The court-martial of Andres Bonifacio : with prefatory notes
Kalaw, Teodoro M. (Teodoro Manguiat), 1884-1940., Mendez, Paz Policarpio.

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Page  III THE COURT- MARTIAL OF ANDRES BONIFACIO WITH PREFATORY NOTES BY Teodoro M. Kalaw -9 I TRANSLATED BY Paz Policarpio-Mendez 0 ---1926 MANILA BOOK COMPANY, INC., MANILA, P. I.

Page  IV " lit -ir:-_~ zi ~!' " f i i'~s i' Copyright 1926 by MANILA BOOK COMPANY, INC. All rights reserved PRINTED BY FILIPINO PRINTING PRESS MANILA, P. I.

Page  V PREFATORY NOTES 6 — a -___ For many years I have had in my possession a copy in English of the document that is here reproduced. I have often wanted to publish it but refrained from doing so lest the translation might not be correct. The last time I was in Washington, D. C., toward the end of 1925, I had the opportunity to compare the English translation with the original in Tagalog which is found in the archives of the Bureau of Insular Affairs and I found that the translation I had was inaccurate. I asked for permission to photograph the manuscript and the translation in this book was made directly from the photographs of the original. In publishing this very interesting episode of our campaign for liberty, I have no purpose other than to contribute to the establishment of truth which has been mercilessly thwarted to the detriment of some of the men of our Revolution. The presence of Andres Bonifacio in Cavite until his death which occurred on the 10th of May, 1897, is described in the Memoirs of General Artemio Ricarte. Andres Bonifacio, the "Supremo" (Supreme head) of the Katipunan arrived there about the latter half of December, 1896. He was called by the Magdiwang government which, with the Magdalo government, had just given battle to the Spanish forces in the province. The triumphs achieved by the two revolutionary organizations in their respective territories in Cavite bred a certain rivalry among its men which Bonifacio was called upon to stop. To receive him, Emilio Aguinaldo, Daniel Tirona and others, went to Imus. From Imus, Bonifacio proceeded to San Francisco de Malabon, which was under the jurisdiction of the Magdiwang government. There he was given a big reception. The "Supremo" conferred on plans of reorganizing the Revolution with the chiefs of the Revolution, among whom was V

Page  VI Edilberto Evangelista. Evangelista, himself, had with him a draft of his own. For the purpose of discussing these plans an assembly was called in Imus which failed to come to any definite agreement save on the appointment of a committee to draft rules under the chairmanship of Bonifacio. In March another assembly was convened in Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon, which was better attended. Of this General Ricarte speaks as follows: "On the day and hour fixed in the summon signed by Jacinto Lumbreras, a large number of the chiefs within the jurisdiction of the Magdiwang government attended but owing to some skirmishes in Salitran, Molino and Presa (Imus), the meeting was postponed till the next day. "From the early hours of the day set for the assembly, the Hacienda Tejeros was filled not only with the chiefs of the Magdiwang jurisdiction but also with many of the Magdalo government. Among the leading Magdiwang men, besides the chief of the Katipunan, were the following: Mariano Alvarez, Pascual Alvarez, Santiago Alvarez, Lucio San Miguel, Mariano Trias Closas, Severino de las Alas, Santos Nocom, and among those of the Magdalo government were Baldomero Aguinaldo, Daniel Tirona, Cayetano Topacio and Antonio Montenegro. "As soon as the meeting was opened under the chairmanship of Jacinto Lumbreras who briefly explained its object, Severino de las Alas asked for permission to speak, which was granted. He said. that before taking up the question of the defense of a small territory of the province of Cavite it is desirable to speak first of the kind of government the country ought to have under the circumstances; this government to consider later all desired plans of defense. The presiding officer answered that the country has been ruled since the formation of the Katipunan ng VI

Page  VII Mga Anak ng Bayan, by its supreme council, the provincial councils and the popular councils. The chairman again explained the purpose of the meeting which was of the utmost importance in those critical moments. Andres Bonifacio with the permission of the chairman spoke in support of the stand of Jacinto Lumbreras on the government which was actually reigning in the country. He explained, also, the significance of the letter K in the center of the rising sun on the flag which is: "Kalayaan" (Liberty). Severino de las Alas again spoke and said that the letter K in the flag and the flag itself do not precisely specify the kind of government the present insurrection has, that is, whether it is monarchical or republican. Andres Bonifacio replied that the Katipuneros from the "Supremo" of the Superior Council to the Inferior Council, recognized as their principle; Union. Fraternity, and Equality; from which it could be seen clearly that the government of the Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan, is rigorously republican in form." After an exchange of words between Antonio Montenegro and Santiago Alvarez which caused temporary adjournment, the meeting was again resumed proceeding to transact business in the following manner, quoting again from Ricarte's Memoirs: "Jacinto Lumbreras said: 'As the question under discussion is completely outside of what is mentioned in the call for the meeting and the establishment of general government for the insurrection, I should not continue to preside over this meeting.' Andres Bonifacio, the president of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan, that plunged the country in its present state, was then acclaimed by all to preside over the assembly. Vibora (Artemio Ricarte) acted as secretary. vn

Page  VIII "Andres Bonifacio opened the meeting saying: 'As you desire to set up a supreme government to direct the insurrection, abolishing what was organized by the Katipunan and the resolution approved in the assembly of Imus, as President of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, I accede to your just petition, but first of all I desire to ask you to recognize a principle as a basis of agreement in this or in other meetings, which is: that we respect and obey the will of the majority.' All gave their approval to this. "The Republic of the Philippines was agreed on and proclaimed, with enthusiastic hurrahs. Then followed the election of those who were to occupy the following offices in the government of the Republic of the Philippines: President, Vice-President, Captain-General, Director of War, Director of Interior, Director of State, Director of Finance, Director of Fomento and Director of Justice. "Before putting it to a vote, Andres Bonifacio called the attention of the electors who represented different provinces of the Archipelago that those who would be elected by majority vote should be recognized and respected regardless of the degree of culture of each, to which the mass shouted its assent. Ballots were then distributed and after one hour the result was announced. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected President of the government of the Republic of the Philippines, by majority vote, against Andres Bonifacio and Mariano Trias. The President-elect was proclaimed by means of applause and hurrahs. "Immediately after they proceeded to the election of Vice-President, Severino de las Alas stood up and said that as Andres Bonifacio secured second place in the election of President, he should be declared and proclaimed Vice-President of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. Nobody VIII

Page  IX spoke for nor against the proposition of de las Alas so the presiding officer decided that they should proceed to vote. The result was the election by majority vote of Mariano Trias Closas against Andres Bonifacio, Severino de las Alas and Mariano Alvarez. "The election of Captain-General immediately proceeded. This resulted in the selection, by a majority vote, of the secretary of the assembly, (Vibora) against Santiago Alvarez. The secretary of the assembly stood and protested against his election, stating: 'None better than I know my own limitations and fitness: the position with which this assembly honors me, is beyond my scant ability and strength; to me it is a very honorable position but its horizon is too wide for me; so I request the assembly not to resent my refusal to accept it. Cries of disapproval reverberated in the hall, and the chairman called the meeting to order, and said: 'It is getting dark, so we have to proceed to the election of the other positions.' A proposal, that in order to expedite the election all those who are in favor of one person for a certain position step to one side of the hall and those in favor of another step to another side, was approved. In this way the Director of War was elected which resulted in the choice, by a majority vote, of Emiliano Riego de Dios against Ariston Villanueva, Daniel Tirona, and Santiago Alvarez. The election of Emiliano Riego de Dios who belonged to the Magdiwang government was received with stentorian acclamation. The same procedure was followed in the election of the Director of the Interior which resulted in the selection, by a majority, of Andres Bonifacio against Mariano Alvarez and Pascual Alvarez. Amid the din of hurrahs, acclaiming Andres Bonifacio, rose the voice of Daniel Tirona asking for permission to speak and he commenced thus: IX

Page  X "The position of Director of the Interior is an exalted one and it is not meet that a person without a lawyer's diploma should occupy it. We have in our province a lawyer, Jose del Rosario, therefore we should protest against the elected and acclaimed.' And, shouting with all his might, said: 'Let us vote for Jose del Rosario!' His personal feeling wounded, Bonifacio stood and said: Did we not agree that we have to abide by the decision of the majority whatever may be the social conditions of those elected?" Having said this, he asked Daniel Tirona to repeat all that he had said, and to give satisfaction to the assembly for his phrases defamatory to the one elected. As Daniel Tirona tried to hide himself in the crowd without paying any attention, Bonifacio pulled his revolver and was about to fire at Tirona when the secretary of the assembly grabbed his hand and prevented the incident from becoming more than a scare. As the people began to leave the hall, Andres Bonifacio, in high tone, said: 'I, as chairman of this assembly, and as president of the Supreme Council of the Katipunan, as you all do not deny, declare this assembly dissolved, and I annul all what has been approved and resolved.' He and his followers then left the room." This narrative essentially coincides with what Andres Bonifacio, himself, wrote to Emilio Jacinto in a letter dated at Indang April 24, 1897. The proceedings of the assembly were again the object of a written protest subscribed to by more than forty persons, among whom were Andres Bonifacio, Mariano Alvarez, Antonio Ricarte and Diego Mojica, on the ground that fraudulent means were used in the elections for the different offices in the government. Notwithstanding this, Emilio Aguinaldo, president elect, and Mariano Trias Closas, Vice-President elect, took their respective oath of of x

Page  XI fice in the convent of Santa Cruz de Malabon, before a crucifix, on the day following the election. After taking part in subsequent battles against the Spaniards who again invaded the province, Andres Bonifacio, with his men went to the barrio of Jalang, and then to Limbon, both within the municipality of Indang, with the object of returning to Manila. When Aguinaldo received charges that Bonifacio was recruiting in Limbon to overthrow the revolutionary government, he sent some of his loyal followers to that place under the command of Colonels Bonzon, Pawa and Topacio. These forces engaged the forces of the "Supremo" at dawn of April 28, which resulted in the death of two of the followers of Andres Bonifacio and one of his brothers. Andres Bonifacio, himself was seriously wounded. This tragic incident caused the government of Aguinaldo to create a courtmartial to try the Bonifacio brothers and some of his soldiers, on a charge of sedition. Colonel Pantaleon Garcia was appointed Judge Advocate. The decision of the courtmartial was forwarded to a Council of War presided by General Mariano Noriel which condemned to death the Bonifacio brothers. When the document reached President Aguinaldo, however, he commuted the sentence to a mera exile. The whole proceedings which we publish in toto reproduce the testimonies of both sides and the condemnatory decision. The leading witness of the prosecution was Pedro Giron, a confidential man of Bonifacio, of whom it was said, at least by Mrs. Andres Bonifacio that he was bribed. The principal witnesses for the defense were Andres Bonifacio and his wife, Gregoria de Jesus. Whoever reads the briefs of both sides, will understand that the conflict between the two leaders of the Revolution, had, in its foundation, a legal nature, within the relative legality, possible in a revolutionary situation. Did Bonifacio continue being the Head of the Katipunan with jurisdiction all over the Archipelago, or was he subrogated by XI

Page  XII Aguinaldo from the time the latter took the oath of his new office? Such was the real issue. Aguinaldo and his followers maintained the negative, and for this reason they considered Bonifacio as seditionist. On the other hand, Bonifacio and his men, not recognizing the legality of the Tejeros Assembly, maintained that the Katipunan organization was still in force. The court martial was called upon to review this legal conflict. Even if this court could be charged with partiality because it was composed of men of only one side, the fact that Bonifacio and his followers submitted to it without any protest, prevented them from taking exceptions to its decision. Such decision having been given, it had to be complied with. The impartial judgment of history would find nothing unusual in the development of this unhappy event had the final decision been strictly followed. It is true that the facts, judged a posteriori, sustained Aguinaldo's point of view. Unity had to be maintained, discipline and the spirit of organization had to be insured. All these Bonifacio, perhaps, could not have done with the same success that Aguinaldo attained. Aguinaldo was better fitted to lead; Bonifacio because of his aggressiveness, was not. All opposition, therefore, had to be put down with an iron hand. For this reason, the military hearing under the supervision of a Council of War was a timely measure, affecting as it did the very founder of the Katipunan. Thus far everything went well. But, since some ordinary process of law was adopted, why did they not abide by the final decision? Why was not the President order followed as drafted? Mysterious as it was, the death of the two Bonifacios, when the final order was only for exile, will always be a black page in the history of the Revolution, and a stain to those who planned and brought it about. The life of a man is precious, and even under the most abnormal conditions, when absolute powers over life and property are given to a dictator, capital punishments require an xII

Page  XIII order that explains their reason. If the procedure followed was legal; the disappearance of the accused, being illegal, was a crime; if the procedure was a farce, it carried in itself its own condemnation. In brief, if the accused had to die, why were they pardoned? And if they were pardoned, why were they executed? Consummatun est! To Andres Bonifacio belongs the glory-undeniably purer and more meritorious-of having initiated the Revolution by precipitating it. This fact reveals his character with which he passed into historyresolute, desperate, reckless. His going to Cavite resulted, fatally, in the epilogue of his life. He went there to be the victim of a group of fearless warriors whose recent triumphs over the common enemy had rendered pale the very glory of the Katipunan. He went there to surrender his liberating bolo to the "man of destiny". The written documents which now have come to our hands exempt Emilio Aguinaldo from responsibility. His order of pardon "in order not to spill blood" and "because the accused are legitimate sons of this land" is an act of moral greatness that elevates him. It remains for him now to prove that it is not true that he had any participation, direct or indirect, in the plot which thrust aside his own order of pardon and besmirched with an assassin's hand the virtue of generosity toward the fallen and the vanquished. We should respect the Revolution and its men who worked for our liberty, and who made the course of history change to our credit and honor, but we should not fail in our duty, dispassionately to point out their errors, wheresoever they may be, in order to prevent their repetition. Manila, July, 1926. TEODORO M. KALAW XIII

Page  XIV I

Page  1 THE COURT - MARTIAL OF ANDRES BONIFACIO Most Respected and Distinguished President: I have the honor to submit to your Excellency the following report rendered to me by Colonel Agapito Bonzon, who, with our soldiers, was detailed to Yndang to investigate the truth of the rumor concerning our "Supremo" Bonifacio. On seeing the "Supremo", Colonel Bonzon used the best language he could to induce Bonifacio to accept his good offer, but he failed to soften the stubborn heart of the "Supremo" who, in addition to refusing, acted as a real enemy and ordered his soldiers to fire. Our soldiers fired back, so that the incident resulted in the pitiful shedding of blood, something which our Colonel did not wish to happen for love of his fellow men; still, in the fulfilment of his duties, he deemed this procedure wise. Two of our soldiers died-one from Ymus armed with a gun, and another from Gargamo armed with a sword. However they killed one brother of the "Supremo" and left the latter in the tribunal (town-hall) at Yndang in a serious condition as a result of wounds received in the larynx. They captured twenty soldiers with guns and another brother of the "Supremo". From this occurrence, it is up to your high sense of fairness to judge the extent of the evil and treacherous intentions of Andres Bonifacio. May God protect us forever. Maguagui, April 28, 1897. MARIANO NORIEL Brigadier-General.

Page  2 Naik, April 28, 1897. Decision Forwarded to the Jurisdiction de Guerra so that it may appoint its own judge to investigate and make the necessary trial in connection with the events stated in the letter. The judge to be appointed must be a colonel. Seal E. AGUINALDO Respected and Distinguished Brigadier-General: The accompanying letter also containing the action taken is forwarded to your Honor for execution. May God protect you forever. Maguagui, April 28, 1897. EMILIO AGUINALDO President Naik, Maguagui, April 28, 1897 In accordance with the contents of the foregoing letter and the instruction cf the President, these papers are forw2rded to Colonel Pantaleon Garcia, appointed special judge to make the necessary investigation concerning the crimes committed. MARIANO NORIEL I, Pantaleon Garcia, Colonel in the Army, in accordance with the powers given me, appoint as secretary of the investigation Lazaro Makapagal, Major. He knows the nature of his work and has sworm to fulfill the duties of his office. It is hereby ordered that Colonel Agapito Bonzon 2nd the men in prison appear before the Judge for investi 2

Page  3 gation of the details contained in the letter. The Secretary is requested to keep a written record in which should be stated the mark and make of the guns seized from the soldiers under "Supremo" Andres Bonifacio. Done at Naik, April 29, 1897, as a proof of which we have affixed our signatures below. PANTALEON GARCIA LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Secretary StatementApril 29, 1897, It is requested that the men in prison be brought here and that Colonel Agapito Bonzon appear before the Judge. Attest. MAKAPAGAL RecordIn accordance with the instructions of the Special Judge, I have the honor to report that the guns seized from the enemy are:Mauser L-2798-the metal plate is rubbed out. Market A. B. Mauser K-2894 with an addition No. 1. Metal plate rubbed out; marked A. B. Remington No. 7537; metal plate rubbed out; marked A.B. Remington No. 2200; metal plate rubbed out; marked A. B. Remington No. 12620; metal plate of trigger and butt-end rubbed out. Remington No. 2085. Remington No. 4610. 3

Page  4 Remington No. 3279-A. B. rubbed out. Remington No. 3580-Magdalo rubbed out. Remington No. 23871-16 on butt-end rubbed out; marked A. B. Remington No. 3302; marked A. B. Remington No. 3379 metal plate on trigger rubbed out; marked A. B. Remington No. 9075; marked A. B. Remington No. 38384-marked Magdalo. Remington no number; metal plate rubbed out. Remington-English make. One shot-gun, double-barrel, center fire. " " i " single-barrel rim fire. " " " "I' " center fire.,," " " rim fire. Two shot-guns, double barrel. One rifle, 22 caliber, low power, target practice. Four blunderbusses, one has a mark "Juan Estrella". April 29, 1897, Attested to by the Secretary. MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 29, 1897 Investigation of Benito Torres. Benito Torres, married, 21 years of age, born in San Fernando, La Union, today appeared in court for investigation. He declared that he had been in prison since the day previous as a result of the encounter between the soldiers of the Tagalog government and his soldiers. In this encounter, which took place at nine o'clock in the morning, two soldiers of the government army and one of theirs, named Ciriaco Bonifacio, brother of the leader of the witness, were killed. Ciriaco began the firing and the witness, on learning that those fighting were his soldiers and 4

Page  5 our soldiers, left his trench to meet them. He was advising peace when Ciriaco fired, killing two of our soldiers. He received a wound on the arm when the government soldiers fired at Supremo Andres Bonifacio while the latter was aiming with his revolver. His soldiers did not fire because he had ordered them not to do so. In the encounter Ciriaco was killed and Andres Bonifacio was wounded. Bonifacio has 35 soldiers with guns, 20 of which were Remington; 2 Mauser; and 13 muskets. Their lieutenant colonel was Pedro Giron; the lieutenant was Juan Liwanag; the captain, who had smallpox, was named Rojas. He did not know the names of the sergeants, corporals, or soldiers; he did not know where the guns had come from, but he knew that when Andres Bonifacio was in Balara, he had guns; he knew that they were leaving the place but wherefor, he did not know: neither did he know that there was a native government invested with authority. He had gone to meet the soldiers from this town because they were Tagalogs and he had recognized some familiar faces. He did not know the origin of the quarrel at the Tribunal of Yndang, bcause he was not there at the time. He informed them that the deceased Ciriaco had ordered the hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows of five prisoners to be shaved. He could not tell who was giving them provisions. He read the above record and testified to its correctness. In view of the fact that he did not know how to write, he asked Nicolas Torres to affix his signature with that of the Judge and Secretary, who attests to it. K/ GARCIA NICOLAS TORRES LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Naik Headquarters, April 29, 1897 Investigation of Procopio Bonifacio Procopio Bonifacio, single, 24 years of age, born in 5

Page  6 Tondo, Manila, appeared in court today before the Judge and the Secretary for investigation in connection with the report contained in the letter. He declared that he had been in prison since the night before because he was captured by our soldiers without his knowing the reason. On being asked where he was captured and why his clothes were smeared with blood, he answered that he was captured at the trench in Limbon, and that the blood on his clothes came from his nose, because a government soldier had struck him with the butt-end of his gun. He was surprised by the soldier's attack as he was not offering resistance. If he had any gun at the time, he surrendered it at once. He was asked if he knew that there was a revolutionary government in the province. He answered that he had no knowledge, even from hearsay. He was asked how he came to know that the soldiers who captured him were government soldiers. He replied that he knew it because the soldiers dropped in at the house where they were staying. He was asked who, in addition to his brothers, Ciriaco and Andres, and himself, used to go to the house in Limbon where they were staying. He replied that they were Diego Mojica, Captain Martin Medina, and two persons from Mflabon, named Domingo and Lauro, who happened to pass there. He was asked how many guns the soldiers of his brother, Andres Bonifacio, had. He could not tell how many, but he knew the guns had come from Balara. He was asked if he knew that among the guns carried by his soldiers, some had come from the government. He replied that he did not know, but Pedro Giron, in his opinion, might have brought some. He was asked who fired first. He answered that the government soldiers did. At this juncture the Judge sent for Benito Torres to compare his statement with the state 6

Page  7 ment of Procopio Bonifacio. Benito Torres repeated that it was Ciriaco Bonifacio who fired first. On hearing this answer, Procopio stated that he was not sure who had fired first, because he was in a different trench, about three meters away. The Judge ordered Benito to leave the court and asked Procopio if he knew that two government soldiers had died from two shots. He answered that he did not know. He was questioned as to the weapons carried by his brothers, Ciriaco and Bonifacio. He replied that Ciriaco had a mauser and Andres a revolver. He was asked the number of officers and soldiers his brother Andres Bonifacio had. He replied that the soldiers numbered about eleven, not including the captain, named Flaviano Rojas, and Major Benito Torres. There was also a lieutenant-colonel named Pedro Giron. These did not carry any weapons, except Pedro, who had a revolver. He was asked why they and their soldiers stayed in Limbon since the election of a President of the revolutionary government. He replied that they were waiting for some one to show them the way to Balara: they did not know there was a President then. He was asked how many times they wrote to the government army officers inducing them by means of money to go over to their side or to bring their guns. He replied that neither his two brothers nor he ever wrote any such letter. He was asked how many times they held meetings in Limbon and who were present at those meetings where they discussed the attack on the town and the overthrow of the revolutionary government in the province. He answered that they never held any meetings since they arrived in Limbon, except the previous Tuesday, when Diego Mojica dropped in at the house where they were staying at the time it was being besieged. 7

Page  8 The examination was closed. After reading everything mentioned above, and testifying to its truth and correctness, Procopio affixed his signature with the Judge's and mine. K/ GARCIA P. BONIFACIO Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 29, 1897. On this day the Special Judge sent letters to the different groups of soldiers ordering the immediate capture of all the soldiers of Andres Bonifacio who had not presented themselves for investigation. He has also sent letters to the towns over which the Highest Revolutionary Government has jurisdiction. PANTALEON GARCIA Attest: MAKAPAGAL April 30, 1897 On this day, at the headquarters of Naik were admitted six soldiers of Andres Bonifacio. Other companions presented themselves immediately afterwards. GARCIA Attest: MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Nicolas Guzman. Nicolas Guzman, single, 25 years of age, clerk, li8

Page  9 terate, born in Bulacan, appearing before the Examining Judge, promised to tell the truth in the investigation. He was asked if he knew that there was a revolutionary government in this province and that it had an army. He answered that he knew about both the government and the army. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio held any legal powers in this province in revolt which entitled him to maintain an army. He replied that he did not know that Andres Bonifacio had any authority whatsoever. He was asked how many guns and soldiers Andres Bonifacio had. He replied that he did not know the number of either guns or soldiers, because although Rafael Non and he were called soldiers of Andres Bonifacio, they did not belong to the trenches guarded by the soldiers, as since they left the company of Lieutenant Colonel Ticong, they never mingled with the soldiers of Andres except at mealtime. Rafael and the witness were with Andres and his soldiers because of their desire to reach Balara. He was asked if he knew that Andres Bonifacio had any permit from the government to stay in Limbon, within the jurisdiction of this province, and to enlist soldiers with guns and swords. He replied that he had no knowledge of any permit to stay in Limbon nor to enlist soldiers. He was asked if Andres, Ciriaco and Procopio Bonifacio often held'meetings in the house where they were lodging in Limbon and who were the men present in the meetings. He replied that he did not know because the house where he was staying was far from the house where Bonifacio was. Besides it was only when Bonifacio was in Yndang that the witness went in order that they could go home together. He. was asked if he knew or had heard of any rumor that Andres Bonifacio offered bribes to the officials and 9

Page  10 soldiers to join him and to take their guns with them. The witness replied that he knew nothing of what was being asked him. He was asked if he knew that Andres had written to the officers and soldiers in the government army and if he knew what the letters contained. He replied that he could not say so, nor had he heard from anybody that Andres ever wrote to any person. He was asked if he knew the reasons why Andres Bonifacio was enlisting men to be soldiers or to serve under him. He replied that he did not know the reason. He was asked if he supposed that Andres was enlisting soldiers to overthrow the revolutionary government and kill the President. He replied that he did not know, nor had he heard of what was being asked him. The investigation was ordered closed. After hearing the report read before him, Guzman testified to its correctness as a proof of which he has affixed his signatures before the Judge's and mine. GARCIA NICOLAS GUZMAN Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Rafael Non. Rafael Non, single, 22 years of age, born in Manila, student, literate, promised to tell the Judge the truth of what he knew concerning the events mentioned in the letter. He was asked if he knew that there was a revolutionary government in the province and that it had an army. He answered that he did not know it, but he knew that there was a government and an army in Ymus before the Spaniards entered that town. 10

Page  11 He was asked if he knew that Andres Bonifacio had any authority in that province which was in a state of revolt, and if, because of this authority, he had the right to maintain an army. He answered that he did not know what authority Bonifacio had except that he had heard Andres Bonifacio called "Supremo". He therefore did not know over what place Bonifacio had jurisdiction, neither could he tell the reason for the latter's maintenance of an army. He was asked the number of soldiers and guns of Bonifacio. He replied that he did not know, for he and his companion Nicolas Guzman were in a different group from the troops of Andres, about ten arms' length distant, and they never joined the soldiers except at meal-time. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio had any government permit to stay in Limbon, which belongs to this province, and to maintain soldiers with guns and swords. He replied that he did not know of any such permit. He was questioned if Andres Bonifacio and his brothers often held meetings in the house where they were staying, and who were present at those meetings. He replied that he did not know and that he never saw any strange faces enter the house where Bonifacio was staying. He was asked if he knew or had heard of any rumor that Andres Bonifacio was bribing the officials and soldiers of the province to join him and take their guns with them. He replied that he did not know nor did hear of any such intention. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio wrote to the officials and soldiers here and what the letter contained. He replied that he did not know what was being asked him. He was asked why Andres Bonifacio was enlisting men to make them soldiers. He answered that he did not know that Andres was enlisting soldiers, but he knew that Andres had a few men, who, Andres said, were his formerly. 11

Page  12 He was asked if Andres Bonifacio was planning to attack the place to overthrow the government and kill the President. He replied that he did not know of any plan to prepare the troops against the government or to kill the President. He was asked what arms he carried when he was with Andres Bonifacio. He replied that he carried a Remington and that his companion Nicolas Guzman carried a similar gun. He was asked if he was at the trench when the government soldiers went to Limbon, and what happened there. He replied that he did not know what had happened because he was not in that place when the government soldiers arrived, and although he had heard shots, he did not know from where they came or what direction they took. The investigation was closed. Rafael Non, after hearing this paper, testified to its correctness, and signed below. GARCIA RAFAEL NON Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Narciso Tiolo. Narciso Tiolo, married, 25 years of age, born in Binondo, Manila, laborer, literate, promised to tell the truth before the Judge. He was asked if he knew that there existed a revolutionary government in this province and that it had an army. He replied that he knew that the recognized head of the province was Emilio Aguinaldo and, also, that there was an army. 12

Page  13 Asked concerning the different questions put to the other witnesses, he replied that Andres Bonifacio had no powers in this province, nor had he been given any by the revolutionary government. He did not know if Bonifacio, his brothers, and his comrades held any meetings; he did not know the number of guns because he was not a member of the army of Andres Bonifacio, but had merely followed them in his desire to reach Manila. He further added that he could not say anything about the shooting because he and hip companions in the house were far from the trenches where Bonifacio was, and that on hearing the shots, he had taken his child, and had fled to the forest. The investigation was closed by the Judge. The witness after hearing the above report signed below. GARCIA NARCISO TIOLO Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Julian Aguila, soldier with a sword. Julian Aguila, married, 33 years of age, collector, literate, born in San Jose, Batangas, appearing before the Examining Judge promised to tell the truth concerning the events mentioned in the letter. He was asked if he knew that there existed a revolutionary government with an army; if Andres Bonifacio held any power in this province; and if the revolutionary government had given any permit to Andres and his brothers to stay in Limbon. He answered that he knew of the existence of the revolutionary government and the army; but that he was doubtful as to the authority of 13

Page  14 Andres Bonifacio in that province, and did not know if Bonifacio had any permit to stay in Limbon. He was asked if Andres ever held meetings in Limbon, when were the meetings held, who were present, and what was the object of the meetings. He answered that if he was not mistaken, the Bonifacio brothers first held a meeting with Diego Mojica, and the next day with Santos Nocom, but he did not know what they talked about. He supposed that those persons were mere visitors. He was asked if he knew of any evil intentions of Andres Bonifacio and his companions against the revolutionary government. He said that he did not know if they had any bad intentions because his job was to get palay from Buenavista. He further said that he nhad nothing to add to or subtract from his declarations. The judge stopped the examination, but at this juncture, Julian Aguila recalled that on Wednesday morning, the 28th of this month, he heard two shots opposite the place where he was. He suspected that the government soldiers fired the shot, according to hearsay. He added that they had with them five men from Tanza, prisoners of Colonel Pedro Giron, overseer of Andres Bonifacio. Ciriaco Bonifacio, brother of Andres, ordered that the hair, eyebrows and eyelashes of these men be shaved. They had been staying there four days before the encounter happened. The witness after knowing the written record of what he had said signed below the Judge, and the Secretary, who attests to it. JULIAN AGUILA GARCIA Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Headquarters, Naik, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Cayetano Lopez, soldier with a gun, Cayetano Lopez, single, 20 years old, coachman, il 14

Page  15 literate, born in San Pedro Magalang, Pampanga, promised to tell the truth before the Judge. He was asked if he knew that there existed a revolutionary government which had an army; if Andres Bonifacio had any legal power in that section, and if the government had given the Bonifacio brothers and their army any permit to stay in Limbon. He replied that he did not know if there was a revolutionary government in that part; that all he knew of Andres Bonifacio was that he was called "Supremo". (This is not proper.) If there existed any government he said he was not aware of any permit given them to stay in Limbon. He was asked the total number of the guns in their possession. He replied that they had thirty-five, the majority of which were Remington, two mausers, rimfire, and some muskets. All of these were under Major Benito Torres. He was asked if in Limbon the Bonifacio brothers ever held any meetings who were present, and what they talked about. He answered that the persons whom he saw in Limbon were Santos Nocom and Silvestre Domingo, but the topic of their meetings, he did not know. He was asked what he knew of Andres Bonifacio and his companions, also if these men had any evil designs against the government. He replied that he did not know because they were far from the house where Andres Bonifacio was staying. He was asked if he knew what happened in Limbon on Wednesday morning, the 28th of that month. He replied that he did not know what had happened, because although he heard some shots, he did not know from where they came or what direction they took. He was asked if he knew that they had prisoners, how many there were and who had captured them. He -answered that there were five, all from Tanza and prisoners 15

Page  16 of his companions; and that Ciriaco Bonifacio had ordered their hair, eyebrows and eyelashes to be shaved. At this stage, the Judge ordered the examination stopped. The witness after knowing the contents of this report, confirmed it. In his place, and by his wish, Luis Velasco signed, before the Judge and the Secretary. LUIS VELASCO GARCIA Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Naik Headquarters, April 30, 1897. Testimony of the soldiers who presented themselves in Court. Bibiano Rojas, soldier of the "Supremo", single, born in Guiguinto, 24 years of age, made the following testimony before the Judge and the Secretary. He was asked if he knew that there existed in that province a revolutionary government with an army. He replied that he knew of the existence of the government and the army. He was asked if he knew of any legal powers, of Bonifacio in that province which was in revolt, and if, because of this power, he had the right to maintain an army. He replied that Bonifacio had no legal powers whatsoever. He was asked how many guns and soldiers Bonifacio had. He answered that there were twenty-nine, eighteen of which were Remington, and eleven rimfire. There were many soldiers-he could not tell the exact number-but those who had guns were twenty-nine. He was asked if he knew of any government permit given to Andres Bonifacio to stay in Limbon and to en 16

Page  17 list soldiers with guns and swords. He answered that Bonifacio had no permit. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio and his two brdot thers often held meetings in the house where they Were' staying, and also, who were present in the meeting. He answered that there were frequent meetings, and that the men present were Diego Mojica, one named Domingo Santos, and others whom he did not know because he was not from that place. He was asked what they talked about in those meetings. He answered that he did not know what they talked about in the meetings because they spoke in low voices. He informed the Court, however, that at twelve o'clock on Tuesday morning, Andres Bonifacio in front of his two brothers, gave orders to the officers and soldiers to station themselves at the trenches, because the government soldiers who had gone to Jalang to reconnoitre the place, were their enemies. When the next morning came, they were at the' trenches. The soldiers mentioned by Andres Bonifacio arrived. Andres had given orders to his soldiers to shout "Halt" to the enemies on arriving, and if after three shouts of "Halt" they did not stop, to fire; but the soldiers did not obey Bonifacio. When the government soldiers were nearing the trenches, the witness approached them and said that they were not enemies. The government soldiers asked for their guns, which they immediately gave. But, when they were in the trenches, the Bonifacio brothers,' Andres, Ciriaco and Procopio, offered resistance. In fact, Ciriaco fired first; the bullet almost hitting the witness.; Two government soldiers were killed by the shot. The government soldiers fired back. He was asked if Andres had given orders to fire at the soldiers who had been reconnoitering, and who fired. He answered that he did not know if Andres had given any: such orders because he had not heard any, but when Cit riaco fired, the bullet passed by his side. 17 a

Page  18 The investigation was closed and the witnesses after reading the account and testifying to its correctness, signed below together with the Judge and the Secretary, who attests to it. BASILIO ROJAS GARCIA LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Naik Headquarters, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Pedro Giron Pedro Giron, single, 27 years old, born in Baliwag, Bulacan, made the following statements before the Examining Judge and the Secretary. He was asked if he knew that there existed in this province a government and that the government had an army. He answered that he knew that there was a government and an army. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio held any legal powers in the province and if, because of these, he must have an army. He replied that he did not know of any powers delegated to him by the government. He was asked the number of soldiers and guns that Bonifacio had. He replied that he did not know, for the reason that, although Andres considered him his soldier, he did not wish to join him and be involved in trouble as he was aware of Andres Bonifacio's evil intentions from the time of the meeting in Tansa to elect a president and other officials. One day, he could not remember the exact date, when they were in Malabon, Andres Bonifacio said to him: "Let us leave this place because the officials here do not treat us right. You had better join me and you will be fortunate. I will surely be placed in power since I have initiated the revolution." One day when all the forces that came from Tansa had arrived, about twenty days ago more 18

Page  19 or less, Andres Bonifacio sent for the witness. When he (Pedro) arrived, Bonifacio told him: "Our situation here is uncertain. Nevertheless, since I wield the power, Captain Emilio will surely yield to me; if he does not, I will have him killed." On that same day the witness was given ten pesos as payment to kill Captain Emilio, in case the latter did not submit himself to the authority of Bonifacio. Bonifacio further told the witness that if he would only obey his wish, Bonifacio would never desert him in any need. From this the witness sensed approaching trouble, so he separated from Andres and went to Buenavista, Malabon, at Kauayan Pass, with some troops from Malabon, to summon some infantry men from his town who were in the towns of Silang, P. Dasmarifias, Malabon, and Tanza. He also knew that Andres was recruiting soldiers because if he succeeded in subduing the government troops, he could take them with him on leaving the place. If he failed in subjugating them, he would stay there, nevertheless, because all would surely surrender to his powetr He therefore induced some officers of the government army to join him. As a proof of all this the witness knew that some soldiers of Andres proposed to him that they leave the place so as to avoid any further trouble, but Andres refused to do so. Instead, he told the one who made the proposition, that if they left the place many people would call them cowards and say that they were surrendering their rights to the few officials there. He was asked if the brothers of Andres were accomplices in the plans he had stated as answer to question number three. He replied in the negative. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio held meetings in the house where they were staying in Limbon, how many meetings there were, who were present, and what subjects were discussed. He answered that they met frequently, but he did not know the participants, because he was not from the place; neither did he know what they talked about. 19

Page  20 I He was asked who supplied Bonifacio's army with provisions. He replied that he did not know. He was asked if he had anything further to say. He answered that on Wednesday morning of the previous week, he was in Limbon, and at the time of the shooting between the government soldiers and the Bonifacio brothers, in his desire to prevent such troubles, he rushed to the middle to stop Ciriaco Bonifacio by means of convincing words, but the latter did not want to listen; instead he fired, killing two government soldiers. At this juncture and thinking that all peacemaking efforts were useless, he shouted, "Brothers, we are not enemies. Find out who do not want peace and order." The investigation was stopped. The witness after hearing the report of his declarations testified to its correctness and signed below. PEDRO GIRON GARCIA "Palaso" Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Naik Headquarters, April, 30, 1897. Testimony of Domingo Denlaso. Domingo Denlaso, single, 24 years of age, born in Malabon Tambobo, made the following statements before the Judge and the Secretary. He was questioned if he knew that in this province which was in revolt, there existed a government and an army. He answered that he knew of the existence of the government and the army, He was asked if Andres Bonifacio and his brothers 20

Page  21 Ciriaco and Procopio held any powers given by the revolutionary government. He said he did not know whether they had any powers or not. There were frequent meetings at the house where Andres Bonifacio was staying; but he could not tell what they talked of in the meetings; neither did he know the persons who were present, because he was not from the place. He did not know the number of guns and soldiers of Bonifacio; he did not know if the Bonifacio brothers had any permit or authority to stay in Limbon and maintain an army; neither did he know from where the guns seized from them by the government soldiers had come. The witness was not at the trenches at the time of the shooting, for he was on the road leading to Yndang. The investigation was stopped and the witness after hearing this record and testifying to its truth, asked Pedro Malinis to sign for him since he did not know how to write. PEDRO MALINIS GARCIA Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL Naik Headquarters, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Domingo San Juan Domingo San Juan, married, 42 years of age, born in Binondo, Manila, made the following declarations before the Judge and the Secretary. He was asked if he knew that in this section there existed a government and an army. He replied that he knew of the existence of the government and the army. He was asked if Andres Bonifacio and his brothers Ciriaco and Procopio held any Powers given by the revolutionary government. He replied that he did not know of any such power. 21

Page  22 He was asked the number of guns and soldiers of Andres Bonifacio. He replied that there were twenty-eight guns, but he did not know the number of soldiers. He was asked if he knew of any permit given to the Bonifacio brothers by the government to stay in Limbon. and to enlist soldiers with guns and swords. He replied that he did not know of any power or permit to stay in Limbon or to enlist soldiers. He was asked where the provisions of Andres Bonifacio and his soldiers came from. He replied that he and some other men used to get them from Palauit, Malabon, but he did not know the owner. He was asked what he could say about the shooting on Wednesday morning in Limbon. He related that early that morning, he was at the base of the trench, that the government soldiers passes and asked him if he would resist. He replied in the negative. The soldiers immediately seized his gun and that of his companion and proceeded to tLe place where Andres Bonifacio and his two brothers were. Not long afterwards he heard shots, but he could not tell who had fired first; although according to the government soldiers and the soldiers of Andres, the deceased, Ciriaco Bonifacio, was the first to fire. He could not tell whether Bonifacio held any meetings because the house where he was staying was far from the house of Andres; he did not know where the guns in the possession of Andres Bonifacio had come from, because he had only recently joined the "Supremo". The investigation was closed and the witness after reading this record and testifying to its correctness, signed below. DOMINGO SAN JUAN GARCIA Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL 22

Page  23 Naik Headquarters, April 30, 1897. Testimony of Gervacio Santiago Gervacio Santiago, widower, 21 years of age, born in Pasig, Manila, made the following statements before the Judge and the Secretary. He was asked if he knew that in this place there existed a government and an army. He replied that he knew of the existence of the government and the army. He was asked if he knew of any powers of Andres Bonifacio coming from the revolutionary government. He replied that Bonifacio had no such powers. He was asked the questions necessary in this investigation. He replied that he did not know if the government had given Bonifacio any permit to stay in Limbon and to enlist soldiers; he knew Andres Bonifacio had 35 guns, including 2 mauser, but he could not tell from where those guns had come. All he could say about the Wednesday encounter was that, early Wednesday morning, he heard shots, at the place where the Bonifacio brothers were, and the result was the death of Ciriaco Bonifacio and of two government soldiers, Andres himself being wounded. He knew all this because a government soldier had related it to him when he and his companion were called from the place where they were. Andres Bonifacio used to send for food from Tanza; he did not know the make of the guns in possession of the Bonifacio brothers. There were no meetings at the house where Bonifacio was staying, and he did not know of any foreign faces that ever went to that house. The investigation was closed and the witness after reading this record and testifying to its correctness, asked Luis Velasco to sign because he did not know how to write. LUIS VELASCO GARCIA Attest: LAZARO MAKAPAGAL 23

Page  24 Maragondon, May 4, 1897. Andres Bonifacio, 33 years of age, married, born in Tondo, Manila, initiator of the Revolution and head of the Katipunan, appeared before the Judge and the Secretary on this day for examination. He was asked if he knew of the existence of revolutionary government in that province. He replied that he did not know. He was asked if he knew of the existence of an army here in Tanguay. He replied that he knew and that the officers were Generals Santiago, Emilio, Pio and Ricarte. He was questioned if he held any legal powers in the government of this province. He replied that he did not know if he occupied any position or not because he did not even know of the existence of such a government. He was asked if he had any permit from the government to stay in Limbon, Yndang. He replied that the officials of Magdiwang knew of his leaving Yndang enroute to Manila, but because no one could show them the way, they were forced to stop at Limbon. He was asked if he had any government permit to enlist soldiers with guns and swords in Limbon. He replied that, as he had said before, he did not know that there was another government. For this reason, he failed to advise the proper authorities that he was reassembling his soldiers whom he had sent to them as a reinforcement. However, the provincial council of Magdiwang, through its president, returned the soldiers to him. He was asked the number of guns he had in Limbon. He replied that he had sent as succor about 50 guns, but he had brought with him to Limbon only about 17 Remingtons and some others of different make. He was asked if among the guns there was the mark "Magdalo". He replied that he did not know exactly the signs, but he was fully confident that they were all his, because the men who had them had testified to that effect. 24

Page  25 He was asked who took charge of rubbing out the signs on the guns. He replied that there was nobody. He was asked if he knew Pedro Giron, Benito Torres, Pio del Pilar, and Modesto Ritual. He replied that he knew all of them. He was asked if he recalled having written to those men inducing them to transfer to his army and to take their guns with them. He replied that he had never written to anybody on the subject asked him. He was asked if during his stay in Limbon, he held meetings, and who were present in the meetings. He replied that he did not recall holding a meeting with anybody save with his companions. He was asked if he remembered how many times he held conference with Pedro Giron on the subject of killing the President of the government. He replied that he never talked to the person alluded to on the subject he was being questioned. He was asked if he remembered that in Naic he had given money to the army officers so that they might transfer their soldiers Pith guns to his side. He replied that the Secretary of the Treasury, Diego Mojica, and Secretary of War Agustin Villanueva, had promised to give some reward to the army officials who had aided in the Noveleta and Malabon battles, that in the name of "Magdiwang" and in fulfillment of the mentioned promises, he had rewarded said army and that of Balara, with two hundred pesos in the presence of a big audience, with instructions to the officers to distribute the money among their men and to notify General Emilio of it. Aside from this, he had never given any money to anybody, much less to the officers mentioned in the question asked him. He was asked if Diego Mojica, Ariston Villanueva and Silvestre Domingo, and one named Santos often held meetings with the witness and his brothers in Limbon. He replied that Silvestre Domingo, Santos, and Diego Mojica, 25

Page  26 as he remembered, passed there on their way to Buenavista, but he never talked to them except a few words common among acquaintances, and the words were exchanged in the presence of the owner of the house and some natives of the place. He was asked if it was true that when the government forces passed Limbon as ordered by the government, the witness and his brothers instructed their men to fire on the soldiers if, on their return, they refused to halt after three shouts of the sentry at the trench. He replied that the soldiers on arriving at the house of the witness immediately besieged it in front and in the rear, before the eyes of almost all the people of the place; that the leader of the forces, who was said to be a colonel, asked for permission to talk with the witness. When the colonel ascended the house, he said that the reason for the siege was the rumor he had gathered in the town that Bonifacio's soldiers were lying in wait for his soldiers at the pass. But when he found out that the rumor was false because he did not see any soldiers at the pass, as those soldiers were in their houses, the colonel apologifed for having besieged the place. The witness pardoned him, considering it a trifle and an invention of some spies or enemies. He did not let the colonel leave until he had dined with them, and on the colonel's telling him that they were going to make a reconnoissance, Bonifacio gave packages of cigarettes. They parted in peace. But a little while after departure, one of Bonifacio's soldiers notified him that the outer of the trench was surrounded by order of the officers of the government soldiers, that this officer had further given orders that not one of Bonifacio's soldiers should be allowed to leave the trench, and the guns of those who had left were seized. The houses were search and those who could be witnesses were taken. In order to learn the truth of those reports and to know the reason for the seizing of the guns and the capture of his soldiers, Bonifacio sent some men to the 26

Page  27 trench which had been ordered closed. When these men did not return, he sent messengers three times in the person of Captain Martin from Silang, Santos Nocom, and at about ten o'clock at night, Dorong Puti. The obstinate answer given was that they did not find it necessary to give any explanation of their act. The next morning, the soldiers of Colonel Yntong fired five times at the trench with a Mauser. To these shots, Bonifacio's soldiers did not answer even once. Afterwards the government soldiers moved to another trench and besieged. Colonel Yntong and others were with them. When Bonifacio saw this state of affairs, he shouted to Major Benito Torres that no one should fire since those men approaching were shouting that they were brothers and that the officers on both sides should confer. They allowed the soldiers to approach, but in so doing the newcomers aimed at the soldiers in the trenches, seized all the guns and then demanded above their voices, that the shameless "Supremo", who was depriving them of their money, should face them. Bonifacio rushed to them embracing the soldiers whom he met, and he shouted to them; "My brothers, I have done nothing to be ashamed of and have not carried away any money." The answer to these words of his was a shot, by the order of one, a thin man, who was said to be a major. The bullet hissed past his shoulders and struck the breast of one dressed in "dingmpol" behind him. Bonifacio again shouted: "Brothers, look at him whom you are killing. He is a Tagalog like you." They paid no attention to these words; instead they fired continuously and simultaneously until Bonifacio fell. After he had fallen, an officer struck him at the larynx. This was all he could say in the name of God and of his native land. The men from Limbon and possibly some officers and soldiers of Colonel Yntong could testify to its veracity. Aside from this, the government soldiers seized their clothes, and the little money they had for their journey. Furthermore, Colonel Yntong tried to force the wife 27

Page  28 of Bonifacio to go with him to a house where there was nobody, with the intention of staining her purity. Thanks to the intervention of some officers, Colonel Yntong was not able to carry out his evil design. When they were in Yndang, said major suddenly appeared and tried to take by force Bonifacio's wife, who was then nursing her husband. Thank to her pleading to T. Mascardo, who chanced to be there, she was not taken. The witness was asked what arms he and his brothers had. He replied that he had only a revolver, which was still full of cartridges, and a sword. In the tumult, he could not tell exactly the arms of his brothers. He was asked if he and his brothers fired at the government soldiers with their arms. He replied he did not fire, as could be proven by the cartridges. The arms of his brothers were seized by Colonel Yntong before the firing. He was asked if he knew or had heard any news to the effect that the government soldiers hd not yet come near the trenches when two of them were killed by shots from that trench. He answered that he did not know of any fatalities outside of the case of two men who died in the trench itself and were taken to the hospital. He was asked if he recalled hsving been present at the meeting in the plantation house in Tejeros to elect a president of the Islands. He replied in the affirmative. He was asked if in that meeting, Emilio Aguinaldo came out president. He replied that as everybody knew, there was confusion in the meeting and the results had been declared null and void by almost all of the electors from Magdiwang. Even the elected commander-in-chief of the Tagalogs, Artemio Ricarte, declared in an article that the election was dirty because the will of the people was not followed. For this reason, he could not say that Emilio Aguinaldo came out president in that meeting. He was asked if said Aguinaldo, having been elected 28

Page  29 president, was sworn into office. He replied that he did not know. ' He was asked if he knew the residence of Diego Mojica and Ariston Villanueva. He answered that he had left them in Yndang, but did not know where they were staying. The investigation was closed. The witness after reading this report and declaring its correctness signed below with the Judge and the Secretary. GARCIA ANDS. BONIFACIO Maypagasa K/ LAZARO MAKAPAGAL, t' ] i Maragondon, May 4, 1897. Gregoria de Jesus, 19 years of age, born in Kalookan, Manila, married, appeared before the Judge and the Se cretary to testify. She was asked from what side the battle started. She replied that it started from the soldiers who arrived. She was asked who fired first. She replied that she could not tell because when she realized that many people were coming towards them, she fled to the forest. She was asked if she knew the reason why five men were being detained, and if it was true that their hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes were ordered shaved. She replied that she knew that there were five men who were said to be spies, and that their hair, eyebrows and eyelashes were shaved. She was asked if in the house where they were staying, there were frequent meetings and who were present in those meetings. She replied that there were no meetings. 29

Page  30 She was asked if she knew that there was a president of the Islands. She replied that she did not know. She was asked if she knew that Andres Bonifacio had instructed his men that on the return trip of the government soldiers passing Limbon, they should shout "Halt" three times, and that if those soldiers did not stop, they should fire. She replied that she did not know of any such instructions. The investigation was closed and the witness after reading this report signed, attested to by the Secretary. She added that after the encounter, the men searched for her. On finding her, they asked her where the money was hidden. When she could not mention any money, Colonel Yntong, ordered her to be tied to a tree and flogged, but his companions would not allow it. At this the Colonel forced her to go to a house where there were no people and he wanted her to get that very moment a gold engagement ring, twelve pesos and a revolver. After she had crossed the street, Colonel Yntong ordered the people in a nearby house to leave the place and he forced her to ascent the stairs. When they arrived in Yndang, she was ordered tied again. This was not carried out because of the intervention of some soldiers. The witness signed, attested to by the Secretary. GREGORIA DE JESUS GARCIA LAZARO MAKAPAGAL To the Commander-in-Chief of the Army: The special Judge appointed to investigate the resistance to the government soldiers of the soldiers of Andres Bonifacio, by order of the latter, in Limbon, Yndang, resulting in the death of two government soldiers and Ciriaco Bonifacio, and the wounding of Andres, the leader of the rebels, 30

Page  31 declares that according to the rumor received by the government, Andres Bonifacio was enlisting soldiers in Limbon without any authorization and was capturing those who did not want to join him. To learn the truth of his rumor, government soldiers were sent to reconnoitre the place, but on returning, they were met with shots which they returned. The first ones to give were Ciriaco Bonifacio, and his brothers, Andres and Procopio. The reason alleged by the Bonifacio brothers, Andres and Ciriaco, that they did not know of the existence cf the government, cannot be accepted since the soldiers of Andres in the process of investigation declared that they knew of the existence of the government and that the president was Emilio Aguinaldo. Furthermore, said Andres Bonifacio admitted having been present at the meeting in Tejeros. He also induced Pedro Giron to kill President Aguinaldo; as a proof he gave the former ten pesos in order to carry out the murder so that Bonifacio in turn might be declared president. He further urged the army officers here, together with their soldiers, to join his forces. To this Pio del Pilar, Colonel Ritual and others testified in the investigation. From this investigation, the Special Judge thinks that a council of war should be called to pass judgment. Nevertheless the h;gh sense of wisdom of the President can dictate what is most proper. Maragondon, May 4, 1897. PANTALEON GARCIA Maragondon, May 4, 1897. ACTION Forward the investigation papers to the BrigadierGeneral. Being the head of the Council of War, he can understand and do what is proper. E. AGUINALDO 31

Page  32 Maragondon, May 4, 1897. In accordance with the instructions of the Commanderin-Chief of the Army, the Council of War is called to meet tomorrow afternoon at three o'clock to make the necessary examination. MARIANO NORIEL. Maragondon, May 5, 1897. Here are gathered the members of the Council who will look into, and judge the investigation papers of Andres Bonifacio et al. The council is made up of BrigadierGeneral Mariano Noriel, president, and six other members. On the right are the attorneys for the defense, Placido Martinez, Teodoro Gonzalez; on the left are the prosecutors, Jose Elises and others. The prisoners, Andres and Procopio Bonifacio, were taken from prison and brought before the Council. The President informed the public that all the members of the Council were present. The Secretary read aloud the testimonies given by the witnesses during the investigation. After the reading and with the permission of the President, the Special Judge declared the following: The results of the investigation reveal that the Bonifacio brothers, Andres, Ciriaco and Procopio, are guilty. The first is guilty of having contrived the overthrow of the Revolutionary Government; as a proof, he bribed Pedro Giron to murder the President. He also ordered his soldiers to get ready because according to him the soldiers who were coming were their enemies. The result of the encounter was the death of two government soldiers. This act clearly shows that Bonifacio is a traitor to the government as is also borne out in the declaration of the witnesses investigated. Ciriaco, a brother of Andres, was killed in the fight against our soldiers. Procopio Bonifacio, also a brother 32

Page  33 of Andres, is an accomplice in the plan to overthrow the government. The Judge, therefore, decrees that Andres and Procopio be given capital punishment, each of them to be shot in an open place, up to five shots for each; that the distance be ten feet according to the graveness of their crimes. Nevertheless, the Judge submits his decision to the Council for further study and investigation. The attorneys'for the defense, Placido Martinez, with the permission of the Council, declared the following: Although it was not my fortune to have defended Andres Bonifacio et al, in the trial on the charge of conspiracy, bribing and treachery, I venture to give the following statements: The word defense seems to be already far from applicable to Andres'Bonifacio at this time, due to his contemptous act, and if there is a graver punishment than death, it should be meted out to him, because the intention to kill our President is equivalent to a desire to exterminate all of us. From his designs, we can conclude that he is totally devoid of any sympathetic regard for us, who are his brothers of the same country, blood, and race. Nevertheless, it is not unknown to your high intelligence that we are brothers of sin and that, therefore, we need counsel and advice. Bonifacio, however, arrived at a most pitiful situation when he was taken from Yndang. He was stabbed, stripped of the clothes on his person and of the little things that he carried with him. I think that such punishment is sufficient for the offense he has committed. And if this is not enough, hear what I shall further say. Is it not stated in our Kartilla, or constitution of the Katipunan, that we should love our fellowmen as we love ourselves? Did not our Savior Jesus, ask our God the Father to pardon the Jews who had slandered him and killed him? 33 A: *, '( ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~., J'

Page  34 And how should we, who are only creatures made of dust, not pardon our fellowmen? In consideration of all this, I plead that Andres Bonifacio be pardoned for the crime he has committed, so that in so doing we may fulfill what we pray in Our Father, "Forgive our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us." Before I put an end to my statements, I wish to ask for a special investigation of the charge of Andres Bonifacio that Colonel Agapito Bonzon attempted to dishonor his wife; because if there is any grain of truth in this, proper punishment should be meted out; but if it is only a malicious charge, the proper course should also be followed as it constitutes a slander on the person of an officer who, until now, has shown himself above reproach. Teodoro Gonzales, attorney for the defense of Procopio Bonifacio, requested the Council that, since Procopio in his declarations said that he did not influence his brother, nor acted as an accomplice in the plan to overthrow the government, nor took part in the fight, he should be exempted from the sentence imposed by the Judge. Andres Bonifacio asked for permission to speak. What he stated was merely a repetition of what he had declared in his testimony, so that at the request of the audience, he was ordered to stop. As he still insisted, he had to be stopped a second time. The attorneys for the defense did not ask for anything. The members of the Council unanimously agreed to adjourn so that they might prepare the sentence within twenty-four hours. All the members of the Council signed below. Attested by the Secretary. MARIANO NORIEL MARIANO RIEGO DE DIOS CRISOSTOMO RIEL ESTEBAN YNFANTE T. MASCARDO SULPLICIO ANTONY PLACIDO MARTINEZ 34

Page  35 In the following meeting, the president of the council questioned his comrades as follows: First-If Andres Bonifacio knew that there was a revolutionary government in the Tagalog provinces. The unanimous answer was that he knew. Second-If said Andres Bonifacio had any government permit to keep arms and maintain an army as well as make prisoners of the men in Limbon. The unanimous answer was that he had no permit. Third-If Andres, together with his brothers Procopio and Ciriaco, ordered his soldiers to fire at the approach of the government soldiers. They all answered that it was true he gave out the order. Fourth-If Andres induced the officers of the government soldiers to join him with their guns. They answered that it was also true that he induced them to join him. Fifth-If, in inducing them, Andres gave money to the officers in Naic. They all answered in the affirmative. Sixth-If Andres and his brothers resisted the government soldiers, as proof of which two government soldiers were killed and Ciriaco was shot. The answer was that it was true. Seventh-If in their stay in Limbon and in their maintenance of an army, the intention of the Bonifacio brothers was to rebel against the government. All (three) answered yes. Eighth-If Andres and Procopio, from the gravity of their crimes, deserved capital punishment. The answer was that they deserved such punishment. Ninth-If the officers and soldiers under the command of Andres also deserved punishment for their acquiescence to the intentions of the Bonifacio brothers. They answered that the punishment deserved is to transfer those officers and soldiers to the government army 35

Page  36 so as to make them work in the barracks and in time of war. Tenth-If the families of the two soldiers who died should be pensioned. The answer was that they should be pensioned. Eleventh-If said pension should be asked from Andres and Procopio. The answer was that it should be taken from them and add to the allowance given by the government to the families of those soldiers who die in the war. This is the statement and decision of the Council members, who have hereunto affixed their signatures. Attested to by the Secretary. May 6, 1897. MARIANO NORIEL T. MASCARDO ESTEBAN YNFANTE Immediately the President of the Council gave out the following statement The Council has rendered its decision on the investigation. It is ordered that the papers be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief for proper action. The President affixed his signature, attested to by the Secretary. MARIANO NORIEL To the Commander-in-Chief of the Army: The papers containing the investigation and the decision of the Council are forwarded to your Honor for proper action. Maragondon, May 7, 1897. MARIANO NORIEL Brigadier-General and President of the Council 36

Page  37 Maragondon, May 7, 1897. The papers containing the investigation and decision of the Council are forwarded to the Auditor, Baldomero Aguinaldo. (o) -. To His Honor the Commander-in-Chief of the Army: The auditor, after having examined the investigation papers, declare that the Bonifacio brothers, Andres and Procopio, residing in Limbon, enlisted soldiers with guns (and swords without proper authority from this government of the Tagalog provinces; that Andres Bonifacio, with his brothers, Procopio and Ciriaco, often held secret meetings with Diego Mojica, Silvestre Domingo, and Santos Nocom, and that it was their design to overthrow the government and kill the president. When rumor of this evil intention reached the government, soldiers were sent to the place where Andres was staying. On the arrival of the government soldiers, Andres and his brothers ordered their soldiers to fire if the government soldiers did not halt; they also ordered their trench to be closed. Their soldiers did not obey this command. Immediately Ciriaco Bonifacio fired, killing two government soldiers. As a result of this provocation, the leader of the government forces ordered his soldiers to fire in the direction of the shot which had killed two of their companions. They were able to enter the trench. Here Andres and his brothers were still firing, and Procopio surrendered only on seeing Andres and Ciriaco fall. From this, it can be inferred that there is truth in the charge that these brothers, in maintaining an army, had the intention of overthrowing the government and killing the president. This is borne out by the testimony of their 37

Page  38 soldiers, Pedro Giron, Benito Torres, Bibiano Rojas, and others whose names need not be mentioned. Aside from all this Andres Bonifacio, by means of money, induced the government army officers, together with the soldiers under them, to transfer to his side. This money, I think, comes from Diego Mojica and Ariston Villanueva. The acts of these men are not secret-for example, the frequent meetings of Mojica with the Bonifacio brothers in Limbon, and the resistance of the soldiers against the government forces. It is suspected that the money was intended for the transfer of the government forces to the authority of Andres. The latter's reason that the money was a reward to the soldiers who had fought in Noveleta is not true. Therefore, it appears true that the Bonifacio brothers, Andres, Ciriaco, and Procopio, had the intention of overthrowing the government of the Tagalogs, of killing the President, and of resisting the government army forces. Because of these crimes, they deserve the punishment dictated by the Council. It depends upon Your Honor, however, to decide on what is most proper to do. With reference to other things, a copy of the testimony of Andres Bonifacio, Pedro Giron, and others should be taken so that proper investigation may be made of Diego Mojica and Ariston Villanueva. The testimony of the wife of Andres Bonifacio about the attempt to dishonor her should also be looked into. The guns, books, and other things seized when Andres and Procopio Bonifacio and their soldiers surrendered should be placed under the authority of the government. Maragondon, May 8, 1897. BALDOMERO AGUINALDO 38

Page  39 CAPITAL OF THE GOVERNMENT AND HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY May 8, 1897. Whereas, the request of the Auditor is that the capital punishment meted out to Andres and Procopio Bonifacio be confirmed: Whereas, this verdict is given in view of the finding that there is truth in the charges of conspiracy, bribing, and treachery against Andres and Procopio Bonifacio, and their soldiers; Whereas, the real authors of these crimes are Andres and Procopio Bonifacio, and their soldiers had simply obeyed them; to them alone all the force of the law should be directed, and these soldiers because they obeyed the instructions should be rigidly warned; and Whereas, when I reflect on the state of affairs in our country, and when I consider the fact that the criminals are true sons of these Isles, whose government never wishes to spill blood uselessly. Therefore, I, President of the Revolutionary Government, deem it proper to commute the death sentence to indefinite exile to a separate island, the prisoners to be guarded by wardens who will not allow them to speak with each other or with other people. Benito Torres, Nicolas Guzman, Rafael Non, Narciso Tiolo, Julian Aguila, Cayetano Lopez, Bibiano Rojas, Domingo Denlazo, Domingo S. Juan, and Gervasio Santiago are ordered to serve in the barracks for one year in the capacity of.servants. The arms and other things seized by the government soldiers should be gathered and considered spoils of war for the benefit of the government. It is also ordered that 39

Page  40 the request of the Auditor about getting a proper copy of the testimony to be used in the other special investigations be given attention. This sentence should be made known to the accused, to the Special Judge, and to the attorneys for the defense. This is our decision, who have signed below. BALDOMERO AGUINALDO EMILIO AGUINALDO Maragondon, May 8, 1897. Notice to the Attorneys for the Defense The secretary informs the attorneys for the defense, Placido Martinez and Teodoro Gonzales, of the accompanying decision. After learning the contents, they affixed their signatures. Attested to by the Secretary. MAKAPAGAL PLACIDO MARTINEZ Maragondon, May 8, 1897. Notice to Andres and Procopio Bonifacio The Secretary informs Messrs. Andres and Procopio Bonifacio of the accompanying decision 40

Page  41 After learning the contents, they affixed their signatures. Attested to by the Secretary. MAKAPAGAL Notice to Andres Bonifacio P. BONIFACIO Maragondon, May 8, 1897. The Secretary informs Mr. Andres Bonifacio of the accompanying decision. After understanding it, he acquiesced, but on account of some trouble with his arm, he was not able to affix his signature. Two witnesses testified and the Secretary attests to it. --- 41

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Page  [unnumbered] In order to understand better the part played by Andres Bonifacio in the Revolution against Spain we recommend to our readers the reading of THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION by Teodoro M. Kalaw published in English and Spanish. This book tells why Andres Bonifacio resolved to take up arms against the advice of some of his countrymen. English Spanish Spanish Spanish edition.................. P4.50, postpaid P4.80,, cloth cover........ P3.50,,, P3.80,, cloth cover........ P3.50,,, P3.80,, paper cover........ P2.50,,, P2.80 MANILA BOOK COMPANY Box 1100, Manila, P. I.

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Page  [unnumbered] UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 1lll llll lli!1 1 1111 l i allll l l l illlll lil tli l ll llll t1 3 9015 03863 5994 imed by Preservation 1997

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