11. See, for example, Anne de Villeneuve, "Etude sur une coutume somali: Les femmes cousues," Journal de la société des africanistes 7: 1(1937), 15-32; and Fran Hosken, The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females (Lexington, MA: Women's International Network News, 1982), 201. For studies of the way the Orient and Africa come to represent absence, see the classic study by Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Random House, 1979), and Christopher Miller, Blank Darkness: Africanist Discourse in French (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985).

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