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    44. For discussion of the relatively flexible approaches to language instruction employed at Hampton up until 1888, when a federal crackdown began forcing English-only methods at all funded schools, see Ruth Spack, “English, Pedagogy, and Ideology.” Spack reports that, in the early years of Indian enrollment there, “Hampton allowed students to use their own languages before breakfast and after supper during the week and all day on Sunday.” Outside those time frames, the school used a reward system more than punishment to encourage English speaking. In addition, Spack presents examples of individual teachers’ using Indian native speakers to translate in the classroom rather than trying to present all instruction in English (7).


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