History of Philippine press
Taylor, Carson.

Page  [unnumbered] I ~to r gqe F N. I 36 A 62294 6

Page  [unnumbered] -4r I #2 0 J~ I:4'i.11! ( I,tkl#., W, -4

Page  [unnumbered] fr' ' sr ii ' ' ' -4 -.1 7', 17 '- 4 4,, I. I I i..1 5.4' '', I,, I 74 $4.I 'V iT.. 44V It 41 z! 7; t A I 0. r s " ". 1 -, -,, " t' 1:.. I '

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  1 History of the Philippine Press By CARSON TAYLOR Publisher of the MANILA DAILY BULLETIN Introduction by WALTER ROBB The Philippine Revolutionary Press By EPIFANIO DE LOS SANTOS Director of the Philippine Library List of Philippine Publications Registered as second class matter on February 1, 1927 By Courtesy of JOSE] TOPACIO Director of Posts Most of the data covering the period of the Spanish Regime arc from W. E. Retana's General History of the Philippines Manila, P. I. 1 9 2 7 -

Page  2 j C) F,-., S- - 2 -0

Page  3 .1- STUN^ seco 5Ac'T s! - I '- JS INTRODUCTION It is a pleasure to contribute a prefatory comment on the excellent and painstaking brochure Mr. Carson Taylor has prepared on newspapers in the Philippines. The universal use of the Arabic characters by twelve million people in the Far East, and the existence of this foundation for the establishment of English as a universal medium throughout the leading archipelago of the world, is not something that merely happened. It is, on the contrary, one of Spain's principal achievements here in the extreme Orient; and it exhibits the quality of endurance, like so much of Spain's work does. The Arabic character upon movable type reached Japan and India, at Nagasaki and Goa, before they reached the Philippines; and were brought to those places, as they were to the Philippines, by Catholic missionaries. But there they fell into disuse, shared the eclipse of the mission work; while in the Philippines, under the Lions and Towers of Spain, no eclipse occurred. Instead, there was, as there continues to be, the light of a civilization more and more luminous. Before the close of the sixteenth century, the torch of learning had been lighted in academies and at least one higher school soon converted by royal decree into an endowed university. All that Spain herself saw, was given freely for others to see. With the establishment of a daily press under the rule of free speech, a broader and deeper effulgence merely fell upon what had already been illumined by the press of the missions. There is reason to believe that the first printing done in the Philippines was in the sixteenth century, the work of the Augustinians, who, having accompanied Legaspi to Cebu in 1565, were therefore the first Order in the Islands. But no examples of these early works exist. They were, of course, religious publications and possibly texts upon the native languages. Upon existing records, the introduction of printing is, however, dated somewhat later. It is credited to the Dominicans and two of their early converts, a Chinese merchant by name of Juan de Vera-his baptismal name, of courseand a Filipino, Tomas Pinpin. Calle T. Pinpin, in the downtown Manila district, has been named in memory of this first Filipino printer, while his monument stands on Plaza Cervantes, not far from the spot where he worked in the Dominican printshop. The famous shop was on Calle

Page  4 San Gabriel, off what was of old Calle Jolo, now Calle Juan Luna, after the noted painter. It was on San Gabriel that the Dominicans had a church and hospital, and a monastery for the friars attached to the little Binondo mission. The printshop was no doubt in the entresuelo of one of the buildings. My data are from Retana, who gives the probable date as about 1605. He feels sure that the Chinese, Juan de Vera, at whose pious expense the shop was established, could not have bought the press and type in Spain or elsewhere in Europe, and that they came either from Japan or Goa (India), where printing had been established by the Jesuits in connection with their then flourishing missions. The Dominican printshop on Calle San Gabriel was not an establishment of great pretensions, naturally, but only a little one devoted to the need for getting the precepts of Christianity into the native language, and providing language texts for the missionaries. It could be, and was, moved about; so that the oldest work of which copies are extant was not printed on San Gabriel, but in the province of Bataan, where the author of the text was carrying on a mission work. This was Fray Francisco Blancas de San Jose. His text was, Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala, a treatise on the Tagalo language, dated 1610. The fact becomes the more remarkable when the date is compared with those of the first British settlements in America. Of course at that time Manila was thirty-nine years along in her history, Spain had been in the Islands since 1565. Her work here is imperishable. -WALTER ROBB. Manila, February 1, 1927..l

Page  5 History of the Philippine Press The first newspaper published in the Philippines, so far as recorded, was a sheet called Del Superior Govierno, the first number of which came out on August 8, 1811. It apparently was devoted exclusively to news of political conditions in Europe as affecting the interests of Spain. Retana, the historian, says, "This publication was born as a result of the extreme anxiety in the Philippines from 1809 to 1811 concerning the grave events that were taking place in Europe during that period. It was apparently published by private initiative and probably distributed free in a very limited way." "It had no regular publication date and appeared only when European news was available. It lasted only over a period of six months, during which time there were 15 numbers published. The last one appeared February 7, 1812, and contained the announcement, "'If new and interesting material is received this newspaper will be continued weekly, in the meantime it will be suspended until some correspondence is received.' " Retana reproduces the first page of No. 6 issue of this paper, which appeared on September 24, 1811. It contained a reproduction of a letter dated at Macao, September 9, 1811, signed by D. Francisco Mayo and D. Pedro de Echeverrigaray, factors of the Real Compafiia de Filipinos and addressed to the publishers, in which it was stated, "We have received by the British war frigate Clorinda and the Barco de Macao, San Miguel correspondence from July 26 to August last from which we have learned of political conditions in Europe and more particularly of our beloved country up to the beginning of February. "We lived in great anxiety as to the result of the critical situation until the 6th instant, when an American ship arrived, having sailed from Philadelphia on May 3, bringing copies of a gazette from that city from April 1 to May 1 containing the welcome news that we are beginning to realize our hopes that out country will be saved." Then follows a series of extracts from the Philadelphia paper, the name of which was not mentioned. Among the quotations was one to the effect that the French General, Massena, had suffered a severe defeat.

Page  6 6 History of the Philippine Press The records appear to indicate that with the passing of Del Superior Govierno, the last number of which appeared February 7, 1812, Manila was without a newspaper until July 4, 1813, when another publication appeared under the Reproduction of first page of Number 6 of the first paper published in Manila, reproduced from Retana's history. The paper is dated Sept. 24, 1811.

Page  7 History of the Philippine Press 7 name of Noticias Sacadas. The leading heading in the first and only number read, "News Taken From Newspapers Concerning Events that Took Place in the Peninsula (Spain) during all the Year 1812." A subhead announced, "On February 19, the city of Rodrigo was taken by assault by General Wellington" and on the 6th of April under the heading "Filipinas" the paper contained a story quoting from a letter from the Curate of Albay describing battles with the Moros in the South. "Two vessels from Leyte, one of which carried the Alcalde Mayor, fought 30 Moro vintas and escaped safely while two from Samar fought 80 Moro vintas and the Moros captured one of the ships. The The first page of the first American paper published in Manila. Reproduced from an original copy in the collection of W. W. Brown. The paper shows the date of issue as September 10, 1898. town of Moro, Masbate, was ransacked by the Moros and all the rice carried away, reducing the inhabitants to a state of starvation. The town of San Jacinto was also plundered and 300 prisoners carried away by the Moros." Various other Moro raids were described and the last paragraph of the article stated, "This l etter is published as a warning to all who trade in these waters that they should take every possible precaution if they d o n ot wish to lose their property, their liberty and perhaps their lives if not their religion." On the last p ag e appeared a paragraph, addressed "Amigo Publico," saying, "This is the last gazette for the reason that I have no more interesting news to publish. If

Page  8 8 History of the Philippine Press I had I would give it with pleasure as my work has been much appreciated by all good patriots, or better said by all true Spaniards." For a period of eight years Manila apparently depended on the town gossips for news, as there is no record of the publication of another newspaper until March 25, 1821, when an eight-page weekly called Ramillete Patriotica Manilense came out for the first time, ramillete meaning "a collection of choice things." A few copies of this publication still exist in the Archives of the Indies in Seville. It lived barely three months, the last number appearing on June 24, 1821. Number 3, dated April 8, 1821, contains an introductory article indicating the character of the publication, translated as follows. "Having received by the frigate Maria, which recently arrived from San Blas, the continuation of the records of the sessions of the courts which we have begun to publish, translated from the Morning Chronicle, we eagerly avail ourselves of this opportunity to publish national documents in our periodical. From what we have read in many public papers from Europe and America, it is evident that the enemies of the nation and the King have been suppressed in all parts and that the constitutional system is approved and consolidated more and more. "On weighing the importance and abundance of the material we have at hand it appears convenient that we should publish first the decrees of the King, which, although dated prior to the convocation of the courts, we judge to be necessary to check the indiscretions of those who publicly criticise the new order of things." The decree published was dated March 9, 1820, and suppressed forever the Court of the Inquisition. The fourth number of Ramillette Patriotico, except for original editorial matter, was entirely made up of reprint articles from newspapers from Mexico. Number 5 contained news of the local courts in the form of a list of prisoners for different crimes, among which were 146 who were mixed up in the riots of October 9 and 10 of the previous year, 2 for homicide, 17 for various kinds of robbery, 3 who had been in for sixteen months for adultery, and one who was charged with having stolen a handkerchief. The report finished with "Spanish legislation when shall we see your reform?" It also contained a long criticism of a "sermon of thanks for the victories of our armies in Spain" by Fr. Francisco Genoves, ending with the question, "To what purpose a sermon, after ten years, full of ideas more rancid than rotten bacon?"

Page  9 History of the Philippine Press 9 This was followed by a sermon copied from El Amante de la Constitucion, a paper published in Madrid, expressing opposite ideas to those of Fr. Genoves with an editorial note to "Our dear readers, read and judge for yourselves." Retana says this was the first frankly constitutional paper and it was therefor hated by the reactionaries. Its activities apparently resulted in the birth of five or more opposition papers, as all the numbers from the fifth to the twelfth were largely devoted to answering its critics. The last number, published, June 24, 1821, was devoted principally to the discussion of a new law pertaining to the "Liberty of the Press." The first of the opposition papers mentioned by the Ramillette Patriotica was Latigazo. Retana states that "The publication of Ramillete Patriotico with its audacious ideas aroused the hate of the reactionary elements of Manila, which were composed of the religious orders and many other Spaniards who were naturally enemies of the constitutional regime. Among them was one Sefior F. V. who opposed the liberal Ramillete and its publishers. Latigazo, with no regular publication date, was dedicated exclusively to the refutation of the Ramillete Patriotico. It is believed that only six numbers appeared." The only record of the second opposition paper, which was called El Filipino Agraviado, is a sarcastic reference in number seven of Ramillete Patriotico, dated May 13, 1821, in which it is mentioned as "A paper published at the end of last week, dated April 30, without the name of the publisher, impugning the article inserted in Ramillete on the 29th concerning the sermon of Padre Genoves. As the author appears devoted to new institutions we would remind him in a friendly spirit that Sefior Don Fernando VII, is not the sovereign but the Constitutional King of the Spains and that sovereignty is vested essentially in the nation." Retana reminds us that El Filipino Agraviado should not be confused with El Indio Agraviado. (At that time Spaniards who were born here, and possibly including those of long residence, were called Filipinos, while the natives were called Indios or Indians.) Number 8 of Ramillete, May 20, 1821, contains a reference to El Filipino, a weekly first published May 13, 1821, intimating that it was a continuation of El Filipino Agraviado as the name of the publisher or the printer was not disclosed, and ridiculing the paper by sarcastically commending it to "Fathers of families and teachers as a model

Page  10 10 History of the Philippine Press of grammar and orthography and above all of sound reason and good judgement." Number 9 of Ramillete, May 27, 1821, under the heading of "Publications" complains that "Clandestine publications are multiplying in a scandalous manner. Five or six First page of Number 9 of The American with the first Associated Press Dispatches published in Manila. This issue is dated October 25, 1898.

Page  11 History of the Philippine Press 11 papers of this class are being circulated in these parts, and we cannot refrain from calling the attention of the judges to this violation of the law. The managers of the print shops of Santo Tomas and Sampaloc, from which these criminal productions emanate, should know that every publication is obliged to carry the name of the shop and the date." It mentioned El Filipino Noticioso, which was the apparent successor of El Filipino, and attacked it violently. Number 10 of Ramillete, June 3, 1821, under the head of "Chismomografia," (meaning gossip or tatle), exposes the publisher of the clandestine papers in the following language, "As Manila has always been the theatre of events that do not occur in other civilized countries, we have not found it difficult to believe a story that is going the rounds. It is that Don Miguel Garcia has declared himself to be the father of three good papers, namely El Filipino Agraviado, El Filipino Noticioso and Consejos del Filipino. But the most extraordinary and without parallel is his attitude toward the editor of Ramillete, whom he has referred to as an infernal monster, beast, jackass, charlatan, imp, heretic, libertine, vagabond and dahun-palay (rice snake) and when he could find no more to say he demanded damages." Only two numbers of the Ramillete Patrjotico appeared thereafter, and the opposing papers seem to have ceased to appear about the same time. Noticioso Filipino appeared in August 1821 as a weekly, but apparently did not survive the third or fourth issue. September 1, 1821, the first number of a weekly appeared under the name of La Filantropia. Retana characterizes La Filantropia as being, without doubt the most interesting paper of that period from a political view point. Like all the other publications born during the prolific year of 1821, it apparently had a short and turbulent existence and expired on May 25, 1822. The cause of its death is not recorded, but it is reasonable to assume that it was the usual natural one of lack of paying subscribers and advertisers. A few rather interesting articles from La Filantropia are reproduced by Retana, which serve to indicate that its editors were possessed of rather liberal views and progressive ideas. One who wrote under the nom de plume of "Liberato de Martillo" appears to have been the most agressive. The first of this writer's articles quoted, appearing in the number of September 22, 1821, said: "Sefiores Filantropos: I have read, and suppose you have also, the paper being circulated these days under the title El Indio

Page  12 12 History of the Philippine Press Agraviado, whose author complains with much reason of the injuries done by D. M. G. to one of the classes most appreciated and most numerous of the Filipino people." (D.M.G. apparently refers to Don Miguel 'Garcia, who has been mentioned before as the editor of so called clandestine publications). The mention here in this article appears to be the only record of the paper called El Indio Agraviado. Its publication was doubtless limited to a few numbers, which were circulated anonymously and surreptitiously, or probably to one single issue. Judging from the name, it was a defender of the natives or Indios, as they were called at that time. The writer continues with the question: "Is it not a sad and lamentable thing that, while the wise constitution under which we are governed unites into one family all the inhabitantes of the great Spanish Monarchy, instead of protecting us, making us happy, and extending cordially the bonds of sympathy and love that have united us even to here, some ignorant writers are arousing jealousies and differences that can produce nothing but serious consequences for all? I am one of those Spaniards who by accident was born over seas, but regardless of the fact that I have some feeling of disgust against the paper in question, I approve the greater part of its contents. I believe that instead of condemning all the Indios (natives) to the plow and the gun we should open the door and clear the road for them to all branches of employment, government positions and offices enjoyed by other classes of Spaniards and especially to all branches of instruction. "I believe also that it is necessary to annul immediately as unconstitutional the Regulations of la Escuela-pia, the Academy of Pilotage (probably nautical school) and other similar literary establishments or at least the parts that establish odious discriminatory distinctions that should not exist. "The excuse that these institutions were founded to serve a certain designated class should not be allowed to stand. The state should not permit any institution to exist contrary to the spirit and letter of the constitution. These should be closed or they should be forced to admit without distinction all Spaniards of whatever class or condition, whether Indians, mestizos, Creoles or Europeans." La Filantropia of December 15 carried another article over the signature of "Liberato del Martillo." It contained a violent attack on Don Jose de Eguia who was collector of customs at that time and who had refused admission to a

Page  13 History of the Philippine Press 13 shipment of books, apparently for the reason that they contained matter objectionable to the church. The article was addressed: "Sefiores Editores de La Filantropia" and began with "You, who know all, and to whom, as a consequence, all bring their troubles, can possibly tell me whether the collector of customs has personally reassumed the functions of the abolished inquisition. "Don't be surprised at my question because this good man is exercising a censorship of books with as much rigor as it could have been done in the days of Torquemada, holding them up in the custom house until he looks them over and then passing them or denying admission at his pleasure." Then follows a long article bitterly attacking the offending official claiming that the question was a matter for the court to decide, that there was no law authorizing him to take such action and suggesting: "The most the collector could do as a most zealous Catholic would be to submit to the Pope all suspicious books and get a judgement in proper form, prohibiting their reading and employing against those who disobeyed, the punishments of the church." Apparently the title of the book in question was "Contrata Social" and some were gotten through by falsifying the invoices to read "Contratas Mercantiles," as the article finishes with this question: "Is it not a ridiculous thing that in order to get into Manila a few miserable copies of 'Contrata Social' it was necessary to invoice them under the title of 'Contratas Mercantiles,' when the work in question was published last year in Madrid and sold everywhere under the eyes of the authorities of the nation? Under what reign do we live? That of Fernando the Great or Felipe of The Escorial? How long must we allow ourselves to be saddled by the first who wishes to mount us"? The same number contains some sarcastic verses directed at the collector of customs and a letter from one D. G. Fernandes, challenging one who had attacked his treatise on colera morbus. The editors of La Filantropia appear to have made an effort to live up to the name. Number 17, dated December 22, 1821, contains the following editorial comment: "In number 16 we inserted three communicated articles against our paper. As there is no other public paper in this city through which our antagonists may alleviate

Page  14 14 History of the Philippine Press their distress, we have determined to face the repugnant undertaking of giving space in our own columns to those who fight us, very often unfairly, usually evading the true meaning of the propositions. "By reasons of these we frequently find ourselves obliged to postpone articles, perhaps more interesting, with the risk of disgusting many subscribers who are inconvenienced by these polemic writings. To these we beg a little indulgence, and to the others, since our excessive sensativeness places us in such a delicate situation, that they be a bit more concise. "Our discriminating readers will have observed that the greater part of these controversies originate from the poor understanding of our propositions. We regret that we can't express ourselves more clearly, or better said, that the strict limits of a newspaper,. do not permit us to treat matters to the extent necessary to have it understood by everybody, and we must take it for granted that there is no necessity for our giving things in minute detail, though we must admit that we often err in our judgement." The three articles mentioned with so much courtesy and consideration are then answered in such a manner as to discourage the writers from again venturing to air their views in the columns of La Filantropia. In the last number published the controversy over the censorship of books was still the paramount issue and it is not improbable that censorship in some form had something to do with the demise of La Filantropia. The last number contained the information, that "La Espina has arrived, 68 days from Acapulco with two religious passengers, one of whom is an Agustiniano and the other a Recoleto, six boxes of mail, miscellaneous freight among which are several packages of garbanzos (peas) and frijoles (beans)." It was also announced that two brigantines were in sight of Corregidor, but their identity had not been ascertained. With the passing of La Filantropia, what was no doubt then considered as yellow journalism appears to have suffered a severe relapse and Manila was for sometime without a newspaper of any kind. In 1823 there was a single issue of a paper under the title of "News Compiled from Public Documents from the Peninsula," possibly issued by the government, as it contained the King's proclamation in connection with the declaration of war against France.

Page  15 History of the Philippine Press 15 In 1824 a monthly publication called Registro Mercantil was established by an economic society, with permission of the government, which was devoted exclusively to commercial and shipping information, current prices, etc. This enjoyed the longest life of any publication up to that time and was discontinued for lack of funds in May 1833. A life of approximately ten years during which time, so far as history records it was the only paper published in the islands. After the Registro Mercantil, six years passed before the Precios Corrientes de Manila appeared in 1839. It is believed to have lasted some two years. It was nothing more than a market report or price review. After a period of twenty-one years the first publication that could really be called a newspaper since the hectic days of La Filantropia was established as a weekly in 1843 under the title of Seminario Filipino. It contained foreign news, when available, a religious article, local news, miscellaneous items, a market review, arrivals and departures of boats, etc. One number which has been preserved announces the opening of a hospital in a house in Nagtajan and the inauguration of the San Miguel bridge (Probably where the Ayala bridge now stands). A later number contains news of the opening of a theatre by a recreatioi society. The opening play was given by amateurs as a private performance and was entitled "Marcela o Cual de las Tres." Another number contains an interesting article entitled "Twenty-One Days in Laguna Province and Expedition to Tambujao, a Mysterious Place in Tayabas." How long it ran is not recorded, but D. Rafael Diaz Arenas in his memoirs states that it started at the beginning of 1843 and was refounded under the name of Amigo del Pais in 1845. This is the only mention made of the latter paper except in an editorial announcement in La Estrella de Manila, founded October 4, 1846, wherein it is stated, "Doubtless many of our subscribers are also subscribers to El Amigo del Pais." La Estrella de Manila is described as devoted to religion, commerce, art and literature. According to Retana it had a brief existence, and it is probable that El Amigo del Pais ceased publication near the same time, about 1849. In referring to La Estrella de Manila, Retana makes the following comment: "It may be said that the abolishing of the constitution in August 1824 brought back the previous rigid censorship of the press, and for this reason it is not strange that dating from that year the newspapers of Manila for a long period fell into the hands of the less intelligent,

Page  16 16 History of the Philippine Press this being one of the reasons that they had few subscribers and consequently were short lived." For some reason, after this long period of depression, there was a sudden revival and between 1846 and 1848 three daily papers were founded. The first, La Esperanza, came out in 1846, and was published daily except Mondays. La Estrella appeared in 1847 and the Diario de Manila in 1848. La Estrella ceased publication in January 1849, and La Esperanza soon after, while the Diario de Manila survived until 1852. The only comment worthy of mention as to the contents of these papers is a reference to a supplement under the guise of an "extra" published by La Estrella on February 29, 1848 containing the official reports of the capture of Balanguigui. (Probably Balanguigui, Samar). During 1849 two papers were founded, El Instructor Filipino as a weekly and El Despertador, a daily. The two were merged but are credited with having lived only a month and a few days. This apparently left the field to the Diario de Manila until some time during the next year, 1850, when another daily came out for a few weeks or a few months, at most, under the name of Diario de Avisos y Noticias. In 1851 El Observador Filipino appeared, whether as a daily or weekly is not recorded, but it did not survive beyond a few issues. The Diario de Manila succumbed early in 1852 but was a reestablished under the name of Boletin Oficial de Filipinas and continued as such until 1860. Under the heading of advertisements, this paper carried a notice worthy of note to the effect that "each subscriber is entitled to a free advertisement of six lines, if sent to the office properly signed before noon on date it is to appear." From this it may be assumed that it was published in the afternoon or evening and that the subscribers were few. The Boletin Oficial de Filipinas appears to have enjoyed a monopoly from 1852 to 1858, when a rival afternoon paper under the name of El Comercio came out. It was edited by an army officer by the name of Soler y Ovejero. Its existence was brief and apparently unimportant. March 1, 1859, Ilustracion Filipina, an illustrated semi-monthly paper, was established. It died a perfectly natural death on December 15, 1860, and deserves more than passing notice as considering mechanical limitations, it is said to have compared favorably with publications of

Page  17 History of the Philippine Press 17 a like nature in Spain, France and Italy, at that time. In their editorial announcement in the first number the editors in stating their aims and ambitions said in part: "The Philippines is one of the countries least known in Europe and of which the most misinformation exists, because of the erroneous description of some of the few travelers who have visited here. Not having remained long enough to form a correct idea, they have credited absurd stories, generally unfavorable to the islands, in an effort to give interesting accounts of their voyages, and have created erroneous impression." "We have had investigators, laboring for the good of the country, without result, because they saw what the titled officials wanted them to see and got little actual knowledge of the country. "We venture into this field of journalism to contribute what we can toward the dissemination of information concerning this land where the hand of providence has scattered blessings with such abundance. We shall try to do what has never been done here before, publish a paper combining the artistic, scientific and the literary, in harmony with the march of progress. We shall endeavor to make it useful as well as entertaining." Their dream was never realized. They were many years ahead of the times. A paper of this class would find difficulty to exist even today. Ilustracion Filipina had many writers of note, who apparently contributed articles without compensation. Among those mentioned were D. Francisco de Paula, who wrote of Mayon Volcano, the sanitary hospital at Los Bafios hot springs, etc. D. Felipe de la Corte, a military engineer, published a plan for a water supply system for Manila. F. Lorena contributed large doses of verses, more or less passable, the outstanding of which, to quote Retana, "Was entitled 'El Cocinero Indio' (The Filipino Cook), whom he treated so badly that I am constrained to believe that Sr. Lorena had many pains that could be laid to these makers of gastrolgias." This poem is not quoted but several other long ones are given, among which is one entitled "Cuatro Palabras Sobre el Indio Filipino." The "Cuatro Palabras" occupies about three pages and is too long to quote here in full..

Page  18 18 History of the Philippine Press The first four lines read as follows: "Mucho se ha hablado del Indio "Pero en suma 6 en sustancia "Bien se puede asegurar "Que aun no ha dicho nada." Translated: "Much have they talked of the Indian "But in sum and substance "It may be safely asserted "That as yet they have said nothing." The last four lines read: "Os dire en suma, que el Indio "Es una cosa tan rara "Especial y incomprehensible "Que no se parece a nada." Translated: "I may say to sum up, that the Indian "Is a thing so rare "Extraordinary and incomprehensible "That he resembles nothing." It is interesting to note Retana's comment on the artists who contributed to Manila's first illustrated paper, as follows: "The artists were Baltasar Giraudier and D. C. W. Andrews, both fairly acceptable, although optomists in the extreme, especially the latter who always exaggerated and falsified the truth in an effort to picture the beauty of the 'Indios' and particularly of the 'indias' (native women) to all of whom he gave beautiful forms." With the passing of Ilustracion Filipina, the field was again left to the Boletin Oficial de Filipinas until 1860, when the Diario de Manila was established. This reduced the Boletin Oficial to what its name implied. In 1861 the name was changed to Gaceta de Manila. Certain officials were required by law to subscribe to this official publication. Also government advertising, official orders, court decisions, etc., were required by law to be published in the Gaceta de Manila. It ceased publication August 8, 1898, five days before the Americans occupied the city. A similar publication is now issued by the insular government under the title of Official Gazette. The Diario de Manila became the greatest paper published during Spanish times and with one exception enjoyed the longest life of any Philippine daily established up to this time. From 1860 to 1898-38 years. About 1895 it developed a telegraph service from Europe that cost as

Page  19 History of the Philippine Press 19 much as P3,000 per month and in 1896 went to the extreme of publishing a weekly illustrated supplement. About this time it developed that one Elizalde who was backing the paper, was using the funds of Obras Pias, a financial organization of which he was treasurer, to make up the deficit in the Diario's budget. Elizalde was sent to prison and the Diario suffered a relapse to a more modest basis, but apparently not in editorial valor and aggressiveness. The Diario de Manila was suppressed by the governor general by official decree on February 19, 1898, on account of its reactionary utterances, which contributed to incite the natives against the Spaniards. It was revived after a few months, but finally passed out of existence in 1899. The years 1861 to 1863 were rather prolific so far as newspapers were concerned. Most of those founded were of Catholic origin and did not long survive. The Revista de Noticias y Anuncios was started in 1861 and was later published daily under the name of La Espafia Oceanica and El Catolico Filipino. The records indicate that a paper existed in 1862 under the name of La Espafia Catolica, and in 1863 under the name of La Oceania Catolica. El Pasig, a semi-monthly in Spanish, with occasional article in Tagalog, appeared in 1862. It was designed to be of an educational nature but only lasted a few months. A paper, called El Correo de Filipinas, is mentioned by Diaz Puertas as having existed in 1863, but Retana expresses doubt because there is no other reference to it. A paper, probably monthly, was started in 1864, called Boletin del Ejercito. It was apparently devoted exclusively to army news, was of little interest to the public and soon disappeared. El Porvenir Filipino was established as a daily in 1865 and had twelve years of rather precarious existence. To quote Retana, "It died about the middle of 1877 after a long period of suffering, probably because of dissention among its editors." It is worthy of note that this paper carried an advertisement on June 10, 1871, announcing a bull fight for the following Sunday featuring the well-known 'toreador' Lorenzo Sanchez. A weekly commercial sheet, called the Revista Mercantil, was started in 1865 by Joaquin de Loyzaga, which was afterward put out as a supplement to El Comercio, later published by the same man. In 1866, a paper was founded under the name of pevista de Administracion. Its editors and contributors were

Page  20 20 History of the Philippine Press all government employees, to the interests of whom it was apparently devoted. It only lasted a few months. El Diario de Avisos came out as a daily, February 1, 1868, and ceased publication October 11, 1869. In 1869 a new afternoon paper was founded by Joaquin de Loyzaga and Francisco Diaz Puertas, taking the same name as a paper that had a very brief existence in 1858, El Comercio. This gave Manila three daily papers, The Diario de Manila, El Porvenir Filipino and El Comercio. El Comercio, doubtless by reasons of more efficient management became the strongest, developed the greatest circulation and had the longest life of any paper ever published in the islands, 1858 to 1925, 56 years under the same name. In 1925 it was purchased by Senator Ramon Fernandez and combined with La Opinion. El Comercio was the most progressive of all Spanish papers and withstood the unfair competition of the Diario de Manila during the period while Elizalde was supporting the latter with funds stolen from the Obras Pias. After the death of Joaquin de Loyzaga, Diaz Puertas became the editor and when he died Jose de Loyzaga, son of Joaquin, succeeded him. Jose de Loyzaga, a man with the real instincts of a journalist, well educated, broad minded and with a tremendous capacity for work, developed E1 Comercio to its highest point of efficiency and service to the public. It was on the crest of the wave of success about 1898 when the war brought Dewey's fleet, the occupation of the islands and the Philippine insurrection. It lost practically all its provincial circulation by reason of the blockade. Loyzaga met the new conditions by reducing expenses, using his plant to print the Manila American, under a contract by which he was able to use the cable service of the latter, and continued to carry on. He made a brave fight but was finally forced to give up some five years ago and sell out for a very small amount. He died in 1926. During the period from 1870 to 1888 many papers of various kinds and classes appeared and faded out, without apparent results so far as the general course of life was concerned except to afford their publishers temporary diversion and the public some amusement. In most cases their names are sufficient to indicate their character. Among them were: El Trovador Filipino, in 1874, a weekly devoted to poetry; Revista de Filipinas, in 1875, described as a scientific and literary weekly; El Oriente, an illustrated weekly

Page  21 Histry of the Philippine Press 21 review; El Correo de Manila; in 1876, weekly; Boletin Eclesiastico del Arzobispado de Manila; also in 1876. La Oceania Espanola, a daily was founded in 1877, apparently soon after El Porvenir Filipino ceased publication. It continued until 1899. Retana offers this comment concerning its demise: "La Oceania Espafola had no reason for its existence after the change of sovereignty. As after the treaty of Paris there was no longer a Spanish, but a North American ocean, and that great daily died." El Avisador de Manila was published for a few months in 1877, and El Oriente was succeeded by a similar weekly under the name of La Ilustracion del Oriente, which only lasted until the early part of the following year. A weekly, called La Catalan, was published and also La Lira Filipina, in 1878. In 1879 the president of the Liceo put out a weekly which was later changed to semi-monthly, under the name of Revista del Liceo-Artistico-Literato de Manila. The last number appeared in December 1881. A new daily appeared in 1880 under the title of Diario de Filipinas, and for six months, until it died, Manila had four daily papers, the three others being the Diario de Manila, La Oceania Espafola and El Comercio. In 1881 La Linterna Ecuestre (meaning Equestrian Lantern) was published for a brief period, as a weekly, doubtless sponsored by some enthusiastic horseman. A weekly, called the Boletin de Avisos, also came out in 1881, later was published twice a week, but did not prosper. Five publications were established in 1882. The first was published by a society founded by one of the religious orders as an official organ of the society. It was called the Boletin de la Real Sociedad Economica Filipina de Amigos del Pais. It was devoted principally to agriculture and appears to have been continued as a monthly until 1899. The second, called the Revista Filipina de Ciencias y Artes, succeeded the Revista del Liceo. After twelve issues it ceased publication with the announcement that there were not enough people interested in the arts and sciences to support it. The third, the Boletin de la Libreria Espafiola, only published a few numbers, the last of which contained an announcement of its discontinuance, ending with this sentence: "Here we have another demonstration of how few people in the Philippines read"

Page  22 22 History of the Philippine Press The fourth, was a daily in Tagalog, called Diariong Tagalog. Its slogan was, "It is possible to love the Philippines without hating Spain and to love Spain without hating the Philippines." It is safe to say that no great percentage of the population had the opportunity to be converted to this idea as the paper only lasted five months. The fifth, and most important El Foro Juridico, Re'vista de Legislacion y Jurisprudencia, was founded by Jose Maria Perez Rubio. It was designed for circulation among the lawyers and particularly to aid the justices of the peace. It was suppressed by the governor general in 1888 because it published as supplements the penal code and the code of civil procedure without a license from the government. After a long drawn out legal battle the decree was set aside and the paper resumed publication in 1893, a subhead announcing it as Consultor de los Jueces de Paz. Its publication was doubtless discontinued with the death of the founder. In 1883 the fact that a license was issued for the publication of a review, called El Ferrocarril, is recorded in the Official Gazette, but there is no evidence that it was ever published. In 1884 the first paper published in the Philippines outside of Manila was founded as a weekly at Vigan. It was called El Eco de Vigan. It died the same year. March 1, 1884, La Semana Elegante, a weekly, was published by Pedro Groizard, who to quote Larra, "was always on the ugly side of things and harvested many troubles." His satirical sheet lasted twenty weeks. The second provincial paper was also established in 1884 at Iloilo by Diego Jimenez. It was called El Porvenir de Visayas. Jimenez was a bellicose individual who fought the whole world. He created so many enemies that in 1886 an opposition paper was started in Iloilo, under the name of El Eco de Panay. These two papers fought each other continually to the end. They both ceased publication as a result of American occupation in the latter part of 1898 or early in 1899. El Porvenir de Visayas was known all over the islands on account of the belligerent character of its owner and editor. It is said that Jimenez had to die to suppress his nerves. Also that The Porvenir de Visayas and El Eco de Panay hated each other to the death and that they never lived in peace for even one day. The third provincial paper was established at Cebu, the oldest city in the islands, in 1886 by Eduardo Jimenez, a brother of the fighting editor of El Porvenir de Visayas.

Page  23 History of the Philippine Press 23 It was published weekly and also succumbed as a result of or just prior to American occupation. This period marked the beginning of journalism in the provinces. In forty years since there has been practically no progress. Though there are some twenty-five or thirty papers published in the provinces, there is not one worthy to be called a newspaper and, exclusive of some very worthy venacular publications put out by the missionaries, the combined circulation of all probably does not exceed ten thousand. During 1885 and 1886 several papers were published of a humerous and satirical nature. La Puya, Manila Alegre, El Temblor, El Chiflado and Manalilla are mentioned. None of them had more than a brief existence. La Regeneracion, a Catholic daily, was started in October 1886. It was not kindly received by the three dailies then being published, the Diario de Manila, La Oceania Espaiola and El Comercio, and was ridiculed to such an extent by the humorous weeklies that it was discontinued. Another was started under the name of El Fenix, Diario Catolico, but was only published five days. The year 1887 marked the beginning of an era of greater liberty for the press, due somewhat to the influence of Despujol, who became minister of the overseas possessions. The censorship was much less strict. To quote Retana, "It was no longer possible for the governor general to impose fines on a paper for slight offenses, as had been the case when General Weyler fined the Diario de Manila P200 for publishing the fact that he had left for Mindanao." April 1, 1887, La Opinion appeared with its first number as a morning daily. To quote Retana: "It was not so badly treated by its contemporaries as were the Catholic dailies, La Regeneracion and El Fenix, the previous year. It was well financed and organized and was destined to become a strong competitor of the old established papers. In June of that year Benito Quiroga, arrived in Manila as director civil. He is described as "A small man, young and energetic and obsessed with a purpose to reform everything reformable, without cosidering his hosts, the Friars, whom he caused much trouble by every forward step he took. He was looked upon as an interloper, though his intentions were of the best. "While he had right on his side, the Friars with Archbishop Payo at their head, opposed him at every turn and did their best to counteract his activities.

Page  24 24 History of the Philippine Press "Liberal public opinion was with him and La Opinion, which before his arrival had kept away from politics, now aligned itself with Quiroga. "Quiroga gained prestige with the liberals day by day and La Opinion gained subscribers until it got to a point where, although it was published by Spaniards from the Peninsula, the paper was more Filipino than Spanish. "La Opinion, it must be noted was the first paper since 1823 that had dared oppose the religious orders, though it had not been founded for this purpose and but for Quiroga's campaign of reform, probably would not have done so. "The advance of liberal ideas among the natives reached the danger point and La Opinion was obliged to change its policy. The climax was reached with the audacious demonstration on May 1, 1883, demanding the expulsion of the Friars from the islands. "Polanco, one of the editors, published a signed article condemning this action. From that date La Opinion ceased to mention either Jose Centeno, governor of Manila, who was the idol of the progressive Filipinos or Quiroga, whose democratic policy it had supported so enthusiastically. "La Voz de Espafia was started on July 4, as a daily, backed by the Friars, for the purpose of counteracting the activities of La Opinion. It was edited by Augustin Alfonso Moseras, a Catalan. "Polanco and Bravo, two of the most active participants in La Opinion went to Spain and Quiroga, finding his reformative policies frustrated, also left the islands. "La Opinion lost prestige and continued to go down until April 1889 when Pazo, who was the principal owner called me (the historian, W. E. Retana) to be its editor and gave me a free hand to do as I pleased with its policy." (Retana was at the time editor of a weekly, established by Manuel Schiednagel, January 10, 1888, called La Espania Oriental. The policy of this paper was "All for Spain, of which this country is a part and to which the people owe the religion, education, progress and general welfare which they enjoy." This meant a complete change of policy for La Opinion). Retana goes on to say: "My direction of the editorial policy accomplished the ruin of La Opinion. Practically all of its subscribers were progressive Filipinos. I was not a reactionary, never had been one, but a passionately patriotic Spaniard, bitterly opposed to the Filipinos who advocated certain reforms which I believed meant the final loss of the colony to Spain. La Opinion suffered great losses.

Page  25 History of the Philippine Press 25 Subscriptions were cancelled by the dozens, much to the disgust of Pazo, who saw his property diminishing. In the end he endeavored to build up the paper" by supporting the Frailes. "The Spaniards were blind to what was actually taking place in the country. Occurrences that were considered of little significance were later seen to be of great importance. There were two young Filipinos of Spanish parentage on the staff of La Opinion, whom no one suspected had the least sympathy with the national sentiment which was being secretly developed by the native societies, stimulated by Rizal's novel, etc. When I joined the staff they resigned. Neither Pazo nor myself appreciated the significance of the fact that two Filipinos, though of Spanish blood, had refused to work with me, the satirical Retana, who had so cruelly treated the natives who had liberal aspirations. "I worked like a negro, and suffered many bitter attacks, especially from one Salcedo, who ridiculed me as an object of contempt, until January 1, 1890, when Pazo sold the paper to Juan Atayde, a retired army officer, when I resigned and joined the staff of La Voz de Espafia. "Atayde purchased the weekly La Espaia Oriental and combined it with La Opinion as a Sunday supplement. He soon demonstrated that he knew nothing about the newspaper business. He secured the services of Camilo Millan as editor. The latter was a radical anti-Indio and continually attacked them, calling attention to their vices and shortcomings. About this time the anonymous handbills of Isabelo de los Reyes advocating reforms of various natures were appearing and provoked the ire of Millan to such an extent that he went beyond all bounds of decency in his attacks on the natives. "Atayde changed the policy of the paper then and endeavored to build it up, trying to carry water on both shoulders, by flattering the more prominent of both the 'peninsulares' and the 'insulares' with the result that La Opinion soon ceased publication. It was re-established in 1890 under the name of El Eco de Filipinos. "The Friar's paper, La Voz de Espaia, did not prosper under the radical editorship of Alfonso Maseros. He retired and was succeeded by Jose de la Rosa. The paper was reorganized in 1892 and the name changed to La Voz Espanola, under the ownership and management of Federico and Antonio Hidalgo. Its slogan was, "The Philippines by Spain and for Spain," and it favored the rapid extension of the Spanish language and Spanish culture. Many Friars

Page  26 26 History of the Philippine Press contributed to it anonymously. Notably Evaristo F. Arias, who wrote political articles under the name of Juan Caro, which were answered in the Diario de Manila by Don Romero Salas." Now the editor of El Mercantil. La Voz Espafiola suspended publication in 1899 after American occupation, for lack of support. From 1888 to 1896 there was a veritable epidemic of newspapers due to the less rigid censorship and the development of a spirit of democratic liberalism and nationalism. September 1888 the Revista Popular de Filipinas, a religious weekly, appeared with the announcement that it was "licensed by the civil and ecclesiastical authorities," and in June the Revista Catolico, a bilingual weekly, announcing that it was devoted to Catholic propaganda was started. It was later semi-monthly. Both were discontinued during the insurrection in 1896. In February 1889 a morning daily, called La Correspondencia de Manila, was established and sold on the streets at two centavos. It lasted three months. El Anunciador Ilongo was started in Iloilo in March 1888, but it didn't go far. The Manila Chamber of Commerce began publishing an official organ, monthly, called the Boletin de la Camara de Comercio de Manila, in 1889 and continued to about the date of American occupation, when the chamber was dissolved. The Gaceta Notarial also made its bow to the public in May 1889 and apparently continued until the insurrection in 1896. El Ilocano, a semi-monthly in Spanish and Ilocano, was established by Isabelo de los Reyes in June 1889. This is credited by Retana with being the first purely native paper. "Reyes defended the rights of the Ilocanos and the natives in general and opposed the Friars. The torturing of the latter in Ilocos during the insurrection may possibly have been due to the feeling aroused against them by El Ilocano. It ceased publication during the insurrection." La Alhambra, semi-monthly, review of arts, sciences and social interests, was founded July 3, 1889, by Jose Moreno de Lacalle, a wealthy and well known Spanish lawyer. It died for want of support June 30, 1890. An agricultural review, called Anales de Agricultura, appeared for the first time July 27, 1889. Only a few numbers were published. La Caneco, a humerous illustrated weekly came out for the first time June 21, 1890. El Papelito, later called El Papelito Mercantil, also was established the same month. Neither lived long.

Page  27 History of the Philippine Press 27 The first Tagalog publication appeared in April 1890, under the name of Patnubay Nang Catolico. To quote Retana, "It probably did not live long because Pascual H. Poblete was connected with it and he never had, any luck in this line of business." A daily, called El Avisador Filipino, was founded April 5, 1890. It lived less than one month. Pascual Poblete, established a daily, called El Resumen, July 10, 1890. It was of a semi-political nature and later called the official organ of La Comp. Mercantil y Industrial Hispano-Filipino, which probably existed in name only. El Domingo, a humorous weekly, was born August 3, 1890, and expired in October of the same year. September 4, 1890, the first number of El Pajaro Verde, edited by Vicente Garcia Valdez, was published on green paper with illustrations, with the announcement that the purpose of the sheet was to entertain the public and cause people to forget their troubles. Subscribers were assured: "It will be perfectly safe to put this paper into the hands of your wives and daughters." The second number came out on yellow paper. The censor didn't like some of the illustrations and ordered the paper suppressed. Valdez disregarded the order and came out with the third number, whereupon he was fined so heavily that he could not pay. He escaped by stowing away on a steamer. He returned after American occupation and es. tablished a similar publication under the name of Miau, in 1901. His chits apparently accumulated faster than his subscribers and advertisers so he soon disappeared. He was known to all the Spaniards as "El Pajaro Verde" (The Green Bird). November 6, 1890, La Lilliputense appeared as the first weekly devoted to the youth of the islands. It apparently found little appreciation as it ceased publication March 12 the next year. La Lectura Popular, edited by Isabelo de los Reyes, was published first in 1890. Its circulation was entirely among the natives. It was not looked upon with favor by the Spaniards and apparently did not live longer than a few months. Only three papers were established in 1891, all weeklies and of little importance and short existence, namely: El Bello Sexo, a woman's fashion paper, La Ilustracion Filipina and El Asuang.

Page  28 28 History of the Philippine Press Twelve papers were started in 1893, none of which are deserving of more than mention of the name which in most cases indicates the character of the publication. Boletin Oficial del Arzobispado, previously published, resumed publication. Others were: El Ejercito de Filipinas, El Consultor del Profesorado, Madrid-Manila, Toda en Broma, El Foro Administrativo, La Pavera, Periodico Festivo, La Puya (described as a paper devoted exclusively to Philippine affairs), Los Miercoles (only one number published), Revista Mercantil de Filipinas, Polichinela (illustrated weekly) and the Boletin de la Companiia de Explotacion y Colonizacion de La Isla de Paragua. A small daily, called El Mercantil, also was started in 1892, making seven in Manila at the end of that year, namely El Eco de Filipinas, El Comercio, La Oceania Espanola, Diario de Manila, La Voz Espafiola, El Resumen and El Mercantil. The latter was discontinued the first of April 1893. Twelve new papers are recorded for 1893, though only eleven were in Manila. They were: El Anunciador Filipino, Revista Farmaceutica de Filipinas, El Hogar ( a woman's weekly), La Moda Filipina, El Telegrafo, El Eco del Sur (a weekly in Nueva Caceres, Camarines), El Amigo del Pueblo, El Telegrama, Gaceta de Seguras, La Correspondencia Medica de Filipinas (monthly), El Pabellon Nacional (daily) and El Express. Most of these died within the year and none survived the revolution of 1896. The year 1894 produced twelve new publication, making an average of one each month for three years. The first in 1894 was Apostolado de la Prensa, published in Tagalog. El Heraldo Militar, succeeded the weekly called El Ejercito de Filipinas. Manila-Santander (illustrated), probably only one number, Boletin Oficial Agricola (monthly), El Consultor de Municipios; Manalilla-Sport (monthly), La Legislacion (semi-monthly review of the administration and the courts), El Municipio Filipino (review of legislation and jurisprudence, edited by Isabelo de los Reyes) and Aposto[ado de La Prensa (published by the Friars first in Tagalog and later in Spanish) made their bows. El Album Militar (semi-monthly) was published by an army officer. El Cinfe and Sorpresas-Chicago were two so-called comic papers established this year to die the next. A new afternoon daily was established under the name El Espafiol and is supposed to have continued until 1898.

Page  29 History of the Philippine Press 29 The year 1895 produced 11 new papers, none of special interest or great importance. Pedro A. Paterno, who spent many years in Spain, returned to Manila and was appointed director of the MuseoBiblioteca de Filipinas. He secured permission from the governor general to publish a monthly Boletin del MuseoBiblioteca. The first number appeared on January 15, and was followed on the 23rd by the first number of the Boletin Oficial del Ministerio Filipino, devoted to primary education and professional subjects. La Exposition also appeared on January 23 for one issue only. It was edited by members of the Manila Press Association, organized about that time, and was designed to make propaganda for the exposition which was held in Manila in February. La Mosca was established as a weekly, but only published a few numbers. La Campana, a satirical weekly appeared on March 1, but died before the end of the month. La Vida Industrial de Filipinas was founded by Jose Martin Martinez. The publication had considerable merit, but it did not survive the revolution of 1896. The Boletin de Estadistica de la Ciudad de Manila was inaugurated as an official publication. It lasted only one year. El Correo was started probably by Puya, who was the father of no less than six papers of different characters during the years 1888 to 1895. It passed out quickly as had all the others. El Cosmopolita came out October 15 as a semi-monthly and was the first publication in Manila to publish half tone cuts. It lived less than a year. El Noticiero was launched as an afternoon paper November 18, 1895, and in March 1896 the name was changed to El Noticiero de Manila. As such it died. The revolution of 1896 effectively checked the founding of new publications and eliminated the majority of those that were still being published when it broke. However, four new ones appeared during the first part of the year. The Boletin Mensual del Observatorio de Manila began in 1896. It was edited by Padre Faura and other Jesuit fathers. It is still being published. It was changed to English in 1902. An illustrated semi-monthly was established in ldilo under the name of El Ilonguillo. According to Retana, "It died of an attack of 'cursileria literario-patriotica' on the 1st of November of the year in which it came to the World."

Page  30 30 History of the Philippine Press Ang Pliegong Tagalog was established as a popular weekly by Juan Atayde, for the reason, as he announced that all other Tagalog papers had ceased publication and he considered it necessary to have a paper published in that language until such time as the people should learn to speak Spanish. It was one of the many victims of the Katipunan and died before the end of 1896. La Hoja Dominical was published by the Dominican fathers and distributed free during part of the year. It was primarily religious and made an effort to create a better feeling between the Spaniards and the natives. To quote Retana, "It ceased publication by force of circumstances, at the end of the unhappy year of 1896, during which so many other papers succumbed." The Tagalog revolution put most papers out of business. They could not be delivered in the provinces. During 1897 not a single paper was founded. It is worthy of note that a new daily was established in Iloilo early in 1898 under the name El Heraldo de Iloilo. It doubtless ceased publication after Dewey destroyed Montejo's fleet and established the blockade. With American occupation in 1898 came the freedom of the press and Manila was flooded with newspapers of various kinds and classes during the next two years. To be sure there was a military censorship but it was not very strict until after the outbreak of the revolution early in 1899. The first American paper published in the islands was The Bounding Billow. It was printed on Dewey's flagship, the Olympia, by two sailors soon after Dewey destroyed the Spanish fleet. It contained four pages about eight by twelve inches. It had an attractive front cover design in colors with a cut of Admiral Dewey and the Olympia. The back cover carried a full page cut with a rather crude outline of the battle formation of the fleet. The cuts were probably made in Hongkong. Inside was a full description of the battle telling how "Dewey did the Dons." It sold for 25 cents gold per copy. Thousands of copies were sold to the members of the fleet. Several editions were printed and sold to the soldiers after the capture of Manila, as souvenirs..Between August 13, Occupation Day, and December 31, 1898, no less than 17 papers were started, only one of which, The Manila Times, is still in existence. The Official Gazette, published by the military government, August 23, was the first Yankee publication on Philippine soil. It contained military orders designating the first

Page  31 History of the Philippine Press 31 provost marshal, commander of the guardia civil and collector of internal revenue, etc. The first private American newspaper enterprise was The American Soldier. It was published by a group of enlisted men of the 13th Minnesota Volunteers. The first number appeared September 10, 1898, and carried the name of George A. Smith as managing editor. W. W. Brown, who has been locally known as Mayor Brown since the early days of American occupation, financed the publication and took advertising space in payment for the loan. The Mayor was connected with the American Commercial Co. which was one of the first American firms to be established after American occupation. The news contained in the first number of The American Soldier was limited almost exclusively to the officers and enlisted men of the 13th Minnesota Volunteers. The scope of the paper was soon broadened to cover news of the entire 8th Army Corps and the name changed to The Soldier's Letter. With the establishment of two daily newspapers in October the original American paper, having served its purpose, passed out of existence. The Manila Times, the first American daily, was, established on October 11, 1898. It was published by Thomas Cowan, an Englishman. George Sellner joined the staff in 1899 as business manager and later bought the paper. He sold it to a group of American business men about 1902 and bought it back about 1905. About 1907 he sold it to Thomas C. Kinney, who incorporated the present Times Company, with prominent American and British business men on the board of directors. During the Harrison administration about 1917, the majority stockholders sold the control to a group of Filipinos headed by Manuel Quezon. About August 1920 the controlling block of stock was sold to George H. Fairchild who directed the editorial policy of the paper until September 1926 when it was sold to J. Rosenthal, a prominent local merchant. Among the editors of the Manila Times who have contributed most to the development of modern journalism in. the Philippines are R. McCulloch Dick, Martin Egan, W. H. Lewis, L. H. Thibault, A. V. H. Hartendorp and the present editor, Walter A. Wilgus. The American, the second American daily, appeared for the first time on October 15, 1898. It was established by Franklyn Brooks, a newspaper correspondent from New York.

Page  32 32 History of the Philippine Press It was financed by subscriptions from army and navy officers who put up the money to cover the cost of a cable service from the Associated Press, while the revenue from street sales, subscriptions and advertising covered the cost of printing, paper, general expense and the limited salary list of the staff which was mostly composed of enlisted men of the Army. Wm. J. Mathews, a corporal of the First Colorado Volunteers, was the first editor and H. G. Farris, a sergeant from the same regiment, was circulation manager. Harry F. Seymour was the business manager. For the first few months the paper was edited and printed in the Chofre & Co. plant on Calle Alix (now Legarda). Later it was removed to the office of El Comercio on the corner of Calles Poblete and San Jacinto (now T. Pinpin). Early in 1899 Brooks sold the paper to Mathews and Seymour and went for a tour of China. A few months later Seymour sold his interest to Capt. Woodward of the 6th Artillery, Capt. Charles H. Sleeper, who was Collector of Internal Revenue under the Military Government, and the writer. Seymour left for the States and was lost on the Pacific Mail Steamship Rio Janiero, which sank in a fog just outside the Golden Gate. Mathews was called home and the writer was left in charge as business manager with David F. Morris as managing editor. On the departure of General Elwell S. Otis, Military Governor, for the United States, Morris published a brief editorial headed "No Regrets" in which he expressed the sentiment of the community as that of having no regrets at Otis' departure as he was unpopular with the general public and particularly so with Morris. This placed Captains Woodward and Sleeper in a rather embarrassing situation. They were part owners in a paper that criticised and even ridiculed their superior officer. They did not have control and could not discharge the offending editor so they wanted to get out quickly. Franklin Brooks appeared on the scene and in conjunction with A. J. Findlay made them an offer for their interests which was quickly accepted. Brooks and Findlay later acquired full ownership. They in turn sold to Walter A. Fitton, a broker who represented Hongkong capital.

Page  33 History of the Philippine Press 33 The property was later acquired by Ziengenfuss and Crozier and struggled along under difficulties until about 1907 when it was purchased by George Sellner, who sold it to the same group that had purchased the Manila Times. It was soon afterwards sold to the publisher of the Cablenews and combined with that paper under the title Cablenews-American about 1908. There were five so-called comic or satirical publications started by Spaniards during the year of 1898, The Ron Leche, El Cometa, El Bejuco, El Chiflado and La Restauracion. In demonstrating their idea of the freedom of the press under were suppressed by the military authorities for indecent the American government some contracted libel suits, others illustrations and none long survived. The Spanish prisoners, the greater number of whom remained here until the treaty of peace was signed, established a paper called El Soldado Espainol which was discontinued when the spanish soldiers were returned home. The Filipinos also availed themselves of the opportunity to enjoy freedom of the press. Before the end of 1898 they had established several papers. All were printed outside the American lines but circulated freely in the city of Manila. The most important was La Independencia, which was established September 3, 1898. To quote Retana: "It was published in the orphan's asylum at Malabon, of which the insurgents had taken possession. The same printing plant which the Frailes had used so long to produce propaganda against the reformists was now used by the latter to publish what they pleased against the former. "La Independencia was the first paper to advocate openly, separation from Spain. In fact, so far as is recorded, with the exception of El Ilocano and other publications by Isabelo de los Reyes, it was the first newspaper published by native Filipinos in the islands. (Retana apparently errs in stating that La Independencia was the first paper to advocate independence from Spain. Epifanio de los Santos, director of the Philippine Library, states that La Libertad was the first. This paper was suppressed by General Aguinaldo and was succeeded by El Heraldo de La Revolucion Filipina as the official organ of the revolutionary government. The name was changed to Heraldo Filipino and later to Gaceta de Filipinas.) "Antonio Luna, who had suffered severe persecution from the natives because he had not belonged to the Katipunan, whose members had saved his life almost by a

Page  34 34 History of the Philippine Press miracle, came to be the soul of La Independencia, which was so well edited, and attracted so much attention that it came to be said that the articles were written by Spaniards. "This aroused the ire of the publishers and was answered in the issue of September 16, 1898, to quote in part as follows: 'During the last few days it has been said, in the heated atmosphere of Manila, that our paper is edited by Spaniards. "' Such a clear affirmation favors us on the whole, even though it sticks into our soul the poisonous lance of infinite sorrow.' "'It favors us because it indicates the acceptance of our paper everywhere as an imperative public necessity, manifesting a feeling of reciprosity between the readers and editors, but it grieves us because it creates an atmosphere favorable to an erroneous opinion of our capacity. "'No. It is impossible to allow this report, circulated for selfish ends, to stand unchallenged. The editorial staff is composed of Indios, those very patient Indios who have always been treated with the greatest harshness and the most iniquitous tyranny. "'How could we admit to our colunms the writings of those who were but recently our most cruel oppressors and tomorrow, perhaps, may be our most implacable and heartless enemies?'" ~ Associated with Luna on the editorial staff were various well known Filipinos of merit. Among them Leon M. Guerrero, now a professor of botany in the University of Santo Tomas, and Epifanio de los Santos, then a young man, now director of the Philippine Library. It was the first paper through which the Filipino nationalists had ever had an opportunity to express themselves freely. It devoted itself entirely to propaganda in favor of independence from Spain and against the much hated Friars, who were blamed for all the oppression which the natives had suffered. Many of the more liberal minded Spaniards were in sympathy with the policy of La Independencia. The paper expressed friendship for America to whom it referred as "That great country to which we are united with bonds of sincere friendship." It supported General Aguinaldo, whom it hailed as "Our fellow citizen, the living incarnation of the revolution." La Independencia became the official organ of the revolutionary government.

Page  35 Historu of the Philippine,Press 35 The plant was moved to Malolos about the time, or possibly before the outbreak of the insurrection. Later it was moved from place to place along the Manila railroad until it was finally captured by the American forces in one of the northern provinces. La Republica Filipina, was established at Mandaloyon September 15, 1898. It represented the revolutionary faction directed by Pedro A. Paterno, who became a member of Aguinaldo's cabinet. While not so influential or so widely circulated as La Independencia, La Republica Filipina, nevertheless, played an important part in the campaign of independence propaganda. Aside from advocating independence its policy is indicated by the following translated from the editorial announcement of the first number: "The basis of society is respect for the law. Obedience to established law should be practised in all parts and by every individual. Our ideal may be reduced to this simple formulae: Liberty and responsibility and serving as a guarantee of these liberties, a free people and a strict government. All rights should be acknowledged and protected by the government and all existing laws should be obeyed by the people." La Republica Filipina was forced by the advance of the American troops to change its location and was discontinued soon after the insurrection started. Another Filipino paper was started at Jaro, a suburb of Iloilo, December 18, 1898, under the name of La Revolucion. It was published weekly. Its slogan as announced was "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity." Its circulation was entirely local and very limited. El Heraldo de la Revolucion was published somewhere in northern Luzon for a very short period in the latter part of 1898. Aglipay, now the head of the so-called "Independent Filipino Catholic church," was one of the editors and possibly the publisher. El Catolico Filipino was founded as a daily early in December 1898 by Mariano Sevilla, a Tagalog. Its policy was for "religious unity." In those hectic times the limited FilipinQ reading public wanted something more exciting and the new daily failed to secure a following. The record was broken in 1899 for the birth of newspapers, with a total of 24, and possibly some others which are not recorded.

Page  36 36 History of the Phiippine Press There were six American, nine Spanish and nine Filipino publications started most of which did not live long and not one of which is being published today. The American papers in the order of their appearance were: The Manila Freedom, The Tribune, The Insular Daily.Press, The Sentinel and the Monthly Summary of the Commerce of the Philippine Islands. The Manila Freedom was established early in the year, by Don C. W. Musser and was probably the successor of The Soldiery' Letter. It was sold to Fred C. Fisher and C. A. McDermod, two employees of the military government, some time during the year and became a strong rival of The American in the morning field. Eddie O'Brien was the editor and George Fuller, the business manager. Both were aggressive and appeared to get by the military press censor, who was Captain Green (now General Green, retired) with stories which the more conservative American did not dare to publish. Fisher and McDermod later sold the paper to Fred L. Dorr, an American who had resided in the islands several years previous to American occupation. Dorr and O'Brien were later sentenced to Bilibid for criminal libel, committed against Benito Legarda, who was one of the Filipino commissioners. This was about 1904 after civil government was established. The paper was later acquired by George Fuller, who was the business manager. With the return of the greater number of American volunteer troops to the United States the field was much reduced and the Freedom finally ceased publication about 1906. A daily called the Tribune was started by C. W. Ney, an attorney, late in the year 1899, but lived only two or three months. Another daily was started during the year under the name of the Insular Daily Press. Its career was also limited, possibly to a few days, or a few weeks at most. The Sentinel, organ of the American Catholic Club, appeared October 21, 1899. It carried no advertising and soon disappeared. The Spanish papers founded in 1899 in the order of their first appearance were a Tagalog edition of La Oceania Espainola, El Noticiero de Manila, The Courier, El Progreso, La Estrella de Antipolo, Boletin de la Camara de Comercio Espanol de Filipinas, the Revista Comercial (Iloilo), La Patria and El Correo del Oriente.

Page  37 History of the Philippine Press 37 The Tagalog edition of La Oceania Espafiola apparently found little support and was discontinued, though the Spanish edition continued until some months later. El Noticiero de Manila began publication as an afternoon daily April 10, 1899, with the announcement that it was, "Catholic as to religion and Spanish in politics." It was discontinued early in 1901. The Courier started as a daily April 15, 1899. It was published in English and Spanish. It introduced itself with this statement: "The Courier comes into public life with the one noble purpose to contribute what it can to the reestablishment of peace and the development of this beloved country." History does not record that it functioned with marked efficiency to either restore peace or develop the country, nor when it gave up the ghost. El Progreso, a morning daily, was started June 1, 1899, by Victor del Pan, son of Jose Felipe del Pan, who had founded La Oceania Espanola. The latter paper had ceased publication some months before. Its policy was announced in the first issue in this way: "We shall devote our labor to progress without distinction as to race or nationality, and will consider worthy of attention all men who accidentally or habitually compose the population of the Philippines and,live in this archipelago, for whose inhabitants this paper is born into the world, for them to repudiate or support." Associated with Victor del Pan was Juan de Juan. Juan de Juan died while on a trip through the Cagayan valley in 1904 and Del Pan soon after. Consequently El Progreso, which appeared to have made a place for itself through the efforts of these two men, also passed out of existence. La Estrella de Antipolo, a weekly Catholic publication appeared in August. It was devoted to religious propaganda, principally against Protestantism. Retana's comment is: "The little paper, like all others founded or inspired by the Friars up to this time, died a few months after it started, which proves that the public would not tolerate them in any form." La Patria (democratico daily) was started September 16, 1899, by Juan Utor y Fernandez, who. to quote Retana, "Had enjoyed considerable notoriety in Spain because he was strong in Masonry." He devoted his paper to the only political course possible at that time, that of sympathy toward the natives in order that they should not detest. Spain. Fernandez died and the paper ceased publication.

Page  38 38 History of the Philippine Press El Correo del Oriente was founded December 1, 1899, by Romero Salas, the present editor of El Mercantil and the oldest newspaper man in the islands. He published the paper in Hongkong. The purpose and policy is indicated clearly by the editorial announcement in the first number which reads: "Spain must do today what she did not do yesterday, impress her soul upon the Philippines so strongly that it cannot be eradicated. She is obliged to look for absolution for her past faults in a generous and disinterested concourse in favor of harmony, with a prolonged effort for the good of that unfortunate nation. From such necessity is the origin of the life of this paper." The paper did not last long, perhaps for the reason that no results toward accomplishment of the announced purpose were apparent. The Filipino papers started in 1899 in the order in which they were founded were: La Oportunidad (published at Tagbilaran, Bohol), La Democracia, Gaceta de Filipinas, El Grito del Pueblo, Ang Kapatid Ng Bayan, Libafigan Nang Lahat, La Voz del Pueblo, El Filipino Libre and Ang Paraluman Nang Tagalog. Not a single one of these is in existence today. The most important of these papers was La Democracia, diario Filipino independiente. La Democracia, while it proclaimed itself to be independent, became the organ of the Federal party, which supported the American government. The first number appeared May 16, 1899, with this editorial announcement under the heading "Our Purposes": "The proclamation published by the American commission on the 4th of April last, is of extreme importance to every Filipino. A careful study of that document, clearly foretells the great benefits which should come to the Philippines as a result of American sovereignty. "The commission assures the Filipino people of the good will and fraternal feelings of the President and the people of the United States, whom it represents, announcing the purpose of that nation to insure the welfare, prosperity and happiness of the people of this country as well as their development and evolution to a position of honor among the more civilized people of the world. "Noble purposes and promises so solemnly made, must be considered seriously by the people of these islands at this important time in their history." It approved of American sovereignty and concluded: "We want peace. We are Filipinos, we deplore and consider useless the shedding of more blood of our brothers.

Page  39 Ilistory of the Philippine Press 39 "No more human lives should be sacrificed. There is no necessity to resort to violence to secure our liberties. We believe in the noble purposes.of the American people and in conformity with the proclamation of the commission and we propose through La Democracia to lend them our cooperation for the benefit of the just aspirations of our own people." The editorial closed by expressing a desire, soon to see all Spanish prisoners liberated. The Federal party gradually lost prestige due to internal dissention, lack of proper practical support from the Americans, the development of opposition parties, etc. and La Democracia ceased publication about 1908. The Gaceta de Filipinas appeared May 17, 1899, as the official organ of the revolutionary government. It was doubtless printed with the same plant as La Independencia and ceased publication when that was captured by the Americans. El Grito del Pueblo and the Tagalog edition of the same, Ang Kapatid fig Bayan, were established early in 1899 by Pascual Poblete, who was an idealist, an impractical dreamer with a big heart and no head for business. He kept his papers going, however, for several years, possibly until about 1914. They had small circulation and little influence. The only other Filipino paper established in 1899 worthy of mention was El Filipino Libre, a daily published by Dr. Manuel Xeres Burgos. Dr. Burgos, is of Spanish decent and a nephew of the celebrated P. Burgos, who was executed by the Spaniards in connection with the uprising in Cavitein 1872. Dr. Burgos was active in the campaign of propaganda for independence from Spain in the early days of American occupation before the treaty of peace was signed. He wrote a play in which he himself took the leading part. It ran for a long period in the old Libertad theatre on calle Azcarraga. It was entitled "Con Cruz y Espada" (With Cross and Sword), and demonstrated in a very dramatic way the abuses committed by the Friars and the guardia civil during the latter years of the Spanish regime. His paper only lasted for a short time. He also published a paper in English and Spanish called Dimas Alang and a satirical weekly called Nuevo Diogenes. The good doctor affiliated himself with the Federal party. He finally dropped out of politics and now devotes himself to the practice of medicine.

Page  40 40. History of the Philippine Press He has recently attracted considerable attention by violent attacks on Senator Quezon through the columns of La Vanguardia. By the end of 1899 the orgy of journalistic freedom as indicated by the large number of new papers started in, 1898 and 1899 appears to have subsided. The majority of those who ventured into the field either lost their capital, if they had any, or were unable to gather sufficient revenue to pay the printers. It may be noted here that, in those days, it was comparatively easy to start a newspaper, especially of a political nature. There were plenty of writers who were willing to give the anxious world the benefit of their wisdom for the pleasure it afforded themselves and without cost to the publisher. Filipino printers received from P0.20 to P0.80 per day and if the "ghost didn't walk" on Saturday they lived just the same. The Manila Daily Bulletin appears to enjoy the distinction of having been the only paper started during the year of 1900. There may have been others, but if so their existence was brief and they left no record. The Bulletin was established by the writer February 1, 1900, with H. G. Farris as the editor and entire staff. It was printed on contract by El Progreso at No. 10 Carriedo. Its announced purpose was to give the public accurate and reliable shipping and commercial information and nothing else. It was supported principally by the shipping interests, who had not been able to get the proper kind of service from the daily press. However, the advertising columns were open to all who chose to take advantage of the opportunity offered. It was distributed free to all who would accept it, with the idea of demonstrating its value, and to get the public to deend on it for information as to the arrival and departure of ships, mails, etc. When this. was considered to have been accomplished it was put on a subscription basis in 1904. The second editor of the Bulletin was George T. Rice. His career was short, however, as he, was deported late in 1900 by General MacArthur, then military governor, for having severely critieised a navy officer who was captain ofcthe port at that time. Rice is now a captain in the 59th U. S. artillery corps. Chas. A. Bond, now tobacco agent for the Philippine government, was editor of the Bulletin, during 1904 and 1905, and contributed materially to its development. Dur

Page  41 History of the Philippine Press 41 ing this period C. W. Rosenstock was manager and.it was through his initiative that the paper was put on a subscription basis. With the possible exception of the Manila Times the Bulletin was the first American paper to own its own plant, which was installed in 1901. It was gradually expanded as the advertising field developed and was converted into a general daily newspaper in 1912 with Wm. Crozier as editor. After his death of bubonic plague in 1913, he was succeeded by M. L. Stewart. After five years he retired and C. R. Zeininger took his place in 1918, and served until the early part of 1926 when he returned to the United States and was succeeded by the present editor, Roy C. Bennett. The Bulletin is twenty-seven years old today (Feb. 1, 1927). With the exception of the Manila Times it is the oldest daily newspaper now in existence in the Philippine Islands. During the entire twenty-seven years it has been under the same management. There will be no attempt to enumerate the many publications that have been born and most of which have died during the period from 1900 to date, but only mention of a few. The Cablenews was established August, 1902, making five American dailies in the field at that time, the others being the Manila Times, The American, Manila Freedom and the Bulletin. It was founded by Israel Putnam a direct decendent of Israel Putnam of revolutionary fame. Putnam, who was a man of considerable wealth, had served as a lieutenant in one of the volunteer regiments in the SpanishAmerican War and the early part of the Philippine Insurrection. He became interested in the islands and had visions of rapid economic development. After returning to the United States he got together a rather large editorial staff and came back with a very elaborate and up-to-date newspaper plant. He brought two rotary Duplex presses and the first linotype machines used in the islands, except those in the Bureau of Printing. He was at least ten years ahead of the times and his overhead was so great that he soon found it necessary to reduce his staff and curtail expenses. He sold one of the presses to the Manila Times, which is still in use, by that paper, finally leased the Cablenews to Frederick O'Brien, who was editor at that time, and returned home. C. W. Rosenstock was business manager during the greater part of the period of O'Brien's leasehold. O'Brien gave up the lease about 1907 and J. F. Boomer became the edi

Page  42 42 History of the Philiprpine Press tor. The American was purchased by Putnam and combined with the Cablenews about 1908, leaving the CablenewsAmerican as the only morning paper in the field, except the shipping Bulletin, the Manila Freedom having passed out of existence some two or three years before. P. G. McDonnell, former member of the Municipal Board, took over the management of the paper for a time and it was later sold to Nelson and Posner, passed to the control of Carlos Young who sold it to Phil C. Whitaker early in 1919. In October 1919 Mr. Whitaker sold the paper to The Catholic Publishing Co. On November 1, 1919, Captain Robert E. Murphy succeeded Norbert Lyons as editor and general manager. In 1920, a group of Filipinos headed by Senator Quezon started the Philippine Herald. After starting it they found themselves unable to secure a paper supply and purchased the Cablenews-American in order to secure its paper contract. They discontinued the Cablenews-American and the Philippines Herald took its place in the morning field. The Sunday Sun, the first American Weekly was published during 1902 and possibly as late as 1905, by Edward O'Brien and Dan O'Connell. It was of local interest only and attracted most attention by the publication of a serial satirical parody in Shakespearean style criticising the Taft administration. The Far Eastern Review a monthly devoted to engineering and construction was founded in 1904 by George Bronson Rea. The office was moved to Shanghai about 1912, where it is still published by the original founder. An American weekly called Manila Opinion was published during 1905 and a part of 1906. Bob Wescott and H. Furman Hedden were the publishers. The Philippines Free Press was founded in 1908 by Judge Kincaid with Pat Gallagher as editor. It was taken over after a few months by R. McCulloch Dick, who had been editor of the Manila Times for a number of years. The Free Press has developed the largest circulation ever attained in the islands by a paper in English. R. McCulloch Dick is the sole owner and F. Theo. Rogers is manager. The Spanish press has gradually disminished since American occupation. Since 1900 only one Spanish daily has been established, excepting the Catholic publications, namely El Mercantil. This paper was established in 1902 and is still being published. It is kept alive only by the personality of its founder and present editor, Don Romero Salas, perhaps the most conspicuous of all Spanish editors.

Page  43 History of the Philippine Press 43 He is the oldest in years as well as in the length of time dedicated to journalism in the islands and is considered as the nerviest man in the business. He has a most versatile pen and has always been highly considered by the Spaniards. It is safe to predict that with his passing La Prensa Espafiola, as such, will cease to play a part in Philippine affairs. Two Catholic dailies in Spanish have appeared since 1900. The first, Libertas, was established in 1902 and was suppressed during the late war on account of its propaganda in favor of the Germans. La Defensa, established in 1919, succeeded it. The development of the Filipino press since 1900 has been remarkably rapid, particularly so since 1920. The Filipino papers worthy of mention since 1900 are El Renacimiento, Muling Pagsilang, a Tagalog edition of the same, El Ideal, Ang Mithi, its Tagalog edition, La Nacion, Vanguardia with the Tagalog edition called Taliba, El Debate, with Pagkakaisa as a Tagalog edition, the Philippines Herald and the Tribune. El Renacimiento, established in 1901, was without doubt the most influential Filipino paper published up to the present time. Fernando Maria Guerrero, editor during the first few years of its life under the direction of Rafael Palma, is credited with being the most proficient Spanish scholar among the Filipinos. The paper, while not a party organ, had strong Nacionalista tendencies. It had a greater circulation than any Filipino paper before it and was very influential. As the result of an unfortunate radical attack on the Secretary of the Interior, Dean C. Worcester, a libel suit was brought against it. Worcester got judgement for some P60,000 which was confirmed by the Supreme Court in 1910. The paper was sold under the hammer to satisfy the judgement. It was re-established by Don Martin Ocampo, who had been the business manager and principal owner, under the name of La Vanguardia and Taliba, the latter being the Tagalog edition. The Nacionalista party had developed strength in the meantime and established a paper in 1907 as the organ of the party under the name of El Ideal with Ang Mithi as the Tagalog edition. Don Martin Ocampo, who recently passed away, was an outstanding figure in the journalistic field during the early days of the American regime. Having a tremendous capacity for work, he was by nature an honest, conscientious and patriotic citizen. An im

Page  44 44 History of the Philippine Press pressive memorial service in his honor was ample testimony of the high esteem in which he was held by his people and by Americans and Europeans who knew him. Vanguardia did not prosper until it was purchased in 1916 by Alejandro Roces. Roces, a very wealthy Filipino poured money into the paper and under his management it may be said to have been the first Filipino paper to be conducted on a purely commercial basis. Roces is not a politician. He conducts the Vanguardia as an independent paper. He built up the circulation within a few years to probably double the figure ever attained by El Renacimiento. By reason of changed, conditions, however, and the greater number of papers in the field it is doubtful whether Vanguardia has been, or ever will be so influential politically as was El Renacimiento. El Ideal was established in 1907 as the official organ of the Nacionalista party, Rafael Palma and Senator Sergio Osmefia being the power behind, but taking no real active part in the management. It prospered most under the editorship of Arsenio Luz. He was succeeded by Dr. Justo Lukban. Like all party organs it was not successful either from the standpoint of finance or value as a propaganda sheet and was allowed to die in 1919, the Philippine National Bank falling heir to the plant. The Consolidacion Nacional founded by the late Don Mariano Lim was the first organ of the opposition party in this country, following La Democracia, and under the editorship of Ramon Torres and Dr. Pedro Gil, exerted a most powerful influence in local politics. Dr. Gil in his time sustained long controversies with El Ideal, then the organ of the Nacionalista party. The Consolidacion Nacional, also, had to stop publication due to lack of support. The present El Debate, the only Spanish morning daily edited by Filipinos succeeded the Consolidacion, and under the editorship of Ramon Torres, now a member of the house of representatives, and Francisco Varona, has flourished for a number of years. No less worthy of mention in this brief survey of Philippine journalism are the leading weekly publications which in their time attracted widespread public attention, and, although many of them are no longer among the living, still, this article would not be complete without a passing reference to their role. The Rising Philippines was the first organ of the English-speaking Filipinos, and saw the light of day in 1917, with Fernando Maramag, possibly the foremost Filipino

Page  45 History of the Philippine Press 45 poet and literary man in'English, as the editor-in-chief. He is now the chief editorial writer of the Manila Tribune. Associated with him were Carlos P. Romulo, Mauro Mende, Julian Bulaon, Pedro de la Llana and a number of other local writers. The weekly had the support of the English. speaking Filipinos, but after three years of a rather stormy existence burdened with good articles and numerous debts, it passed to the Great Beyond. Another promising periodical at that time was the Philippines National Weekly, under the editorship again of Fernando Maramag and Apolinario de los Santos, president of the University of Manila. It was patterned after the Philippines Free Press, both in size and the quality of the articles printed. Jose Romero, another writer, succeeded Mr. Maramag as editor. I was not a financial success and finally passed out, probably because of poor management. The Little Paper was another weekly which lasted for more than three years. It was the first experiment undertaken here of a two-centavo periodical. Pedro de la Llana was editor and Clifford Butler, now in the Philippine Education Company organization, was advertising and business manager. Among the monthly publications in this country, the Philippine 'Education Magazine deserves the first mention. In fact, it is the only high class monthly now being published. Primarily intend for teachers when it first started twenty years ago, it has finally evolved into a magazine of general interest and literary significance, whose influence is beginning to be felt in the intellectual circles of the country. The present editor is A. V. H. Hartendorp, former editor of the Manila Times. The first newspaper to attempt to cement cordial relation between the Chinese and the Filipinos was the Philippine Chinese Advocate, a sort of a high brow weekly of discussion containing important contributions from the most eminent intellectual figures of the Chinese Republic. It was edited by Dr. Luis P. Uychutin, now dean of the college of law in the University of Amoy; Pedro de la Llana, now member of the Philippine house of representatives and Yang Pao Wang, a local Chinese writer and former labor leader. After great deal of editorial enthusiasm during the first three years it finally ceased publication in 1920. Other important Chinese papers at the time were the Kong Li Po, Man Ho Po and the Peng Ming Daily News. The Man Ho Po and the Peng Ming Daily News, openly advocated the overthrow of the present governments of

Page  46 46 History of the Philippine Press the world, including that of the Philippines. They openly asserted that governments are nothing but organized robberies, and that the day of the supremacy of the proletariat is not far distant. The Peng Ming Daily News, which no longer exists, was the organ of the Chinese Federation of Labor, which, at one time, was headed by Yang Pao Wang. The Kong Li Po and the Fookien Times, are considered the most conservative of the local Chinese publications. La Nacion was established as the official organ of the Democratas about the same time El Ideal was started by the Nacionalistas. It was even less successful than El Ideal because of the strong machine built up by the Nacionalistas during the Harrison administration and the consequent weakening of the influence of the Democratas. La Nacion ceased publication about 1923. The Nacionalistas established the Philippines Herald, as previously mentioned, in 1920 after the death of El Ideal. This was first Filipino daily published in English. It was not established as a party organ but by a group of wealthy Filipinos with Nacionalista leanings. Senator Quezon was the nominal head of the organization and the dominating influence behind the paper. Conrado Benitez was the first editor and Jose Sanvictores the business manager. The paper did not prosper and after several hundred thousand pesos were poured into it and it was deeply in debt, Arsenio Luz was called in to try to pull it out of the hole. The task was too great for Luz or any other man. The Philippine National Bank, to which the plant and building was mortgaged caused the appointment of a receiver. Alejandro Roces, publisher of Vanguardia and Taliba, was appointed receiver with the understanding that he would keep the paper going and ultimately take it over on terms to be mutually arranged. When it came time to take it over it developed that the Philippine National Bank's mortgage did not cover the name and good will. A controversy arose between Mr. Roces and Senator Quezon which caused Roces to refuse to take the paper over and the bank foreclosed on the plant and building. The name Philippines Herald was transferred to Vicente Madrigal and the paper was continued. Roces immediately started the morning Tribune, April 1, 1925, since which time a bitter fight has been waged between the two papers, each trying to outdo the other in an effort to secure the support of the public. It will be interesting to watch the development of the Herald and Tribune as competitors in the morning field.

Page  47 History of the Philippine Press 47 Alejandro Roces, who is sometimes referred to as the Hearst of the Philippines, is without doubt the most prominent and influential figure in the field of journalism at the present time. The T.V.T., group of papers published by him consists of the Taliba, published in Tagalog, the local dialect, with a greater circulation in the provinces than any other daily although its field is limited to the Tagalog provinces; Vanguardia, an afternoon daily in Spanish, and the Tribune, a morning daily English. The group probably has a greater influence on Filipino public opinion at the present time than all other Filipino publications combined. La Opinion started about the first of 1926 by Senator Ramon Fernandez (combined with El Comercio) published in Spanish is the most recently established daily newspaper enterprise. It aspires to offer competition with Vanguardia of the Roces group in the field of Spanish readers. The most successful journalistic enterprise in the history of the Philippines from a financial point of view is Liwayway. Established some three years ago as a weekly periodical, by Ramon Roces, who is a son of Alejandro Roces, and who is a young man in his early twenties, Liwayway has established a circulation of over sixty thousand weekly, the greatest ever attained by any publication in the archipelago, so far as is recorded. Liwayway in the short space of three years acquired its own building, an up-to-date plant with four Miehle presses, modern folding machines, linotypes, automatic cutters, trimmers, etc., all of which have been paid for out of profits of the business. Its success is undoubtedly due to the fact that it gives the Tagalog reading public what it likes to read. It is limited strictly to short stories in Tagalog and does not purport to be a newspaper. It is worthy of note that the politicians and those who furnish the funds to back them up, have apparently learned that a newspaper, as a party organ, is an expensive proposition to maintain and is of doubtful value to the party as a medium of propaganda. This is evidenced by the fact that party organs, as such, have entirely disappeared. Including the Philippine Collegian published by the students of the University of the Philippines Manila now has twelve daily papers. The combined circulation of all probably does not exceed 70,000. The combined circulation of all papers of every class in the Islands probably does not exceed 300,000. Estimating that each copy is read by 5 persons it may be assumed that 1,500,000 or approximately 10% of the population read a

Page  48 48 History of the Philippine Press publication of some sort while the greater percentage of the people must still get their news of the great round world by word of mouth. Newspaper publishing will undoubtedly be one of the largest business fields in this country. With the spread of education and the English language among the people, the circulation of newspapers should increase rapidly. Twenty. eight years of American occupation here has greatly accela, rated the progress of democratic ideals and principles, and it will not belong before Filipino public opinion will be great. ly invigorated by the increase of newspaper reading and cir. culation among the general masses of the population. Among the Filipinos who are now active in the newspaper business, who are destined to go far in the development of modern journalism in the islands and who have not been previously mentioned in this article are Pedro Aunario, Carlos Ronquillo, Carlos P. Romulo, Manuel V. Villa-Real, Alejandro Roces, Jr., Cipriano Cid, Bernardo P. Garcia, Modesto Farolan, Antonio H. Escoda and Urbano J. Velasco.

Page  49 Philippine Revolutionary Press 1898-1899 By EPIFANIO DE LOS SANTOS Director of The Philippine Library (Being a translation of excerpts from a manuscript written in 1922 on the PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY PRESS) So desirous was Aguinaldo to receive the support of the "sensible public opinion" of the country, that one of his first official acts in Cavite Was his decree of July 4, 1898, establishing the official newspaper El Heraldo de la Revolucion Filipina (Herald of the Philippine Revolution)-The name was afterwards successively changed for those of Heraldo Filipino (Philippine Herald),-Indice Oficial (Official Index), and Gaceta de Filipinas (Gazette of the Philippines). Article 8 of the decree mentioned provided: "So long as the abnormal war conditions exist, no publication of any kind shall be permitted without a government license." There is a curious story told in regard to the foundation of El Heraldo: Mabini, guardian of the Dictator's powers at First page of the first number of official organ of the revolutionary government. Reproduced from original copy in the Philippine Library. The paper is dated September 3, 1898.

Page  50 50 History of the Philippine Press the time of the birth of the first newspaper of the Revolution, La Libertad, (Liberty), on June 20th, fearful lest the youth of its editors might lead them into forbidden paths, ordered the suspension of the paper and the removal of the printing press, and that notice be served on its editors to collaborate in the publication of the future Heraldo. The press used by the La Libertad belonged to the Agustinian friars and was operated in the Orphan Asylum in Malabon, Rizal. Notwithstanding those orders, the late Clemente J. Zulueta (librarian, and afterwards official investigator of the archives of Madrid,Paris and Mexico, but at the time director of La Libertad) and his colleagues, invited by Luna, joined the staff of La Independencia, the first issue of which was published on September 3, 1898, twenty-six days before the first number of the El Heraldo de la Revolucion. Aguinaldo certainly was very liberal toward the press, and authorized various publications. The revolutionary press was a powerful aid to the Revolution, and it is astonishing what a large number of periodical prints saw the light of day during those turbulent times. We enumerate below some of them, of which we have either complete files or at least numbers showing the year of issue and place of publication. PERIODICALS AND REVUES LA LIBiERTAD, 1898, Malabon, Rizal. LA INDEPENDENCIA, Spanish edition, 1898, Manila; 1899, San Fernando, Pampanga; Bayambang, San Miguel de Camiling, Tarlac. LA INDEPENDENCIA, Tagalog edition, 1898, Manila. LA REPUBLICA FILIPINA, This paper had about the same experiences as La Independencia. LA MALASIA, Illustrated tri-monthly revue. EL CATOLICO FILIPINO, 1898, Manila. EL HERALDO DE LA REVOLUCION, 1898-1899, Malolos, Bulacan. PANLAGUIP TI EL HERALDO DE LA REVOLUCION, Spanish-Ilocano, 1898, Malolos, Bulacan. HERALDO FILIPINO, 1899, Malolos, Bulacan. INDICE OFICIAL, 1899, San Isidro, y Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija. GACETA DE FILIPINAS, 1899, Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija; Tarlac, Tarlac. ANG KAIBIGAN NANG BAYAN, Tri-weekly, 1898-99, Barasoain, Bulacan.

Page  51 History of the Philippine Press 51 COLUMNAS VOLANTES, Weekly, with supplements, 1899, Lipa, Batangas. BOLETIN DEL INSTITUTO RIZAL, Monthly revue, 1899-1900, Lipa, Batangas. LA REVOLUCION, 1898-1899, Jaro, Iloilo. LA FEDERACION, 1899, Kabatuan, Iloilo. PATRIA, 1899, Kabatuan, Iloilo. LA OPORTUNIDAD, 1899, Tagbilaran, Bohol. RIZAL, Semanary, 1899, Manila. It is also noteworthy how these news-carriers cropped up over such large areas of the Archipelago: In the Island of Luzon: in the provinces of Manila, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pangasinan and Batangas; in the Bisayan Islands: in the provinces of Iloilo and Bohol. One can not but observe that, notwithstanding the public favor accorded our present-day publications, and despite the lapse of more than two decades, many provinces and municipalities, in 1898 and 1899, had one or more newspapers or revues, have none today. To give an idea of the type of men who edited, or collaborated in the publication of those new historical sheets, we might cite a few names. For example, take the La Independencia, Spanish edition. It had on its editorial staff, for Director, Gen. Antonio Luna (Taga-ilog) Chief Editor, Salvador Vivencio del Rosario, ("X" and Juan Tagalo) Editor, Jose G. Abreu, (Kaibigan) Editor, Rafael Palma, (Hapon or Dapit Hapon) Editor, Fernando Maria Guerrero, (Fulvio Gil) Editor, Clemente J. Zulueta, (M. Kaun) Editor, Cecilio Apostol (Catulo) Editor, Mariano V. del Rosario, (Tito-Tato) Editor, Epifanio de los Santos, (C. Solon) Proof reader, Felipe G. Calderon (who drew up the Malolos Constitution). Some of the contributors to that paper, in the Philippines, were: Dr. Pardo de Tavera, the Guerreros (Leon, Manuel and Luis) and the poet, Jose Palma, and the private councellors of Aguinaldo, Messrs. Rianzares Bautista and Mabini, who converted the newspaper into a tribune; the present directress of the Instituto de Mujeres (Women's Institute), Rosa R. Sevilla, and Florentina Arellano, the latter now secretary of the Asociacion de Damas de Filipinas (Ladies' Association of the Philippines); abroad, those who wrote for La Independencia included chiefly members of the Filipino colonies of Madrid and Hongkong, the most pro

Page  52 52 History of the Philippine Press minent among whom were A. Regidor and Mariano Ponce, both now deceased. The eminent Prof. Blumentritt, of Austria, also collaborated. A few citations of names of prominent men, still today our contemporaries, will serve to gauge the calibre of the newspaper writers of that remote period. Among the list we find: Rafael Palma, who, with Speaker Osmefia and ExResident Commissioner de Veyra, was one of those that infused the revolutionary spirit into the El Nuevo Dia (The New Day) of Cebu, and was the first director of El Renacimiento (The Renaissance); Fernando Ma. Guerrero, who substituted the first named and whose example was an inspiration to many of our most brilliant newspapermen and editors, including Teodoro M. Kalaw, secretary of the Interior, Fidel Reyes, Director of the Bureau of Commerce and Industry, Arsenio Luz, Ex-director of el Ideal, Dr. Pacifico Victoriano, Director of the famed institution of learning, Liceo de Manila, the poet and publicist Claro M. Recto and the poets Balmori and Bernabe; the late Luis Improgo, who was the director of La Opinion; Francisco Varona, associate director of El Debate; and Buenaventura Rodriguez, director of some publication in Cebu. Recently Rosa R. Sevilla, a collaboratress of La Independencia, spoke in a florid style, of some, if not all, of the editors of that paper, in a speech that was as pleasing to hear as it is to read. Here are two paragraphs taken from it: " I have been asked to speak about that periodical (La Independencia), the Champion of patriotism....; of that paper, the joy of the public and the delight of its contributors who, like the good Don Quichotes and "bold knights" that they were, went their way, pen in hand, undoing wrongs, defending the lowly and weak and upbraiding and censuring the haughty and overbearing, with that masterly and ingenius style which was wont to bring tears and frowns, laughter and scorn; of that messenger of minstrels and bards who (like G. Solon), armed with a guitar, would besiege the fair lady of their dreams, or, with their pen would defend the rights of their helpless and sorrowful fatherland, in whose honor they would sing their patriotic and inspiring ballads; of that newspaper that represented the acme of journalism of its time, whose director was a generalisimo, a hero, and whose editors were young men of the highest intellectual attainments and the most popular of -that epoch-men of our past, many of them still of our present, the bulwark of our social structure, who, through their privileged intelect, have

Page  53 History of the Philippine Press 53 occupied, or still occupy, high and honorable positions in various activities. Those young men were not professional writers who labored for a stipend-they were geniuses, artisans, builders of national sentiment who chose the mass of the public for their material to mold it into a worthy race of heroes and patriots; they wrote for the joy of writing and the propagation of their patriotic ideals, through the channels of thought suggested to each by his individual temperament and literary tastes. One (like Manuel S. Guerrero) was a bomb, who, with the dynamic satire of his sarcastic words, would relegate to scorn and contempt the high dignitaries, be they whosoever they might, who in that.epoch were the staff and support of the anti-patriots; another was a Tito-Tato, who incited laughter and reflection by his smart and witty jokes; or perhaps it was a Fulvio Gil who, with the inspiration of a meridional dreamer, chanted of the beauty of our sugar-cane groves and our Maria Claras; or he was a Solon, who, in his elegant and pure idiom, exacted the grandeur of his native land, the beauty of its fair maidens and the valor of its heroes; perhaps it was a Catulo, who, by the warm glow of his free-flowing verse, evoked memories of a far-away loved one, or the shadow of a sad and weeping fatherland; or perchance it was a brave Palma, in whom a keen eye could perceive, even then so long ago, the silhouette of the astute and clever politician, with the mystery of a sphinx in his impenetrable and enigmatic laugh; or, mayhap, it was an Abreau, of pleasing and gallant speech, who enchanted his readers by his stories of a future impenitent bachelor, or, lastly, he might have been a Pepe Palma, with a soul of the finest texture and the tender heart of a child, as responsive and delicate as the cords of an Aeolian harp, singing sweet melodies, now to the virgen of his dreams, now to the beloved country of his birth; —and all of them, all of the galaxy of brilliant young men, directed and guided by a man of genius, by an eminent strategist, a soul of prompt and decisive action, by an Antonio Luna." The literary Renaissance of the revolutionary period is a land-mark that stands alone in the history of these Islands. What the North American poetess, M. N. Norton, wrote about the prose of one of the editors of La Independencia, might aptly be applied to a description of the writings of that epoch. She said: "They were writings imbued with the inspiration of youth, with that indefinite something of springtime fragance that will never return but to memory." La. Independencia was the La Solidaridad revived; Luna was fond of saying so. In fact three editors and collaborators

Page  54 54 History of the Philippine Press of this latter publication, the brothers Salvador and Mariano V. del Rosario, and Luna himself, used to belong to the editorial staff of the La Independencia. Luna thought to change the name of La Solidaridad to that of La Patria, but, feeling resentment at the provost of Manila, who refused him a license to publish La Patria, he suddenly changed the title to La Independencia, and the paper was purportedly issued from the orphanage of Malabon,-beyond the American jurisdiction,-although, in reality, it was composed, set up and printed in Manila. Turns were taken by the different editors in getting out the paper day by day; so each of them was, at the same time, when it was his turn, editor, director, reporter, storywriter and proof-reader. The characteristic, individual style of the editors was manifest in purely literary stories and writings, which were signed by an assumed name; but the editorials were anonymous and their style was neither "attic nor asiatic, but doric," as the critic Arnold would say, and they were replete with "big words" about current topics, and were couched in dogmatic language of scant pith and but little import,-not much different from the editorials of the London Times, according to the critic above cited. In time the La Independencia came to be "the sole organ of information of the Filipino people." The words quoted are those of the decree issued by the Director General of Communications, who, on September 30, 1899, ordered that the distribution of La Independencia be expedited, and that, when no mail bag was available, the carriers should use, instead, banana leaves or other impermeable coverings to protect the mail. Later, Aguinaldo himself, in a letter under his own signature, dated in Rosales, on November 11, 1899, directed the removal of La Independencia, to Nueva Vizcaya. The letter spoke of the paper as having been "a valiant defender of our cause," and stated that the government would bear all the expenses incurred by its publication. And, indeed, it was so much of a "defender of our cause," that Mabini finally complained that its director, Rafael Palma, softened the sententious acrimony of some of his caustic censures against Rianzares, the Congress, the Malolos constitution, etc. The well-intended provisions of Aguinaldo were never carried out, because, on the 24th of that same month of November, 1899, the La Independencia issued its last number,.in San Miguel de Camiling, Tarlac.

Page  55 History of the Philippine Press 55 When the revolutionary press of the Islands ceased to exist, repressed by force, its mission was delegated to general decrees, manifestos and hand bills issued by the military encampments, and, particularly, by the flood of periodical pamphlets or sheets with which the Hongkong committee fairly inundated the Islands. They bore such titles as "Our Heroes (letters, and news items)," News from Our Agents (or "from Our Agents in America"), and Letters from America. There also sprang into being a multitude of proclamations, pamphlets and tracts, among which the periodical sheet "Recortes y Traducciones de la Prensa Extranjera" (Clippings and Translations from the Foreign Press) deserves special mention. There is no more instructive reading than the periodical, revolutionary literature of the period between 1898 and 1901.

Page  56 List of Philippine Publications As Registered by Bureau of Posts Through courtesy of Jose Topacio, director of posts, a list of publications of the Philippine Islands entitled to second class mailing privilege on Feb. 1, 1927 has been compiled. The following list indicates name, address, language, frequency of issue, owner and date of entry of publications, as registered at the bureau of posts: MANILA 1. American Chamber of Commerce Journal, (14 T. Pinpin); English; Monthly; American Chamber of Commerce; 5-25-1921 2. Amigo del Pueblo, (1916 Oroquieta); English-Ilocano-Tagalog; Monthly; Society of the Divine Word; 3-9-1925 3. Ateneo Monthly, (Ateneo de Manila); English; Monthly, Ateneo de Manila; 9-26-1922 4. Babalang Kristiano, (444 Taft Ave.); Tagalog; Monthly; Phil. Chr. Institute; 1-3-1926 5. Bagong Iwag, (P. 0. Box 2787); Visayan; Monthly; Gabriel F. Fabella; 9-30-1926 6. Boletin de la Iglesia de S. Ignacio, (P. 0. Box 154); Spanish; Monthly; Ateneo de Manila; 2-3-1923 7. 11oletin Eclesiastico de Filipinas, (P. 0. Box 147); Spanish; Monthly; Sto. Tomas University; 6-4-1923 8. Boletin Oficial de la Camara de Comercio Espafiola de Filipinas, (Casa de Espafia,Taft Ave.); Spanish; Monthly; Camara de Comercio Espafiola de Filipinas; 9-28-1916 9. Bulalakaw, (735 Calero St.); Tagalog; Every 10 days; Leoncio Gabriel; 12-12-1925 10. Cable Tow, (P. 0. Box 990); English-Spanish; Monthly; Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippine Islands; 6-5-1923 11. China Light Review, (105' Meisic St.); English-Spanish and Chinese; Monthly; Fusong Hope; 9-16-1926 12. Chinese Commercial News, (P. 0. Box 452); Chinese; Daily; Chinese Commercial News Inc.; 4-5-1920 13. Cultura Social, (146 Arzobispo St.); Spanish; Monthly; Ateneo de Manila; 5-22-1913 14. Dalaga, (P. 0. Box 14); Tagalog; Every 10 days; Dr. Gabino A. Pobre; 8-24-1923 15. Damag Ti Pagarian, (P. 0. Box 813); Ilocano; Monthly; Philippine Pub. House of Seventh-day Adventists; 3-11-1919 16. Debate, (2 De la Rama Bldg.); Spanish; Daily; El Debate Inc.; 4-23-1913 17. Defensa, La, (P. 0. Box 289); Spanish; Daily; Asociacion de la Prensa Catolica Inc.; 1-6-1920 18. Diario de Sesiones de la Legislatura Filipina; English-Spanish; Daily; Philippine Legislature; 8-30-1926 19. Diocesan Chronicle, (567 Isaac Peral); English; Monthly; Episcopal Bishop of the Philippine Islands; 8-1-1921 20. Ecos, (San Beda College); Spanish; Monthly; San Beda College; 5-11-1916

Page  57 History of the Philippine Press 57 21. Excelsior, (442 A. Mabini); Spanish; Every 10 days; Luis Sors; 2-16-1909 22. Far Eastern Free Mason, (608 Masonic Temple); English-Spanish; Monthly; Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free Masonry; 11-14-1916 23. Filipinas, Ang, (La Defensa Bldg.); Tagalog; Monthly; P. Dr. Simeon Gutierrez; 6-21-26 24. Filipino, El, (1885 Mangahan St.); English-Spanish-Ilocano; Fortnightly; The Filipino Publishers; 9-23-1925 25. Filipino Nurse, The (Philippine General Hospital); English; Quarterly; Philippine General Hospital; 10-25-1926 26. Filipino Teacher, The (Box 1487); English; Monthly; The Philippine Oriental Pub. Company; 7-18,1924 27. Fookien Times, The (P. 0. Box 747); Chinese; Daily; The Fookien Times Co.; 7-26-1926 28. Green and White, (De la Salle College); English; Monthly; De la Salle College; 8-19-1924 29. Heraldo Maritimo, (9 Plaza Moraga); Spanish; Monthly; Gran Asociacion Naval; 10-8-1925 30. Hojas de Catecismo, (Uni. of Sto. Tomas); Spanish; Weekly; Sto. Tomas University; 10-25-1923 31. Independent, The (1098 R. Hidalgo St.); English-Spanish; Weekly; Vicente R. Alindada; 4-16-1915 32. Isagani, (466 Nueva St.); Spanish; Monthly; Modesto Reyes; 9-22-1925 33. Journal of the Phil. Is. Med. Ass'n, (547 Herran St.); English; Monthly; Philippine Islands Medical Association; 6-25-1921 34. Khaki and Red, (Phil. Constabulary); English; Monthly; Phil. Constabulary; 11-9-1925 35. Kong Li Po, (430 Salazar St.); Chinese; Daily; Kong Li Po Pub. Co., Ltd.; 8-15-1912 36. Liwayway, (P. 0. Box 775); Tagalog; Weekly; Ramon Roces; 7-27-1923 37. Lucha, La (P. 0. Box 996); Spanish-Ilocano; Weekly; S. A. Fonacier; 6-9-1909 38. Mabuting Balita, (442 Ave. Rizal); Tagalog; Monthly; Methodist Publishing House; 9-21-1912 39. Manila Daily Bulletin, (Manila); English; Daily; Bulletin Publishing Co.; 6-22-1904 40. Man Ho Po, (227 Espeleta St.); Chinese; Daily; Chinese Patriotic Association; 1-1-1915 41. Manila Times, The (P. 0. Box 15'2); English; Daily; The Times Company; 8-31-1899 42. Mercantil, El (P. 0. Box 606); Spanish; Daily; Jose Ma. Romero Salas; 4-7-1902 43. Message, The (906 Rizal Ave.); English; Quarterly; Phil. Nurses' Association; 10-24-1925 44. Mizpa, (239 Luna St., Pasay); Tagalog; Fortnightly; Central Southern Luzon Conference of Seventh-day Adventists; 6-21 -1917 45. Monthly Bulletin of the Phil. Health Service, (Bureau of Health); English-Spanish; Monthly; Bureau of Health; 6-14-1925 46. Official Gazette, (Bureau of Printing); English-Spanish; three times a week; Gov't Pub.; 12-26-1905 47. Opinion, La-El Comercio, (75 J. Luna); Spanish; Daily; Rosauro Almario; 1-6-1926 48. Pagkakaisa, (P. 0. Box 1211); Tagalog; Daily; Sampaguita Inc.; 1-23-1922

Page  58 58 History of the Philippine Press 49. Paraluman, Ang (Congregacion Mariana, 166 Cabildo); Tagalog; Weekly; Congregacion Mariana, Ateneo de Manila; 12-17-1908 50. Phil. Agricultural Review; English-Spanish; Quarterly; Bureau Agriculture; 2-19-1908 51. Philippine Christian, (444 Taft Ave.); English; Quarterly; Phil. Christian Institute; 3-6-1907 52. Phil. Collegian, The (Univ. of the Phil.); English; Weekly; University of the Philippines; 8-25'-1922 53. Phil. Education, The (Escolta St.); English; Monthly; Verne E. Miller; 7-18-190,6 54. Phil. Is. Sunday School Journal; English; Bi-monthly; Phil. Is. Sunday School Union; 12-26-1922 55. Phil. Journal of Education, (P. 0. Box 1576); English; Monthly; Phil. Journal of Edu. Inc.; 11-16-1918 56. Phil. Journal of Science, (Bu. of Science); English; Monthly; Bu. of Science; 1-1-1906 57. Philippine Observer, (442 Rizal Ave.); English; Monthly; Methodist Mission; 6-24-1911 58. Philippine Presbyterian, (P. 0. Box 437); English; Quarterly; Presbyterian Mission; 4-9-1910 59. Philippines Free Press, (P. O. Box 457); English-Spanish; Weekly; R. McCulloch Dick; 8-29-1908 60. Philippines Herald, (P. 0. Box 601); English; Daily; The People's Press Inc.; 10-15-1920 61. Plain Dealer, The (36 Escolta St.); English-Spanish; Weekly; Vicente M. Hilario; 10-5-1926 62. Post-Telegraph Review, (219 San Andres, Manila); English; Monthly; Jose Topacio; 10-12-1921 63. Revista de la Camara de Comercio de las Islas Filipinas, (12 Escolta); Spanish; Monthly; Camara de Comercio de las Islas Filipinas; 5-24-1915 64. Revista Filipina de Medicina y Farmacia, (P. 0. Box 1273); Spanish; Monthly; Colegio Med-Farmaceutico; 9-2-1910 65. Sampaguita, (P. O. Box 2266); English-Tagalog; Weekly; Sampaguita Inc.; 10-5-1925 66. School and Field, (239 Luna, Pasay); English; 10 x yearly; Oliver F. Sevrens; 11-27-1926 67. School News Review, (Bu. of Education); English; Fortnightly; Bureau of Education; 7-15-1922 68. Student, The (Univ. of Manila); English; Fortnightly; Univ. of Manila; 9-28-1925 69. Sugar Central and Planters News, (P. 0. Box 514); EnglishSpanish; Monthly; The Sugar News Company; 6-19-1920 70. Talandaan Sang Panag-on, (239 Luna, Pasay); Visayan; Monthly; Phil. Pub. House; 6-26-1919 71. Taliba, (P. O. Box 775); Tagalog; Daily; La Vanguardia Inc.; 2-19-1910 72. Tanglaw, Ang (P. O. Box 813); Tagalog; Monthly; Phil. Pub. House; 8-6-1912 73. Trabajo, (110 Plaza Goiti); Spanish-Tagalog; Monthly; Joaquin Balmori; 3-12-1921 74. Tribune, The (P. 0. Box 775'); English; Daily; The Tribune Pub. Co.; 4-25-1925 75. Union Voice, The (P. 0. Box 841); English; Monthly; Union Schools; 10-30-1923 76. Unitas, (Univ. of Sto. Tomas); Spanish; Monthly; Univ. of Sto. Tomas; 9-15-1922

Page  59 History of the Philippine Press 59 77. University Alumnus, (Univ. of the Phil.); English; Quarterly; Univ. of the Philippines; 2-5-1926 78. Vanguardia, La (P. 0. Box 775); Spanish; Daily; La Vanguardia Inc.; 2-19-1910 79. Way of Peace (444 Taft Ave.) English-Tagalog; Weekly; Mission Press; 3-24-1908 80. Woman's Home Journal, (803 Taft Ave.); English; Monthly; Woman's Home Journal Inc.; 8-30-1926 ' 81. Woman's Outlook, (P. 0. Box 1357); English-Spanish; Monthly; Woman's Outlook Inc.; 11-21-1922 IN THE PROVINCES Baguio, Mountain Province 82. Little Apostle of the Mt. Province; English; Monthly; Catholic School Press; 2-5-1925 83. La Visita; Ilocano Weekly; Catholic School Press; 7-1-1925 Cagayan, Misamis 84. Ang Dalan; Visayan; Fortnightly; Julia S. de Yapsutco; 4-16 -1924 85'. Ang Katarungan; Spanish-Visayan; Weekly; Vicente Neri S. Jose; 3-27-1917 86. Public Opinion; English-Visayan; Weekly; Isidro Vamenta; 4-4 -1923 Calbayog, Samar 87. Eco de Samar y Leyte; Spanish-Visayan; Weekly; Obispado de Calbayog; 11-17-1911 Calivo, Capiz 88. The Announcer; Visayan-English; Weekly; Manuel O. Peralta; 11-5-1925 Capiz, Capiz 89. Pinoy; English-Spanish-Visayan; Weekly; Pinoy Pub. Co.; 12-27 -1926 Candaba, Pampanga 90. Siwala ning Balen; Pampango; Weekly; Juan D. Ocampo; 3-13 -1926 Cebu, Cebu 91. The Advertiser; English-Visayan; Daily; Paul L. Stangl; 10-25 -1922 92. Bagong Kusog, Visayan; Weekly; Felipe Tabasa; 10-26-1921 93. Boletin Catolico; English-Spanish-Visayan; Weekly; Jose Ma. Cuenco; 6-28-1915 94. Boletin Maritimo; Spanish; Monthly; Union Naval Inc.; 8-11-1925 95. Estudiantina; English-Spanish; Monthly; Student Body, San Carlos College; 1-7-1925 96. The Freeman; English-Visayan; Weekly; Freeman Pub. Co.; 5-27-1919 97. The Guardian; English-Visayan; Weekly; Cayetano M. Villamor; 5-19-1926 98. Ang Kahayag; English-Visayan; Monthly; Chas. E. Rath; 10 -27-1922 99. El Precursor; Spanish-Visayan; 2 x a week; M. Jesus Cuenco; 8-17-1908 100. La Revolucion; Spanish-Visayan; Daily; Filemon Sotto; 7-7-1915 101. Ang Sulo; Visayan; Weekly; Jose A. Villamor; 9-12-1924 Dagupan, Pangasinan 102. Ideales; Spanish; Fortnightly; Domingo Tamondong; 10-6-1920 103. Tonung; Pangasinan; Weekly; Remigio B. Casilang; 2-9-192'

Page  60 60 History of the Philippine Press Dumaguste, Oriental Negros 104. Kusug sa Katarungan; Spanish-English-Visayan; Weekly; Sergio G. Sinco; 4-29-1926 105. The Sillimanian; English; Fortnightly; Silliman Institute; 5-27 -1920 106. Sillimanian Truth; English; Quarterly; Silliman Institute; 7-13 -1926 107. Tingog sa Lungsod; Spanish-English-Visayan; Weekly; Isidoro A. Villanueva; 10-26-1926 Iloilo, Iloilo 108. The Ambassador; English; Monthly; Catholic Truth Society of Jaro, Iloilo; 9-16-1926 109. El Adalid; Spanish; Daily; Valentin Jordan; 7-15-1907 110. El Centinela; Spanish; Daily; Luis Guzman y Rivas; 6-13-1918 111. Makinaugalingon; Visayan; 2 x a week; Rosendo Mejica; 1-13 -1914 112. Manugbantala, Ang; Visayan; Monthly; Phil. Baptist Mission; 7-7-1905 113. Palahayagan; Visayan; Daily; Castor G. Custodio; 11-13-1923 114. Pearl of the Orient; English; Quarterly; Phil. Baptist Mission; 2-26-1906 115. Prensa Libre; Spanish; Daily; De la Caranieta; 10-27-1925 116. El Pueblo; Spanish; Daily; C. Lozano; 4-12-1918 117. La Tribuna; Spanish; Daily; Patricio Zaldariaga; 9-13-1923 Jaro, Iloilo 118. Cabuhi Sang Banua; English-Visayan; Monthly; Gabriel M. Reyes; 7-10-1917 Laoag, Ilocos Norte 119. Ti Bagnos; English-Ilocano; Weekly; Jose Fonacier; 4-9-1917 120. Bituen ti Amianan; English-Ilocano; Weekly; Isaias Q. Edralin; 2-27-1922 Legaspi, Albay 121. Heraldo Bicol; English-Spanish-Bicol; 2xa week; Bienvenido de la Paz; 2-4-1919 Los Bafios College, Laguna 122. Phil. Agriculturist; English; Monthly; College of Agriculture; 4-27-1914 Lucena, Tayabas 123. Vox Populi; English-Spanish; Weekly; Emilio M. Ynciong; 8-31 -1925 Malitbog, Leyte 124. Ang Lungsuranon; Visayan; Weekly; Ramon Vai6; 7-17-1924 Manaoag, Pangasinan 125. Lioaoa; Pangasinan-Ilocano; Weekly; Mariano M. Armas; 3-25 -1915 Naga, Camarines Sur 126. The Bicol News; English-Spanish-Bicol; 2xa week; Francisco Vera Reyes; 11-2-1926 Oroquieta, Misamis 127. Bagong Magbalantay; Visayan; Every 10 days; Juan P. Kijano; 6-11-1924 San Fernando, La Union 128. Daguiti Maimbag a Damag; English-Ilocano; Weekly; Evangel Press; 12-27-1905 129. Ilocano Pagadalan a Maipaay ti Escuela Dominical; Ilocano; Quarterly; Evangel Press; 1-23-1922

Page  61 History of the Philippine Press 61 130. La Union Teacher; English; Monthly; S. Fernando, La Union Teacher's Association; 10-23-1925 San Fernando, Pampanga 131. Ing Catala; Pampango; Weekly; Antonio Abad Santos; 8-8-1917 132. Daclat Ning Catutuan; Pampango; Weekly; Methodist Episcopal Church; 10-14-1926 133. Ing Katipunan; Pampango; Weekly; Pedro Sison; 8-29-22. 134. Ing Katiwala; Pampango; Weekly; Justino A. David; 2-11-1925 San Pablo, Laguna 135. Silangan; Tagalog; Weekly; Tomas Carunungan; 9-25-1926 Silay, Occidental Negros 136. Civismo; Spanish-Visayan; 3xa week; Aurelio L. Locsin; 6-21 -1924 137. El Nacional; Spanish-Visayan; Weekly; Manuel B. Gamboa; 9-24 -1925... Tacloban, Leyte 138. El Obrero; English-Spanish-Visayan; Weekly; Ruperto Kapunan; 1-19-1924 Tagbilaran, Bohol 139. Ang Kagawasan; Visayan; Weekly; Ang Kagawasan Press; 9-11 -1926 140. Ang Yutang Natawhan; Visayan; Weekly; Ang Yutang Natawhan Press; 8-31-1925 Tuguegarao, Cagayan 141. Sinceridad; English-Spanish-Ibanag; Weekly; Santiago O. Perez; 6-16-1926 142. Verdad; Spanish-Ibanag; Weekly; Adrian Guzman; 10-8-1914 Vigan, Ilocos Sur 143. El Mensajero; Spanish-Ilocano; Weekly; Fidel Reyes; 10-18-1923 Zamboanga 144. Hojas Catolicas; Spanish; Fortnightly; Rev. P. Antonio P. Arnalot; 10-25-1923 145. El Fenix; Spanish; 2xa week; Jose Erquiaga; 10-17-1919 146. El Imparcial; Spanish; 2 x a week; Agustin L. Alvarez; 5-12-1924 147. Mindanao Herald; English; Weekly; J. A. Hackett; 11-25'-1903 148. La Voz del Pueblo; Spanish; two times a week; B. Concepcion; 5-14-1915

Page  62 I

Page  [unnumbered] I

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] Aw~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ is~~~~~~~1

Page  [unnumbered] IUNIVERSIT O MICHIA I3 9015 01377 6334 / I I -..- 10'. THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN I I 4, ~.4 ' 1, I98.9 C. DATE DUE iI. 0 I I.1 -.4

Page  [unnumbered] 7!, I A, I. iv, L