandifolia. Bingabing, see Melochia umbellata. BinggLs, see Terminalia comintana. Binfg-a, see Macaranga tanarius. Bi'n6ng see Kleinhovia hospita. Bintikai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Binuga, see Macaranga tanarius. Bindkau, see Garcinia binucao. Binukau, see Garcinia venulosa. Binuko, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Bindunga, see Calanthe veratrifolia. Binfiunga, see Macaranga tanarius. Bindnga, see Melochia umbellata. Binunga gum: Macaranga tanarius, ii, 73. Bindungan, see Macaranga tanarius. Biniungas, see Macaranga grandifolia. Binurok, see Embelia philippinensis. Bio, see Garuga abilo. Biophytum sensitivum: Distribution, iii, 193. Local names, iii, 193. Medicinal, iii, 193. Bi6san, see Bruguiera parviflora. Bira, see Alocasia miacrorrhiza. Birds'-nest fern, see Asplenium nidus. Bisal, see Terminalia edulis. Bisalak, see Embelia philippinensis. Bisik, see Lansiumr dubium. Biskan, see Dillenia philippinensis. Bisldt, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Bisong, see Sterculia stipularis. Bisudak, see Embelia philippinensis. Bita, see Alstonia scholaris. Bitali, see Pterocarpus spp. Bitanag, see Kleinhovia hospita. Bitanh61, see Calophylum blancoi. Bitanh6l, see Garcinia vidalii. Bita6g, see Calophyllum blancoi. Bitiog, see CalophyUum inophyUum, Bitaog oil: Calophyllum inophyllum, ii, 156. Bitaoi, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Bitaoi-bakil, see Calophyllum blancoi. Bitaong, see Calophyllum blancoi. Bitn6ng, see Kleinhovia hospita. Bitog, see Rourea volubilis. Bit6k, see Palaquium philippense. Bitong, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Bitofngol, see Flacourtia indica. Bitongol, see Flacourtia rukam. Bitonog, see Kleinhovia hospita. Bit6on, see Barringtonia asiatica. Bitotu, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Bit-ta6g, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Bittog, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Biuas, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Biuis, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Bids, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Bixaceae: Dyes, ii, 401. Medicinal plants, iii, 213. Bixa orellana: Description and distribution, ii, 401. Local names, ii, 401. Dye, ii, 401. Medicinal, iii, 213. Biydg, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Blanco's narra, see Pterocarpus blancoi. Blechum brownei: Distribution, iii, 237. Local names, iii, 237. Medicinal, iii, 237.

Page  262 262 INDEX Blowguns: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. Blumea balsamifera: Description and distribution, ii, 224. Figure, ii, 223. Local names, ii, 222. Fish poison, iii, 82. Medicine, ii, 222; iii, 75, 243. B6a, see Areca catechu. B6bo, see Sterculia foetida. Boboaya, see Flagellaria indica. Bob6g, see Sterculia foetida. Bob6i, see Ceiba pentandra. B6boi-gubat, see Sterculia luzonica. Bobonotan, see Citrus maxima. Bob6r, see Bombax ceiba. B6bor, see Sterculia foetida. Bodobod6, see Abroma fastuosa. Boehmeria nivea: Description and distribution, i, 374. Local names, i, 373. Fiber, i, 373. Boga, see Areca vidaliana. Boga, see Dioscorea esculenta. B6go, see Garuga abilo. Bog6n, see Mussaenda philippica. Bohaue, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Boh6, see Gigantichloa levis. Boh6, see Schizostachyum brachycladum. Boho, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Boho-boho, see Lantana camara. Boh6kan, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Boib6i, see Ceiba pentandra. Bokabok, see Scaevola frutescens. Bokaui, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Bokit, see Harrisonia perforata. Bok6, see Gigantichloa levis. Bokobok6, see Clerodendron minahassae. Boletus spp.: Description, iii, 116. Edible fungi, iii, 116. Bolidtadhan, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Bol6, see Gigantochloa levis. B6lo, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Bol6n, see Alphonsea arborea. Bol6ng, see Flacourtia indica. Bolongkoyan, see Pittosporurn pentandrum. Bolong-sina, see Dendrocalamus latiflorus. Bolong-tambal, see Clerodendron intermedium. Bombacaceae: Fiber plants, i, 392. Mangrove swamps, i, 40. Medicinal plants, iii, 210. Oils, ii, 150. Bombax ceiba: Description and distribution, i, 394. Local names, i, 392. Fiber, i, 392. Medicinal, iii, 210. Tensile strength, i, 321. Bombycidendron vidalianum: Description and distribution, i, 387. Local names, i, 386. Bombycidendron vidalianum-Continued. Fiber, i, 387. Tensile strength, i, 321. Bonb6n, see Donax cannaeformis. Boinga, see Sterculia oblongata. Bofings, see Terminalia comintana. Bongbong, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Bongbong, see Schizostachyum diffusum. Bong6g, see Sterculia foetida. Bongon, see Allaeanthus glaber. Bon6tan, see Sterculia stipularis. Bo-o, see Ximenia americana. Boob6o, see Pinus insularis. Booton, see Barringtonia asiatica. Borneo tallow: Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. Isoptera borneensis, ii, 160. Borraginaceae: Fiber plants, i, 409. Food plants, ii, 373. Gums, ii, 88. Medicinal plants, iii, 227. Borreria hispida: Distribution, iii, 238. Local name, iii, 238. Medicinal, iii, 238. Borsa inga dadakkel, see Kyllinga monocephala. Bosbor6n, see Scaevola frutescens. Bosbot6nes, see Kyllinga monocephala. B6to, see Scaevola frutescens. Botobot6nis, see Euphorbia hirta. Botobot6nis, see Sphaeranthus africanus. Boton, see Barringtonia asiatica. Botoncillo, see Kyllinga monocephala. B6tong, see Barringtonia asiatica. Bot6ng, see Dendrocalamus lat florus. Bot6ng, see Gigantochloa levis. Boton oil: Barringtonia asiatica, ii, 161. Bottles: Palaquium ahernianulm, ii, 80. Bottonis, see Euphorbia hirta. Bows: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Boxes: Lygodium spp., i, 326. Brea, see Canarium villosum. Breadfruit, see Artocarpus cominlmunis. Breynia rhamnoides: Distribution, iii, 198. Local names, iii, 198. Medicinal, iii, 198. Bromeliaceae: Fiber plants, i, 356. Food plants, ii, 256. Brooms: Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338. Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Malvastrum coromandelinum, i, 388. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Oryza sativa, i, 342.

Page  263 INDEX 263 Brooms-Continued. Phragmites karka, i, 342. Phragmites vulgaris, i, 342. Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. Thysanolaena maxima, i, 346. Brownlowia lanceolata: Description, i, 40. Local name, i, 40. Brucea amarissima: Description and distribution, iii, 68, 195. Local names, iii, 68, 195. Medicinal, iii, 68, 195. Brugu'era caryophylloides, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Bruguiera conjugata: Description, i, 48, 50, 52. Distribution, i, 22. Figure, i, 51, 91. Local names, i, 52. Firewood, i, 112-117. Tannin, i, 119-124. Timber, i, 52. Stands, i, 86-99. Bruguiera cylindrica: Description, i, 48, 50, 54. Distribution, i, 22, 54. Figure, i, 56, 57. Local names, i, 54. Bruguiera eriopetala, see Bruguiera sexangula. Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, see Bruguiera conjugata. Bruguiera parviflora: Description, i, 48, 50, 58. Distribution, i, 22, 58. Figure, i, 59, 61. Local names, i, 58. Firewood, i, 112-116. Stands, i, 86-99. Tannin, i, 119-124 Timber, i, 58. Bruguiera sexangula: Description, i, 48, 50, 52, 54. Distribution, i, 22. Figure, i, 53, 55. Local names, i, 54. Stands, i, 96-99. Tannin, i, 120-124. Timber, i, 52. B'rus, see Bruguiera parviflora. Brushes: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Cocos nucifera, i, 184, 244. Bua, see Areca catechu. Bua-bua, see Eugen-a mananquil. Bualtik, see Lonicera philippinensis. Buas, see Mallotus philippinensis. Bubabot, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. Bubahan, see Lansium dubium. Bubog, see Stercul;a foetida. Bubua, see Aglaia everettii. Bubfi, see Ceiba pentandra. Bubui-gubat, see Bombax ceiba. Bubfi-gubat, see Thespesia populnea. Bubunau, see Aglaia everettii. Bubur, see Sterculia foetida. Bubutigan, see Bruguiera parviflora. Bu-buyan, see Asclepias curassavica. Buchid, see Imperata cylindrica. Buddleia asiatica: Distribution, iii, 220. Local names, iii, 220. Medicinal, iii, 220. Bueng, see Acorus ca!Lamus. Bugal6t, see Garcinia vidalii. Bugang, see Saccharum spontaneutm Bugayau, see Euphorbia hirta. Bugayong-china, see Adenanthera intermsedia. Bugayung, see Abrus precatorius. Bugbugay6ng, see Abrus precatorius. Bugkau, see Toddalia asiatica. Bugnai, see Antidesma bunius. Bugnau, see Justic'a gendarussa. Bugn6i, see Antidesma bunius. Bugnei, see Tylophora brevipes. Bugn6-negro, see Justicia gendarussa. Bigo, see Garuga abilo. Bug6s, see Acalypha indica. Bugubi, see Thysanolaena maxima. Bugubui, see Thysanolaena maxima. Buhai-buhai, see Typha angustifolia. Buho, see Schizostachyum luman pao. Bui, see Musa errans. Buibui, see Thysanolaena maxima. Buis, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Bukad, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Bukadkad, see Blumea balsamnifera. Bukakau, see Andropogon sorghum. Bukitkit, see Mucuna nigricans. Buk-kalau, see Euphoria didyma. Bukkau, see Toddalia asiatica. Bukfan, see Strychnos multiflora. Bulagak, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Bulagun, see Triumfetta bartramia. Bulai patani, see Phaseolus lunatus. Bulak, see Ceiba pentandra. Bulakan, see Ipomoea digitata. Bulakan, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. Bulakan, see Sterculia cuneata. Bulakaui, see Flagellaria indica. Bulak-bulakan, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. Bulak-bulakan, see Thespesia lampas. Bilak-dam6, see Asclepias curassavica. Bulak-dond6l, see Ceiba pentandra. Bulak-kastila, see Asclepias curassavica. Bulak-kastila, see Ceiba pentandra. Bfilak-manfik, see Ageratum conyzoides. Bulak-sino, see Ceiba pentandra. Bulala, see Nauclea orientalis. Bulala, see Nephelium mutabile. Bulala oil: Nephelium mvutabile, ii, 150. Bulali, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Bulanini, see Dalbergia cumingiana. Buliu, see Canarium luzonicum. Bulbil, see Pinus insularis. Bulbulin, see Helicteres hirsuta. Bulbilin, see Malachra capitata. Bull, see Corypha elata. Bulinau, see Bambusa vulgaris. Buln6, see Livistona rotundifolia. Bul6g, see Aglaia everettii.

Page  264 264 INDEX Bul6g, see Aglaia glomerata. Buloi, see Dioscorea divaricata. Bulokbilok, see Lumnitzera littorea. Bulu, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Bulubadiang, see Ceriops roxburghiana. Bulubu&ia, see Fagraea racemosa. Bulubukh6n, see Grewia multiflora. Bulubulihan, see Malachra capitata. Bulugai, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Buluhan, see Malachra capitata. Bumitan, see Mangifera altissima. Bunag, see Garcinia venulosa. Bunayon, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Buneg, see Garcinia dulcis. Buneg, see Garcinia venulosa. Bfinga, see Areca catechu. Bunga, see Areca hutchinsoniana. Bunga, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Bni-ga, see Orania palindan. Bunga, see Sterculia oblongata. Buniga de China, see Adonidia merrillii. Bungia de Jolo, see Adonidia merriUii. Bungai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Bungalon, see Avicennia officinalis. Bvfngalon, see Camptostemon philippinense. Bungalon, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Bunga-machin, see Pinanga spp. Bunffga na tukayong, see Pinanga spp. Bungfiang-gubat, see Areca whitfordii. Bungfang-ipot, see Areca ipot. Bungat, see Sterculia stipularis. Bungkalot, see Citrus sp. Bungkulan, see Eugenia mananquil. Bunglas, see Sterculia oblongata. Buingog, see Sterculica foetida. Bufngon, see Allaeanthus glaber. Bufngon, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. Bunguas, see Aglaia everettii. Bunlau, see Justicia gendarussa. Bunlos, see Terrinalia calamansanai. Bunnai, see Antidesma bunius. Bun6g, see Garcinia venulosa. Bunot-bun6t, see Melochia umbellata. Bunsilak,. see Elaeocarpus calonrala. Buns6g, see Agathis alba. Buntatai, see Ehretia microphyUa. Buntot-kap6n, see Asplenium macrophyllum. Bunt6t-le6n, see Heliotropium indicum. Buntot-usa, see Helicteres hirsuta. Buntfigan, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Buntit-bu&ia, see Rotala aquatica. Buntfit-palos, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Bunug, see Garcinia vidalii. Bunus, see Garuga abilo. Bunut, see Rubus elmeri. Buragris, see Garcinia binucao. Burak, see Canangium odoratum. Burakan, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. Burakan, see Operculina turpethum. Buratu, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Buri, see Corypha elata. Burirau, see Bambusa vulgaris. Burseraceae: Food plants, ii, 300. Medicinal plants, iii, 196. Burseraceae-Continued. Oils, ii, 114. Resins, ii, 40. Tannins, iii, 94. Buru, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Burubayok6, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Burubugnai, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Buruiu, see Pandanus copelandii. Busai-ing, see Bruguiera conjugata. Busain, see Bruguiera conjugata. Busdin, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Busain, see Bruguiera sexangula. Busaing, see Bruguiera sexangula. Busbusi, see Lippia nodiflora. Busbusilas, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Busel-busel, see Clerodendron inerme. Busigan, see Gonocaryumn caUeryanurm. Busi-ing, see Bruguiera conj'gzita. Busikad, see Kyllinga monocephala. Busikag, see Guioa koelreuteria. Businai, see Ficus minahassae. Busuanga, see Cassia alata. Buta, see Excoecaria agalocha. Buta-buta, see Cerbera manghao. Buta-but&, see Excoecaria agallocha. Butalau, see Calophyllumn inophyllum. Butarik, see Adenanthera intermedia. Butigan, see Phaleria cz't:?n'/il. Butl6, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Butn6ng, see Kleinhovia hospita. Butn6ng, see Pterospermum obliquum. But6an-pula, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Buto-but6, see Cerbera manghas. Butfihan, see Musa errans. Butor, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Butor, see Schizostachyum diffusunt. Butterfly orchid, see Phalaenopsis amabilis. Butter substitute: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. Buttons: Corypha elata, i, 192. Coelococcus amicarun, i, 192. Butuin, see Dendrocalamus latiflorus. Butunalaga, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. Butus, see Litsea glutinosa. Buxaceae: Poisonous plants, iii, 80. Buxus rolfei: Fish poison, iii, 80. Buyayara, see Euphorbia hirta. Btyo, see Piper betle. Buyo: Adonidia merrillii, i, 139. Areca caliso, i, 147. Areca catechu, i, 144. Areca ipot, i, 148. Heterospathe elata, i, 210. Oncosperma spp., i, 231, 232. Pinanga spp., i, 236. Buyobuyo, see Piper betle. Buyo-buyo, see Piper retrofractum. Buy6n, see Mussaenda philippica.

Page  265 INDEX 265 0 Cabello de angel, see Quamoclit pinnata. Cabo negro, see Arenga pinnata. Cacao, see Theobroma cacao. Caesalpinia crista: Distribution, i, 24; iii, 189. Local names, iii, 189. Medicinal, iii, 189. Caesalpinia nuga: Distribution, i, 24, 101. Caesalpinia sappan: Description and distribution, ii, 391. Local names, ii, 389. Dye, ii, 389. Hedge plant, ii, 391. Medicinal, iii, 67. Calabaza blanca, see Lagenaria leucantha. Calamus arugada: Description, i, 175. Calamus bicolor: Description, i, 178. Calamus blancoi: Description, i, 173. Calamus cumingianus: Description, i, 174. Calamus diephenhorstii: Description, i, 174. Calamus dimorphacanthus: Description, i, 178. Calamus discolor: Description, i, 174. Calamus elmerianus: Description, i, 176. Calamus filisphadix: Description, i, 174. Calamus foxworthyi: Description, i, 174. Calamus grandifolius: Description, i, 175. Calanmus halconensis: Description, i, 178. Calamus jenningsianus: Description, i, 175. Calamus manillensis: Description, i, 175. Calamus maximus: Description, i, 174. Calamus megaphyllus: Description, i, 176. Calamus melanorhynchus: Description, i, 173. Calamus merrilii, see Calamnus maxima. Calamus neyenianus: Description, i, 173. Calamus microcarpus: Description, i, 178. Calamus microsphaerion: Description, i, 177. Calamnus mindorensis: Description, i, 175. Calamus mitis: Description, i, 176. Calamus mollis, see Calamus usitatus. Calamus moseleyanus: Description, i, 175. Calamrus multinervis: Description, i, 175. Calamus oil: Acorus calamus, ii, 181. Calamus ornatus: Description, i, 174. Figure, i, 165. Calamus ramulosus: Description, i, 177. Calamus reyesianus: Description, i, 176. Calamus samian: Description, i, 176. Calamus simphysipus: Description, i, 174. Calamus siphonospathus: Description, i, 177, 178. Calamus spinifolius: Description, i, 176. Calamus spp. Conspectus of the species, i, 173. Description, i, 158, 160. Distribution, i, 135, 158, 160. Figure, i, 159, 169. Uses, i, 160. Quality and grade, i, 170. Supply, i, 162. Utilization and export, i, 168. Calamus trispermus: Description, i, 175. Calamus vidalianus: Description, i, 177. Calamus vinosus: Description, i, 175. Calamus viridissimus: Description, i, 176. Calamus usitatus: Description, i, 173. Figure, i, 161, 163. Calanthe veratrifolia: Description and distribution, iii, 14. Local names, iii, 14. Ornamental, iii, 14. Callicarpa cana: Fish poison, iii, 82. Callicarpa caudata: Distribution, iii, 229. Local names, iii, 229. Medicinal, iii, 229. Callicarpa erioclona: Distribution, iii, 229. Local names, iii, 229. Fish poison, iii, 82. Medicinal, iii, 229. Callicarpa formosana: Distribution, iii, 229. Local names, iii, 229. Fish poison, iii, 81. Medicinal, iii, 229. Calonyction muricatum: Local name, iii, 225. Medicinal, iii, 225. Calophyllum blancoi: Description and distribution, ii, 400. Local names, ii, 400.

Page  266 266 INDEX CalophyUum blancoi-Continued. Dye, ii, 400. Medicinal, iii, 212. Calophyllum inophyllum: Description and distribution, ii, 159. Figure, ii, 157. Local names, ii, 156. Bitaog oil, ii, 158. Confection containers, ii, 340. Medicinal, iii, 212. Planting, ii, 159. Tannin, iii, 94. Calotropis gigantea: Distribution, iii, 224. Local name, iii, 224. Medicinal, iii, 224. Camag6n, see Diospyros discolor. Campanelo, see Thevetia peruviana. Campanero, see AUlamanda cathartica. Campanero, see Thevetia peruviana. Campanilla, see Allamanda cathartica. Campanilla azil, see Ipomoea hederacea. Cam phor: Blumea balsamifera, ii, 222. Camptostemon philippinense: Description, i, 42. Figure, i, 41. Local names, i, 40. Firewood, i, 42. Car angiun odoratuin: Description and distribution, ii, 200. Figure, ii, 191, 193. Local names, ii, 189. Adulterants of oil, ii, 197. Classification of oil, ii, 194. Compo'sition of oil, ii, 198. Distillation, ii, 192, 196. Exports of oil, ii, 190. Extraction with solvents, ii, 196. Growth, ii, 198. Ilang-ilang oil, ii, 189. Manufacture of oil, ii, 190. Planting, ii, 198. Canarium luzonicum: Description and distribution, ii, 48. Figure, ii, 41, 43. Local names, ii, 40. Analysis and distillation of Manila elemi, ii, 45-48. Export of Manila elemi, ii, 42. Food, ii, 239, 300. Method of tapping, ii, 44. Medicinal, iii, 196. Tannin, iii, 94. Uses of Manila elemi, ii, 42. Canrarium ovatum: Description and distribution, ii, 117. Figure, ii, 115. Local names, ii, 114. Confection, ii, 302. Food, ii, 302. Pili-nut oil, ii, 114. Canarium vilosum: Description and distribution, ii, 50. Figure, ii, 51. Local names, ii, 49. I Canarium viUosum-Continued. Analysis of resin, ii, 49. Medicinal, iii, 196. Uses of resin, ii, 49. Canarium williamsii: Description and distribution, ii, 302. Figure, ii, 301. Local name, ii, 302. Food, ii, 302. Candles: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Hernandia ovigera, ii, 103. Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Pongamnia pinnata, ii, 111. Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. Shorea borneensis, ii, 160. Canela, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Canela, see Cinnamomum mindanaense. Canes, see Walking sticks. Canna, see Canna indica. Canna indica: Distribution, iii, 178. Local names, iii, 178. Medicinal, iii, 178. Cannaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 178. Canscora diffusa: Distribution, iii, 221. Local names, iii, 221. Medicinal, iii, 221. Cafia-bojo, see Schizostachyum luwmamlpao. Cania espina, see Bamnbusa spinosa. Cafna-fistula, see Cassia fistula. Cafia-pistula, see Cassia fistula. Capparidaceae: Food plants, ii, 282. Medicinal plants, iii, 188. Capparis horrida: Description and distribution, ii, 282. Local names, ii, 282. Food, ii, 282. Medicinal, iii, 188. Capparis micracantha: Description and distribution, ii, 284. Local names, ii, 282. Food, ii, 284. Medicinal, iii, 188. Caprifoliaceae: Fiber plants, i, 409. Capsicum frutescens: Description and distribution, ii, 374. Local names, ii, 373. Condiment, ii, 374. Dye, ii, 404. Medicinal, iii, 72. Copsicum minimum, see Capsicum frutescens. Cardboard (substitute for): Areca catechu, i, 144. Cardiospermum halicacabum: Distribution, iii, 203. Local names, iii, 203. Medicinal, iii, 203. Caricaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 213.

Page  267 INDEX 267 Carica papaya: Distribution, iii, 213. Local names, iii, 213. Medicinal, iii, 213. Carriers' poles: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifol:a, i, 216. Carurm copticum: Distribution, iii, 218. Local names, iii, 218. Medicinal, iii, 218. Caryota cumingii: Description, i, 180, 182. Distribution, i, 182. Local names, i, 182. Uses, i, 182. Caryota majestica, i, 180. Caryota merrillii, i, 180. Caryota mitis: Description, i, 180. Distribution, i, 182. T onal names, i, 182. Ornamental, i, 182. Carl'ota rumphiana: Description, i, 180. Figure, i, 179, 181, 183. Local names, i, 182. Ornamental, i, 182. Caryota spp.: Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. Starch, ii, 252. Caryota urens, i, 243. Cashew nut, see Anacardiumn occidentale. Cashew-nut oil: Anacardium occidentale, ii, 146. Cassava, see Manihot utilissima. Cassia alata: Distribution, iii, 190. Local names, iii, 190. Medicinal, iii, 190. Cassia fistula: Distribution, iii, 190. Local names, iii, 190. Medicinal, iii, 190. Cassia mimosoides: Distribution, iii, 190. Local names, iii, 190. Medicinal, iii, 190. Cassia occidentalis: Distribution, iii, 190. Local names, iii, 190. Medicinal, iii, 190. Cassia sophera: Distribution, iii, 190. Local names, iii, 190. Medicinal, iii, 190. Cassia tora: Distribution, iii, 191. Local names, iii, 191. Medicinal, iii, 191. Cassie flower, see Acacia farnesiana. Cassie-flower oil: Acacia farnesiana, ii. 204. Castafias, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. Castanopsis philippensis: Description and distribution, ii, 260. Figure, ii, 261. Local names, ii, 260. Food, ii, 260. Castor oil: Ricinus communis, ii, 143. Castor-oil plant, see Ricinus conwusnis. Casuarinaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 179. Casuarina equisetifolia: Distribution. iii, 179. Local names, iii, 179. Medicinal, iii, 179. Cat-tail, see Typha angustifolia. Cattle food: Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150. Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. Caulking: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Caryota cumingii, i, 182. Caryota mnajestica, i, 182. Caryota merrillii, i, 182. Caryota mitis, i, 182. Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Caulking material: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. Canarium villosum, ii, 49. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus ii. 54. Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, ii, 62. Cebollas del monte, see Geodorum nutans. Ceiba pentandra: Description and distribution, i, 394; ii, 152, 154. Figure, ii, 151. Local names, i, 394; ii, 150. Fiber, i, 394. Kapok oil, ii, 152. Medicinal, iii, 210. Celastraceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 202. Oils, ii, 147. Celastrus paniculata: Description and distribution, ii, 147; iii, 202. Local names, iii, 202. Medicinal, iii, 202. Oil, ii, 147. Celery, see Apium graveolens. Celosia argentea: Distribution, iii, 184. Local names, iii, 184. Medicinal, iii, 184. Centella asiatica: Description and distribution, iii, 69. Local names, iii, 69. Medicinal, iii, 69, 218. Centipeda minima: Distribution, iii, 244. Local names, iii, 244. Medicinal, iii, 244.

Page  268 268 INDEX Cephalostachyum mindorense: Description and distribution, i, 260. Figure, i, 288. Local name, i, 260. Cerbera manghas: Description and distribution, i, 76. Figure, i, 79. Local names, i, 76. Illuminant, ii, 168. Medicinal, iii, 222. Cerbera odoUam, see Cerbera manghas. Cereza, see Muntingia calabura. Ceriops candoUeana, see Ceriops tagal, Ceriops roxburghiana: Description, i, 60, 62. Distribution, i, 22. Figure, i, 63, 64. Local names, i, 62. Dye, i, 122. Tannin, i, 121-124. Timber, i, 62. Ceriops tagal: Description, i, 60, 62. Distribution, i, 22. Local names, i, 60. Dye, i, 122. Firewood, i, 112-114. Stands, i, 86-99. Tannin, i, 119-124. Timber, i, 60. Cha, see Ehretia microphylla. Cha, see Guioa koelreuteria. Chachihan, see Lippia nodiflora. Chaetospermum glutinosum: Distribution, iii, 193. Local names, iii, 193. Medicinal, iii, 193. Chairs: Calamus spp., i, 158. Daemonorops spp., i, 205. Korthalsia spp., i, 212. Schizostachyum diffusum, i, 264. Champ&ka, see Michelia champaca. Champaka oil: Michelia champaka, ii, 185. Champakang-pula, see Michelia champaca. Champakang-puti, see Michelia longiflora. Champakang-puti oil: Michelia longiflora, ii, 188. Chanang, see Bixa orellana. Chang-bat6, see Canscora diffusa. Chang-gfibat, see Ehretia microphylla. Charcoal: Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Chengam, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Chenopodiaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 67, 183. Chenopodium ambrosioides: Description and distribution, iii, 67, 183. Local names, iii, 67, 183. Medicinal, iii, 67, 183. Chewing gum: Artocarpus cumingiana, ii, 70. Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. Chichirica, see Lochnera rosea. Chicle gum: Achras sapota, ii, 73. Chico, see Achlras sapota. Chile-manuk, see Asclepias curassavica. Chile pepper, see Capsicumn frutescens. China grass, see Boehmeria nivea. Chipiuhu, see Artocarpus communis. Chisocheton cumingianus: Description and distribution, ii, 118. Figure, ii, 119. Local names, ii, 117. Balukanag oil, ii, 117. Chisocheton pentandrus: Description and distribution, ii, 118. Figure, ii, 121. Local names, ii, 118. Hair cosmetic, ii, 118. Medicinal, iii, 196. Chloranthaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 180. Chloranthus brachystachys: Distribution, iii, 180. Local names, iii, 180. Medicinal iii, 180. Chocolate, adulterant: Anacardiumv occidentale, ii, 146. Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. Chonemorpha elastica: Description and distribution, ii, 84. Figure, ii, 85, 86. Local names, ii, 84. Analysis of rubber, ii, 84. Collection of rubber, ii, 84. Chrysalidocarpus lutescens, i, 243. Chrysanthemum, see Chrysanthemum indicum. Chrysanthemum indicum: Distribution, iii, 244. Local names, iii, 244. Medicinal, iii, 244. Cibotium barametz: Description and distribution, iii. 65. Local name, iii, 65. Medicinal, iii, 65. Cicca acida: Description and distribution, ii, 310. Figure, ii, 311. Local names, ii, 310. Food, ii, 310. Medicinal, iii, 198. Cinam6mo, see Lawsonia inermis. Cinco-llagas, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Cinco-llagas na puti, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. Cinnamomum iners: Description and distribution, ii, 200. Figure, ii, 199. Local names ii, 200. Cinnamon, ii, 200. Cinnamon substitute, ii, 282. Cinnamomum mercadoi: Description and distribution, ii, 202. Figure, ii, 201, Local names, ii, 200. Kalingag oil, ii, 202. Medicinal, iii, 187.

Page  269 INDEX 269 Cinnamomum mindanaense: Medicinal, iii, 187. Cipres, see Leucaena glauca. Ciruelas, see Spondia purpurea. Cissampelos pareira: Distribution, iii, 186. Local names, iii, 186. Medicinal, iii, 186. Cissus quadrangularis: Distribution, iii, 206. Local names, iii, 206. Medicinal, iii, 206. Cissus repens: Description and distribution, i, 379. Local names, i, 379. Fiber, i, 379. Citronella oil: Andropogon nardus, ii, 176. Citrus hystrix: Description and distribution, ii, 210. Figure, ii, 211. Local names, ii, 208. Food, ii, 296. Oil, ii, 210. Citrus maxima: Distribution, iii, 193. Local names, iii, 193. Medicinal, iii, 193. Citrus micrantha: Description and distribution, ii, 212. Figure, ii, 213. Local name, ii, 210. Samuyan oil, ii, 210. Shampoo, ii, 212. Citrus sp.: Description, ii, 212. Local names, ii, 212. Shampoo, ii, 212. Clausena anisum-olens: Description and distribution, ii, 214. Figure, ii, 215. Local names, ii, 212. Anisado ingredient, ii, 214. Medicinal, iii, 194. Oil, i, 214. Clerodendron bethuneanum: Distribution, iii, 229. Local names, iii, 229. Medicinal, iii, 229. Clerodendron cumingianum: Distribution, iii, 229. Local names, iii, 229. Medicinal, iii, 229. Clerodendron inerme: Distribution, iii, 229. Local names, iii, 229. Medicinal, iii, 229. Clerodendron intermedium: Distribution, iii, 230. Local names, iii, 230. Medicinal, iii, 230. Clerodendron macrostegium: Distribution, iii, 230. Local names, iii, 230. Medicinal, iii, 230. Clerodendron minahassac: Distribution, iii, 230. Local names, iii, 230. Medicinal, iii, 230. Clerodendron quadriloculare: Distribution, iii, 230. Local names, iii, 230. Medicinal, iii, 230. Coccothrinax garberi, i, 243. Coco, see Cocos nucifera. Coconut oil: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Coconut palm, see Cocos nucifera. Cocos nucifera: Distribution, i, 184; iii, 173. Figure, i, 128, 185, 186, 187, 189, 191, 193; ii, 95, 97, 99, 101. Local names, i, 184. Age of nuts, ii, 96. Alcoholic drink, i, 188. Analysis of copra and copra cake, ii, 102. Charcoal, i, 188. Constants of oil, ii, 102. Demand for oil, ii, 94. Deterioration of oil, ii, 98. Export of oil, ii, 96. Fiber, i, 190, 192. Food, ii, 252. Medicinal, iii, 173. Method of obtaining oil, ii, 93. Moulds of copra, ii, 93. Oil cake, i, 184, 188. Sugar, i, 190. Tensile strength, i, 322. Uses, i, 184. Uses of oil, ii, 93. Vinegar, i, 190. Cocos plumosa, i, 184. Cocotero, see Cocos nucifera. Coelococcus amicarum, i, 192. Coix lachryma-jobi: Distribution, i, 339; iii, 170. Local names, i, 339. Beads, i, 339. Medicinal, iii, 170. Coix lachryma-jobi var. ma-yuen: Description and distribution, ii, 248. Local name, ii, 248. Fermented drink, ii, 250. Food, ii, 250. Coldenia procumbens: Distribution, iii, 227. Local names, iii, 227. Medicinal, iii, 227. Coleus amboinicus: Distribution, iii, 232. Local names, iii, 232. Medicinal, iii, 232. Coleus blumei: Distribution, iii, 232. Local names, iii, 232. Medicinal, iii, 232. Collybia albuminosa: Description, iii, 136. Distribution, iii, 136.

Page  270 270 Collybia albuminosa-Continued. Figure, iii, 139. Edible fungi, iii, 136. Colubrina asiatica: Distribution, iii, 205. Local names, iii, 205. Medicinal, iii, 205. Columbia blancoi: Description and distribution, i, 381. Local names, i, 381. Rope, i, 381. Tensile strength, i, 321. Columbia lanceolata: Description and distribution, i, 381. Local names, i, 381. Rope, i, 381. Columbia mollis: Description and distribution, i, 382. Local names, i, 382. Rope, i, 382. Columbia serratifolia: Description and distribution, i, 382. Local names, i, 382. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Dye, i, 382; ii, 399. Fiber, i, 382. Columella trifolia: Distribution, iii, 206. Local names, iii, 206. Medicinal, iii, 206. Combretaceae: Dyes, ii, 402. Food plants, ii, 352. Mangrove swamps, i, 68. Medicinal plants, iii, 215. Oils, ii, 162. Comnmelina benghalensis: Distribution, iii, 174. Local names, iii, 174. Medicinal, iii, 174. Commelinaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 174. Commersonia bartramia: Description and distribution, i, 396. Local names, i, 396. Rope, i, 396. Tensile strength, i, 321. Common gourd, see Lagenaria leucanthc Common pandan, see Pandanus tectorii Compositae: Food plants, ii, 376. Mangrove swamps, i, 84. Medicinal plants, iii, 75, 243. Oils, iii, 222. Poisonous plants, iii, 82. Condiment: Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. Curcuma longa, ii, 182. Zingiber officinale, ii, 184. Confection: Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. Zingiber officinale, ii, 184. Connaraceae: Fiber plants, i, 376. Poisonous plants, iii, 79. INDEX Conocephalus violaceus: Description, ii, 266.. Local names, ii, 266. Drinking water, ii, 266. Consul6da, see Euphorbia tirucalli. Convolvulaceae: Fiber plants, i, 408. Food plants, ii, 372. Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 225. Cooking oil: Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70, 72. Canariun, ovatum, ii, 114. Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Isoptera borneensis, ii, 16'). Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. Ocimum basilicuni, ii, 217. Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. Terminalia catappa, ii, 164. Stercul;a foetida, ii, 154. Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. Coprinus ater: Description, iii, 117. Edible fungi, iii, 117. Coprinus bryanti: Description, iii, 117. Edible fungi, iii, 117. Coprinus concolor: Description, iii, 117. Local name, iii, 118. Edible fungi, iii, 117. Coprinus confertus: Description, iii, 118. Figure, iii, 119. Edible fungi, iii, 118. Coprinus deliquescens: Description, iii, 118. Edible fungi, iii, 118. Coprinus fimbriatus: Figure, iii, 123. Coprinus flos-lactus: Description, iii, 118. Edible fungi, iii, 118. Coprinus friesii: Figure, iii, 123. Edible fungi, iii, 122. Coprinus nebulosus: Edible fungi, iii, 122. Coprinus ornatus: Description, iii, 120. Edible fungi, iii, 120. Coprinus plicatilis: Description, iii, 120. Edible fungi, iii, 120. Coprinus pseudo-plicatus: Description, iii, 121. Edible fungi, iii, 121. Coprinus revolutus: Description, iii, 121. Edible fungi, iii, 121. Coprinus rimosus: Description, iii, 121. Edible fungi, iii, 121. Coprinus stercorarius: Description, iii, 121. Edible fungi, iii, 121.

Page  271 INDEX 271 Coprinus volutus: Description, iii, 122. Edible fungi, iii, 122. Corchorus acutangulus: Distribution, iii, 207. Local names, iii, 207. Medicinal, iii, 207. Corchorus capsularis: Description and distribution, i, 382. Local names, i, 382. Fiber, i, 382. Medicinal, iii, 207. Corchorus olitorius: Description and distribution, i, 383. Local names, i, 383. Fiber, i, 383. Food, ii, 332. Medicinal, iii, 207. Tensile strength, i, 321. Cordage: Abroma fastuosa, i, 395. Abrus precatorius, i, 378. Agelaea everettii, i, 376. Allaeanthus glaber, i, 368. Alphitonia excelsa, i, 380 Amomum sp., i, 365. Anamtirta cocculus, i, 375. Artocarpus commiunis, i, 369. Artocarpus integra, i, 370. Bauhinia cumingiana, i, 379. Boehmeria nivea, i, 373. Bombax ceiba, i, 392. Bombycidendron vidalianum, i, 386. Columbia blancoi, i, 381. Columbia lanceolata, i, 381 Columbia mollis, i, 382. Commersonia bartramia, i, 396. Corchorus capsularis, i, 382. Corchorus olitorius, i, 383. Cordia cumingiana, i, 409. Cordia myxa, i, 409. Cyperus malaccensis, i, 346. Donax cannaeformis, i, 365. Elaeocarpus calomala, i, 381. Ficus benjamina, i, 372. Ficus forstenii, i, 372. Ficus pachyphylla, i, 372. Ficus palawanensis, i, 373. Flagellaria indica, i, 356. Gnetum gnemon, i, 328. Gnetum indicum. i, 328. Gnetum sp., i, 330. Goniothalamus amuyon, i, 375. Grewia acuminata, i, 384. Grewia bilamellata, i, 384. Grewia eriocarpa, i, 384. Grewia multiflora, i, 385. Helicteres hirsuta, i, 396. Hibiscus tiliaceus, i, 387. Ichnocarpus ovatifolius, i, 406. Ischaemum angustifolium, i, 340. Kleinhovia hospita, i, 397. Lonicera philippinensis, i, 409. Maesa cumingii, i, 406. Malachra capitata, i, 387. I ( Cordage-Continued. Malachra fasciata, i, 388. Malaisia scandens, i, 373. Melochia umbellata, i, 397. Muntingia calabura, i, 385. Parameria philippinensis, i, 407. Phaeanthus ebracteolatus, i, 376. Phaleria cum ingii, i, 403. Phaleria perrottetiana, i, 403. Polyalthia flava, i, 376. Pongamia pinnata, i, 379. Pterocymbiumn tinctorium, i, 398. Pterospermum diversifolium, i, 398. Pterospermum niveum, i, 400. RIaphidophora spp., i, 356. Roura volubilis, i, 378. Sapindus saponaria, i, 380. Sida acuta, i, 390. Sida cordifolia, i, 390. Sida mysorensis, i, 390. Sida rhombifolia, i, 391. Stenochlaena palustris, i, 323. Sterculia crassirailea, i, 400. Sterculia cuneaoa, i, 400. Sterculia foetida, i, 401. Sterculia luzonica, i, 401. Sterculia oblongata, i, 401. Sterculia philippinensis, i, 402. Sterculia stipularis, i, 402. Streptocaulon bauomii, i, 408. Strychnos multiflora, i, 406. Thespesia lampas, i, 391. Trema orientalis, i, 366. Triumfetta bartramia, i, 386. Typha angustifolia, i, 330. Ulrceola iinberbis, i, 407. Urena lobata, i, 391. Wikstroemia spp., i, 403. Cordia cumingiana: Description and distribution, i, 409. Local names, i, 409. Rope, i, 409. Tensile strength, i, 321. Cordia myxa: Description and distribution, i, 409. Local names, i, 409. Medicinal, iii, 227. Paste, i, 88. Rope, i, 409. Tensile strength, i, 321. Cordula argus: Description and distribution, iii, 14. Ornamental, iii, 14. Cordula philippinensis: Description and distribution, iii, 18. Ornamental, iii, 18. Coriander, see Coriandrum sativum. Coriandrum sativum: Distribution, iii, 218. Local names, iii, 218. Medicinal, iii, 218. Cork substitute: Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 48. Corn, see Zea mays. Coronitas, see Asclepias curassavica. Coronitas, see Lantana camara.

Page  272 272 Cortinarius spp.: Description, iii, 126. Edible fungi, iii, 126. Cortinellus shiitake: Figure, iii, 107. Cultivation, iii, 104. Importation, iii, 104. Corypha elata: Description, i, 192. Distribution, i, 135, 196. Figure i, 195, 197, 199, 201, 203. Local names, i, 192. Alcoholic drink, i, 202. Beads, i, 194. Buttons, i, 194. Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Fiber i, 198. Food, ii, 252. Medicinal, iii, 173. Paper, i, 421. Stand, i, 194, 196. Starch, i, 205. Sugar, i, 204. Sweetmeat, i, 194. Syrup, i, 194. Tensile strength, i, 322. Uses, i, 194. Vinegar, ii, 252. Costus speciosus: Distribution, iii, 177. Local names, iii, 177. Medicinal, iii, 177. Cotton-seed oil substitute: Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150. Cotton tree, see Ceiba pentandra. Cradles: Rhaphidophora spp., i, 356. Crataeva religiosa: Distribution, iii, 188. Local names, iii, 188. Medicinal, iii, 188. Cratoxylon blancoi: Distribution, iii, 212. Local names, iii, 212. Medicinal, iii, 212. Crescentia alata: Distribution, iii, 236. Local names, iii, 236. Medicinal, iii, 236. Crinum asiaticurn: Distribution, iii, 176. Local names, iii, 176. Medicinal, iii, 176. Crossostephium chinense: Distribution, iii, 244. Local name, iii, 244. Medicinal, iii, 244. Croton oil: Croton tiglium, ii, 138. Croton-oil plant, see Croton tiglium. Croton tiglium: Description and distribution, ii, 138. Figure, ii, 139. Local names, ii, 138. Croton oil, ii, 138. [NDEX Croton tiglium-Continued. Fish poison, iii, 80. Medicinal, iii, 68, 198. Cubilia blancoi: Description and distribution, ii, 322. Local names, ii, 322. Food, ii, 322. Cucurbitaceae: Food plants, ii, 375. Medicinal plants, iii, 241. Culantrillo, see Adiantum philippense. Culantrillo, see Asplenium macophyllum. Culintro, see Coriandrum sativum. Cunoniaceae: Tannins, iii, 93. Curculigo recurvata: Description and distribution, i, 364. Local name, i, 362. Fiber, i, 362. Curculigo orchioides: Distribution, iii, 176. Local names, iii, 176. Medicinal, iii, 176. Curcuma longa: Description and distribution, ii, 183. Local names, ii, 182. Condiment, ii, 259. Dye, ii, 385. Food, ii, 182. Food coloring, ii, 259. Medicinal, iii, 177. Oil, ii, 182. Curcuma zedoaria: Description and distribution, ii, 184. Local names, ii, 183. Medicinal, ii, 183; iii, 66. Oil, ii, 183. Perfume, ii, 183. Zedoary, ii, 183. Cushions: Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. Cyatheaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 65. Tree fern trunks, iii, 96. Cyathea spp. Distribution, iii, 96. Local names, iii, 96. Uses, iii, 96. Ciathocalyx globosus: Description, ii, 280. Figure, ii, 279. Local names, ii, 280. Areca nut substitute, ii, 280. Cycadaceae: Food plants, ii, 241. Medicinal plants, iii, 168. Ornamental plants, iii, 12. Cycas rumphii: Description and distribution, ii, 244. Figure, ii, 245. Local names, ii, 241. Food, ii, 241. Medicinal, iii, 168. Ornamental, iii, 12. Cymbidium: Distribution, i. 24.

Page  273 INDEX 273 Cynodon dactylon: Distribution, iii, 170. Local names, iii, 170. Medicinal, iii, 170. Cyperaceae: Fiber plants, i, 346. Food plants, ii, 250. Cyperus malaccensis: Description and distribution, i, 26, 348. Figure, i, 349, 350. Local names, i, 346. Fiber, i, 346. Cyperus radiatus: Description and distribution, i, 348. Local names, i, 348. Fiber, i, 348. Cypress vine, see Quamoclit pinnata. Cyrtosperma merkusii: Description and distribution, ii, 254. Local names, ii, 254. Food, ii, 254. Medicinal, iii, 173. Cyrtostachys lakka, i, 243. D Dadayem, see Bidens pilosa. Dadi-angau, see Agathis alba. Dadiungoi, see Agathis alba. Daemonorops affinis, i, 208. Daemonorops clemensianus, i, 206. Daeinonorops curranii, i, 208. Daemonorops gaudichaudii, see Daemonorops mollis. Daemonorops gracilis, i, 208. Daemonorops loherianus, i, 206. Daemonorops margaritae, i, 206. Daemonorops mollis: Description, i, 208. Figure, i, 207. Daemonorops ochrolepis: Description, i, 206. Daemonorops oligolepis: Description, i, 206. Daemonorops pannosus: Description, i, 206. Daemonorops pedicellaris: Description, i, 206. Daemonorops spp.: Conspectus of the species, i, 206. Description, i, 205. Distribution, i, 135. Daemonorops virescens: Description, i, 206. Daemonorops urdanetanus: Description, i, 206. Dagail6, see Pistia stratiotes. Dagang, see Anisoptera thurifera. IDagingdingan, see Euphoria didyma. Dagkalan, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Dagk6, see Cyperus radiatus. Dagudri, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Digum, see Anisoptera thurifera. I)aiamiras, see Aglaia harmsiana. Daiang, see Blechum brownei. Dail, see Tylophora brevipes. Daila, see Rhaphidophora merrilii. 177674-18 Dakitung, see Clerodendron cumningianum. Dalagita, see Ficus payapa. Dalakan, see Alstonia macrophylla. Dalakit, see Ficus forstenii. Dalakit, see Ficus payapa. Dalakit, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Dalamo, see Fleurya interrupta. Dalandang, see Tectona grandis. Dalau, see Acorus calamnus. Dalau, see Curcuma longa. Dalauen, see Litsea glutinosa. Dalbergia candenatensis: Distribution, i, 24. Dalbergia cumingiana: Distribution, iii, 191. Local names, iii, 191. Medicinal, iii, 191. Dalbergia ferruginea: Distribution, iii, 191. Local names, iii, 191. Medicinal, iii, 191. Daldal, see Asclepias curassavica. Daldallagni, see Vitex trifolia. Daldallupang, see Thespesia lampas. Daligan, see Averrhoa carambola. Dalihan, see Averrhoa carambola. Dalinas, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Dalinas, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Dalinsi, see Terminalia edulis. Dalipauen, see Alstonia scholaris. Dalisai, see Terminalia catappa. Dalit, see Antiaris toxicaria. Dalit, see Canarium villosum. Dallag, see Grewia multiflora. Dalogd6g, see Caesalpinia crista. Dalond6n, see Tectona grandis. Daluari, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Dalugdug, see Caesalpinia crista. Dalunet, see Mallotus philippinensis. Dalunit, see Trema orientalis. Dalunot, see Trema orientalis. Dalupan, see Urena lobata. Dalupang, see Abelmoschus moschatus. Daluru-babae, see Lumnnitzera littorea. Damarau, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Dambohala, see Eugenia mananquil. Damo, see Eleusine indica. Dam6ng-bungkalat, see Biophytum sensitivum. Dam6ng-hiya, see Biophytum sensitivum. Dam6ng-kambing, see Ageratum conyzoides. Damong-mabdho, see Sida mysorensis. Dam6ng-maria, see Artemisia vulgaris. Dam6ng-pailaya, see Ageratum conyzoides. Dam6ng-palias, see Ageratum conyzoides. Dam6ng-sambali, see Blechum brownei. Dam6ro, see Carum copticum. Dam6ro, see Fleurya intcrrupta. Damortis, see Pithecolobium dulce. Dampalit, see Sesuvium portulacastrum. Damp6l, see Pygeum glandulosum Dandulit, see Camptostemon philippinense. Danggai, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Dangkaan, see Calophyllum inophyUum. Dangkalan, see Calophyllum inophyUum. Dangla, see Vitex negundo. Dangli, see Grewia multiflora.

Page  274 274 INDEX Danglin, see Grewia multiflora. Danglin-aso, see Helicteres hirsuta. Danglin-kalabau, see Helicteres hirsuta. Dangliw, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Dangl6g, see Grewia multiflora. Dangl6g, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Danipai, see Mucuna nigricans. Danli, see Grewia eriocarpa. Danl6g, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Danu, see Ischaerumn angustifolium. Da6, see Dracontomelum dao. Dapiau, see Areca catechu. Dapiau, see Pinanga spp. D&pil, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Dapnit, see Wikstroemia ovata. Dapo, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Dapong-tigre, see Phalaenopsis schilleriana. Dapui, see Ardisia serrata. Darahir6, see Pistia stratiotes. Daraid6, see Pistia stratiotes. Darair6, see Pistia stratiotes. Darau, see Acorus calamus. Darayau, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Daripai, see Ipomnoea pes-caprae. Darumabi, see Mussaenda philippica. Darumaka, see Donax cannaefornmis. Dasa, see Pandanus luzonensis. Dasigan, see Pinanga spp. Datiles, see Leucaena glauca. D&tiles, see Muntingia calabura. Datura fastuosa: Distribution, iii, 234. Local names, iii, 234. Medicinal, iii, 234. Datura fastuosa var. alba: Description and distribution, iii, 72. Figure, iii, 73. Local names, iii, 72. Medicinal, iii, 72. Dauag, see Capparis horrida. Dauag, see Capparis micracantha. Dauag, see Toddalia asiatica. Dausa, see Perisfrophe bivalvis. Dausum, see Eurycles amboinensis. Dayandang, see Triphopetalum toxicum. Dayap, see Triphasia trifoliata. Dayap-dayapan, see Clausena anisum-olens. Dayumaka, see Arenga tremula. Dayumaka, see Heterospathe elata. Decaspermum fruticosum: Distribution, iii, 216. Local names, iii, 216. Medicinal, iii, 216. Dekai-dekaiang, see Embelia philippinensis. Demopa, see Euphoria didymna. Dendrobium: Distribution, i, 24. Dendrobium acuminatum: Description and distribution, iii, 18. Figure, iii, 17. Ornamental, iii, 18. Dendrobium amethystoglossum: Description and distribution, iii, 18. Ornamental, iii, 18. Dendrobiumn anosnum: Description and distribution,, iii, 18. Figure, iii, 19. Ornamental, iii, 18. Dendrobium aureum: Description and distribution, iii, 18. Figure, iii, 20. Local name, iii, 18. Ornamental, iii, 18. Dendrobium crurmenatum: Description and distribution, i, 366; iii, 22. Figure, i, 367; iii, 21. Local names, i, 365; iii, 22. Fiber, i, 365. Ornamental, iii, 22. Dendrobium dearei: Description and distribution, iii, 22. Ornamental, iii, 22. Dendrobiumn lyonii: Description and distribution, iii, 22. Figure, iii, 23. Ornamental, iii, 22. Dendrobium revolutunv: Description and distribution, iii, 22. Local name, iii, 22. Ornamental, iii, 22. Dendrobium sanderae: Description and distribution, iii, 24. Figure, iii, 25. Ornamental, iii, 24. Dendrobium schuetzei: Description, iii, 24. Figure, iii, 26, 27. Ornamental, iii, 24. Dendrobium taurinumn: Description and distribution, iii, 24. Figure, iii, 28, 29. Ornamental, iii, 24. Dendrocalamus curranii: Description and distribution, i, 261. Dendrocalamus giganteus: Growth, i, 277. Dendrocalamus latiflorus: Description and distribution, i, 261. Local names, i, 261. Dendrocalamus merrillianus: Description and distribution, i, 261. Figure, i, 289, 290. Local names, i, 261. Tensile strength, i, 322. Uses, i, 261. Dengau, see Acorus calamus. Dental mould preparations: Agathis alba, ii, 29. Dental surgery: Achras sapota, ii, 74. Deora, see Peristrophe bivalvis. Deora, see Peristrophe tinctoria. Derris elliptica: Cattle and fish poison, iii, 79. Derris philippinensis: Cattle and fish poison, iii, 79 Derris trifoliata: Distribution, i, 24.

Page  275 INDEX 275 Derris uliginosa: Distribution, i, 24. Destmodium heterocarpum: Description and distribution, ii, 391. Local names, ii, 391. Dye, ii, 391. Devil's cotton, see Abroma fastuosa. Diana, see Sesbania grandiflora. Dibatib, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. l)ibudl, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Dictyosperma alba: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Dikut-malamarine, see Mimosa pudica. Dikut nga buluk, see Paederia foetida. Dila-dila, see Elephanthopus spicatus. Dila-dila, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Dila-dila, see Onychium siliculosum. Dilang-us&, see Elephantopus spicatus. Dilang-usi, see Trichodesma zeylanicum. Dilau, see Curcuma longa. Dilau oil: Curcuma longa, ii, 182. Dilau-pula, see Curcuma longa. Dilgun-susu, see Mimosa pudica. Dili, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Diliman, see Stenochlaena palustris. Diliuariu, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Dilleniaceae: Dyes, ii, 400. Food plants, ii, 338. Medicinal plants, iii, 212. Scouring material, iii, 59. Dillenia megalantha: Description and distribution, ii, 338. Local names, ii, 338. Food, ii, 338. Dillenia philippinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 338. Figure, ii, 339, 341. Local names, ii, 338. Dye, ii, 338, 400. Food, ii, 338. Medicinal, iii, 212. Dillenia reifferscheidia: Description and distribution, ii, 340. Local names, ii, 340. Food, ii, 340. Dilupaon, see Alstonia scholaris. Dingin, see Dilienia philippinensis. Dinglas, see Termninalia comintana. Dingo, see Pitttosporum resiniferunm. Dinochloa ciliata: Description and distribution, i, 261, 262. Figure, i, 291. Dinochloa elmeri: Description, i, 261, 262. Distribution, i, 262. Figure, i, 292. Ihnochloa luconiae: Description, i, 261, 262. Distribution, i, 262. Figure, i, 293. Local names, i, 262. Dinochloa pubiramea: Description, i, 261, 262. ]Distribution, i, 262. Figure, i, 294. Local names, i, 262. Dinochloa sccidens: Description, i, 261, 262. Distribution, i, 262. Figure, i, 295. Uses, i, 262. Dioscoreaceae: Food plants, ii, 257. Medicinal plants, iii, 177. Dioscorea divaricata: Description and distribution, ii, 257. Local names, ii, 257. Food, ii, 257. Dioscorea esculenta: Description and distribution, ii, 257. Local names, ii, 257. Food, ii, 257. Dioscorea hispida: Description and distribution, ii, 258. Local names, ii, 257. Food, ii, 258. Medicinal, iii, 177. I)ioscorea luzonensis: Description and distribution, ii, 258. Local names, ii, 258. Food, ii, 258. Dioscorea pentaphylla: Description and distribution, ii, 258. Local names, ii, 258. Food, ii, 258. Diospyros discolor: Description and distribution, ii, 370. Figure, ii 369, 371. Local names, ii, 370. Food, ii, 370. Diospyros ebenaster: Distribution, iii, 220. Local names, iii, 220. Medicinal, iii, 220. Diospyros multiflora: Distribution, iii, 220. Local names, iii, 220. Medicinal, iii, 220. Diplodiscus paniculatus: Description and distribution, i, 383. Figure, ii, 331. Local names, i, 383. Food, ii, 332. Rope, i, 383. Dipterocarpaceae: Oils, ii, 160. Paper, i, 423. Resins, ii, 50. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus: Description, ii, 60. Distribution, ii, 62. Figure, ii, 57, 58, 59, 61. Local names, ii, 54. Resin, ii, 56. Dipterocarpus vernicifluus: Description and distribution, ii, 64. Figure, ii, 63, 65, 66.

Page  276 276 INDEX Dipterocarpus vernicifluus-Continued. Local names, ii, 62. Resin, ii, 62. Diran, see Grewia eriocarpa. Dischidia saccata: Description and distribution, i, 24. Disi, see Terminalia edulis. Dis6l, see Kaempfera galanga. Dita, see Alstonia scholaris. Dita, see Antiaris toxicaria. Dita, see Cerbera manghas. Dita, see Lophopetalum toxicum. Dita, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Diualat, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Diudiu, see Ficus hauili. Djoeroedjoe, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Dodonaea viscosa: Distribution, iii, 204. Local names, iii, 204. Medicinal, iii, 204. Dogd6l, see Ceiba pentandra. Dold6l, see Ceiba pentandra. Dolichandrone spathacea: Distribution, iii, 236. Local names, iii, 236. Medicinal, iii, 236. D6lo, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. Dol6ntas, see Chrysanthemum indicum. Donax cannaeformis: Description and distribution, i, 365. Figure, i, 367. Local names, i, 365. Fiber, i, 365. Medicinal, iii, 179. Dond6l, see Ceiba pentandra. Dongrareng, see Grewia bilamellata. Dracontomelum dao: Description and distribution, ii, 316. Figure, ii, 314, 315. Local names, ii, 312. Food, ii, 312. Dracontomelum edule: Description and distribution, ii, 316. Figure, ii, 317. Local names, ii, 316. Food, ii, 316. Druce, see Nelumbium nelumbo. Drynaria quercifolia: Description, iii, 11. Distribution, i, 24; iii, 11. Local names, iii, 168. Medicinal, iii, 168. Ornamental, iii, 11. Dryopteris pteroides: Distribution, i, 323. Local name, i, 323. Baskets, i, 323. Dud6s, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Dudukduken, see Scaevola frutescens. Duen, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Duen, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Dugay6n, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Dugian, see Bambusa spinosa. Dugl6, see Mucuna nigricans. Dfihat, see Eugenia cumnini. Duhatduhatan, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Duidfii, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Duka, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Dukep, see Telosma procumbens. Duk6, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Duktung-ahas, see Streptocaulon baumii. Dukum, see Abelmoschus moschatus. Dukup, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Dulau, see Curcuma longa. Dulingatok, see Crataeva religiosa. Dulitan, see 'Calophyllum blancoi. Dulitan-takl6ban, see Palaquium philippense. Dulokdilok, see Lumnitzera littorea. Duluariu, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Duluk-duluk, see Osbornia octodonta. Dulupang, see Abutilon indicum. Dumamai, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Dumanai, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Dumanai, see Dodonaea viscosa. Dumanai, see Homonoia riparia. Dumau, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Dumayaka, see Arenga tremula. Dum6ro, see Rosmarinus officinalis. Dum6n, see Heritiera littoralis. Duingas, see Cerbera manghas. Dungli, see Alphitonia excelsa. Dungon, see Heritiera littoralis. Dungon, see Pterocarpus spp. Duingon-lalao, see Heritiera littoralis. Dfin~on-lite, see Heritiera littoralis. Dunigul, see Litsea glutinosa. Dungun, see Heritiera littoralis. Duinguruingut, see Citrus hystrix. Dupdupan, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Dupiingan, see Diospyros multiflora. Duran, see Grewia eriocarpa. Durareng, see Grewia bilamellata. Durar6ng, see Greuia multiflora. Dus6, see Kaempfera galanga. Dus61, see Kaempfera galanga. Duung, see Anisoptera thurifera. Duyan, see Dioscorea divaricata. Duyong, see Anisoptera thurifera. Dyes: Areca catechu, i, 144. Ceriops roxburghiana, i, 122. Ceriops tagal, i, 122. Dyes, ii, 385. Xylocarpus granatum, i, 122. Dypsis madagascariensis: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Dysoxylum decandrum: Distribution, iii, 197. Local names, iii, 197. Medicinal, iii, 197. E Elenaceae: Dyes, ii, 403. Food plants, ii, 370. Medicinal plants, iii, 220. Ebi6k, see Arenga pinnata. lEbus, see Corypha elata. Echa-ti-bakir, see Ehretia microphylla. Eclipta alba: Distribution, iii, 244. Local names, iii, 244. Medicinal, iii, 244.

Page  277 INDEX 277 Eggplant, see Solanum melongena. igot, see Eugenia curranii. Ehretia microphylla: Description and distribution, ii, 373. Local names, ii, 373. Medicinal, iii, 227. Tea substitute, ii, 373. Ehretia navesii: Distribution, iii, 227. Local names, iii, 227. Medicinal, iii, 227. Elaeagnaceae: Food plants, ii, 352. Elaeagnus philippensis: Description and distribution, ii, 352. Local names, ii, 352. Food, ii, 352. Elaeis guineensis: Description, i, 208. Distribution, i, 208; ii, 103. Figures, i, 209, 211. Local names, i, 208; ii, 103. Composition of oil, ii, 103. Oil, i, 208. Ornamental, i, 208. Uses, ii, 103. Wine, i, 208. Elaeocarpaceae: Fiber plants, i, 381. Food plants, ii, 330. Elaeocarpus calomala: Description and distribution, i, 381. Local names, i, 381. Food, ii, 330. Rope, i, 381. Elatostema spp.: Description and distribution, ii, 270. Food, ii, 270. Eleocharis dulcis: Description and distribution, ii, 250. Figure, ii, 251. Local name, ii, 250. Food, ii, 250. Elephantopus scaber: Distribution, iii, 244. Local names, iii, 244. Medicinal, iii, 244. Elephantopus spicatus: Distribution, iii, 245. Local names, iii, 245. Medicinal, iii, 245. Eleusine indica: Description and distribution, i, 340. Local names, i, 340. Hats, i, 340. Medicinal, iii, 170. Embelia philippinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 364. Local names, ii, 364. Food, ii, 364. Emilia sonchifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 377. Local names, ii, 377. Food, ii, 377. Medicinal, iii, 245. Enhalus acoroides: Description and distribution, ii, 246. Local names, ii, 246. Food, ii, 246. Enhydra fluctuans: Distribution, iii, 245. Medicinal, iii, 245. Entada phaseoloides: Description and.distribution, iii, 56. Figure, iii, 57. Local names, iii, 54. Medicinal, iii, 191. Uses, iii, 54 Epipremnum spp.: Description and distribution, i, 354. Baskets, i, 353, 354. Eria merrillii: Description and distribution, iii, 24. Figure, iii, 31. Ornamental, iii, 24. Ericaceae: Food plants, ii, 362. Medicinal plants, iii, 218. Escobilla, see Sida acuta. Espada, see Ottelia alismoides. Estrella, see Curculigo orchioides. Euchresta horsfieldii: Distribution, iii, 191. Local names, iii, 191. Medicinal, iii, 191. Eugenia aherniana: Description and distribution, ii, 354. Local names, ii, 354. Food, ii, 354. Eugenia aquea: Description and distribution, ii, 356. Local names, ii, 356. Food, ii, 356. Eugenia calubcob: Description and distribution, ii, 356 Figure, ii, 355. Local names, ii, 356. Food, ii, 356. Eugenia cumini: Description and distribution, ii, 356. Local names, ii, 356. Food, ii, 239, 356. Medicinal, iii, 69, 216. Eugenia curranii: Description and distribution, ii, 358. Local names, ii, 358. Figure, ii, 357. Food,., 358. Eugenia mananquil: Description and distribution, ii, 358. Figures, ii, 226, 359. Local names, ii, 358. Food, ii, 358. Eugenia polycephaloides: Description and distribution, ii, 360. Local names, ii, 358. Food, ii, 360. Eugenia xanthophylla: Description and distribution, ii, 360. Figure, ii, 361.

Page  278 278 Eugenia xanthophylla-Continued. Local names, ii, 360. Food, ii, 360. Eupatorium triplinerve: Distribution, iii, 245. Local names, iii, 245. Medicinal, iii, 245. Euphorbiaceae: Dyes, ii, 396. Food plants, ii, 308. Gums, ii, 73. Ink, iii, 90. Mangrove swamps, i, 40. Medicinal plants, iii, 68, 197. Oils, ii, 120. Poisonous plants, iii, 80. Euphorbia hirta: Distribution, iii, 198. Local names, iii, 198. Medicinal, iii, 198. Euphorbia teriifolia: Distribution, iii, 198. Local names, iii, 198. Medicinal, iii, 198. Euphorbia thymifolia: Distribution, iii, 199. Local names, iii, 199. Medicinal, iii, 199. Euphorbia tirucaUli: Distribution, iii, 199. Local names, iii, 199. Medicinal, iii, 199. Euphoria didyma: Description and distribution, ii, 326. Figure, ii, 325. Local names, ii, 326. Food, ii, 326. Euphoria nephelioides: Description and distribution, ii, 326. Food, ii, 326. Eurycles amboinensis: Distribution, iii, 176. Local names, iii, 176. Medicinal, iii, 176. Evolvulus alsinoides: Distribution, iii, 225. Medicinal, iii, 225. Excoecaria agallocha: Description and distribution, i, 40. Figure, i, 41. Local names, i, 40. Fuel, i, 40. Medicinal, iii, 199. F Fabrics: Agave cantula, i, 362. Ananas comosus, i, 356. Boehmeria nivea, i, 373. Corchorus capsularis, i, 382. Corchorus olitorius, i, 383. Malachra capitata, i, 387. Musa ap., i, 411. Musa textilis, i, 364. Sida rhombifolia, i, 391. Urena lobata, i, 391. Fafalong, see Vaccinium whitfordii. INDEX Fagaceae: Food plants, ii, 260. Fagraea cochinchinensis: Distribution, ii, 220. -Local names, iii, 220. Medicinal, iii, 220. Fagraea racemosa: Distribution, iii, 221. Local names, iii, 221. Medicinal, iii, 221. Fancy articles: Abroma fastuosa, i, 395. Fimbristylis diphylla, i, 348. Fimbristylis globulosa, i, 348. Lygodium spp.,. i, 326. Musa textilis, i, 364. Pandanus simplex, i, 336. Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. Fans: Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338; ii, 177. Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. Far6l, see Cardiospermumn halicacabum. Fatoua pilosa: Distribution, iii, 181. Local names, iii, 181. Medicinal, iiii, 181. Fencing: Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. Fennel, see Foeniculum vulgare. Fertilizer: Aleurites moluccana, ii, 132. Aleurites trisperma, ii, 137. Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. Fibers: Areca catechu, i, 144. Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Arenga tremula, i, 158. Bamboos, i, 251. Calamus spp., i, 158. Caryota cumingii, i, 182. Cocus nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Daemonorops spp., i, 205. Fiber plants, i, 313. Heterospathe elata, i, 210. Korthalsia spp., i, 212. Livistosa spp., i, 214. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Paper, i, 415. Ficus benjanmina: Description and distribution, i, 372. Local names, i, 372. Rope, i, 372. Tensile strength, i, 321. Ficus forstenii: Description and distribution, i, 372. Local names, i, 372. Rope, i, 372. Tensile strength, i, 321. Ficus hauili: Distribution, iii, 181. Local names, iii, 181. Medicinal, iii, 181.

Page  279 INDEX 279 Ficus m inahassae: Distribution, iii, 181. Local names, iii, 181. Medicinal, iii, 181. Ficus pachyphylla: Description and distribution, i, 373. Local names, i, 372. Rope, i, 372. Tensile strength, i, 321. Ficus palawanensis: Description and distribution, i, 373. Local names, i, 373. Rope, i, 373. Tensile strength, i, 321. Ficus payapa: Distribution, iii, 181. Local names, iii, 181. Medicinal, iii 181. Ficus ulmifolia: Description, ii, 266. Distribution, ii, 270. Figure, ii, 269. Local names, iii, 266. Food, ii, 266. Scouring materials, iii, 51 Fide, see Elaeocarpus calomala. Fimbristylis diphylla: Description and distribution, i, 348. Local names, i, 348. Fiber, i, 348. Fimbristylis ferruginea: Distribution, i, 26. Fimbristylis globulosa: Description and distribution, i, 352. Figure, i, 351. Local names, i, 348. Fiber, i, 352. Finlaysonia obovata: Distribution, i, 24. Firewood: Bruguiera parviflora, i, 112-116. Cainptostermon philippinense, i, 42. Ceriops tagal, i, 112-114. Cultivation of Rhizophora, i, 100. Leucaena glauca, iii, 87. Rhizophora candelaria, i, 112-114. Rhizophora mucronata, i, 112-117. Sonneratia alba, i, 44. Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 112-116. Stands in mangrove swamps, i, 86. Xylocarpus moluccensis, i, 112-117. Fish corrals: Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. Fishing rods: Bambusa glaucescens, i, 258. Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. Fish-tail palm, see Caryota cumingii. Fish traps: Calamus spp., i, 158. Daemonorops spp., i, 205. Gigantochloa levis, i, 262. Korthalsia, i, 212. Fish traps, tying: Malaisia scandens, i, 373. Pothoidium lobbianum, i, 354. Fish traps, tying-Continued. Rourea volubilis, i, 378. Stenochlaena palustris, i, 323. Fistula, see Cassia fistula. Flacourtiaceae: Food plants, ii, 346. Oils, ii, 161. Flacourtia euphlebia: Description and distribution, ii, 848. Local name, ii, 346. Food, ii, 346. Flacourtia indica: Description and distribution, ii, 348. Local names, ii, 348. Food, ii, 348. Flacourtia rukam: Description and distribution, ii, 348. Figure, ii, 349. Local names, ii, 348. Food, ii, 348. Flacourtia sepiaria: Figure, ii, 350. Flagellariaceae: Fiber plants, i, 356. Medicinal plants, iii, 174. Flagellaria indica: Description and distribution, i, 356. Figure, i, 359. Local names, i, 359. Fiber plants, i, 356. Medicinal, iii, 174. Flavoring: Acorus calamus, ii, 181. Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. Zingiber offcinale, ii, 184. Floors: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Oncosperma spp., i, 231, 232. Flor de la mafiana, see Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana. Flores de las doce, see Pentapetes phoenicea. Fluggea virosa: Fish poison, iii, 80. Flutes: Schizostachum lumampao, i, 264. Foeniculum vulgare: Distribution, iii, 218. Local names, iii, 218. Medicinal, iii, 218. Food: Arachis hypogaea, ii, 108. Areca catechu, i, 144. Arenga amebong, i, 150. Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Calainus spp., i, 158. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Food plants, ii, 225. Heterospathe elata, i, 210. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. Oncosperma filamentosum, i, 36, 232.

Page  280 280 INI Food coloring: Curcuma longa, ii, 182. Food oil: Arachis hypogaea, ii, 108. Anacardium occidentale, ii, 146. Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Palaquium philippense, ii, 168. Terminalia catappa, ii, 162. Fracitas, see Aerides quinquevulnerum. Fuel: Canarium villosum, ii, 49. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Fugay6ng, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Fungi, edible, iii, 97. Funnels: Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 82. Furniture: Bambusa vulgaris, i, 260. Calamus spp., i, 158. DaemLonorops spp., i, 205. Korthalsia spp., i, 212. G Gaas, see Scirpiodendron ghaeri. Gabi, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Gabigabihan, see Typhonium divaricatum. Gagabutan, see Eleusine indica. Gagabdten, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. Gagalang, see Sonchus oleraceus. Gaho, see Miscanfhus sinensis. Galagala, see Agathis alba. Galam&i-am6, see Schefflera elliptifoliola. Galamai-am6, see Schefflera odorata. Galatgat, see Ipomoea reptans. Galauan, see Pavetta indica. Galiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Galiang, see Cyrtosperma nzerkusii. Galluran, see Averrhoa carambola. Gal6, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. Galot-gal6t, see Cynodon dactylon. Galumbang, see Jatropha curcas. Galura, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Gamboge: Garcinia venulosa, ii, 18. Gam6t-tulisan, see Ageratum conyzoides. Gamu, see Macaranga tanarius. Gan-an, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Ganda, see Curcuma zedoaria. Gandus, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. GanophyUum falcatum: Description and distribution, ii, 148. Figure, ii, 149. Local names, ii, 147. Illuminant, ii, 148. Soap, ii, 148. Soap substitute, iii, 58. Gaon, see Imperata cylindrica. Gapas, see Ceiba pentandra. Gapas, see Chloranthus brachystachys. Gapas-gapas, see Camptostemon philippinense. Gapingoi, see Gleichenia linearis. Carban, see Rhaphidophora merriUii. )EX Garcinia binucao: Description and distribution, ii, 340. Figure, ii, 342. Local names, ii, 340. Food, ii, 340. Garcinia dulcis: Description and distribution, ii, 344. Figure, ii, 343. Local names, ii, 344. Food, ii, 344. Garcinia mangostana: Distribution, iii, 213. Local name, iii, 213. Medicinal, iii, 213. Garcinia mindanaensis: Description and distribution, ii, 344. Local names, ii, 344. Food, ii, 344. Garcinia rubra: Description and distribution, ii, 344. Figure, ii, 345. Local names, ii, 344. Food, ii, 344. Garcinia venulosa: Description and distribution, ii, 346. Figure, ii, 347. Local names, ii, 346. Food, ii, 346. Garcinia vidalii: Description and distribution, ii, 346. Local names, ii, 346. Food, ii, 346. Gardenia pseudopsidium: Distribution, iii, 239. Local names, iii, 239. Medicinal, iii, 239. Garim, see Achyranthes aspera. Carem nga purau, see Blechum brownei. Garlic, see Allium sativum. Garomaka, see Donax cannaeformis. Garuga abilo: Distribution, iii, 196. Local names, iii, 196. Medicinal, iii, 196. Garulan, see Averrhoa carambola. Gasatan-mulato, see Mimusops parvifolia. Gasi, see Croton tiglium. Gatasan, see Garcinia dulcis. Gatisan, see Garcinia venulosa. Gatasan, see Mimusops parvifolia. Gatas-gatas, see Euphorbia hirta. Gatas-virgen, see Mussaenda philippica. Gatb6, see Thysanolaena maxima. Gatmo, see Vaccinium myrtoides. Gaton, see Euphorbia tirucali. Gauai-gauai, see Sagittaria sagittifolia. Gauai-gauai, see Sesbania grandiflora. Gaued, see Piper betle. Gaui-gaui, see Sesbania grandiflora. Gayumahin, see Terminalia edulis. Gengibre, see Zingiber officinale. Gentianaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 221. Geodorum nutans: Description and distribution, ii, 68, 70. Local names, ii, 68.

Page  281 INDEX 281 Geodorum nutans-Continued. Glue, ii, 68. Medicinal, iii, 179. Ger6n, see Andropogon zizanioides. Gesg6s, see Pavetta indica. Gibdian, see Mussaenda philippica. Gigantochloa atter, see Gigantochloa levis. Gigantochloa levis: Description and distribution, i, 262. Figure, i, 296. Local names, i, 262. Planting and growth, i, 266-267. Uses, i, 262. Gigantochloa robusta, see Gigantochloa levis. Giliman, see Stenochlaena palustris. Giling-gilinfgan, see Abutilon indicum. Ginabang, see Macaranga tanarius. Ginataan, see Nerium indicum. Ginger, see Zingiber officinale. Ginlin, see Ochrosia oppositifolia. Giragara, see Cocos nucifera. Giret, see Canarium villosum. Gir6n, see Andropogon zizanioides. Gisa, see Miscan'hus sinensis. Gis&u, see Canarium williamsii. Gisi, see Ficus benjamina. Gisi-gisi, see Guioa koelreuteria. Gisihan, see Euphoria didymna. Gisit, see Terminalia edulis. Gleicheniaceae: Fiber plants, i, 326. Gieichenia linearis: Description and distribution, i, 326. Figure, i, 325, 327. Local names, i, 326. Fiber, i, 326. Glochidion littorale: Distribution, i, 26. Glue: Cordia myxa, ii, 88. Geodorum nutans, ii, 68. Macaranga tanarius, ii, 73. Gnetaceae: Fiber plants, i, 328. Food plants, ii, 244. Gnetum gnemon: Description, i, 328. Local names, i, o28. Food, ii, 244. Rope, i, 328. Gnetum indicum: Description, i, 328. Distribution, i, 330. Figure, ii, 247. Local names, i, 328. Drinking water, ii, 246. Food, ii, 246. Rope, i, 329. Gnetum sp.: Description, i, 330. Local names, i, 330. Rope, i, 330. Tensile strength, i, 321. Goboi, see Lagenaria leucantha. G6go, see Entada phaseoloides. Gogolifngin, see Ganophyllum falcatum. G6gon, see Imperata cylindrica. Gogong-lani-gil, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Golandrina, see Euphorbia thymifolia. Golondrina, see Euphorbia hirta. Goma, see Chonernorpha elastica. Gona tibatib, see Drynaria quercifolia. Gond6l, see Benincasa hispida. Goniothalamus amuyon: Description and distribution, i, 376. Local names, i, 375. Medicinal, iii, 187. Rope, i, 375. Tensile strength, i, 321. Gonocaryum calleryanumn: Distribution, iii, 203. Local names, iii, 203. Medicinal, iii, 203. Goodeniaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 243. Gorong-gong, see Eugenia mananquil. Gouania tiliaefolia: Description and distribution, iii, 59. Local names, iii, 59. Soap substitute, iii, 59. Gozzdng-kalifnga, see Gonocaryum calleryanum Gracillaria lichenoides: Local names, iii, 167. Medicinal, iii, 167. Grama, see Cynodon dactylon. Gramineae: Bamboos, i, 253. Fiber plants, i, 338. Food plants, ii, 248. Medicinal, iii, 169. Oils, ii, 174. Paper, i, 416, 422. Grammatophyllum measuresianum: Description and distribution, iii, 30. Ornamental, iii, 30. Grammatophyllunm multiflorum: Description and distribution, iii, 30. Figure, iii, 32. Local name, iii, 30. Orramental, iii, 30. Grammatophyllumr wallisii: Description, iii, 30. Figure, iii, 33. Ornamental, iii, 30. Grangea maderaspatana: Distribution, iii, 245. Local name, iii, 245. Medicinal, iii, 245. Grapokol, see Columella trifolia. Graptophyllum pictum: Distribution, iii, 237. Local names, iii, 237. Medicinal, iii, 237. Gregorio, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Grewia acuminata: Description and distribution, i, 384. Local names, i, 384. Fiber, i, 384. Grewia bilamellata: Local names, i, 384. Rope, i, 384. Tensile strength, i, 321.

Page  282 282 Grewia edulis: Description and distribution, ii, 332. Figure, ii, 333. Local names, ii, 332. Food, ii, 332. Grewia eriocarpa: Description, i, 384. Figure, ii, 334. Local names, i, 384. Fiber, i, 384. Food, ii, 332. Tensile strength, i, 321. Grewia multiflora: Description and distribution, i, 385. Local names, i, 385. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Rope, i, 385. Tensile strength, i, 321. Grewia stylocarpa: Description and distribution, ii, 336. Figure, i, 335. Local names, ii, 332. Food, ii, 336. Griting, see Lumnitzera littorea. Guadua philippinensis: Description and distribution, i, 262. Figure, i, 297. Guant6n, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. Guava, see Psidium guajava. Guayabas, see Psidium guajava. Guella, see Achyranthes aspera. Gfigo, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Guioa koelreuteria: Distribution, iii, 204. Local names, iii, 204. Medicinal, iii, 204. Gulagulamtnan, see Cissampelos pareira. Gulaman, see Gracillaria lichenoides. Gulasiman, see Portulaca oleracea. Guma, see Cordia myxa. Gumaka, see Arenga tremula. Gumamela, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Gum arabic substitute: Sesbania grandiflora, ii, 72. Gumayika, see Arenga tremula. Gum, chewing: Achras sapota, ii, 73. Artocarpus cumingiana, ii, 70. Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. Gumihan, see Artocarpus elastica. Gumihan gum: Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. Gumuk, see Chloranthus brachystachys. Gungumayi, see Breynia rhamnoides. Gunhun, see Osbornia octodonta. Gupit, see Pygeum glandulosum. Gupit, see Pygeum preslii. Guraman, see Gracillaria lichenoides. Gurguraman, see Gracillaria lichenoides. Guronf-gur6, see Citrus sp. Gus6kan, see Pavetta indica. Gus6l, see Kaempfera galanga. Gutta-percha: Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 76. Payena leerii, ii, 82. INDEX Guttiferae: Dyes, ii, 400. Food plants, iii, 340. Medicinal plants, iii, 212. Oils, ii, 156. Tannins, iii, 94. Guyabas, see Psidiumr guajava. Guyong-gfiyong, see DecaspermumL fruticosun. Guyung-gfiyung, see Cratoxylon blancoi. G:,nnartocarpus woodii: Description and distribution, ii, 270. Figure, ii, 271. Local names, ii, 270. Food, ii 270. Gynandropsis gynandra: Distribution, iii, 188. Local names, iii, 188. Medicinal, iii, 188. Gyrinopsis cumingiana: Distribution, iii, 213. Local names, iii, 213. Medicinal, iii, 213. H Habagat-baging, see Capparis horrida. Habas, see Dracontomelumu dao. Habika, see Pinanga spp. Habiki, see Pinanga spp. Habi6k, see Arenga pinnata. Hadlayati, see Tectona grandis. Hagad, see Pterocarpus spp. Hagakhak, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Hagason, see Aglaia harmsiana. Hagbui, see Mussaenda philippica. Hagimit, see Ficus minahassae. Hagnaya, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. Hagnaya, see Stenochlaena palustris. Hagod, see Trem)a orientalis. Hagol, see Caryota cumlingii. Hag6noi, see Wcdelia biflora. Hago-6noi, see Wedelia biflora. Hagui-ui, see Dodonaea viscosa. Hagupit, see Ficus ulmifolia. Hagusahis, see Panicum palmaefolium. Hahop, see Adenanthera intermedia. Hahun, see Pericampylus glaucus. Hair cosmetic: Chisocheton pentandrus, ii, 118. Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Hair oil: Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. Citrus sp., ii, 212. Halas, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Halauihau, see Dracontomelum edule. Halik6t, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. Hal6t, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. Halubagat, see Capparis micracantha. Halub&gat-biging, see Capparis horrida. Halubagat-kahoi, see Capparis micracantha. Halupag, see Euphoria didyna. Hambuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. Hambfiding, see Pinanga spp. Hamitanago, see Kleinhovia hospita. Hammocks: Rhaphidophora spp., i, 356.

Page  283 INDEX 283 Hampapare, see Cissampelos pareira. Hampas-tigbalang, see Smilax bracteata. Hampas-tigbilang, see Smilax leucophylla. Hamugi, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Hanadg6ng, see Trema orientalis. Hanadi6ng, see Trema orientalis. Hanagd6ng, see Columbia serratifolia. Hanagd6ng, see Trema orientalis Hanagduing, see Trema orientalis. Hanbulali, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Hafngalai, see Bruguiera parviflora. Haingarai, see Bruguiera parviflora. Hangarai, see Homonoia riparia. Haingad nang babae, see Plumbago indica. Hangog, see Achyranthes aspera. Hangior, see Achyranthes aspera. Hangos, see Eugenia aherniana. Hangot, see Achyranthes aspera. HAingug, see Achyranthes aspera. Hanlagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Han6pol, see Conocephallus violaceus. Han6pol, see Maesa cumingii. Hanot, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Hantak, see Sterulia oblongata. Hapong, see Nipa fruticans. Hapunan-niknik, see Sida javensis. Har&, see Lea aculeata. Haraihii, see Callicarpa caudata. Harangfan, see Centipeda minima. Haras, see Foeniculum vulgare. Harcts, see Garcinia binucao. Harpullia arborea: Description and distribution, iii, 58. Local names, iii, 58. Fish poison, iii, 80. Medicinal, iii, 204. Soap substitute, iii, 58. Harrisonia perforata: Distribution, iii, 195. Local names, iii, 195. Medicinal, iii, 195. Harupai, see Mimosa pudica. Hats: Andropogon halepensis, i, 338. Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338; ii, 177. Areca catechu, i, 144. Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Cyperus malaccensis, i, 346. Donax canneaformis, i, 365. Fimbristylis globulosa, i, 348. Heterospathe elata, i, 210. Imperata exaltata, i, 340. Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Lygodium spp., i, 326. Musa textilis, i, 364. Nephrolepis hirsutula, i, 323. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Oryza sativa, i, 342. Pandanus radicans, i, 334. Pandanus sabotan, i, 334. Pandanus simplex, i, 336. Pandanus tectorius, i, 336. Hats-Continued. Phragmites vulgaris, i, 342. Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. Scirpiodendron ghaeri, i, 352. Sporobolus elongatus, i, 344. Hauili, see Ficus hauili. Hedge plants: Bambusa glaucescens, i, 258. Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Hedyachras philippinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 326. Food, ii, 326. Hclicteres hirsuta: Description and distribution, i, 397. Local names, i, 396. Rope, i, 396. Tensile strength, i, 321. Heliotropium indicum: Distribution, iii, 227. Local names, iii, 227. Medicinal, iii, 227. h eluinthostachys zeylanica: Description and distribution, ii, 241. Local names, ii, 241. Food, ii, 241. Henna plant, see Lawsonia inermis. Herbara, see Sida acuta. Heritiera littoralis: Description, i, 42. Distribution, i, 22, 42. Figure, i, 43. Local names, i, 42. Stands, i, 98-100. Timber, i, 44. Hermandiaceae: Oils, ii, 103. Hernandia ovigera: Description and distribution, ii, 103, 104. Local names, ii, 103. Illuminant, ii, 103. HTeterospathe elata: Description and distribution, i, 210. Figure, i, 213. Local names, i, 210. Areca-nut substitute, ii, 252. Food, ii, 252. Uses, i, 210. Heterospathe negrosensis: Description, i, 210. Local name, i, 212. Heterospathe philippinensis, i, 210. Heterospathe sibuyanensis: Description, i, 210. Local name, i, 212. Hevea braziliensis: Analysis of latex, ii, 67. Method of collecting latex, ii, 67. Hia-hia, see Mimosa pudica. Hibau, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Hibi-hibihan, see Scoparia dulcis. Hibiok, see Arenga pinnata. Hbiscus esculentus: Medicinal, iii, 208.

Page  284 284 INDEX Hibiscus mutabilis: Distribution, iii, 208. Local names, iii, 208. Medicinal, iii, 208. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis: Distribution, iii, 208. Local names, iii, 208. Medicinal, iii, 208. Hibiscus sabdariffa: Medicinal, iii, 209. Hibiscus surattensis: Description and distribution, ii, 336. Local names, ii, 336. Condiment, ii, 336. Hibiscus tiliaceus: Description, i, 387. Distribution, i, 26, 387; iii, 209. Figure, i, 389. Local names, i, 387. Fiber, i, 387. Medicinal, iii, 209. Hidi6k, see Arenga pinnata. Higad-higad, see Achyranthes aspera. Higad-higaran, see Heliotropium indicunm. Higis-manuk, see Eclipta alba. Hikau-hikauan, see Sonneratia alba. Hilagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Hilalagat-saging, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Himainit, see Schefflera piperoidea. Himbaba-6, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. Himbubuiia, see Fagraea racemosa. Himpagtan, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Himpara, see Cissampelos pareira. Hinabuai, see Terminalia comintana. Hinagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Hinagdung, see Trema orientalis. Hinalagak-saging, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Hindi, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Hindi, see Schizos'achyum diffusumn. Hiingalai, see Bruguiera parviflora. Hiingali, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Hinggiu, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. Hinggiu, see Malaisia scandens. Hifnggiu-kalabau, see Streptocaulon baumii. Hinggiu-kalabau, see Urceola imberbis. Hinggiu-na-puti, see Streptocaulon baumii. Hingkamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Hinlalagak, see Uvaria rufa. Hinlalai6n, see Heliotropium indicum. Hinlaliong, see Trema orientalis. Hippocrateaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 203. Hoag, see Flagellaria indica. Hoag-uai, see FlageUaria indica. Hoja-cruz, see Crescentia alata. Holy basil, see Ocimum sanctum. Holy basil oil: Ocimum sanctum, ii, 218. Homalanthus fastuosus: Fish poison, iii, 80. Homalomena philippinensis: Description and distribution, iii, 90. Local names, iii, 90. Medicinal, iii, 174. Paper substitute, iii, 90. Homonoia riparia: Distribution, iii, 199. Local names, iii, 199. Medicinal, iii, 199. Hopea acuminata: Resin, ii, 52. Hopea spp.: Borneo tallow, ii, 160. Horag, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Horse-radish tree, see Moringa oleifera. Household utensils: Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Howea belmoreana, i, 243. Hoya; Distribution, i, 24. Huani, see Mangifera odorata. Hubar, see Jasminum sambac. Hubulos, see Trema orientalis. Hugimit, see Ficus miinahassae. Huiag-hfiiag, see Mimosa pudica. Huia'-huia', see Mimosa pudica. Huligano, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Huling-bangon, see Justicia gendarussa. Hulit-tengah, see Ceriops spp. Humai, see Oryza sativa. Hung6, see Elaeocarpus calomala. Hunuig, see Pygeum preslii. Hunung, see Kleinhovia hospita. H ydnaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 116. Hydnophytum: Distribution, i, 24. Figure, i, 27. Hydnophytum formicarium: Distribution, iii, 239. Local name, iii, 239. Medicinal, iii, 239. Hydnum spp.: Description, iii, 116. Edible fungi, iii, 116. Hydrocharitaceae: Food plants, ii, 246. Medicinal plants, iii, 169. Hydrocotyle asiatica, see Centella asiatica. Hymenocalis littorale: Local names, iii, 176. Medicinal, iii, 176. Hymenodictyon excelsum: Distribution, iii, 239. Local names, iii, 239. Medicinal, iii, 239. Hyophorbe amaricaulis, i, 243. Hyophorbe verschaffeltii, i, 243. Hyptis suaveolens: Distribution, iii, 233. Local names, iii, 233. Medicinal, iii, 233. I fba, see Averrhoa bilimbi. Iba, see Cicca acida. Ibi6k, see Arenga pinnata. ibus, see Corypha elata.

Page  285 INDEX 285 Icacinaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 203. Ichnocarpus ovatifolius: Description and distribution, i, 406. Local names, i, 406. Fiber, i, 406. Igad-igad, see Achyranthes aspera. Igat-igat, see Sida javensis. Igiinga, see Clerodendron intermedium. Igiu, see Chisocheton pentandrus. Igiu, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Ig6k, see Arenga pinnata. fgot, see Eugenia curranii. fgot, see Eugenia polycephaloides. fkap-ani-ani, see Clerodendron intermedium. Ikmo, see Piper betle. Ikmong Iloko, see Piper betle. Ikog-ikog-sang-kuti, see Heliotropium indicum. fkoi-pfisa, see Heliotropium indicum. Ilangi-ilanfg, see Canangium odoratum. Ilafng-ilafng-gfibat, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Ilang-ilaniig-oil: Canangium odoratum, ii, 189. Ilis, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Ilib, see Andropogon zizanioides. Illuminant: Aleurites moluccana, ii, 126. Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. Barringtonia asiatica, ii, 161. Barringtonia racemnosa, ii, 162. Bassia betis, ii, 166. Calophyllum inophyllum, ii, 158. Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. Canarium villosum, ii, 49. Celastrus paniculata, ii, 147. Cerbera manghas, ii, 168. Chisocheton cumingianus, ii, 117. Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, i, 54. Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, ii, 62. GanophyUum falcatum, ii, 148. Hernandia ovigera, ii, 103. Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Jatropha multifida, ii, 142. Moringa oleifera, ii, 104. Nephelium mutabile, ii, 150. Palaquium philippense, ii, 168. Pangium edule, ii, 161. Pittosporum resiniferum, ii, 106. Pongamia pinnata, ii, 111. Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. Shorea borneensis, ii, 160. Sindora inermis, ii, 38. Sindora supa, ii, 38. Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. Ilukabban, see Sonneratia alba. Ilukabban, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Imalis, see Guioa keolreuteria. Imbubuifkan, see Grewia multiflora. Imkaba6, see Allaeanthus glaber. I Impatiens balsainina: Distribution, iii, 205. Local name, iii, 205. Medicinal, iii, 205. Imperata cylindrica: Distribution, iii, 171. Local names, iii, 171. Medicinal, iii, 171. Imperata exaltata: Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Fiber, i, 340. Paper, i, 419-422. Impid, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Impig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Inangd6n, see Trema orientalis. Inita, see Limnophila indica. Incense: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Kingiodendron alternifolium, ii, 208. Indai luging, see Trema orientalis. Indi, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Indi, see Schizostachyum diffusum. Indian almond oil: Terminalia catappa, ii, 162. Indigofera suffruticosa: Description and distribution, ii, 392. Local names, ii, 392. Dye, ii, 392. Indigofera tinctoria: Description and distribution, ii, 392. Local names, ii, 392. Dye, ii, 392. Inep, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Inggiiu na puti, see Parameria philippinensis. Init, see Rubus rosaefolius. Iniu, see Uvaria rufa. Ink: Phyllanthus reticulatus, iii, 90. Inri, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Inri, see Schizostachyum diffusum. Insulator: Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 82. Intsia bijuga: Description and distribution, ii, 394 Figure, ii, 393. Local names, ii, 392. Dye, ii, 394. Inuad, see Flagellaria indica. Inual, see Flagellaria indica. Ipal, see Mucuna nigricans. ipil, see Adenanthera intermedia. Ipil, see Intsia bijuga. fpil, see Leucaena glauca. Ipil-ipil, see Leucaena glauca. fpod, see Areca ipot. Ipomoea digitata: Distribution, iii, 225. Local names, iii, 225. Medicinal, iii, 225. Ipomoea hederaceae: Distribution, iii, 225. Local names, iii, 225. Medicinal plants, iii, 225.

Page  286 286 INDEX Ipomoea pes-caprae: Distribution, iii, 225. Local names, iii, 225. Medicinal plants, iii, 225. Ipomoea pes-tigridis: Distribution, iii, 226. Local names, iii, 226. Medicinal, iii, 226. Ipomoea reptans: Description and distribution, ii, 372. Local names, ii, 372. Food, ii, 372. Medicinal, iii, 226. fpot, see Areca ipot. Irar, see Pinanga spp. Ir&u, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Ir6k, see Arenga pinnata. Ischaemum angustifolium: Description, i, 340. Distribution, i, 342. Figure, i, 341. Local names, i, 341. Fiber, i, 340. Isip, see Antidesma bunius. Isis, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Isis, see Ficus ulmifolia. Is-isa, see Scoparia dulcis. Isismaya, see Leucosyke capitellata. Isis-ngipin, see Leucosyke capitellata. Isoptera borneensis: Distribution, ii, 160. Bormeo tallow, ii, 160. Resin, ii, 52. Itang-itang, see Alstonia macrophylla. ftil, see Intsia bijuga. Iting-iting, see Amaranthus spinosus. Itmo, see Piper betle. Itngan, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Itom-it6m, see Diospyros discolor. Itsa, see Ehretia microphyUa. It6man, see Diospyros discolor. Iyo, see Tetrastigma harmandi. J Jantak, see Sterculia oblongata. Jasminum sambac: Distribution, iii, 220. Local names, iii, 220. Medicinal, iii, 220. Jate, see Tectona grandis. Jati, see Tectona grandis. Jatropha curcas: Description and distribution, ii, 142. Figure, ii, 141. Local names, ii, 140. Medicinal, iii, 200. Physic-nut oil, ii, 140. Jatropha multifida: Description and distribution, ii, 142. Local name, ii, 142. Fish poison, iii, 80. Illuminant, ii, 142. Medicinal, iii, 200. Jeruju, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Jerusalem, see Leucaena glauca. Job's tears, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Jujube, see Zizyphus jujuba. Juncaceae: Fiber plants, i, 360. Juncus effusus: Description and distribution, i, 360. Figure, i, 361. Local name, i, 360. Fiber, i, 360. Jussiaea linifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 403. Local names, ii, 403. Dye, ii, 403. Justicia gendarussa: Distribution, iii, 237. Local names, iii, 237. Medicinal, iii, 237. Justicia procumbens: Distribution, iii, 238. Medicinal, iii, 238. Jute, see Corchurus olitorius. K Kaagahan, see Adenanthera intermedia. Kabaero, see Leucaena glauca. Kabag, see Allaeanthus glaber. Kabahero, see Leucaena glauca. Kabaikabai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Kabak, see Nauclea junghuhnii. Kabak, see Nauclea orientalis. Kabal, see Fagraea racemosa. Kabal6onga, see Trichosanthes quinquangulata. Kabatiti, see Colubrina asiatica. Kabatiti, see Luffa cylindrica. Kabilan, see Columella trifolia. Kabiling, see Pogostemon, cablin. Kabisl&k, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Kabit-kabit, see Eleusine indica. Kabkab, see Drynaria quercifolia. Kabkabin, see Drynaria quercifolia. Kabkabon, see Drynaria quercifolia. Kabkabon, see Elephantopus scaber. Kablin, see Pogostemon cablin. Kabling, see Pogostemon cablin. Kabol6an, see Bambusa vulgaris. Kibol6an, see Dendrocalannus latiflorus. Kabra-kabra, see Heliotropium indicunm. Kabiugau, see Citrus hystrix. Kabugau, see Citrus maxima. Kabugawan, see Bambusa spinosa. Kaburau, see Citrus sp. Kabuyao oil: Citrus hystrix, ii, 208. Kabfyau, see Citrus hystrix. Kabuyau-aso, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. Kacha-kachahan, see Scoparia dulcis. Kachang-kachang, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Kachuchis, see Avicennia alba. Kachfii, see Anacardium occidentale. Kadai6han, see Celosia argentea. Kadel, see Pongamia pinnata. Kadiapa, see Amaranthus viridis. Kadiat, see Gnetum sp. Kadiin, see Columbia lanceolata. Kadlihan, see Sterculia luzonica. Kadlin, see Pogostemon cablin.

Page  287 INDEX 287 Kadling, see Pogostemon cablis. Kadl6m, see Pogostenmon cablin. Kadluim, see Pogostemon cablin. Kadpaayan, see Psychotria luzonicnsis. Kadpaian, see Justicia gendarussa. Kaedeo, see Siegesbeckia orientalis. Kaempferia galanga: Distribution, iii, 178. Local names, iii, 178. Medicinal, iii, 178. Iaempferia rotunda: Distribution, iii, 178. Medicinal, iii, 178. Kagat6ngan, see Aglaia harmsiana. Kagat6ingan, see Pygeum glandulosum. Kag6i6i, see Homonoia riparia. Kagok6, see Eugenia mananquil. Kagpaaian, see Kibatalia blancoi. Kagukui, see Eugenia imaanquil. Kagukig, see Eugenia mnananquil. Kagundi, see Columella trifolia. K.ihoi-dalaga, see Mussaenda philippica. Kaietana, see Zanthoxylun rhetsa. Kaikai, see Adiantum philippense. Kait&na, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Kaiutana, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Kakaab, see Helicteres hirsuta. Kakaag, see Commersonia bartraniia. Kakaag, see Helicteres hirsuta. Kakampilan, see Oroxylumn indicum. Kakao-kakao, see Nephelium mutabile. Kakao-kakao, see Sterculia cuneata. Kakaomalve, see Abroma fastuosa. Kakarohai, see Sansevieria zeylanlca. Kakindi, see Columella trifolta. Kakuintasan, see Canna indica. Kalaad, see Cissampelos pareira. Kalabaha-maputi, see Lagcnaria leicantha. Kalabasang-puti, see Lagenaria leucantha. Kalabayuan, see Bruguiera sexangula. Kalab6a, see Ottelia alisnoides. Kalabua, see Ottelia alismoides. Kalabubo-labayo, see Psychotriu luzn '."nsis. Kalabugau, see Coix lachrynma-jobi. Kalachfche, see Plumiera acuminata. Kalagimai, see Pandanus simplex. Kalagfikon, see Crinun asiaticum. Kalai, see Alphonsea arbgrea. Kalakalamaian, see Cissanmpe'os pareira. Kalalau&n, see Asclepias curassavica. Kalalauan, see Clerodendron intermedium. Kalamansali, see Terminalia calamansanai. Kalamansanai, see Flacourtia rukam. Kalamansanai, see Terminalia calamansdnai. Kalamansanai, see Terminalia edulis. Kalamansito, see Triphasia trifoliata. Kalambon6g, see Ehretia navesii. Kalambuaia, see Barringtonia acutangula. Kalumbugi, see Dillenia philippinensis. Kalamias, see Averrhoa bilimbi. Kalamoga, see Ehretia microphyUa. Kalamunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Kalang-gamat, see Schefflera cumingii. Kalaniguingug, see Tournefortia sarmentosa. Kala6o, see Limnophila roxburghii. Kalapia, see Palaquium ahernianum. Klalapinai, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Kalapinai, see Dodonaea viscosa. Ka'apini', see A vicennia officiralis. Kalapini', see Lunlnitzera littorea. Kalapini, see Pluchea indica. Kalapini, see Vitex trifolia. Kalapini mangitit, see Avicennia ofticinalis. Kalarora, see Peristrophe tinctoria. Kalarosa, see Peristrophe bivalvis. Kalatan, see ChaetosperLmum glutinosuil. Kalatsuche, see Plumiera acuminata. Kalatuche, see Plumniera acuminata. Kalauag, see Curcuma longa. Kalauag, see Zingiber zerumbet. Kalauahan, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Kalautit, see Terminalia edulis. Kalayate, see Tectona grandis. Kalbang, see Schizostachyum textorium. Kaliantan, see Leea manillensis. Kaliantang, see Leea manillensis. Kaliat, see Gnetunm indicum. Kaliat, see Gnetunm sp. Kalibambang, see Bauhinia malabarica. Kalib6n, see Blumea balsamifera. Kalibura, see Blumea balsamifera. Kalikal, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. Kalikit, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Kalimatas, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Kalimotain, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Kalimumug, see Ehretia microphylla. Kalingad, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kalinfgag, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kalingag. see Cinnanmomum nmindanaense. Kalingag oil: Cinnaslmomumn m7ercadoi, ii, 200. Kaling-kabayo, see Hyptis suaveolens. Kalios, see Streblus asper. Kali6t, see Sansevieria zeylanica. KalipAya, see Palaquium ahernianum. Kaliskis-ahas, see Oleandra neriiformis. Kaliso, see Areca caliso. Kalisuichu, see Plumiera acuminata. Kalit, see Tetrastigma harmandi. Kaliti, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. Kalitkalit, see Cissus repens. Kalit-kalit, see Columella trifolia. Kalit-kalit, see Grewia multiflora. Kalitoitoi, see Hibiscus surattensis. Kaliu&uai, see FlageUaria indica. Kalkalaad, see Cissampelos pareira. Kallakal, see Leea manillensis. Kalogk6g, see Eugenia calubcob. Kalok6g, see Garcinia venulosa. Kalomagon, see Terminalia edulis. Kalom&la, see Elaeocarpus calonala. Kalomanog, see Terminalia edulis. Kalubai, see Lagenaria leucantha. Kalubkfib, see Eugenia calubcob. Kalii, see Ocimum sanctum. Kalukalumpangan, see Sterculia crassiramea. Kalukalumpangan, see Sterculia cuneata. Kalul6t, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Kalulung,' see Lygodium flexuosum. Kalumala, see Pygeum glandulosum. Kalumiangon, see Terminalia edulis.

Page  288 288 INDEX Kalumbibit, see Caesalpinia crista. Kalumpang, see Sterculia cuneata. Kalump&ng, see Sterculia foetida. Kalumpang oil: Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. Kalumpit, see Terminalia calanansanai. Kalumpit, see Terminalia edulis. Kalumpit-puti, see Grewia sty!ocarpa. Kalunache, see Plumiera acuminata. Ralfnai, see Amaranthus spinosus. Kalunai, see Amaranthus viridis. Kalufnga, see Flacourtia rukam. Kalunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Kalupai, see Euphoria didyma. Kalupang, see Sterculia luzonica. Kalupe, see Terminalia edulis. Kalupi, see Abelmoschus moschatus. Kalupi, see Terminalia edulis. Kalupueng, see Graptophyllum pictum. Kalurig, see Terminalia edulis. Kalusi, see Terminalia edulis. Kalusit, see Terminalia edulis. Kalus6ban, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Kalut, see Dioscorea hispida. Kalut-kalutan, see Urena lobata. Kaluluaiuai, see Flagellaria indica. Kalu-ui, see Ocimum basilicum. Kamachile, see Pithecol9bium dulce. Kamachile oil: Pithecolobium dulce, ii, 110. Kamag6fng, see Diospyros discolor. Kamagsa, see Agelaea everettii. Kamagsa, see Elaeagnus philippensis. Kamagsa, see Smilax bracteata. Kamah, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Kamain, see Murraya paniculata. Kamaisa, see Croton tiglium. Kamakamsilihan, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Kamaksa, see Agelaea everettii. Kamaksa, see Rourea volubilis. Kamalitos, see Triphasia trifoliata. Kamalunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Kamalunggi, see Moringa oleifera. Kamamba, see Piper umbellatum. Kamanchile, see Pithecolobium dulce. Kamandag, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Kamandiis, see Garcinia rubra. Kamangi, see Ocimum basilicum. Kamangkau, see Ocimum sanctum. Kamiiangog, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Kamangsi, see Garcinia binucao. Kaminnfgi, see Ocimum sanctum. pamansi, see Artocarpus communis. Kaniantigi, see Heliotropium indicuni. Kamantigi, see Impatiens balsamina. Kamantiging-linau, see Asclepias curassavica. Kamantiis, see Garcinia rubra. Kamara, see Piper retrofractum. Kamarag, see Dracontomelum dao. Kamarag, see Pterocarpus spp. Kamarak, see Dracontomelum dao. Kamaris, see Terminalia edulis. Kamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Kamatal6ng, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Kamatamata, see Aglaia harmsiana. Kamatatalina, see Cubilia blancoi. Kamates, see Lycopersicum esculentumn. Kamates-bondok, see Lycopersicum esculentum. Kamausa, see Croton tiglium. Kamaya, see Diospyros discolor. Kambal, see Pygeum glandulosum. Kamb6t, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Kambra-kambra, see Heliotropium indicum. Kambug, see Dillenia philippinensis. Kamias, see Averrhoa bilimbi. Kamiging, see Dioscorea esculenta. Kamigrin, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Kamiing, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. Kamiring, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. Kamkamafilau, see Aristolochia tagala. Kamkam6te, see Ipomoea digitata. Kamkam6te, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Kamkamotihan, see Ipomoea pes-carprae. Kamkampilan, see Oroxylum indicum. Kamokamotehan, see Operculina turpethum. Kam6te-kamotehan, see Ipomoea hederacea. Kam6te-m6ro, see Manihot utilissima. Kam6teng-bisaya, see Manihot utilissima. Kam6teng-dfitong, see Manihot utilissima. Kam6teng-kahoi, see Manihot utilissima. Kam6teng-kaui, see Manihot utilissima. Kam6te-sa-m6ro, see Manihot utilissima. Kamoti-ti-moro, see Manihot utilissima. Kamotit-moro, see Manihot utilissima. Kamot-kabag, see Smilax leucophyUa. Kampilan, see Oroxylum indicum. Kamp6pot, see Jasminum sambac. Kampfipot, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Kamubuag, see Ageratum conyzoides. Kamfilau, see Citrus hystrix. Kamiling, see Grewia stylocarpa. Kamining, see Murraya paniculata. Kamuntai, see Citrus hystrix. Kamut-abag, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Kmut-kabag, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Kamut6len, see Guioa koelreuteria. Kamuyau, see Citrus hystrix. Kamuyau, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Kamiyau, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Kanai, see Ardisia boissieri. Kanaroset, see Grewia multiflora. hanas-kanas, see Grewia eriocarpa. Kandar6ma, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kandiis, see Garcinia rubra. Kanding-kanding, see Waltheria americana. Kandis, see Garcinia binucao. Kand6n, see Memecylon ovatum. Kand6ng, see Memecylon ovatum. Kandongis6l, see Euphoria didyma. Kangai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Kanggos, see Manihot utilissima. Kangk6ng, see Ipomoea reptans. Kanila, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kanilao, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kaniingai, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kaningning, see Guioa koelreuteria. Kaniuing-puti, see Aglaia glomerata. Kaniui-puti, see Aglaia harmsiana. Kannak, see Dalbergia cumingiana. Kan6mai, see Diospyros multiflora.

Page  289 INDEX 289 Kan6mei, see Diospyros multiflora. Kan6mi, see Diospyros multiflora. Kan6moi, see Diospyros,iultiflora. Kanovog, see Spathoglottis plicata. Kansasaga, see Abrus precatorius. Kansilai, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Kansilai, see Decasper7munm fruticosum. Kansilan, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Kantingan, see Pterospernmum niveum. Kantutai, see Paederia foetida. Kantutak, see Paederia foetida. Kantutan, see Paederia foetida. Kanubling, see A rtocarpus cumvingiana. Kanubsuban, see Polygonu), barbatum. Kan6mai, see Diospyros multiflora. Kanumi, see Diospyros m)ultiflora. Kanimai, see Garcinia binucao. Kanumog, see Pycigeu glandulosum. Kanupul, see Conocephallus violaceus. Kaong, see Arenga pinnata. Kaong-m6ro, see Manihot utilissima. Kapah, see Ceiba pentandra. Kapak, see Ceiba pentandra. Kapal-kapal, see Calotropis gigantea. Kapanatfilot, see Justicia gendarussa. Kipas, see Ceiba pentandra. Kapas de Francia, see Asclepias curassavica. Kapas-kapas, see Thespesia lampas. Kapas-sanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. Kapitan, see Citrus hystrix. Kapok, see Ceiba pentandra. Kapok oil: Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150. Kapos, see Ceiba pentandra. Kappa-kappa, see Drynaria quercifolia. Kapurko, see Cassia alata. Karag6moi, see Pandanus simplex. Karaiap, see Aglaia glomerata. Kara-karikucha, see Plumiera acuminata. Karamai, see Cicca acida. Karamiras, see Aglaia glomerata. Karamosi, see Dendrobiua crumenatum. Karasoko, see Gonocaryunm calleryanum. Karausi, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Karayo, see Nephelium mutabile. Karekai, see Lygodiui) japonicum. Karifurfig, see Lumnitzera littorea. Kariis, see Garcinia mindanaensis. Karikasin, see Leucosyke capitellata. Karimbuaia, see Eclipta alba. KarimbuAya, see Euphorbia neriifolia. Karis-busuk, see Blechum brownei. Kariskis, see Albizzia lebbekgides. Kariskis, see Leucaena glauca. Kariskis, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Karlilei, see Pinanga spp. Karmai, see Cicca acida. Karo, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Karokanding, see Ageratusa conyzoides. Karokob, see Eugenia calubcob. Kar6te, see Dioscorea hispida. Karud, see Allaeanthus glaber. Karulai, see Dendrobium crumenatum Kasabang, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Kasablan, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. 177674-19 Kasai, see Pithecolobiums subacutum. Kasanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. Kasasiga, see Abrus precatorius. Kasibai, see Sapindus saponaria. Kasiboen, see Sapindus saponaria. Kasikas, see Gardenia pseldopsidium. Kasira, see Capsicum frutescens. Kasirag, see Dodonaea viscosa. Kasitas, see Cassia alata. Kasiu, see Cinnamomnunm mercadoi. Kaskasumba, see Leuca. lavandulifolia. Kasli, see Croton tiglium. Kas6i, see Anacardiums occidentale. Kasopangil, see Clerodendron intermledium. Kasopiangil, see Clerodendron msacrostegiuvi. Kastilde, see Pinanga spp. Kastiokasti6gan, see Abelmoschus imoschatus. Kasto-kastolian. see.Abel)ioschus mioschatus. Kastule, see Sida acuta. Kastule, see Thespesia laimpias. Kastfli', see Abele oschus moschatus. Kasfli, see Anacardium occidentale. Kasuit, see Capparis nmicracantha. Katagp6, see Ardisia boissieri. Katagp6, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Katagp6ng-gfibat, see Psychofria luzoniensis. Katik, see Lygodiumn flexuosunm. Katakut, see Phaseolus lunatus. Katana, see Ricinus contmunis. Katana, see ZanthoxylumL rhetsa. Katanda', see Cassia vmimosoides. Katanda, see Euchresta horsfieldii. Katfingal, see Eurycles amboinensis. Katang-katang, see Ipotmoea pes-caprae. Katapang, see Garcinia vidalii. Katatbum, see Ardisia boissieri. Katidd6i, see Pinanga spp. Katigau, see OcimumL sanctum. Katigbi, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Katikis, see Sapindus saponaria. Katimbau, see Trichosanthes quinquangulata. Katiput, see Maesa cumingii. Katmo, see Vaccinium whitfordii. Katm6n, see Dillenia negalantha. Katm6n, see Dillenia philippinensis. Katm6n, see Dillenia reifferscheidia. Katm6n-bayani, see Dillenia megalantha. Katm6n-kadlagan, see Dillenia reifferscheidla. Kato, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Katong-bakalau, see Chisocheton pentandrus. Kitong-machin, see Chisocheton pentandrus. Katong-machin oil: Chisocheton pentandrus, ii, 118. Katudai, see Sesbania grandiflora. Katuit, see Euphorbia tirucalli. Katumbal, see CapsicumL frutescens. Katiungal, see Eurycles amnboinensis. Katuingatum, see Clerodendron intermedium. Katfirai, see Sesbania grandiflora. Katfrai gum: Sesbania grandiflora, ii, 72. Katfri, see Garcinia venulosa. Katuri, see Sesbania grandiflora.

Page  290 290 INDEX Katutu, see Kyllinga monocephala. Kauakaudyan, see Apluda mutica. Kauan, see Astilbe philippinensis. Kaudyan-songssng, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Kauilan, see Dalbergia cumingiana. Kauili, see Ficus hauili. Kauing, see Arenga pinnata. Kaupkup, see Eugenia calubcob. Kawayan, see Bambusa spinosa. Kawayan-bay6g, see Dendrocalamus merrillianus. Kawayan bayfgin, see Bambusa vulgaris. Kawdyan-b6o, see Gigantochloa levis. Kawayan-China, see Bambusa glaucescens. Kawdyan-gid, see Bambusa spinosa. Kawdyan hob6ro, see Bambusa vulgaris. Kawayan-kiling, see Bambusa vulgaris. Kawayan-puti, see Gigantochloa levis. Kawayan si-itan, see Bambusa spinosa. Kawdyan-sina, see Bambusa glaucescens. Kawdyan-sina, see Dendrocalamus latiflorus. Rawayan-sina, see Giganthochloa levis. Kawdyantinik, see Bambusa spinosa. Kawayantot6o, see Bambusa spinosa. Kayakas, see Colubrina asiatica. Kayanga, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Kayfanga-rosa, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Kayapo, see Pistia stratiotes. Kayo, see Ceiba pentandra. Kayogp6g, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Kayok6g, see Eugenia calubcob. Kayok6s, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Kayos, see Dioscorea hispida. Kayu-g&lu, see Sindora inermis. Kayu-galu oil: Sindora inermis, ii, 38. Kayugk6k, see Eugenia xanthophylla, Kayumanfs, see Clausena anisum-olens Kayumayen, see Terminalia edulis. Kayuingo, see Piper retrofractum. Kayutana, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Keddeng, see Columbia blancoi. Kedd6ng, see Columbia mollis. Keddeng, see Grewia eriocarpa. Kemamale, see Leea aculeata. Kiapo, see Pistia srratiotes. Kibatalia blancoi: Distribution, iii, 222. Local names, iii, 222. Medicinal, iii, 222. Kibuaia, see Fagraea racemosa. Kickxia blancoi: Fish poison, iii, 81. Kideng, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Kikkig, see Ficus ulmifolia. Kilig, see Premna cumingiana. Kili-kili, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Kilitis, see Amaranthus spinosus. Kilitis, see Amaranthus viridis. Kil6b, see Gleichenia linearis. Kil6g, see Gleichenia linearis. Kimchai, see Apium graveolens. Kinasaikasai, see Adenanthera intermedia. Kinatulian, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Kindai6han, see Celosia argentea. Kindug-kindug, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Kingiodendron alternifolium: Description and distribution, ii, 208, 209. Figure, ii, 207. Local names, ii, 208. Incense, ii, 208. Kinintsai, see Apium graveolens. Kintsai, see Apium graveolens. Kinubot, see Rubus moluccanus. Kipi-kipi', see Mimosa pudica. Kipot-kipot, see Emilia sonchifolia. Kipus-kipus, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Kirini, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Kiris6l, see Jatropha curcas. Kir6i, see Dioscorea divaricata. Kirom-kirom, see Mimosa pudica. Kis6l, see Kaempferia galanga. Kleinhovia hospita: Description and distribution, i, 397. Local names, i, 397. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 397. Fish poison, iii, 80. Medicinal, iii, 211. Tensile strength, i, 321. Kobb6ot, see Ischaemum angustifolium. K6gon, see Imperata cylindrica. K6gon, see Imperata exaltata. Kogon-k6gon, see Curculigo 'orchoides. K6kol-daien, see Mimosa pudica. K6kong-manfik, see Barleria prionitis. Kolagpung-pul&, see Ardisia boissieri. Kolasiman, see Lumnitzera littorea. Koldasan, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Kolinta, see Barleria prionitis. Kolis, see Ficus benjamina. Kolison, see Citrus sp. Koliing, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Kollokoll6t, see Urena lobata. Kollokoll6t ti ba6, see Helicteres hirsuta. Kollol6t, see Urena lobata. Kolob6t, see Citrus hystrix. Kolokauayan, see Apluda mutica. Kolokogo, see Ocimum sanctum. Kolokol6g, see Clerodendron intermedium. Kolo-kol6t, see Triumfetta bartramia. Kolonanas, see Averrhoa bilimbi. Kolong-k6gong, see Ageratum conyzoides. Kol6tang-baging, see Sida javensis. Kol6t-babui, see Smiax bracteata. Kolot-kol6tan, see Urena lobata. Kolowratia elegans: Distribution, iii, 178. Local names, iii, 178. Medicinal, iii, 178. Kombateo, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Komkompitis, see Leucaena glauca. Komontres, see Pithecolobium dulce. Kond6l, see Benincasa hispida. Kond6l, see Lagenaria leucantha. Koniko, see Curcuma zedoaria. K6nti, see Solanum nigrum. Kopak6pa, see Eugenia mananquil. Korib6, see Canarium villosum. Korlunoi, see Amaranthus spinosus. Korokalasdg, see Nephrolepis hirsutula.

Page  291 INDEX 291 Koron-k6ron, see Hernandia ovigera. Kor6t, see Dioscorea hispida. Korrinta, see Barleria prionitis. Korthalsia laciniosa: Description, i, 212. Korthalsia merriUii: Description, i, 212. Korthalsia sacaphigeroides: Description, i, 212. Korthalsia squarrosa: Description, i, 212. Kosing, see Anacardium occidentale. K6sol, see Eurycles amboinensis. Kotm6k, see Terminalia edulis. Krus-krusan, see Crescentia alata. Kuako-kuak6han, see Abutilon indicum. Kuakuak6han, see Abutilon indicum. Kuant6ng, see Amaranthus spinosus. Kubamba, see Canscora diffusa. Kubamba, see Piper umbellatum. Kubi, see Artocarpus cumingiana. -;.hi, se Artocarpus rubrovenia. Kubi, see Cerbera manghas. Kubill, see Cubilia blancoi. Kudlasan, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Kugitas, see Gnetum gnemon. Kugyug, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Kuhasi, see Commelina benghalensis. Kuintas-kuintasan, see Canna indica. Kukodm6n, see Fagraea racemosa. Kukuris, see Euphoria didyma. Kula, see Geodorumr nutans. Kulakatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. Kulalau, see Curcuma longa. Kulaloche, see Plumiera acuminata. Kulanta, see Barleria prionitis. Kulasi, see Avicennia officinalis. Kulasi, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Kulasi, see Excoecaria agallocha. Kulasi, see Lumnitzera littorea. Kulasi', see Lumnitzera racemosa. Kulasi', see Osbornia octodonta. Kulasi', see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Kulat, see Urena lobata. Kulatai, see Jasminum sambac. Kulatai, see Leea manillensis. Kulatai, see Rotala aquatica. Kulatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. Kulet, see Urena lobata. Kuliad, see Gnetum indicum. Kuliamot, see Ficus benjamina. Kuliat, see Gnetum indicum. Kulibutbut, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Kulik-manar, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Kulilem, see Garcinia binucao. Kulimbaning, see Xylocarpus granatum. Kuling-man6k, see Aglaia glonrerata. Kulis, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Kfilis, see Memecylon edule. Kfilis, see Memecylon ovatum. Kulitis, see Amaranthus spinosus. Kulitis, see Amaranthus viridis. Kuliuan, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. Kulkulasi, see Commelina benghalensis. Kul.langem, see Tylophora perrottetiana. Kullukulluk, see Urena lobata. Kulong-kugon, see Vernonia cinerea. Kul6t, see Dioscorea hispida. Kul6t, see Lygodium japonicum. Kulot-kul6tan, see Triumfetta bartramia. Kulukatingal, see Pterospermum obliquum. Kulukatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. Kulutkulutan, see Urena lobata. Kulut-pamo, see Columella trifolia. Kumagasaka, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Kuman, see Gnetum gnemon. Kumintang, see Lochnera rosea. Kunakun, see Elaeocarpus calomala. Kunig, see Curcuma longa. Kinig, see Mahonia philippinensis. Kupiikupit, see Merremia emarginata. Kupi-kupit, see Merremia emarginata. Kupkdp, see Eugenia calubcob. KuplAs, see Ficus ulmifolia. Kuranta, see Barleria prionitis. Kuren, see Stephania japonica. Kurimau, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Kurukauayan, see Apluda mutica. Kurumpang, see Sterculia foetida. Kusibeng, see Sapindus saponaria. Kuskusipa, see Cissampelos pareira. Kutingkutingan, see Heliotropium indicum. Kutipi, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Kutkut timbalong, see Barringtonia racemosa. Kuyau-kuyau, see Alstonia macrophyUa. Kuyau-yau, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Kuyo, see Piper umbeUatum. Kyllinga monocephala: Distribution, iii, 172. Local names, iii, 172. Medicinal, iii, 172. L Labat, see Ardisia serrata. Labau, see Lunasia amara. Labauel, see Macaranga tanarius. Lablyo, see Melochia umbellata. Labiatae: Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 232. Oils, ii, 217. Labig, see Livistona rotundifolia. Labnai, see Sterculia stipularis. Labn6g, see Ficus hauili. Labon, see Abroma fastuosa. Labtang, see Anamirta cocculus. Labuag, see Hibiscus surattensis. Labug-labug, see Malachra capitata. Lada, see Capsicum frutescens. Ladiangau, see Agathis alba. Lagairai, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Lagan, see Premna odorata. Lagaon, see Macaranga tanarius. Lagasak, see Bruguiera sexangula. Lagasi, see Leucosyke capitellata. Lagau, see Macaranga tanarius. Lagenaria leucantha: Distribution, iii, 242. Local names, iii, 242. Medicinal, iii, 242. Lagiauat, see Rubus rosaefolius. Lagildi, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Lagini, see Columella trifolia.

Page  292 292 INDEX Lagkitan, see Sida mysorensis. Lagmut, see Ficus hauili. Lagne6b, see Ficus hauili. Lago, see Abrus precatorius. Lago, see Pygeum glandulosum. L&go, see Pygeum preslii. Lagod, see Trema orientalis. Lagoil6i, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Lag6lo, see Acrostichum aureum. Lagtal, see Archangelisia flava, Lagtang, see Anamirta cocculus. Lagtang, see Archangelisia flava. Lagtang, see Tinomnisciuum philippinense. Lagt6m na pula, see Panicumn stagninum. Laguan, see Euchresta horsfieldii. Laguan, see Nepheliun mnutabile. Laguete, see Celastrus paniculata. Lagukanata, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Lagfindi, see Vitex negundo. Lagundi-late, see Pluchea indica. Lagfinding-dagat, see Vitex trifolia. Lagunding-gapang, see Vitex trifolia. Lagundi-salasa, see Buddleia asiatica. Lagunton, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. Lagup6k, see Cardicspermum halicacabum. Lagutlut, see Pandanus copelandii. Lagut-ut, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Laho, see Columbia serratifolia. Laiasin, see Columbia serratifolia. Lailaiginan, see Helicteres hirsuta. Laioan, see Cicca acida. Lakadbulan, see Blumea balsamifera. Lakamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Lakaubi, see Zalacca clemensiana. Lakien-tisubusub, see Buddleia asiatica. Lakkangan, see Eugenia aherniana. Lamai, see Trema orientalis. Lambug, see Eugenia calubcob. Lamilan, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Lami6, see Dracontomelum edule. Lamio, see Garuga abilo. Lamn6g, see Ficus hauili. Lam-nuan, see Bam)busa spinosa. Lamog, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. Lam6n, see Enhalus acoroides. Lampakanai, see Typha angustifolia. Lampayong, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Lamp oil, see Illuminant. Lampoyang, see Curcuma zedoaria. Lamudias, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Lamudio, see Carumn copticum. Lanagon, see Flacourtia euphlebia. Lanas, see Stenochlaena palustris. Landing, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Landrina, see Borreria hispida. Lanete, see Allaeanthus luzonicus. Laneteng-gubat, see Kibatalia blancoi. Langa, see Sesamum orientale. Langaban, see Ficus forstenii. Laingaban, see Ficus payapa. Lafngala, see Fleurya interrupta. Lainga-langa, see Leucas lavandulifolia. Laingrai, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Langarai, see Bruguiera parviflora. Langari, see Bruguiera sexangula. Laingari, see Bruguiera sexangula. Langbayong, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Langdang, see Metroxylon sagu. Lai.ngingi, see Columella trifolia. Lafigis, see Pittosporum resiniferum. Langis, see Sesamum orientale. Lafngitingit, see Celastrus paniculata. Langka, see Artocarpus integra. Langkauas, see Alpinia pyramidata. Langkauas, see Zingiber zerumbet. Langkuas, see Alpinia pyramidata. Langkuas, see Donax cannaeformis. Langlangas, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Laing6sig, see Grewia multiflora. Laniti, see Kibatalia blancoi. Lankuig, see Termtinalia calamansanai. Lannu, see Spondias pinnata. Lan6, see Spondias pinnata. Lansina, see Ricinus communis. Lansiun dubium: Description and distribution, ii, 304. Figure, ii, 306. Local names, ii, 304. Food, ii, 304. Lantana, see Lantana camara. Lantana camar a: Description and distribution, ii, 217. Local names, ii, 216. Oil, ii, 216. Lantana oil: Lantana camara, ii, 216. Lanten-sapa, see Ottelia alismoides. Lanting, see Ottelia alismoides. Lanut, see Grewia miultiflora. Lanutan, see Alphonsea arborea. Lanltan, see Bombycidendron vidalianum. Lanutan, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Lanutan, see Goniothalamus amuyon. Lanutan, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Lanutan, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Lanutan, see Polyalthia flava. Lanutan, see Pygeum preslii. Lanutan-itim, see Alphonsea arborea. Lanutan-puti, see Grewia stylocarpa. Lapi, see Grewia eriocarpa. Lapinig, see Eugenia xanthophyla. Lapni, see Grewia eriocarpa. Lapnis, see Grewia multiflora. Lapnis, see Kleinhovia hospita. Lapnis, see Melochia umbellata. Lapnisan, see Grewia stylocarpa. Lapnit, see Columbia lanceolata. Lapnit, see Grewia eriocarpa. Lapnit, see Sterculia luzonica. Lapnit, see Sterculia oblongata. Lapole, see Acrostichum aureum. Laponaia, see Coleus blumei. Laportea meyeniana: Distribution, iii, 182. Local names, iii, 182. Medicinal, iii, 182. Lapting, see Ficus hauili. Lara, see Capsicum frutescens. Lardu, see Decaspermumn fruticosum. Lar6an-anito, see Clerodendron intermedium. Lasa, see Abrus precatorius. Lasa, see Canna indica.

Page  293 INDEX 293 Lasa, see Nipa fruticans. Lasa, see Nipa fruticans. Lasa, see Thysanolaena maxima. Lasila, see Terminalia comintana. Lasilak, see Terminalia comintana. Lasilat, see Terminalia comintana. Lasona, see Allium sativum. Lassi, see Premna odorata. Lasuit, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Lath, see Antiaris toxicaria. Latania commersonii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Latania loddigesii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Latauan, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Latok, see Telosma procumbens. Latris, see Muntingia calabura. Latuba, see Barringtonia acutangula. Lauan, see Anisoptera thurifera. Lauan, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Laian puti, see Anisoptera thurifera. Lauas, see Nymphea pubescens. Lauat, see Litsea glutinosa. Lauraceae: Food plants, ii, 282. Medicinal plants, iii, 187. Oils, ii, 200. Laurel, see Lochnera rosea. Laurel, see Plumbago indica. Lawsonia inermis: Distribution, iii, 214. Local name, iii, 214. Medicinal, iii, 214. Laya, see Zingiber officinale. La-ya, see Zingiber officinale. Lay-a, see Zingiber officinale. Layasin, see Leucosyke capitellata. Leather, patent: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Lecythidaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 214. Oils, ii, 161. Poisonous plants, iii, 81. Leea aculeata: Distribution, iii, 206. Local names, iii, 206. Medicinal, iii, 206. Leea manillensis: Distribution, iii, 206. Local names, iii, 206. Medicinal, iii, 206. Legunminosae: Dyes, ii, 389. Fiber plants, i, 378. Fire wood, iii, 87. Food plants, ii, 288. Gums, ii, 72. Medicinal plants, iii, 67, 189. Oils, ii, 108, 204. Paper, i, 423. Poisonous plants, iii, 79. Resins, ii, 38. Soap substitutes, iii, 52. Tannins, iii, 93. Lemon grass, see Andropogon citratus. Lemon-grass oil: Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. Lenggadai, see Bruguiera parviflora. Lenggadi, see Bruguiera conjugata. Lenggadi, see Bruguiera sexangula. Lengnga, see Sesamum orientale. Lengua de le6n, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Lentinus connatus: Description, iii, 124. Edible fungi, iii, 124. Lentinus exlis: Description, iii, 124. Figure, iii, 125. Edible fungi, iii, 124. Lentinus leucochrous: Description, iii, 124. Edible fungi, iii, 124. Lentinus squarrosulus: Description, iii, 124. Figure, iii, 127. Edible fungi, iii, 124. Lepidopetalum perrottetii: Distribution, iii, 204. Local names, iii, 204. Medicinal, iii, 204. Lepiota candida: Description, iii, 138. Distribution, iii, 138. Edible fungi, iii, 138. Lepiota cepaestipes: Edible fungi, iii, 142. Lepiota chlorospora: Description, iii, 140. Distribution, iii, 140. Figure, iii, 141. Poisonous fungus, iii, 140. Lepiota elata: Description, iii, 140. Distribution, iii, 140. Edible fungi, iii, 140. Lepiota fusco-squamea: Description, iii, 140. Edible fungi, iii, 140. Lepiota pulcherrimla: Edible fungi, iii, 142. Lepiota revelata: Edible fungi, iii, 142. Lepiota sulphopenita: Edible fungi, iii, 142. Leting-pako, see Crataeva religiosa. Letis, see Anisoptera thurifera. Letis, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Letlet, see Piper betle. Leucaena glauca: Description and distribution, ii, 290. Figure, ii, 293; iii, 86, 89, 91. Local names, ii, 290. Coffee substitute, ii, 290. Firewood, iii, 88. Firewood crop, ii, 290. Planting, iii, 88. Leucas lavandulifolia: Distribution, iii, 233. Local names, iii, 233. Medicinal, iii, 233.

Page  294 294 INDEX Leucosyke capitellata: Description and distribution, i, 374. Local names, i, 374. Fiber, i, 374. Li-a-sin, see Leucosyke capitellata. Liba, see Allaeanthus glaber. Libai, see Achyranthes aspera. Libakan, see Fagraea racemosa. Libang-bang, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Libis, see Garuga abilo. Libas, see Momordica cochinchinensis. LibAs, see Spondias pinnata. Libato, see BaseUa rubra. Libato, see Lumnitzera littorea. Libato,puti, see Camptostenmon philippinense. Libintano, see Clerodendron intermedium. Libtik, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Licuala spinosa: Description and distribution, i, 212. Figure, i, 215. Local names, i, 212. Ornamental, i, 212. Ligaa, see Grewia multiflora. Ligabon, see Macaranga tanarius. Ligad, see Dodonaea viscosa. Ligan-lupa, see Polygonum barbatum. LigAs, see Semecarpus cuneiformis. Ligas, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. Ligayan, see Mimusops parvifolia. Ligtang, see Anamirta cocculus. Liliaceae: Fiber plants, i, 360. Medicinal plants, iii, 175. Ornamental plants, iii, 12. Lilitan, see Paederia foetida. Lilium philippinensis: Description and distribution, iii, 12. Figure, iii, 13. Local names, iii, 12. Ornamental iii, 12. Lillau, see Ficus hauili. Lima bean, see Phaseolus lunatus. Lima-lima, see Dioscorea pentaphylla. Lim&ng-sigat, see Pseuderanthemum pulcheIlum. Lime, bird: Artocarpus elastica, ii, 70. Limnophila indica: Distribution, iii, 235. Local name, iii, 235. Medicinal, iii, 236. Limnophila rugosa: Description and distribution, ii, 375. Local name, ii, 375. Food, ii, 375. Hair perfume, ii, 375. Limon see Coleus amboinicus. Limoncito, see Triphasia trifoliata. Limoncitong-kastila, see Triphasia trifoliata. Lim6n-karabau, see Citrus hystrix. Linga, see Sesamurn orientale. Linga-ling, see Nelumbium nelumbo. Lingaro, see Elaeagnus philippensis. Lingatan, see Laportea meyeniana. Lingniga, see Sesamum orientale. Ling6g, see Avicennia officinalis. Lingo-lingo, see Mimusops parvifolia. Lino, see Morinda citrifolia. Linog, see Scaevota frutescens. Linoleum: Aluerites moluccana, ii, 124. Linu, see Scaevola frutescens. Lipa, see Laportea meyeniana. Lipai, see Laportea meyeniana. Lipai, see Mucuna nigricans. Lipang-aso, see Boehmeria nivea. Lipang-Aso, see Fleurya interrupta. Lipang-dfitong, see Laportea meyeniana. Lipang-kalabAu, see Laportea meyeniana. Lipang-kastila, see Fleurya interrupta. Lipata, see Cerbera manghas. Lipata, see Excoecaria agallocha. Lipatang-buhai, see Excoecaria agaUocha. Lipauen, see Alstonia scholaris. Lip6t, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Lip6te, see Eugenia curranii. Lip6te, see Eugenia polycephaloides. Lippia nodiflora: Distribution, iii, 230. Local names, iii, 230. Medicinal, iii, 230. Lipds, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Lipute, see Eugenia polycephaloides. Lipuiti, see Canariumn ovatum. Lipfting-gubat, see Ardisia boissieri. Lirio, see Hymenocallis littorale. Liriong-gibat, see Calanthe veratrifolia. Lisid, see Chonemorpha elastica. Litalit, see Hyptis suaveolens. Litlit, see Piper betle. Litlit, see Piper retrofracturn. Litsea glutinosa: Distribution, iii, 187. Local names, iii, 187. Medicinal, iii, 187. Lifuhon, see Hononoia riparia. Liuliu, see Ficus hauili. Livistona australis: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Livistona chinensis: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Livistona cochinchinensis: Description, i, 214, 216. Distribution, i, 135, 216. Figure, i, 218. Local name, i, 216. Uses, i, 216. Livistona merrillii: Description, i, 214. Livistona robinsoniana: Description, i, 214. Livistona rotundifolia: Description, i, 214. Distribution, i, 216. Figure, i, 219. Local names, i, 216. Uses, i, 216. Livistona spp.: Food, ii, 252. L6bi, see Cocos nucifera. Lobo-lob6han, see Cardiospermum halicacabum.

Page  295 INI Lochnera rosea: Distribution, iii, 222. Local names, iii, 222. Medicinal, iii, 222. Loganiaceae: Fiber plants, i, 406. Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 220. Log6, see Terminalia catappa. Loiloi, see Leucaena glauca. Lokblut, see Litsea glutinosa. Lokd6, see Dryopteris pteroides. Lokd6, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. Lokolok6, see Ocinzum sanctum. Loloan, see Pistia stratiotes. Lomanggog, see Litsea glutinosa. Longbayau, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Longb6i, see Eugenia cumini. Lonicera philippinensis: Description and distribution, i, 409. Local names, i, 409. Fiber, i, 409. Lont6ng, see Sterculia luzonica. Lo-ob, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Lo-ob, see Schizostachyum diffusum. Loomoi, see Scindapsus spp. Looms: Schizostachyum textoriumn, i, 265. Lopa, see Bambusa cornuta. Lophopetalum toxicum: Distribution, iii, 203. Local names, iii, 203. Medicinal, iii, 203. Lopfilopu, see Lippia nodiflora. Losfban, see Bomsbycidendron vidalianum. Lotion: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Lotus, see Nelumnbium nelumbo. Lubanayong, see Xylocarpus granatum. Lubas, see Spondias pinnata. Lubi, see Cocos nucifera. Lubia, see Pinanga spp. Lubigan, see Acorus calamus. Lubilubi, see Cubilia blancoi. Lubi-lubi, see Geodorum nutans. Lubilubi, see Lunasia amara. Lubricant: Isoptera borneensis, ii, 160. Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Kicinus cominunis, ii, 143. Sesantmu orientale, ii, 168. Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. Luffa cylindrica: Distribution, iii, 242. Local names, iii, 242. Medicinal, iii, 242. Lugis, see Eugenia mananquil. Lugo, see Barringtonia asiatica. Lugos, see Areca catechu. Lukabbaan, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Lukabban, see Sonneratia alba. Lukabban, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Lukbin, see Citrus maxima. Lukban-balit, see Murraya paniculata. Lulupaw, see Abutilon indicum. Lumabo, see Jasminum sambac. Lumampau, see Schizostachyum lumampao. )EX 295 Lumanai, see Homtonoia riparia. Lumanaia, see Hononoia riparia. Lumbai, see Metroxylon sagu. Lumbanau, see Aglaia everettii. Lumbang, see Aleurites vmoluccana. Lumbang, see Aleurites trisperma. Lumbang-banukalad, see Aleurites trisperma. Lumbang-bato, see Aleurites mnoluccana. Lumbang-gibat, see Aleurites' trisperma. Lumbang oil: Aleurites moluccana, ii, 124. Lumbia, see Metroxylon sagu. Lumbiag. see Metroxylon sagu. Lumb6i, see Eugenia cunini. Lumnitzera littorea: Description, i, 68. Distribution, i, 22, 68. Figure, i, 71. Local names, i, 68. Forest charge, i, 125. Stands, i, 96, 97. Timber, i, 70. Lumnitzera racermosa: Description and distribution, i, 70. Local names, i, 70. Forest charge, i, 125. Medicinal, iii, 215. Lumpitan, see Quamoclit pinnata. Lunan, see Lunasia amara. Lunas, see Bambusa vulgaris. Lunas, see Costus speciosus. Lunas, see Gonocaryum caleryanum. Lfnas, see Lunasia amara. Lunas, see Oleandra neriiformnis. Lunas-bondok, see Lunasia amara. Lunasia amara: Distribution, iii, 194. Local names, iii, 194. Medicinal, iii, 194. Luing, see Sesamum orientale. Lungakan, see Macaranga tanarius. Lunfig, see Ficus pachyphylla. Luoi-luoi na dak6, see Grammatophyllum mfltiflorum. Lupa, see Fleurya interrupta. Lupik, see Euphoria didyma. Lupi, see Phragmites karka. Lupi, see Phragmites vulgaris. Lupig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Lupigi, see Dracontomelum dao. Lup-lupak, see Lilium philippinensis. Lupluppan, see Abutilon indicum. Lupo, see Columella trifolia. Lusong, see Vaccinium whitfordii. Lusunan, see Eugenia aherniana. Luting, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Luya, see Zingiber officinale. Luy-a, see Zingiber officinale. Luyaluyahan, see Curcuina zedoaria. Luyang-dilau, see Curcuma longa. Luyong, see Livistona rotundifolia. Luyos, see Areca catechu. Lycoperdaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 142. Lycoperdon cepiforme: Edible fungi, iii, 144.

Page  296 296 INDEX Lycoperdon furfuraceum: Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycoperdon lilacimum: Description, iii, 142. Figure, iii, 143. Edible fungi, iii, 142. Lycoperdon plicatum: Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycoperdon polymorphum: Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycoperdon pratense: Description, iii, 144. Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycoperdon pusillum: Description, iii, 142. Edible fungi, iii, 142. Lycoperdon pyriformee: Description, iii, 144. Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycoperdon roseumn: Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycoperdon vanderystii: Edible fungi, iii, 144. Lycopersicum esculenturn: Description and distribution, ii, 374. Local names, ii, 374. Food, ii, 374. Lycopodiaceae: Ornamental plants, iii, 12. Lycopodiuni spp.: Description and distribution, iii, 12. Ornamental, iii, 12. Lye: Acanthus ilicifolius, iii, 90. Lygodium circinnatum: Description, i, 328. Distribution, iii, 168. Figure, i, 329. Local names, i, 326, 328. Fiber, i, 328. Medicinal, iii, 168. Lygodium flexuosum: Description, i, 328. Local names, i, 326, 328. Fiber, i, 328. Lygodium japonicum: Description, i, 328. Local names, i, 326, 328. Fiber, i, 328. Lygodium scandens: Description, i, 328. Local names, i, 326, 328. Fiber, i, 328. Lygodium semihastatum: Description, i, 328. Fiber, i, 326, 328. Local names, i, 326, 328. Lythraceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 214. M Ma-asim, see Macaranga tanarius. Mabantfit, see Terminalia calamansanai. Mabfilo, see Diospyros discolor. Mabulo, see Trichodesma zeylanicum. Macahiya, see Biophytum sensitivum. Macaranga grandifolia: Distribution, iii, 200. Local names, iii, 200. Medicinal, iii, 200. Macaranga tanarius: Description and distribution, ii, 73, 312. Figure, ii, 313. Local names, ii, 73, 310. Fermented drink, ii, 312. Glue, ii, 73. Medicinal, iii, 200. Maesa cumingii: Description and distribution, i, 406. Local names, i, 406. Fiber, i, 406. Fish poison, iii, 81. Maesa denticulata: Fish poison, iii, 81. Maesa laxa: Fish poison, iii, 81. Magaan, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Magabalogo, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Magalolo, see Lum7nitzera littorea. Maganh6p sa bukid, see Albizzia lebbekoides. Magatalisai, see Terminalia calamansanai. Magatas, see Euphorbia hirta. Magatungal, see Gnetum gnemon. Magau, see Ocimnum sanctum. Magayao, see Heritiera littoralis. Magilik, see Premna cumingiana. Magimapau, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Magimpal, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Magit, see Pongarnia pinnata. Magkauayan, see Apluda mutica. Magkon6, see Eugenia aherniana. Maglolop6i, see Terminalia comintana. Maglumb6i, see Elaeocarpus calomala. Magmansi, see Iernonia cinerea. Magnoliaceae: Oils, ii, 185, Magtalisai, see Termninalia edulis. Magtalulong, see Eugenia polycephaloides. Magtangud, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Magtofngod, see Ceriops tagal. Magtongo6g, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Maguey, see Agave cantala. Magusiak, see Fagraea racemosa. Magutapilak, see Pothoidium lobbianum. Mahihiyain, see Biophytum sensitivum. Mahonia philippinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 388. Local name, ii, 388. Dye, ii, 388. Maiana, see Coleus blumei. Maianau, see Coleus blumei. Maidbaid, see Oroxylumv indicum. Maigang, see Eugenia polycephaloides. I Mais, see Zeamays. Maismaisan, see Asclepias curassavica. Makaasim, see Eugenia 1mananquil. Makabiangon, see Micromelum compressum. Makabra, see Rotala aquatica. Makabu, see Cissampelos pareira. Makadaeg, see Dracontomelum dao. Makahia, see Mimosa pudica.

Page  297 INDEX 297 Makahilub, see Euchresta horsfieldii. Makahiyang-lalake, see Biophytum sensitivum. Makalalanang, see Clerodendron intermedium. Makalsa, see Chisocheton cunzingianus. Makasla, see Croton tigliunm. Makatba, see Citrus hystrix. Makatibuha, see Fagraea racemosa. Makau, see Agathis alba. Makau, see Dracontomelumn dao. Makaya, see Grewia stylocarpa. Makitkitot, see Euphorbia thymifolia. Mak6pa, see Eugenia calubcob. Malaachuete, see Melochia unibellata. Malaaduas, see Dysoxylu n decandrum. Malaamis, see Scoparia dulcis. Mala-ang lako lakop, see Pothos spp. Mala-an6nas, see Pygeumi preslii. Malaapi, see Premna cumningiana. Malaapfilid, see Kyllinga mnonocephala. Mala-atis, see Anisoptera thurifera. Malabago, see Fagraea racermosa. Malabhgo, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Malabanggi, see Memiecylon ovatum. Malabanilad, see Sterculia oblongata. Malabatino, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Malabayabas, see Eugenia aherniana. Malabayabas, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. Malabiga, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Malabignai, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. Malabitis-papa, see Malachra fasciata. Malab6ho, see Sterculia oblongata. Malab6hok, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Malaboh6k, see Quamioclit pinnata. Malabokb6k, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Malabon6t, see Sterculia cuneata. MalabuAia, see Fagraea racemosa. Malabug6s, see Homionoia riparia. Malabfilak, see Bombax ceiba. Malabulak, see Justicia gendarussa. Malabun-iga, see Macaranga tanarius. Malabunga, see Sterculia oblongata. Malacafe, see Mussaenda philippica. Malachra fasciata: Description and distribution, i, 388. Local names, i, 388. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Rope, i, 388. Tensile strength, i, 321. Malachra capitata: Description and distribution, i, 388. Distribution, iii, 209. Local names, i, 387. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 387. Medicinal, iii, 209. Maladayap, see Capparis micracantha. Maladayap, see Lansium dubium. Maladita, see Paralstonia clusiacea. Maladita, see Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia. Malados6dos, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Malagabi, see Terminalia edulis. Malaganep, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Malaganit, see Albizzia lebbekoides. Malaganit, see Leucaena glauca. Malagapas, see Gyrinopsis cumingiana. Malagasaha, see Sterculia philippinensis. Malagasaha, see Sterculia stipularis. Malagayaman, see Pothoidium lobbianum. Malagayaman, see Pothos spp. Malaghanip, see Albizzia lebbekoides. Malaghanit, see Albizzia lebbekoides. Malagiting-giting, see Decaspermumn fruticosum.. Malagmat, see Pygeum preslii. Malagozzan, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Malahabi, see Guioa koelreuteria. Malahagis, see Eugenia mzananquil. Malahito, see Sapindus saponaria. Malaigang, see Eugenia calubcob. Malaigang, see Eugenia mananquil. Malaikm6, see Gonocaryumn calleryanunm. Malaikm6-laldki, see Gonocaryum calleryanumn. Mala-imus, see Elaeagnus philippensis. Malaisia scandens: Description and distribution, i, 373. Local names, i, 373. Fiber, i, 373. Medicinal, iii, 181. Malaisis, see Malaisia scandens. Malaiyau, see Dracontomtelum dao. Malakadi6s, see Allaeanthus glaber. Malakakao, see Iepidopetalum perrottetii. Malakakao, see Litsea glutinosa. Malakakao, see Phaleria cumningii. Malakakao, see Sterculia cuneata. Malakakao, see Sterculia oblongata. Malakakao, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Malakalad, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Malakalumpang, see Sterculia luzonica. Malakalumpit, see Ternminalia calanmansanai. Malakanasi, see Lansium dubiuml. Malakapai, see Sterculia crassiramea. Malakirum-kirum, see Phyllanthus niruri. Malakmklak, see Palaquium philippense. Malakmalak oil: Palaquium philippense, ii, 168. Malak6pa, see Eugenia calubcob. Malakudkuran, see Heliotropium indicum. Malalapi, see Maesa cumingii. Malamansanita, see Helicteres hirsuta. Malambifngan, see Allaeanthus glaber. Malamputian, see Nephelium mnutabile. Malamulauin, see Premna nauseosa. Malanangk&, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Malanbanilad, see Sterculia oblongata. Malangbuyfid, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. Malanopit, see Elaeocarpus calomala. Malapaho, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Malapaho, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Malapaho, see Mangifera altissima. Malapakpak, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Malapandakaki, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Malapaingi, see Pangiuns edule. Malapapaya, see Sterculia crassiranea. Malapi, see Croton tigliun. Malapili, see Canarium luzonicum. Malapinggan, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Malapot6kan, see Clerodendrom macroategium. Malaputat, see Ardisia serrata.

Page  298 298 INDEX Malapftat, see Palaquium philippense. Malaranim, see Ardisia boissieri. Malaruhat, see Eugenia calubcob. Malaruhat, see Eugenia mananquil. Malariungon, see Heritiera littoralis. Malarurang, see Trema orientalis. Malarfirung, see Trema orientalis. Malarutto, see Cissampelos pareira. Malasaga, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Malasagad, see Adenanthera intermedia. Malasaging, see Aglaia harmsiana. Malasaging, see Cubilia blancoi. Malasamat, see Gonocaryum caUeryanum. Malasamb6ng, see Buddleia asiatica. Malasamb6ng, see Callicarpa erioclona. Malasamb6ng-dam6, see Sphaeranthus africanus. Malasampalok, see Albizzia lebbekoides. Malasandia, see Ipomoea pes-tigridis. Malasangi, see Guioa koelreuteria. Malasang-salve, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Malasant6l, see Aglaia everettii. Malasant6l, see Diospyros discolor. Malasapsap, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Malasapfti, see Palaquium philippense. Malasikongd6ron, see Trema orientalis. Malatadiang, see Ehretia navesii. Malatak6n, see Helicteres hirsuta. Malatampii, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Malatapai, see Alstonia macrophylla. Malatapai, see Cyathocalyx globosus. Malatapai, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Malatiba, see Mallotus philippinensis. Malatumbaga, see Aglaia harmsiana. Malatumbaga, see Chisocheton pentandrus. Malatumbaga, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Malauas, see Guioa koelreuteria. Malaubi, see Aristolochia tagala. Malayambo, see Ardisia boissieri. Malayambo, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Malbas-dam6, see Fatoua pilosa. Malenggal, see Canscora diffusa. Maliana, see Coleus blumei. Malibago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Malibago, see Kleinhovia hospita. Malibago, see Thespesia populnea. Maliging, see Osbornia octodonta. Maligus, see Buddleia asiatica. Mali-mali, see Leea aculeata. Mali-mali, see Leea manillensis. Malimalis, see Euphorbia hirta. Maliingga, see Benincasa hispida. Malisa, see Piper nigrum. Malismalisan, see Scoparia dulcis. Mallets, polo: Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. Mallotus philippinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 398. Local names, ii, 396. Banato oil, ii, 142. Dye, ii, 398. Medicinal, iii, 200. Tape-worm remedy, iii, 68. Malobago, see Kleinhovia hospita. Malobago, see Thespesia populnea. Malub&go, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Malugai, see Moringa oleifera. Malul, see Jasminum sambac. Malumalunggayan, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Malunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Malunggal, see Samadera indica. Malvaceae: Dyes, ii, 399. Fiber plants, i, 386. Food plants, ii, 336. Medicinal plants, iii, 208. Malvalusa, see Solanum curmingii. Malvas, see Abutilon indicum. Malvas de castilla, see Abutilon indicum. Malvastrum coromandelinumn: Description and distribution, i, 388. Local names, i, 388. Brooms, i, 388. Medicinal, iii, 209. Malvis, see Abutilon indicum. Mama, see Pinanga spp. Mamadling, see Columbia blancoi. Mamakau, see Dracontomelumn dao. Mamales, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Mamalig, see Leea aculeata. Mamalis, see Guioa koelreuteria. Mamalis, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Mamalis, see Sapindus saponaria. Mamalis oil: Pittosporum pentandrum, ii, 105. Mamaingal, see Leea manillensis. Mamata, see Euphoria didyma. Mamata-babae, see Lansium dubium. Mamaued, see Columbia blancoi. Mamaued, see Columbia serratifolia. Mamb6g, see Nauclea junghuhnii. Mamogen, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Mamonak, see Aglaia harmsiana. Mamongol, see Pycnarrhena manillensis. Mampala, see Mangifera indica. Mampalang, see Mangifera indica. Mamued, see Columbia blancoi. Mana, see Jatropha multifida. Manaba, see Premna cumingiana. Manabo, see Gynandropsis gynandra. Managos, see Homonoia riparia. Manalu, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. Manan-aw, see Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana. Manankil, see Eugenia mananquil. Mana oil: Jatropha multifida, ii, 142. Manaon, see Dalbergia ferruginea. Manapo, see Cyathea spp. Manapo, see Sindora supa. Manaring, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Manau, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Manban, see Donax cannaeformis. Mangagos, see Homonoia riparia. Mangala, see Garcinia venulosa. Mangalri, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Mangga, see Mangifera indica. Manggap6le, see Mangifera altissima. Manggasin6ro, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Manggating, see Camptostemon philippinense. Mangifera altissima: Description and distribution, ii, 316. Figure, ii, 318.

Page  299 INDEX 299 Mangifera altissima-Continued. Local names, ii, 316. Food, ii, 316. Mangifera caesia: Description and distribution, ii, 320. Figure, ii, 319. Local names, ii, 320. Food, ii, 239, 320. Mangifera indica: Distribution, iii, 202. Local names, iii, 202. Medicinal, iii, 202. Mangifera odorata: Description and distribution, ii, 320. Local names, ii, 320. Food, ii, 320. Mangil, see Rubia cardifolia. Mangipod, see Areca ipot. Mangkit, see Urena lobata. Mangkit-p&rang, see Desmodium heterocarpum. Mango, see Mangifera indica. Mangostan, see Garcinia mangostana. Mangosteen, see Garcinia mangostana. Masngotngo6t, see Clerodendron inerme. Mani, see Arachis hypogaea. Manihot utilissima: Distribution, iii, 201. Local names, iii, 201. Medicinal, iii, 201. Maniknik, see Bassia obovatifolia. Manila copal: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Manila elemi: Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. Manila hemp, see Musa textilis. Manilig, see Bassia betis. Mani-mani, see Desmodium heterocarpum. Manimanihan, see Desmodium heterocarpum. Manimparog, see Palaquium philippense. Maninila, see Garcinia binucao. Manogbayo, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Manogtalisai, see Palaquium philippense. Manul, see Jasminum sambac. Manungg&l, see Samadera indica. Manunggal oil: Samadera indica, ii, 114. Manzanas, see Zizyphus jujuba. Manzanilla, see Chrysanthemum indicum. Manzanilla, see Pluchea indica. Manzanitas, see Muntingia calabura. Manzanitas, see Zizyphus jujuba. Maob6, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Ma6ro, see Lumnitzera littorea. Mapola, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Mapula, see Hibiscus mutabilis. Maraandarayan. see Rauwolfa amsoniaefolia. Marabago, see Thespesia populnea. Marabas, see Sida mysorensis. Marabayabas, see Eugenia aquea. Marabayabas, see Eugenia mananquil. Marachuite, see Croton tiglium. Maradamortis, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Maragatas, see Euphorbia hirta. Maragauak, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Maragaued, see Ehretia navesii. Maragaued, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Maragayaman, see Scindapsus spp. Marag6mon, see Brownlowia lanceolata. Marag6so, see Momordica charantia. Mara-ipus, see Streptocaulon baumii. Maraipus ti bakes, see Tylophora perrottetiana, Marakapas, see Kleinhovia hospita. Marak&pas, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Marakapas, see Thespesia lampas. Maramab6lo, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Maramani, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Mara-mara, see Ehretia microphylla. Marang, see Artocarpus odoratissima. Marang, see Litsea glutinosa. Mardangis, see Nephelium mutabile. Marani6k, see Calanthe veratrifolia. Marantaceae: Fiber plants, i, 365. Medicinal plants, iii, 179. Maraotong, see Acalypha indica. Marapako, see Cyathea spp. Marasiksik, see Oxalis repens. Marasmius capillipes: Description, iii, 124. Edible fungi, iii, 124. Marasmius equicrinis: Description, iii, 124. Non-edible fungus, iii, 124. Maras7mius erumpens: Description, iii, 126. Non-edible fungus, iii, 126. Marasmius patouillardi: Description, iii, 126. Non-edible fungus, iii, 126. Marasmius pilopus: Description, iii, 124. Non-edible fungus, iii, 124. Marasmius siccus: Description, iii, 126. Non-edible fungus, iii, 126. Maratabako, see Elephantopus spicatus. Maratakkim-baka, see Sida acuta. Maratar6ng, see Cordia cumingiana. Maratar6ng, see Sterculia cuneata. Maratar6ng, see Thespesia lampas. Maratekka, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Maratia, see Ehretia microphylla. Maratugi, see Stephania japonica. Marbaar, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Marbas, see Abutilon indicum. Marbas, see Sida mysorensis. Marcilanana, see Emilia sonchifolia. Margarine: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Sesamnum orientale, ii, 168. Maribihok, see Casuarina equisetifolia. Marigh6i, see Ptychoraphis intermedia. Marigold, see Tagetes patula. Marikum, see A belmoschus moschatus. Marinsiano, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Mariu-bariu, see Enhalus acoroides. Marmiangga, see Lunasia amara. Mar-mara-ipus, see Sida javensis. Marobo, see Cinnamomum iners.

Page  300 300 INDEX Marokbar6k, see Pongamia pinnata. Marongg6i, see Moringa oleifera. Maropoto, see Abelmoschus moschatus. Marsdenia tinctoria: Description and distribution, ii, 404, Local name, ii, 404. Dye, ii, 404. Martinezia caryotaefolia: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Marub6, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Marunggai, see Moringa oleifera. Marurugi, see Bambusa spinosa. Marutong, see Euphoria didyma. Masaplhk, see Grewia eriocarpa. Matabang-dikdt, see Paederia foetida. Mata-ku6, see Clerodendron bethvneanum. Matalbak, see Donax cannaeformis. Matalisai, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Matamata, see Aglaia glomerata. Matamata, see Aglaia harmsiana. Matamata, see Euphoria didyma. Matafngal, see Ceriops roxburghiana. Matang-araw, see Mussaenda philippica. Matang-buyfid, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. Matang-hipon, see Breynia rhamnoides. Matang-olang, see Breynia rhamnoides. Matang-saga, see Breynia rhamnoides. Matang-ulam, see Breynia rhamnoides. Matang-ulang, see Abrus precatorius. Matang ulang, see Adenanthera intermedia. Matang-ulang, see Aglaia harmnsiana. Matang-uling, see Salacia prinoides. Matatalina, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Matobat6, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. Mats: Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. Calamus spp., i, 158. Corypha elata, i, 192. Cyperus malaccensis, i, 346. Cyperus radiatus, i, 348. Daemonorops spp., i, 205. Imperata exaltata, i, 340. Korthalsia spp., i, 212. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Musa textilis, i, 364. Nephrolepis hirsutula, i, 323. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Pandanus copelandii, i, 332. Pandanus dubius, i, 334. Pandanus luzonensis, i, 334. Pandanus radicans, i, 334. Pandanus sabotan, i, 334. Pandanus simplex, i, 336. Pandanus tectorius, i, 336. Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. Scirpus grossus, i, 353. Scirpus lacustris, i, 353. Mattapal, see Donax cannaeformis. Matting rush, see Juncus effusus. Mayambago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Mayapis, see Anisoptera thurifera. Mayapis, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Mayatbang, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Maykaudyan, see Apluda mutica. Mayub6, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Mayuo, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Medicinal: Curcuma zedoaria, ii, 183. Local uses, iii, 163. Official plants, iii, 63. Sindora supa, ii, 38. Melanolepis multiglandulosa: Distribution, iii, 201. Local names, iii, 201. Medicinal, iii, 201. Melastomataceae: Dyes, ii, 402. Medicinal plants, iii, 217. Melia azedarach: Distribution, iii, 197. Local name, iii, 197. Medicinal, iii, 197. Meliaceae: Food plants, ii, 302. Mangrove swamps, i, 36. Medicinal plants, iii, 196. Oils, ii, 117. Melochia ubeellata: Description and distribution, i, 397. Local names, i, 397. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 397. Mentecylon ovatumr: Distribution, iii, 217. Local names, iii, 217. Dye, ii, 402. Medicinal, iii, 217. Menispermaceae: Dyes, 11, 388. Fiber plants, i, 375. Medicinal plants, iii, 67, 185. Poisonous plants, iii, 79. Mentha arvensis: Distribution, iii, 233. Local name, iii, 233. Medicinal, iii, 233. Merremnia em7arginata: Distribution, iii, 226. Local names, iii, 226. Medicinal, iii, 226. Merrenmia ny)mplhaeifolia: Description and distribution, i, 408. Local names, i, 408. Fiber, i, 408. Metroxylon rumphii, see Metroxylon sagu. Metroxylon sagu: Description and distribution, i, 408. Figure, i, 221. Local names, i, 220. Alcoholic drink, ii, 252. Food, ii, 252 Uses, i, 220. Miagook, see Hoimonoia riparia. Miagus, see Homonoia riparia. Miapi, see Avicennia oficinalis. Michelia chaimpaca: Description, ii, 188. Figure, ii, 187. Local names, ii, 185. Champaka oil, ii, 185.

Page  301 INDEX 301 Michelia longiflora: Description and distribution, ii, 188. Local name, ii, 188. Oil, ii, 188. Micronmelum minutum: Distribution, iii, 194. Local names, iii, 194. Medicinal, iii, 194. Midbid, see Eugenia mananquil. Milipili, see Canarium villosum. Mimosa pudica: Distribution, iii, 191. Local names, iii, 191. Medicinal, iii, 191. Mimusops parvifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 366. Figure, ii, 367. Local names, ii, 366. Food, ii, 366. Medicinal, iii, 219. Mindanao cinnamon, see Cinnamonmum m danacn se. Mindang, see Macaranga tanarius. Mindoro pine, see Pinus merkusii. Mini, see Donax cannaeformis. Mint, see Mentha arvensis. Miniuniga, see Macaranga tanarius. Mipipi, see Litsea glutinosa. Miscanthus sinensis: Description and distribution, i, 342. Local names i, 342. Fiber, i, 342. Miscellaneous useful plants, iii, 85. Mitbid, see Eugenia mananquil. Modb6d, see Eugenia mananquil. Moling-moling, see Grewia stylocarpa. MoL'ordica charantia: Description and distribution, ii, 376. Local names, iii, 375. Food, ii, 376. Medicinal, iii, 242. Momordica cochinchinensis: Description and distribution, ii, 376. Local names, ii, 376. Food, ii, 376. Medicinal, iii, 242. M6nggo, see Phaseolus aureus. Monotbon6t, see Osbornia octodonta. Mopi6, see 'seuderanthemum pulchellum. M6ra, see Andropogon zizanioides. Moraceae: Dyes, ii, 387. Fiber plants, i, 368. Food plants,'ii, 262. Gums, ii, 70. Medicinal plants, iii, 180. Scouring materials, iii, 51. Morado, see Graptophyllum pictum. Moras, see Andropogon zizanioides. Morinda citrifolia: Description, ii, 406. Distribution, ii, 406; iii, 239. Local names, ii, 405. Dye, ii, 405. Medicinal, iii, 239.,in I Moringaceae: Food plants, ii, 284. Medicinal plants, iii, 188. Oils, ii, 104. Moringa oleifera: Description and distribution, ii, 105. Figure, ii, 283. Local names, ii, 104. Ben oil, ii, 104. Food, ii, 284. Medicinal, iii, 188. Uses, ii, 104. Moropoto, see Triumfetta bartramia. Mosbor6n, see Scaevola frutescens. Mucuna nigricans: Distribution, iii, 192. Local names, iii, 192. Medicinal, iii, 192. Mugwort, see Artemisia vulgaris. Mulabago, see Hibiscus tiliaceus. Mulang, see Ardisia boissieri. Muldto, see Intsia bijuga. Mulauin-aso, see Premna nauseosa. Muling-muling, see Diplociscus paniculatus. Mulumustasa, see Enilia sonchifolia. Munggo, see Phaseolus aureus. Mufngilkil, see Eugenia mananquil. Muntai, see Citrus sp. Muntingia calabura: Description and distribution, i, 386. Local names, i, 385. Fiber, i, 385. Food, ii, 332. Medicinal, iii, 207. Murraya paniculata: Distribution, iii, 194. Local names, iii, 194. Medicinal, iii, 194. Musaceae: Fiber plants, i, 364. Food plants, ii, 259. Medicinal plants, iii, 185. Paper substitute, iii, 92. Musa errans: Distribution, iii, 177. Local names, iii, 177. Medicinal plants, iii, 177. Musa paradisiaca: Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Fiber, i, 364. Paper, i, 416. Musa spp.: Local name, ii, 259; iii, 92. Food, ii, 259. Paper substitute, iii, 92. Musa textilis: Distribution, i, 364. Figure, i, 363. Local name, i, 364. Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Fiber, i, 364. Paper, i, 415. Tensile strength, i, 322. Mushrooms, iii, 97.

Page  302 302 Mussaenda philippica: Distribution, iii, 239. Local names, iii, 239. Medicinal, iii, 239. Mustra, see Kyllinga monocephala. Muta, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Mutha, see Fimbristylis diphylla. Mutha, see Kyllinga monocephala. Muyon, see Mussaenda philippica. Myrmecodia: Distribution, i, 24. Figure, i, 25. Myrsinaceae: Fiber plants, i, 406. Food plants, ii, 362. Mangrove swamps, i, 72. Medicinal plants, iii, 219. Poisonous plants, iii, 81. Tannins, iii, 95. Myrtaceae: Food plants, ii, 354. Mangrove swamps, i, 72. Medicinal plants, iii, 69, 216. N Nab6, see Abroma fastuosa. Naga, see Pterocarpus spp. Nagd6n, see Trema orientalis. Nag-erus, see Aristolochia tagala. Naghibo, see Terminalia comintana. Nakulad, see Lippia nodiflora. Nala, see Pterocarpus spp. Nami, see Dioscorea hispida. Nam6, see Dioscorea hispida. Namut, see Grewia stylocarpa. Nangk&, see Artocarpus integra. Nangnangisit, see Sida rhombifolia. Nara, see Pterocarpus spp. Narandau6l, see Pithelocolobium subacutum. Naranja, see Citrus maxima. Narra, see Pterocarpus blancoi. Nara, see Pterocarpus spp. Nato-pula, see Palaquium philippense. Nauclea junghuhnii: Distribution, iii, 240. Local names, iii, 240. Medicinal, iii, 240. Nauclea orientalis: Distribution, iii, 240. Local names, iii, 240. Medicinal, iii, 240. Naui, see Lygodium circinnatum. Negegan, see Abroma fastuosa. Nelumbium nelumbo: Description and distribution, ii, 278. Figure, iii, 45. Local names, ii, 278. Food, ii, 278. Medicinal, iii, 185. Ornamental, iii, 46. Neowashingtonia filifera: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Nephelium lappaceum: Description and distribution, ii, 828. Figure, ii, 327. Local name, ii, 328. JDEX Nephelium lappaceum-Continued. Food, ii, 328. Rambutan tallow, ii, 148. Nephelium mutabile: Description and distribution, ii, 150, 328. Figure, ii, 329. Local names, ii, 150, 328. Bulala oil, ii, 150. Food, ii, 328. Nephrolepis hirsutula: Description and distribution, i, 323. Local names, i, 323. Fiber, i, 323. Nerium indicum: Distribution, iii, 222. Local names, iii, 222. Medicinal, iii, 222. Ngano, see Grewia stylocarpa. Ngisi-ngisi, see Guioa koelreuteria. Ngotngot, see Cocos nucifera. Nguspil, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Nibong, see Oncosperma filamentosa. Nicotiana tabacum: Distribution, iii, 235. Local name, iii, 235. Medicinal, iii, 235. Nigi, see Xylocarpus granatum. Nigi-puti', see Camptostemon philippinense. Nilad, see Scyphiphora hydrophylacea. Nilar, see Scyphiphora hydrophyUacea. Niog, see Cocos nucifera. Niogni6gan, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Ni6gni6gan, see Orania palindan. Niog-ni6gan, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. Nipa, see Nipa fruticans. Nipa fruticans: Description, i, 32, 222. Distribution, i, 20, 24, 32, 222. Figure, i, 34, 35, 223, 225, 227, 229. Local names, i, 32, 222. Alcohol and alcoholic drinks, i, 224. Cultivation, i, 230. Fiber, i, 224. Sugar, i, 231. Sweatmeats, i, 224. Uses. i. 224. Vinegar, ii, 228. Nipah, see Nipa fruticans. Nipai, see Mucuna nigricans. Nip6i, see Mucuna nigricans. Niri, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Nirih, see Xylocarpus granatum. Nirih, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Nisi-nisi, see Guioa koelreuteria. Nit6, see Dendrobium aureum. Nito, see Lygodium circinnatum. Nito, see Lygodium spp. Nito a dadakkel, see Lygodium flexuosum. Niton-nit6an, see Lygodium scandens. Nitong-puti, see Lygodium circinnatum. Nitong-puti, see Lygodium flexuosum. Nitong-puti, see Lygodium japonicum. Nito-nit6an, see Lygodium scandens. Nitu, see Lygodium flexuosum. Niug, see Cocos nucifera. Niugniugan, see Quisqualis indica.

Page  303 INDEX 303 Njiboeng, see Oncosperma filamentosa. Nothopanax fruticosum: Distribution, iii, 217. Local name, iii, 217. Medicinal, iii, 217. Nyireh, see Xylocarpus granatum. Nyireh batu, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Nymphaeaceae: Food plants, ii, 278. Medicinal plants, iii, 185. Ornamental plants, iii, 46. Nymphaea pubescens: Description and distribution, ii, 278. Local names, ii, 278. Food, ii, 278. 0 Obien, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Obieng, see Flacourtia rukam. 6bod-6bod, see Cyperus radiatus. Ochrosia littoralis: Description and distribution, ii, 370. Local names, ii, 370. Food, ii, 370. Ochrosia oppositifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 372. Local name, ii, 372. Food, ii, 372. Ocimum basilicum: Description and distribution, ii, 218. Local names, ii, 217. Flavoring, ii, 217. Mediinal ii, 217; iii, 70, 233. Perfume, ii, 218. Ocimum sanctum: Description and distribution, ii, 219. Local names, ii, 218. Beads, ii, 218. Medicinal, iii, 233. Oil, ii, 218. Odiau, see Pterocarpus spp. Odling, see Aglaia harmsiana. Od6, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Oenotheraceae: Dyes, ii, 403. Oil adulterant: Sindora supa, ii, 38. Oil cake: Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. Ceiba pentandra, ii, 152. Oil palm, see Elaeis guineensis. Oil, ii, 90. Okra, see Hibiscus esculentus. Oksor, see Ardisia boissieri. Olacaceae: Food plants, ii, 270. Olanig6, see Pandanus radicans. Olasiman, see Bacopa monniera. Olasiman, see Portulaca oleracea. Oldeniandia corymbosa: Distribution, iii, 240. Local name, iii, 240. Medicinal, iii, 240. Oleaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 220. Oleander, see Nerium indicum. Oleandra neriiformis: Distribution, iii, 168. Local names, iii, 168. Medicinal, iii, 168. Oleomargarine: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Olikbiangon, see Commelina benghalensis. Oliva, see Cycas circinalis. Olive oil substitute: Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. Olivo, see Cycas circinalis. O16i, see Artocarpus odoratissima. O1-61, see Pinus insularis. Olos-6los, see Litsea glutinosa. Onau, see Arenga pinnata. Oncosperma filamentosa: Description and distribution, i, 36. Local name, i, 36. Uses, i, 36. Oncosperma filamentosum: Description, i, 231, 232. Distribution, i, 232. Local names, i, 232. Uses, i, 232. Oncosperma gracilipes: Description, i, 232. Oncosperma horridum: Description, i, 232. Local names, i, 232. Oncosperma platyphyllum: Description, i, 232. Oncosperma spp.: Areca nut substitute, ii, 252. Oncosperma tigiUaria: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Onfgli, see Agelaea everettii. Onig6t, see Cocos nucifera. Ongs6i, see Coriandrum sativum. Onion, see AUium cepa. Onychium siliculosum: Distribution, iii, 168. Local names, iii, 168. Medicinal, iii, 168. O6ri, see Amaranthus spinosus. (os, see Sterculia oblongata. Operculina turpethum: Description and distribution, i, 408. Local names, i, 408. Fiber, i, 408. Medicinal, iii, 70, 226. Ophioglossaceae: Food plants, ii, 241. Oplai, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Oplig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. 6po, see Lagenaria leucantha. Opong-6pong, see Sterculia cuneata. Orania decipiens: Description, i, 234. Orania palindan: Description and distribution, i, 234. Figure, i, 233. Local names, i, 234. Ornamental, i, 234. Orania paraguanensis: Description, i, 234. Orania philippinensis, see Orania palindan.

Page  304 304 Orania rubiginosa: Description, i, 234. Oras, see Schizostachyum lumampao. Orchidaceae: Fiber plants, i, 365. Gums, ii, 68. Medicinal plants, iii, 179. Ornamental plants, iii, 12. Oregano, see Coleus amboinicus. Oregano-lalaki, see Coldenia procumbens. Oreodoxa ochracea: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Oreodoxa regia: Description and distribution, i, 234. Figure, i, 235. Local name, i, 234. Ornamental, i, 234. Oringon, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Oring-oring, see Adonidia merrillii. Ornamental plants, iii, 7. Adonidia merrillii, i, 139. Areca ipot, i, 148. Areca vidaliana, i, 148. Arenga ambong, i, 150. Arenga niindoreasis, i, 158. Arenga trenmula, i, 158. Bambusa glaucescens, i, 258. Bamtbusa spinosa, i, 260. Caryota cuniingii, i, 182. Caryota nmajestica, i, 182. Caryota mierrillii, i, 182. Caryota mitis, i, 182. Caryota rimphiana, i, 182. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Heterospathe elata, i, 210. Licuala spinosa, i, 212. Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Orania lpalindan, i, 234. Oreodoxa regia, i, 234. Pinanga spp., i, 236. Zalacca clemensiana, i, 243. Oroi, see AmorphophaUus campanulatuzs. Oroxylunz indicunm: Description and distribution, ii, 375. Local names, ii, 375. Food, ii, 375. Medicinal, iii, 236. Orthosiphon aristatus: Description and distribution, iii, 72. Medicinal, iii, 72. Oryza sativa: Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Local names, iii, 171. Fiber, i, 342. Medicinal, iii, 171. Osbornia octodonta: Description, i, 72. Figure, i, 73. Local names i, 72. Caulking material, i, 72. Timber, i, 72. Ottelia alismoides: Description and distribution, ii, 248. Local names, ii, 248. [NDEX Ottelia alismoides-Continued. Food, ii, 248. Medicinal, iii, 169. Owaing6, see Pandanus radicans. Oxalidacea: Food plants, ii, 294. Medicinal Flants, iii, 193. Soap substitutes, iii, 56. Oxalis repens: Description and distribution, ii, 296. Local names, ii, 296. Salad ingredient, ii, 296. Oyaing6, see Pandanus radicans. P Paang-baliwis, see Malachra capitata. Paang-baliwis, see Malachra fasciata. Pabellhn de angel, see Quamoclit pinnata. Pachyrrhizus erosus: Description and distribution, ii, 110. Local names, ii, 110. Food, ii, 292. Singkamas oil, ii, 110. Padda-paddak-pfsa, see Sida javensis. Padir, see Justicia gendarussa. Padsahifngin, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Paederia foetida: Distribution, iii, 240. Local names, iii, 240. Medicinal, iii, 240. Pagai, see Oryza sativa. Paga-paga, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Pagatapit, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Pagatpat, see Sonneratia alba. Pagatpat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Pagbaotot, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. Pagbilau, see Elephantopus scaber. Pagiruga, see Antidesma bunius. Pagoi, see Oryza sativa. Pagpagai, see Ageratum conyzoides. Pagpagan, see Mimnusops parvifolia. Pagsahiingan, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Pagsahiingin, see Canarium luzonicum. Pagsahiingin, see Canarium villosum. Pagsahingin resin: Canarium1 villosum, ii, 49. Pagsaiingin, see Canarium luzonicum. Pagsaiingin, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Paguliingin, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Pagulingon, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Paho, see Mangifera altissinma. Paho, see Mangifera indica. Pahuhftan, see Mangifera altissima. Pahfitan, see Mangifera altissima. Paina, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Paints: Aleurites moluccana, ii, 124. Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. Sindora inermis, ii, 38. Sindora supa, ii, 38. Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. Paipai-am6, see Drynaria quercifolia. Paitan, see Lunasia amara. Paitan, see Pygeum preslii. Pakagonk6n, see Cassia alata.

Page  305 INDEX 305 Pakak, see Artocarpus communis. Pakalkal, see Abroma fastuosa. Pakalsa, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Pakan, see Senzecarpus cuneiformis. Pakapis, see Clerodendron intermedium. Pakaran, see Palaquium philippense. Pakarohai, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Pakat, see Ceriops tagal. Paket, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Pakiling, see Ficus ulmifolia. Pakin-bakir, see Helicteres hirsuta. Pakit, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Pak6, see Asplenium macrophyllum. Pak6, see Athyrium esculentum. Pak6, see Drynaria quercifolia. Pak6, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. Pak6, see Onychiurn siliculosum. Pakoidan, see Ochrosia littoralis. Pakol, see Musa errans. Pak6ng-anfiang, see Onychium siliculosum. Pak6ng-glfbat, see Asplenium macrophyUum. Pak6-pak6, see Nephrolepis hirsutula. Pakos larat, see Acrostichum aureum. Pakpak-lauin, see Drynaria quercifolia. Pakpako-ti-alog, see Grangea maderaspatana. Pakpak-tutubi, see Ventilago dichotoma. Paksahifngin, see Canarium viUosum. Paksion, see Guioa koelreuteria. Pakii, see Oryza sativa. Paku laut, see Acrostichum aureum. Pakupakuan, see Acrostichum aureum. Pakupakuan, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Palagtiki, see Elusine indica. Palai, see Oryza sativa. Palak-palak, see Palaquium philippense. Palak-pilak, see Sterculia crassiramea. Palalan, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Palali, see Dillenia philippinensis. Palali, see Dillenia reifferscheidia. Palanau, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Palandiauan, see Premna cumingiana. Palange, see Garcinia vidalii. Palangi, see Garcinia vidalii. Palang6, see Cyathea spp. Palangpalang, see Ipomoea pes-caprae. Palapat, see Sonneratia alba. Palaquium ahernianum: Description and distribution, ii, 82. Figure, ii, 75, 77, 79, 81. Local names, ii, 76. Collection of gutta-percha, ii, 76. Export of gutta-percha, ii, 76. Uses, ii, 82. Palaquium oleosuin, see Palaquium philippense. Palaquium philippense. Description and distribution, ii, 366. Figure, ii, 368. Local names, ii, 366. Food, ii, 366. Oil, ii, 168. Palaquium spp.: Medicinal, iii, 70. Palata, see Sonneratia alba. Palatangan, see Aglaia harmsiana. Palatiangen, see Aglaia harmsiana. 177674-20 Palauan, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Palauan, see Cyrtosperma merkusii. Palaupalau, see Barringtonia asiatica. Pale, see Oryza sativa. Pali, see Oryza sativa. Palia-laut, see Colubrina asiatica. Palias, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Palikpik-hito, see Sapindus saponaria. Palina, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Palindan, see Orania palindan. Paling, see Barringtonia racemosa. Paling-harap, see Anisomeles indica. Palipe, see Pothos spp. Palis, see CaUicarpa erioclona. Palis, see Callicarpa formosana. Pal-la, see Alpinia pyramidata. Pallaipat-baibai, see Enhalus acoroides. Pallopall6t, see Triunmfetta bartramia. Palma brava, see Livistona rotundifolia. l'almae: Food plants, ii, 250. Mangrove swamps, i, 32. Medicinal plants, iii, 65, 172. Oils, ii, 93. Palms and palm products, i, 127. Palm-kernel oil: Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Palm oil: Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Palo-china, see Cassia alata. 'alo-kaitana, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Palomaria, see CalophyUum blancoi. Palomaria, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Palomaria, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Palomaria, see Leucaena glauca. Palomaria de la playa, see Calophyllum inophyllum. Palomaria del m6nte, see Calophyllum blancoi. Palongapui, see Heritiera littoralis. Palong-man6k, see Kleinhovia hospita. Palongp6ng, see Embelia philippinensis. Palosanto, see Rourea volubilis. Palos&pis, see Anisoptera thurifera. Palosapis resin: Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. Palpalsuut, see Sphaeranthus africanus. Palpalt6og, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Palsahingin, see Canarium luzonicum. Palsahifngin, see Canarium viUosum. Paltak-vaka, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Paltuk-paltukan, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Paluahan, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Palugapig, see Heritiera littoralis. Palum&i, see Spilanthes acmellia. Palumpfing, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Palfpo, see Wikstroemia indica. Palutan, see Flacourtia indica. Pam&go, see Pericampylus glaucus. Pamainap, see Aerua lanata. Pamalalien, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Pamalat'angen, see Chisocheton pentandrus. Pamamalien, see Dillenia philippinensis. Pamangkilon, see Amorphophallus campanulatus.

Page  306 306 INDEX Pamantulen, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Pamantullen, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Pamarnisen, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. Pamarnisen, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Pamatagin, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Pamiasin, see Adenanthera intermedia. Pamilaten, see Calophyllum blancoi. Pamiliingan, see Pygeum preslii. Pamitta6gen, see Calophyllum blancoi. Pamitta6gen, see CalophyUum inophyllum. Pampar, see Kleinhovia hospita. Pampasapit, see Plumbago indica. Pamut6len, see Guioa koelreuteria. Panab6long, see Scaevola frutescens. Panabon, see Ardisia serrata. Pandbor, see Eurycles amboinensis. Panabul6n, see Cerbera manghas. Panaeolus panaiense: Description, iii, 122. Edible fungi, iii, 122. Panaeolus papilionaceus: Edible fungi, iii, 124. Panaeolus pseudopapilionaceus: Description, iii, 122. Edible fungi, iii, 122. Panaeolus veluticeps: Figure, iii, 123. Edible fungi, iii, 124. Panagisien, see Mallotus philippinensis. Panampat, see Kleinhovia hospita. Panaptum, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Panau, see Dipterocarpus grandiflorus. P&naf, see Dipterocarpus vernicifluus. Pan' au, see, Imperata cylindrica. Panau verdadero, see Dipterocarpus grandifiorus. Pandakaki, see Cerbera manghas. Pandak&ki, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Pandakaki-itim, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Pandakaki-puti see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Pandan, see Pandanus copelandii. Pandan, see Pandanus simplex. Pandan, see Pandanus tectorius. Pandan, common or beach, see Pandanus tectorius. Pandanaceae: Fiber plants, i, 332. Medicinal plants, iii, 169. Pandan de china, see Pandanus luzonensis. Pandans, see Pandanus spp. Pandin-tot6o, see Pandanus simplex. Pandanus copelandii: Description and distribution, i, 332. Local names, i, 332. Fiber, i, 334. Pandanus dubius: Description and distribution, i, 334. Local names, i, 334. Fiber, i, 334. Pandanus luzonensis: Description and distribution, i, 334. Local name, i, 334. Fiber, i, 334. Pandanus radicans: Description and distribution, i, 334. Local names, i, 334. Fiber, i, 334. Pandanus sabotan: Description and distribution, i, 334. Figure, i, 333. Local name, i, 334. Cultivation, i, 334. Fiber, i, 336. Pandanus simplex: Description and distribution, i, 336. Figure, i, 335. Local names, i, 336. Fiber, i, 336. Pandanus tectorius: Description, i, 338. Distribution, i, 336. Figure, i, 335, 337. Local names, i, 336. Fiber, i, 338. Medicinal, iii, 169. Paingahutan, see Mangifera altissima. Pafngalamutien, see Alstonia macrophylla. Paingalanud-dien, see Alstonia macrophylla. Pangalisokl6en, see Alstonia mnacrophylla. Pangal-linasu, see Pterosperrnum obliquum. Paingalussiten, see Terminalia calamansanai. Pangan, see Sterculia oblongata. Paiiganto-an, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Pakngapat6ten, see Pavetta indica. Pangarand6fngen, see Trema orientalis. Pangardisen, see Bombycidendron vidalianum. Pangdan, see Pandanus copelandii. Pangdan, see Pandanus tectorius. Pang-guisf, see Aristolochia sericea. Pangi, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Pringi, see Pangium edule. Pangium edule: Description and distribution, ii, 352. Figure, ii, 351. Local names, ii, 348. Food, ii, 348. Oil, ii, 161. Panglan, see Pandanus tectorius. Panglingain, see Pterospermum obliquum. Panglongb6ien, see Eugenia mananquil. Panglumb6ien, see Eugenia calubcob. Panglumbuyen, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Pangmanggaen, see Mangifera altissima. Pangmarunggayen, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Pangolaksien, see Alstonia macrophylla. Pangungan, see Ximenia americana. Pafnguplasen, see Mallotus philippinensis. Pangyau, see Nephelium mutabile. Panicum palmaefolium: Description and distribution, ii, 250. Figure, ii, 249. Local names, ii, 250. Rice substitute, ii, 250. Panicum stagninum: Disrtribution, iii, 171. Local names, iii, 171. Medicinal, iii, 171. Panigbin, see Corchorus capsularis.

Page  307 INDEX 307 Panikin, see Pygeum preslii. Pansi-pansi, see Leucas lavandulifolia. Panting-panting, see Lumnitzera littorea. Panting-panting, see Plumbago indica. Pantog-lobo, see Hernandia ovigera. Panuto, see Euphoria didyma. Paoli, see Grewia stylocarpa. Papait, see Lunasia amara. Papait ti nuang, see Coldenia procumbens. Papasil, see Lumnitzera littorea. Pap&ya, see Carica papaya. Paper: Agave cantula, i, 415. Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. Anisoptera thurifera, i, 423-425. Bambusa blumeana, i, 422. Bambusa lumampao, i, 422. Bambusa spinosa, i, 419. Corypha elata, i, 421. Imperata exaltata, i, 419-422. Musa paradisiaca, i, 416. Musa textilis, i, 415. Oryza sativa, i, 422. Parkia javanica, i, 423-425. Pentacme contorta, i, 423-425. Saccharum sara, i, 421. Saccharum spontaneum, i, 419-422. Schizostachyun lumampao, i, 416-419. Wikstroemia indica, i, 421. Wikstroemnia meyeniana, i, 421. Wikstroemia ovata. i, 421. Paper, non-bibilous: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Paper pulp: Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. Imperata exaltata, i, 340. Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. Wikstroemia spp., i, 403. Paper size: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Paper substitutes: Homalomena philippinensis, iii, 90. Musa spp., iii, 92. Paper, transparent: Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. Sindora inermis, ii, 38. Sindora supa, ii, 48. Pappagan, see Mimusops parvifolia. Papu&, see Nothopanax fruticosum. Paputukan, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Paraiso, see Melia azedarach. Paralstonia clusiacea: Distribution, iii, 223. Local names, iii, 223. Medicinal, iii, 223. Parameria barbata: Medicinal, iii, 223. Parandang, see Mallotus philippinensis. Paraingis-sabungan, see Eleusine indica. Parapit, see Ammania baccifera. Pararan, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Parasablut, see Litsea glutinosa. Parashorea malaanonan: Resin, ii, 52. Parda, see Phaseolus lunatus. Pare'-pare', see Cissampelos pareira. Pari', see Cissampelos pareira. Paria, see Momordica charantia. Pariia-so, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Pariam, see Momordica charantia. Parida, see Clerodendron bethuneanum. Parina, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Parini, see Sindora inermis. Paritulot, see Justicia gendarussa. Parkia javanica: Dimensions of fiber, i, 423. Paper, i, 423-425. Parog-parog-ti-noang, see Momordica cochinchinensis. Paroi, see Oryza sativa. Parol-parolan, see Aristolochia tagala. Paronapin, see Heritiera littoralis. Paronipoi, see Heritiera littoralis. Parparia, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Partian, see Parameria philippinensis. Parua, see Pinus insularis. Parug-parug, see Momordica cochinchinensis. Parukapol, see Vaccinium whitfordii. Pasa, see Areca catechu. Pasak, see Bassia betis. Pasak, see Mimusops parvifolia. Pasakla, see Ficus pachyphyUa. Pasalk6l, see Malanolepis multiglandulosa. Pasanglai, see Asclepias curassavica. P&sau, see Corchorus olitorius. Pasau, see Graptophyllum pictum. Pasau-hapai, see Jussiaea linifolia. Pasau na bilog, see Corchorus capsularis. Pasau, na haba', see Corchorus acutangulus. Pasguik, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Pasingan, see Bambusa spinosa. Pasioki, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Pasnit, see Kibatalia blancoi. Pas6so, see Eugenia mananquil. Pas6tis, see Chenopodium amnbrosioides. Paspalum scrobiculatum: Distribution, iii, 171. Local names, iii, 171. Medicinal, iii, 171. Paste: Cordia myxa, ii, 88. Pasfika, see Tylophora brevipes. Pata, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Pataga, see Pandanus copelandii. Pataktol, see Ardisia boissieri. Patalsik, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Patini, see Phaseolus lunatus. Patchouli, see Pogostemon cablin. Patchouli oil: Pogostemon cablin, ii, 219. Patikan, see Caryota cumingii. Patling, see Grewia stylgcarpa. Pat6la, see Luffa cylindrica. Pat6ng, see Dendrocalamus latiflorus. Patpat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Patsaiingin, see Canarium villosum. Patigo, see Cycas circinalis. Paua, see Bambusa spinosa. Paua, see Flagellaria indica. Paua, see Schizostachyum fenixii. Pauai, see Fimbristylis diphylla. Pauai, see Indigofera suffruticosa.

Page  308 308 INDEX Pauid, see nipa fruticans. Paunapin, see Heritiera littoralis. Pavetta indica: Distribution, iii, 241. Local names, iii, 241. Medicinal, iii, 241. Payafngit, see Marsdenia tinctoria. Payapa, see Ficus payapa. Payar, see Sonneratia alba. Payena leerii: Distribution, ii, 82. Figure, ii, 83. Gutta-percha, ii, 82. Payinf, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Peanut, see Arachis hypogaea. Peanut oil: Arachis hypogaea, ii, 108. Pedada, see Sonneratia alba. Pedaliaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 236. Oils, ii, 168. Pedis, see Garcinia venulosa. Peinga-penga, see Heliotropium indicum. Pentacme contorta: Dimensions of fiber, i, 423. Paper, i, 423-425. Resin, ii, 52. Pentapetes phoenicea: Distribution, iii, 211. Local name, iii, 211. Medicinal, iii, 211. Pepinillo de San Gregorio, see Luffa cylindrica. Perag'is, see Paspalum scrobiculatum, Perapat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Perepat, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Peres, see Citrus hystrix. Peres, see Garcinia vidalii. Perfume: Acacia farnesiana, ii, 204. Acorus calarrus, ii, 181. Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. Canangium odoratum, ii, 189, Citrus hystrix, ii, 210. Curcuma zedoaria, ii, 183. Michelia champaka, ii, 185. Michelia longifora, ii, 188. Pogostemon cablin, ii, 219. Perfume oil: Sindora inermis, ii, 38. Perfumery: Andropogon citratus, ii, 174. Andropogon nardus, ii, 176. Citrus micrantha, ii, 210. Ocimum basiicum, ii, 218. Toddalia asiatica, ii, 214. Pericampylus glaucus: Description and distribution, i, 875. Figure, i, 377. Local names, i, 375. Fiber, i, 375. Peris, see Garcinia venulosa. Peristrophe bivalvis: Description and distribution, ii, 404. Local names, ii, 404. Peristrophe bivalvis-Continued. Dye, ii, 404. Perog-parog-ti-tawo, see Momordica cochin. chinensis. Petroleum nut, see Pittosporum resiniferum. Petroleum-nut oil: Pittosporum resiniferum, ii, 106. Phaeanthus ebracteolatus: Description and distribution, i, 376. Local names, i, 376. Fiber, i, 376. Phalaenopsis amabilis: Description and distribution, iii, 30. Figure, iii, 34. Local name, iii, 30. Ornamental, iii, 30. Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana: Description and distribution, iii, 36, Figure, iii, 35. Local names, iii, 36. Ornamental, iii, 36. Phalaenopsis schiUeriana: Description and distribution, iii, 36. Local name, iii, 36. Ornamental, iii, 36. Phalaenopsis sp.: Figure, iii, 37. Phaleria cumingii: Description and distribution, i, 403. Local names, i, 403. Fiber, i, 403. Phaleria perrottetiana: Description and distribution, i, 403. Local names, i, 403. Fiber, i, 403. Phaseolus aureus: Distribution, iii, 192. Local names, iii, 192. Medicinal, iii, 192. Phaseolus lunatus: Description, ii, 292. Local names, ii, 292. Food, ii, 292. Phoenix canariensis: Ornamental, i, 236. Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Phoenix dactylifera: Distribution, i, 236. Phoenix hanceana: Description and distribution, i, 236. Local name, i, 236. Rain coats, i, 236. Phoenix pusilla: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Phoenix roebelenii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Phoenix rupicola: Ornamental, i, 236. Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Phragmites karka: Description and distribution, i, 342. Local names, i, 342. Fiber, i, 342. Phragmites vulgaris: Description and distribution, i, 344. Figure, i, 343, 345.

Page  309 INDEX 309 Phragmites vulgaris-Continued. Local names, i, 342. Fiber, i, 342, 344. Phyllanthus niruri: Distribution, iii, 201. Local names iii, 201. Medicinal, iii, 201. Phyllanthus reticulatus: Description and distribution, iii, 90. Local names, iii, 90. Ink, iii, 90. Medicinal, iii, 201. Physic nut, see Jatropha curcas. Physic-nut oil: Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Piadak, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Piagau, see Xylocarpus granatum. Piaglu, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Piagau oil: Xylocarpus moluccensis, ii, 118. Piai, see Acrostichum aureum. Pianga, see Bassia betis. Piapi, see Avicennia alba. Piapi, see Avicennia officinalis. Piay, see Acrostichum aureum. Pichik, see Oxalis repens. Picture frames: Saccharum oficinarum, i, 344. Saccharuvm spontaneum, i, 344. Piekal, see Mall9tus philippinensis. Piet, see Corypha elata. Piksik, see Avicennia ofBicinalis. Pilai, see Rubus niveus. Pilapil, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Pilauai, see Canarium ovatum. Pilauai, see Eugenia polycephaloides. Pilaui, see Canarium ovatum. Pilea microphylla: Distribution, iii, 182. Medicinal, iii, 182. Pilet-pilet, see Spilanthes acmellia. Pili, see Canarium luzonicum. Pill, see Canarium ovatum. Pilig, see Livistona rotundifolia. Pili-nut oil: Canarium ovatum, ii, 114. Pilipili, see Aglaia harmsiana. Pillows: Asclepias curassavica, i, 407. Bombax ceiba, i, 392. Ceiba pentandra, i, 394. Typha angustifolia, i, 330. Pilokong, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Pinaceae: Resin, ii, 18. Tannins, iii, 92. Pinanga barnesii: Description, i, 238. Pinanga basilanensis: Description, i, 241. Pinanga batanensis: Description, i, 241. Pinanga copelandii: Description, i, 238. Pinanga curranii: Description, i, 239. Pinanga elmerii: Description, i, 239. Pinanga geonomaeformis: Description, i, 238. Pinanga heterophylla: Description, i, 238. Pinanga insignis: Description, i, 236, 241. Pinanga isabelensis: Description, i, 238. Pinanga kuhlii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Pinanga maculata: Description, i, 238. Pinanga modesta: Description, i, 238. Pinanga negrosensis: Description, i, 240. Pinanga philippinensis: Description, i, 236, 239. Figure, i, 237. Pinanga rigida: Description, i, 240. Pinanga samarana: Description, i, 239. Pinanga sclerophylla: Description, i, 240. Pinanga sibuyanensis: Description, i, 241. Pinanga speciosa: Description, i, 241. Pinanga spp.: Description, i, 236. Local names, i, 241. Areca-nut substitute, ii, 252. Conspectus of the species, i, 238. Pinanga urdanetana: Description, i, 239. Pinanga urosperma: Description, i, 239. Pinanga woodiana: Description, i, 240. Pineapple, see Ananas comosus. Pinggapinggahan, see Oroxylum indicum. Pingg6t, see Juncus effusus. Pingit, see Ardisia boissieri. Pingkapingkahan, see Oroxylum indicum. Pinit, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Pino, see Agathis alba. Pii6nes, see Quisqualis indica. Pintaka, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Pinus insularis: Description and distribution, ii, 82, 84. Figure, ii, 31, 33, 35. Local names, ii, 30. Analysis of turpentine, ii, 82. Method of boxing, ii, 30. Tannin, iii, 92. Turpentine, ii, 30. Pinus merkusii: Description and distribution, ii, 84. Figure, ii, 36.

Page  310 310 Pinus merkusii-Continued. Local names, ii, 34. Turpentine, ii, 34. Piperaceae: Food plants, ii, 260. Medicinal plants, iii, 66, 179. Piper betle: Description and distribution, iii, 66. Local names, iii, 66. Buyo chewing, ii, 252. Medicinal, iii, 66, 179. Piper nigrum: Distribution, iii, 180. Local name, iii, 180. Medicinal, iii, 180. Piper retrofractum: Distribution, iii, 180. Local names, iii, 180. Medicinal, iii, 180. Piper umbeUatum var. subpeltatum: Description and distribution, ii, 260. Local names, ii, 260. Condiment, ii, 260. Pipes (water): Gigantochloa levis, i, 262. Pipestems: Arundinaria niitakayamensis, i, 258. Pipisig, see Avicennia officinalis. Pipisik, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Pipisik, see Avicennia officinalis. Pipturus arborescens: Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Pirara, see Sonneratia caseolaris. Piris, see Garcinia vidalii. Pisa, see Areca hutchinsoniana. Pisa, see Canarium luzonicum. Pisa, see Canarium vilosum. Pisik. see Centipeda minima. Piso-piso, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. Pisos-pisos, see Quamoclit pinnata. Pistia stratiotes: Distribution, ii, 254. Local names, ii, 254. Hog food, ii, 254. Scrubbing, ii, 254. Pita, see Areca vidaliana. Pithecolobium dulce: Description and distrbution, ii, 292. Figure, ii, 295. Local names, ii, 292. Food, ii, 292. Kamanchile oil, ii, 110. Tannin, iii, 93. Pithecolobium subacutum: Description and distribution, ii, 394. Local names, ii, 394. Dye, ii, 394. Pitjoeng oil: Pangium edule, ii, 161. Pit6go, see Cycas rumphii. Pittosporaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 189. Oils, ii, 105. Pittosporum pentandrum: Description and distribution, ii, 106. Local names, ii, 105. INDEX Pittosporum pentandrum-Continued. Mamalis oil, ii, 105. Medicinal, iii, 189. Pittosporum resiniferum: Description and distribution, ii, Figure, ii, 107. Local names, ii, 106. Petroleum-nut oil, ii, 106. Plantaginaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 74, 238. Plantago major: Description and distribution, iii, Local names, iii, 74. Medicinal, iii, 74, 238. Plantain, see Plantago major. Platycerium biforme: Description and distribution, iii, Figure, iii, 6. Local name, iii, 12. Plectocomia elmeri: Description, i, 242. Pleurotus applicatus: Edible fungi, iii, 136. Pleurotus noctileucens: Edible fungi, iii, 136. Pleurotus ostrcatus: Description, iii, 136. Figure, iii, 137. Edible fungi, iii, 136. Pleurotus striatulus: Edible fungi, iii, 136. Pleurya interrupta: Distribution, iii, 182. Local names, iii, 182. Medicinal, iii, 182. Pluchea indica: Description, i, 84. Local names, i, 84. Plumbaginaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 219. Plumbago indica: Distribution, iii, 219. Local names, iii, 219. Medicinal, iii, 219. Plumbago zeylanica: Distribution, iii, 219. Local names, iii, 219. Medicinal plants, iii, 219. Plumiera acuminata: Distribution, iii, 223. Local names, iii, 223. Medicinal, iii, 223. Pogostemon cablin: Description and distribution, ii, 2 Figure, ii, 221. Medicinal, iii, 233. Perfume, ii, 219. Poisonous plants, iii, 79. Pola, see Caryota cumingii. Polianthes tuberosa: Distribution, iii, 177. Local names, iii, 177. Medicinal, iii, 177. Polish: Schizostachyum lima, i, 264. 108. 74. 12. 222.

Page  311 INDEX 311 Polyalthia flava: Description and distribution, i, 376. Local name, i, 376. Rope, i, 376. Polygalaceae: Soap substitutes, iii, 56. Polygonaceae: Medicinal, iii, 183. Polygonum barbatum: Distribution, iii, 183. Local names, iii, 183. Medicinal, iii, 183. Polynesian ivory-nut palm, see Coelococcus amnicarunv. Polypodiaceae: Fiber plants, i, 323. Food plants, ii, 241. Medicinal plants, iii, 167. Mangrove swamps, i, 32. Ornamental plants, ii, 11. Polypl)dium sinuatumn: Description and distribution, i, 24. Figure, i, 27. Polyporaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 116. Pomade: Acacia farnesiana, ii, 204. Pomelo, see Citrus maxima. Ponganmia pinnata: Description and distribution, i, 379; ii, 111, 112. Figure, ii, 113. Local names, i, 379; ii, 111. Fiber, i, 379. Medicinal, iii, 192. Pongam oil, ii, 111. Pongam oil: Pongamia pinnata, ii, 111. Pongp6ng, see Embelia philippinensis. Poot-si-nuang, see Urena lobata. P6ro, see Fatoua pilosa. Porong, see Grewia stylocarpa. Partulacaceae: Food plants, ii, 276. Medicinal plants, iii, 185. Portulaca oleracea: Description and distribution, ii, 276. Distribution, iii, 185. Local names, ii, 276. Food, ii, 276. Medicinal, iii, 185. Pothoidium lobbianum: Description and distribution, i, 354. Local names, i, 354. Fiber, i, 353, 354. Pothos spp.: Description and distribution, i, 354. Figure, i, 355. Local names, i, 354. Fiber, i, 353, 354. P6totan, see Bruguiera conjugata. Pot6tan, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Pot6tan, see Bruguiera parviflora. Pot6tan, see Bruguiera sexangula. Pot6tan-babae, see Bruguiera sexangula. Pot6tan-laliki, see. Bruguiera cylindrica. Pouzolzia zeylanica: Distribution, iii, 182. Medicinal, iii, 182. Prayer-bean, see Abrus precatorius. Premna cumingiana: Distribution, iii, 231. Local names, iii, 231. Medicinal, iii, 231. Premna nauseosa: Description and distribution, ii, 373. Distribution, iii, 231. Local names, ii, 373; iii, 231. Medicinal, iii, 231. Piper betle substitute, ii, 373. Premna odorata: Distribution, iii, 231. Local names, iii, 231. Medicinal, iii, 231. Preservative, leather: Ricinus communis, ii, 143. Preservative, wood: Aleurites moluccana, ii, 126. Anacardium occidentale, ii, 146. Pritchardia gaudichaudii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Pritchardia pacifica: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Pseuderanthemumr pulchellum: Distribution, iii, 238. Local names, iii, 238. Medicinal, iii, 238. Psidium guajava: Description and distribution, ii, 360. Figure, ii, 363. Local names, ii, 360. Food, ii, 360. Medicinal, iii, 69, 216. Psychotria luzoniensis: Distribution, iii, 241. Local names, iii, 241. Medicinal, iii, 241. Psychotria mindorensis: Distribution, iii, 241. Local name, iii, 241. Medicinal, iii, 241. Pterocarpus blancoi: Distribution, iii, 192. Figure, ii, 397. Local names, iii, 192. Medicinal, iii, 192. Pterocarpus indicus: Figure, ii, 395, 397. Pterocarpus spp.: Local names, ii, 396. Dye, ii, 396. Pterocarpus vidaliana: Figure, ii, 397. Pterocaulon redolens: Distribution, iii, 245. Local names, iii, 245. Medicinal, iii, 245. Pterocymbium tinctorium: Description and distribution, i, 898. Figure, i, 899.

Page  312 312 INDEX Pterocymbium tinctorium-Continued. Local names, i, 398. Medicinal, iii, 211. Rope, i, 398. Tensile strength, i, 321. Pterospermum diversifolium: Description, i, 398. Distribution, i, 400. Local names, i, 398. Dye, ii, 399. Medicinal, iii, 211. Rope, i, 398. Tensile strength, i, 321. Pterospermum niveum: Description and distribution, i, 400. Local names, i, 400. Dye, ii, 399. Fiber, i, 400. Pterospermum obliquum: Description and distribution, ii, 400. Local names, ii, 399. Dye, ii, 400. Ptychoraphis cagayanensis: Description, i, 242. Ptychoraphis elmerii: Description, i, 242. Local name, i, 242. Ptychoraphis intermedia: Description, i, 242. Local name, i, 242. Ptychoraphis microcarpa: Description, i, 242. Ptychosperma macarthurii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Pueng, see Ischaemum angustifolium. Puenig, see Ischaemum angustifolium. Pugahan, see Caryota cumingii. Pugapong, see Piper umbellatum Puguhan, see Caryota cumingii. Puis, see Averrhoa bilimbi. Pulau, see Nymphaea pubescens. Puled, see Grewia stylocarpa. Pulit, see Grewia stylocarpa. Pulit, see Xylocarpus granatum. Pulpulto, see Justicia gendarussa. Pulpuilto, see Pseuderanthemum puzchellum. Pumangga, see Mangifera indica. Pundfing, see Avicennia alba. Pufngapun^g, see AmorphophaUus campanulatus. Pung6s, see KyUinga monocephala. Punit, see Cyathea spp. Punlaing, see Cocos nucifera. Puntalefante, see Rotala aquatica. Puntas-puntas, see Ipomoea digitata. Puos, see Ficus forstenii. Pupugan, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Purgative oil: Croton tiglium, ii, 138. Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Ricinus communis, ii, 143. Sterculia foetida, ii, 154. Puriket, see Bidens pilosa. Purikit, see Urena lobata. Puropagai, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatua. Purpurdok, see Cardiospermum halicacabum. Purpurikit, see Bidens chinensis. Puser, see Schizostachyum fenixii. Puspus, see Ficus forstenii. Putad, see Barringtonia acutangula. Putad, see Barringtonia racemosa. Putat, see Barringtonia acutangula. Pftat, see Barringtonia racemosa. Putat oil: Barringtonia racemosa, ii, 162. Puti-i babaye, see Lophopetalum toxicum. Puti-i lalike, see Lophopetalum toxicum. Putoput6han, see Scindapsus spp. Putut, see Bruguiera conjugata. Putut, see Bruguiera sexangula. Pututan, see Bruguiera conjugata. Putitan, see Bruguiera sexangula. Puyas, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Puyugau, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Puyus, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Pycnarrhena manilensis: Distribution, iii, 186. Local names, iii, 186. Medicinal, iii, 186. Pygeum glandulosum: Description and distribution, ii, 389. Local names, ii, 388. Dye, ii, 389. Pygeum preslii: Description and distribution, ii, 389. Local names, ii, 389. Dye, ii, 389. Q Quamoclit pinnata: Distribution, iii, 226. Local names, iii, 226. Medicinal, iii, 226. Quisqualis indica: Distribution, iii, 215. Local names, iii, 215. Medicinal, iii, 215. R Rabo de le6n, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Rabo de tigre, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Ragiang, see Alocasia macrorrhiza. Ragini, see Rubus rosaefolius. Ragiu, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. Ragiu-diu, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. Ragiudiu, see Scirpus grossus. Rag-ragadi, see Achyranthes aspera. Raincoats: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Phoenix hanceana, i, 236. Raiya-raiya, see Ficus hauili. Rakido, see Rhynchospora corymbosa. Rambutan, see Nephelium lappaceum. Rambutan tallow: Nephelium lappaceum, ii, 148. Ramie, see Boehmeria nivea. Rangran~gu, see Ipomoea pes-tigridis.

Page  313 INDEX 313 Rangranigu fng abuduan, see Ipomoea pestigridis. Raphia ruffia: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Raphidophora merrillii: Description, i, 356. Figure, i, 357, 358. Fiber, i, 353 356. Raphidophora spp.: Fibers, i, 856. Rapitan, see Arenga pinnata. Rap6k, see Sterculia stipularis. Ratiles, see Muntingia calabura. Rauwolfia amsoniaefolia: Distribution, iii, 223. Local names, iii, 223. Medicinal, iii, 223. Reforestation crop: Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. Renanthera storiei: Description and distribution, iii, 36. Ornamental, iii, 36. Rhamnaceae: Fiber plants, i, 380. Medicinal plants, iii, 205. Soap substitutes, iii, 59. Rhaphidophora merrillii: Distribution, iii, 174. Local names, iii, 174. Medicinal, iii, 174. Rhinacanthus nasuta: Distribution, iii, 238. Local names, iii, 238. Medicinal, iii, 238. Rhizophora candelaria: Description, i, 62, 68. Distribution, i, 22, 62. Figure, i, 10, 65. Local names, i, 68. Cultivation, i, 100. Firewood, i, 112-114. Stands, i, 86-100. Tannin, i, 119-124. Timber, i, 66. Rhizophoraceae: Mangrove swamps, i, 48. Rhizophora mangle: Ballast retainer, i, 26. Rhizophora mucronata: Description, i, 62, 68. Distribution, i, 22, 62. Figure, i, 67, 69. Local names, i, 68. Cultivation, i, 100. Firewood, i, 112-117. Stands, i, 86-99. Tannin, i, 119-124. Timber, i, 66. Rhododendron vidalii: Distribution, iii, 218. Local name, iii, 218. Medicinal, iii, 218. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa: Description and distribution, ii, 862. Food, ii, 362. Rhynchospora corymbosa: Description and distribution, i, 352. Local names, i, 352. Fiber, i, 352. Rhynchostylis retusa: Description and distribution, iii, 36. Figure, iii, 38. Ornamental, iii, 36. Rice, see Oryza sativa. Ricinus communis: Description, ii, 144. Distribution, ii, 143. Figure, ii, 145. Local names, ii, 143. Castor oil, ii, 144. Dye, ii, 398. Medicinal, iii, 69, 201. Rigini, see Cissus repens. Rim6das, see Andropogon zizanioides. Rim6ra, see Andropogon zizanioides. Rim6ras, see Andropogon zizanioides. Rogrogs6, see Gonocaryum caleryanum. Ronas, see Smilax leucophylla. R6ngon, see Ceriops tagal. Root beers ingredient: Cinnamomum mercadoi, ii, 202. Rope, see Fibers: Dendrocalamus merriZlianus, i, 261. Rosaceae: Dyes, ii, 388. Food plants, ii, 284. Rosas-sa-baibai, see Lochnera rosea. Roselle, see Hibiscus sabdariffa. Rosmarinus officinalis: Distribution, iii, 234. Local names, iii, 234. Medicinal, iii, 234. Rosmiro, see Rosmarinus officinalis. Rotala aquatica: Distribution, iii, 228. Local names, iii, 228. Medicinal, iii, 228. Round-leaf salago, see Wikstroemia ovata. Rourea erecta: Dog, poison, iii, 79. Rourea volublis: Description and distribution, i, 378. Local names, i, 378. Dog poison, iii, 79. Fiber, i, 378. Royal palm, see Oreodoxa regias Rubber: Chonemorpha elastica, ii, 84. Parameria philippinensis, ii, 88. Rubiaceae: Dyes' ii, 405. Mangrove swamps, i, 84. Rubia cordifolia: Distribution, iii, 241. Local name, iii, 241. Medicinal, iii, 241. Rubian, see Terminalia comintana. Rubus copelandii: Description and distribution, ii, 284. Food, ii, 284.

Page  314 314 Rubus ellipticus: Description and distribution, ii, 285. Local name, ii, 285. Food, ii, 285. Rubus elmeri: Description and distribution, ii, 285. Local name, ii, 285. Food, ii, 285. Rubus fraxinifolius: Description and distribution, ii, 285. Local names, ii, 285. Food, ii, 285. Rubus niveus: Description and distribution, ii, 286. Local name, ii, 286. Food, ii, 286. Rubus pectinellus: Description and distribution, ii, 286. Figure, ii, 287. Local name, ii, 286. Food, ii, 286. Rubus rolfei: Description and distribution, ii, 286, Food, ii, 286. Rubus rosaefolius: Description and distribution, ii, 288. Local names, ii, 288. Food, ii, 288. Rugian, see Bambusa spinosa. Rukrokso, see Eugenia aherniana. Rukrukso, see Ardisia serrata. Rukurok, see Morinda citrifolia. Rumaka, see Arenga tremula. Rungon, see Ceriops tagal. Rufno, see Miscanthus sinensis. Rutaceae: Food plants, ii, 296. Medicinal plants, iii, 193. Oils, ii, 208. S Sabal adansonii: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Sabal blackburneanum: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Sabal mauritiforme: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Sabal palmetto: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Sabfog, see Ficus minahassae. Sabia, see Piper retrofractum. Sabila, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Sabilu, see Commelina benghalensis. Sabl6t, see Litsea glutinosa. Sabnit, see Hibiscus surattensis. Saboagon, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Sabung-sabiungan, see Eleusine indica. Sabunog, see Phragmites karka. Sabutsn, see Pandanus sabotan. Sabutan, see Pandanus tectorius. Sabutin-buaia, see Vallisneria gigantea. Saccharum officinarum: Fiber, i, 344. Saccharum sara: Paper, i, 421. INDEX Saccharum spontaneum: Local names, i, 344. Dimensions of fiber, i, 422. Fiber, i, 344. Paper, i, 419-422. Sachet powder: Acorus calamus, ii, 181. Sadak, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. Sadak, see Malaisia scandens. Sadak, see Parameria philippinensis. Sadauag, see Pinanga spp. Sadflag, see Pinanga spp. Saga, see Abrus precatorius. Saga, see Drynaria quercifolia. Saga, see Nipa fruticans. Sagadan, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Sagaga, see Pittosporum resiniferum. Sagai-kangai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Sagakap, see Flagellaria indica. Sagambaging, see Abrus precatorius. Sagap6k, see Mucuna nigricans. Sagasa, see Bruguiera sexangula. Sagasa, see Lumnitzera littorea. Sagasa, see Osbornia octodonta. Sagasa, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Sagasaga, see, Abrus precatorius. Sagasak, see Bruguiera sexangula. Sagat, see Pterocarpus spp. Sagiat, see Goniothalamus amuyon. Saging-siging, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Sagingsagiingan, see Helicteres hirsuta. Sagingsing, see Memecylon ovatum. Sagisi, see Heterospathe elata. Sagit, see Vernonia cenerea. Sagittaria sagittifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 246. Local names, ii, 246. Food, ii, 246. Sago palm, see Metroxylon sagu. Sagf, see Metroxylon sagu. Sagu, see Wikstroemia meyeniana. Sagun-sagun, see Adenanthera intermedia. Sahikan, see Portulaca oleracea. Sahing, see Canarium luzonicum. Sakat, see Terminalia calamansanai. Sakat, see Terminalia edulis. Saket, see Terminalia calamansanai. Saket, see Terminalia edulis. Sako, see Barringtonia acutangula. Sakolon, see Areca caliso. Sakolon, see Pinanga spp. Saksig, see Areca ipot. Saksik, see Areca ipot. Salab, see Guioa koelreuteria. Salab, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Salabagin, see Flacourtia rukam. SalAb na pula, see Mallotus philippinensis. Salacia prinoides: Distribution, iii, 203. Local name, iii, 203. Medicinal, iii, 203. Saladai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Salad oil: Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. Moringa oleifera, ii, 104.

Page  315 INDEX 315 Salagin, see Chisocheton cumingianus. Salagip, see Wikstroemia lanceolata. Salagisog, see Cibotium baranetz. Salago, see Phaleria cumingii. Salago, see Wikstroemia indica. Salago, see Wikstroemia lanceolata. Salago, see Wikstroemia ovata. Salago, see Wikstroemia spp. Salago, lance-leaf, see Wikstroemia lanceolata. Salago, large-leaf, see Wikstroemia meyeniana. Salago, round-leaf, see Wikstroemia ovata. Salago, small-leaf, see Wikstroemia indica. Salagong-babae, see Phaleria cumingii. Salagong-gfibat, see Phaleria cumingii. Salai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Salai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Salai-kangai, see Zanthoxylum avicennae. Salaisau, see Terminalia catappa. Salalangin, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Salamiungai, see Aglaia harmsiana. SaJangisag, see Pinanga spp. Salani6g, see Heterospathe elata. Sal&apu, see Ventilago dichotoma. Sala'sa, see Lumnitzera littorea. Salasalfyut, see Corchorus acutangulus. Salasandia, see Iponzoea pes-tigridis. Saleng, see Ganophyllum falcatum. Saleng, see Pinus insularis. Salet, see Homalonena philippinensis. Salet rnga nalabaga, see Homalomena philippinensis. Salibangbang, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Salibangbang, see Crinum asiaticum. Saligau, see Croton tiglium. Saligum, see Momordica charantia. Salik, see Sida acuta. Salikdt, see Palaquium ahernianum. Salilihan, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Saling, see Canarizum villosum. Saling-bat6, see Gonocaryum caUeryanum. Salingg6gon, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Salingkugi, see Pongamia pinnata. Salingsingan, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Saling-uak, see Clerodendron intermedium. Saling-uak, see Clerodendron quadriloculare. Salisai, see Terminalia calamansanai. Salisai, see Terminalia catappa. Salisi, see Ficus benjamina. Salit, see Pinus merkusii. Salita, see Leucas lavandulifolia. Sallapugud, see Aglaia harmsiana. Salogon, see Antiaris toxicaria. Salomagi, see Tamnarindus indica. Salong, see Agathis alba. Sal6yot, see Corchorus olitorius. Salsalida, see Eclipta alba. Salsallakapu, see Tournefortia sarmentosa. Salsalfyut, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. Saltiki, see Lunasia amara. Salua-sua, see Capparis micracantha. Salub, see Guioa koelreuteria. Salukdt, see Palaquium ahernianum. Salumagi, see Tamarindus indica. Saluyong, see Cordia myxa. Saldyot, see Corchorus olitorius. Saluyut, see Corchorus olitorius. Salves: Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Samadera indica: Description and distribution, ii, 114. Local names, ii, 114. Manunggal oil, ii, 114. Medicinal, iii, 196. Samak, see Macaranga tanarius. Samak, see Macaranga tanarius. SamAt, see Piper betle. Sambag, see Tamarindus indica. Sambalagisai, see Sophora tomentosa. Sambalduke, see Anacardium occidentale. Sambon, see Blumea balsamifera. Samb6ng, see Blumea balsamifera. Samb6ng-dam6, see Sphaeranthus africanus. Samb6ng-gala, see Pterocaulon redolens. Samb6ng-gala, see Sphaeranthus africanus. Samb6ng-k6la, see Buddleia asiatica. Samb6ng oil: Blumea balsamifera, ii, 222. Sambonotan, see Eugenia aherniana. Sambung, see Pterocaulon redolens. Samburagat, see Terminalia calamansanai, Samiling, see Cinnamomunt mercadoi. Sampaga, see Jasminurn sambac. Sampaga, see Plumbago zeylanica. Sampagita, see Jasminum sambac. Sampagita doble, see Jasminum sambac. Sampaka, see Michelia champaca. Sampalok, see Tamarindus indica. Sampal6kan, see Scoparia dulcis. Sampapare', see Cissampelos pareira. Samparan, see Leucas lavandulifolia. Sampinit, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Samuk, see Macaranga tanarius. Samfiyau, see Citrus micrantha. Samuyau oil: Citrus micrantha, ii, 210. Sana, see Nelubium nelumbo. Sanbag, see Tamarindus indica. Sanda, see Lochinera rosea. Sandalaitan, see Sophora tomentosa. Sandoricum koetjape: Description and distribution, ii, 308. Figure, ii, 307. Local names, ii, 308. Food, ii, 308. Medicinal, iii, 197. San Francisco-bundok, see Justicia gendarussa. Sangdidikit, see Plumbago zeylanica. Sangdikit, see Plumbago zeylanica. Sanggumai, see Dendrobium crumenatum. Sanggdmai, see Dendrobium revolutum. Sangkilan, see Pavetta indica. Sangkuyong, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Sanglai, see Ceiba pentandra. Sangsangitan, see Sporobolus elongatus. San Pedro, see Leucaena glauca. San Pedro, see Lochnera rosea. San Pedro, see Phyllanthus niruri.

Page  316 316 INDEX Sansandok, see Celosia argentea. Sansau, see Cissampelos pareira. Sansau-sansauan, see Cissampelos pareira. Sansevieria zeylanica: Description and distribution, i, 362. Local names, i, 360. Fiber, i, 360. Medicinal, iii, 175. Santa Elena, see Leucaena glauca. Santiki, see Lunasia amara. Santing, see Breynia rhamnoides. Santing, see Lumnitzera littorea. Santing-santing, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Sant61, see Sandoricum koetjape. Santor, see Sandoricum koetjape. Saog-machin, see Piper retrofractum. Saong-saong, see Canarium villosum. Sapang, see Caesalpinia sappan. Sapang, see Dioscorea pentaphylla. Sapaun, see Nauclea junghuhnii. Sapindaceae: Fiber plants, i, 380. Food plants, ii, 322. Medicinal plants, iii, 203. Oils, ii, 147. Poisonous plants, iii, 80. Soap substitutes, iii, 58. Sapindus saponaria: Description and distribution, i, 380. Local names, i, 380. Fiber, i, 380. Soap substitute, i, 380; iii, 59. Sapinit, see Abelmoschus moschatus. Sapinit, see Hibiscus surattensis. Sapinit, see Rubus fraxinifolius. Sapinit, see Rubus rosaefolius. Sapin-sapin, see Blechum brownei. Sapiro, see Alphonsea arborea. Saplid, see Terminalia calamansanai. Saplit, see Pithecol9bium subacutum. Saplungan, see Aglaia glomerata. Saplungan, see Aglaia harmsiana. Saplungan, see Terminalia comintana. Sapotaceae: Food plants, ii, 364. Gums, ii, 73. Medicinal plants, iii, 70, 219. Oils, ii, 166. Sap-sapang, see Harrisonia perforata. Sarai, see Zanthoxylum rhetsa. Saramau, see Pinanga spp. Saramo, see Achyranthes aspera. Sarasa, see Graptophyllum pictum. Sarau, see Livistona rotundifolia. Sarauag, see Pinanga spp. Sarguelas, see Spondia purpurea. Saripongp6ng, see Sterculia oblongata. Sarnugar a dadakkel, see Helicteres hirsuta. Sarok, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Sarok, see Poggstemon cablin. Sarungkad, see Tylophora brevipes. Sarungkar, see Tylophora brevipes. Sarungkara babassit, see Fatoua pilosa. Sasa, see Nipa fruticans. Sasitang, see Lygodium flexuosum. Sauag-caballo, see Triumfetta bartramia. Sauang, see Cycas circinalis. Saung, see Pinus insularis. Savidug, see Terminalia catappa. Sawale: Schizostachyum lumampao, i, 264. Saxyfragaceae: Tobacco substitutes, iii, 95. Sayap6, see Abroma fastuosa. Sayapui, see Abroma fastuosa. Sayikan, see Euphorbia hirta. Sayongkal, see Tylophora brevipes. Scaevola frutescens: Distribution, iii, 243. Local names, iii, 243. Medicinal, iii. 243. Schefflera blancoi: Fish poison, iii, 81. Schefflera cumingii: Distribution, iii, 217. Local name, iii, 217. Medicinal, iii, 217. Schefflera elliptifoliola: Distribution, iii, 217. Local names, iii, 217. Medicinal, iii, 217. Schefflera odorata: Distribution, iii, 217. Local names, iii, 217. Medicinal, iii, 217. Schefflera piperoidea: Distribution, iii, 217. Local name, iii, 217. Schizaeaceae: Fiber plants, i, 326. Medicinal plants, iii, 168. Schizostachyum brachycladum: Description, i, 263, 264. Figure, i, 298. Local names, i, 263. Schizostachyum cwrranii: Description and distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 300. Schizostachyum dielsianum: Description, i, 263, 264. Distribution, i, 264; iii, 171. Figure, i, 299. Local names, i, 264. Medicinal, iii, 171. Uses, i, 264. Schizostachyum diffusum: Description, i, 263, 264. Distribution, i, 264. Figure, i, 301. Local names, i, 264. Baskets, i, 264. Chairs, i, 264. Schizostachyum fenixii: Description, i, 263. Distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 302. Local names, i, 265.

Page  317 INDEX 317 Schizostachyum hirtiflorum: Description, i, 263. Distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 303. Schizostachyum liina: Description, i, 263, 264. Distribution, i, 264. Figure, i, 304. Local names, i, 264. Uses, i, 264. Schizostachyum longispiculatum: Description, i, 263. Schizostachyum lumnampao: Description, i, 263, 265. Distribution, i, 264. Figure, i, 250, 305, 306. Local names, i, 264. Paper, i, 416-419. Planting and growth, i, 278. Uses, i, 265. Schizostachyum luzonicum: Description, i, 263. Distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 307. Schizostachyum palawanense: Description, i, 263. Distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 308. Schizostachyum textorium: Description, i, 263, 265. Distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 309. Local names, i, 265. Looms, i, 265. Schizostachyum toppingii: Description and distribution, i, 265. Figure, i, 310. Scindapsus spp.: Local names, i, 356. Fiber, i, 353, 356. Scirpiodendron ghaeri: Description and distribution, i, 352. Local name, i, 352. Hats, i, 352. Scirpus grossus: Description and distribution, i, 353. Local names, i, 353. Fiber, i, 353. Scirpus lacustris: Description and distribution, i, 853. Local names, i, 353. Mats. i, 353. Scleroderrma aurantacum: Edible fungi, iii, 144. Scleroderma dictyosporum: Description, iii, 144. Edible fungi, iii, 144. Scleroderma verrucosum: Description, iii, 144. Figure, iii, 143. Edible fungi, iii, 144. Scleroderma vulgare: Description, iii, 144. Edible fungi, iii, 144. Scoparia dulcis: Distribution, iii, 236. Local names, iii, 236. Medicinal, iii, 236. Scouring materials, iii, 49. Screens: Cyperus radiatus, i, 348. Miscanthus sinensis, i, 342. Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. Saccharum spontaneum, i, 344. ScrophulEcriaceae: Food plants, ii, 375. Medicinal plants, iii, 235. Scutellaria luzonica: Distribution, iii, 234. Local name, iii, 234. Medicinal, iii, 234. Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea: Description and distribution, i, 84. Figure, i, 87. Local names, i, 84. Securidaca corymbosa: Description and distribution, iii, 56. Local names, iii, 56. Soap substitute, iii, 56. Securidaca philippinensis: Description and distribution, iii, 58. Local names, iii, 58. Soap substitute, iii, 58. Segisi, see Heterospathe elata. Sek6i, see Benincasa hispida. Semecarpus cuneiformis: Description and distribution, ii, 320. Figure, ii, 321. Local names, ii, 320. Food, ii, 320. Medicinal, iii, 202. Semecarpus gigantifolia: Description and distribution, ii, 322. Figure, ii, 323. Local names, ii, 322. Food, ii, 322. Serar, see, Corypha elata. Sere, see Pandanus copelandii. Sesame, see Sesamum orientale. Sesame oil: Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. Sesamum indicum, see Sesamum orientale. Sesamum orientale: Description and distribution, ii, 172. Figure, ii, 169. Local names, ii, 168. Exports of oil, ii, 170. Medicinal, iii, 74, 236. Sesame oil, ii, 171. Sesbania grandiflora: Description, ii, 72. Distribution, ii, 73. Local names, ii, 72. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Food, ii, 294. Substitute for gum arabic, ii, 72.

Page  318 318 Sesuvium portulacastrum: Description and distribution, ii, 276. Local name, ii, 276. Food, ii, 276. Shafts, vehicle: Dendrocalamus merriUianus, i, 261. Shampoo: Citrus micrantha, ii, 210. Citrus sp., ii, 212. Shoe soles: Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 48. Shorea balangeran: Distribution, ii, 160. Borneo tallow, ii, 160. Resin, ii, 52. Shorea eximia: Resin, ii, 52. Shorea negrosensis: Resin, ii, 52. Shorea palosapis: Resin, ii, 52. Shorea polysperma: Resin, ii, 52. Shuttles, hand-loom: Bambusa spinosa, i, 259. Siap6, see Grewia multiflora. Siap6, see Melochia umbeUata. Sibl6t, see Litsea glutinosa. Sibuk&u, see Caesalpinia sappan. Sibut-sibutan, see Streptocaulon baumii. Sibuyas, see AUium cepa. Sida acuta: Description and distribution, i, 390. Local names, i, 390. Fiber, i, 390. Medicinal, iii, 209. Tensile strength, i, 321. Sida cordifolia: Description and distribution, i, 390. Local names, i, 390. Fiber, i, 390. Medicinal, iii, 209. Sida javensis: Distribution, iii, 209. Local names, iii, 209. Medicinal, iii, 209. Sida mysorensis: Description, i, 390. Local names, i, 390. Rope, i, 90C. Sida rhombifolia: Description and distribution, i, 391. Local names, i, 391. Fiber, i, 391. Sidda, see Saccharum spontaneum. Sidit, see ScuteUaria luzonica. Siegesbeckia orientalis: Distribution, iii, 245. Local names, iii, 245. Medicinal, iii, 245. Sig-id, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. Sigid, see Malaisia scandens. Sigre, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Siitan, see Amaranthus spinosus. INDEX Sikal, see Saccharum spontaneum. Sikamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Sikkir, see Fatoua pilosa. Silad, see Corypha elata. Silag, see Corypha elata. Silasila, see Jussiaea linifolia. Sileng-botones, see Capsicum frutescens. Sileng-labuyo, see Capsicum frutescens. Sili, see Capsicum frutescens. Silipau, see Ventilago dichotoma. Silisilihan, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. Silisilihan, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Silk-cotton tree, see Ceiba pentandra. Silong-p6go, see Pericampylus glaucus. Simarubaceae: Medicinal plants, iii, 68, 195. Oils, ii, 114. Sinaligan, see Cordia myxa. Sinaligan, see Sterculia oblongata. Sinambdng, see Bambusa vulgaris. Sinawa, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Sindora inermis: Description and distribution, ii, 38. Figure, ii, 37. Local names, ii, 38. Kayu-galu oil, ii, 38. Perfume oil, ii, 38. Sindora supa: Description and distribution, ii, 40. Figure, ii, 39. Local names,,ii, 38. Supa oil, ii, 40. Uses, ii, 38. Singitan, see Sida rhombifolia. Singkamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Singkamas oil: Pachyrrhizus erosus, ii, 110. Sinigu6las, see Spondias purpurea. Sinin-aba, see Alocasia nmacrorrhiza. Sinkamas, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Sinkilladas, see Pseuderanthemum pulchellum. Sinsau-sinsauan, see Cissampelos pareira. Sinsud, see Sindora inermis. Sintug, see Breynia rhamnoides. Sinutan, see Sida rhombifolia. Sipit-kahig, see Leea aculeata. Sipit-olang, see Smilax bracteata. Sipit-ulang, see Malachra capitata. Sipon, see Sophora tormentosa. Sirguelas, see Spondias purpurea. Sirinate, see Averrhoa carambola. Sirisiu, see Ficus benjamina. Sisal, see Agave sisalana. Sisi6han, see Euphorbia hirta. Siva, see Datura fastuosa. Slippers: Agave cantula, i, 362. Areca catechu, i, 144. Corypha elata, i, 192. Cyperus inalaccensis, i, 346. Fimbristylis diphylla, i, 348. Fimbristylis globulosa, i, 348. Ischaemum angustifolium, i, 340.

Page  319 INDEX 319 Slippers-Continued. Oryza sativa, i, 342. Pandanus simplex, i, 336. Rhynchospora corymbosa, i, 352. Typha angustifolia, i, 330. Smilax bracteata: Distribution, iii, 175. Local names, iii, 175. Medicinal, iii, 175. Smilax china: Distribution, iii, 175. Local names, iii, 175. Medicinal, iii, 175. Smilax leucophylla: Distribution, iii, 175. Local names, iii, 175. Medicinal, iii, 175. Smudge: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Soap: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Aleurites moluccana, ii, 126. Arachis hypogaea, ii, 109. Calophyllum inophyllum, ii, 158. Ceiba pentandra, ii, 150, 152. Chisocheton cumingianus, ii, 118. Cocos nucifera, ii, 93. Elaeis guineensis, ii, 103. Ganophyllum falcatum, ii, 148. Isoptera borneensis, iii, 160. Jatropha curcas, ii, 140. Pangium edule, ii, 161. Pongamia pinnata, ii, 111. Ricinus communis, ii, 143. Sesamum orientale, ii, 168. Shorea balangeran, ii, 160. Soap substitutes, iii, 49. Sob6sob, see Blumea balsamifera. Solanaceae: Dyes, ii, 404. Food plants, ii, 373. Medicinal plants, iii, 72, 234. Tobacco substitutes, iii, 96. Solanum cumingii: Description and distribution, ii, 374. Local names, ii, 374. Food, ii, 374. Medicinal, iii, 235. Solanum inaequilaterale: Description, iii, 96. Local names, iii, 96. Tobacco substitute, iii, 96. Solanum melongena: Distribution, iii, 235. Local names, iii, 235. Medicinal, iii, 235. Solanum nigrum: Description and distribution, iii, 74. Local names, iii, 74. Medicinal, iii, 74, 235. Solasi, see Ocimum basilicum. Solda-s6lda, see Euphorbia tirucalli. Solsold6ng, see Euphorbia tirucaUi. Sonchus oleraceus: Description and distribution, ii, 377. Local name, ii, 377. Food, ii, 377. Sonneratia alba: Description and distribution, i, 44. Figure, i, 45. Local names, i, 44. Firewood, i, 44. Food, ii, 352. Vinegar, ii, 352. Sonneratia caseolaris: Description, i, 46. Distribution, i, 22, 46. Figure, i, 47, 49. Local names, i, 46. Cultivation, i, 102. Firewood, i, 112-116. Forest charge, i, 125. Stands, i, 86-100. Tannin, i, 120-124. Timber, i, 46. Sonneratiaceae: Food plants, ii, 352. Mangrove swamps, i, 44. Sophora tomentosa: Distribution, iii, 192. Local names, iii, 192. Medicinal, iii, 192. Sorog-s6rog, see Euphorbia neriifolia. Soro-s6ro, see Euphorbia hirta. Soros6ro, see Euphorbia neriifolia. Soros6ro, see Euphorbia tirucalli. S6song-dalaga, see Grewia stylocarpa. Sosueldo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. Sosu6rdo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. S6tis, see Bixa orellana. SpathiphyUum commutatum: Description, ii, 256. Food, ii, 256. Spathoglottis plicata: Description and distribution, iii, 40. Figure, iii, 39. Local names, iii, 40. Ornamental, iii, 40. Spear shafts: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Oncosperma filamentosum, i, 36, 232. Pinanga spp., i, 236. Sphaeranthus africanus: Distribution, iii, 246. Local names, iii, 246. Medicinal, iii, 246. Sphagnaceae: Sphagnum, iii, 92. Sphagnum: Sphagnum spp., iii, 92. Sphagnum spp.: Distribution, iii, 92. Uses, iii, 92. Spice: Zingiber officinale, ii, 184.

Page  320 320 INDEX Spilanthes acmeUa: Distribution, iii, 246. Local names, iii, 246. Medicinal, iii, 246. Spiny bamboo, see Bambusa spinosa. Spondias pinnata: Description and distribution, ii, 322. Figure, ii, 324. Local names, ii, 322. Food, ii, 322. Spondias purpurea: Distribution, iii, 202. Local names, iii, 202. Medicinal, iii, 202. Sponge gourd, see Luffa cytindrica. Sporobolus elongatus: Description and distribution, i, 344. Local names, i, 344. Fiber, i, 344.. Sporobolus indicus: Description and distribution, i, 346. Hats, i, 346. Stag-horn fern, see Platycerium biforme. Starch: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Caryota spp., i, 182. Corypha elata, i, 192. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Stenochlaena palustris: Description and distribution, i, 326. Figure, i, 324. Local names, i, 323. Fiber, i, 323. Food, i, 326. Stephania japonica: Distribution, iii, 186. Local names, iii, 186. Medicinal, iii, 186. Sterculiaceae: Dyes, ii, 399. Fiber plants, i, 395. Food plants, ii, 336. Mangrove swamps, i, 42. Medicinal plants, iii, 210. Oils, ii, 154. Poisonous plants, iii, 80. Sterculia crassiramea: Description and distribution, 1, 400. Local names, i, 400. Rope, i, 400. Tensile strength, i, 321. Sterculia cuneata: Description and distribution, i, 400. Local names, i, 400. Rope, i, 400. Sterculia foetida: Description and distribution, i, 401; ii, 156. Figures, ii, 153, 155. Local names, i, 401; ii, 154. Composition of seeds, ii, 154. Food, ii, 336. Kalumpang, oil, ii, 156. Medicinal, iii, 211. Rope, i, 401. Tensile strength, i, 321. Sterculia luzonica: Description and distribution, i, 401. Local names, i, 401. Rope, i, 401. Sterculia oblongata: Description and distribution, i, 402; ii, 336. Figure, ii, 337. Local names, i, 401; ii, 336. Food, ii, 336. Rope, i, 401. Tensile strength, i, 321. Sterculia philippinensis: Description and distribution, i, 402. Local names, i, 402. Rope, i, 402. Sterculia stipularis: Description and distribution, i, 402. Local names, i, 402. Rope, i, 402. Tensile strength, i, 321. St. Ignatius bean, see Strychnos ignatii. Stinging crystals: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Streblus asper: Description and distribution, iii, 51. Local names, iii, 51. Medicinal, iii, 182. Sandpaper substitute, iii, 51. Scouring material, iii, 51. Streptocaulon baumii: Description and distribution, i, 408. Local names, i, 408. Fiber, i, 408. Medicinal, iii, 224. Strophanthus cumingii: Arrow poison, iii, 81. Strychnos ignatii: Description and distribution, iii, 70. Figure, iii, 71. Local names, iii, 70. Medicinal, iii, 70, 221. Strychnos multiflora: Description and distribution, i, 406. Local names, i, 406. Fiber, i, 406. Medicinal, iii, 221. Sua, see Citrus maxima. Suaingi, see Citrus sp. Sua'-sua', see Triphasia trifoliata. Subit, see Toddalia asiatica. Sub6n-manuk, see Piper retrofractum. Sub6sub, see Pterocaulon redolens. Substiban, see Polygonum barbatum. Sud-sud, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Sudsud, see Kyllinga monocephala. Suelda-consuelda, see Euphorbia tirucaUi. Sueldo-consueldo, see Euphorbia tirucaUi. Suerdo-consuerdo, see Euphorbia tirucalli. Suganda, see Coleus amboinicus. Sugar: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Corypha elata, i, 192. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Sugar cane, see Saccharum officinarum.

Page  321 INDEX 321,gar palm, see Arenga pinnata. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui:,pon-sugp6n, see Cissus quadrangularis. Description and distribution, ii, 404. iha', see Citrus maxima. Local names, ii, 403. Suia-soi, see Lilium philippinensis. Bleaching agent, ii, 403. Sulasi, see Lumnitzera racemosa. Medicinal, iii, 223. Sulasi, see Ocimum sanctum. Tabiaiong, see Lagenaria leucantha. Sulasig, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Tabigi, see Xylocarpus granatum. Suliman, see Maesa cumingii. Tabigi, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Sulimbubu, see Sterculia cuneata. Tabo&n, see Pandanus dubius. Sulingasau, see Callicarpa erioclona. Tab6bog, see Luffa cylindrica. Sulipa, see Gardenia pseudopsidium. Tab6bok, see Luffa cylindrica. Sulipa, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. Taboeta, see Excoecaria agallocha. Sulmin, see Aglaia harmsiana. Tab6g, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. Sulpa-sulpa, see Cissus quadrangularis. ITabog-6k, see Momordica cochinchinensis. Sulsulitik, see Curculigo orchioides. Tabtabin, see Fimbristylis diphylla. Sulu-safungan, see Canarium villosum Tabtab6kol, see Coldenia procumbens. Sulusihigan, see Alstonia macrophylla. Tabu, see Ficus ulmifolia. Suma, see Archangelisia flava. Tabu-dapi, see Spathoglottis plicata. Sumpa, see Corchorus capsularis. Tabug6k, see Trichosanthes quinquangulata. Sungut-olang, see Breynia rhamnoides. Tabul, see Canarium villosum. Sunting, see Cassia alata. Tabulak, see Solanum cumingii. Sunting, see Cassia occidentalis. Tabuli, see Gymnartocarpus woodii. SupS, see Sindora supa. Tabinak, see Phragmites vulgaris. Supa oil: Tabiingau, see Lagenaria leucantha. Sindora supa, ii, 38. Tabfiyok, see Chaetospermum glutinosum. Supsfput, see Elephantopus spicatus. 'accaceae: Surgical appliance: Food plants, ii, 256. Palaquium ahernianum, ii, 82. Tacca pinnatifida: Surusampalok, see Phyllanthus niruri. Description and distribution, ii, 256. Surusighid, see Sida acuta. Local name, ii, 256. Susokoyili, see Oxalis repens. Starch, ii, 256. Susulin, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. Tachin-kabayo, see Malvastrum coromandeliSusumbig, see Grewia stylocarpa. numn. Susumbiik, see Grewia stylocarpa. Tadak, see CalophyUum blancoi. Susumbik, see Grewia stylocarpa. Tadiang-kalabau, see Aglaia harmsiana. Susungbiig, see Grewia stylocarpa. Tadiang-kalabau, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Sisung-damulag, see Uvaria rufa. Tadlaingau, see Adenanthera intermedia. Susung-kabayo, see Uvaria rufa. Tafu, see Mallotus philippinensis. Stsung-kalabau, see Uvaria rufa. Tagabang, see Corchorus olitorius. Susung-kalabau, see Uvaria sorzogonensis. Tagadeu, see Thysanolaena maxima. Suib-kabayo, see Hyptis suaveolens. Tagak-tagak, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. Sweet basil, see Ocimum basilicum. Tagap, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Sweet basil oil: Tagasa, see Bruguiera sexangula. Ocimum basilicum, ii, 217. Tagasa, see Ceriops tagal. Sweet flag, see Acorus calamus. Tagatoi, see Mimusops parvifolia. Syrup: Tagbak, see Kolowratia elegans. Corypha elata, i, 192. Tagbak-babui, see Kolowratia elegans. Tagbilau, see Oroxylum indicum. T Tagetes patula: Distribution, iii, 246. Taag, see Kleinhovia hospita. Local names, iii, 246. Tabaco, see Nicotiana tabacum. Medicinal, iii, 246. Tabaco-tabaco, see Solanum inaequilaterale. Tagga', see Pterocarpus spp. Tabagisa, see Sophora tomentosa. Taggat, see Pterocarpus spp. Tabaiag, see Lagenaria leucantha. Tagimi, see ConocephaUus violaceus. Tabanigongo, see Clerodendron inerme. Tagimunau, see Triphasia trifoliata. Tabas, see Cubilia blancoi. Taging-tagak, see Rhinacanthus nasuta. Taba-taba, see Mussaenda philippica. Tagipan, see Caryota cumingii. Tabau, see Dodonaea viscosa. Tagisa, see Thysanolaena maxima. Tab&u, see Lumnitzera littorea. Tagise, see Heterospathe elata. Tabau, see Lumnitzera racemosa. Tagisi, see Phragmites vulgaris. Tabau, see Osbornia octodonta. Tagka', see Pterocarpus spp. Tabau, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Taglima, see Schefflera odorata. Tabau-tabau, see Trichosanthes quinquangu- Tagnag, see Kleinhovia hospita. lata. Tagob, see Bidens chinensis. 177674- 21

Page  322 322 INDEX Tagomtagom, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tagong-tagong, see Indigofera tinctoria. Tagpan, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Tagp6, see Ardisia boissieri. Tagpuing-pula, see Ardisia boissieri. Tagughuig, see Celosia argentea. Tagulinai, see Vernonia cinerea. Tagulinas, see Emilia sonchifolia. Tagulinau, see Emilia sonchifolia. Tagulinau, see Psychotria mindorensis. Tagumbau, see Jatropha curcas. Tagungtungan, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Tagurare, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tagustus, see Scaevola frutescens. Tagutugan, see Litsea glutinosa. Tahid-labfiyo, see Dalbergia cumingiana. Tahig, see Homalomena philippinensis. Tainagang-babui, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Taingang-daga, see Auricularia spp. Taiingang-daga, see Oxalis repens. Taing-aso, see Morinda citrifolia. Tairas, see Euphorbia hirta. Taisan, see Ficus minahassae. Taitai, see Paederia foetida. Taiwanak, see Bambusa vulgaris. Takad, see Rotala aquatica. Taka magindanau, see Corcho,'us olitorius. Takamain, see Blumea balsamifera. Takim-bika, see Malvastrum coromandelinum. Takim-vaca, see Sida rhombifolia. Taking-baka, see Sida acuta. Takip-asin, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. Takip-koh6l, see Centella asiatica. Takkim-baka, see Sida acuta. Takkit-vaca, see Sida rhombifolia. Taklang-anak, see Garcinia dulcis. Taklang-anak, see Garcinia venulosa. Taklang kurong, see Jussiaea linifolia. Takling-baka, see Sida acuta. Takling-vaca, see Sida rhombifolia. Tako, see Terminalia edulis. Takobt6b, see Areca catechu. Takok, see Calophyllum blancoi. Takoline, Rhaphidophora merrillii. Takpo, see Psychotria luzoniensis. Taktak, see Corypha elata. Takilau, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Takulau blanco, see Bombycidendron vidalianunh. Takumbau, see Jatropha curcas. Takung, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Talahib, see Miscanthus sinensis. Talahib, see Saccharum spontaneum. Talakatak, see Castanopsis philippensis. Talakau, see Helicteres hirsuta. Talambasi, see Callicarpa formosana. Talampunai, see Datura fastuosa. Talampfinai, see Ricinus communis. Talampuinai na itim, see Datura fastuosa. Talang, see Diospyros discolor. Talaingi, see Curculigo orchioides. TalangkAu, see Plumbago zeylanica. Talantalogan, see Solanum inaequilaterale. Talatabako, see Sphaeranthus africanus. Talainur, see Eurycles amboinensis. Talbak, see Kolowratia elegans. Taliang, see Alocasia eacrorrhiza. Taliantan, see Leea manillensis. Talibun6g, see Ehretia navesii. Talik-harap, see Mussaenda philippica. Talikn6no, see Buddleia asiatica. Talikid, see Phyllanthus niruri. Taliingai' an, see Pterospermum diversifolium. Talingaen, see Pterospernum obliquum. Taliinganan, see Garuga abilo. Talingtaling, see Solanum cumingii. Talip6po, see Mimusops parvifolia. Tal:sai, see Terminalia calamansanai. Talisai, see Terminalia catappa. Talisai, see Terminalia edulis. Talisi, see Terminalia catappa. Talis6cho, see Plumiera acuminata. Taliu, see Pittosporum pentandrum. Taliunud, see Eurycles amboinensis. Talo, see Wikstroemia indica. Talob-alok, see Fagraea racemosa. Talokt6k, see Kleinhovia hospita. Tal6long, see Quisqualis indica. Talo-magalau, see Mimosa pudica. Talong, see Solanum melongena. Talong-pfnai na itim, see Datura fastuosa. Talongtalongan, see Solanum cumingii. Tal6san, see Helicteres hirsutu. Tal6to, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Taltallikfid, see Phyllanthus niruri. Talu-ang, see Spathoglottis plicata. Talumpapait, see Clerodendron cumingianum. Talumpapit, see Clerodendron cumingianum. Taluingtalungan, see Solanum cumingii. Talu-talu, see Diplodiscus paniculatus. Talfito, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Talito, see Sterculia luzonica. Tamahilan, see Curcuma zedoaria. Tamanag, see Kleinhovia hospita. Tamarind, see Tamarindus indica. Tamarind-seed oil: Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. Tamarindus indica: Description and distribution, ii, 294. Figure, ii, 297. Local names, ii, 294. Bleaching agent, ii, 396. Food, ii, 294. Medicinal, iii, 67. Tamarind-seed oil, ii, 112. Tamauhan, see Lansium dubium. Tamayan, see Pavetta indica. Tamayuan, see Pygeum preslii. Tambak, see Costus speciosus. Tambal, see Eurycles amboinensis. Tambalabasi, see Callicarpa erioclona. Tambaleta, see Sophora tomentosa. Tambalisa, see Cassia occidentalis. Tambalisa, see Cassia sophera. Tambalisa, see Sophora tomentosa. Tambal-tsungan, see Alstonia macrophylla. Tambi, see Eugenia mananquil. Tambiligisa, see Sophora tomentosa. Tambis, see Eugenia aquea.

Page  323 IR Tambis, see Eugenia calubcob. Tambis, see Eugenia mananquil. Tambis-tambis, see Ficus minahassae. Tamb6, see Phragmites vulgaris. Tambobon6t, see Sterculia cuneata. Tambo-tambo, see Calophyllum inophyUum. Tambo-tamb6, see Xylocarpus granatum. Tambul, see Phragmites vulgaris. Tambu, see Thysanolaena maxima. Tambulok, see Benincasa hispida. Tambuy6gan, see Ficus minahassae. Taming-taming, see Dysoxylum decandrum. Tamo, see Curcuma zedoaria. Tamohilang, see Zingiber zerumbet. Tamr6k, see Pterospermum niveum. Tampinbanal, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Tampinita, see Merremia nymphaeifolia. Tamp6i, see Eugenia calubcob. Tamp6i, see Eugenia xanthophyUa. Tamp6i-gubat, see Eugenia xanthophyila. Tampuli, see Eugenia xanthophylla. Tamputi, see Eugenia calubcob. Tan-ag, see Kleinhovia hospita. Tanak, see Kleinhovia hospita. Tand6', see Lophopetalum toxicum. Tang-ag, see Kleinhovia hospita. Tanfil, see Ceriops roxburghiana. Tangal, see Ceriops tagal. Tan~gal, see Terminalia edulis. Tafngalan, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Tangal1-babae, see Bruguiera cylindrica. Tangail-lalaki, see Ceriops tagal. Tangalo, see Actinorhytis calapparia. Taingalon, see Quisqualis indica. Taingan-tangan, see Jatropha curcas. Tanfan-tangan, see Ricinus communis. Tangantfangan-tiba, see Jatropha ourcas. Tangas, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tangb6, see Phragmites vulgaris. Tanggulai, see Alphitonia excelsa. Tanighal, see Ceriops tagal. Tanghis, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tangid, see Canangium odoratum. Tangiling-bang6han, see Aglaia harmsiana. Taingisan-bagio, see Breynia rhamnoides. Tangit, see Canangium odoratum. Tangitang, see Alstonia macrophylla. Tangk6i, see Benincasa hispida. Tangk6ng, see Ipomoea reptans. Tangkiia, see Benincasa hispida. Tangkung, see Ipomoea reptans. Tanglad, see Andropogon citratus. Tangle, see Premna odorata. Tanglin, see Adenanthera intermedia. Tangl6n, see Adenanthera intermedia. Tan~-61on, see Quisqualis indica. Tangus, see Eugenia mananquil. Tannin: Ardisia serrata, iii, 95. Areca catechu, i, 144. Bruguiera parviflora, i, 119-124. Bruguiera sexangula, i, 120-124. Calophyllum inophyUum, iii. 94. Canarium luzonicum, iii, 94. Ceriops roxburghiana, i, 121-124. iDEX 323 Tannin-Continued. Ceriops tagal, i, 119-124. Pinus insularis, iii, 92. Pithecolobium dulce, iii, 93. Rhizophora candelaria, i, 119-124. Rhizophora mucronata, i, 119-124. Sonneratia alba, i, 44. Sonneratia caseolaris, i, 120-124. Weinmannia luzonensis, iii, 93. Xylocarpus granatum, i, 120-124. Xylocarpus moluccensis, i, 120-124. Tan6bong, see Phragmites vulgaris. Tan6go, see Clerodendron cumingianum. Tantand6k, see Gynandropsis gynandra. Tantand6k niga dadakkol, see Gynandropsis gynandra. Tanual, see Eurycles amboinensis. Tanubong, see Phragmites karka. Taoda, see Peristrophe bivalvis. Taoda, see Peristrophe tinctoria. Ta6to, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Tapiasin, see Coldenia procumbens. Tapinag, see Sterculia crassiramea. Tapira, see Pinanga spp. Tapolonga, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Tapulau, see Cyathooalyx globosus. Tapflau, see Pinus merkusii. Tarabang, see Ottelia alismoides. Tarabtab, see Capparis horrida. Tarabtab, see Capparis micracantha. Tarabtab-uak, see Capparis horrida. Tarabtab-uak, see Capparis micracantha. Taramb6lo, see Solanum cumingii. Tarangkang, see Scheflera odorata. Taraptap, see Capparis micracantha. Taratakfipis, see Abutilon indicum. Tar&u, see Livistona cochinchinensis. Tarau, see Livistona rotundifolia. Tar6i, see Grewia multiflora. Tarokangan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Tarokt6k, see Bombax ceiba. Tar6ng, see Solanum melongena. Tarongatingan, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Tarongatingan, see Pterospermum obliquum. Tarre-tarre, see Blechum brownei. Tartariok, see Quamoclit pinnata. Tartaraok, see Quisqualis indica. Taruntum, see Lumnitzera littorea. Tata, see Nipa fruticans. Tata, see Nipa fruticans. Tatagtag, see Trema orientalis. Tataluangi, see Curculigo orchioides. Taua, see FlageUaria indica. Taua-taua, see Euphorbia hirta. Taua-taua, see Jatropha curcas. Taua-taua, see Mussaenda philippica. Tauaua, see Euphorbia hirta. Tauen-tau6n, see Aristolochia tagala. Taurangan, see Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Tafitu, see Pterocymbium tinctorium. Tau-ua, see Jatropha curcas. Tau-ua-tau-ua, see Ricinus communis. Tawalis, see Osbornia octodonta. Tayakpok, see Litsea glutinosa. Tayam, see Desmodium heterocarpum.

Page  324 324 INDEX Taya-taya, see Terminalia edulis. Tayok6n, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Tayok-tay6k, see Fimbristylis diphylla. Tayok-tAyok, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Tayom-tiyom, see Decaspermum fruticosum. Tayon, see Indigofera suffruticosa. Tayum, see Indigofera suffruticosa. Tayum, see Indigofera tinctoria. Tlyung, see Indigofera suffruticosa. Tayung-tayfingan, see Indigofera tinctoria. Teak, see Tectvna grandis. Teca, see Tectona grandis. Tectona grandis: Distribution, iii, 231. Local names, iii, 231. Medicinal, iii, 231. Teka, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. Teka-teka, see Sapindus saponaria. Tekistekis, see Sapindus saponaria. Tekiu, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Telosma procumbens: Description and distribution, ii, 372. Local names, ii, 372. Food, ii, 372. Temple flower, see Plumiera acuminata. Tengah, see Ceriops spp. Tengar, see Ceriops spp. Tentened6r, see Quamoclit pinnata. Terentum, see Lumnitzera littorea. Terminalia calamansanai: Distribution, iii, 215. Local names, iii, 215. Medicinal, iii, 215. Terminalia catappa: Description and distribution, ii, 166. Figure, ii, 163. Local names, ii, 162. Dye, ii, 402. Food, ii, 352. Indian almond oil, ii, 164. Medicinal, iii, 215. Terminalia comintana: Distribution, iii, 216. Local names, iii, 216. Medicinal, iii, 216. Terminalia edulis: Description and distribution, ii, 354. Figure, ii, 353. Local names, ii, 354. Food, ii, 354. Medicinal, iii, 216. Ternate, see Graptophyllum pictum. Ternstroemia toquian: Fish poison, iii, 8G. Tetracera scandens: Description and distribution, iii, 59. Local names, iii, 59. Scouring material, iii, 59. Tetrastigma harmandii: Description and distribution, ii, 330. Local names, ii, 330. Food, ii, 330. Medicinal, iii, 207. i Tetrastigma loheri: Description and distribution, ii, 330 Local name, ii, 330. Food, ii, 330. Tewanak, see Bambusa vulgaris. Tewung, see Flagellaria indica. Thatching material: Andropogon zizanioides, i, 338; ii, 177. Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192. Imperata exaltata, i, 340. Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Metroxylon sagu, i, 220. Nipa fruticans, i, 222. Theaceae: Poisonous plants, iii, 80. Theobroma cacao: Distribution, iii, 211. Medicinal, iii, 211. Thespesia lamnpas: Description and distribution, i, 391. Local names, i, 391. Dye, ii, 399. Rope, i, 391. Tensile strength, i, 321. Thespesia populnea: Distribution, iii, 210. Local names, iii, 210. Medicinal, iii, 210. Thevetia peruviana: Distribution, iii, 224. Local name, iii, 224. Medicinal, iii, 224. Thrinax argentea: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Thrinax parvifolia: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Thrinax robusta: Recently introduced palm, i, 243. Thymelaeaceae: Fiber plants, i, 403. Medicinal plants, iii, 213. Paper, i, 421. Thysanolaena maxima: Description and distribution, i, 346. Figure, i, 347. Local names, i, 346. Brooms, i, 346. Tiagk6t, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tiaora, see Peristrophe bivalvis. Tibaiaiong, see Benincasa hispida. Tibaingn, see Pinanga spp. Tibanglan, see Pinanga spp. Tibanglan, see Strychnos multiflora. Tibatib, see Pothos spp. Tibatib, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Tibi, see Ficus benjamina. Tibig, sec Kibatalia blancoi. Tibigi, see Xylocarpus moluccensis. Tibulid, see Citrus sp. Tibiingau, see Aglaia glomerata. Tibdungau, see Aglaia harmsiana. Tigahui, see Pinanga spp.

Page  325 INDEX 325 Tigau, see CaUicarpa erioclona. Tigau, see Callicarpa formosana. Tigbao, see Saccharum spontaneum. Tigbiu, see Acanthus ebracteatus. Tigbi, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Tigbikai, see Coix lachryma-jobi. Tige inga nagmanto, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. Tiger grass, see Thysanolaena maxima. Tigi, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tigi, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Tigiu, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tigre, see Sansevieria zeylanica. Tikal, see Livistona rotundifolia. Tikam&s, see Pachyrrhizus erosus. Tikas-tikas, see Canna indica. Tikas-tikas, see Sapindus saponaria. Tiker, see Scirpus lacustris. Tikes, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tikis, see Livistona rotundifolia. Tikiu, see Pithecolobium subacutum. Tikiu, see Scirpus grossus. Tikla, see Tectorta grandis. Tikog, see Cyperus malaccensis. Tikog, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Tikog, see Sagittaria sagittifolia. Tikug, see Fimbristylis globulosa. Tikug, see Scirpus grossus. Tiliaceae: Dyes, ii, 399. Fiber plants, i, 381. Food plants, ii, 332. Mangrove swamps, i, 40. Medicinal plants, iii, 207. Tilub, see Gleichenia linearis. Timbabasi, see Callicarpa formosana. Timbambakis, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Timbaingalan, see Pinanga spp. Timbangan, see Aristolochia tagala. Timbang-timbang, see Tinomiscium philippinense. Timbangtimbangan, see Aristolochia tagala. Timbfiungan, see Coelococcus amicarum. Timon-timon, see Trichosanthes quinquangulata. Timsim, see Panicum stagninum. Tinag&si, see Leucosyke capitellata. Tinatina-an, see Indigofera suffruticosa. Tinatinaan, see Phyllanthus reticulatus. Tindalo, see Cassia fistula. Tinder: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Caryota cumingii, i, 182. Caryota majestica, i, 182. Caryota merrillii, i, 182. Caryota mitis, i, 182. Caryota rumphiana, i, 182. Tindoi, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Tind6k, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Tindok-tind6k, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Tinduk-tindfikan, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Tinduktindfikan, see Aegiceras floridum. Tingantingan, see Pterospermum niveum. Tingantinsgan, see Pterospermum obliquum. Tinga-tiinga, see Mussaenda philippica. Tingkal, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Tingpud, see Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. Tinikan, see Capparis micracantha. Tinlai, see Andropogon aciculatus. Tinlui, see Acanthus ilicifolius. Tinomiscium philippinense. Distribution, iii, 186. Local names, iii, 186. Medicinal, iii, 186. Tinta-tinta, see Eclipta alba. Tinta-tintahan, see Eclipta alba. Tinta-tintahan, see Lantana canmara. Tinulfan-gatas, see Mussaenda philippica. Tip6lo, see Artocarpus communis. Tipon-tipon, see Arenga tremula. Tiratina-an, see Indigofera suffruticosa. Tirbatib, see Rhaphidophora merrillii. Tiror6n, see Nauclea junghuhnii. Tiror6n, see Terminalia comintana. Titau, see Agathis alba. Titau, see Rubus ellipticus. Titipiuho, see Wikstroemia indica. Titiu, see Scirpus grossus. Tivi, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tiwayos, see Osbornia octodonta. Tiwi, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tobacco, see Nicotiana tabacum. Tobacco substitutes: Astible philippinensis, iii, 95. Solanum inaequilaterale, iii, 96. Toddalia asiatica: Description and distribution, ii, 216. Figure, ii, 299. Local names, ii, 214. Food flavoring, ii, 300. Medicinal, ii, 300; iii, 194. Perfume, ii, 216. Tohod-t6hod, see Jussiaea linifolia. Toilet powders: Acorus calamus, ii, 181. Tokman, see Buddleia asiatica. Tokod-banua, see Amorphophallus canpanulatus. Tolal, see Chloranthus brachystachys. Tologt6log, see PhyUanthus reticulatus. Tol6san, see Helicteres hirsuta. Tolotigre, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Tomato, see Lycopersicum esculentum. Tcnggui, see Ceriops tagal. Tong6, see Dioscorea esculenta. Toing6g, see Ceriops tagal. Tongtongking, see Helicteres hirsuta. Tonuar, see Eurycles amboinensis. Top6, see Semecarpus gigantifolia. Torches: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42. Torog-t6rog, see Mimosa pudica. Torrongil, see Coleus amboinicus. Tortoraok, see Quisqualis indica. Tournefortia sarmentosa: Distribution, iii, 228. Local names, iii, 228. Medicinal, iii, 228.

Page  326 326 INDEX Transmission belts: Achras sapota, ii, 74. Tree fern trunks: Cyathea spp., iii, 96. Trema orientalis: Description and distribution, i, 366. Local names, i, 366. Fiber, i, 366. Tensile strength, i, 321. Tremellaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 114. Tremella foliaceae: Edible fungi, iii, 116. Tremella fuciformis: Description, iii, 114. Edible fungi, iii, 114. Tres m6ras, see Andropogon zizanioides. Tres puntos, see Melanolepis multiglandulosa. Trianthema portulacastrum: Description and distribution, ii, 276. Local name, ii, 276. Food, ii, 276. Trichodesma indicum: Distribution, iii, 228. Medicinal, iii, 228. Trichodesma zeylanicum: Distribution, iii, 228. Local names, iii, 228. Medicinal, iii, 228. Tricholoma tenuis: Edible fungi, iii, 138. Trichosanthes quinquangulata: Distribution, iii, 242. Local names, iii, 242. Medicinal, iii, 242. Triphasia trifoliata: Description and distribution, ii, 300. Local names, ii, 300. Food, ii, 300. TristeUateia australasiae: Distribution, i, 24. Triumfetta bartramia: Description and distribution, i, 386. Local names, i, 386. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 386. Medicinal, iii, 207. Troentoem, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Trompa-elefante, see Heliotropium indicum. Trompalipante, see Heliotropium indicum. Trompalipanti, see Rotala aquatica. Troughs: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216 Tsang-bat6, see Canscora diffusa. Tua-an, see Kingiodendron alternifolium. Tuanio, see Osbornia octodonta. Tuawis, see Osbornia octodonta. Tuba, see Barringtonia acutangula. Tuba, see Croton tiglium. Tdba, see Jatropha curcas. Tubai-basi, see CaUicarpa formosana. Tuban.-blkod, see Jatropha curcas. Tubang-dalag, see CaUicarpa formosana. Tubang-makaisa, see Croton tiglium. Tuba-tuba, see Croton tiglium. Tuba-tuba, see Jatropha curcas. Tuba-tuba, see Thespesia populnea. Tuberose, see Polianthes tuberosa. rubjus, see Litsea glutinosa. Tubli, see Croton tiglium. Tubo-bato, see Hymenodictyon excelsum. Tubol-tub6l, see Typha angustifolia. Tub6ng-usa, see Costus speciosus. Tue, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tugabi, see GanophyUum falcatum. Tugas-tugas, see Rubus fraxinifolius. rugbak, see Kolowratia elegans. Tugi, see Dioscorea esculenta. Tugisak, see Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Tugi-tugian, see Pericampylus glaucus. Tugnang, see Buddleia asiatica. Tugtugi, see Astilbe philippinensis. Tugtugin, see Canarium luzonicum. Tugup, see Artocarpus elastica. Tuhod-manuik, see Justicia gendarussa. Tui, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tuka, see Phaleria cumingii. Tuka, see Phaleria perrottetiana. Tuka, see Wikstroemia lanceolata. Tukal, see Ardisia boissieri. Tfkod, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. Tukod-banuwa, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. Tukud-liangit, see Amorphophallus campanulatus. Tukud-langit, see Semrecarpus gigantifolia. Tul-anan, see Eugenia aherniana. Tul-anan, see Lansium dubium. Tulang-manuk, see Pseuderanthemumi pulchellum. Tuliau, see Ficus hauili. Tulo, see Alphitonia excelsa. Tultulisfn, see Eclipta alba. Tumatanud, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. Tumbong-aso, see Morinda citrifolia. Tumbong-aso, see Zingiber zerumbet. Tumbosut, see Leea manillensis. Tumolubo, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Tumu, see Bruguiera conjugata and Bruguiera sexangula. Tunduk-tundukan, see Aegiceras corniculatum. Tuinga, see Pygeum preslii. Tungkut-lingit, see Helminthostachys zeylanica. Tun~6, see Dioscorea esculenta. Tung6d, see Ceriops tagal. Tung6g, see Ceriops tagal. Tung oil: Aleurites fordii, ii, 120. Aleurites montana, ii, 120. Tuguid, see Ceriops tagal. Tungufg, see Ceriops roxburghiana. Tungung, see Ceriops roxburghiana. Tu6i, see Eugenia calubcob. Turkey-red oils: Ricinus communis, ii, 143. Turmeric, see Curcuma longa. Turpentine: Pinus insularis, ii, 30. Pinus merkusii, ii, 34.

Page  327 INDEX 327 Turutalik6d, see Phylanthus niruri. Tuwi, see Dolichandrone spathacea. Tylophora brevipes: Distribution, iii, 224. Local names, iii, 224. Medicinal, iii, 224. Tylophora perrottetiana: Distribution, iii, 225. Local names, iii, 225. Medicinal, iii, 225. Typha angustifolia: Description and distribution, i, 330. Figure, i, 331. Local names, i, 330. Fiber, i, 330. Medicinal, iii, 169. Typhaceae: Fiber plants, i, 330. Medicinal plants, iii, 169. Typhonium divaricatum: Local name, iii, 174. Medicinal, iii, 174. IT Uag, see Flagellaria indica. Uai ti uak, see Flagelaria indica. Uakak, see Ichnocarpus ovatifolius. Uakatan, see Alphitonia excelsa. Uakatan, see Rhizophora candelaria. Ualis, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Ualis-ualisan, see Sida acuta. Ualis-ualisan, see Sida rhombifolia. Uani, see Mangifera odorata. Uarat-uarat, see Pothos spp. UTas, see Guioa koelreuteria. Uas, see Harpullia arborea. Uas, see Lepidopetalum perrottetii. Uatitik, see Colubrina asiatica. Uaualisin, see Sida acuta. Ubag, see Dioscorea luzonensis. Uban-uban, see Lansium dubium. Ubien, see Artocarpus cumingiana. Ubi6n, see Artocarpus rubrovenia. Ubi-ubihan, see Smilax china. Ubog, see Dioscorea divaricata. U'e na.ayang. see Flagellaria indica. Uginai, see Andropogon halepensis. tging, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Ugiingan, see Cratoxylon blancoi. Ugp6i, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Ugsang, see Licuala spinosa. Uhang6, see Pandanus tectorius. Ulanigia. see Abrus precatorius. Ulas, see Guioa koelreuteria. Ulasiman, see Portulaca oleracea. Ulasiman-fso, see Bacopa mnnniera. Ulasiman-aso, see Oldenladia corymbosa. Ulayan, see Castanopsis philippensis. Ulayan, see Euphoria didyma. Ulayan, see Mimusops parvifolia. fli, see Agathis alba. Ulisfiman, see Trianthema portulacastrum. Uliuan, see Cinnamomum mercadoi. 1 lnmaceae: Fiber plants, i, 366. U 'mbelliferae: Medicinal plants, iii, 69, 218. Umpig, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Umpik, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Umu-um, see Chloranthus brachystachys. Unau, see Arenga pinnata. Ungang, see Plectocomia elmeri. Ungo6, see Elaeocarpus calomala. Unip, see Pithecolobium subacutum. U6g, see FlageUaria indica. Oos, see Sterculia oblongata. Otpak, see Sterculia cuneata. Upas-tree, see Antiaris toxicaria. Upling, see Bauhinia cumingiana. Upling-g6bat, see Ficus ulmifolia. Upo, see Lagenaria leucantha. Up6pi, see Cyperus radiatus. Upplas, see Ficus ulmifolia. Urai, see Amaranthus spinosus. Urar6i, see Panicum stagninum. Uratan, see Gonocaryum caleryanum. Urceola imberbis: Description and distribution, i, 407. Local names, i, 407. Fiber, i, 407. Urena lobata: Description and distribution, i, 392. Figure, i, 393. Local names, i, 391. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 392. Medicinal, iii, 210. Tensile strength, i, 321.; rticaceae: Fiber plants, i, 373. Food plants, ii, 270. Medicinal plants, iii. 182. Urung, see Fagraea cochinchinensis. Usau, see Euphoria didyma. Us&u, see Nephelium lappaceum. Usiu, see Schizostachyum dielsianum. Usiu, see Schizostachyum, diffusum. Uvaria purpurea: Description and distribution, ii, 280. Food, ii, 280. Uvaria rufa: Description and distribution, ii. 280. Figure, ii, 281. Local names, ii, 280. Food, ii, 280. Uvaria sorzogonensis: Description and distribution, ii, 282. Local names, ii, 282. Food, ii, 282. Uwas, see Guioa koelreuteria. Uyang6, see Pandanus radicans. Vaccinium myrtoides: Description and distribution, ii, 362. Figure, ii, 365. Local name, ii, 362. Food, ii, 362. Vaccinium whitfordii: Description and distribution, ii, 362. Local names, ii, 362. Food, ii, 362.

Page  328 328 VaUisneria gigantea: Description and distribution, ii, 248. Local names, ii, 248. Food, ii, 248. Valo, see Thespesia populnea. Vanda lameUata: Description and distribution, iii, 40. Figure, iii, 41. Ornamental, iii, 40. Vanda sanderiana: Description and distribution, iii, 40. Figure, iii, 42, 43. Ornamental, iii, 40. Vandopsis lissochiloides: Description and distribution, iii, 40. Figure, iii, 44. Ornamental, iii, 40. Vanilla ovalis: Distribution, i, 366. Fiber, i, 366. Vanoverberghia sepulchrei: Description and distribution, ii, 260. Food, ii, 259. Varnish: Agathis alba, ii, 20, 22, 26. Aleurites moluccana, ii, 126. Aleurites trisperma, ii, 134. Anisoptera thurifera, ii, 52. Calophyllum inophylum, ii, 159. Canarium luzonicum, ii, 42, 44. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus, ii, 54. Dipterocarpus vernicifluus, ii, 62. Sindora inermis, ii, 38. Sindora supa, ii, 38. Tamarindus indica, ii, 112. Vatica mangachapoi: Resin, ii, 52. Ventilago dichotoma: Distribution, iii, 205. Local names, iii, 205. Medicinal, iii, 205. Verbenaceae: Food plants, ii, 373. Mangrove swamps, i, 80. Medicinal plants, iii, 228. Oils, ii. 216. Poisonous plants, iii, 81. Vermifuge: Areca catechu, i, 144. Vernonia cinerea: Distribution, iii, 246. Local names, iii, 246. Medicinal, iii, 246. Vetiver, see Andropogon zizanioides. Vetiver oil: Andropogon zizanioides, ii, 177. Vibres, see Guioa koelreuteria. Vinegar: Arenga pinnata, i, 150. Cocos nucifera, i, 184. Corypha elata, i, 192 Nipa fruticans, i, 222. INDEX Vitaceae: Fiber plants, i, 379. Food plants, ii, 328. Medicinal plants, iii, 206. Vitali, see Pterocarpus spp. Vitex negundo: Distribution, iii, 232. Local names, iii, 232. Lye, i, 154. Medicinal, iii, 232. Vitex trifolia: Distribution, iii, 232. Local names, iii, 232. Medicinal, iii, 232. Voacanga globosa: Fish poison, iii, 81. Vodadin, see Leea manillensis. Voiavoi, see Phoenix hanceana. Volvaria esculenta: Description, iii, 126. Distribution, iii, 126. Figure, iii, 128, 129, 131. Edible fungi, iii, 126. Volvaria pruinosa: Edible fungi, iii, 130. Vutalau, see CalophyUum inophylum. W Waling-waling, see Aerides quinquevulnerum. Walking sticks: Calamus spp., i, 158. Daemonorops spp., i, 158. Korthalsia spp., i, 212. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Pinanga spp., i, 236. Waltheria americana: Distribution, iii, 212. Local names, iii, 212. Medicinal, iii, 212. Wafng, see Pandanus radicans. Water (drinking): Calamus spp., i, 158. Water pipes: Livistona cochinchinensis, i, 216. Livistona rotundifolia, i, 216. Wax, sealing: Agathis alba, ii, 20. Waxgourd, see Benincasa hispida. Wedelia biflora: Distribution, iii, 246. Local names, iii, 246. Medicinal, iii, 246. Weinmannia luzonensis: Description and distribution, iii, 93, Tannin, iii, 93. Wikstroemia indica: Description and distribution, i, 404. Local names, i, 404. Fiber, i, 403. Paper, i, 421. Wikstroemia lanceolata: Description and distribution, i, 404. Local names, i, 404. Fiber, i, 403.

Page  329 INDEX 329 Wikstroemia meyeniana: Description and distribution, i, 404. Figure, i, 405. Local names, i, 404. Fiber, i, 403. Paper, i, 421. Wikstroemia ovata: Description and distribution, i, 404. Local names, i, 404. Dimensions of bast fibers, i, 322. Fiber, i, 403. Medicinal, iii, 214. Paper, i, 421. Wild banana, see Musa spp. Window shades: Miscanthus sinensis, i, 342. X Xirnenia americana: Description and distribution, ii, 274. Figure, ii, 275. Local names, ii, 274. Food, ii, 274. Purgative, ii, 274. Xylocarpus granatum: Description, i. 38. Distribution, i, 22, 38. Figure, i, 37. Local names, i, 36. Dye, i, 38, 122. Lumber, i, 38. Medicinal, iii, 197. Stands, i, 86-100. Tannin, i, 120-124. Xylocarpus moluccensis: Description, i. 38. Distribution, i, 22. Figure, i, 39. Local names, i, 38. Firewood, i, 112-117. Forest charge, i, 125. Piagau oil, ii, 120. Stands, i, 86. Tannin, i, 120-124. Timber, i, 38. Y Yabn6i, see Ficus hauili. Yabyaban, see Tacca pinnatifida. Yagom, see Indigofera suffruticosa. Yaka, see Corchorus olitorius. Yakal-dilau, see Sindora supa. Yalisai, see Terminalia catappa. 'Yam, see Dioscorea esculenta. Yamban, see Phaeanthus ebracteolatus. Yamp6ng, see Abutilon indicum. Yard grass, see Eleusine indica. Yas, see Panicum palmaefolium. Yati, see Tectona grandis. Yaya, see Gonocaryum calleryanum. Yayaod, see Eclipta alba. Yayasi, see Ficus ulmifolia. Yayod-no-kangkang, see Emilia sochifolia. Yayulinau, see Vernonia cinerea. Yellow lanutan, see Polyalthia flava. Yerba buena, see Mentha arvensis. Yerba de San Pablo, see Phyllanthus niruri. Yovas, see Graptophylllum pictum. Yunu-yfnu, see Tertninalia comintana. Yu-pa, see Anacolosa luzoniensis. Z Zalacca clemensiana: Description, i, 243. Distribution, i, 242. Ornamental, i, 243. Zanthoxylumn av:cenncc: Distribution, iii, 195. Local names, iii, 195. Medicinal, iii, 195. Zanthoxylum rhetsa: Distribution, iii, 195. Local names, iii, 195. Medicinal, iii, 195. Zap6te, see Diospyros ebenaster. Zapote negro, see Diospyros ebenaster. Zarzaparilla-puti, see Smilax leucophylla. Zea mays: Distribution, iii, 172. Local name, iii, 172. Medicinal, iii, 172. Zedoary, see Curcuma zedoaria. Zedoary oil: Curcuma zedoaria, ii, 183. Zingiberaceae: Dyes, ii, 385. Fiber plants, i, 365. Food plants, ii, 259. Medicinal plants, iii, 66, 177. Oils, ii, 182. Zingiber oficinale: Local names, ii, 184. Condiment, ii, 184. Flavoring, ii, 184. Medicine, ii, 184. Oil, ii, 184. Zingiber zerumbet: Distribution, iii, 178. Local names, iii, 178. Medicinal, iii, 178. Zizyphus jujuba: Distribution, iii, 205. Local names, iii, 205. Medicinal, iii, 205. 0

Page  330

Page  

Page   3 9015 00806 5214 THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN tr RENEW PHONE 764-1494 DATE DUE

Page   MAR281930 UNIt.- '1. IiICH. 'i,t". y ~

Page   3URLA\U 0r IVF$R MANILA,?F1LZprmINZ I~A~ZAI Bi~letIi N. 1(l03Y.-Reprt on Jnvsi~~&sm& in. Java in the yAei~r 1902,._ B3y Ehnier, ') erl.Out of1it Rttfltin N. 2 (~O8) ---The diareal idustry of h i~lippin Islax By i.1I. Masule~ Out of print 3~~~11eti~~~~~~~~o, 3 (i0~~~~~~~~).-~~~~~A ~compilton of notes on hndaruerndgt,petch Au fp~tt ~11eAvtin, Nc.. 4 (1$06Y."- _,eehapica1 tests, proetiest and iaes$ tiit FPhiijpirk woods.L q~phi m ii wiis, lumbler mitk*0, sl r~ ByRolland_, GArdn&- Ou f e 'dieti No. 5: (O6.-A re, MIiiAry Nvorking F('i r the:,bi ~rs traet, o the -hi, lxTibi opnNC:o OSice41 P. B. y T.lb E c rett. gn A. U.WhTf'd -, Out-a 4 rn# Balle~~n A4 1 (9O6),-~A pr~elim''ninry -w~rking Ln for the 4, i ore~ oft1 h~fdqro Lumber and Lokghing- Comp n-y1 og Miudrl -Y fz' Al. L. MXirrit anid ir. N.- Whitforid. Ch4i 1P pIn ~1Ii~i~ia. Nc. 7 (1907-A prelifuiin)ary, ch'eck list 6 h rnia oL nercLA a I- I; ofa th hlpie Jgin'ds. 13 -II. N.'' if~d~i Otof pcrint. _-11eii~u,No. a (I O0~-A?hM-su~iut o v y, Wt qIutelflt15h,.60: "Cft&Q, Buled ~po. 1-0-frat f the Pii~nsI~oettp ija pr o c t. 'II th~ "Pr A~pa~f -et tres~ By H, A! itt'r xlletiu I~o ~) ".-.4 F~ u~sof1. ti1pine 1WOOAs. Out ( t Vnltn o? 12.YIune tab-les. ~fdr roin~d tilnbet 'd -nOeia N10 o._ 13S (45kpi.iJ- firew"ood ad reror'~atatfcWA L D '-m atthews. ~O~ijaVbs Bulletin 1V.1 (96. —ofrr- w~d oif 4h i]ipes pr paraiin ~4i4~es. Iy E., N:. ~ 2 p~ Au14keti No.s T~(.-hiiipPine — nunibo6s'-... Mxy -;-ia ' W r33i ~o. an., 'Arhur ch - x, 4~u]1ei~, No 14 (111-hi po*0e na -wo e s'ce~ *~ Yc~nf Pe~r a4Atn~FFsh#2 eo ~~v 18 ~~91~) Thih- n ab. mn ar ~id.L 1e U H orwn' 2p- J r 1f~ee 1~ o OwVa 22 InG '''PrA~~~~~~~~~t~