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    53. On the history and cultural work of images in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated, see Joshua Brown, Beyond the Lines. Brown dubs Leslie’s “the publication that set the pattern for nineteenth-century illustrated journalism” and argues that Leslie’s “did not simply reflect in its pages the crises of the Gilded Age; rather, its varying representations enacted those crises” (4–5). For Brown, such “images are not the antithesis of print culture but an intrinsic part of its nineteenth-century practice” (5). To locate Frank Leslie’s place in the booming periodical marketplace of its day, see the classic multivolume study by Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines.

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