Official proceedings of the annual meeting: 1889
National Conference on Social Welfare., National Conference of Social Work (U.S.), National Conference of Charities and Correction (U.S.), Conference of Charities and Correction (U.S.), Conference of Charities (U.S.), Conference of Boards of Public Charities (U.S.), American Social Science Association.

Page  [unnumbered] BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD TARGET Graduate Library University of Michigan Preservation Office ACH8650 010: la 08035377//r543 035/1:: a (RLIN)MIUG82-S8581 035/2:: a (CaOTULAS)160674766 040:: c MUL I d OCL d NIC d CStRLIN I d MiU 050/1:0: a HV88 Ib.A3 110:2: a National Conference on Social Welfare. 245:14: 1 a The social welfare forum. I b Official proceedings [of the] annual meeting. 247/1:00: 1 a Proceedings. I b Selected papers [of the] annual meeting I g (varies slightly) I f 1874-1948 260:: | a New York [etc.]. 300/1:: a v. b ill., ports. |c 22-24 cm. 362/1:0: a lst- 1874 -500/1:: | a Volume for 1874 (originally published in the Journal of social science, no. 6) was issued without title by the American Social Science Association; reprinted in 1885 under title Proceedings of the first Conference of Charities and Correction. 515/2:: | a Volumes for 1875-1881 are regarded as extra numbers of the Journal of social science, though only the issue for 1875 was so designated on the title-page. 550/3:: | a Issued under earlier names of the Conference as follows: 1874, Conference of Boards of Public Charities; 1875-1879, Conference of Charities; 1880-1881, Conference of Charities and Correction; 1882-1916, National Conference of Charities and Correction; 1917-1956, National Conference of Social Work; 1957-, National Conference on Social Welfare. 650/1: 0: a Public welfare I z United States I x Congresses. 650/2: 0: | a Charities I z United States | x Congresses. 710/1:22: a Amrican Social Science Association Scanned For: Preservation Division University of Michigan Libraries Date Scanning Began: Camera Operator:

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Page  I PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTION AT THE SIXTEENTH ANNUAL SESSION HELD IN SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., SEPTEMBER II-IS, 1889. EDITED BY ISABEL C. BARROWS Official Reporter of the Conference. BOSTON PRESS OF GEO. H. ELLIS, 14I FRANKLIN STREET I889

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Page  III PREFACE. THE Sixteenth Annual Session of the National Conference of Charities and Correction was held at San Francisco, California, in September, I889. The attendance of delegates was not large, but the session was interesting throughout. The accompanying volume contains the Papers which were accepted, and the Minutes and Discussions in full; but we regret the absence of the admirable Conference Sermon, by Rev. Dr. Stebbins, which could not be furnished for printing. Among the contents, attention may be specially called to the Reports, Papers, and discussions on the Organization of Charities in Cities, State Boards of Charity, an Ideal Prison System, Free Kindergartens, the Care of Dependent Children, Treatment of the Insane and Feeble-minded, and kindred subjects of great importance. The Reports from States are very full, and give more information about the charities of the whole country than can be found anywhere else. Copies of these Reports, in a separate pamphlet of 60 pages, can be had of the editor for 15 cents each; and copies of the Report on State Boards may also be had at 5 cents each. The whole volume may be obtained of the editor, Mrs. Isabel C. Barrows, 141 Franklin Street, Boston. Price in cloth, $I.50, with discounts as follows: ten copies and less than fifty, ten per cent.; fifty copies and less than two hundred, twenty-five per cent.; two hundred copies or over, forty-five per cent. The Proceedings of former years may also be obtained by application to Mrs. Barrows, except for the years 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, I880, and I886, which are out of print. The Conference was organized at New York, in May, 1874, and has met every year since, but in different cities and dif

Page  IV iv PREFACE ferent months, from May to October. The Seventeenth Session will open at Baltimore, May 14, I890, and will continue through a week, as usual. In preparation for this session, the Committee on Reports from States have issued a circular to the Corresponding Secretaries, which may be found on page 346, and to which the attention of all who read this volume is directed. The President of the Conference for the year is Dr. A. G. Byers, of Columbus, Ohio. The names of the other officers and committees will be found on pages ix-xi. BOSTON, December, I889.

Page  V TABLE OF CONTENTS. PREFACE. TABLE OF CONTENTS. OFFICERS OF THE CONFERENCE FOR 1890. STANDING COMMITTEES FOR 1890. PAGE OPENING SESSION: Address of Hon. R. W. Waterman,............ ix " Hon. E. B. Pond,.............. x t" lion. George C. Perkins,........... x " Rev. Fred. H. Wines,............. xii Address of Rev. Oscar C. McCulloch,.......... xv " President Gillespie,.............xviii I. THE CARE AND DISPOSAL OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN: State Care of Destitute Infants, by H. S. Shurtleff,...... I The Michigan Law for the Protection of Ill-treated Children, by C. D. Randall,................ 5 Discussion on Dependent Children,.......... 213 II. THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES: Report of the Standing Committee, by Rev. Oscar McCulloch,.. I Scientific Charity, by Mrs. Glendower Evarfs,......... 24 Our Charities and our Churches, by A. G. Warner, Ph.D.,.. 36 Discussion on Organization of Charities,...... 24.. III. THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE: Report of the Committee, by Dr. A. G. Byers,......... 42 The Personnel of Prison Management. Letter of William H. Mills, 50 Prison Regulation. Letter of Mrs. J. S. Sperry,.5..... 55 Discussion on Prison System for a State.......... 301 IV. HOSPITALS AND INFIRMARIES: The Other Infectious Disease: A Plea for a New Hospital, by C. Irving Fisher, M.D.,............... 57 Discussion on Hospitals and Infirmaries,.......... 229

Page  VI vi CONTENTS V. THE INSANE: THEIR TREATMENT, COMMITMENT, AND DETENTION: The State in the Care of its Insane, by W. W. Godding, M.D.,.. State Legislation for the Insane. A Report from the Committee on Commitment and Detention, by Stephen Smith, M.D., and F. B. Sanborn,......... Discussion on the Insane,........ VI. FEEBLE-MINDED AND IDIOTIC PERSONS: THEIR TRAINING: Care of Idiotic and Feeble-minded Children, by Henry Dechert, Public Aid for the Feeble-minded, by Mrs. George Brown... Discussion on Care of Idiotic and Feeble-minded Children. VII. STATE CHARITIES: Report of the Committee on State Boards of Charities, by H. Hastings Hart,......... Boards of State Charities, by A. G. Byers, M.D.,.. Discussion on State Charities,...... VIII. REFORMATORIES FOR MEN: PAGE 63. 78 277 83 86 318 89 99 2I9 Report of the Committee, by Gardiner Tufts,......... 103 Discussion on Reformatories,............. 307 IX. REPORTS FROM STATES:............. 117-185 Report from Alabama,.............. 17 " " Arkansas,................. 8 " " California,............... I19 " (" Colorado,.............. 123 Report from Connecticut,................ 23 " " Dakota,............... 124 " " Delaware,.............. 124 " " Florida,........... 1.24 "." Georgia,............ 125... Illinois,................ I25 " " Indiana,................ I30 " " Iowa,................. 133 4' " Kansas,.............. 133 4' ".Kentucky,.............. I34 " " Louisiana,.............. 135 " " Maine.................. 135 " "( Maryland,.............. I35 " " Massachusetts,............... 137 " " Michigan,............... 142 'L ( Minnesota,............... 147 " " Mississippi................ 152 ". " Missouri,............ 152 " " Nebraska,.............. 1.52 " " Nevada,............ I52 " " New Hampshire,.........152

Page  VII CONTENTS vii PAGE: Report from New Jersey,................. I56." " New York,............. 157 " " North Carolina,............ 157 " " North Dakota,............... I57 " " Ohio,................. 58... Oregon,................. 159 " " Pennsylvania,............ 66 " " Rhode Island,............ I69 " ". South Carolina,.......... 169 " " South Dakota,............. 69 " Tennessee,............. I170 " " Texas,................~ 170 " " Vermont,.............. I7Z " " Virginia,........... 173 " " West Virginia,.............. 174 " " Wisconsin,........... 175 Summary of Reports from States,.............. I80 X. FREE KINDERGARTENS: Practical Results of Ten Years' Work, by Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper,. 186 Kindergarten Culture, by Mrs. C. W. Dohrmann,...... I94 XI. POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES: Employment in Poorhouses, by A. O. Wright,........ 97 The Michigan Poor in Almshouses, by Hal. C. Wyman, M.D.,. 203 XII. MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS:.... First Session, Wednesday, Sept. II, 1889,... Second Session, Thursday Morning, Sept. 12, 889,.. Third Session, Thursday Night, Sept. 12, I889, Fourth Session, Friday Morning, Sept. 13, 889,. Fifth Session, Friday Night, Sept. 13, 1889... Sixth Session, Saturday Morning, Sept. I4, I889, Seventh Session, Saturday Night, Sept. 14, 1889, Eighth Session, Sunday Morning, Sept. 15, I889,. Ninth Session, Monday Morning, Sept. i6, I889,. Tenth Session, Monday Night, Sept. 16, 1889, Eleventh Session, Tuesday Afternoon, Sept. 17, I889,. Twelfth Session, Tuesday Night, Sept. 17, I889,. Thirteenth Session, Wednesday Morning, Sept. I8, 1889, Fourteenth Session, Wednesday Night, Sept. I8, 1889, TREASURER'S REPORT,........ CIRCULAR LETTER TO STATE SECRETARIES,... LIST OF DELEGATES,....... LIST OF OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES FOR 1889.... OFFICERS OF STATE BOARDS OF THE UNITED STATES, INDEX OF SPEAKERS AND WRITERS,..... INDEX OF SUBJECTS,.......... 210-34I.. 210.... 211....224.... 229... 234... 247.... 255.... 263....263 2.. 77,....287.... 300. 306.....312.. 342.. 346.. 349.... 352.... 356.*.. 359.. 360

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Page  IX OFFICERS OF THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTION, FOR 1890. DR. A. G. BYERS, Columbus, Ohio. 'Ficertetento. REV. OSCAR C. McCULLOCH, Indianapolis, Ind. JOHN GLENN, Baltimore, Md. REV. M. McG. DANA, D.I., Lowell, Mass. OSCAR CRAIG, Rochester, N.Y. W. T. O'REILLY, M.D., Toronto, Canada. Executibe Committee. DR. A. G. BYERS, Columbus, Ohio.. RT. REV. GEORGE D. GILLESPIE, Grand Rapids, Mich, ANDREW E. ELMORE, Fort Howard, Wis. PHILIP C. GARRETT, Philadelphia, Penn. DR. CHARLES S. HOYT, Albany, N.Y. Ereaszurer. F. B. SANBORN, Concord, Mass. ecrtetariEs. ALEXANDER JOHNSON, Indianapolis, Ind. CHARLES LEE SMITH, PH.D., Baltimore, Md. LUCIUS C. STORRS, Lansing, Mich. MRs. JOSEPH S. SPEAR, JR., San Francisco, Cal. ouncil (of thle cx-resibents). GEORGE S. ROBINSON, Illinois. PHILIP C. GARRETT, Pennsylvania. ROELIFF BRINKERHOFF, Ohio. W. P. LETCHWORTH, New York. F. B. SANBORN, Massachusetts. WM. HOWARD NEFF, Ohio. ANDREW E. ELMORE, Wisconsin. H. H. GILES, Wisconsin. FRED H. WINES, Illinois. DR. CHARLES S. HOYT, New York. RT. REV. GEORGE D. GILLESPIE, Michigan. (ffirial l3rporter antu Elitor. MRS. ISABEL C. BARROWS, Boston, Mass.

Page  X STANDING COMMITTEES. O~n 3eportt from States. Lucius C. Storrs,..... Lansing, Mich. HH. H art,...... St. Paul, Minn. A. O. Wright,.......... Madison, Wis. Fred. H. Wines,. Cadwalader Biddle, H. S. Shurtleff, W. W. Chapin, H. H. Giles, William P. Letchworth C. D. Rindall,.. Miss El zabeth P. Puti Galen A, Merrill,. Miss Elten H. Bailey, N. S. Rosenau,. Miss Zilpha D. Smith, Robert W. De Forest, Amos G. Warner, Ph.] James W. Walk, M.D. Charles J. Bonaparte, On State Boarbs of (taritics... ingfield. 11. John G. Doren,. Philadelphia, Pa. John R. Elder,... Boston, Mass. Rev. Myron W. Reed,. Providence, R.I. John Morris, M.D.,.... Madison, Wis. Chancellor Hartson,. On tlbepecnet itlirent.,... Buffalo, N.Y. Mrs. E. B. Fairbanks,. Coldwater, Mich. David Heap, ham,. Boston, Mass. Mrs. J. E. Work,. Owatonna, Mich. J. A. Hathaway,... Boston, Mass. Mrs. V. T. Smith, dn (ttlaritg frganifation.. Buffalo, N.Y. Mrs. A. Jacobs,... Boston, Mass. F. M. Furgason,.. New York. E. 0. Randall, D.,.. Lincoln, Neb. George E. Holt,..,.. Philadelphia, Pa. J. M. Whitehead,.. Baltimore, Md. Charles A. Murdock,. Dayton, Ohio. Indianapolis, Ind.. Denver, Col.. Baltimore, Md.... Napa, Cal. Milwaukee, Wis. San Francisco, Cal.. Mishanaka, Ind.. Marietta, Ohio.. Hartford, Conn.. Denver, Col.. Kansas City, Mo..Columbus, Ohio. Minneapolis, Minn.. Janesville, Wis. San Francisco, Cal. On uttIic Enbooar anD Out-oaor MdBef. F. B. Sanborn,..... Concord, Mass. Robert D. McGonnigle,. Mrs. Charles R. Lowell,... New York. James K. Muir,... George E. McGonegal,.. Rochester, N.Y. Isaac P. Wright,. H. C. Senne,....... Chicago, Ill. Rev. L. D. Zinkham,. George W. Wightman,.. Providence, R.I. J. Q. Adams,... Charles Parrott,....... Columbus, Ohio.. Allegheny, Pa.. Detroit, Mich. St. Paul, Minn. Baltimore, Md. Columbus, Wis. On ]1mmitratlon. J. H. Van Antwerp,.... Albany, N.Y. James R. Lowe,..... San Jose, Cal. W. J. Sawyer,...... Pittsburg, Pa. Melville H. Ford,.. Grand Rapids, Mich. S. C. Wrightington,.... Boston, Mass. Richard Guenther,..... Oshkosh, Wis. James Bishop,............ Trenton, N.J. John S. Billings, M.D.,. John H. Rauch, M.D.,. David W. Cheever, M.D., L. S. Pilcher, M.D.,.. Wm. Howard Neff,.. Ean Iospitals. Washington, D.C. Chas. E. Cadwalader, M.D., Philadelphia, Pa. Springfield, Ill. Jerome B. Cochrane, M.D., Montgomery, Ala.. Boston, Mass. J. M. Gaston, M.D.,..... Atlanta, Ga. Brooklyn, N.Y. Walter Lindley, M.D.,.. Los Angeles, Cal..Cincinnati, Ohio. Henry M. Hurd, M.D.,.. Baltimore, Md. On Training dSchools for Nurses, Hal. C. Wyman, M.D.,... Detroit, Mich. Miss Hampton,..... Baltimore, Md. E. C. Cowles, M.D.,... Somerville, Mass. Charlotte Blake Brown, M.D., San Francisco. Clara Marshall, M D.,.. Philadelphia, Pa. Mrs. Andrew H. Smith,.... New York. Mrs. J. M. Flower,......... Chicago, Ill.

Page  XI STANDING COMMITTEES xi En the Care of the Ensane. E. T. Wilkins, M.D.,..... Napa, Cal. Richard Gundry, M.D.,. Peter Bryce, M.D.,... Tuskaloosa, Ala. H. A. Tobey, M.D.,... Dr. Clark,........ Toronto, Can. J. C. Corbus, M.D.,... P. M. Wise, M.D.,... Willard, N.Y W. W. Reed, M.D.,... G. Vivian, M.D.,........ Alexandria, Minn. On the Commitment anbt Metention of the insane. Catonsville, Md.. Toledo, Ohio. Mendoia, Ill. Jefferson, Wis. Dr. Stephen Smith, Fred. H. Wines,.. A. O. Wright,... M. D. Follett,... Isaac M. Kerlin, M.D., Mrs. Ariel Lathrop, J. Q. A. Stewart, M.D., W. B. Fish, M.D.,. Charles A. Murdock,. New York, N.Y.. Springfield, Ill... Madison, Wis.. Columbus, Ohio. Henry M. Hoyt,... Richard Gundry, M.D.,. F. B. Sanborn,... T. J. Mitchell, M.D., @n the Care of the JlFeeibleminb... Elwyn, Pa. James L. Wilson, M.D.,. San Francisco, Cal. t John W. Milne,.... Frankfort, Ky. H. R. Pierson,.. Lincoln, Ill. Miss Blake,.. San Francisco, Cal. Miss Mattie.Grundy,.. Philadelphia, Pa.. Catonsville, Md. Concord, Mass... Jackson, Miss.. Greenfield, Ohio. Fall River, Mass.. Newark, N.J. Washington, D.C. Owen's Mills, Md. R. W. McClaughry, R. Brinkerhoff,.. Z. R. Brockway, Charles E. Felton,. R. H. Dawson,. an 3risonts antIt risotn Miscipifnt...Huntingdon, Pa. H. F. Hatch,......Jackson, Mich... Mansfield, Ohio. G. S. Griffith,...... Baltimore, Md... Elmira, N.Y. Charles Aull,....... Folsom, Cal.. Chicago, Ill. Charles J. Prescott,.... Boston, Mass. Montgomery, Ala. Mrs. Thomas A. Hendricks, Indianapolis, Ind. I an subenile Belinquentz. Henry Oliver,... Cincinnati, Ohio. Benj. E. McCulloch,.. J. D. Scouller, M.D.,.... Pontiac, Ill. Mrs. Mary A. Mayo,. Mrs. L. L. Brackett,... Lancaster, Mass. J. T. Mallalieu,.. Ira C. Otterson,..... Jamesburg, N.J. Rev. S. G. Smith,.. Israel C. Jones,... Randall's Island, N.Y. Josiah A. Sims,.. Huntsville, Texas. Battle Creek, Mich...Kearney, Neb. St. Paul, Minn. Nevada City, Cal. State qorresponbing Secretaries. Alabama,... P. Bryce, M.D., Tuskaloosa. California,..H. G. Brainerd, M.D., Los Angeles. Colorado,... Mrs. J. S. Sperry, Pueblo. Connecticut,. Prof. W. H. Farnam, New Haven. Delaware,.. W. M. Canby, Wilmington. Dist.' Columbia, Mrs. Sara A. Spencer, Washington. Florida,... L. B. Wombwell, Tallahassee. Georgia,... R. B. Bullock, Atlanta. Idaho,.... C. H. Berry. Illinois,... Mrs. J. M. Flower, Chicago. Indiana,...L. A. Barnett, Danville. Indian Ter.,.. Rev. R. W. Hill, Muskogee. Iowa,.... Jennie McCowan, M.D., Davenp't. Kansas,.. Charles E. Faulkner, Atchison. Kentucky,. B. B. Huntoon, Louisville. Louisiana,. Mayor Shakspeare, New Orleans. Maine,.. Dr. Gerrish, Portland. Maryland,. Prof. Herbert B. Adams, Baltimore. Massachusetts,. Mrs. Robert Codman, Boston. Michigan,.. John J. Wheeler, East Saginaw. Minnesota,.. A. B. Ancker, M.D., St. Paul. Mississippi,.. W. L. Doss, Jackson. Missouri,.. Rev. T. P. Haley, Kansas City. Montana,.. Mrs. Charles W. Severance. Nebraska,.. J. A. Gillespie, Omaha. Nevada,... Mrs. C. Preble, Reno. New Hampshire, Irving A. Watson, M.D., Concord. New Jersey,. John W. Ward, M.D., Trenton. New York,.. Wm. R. Stewart, New York. North Carolina, W. J. Hicks, Raleigh. North Dakota,. O. W. Archibald, M.D., Jamest'n. Ohio,....H. H. McFadden, Steubenville. Oregon,... Rev. T. L. Eliot, Portland. Pennsylvania,. Cadwalader Biddle, Philadelphia. Rhode Island.. J H. Eastman, Howard. South Carolina, Gen. T. Lipscomb, Columbia. South Dakota,. Theodore D. Kanouse, Sioux Falls. Tennessee,..Mrs. M. C. Goodlett, Nashville. Texas,... Benj. E. McCulloch, Huntsville. Utah,.... Judge C. S. Zane, Salt Lake City. Vermont,... Joseph Draper, M.D., Bra'ttleboro. Virginia,... Gen. S. C. Armstrong, Hampton. Washington,. James Wickersham, Tacoma. West Virginia,. Rev. R. R. Swope, Wheeling. Wisconsin,..E. O. Holden, Baraboo. Wyoming,..Robert C. Morris, Cheyenne.

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Page  XIII Opening ~rssion. INTRODUCTORY ADDRESSES. WELCOME OF HON. R. W. WATERMAN, GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen of the National Conference of Charities and Correction,-It is very gratifying to me to be with you on this occasion, and to unite my greetings with those of the people of our State generally upon this your first visit to California. You come in the interest of as noble a mission as is confided to the care of mankind, and one, when liberally fulfilled, without regard to age, sex, color, or denomination, which becomes imbued with the highest attributes of humanity. I felt deeply interested in your coming here; and I shall be only too glad to know that anything said by me, when the assembling of your convention was under consideration, was effective. You find in California, in the good work in which you are engaged, colleagues of the highest order,-men and women whose devotion to the cause of charity, helping the needy, comforting the afflicted, cheering the despondent, and doing good from real goodness of heart, bear favorable comparison with yourselves. The objects you have in view appeal to their best sympathies, and your success is apparent on every side. I wish our business men would have " one day off" which they would devote to visiting our public institutions, where such work and labor as yours tells the most. If they did, the result would be most beneficial, and fewer "street Arabs " would adorn our thoroughfares. But this is no time for extended remarks. As Governor of our great Commonwealth, I feel it an honor to represent my State in the presence of this assembly. I welcome you most heartily in the name of the people, and wish you the utmost success in your deliberations, from which I am confident the greatest good will result.

Page  XIV X SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES WELCOME OF HON. E. B. POND, MAYOR OF SAN FRANCISCO. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,- It is my happy privilege and honor on behalf of the citizens of San Francisco to extend to our friends and visitors on this occasion their kindly greeting and most cordial welcome. The laudable objects for which you have assembled in conference, the sacrifices you have made, and the long journey many of you have made to reach us on this far-off coast certainly commend you warmly to us all. We greet you as friends, with warm hearts and open arms. Many of you who have spent your lives in the older civilization of our country, and have had large experience and long labor in the cause of suffering humanity, can certainly teach us in this comparatively new land much that will be both useful and interesting. You will meet here many who, like yourselves, devote much time and money to charity, and who, like you, are anxious to discover the best methods of relieving suffering humanity, the best means for the prevention and reformation of the evils of distress, poverty, and crime. We certainly are justified in hoping and believing that much good must come from such a Conference as this on the part of the ablest and best informed men and women of our country on the various subjects which will be considered by you. We thank you for coming to us, and hope that, after you have met, reported, and exchanged the result of your observations and investigations, intermixing with your labors pleasant social intercourse and recreation, you will not regret your long journey, but go home with only pleasant recollections of your visit and loving remembrance of the friendships formed. I extend to you all a hearty welcome. ADDRESS OF GREETING. BY HON. GEORGE C. PERKINS. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,- On behalf of the Local Reception Committee, the pleasant duty has been assigned to me to extend to each member of this convention their hearty greeting and cordial welcome to our State, city, and homes. The occasion which has brought you here will be a memorable one in our annals. During the past few years, our people have had the privilege of welcoming to the Golden State a number of different national societies, who have honored us by convening their triennial conclave, annual reunion, or convention in our city. These organizations have, for patriotism, fraternity, and zeal in their respective

Page  XV OPENING SESSION xi mission, deservedly won a high niche in the temple of fame, and have excited our admiration and honor; but never before has there assembled here a national convention composed of representative benevolent men and women, coming many thousand miles from the different States and Territories, impelled by the one motive of philanthropy,- come to consult together how they can best benefit mankind. Well may we pause and turn aside from the active duties of our daily life to bid you welcome, and ask a benediction upon the good work in which you are engaged.,The committee are very desirous that during your stay you, may find time to visit some of the many attractive places of interest in and about our city. With that object in view, they have arranged a series of excursions which they trust you will find it convenient to enjoy, and thus see for yourselves some of the beauties and resources of this wonderful land of the West, your country and our home. We have seen great cities spring up, as by the touch of the magician's rod, from canvas tents and wooden huts to the magnificent dwellings and public edifices which may greet your vision. The mountain trail has given place to the railroad; and the vast plains, where cattle and wild beasts of the forest roamed at will, are dotted with thriving towns and happy homes and vineyards and orchards and prolific fields, from which we are sending their product to nourish and sustain those in less favored lands, while the precious metals from our mines are constantly adding to the wealth of the world. We have a climate unsurpassed for its salubrity, and not excelled in any country of the world. Is it not, then, a pardonable pride if we do, as Californians, sometimes incidentally mention this fact? I would not, however, have you infer that, while enjoying all these blessings, our people are unmindful of their higher duty of good citizenship. They have, by State, county, and municipal appropriation, provided a system of education, commencing with the kindergarten and ending with the university, that is second to no State in the Union; and our asylums and reformatory institutions compare favorably with those in many of our older sister States. As a verification of this statement, we earnestly invite you to visit them, and personally inspect them for yourselves. Among the many beautiful institutions of learning that you will see is one nearing its completion,- one that has been built and endowed more generously by a single philanthropic gentleman than any other private college in the country; and yet all of its great advantages will be open to the poorest boy and girl in the land.

Page  XVI xii SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES We of California are a cosmopolitan people, with representative citizens from almost every nation of the earth. For many years, we were comparatively isolated from our Eastern friends,- separated by vast plains and ranges of mountains that it required a journey of months to cross. It cannot, then, be wondered at if we sometimes felt we were cut off, if not almost banished, from our old homes. But, during all this time, never for a moment did our people waver in their loyalty to the nation, State, or individual; and the limit of their charity did not end by an appropriation from public funds to assist the indigent, but everywhere in their individual capacity, whether generously contributing to the National Sanitary Fund, or in sending money to aid in caring for the sick and dying when an epidemic scattered its death-spray over the older States, or in aiding the Johnstown sufferers, they have responded most liberally to every call from home or abroad for the relief of the distressed and afflicted. And I venture to assert that the record will show that in no city of this or any other country, in proportion to its population (exclusive of Chinese), is there so large a number of charitable societies, hospitals, and organized benevolent fraternities supported by voluntary donations as there is in the city of San Francisco. I do not say this in a spirit of boasting pride, but simply to endeavor to show you that our people are not so very wicked, or altogether wrapped up in the selfishness of money-making. We earnestly hope that the present session, the Sixteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction, will prove a grand success. Composed, as it is, of so many eminent men and women, who have devoted their lives to works of benevolence and have justly earned a national reputation for their beneficence and humanity, it cannot fail of being productive of splendid results. Again we welcome you, and with it indulge the hope that, when your labors shall have ended, and you have returned to your Eastern homes, you will think kindly of your fellow-workers in the far West, where the Pacific sings on a Western lea the sunset song of the nation. ADDRESS OF FRED H. WINES. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, —Those of us who have come across the continent to extend our greetings and best wishes for your prosperity are very happy to-night; but I suppose I am the happiest man among them all, for, as I stand here, I recall the associations of two years ago, when I had the great pleasure of standing

Page  XVII OPENING SESSION xiii upon this platform, in this same hall. I believe that, of all the friends whom I then made, I have not forgotten one. We have had a delightful journey. Every moment of it has been a moment of enjoyment. But the best of all is our arrival upon the soil of California and within the hospitable precincts of the city of San Francisco. We can hardly express our thanks to the Local Committee for the admirable arrangements which they have made. Especially we wish to thank them for their great courtesy in meeting us this morning at Port Costa. Probably we need to introduce ourselves to you, since we are strangers here. We are a very plain, simple, unpretending company of men and women. We are not so many as we had hoped to be, for various reasons. For those who have charge of institutions this is a busy season of the year, in which it is very difficult for them to leave home, especially for so long a time. It will take us very nearly a month to make this visit to your Coast. Some, too, who had expected to be with us have been prevented by sickness, or other unforeseen circumstances, and have had to abandon their journey at the very last moment. Many things have been borne in upon our minds during the past week of travel. Among them I will mention one which deeply impressed me. It was that this vast extent of territory, on which only sage brush seems to grow, is one of Nature's reserves for the use of future generations. It needs nothing but water to make it bud and blossom like the rose; and, when the fertile prairies of the Northwest shall have been exhausted, in generations that are still to come, we may anticipate that either the conditions of nature will have changed or that the ingenuity and energy of the human race will have found a way to moisten what now seems to be an arid desert. These vast plains will one day be populated, I have no doubt, by millions of inhabitants, and a new empire will spring up, not only in California, but in the intervening space which stretches between here and our Eastern civilization. And we could not help but admire the work of Nature, always and everywhere an artist, as we noted the wonderful contrast between this uninhabited country and the rich western slopes of the. Sierra Nevadas and the valleys which lie between them and the Pacific Ocean. You may imagine how much we were interested in the scenery, when I tell you that I think nearly one-half of our party sat up for the greater part of the night, in order that they might catch a glimpse of the Sierras by moonlight. We anticipate a great deal of pleasure in meeting you. We thank

Page  XVIII Xiv SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES you for your courteous and friendly greeting, and we expect much from your proverbial hospitality. But we have not come to enjoy your hospitality: neither have we come in any spirit of idle curiosity. We have come in the hope that we may receive benefit, and that we may confer benefits in return. We have not come with any feeling that you are a different people from us. You are the same people,-the same in language, the same in religious and political convictions. There is no difference between us; and we cannot teach you anything, though some of the gentlemen who have spoken have been so kind as to say that we can. You have as wise and as well-instructed men as are to be found in this country, or in the world. The superintendents of some, at least, of your institutions are the peers of their brethren anywhere on the face of the earth. The generosity of the people of California is emblematically expressed in the fertility of her soil and the richness of her vegetation, her flowers and her fruits. No, ladies and gentlemen, if I were to attempt to explain to you our gathering, I should say that we might be compared to your California bees, that flit from flower to flower gathering honey, and, as they go, carry with them the golden pollen which fertilizes the flowers upon which they rest for a moment, making them- more fruitful than they otherwise would be. So we flit from city to city. We have been all over this country, North, South, East, and West, during the last sixteen years. Everywhere we have tried to gather honey; everywhere we have tried to carry away with us something of the impulse which we have received. Now that we are here, we hope to be the means of vivifying to some extent your charitable impulses, by bringing you together, making you more interested, more active, and more harmonious in your charitable work; and we hope to carry back an impression which will benefit the cities which we are yet to visit. I will only say in conclusion that, as there are not many of our friends from the East present, the success of this Conference will largely depend on the interest manifested by the people of California, and especially of San Francisco. We hope that you will attend our sessions, and take an active and free part in our discussions. DC what you can to give this Conference a local color, and to make it of service to your own people. I am informed that very many of your best people are here to-night; and, as I look on your faces, I can readily believe it. I hope that we shall see you here again, and that we shall not only become acquainted, but form friendships which will last as long as our lives, and which will be fruitful in blessings in the years which are to come.

Page  XIX OPENING SESSION XV RESPONSE OF OSCAR C. McCULLOCH, OF INDIANA. Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,- It is a pleasure after coming through the intervening miles of desert to get to a place where, by the Golden Gate, sits this proud lady of cities, receiving in her lap the treasures of field and factory, of mine and ocean, like Cattarina Cornaro when the Venetian nobles brought her treasures from all the world. Thus this cosmopolitan city receives the gifts of the world. We have come to see and to listen, not to give so much as to take. As compared with the splendid pageantry of that great gathering of Knight Templars which met here some years ago, or with the thundering tread of the Grand Army of the Republic, or the busy hum of the school-teachers, who met here last year, this little brotherhood and sisterhood will show but to little advantage in comparison of numbers. Yet we trust it shall be our part to leave behind us something of the influence which has been left by those who have come before us,- a pleasant memory, a kindly thought, an inspirational word which in days to come may be helpful. We are glad to come where there seems to be enough of something. Some of us have come from small States and small cities, and from places where they use pennies in change. We have come to a vast State and a large city, and to a place where nothing less than a nickel circulates. It is good to see across the face of a nickel and not have one's sight broken by coming up against a cent. We have, therefore, reason to believe that largeness of ideas may also come to us here. I am reminded of the old lady who went from the interior to the sea. She had lived a life of poverty. She had never had enough of anything. All the food that went upon her table, all the clothing she wore, had to be carefully considered. One day, she was taken by some kind relatives to the seaside. There she sat in silence, and not a word was to be had from her at first; and, when they looked at her, the tears were rolling down her cheeks. "Why, aunt," said her niece, " what is the matter? Are you sick?" " No," she cried, " I am not sick; but, thank God, I have seen something there is enough of." We have come in the spirit of hope. We bring the greeting of the sister States. I am fnyself quite young in this work; but, as I measure in thought the progress of the years gone by, I see a change in the attitude of the human heart toward the suffering and the misery of the world. There was a time when the human spirit, entering the world, and seeing its sorrow, sadness, misery, and sin, felt for it only pity. It was felt that there could be little but amelioration.

Page  XX Xvi SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES But now we look not with pity alone, but with a spirit of hope. We hope not only for the amelioration of the sin and suffering and sorrow of the world, but we believe that it is possible that prisons may be emptied, that the jails may be closed, that the purlieus of crime and the garrets of poverty may lose their sad inhabitants. It is in this spirit that every prison man is working. It is in this spirit that every worker among boys and girls is working. It is not a hopeless thing: it is a cheerful and hopeful thing. This is the word that we bring. You do not need it, perhaps; but let us speak it together,a word of hope. So, as we meet together in the days that are to come, we may recognize no difference and no distinction. Mr. Wines has said that we are a plain and simple folk. There are no protuberant foreheads among us. The last crank has disappeared. We are practical, every-day men and women, with the marks of our work upon us; and we have come here to take and to give. You have received us kindly, and I trust we shall be able to leave behind us at least a pleasant memory. RESPONSE OF DR. CHARLES S. HOYT, OF NEW YORK. Afr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen,- I felt yesterday, as I crossed the borders of your State, that I was approaching a people noted for their hospitality; and I have witnessed many evidences of it since my arrival in your city. We came here, as has been well said, to exchange views on the various subjects affecting social life, and to promulgate them to the world, in the hope that we may better and improve the condition of our fellows, and promote the well-being and good order of society. All work and no play, however, makes dull scholars. So, while we shall be ready to discharge all our duties in the sessions of the Conference, we propose, in the intervals, to be active in other directions, and give full opportunity for the flow of your generous hospitality and for the study of your young and progressive city, with its numerous and varied institutions. It has been said by those preceding me that we are a practical body; and I can vouch for the truth of this, as I have been connected with it from its organization. It was my good fortune to have been one of the number who founded the National Conference of Charities and Correction; and I have attended all of its sessions, from the first to this, its sixteenth. The various questions affecting social life are now as well understood as those affecting physical life, and it is for the study and discussion of these important questions that we meet in annual Conference. The first State to recognize the public value of systematic

Page  XXI OPENING SESSION xvii study in this direction was Massachusetts, in the formation of a State Board of Charities in I864, empowered to inquire and investigate into the causes of pauperism, insanity, and crime, with the view of instituting remedies for the prevention and cure of these social and financial evils. The example of Massachusetts was followed by New York, in i868, by the establishment of a Board of Charities by that State, and subsequently by Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, and other States, so that, at our last National Conference, we had delegates who represented twelve States with Boards of Charities. I am happy to say that we meet to-night, on the Pacific Coast, with representatives, for the first time, from the State Board of Charities of Indiana, instituted by the last legislature of that State; and it is hoped that, when we next meet, we shall have representatives from a Board of Charities from your own State of California. The addresses of his Excellency, your governor, and of your mayor, and the presence of so many distinguished and influential citizens of your city and State, promise well in this direction, and encourage the belief that this hope may be fully realized.

Page  XXII ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT, THE RIGHT REV. GEORGE D. GILLESPIE. Ladies and Gentlemen of the Sixteenth National Conference of Charities and Correction,- It has been the custom to inaugurate our sessions with an address by the President of the year. Were the addresses of the able gentlemen whom I have the honor to follow, in your hands, you would find how fully the wide field of penology and pauperism has been covered. Study and experience have brought forth from their treasures on these occasions. The speaker of to-day has only things old to utter. Happily for him, the audience of a Conference that in its sessions moves over this great land, has always its new elements, while the stated attendants have too much good sense to expect originality of fact or thought on themes so often discussed and so largely in type. HISTORY OF THE CONFERENCE. For the session of I889, we have journeyed so far from any point of previous gathering, that we may infer some inquiry around us as to the organization that has come to the Pacific Coast, with the dignity of men and women from all parts of the country, and the hearty welcome and studied preparations of California. The "Conference of Charities"- this was the original title- is the separation of a section meeting from the American Social Science Association. In the modest language of the earliest report before me, "The members of the various State Boards which deal with public charity in the United States were desirous of a better acquaintance with each other, and found that they could not meet together and discuss the questions in which they had a common interest without mutual profit and encouragement." (Report, 1875.) Yet they were glad to shelter their gathering under the wing of an elder and more inspiring association. It was in I879, that the first Conference was held apart from this Association, being the Sixth Annual Conference, at Chicago. The independent position now taken allowing of wider scope, what had been the Conference of Charities became also of Correction,

Page  XXIII OPENING SESSION xix " embracing prison management, and bringing the officers engaged in that work more fully into accord with the organization." (Preface to Report, I879.) From this time the Conference has been growing in the length of its sessions, the enlargement of its constituency, the breadth of its discussion, and its value to the gre'at interests it combines. The places of assemblage have been New York (1874), Detroit (I875), Saratoga (I876, I877), Cincinnati (1878), Chicago (1879), Cleveland (1880), Boston (I88i), Madison, Wis. (1882), Louisville (I883), St. Louis (I884), Washington (i885), St. Paul (1886), Omaha (1887), Buffalo (1888). Strange as it may seem in these days of organization, our Conference has lived and done its work without constitution and by-laws; and it has been so courteous - or charitable, shall we say? - as not to let annual payment or fee deter or annoy membership. An Executive Committee has received from the Conference its order as to place of meeting, and taken in charge the very arduous task of its programme; while the published volume of Proceedings has supplied its treasury. Local interest and liberality have met further demands. Familiar with the Conference for at least ten years, I can speak decidedly of the absence of political sway and religious prejudice from our work. No doubt, we have the politician, but not the offensive partisan. The one is welcome, and the atmosphere is too hot or too cold for the other. And North and South have come in no contention, save an occasional little lively scuffle to secure the meeting. With the recognition of the divine Being and Providence, which is part of our national existence, manifest in the daily devotions and the official sermon, the Conference has known no exclusion nor preference of any form or organization of religion. The plaudit with no bated breath has ever followed any man or woman's sensible enthusiasm; and the tale of good purpose and performance in the field of the world's sorrow or sin, without regard to the creed that ordered or sustained it. For the culture of this tree, whose leaves are for the healing of the nations in the sickness of poverty and crime, the laborers are summoned from every clime of sentiment, every fenced field of organization and title. THE DEPARTMENTS OF ITS WORK. The title "Charities and Correction" is sufficiently explanatory of our sphere of study and influence. As we are starting in on our line of thought, some points in aims

Page  XXIV XX SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and methods of this Conference with pauperism and crime, we may emphasize that our relation is no more with public than private charities, taking the term in a broad sense that will include such reformatory measures as may come within individual and society action. The grosser forms of vice must come within the strong grasp of the law; and pauperism is so multiform and of such proportions that the public treasury must be at its disposal. But it were a terrible blunder to look askance upon what is doing outside of the public institution. It is of the first principles of society that it shall embrace its feebleness and frailty in its personal and private charge. Every moralist has recognized this. The De Officiis of Cicero of our school and college study teaches with the text-books of present study. Part of the communion of the ages is in like expressions of brotherhood. In Rome, the State fed her poor, emperors distributed land among poorer citizens, children were sheltered by the government; yet private individuals established institutions of mercy. The name of Cecilia Macrina is preserved as the foundress of a charity for a hundred children at Seracina. The younger Pliny devoted a small property to the support of poor children in his native city. We feel the one blood warmly circulating as we read of Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius dedicating to the memory of their wives institutions for the support of girls, and Alexander Severus giving the same honor to the memory of his mother. Tacitus has described with enthusiasm how, after a catastrophe near Rome, the rich threw open their houses and taxed all their resources to relieve the sufferers. (See Lecky's "History of European Morals.") While the arm of authority in the reformatory or house of mercy that has not the State behind it, may be weaker, moral influences may be stronger, and there may be better avenues to the heart. Public provision for the poor by poor laws has the necessary defects and difficulties of tending to take from man the natural stimulus for helping himself, of producing no feeling of gratitude toward the benefactor, of requiring no moral intercourse between the parties, but leaving the distribution of bounty to the hand of an official agent. We cannot agree with the late distinguished Bishop Harris that, "to avert the most alarming evil of our times, and bring the rich. and poor together again, all classes, rich and poor alike, must be thrown back on the old law of mutual helpfulness and sympathy, and charity by law be discontinued, and the reliance be on the charity of love"; but we must concede the force of his elaboration of the arguments of

Page  XXV OPENING SESSION xxi Wayland and Fowle. (" Christianity and Civil Society," Lecture V.: " Charity.") When we listen to the voice of Christianity, the State is the agent of our charity only under the pressure of necessity. The poor especially are the serious trust of the followers of Him "who went about doing good." No array of commodious and convenient structures of easy entrance for the sick and homeless, no generous provision fully according to the State the title of guardian of children bereft in body or mind, no display of costly Samaritanism dependent on the public treasury, no witness of heavy taxation for dependants cheerfully borne; will free the Church or the Christian from the responsibility of painstaking attention to the same classes the State cares for. We cannot discharge our benevolence by deputy; we have no encouragement to offer heaven tax-receipts for caring one for another; we cannot do a brother's part passing by on the other side, though our, feet hasten to the Bureau of Charity. There is another argument. To those of us of pronounced sacred faith, the rights of the religious conscience are very dear, and the influences of our holy religion are connected with divinely appointed ordinances. We recognize the duty of imparting to our beneficiaries the full benefits of the gospel of Jesus Christ. The religion of a State institution can scarcely allow of this. It must be attenuated by the varied religion and the no religion of its legal support. In my own State, with a regard to religion in our prisons, reformatories, and asylums of which I am proud, the public administration of ordinances which Christian bodies almost without exception accept is unknown; and I presume Michigan is not singular in this. I have meant to make the argument, that private and church charity must exist side by side with the most judicious and liberal public provision; and hence this Conference of Charities and Correction has as hearty a welcome, as free a rostrum, as open an ear, for, to quote its invitation, "members and officers of private charitable institutions and associations throughout the United States and Canada" as it has for "members and officers of State Boards of public charities." We meet here with no badge but that of our Conference, not a band of officials, but a band of men and women of one heart and mind,- to remove from the world some of its plague spots, to make it happier because purer, more honorable because it has less criminals and fewer paupers.

Page  XXVI xxii SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Let us first direct our attention to the aims and methods of the Conference with pauZperism. A body constituted like this, to borrow a phrase perhaps more expressive than refined, must come down to business in its thought and action. Men and women who are brought in daily contact with the pauper poor, who know all the ins and outs of the worthy and the unworthy, who are familiar with infirmaries and poorhouses, who have seen one plan after another tried to solve the very perplexing problem of city poverty, who are almost as familiar with tenement houses, slums, and alleys as they are with the shaded avenues and architectural houses of their end of the town, are not very likely to be dreamers, theorists, or cranks. One thing that has ever impressed me in this Conference has been its practical tone. Many false prophets have gone out into the world. They are like the prophets of our holy reverence, in their gorgeous display of glory to be revealed; theyvie with Isaiah and his compeers in telling of " the abundance of peace," of "the delightsome land." But, alas for their visions! there is neither the power of man nor the will of God behind them. The world must be turned upside down before it can be the theatre for even the experiment. Mr. Henry George, in an address entitled "The Crime of Poverty," utters: "I say that all this poverty and the ignorance that flows from it are unnecessary. I say that there is no natural reason why we should not all be rich, in the sense not of having more than each other, but in the sense of all having enough to completely satisfy all physical wants, of all having enough to get such an easy living that we could develop the better part of humanity. There is no reason why wealth should not be so abundant that no one should think of such a thing as little children at work, or a woman compelled to a toil that nature never intended her to perform; wealth so abundant that there would be no cause for that harassing fear that sometimes paralyzes even those who are not considered the 'poor,' - the fear that probably every man of us has felt, that, if sickness should smite him or if he should be taken away, those whom he loves better than his life would become charges upon charity." This is truly delightful. It would just suit me, and probably you; but, until our committees on poverty and pauperism can report that it is come, we will try to take care of these unhappy victims of something very wrong. When this Conference approaches poverty, it is in the conviction, "The poor ye have always with you; and, whenever ye will, ye may do them good."

Page  XXVII OPENING SESSION xxiii It lays out the study as my esteemed predecessor in this chair, Dr. Charles S. Hoyt, laid it out in his admirable address last year in Buffalo. Causes.- Features of immigration, intemperance, heredity. Preventives.- Charity organization, specials, outdoor relief, settlement of paupers. Treatment.- Buildings for the dependent, admission to charitable institutions, hospital treatment of the sick and infirm poor, industries in institutions, records of inquiry and examination. It brings to bear on these questions the experience and thought of all civilization from the lips of foreign guests and associates, and an immense literature, much of it of decided worth. Such figures as 66,000 paupers in poorhouses, 55,000 in benevolent institutions, paupers outdoor, 21,000, give an impulse to inquiry. I will not forestall the reports of the Committees on Charity Organization, on Hospitals and Infirmaries, on Employment in Poorhouses, on the Care and Disposal of Dependent Children; but permit me to call your attention to certain fixed evils of conditions of pauperism in our older States, from which you may be in danger from tradition, but are happily not tied to by the stringency of law and amount of expenditure, or, in commercial phrase, value of plant. THE COUNTY POORHOUSE SYSTEM seems to me to have no higher argument than length of life. Its great and insuperable difficulty is the population. What is it? Recall with me your poorhouse visits. As to age, from infancy on to noted longevity; as to mental condition, from idiocy up to the remains, at least, of a respectable or even more intelligence; as to physical condition, the poor body maimed, deformed, enfeebled, loathsome, and, if any exception, it is only as making the darkness visible; as to moral tone, said the Secretary of the State Board of Charities of New York, after an inquiry "during which every poorhouse in the State " was visited, and an examination made of the individual inmates, " the examination has made it clear that by far the greater number of paupers have reached that condition by idleness, improvidence, drunkenness, or some form of vicious indulgence." (Report State Board of New York, I877, p. 97.) What must life be in such a painful heterogeneous mass of humanity! How utterly impracticable any classification to insure even physical, to say nothing of mental and moral care! How impossible

Page  XXVIII xxiv SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES to prevent these smitten creatures preying one upon another in their diseased conditions of body and mind! Need we add what are the difficulties of employment, and how justified is the common reply to inquiry, "The work of these people will not pay for the trouble it requires "? We cheerfully grant that all poorhouses are not the same. We have visited those that would well compare with the State institution. And we are glad to quote the words of an honored member of this Conference, Hon. W. P. Letchworth: " It is now thirteen years since I began to visit our poorhouses as a Commissioner of the State Board of Charities [New York]. When I compare the present condition of these institutions with what it was in 1872, I am much gratified. There are few but have been greatly improved, and with some the change is so great as to mark an era in local history." ("Poorhouse Administration," p. 9.) Let us hope that New York speaks for the whole land. But the system is radically rotten: only the jail system is worse. It is opposed by all social and sanitary law. The remedy, we believe, is to be found in extending State provision for the defective and dependent classes. Plainly, as we have institutions for the blind, the deaf-mutes, the insane, the feeble-minded, let us have institutions for the aged, the crippled, the hopelessly inebriate, the chronic infirm. Let us sort out this poorhouse population. State care is far more equitable, more likely to meet the necessity, more settled in its provisions, than county or local care. The County Board of Supervision is prqverbially narrow, and constantly pressed to economy by a constituency claiming to be overtaxed. As matters are, the State and the County acting on the same principle of social obligation, the contrast between the treatment of their beneficiaries is equal to that between competency and poverty. I refer to the surroundings of a State institution and a County shelter. Even incurable idiocy or insanity fares better far in the State home than respectable old age in the average poorhouse. What we may call " countyism," as we say "parochialism" when a church is all for itself, has much to do with the poorhouse and jail system. It is the greed of office even for itself, as the man came to the governor asking for an office, no matter what, because he was the only man in his county who was not thus honored —and the fondness for a seat in the Legislature and Congress.

Page  XXIX OPENING SESSION XXV THE PREVENTION OF PAUPERISM. One other phase of pauperism should have our best thought and inquiry,- preventive measures. "The poor ye have always with you"; but is it necessary, is it right, that the poor should be with us to the extent that we have named? Should this land of marvellous capacities for human labor and sustenance, this "glory of all lands" for all who dwell upon it, require in every section and subsection the hand of the State and the hand of the individual to feed and clothe from infancy to advanced age? True, we have a great emigration to these shores; but the emigrant does not always come empty-handed, and the vessel that bears him here returns laden with breadstuffs for other lands. What is the cause? Could I tell you, I could tell you better what is the cure. It may lie in the very condition that the prosperity of the land induces. It-may lie in grand fundamental irritation and injury that attach to labor and capital. It may mean wrong living in homes, and it may mean wrong legislating in legislature and Congress. It may mean something wrong in our lower, and even more wrong in our higher, education. Probably there is all this; and poverty is to be dealt with by very humble people and in very humble ways, and it is to be dealt with by the powers and principalities and in high places. It is for this Conference to give direction to these inquiries, and to record its thought and experience to solve this great problem. INSANITY. There are certain conditions of blighted life that commonly are ranked with dependence. Such are insanity and imbecility. Legal provision has made the former such to full extent; and, with the exception of ability of support, the latter has, I believe without exception, been made State charge. An examination of the valuable volumes of our reports will show that no subject has occupied more time and thought of this Conference than insanity. Nearly a hundred thousand human beings bereft of their reason, and most of these unde&r public charge, is a great factor for our philanthropy. And the more so, as the questions of classification, State or county support, restraint, occupation, are all unsolved problems, with very positive opinion arrayed on all sides. Probably uniformity of disposal and treatment will never be reached; but it is cheering to notice the onward steps to all the freedom that is compatible with safety. There is a new departure on this line that

Page  XXX XXVi SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES no rigidity of associations can arrest. Recent developments of cruelty in asylums force upon this Conference the reopening of the matter of supervision of the insane. It has the prestige that, away from the institution, it is free from its prejudices, and is yet familiar with its life. To the speaker, it has seemed that a commission partly of experts should from time to time enter the wards of every asylum, to determine whether any other disposition should be made of an inmate. There are the insane for whom the best skill has no value. Care, and not cure, is all they can have; and that care may be ample in less expensive and well-furnished quarters than those of the asylum, while their continued presence may crowd out the hopeful subject of skill and appliance. THE IMBECILE. That there are twelve of our States, including young Nebraska and California,- all honor to them! -in which there are institutions for the feeble-minded,- in all, thirteen institutions, caring for more than three thousand of these ungifted children,- records a triumph of this Conference. It has been by the line upon line presentation of fact and argument that it has been ruled that such institutions are part of the duty of the State to dependants. I say this with some feeling, as, in my own State, we have labored in vain for years to impress on the governors and legislatures that our nearly one thousand imbeciles of school age should have the special provision they need. To-day in Michigan, as the autumn opens our State schools, the mother at her door may see the blind child of one neighbor and the deaf-mute of another departing for the good home and school to which the State welcomes them, while she turns in to the care of her poor deficient son or daughter, that is wearing out her life and blighting her home, asking, why the State has no regard for her misfortune. CORRECTIONS. Happily, this Conference divides its department of penology with the National Prison Association, also meeting annually. This will explain that in our programme, while six of the committees reporting must rank their work under the head of " Charities," only four have any relation to Correction. INFLUENCE TOWARD CRIME. Glancing, as we are, here and there over the great field of our interest and responsibility, we may ask this body to consider a certain promotion of crime which is every day open to our view, and for which we are in a measure responsible.

Page  XXXI OPENING SESSION xxvii THE PRESS. I refer to the press. I ask any sensible man or woman whether the disclosures of crime in its ingenuity, its perseverance, its success, and with the low levity, and even the admiration of manner and man, must not, as human nature is, have more than the liability to educate the criminal. Remember the splendid resources of the press to influence and educate. It is the first principle of the philosophy of crime, that familiarity lessens its repulsiveness and its terrors. The papers that are kept from the eye of the prisoner are under every other eye. They are in the hands of lads already becoming fascinated with the career of the cowboy, the highwayman, the burglar, and all the other heroes of crime. They are in the hands of girls emptyheaded, frivolous, idle, lovers of dress, with a debased appetite for excitement, and perhaps with unhealthy passion, to whom their home is a prison, and for whom it is dangerous to look into the garish chambers of prostitution. And they are in the hands of the men who are morbid over the supposed wrongs of society, and are being stirred up to seize the living the world owes them by labor leagues and anarchists' clubs, with their midnight meetings. I have an illustration of my fears in the diligence, which were praiseworthy in another cause, with which the press took in charge the late brutal fight, to keep the public informed in all its details. The heroes of the ring were made the heroes of the land, their halfnude forms presented with the lines the press employs so much of late, their training detailed as though it were a most interesting and valuable experiment in dietetics, their skulking to the scene of action noted as though it were a hero's march. In a railroad car, I heard one near me telling how in a town he lived in, or had visited, the boys were showing one another "how Sullivan did it." The press makes its vindication: "it is very unhappy that it is so; but the public want to know all about it, one must tell them." No doubt true that "many who theoretically frown on prize fighting as a lawbreaking, low, and brutal thing, were, in fact, eager to peep into the morning papers on the day following the famous fisticuff." But the public needs to be taught that what to many may be matter of only passing interest, is to others implanting and nourishing the very taste that will multiply these scenes. And the more important warning to be sounded is this: that the crime details, the court trials, that the ordinary citizen may scarcely glance over, are the well read and inwardly digested lines of all that kind of mind which is the plant of crime and criminals.

Page  XXXII XXviii SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES It is a grand study what makes the criminal. No doubt there are causes that we may reach. Some of them lie very deep, deeper far than the eyes of most people go. And some of them seem to demand an overturning of society that looks very distant. A prison is an institution that speaks, not only how bad some people in the world are, but how wrong many things in the world are. This Conference has not in vain discussed the causes of crime. There are fewer criminals, or at least a slower increase of crime in the land, because it has discussed them. And to-day it is the great pulpit of a reformation that will raise up those who fall, strengthen those who stand, and beat down the Satan of crime under our feet. REFORMATORIES. In all discussions of penal matters, it is conceded that surrounding youth with its safeguards and wisely disposing of the youthful offender is the most hopeful factor in the problem of diminishing crime. The work that tells is with young men and first offenders. In this very effectiveness of reformatory work may be a danger. We refer to the readiness to place the young offender in the saving institution. We are persuaded that it is too much the way of our common sentiment to thus dispose of the presence of even mischief and waywardness. It is so easy to say: " Here is the institution provided for such boys and girls. Complaint need not be severe, and commitment is easy." It may increase the readiness that our prisons for youth exist under such gentle names. It is a terrible stigma to put upon a boy or girl,- that the strong arm of the law has been required to restrain the vicious appetite; that society in its own defence has had to put behind the bars. Often it is the witness of the failure of the parent and of the home, of the resistance of the charitable influences of society and church, of the "neck as the iron sinew and the brow of brass." True, the cases are very different of the prisoner going out having served his term and the reformatory boy or girl out on ticket-ofleave or honorably discharged. Yet the mark is there, the tale will travel. "Where I once was, it may be discovered," may haunt and depress a sensitive spirit. The Hon. W. P. Letchworth presents the matter in another and yet more impressive phase: "It has been painfully evident to me that there was a lack of discrimination in sending young persons to reformatories. We find in the same establishment the truant from school, the homeless child committed as a vagrant, the disobedient

Page  XXXIII OPENING SESSION xxix nd wayward committed as disorderly, the petty thief, and the felon... The different classes meet at religious services, at entertainments, and on other occasions, and soon become known to each other. It matters little what name is given to the institution,whether House of Refuge, Industrial School, Reform School. Receiving felons, it soon becomes known as a criminal. institution; and the stigma of crime is affixed to the name of all who are committed to it.... The busy world does not ask of the graduate for what offence he was committed. It is sufficient to show that he is 'a House of Refuge boy'; and he goes out into the world with this ugly brand upon him, which he soon finds must be hidden before he can hope to rise. Thus a great wrong is inflicted upon the innocent, —the greater because of their helplessness,-a wrong that should call forth a protest from every generous heart." ("Children of the State," pp. 37-39.) Is there not too frequently the lack of individual effort for reformation? The community that has a bad girl or boy owes to the culprit and to itself to use its own influence before it invokes the power of the law. THE JAIL SYSTEM. A Conference of Correction could scarcely meet without a thrust at the jail system. To our older States it has come to stay; and to each new State it is an evil that will come. I glanced at the census tables, to find serving sentence in California jails for the year ending June i, i880, 3io. This may be secured where the iron rule of time does not prevail,-the modification of the fee system, the selection of men of a higher type of intelligence and independence as sheriffs, the construction and regulation of jails by a commission not under county influences, and especially the establishment of houses of correction that shall leave the county jail merely a place of detention until trial. PRISON ADMINISTRATION. We may safely leave in the hands of the able committee "the Ideal Prison System for a State." Bear with me in perhaps a little State pride when I state that a few weeks since in our leading prison, on Saturday afternoon, I found the seven hundred prisoners, with the exception of a few under discipline, gathered in the quadrangle for free intercourse and base ball. And a short time before, on my annual Sunday in the prison, I was present when the warden was in conference with a standing committee of nine prisoners elected by

Page  XXXIV XXX SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES the three literary societies of prisoners. So we are moving on, no doubt to be compelled to take some back steps, but on lines that philosophy has indicated, experience has deepened, and that reach hopefully into the future. With the emancipation of our penal and reformatory institutions from partisan control, and the extension of the charity that civilization approves and Christianity demands, to men who are paying and have paid the penalty of the law, we may see light even within the prison walls, and the prisoner may regain his brotherhood. Ladies and gentlemen, allow me to hold your kind attention for a moment longer to dwell on a pet suggestion. Our Conference, embracing as it does persons from all sections of our great country, persons of such relations of office and interest to charities and corrections as carry influence, cannot fail to do a great work. But the work demands wider information and action than we can give it. Let me suggest what seem to me means, at least, of diffusing information and thus creating influence. The Prison Sunday was " heartily indorsed " by our last Conference, as a means of diffusing information on penology, of creating an interest in the treatment and reformation of the criminal, and securing due regard on the part of the citizen to these great problems in our civilization." (Proceedings, P. 439.) The Conventions, held generally but not necessarily, under the auspices of the State Boards of Charities, have proved institutes in this department, and have given voice to all the institutions. The pulpit may be invoked to come to our aid, with its human and divine power. These great social problems are entitled to honorable place in our colleges and schools. They are worthy of record in church conventions. We must all regret that the International Record of Charities and Correction has ceased to make its monthly valuable offering of facts and discussions to our work. We should welcome its renewed life. Citizens of California, in your first conference circular you have courteously said, "The presence among us of so many distinguished and able exponents of the most enlightened and humane methods of charitable and correctional administration cannot fail to be of great and lasting service to our city and State." Yet we do not come to you as the missionaries of philanthropy. Had we this thought, the report from your State found in our last report would immediately dissipate it. The plant of your State private institutions may be

Page  XXXV OPENING SESSION xxxi recent, but it is real, substantial. The kindergarten work has been wonderfully developed in this city and in other towns. Private munificence is developing at San Diego what your report justly styles " the most comprehensive system of charitable educational institutions in America." True, you have your shadows as your lights; but you have the manliness to own what is deficient, and even what is disgraceful. If we have any gift to impart to you, it is in part, the painful experience of institutional life, of depressing legislation, of current mode and opinion, that in our older States are' fixed beyond remedy, but which with you have no further hold than tendencies and foreign traditions. No doubt, we shall take impulse from your fresher, newer life in philanthropy. Already we feel the welcome of your admirable arrangements for our convenience and comfort and of your personal attentions, and we shall hope to make record of the Sixteenth Conference of Charities and Correction on the Pacific that of brotherhood, on the lines of sympathy in lifting up those that are down; of mercy, in burdens of sorrow and sin raised from all those who bear them; and of strength and stability in principle planted in the State and its citizens, that have in them more for the glory of the Commonwealth than the capabilities of soil and climate and the treasures hid in the sands.

Page  XXXVI I t,

Page  1 I. iwe Care anb Disposal of pDeenient Ctiirten. STATE CARE OF DESTITUTE INFANTS.THE MASSACHUSETTS SYSTEM. BY H. S. SHURTLEFF, OF BOSTON, SUPERINTENDENT OF OUT-DOOR POOR. In Massachusetts, all foundlings are cared for directly by the State, as are also such destitute motherless infants as have no settlements in the cities and towns of the Commonwealth. Until ten years ago, most of these infants were, like the older pauper children, sent to the State almshouses. But the great mortality there among the children under the age of three years led the State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, in October, I879, to bring about a refusal on the part of the trustees to receive at that institution any more children of that age without their mothers; and, a few months later (1880), a law was passed by the State legislature, providing that all such children should be cared for directly by the State Board. This high rate of mortality at the almshouse did not arise from any conditions peculiar to that place, and did not exceed the percentage which seems to be inseparable from any institution where infants are congregated. The Massachusetts Infant Asylum, a private corporation, had already (since 1867) practised successfully the system of boarding out infants in families; and this system was, in i880, adopted by the State Board, since which time it has been continued, with the happiest results. The effect in the saving of infant life became immediately apparent. The percentage of deaths of children under three years of age was reduced in a short time from 97 per cent. to 50 per cent.; and the next year this percentage was reduced to 30, and since that time (i88i) has averaged annually from 14 to 20 per cent. The present method of providing for these children is as follows: An infant, upon its commitment by the Overseers of the Poor of a

Page  2 2, SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES city or town and its reception by the State Board, is examined by a medical officer of the Board's department of Out-door Poor, who makes a record of its condition. It is then sent either to the Massachusetts Infant Asylum or to a temporary nursery provided for the purpose, and, as soon as possible, is placed at board in a good home in the country, under the constant supervision of the Board and its medical officers. Every effort is at once made to find the parents of deserted children, with frequent success. In such case, the parent is compelled to provide for the child. There is always a large number of applications on file of persons who desire to take the children to board, so that there is no lack of good homes in the country towns near Boston readily reached by rail. Every home is visited and investigated before being accepted. This visit is a sanitary inspection. The number and arrangement of sleeping-rooms are noted, as well as the ventilation, sunlight, drainage, supply of water and of milk, number of children in the family, and all other important matters, especially the character of the woman and her natural disposition and aptitude for caring for the child. In general, not more than one or two children are placed in one home. Material for clothing is bought in quantity at wholesale prices, of good quality, plain, but varying in pattern, so as to avoid the appearance of uniformity. Most of the foster-mothers prefer to make up the clothing themselves, and this disposition is encouraged. Part of the clothing is supplied ready made. All material and clothing are stored at the State House, and given out on a requisition. A record is kept of everything given out or returned. Some of the infants, when received, are hopelessly diseased; while others are moribund from drugging, starvation, and exposure. All that can be done with these is to relieve them by proper nursing and comfortable surroundings during their short lives. Some are marasmic, rachitic, syphilitic, or deformed; and constant watchfulness and attendance are required to bring them to a fair degree of health. Others are fairly well, but feeble, and much more liable to disease than other children; while a few are robust, and seem to do well from the outset. Whenever a child is placed at board, the woman who takes it is instructed to telegraph at once to the medical officer having the child in charge, at the first appearance of real illness; and the physician responds at once. Sometimes, the woman is directed.by telegraph to employ her family physician temporarily until it is possible for the medical visitor to attend. She is also cautioned to notify whenever in doubt about the illness of the child. Of course

Page  3 THE CARE AND DISPOSAL OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN 3 there can be no stated time of visiting a sick child by night or day, especially in the acute diseases to which these children are particularly liable in certain seasons. In summer, a child with cholera infantum might require three visits a day; and the same would be true in cases of croup, diphtheria, or pneumonia. The medical officers are consequently never off duty. Their labor in summer is largely increased by the fact that all the young children are at that time in the country or at the seashore. It is a rule of the department that every child shall be visited as often as once a month for observation and as a preventive measure. Surgical appliances for mechanical support are often needed and supplied for ruptured or rachitic children, or for broken bones, club feet, etc.; and these cases require more time than ordinary medical cases in adjustment and after-treatment. As a rule, the necessary medicine is dispensed by the medical officers; but sometimes prescriptions are filled at a trustworthy pharmacy, and paid for by the woman, who sends her bill to the department for reimbursement. In such cases, the medical officer indorses the bill before it is approved. Supplies of medicine are furnished to the medical officer by a Boston druggist, who sends his bill to the department monthly. A careful record of each child is kept at the department, giving the flame, age, date of commitment, physical condition, history, result of investigations, location, name of person boarding, visitation, course and treatment of disease, transfer, discharge, or death. When a child is considered eligible for adoption, its photograph is frequently added to the record. These children are under the supervision of the department of Outdoor Poor until they are three years old, or until discharged for adoption, to the town of settlement or to the care of relatives, or by death. At the age of three years, they are transferred to the charge of another department, but in many instances are not removed from their fostermothers, or from the care of the same medical officers as before the transfer. In recent years, the opportunities for obtaining homes by legal adoption into good families have been so great that it is rarely that a child reaches the age of three years without being thus permanently and satisfactorily provided for. No pains are spared to give these charges of the State the best possible start in their physical life, and closer medical oversight is unquestionably received by these children than by those of average families in the Commonwealth. The success of this work is distinctly the result of growth, of experience, of daily observation and scrutiny into the needs of each individual child. The children are watched over by medical officers who

Page  4 4 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES have children of their own, and who have made the study of children's requirements a part of the work of their life; who extend to their charges the same spirit with which they have watched over their own homes, and hesitate at neither fatigue nor exposure in giving to those intrusted to their care timely and faithful service. One of these physicians, and the one upon whom most of this care has devolved in recent years, is' a woman; and it is to her enthusiasm and devotion that the gratifying results in the saving of infant lives are very largely due. Adoption does not necessarily place the child beyond the knowledge of the department and its medical visitors; and frequently the adoptive parents bring in the children, to show their growth and improvement or to ask advice. The method of procedure in cases of adoption is as follows: On receipt of an application for a child, the names and locations of eligible children are given to the applicant; the children are visited, and, if a satisfactory one is found, the home of the applicant is visited, and references are required and investigated. If everything seems satisfactory, the child is placed on trial with the family. If, after a certain length of time, all parties are satisfied and all legal conditions have been complied with, application is made to the Probate Court for legal adoption of the child. In the case of a child's death, occurring in Boston, the city undertaker is notified, the body is buried in Mt. Hope Cemetery, and the grave is numbered, so that the remains can be identified. In out-oftown cases, the child's body is usually buried by the undertaker of the town where the death occurred. In some instances, the persons who boarded the children bury them in their own lots, and at their own expense. The spot is always marked. Funeral services are held over the remains of every deceased child of those boarded out under the charge of the department. Where the death has occurred from a contagious disease, as scarlet fever, the services are held at the house after the burial. There can be no doubt regarding the very great advantages of the system of boarding out the infant children of the State, as compared with the old method of caring for large numbers of them in an institution. But to be successful requires constant, careful, and intelligent supervision. Where this is given, the result will be the saving of many lives, and great improvement in the physical and mental condition of the children.

Page  5 THE CARE AND DISPOSAL OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN 5 THE MICHIGAN LAW FOR THE PROTECTION OF ILL-TREATED CHILDREN. BY C. D. RANDALL, OF COLDWATER, MICH. In I87I, the legislature of Michigan made a new departure in social science, by establishing the State Public School for Dependent Children, the first of its kind ever conducted by any government. The principle of the radical separation of dependent from delinquent children, and the restoration of the former to home life, by the State, as a humane and preventive measure, was original with Michigan, and success has given it a deservedly enviable reputation. Its influence has led to the establishment of similar institutions, and to a modification of ideas and improvements in legislation regarding the subject. In Michigan, it has been followed by laws for the protection of children, for the medical and surgical treatment of dependent children in the State University Hospital at Ann Arbor, for preventing the importation of dependent children from other States, and for the protection of ill-treated children. This paper is intended to show the attitude of Michigan to this class of children (the ill-treated), and especially to call attention to some new legislation. The first sections of the Michigan law for the protection of children, in several respects, follow the precedents of other States. Sections first and second are to prevent a child under sixteen years of age from engaging in public exhibitions, as a gymnast, acrobat, or rider, in begging, or in any occupation injurious to health or dangerous to life, or for any indecent, obscene, or immoral purpose, and prohibit him from being in any dance-house, saloon, variety theatre, etc. Sections third and fourth prohibit the confinement in jail of a child, accused of crime or misdemeanor, in the same room with adult prisoners, and also the retention in county poorhouses of children admissible to the State Public School at Coldwater. Sections fifth and sixth prohibit the sale or gift of obscene books or papers, police reports, etc., to children, or their engaging in the sale of such; and there are severe penalties for parents or guardians who permit children in their custody to engage in any of the proscribed occupations. The next four sections require that all children shall be indentured, or adopted, in substantially the same manner as children are indentured or adopted from the State Public School; namely, in approved families, under contract, etc. These last sections are intended to prevent the importation of dependent children from other States, in the manner

Page  6 6 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES before pursued, by which children were put in families without official approval,- no contracts being made, and no supervision of the children afterwards maintained. The effect was that many of these imported children found their way to the reformatories and other charitable or penal institutions. This law has been effective in discontinuing importations, and is one of the causes leading to the decrease of child dependence and delinquency in Michigan. The provisions of this law prohibiting the retention of dependent children in the county poorhouses prevail also in Pennsylvania and New York, except that the latter State unfortunately provides for the support of these children in sectarian asylums, which greatly increases child pauperism there. As the object of this paper is more especially to present the attitude of Michigan to-day toward the protection of ill-treated children, the five sections enacted at the session of the legislature just closed will be given entire, with remarks:SECTION II. Every child under sixteen years of age, who is illtreated within the meaning of this act by his father, mother, or guardian, is hereby declared to be under the protection of public authority, and may be removed from such parent or guardian as herein provided. SECT. 12. An ill-treated child'is hereby declared to be: First, one whose father, mother, or guardian shall habitually violate or permit such child td violate the provisions of sections I, 2, 5, and 6 of this Act. Second, one whose father, mother, or guardian habitually causes or permits the health of such child to be injured, or his life to be endangered, by exposure, want, or other injury to his person, or causes or permits him to engage in any occupation that will be likely to endanger his health or life, or deprave his morals. Third, one whose father, mother, or guardian is an habitual drunkard, or a person of notorious or scandalous conduct, or a reputed thief or a prostitute, or one who habitually permits him to frequent public places for the purpose of begging or receiving alms, or to frequent the company of or consort with reputed thieves or prostitutes, with or without such father, mother, or guardian; or by any other act or example, or by vicious training, depraves the morals of such child. The definition by law of an ill-treated child in section 12, which applies to the provisions of the previous law for the " Protection of Children," is, without doubt, the most comprehensive of any that has yet been enacted. It is intended to cover the whole ground of moral and physical injury to the child by those in whose custody he may be. There has been in France, for several years, a project of law for the protection of dependent and ill-treated children, which includes provisions for declaring parental rights forfeited in cases of ill-treatment.

Page  7 THE CARE AND DISPOSAL OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN 7 This project, the most extended in its details of any ever written, has passed the Senate and yet lingers in the Chamber of Deputies. The report of Senator Roussel on the subject is a very able one, and comprises about i,ooo quarto pages, covering the whole subject of the dependence and ill-treatment of children. The recent Michigan statute has been drawn with this project in view, and has caught some inspiration from it. The French measure is given in detail and fully described in various numbers of the Bulletin of the SociRti Generale des Prisons. The Probate Court, which has jurisdiction of cases where children are declared dependent on the public and ordered to be sent to the State Public School, has been made, by the recent Michigan statute, the tribunal for protecting ill-treated children, as follows: - SECT. 13. Upon complaint made to the judge of probate of the proper county, that any child has been ill-treated in either manner stated in this Act, he shall examine the complainant on oath, and shall reduce the complaint to writing, and cause the same to be subscribed by the complainant; and, if it shall appear that such offence has been committed, the judge of probate shall issue a writ reciting the substance of the complaint, and require the officer to whom it is directed to forthwith bring the child, so alleged to have been illtreated, and the parent or guardian charged with such ill-treatment, before such judge of probate, to be dealt with according to law: and in the same writ he may require the officer to summon such witnesses as shall be named therein to appear and give evidence on trial. SECT. 14. On the return of such writ with said child and the accused, the judge of probate shall proceed to hear and determine the case. If it shall appear by the returns of the officer that the accused cannot be found in the county, the hearing shall proceed without him. If the child shall be without counsel, it shall be the duty of the prosecuting attorney, on request of the judge of probate, to appear in his behalf. If the accused or counsel for the child shall so request, the judge of probate shall order a jury to be summoned to find the facts in the case, and the judge of probate may in his discretion order a jury on his own motion. The jury so ordered shall be a jury of six persons, and shall be summoned and empanelled in accordance with the law relating to juries in courts held by justices of the peace. If on the hearing the judge of probate shall find, or the verdict of the jury shall determine, that the allegations in the complaint are true, the judge of probate shall make and enter an order that the accused has forfeited his right to the custody of the child during minority, and that the child be disposed of, in the discretion of the judge of probate, by one of the following methods: First, by the appointment of a respectable and suitable person of sufficient means as guardian of the custody and education of the child, who shall not be required to give bonds, unless it shall appear that such child has personal or real property, who shall execute a written agree

Page  8 8 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES ment in form approved by said judge of probate, and filed in said court, which shall provide for the treatment of said child as a member of the family, and for his support and education in the public schools. Upon complaint thereafter made to the judge of probate that said guardian does not faithfully execute the terms of said contract, the judge of probate shall cite said guardian to appear before him, and, if it is then found that the allegations of the complaint are true, the said judge of probate may cancel the contract and make a new order for the disposition of the child, as herein provided. Second, by sending such child, if over two and under twelve years of age and sound in mind and body, to the State Public School at Coldwater, to be there received and to be subject to such disposition as the laws regulating that institution provide. Third, by delivering such child to the superintendents of the poor, if he is under two or over twelve years of age, or is not sound in mind and body, to be by them indentured to some suitable person according to the provisions of sections eight and nine of this Act, or to provide for him by the county as for other poor persons. It is believed that this statute will be operative in Michigan, with other laws, to accomplish the protection of ill-treated children so far as legislation is concerned. It does not provide for every detail, as the French project contemplates. The details of the elaborate system proposed in France may have seriously delayed enactment. There are, however, wanting in the Michigan system some provisions which in time may be added. One is that, where the parents are of sufficient means, they should be required to aid in the support and education of the child of whom their ill-treatment has deprived them. Another provision might restore parental rights where the interests of the child would be promoted by that course. Experience under the statute will in time point out other improvements in the law, which will be made. The last section (I5) in the Michigan Act touches, in some respects, a new field,-that of the protection of children when in the jurisdiction of the courts. It is intended to prevent the restoration of children to parents or guardians merely because of some informality in their commitment to the State Public School. This is its primary object. It is otherwise far-reaching. It introduces no new rule, but puts the common and chancery law into statute, and requires the courts to dispose of the children with a view to their welfare. Having decided under the English and American rule in whose custody the child should be, this statute says: - SECT. 15. In all suits or proceedings in chancery, and in all habeas corpus proceedings, where the custody of any child under sixteen years of age is in controversy, if the court or judge shall be satisfied

Page  9 THE CARE AND DISPOSAL OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN 9 from the evidence that either party to such proceedings would illtreat such child, within the meaning of this Act, if placed in his custody, or otherwise would be unsuitable to have such custody, the said judge or court may order that the other party to such proceedings shall have the custody of such child during minority, if it shall appear to the satisfaction of such judge or court that such other party would be the suitable one to have such custody, and would not ill-treat such child within the meaning of this Act. And, if it shall appear to the satisfaction of the judge or court that neither party to such proceedings is a suitable one to have such custody, the judge or court shall order that the parties to such proceedings have forfeited any rights they may have had to the custody of such child during minority; and the custody of such child during minority shall, in the discretion of such judge or court, be disposed of by such judge or court by either of the methods provided in section fourteen of this Act. The contract, when made and approved by said judge or court, shall be filed in the Probate Court; and the judge of probate of the Probate Court where the contract is filed shall have the same authority to cancel such contract and dispose of the child again, as provided in said section fourteen, as in other cases. This statute is not intended to modify the common law or chancery rule regarding the proper custody of children. It only provides a place for the child when neither party contesting the custody is proper to have it. "In this country, the doctrine is universal that the courts of justice may, in their sound discretion, and when the morals, safety, or interests of the children strongly require it, withdraw their custody from the father and confer it upon the mother, or take the children from both parents and place the care and custody of them elsewhere." * This rule generally prevails in this country, though sometimes ignored by the courts. The same rule is laid down in the Michigan Supreme Court Reports, and reads as follows:In contests of this kind, the opinion is now nearly universal that neither of the parties has any rights that can be allowed to seriously militate against the welfare of the child. The paramount consideration is what is really demanded by its best interests.t This introduction of the question of the protection of ill-treated children and the protection of children in the jurisdiction of the courts is made with the hope that it may result in a more extended discussion of the questions involved, and a consequent improvement in legislation. * This quotation is from Schouler's " Domestic Relations," in which the rule is fully stated. t Corrie vs. Corrie. Graves, J., deciding the case.

Page  10 II. Olye Organization of C~arities. REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. BY REV. OSCAR C. M CULLOCH, OF INDIANAPOLIS, CHAIRMAN. It is now ten years since this Committee took its place in this Conference. At the seventh annual meeting, held in Cleveland in July, i880, I had the honor to read a paper on " Associated Charities." There were at that time ten societies organized on distinctively charity organization principles. The initiative was taken by Buffalo in 1877; then followed Philadelphia, Syracuse, and New Haven in 1878; Boston, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Newport, Indianapolis, and Poughkeepsie in 1879,- ten in all. The June (I889) number of the Philadelphia Register gives the names of 75 societies of organized charity,- societies, that is, which adopt, in whole or in part, the principles of scientific charity as distinguished from mere relief or almsgiving societies. Of these 75, a few have fallen out by the way. But there are quite 70 which may be so classed, and which are to-day living societies. It has been said, "A little one shall become a thousand." We have hardly reached this millennial number, but enough progress is evident to warrant congratulation and to awaken hope. The cities in which these societies are organized are the centres of life and thought of our country. They represent ten millions of population. Almost every large city is organized in whole or in part on these lines. All great movements have been developed in cities. Christianity took possession of the great centres of civilization,Rome, Antioch, Ephesus. To set up a centre of crystallization in a city is to possess the very sources of influence. That the movement may not be great in a city does not speak against it. Anything done on true lines and by right methods may take its appeal to the ages. It will succeed. In addition to the possession of these stra

Page  11 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES II tegic points by the new principles of scientific charity, I note the influence upon older relief societies. This does not show in statistics, nor can it be computed. But it is evident to all that modifications and reorganizations have gone on everywhere. There are few relief societies which are not in some way benefited by the literature issued during the last ten years. Yet another significant sign of the extension of this new movement in charity is the attention given to it by the universities and colleges. Correspondence had with a number of these shows that in Harvard, Yale, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Amherst, the State universities of Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Nebraska, Vanderbilt University, Bryn Mawr College, Ogontz, and others, lectures are given on this and related subjects. The schemes of study as given at Andover Seminary and Johns Hopkins are very full, and include all the literature of the subject. Lectures have also been given at Mt. Holyoke, the Woman's Industrial Union of Buffalo, the St. Louis Public Library, Adelbert College, Cleveland, the Buffalo Law Library, and the Chicago Institute. The entrance into the schools and colleges of the country of the principles which should govern the administration of charity, is but preliminary to their entrance into legislation. We may therefore expect that in the next decade, the laws of the various States governing the administration of public relief and affecting the general character and condition of the poor will be sensibly modified. The literature of scientific charity is already large, and is increasing. The reviews and quarterlies have frequent articles. The yearly reports of the societies are no longer merely records of the pairs of blankets or shoes distributed, but are thoughtful papers on the deeper questions of poverty, pauperism, and their remedies. We may, then, at the end of ten years, thank God, and take courage. Before proceeding to detail, it may be well to restate the principles which underlie organized or scientific charity. They are: - (I) Co-operation of all existing charitable organizations, relief agencies, and benevolent individuals in any city or town. This brings into co-ordination forces which otherwise act independently, and often antagonistically. (2) Registration of all dependent classes, of all relief given or asked, whether public or private; and the exchange of such information among all relief agencies. (3) Investigation of all cases applying for relief, for the purpose of ascertaining the existence of real need, and to discriminate between those who are honest and those who are impostors.

Page  12 12 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES (4) Prompt and adequate relief through affiliated agencies of all needy and deserving cases, and the prompt exposure of all impostors. (5) The substitution of work for physical relief or alms, wherever it can be done, and the establishing of provident schemes and educational methods. (6) The encouragement of personal friendly relations between the well-to-do and the unfortunate. (7) Frequent conferences for the reform of abuses in existing laws, the securing of justice, and the modification of conditions which make for poverty and crime. The idea is to replace individualism by association; for the great evil of society is its individualism in charity, whether of society or citizen,-giving without knowledge as to the condition or cause, without knowing what is being done by others; giving the half-loaf, which is worse than no bread, for it only prolongs starvation; passing by on the other side of those wounded or broken. Thus scientific charity is but love working in association, intelligently, by natural methods, to large ends. SURVEY OF SOCIETIES. In the Conference in Buffalo (i888), at a meeting of the Committee on Organization of Charity, a form was prepared providing for the collecting of information which should insure uniformity. The result has been, in the main, satisfactory; though some of the societies find it impossible as yet to use it. This form is appended to this report, and will be printed with it, in order that it may be the basis for future reports. Since the last Conference, the following new societies have been organized: Denver (Col.), Kansas City (Mo.), and the Associated Charitable Workers of St. Louis. The following societies have disbanded: Moline, Ill., Omaha, Neb., Paterson, N.J., and Northampton, Mass. We call attention to the fact that this Committee is not of Charity Organization Societies, but "The Committee for the Organization of Charities"; and, as such, it includes all societies organized for the permanent re4ef of the poor. There are yet many societies of long standing and honorable history which are not in correspondence or co-operation. It is desirable to interest all these. There are, as already said, about 70 living societies organized on the basis of the principles which underlie scientific charity. A few have disbanded. "They did run well: what did hinder them?" A

Page  13 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES I3 too great enthusiasm at the first; an ignorance of the principles of the new movement. The expectation of early results was too large; the patience with fellow-workers was too little. Certainly, there is need of such an organization in every city and town. The conditions of need and suffering are everywhere. The poor are always with us. The danger and loss through delay are great. But there are needed an earnest purpose, the consecration as to a cause. Each society passes through various stages of sentiment and enthusiasm into steady, hard, every-day work. "There is no discharge in that war." In the end, devotion to the cause because it is good, because it is the only and highest good, gains its own reward in the consciousness of having brought order out of confusion in some little part of the world. We find 70 societies, strong and earnest, doing good work,-not all they meant to do, nor all they hope to do, but pressing forward. The principles of scientific charity are fixed, but the methods differ according to the varying conditions. So no one society is like another. One emphasizes one point, one another. It is well that it is so. In this way, the principle of individuality has its largest play. Of these societies, reports have been received from 48. The statistics are therefore incomplete. But the reports from the great social centres are received. The societies that are doing the best work have reported. Non-reports are in part due to the fact that the forms now adopted are not yet understood, or are not uniform with the forms of the non-reporting societies. It is not easy to report a society's work in the somewhat iron forms which modern sociology requires. The population represented by the reporting societies is about ten millions, as follows: Cities of 500,000 and over, 5; cities of 250,ooo and over, 7; cities of Ioo,ooo and over, 9; cities under Ioo,ooo, 27. Of these societies, 20 give no relief from their own funds; o1 give relief; and the remaining societies give relief occasionally,some by work. A few have been the channels through which public relief has been distributed. Some are in small places where no other organization exists. The attitude of all is that relief should not, if possible, be distributed from the funds of the societies, but that it should be obtained from affiliated agencies. There can be, of course, no hard and fast line drawn in this matter; but, the more a society depends upon physical relief, and the more of a fund it has to dispense, the less will it resort to its great fundamental principle of helping a man to help himself. Branch organizations are maintained by 15 societies, and these,

Page  14 I4 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES of course, in the larger cities. Paid officials number about I70. Friendly visitors number 3,356, as compared with 3,560 of last year. This is an apparent loss, but it is due to several societies not reporting this year; 12 societies report their visitors as increasing, 15 as stationary, and 2 as decreasing. No part of our work is so difficult as this, for no part of the work is so hard. It is easy to give money to relieve distress; but, if this is denied him, the average person asks, "What am I here for then?" To visit weekly, to wait patiently for minute improvement, tax the patience of all. But, in its most perfect form, organized charity will be but a group of friendly visitors; and, when society shall have reached its highest, the question of Cain, "Am I my brother's keeper? " will be replaced by the word of the Christ, " I am my brother's friend." In co-operation, we find that the statistics are unsatisfactory. It s doubtful if they can ever be accurate. We can never know how fully the public is uniting with us. There will long remain the jealousy of privilege on the part of the public official, the sentiment that such matters are private and personal on the part of charitable societies and churches, and the indifference of the private and indiscriminate giver. This is no new complaint. Mr. Crooker, in " The Origin of Scientific Charity in Hamburg," founded in I787, states: "The managers of the Hamburg Institution have found it difficult to secure the hearty co-operation of some of the private charitable foundations which exist in that city. And, just so far as these private charities persist in going their own way, to that extent institutions have been crippled and the evils of pauperism fostered. This is the great obstacle in the way of charity organization to-day,-the unwillingness of private corporations, especially churches, to submit to supervision and direction. But no system for the care of the poor and the suppression of pauperism can be successful unless every individual and church co-operates loyally with the central office." In the main, we find that there is a marked increase in co-operation. This is due to the better understanding of the principles and methods. When the organized charities first appeared, it was thought that they had come to criticise. It is now felt that they have come to help. Their records are full and accurate. The sources from which they can supply aid are many. Especially is this true in respect of public relief. The constantly changing official sees that, in the organized charity, he can find aid in advice and information. So true is this that several societies have virtual control over public relief. Churches are slow to realize the benefits of co-operation,

Page  15 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES Is and yet no class needs it so much: none are so imposed upon by tramp-members, by those who, in the sacred name of religion, ply their trade. Several city pastors in Indianapolis made visits on one man, last Thanksgiving Day, who had applied to each for church membership. It was to the credit of their pastoral zeal, but a final inquiry at the office of the Charity Organization Society made the cause of the applications evident. Private benevolence is the last to co-operate. Each person thinks that the case he or she is interested in, is the one exception to the rule that every case needs investigation. As a whole, 15 societies report co-operation as increasing; 10, as stationary; the remainder do not estimate, and do not report. The statistics on registration are equally unsatisfactory. There is a growing registration on the part of public charities. Boston, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Cambridge, Camden, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, New York, and Davenport report perfect registration. Only 21 societies report conferences,- some district, some general, others both. In Indianapolis, several large conferences were held, to consider the subject of neglected children. The result was the passing of a satisfactory bill by the legislature. Without doubt, this is a most important point. District or weekly conferences, held for the pur — pose of deciding upon cases, are indispensable, else the whole work will become merely that of secretaries, or paid officials; while general conferences are needed to keep alive the public interest and to quicken the public conscience. All those that maintain their conferences report that they are helpful. CASES TREATED DURING THE YEAR. Our new forms are not yet so well understood that the statistics can be considered as of value on this point. The total number of cases treated is 76,719; but it is not certain whether these represent families or individuals. The societies have not yet become so acquainted with the new forms that they give satisfactory answers. It is desirable that in reporting we should discriminate between families and individuals, and between new cases and recurrent cases; also to designate transients and tramps. The disposition of these cases into. "needing continuous relief," "needing temporary relief," "needing work rather than relief," "those to whom no relief should be given," requires more careful discrimination. We can say, however, that an increasing number of dependants come under the supervision and treatment of these societies; that aid needed is given, adequately

Page  16 i6 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and continuously, instead of spasmodically, and in the form of dole; that work, education, provident schemes, friendly advice, are being substituted for physical alms. It is, of course, a satisfaction to think that of the vast number applying for relief, so many were disposed of by the higher methods of the new charity. But it is evident that these figures tell no complete story. The visitor has made many visits which here find no record; the friendly visitor has gone into many homes; there have been many consultations by committees, and patient dealing with entangled questions for weeks. Nature keeps no tally of the drops of rain that fall, or of the dew that distils; but the earth is green and fruitful or dry and barren as the rainfall is much or little. So with case-treatment. We may not be able to tell just what has been the result in a given case. Some bread cast on the waters returns only after many days. "In the morning sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold not thine hand; for who knoweth which shall prosper, this or that? " What we do know is, that there is a general improvement in the condition of the poor; there is a more kindly feeling, a confidence and trust; money is easy to get; the beggars disappear; tramps forsake the region. PROGRESS. It is rather by general conditions than by statistics that we note progress; and the following extracts show the estimate placed upon success:Baltimore, Md.- "More co-operation than ever, from churches and benevolent individuals. Other charities adopting our methods. Greatly increased numbers of investigations. Greater facilities for handling cases. Enlarged subscription lists." Boston, Mass.- " Gain in visitors. Better finances." Castleton, L.I.-" Special work in the abolishment of temporary out-door relief. Successful operation of Savings Society." Buffalo, NV. Y.-" Prospective enlargement of Society. Two additional investigating agents." Camden,. 7.-" Office open continuously through the year. The city distributes relief through the Society. This betters the condition of things until we can see our way clear to abolish public out-door relief altogether." Chicago, III.- " After several conferences between the directors of the Relief and Aid Society, and those of the Charity Organization Society, it was thought best to merge the two Societies, creating a Bureau of Associated Charities, as part of the work of the Relief and Aid Society, and carrying part of the directors of the Charity Organi

Page  17 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES I7 zation Society into the new board. The new Bureau was put under care of Mr. W. A. Johnson, formerly Secretary of the Charity Organization Society, and is now in successful operation. The district offices and the wood-yard are kept open. Mr. Johnson has since accepted the position of Secretary of the Board of State Charities of Indiana; but the influence of his work in Chicago will be permanent." Cincinnati, Ohio.- " Society secured passage of a law placing the care of female prisoners of the city workhouse under the management of a board of ladies, whose aim will be to make it reformatory in character instead of penal. Also, establishment of a house of detention for females; a boys' and girls' home, separate from stationhouse prisoners." Cleveland, Ohio.-" Satisfactory co-operation with City Infirmary, Women's Home, and Wayfarer's Lodge. Citizens make frequent use: of our agents." Davenport, la.- " Growing feeling of confidence. People are sending their applicants to us for investigation. First year of Penny Savings Agency just closed with satisfactory results." Detroit, Mich.-" Progress in overcoming prejudice against our methods of work. In the matter of co-operation, larger numbers of cases referred to us by private citizens; also, from churches and Societies. More favorable feeling on the subject of indiscriminate almsgiving." Denver, Col.-[An interesting experiment in Denver, in the collecting of funds for various charities, is reported in full]: - "On the Sunday evening before Thanksgiving Day, I888, eleven charities came together in the Opera House for an anniversary meeting. The eleven joined together, and appointed an executive committe to make one collection for the eleven. The executive committee divided the city into trades and professions, and appointed a committee of solicitation. When the canvass had been so nearly made that it was known how much money was in sight, the executive committee apportioned itpro rata, the basis being expense accountmade by a book-keeper - of the individual charity for the preceding six months. The executive committee hold the money and deal it out in monthly instalments, and reserve the right to vary the apportionment according to the varying efficiency of the charity. The plan of pooling for collection purposes has saved much time and weariness, and is popular with business men. Hope to have all the charities in the pool for the next canvass. Have raised $2,0ooo in subscriptions for the pool of eleven." Fall River, Mass.- " Society began active work June, I888. Took cases that were being aided by the overseers of the poor. Found much unnecessary aid. As a result of this, a closer watch is kept upon the cases aided by the overseer of the poor. Special aid by friendly visitors. Visible improvement in cleanliness." Indianapolis, Ind.-"Society secured the passage of a bill for a Board of State Charities, which was duly organized, with special

Page  18 t8 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES appropriation; also, the passage of a bill creating a Board of Children's Guardians, which has power to take children from vicious associations, and place them in homes. The Dime Savings and Loan Association reports 492 members, holding 1,361 shares, to the amount of $3,938. The receipts for six months were $3,I41.53. The Association has $2,oo00 loaned out, and has declared a 5 per cent. dividend on the business of six months." Kansas City, Mo. —This is a new society, organized in October, i888, under the care of Mr. Ferguson, of the Kansas City Provident Society. Lynn, Mass.-" Increased confidence of friends and subscribers. Families visited, and workers coming to us for information." Milwaukee, Wis. —"We find ourselves constantly gaining in the,confidence of the public. No difficulty in securing funds. Business mnen know and, appreciate the steady decrease in beggary and im-;posture. Charities and churches more often co-operate with us. County authorities work with us." Minneapolis, Minn.-" Have increased the number of small contributors. Are much better known, and have increased our usefulness by adding an employment bureau. Have made special efforts in child-saving work by co-operation with the new State public school law." Newburg, N. Y —"Society has raised more money during the past year than ever before, and gains steadily the confidence of the public." New York.-" Progress has been fair and satisfactory. 325 new members added. Improved quality of our work. New and better spirit infused into the charitable system of the city. Inauguration of a Penny Savings Fund, and a laundry for the training of women." Bridgeport, Ct.- "Bought and occupy a new home. Trained 5 young girls as house servants; 36 children cared for in the day nursery. An educational and industrial laundry furnishes work to women. Have a girls' evening club and kitchen garden and sewingschool." Plainfield, N.y7.- "Night school started by our society has been adopted by the public school board. A similar school for women was also organized. Just organized a Provident Savings Committee. This society distributes for the city the weekly provision orders for the poor. We are thus enabled to have supervision of public relief." Portland, Me..- "The interest and value of the work have been on the increase. The principles and methods are becoming better understood." Quincy, III.- "We are led to believe that the work of our society in an educational way has been of benefit." Salem, N y.- "We have reason for encouragement. Are able to secure necessary funds to carry on our work." Spring7feld, Ohio.-" Many of our hitherto dependent, through the encouragement and instruction of visitors, are well on the way toward self-helpfulness."

Page  19 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES x9 Syracuse, V YIK- "More cordial relations and more effective cooperation with the poor officials. Significant reductions in the amount given in public relief. Diminution in number receiving aid." Taunton, Mass.-" The overseers of the poor, with the help of the Associated Charities, have lessened the out-door relief." NEW LINES OF WORK. A society of organized charity is to a city what a State Board is to a State. It surveys the whole field of municipal charities. In response to the question, " Outside of your own society, what progress has been made in the establishment of new charities or the undertaking of new kinds of work by existing charities?" the following replies have been received:Baltimore, Md.- "Johns Hopkins Hospital opened May 7, I889. Number of free wards, where patients who are unable to pay will be admitted free if it is thought that their cases will be improved by treatment. Hospital has an endowment of $3,500,000. Home for Feeble-minded, with large endowment, opened this year." Boston, Mass.- " Sarah Fuller Home for little deaf children over two and a half years old, or too young for our public day schools for the deaf. St. Dominic's Home, boarding Catholic children, has enlarged its work. New model tenement-house. Two reading-rooms for girls. Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals provides ambulance for animals. North End Mission employs two Italian missionaries. St. Vincent de Paul Society organized a conference of colored men. Coffee-house opened by different organizations. Diet kitchen opened in Roxbury. Children's Aid Society place home libraries of fifteen volumes each in charge of a child at home." Castlelon, L.-" Secretary of Savings Society reports 27 collectors, more than 500 savers, over $2,000 collected, over $2,000 paid back, a large part of which, was deposited in savings-banks." Cincinnati, Ohio.-" Two new homes for incurables have been established,- one by the Catholics, one by the Hebrews. A third home -non-sectarian - is in process of establishment. A children's hospital, free of charge to all, regardless of race or creed, is open." Davenport, la.- " The Women's Alliance, consisting of ten different societies, have combined to provide a police matron. City Council agrees. A Workingwomen's "Lend-a-hand" Club, organized among working-girls, favors a scheme for educating them to carefully husband their resources and to maintain general helpfulness to each other and toward the helpless and friendless." Indianapolis, Ind. — "The Free Kindergarten Society has now seven schools open, and a kitchen garden. St. Vincent's Hospital is

Page  20 20 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES very much enlarged. Home for Aged Women is being organized. Bill passed for the suppression of cruelty to children. Bill passed for night schools in cities; also, for the opening of kindergartens by city school boards." Louisville, Ky.- "Act passed for the suppression of vagrancy; also, one for the protection of destitute children." Milwaukee, Wis. —" A Children's Fresh Air Fund sent over a hundred children to the country for two weeks each. Charity Relief Association has granted loans to many poor families, keeping them from the poor list, and enabling them to escape the exactions of usurious money-lenders. A Woman's Christian Friendly Society has established an employment bureau for girls. The Young Men's Christian Association has sustained a coffee and soup house through the winter. The school children have shown an unusual interest in the poor, and have given large quantities of food and clothing. Several churches have joined with us and with each other in caring for the poor, having districted a large part of the west side, each church taking a definite territory and working in co-operation with us. All. posts of the Grand Army of the Republic now unite in the relief work, appointing a central relief committee. A Soldier's Relief Commission grants pensions to soldiers and their families from a State fund. All the above agencies co-operate with us heartily, both in work and methods." Minneapolis, Minn.- " A change in the State Public School law of 1885, admitting children from two to fourteen years of age, and extending its breadth so as to reach not only dependent children, but those exposed to gross immorality, cruelty and neglect." New Brunswick, N.J.-" Have added a circulating library. The number of savers has more than doubled during the year, many of the savings-books being taken out by families that have been under the care of the Charity Organization." Newport, R.. — " Successful establishment of industrial school for girls. Substantial co-operation between the overseers of the poor and this society, as heretofore." NVew York.- "Resources for the care of convalescents and incurables have shown marked increase, although still greatly inadequate." New Orleans, La.- "The Ladies' Unsectarian Aid Society has established a training-school for nurses." Wilmington, Del. — " Probability of the establishment of a manual training-school. Funds appropriated for the purchase or erection of suitable buildings for a State Insane Asylum. Proposed appointment of a police matron." Plainfield, N.J —"We have no poorhouse in the county or city. The poor are boarded out, and many abuses arise from this cause." Pougkhkeepsie, N. Y.-"An orphan asylum, endowed by the late John Guy Vassar, has been incorporated, but is not yet in operation.'

Page  21 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 21 CHANGES IN INSTITUTIONS OR LAWS. A few changes in institutions supported by taxation and the law affecting charitable matters are reported:Boston, Mass.-" Marcella Street Home boards out 105 children. A limited license law reduced our licensed liquor places one-half, May I, I889. Improvement in law concerning education of employed children." Castleton, LI. —"Committee of the supervisors of Richmond County on the investigation of the superintendents of the poor report that the system of out-door relief prevailing now in most counties is vicious; and they are advised by their counsel that it is illegal. They notify the superintendents that hereafter the board of supervisors will test other items of disbursement made for out-door or temporary relief not warranted by law." Buffalo, N.. — "A proposed new charter for the city includes a very satisfactory chapter governing official relief, under which it is hoped to reduce it to a minimum, and to eliminate all politics from its administration." Cincinnati, Ohio.- " Very decided improvement in the management of the City Infirmary." To sum up: The progress, while not so marked as in other years, is sure, and in directions which are important: The instruction given in colleges, the diffusion of literature, the growing public confidence, the more systematic handling of cases, the extension of the principle into provident schemes, savings societies, and educational methods, and the general hopefulness. Wherever the new method obtains, there follow clearer ideas of what is to be done, and the multiplication of charitable agencies of the finer kind. This seems little, when compared with "The fierce, confederate storm of sorrow, Barricadoed evermore within the walls of cities "; but it is something. The company that gathered about the Christ were few, and made slight impress upon the misery of that age. Yet when they came back with joy, saying, "Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name," he lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, "I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven." It was a far cry, a long, long thought; but, in the enthusiasm for humanity, he saw the ultimate fall of evil. So with those who work earnestly in the new method of charity. Though long years may come and go before they have realized their hope, yet, since they know they are right, they take their appeal to the ages, and say, "It will come! "

Page  22 22 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES FORM FOR REPORT TO THE COMMITTEE ON ORGANIZATION OF CHARITY. NAME AND ADDRESS OF SOCIETY REPORTING (Give full address) A Date of Organization Population of your City or Town Does your Society dispense relief directly from its own funds? B Have you District or Ward branches? (If yes) What methods have you adopted for securing harmonious action by the several branches, and with what success? C Do you employ paid Officers and Agents? How many? How many volunteer Visitors have you? How many other volunteer workers? Does your supply of volunteer workers meet the demand of the work? Is this supply Increasing, Stationary, or Diminishing? What methods have you tried to keep up and increase this supply, and with what results? D What degree of Co-operation have you attained in the treatment of cases? I. Charitable Societies (out-door relief) 2. Charitable Institutions (in-door relief) 3. Churches? 4. Private benevolence (individual relief) 5. Public official relief (supplied from taxation.) a. Out-door b. In-door N.B.-Express degree by per cent. ioo per cent. being PERFECT; o being NONE. Is this degree Increasing, Stationary, Diminishing, or Not Estimated? -What per cent. of the above agencies Register with you? I? 2? 3? 4? 5? E Do you attempt to bring together the District Committees, Friendly Visitors, and representatives of the various agencies for relief, etc., by means of CONFERENCES for the consideration of cases? Do you have Conferences similarly composed for the consideration of the more general aspects of the work? (If yes) What is the place, and degree of importance, of each sort of Conference in your system?

Page  23 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 23 What has been the success of each? (If no) What other methods do you use to effect the same end, and with what success? F How many cases were treated by you during your last year? I. In how many of these was it decided thata.- Continuous Relief should be given (including aged, incurable, orphans, and others likely to need aid two years or more), b. —Temporary Relief should be given (because of illness, accident, or unusual temporary trouble), c.- Work was needed rather than relief (the able and willing out-of-work cases; those fit, by reason of infirmities or family cares, only for special kinds of work; and the shiftless and intemperate, where reform may be hoped for), d.- No relief should be given (including those having property, or relatives able to support, -the hopelessly vicious, shiftless, and intemperate, and professional beggars and frauds), Total, 2. For how many of the above cases was a.- In-door or Out-door Relief procured through Co-operation of: I. Private charities (In-door),. 2. Private charities (Out-door),. 3. Public charities- taxation (In-door), 4. Public charities - taxation (In-door), Total, omitting duplicates, b.- Permanent Employment secured? c.- Temporary Employment (other than Charity work, —church-sewing, wood-sawing, etc.) secured? d.- How many were seemingly made self-supporting by work, emigration, adequate relief, or otherwise? e.- How many frauds exposed or suppressed? G How many cases were investigated by you for Institutions, Churches, Societies, and private persons? H What progress has your Society made in the past business year, and how is this shown? (Answer this and the following questions at such length as seems best on the opposite page.) Outside of your own Society, what progress in the establishment of new private charities or the undertaking of new kinds of work by existing charities? What changes in institutions supported by taxation or in the law affecting charitable or related matters?

Page  24 24 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES SCIENTIFIC CHARITY. BY MRS. GLENDOWER EVANS, OF BOSTON. In olden times, when people believed that the world was created out of hand just as we find it,- rivers, oceans, and mountains as we know them now,- they naturally felt that the social order, too, was a direct creation of God. He arranged society, placing the king on his throne and the serf in his hovel. That the rich man should feed the beggar at his gate, content that he should be a beggar all his life, seemed to our fathers a part of the divine order. But, with the growth of the scientific spirit, people learned to understand, in a measure, how the world came to be what it is; causation was seen to be no arbitrary fiat, but an orderly and intelligible sequence. No longer the blind instrument of an inscrutable necessity, Man, by cooperating with Nature, could rule the forces which before ruled him. The pestilence, once passively accepted as God's visitation, only to be averted by prayer and fasting, was seen to be a consequence of dirt and bad drainage, and to be averted by healthful sanitary conditions. Man ceased to be the sport of his environment, as he mastered the causes whence it sprang. All Nature he found responsive to his touch: even the winds and the waves became his obedient messengers. Filled now with a new sense of power, we turn from our conquests over the physical world to ask if our social order may not likewise be the result of forces which may be understood, and therefore modified. Why are some people rich and others poor? Why is Nature so bountiful to one man and so niggardly to another? In a land running over with plenty, we find a multitude of people unable to earn their bread. Why should these things be? and have we ourselves done anything to cause them? we ask with a new ambition to conquer human suffering, as the steam-engine and the telegraph have conquered time and space. Then, too, the democratic spirit has taught us to question all privilege, to demand for each human being a chance, as far as possible, for the best things of life. We see that it is a wretched thing for a human being to be forced to beg his bread. Whether he gets the bread or not, his condition is a pitiable one; and our passion for equality makes us want the beggar to share the prosperity which we prize so highly for ourselves,-the prosperity which springs from the control which energy and forethought and intelligence give man over the resources of Nature.

Page  25 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 25 This double demand - first, to understand the causes of poverty, and, second, to remove the poverty itself, to help the poor to be no longer poor-lies at the root of modern charity. With this large end in view, we are now trying to deal with our social problem. To our fathers the facts seemed very simple. Why the poor were poor they did not ask: one thing was plain,- that they were hungry, - and that was all the rich need know. The want might be caused by sickness or ignorance or vice, but one remedy was given to all. A multitude of starving people had one common need, that of bread; and bread could be distributed like rations to an army. We on the other hand, now recognize that in the cause of poverty lies the whole secret of the remedy. To treat a multitude of poor people as if they had a common need is as wild as it would be to treat all sick people as if they had the same disease. Social conditions are the fruit of physical, economic, and moral forces; and as various as are the characters and circumstances of human beings, so various may be the causes of poverty. Our army of poor is made up of individuals, and must be met by individual knowledge and help. From the recognition of this necessity has grown our modern system of Organized or Associated Charities. These societies, now established in over seventy of our American towns and cities, bear the motto, " Not alms, but a friend." Their foremost tenet is that almsgiving is only a part of charity, and should always be accompanied by intelligent, individual work. Increased relief-giving, however desirable, is by no means the crying need of to-day. Alms are already given with a comparative abundance, laudable in itself, but in painful contrast to the scarcity of workers and to their lack of economic understanding. Charity organizations are one expression of the now wide-spread effort to bring to bear upon our social problem the light and the power of this intelligent, individual work. In every community are hundreds of young people whose hearts are beating high with the desire to help the poor, but who have neither the knowledge as to how it can be done, nor the initiative to start out on that brave crusade alone. To bid these young enthusiasts, without training or experience, to go and scatter doles among the hungry, would often allow them to do incalculable damage, really to satisfy their own emotions. Yet to bid them hold back their eager hands would stifle their generous impulses and wrong the destitute who cry aloud for rescue. Scientific charity, however, sees in all this random effort valuable material from which to create its individual workers. As visitors, directed by an organization, these young

Page  26 26 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES people may become most efficient helpers of the poor, reaping, with little danger to society, the experience which others by years of painful effort may have won. The Associated Charities thus attempts in a large way to be an intelligent medium between the needy and the charitable. It endeavors by personal visiting to gain the individual knowledge necessary for wise charity, and by a careful system of registration, to put'the information so gained in an available shape. The poor may thus be directed to the appropriate sources of supply; and the charitable may find, by some surer method than chance, those in need of the help they have to give, be it advice, encouragement, medical attendance, work, or money. Evils of overlapping and neglect are thus in large part avoided, and the honest poor are protected from confusion with vagrants and impostors. The methods of the Associated Charities are so devised as to preserve in corporate charity the spirit which should guide all wise dealings between the rich and the poor. By registration, it seeks to make possible the discrimination which, as relief comes to be administered by societies to numbers of applicants, must otherwise, of necessity, be lost; and, by its system of friendly visiting, it preserves the personal relations which are essential to all healthy charity. Its central office, like a clearing-house, reduces a heterogeneous mass of demand and supply into orderly and effective relations; and its visitors, seeking the poor in their homes, claim these " cases " as brothers, and say, " Let me learn to understand your trouble, and try to help you, if I can." For human nature is far too subtle a thing to be investigated in one or two interviews. A physician may, perhaps, by a few skilful questions discover the nature of a disease, and then prescribe a remedy which should be the same in all cases of a kind. But to understand character and the difficulties of getting on in life is a task that must require a personal knowledge and discrimination which can only grow out of intercourse akin to friendship. Therefore, modern charity says, " Know your poor people, and know them well, before you even dream of prescribing a remedy." To establish this friendly relation must therefore be the first aim of a visitor; and this it is usually not hard to do. Poor people's lives are very meagre, and they quickly respond to sympathy and kindness. When once they find that a visitor calls not with money in her hand, but with the desire to know them as friends, they will gladly talk about their troubles and seek for advice. This sense of the sympathy and human fellowship of the rich and fortunate of itself does much to mitigate the barrenness of

Page  27 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 27 the poor man's lot. The visitor, meanwhile, is in a position to study the nature of the trouble, and, as its source becomes apparent, to try to modify or remove it. Too often it will be found that the root of the evil lies in the characters of the poor themselves, —in habits of laziness, shiftlessness, intemperance, or vice, which have reduced them to an irregular and meagre subsistence. To such people, almsgiving, far from being the universal remedy, is a simple aggravation of the trouble. For demand and supply are the law of life as well as of trade. In Nature's economy, strength tends to appear where it is called for; and strength will degenerate into weakness when another supplies the needs one could and should supply for one's self. When, therefore, the lazy man finds that he gets on just as well without working, he will be less and less inclined to work. So of intemperance; for the drunkard to find that, when he fails to provide for his family, his prosperous neighbors do so, is to place a direct premium on drunkenness. Why should such people care to work to buy their children food and clothes, when they can get them for nothing for the asking? Moreover, alms to the improvident do not even relieve their material needs, for by no device can we permanently stand between a man and his own character. Others can never take as good care of him as he could take care of himself; and indiscriminate charity is by its very nature insufficient and uncertain,- it first encourages a man to be idle, and then keeps him on the verge of starvation. When, then, the visitor finds that the difficulty in a family springs from their moral condition, she must know that for them alms are not food, but poison. The only hope must lie in somehow bringing to bear influences to rouse their energy and self-control. Take, for instance, a shiftless family, just living from hand to mouth and temporarily stranded in need: whether help comes in the form of alms or of stimulus to work may be the turning-point in the lives of unborn generations. Or take a family already sunk into dependence: should an opening for work be offered and the alms at the same time withdrawn, the chance and the push together may reclaim them to self-support. Then there are the children,- often they can be helped when little can be done for the parents. The visitor may have to stand by and see them grow up in squalid homes, doing the little she can to win their confidence and cheer their lives, and watching till some moment comes to befriend them. They can be supplied with story books or growing plants, or sent on "the Country Week"; they can be urged to attend sewing-school and

Page  28 28 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES kitchen garden, or to join industrial or social clubs; often, when sick, the visitor can secure them the medical attendance which their shiftless or ignorant parents would neglect, providing diet-kitchen orders, or perhaps special treatment or surgical apparatus, or a recruiting season at a country or seaside sanitarium. And, when old enough, they may be influenced toward healthful work, proper clothes sometimes being provided as an outfit. Best of all, the visitor may succeed in really winning their affections, so that, as these young people grow up, they may learn to look to her as a friend and guide in life. Some other families there may be on whom the attraction of opportunity and the push of necessity are alike wasted. The parents are idle and vicious, and the children are growing up to beggary and crime. In such a case, the course is plain: relief in the home should never be given, it is like adding a brand to the burning. Whenever possible, the officers of the law should be called upon to rescue the children from their unworthy parents, and in institutions, or, better still, in country households where they may be placed at board or by adoption, they can be trained in thrift and virtue. The parents, meanwhile, should be held to the alternative of work or the almshouse. If society must support those who could and should support themselves, let it be done in the way least likely to corrupt the community; let those who refuse every office of citizenship at least be restrained from preying upon our social life. These instances may serve to illustrate what a visitor may do to help the poor who cannot be helped by alms. The variations of the situation are infinite, but the principle involved is always the same. By any and every means, charity must be an endeavor to raise character, not simply to avert the painful consequences of lack of character. This principle should always be kept well in mind; but, as will be seen later, it is a principle often difficult of application. Another series of cases will be found where poverty springs from some temporary misfortune, perhaps from some lack of adjustment between the demand and supply of labor. The visitor's work must then be to try to remove the flaw, to bring the labor to the market where it is in demand, and never to treat an able-bodied workman to a dole of bread till he and his children degenerate into paupers. The records of charity organizations all through the land will show in how many instances the added energy or intelligence, or perhaps the wider chances of information, of the visitor, have been just the one thing needed to save a family from dependence. But there are many cases where poverty springs from clear mis

Page  29 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 29 fortune,- where old age, or illness, or the death of the bread-winner, creates a need which can only be relieved by alms. To leave such people to pick up a precarious living by begging is to condemn them to suffering and degradation. The visitor should plead their cause with the charitable public, and see that adequate relief is obtained. For experience shows it to be usually wiser that the help should not be given directly by the visitor. Many people can visit who cannot afford to give money, and if it were the custom for the visitor to be likewise an almsgiver, those who could not afford to give alms would often refuse to visit; the poor would thus lose some of their best friends. Moreover, it is difficult to combine the office of visiting and almsgiving without a loss either of confidence in the friendship or of discrimination in the alms. It is astonishing how generally this is found true. The poor are less self-respecting and less frank when they feel that the visitor's purse will open if they move her pity; and the visitor is too apt to give only as her feelings of the moment prompt. It is almost impossible, in the face of apparent need and with one's own resources to draw on, to be judicially-minded. One is often tempted, in such circumstances; to give just a Zittle, to save the embarrassment of seeming mean or unkind. So painful a position is saved entirely when the aid is drawn from some other source. Another danger in the double relation is the tendency in the visitor to rest satisfied with the beneficent glow of almsgiving, and to forget the larger and more difficult duty of friendship. " Not alms, but a friend," means not that alms are too much, but too little. So the rule that the functions of almsgiver and friend shall be kept separate is found wiser. This rule, however, has many exceptions; but in them it will generally be found that the friendly relation was well established before the visitor began giving alms. This theory of separating the offices of visiting and almsgiving implies, of course, a cordial co-operation between the charity organizations and the relief-giving societies. This point is of the very first importance, for without it both visiting and alms become futile. We have seen that alms without visiting fail of their purpose, are a curse to the poor rather than a blessing; and visiting without relief would be inhuman. This co-operation, therefore, is assumed as the first essential of an efficient or scientific charity. It will be often found at first that the poor have such distorted notions of their relations with the rich that their only conception of the visitor is as an almsgiver, and their only desire is to get all the

Page  30 30 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES help they can. It is, however, generally possible to imbue them with healthier ideas. They can gradually be made to understand, sometimes by a direct explanation, why the visitor does not bring them alms, and that it is harmful to themselves to receive help they can possibly do without. When this can be accomplished, it is a great gain. The visitor should always endeavor, in obtaining relief, to get it from one source rather than from several. Also, it should be adequate, and should continue until some new conditions make it unnecessary. There is no charity in giving the children of a sick man half enough to eat, and forcing them to beg the other half. There is no charity in giving them plenty to-day, and then next week, while he still lies ill, capriciously stopping the aid. But to see that the need of aid really continues the same, and that the people are not becoming disposed to abuse it, a family should always be carefully visited all the time the aid continues. Often, as health returns, as death releases the sufferer, as children grow old enough to earn, the aid can be gradually withdrawn. In such cases, the advice of a visitor who knows the family well is indispensable. The visitor's responsibility has really only begun with the first recommendation for charity. As to the sources from which the aid may be drawn, they are threefold: First, there is the taxable property of the whole body of citizens, a portion of which may be distributed in alms by the Overseers of the Poor. Such aid is known as public out-door relief. Second, there is the beneficence of private individuals, which we may call B. I. (i.e., Benevolent Individual) relief. And, third, there are the voluntary relief-giving societies. The first form of alms,- public out-door relief,- being money taken from one class by force and given to another class as a right, is, of course, not charity at all. It is open to a threefold objection: first, it unjustly increases the burden of taxation on the large class of our citizens who have at best a hard struggle to support their families; second, it is demoralizing to the rich to feel that the tax-gatherer will provide for the needy and thus relieve them of their responsibility; and, third, and chiefly, it debauches the poor to be taught that they have a lawful claim upon the public treasury for maintenance in their homes. Many people who would exert themselves to the utmost rather than go to the almshouse easily learn to rely upon help from the Overseer as a substitute for their own exertions. Private charity, which must be asked as an obligation, not demanded as a right, is found far less apt to demoralize the recipients. Moreover, it cannot

Page  31 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 31 be drawn on indefinitely; for any one would know if he were asked to double his charitable contributions, while who knows if the poor-rate has been greater or less any given year? Whether carefully or lavishly spent rests solely with the Overseer, and inquiry will show many instances where its administration has resulted in robbery of the tax-payer and debauchery to the recipients of the alms.* For instance, in Centre Township, Indiana, in which is the city of Indianapolis, previous to 1876 it was customary to give about $90,000 a year in out-door relief: after that date, a new township trustee found $8,ooo a year enough. Again, in Providence, R.I., in I878, $150,051 was given in out-door relief: a labor test reduced the demand in I879 to $7,333, and in i880 to $4,736. Sometimes the poor-rates have even been used as a fund for political corruption: such is supposed to have been the case in Brooklyn and Philadelphia before the system was abolished. However explained, the astonishing fact remains that whereas in Brooklyn, previous to 1878, an average of $II9,000 was annually distributed, after that date all out-door relief was entirely stopped; and the result was no increase in suffering among the poor and no increase in the demands on private charity. And the same was true in Philadelphia when out-door relief was abolished there. Private charity, of course, by its very nature, forbids any such extension or abuse. Also, being actuated by higher motives than public alms can be, it is more apt to study the real good of the recipients and more easily lends itself to discriminating methods. Some conferences of the Associated Charities in Boston now secure private aid for all new families needing relief. As to the advantage of "B. I. relief" against that of charitable societies, opinion seems to be divided. "B. I. relief" is used to a very considerable extent in some of the Boston conferences; but many people object to the system, claiming that it amounts to the Associated Charities becoming a relief-giving society, and thus violating its own first principles. But, as the relief is not given by the society, but by some person who may or may not be a member of it, this objection does not seem a valid one. On the other hand, "B. I. relief" has some undoubted advantages; for the donor cooperates more efficiently with the visitor than most societies will do, and also, where the vicious system of giving in small doles is prevalent, it is usually impossible, where the need of relief is large, *The following figures are taken from a paper read in Boston, July 26, x881, by Hon. Seth Low, on "Out-door Relief," at the Eighth Annual Conference of Charities, and published in the Proceedings.

Page  32 32 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES to get it from one source, unless from a "B. I." Then, too, some people prefer to give as a " B. I." rather than to contribute to a fund, as the personal account which in the former case must be rendered them, clothes with a human interest what would otherwise be merely abstract charity. Moreover, for the poor the knowledge that the visitor is responsible to the " B. I." saves them from the dangerous sense that they are drawing on an indefinite fund; and this direct feeling of obligation to a benefactor is often very good for them. When a family is found to be in urgent need, immediate or interim relief must sometimes be given, preceding all investigation. This relief should last as short a time as possible, and a visitor should at once be sent. Still, there will be an interval before the visitor has gained any close knowledge, and meanwhile the relief may have to be continued. For, in practical matters where we must act at once, we often have to do so on inadequate knowledge, and human beings cannot be left to starve while we are making up our minds. This course, however, is always unfortunate; and, unless the suffering is urgent, it is best to do nothing hastily. We may be often puzzled, at first, to see how a family has been getting on, who must yet have some resources, as they evidently are not in immediate suffering: they may get help from relations, or from neighbors, perhaps, who will not see them hungry; it is possible, therefore, to defer for a while introducing them to some new source of relief. But, in any case, the work of the visitor is indispensable. If we are suspending action till we get more knowledge, the importance of her part is plain. If aid is being given while we are in the dark as to the wisdom of the course, it is no less plain: she must make friends as fast as possible, and, meanwhile, quietly observe. As a clearer understanding of the case is thus gained, it may be found that the alms are demoralizing, and had best be stopped; or perhaps that the need is a real one, and that more instead of less should be given; or, better still, the family may be helped to self-support, and thus the need for alms may cease. Thus scientific charity, far from bidding us cease to give alms, only bids us not to give them when they will be harmful; it bids us pause, when possible, to consider what their effect will be; and it bids us try, along with the alms, to give some better gift, which may by and by put the poor beyond their need. It must be observed, however, that the application of this theory of scientific charity is far less simple than is the statement. For in life the various classes of poverty are not clearly divided, and usually

Page  33 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 33 several causes have combined in varying proportion to produce any given result. So no rule laid down beforehand can be more than proximately true. Even the principle that aid is demoralizing to people whose poverty is their own fault cannot be applied in any hard and fast manner; for there are all degrees of fault, ranging from wellmeaning stupidity to flagrant crime. Also, families are made up of individuals, of whom some may be good and others bad; and, except in the rare cases where we are warranted in breaking up a family, all must suffer or be relieved together. So how to draw the line is often a hard question. Moreover, not even the most rigid believer in the danger of shielding people from the penalties' of their misdeeds can claim that we should allow of no exceptions. Every one is practically forced at times to give aid to people to whom it may be harmful, because to withhold it would be still more harmful. The treatment of such debatable cases must be decided each upon its own merits; and where the personal equation must form so large an element in the decision, there will always be room for a difference of opinion as to the wisdom of any given course. For one sad fact we must be prepared: there will always be many families whom we cannot help. We may labor over them for months or years, to find we can do nothing; but we could not have known that until we tried. The problem is sometimes so difficult that every alternative seems equally bad. Such cases take an immense amount of time, and no satisfactory conclusion is ever reached. Of course, it is easy to complain that the time has been wasted; but what else could be done? We must be content to labor very tentatively, very patiently, trying to separate those we can help from those who are beyond our reach, that the former may not be left unaided simply through lack of discrimination. One thing we must always keep in mind,- let our endeavor be a large one, but our expectation of success be very moderate. While we can certainly lessen the burden of suffering and sin, we cannot hope at once to abolish it. Human nature is less pliable than we sometimes imagine; and, if a few cheap efforts could reform the world, it would have been done long ago. We must expect many discouragements, many failures, and be ready to give our bravest effort, content if in a few instances it ransoms our brother to a higher manhood. The methods of the Associated Charities, it is thus seen, offer the great body of our well-to-do citizens an escape from the difficult alternative, on the one hand, of seeing our brother have need, yet

Page  34 34 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES shutting up our compassion from him, or, on the other hand, of giving him a gift which may be to his ruin. For it is impossible to investigate personally all applicants for alms. These may now be referred to the Associated Charities, to be dealt with as their real needs demand. Surely, a kind-hearted community must find relief in such a possibility. But, meanwhile, we should not use the society as an easy substitute for our own responsibility; and every man and woman should feel bound in their degree,- by co-operation, by money, by work, and by the support of an enlightened public opinion -to bear their part of the public burden. This theory of scientific charity sounds so reasonable as we state it that we wonder that any one can dissent. Yet many people scoff at it. And the fault they find is generally this: that the theory does not work so satisfactorily in life as it does on paper. The charge is brought that, while the Associated Charities promises prompt and intelligent investigation of every case referred to it and adequate relief in cases of need, the system, in point of fact, is one which implies frequent inattention and delay and failure to provide the promised help. Our critics smile indulgently at the immense outlay of time and money, at the intricate office work, the large corps of visitors, the long discussions, and then point to what they rather hastily assume to be a lack of corresponding results. It is, of course, easy in so large and ambitious an organization, in which most of the work is volunteer, to find plenty of unwisdom and neglect. While no one can question the excellence of the theory of providing a wise and sympathetic visitor for every needy family, it must be conceded that many visitors are not wise and sympathetic; and, even if they were, there are not enough to go round. On the records of every charity organization will be found many families labelled "waiting for a visitor"; and every such record implies that in these cases the society is failing to live up to its promises. Only, before condemning the society, let us ask where lies the blame. Is it the theory which is at fault, or the indifference of sundry members of the community, who, acknowledging the value of individual work, never raise a hand to do it, and then complain that it is not done? Then, too, the theory of co-operation among the whole charitable public is surely beyond criticism; but, when many churches and relief-giving societies fail to co-operate with charity organizations, the ill effects are manifest. Again, it is not the theory which is defective: it is our practice that halts. A lack of intelligence in the methods of charitable work, and a lack of individual workers,

Page  35 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 35 therein lie the great deficiencies in our efforts to help the poor, and therein lie the deficiencies which may bring to naught the most enlightened charitable enterprises. Such complaints of the Associated Charities really resolve themselves into this,-that human nature is very fallible, and that, in working for even the greatest cause, we must use imperfect instruments. For this evil there can be but one remedy: let the whole community take its duties to the poor more seriously to heart, let more and better workers volunteer, and let the whole charitable public labor together as one man tog raise the condition of the fallen. And, meanwhile, our critics should not confine themselves to fault-finding. If our methods are bad,, let them suggest better ones. If the only alternative they offer is indiscriminate charity, their criticism is barren. People should take their stand consistently on one side or the other. Let those who believe in unscientific charity practise it; but, if they refuse to apply science -which is systematic common sense - to charity, let them also refuse to consult a physician in illness, or to ever better their condition by the intelligent adjustment of means to ends. But most of us believe that it is to this power of mind over matter that we owe our advancement beyond the barbarism of the savage. Let us, then, use this same intelligence, which has filled the land with plenty and charmed its secrets from the ocean and the air, in trying to raise the lot of the fallen. They struggle blindly, not knowing what they do. We from our vantage-point can study life in its laws and tendencies; we can see that the easy impulses of to-day are often at war with the larger welfare of to-morrow; we can see that our present deeds are shaping the conditions of the ages. "Let a man learn that everything in nature, even motes and feathers, goes by law and not by luck, and that what he sows he reaps."

Page  36 36 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES OUR CHARITIES AND OUR CHURCHES. BY A. G. WARNER, PH.D., LECTURER IN THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, LINCOLN, NEB. A rather prominent American minister has given this rendering of a well-known passage of Scripture, " Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this: to visit the fatherless and the widows in their affliction, and to keep yourself unspotted from political economy." This unjust perversion indicates the idea which many people have 'of the dismal science. To them it is a science of worldliness, of -selfishness, and in direct antagonism to Christian charity or any science of self-sacrifice. Historically, we find that philanthropy has taught useful lessons to political economy in the field of the latter; while, on the other hand, economics have still many things to teach philanthropy. In the reform of the English poor-laws, political economy had a powerful influence. In the reform of the factory laws, philanthropy repaid the debt. As a matter of fact, thinkers and workers in both fields are liable to make serious mistakes; and it is only by using the results obtained by both that we can check the conclusions of each. There are in our Bible many texts that we are prone to forget, or to remember only for the edification of others. One such is that which tells us, "There is a way that seemeth right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways of death." We have often heard this used in theological warfare, hurled from belligerent pulpits at hostile theologians, and used to prove that sincerity is no adequate excuse for error in belief. Translated into more violent, but hardly more forcible English, and adapted for practical purposes, it is rendered again by Dr. Johnson, when he says that hell is paved with good intentions. However expressed, it can never be properly lost sight of in charitable work. We are told to love our neighbors as ourselves; and, in the management of our own affairs, we employ not only impulse, but reason. So, in helping our brother, we must employ good sense no less than sentiment. The doctrine that the natural untrained sympathies of the human heart can do no wrong is as false in charity as it would be in surgery. At our various charity conferences, we hear much talk of Christian charity; yet it is a little singular that one of the churches which to-day provides most kindly and most wisely for its own poor is not

Page  37 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 37 Christian at all, but Jewish. Ribton-Turner begins his "History of Vagrants and Vagrancy" with a quotation from Plautus, containing sage advice about giving to beggars; and it is certain that, where beggars were, there givers must have been also. But, though charity is older and of wider extent than Christianity, it is still true that charity, as we know it, gets its chief authority and incentive from Him who gave as a summary of all the law and the prophets to love God and to love our neighbor, and who told the story of the Good Samaritan. If we are ever inclined to doubt the superiority of Christian charity over other forms of benevolence, it is because we are allowing ourselves to confound Christian charity with churchly charity. We can profitably review certain distinctions that exist between the two. Christ taught that riches are dangerous to the growth of spiritual life. The Church taught that poverty was a virtue. Of course, the fact is that poverty is not and cannot be an element of character, nor can it have any ethical value whatever. It may tend to produce virtue, but it may also tend to produce vice. " Poverty is a situation. Pauperism is a condition." The Church, while teaching that poverty is a virtue, also confounded these two, and exalted the pauper in the estimation of the community. Furthermore, Christ had taught that we must love and help the poor. The Psalmist had said, " Blessed is he that considereth the poor." The Church was content to teach that people must give to the poor, preferably through the Church. The objective influence of altruism was lost sight of. People came to give more for their own sake than for the sake of those to whom they gave. Their purpose in bestowing alms even sank below that of their own moral improvement; and their gifts degenerated into a sort of religious investment, from which they expected celestial dividends. Brotherly love ceased to be an element in the transaction, and people gave merely to secure a proper personal balance on the books of the recording angel. Hallam says that it is notoriously true that the almsgiving monastery and the other eleemosynary institutions connected with the Church were the cause, and not the cure, of the wide-spread mendicity and vagabondage which later and very severe statutes were necessary to suppress. I is readily to be seen that, where the methods of this system have endured to the present time, the resulting evils still exist. Distinctively Romanist countries are notorious for the number of their beggars. Macaulay, visiting Rome while the temporal power of the pope was still intact, said that its population seemed to consist of three classes,- priests, paupers, and foreigners.

Page  38 38 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES With the reforming of many other abuses at the time of the Reformation came some reforms in charitable methods. Luther says that any people who will not give to the worthy and deserving poor, though persuaded to do so by their consciences and spiritual advisers, will yet give, by the persuasion of the devil, ten times as much to vagabonds and worthless rogues. Yet the Protestant churches are not free from the lingering evils of the mediaeval blunders in this matter. They too often fail to distinguish between that charity which gives lavishly and dismisses the subject and the charity that " suffereth long and is kind." The people of the Middle Ages gave for the sake of their own souls. Modern churches are very apt to give in the hope of benefiting the souls of others. This is especially true in the missions maintained by the large churches of our cities. The author of "Jottings from Jail " tells of a little ragamuffin who, when asked what a church was, replied that it was a place where they "guv away things to poor folks in the arternoon." Almsgiving too often becomes a mere agent in church extension. The managers of the dole-giving missions often know that they assist many self-seeking and undeserving persons; but they piously roll up their eyes, and say that, if they can but win one precious soul, they are willing to give to ninety-and-nine that remain in darkness. Now, I would not weigh for one moment the value of the aforesaid precious soul against the cost of the coal, groceries, and old clothes given to the ninetynine unrepentant sinners. But suppose that, while saving one soul, they have placed ninety-and-nine farther from salvation. That is the example in theological arithmetic to which they would do well to turn their attention. Suppose that, instead of casting their bread upon the waters, they have cast it into a bottomless pit; suppose that, as it is bestowed by them, it becomes the "bread by which men die "; suppose that they have helped to undermine character and to discourage uprightness and industry. They have sown to the flesh; and, from that sowing, some one must garner the harvest of corruption. There are churches that seem to regard their missions as a species of salvation-trap, to be baited with old clothes and groceries. Under such circumstances, it is an easy trick for Satan to run away with the bait. A prominent minister of Baltimore told me in confidence that the hardest work of his pastorate was to keep the good women of his church from unwise giving. Another was recently moved to prepare an article on the evils of the mothers' missions. We have a stock case in Baltimore of a woman who had her infant baptized in seven

Page  39 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 39 churches, that she might interest as many groups of benevolent but short-sighted people in her behalf. The children of many families are scattered through many Sunday-schools, that there may be that many more sources of income. These church-made paupers, these mammalian parasites, who are pious for revenue only, are a very discouraging class. They look upon the Church as merely an institution from which something is to be got by begging, being miserable, and perhaps by lying. To them religion is merely a weakness in the rich and a means of revenue to the poor. They go to church for what they can get out of it. It has often seemed to me that the Hebrew charities accomplish their objects more certainly than ours, because no thought of proselytizing can enter into their management. Some pastors continue relief work long after they are discouraged about it and by it, because they do not know at what else to employ their young people and benevolent old women of both sexes. Edward Everett Hale has pointed out the fact that it does not satisfy a young man's idea of practical religious work to be set to selling festival tickets for the pious object of buying new carpets for the vestries. Ministers, therefore, prefer to engage in relief work, and to encourage their people to do so, because it seems likely to have good subjective results; and they say that they are willing to trust Providence for the objective outcome of their activity. Their trust in Providence is inopportune. An agent of the Charity Organization Society in Baltimore was trying to induce a half-sick mother to put a very sick child into the hospital, in hope that then they might both recover, while, if the child were kept at home, they would both probably die, and the remainder probably be scattered. But the mother said, No: the Lord had given her her child, and she would keep it at home and trust to him. "Madam," said the agent at last, " has it ever occurred to you that the Lord has brought hospitals into the world in the same sense in which he has brought children, and that it is he who has given you common sense as well as motherly affection, and that he will expect you to follow one as well as the other? " So, in talking with some ministers about charitable work, whenever they find themselves about to be called negligent or mistaken, they promptly unload the responsibility of bad results upon the Almighty, and consider you but little better than an infidel, if you urge them further. All this is on the purely negative side of our subject. The hardest task in caring for a garden is to keep down the weeds. When we turn from what we should not to what we should do, the Roman Church can again furnish us with examples. Those who remember Bishop

Page  40 40 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Ireland's interesting paper on Catholic charities, presented to the National Conference at St. Paul, will not need to be reminded of the facts in point. Especially that world-wide organization, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, deserves the careful study of those who would learn something regarding the success of the Catholic Church in practical charities. This society has been spoken of by Andrew D. White as one of the very few good things that originated in France during the last days of the Ancient Regime. It is intended to promote the growth in religious life of young Catholic laymen, and has been a powerful agent, not only in helping the poor, but in providing for those who joined work that they could realize to be worth doing. The various charitable orders of the Roman Church make it an unduly powerful competitor in the matter of church extension. They are always on hand to build hospitals, provide insane asylums, or do similar work, whenever public money can be provided for this purpose. And, coming from a city where more than half of the public charities are administered by Catholic orders, I have had an especial opportunity to appreciate the churchly advantages and the social evils of this system. Only two positive suggestions will be made. The first is that churchly charities of the present time must not be isolated charities. This is proved and illustrated by all that is being said in favor of charity organization. Dr. Lyman Abbott has said, somewhat ironically, that, had the Good Samaritan lived at the present time and been a Yankee, he would not have been satisfied with the simple discharge of his duties as in the parable, but would have organized a Society for the Relief of Sick and Wounded Travellers, with a president, several vice-presidents, a treasurer, an assistant treasurer, and secretaries, in every district of Palestine. I prefer to ignore the irony, and to consider this a high tribute to the good sense and commendable adaptability of our old friend, the Samaritan. Perhaps he would have done still better to have organized a Law and Order League, with officers as aforesaid, to capture the thieves and to bring them to justice. Thirst is always the same; but the style of water-works changes to meet the changing needs. Charity in essence is changeless; but we must have modern organizations to meet modern conditions. My second proposition is that the charities most available in connection with the church work of the present are educative charities. A prominent lawyer and philanthropist of Baltimore once said that a free school and a free soup-house are based upon the same principle. The statement is essentially false. Saint Paul said, "If a man will

Page  41 THE ORGANIZATION OF CHARITIES 4I not work, neither shall he eat "; and the freest school cannot nullify the rule, "If a student will not study, neither shall he learn." The kindergarten for children, the sewing-school for girls, trade schools and night schools for boys, and workingmen's institutes for those of larger growth are along the proper line. Savings societies and organizations of lady rent-collectors are also educational in their tendencies, educating both those who work and those for whom the work is done. The church dispensary and the paid nurse going to the homes of the sick poor have also educational value. Whatever strengthens mental, moral, and bodily health is to be encouraged. Educational undertakings necessitate giving; but they necessitate more especially work. We are told that the levelled walls of the city of Jerusalem were rebuilded, "for the people had a mind to work." The modern city is to be defended, not against the battering-rams of hostile soldiery, but against the powers and principalities of vice and crime and ignorance and pauperism. Against these enemies material barriers, though of freely given gold, are worthless. The only effectual defences must be those founded in character and reared in selfsacrifice; but these defences, like those of the ancient city, can be builded only if the people - and especially the Christian people - " have a mind to work."

Page  42 III. i;t 3b1tal rifon tAm for a btatc. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. BY DR. A. G. BYERS, OF COLUMBUS, OHIO. A distinguished Governor of Ohio, some years since, speaking of the resumption of specie payments, at that time prominent before the people, characterized it, with a profane, prefix, as a "barren ideality." Something akin to the governor's opinion of that political subject has been presented to the minds of your committee in considering the subject assigned it,- "The Ideal Prison System for a State." Mr. W. H. Mills, of San Francisco, Cal., a member of the committee, was kind enough to present his views of the subject in an able and interesting letter. He says: " In the first place, there is a strong flavor of the impracticable in the subject-matter submitted to the committee. The very form of its statement provokes in my mind a disposition to criticise the limitations which the statement establishes rather than discuss the general question to which it is addressed." Mr. Mills's letter entire is submitted as a part of this Report, the foregoing being quoted as indicating the general sentiment, so far as expressed, of the committee touching the form in which the subject is stated. Mrs. J. S. Sperry, of Pueblo, Col., also a member of the committee, writing in connection with some special personal views of the subject, says: "Now, really I don't know that I get a correct meaning of State System. I have ideas of-plans and management on that line, to fill a volume." It is presumed by your committee that the object in view was to ascertain as nearly as possible, from observation and experience, that which is real and practicable, as pertaining to the State in its methods of treating crime and criminals. Proceeding on this general idea of the subject, your committee would respectfully report:

Page  43 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 43 First, that no Prison System can be made thoroughly effective that does not premise its work by wise organization and equipment of PREVENTIVE AGENCIES. The prompt rescue and proper care, education, and training of homeless children and children environed with vice must lie at the foundation of prison reforms, as it is a well-ascertained fact that our criminal lists are largely recruited from these classes. The training for and placing such children in good families is the proper disposition. The next agency, also fundamental to, if not actually an important part of, any well-regulated system, relates to the POLICE. However this may differ from facts of experience, a system that does not provide for its police force as a preventive rather than a detective agency will be greatly at fault. If this idea could but once obtain in the public mind, a hope of progress might be entertained that, under existing police regulation, is absolutely forbidden. It is a singular fact that the people of'our larger municipalities maintain at great expense a large force of police ostensibly for the promotion of quiet and good behavior in their respective communities, and for the protection of persons and property; but this force, under mistaken ideas of its duty, is actually, in most, if not all, our larger communities, in. connivance with wrong-doing. It may be idealistic and vain to characterize the personnel of our police,- at least, we would avoid indiscriminate reflection; yet the fact remains that there is scarcely a city in the United States where the saloon, the gambling-hell, and the brothel, each and all, in contravention of law and ordinances, do not carry forward their demoralizing and destructive work under the immediate observation and intimate personal knowledge of the police, while at the same time the honest but hilarious newsboy or bootblack, in giving vent to boyish propensities, is rudely dragged through the public thoroughfare, hustled into the dark and dirty station-house, forced into association with the idle and vicious, arraigned, tried, and convicted in the police court, where he is made a spectacle of disgrace in the eyes of those who study law and derive their ideas of public justice from such proceedings. Thence, to the credit of the burly " cop," the noble and heroic guardian of the public peace, that boy, who had struggled so long and

Page  44 44 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES hard in the pitiless street for honest bread, is sent to prison,- where bread unearned is eaten, where education in.methods of living without work is given, and associations are formed that entail irrevocable ruin. One feels like apostrophizing such a mockery of justice, such legalized inhumanity, but must remember that fault-finding is easy. It is the remedy for the wrong, not its enormity, that we are now seeking to find. If it were possible to eliminate partisan politics from police organizations (and politics should have no more to do with such an organization than with the force employed by railroads, banking or manufacturing corporations), an important step would be taken toward a reform that must precede any well-regulated prison system for a State. Adopting the preventive idea, it is certainly practicable to employ sober, industrious, conscientious men on life tenure, liberal salary, and retiring pension; to charge them with the duty of preventing the violation of law and order; and to hold them fairly responsible for misdemeanors and crimes within their precincts. The idea that the police must wait until crime has been committed, and until special reward has been offered for its detection and the arrest of the criminal, is most pernicious, having a tendency to foster rather than frustrate crime; and a prison system that does not regard its police regulation as essential to its efficiency will be radically defective. In addition to civil reforms, the ritual of our churches might be appropriately amended by including the police in its prayers for those in " authority over us," if for no other purpose than to bring into view the persons whom we intrust as guardians of the life and property of our citizens. Next, as closely allied to the police force of a community, is the POLICE STATION, the " calaboose " or " lock-up" of the town or village. Singularly, but little, if any, public attention has been turned to these institutions. They are, in general terms, in their construction and management, a mere travesty on public justice. The disgrace they impose is the first stepping-stone to crime. The prison system that does not look to the isolation of persons arrested and held for examination before the police judge or other magistrate, is defective to a degree absolutely hurtful, not only to the individual under arrest, but to the entire community. And, even with prisons so constructed as to admit of

Page  45 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 45 complete separation, a proper system would provide for a large discretion with the presiding magistrate, allowing suspension of sentence where guilt for a first offence is adjudged, and the suppression of newspaper notoriety where no guilt is found. COUNTY JAILS. Next to the station-house in a prison system for a State comes the county jail. This in its real character is but a house of detention, where the suspect is held for trial. Until he is adjudged guilty as a criminal, he should be held innocent as a citizen. This statement will indicate sufficiently the importance of absolute separation in county jails of persons awaiting trial. It is vain to dwell here on the crime-begetting tendency that has heretofore marked, and which still, in many States, characterizes the county jails. They should never be used as penal institutions. The buildings should be so constructed as to make separation entirely practicable and convenient; and rules prescribed for their regulation should be such as to require the absolute separation of all prisoners in county jails. DISTRICT WORKHOUSES. The next step in any well-regulated prison system for a State must include a workhouse for misdemeanants and those convicted of minor offences. Properly constructed and well-arranged workhouses are necessarily expensive, so that comparatively few municipalities can afford to erect and maintain them. They should be erected and maintained within certain districts of a State, according to population, and should be under the control of the State. Labor should be imposed, proper industries introduced, and cumulative sentences provided for, so that ultimately the misdemeanant, always an annoyance, and frequently a great and growing burden to society, should be restrained of personal liberty and compelled to self-maintenance. A paper "On District Prisons under State Control, for Persons convicted of Minor Offences," was read at the First National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline, held at Cincinnati, October, 1870, and received the indorsement of that Congress by the adoption, upon motion of Mr. Sanborn of Massachusetts, of the following resolution: — Resolved, That the district prisons described in the paper of Mr. Byers, intermediate between the State Prison and the county jail, are

Page  46 46 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES a necessary part of a complete prison system; and, in the opinion of this Congress, such district prisons ought to be established in all States where they do not now exist. In the progressive steps toward a complete prison system for a State, the next provision should be mrade for what is known as juvenile delinquents. Such institutions are known as REFORM SCHOOLS or Industrial Homes, to which boys and girls under a certain ageusually sixteen years -are committed, ordinarily to separate institutions, where it is presumed they will remain until reaching their majority, at eighteen or twenty-one years of age, unless sooner discharged for good conduct or other reasons satisfactory to those in control of the institution. That no prison system can be complete without such institutions need not be argued; but the real object for which they are organized is often overlooked, and it is one of the misfortunes that have characterized the treatment of this class of offenders. Such institutions, to render them effective, should be placed in the hands of active, intelligent, conscientious men, with encouragement, by long tenure of office, to acquire experience in their particular line of work. The next link in the chain, regarded as of the highest importance, is the STATE REFORMATORY PRISON, where persons under a certain age, convicted of a first offence, may be sentenced and subjected to a thoroughly reformatory discipline, with educational advantages, moral and religious training, fitting them for self-support, with such aid to their rehabilitation as may encourage honest effort upon the part of the prisoner and discriminating sympathy upon the part of society. Finally, the STATE PRISON, to be strictly penal in its character. Such already exist. Their general character is familiar, and requires no special presentation in this paper. FEMALE PRISONS. A good prison system will make special provision for the custody of women, maintaining from first to last their separation from male prisoners. Houses of Detention and Police Matrons should constitute

Page  47 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 47 a part of the police system with larger cities. A State Prison, combining the features of the Workhouse, the Reformatory, and State Prison, should be established in every State. Here, under the direction of competent officers, female prisoners should be classified, placed under firm but not necessarily severe discipline, trained to domestic work, employed at productive labor, and for these, after discharge, employment at remunerative labor should be secured, ordinarily in private families; the officers of the institution exercising in their behalf a watchful care,-first, to see that they are well-behaved and faithful in the performance of their work; and,. second, that they are not imposed upon by persons under whose employment they are placed at service, providing for their return in either event to the prison without further intervention of the courts. In regard to the government of female prisons, there are those who incline to the opinion that such institutions should be under the sole control of women. Others think that women respect and submit to the authority of men, and that better results are secured where men are employed as chief officers. There are two sides to this question. It is an open one; and your committee, without presuming to determine the question, would submit that it is entitled to careful and candid consideration. Having thus traced in outline the order and organization of the prisons of a State, believing that these constitute an important feature of a prison system, it is proper to state that, in the opinion of your committee, a system includes more than the erection and maintenance of prison houses of the character and in the order named in the foregoing paper. These, to be effective, should be so organized under one controlling authority that from first to last, after conviction for felony of any grade, the right of transfer from one prison to another should be vested in this controlling authority, by whatever name it may be designated. THE INDETERMINATE SENTENCE. In a paper prepared by Mr. Z. R. BROCKWAY on the general subject now under consideration, and presented by him at the Prison Congress in I870, to which paper your committee desire to refer as a part of this Report (presenting, as it does, a most comprehensive treatise on the subject, embodying the philosophical along with the

Page  48 48 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES practical), the subject of indeterminate sentences was considered. Mr. Brockway's paper was possibly the first public advocacy of indeterminate sentences in this country. It was regarded, at that time, by many as chimerical, by others as absolutely impracticable; but time has justified its wisdom, and that form of law now obtains in several States, greatly to the furtherance of reformatory discipline in prisons and the reformation of prisoners. A part of Mr. Brockway's paper on indeterminate sentences is as follows:Therefore, as for the other reasons suggested, sentences should not be determinate, but indeterminate. By this is meant (to state briefly) that all persons in a State, who are convicted of crime or offences before a competent court, shall be deemed wards of the State, and shall be committed to the custody of the board of guardians until, in their judgment, they may be returned to society with ordinary safety and in accord with their own highest welfare. Of course, this board will have control of all preventive and reformatory agencies of the State, as before indicated, and will be charged with the right restoration to society of all prisoners at the earliest possible date. The writer's experience of more than twenty years, with the most careful study of the whole question of reformation possible, forces the conviction that a reformatory system of prisons cannot exist without it, and that it is quite indispensable to the ideal of a true prison system. A PAROLE LAW. No system could be regarded as complete that did not include a well-considered and judiciously administered parole law. Such has been the influence of this law since its enactment in Ohio within recent years that, in the minds of very many who have watched its operation, it is regarded as obviating the necessity for an intermediate penitentiary or State Reformatory. The erection of such an institution in that State has been suspended, under the impression that the improved discipline of the State Prison and the reduction of the number of prisoners had rendered the Reformatory unnecessary. It is probable, however, that the straitened condition of the State treasury has contributed more to bring about this result than any well-matured judgment regarding its necessity. It is true that the parole law provides for the conditional discharge of prisoners that would have been provided for in the intermediate prison. This, however, is only a partial arrangement, and should not be regarded as a substitute. It does not meet all the demands; and, without entering into the argument at this time, we

Page  49 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 49 repeat here what we have elsewhere said, that the State Intermediate Prison constitutes an important link in any well-organized prison system. HABITUAL CRIMINALS. When the State, however, by wise legislation, carefully constructed buildings, discreet organization, and faithful and experienced administration, has done its best, there will be a residuum of prisoners whose purposes and plans to live dishonestly will remain the same. For this class, the best prison system that human wisdom can devise will accomplish little more than to determine their purpose to live by crime. In such cases, the only alternative (the State having failed to reform such characters) must be to proceed to the protection of society by the enactment of what is known as the habitual criminal law, consigning persons upon a third conviction for felony to the State Prison for life. FINANCIAL REGULATIONS. This Report would be regarded as quite incomplete in the presentation of a prison system, if it did not in some way touch upon financial operations. While it is true that the State could afford any reasonable outlay that would secure the reformation and rehabilitation of its law-breaking classes, there is no good reason why an ordinary State Prison population should not be required to maintain itself. To this end, of course, productive industries must be introduced; and they should be maintained, though every demagogue in the land should howl himself hoarse over the spoliation of honest labor. It is doubtful if free labor ever felt, or the free workingman would ever have thought of, the mere minimum of competition resulting from prison labor, had it not been that the organization of labor unions, constituting a vast political power, was regarded with apprehension by the political organizations of the country, affording the demagogue opportunity, at the sacrifice of great public interests, to carry forward personal and partisan designs. That prison labor should be organized so as to be as little hurtful to free labor as possible will be readily conceded; but, on the other hand, the idea that the prison population of the State or of the country should be kept in idleness by tithing honest labor is at once so unjust and so inhuman as not to be tolerated.

Page  50 50 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES CONCLUSION. Having thus presented in plain and practical terms an outline of a prison system, it only remains to say that any system must have a clear and comprehensive end in view. In what we have suggested there has been the one thought, that of the reformation of the prisoner rather than his punishment. This aim is strictly compatible with the protection which society has a right to demand. THE PERSONNEL OF PRISON MANAGEMENT. LETTER OF WILLIAM H. MILLS, OF SAN FRANCISCO. In your letter of May I8, you say: "If there is any special subject pertinent to the general object contemplated, upon which you would be willing to prepare a paper, I should regard it as an important contribution to the general work of the committee." Conveying my thanks for the compliment implied by this last statement, permit me to say that I would esteem it a pleasure as well as a duty to be able to contribute something which might broaden the suggestions of the report of the committee; but I am conscious of many personal disqualifications for that task. In the first place, there is a strong flavor of the impracticable in the subject-matter submitted to the committee. The very form of its statement provokes in my mind a disposition to criticise the limitations which the statement establishes rather than discuss the general question to which it is addressed. Ideal prison systems could have a place only in ideal social and political systems, while an ideal system of prisons for a State would not differ in any respect from the ideal system for a nation, a county, or a province. Ideal prison systems for States should engage the attention and command the thoughtful consideration of ideal people in ideal States. Real people, having to deal with the real conditions of society, real civil institutions, and all the realities of real States, will certainly find enough to engage their thought by dealing with these actualities rather than dreaming of ideals. I trust you will not see in this any hypercritical spirit. The very statement of a subject may of itself be a discourse, while the statement under consideration, in my mind at least, seems at once to impede discourse. If the title of the subject selected was designed to lead to a consideration of the best penal system for an American State, it opens a very broad subject to the contemplation of the penologist. The practicability of any prison system is limited by the character of the political institutions in control. Our government, both national and State, is distinctively a government of public opinion. The personnel of the government, the office-holding class, the individuals who will have charge and direction of any system, are the

Page  51 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 51 product of party organization and management, modified by public sentiment. In a State where the political conscience is low, where party fealty has through party discipline supplanted public conscience, the personnel in control and direction of the penal institutions of such a State will be chosen with reference to party service. In a State where party ties sit lightly, where the political organizations known as parties command the adherence of their members only when their policy and administration command the respect of good men, a public sentiment conforming to a more civilized idea of penal institutions will divorce prison management from party manipulation, and thus place the administration of whatever system may have been adopted under the charge and direction of those competent to give the efficiency of such a system a fair test. Moreover, at this point, the personnel of prison management, as a factor in the success of prison discipline and penal systems, cannot receive too great emphasis. Systems of education and penological systems alike fail chiefly because they are systems. A system at the very outset implies the uniform application of plans, principles, and theories to all persons made subject to the system. If a system had been well devised with reference to an individual, adapted in all respects to his moral and intellectual growth, to his mental status, to his hereditary aptitudes, and to all other conditions and circumstances influencing character, its form and its formation, and all individuals were precisely analogous in all respects to the individual under contemplation, for whose benefit the system had been devised, then systematic treatment might indulge the hope of analogous success in each case. But systems are made applicable to an infinite diversity of intellectual, moral, and hereditary conditions; and hence, if the disciplinary measures admitted to the system have uniform application, they will succeed only with those whose moral and intellectual status makes them amenable to the influences of the system. Because of this infinite diversity of condition, penological systems may not be rigid, but must be elastic; and the control and direction of this elasticity must be in the hands of one able to perceive the diversity of condition, and able to change and modify the system of treatment with reference to the moral, intellectual, and spiritual condition to which it is intended to apply. Thus the best penological systems fail when badly administered, and the worst succeed whose administration is in the hands of a true penologist. In short, the system resides in its administration; is inseparable from it. No rigid system can be made to apply to the vast variety of conditions found among the men to be brought under its influence. The best prison discipline, therefore, is that calculated to produce the highest results in the individual cases brought under discipline; and, since there is an infinite variety of conditions to which it must apply, there is a correspondingly infinite variation of treatment. Much confusion of thought has existed by reason of confounding prison life, prison discipline, and prison routine with penological

Page  52 52 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES system. There is a large realm of uniformity of action necessary to regulate life in a prison; but this must not be confounded with that treatment of the prisoners calculated to reform motive and purpose and produce right character. The best prison discipline is that which conserves in the highest degree the health, the order, and the security of a prison. The best regulation of prison life is that which is most methodical, but the best penological system is that which flows out of the mind and the heart of a character fully imbued with the divine purpose of making those who come within its influence better. Proceeding from such a mind, inseparable from such a purpose, there is the potency of spiritual power. The atmosphere of a prison will conform to the mental and spiritual attributes of the authority presiding over it. That atmosphere will be debasing or elevating in proportion to the abasement or elevation of the character in charge. Personality is inseparable from all human action: any system, therefore, will reflect the personality of its administration. These considerations have led to the general conclusion in the minds of thoughtful men that the best prison systems cannot be formulated and set forth in terms and made applicable to all prisons under all managements. The end to be accomplished is the eradication of criminal tendencies in the minds of those who are distinctively criminal, and, if the eradication is impossible, to effect a modification of these tendencies. With this in view, a system of education should be connected with every prison, a system of general instruction, the teaching of trades, callings, and, above all, that character of discipline which will make the happiness or wretchedness of prison life dependent upon the conduct of the prisoner himself. The preservation of the autonomy of the prisoner is, therefore, the paramount consideration. All other things should be subordinate to this, or at least sustain that degree of subordination which will leave the value of autonomy unimpaired. If the conduct of a prisoner, if every act of his life, proceeds from the will of another, from the coercion of prison discipline, his moral nature and all the purposes of right which influence and control life will be enfeebled and eventually paralyzed. Character is the immediate result of the exercise of a free will. The will is the servitor of the conscience. The conscience must be enlightened that the will to do right may exist, and the power of the will must be conserved by the possession of autonomy. Duress within prison walls necessarily limits and restricts the exercise of self-control; but the largest degree of self-control consistent with incarceration should forever be allowed, should be made the basis of all prison systems, and right action should be rewarded and wrong action punished, so that happiness within the limited restriction of prison life would be the reward of the one, and suffering, tempered by mercy and short of cruelty, should be the consequence of the other. Thus the faculties of the mind, upon which good citizenship must forever remain dependent, are kept active; and such a system affords some hope that the real criminal, after a period of incarceration, would be qualified to resume his place as a free member of society.

Page  53 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 53 Whatever system leaves out of view these considerations, and deprives the prisoner of autonomy, makes his conduct wholly the result of coercive measures, calls into play no exercise of will, brings to bear no influences to enlighten conscience, results only in the paralysis of the will, the degradation of the conscience, enfeebles all the attributes of good in the human heart, and strengthens and energizes its ferocity only. No system, however, can be formulated for the accomplishment of good results that does not flow out of the heart and conscience of those who are administering it. This is true, because any prison system will suffer modification by the personality administering it. The primary source of all penal systems worth anything to humanity is the earnest desire to accomplish a good to mankind, in the consciences of the personnel of prison administration. Hence it is that divorcement of prison management from party manipulation has been deemed of such importance in the judgment of eminent penologists. Prison superintendents and wardens selected by the standard of party service, and whose appointments are made with reference to the distribution of party patronage, never have made and never will make any penal system successful; and solely because the success of any system resides in the flexibility of its administration, and because administration embraces so large a percentage of the value of any system. I have alluded in the foregoing to the potency of spiritual power. You will pardon some further elucidation of this thought. I am not asking for a spiritual miracle, or for that miraculous interposition which, to the theological mind and conception, involves a change of heart. I desire to raise no question as to the value of conversion, the doctrine of repentance, or any other element of ecclesiasticism. What I think I have clearly perceived in this question is that disciplinary measures, penal servitude, and punitive treatment proceeding from any other than a philanthropic motive, have a tendency to brutalize men. Punishment inflicted because of anger reproduces anger. Punitive discipline proceeding from a spirit of malignity reproduces that spirit in its victim. Punishment for [revenge inculcates only a spirit of revenge. It therefore follows that restraint of liberty and punitive discipline, to possess any reformatory tendency, must proceed from a mind imbued with the highest and noblest philanthropic purposes. Such punishment, accompanied by efforts in the direction of enlightening the conscience, possesses spiritual potency and high philanthropic purpose, and, in the hands of one vested with power, will of itself evolve the most valuable penal system. The advocates of political management have forever denounced these considerations as the result of sentimentalism, as belonging to the cant of religion, as Utopian and impracticable, and as ideal beyond the possibility of realization. To me, however, they appear to be justified by common human experience, and supported by intelligent observation. There is no relation existing between man and man upon this earth which so clearly reveals the true spiritual condition or the

Page  54 54 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES innate moral character one to the other as the relation of keeper to convict. The absolutism of the power of the keeper, akin to all other absolutism, develops the baser elements of his nature. The abject subjection of the convict to the control of the keeper develops subtleties of penetration wholly unknown to and unsuspected by those who have never suffered penal incarceration. Elevation of character in the convict will be the result of contact with elevated character in the keeper; and no assumed morality on the part of the latter will ever conceal from the former the true state of moral being. The relation in itself develops the exhibition of true character in the keeper, of which he is himself unconscious, and evolves subtleties of penetration in the mind of the convict which could be quickened into life by no other relation. Punishment will therefore continue to degrade and paralyze men so long as it does not proceed from the earnest desire to elevate them, and punitive discipline will elevate them just so soon as in actual fact it proceeds from high philanthropic motive. The deterrent value of penitentiaries is overbalanced by the inevitable relation which exists between the prison society and the society conducting them. Prisons are the prolific sources of criminal tendencies in society as well as places for the punishment of crime. They will cease to be sources of criminal tendencies just so soon as the administrators of penitentiaries are imbued with philanthropic purposes,- at least, that will be the beginning of their reformation. It follows, therefore, that the great desideratum is in the reformation of prison officers. All prison reform must begin there. The political system, therefore, which makes the selection of prison officers as a reward for party service, is the one arch enemy of all progress in the science of penology. The divorce of prisons from party management and party patronage is the one paramount desideratum of the penologist. I have written this letter to you in a moment of leisure, not with the belief that the thought herein presented is new to you, or that its statement as herein presented will augment conviction in the direction of its thought, nor yet with the view or expectation that what is presented will be reflected in the Report of the Committee. It has been written simply through the impulse of following out a line of thought to which your letter gave rise.

Page  55 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 55 PRISON REGULATION. LETTER OF MRS. J. S. SPERRY, OF COLORADO. If any prison regulation is not such as to keep those incarcerated under good influence, educating them to better lives, we are certainly not protecting life and property in supporting institutions for the detention of the vicious. If at the close of a stated time these hundreds of criminals are released in a more depraved condition than when sentenced, do we not come far short of our duty? I am a " crank " on classification. The argument some use, that it is necessary for prisoners to mingle that the better class may assist to keep order by exposing plottings, etc., is to me an acknowledgment of inefficient guards, placed in responsible positions through political influence.' There are comparatively few who need constant watching. In fact, many are glad to begin to redeem their manhood by being trusted in prison. The striped clothing should be discarded. The adoption of some plain material, each State selecting color, would, I am sure, be an improvement. Would it not be well to mark unruly prisoners with the old striped suits, others wearing plain garments? There is in prisoners such an abhorrence of the striped clothing that I am sure some such regulation would result in good. To keep prisoners idle is an outrage, and will never result in good. The every-day laborer is the contented man or woman. No matter what the occupation, the busy ones are the backbone of the nation. Then, for the good of the criminal, community, and country, give the prisoner plenty of work. This question, I am sure, is coming to be a serious one. Our brothers borne to us from over the ocean keep up a turmoil on the question of labor,- how it shall be done, who shall do it, what price to be paid, how many hours' work, Sunday or no Sunday,- in fact, the foreigner dictates to my son just what he must or must not do, and just how he must or must not do it. These conditions, in addition to the growth of intemperance, are filling every prison in the land. Only systematic legislation can prevent serious results. I believe firmly in "civil service " in connection with wardens of prisons. This changing prison management merely on political grounds ought to be beneath the dignity of those who demand this state of things. Perhaps one of the strongest arguments in favor of not changing is the fact that no one can work in an institution and be as useful to State or inmate the first year as he can the second. In Colorado, about the time Warden Hoyt was well under way with many admirable improvements, to which he had given much thought, a new governor invited him to vacate the office. This part of a prison system is abominable. I am in favor of any encouragement given to wards of the State,be it reform school or penitentiary,- to encourage them to a better

Page  56 56 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES life. Shorten the term of sentence according to crime committed, by proper conduct, anything that will give hope and encouragement. Now a word for women,-as we have not the ballot for self-defence. We beg of you who hold the power to permit women to administer to the wants of women in prison. My experience with prison guards is not what I wish it were. As a rule, without sugarcoating, women in prison without the protection of some good woman are at the mercy of a bad lot of men. I do not accept, as a whole, the teaching that men are women's protectors, but, with Mrs. E. Cady Stanton, say, "May the good Lord protect us from our protectors!"

Page  57 IV. poopitalt anb 3nfirmarit. THE OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASE: A PLEA FOR A NEW HOSPITAL. BY C. IRVING FISHER, M.D., CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMITTEE, STATE ALMSHOUSE, TEWKSBURY, MASS. The hospital is one of the highest and noblest achievements of Christian charity. It sets aside all questions of race, color, morals, or deserts, and considers the human body in sickness and pain, whether from injury or disease. It gathers to itself the best medical and surgical skill, the most approved modern appliances, and becomes the convenience of the wealthy in their hour of need, while it gives to the unfortunate dependent and stranger an equal chance with his more prosperous neighbor. Its benefits are not to its patients alone. They reach and bless every home into which the physician goes; for the wards open to the medical student have made practical and intelligent the teaching of the school, and trained nurses are here provided to second his efforts in behalf of the sick and suffering in all stations of life. To the mature physician and surgeon is thus opened a field of observation and study such as is not to be found in any private practice. It constantly brings before the eye and puts upon record all the characteristics and modifications of disease. It affords the best opportunity for the application and observation of new methods of treatment; and thus, through a larger and surer knowledge of disease and its remedy, it becomes a direct agent in the improvement of the race. It is not the purpose of this paper to consider the general or the insane hospitals, with which you are all familiar, but to present a plea for a new departure by the State in the direction of self-protection, by the recognition of a disease which, now concealed and ignored, is

Page  58 58 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES nevertheless sowing seeds of physical and mental weakness, from which she is already reaping a large harvest of pauperism. Our present social and civil laws make and perpetuate dependents. In saying this, I do not call in question the benevolent intent of our law-makers or leaders of social thought. My point of observation has been for a term of years in the State Almshouse of Massachusetts, whose constant population averages nearly one thousand people, while it admits and discharges more than two thousand annually. They belong chiefly to the dissolute and intemperate classes, and most of them are found on admission to be hospital subjects. After remaining for a season, they are either discharged or become a part of our permanent population. Those who remain are largely persons whose life of reckless debauchery has borne its legitimate fruit, in exhausted vitality and seated disease, mental or physical. Those who go are of the same sort. They have been nourished and nursed at the expense of the State, and are then set free to return to their revellings, to contaminate others, and to propagate their kind, till nature again succumbs, and they return once more to be treated to the best the State can provide until sufficiently restored to go forth again. At length, they, too, return to end their days in the protecting arms of the State at this or some other of her fostering institutions, whose kindly care lengthens out for them the worse than useless span of life. Add to this the unlimited freedom with which we allow the overcrowded countries of Europe to pour in their dregs upon us, and let me repeat again my former statement, which might at first thought have seemed overbold, —" Our present social and civil laws make and perpetuate dependents." The hospital is rapidly becoming a more and more important factor in the care of these people. Its aim should be, not only to help the individual by giving shelter, relieving suffering, and curing disease, but still more to protect the public from possible infection, while making the period of dependency as short as is consistent with this end. Already those diseases which come as epidemics are recognized by local governments, and every precaution is taken to prevent their spread. The State already takes persons rendered incapable through mental diseases into its custody, and keeps its control of them for life, unless they recover. Already some of our States are planning hospitals for inebriates, where, by patient care and restraint through a term of years, if need be, they may be weaned from the cup which has enslaved them. There is yet a disease which is infectious, which exists in every

Page  59 HOSPITALS AND INFIRMARIES 59 community, which is carried as a taint in the blood, and may appear after long lying dormant, which may be transmitted by inheritance, which, while existing mostly among the low and dissolute, is by no means confined to that class. It is refused by most hospitals; and many large cities afford no place where persons suffering with venereal diseases can be treated, outside a pauper or criminal institution. Though carefully concealed, it is yet so common that every issue of our daily papers contains advertisements of remedies and promises of cure by so-called doctors, couched in language blind and vague, yet well understood by the initiated. It is associated chiefly with shame and dishonor, and may not so much as be mentioned in polite society; yet I conceive that this platform is pre-eminently the place where this "pestilence that walketh in darkness," this "destruction that wasteth at noon-day," which so ruthlessly touches the purity and the very life of our land, may and should be openly discussed, if, by any means, its vile contamination might be checked or held in control. Pauperism indicates weakness, and whatever tends to reduce the physical condition below the normal standard tends to pauperism in those of weak will and dissolute inheritance. Next to intemperance, I hold that syphilis is the most important factor in the development and perpetuation of the dependent classes. There is not a tissue of the body which is exempt from its subtle and undermining influence. It renders the system more liable to other diseases, behind which it hides itself as under a mask; while the physician, led astray by its subtlety, treats the apparent symptoms, and fails to discover the insidious poison which is sapping the life of his patient. Insane persons received by us as chronic cases, especially the dements and the epileptics, are frequently found to be syphilitics, and, when treated on this basis, show great improvement and even recover. I am confident that there are to-day large numbers in the hospitals of our land under treatment for other diseases who would show this taint if carefully examined, and who would improve to a condition above dependence if treated with this in view. But, while all vestige of venereal trouble may disappear in the individual, the community is not yet rid of it. Let the person become a parent, and the disease may reappear as a blight upon the babe in its mother's arms, or to curse its later life with weakened intellect or epileptic convulsions. Pitiable, indeed, are these weak and sickly offspring of poisoned human bodies; and we can but cheerfully acquiesce in the interposition of Divine Providence when

Page  60 60 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES it removes them from our sight and care while the unequal struggle for existence has but just begun. A case in illustration taken from the records of private practice may be given, showing the subtle nature and far-reaching influence of this disease. The patient was a man of seventy years, an honored and respected citizen, having, to all appearance, a sound mind in a healthy body. He was the father of seven children, two of whom were cripples; while other evidences of congenital syphilis showed in the remaining five. Four grandchildren also were defective. The sickness to which the physician was called was of a trivial nature, the mysterious feature being that the patient did not rally as men usually do. A careful examination was made to find the cause, and evidences of syphilis were discovered. The family physician could hardly believe his own diagnosis, and sought older counsel, who confirmed his opinion. The patient, questioned, admitted that he had the disease when a young man; " but," said he, " I thought that was cured forty years ago." A larger knowledge of this case convinced both patient and physician, that the physical and mental defects in both children and grandchildren were due to this cause alone. Most of those admitted to our State hospital at Tewksbury show traces of syphilis, either inherited or acquired. Many of the children born there show unmistakable evidence of the disease, which was not present in the mother, and which shows all too surely the character of those who beget illegitimate children. And yet this disease, which in some of its manifestations is more loathsome than small-pox, which is as destructive and, under certain conditions, as infectious as leprosy, which by vile persons is voluntarily contracted and communicated, which probably causes, directly and indirectly, more deaths annually than all -the epidemics which visit our land, is not recognized in the statute book. It does not appear as the cause of death upon the physician's certificate or books of statistics, because the practitioner does not always recognize it, or because, out of kindly consideration for the friends of the deceased, he writes instead the name of the complicating trouble. Nor is the public protected by the temporary withdrawal which it sometimes seeks, because no place has been provided for it. I would urge the establishment of wards in every municipal and State hospital, and in some private ones also, where all forms of venereal disease may be admitted. In some cities, a special hospital might be established. Our friends of the Cancer Hospital in New

Page  61 HOSPITALS AND INFIRMARIES York, I have been told, sometimes feel that the name which they have adopted, and which so clearly expresses the character of that noble charity, is not a wise one. People do not like by their acts to acknowledge to themselves or their friends that they have a loathsome or incurable disease. Much less will patients care to enter an institution the name of which implies shame and dishonor. So the ward or hospital here proposed will need a name more honorable than that which would specify its real work. Perhaps " Hospital for Skin Diseases," or some similar term, would be sufficiently expressive. It is made obligatory on the part of physicians to report to the proper civil authorities the existence in their practice of such contagious diseases as small-pox, yellow fever, scarlet fever, etc. These maladies are in no way associated with dishonor or impurity. They may wipe out their victims from the face of the earth, but they leave no taint to be transmitted to descendants. If the State thus guards its citizens from these lesser scourges, why should it not extend its protecting power to a disease which affects not only the present, but future generations, and which is developed and perpetuated by the voluntary violation of both Divine and civil law? Does it not seem strange that, while we have made laws to preserve the chastity of the community, no attempt whatever has yet been made to secure us from disease which by violation of these laws is scattered broadcast over our land? I urge that there should be some legislation looking to the State control of those who have venereal diseases in the infectious stages. I am aware that there are many difficulties in the way. Laws for the pauper and criminal usually find passage through a legislative body; but a law which may touch the pleasure of some who indulge in crime behind the screen of wealth and respectability, a law which may put to shame some in places of influence, by bringing their secret sins to the light of day, a law which in its execution may bow with grief worthy families, because some honored and esteemed one is shown to be untrue and impure,- this is not easy of enactment. But this at least might be secured: that persons who have come under State control,-whether by laying themselves liable to law they have become inmates of some penal institution, or have thrown themselves temporarily upon the State's bounty for support,-if found to have venereal diseases, shall not be allowed to go out until the infectious stages are passed. This cannot be done without legal authority. Patients under

Page  62 62 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES treatment and subjected to the regular life and habits of an institution soon begin to feel well, and are anxious to return to a life of liberty; and the authorities in charge, not appreciating the medical aspect of the case, and not willing to appear to harbor able-bodied men and women at the State's expense, are quite willing to be rid of dissolute inmates chafing under restraint. So they go out to neglect themselves, yield to their passionate desires, and infect others who, it may be, are innocent of wrong-doing. In illustration, I have known a young woman having the initial lesion of syphilis to go out from an institution and be married to a respectable man within three weeks, he being ignorant that any trouble existed. Do you wonder that we who live within sight and knowledge of these things feel a thrill of alarm when we consider the future of our country and the rapidly increasing number of her dissolute and defective classes? There is perhaps this consoling aspect of the subject. Its seeds of corruption are also the seeds of death. A race thus poisoned must soon run itself out from exhausted vitality; but meanwhile the innocent suffer with the guilty, and the pure are being dragged down to swell the ranks of impurity. These facts, however unpleasant, are facts none the less; and this disease must sooner or later receive the recognition which all other serious infectious diseases have received. The State will yet put its restraining hand upon the dissolute and vile, and exercise its legitimate power to preserve inviolate the manhood and womanhood of its citizens.

Page  63 V. Ce 31n'0ane.-B- eir Zreatment, Commitm ent, anD ettention. THE STATE IN THE CARE OF ITS INSANE. BY W. W. GODDING, M.D., WASHINGTON, D.C. Your committee, to whom the subject of insanity was assigned, has been unable to meet for conference. Its individual members have been singularly modest in bringing forward their views, or in pressing upon the chairman suggestions for the Report, so that the writer has been left untrammelled to give his own opinions, for which his associates on the committee can in no way be held responsible. These opinions are entitled to no weight except as individual views honestly expressed. Perhaps the strongest thing to be said in their behalf is that they present nothing startlingly new, and that they have for the most part been anticipated in reports and papers read before the Conference at former sessions, and that have already found place in its published Proceedings. Especially does the writer feel indebted to one member of the committee, Hon. W. P. Letchworth, of New York, for many valuable suggestions, parallel in their line of thought to his own, which may be found in his recently published work on "The Insane in Foreign Countries." If any plagiarisms are detected, the excuse must be that all the best things were said long ago, and that modern literature is only a reproduction of the old. THE DUTY OF THE STATE. The Conference of Charities and Correction, at its first meeting held in New York in I874, propounded as the theme for its discussion "The Duty of the States toward their Insane Poor." To-day there is no more important claim, no more vital question, for the consideration of those to whom it is given to shape the sentiment of States in the direction of their charitable work' for the dependent

Page  64 '64 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES classes, and for those to whom the care of these dependent ones has been confided. Therefore, your committee has ventured upon no new theme; but, recognizing the duty to be a continuing one, as happily set forth in the words of the Master, "Ye have the poor always with you," we have been content to inquire only if there has been found out any new way of doing them good. The Superintendents of the Poor of the State of New York in I855, in convention, adopted resolutions containing the following, "A State should make suitable provision for all its insane." A generation of men has passed away since they laid down this proposition; and, limiting it to the indigent insane, it remains an axiom of universal acceptance in social science. The State is wanting in its duty so long as any insane man or woman is left outside of its protecting care. EXTENT OF PRESENT PROVISION. This truth is accepted unhesitatingly by those whose acceptance should mean its accomplishment; yet in what States can you find that.complete provision made? It is no light contract to which the:authorities of a State pledge themselves when they undertake such provision. The community at large, State legislatures, Boards of 'State Charities even, do not seem to grasp the full magnitude of the,undertaking. By way of illustration of this, take the State of New York, that Empire State, at once the largest and proudest of all;.and what is true of New York is true to a greater or less extent of.every other State,- indeed, hardly any State has done more, few have done as much, for their dependent insane as New York. The twenty-second annual report of her Board of State Charities shows the number of the insane on Oct. i, i888, within the borders of that -State to have been over I9,000, or one in every 316 of the estimated population. The actual number at that date under care in institutions of all kinds in the State was I4,772, or more than three-fourths of the whole. Referring to the nineteenth annual report of the same board, we find that, Oct. i, i885, the number in institutions of all kinds was 12,707, showing that in three years there had been an increase of more than 2,000, of which increase only 687 were in State institutions. During eight years past, the annual increase of the insane in the different institutions of New York has averaged 654. In other words, the annual admissions in excess of discharges from all causes would have sufficed each year to crowd to overflowing a new institution equal in capacity to that at Utica, which is the largest

Page  65 THE IDEAL PRISON SYSTEM FOR A STATE 65 hospital for acute cases in the State. This proceeds on the supposition that the average annual increment remains the same as for the last eight years, whereas it is clear that the number will increase, the gain in insanity in the State having amounted to 48 per cent. in that time, while the gain in population has been only I9 per cent. An interesting inquiry here is, What additional accommodations have been provided by the State authorities for this more than 2,000 insane persons asking suitable care? From the reports of the Board of State Charities, we learn that additional accommodations for Ioo inmates have been made at Middletown, and at Willard an infirmary has been built for I50 beds. The most extensive new provision made is at Binghamton Asylum for 450 inmates, making a total of 690 insane provided with accommodations by the State of New York during the last three years, the number corresponding almost exactly with the actual increase of numbers in the State hospitals and asylums, leaving the remaining 1,379, who in these three years have been crowded into the already overfilled city asylums of New York and Brooklyn and the various almshouses throughout the State, there to await the completion of the projected St. Lawrence State Asylum for 550 inmates, which has already been three years in its inception and is far from its opening, or the building of the cottages at Poughkeepsie, or the new wing at Buffalo, or the addition at Middletown. If to these additional buildings, provided for by appropriation, but not yet available, are added the projected farm structures of New York City on Long Island, we shall have provision approximating the number of dependent insane which was in waiting Oct. i, i888. But, in the mean time, in the two or three years required for the erection of these structures, this great army of the insane of the State of New York, with its annual increment of nearly seven hundred, goes marching on into another decade, when it will be nine hundred. rather than seven hundred who will each year be asking room. It is time that the people and those to whom they intrust the responsibility of making suitable provision for all the insane understood this,-that they realized that the era for spending five years in selecting a site and building a hospital for six hundred inmates, then sitting down to congratulate themselves on such monumental work for humanity, has past. The building of accommodations at moderate cost, on a scale commensurate to the daily need, must be accepted as a matter of course and brought down to business methods. There is to be henceforward less laying of corner-stones with appropriate ceremonies, but more ordinary brickwork; building to anticipate rather than follow the

Page  66 66 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES needs of the insane, and so, with no flourish of trumpets, but silently, keeping step in the march of human brotherhood round the world. SUITABLE PROVISION. What, then, is that suitable provision which it is conceded is the duty of each State to make for its indigent insane? It should be such provision as shall accomplish the largest result in the restoration to health in curable cases, the element of expense being here a subordinate one, and, for the remainder, such comfortable provision at a moderate expenditure as shall insure safety to the community and humane care to the sufferer. It is not claimed that this is a problem in social science which admits of but one solution, hence, perhaps, the varied views that obtain respecting the manner of fulfilment of this duty of a State toward all her dependent insane. There seems to have been room found for all sorts of philanthropic experiments in this direction; but never as yet has room been thereby provided for all of a State's dependent insane. STATE SUPERVISION. The questions of law respecting the care and detention of the insane belong to another committee; but, without any reference to the law creating it, we shall agree that the very idea of State care implies that, to whatever hands the immediate charge of any class of insane is intrusted, there should always be an efficient supervision exercised by some board of charities or inspection in behalf of the State. In no other way is it possible that the custody of the chronic insane by county authorities in almshouses, as is at present practised in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, New York, and other States, shall not rapidly degenerate into parsimonious provision, which is only a synonyme for neglect. Such board of supervision should be as nonpartisan as the supreme judicial tribunal in a State whose judiciary is for life, and not elective. It should by its position command the best talent in the State, and it should shape the policy of that State with regard to its insane. On them would devolve the duty of making suitable provision for all the dependent insane, and they would have the supervision of the rest. Suitable provision will not necessarily mean the same in every State,- extent, climate, character of the population, are all factors that have a bearing here. In all but the newest States, extensive provision already exists, which, even if

Page  67 THE INSANE 67 not shown to be the best, cannot be at once changed or thrown aside, but must be utilized to the fullest extent, since the need is urgent, not only for all the accommodation that now exists, but for as much more. HOSPITAL PROVISION. The problem here presented of suitable provision for all the dependent insane will afford ample opportunity for thoroughly testing all those methods of relief to hospitals that have been brought forward so confidently by their enthusiastic advocates. All these methods will have their uses, and may reasonably be expected to aid us in arriving at a satisfactory solution of the problem. It is not doubted that among the chronic insane the approximation to home life and labor found in county and town asylums has, in the case of some of the inmates of State hospitals removed thither, resulted in marked improvement in their general condition. There is also no lack of instances of change for the better resulting almost directly on removal from the almshouse to the hospital ward. Here comes, in the element of change, which is in itself an important remedial agent, and is so recognized by those who have the care of the insane, whether the surroundings be thereby improved or otherwise. For a limited number, boarding out in families offers an opportunity for change, and is a proper provision, if carefully supervised by a State officer intelligent enough to understand the needs of the insane and the necessary limitations of this mode of care. In selecting homes for these, it should be where there are no young children to suffer harm in mind or body by their presence. The rights of another generation are sacred; and it is an outrage to shadow the susceptible years of childhood with a lunatic sitting by the hearthstone. But, however much individual cases among the insane may be benefited, and however hospitals may experience relief by their removal to country homes, few will be so sanguine as to look for anything more than a very inconsiderable relief to the State from this form of provision. Hospitals and asylums, either State or county, will probably always be the main provision for the indigent insane of a community. RATIO OF PROVISION. It must be accepted as a fact that the insane in the United States are increasing out of proportion to the increase in population. How much faster, it will require the figures of the census of 1890 to determine. The ratio of increase in New York, while it may be approxi

Page  68 68 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFEiRENCE OF CHARITIES mately correct for some of the older States, would hardly be a fair index of the whole. The United States Census of I880 showed an average of one insane person to every five hundred and forty-five of the population. The prediction is hazarded that the census of 1890 will show an average of one to every four hundred and fifty of population. It is safe to say that the State, which undertakes to make suitable provision for its dependent insane, after allowing for all that may be properly provided for at home and in private institutions, must supply hospital accommodation for one in every four hundred of population at the start, and be prepared annually to increase that accommodation by one hundred and twenty-five beds for every million of population. Anything less than this will overcrowd the institutions, and fall short of that suitable provision which it is the duty of the State to make for all its dependent insane. THE HOSPITALS. Area, population, distribution of population, rapidity of growth, railroad facilities, and many other things, will come in to vary the conditions of the problem of construction and location of hospitals for the insane of a State. What has already been built must be taken into account. For no State, however, has sufficient provision yet been made, so that to every Board of Lunacy the question of hospital building is at once present and urgent. SITE. However other conditions of hospital provision vary, some general points in regard to site appear to be definitely settled. It goes without saying that it should be a healthy spot, admitting of easy, natural drainage, where the sewage can be readily disposed of, without danger of pestilence or litigation. The water supply should be of the best quality and simply inexhaustible. If delivery can be had throughout the buildings without pumping, so much the better. The soil should be fertile and easily worked. It should have a varied surface, with considerable elevation and pleasant outlook, so as to command extended views of the surrounding country. A water view adds much to the beauty of the whole; and, if this be a lake or navigable river, with its moving panorama of sails and steamboats, its value as an adjuvant to the moral treatment of the household can hardly be overestimated. The site should be easy of access by rail from the differ

Page  69 THE INSANE 69 ent parts of the section of the State for which it is intended and as central to it as may be. In a few of the smaller States, like New Hampshire and Delaware, a single central institution may suffice; but, in most of the States, such single central provision would be out of the question. Into how many sections a State should be divided with reference to the care of its insane will depend upon the density of population and the limit of number of inmates proper to one institution. The question of the number of the insane that may properly be aggregated at one point is still sub judice, and will be considered further on; but the number of acres that may properly be included in one site admits of no such difference of opinion. In procuring land for a new institution at the present day, it would be a mistake to provide less than one acre to every inmate; and, knowing how almost inevitably the number of inmates increases beyond the original provision, a good rule in regard to the purchase of land for the hospital is to fix the amount of land on the most liberal basis, assuming that the State cannot have too much of a good thing, and then double the estimate. As the site should not be selected in the heart of a large town, the only need being that it shall be of easy access from some source of supplies, the price of land per acre can hardly be so excessive that a State cannot afford to buy enough. And it is the cheapest thing about a hospital plant, in the long run, the only thing that always advances in value. If you doubt this, try to buy an additional tract of land adjoining any State hospital at the price per acre of the original purchase. It is not necessary that this five hundred, one thousand, or fifteen hundred acres, as the case may be, should be all in the same tract or even lying adjacent. It may well be that the pasture for young stock or part of the grass ground shall be at some distance. It may prove a decided advantage to have an outlying farm to do duty as a summer resort for convalescent and quiet cases, miles away, beyond all sights or sounds or suggestions of the hospital they have left behind. What is asked of a hospital site is: First, that it shall afford ample plateaus for the sites of the buildings and pleasant grounds for exercise and recreation in the open air. Second, that it shall produce all the vegetables that are needed for a varied diet for the inmates. If it is large enough to afford ample grounds for vineyards, fruit orchards, and melon patches, all the better. All these help the dessert, and afford pleasant and healthful occupation for a portion of the inmates. Third, there should be ample acreage for a stock farm, yielding an

Page  70 70 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES abundance of milk for every inmate; also, pasturage for raising young stock from which to replenish the herd. There should be poultry and duck houses, with sufficient grounds to keep them healthy. All these are sources of pleasure to many of the insane, diverting from their sadness or affording occupation to their listless hours. There is one hospital - that at Brattleboro, Vt. - which owns a mountain three or four miles away, from which is cut all the fuel consumed under the boilers for heating purposes. It does not appear that it is any detriment to this institution that it can obtain its fuel for the cutting and have wood ashes for its lawns in lieu of coal cinders for its dumps. In view of all its possible uses, good land in America is still the cheapest investment for a hospital; and the wisdom of securing broad acres at the outset will only grow more. apparent as the years move on. HOSPITAL BUILDINGS. How shall we build for all of a State's insane? While recognizing how wide a diversity of sentiment exists in regard to asylum construction in the United States, and how utterly impossible it is to lay down anything ex cathedra on the subject, it has seemed to the writer best to state frankly what he would do if the authority and responsibility of providing for all the dependent insane of a commonwealth were confined to him, leaving to the debate that may follow the reading to bring out the defects and limitations of the proposed provision, and perchance show wherein the county system, as exemplified in Wisconsin and New Hampshire, is a more excellent way. Central to each district of three hundred thousand inhabitants a site should be selected, in character and extent such as has been already described, and buildings constructed for one thousand inmates, or, if it be deemed a wiser provision, then four districts of seventy-five thousand, with central sites for hospitals for two hundred and fifty inmates. The writer does not hesitate to say that, while this number of insane has been considered the largest that can be provided for in one institution, if the highest efficiency of care and treatment is to be considered, he regards it as Utopian, in our time at least, to expect that any State will undertake such multiple subdivision of the care of its indigent insane. Nor would it seem that the objection to large asylums, that the individual is lost sight of in the multitude, is well founded, where a proper subdivision is effected by means of distinct dwellings of varying plan, adapted to the different types of cases for which the provision is designed.

Page  71 THE INSANE 71 Here the interesting statistics of Dr. Tobey, Superintendent of the Toledo Asylum for the Insane in Ohio, himself a member of your committee, are introduced as being eloquent in themselves and in many ways having a bearing on the question of hospital buildings. Writing under date of July 17, I889, he says:There have been admitted to this institution, since its opening, Jan. 6, I887, 1,475 patients; and we now have I,o85 patients in the institution. Of this number, we take 750 out from their buildings to the general dining-rooms for their meals. We have not had a half-dozen attempts at escape while the patients were going to and from meals in more than a year past. Fully 25 per cent. of our male patients go about the institution unattended; and yet we have not had a half-dozen elopements in as many months. We have had but one instance of seclusion for a month past, and will not average one hour's seclusion for one person a day, take it the year through, and have never had occasion to use mechanical restraint but in three instances, all of which were surgical cases. We have taken all the insane persons from the twenty-six counties composing the district of this asylum, and have received some seventy-five or eighty persons from counties outside of the district. Three-fourths of all the patients in the institution live in buildings the sitting-room windows of which are unprotected by screens or bars; and yet, since the opening of the institution, there have never been a half-dozen window-panes broken by persons attempting to get away. During the pleasant weather, 50 per cent. of all the male patients and 25 per cent. of the female patients are furnished some kind of employment outside of their wards and cottages. The institution is composed of forty entirely separate buildings, and is located in the.centre of a rectangular piece of ground containing I30 acres. It is open to the public highways on two sides,- without a fence. I shall not add farther comment on the results obtained at this institution than to say I do not believe any one can fully investigate the workings of this institution without being convinced that an asylum ought never to be built on the old, or wing, plan. If you are incredulous as to the above statements, come and see us, and you will find that "the half has never been told." "Forty entirely distinct buildings" tell how far individualized provision has been found practicable in a hospital for a thousand inmates at Toledo. Out of a thousand insane persons existing in a State at any given time, not exceeding one hundred will be of the acute and presumably curable class. The provision, then, for a district containing three hundred thousand inhabitants should include one building, or preferably one group. of buildings, designed especially for the acute and curable cases. No detail in construction should be omitted, no

Page  72 72 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES liberality of arrangement curtailed, that may be held to in any way assist in the treatment and cure of these cases. If it be deemed advisable that they should have single apartments for their individualized treatment, or buildings of special construction, such apartments and buildings should be at the command of the physician to whom you intrust the responsibility of their treatment. Let him have attendants in abundance, night nurses as well, gardens, grounds, Turkish baths, batteries, sun parlors, gymnastics, music, facilities for change of surroundings,-in short, whatever seems to him desirable to bring about a cure; for it is this, and not a comfortable home with pleasant beguilements, that is demanded in these cases. In this acute and presumably curable period, the case is to be met with everything that medical skill and unremitting attention, under surroundings the most favorable, can afford; and the disease is to be arrested in this opening stage, if it be in our power to arrest it. There is true economy in expenditure to effect a cure at the start; for the average life of the unrecovered insane man is twelve years, during which time he is simply a burden to the community that cares for and supports him. In view of the importance of this early treatment, it has been urged that distinct institutions should be provided for the acute cases, and the chronic cases gathered in asylums by themselves. Certainly, this would be best, were distinct groups of buildings for their care in no other way possible. But it does not appear wherein a hospital limited to acute cases would have advantages over one devoted to the general treatment of the disease, if the number of acute cases in that general hospital be large enough to justify the erection of a distinct group of buildings for their care and individualized treatment. In the institution for a thousand inmates which is here contemplated, this would be a necessity. The argument sometimes heard, that these large institutions for the insane are so overwhelming in their numbers that the individual is lost in the multitude, has no pertinence of application to such institutions as we are considering, where the subdivision into classes provides a distinct group of buildings for each, which is in itself but the recognition of the advantage of individual treatment. Is it objected that large hospitals are invariably overcrowded, and so are prevented from making proper provision for recent curable cases, and hence other institutions must be erected especially for these? The answer is not far to seek,-that overcrowding is not the result of the large institutions, but in spite of them, that its evils can hardly be overestimated,

Page  73 THE INSANE 73 but it has no reference to the system of provision, is injurious to large and small institutions alike, and, unless boards of charities and legislatures can be aroused to the necessity of making adequate provision for the whole number to be cared for, and of maintaining such provision at that point, our institutions will become receptacles rather than hospitals, and the treatment of the insane at the public expense prove measurably a failure rather than a success. But we assume that the community do not object to such expenditure as may be necessary for the proper care of all their insane; that boards of charities and inspectors of lunacy can be made to see the necessity as it exists, and bring in their estimates accordingly; that legislatures will then vote the necessary appropriations, and the hospitals will be built large enough for all and suited to every class. The superintendent of such hospital should be a medical man of the highest integrity, with a head to understand the magnitude of the work to which he is called, a heart in sympathy with the afflicted ones confided to his care, an intellect to comprehend what there is to be learned about insanity, a genius for executive management and control, a man equal to the responsibility and having the health and ambition to make the hospital a success. In the work which he has to do, such a man should not lack for efficient support. His medical staff should be composed of men of good general ability, each fitted to his special work. The man in charge of the group of buildings for the acute and presumably curable cases should be an enthusiast in research and a firm believer in the efficacy of his art. He should have under him all the clinical aid he may consider necessary to enable him to devote his own time to the study of each individual under his charge, looking to the one end of cure. Results would be the touchstone to test the success of his work, and the superintendent should be a man large enough to give him the full credit of it. It is for many reasons best that the chief officer in the hospital for a thousand insane should be a medical man; but it is work enough for him to guide the whole to the highest results, leaving to his assistants to master the details of the work and the individual treatment of the inmates. With such incentive to work, and such generous recognition of their labors, it will not be found difficult to secure the services of young men on the medical staff fully competent to take the charge of a department and make the most possible out of it. The selection of these should be made with reference to the tastes and bent of the individual. The assistant for the acute cases should have a real love for his professional work

Page  74 74 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and a zeal in putting his faith into practice. For cases becoming chronic, and hence less hopeful, but not to be classed as incurable, a somewhat different type of assistant is needed. He should have a genius for drawing out all that is left in a man and putting it to the best uses. He would have the workshops full, and a whole army of farm laborers in the field. His wards would go with unlocked doors; because his patients would be made to feel at home. The fields of medical work would be distinct, and each would be master in his own. The staff of such an institution should also have a special pathologist, whose whole time should be devoted to research into the pathology and changes wrought by insanity, as shown by the organs after death, and to learning what may be found out by changes in the secretions incident to the disease. This is a direction in which much is to be hoped, by a knowledge of the exact conditions of the disease, in the treatment of that disease, and is a matter toward which too much indifference has been hitherto shown. The subdivision of hospital work, looking to its greater thoroughness and consequent efficiency, is a tempting field, which, if entered on, would extend this paper to too great a length. What has already been said will illustrate its importance; and any one familiar with the care of the insane can fill up the picture in his own mind with any number of additional groups. It also goes without saying that these different types and conditions will require buildings to meet the wants of those conditions. Their general plan and arrangement can safely be left to the man who superintends the whole work, specifying only that they be essentially fire-proof. If he be the man we have indicated, he will know how to build them better than any one can tell him. In the near future, it is not too much to hope that we shall see more than one such State hospital for the insane, with its broad fields interspersed with groves and cottages and villas, its groups suited to every want and condition, not necessarily limited in number to the forty distinct buildings of Toledo, but new structures, springing up as their need is shown. The group for acute cases, the workingmen's cottages, the infirmary for the sick and the helpless, the lodge for the violent, the convalescent rest, the epileptic retreat, the old ladies' home, the observation ward, the summer pavilion and the winter ingleside,- all these, and as many more for classes that we need not stop to describe, peacefully stretching over acres that only the horizon shall limit, will seem to us in its ordered arrangement not a caravansary, but a cosmos for the insane.

Page  75 THE INSANE 75 PROVISION FOR THE CRIMINAL AND CONVICT INSANE. There is, however, one class, or rather two classes, so distinct from the ordinary insane that this paper would be left incomplete without a word about them. Reference is here made to the convict and criminal insane, so called. Shall their confinement be in the ordinary hospital for the insane? There exists a prejudice, and not without reason, against the convict insane being allowed to commingle and associate with the other inmates of a lunatic hospital. Such compulsory association is simply an outrage. The case' is different with the homicide whose insanity has taken away the conditions necessary to constitute his act a crime. Still, their association is often unpleasant, and objected to by the other insane on whose lives there is no blood-stain; and the community asking protection against the maniac's aimless blows has a right to demand that the insane man whose hands have been once imbrued with a brother's blood shall be securely kept. The provision for the convict insane in a Hospital for Criminals, as in New York and Michigan, in those largest States that have a population that justifies the expectation of sufficient of the convict class to fill it, is probably the best that can be made both for the insane and the community. Such hospital should be a group of buildings, or, better, distinct groups, so that there should be no excuse for having the convict who has become insane while serving out a sentence for crime, and whose insanity may be the direct outgrowth of his vices, in enforced contact with the man whose act was the outgrowth of his insanity, and whose life may have been as pure as that of any of us. In smaller States, where a Hospital for the Criminal Insane would have but a handful of inmates, what provision should be made? Here there should be separate buildings provided for this class within the ample grounds of some one of the State hospitals. For illustration, take the provision already made at the Government Hospital for the Insane at Washington, D.C. Here a building entirely distinct, but of easy access from the executive building, has been provided for those convicts and criminals under United States laws who have become insane. The building is named Howard Hall in honor of the philanthropist Howard, who gave his life to prison reform, and lost that life in caring for a fever-stricken outcast in Russia. Howard Hall is a plain brick structure, substantially built and practically fire-proof, consisting of a three-story centre building, containing the

Page  76 76 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES common dining-hall, work-room, amusement-room, and smoking-room. With the centre building two wings of two stories, with single rooms for the inmates, are connected at right angles to each other, the attendants' rooms making the connecting angle. Each wing contains two wards, with fifteen single rooms in each for inmates, also a sitting-room for day and evening, out of which opens a projecting tower for lavatory, bath-room, and water-closet. It would have been possible to place these single rooms for the inmates in an interior structure, after the manner of the modern prison, thereby increasing the security against escape. But such provision would have differed very little from the walls they had left behind; and, recognizing that they were sick persons asking treatment rather than prisoners who had forfeited their liberty by crime, their rooms were placed on the outer walls, opening their windows to the air and sunshine, conceding in their design more to the hospital than the penitentiary. For security against escape, wrought-iron guards are placed outside the windows, and in some rooms are strong shutters on the room side. The cost complete should not exceed $i,ooo per inmate. The building as at present occupied consists of a rectangle. The plan contemplates another rectangle joined to this, so as to make a hollow square completely enclosing an open-air court, where the inmates can be out of doors at will during the day. The building completed according to the plan will afford one hundred and twenty single rooms for as many inmates, arranged in eight distinct wards, with dining-halls, work, smoking, and amusement rooms in duplicate, thus affording opportunity for classification according to the type of disease, and also by separate provision making entirely distinct the convict and the criminal insane, as they are called. Already in the practical working of Howard Hall is there apparent a decided gain over the old method of commingling the convict and criminal insane with the general household, a method that was inevitable under the limitations of the original buildings. Both classes are the gainers by the change. Those who are left behind are relieved of the presence of unpleasant companions, and have therefore a greater freedom from the restraint of bolts and bars, as well as a rest from the mental irritation growing out of what they regard as an objectionable association with crime. The criminal class, secure in wards of smaller numbers, lodged in single rooms, and having ample spaces for recreation and employment, feel a relief at once. More than one-half are already at work at some form of industry,such as braiding or drawing mats, cane-seating chairs, making, mend

Page  77 THE INSANE 77 ing, or sponging clothing,- and so grow happy and content. They go to their smoking-room or their games, having earned a right to these things by their labor. Their noise and discontent are visibly lessened. It is in contemplation to enclose a considerable plot of ground, that some may work at gardening and keep pet animals if they desire. The lesson of the Picciola flower tended up from between the stones of a prison yard should teach us something here. If Howard Hall is to accomplish what is needed for this difficult and dangerous class, who with all their imperfections and infirmities are still our brothers, it must be made more than a secure enclosure for the protection of society: it ought to give back something in return for the loss of liberty which it entails; there should be some healing in its touch, some virtue to go forth from its name. Then let the ivy come to cover its walls, the roses to look in at its casements, that these lives, under a ban elsewhere, and for whom the world has left no other shelter, may find here, not a prison, but a home. CONCLUSION. To sum up, then, since this paper has already reached too great a length, this Conference through its individual members should mould public sentiment in the direction of immediate action to provide in each State supervision and accommodation for all of its insane. Such provision implies an expenditure and effort out of proportion to what has hitherto been made, and one that must be annually renewed; but, the burden once resolutely taken up and continuously borne, and bearing fruits in the improved condition of these afflicted ones, it will no longer seem a burden,- a twice-blessed, ennobling charity rather, that " blesseth him that gives and him that takes." The provision made should be adapted to the varying conditions, and so apportioned that no one class shall act as a detriment to any other. To this end, provision and treatment should be individualized, and not stereotyped. So, with ample space for every occupation and diversion, with buildings simply constructed, but fitted to each varying want, grouped or scattered, distinct, yet, if need be, readily connected by covered or subterranean ways, in the near future we may realize in each State - not a Gheel, although something perhaps might be learned from that, and doubtless m6re from the Colony of Fitz-James at Claremont or Saxony's Asylum at Alt-Scherbitz, but in no servile imitation of Euro

Page  78 78 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES pean systems, although benefiting by the study of all - a distinctively American Home for all the insane, beneath whose soothing shadow and healing touch perchance some mentally blind gathered there might receive their sight. STATE LEGISLATION FOR THE INSANE. A REPORT FROM THE COMMITTEE ON COMMITMENT AND DETENTION. BY STEPHEN SMITH, M.D., OF NEW YORK, AND F. B. SANBORN, OF CONCORD, MASS. "The questions of law with respect to the detention and care of the insane," which, as Dr. Godding has just said, "belong to another committee," were in I887 referred by the Omaha Conference to a special Committee on Commitment and Detention, which reported at some length to the Buffalo Conference, and were continued by special vote, for the purpose of forming State Committees and inducing an amendment of the laws. Our committee has attended to this part of its work, and has constituted committees in nearly half of the United States, a list of which is subjoined. Several of these State Committees have been active, particularly in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin; while others have collected information, and are preparing to influence legislation hereafter. Should the Central Committee be continued (which we recommend), in another year it is probable that all the States of our Union will have organized committees, which can be perpetuated from year to year until laws approaching uniformity shall be established all over the country, in regard to the commitment, detention, and general treatment of insane persons. The names of the present committee members are as follows: ALABAMA. - P. Bryce, M.D., Tuskaloosa; Hon. H. M. Somerville, J. B. Gaston, M.D., Montgomery; James F. Searly, M.D., Tuskaloosa. CONNECTICUT. -The State Board of Charities, Hartford. FLORIDA. -Dr. Mary J. Safford, Tarpon Springs. ILLINOIS.- H. Wardner, M.D., Anna; R. H. Dewey, M.D., Kankakee; E. A. Kilbourne, M.D., Elgin; H. F. Carriel, M.D., Jacksonville.

Page  79 THE INSANE 79 INDIANA. —W. B. Fletcher, M.D., Indianapolis; J. G. Rogers, M.D., Logansport; and the members of the State Board of Charities, Indianapolis. IOWA.-Albert Reynolds, M.D., Clinton; J. McCowen, M.D., C. S. Watkins, Davenport; Rev. S. S. Hunting, Des Moines. KANSAS. - The State Board of Trustees. MARYLAND. - Richard Gundry, M.D., Catonsville; Henry M. Hurd, M.D., Baltimore. MASSACHUSETTS. - F. B. Sanborn, Concord; Pliny Earle, M.D., Northampton; I. T. Talbot, M.D., Boston; Joseph A. Allen, Medfield; Charles G. Fall, Malden; Hon. Alvan Barrus, Goshein. MICHIGAN. - Dr. C. B. Burr, Pontiac; Hon. Levi L. Barbour, J. W. Waterman, J. E. Emerson, M.D., Detroit; Hon. C. B. Grant, Marquette; Hon. John B. Shipman, Coldwater. MINNESOTA. -The State Board of Charities, St. Paul. NEW HAMPSHIRE. - Hon. J. W. Patterson, Hanover; Hon. W. S. Ladd, Lancaster; Hon. W. L. Foster, Irving A. Watson, M.D., Concord; Hon. David Cross, Manchester. NEW JERSEY. - Charlton T. Lewis, Esq., Morristown; Ezra M. Hunt, M.D., Trenton. NEW YORK. - Hon. Dorman B. Eaton, New York City; Hon. W. P. Letchworth, Portageville; Judson B. Andrews, M.D., Buffalo; Oscar Craig, Esq., Rochester; C. H. Porter, M.D., Albany. OHIO. -The State Board of Charities. PENNSYLVANIA. - Thomas G. Morton, M.D., Philadelphia. RHODE ISLAND. - Hon. Thomas Coggeshall, Newport; Amos C. Barstow, Jr., Providence; James H. Eastman, Howard; G. W. Wightman, W. A. Gorton, M.D., C. Morris Smith, Providence. TEXAS. -Hon. R. S. Gould, Hon. J. W. Moore, Professor R. T. Hill, Austin; D. R. Wallace, M.D., Terrell. VERMONT. -Joseph Draper, M.D., Brattleboro. VIRGINIA. -Rev. George B. Eager, Danville. WISCONSIN. -The State Board of Charities and Reform. The result of the efforts of these State Committees has been very important, and promises to be no less so hereafter. In Alabama, a special Lunacy Commission for insane convicts has been established; in New Hampshire and New York, general Lunacy Commissions of qualified men have been established; in Connecticut, a new commitment law, in accord with the recommendations of our committee, has been passed; in New York, a bill drawn in accordance with this

Page  80 :80 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES -scheme passed the legislature without opposition, but failed to receive the Governor's signature, among other bills, at the close of the session; and in New Hampshire an important addition has been:made to the former law of commitment. In Minnesota, a new law regulating the correspondence of the insane was passed; in Massachusetts, a State Asylum for Inebriates has been provided for by law; in Wisconsin, an important change in the commitment law has been made; in Rhode Island, a slight modification, with the prospect of other changes next year. In some other States, also, a foundation has been laid for future legislation. We deem it very desirable that the State Committees already existing shall be continued, and that others shall be formed in the States and Territories where none now exist. Space does not permit us to exhibit in full the new legislation of the year I889; but as the New Hampshire law is brief, and provides happily for a lunacy commission of qualified persons, at no great cost, and for the special protection of the insane poor, we append the greater part of this statute. Its passage was due wholly to the efforts of the very efficient State Committee appointed by your committee. AN ACT To improve the Condition of the Indigent Insane. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Rep5resentatives of New Hampshire, in General Court convened:SECTION i. All persons deprived of their liberty in this State, by being committed to custody as insane, shall be the wards of the State and subject to State supervision. SECT. 2. All the laws relative to the commitment of an insane person to the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane shall be applicable to and shall govern the commitment of an insane person to all asylums or other places in this State where insane persons are -confined. SECT. 3. The State Board of Health shall constitute a Board of Commissioners of Lunacy, and the said board shall elect one of its number secretary, who shall keep on file a correct record of all its proceedings. SECT. 4. The board shall make thorough visitations and inspections as often as once in four months, by one or more of its members, of all asylums and other institutions for insane persons in the State, and such visitations shall be without previous notice. The board shall examine into the care and treatment of the insane; into the sanitary condition of each asylum or institution, and into all matters relating to the health, mental condition, and general welfare of the inmates; and said board shall have the power to order the removal,

Page  81 THE INSANE 8I for remedial treatment, of any insane person supported in whole or in part by any county or town in this State to the New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, if, in the judgment of the board, such treatment is required; and said person, while under remedial treatment at the State asylum, shall be supported at the expense of the State; provided, however, that, when the need of remedial treatment shall cease, said board shall notify the county or town liable for the support of such inmate, and, if longer continued at the said asylum, it shall be at the expense of said county or town. SECT. 5. Said board shall keep a correct record of the number of commitments, discharges, and deaths at each asylum, institution, or other place of detention, their age, sex, and nationality, and shall report the same annually to the Governor and Council, with any other matter or recommendations which in their judgment are important. SECT. 6. No insane person other than a pauper shall be admitted to any county asylum; and the superintendent of every asylum or other place in this State where insane persons are confined shall, within three days after the commitment of any person, notify the board of such commitment upon blanks furnished for that purpose; and the said superintendent shall at all times furnish such information regarding the insane in his charge as the said board may request. SECT. 7. Any insane person who shall have been an inmate of the,New Hampshire Asylum for the Insane for the period of twenty years, and supported during said term, in whole or in part, otherwise than by the town or county chargeable therewith, and who has no means of support and no relatives of sufficient ability chargeable therewith, and who cannot properly be discharged from said asylum, shall be supported therein at the expense of the State. The Lunacy Commission of New York, created by an act giving it very extensive powers, carefully defined in detail, has organized, and has entered upon its duties. The New Hampshire Lunacy Commission is already at work. The Maryland Lunacy Commission, created in I886, has reported once, and seems to be doing a good work. The Lunacy Committee of the Board of Charities of Pennsylvania (which is practically a Lunacy Commission) has thus far accomplished more in a short time than any such body in any of the States. The Chairman of this committee, Dr. Thomas G. Morton, who is also Chairman of our State Committee for Pennsylvania, writes as follows, under date of Aug. i6, I889:In a short time, I will send you a compilation of the laws of Pennsylvania relating to the insane, to which has been added a paper by Hon. William N. Ashman, Judge of the Orphan's Court, on " Insanity in Issues," and also a paper by Hon. George S. Graham, district

Page  82 82 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES attorney of Philadelphia County and Professor of Criminal Law in the University of Pennsylvania, on "Insanity in Defence," and a paper on " Expert Testimony and Medical Experts in Insanity," by Dr. John B. Chapin, whom you well know. The object in this book will be to aid the judiciary, the legal fraternity, and medical men; also, to open the way to a codification of the lunacy laws of. Pennsylvania at the next session of the legislature. This is a sample of what may be done in any State by a committee which has sufficient zeal and power. Little save time is wanting, were such committees everywhere established, to bring the lunacy laws of the United States into reasonable uniformity. In one phase of our subject, touched upon last year by Messrs. Wright and Sanborn in their special report,-the improper removal of the insane from one State to another,- nothing has been done, except to call the attention of several States to the existing evil, which increases from year to year. Cases now pending in the courts will probably impress upon State legislatures the necessity for some action such as was last year recommended. (Signed) STEPHEN SMITH, F. B. SANBORN, F. H. WINES, A. O. WRIGHT, M. D. FOLLETT, For the Committee. NEW YORK, Aug. 30, I889.

Page  83 VI. etrlefb[mitma ana 3bitotic p@rron. —ZCeir Training. CARE OF IDIOTIC AND FEEBLE-MINDED CHILDREN. BY HENRY DECHERT, OF PHILADELPHIA. Unfortunately, these children are classed together in popular language as "idiots "; and many persons in their ignorance turn away from any consideration of them and from any organized efforts for their relief. The census of i880 reported a total idiotic population of 76,895. The term "idiot" is repulsive, especially to the ears of loving parents; and we conclude that many children whom experts would pronounce to be " feeble-minded " were not returned by their families. This Conference should take measures to obtain, through the census of I890, a proper classification of the defective classes. Scientific men have divided these children into four classes; but, for the purposes of individual and State relief, it would be sufficient to have returns under two heads,- namely, "Idiots" and "Feeble-minded Children." The scientific division may be stated as follows, namely: - I. Idiocy. 2. Idio-imbecility. 3. Imbecility. (a) Lower grade. (b) Middle grade. (c) High grade. 4. Juvenile insanity. These children, of one or another of these six kinds, are to be found in every State and almost every community. What should we do with them? What can be done for them? The answer to the first question will be given according to our knowledge and sense of duty. Some heartless or ignorant man or woman may reply that it is a necessary evil which may be allowed to take care of itself, that these children are suffering the penalty for, the offences of fathers and mothers against the laws of religion or of health. But census

Page  84 84 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES reports show that the evil multiplies, and that neglect does not extirpate it. Experience shows that a large proportion of our criminals, inebriates, and prostitutes are congenital imbeciles; and yet, in a very large degree, these children are allowed to grow up unrestrained and without any attempt to improve them. The small number within asylums and training-schools, as compared with the grand total, supports this assertion. The State suffers the penalty of this neglect in an increase of pauperism and vice; and, finally, at a greatly increased cost, it is compelled to take charge of adult idiots in hospitals and almshouses and of imbecile criminals in jails and penitentiaries,- often during the remainder of their natural lives. Certainly, if anything can be done to prevent these mischievous results, the sternest moralist and the cold-hearted or ignorant formalist must agree with us that we should do everything possible to protect individuals and society from the injuries coming to them by these unfortunate children. Who can doubt the existence of an increasing injury to society where it permits such children to grow up without restraint and improvement into manhood and womanhood? In early childhood, they may be sheltered by fond parents or kind friends; but they outlive parents and guardians, and after a few years become the prey of the vicious, or themselves become the teachers of vice and crime. They had hands, but they were not taught to use them; passions, but they were not taught to restrain them; mental faculties, more or less impaired, which by neglect became more obscure, thus making them servants of their passions and victims of the depraved. Can we do anything to prevent these evils, but especially can we do anything which will improve these mentally defective children? The answer is twofold. Actual separation from the other members of the family and of the community alone will prevent these evils. When present in the family circle and sheltered by parents, either rich or poor, they are frequently a menace to the peace and happiness of parents, brothers, sisters, and neighbors. This "skeleton in the house " is present in the poor man's house to make life a burden, his only escape being to send the child to the poorhouse. The history of such children in many of the poorhouses is a record of shame for the States in which imbeciles are allowed to live in common with worthless tramps and abandoned women. It is true that the imbecile children of well-to-do parents are protected against such evils, either at home or in private retreats; but our proposition is that every family is entitled to this kind of protection, and that the State must have it in its own defence.

Page  85 FEEBLE-MINDED AND IDIOTIC PERSONS Separation must be secured by opening training-schools for feebleminded children. We do not mean asylums or places for separate or individual treatment. Let us be guided by experience in charitable work of this kind. Select a tract of land five or ten miles from any city or town, and erect upon it buildings at a moderate cost. Let them also be of moderate size, and in every way adapted to the work before you. A cottage dormitory for thirty children is better than one intended for one hundred children. Provide a common diningroom and kitchen. You will need a laundry, sewing-room, workshops, and school-rooms, and large spaces for gardens. Spend more money in preparing the garden soil and in under drainage to it from the buildings than in external adornment. We will imagine that you started your school, for feeble-minded children with one hundred of these unfortunate creatures, and that the institution has reached its second year. You have a competent superintendent and well-educated women teachers, a gardener and a cobbler, a tailor or a mechanic,- as you may prefer one or the other kind of work for boys. You have a laundry woman, a cook, and a sewing woman for the girls. Your institution will furnish the answer to the whole question, and moreover it is largely self-supporting. The association of these children in their play and work and in the school-rooms is perfectly safe when enjoyed under proper restraints. It excites the latent mental faculties and restrains all the brutal or dangerous passions. A visit to your school will show us boys and girls learning the contents of school books which belong to the primary or secondary schools; girls doing all the cooking, sewing, and washing; boys doing the farm and garden work, and perhaps the cobbling or carpentering and painting; perhaps, also, some of the boys are glad to help the girls in the kitchen or in the tailoring work. Individual charity and county or State aid must, of course, be called in to help the work. After a few years, you will be ready to discharge some of the children; and the girls may return home to help in the housework, and the boys to support themselves as farm laborers, or in some useful way. An experience of twenty-five years in our school at Elwyn, Delaware County, Penn., now containing 759 children (under the able superintendence of Isaac N. Kerlin, M.D.), shows that 35 per cent. of the discharged children are improved to that degree. Of course, others must remain in the institution for many years or for life; but many of these contribute something to their own support by work in the house or upon the farm. By keeping them, they, their families, and the community generally are alike benefited.

Page  86 86 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES If, after a lapse of ten years, we should take up the individual histories of these hundred feeble-minded boys and girls in the training-school, and of another hundred coming to manhood and womanhood outside of its bettering and protecting influence, that research would give complete answers to the two questions propounded by this paper, namely: first, that by placing feeble-minded children in training-schools we can protect them, their families, and the State; second, that these children, by association and instruction, can be improved and made self-supporting and happy, and, in a fair percentage of cases, safe and useful members of society. PUBLIC AID FOR THE FEEBLE-MINDED. BY MRS. GEORGE BROWN, OF BARRE, MASS. In an assemblage like this Conference, it must be an axiomatic proposition that the State should educate all its dependent children. It is not charity: it is simply providing for those of its own household, as when it furnishes schools for the well-endowed. I can see no reason why the means for such education should not be appropriated from the general school fund, without lobbying or begging. The question, then, is, In what respects must this provision for the feeble-minded differ from that given to others? When the first tentative experiments to elevate the feeble-minded in this country were made in the year 1848, the primary idea of both Dr. Howe and Dr. Wilbur was the same; i.e., to educate like others, so far as possible. The thousands of pupils since trained in the thirteen State institutions and numerous private schools through the country testify, without question, that a goodly number can be thus educated. It has also been proved that the feeble-minded pupil cannot be classed with the well-endowed, as the former must be helped more, be individually instructed. His steps are slow, and the rapid pace of his normal brother paralyzes all effort; while, associated with those of his own plane, his mental eye brightens, and he takes courage. Therefore, special schools with special appliances must be furnished, as for the deaf and blind. How large a number should be gathered in one place and how long the period of school life should last are relative matters, as the progress of the pupil and local surroundings differ. In determining these points, it would be

Page  87 FEEBLE-MINDED AND IDIOTIC PERSONS 87 wise to study the varied experiences of training-schools in this country, as given in their published reports, and also to note European methods. Within a few years, schools for exceptionally backward children, called "auxiliary," have been established in Germany, with satisfactory results. Into these departments have been gathered all pupils unable to make equal progress with their companions in the national schools. The German Minister of Education thinks these auxiliary classes should be instituted in every town numbering twenty thousand inhabitants. From their experience, they also judge that one instructor can efficiently teach only twenty pupils, and should himself be a person of superior ability. Norway gives to its intellectually weak children similar instruction, compulsory, as for normal children, and paid for out of the general fund. The Norwegian pupils comprise four divisions,- those able after two or three years' special instruction to enter the ordinary schools; those who by continuing can be brought to confirmation; those sent to special imbecile institutions; and the uneducable, who are returned to their homes. But the wide difference between this class and all others is the fact that, for the majority, State care must be given throughout their lifetime; since, however far some may progress in ability to care for themselves, the many remain little children, weak in will, weak in moral power, without homes, and must be delivered from temptation. This after-care must be very similar to that which the harmless insane require,- simple dwellings, plain food, intelligent classification, with continuous supervision, are the necessities. The sexes must live apart, but with land contiguous to their homes. The girls equally with the boys should cultivate the gardens, raising therefrom table supplies. Classifying the inmates with a due proportion of the ablest and most helpless, the former, under direction, can do the work for the latter, thus minifying the expense. When the village almshouse is properly managed, it should care for the few harmless insane and feeble-minded that legally come within its jurisdiction. I know this proposition is heretical in the eyes of philanthropists generally; but there is no necessity for conducting an almshouse upon unchristian principles that does not equally pertain to an insane asylum, or an institution for the feebleminded. All will acknowledge that this life-care must be made as economical as is consistent with the comfort of these unfortunates; and the taxpayer who grumbles at the burden must be taught that such care as

Page  88 88 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES has been described is less expensive than the neglect which multiplies the number of helpless persons and swells the calendar of crimes. For the satisfaction of the tax-payer, it may also be stated that in this class the average duration of life is somewhat less than for the wellendowed. No experiment has yet been made in this country whereby the lowest cost of support for such a class can be accurately computed. The New York State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-minded Women, in its report for i888, gives the weekly cost as $2.43 for each of its 200 inmates. This estimate is below that of some of the county almshouses. To each of these adult asylums of the future trained graduates of the schools should be assigned as helpers.

Page  89 VII. q tate Catrritite, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON STATE BOARDS OF CHARITIES. BY H. HASTINGS HART, OF ST. PAUL, MINN., CHAIRMAN. Your Committee on State Boards of Charities begs leave to offer the following Report: - The work of this committee has been very fully covered by the same committee in previous Conferences; and, instead of going over the ground in detail, it seems better to refer to the reports and papers which are to be found in the Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction. The most important reports on this subject are as follows: Proceedings of I879, paper by Mr. F. B. Sanborn, pp. 26-28; Proceedings of i880, address by General R. Brinkerhoff, pp. 26, 27; Proceedings of I88I, Report of the Committee on the Work of State Boards of Charities, by General R. Brinkerhoff, pp. 37-50, and a paper by George S. Robinson, of Illinois, on the utility of State Boards of Charities, pp. 58-76 (note also a discussion on this report, pp. 76-84); Proceedings of I883, report of the Committee on the Work of Boards of Charities, by Bishop George D. Gillespie, pp. 19-35 (note especially pp. 28-31); Proceedings of I886, Report of the Committee on State Boards of Charities, by Hon. H. H. Giles, pp. 19-26, and a paper by Hon. John. W. Andrews, on the Extension of State Boards' to all States and Territories, pp. 26 -30; Proceedings of I887, report of the Committee on State Boards of Charities, by Mr. F. B. Sanborn, pp. 75-Io5 (note also a discussion on this report, pp. 266-274). Of these papers, the report of General Brinkerhoff in I88I, the report of Bishop Gillespie in I883, the report of Mr. Giles in I886, and the report of Mr. Sanborn in 1887, are of special value to those who contemplate organizing new boards.

Page  90 9~ SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES It is not the purpose of the present committee to go into an elaborate discussion of the utility of State Boards of Charities, or to undertake an historical statement of the work of these Boards; but your committee will endeavor to answer as directly as possible the following questions: - (i) What is a State Board of Charities? (2) What is it for? (3) What is it good for? (4) How to get it? (5) When to get it? (6) How to organize it? (7) How to work it? (I) What is a State Board of Charities? It is a State agency established by law to oversee the charities of the State. This oversight generally includes State, county, and city charitable institutions, sometimes private charitable societies and institutions, usually the county jails, and State and city convict prisons. Most boards of charities are advisory, and have very little executive power. The principal exceptions are the Boards of Kansas, Rhode Island, and the State Board of Supervision in Wisconsin. The Boards of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and the State Board of Charities and Reform of Wisconsin have some important executive powers. (2) What is a State Board of Charities fr? This question will be answered somewhat in detail in the paper of Dr. Byers, which is to follow this Report; It is sufficient to say in this connection that a board of charities is a balance-wheel to steady the motion of the charitable machinery of the State. It is its office to promote the wise founding and the safe running of public charities, to correct and prevent abuses, to check extravagance, to promote economy, and to rebuke niggardliness. (3) What are State Boards of Charities good for? Their pzurpose is excellent, but do they accomplish it? A fair presumption that they do accomplish their intended purposes is found in the fact that no State has abandoned the system after giving it a fair trial. Fifteen States have established boards of charities. Thirteen boards are now in operation. The States of North Carolina and Missouri tried short-lived experiments in this direction, but did not go far enough to accomplish anything. Ohio abolished its State Board of Charities in I873, but established it

Page  91 STATE CHARITIES 91 again in I876, having found the organization an essential part of the charitable system of the State. It is reasonable to presume that such States as Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin, would not all agree in perpetuating a useless or superfluous agency. To illustrate the efficiency of such boards, your committee will cite an instance of the work of each State Board of Charities. The Massachusetts Board of State Charities inaugurated the system of family care for the insane and for dependent children, and stopped the frightful mortality of infant children in foundling homes by their efficient care in private families under vigilant supervision. The New York State Board of Charities in I874 undertook a careful study of the physical and mental condition and the antecedents of the inmates of the almshouses, with a view to determining some of the causes of pauperism and crime. This inquiry resulted in breaking up the system of rearing children with adult paupers in poorhouses, and providing for their maintenance and care in families, children's homes, and other appropriate institutions. The Ohio Board of State Charities secured the removal of children from almshouses and the establishment of county homes. The Pennsylvania Board of Public Charities exposed the evils connected with the county care of the insane, and caused great improvements in their condition. The Illinois Board of Public Charities has secured great reductions in the cost of maintaining public institutions without impairing their efficiency. The Rhode Island Board of State Charities and Corrections brought about the conversion of the State Reform School from the prison plan to the family plan. The Wisconsin State Board of Charities and Reform originated the Wisconsin plan of caring for chronic insane. The Michigan State Board of Corrections and Charities secured the establishment of the State agency system, whereby an agent of the State is appointed in every county, whose duty it is to attend the trial of every child accused of crime, guarding the best interests of the child, to find homes for homeless children, and watch over them in those homes. The Kansas State Board of Trustees of State Charitable Institutions devised and put in operation business methods in the management of the financial affairs of the State institutions, which have promoted economy and accountability in every department.

Page  92 92 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The Minnesota State Board of Corrections and Charities caused a transformation of the proposed second State Prison into a reformatory for young men. The Indiana Board of State Charities astonished the politicians of the State by choosing as secretary the best qualified man they could procure in the United States, regardless of all political considerations. These good works are but instances, which might be multiplied indefinitely, of the results accomplished by these boards. Nor has their influence been confined to the States where they exist. This Conference, with its wide-reaching influence, has been established and maintained by the joint action of State Boards of Charities. There is scarcely a State in the Union which has not been influenced to a greater or less degree by boards of charities, in the treatment and care of the insane, the care of dependent children, the treatment of young criminals, the business methods of its public institutions, or the architecture of its public buildings. (4) How can a State Board of Charities be secured? In order to secure such a board in any State, it is essential that some one in the State should heartily believe that a board is needed, and should go earnestly and sympathetically to work to secure it. It is desirable that there should be a number of persons thus interested; but even one man or woman who is thoroughly in earnest may accomplish it. The steps necessary to be taken may be outlined as follows: - First. Secure reliable information as to the nature and utility of such a board, and to this end the persons interested should read carefully the reports and articles already mentioned. They should obtain the recent reports of the several State Boards of Charities, and examine them with care, in order to become familiar with the operations of such boards and the results attained. Much information may be obtained also from the early reports of State Boards, as these indicate their initial work. The reports can be obtained by correspondence with their secretaries, of whom a list will be found in the annual Proceedings of this Conference. Second. Endeavor to interest one or more influential newspapers in the subject, and induce them to publish several clear and comprehensive articles, setting forth the character and advantages of such a board. Third. Secure the attention of the governor of the State, and persuade him, if possible, to recommend the establishment of such a board in his message to the Legislature.

Page  93 STATE CHARITIES 93 Fourth. A bill should be carefully drawn in advance of the assembling of the legislature, and should be submitted to the secretaries of the several State Boards of Charities for suggestions and criticisms, with a view to meeting the special needs of the State in question. In drafting a law for such a board, care should be taken not to sacrifice essentials by way of compromise. The essential thing is that the law shall guarantee the independence and non-political character of the board. This being secured, other matters are of minor importance, and will suggest themselves as the work of the board develops from year to year. Fifth. It may be desirable to consult some of the most intelligent officers of State institutions, and to secure, if possible, their co-operation. Some of the most valuable friends to State Boards of Charities are found among the officers of public institutions, who appreciate the value of such an agency. Sixth. Find a strong member of the legislature who is interested in the subject, and induce him to introduce the bill and push it. When the bill is introduced, care should be taken to have it referred to an intelligent committee which will give it a fair consideration. Seventh. It will be a great help to the Legislative Committee if the merits of the bill can be presented by some one who has a practical acquaintance with the work. This can be well done by any of the secretaries of the existing boards, or by such men as Hon. Andrew E. Elmore of Wisconsin, Rev. O. C. McCulloch of Indiana, General R. Brinkerhoff of Ohio, Hon. J. J. Wheeler of Michigan, Hon. W. J. Sawyer of Pennsylvania, or Hon. W. P. Letchworth of New York. Such a man, by answering questions, may be able to remove objections which naturally suggest themselves to those who are not familiar with the work. Eighth. It will be necessary for the friends of the bill to do some faithful and conscientious lobbying, in order to see that it pursues its due course and is not buried in the great accumulation of bills before the legislature, or is not made inoperative by the error of some careless clerk. When the law was passed establishing the Minnesota Board, the appropriating clause was accidentally omitted by the clerk in transcribing; and great inconvenience was caused thereby. (5) When should a State Board of Charities be established? The mistake is often made of postponing the organization of such a board until the institutions of the State are established and its public policy has become well developed. The greatest need of a State Board of Charities is during the formative period of a State. At

Page  94 94 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES such a time there is a lack of precedents and experience in organizing State institutions, while at the same time the foundations are being laid which are to determine the whole future policy of the State. It is in this formative period that errors are sometimes made which cause millions of expense and untold misery to the unfortunate dependants of the State. For example, if the State of New York could have had the wisdom of the Board of State Charities at the time when its system of insane hospitals was growing up, it would have avoided the construction of costly palaces for the insane, while others equally deserving suffered in poorhouses. If the Board of State Charities of Massachusetts had had supervision of the public prison, it is not probable that the Concord Reformatory would have been first opened as a State Prison, when it was not needed, only to be subsequently modified at a large expense for a State Reformatory. The officers and trustees of local institutions naturally and properly magnify the importance and need of their own institutions. The result, at least in new States, often is the disproportionate development of certain public charities to the neglect of others. A State Board of Charities takes a broad view of the relative importance and needs of State institutions, and promotes wise and equitable appropriation of the public resources among them. Your committee would therefore advise the young States to establish State Boards of Charities without delay. These boards may be organized with small appropriations and limited facilities at the outset, and still accomplish. valuable work. (6) How to organize a State Board of Charities? While there is some divergence of opinion as to whether a State Board of Charities should be advisory or executive, there is substantial agreement on the following points: - First. It should be absolutely divorced from politics. This is promoted in several States by the proviso that not more than half the members of the board shall belong to any one political party. It is promoted further by the selection of members who are not actively engaged in politics. This desideratum is probably more easily maintained when the board has no appointments at its disposal, except those of its office employees. Second. The board must be so organized as to be above suspicion, not only of corruption, but also of favoritism. Its character for impartiality ought to be as well established as that of the Supreme Court. This will depend largely upon the personnel of the board. Third. The board should be so organized as to be a working

Page  95 STATE CHARITIES 95 body. Its members should be men whose interest in the work is strong enough to induce them to give study to it. A board composed of figure-heads cannot do the needed work. It is by the knowledge and experience of the members of the board that the best results are secured for the State. The tendency to neglect in this respect may be partially compensated by securing a thoroughly competent secretary; but, unless the members have personal familiarity with the institutions under their supervision, and with the methods of carrying on the charitable and correctional institutions of their own and other States, they will be unable either to act intelligently or to advise the legislature helpfully. Fourth. The board must have an efficient secretary. His qualifications can hardly be better described than in the following extract from a letter which was addressed some time ago by Secretary Fred. H. Wines, of the State Board of Charities of Illinois, to the members of a new board who were seeking a secretary: — Your board will have a great responsibility resting upon it, and I think myself justified in making a single suggestion; namely, that the choice of a secretary is for you a vital question. No man lives who is qualified in all respects for this position. Ideally, he should be a man of intellectual force sufficient to grasp, both in outline and in detail, the situation as it exists in your State, the wants of the dependent and defective classes, the extent to which it is politic and right to meet them, the methods by which the most efficient service is to be secured at the smallest relative cost, the sentiment of the people, and how far it should be followed or how far left behind. He should possess the faculty of organizing, the tact which makes friends and disarms criticisms, an unfailing benevolence of heart, courage, independence, and firm principles. He cannot know too much; and he must be able to express what he knows, both in speech and in writing. He must appreciate and know how to secure good financial management without subordinating the interests of the afflicted to any question of dollars and cents, and how to conciliate political confidence and support without making the charities of the State subservient to the selfish purposes of politicians. He needs a many-sided mind, to understand the great variety of subjects upon which he must form an opinion,- legal, political, medical, educational, moral, financial, theoretical and practical; a wide sympathy, and the ability to forecast the future and shape the policy of the State with reference to a condition of things which does not yet exist. First-class talent is requisite; and it cannot be obtained without paying a good price for it. A hack politician, an unsuccessful physician or clergyman, or a mere clerk, schoolmaster, or editor, will not meet the exigencies of the position. The man should be selected on the sole ground of his supposed qualifications;

Page  96 96 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and it is almost certain that any man who will apply for it is uninformed as to the character and importance of the work to be intrusted to him. Of course, you will have to do the best that you can; and I trust that the man appointed, whoever he may be, will prove to have a teachable spirit and the capacity for growth and adaptation. The boards should be organized with freedom to work in such lines as may open up to it. The work of the Boards of Massachusetts, Ohio, Illinois, and Wisconsin, has developed in different lines according to the needs of the several States. It is impossible so to forecast the needs of the State as to prescribe hard and fast rules in advance. It is not necessary that the appropriation for the support of the board should be large. A new board can do very efficient work for three or four years, with three or four thousand dollars per year. As -the work of the board widens, additional means may become necessary. The majority of the boards thus far organized are advisory in character. The Boards of Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Connecticut, are strictly advisory, except that they have the power to require statistical information and to investigate abuses. The Illinois Board of State Charities audits the accounts of State institutions. 'The Wisconsin Board has control of the State appropriations for the,care of the county asylums for insane, enabling them to exercise control of these asylums. The Boards of New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts, perform executive functions with reference to foreign and non-resident paupers; and the Board of Massachusetts has direct charge of what are called the State Poor. Three boards are strictly executive in their functions; namely, the Rhode Island Board of State Charities and Corrections, the Kansas Board of Trustees of State Charitable Institutions, and the Wisconsin State Board of Supervision. These are, in fact, boards of trustees having in their charge all the State correctional and charitable institutions. The majority of your committee are of the opinion that the advisory plan is the better one, especially in the inception of the work of a board. As the State grows, executive functions can be added if necessity arises. At the request of the chairman of the committee, however, one of our number, Hon. C. E. Faulkner of Kansas, has prepared the following -statements, setting forth the advantages of the executive plan, which we have made a part of our Report:

Page  97 STATE CHARITIES 97 A SINGLE BOARD OF CONTROL. The management of the charitable, penal, and reformatory institutions of a State, the supervision of jails, almshouses, and kindred places of detention and shelter, and the compilation of statistics relating to dependency, delinquency, and crime, should be devolved upon a single board of control, the size of which should be determined by the population of the State and the duties to be performed, and the members of which should devote their exclusive time to the work. The sum of this declaration is that the power to supervise and the power to execute should be lodged with the same general board. Its exemplification in private business is seen in the difficult science of railway management, where executive committees of boards of directors not only have general supervision over the management of business, but are also clothed with the full powers of the boards of directors when the same are not in session, and where the opinions of those who give a minimum of time to the duties of official position are not allowed to disturb the findings of experts. The result of such a system fairly organized will be increased efficiency, economy, uniformity, and simplicity in the work of managing public institutions, and studying cause and effect. Greater efficiency will be secured, because wiser legislation will prevail. Those who advise legislatures will touch the things they write about. Theory and experience will walk hand in hand; and the dangerous jealousies and rivalries of institution towns, so often developed through the indiscreet zeal of local trustees in striving for legislative favors, will vanish under the confidence inspired by a disinterested and impartial board of control. Greater economy will prevail, because the estimates for supplies needed for all institutions controlled by such a board will be added together, and the public lettings of such large contracts, secured without any increased expense, attract large dealers, and bring about keen competition and its consequent saving. Again, the business experience gained by contact with the expense records of various institutions, and the opportunities for comparison afforded, are of great value in promoting economical management in each. The use of the products of industrial departments is facilitated to mutual advantage, and also the transfer of machinery or unused property from one institution to another. The fact that uniformity and simplicity would be promoted by such an organization is too apparent to need amplification here. It is sufficient to suggest that a legislator is in less danger of being stranded between conflicting opinions set forth in public reports, under such a system, than under the ones generally in operation. Thirteen years have elapsed since Kansas abolished her local boards of trustees; and the wisdom of that action has never been called in question. Prior to that time, the fitness of a member of the Senate or the House to represent an institution district was determined by his success in securing legislative appropriations. Trustees were pressed into undue activity in behalf of their respective institu

Page  98 98 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES tions; and legislators, seeking to find where the greatest need existed, lost faith in humanity as they listened to the many conflicting appeals. Local merchants were benefited at the expense of the public; and "institution towns" provoked the jealousy of communities less favored, to the detriment of the institutions themselves. Public sentiment was aroused, and a ringing message from the governor led to the change. Kansas is far from the proposed plan herein outlined; but she is looking for the right. Public sentiment does not encourage an increase of boards; and the drift is in favor of the present board clothed with the powers and duties of a State Board of Charities, in addition to its present duties of management. (7) How to work a State Board of Charities? When a State Board has been organized and has secured a secretary, it must obtain an outlook. Unless the Board of Charities can see more and see farther than the managers of the institutions under its supervision, its work will be greatly circumscribed. The board and its secretary must become familiar with the organization and management of institutions of other States, as a background from which to view the institutions of its own State. A wise board will learn as much from badly managed institutions and defective State policies as from good ones. The board must become intimately familiar with the workings of the institutions of their own State. This cannot be done by perfunctory visits. It must be the result of close study and observation. The extensive literature of the subject should be mastered and personal contact be had with the men who have become masters in this field of study. Having thus obtained an outlook, the work of the board must be determined by the exigencies of the State. Some boards will make a specialty of institution accounts and expenditures (as in Illinois), the system of caring for insane (as in Wisconsin), or the method for the treatment of dependent children (as in New York and Ohio). The following rules may be safely laid down. It is better to work by persuasion than by coercion. You can do more evil in a day by ill-considered action than by a year of patient waiting. Many reforms desirable of accomplishment must await the advance of public sentiment and the education of the officers in charge of the institutions. Conservatism is indispensable to success in this work. Apparent success from hasty action may be followed by speedy reaction, which will finally delay in accomplishing the desired ends. On the other hand, there are occasions when prompt, courageous action is necessary to save the public purse or secure the interests of the public dependants.

Page  99 STATE CHARITIES 99 There is no better work than is given to such a board. It is not a small privilege to share in the founding of the permanent institutions of a great State. All of which is respectfully submitted. (Signed) H. H. HART, FRED H. WINES, C. E. FAULKNER. For the Committee. BOARDS OF STATE CHARITIES. BY A. G. BYERS, M.D., SECRETARY OF THE OHIO BOARD OF STATE CHARITIES. The duty of the State to supervise its system of public charities and corrections is one the importance of which may not be overestimated. This duty may be briefly defined. It extends to a careful investigation of the whole system of public benevolence, and a close and constant examination into the condition and management of all the public institutions of the State, including those of counties and municipalities,- such as police station-houses, county jails, poorhouses, hospitals, and asylums. (I) In providing such supervision, authority should be given to prescribe forms of registration, keeping accounts of receipts and expenditures, and to require such reports as may be deemed essential to accuracy, uniformity, and completeness in the statistics of the several public institutions. (2) Such supervision should extend to the plans of all buildings to be erected for public, charitable, and correctional use. (3) Authority should be given and provision made for the investigation, under the direction of the Governor of the State, of complaints against the management of public institutions. It need scarcely be said that the very existence of authority to investigate complaints goes far toward preventing any necessity for its use. It promotes carefulness. How shall such supervisory care be organized? First, by the careful selection of a number of citizens composing a Board of State Charities. Members of such a board should be men of experience in the public affairs of their respective communities,men of unquestionable integrity, of broad intelligence, discriminating

Page  100 100 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES sympathy, and of courage at par with their personal convictions of public duty; holding with even hand the judicial balance between those who support and those who are supported at public cost. Ordinarily, six members are sufficient to represent the different sections of the State and for multiplicity of counsel. Such boards should be strictly non-partisan in politics, and, if not non-sectarian in religion, at least not given to bigotry. To secure a non-partisan board, it should be provided by law (" nominated in the bond," if you please) that not more than three of the six members (if that be the number) shall belong to any one political party. The Governor of the State, for many and obvious reasons, should be ex officio a member and president of the board. Thus the responsibility for the faithful administration of public institutions will be kept where the people place it, in the hands of the chief executive of the State; the members of the board constituting a civil staff, which, in relation to charitable and correctional affairs of the State, would correspond to the military staff under which the militia or military forces of the State are organized. No salary or other compensation beyond actual travelling expenses should be paid the members. There are always citizens qualified for such duties who would esteem it an honor to contribute to such public service, who would not undertake it under a salary. A salary that would offer an inducement to men of ordinary business capacity would involve considerable expense: whereas experience on this point goes to show that unpaid services in the performance of such duties is productive of the best results. No patronage should pertain to the board beyond the appointment of its own secretary or agents, if such be employed. Ordinarily, few, if any, administrative functions should be authorized. The moral influence of the board should be made prominent, and will be effective about in proportion as actual authority is withheld, and will be fully equal to the ultimate, if not speedy, correction of wrongs, the prevention of abuses, and to the bringing about of legal and administrative reforms. SOME ADVANTAGES OF STATE BOARDS. First, the collection and tabulation of statistics, showing the numbers, classes, characters, and condition of those who in any wise are dependent upon public care; with the cost of their maintenance and the causes producing pauperism, insanity, and crime. Such statistics,

Page  101 STATE CHARITIES IOI carefully collected and accurately compiled, will in time constitute the best possible, if not the only true, basis of social and moral as well as civil reform. Second, Public supervision will promote efficiency of service and uniformity of administration in the public institutions of the State. Third, State provision for supervising the administration of public institutions will detect and bring to light the neglect or abuse of classes or persons under public care. Of such neglect and abuse, the general public know but little; while those familiar with them are ordinarily interested in keeping them out of view. Local Boards of Trustees, Directors, or Managers are important, perhaps essential, to any well-organized system of public benevolence, and contribute much toward efficiency of administration; but, even when detected by such officials, the exposure of existing wrongs becomes a most delicate duty. Pride of community, personal and political relations, local prejudices, and especially the seeming reflections upon their official competency or integrity are influences not easily overcome.by local boards. The single fact that the State provides for the inspection of public institutions, and that inspection may take place at any time and without notice to the immediate management, leads to a more constant attention upon the part of the officers than could be secured by any other means. For this, if no other purpose, the State should provide for the supervision of any and all institutions to which its helpless and defenceless wards are committed. Under such supervision, the squalor, filth, and general conditions of neglect and cruelty which have so long degraded and still characterize so many of our county poorhouses and jails may be at least measurably overcome; and outrages upon public decency, so liable to occur in the treatment of the defenceless and afflicted, will be provided against as far as human oversight will go toward the prevention of such brutality. I would like to say, en passant, if you will indulge a word of personal observation, covering a full score of years, during which I have had some familiarity with affairs now under consideration, that the entire eradication of abuses in public asylums and almshouses and the putting aside of the actual crime-begetting of our general prison system, especially the unmitigated evil of our county jails, are ends at which we aim; but we are still wide of the mark, and, if such conditions are to be precedent of the millennium, the millennium is not so nigh at hand as some of us would wish.

Page  102 102 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES PUBLIC ECONOMY. I have not touched upon the subject of public economy to be subserved by State supervision. Recognizing as we do that the care of the dependent is a public duty, and that to provide such care is a function of our civil government, the wide-spread scheme of such benevolence cannot be organized and administered without more or less burden of cost to the taxpayers of the State. It is true that in most States, probably in all, by far the largest tax, apart from public schools, is that paid for the support of public charities. It therefore becomes important for the people to know to whom, for what, where, and how this money is expended. No community in any State throughout this nation will ever complain of the cost of meeting the actual demands of the dependent. They may not approve of extravagance, but they will not knowingly tolerate the withholding of that which is needful. Stealing of public money may be condemned, malfeasance or misfeasance may be forgiven; but to stint the poor is, to the American conception of public duty, an unpardonable sin. That the stint upon the one hand or extravagance on the other may be readily known and corrected, State supervision becomes indispensable. It may be a fact that in some particular State the utmost care possible is bestowed at the least possible cost; but it is well worth the additional expense to have such a fact certified to the people of a State by a competent authority, after a careful survey of the entire field and a fair comparison with other States. I have touched upon the humane aspects 'of the subject. Here the interests to be subserved may not be put into words. To appreciate the condition, you must fancy the arms of a great State extended in parental tenderness, taking into their embrace the deaf and dumb, the blind, the homeless child; educating them to hear and see and live; receiving the raving maniac, the distorted epileptic, the drivelling idiot, and giving to each and all appropriate sympathy and care; then, with more than parental solicitude, reaching out with a firm but fair exercise of authority for the vicious and and criminal, trying to be, as a State, at once merciful and just, as near like God as the State may be; remembering always, whatever the human estimate of character, that under God's redeeming scheme for the rescue and reformation of a guilty race there are none placed beyond the pale of hope. The outcast so familiar and so execrated by men may be the object of tenderest solicitude to a holy God.

Page  103 VIII. tReformatories for oen. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. BY GARDINER TUFTS, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE MASSACHUSETTS REFORMATORY, CONCORD. It is proper to say at the outset of this Report that unexpectedly and recently it fell to my lot to write it. By virtue of his chairmanship of the Committee on Reformatories, the honor of preparing and presenting this Report belonged to C. A. Gower, Esq., Superintendent of the Michigan State Reform School at Lansing. For reasons which were conclusive, he relinquished his privilege, and I came to his place as its writer. It has not been my fortune to meet the other members of the committee; and therefore, since Mr. Gower's withdrawal, I have been, in this work, without colleague or coadjutor. By force of these circumstances, all persons other than myself are relieved from responsibility for the demerits and opinions of this paper. REFORM SCHOOLS. Reform Schools for juvenile offenders have been in existence in this country for many years. They were upon the programme of the first Conference of Charities and Correction at Cincinnati in I870. In the administrations of the several schools there have been different degrees of success. Some administrators have been less successful than others; but, so far as we know, the schools have not failed in their essential purpose, nor has there been any abandonment of them or of the fundamental principles of Reform Schools: on the other hand, such schools have increased in number and generally in reformatory value and power. With experience have come wiser notions and improved methods in reformatory work, administrations of greater breadth of view, and more scrupulous action. An enlarged acquaintance with the class of persons who come under charge and their needs as a class has

Page  104 I04 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES made the requirement of thoroughness in the minute as well as the comprehensive things of child life and training more evident than it appeared in earlier days. The business of the Reform Schools of to-day is more largely that of character-building than that of reformation of character; the methods are more for construction than correction; the trend of the work is sweeping past reform on toward regeneration, and, as the top stone of this human endeavor rises, there are " shoutings of grace, grace unto it." At the Conference of I870, the question of family and congregate systems and their respective worths weighed upon the minds of the then Reform School managers; and it was then much discussed in formal and informal talk. The advocates of the family system (or open system, as it was sometimes called) were so earnest and sure in their opinions that no other system, to them, seemed tolerable. Those in charge of congregate schools were not, however, convinced that the congregate system was altogether wrong. Nor is it. If the genius and quality of the true family pervade the administration of a Reform School, it matters but little whether the family be one of five hundred or of fifty persons. The imprint of the true family is the needed impress. If the institution is a group of' families instead of being one family, there may be in the arrangement the advantage of a healthy rivalry, the stimulus of one family upon another which may promote general benefit; and there is by the family plan relief to the general Superintendent. The segregate system is liable, however, to separate interests at points where they should be united; to detach parts which should cohere; to make several zones where there should be but one temperature. An atmosphere can be the elixir of life to a Reform School, if it be but one atmosphere, and a healthy one. A whole round of duties may be delegated by a Superintendent to subordinate masters and matrons of separate family groups, and such may, by them, be well performed; but his spirit cannot be so readily transmitted to them, nor can his afflatus be communicated to others. His spirit and inspiration are those which should govern. The force of the Superintendent, which should be all-pervasive in an institution, may be hindered in its pervasion by the organization of the family system. If, by status, master or matron relieves the Superintendent from personal contact and personal influence with the inmates of the institution, they hinder that which should be unhindered, direct and positive. The homes of a "family system " are to a considerable degree artificial in character: in and about them there is sometimes too much

Page  105 REFORMATORIES FOR CHILDREN IO5 preciseness, restriction, and suppression, too much that is purely official and according to regulations, to make them homelike. Neither the warmth and glow of the home fireside, nor the devices of affection, nor parental skill and facilities, can be well supplied by them. The master and matron are not in full sense in loco parentis. They remain as officials; and the credentials of their skill and fitness are drawn upon the lines of housekeeping and the deportment of their family. The family system of a Reform School is necessarily but a group of congregate divisions, and not a neighborhood assembly of family homes; and these smaller divisions are likely to lack the desirable things which can come with and into the congregate system,the greater congregation. The ground upon which the "family system" must rest is that of convenience in management. The congregate system permits the genius and force of the Superintendent to pervade all its parts and processes without let or hindrance. The system has facilities for the freedom and development belonging to childhood and youth: it can give opportunities for rightful affiliations, associations, and fellowships; much of schoolday life; and can afford the essentials of the formative period. But, whether the system be family or congregate, the need of the child is the same; namely, upbuilding of body, enlightenment of mind, conversion of heart, and purification of soul. All the subjects of discipline and care need a supply of the things of education, morality, and religion: they need to be made hospitable to truth and knowledge, by having their bodies well kept, by granted pastimes, and by all the joyousness that belongs to young human life; and there should be no attempt to go beyond the youth's years in the requirement of conduct, lest, by his or her failure to attain a then unattainable degree of goodness, all desire for goodness is expelled from the mind and heart. The States of Michigan and Massachusetts (and perhaps other States, also) have juvenile offender laws substantially as follows: "Whenever complaint is made to any court or magistrate against a child between the ages of seven and seventeen years for any offence not punishable by death or imprisonment for life, the Agent of the State (or county, as the case may be) has notice of the pendency of such complaint, with the opportunity to investigate the case, attend the trial, and protect the interest of, or otherwise provide for, the child. And, upon the request of the State Agent, the court or magistrate may put the child into the custody of the Board of State Charities, and authorize the Board to indenture or board such child; * But see Mr. Randall's paper on page 5.

Page  106 io6 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES the State Board holding the child by mittimus, the same as a commitment to the Reform School." By the operation of such laws, many children who are convicted of statutory offences are sufficiently restrained and trained and properly provided for outside of any institution. The effect of such laws is a marked change in the character of the population of Reform Schools - and a lessening of numbers,by keeping away from the schools the younger and milder offenders who make, when admitted to the schools, the best members of them, leaving for the training and discipline of the schools offenders of greater age and hardness,- therefore less corrigible. This, we think, is well; for the least restraint and punishment are best, when sufficient. This policy calls Reform Schools to a harder task, but not greater than they can well and properly perform; and the policy leaves room for the admission of older persons to the Reform Schools, saving thereby many from the Houses of Correction and from prisons who do not require the discipline of such institutions, and who are too young for such places. The Reform Schools should be open to offenders as old as seventeen years: the discretion of magistrates will sufficiently protect the schools from unsuitable persons. It may be pleasanter and easier to run a Reform School where no person over fifteen years old is admitted; but Reform Schools are not made for the pleasantness and ease of their officers. The welfare of the young convict should control; and those under seventeen years are generally in a better place for their welfare at a Reform School than in institutions for adult offenders. Having thought of the classification of convicted persons, this order is suggested: first, the private family; second, the Reform School; third, the Reformatory; fourth, the State Prison. REFORMATORIES. Reformatories for adult offenders, or those too old for Reform Schools, are of later origin than Reform Schools. The establishment and multiplication of them show enlightened progress in penology. The oldest adult Reformatory is the Reformatory Prison for Women at Sherborn, Mass. The legislative enactment for its establishment was made June 30, I874. It began to receive prisoners Nov. 7, I877. Up to date, it has received 4,025 persons. From the start, its Superintendent and all other of its officers have been women, except that the Treasurer and Steward (combined in one officer) was for several years a man. Now the duties of that office are discharged by the Superintendent. The institution has a grade, marking, and "per

Page  107 REFORMATORIES FOR MEN 107 mit" system; but it has not the provision for indeterminate sentences. Although its plan of organization has not been essentially changed since its beginning, the Reformatory has had the benefit of such new legislation as its development seemed to require; and it now has features of excellence which it did not have at first: it has become a strong institution in reformatory work. All should understand that the reformation of women is less certain than the reformation of men; and that the good intentions of women, at the time of their release, are more frequently lost outside of the Reformatory than are those of men, because other people are less considerate of them and less generous toward them than they are of and toward men who have been prisoners. The New York State Reformatory at Elmira stands at the very front in the reformatory line, although its age is less than that of Sherborn.* All other Reformatories for men are imitations of it, having accepted it as their model; yet there is no fac-simile of it. It continues a leader in reformatory development and progress. The number of commitments to it since its opening has been (July 28, 1889) 3,589. The releases therefrom have been 2,626; present number of inmates, 963. The statistics of its reports in latest years show that from 8o to 82 per cent. of those released from the institution have done well, or at least have not again become obnoxious to law, so far as is known. The Massachusetts Reformatory was opened Dec. 20, 1884, at Concord, in what had been, up to that time, the premises of the State Prison. It began its work with a left-over State Prison contingent. At once after the opening there were transfers to the Reformatory from the Houses of Correction and from State Prison, its first two hundred men being nearly all of these classes,- not a desirable people with whom to begin a Reformatory. All men received were upon time-or terminate sentences-until July 24, i886, when the law of indeterminate sentences went into operation. Not until March 21, i888, was there an age or offence limit. Up to that date, persons of all ages were committed to the Reformatory: persons as old as seventy years were actually received. Nor was there, prior to that time, any stated number of previous commitments which excluded from commitment to the Reformatory: persons who had been convicted and sentenced as many as thirty times previously were sent to the Reformatory. The law now forbids the commitment of persons to the Reformatory over forty years old, and of those who have been * It was opened before the Sherborn prison, however.

Page  108 I08 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES convicted more than three times. There have been 3,022 commitments to the Reformatory since its beginning (December, I884) and 2,398 releases therefrom. The present number of prisoners is 624. The largest part of the releases were upon "permits." The only statement of statistical character made concerning the persons released from the Reformatory is that 95 per cent. of those who have gone out desired and intended to lead upright lives; that ii 8-Io per cent. of those released are returned to the Reformatory; and that many who went to the Reformatory as criminals are now conspicuous in well-doing in the outside world. The Pennsylvania Industrial Reformatory at Huntingdon is on entirely new premises, its buildings having been built for its use. Its Superintendent, Major R. W. McClaughrey, went from Joliet to Huntingdon in the latter part of I888, and received the first prisoner into the Reformatory, Feb. i6, I889. The number of prisoners there received up to July 27 was io8. Probably none have yet been released therefrom: in fact, the condition of "parole" has not been established. The institution has a system of grades and marking quite similar to Elmira. The institution was started to be like Elmira. The Minnesota State Reformatory is located at St. Cloud in that State. Its superintendent is D. E. Myers. It is expected that the institution will be ready to receive inmates on the first of September of this year. This Reformatory is to be set up in entirely new buildings, upon new premises. The Superintendent says: "Our building is intended, so far as sanitary conditions are concerned, to be as nearly perfect as possible. We have a water-closet and wash-bowl in every cell; also, an unlimited supply of water. The ventilation is by a fan; and the sewer reaches the Mississippi River, and has a fall of seventy-five feet in a mile and one-third." The plan of water-closet and wash-bowl in each room is the plan of the Massachusetts Reformatory. We unhesitatingly approve the plan, especially with such modern "hoppers" as St. Cloud undoubtedly has. The grade and marking plan of St. Cloud is precisely like that of the Massachusetts Reformatory,- differing somewhat from the Elmira plan, but not in essential things. In some items of law and regulation these several Reformatories differ one from another. For each of the institutions, except those of Massachusetts, the Superintendent is appointed by the Board of Managers. In Massachusetts, Superintendents are appointed by the Governor; and their appointments are what are known as "good

Page  109 REFORMATORIES FOR MEN og9 behavior" appointments,- that is, the incumbents are not to be removed except for cause (and politics is not a cause). At all the Reformatories, the subordinate officers are appointed by the Superintendents; and that is right. The Superintendent of an institution must be in full control of his force of officers. The officers must be his officers, save as himself and all other officers are servants of the people and of the State. At the Massachusetts Reformatory, indeterminate sentences are limited: in cases of misdemeanants to two years, in cases of felons to five years. The law does not, however, prevent courts or magistrates from committing a prisoner to the Reformatory upon a time sentence of more than two years for misdemeanor, or more than five years for felony. (As already said, the Reformatory at Sherborn does not have the indeterminate sentence.) At each of the Reformatories of other States, the limit of indeterminate sentence is " the maximum term provided by law for the crime for which the prisoner was convicted and sentenced." This latter named provision we consider a better one than that of Massachusetts. It avoids an undesirable level. All of the several institutions have a "parole" or "permit" provision, to be exercised by the Board of Managers; but in Massachusetts there is no provision for the discharge of a person out on parole, as there is in other States. The prisoner paroled from that Reformatory continues on parole until his two or five years' sentence has expired, however well and firmly his integrity and good character may be established before the court sentence expires by its limitations. We think the law of other States is better than that of Massachusetts in this particular. T'he right of discharge is vested in the Board of Managers in other States, save that the final release of a prisoner paroled from the Pennsylvania Reformatory "is ordered by the Judge who sentenced the prisoner " instead of the Managers. This seems to us to be a provision of considerable wisdom, because the hold upon a paroled man may be firmer than when the final release is by the Managers. The Reformatory at St. Cloud is to put in operation at the start a scheme of wages for the prisoners. No other Reformatory has such a plan. The by-laws of St. Cloud provide that "prisoners in the first grade shall be allowed for each day's work I2 I-2 cents. Prisoners in the second grade shall be allowed for each day's work 9 cents. Prisoners in the third grade shall not be allowed any cash compensation." To us this agreement seems admirable. It will put a spur to laggardness, and will induce thriftiness of habit and spirit, which things are, generally speaking, respectively present and absent with prisoners.

Page  110 IIO SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Superintendent Brockway has had in view a plan (not yet in operation) of individual wage and maintenance account; in brief and general terms,- if we understand him,- something like the following: With each prisoner an account is to be opened. He is to be allowed wages for his labor. His earnings are to be put to his credit as cash. He is to be charged for all expenses of his maintenance and custody. He can live well or poorly, as he is able to earn and is pleased to spend on himself. He can have luxuries if he can pay for them and desires to have them. He can live: within his income. He can live up to the full measure of his income, may spend it all, as he may choose. The price of his labor is to be sufficient wages for him to live upon in a modest way and lay up something besides, which can become his capital in the outside world. If he, who as a prisoner is making good pay, chooses to live while a prisoner on the fat of the land and have goodly apparel (we suppose he might not be permitted to wear purple and fine linen), he can do so, at his own expense and within his own income, even though he may in prison life take no thought for the morrow of freedom, " what he shall eat, or what he shall drink, or wherewithal he shall be clothed." Doubtless, however, all improvident ways would be effectually discouraged, and prudence and economy inculcated so surely that spendthrifts would not be a product of the plan. In this quite novel scheme there is wisdom and much that can be brought into valuable practice. One of the great difficulties in the reformation of offenders is upon the industrial line. A large per cent. of prisoners are without industrial knowledge, and they never had habits of industry: they are dependents, not having a disposition to earn their living. The eating of bread in the sweat of their faces is to them a curse: to make it a blessing unto them is a Reformatory requirement difficult for a majority of convicts to fulfil, as it is hard for them to accept such breadeating as a boon, which the wisest and best people know it to be. The meum et tuum notions of criminals need correction in the interest of other people. For their own welfare, they need to know that it is both a duty and a privilege to provide for their own wants, and to make themselves independent persons by honest earning, prudent expending, and frugal saving; and, also, that they have the right to use their earning capacity and its product for their own behoof. Reformatory instruction and training should take this direction. While this is not the paramount requirement of reformation, it is one of necessity. We see in the scheme at St. Cloud and in the design of Superintendent Brockway effective means to a most desirable end.

Page  111 REFORMATORIES FOR MEN III I In Reformatories, as in prisons, various industries are introduced, mainly with a view to the employment of prisoners and for income. In the choice of industries, however, the endeavor is to establish such ones as will enable prisoners employed therein to learn valuable trades. Such industries have been established, many prisoners have learned and many are learning trades therein. A determination to make institutions self-supporting does not override the purpose to make the industries therein of trade-learning use to the prisoners. None of our Reformatories are self-supporting at the present time. The work in all the Reformatories is upon either the piece-price or State account plan. The contractor is not in them. It has not been possible as yet to arrange the general employment of prisoners in great institutions so as to meet the demand of Reformatory enterprise and progress for "industrial teaching." Therefore, "trades teaching" is a special branch of Reformatory work. At Elmira, "trades teaching" is in full tide of successful operation; and at Concord new and enlarged arrangements for such teaching are being made. The newer Reformatories will follow these leads. At St. Cloud, the Reformatory is located adjoining an excellent granite quarry owned by the State, in which most of the prisoners will be employed. The demand for that granite is said to be practically unlimited, high priced, and the supply inexhaustible. With such a chance for profitable work, Superintendent Myers hopes at an early day to make the Reformatory not only self-supporting (paying the men the per diem already named), but profitable to the State. When that is accomplished, the managers "intend to ask the State to divide the profits with the prisoners." The industries of no other Reformatory have such an outlook. In the sharp competition for work which the other institutions have, prices rule so low that there is no prospect of profit for them from prison labor. We presume that the St. Cloud managers will give to their prisoners full opportunities for learning other trades than stone-cutting,- their chief, if not sole, Reformatory industry. Besides such differences in items of law or regulation for Reformatories, there are differences among Superintendents of the institutions concerning some phases of administration and in personal views,in estimates of prisoner-character; in regard to the relative importance or order of prisoner-needs; in strictness to mark iniquity; in matters of privilege and restraint; in ways of approaching the prisoner-citadel of evil; in regard to the location of that citadel, whether it is in the head or the heart of the man. Notwithstanding these and

Page  112 .I 12 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES other differences, the Superintendents are of one purpose, and their administrations are of one spirit. They are in agreement upon the,essential things which characterize and illustrate the great Reformatory departure from old punitive prison methods and policy. They are in one accord in belief that criminals are reformable. They each base action upon, and shape their methods in reference to, the important fact that the great majority of prisoners are to return to a place in the outside world; into society of some sort; are again to mingle in the affairs of men, communities, and State,-having regard -to the truth that it is wisest and best to so order the prison life that the prisoners will return to the scenes of freedom with good will toward men. These Superintendents must realize that imprisonment is a failure, a useless exercise and expenditure of force, and a waste of money, unless the criminal goes from imprisonment changed in purpose, corrected in thought, enlightened in understanding, purified in heart, strengthened in will, equipped with skill, and endowed with industry. They each realize to a greater or less degree that their business is to habilitate or rehabilitate prisoners - as the case may be — with the quality and forces of perfect life. They are all charged with the conviction that criminals need cleansing and new strength in their physical, mental, moral, and spiritual natures. It is a matter.of less concern into which vein the elixir of life is first admitted than.it is that it shall go through the whole system of the man with revivifying and vitalizing power. The "punitive" prison methods are those of subtraction, repression, and suppression. The prisoner by them is taken away from the world, and the world is taken away from him. The outset cry that "the world is done with you," and the answering echo out of the prisoner's heart, "done with you," is often heard: it is too often heeded by the prison keeper as a warrant for so ordering the conditions of imprisonment that it shall be punishment all the way through,,and that at the end the released man shall be powerless for harm. To be a terror to evil-doers is too often considered a duty: it sometimes seems like a delight to some persons. But terror has never yet deterred the offender in heart from being an offender in life. Terror does not make a man a new creature; and a criminal-man -who is but a sinner-man -needs to be a new creature, and he is most thoroughly new when he is a new creature in Christ Jesus. Every careful and thorough canvass of criminals shows that their lacks are chief causes of their perversity; that their need is not to have things taken from them, but to have things put into them, the very things put

Page  113 REFORMATORIES FOR MEN I 3 into them which have made good people good, and the qualities which keep good people good. The old "punitive " idea was that a criminal was less a criminal the less there was of him; and so the processes were ordered to reduce him in status below the dangerous point. The Reformatory purpose is to increase and enlarge and fructify the true part of the man with the influences of civilization and religion, until it shall become the dominant life, having that expulsive power of new life which will drive out the false and bad life which made the man a criminal. Reformatory addition closely follows the formula of Peter: " adding to faith, virtue; and to virtue, knowledge; and to knowledge, temperance; and to temperance, patience; and to patience, godliness; and to godliness, brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness, charity," " he that lacketh these things is blind, and cannot see afar off." The "punitive" prison system is the one in contrast with the Reformatory system. It exists in the belief that criminals are not reformable: such belief describes and limits its action. Its highest flight of thought is that about so many prisoners will do well after imprisonment, and that about so many will do badly thereafter, do what you may. It is a system which measures the offender by his offence rather than the offence by the offender. It is a quantitative system, having the proposition, so much offence, so much penalty, according to a general schedule for all offenders. It is a system having the feature of cumulative punishment by adding to the penalties of the court the penalties of the prison, —its badges of degradation, its austerity, its phases of discipline, which keep alive in the prisoner a feeling throughout his term that he is undergoing punishment and is an outcast. In this system, all consideration of the offender is in relation to his offence. The "punitive" system has its commendation in its alleged deterrent effect, and its supposed protection of society against criminality by imprisoning the criminal; yet its action seems unmindful of the fact in its greatness, that the imprisoned criminal (with exceptions) goes again to the world,- and worse it may be than before. When a criminal hears the people of the world about him say, upon his conviction and sentence, as they almost invariably may do, " Done with you," and his soul echoes "Done with you," his attitude of hostility to the world is then taken and determined. When he gets to prison, he finds hundreds of men who have had a like outcast experience, and have taken an attitude like his. If such hostility and attitude are not changed during imprisonment, what profiteth the

Page  114 114 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES transaction of imprisonment and what is its protection to society? What are the inducements and facilities of a "punitive" system for a Reformatory change? Without change of attitude —or, better, change of heart- on the part of the prisoner, and a change of opinion in the community, imprisonment under such circumstances and conditions is vain - or worse than vain -because the necessity for the men to prey upon the community or starve has become a fixed condition; and, in the alternative of starving or stealing, men will generally steal. A prison system which does not reform the prisoner and equip him so that he can maintain uprightness, at its best, but affords a respite to the community from criminal operations; and the respite time may only serve for the gathering of new forces of danger to the community. The hostility of prisoners to the world and their alienation from community interests are things of gravest moment. By only two ways can society be protected from criminals,- either by extirpating them or by reforming them. We have no warrant for extirpation: we do have assurance in their reformation. A Reformatory system is logically correct: a punitive system is logically wrong. Do you reform anybody? is a question many times asked of those in charge of Reformatories. When we answer truthfully, we say we do not know. When the question is, "Can criminals be reformed?" we promptly say yes. This not upon any array of Reformatory statistics. It is personally gratifying to be able to command statistical proofs of reformation,- and such are commanded,- and they serve to convince the doubting Thomas. Our yes is not so derived. We say criminals can be reformed, because they belong to the human family. For all sinners there is available an efficient and sufficient Reformatory provision, a process of regeneration, a way of salvation; and a criminal is a sinner if he is anyway wrong. Neither the provision nor the process nor the way is new or untried. By the power which has set them in motion have lands and peoples and individuals been turned from unrighteousness to righteousness. No depth, nor height, nor degree, nor extent, nor entrenchment of wickedness has been able to withstand this salvatory power. Both the virtue and power of it have stood the test of time for centuries: it has outlasted all assaults upon it. It is the only one thing that has gone alike to hut and hall, to king and peasant, into prison and throughout freedom's realm, with transforming power, everywhere making the bad good. In the wide, the general, the individual accomplishment of this one, this all-thing, is the affirmative answer to the question, Can the criminal be reformed?

Page  115 REFORMATORIES FOR MEN II5 But the affirmative answer is not alone found in the general record of the gospel. It is also found in the declaration of the Master to the thief on the cross beside him, "Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with me in Paradise." And again is the affirmative answer found in that memorable enumeration and statement by Paul made to the Corinthians (which reads so much like the page of a Reformatory record), which runs thus: " Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God. And such were some of you; but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." This is a complete description of criminality, of reformation, and of the means of reformation. If our modern Reformatory statistics fail to show such conclusive results, it is because the real Reformatory means and methods are not at command, or they are not applied to the cases in hand, or because they are not fully applied, or because ministers of reform are such earthen vessels. It is not a proposition of the Reformatory system that all criminals can be reformed by its facilities and influences; and, consequently, it does not seek to include all ages and classes of offenders within its purview. We believe in the omnipotence of divine grace and the allinclusiveness of the gospel; but, for reasons beyond our ken, all men have not yet been drawn to the standard of the Cross, nor is every one now being drawn to it, though the declaration stands, " And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me." That lifting up was accomplished, and the marvellous operations of its power sustain the primal declaration; and the every-day personal fulfilments of the divine promise are an assurance of the complete fulfilment of it. The Reformatory plan has a multitude of human limitations and hindrances. It cannot come to the full measure of its power in a day, nor in years; but containing, as it does, the renewing, reforming, regenerating principle,-something of the essence of the gospel,and as its work is with reformable subjects and for salvable persons, it does even now succeed in good degree with such persons. And it will become more potent, as time goes on, in changing offending men and women from wrong to right living. Nor does the Reformatory system dismiss from its employ the handmaids of religion,-industry, science, art, philosophy, social life, - nor any agency of civilization. It does recognize that there may be a work upon depraved men preliminary to the very gospel, and a

Page  116 I6 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES work alongside of the gospel, and a work subsequent to that of the gospel, in order that such men may come to the knowledge of the truth, may abide in the truth, and withstand all assaults upon the truth within them, or upon the integrity which may have come into their lives. Because of these things, we plead for and employ industrial agencies, impart industrial knowledge, seek to educate, to convince by reason, to demonstrate by logic, to make plain by casuistry, and strengthen by all good habits. Not forgetting in all this that the gospel is surety and security; that grace must be the top stone to make complete the work. The Reformatory system feels the weakness of an unsuitable official force in its personnel. Not every person has a genius for Reformatory work, but comparatively few persons possess all the desirable qualities which an officer should have who is in Reformatory work. If every officer of a Reformatory possessed just the right tact and qualifications for the work, had about him or her just that indefinable something, which is precept, ensample, and inspiration,- that which is the essence and exemplification of each of these things,- then would Reformatory work have great'power and be strong. Any and all weakness in such things hinders and nullifies in whole or in part. The Civil Service Law, good as are its purpose and its operation in many ways and cases, is not a help in the selection of Reformatory officers. The tests of its examination do not search for the tact or qualifications or genius that a Reformatory officer ought to possess. That branch of the public service should address itself more accurately to the work it has undertaken for us, and it can do it. As at present conducted, its skill in selection of Reformatory officers is inferior to that of Superintendents. We commend the administration of the several Reformatories. We indorse the principle of the Reformatory system. It has the sufficient warrant. Its undertaking has Divine assurance. Criminals can be reformed because they are men, and all men are included in a plan of salvation which has " promise of the life that now is and of that which is to come." As our penal codes and institutions are devices of men for dealing with men, for offences against men, we ought not to avenge ourselves in them, but rather should we by them "overcome evil with good." This isthe Reformatory principle.

Page  117 IX. lepovrto from Statrs. REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE. There are now forty-two States admitted to the Union, besides the District of Columbia and the Territories of Alaska, Arizona, Idaho, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, and the Indian Territory, with its peculiar organization, which was so well described to the Conference in i888 by Rev. Robert W. Hill. These fifty separate divisions of our common country have never all been represented at one time in our Conference, nor even reported upon there; but the effort was made this year to obtain from most of them such information as would exhibit, in a new form and manner, their condition at the beginning of I889 in respect to public charities and the management of prisons, with some regard, also, to private charities for children, immigration, etc. This effort has not been wholly successful, yet the facts collected seem sufficient to warrant their presentation in this Report. These will be given alphabetically by States, with a summary at the end and a brief notice of the Territories and the District of Columbia. ALABAMA. Estimated Population, 1,700,000. This State has a Board of Health, but no Board of Charities nor central prison authority controlling all the prisoners in Alabama. A Lunacy Commission for certain special purposes has been created in I889, to which hereafter the general powers of a Lunacy Commission may be given. The largest charitable establishment is the State Insane Hospital at Tuskaloosa, so ably conducted by Dr. P. Bryce, which now has during the year about,000o inmates, with an average of nearly 900. Under date of Aug. 22, 1889, Dr Boyce writes: "I do not exaggerate when I say that go per cent. of our women find regular daily occupation. Of our 500 women, our daily reports show that an average (in round numbers) of 20 per cent. are engaged in

Page  118 Ii8 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES knitting and embroidery, o1 per cent. in carding cotton or Fool and in spinning, 15 per cent. in laundry work, 20 per cent. in sewing, io per cent. (colored women) in gardening, and the remainder in general housework, in the kitchen, dairy, or the wards, and in the several out-door departments." The insane are fast increasing, especially among the colored population. Of the convicts under State control (who are leased for coal mining), the great majority are colored men. They number about I,ooo in a year, and cost the State little or nothing. The counties provide for their own prisoners. There are few paupers, except the chronic insane; and no accurate report of their number and cost is attainable. The annual cost of the Tuskaloosa Hospital is nearly $Ioo,ooo, of which the State pays $130 a year for each indigent patient and the friends pay $300 a year for each private patient. The School or Institute for the Blind at Talladega, with less than 40 pupils, costs about $220 for each pupil; and the Institute for the Deaf, with upwards of 60 pupils, costs $225 per pupil. There is an Immigration Bureau, and immigrants are now going into Alabama in large numbers. ARKANSAS. Estimated Popjulation, 1,200,000. There is a State Board of Health, with power of sanitary inspection of prisons; and there is a State Penitentiary Board, composed of the Governor, Attorney-General, and Secretary of State; but no State Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission. The prisoners are in the Penitentiary at Little Rock, the State capital, and in six or eight stockaded camps in different counties. Their whole number in i88i was I,211; average number, 558; net income to the State from leases, $24,708. The above are State prisoners. The number in county or city jails, road-gangs, county farms, etc., is between 575 and 600, or as many as the State supports. The convicts themselves prefer the farm and road labor to that done inside prison walls. There is a growing sentiment in Arkansas against leasing the convicts, and the work in coal mines has been given up. The working hours do not exceed ten a day, and there is less cause for complaint than formerly. The State charitable establishments are the Insane Asylum, with an average of 410 inmates, the Deaf-mute Institute, and the School for the Blind,- all at Little Rock. The Insane Asylum costs about $80,ooo a year. The Deaf-mute Institute costs $23,000; and the

Page  119 REPORTS FROM STATES II9 School for the Blind, $21,000. The average at the former is 104 pupils; at the latter, a little less than IOO, the whole numbers being respectively I9 and 102. Besides the 410 insane persons in the State Asylum there were in i888 in the county jails i88 others, costing about $i a week each; while the estimated number at the homes of relatives was 275, making about 875 in all. The true number is greater than this. The paupers, other than the chronic insane, are maintained by the counties; and the number in poorhouses is estimated at 230, with an average cost of 80 cents a week. Out-door relief is constantly given to about I50, but the cost is not reported; and no full estimate of the cost of pauperism in Arkansas can be given. Immigration to the State is now large, but there is no State Board of Immigration. The tendency of legislation is toward greater humanity and liberality, but there are many obstacles in the way. CALIFORNIA. Estimated Population, 1,250,000. There is a State Board of Health, but neither Board of Charities nor Lunacy Commission. There is a State Prison Board, which has no control of the county prisons, but will have charge of the new Reformatory for boys in Amador County. The number of dependants and prisoners is very large,-not less than i6,000; and the yearly cost to the State is more than $i,6oo,ooo, of which a large portion is paid from the public treasury to private charitable establishments. This (together with State payments to county asylums) amounted last year to $430,000oo. The State charitable establishments are six in number; and there are two large State Prisons,- at Folsom and San Quentin. There are three State Insane Asylums, - at Agnew's for the chronic insane (a new establishment), at Napa, and at Stockton,-which together contain more than 3,300 inmates, at an estimated cost of more than $800,000; and there are many insane persons not included irn this estimate. There is a Home for Feeble-minded Children at Santa Clara, containing less than Ioo inmates, and costing about $25,000 a year. The other dependent children are maintained by the counties or in private asylums or homes, aided by the State; and these number more than 4,000. The adult poor in county almshouses are about 5,000, and the State Prison convicts almost 2,500. The deaf-mutes and blind pupils are taught in an asylum at Berkeley, where the average number exceeds i60; and there is a Home for

Page  120 120 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES the Adult Blind at Oakland. Together, these two establishments cost annually $Ioo,ooo. The two State Prisons cost annually over $350,000; and the whole outlay in a year by the State exceeds $r,600,000. The payments by cities and counties would bring this up to $2,000,000 or more. Reports are received at the State Capitol from State institutions only. The State appropriates money for the support of orphans and indigent persons -in county or private institutions —as follows:For each orphan,.......... $Ioo per year. " half-orphan,......... 75 ' " abandoned child,...... 75 " " indigent adult,....... 75 " The table below gives the number and cost of dependants, etc., during the year ending June 30, I889, together with the appropriations made for the ensuing biennial period:

Page  121 a THE DEPENDENT, DELINQUENT, AND DEFECTIVE CLASSES AND THEIR STATE SUPPORT IN CALIFORNIA. C3 H 0') 0 H c^4 ^'S'-2< ~ c4so. iSTATE APPROPRIATIONS S e 3 For 2 years ending June 30, 189r. Total 3.. '- n Yearly cost AppropriaC a Xd to State Yearly tions for next 0 ) C.D per latest per For New Biennial Hr 11 report. capita. General. Special. Establishments. Period. Delinquents (2 prisons),. 4,128 2,338 $480,768.01 $205.63 $625,000.00 $248,957.28...........$873,957.28 Appropriations for 2 Reformatories for Boys,....................................... 360,0oo.0 360,000.00 The Insane (3 asylums),.. 3,780 3,325 838,132.98 252.07 1,048,800.00 629,272.35........... 1,678,072.35 Appropriations for 2 new establishments,.......................................... 720,000.00 720,000.00 Asylum for Deaf, Dumb, and Blind,....... 172 72 47,659.35 277.09 IOI,OOO.OO 79,500.00........... 180,500.00 Home for Adult Blind,.. 7 70 35,094-54 501.35 1I5,000.00 32,955-55........... I47,955-55 Home for Feeble-minded Children,......... I14 114 31,527.25 276.56 8I,ooo.oo 2IO,931.24........... 291,931.24 Appropriation to erect a Home for Soldiers' Widows and Orphans, and Army Nurses,....... 25,000.00 25,000.00 State Appropriation for De- I00.00 * pendent Children, in Private 75-00 t (mostly sectarian) Asylums, 4,317... 231,214.92 75.00............................. 500,000 Indigent Adults (State support of) mostly in County Almshouses,....... 4,792.... 202,109.41 75.00................................ 400,000 Aid to Veterans' Home,.. 220.... 44,980.37.......................................... 17,593 6,I9 $1,911,486.83.......t. 1,970,800.oo $I,201,616.42 $I,I05,000.00 $5,177,416.42 * O p a n.,a l l- o r p h a n _s a n a b n o e c h i l d r e n. * Orphans. t Half-orphans and abandoned children.

Page  122 122 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The distribution of dependent children in private institutions supported by the State and the appropriations therefor remain about the same, as follows: - The Hebrews had 2+ per cent. of the children and 24 of the money. The Protestant asylums had 14+ per cent. of the children, 11 per cent. of the money. Secular or non-sectarian asylums, 20 per cent. of the children, I7 4-5 per cent. of the money. The Roman Catholics had 633 per cent. of the children, 68 per cent. of the money. There are no dependent children in families under State auspices, and very few under private supervision. ASSOCIATED CHARITIES.-There has been no new organization that I know of in the State during the last year. The one at Oakland seems now to be in a fair way to succeed with its work, and that of San Francisco has become well established, and is daily becoming better understood and appreciated. Kindergarten work is prosperous, particularly in the central part of the State. There are 40 of these schools, with an attendance of some 4,500 children, in San Francisco. LEGISLATION.- There has been no new legislation touching these matters, of importance to report, other than in the form of appropriations for new institutions. We are still in utmost need of such care and supervision as a State Board of Charities would afford. A bill for the creation of such a board was submitted at the last session of the legislature. It was not exactly " killed," not having been given an opportunity to draw a vital breath, though it was submitted at the instance of our good governor himself. It was as summarily disposed of as all such propositions have been at each succeeding session during the last eight years. Any change in existing laws that might interfere with present conditions and the usual disbursement of public moneys through private or irresponsible hands is always strenuously opposed. The last legislature appropriated for two reformatories for boys the sum of $360,600, and for two additional asylums for the insane and for an edifice at the State prison for insane criminals the sum of $720,000. [The above is mainly from the report of Mrs. J. S. Sperry, Jr., of San Francisco.]

Page  123 REPORTS FROM STATES 123 COLORADO. Estimated Population, 500,000. There is a State Board of Health, but no Board of Charities, no Lunacy Commission, and no prison authority controlling all the prisoners. The largest State establishment is the Penitentiary at Caion City, which contains more than 400 convicts, and costs $35,000 annually. The Industrial School for Boys, at Golden, averages more than Ioo inmates, and costs $20,000. The Deaf, Mute, and Blind Institute at Colorado Springs averages more than 60 pupils, and costs $22,000. The Insane Asylum at Denver is crowded with inmates, and the annual cost is above $50,000. There is no exact information concerning the paupers, or the expenses of county establishments for any purpose. There are several private charities of much importance. CONNECTICUT. Estimated Population, 700,000. Here is a State Board of Charities, as well as a Board of Health and a State Prison Commission, which manages the new prison at Wethersfield, but not the county prisons. The Board of Charities possesses little power, and there is no Lunacy Commission. The largest State establishment by far is the Lunatic Hospital at Middletown, which now contains about I,400 patients, and costs in a year about $250,000, of which the State pays less than $ioo,ooo. The State supports insane convicts in a separate building at Middletown, and also pays for the board of a few other insane persons at the Hartford Retreat, the New Hampshire Asylum in Concord, and elsewhere. The new State Prison at Wethersfield contained in 1888 an average of 240 convicts, and the net cost of their support above their earnings was about $6,000. For the board of an average of 500 prisoners in the county jails, the State now pays nearly $90,000 a year. The State Reform School for Boys at Meriden is crowded with boys. The Industrial School for Girls at Middletown is smaller. There is also a School for Imbeciles at Lakeville, aided by the State; and the deaf children of Connecticut are supported by the State at the Hartford Asylum and elsewhere. Blind children may be educated in the Massachusetts School at South Boston. There are county homes for poor children who have been removed from the city and town poorhouses and placed in these homes. The whole number of towns is about I70, and of these something more than Ioo maintain poorhouses, in which there is an average of from I,500 to 2,000 paupers, of whom many are insane or idiotic. The statistics in regard to poorhouses and pauper relief are very imperfect; but

Page  124 124 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES the general cost of the poor of the towns averages less than $2 a week. Many immigrants come into the State by land; but there is no supervisory board for immigrants. A new commitment law for the insane, based on the Massachusetts laws of 1879-8I, was passed in I889, requiring a judicial commitment in each case. DAKOTA. This is now divided into two States; but the information given in this Report must relate to the Territorial organization, under which there was no general supervising board of any kind. The population must exceed 800,000. There are two insane hospitals, at Jamestown and Yankton; two penitentiaries, at Bismarck and Sioux Falls; a Reform School at Plankinton; and a School for Deaf Mutes at Sioux Falls. The last-named has less than Ioo pupils. The Reform School is but lately opened. The insane hospitals contain about 200 patients each, the two penitentiaries less than Ioo each. There are but few poorhouses, and the jails do not contain many inmates, and there are almost no insane persons in jails or poorhouses. General statistics of the insane, the poor, etc., are not attainable. DELAWARE. Estimated Population, I60,000. There are no State Boards of any sort in this small State, and no State establishments for the dependent and delinquent classes,not even a State Prison existing. Provision is making, however, for an Insane Asylum. Everything is managed by the three counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, of which Newcastle is by far the largest. These counties maintain less than 20 insane persons in the State asylums of Pennsylvania, less than io feeble-minded children at the Pennsylvania School in Elwyn, and about 20 deaf or blind children in the schools of Pennsylvania. Each county has a jail and a poorhouse, in the three counties. There are about 500 pauper inmates of the poorhouses, and a little more than Ioo in the jails. Newcastle County, which has as many people as both the others, maintains a Reform School; but, generally, neither prisoners nor paupers are well classified. The total cost of the county poor is about $60,ooo, of which about one-seventh is for out-door relief. FLORIDA. Estimated Population, 300,000. There is a Board of Health, but no Lunacy Commission or Board of Charities, separate from the "Board of State Institutions," which consists of the Governor and his cabinet, among whom the Commis

Page  125 REPORTS FROM STATES 125 sioner of Agriculture acts as Prison Superintendent. He has under his charge all the State prisoners, who in i888 numbered 333 and averaged less than 250. They cost the State nothing, being leased to contractors who support them; and the same is true of the county prisoners, who are supposed to number. about the same, but of whom no report is made. There were 310 "indigent insane," by average, in i888, when the State expended $45,000 for the insane, who were chiefly in the State Asylum at Chattahoochee. There is no account of the whole number of the insane in the State, nor of those supported by the counties or by individuals. No reports are made to the State of the paupers supported or relieved by counties, and no estimate can be made in regard to them or to poor children in homes, etc. The number of paupers is not large: that of the insane is increasing; and the tendency of legislation for five years past has been to provide more liberally for these and for other classes of dependants. For the education of deaf and blind children, in i888 $5,000 was appropriated. There is no Bureau of Immigration, and no report concerning immigrants. GEORGIA. Estimated Population, I,700,000. There is a State Board of Health, but neither a Prison Board, Lunacy Commission, nor Board of Charities. The insane are cared for by the State in an asylum at Milledgeville, which is large, and costs yearly from $50o,ooo to $200,000. The blind are educated at Macon for less than $20,000 a year, and the deaf at Cave Spring for about the same sum. There are orphan homes, supported by private charity, at Augusta, Decatur, Macon, Savannah, and other large towns; and there is a charitable hospital and " Home " in Atlanta. The poor are maintained by the counties; but there are no full reports. Prisoners, both of the State and the counties, are leased to contractors, and bring a profit to the treasury. ILLINOIS. Estimated Population, 3,600,000. This great State has a Board of Charities and a Board of Health, but no Lunacy Commission nor any State Board with general authority over the prisons and reformatories. The Board of Charities has little executive power, but can inspect and report on the State establishments, the county jails, and poorhouses, and the whole system of charities and correction. The charities and prisons of Cook County, however, which contains about a fourth part of the population of

Page  126 126 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Illinois, are managed by the local authorities, whose administrations have been frequently censured of late years by the courts, but with which the State authorities have not much interfered, from want of power. The State Board of Charities reports every two years on the State establishments, but not very fully concerning the counties, which manage their own charities and prisons, and do not make such returns to the State as will make their general condition accurately known. Consequently there are no statistics showing the number and cost of all the insane in the State, nor of the paupers or prisoners. The insane are better reported than any other class, because more of them are in the State establishments and those of Cook County, which print annual reports of much value. The Corresponding Secretary for Illinois reports as follows - There is no board in the State which possesses any general executive powers. The State Board of Public Charities has general supervision of the work of eleven State institutions (not including the penitentiaries and the universities), whose accounts are audited by it. It has also the right to visit, inspect, and report upon the county almshouses and the county jails. The only reports of expenditure received at the State capitol relate to the appropriations made by the legislature. The Board of Charities, by its agent, examines the county records at the several county-seats for the purpose of ascertaining the cost of the almshouses and jails and the cost of out-door relief; but this is no part of its legal duty. The State supports none but the inmates of its own institutions. It is forbidden by the Constitution to appropriate moneys for the support or in aid of institutions not owned and controlled by it. The care of the poor is purely a local charge. But inmates of the State institutions are maintained wholly at the cost of the State, except a trifling charge made for clothing and other incidental personal expenses. The counties pay the cost of their jails and almshouses, both for construction and maintenance. In a few counties, the towns are charged with the actual cost of maintaining the paupers in the almshouses; but this is not the rule in the very large majority of counties. It is more common, but still unusual, for towns to furnish out-door relief at their own cost. Nineteen-twentieths or more, both of out-door and in-door relief, comes out of the county treasuries. The counties pay the bills of the State institutions against them for clothing, etc., for "indigent" inmates, none of whom are regarded in law or treated as "paupers." They also pay a fixed charge per month for the maintenance of boys and girls committed to the " industrial schools" by the county courts. These industrial schools, which are for the sexes separately, and not in common, are a sort of semi-State institutions, the title to which is in private corporations, and whose officers are not appointed by the State; but the institu

Page  127 REPORTS FROM STATES I27 tions are subject to official visitation by the State Board of Public Charities. The towns do little in any case in the direction of charity or correction. Few of them have any pauper expenses. Some have local "calabooses," rarely used, and chiefly for the confinement of drunkards until sober. The city of Chicago maintains a prison, called the House of Correction, under Mr. C. E. Felton. The whole number of insane treated in the State hospitals for the insane during the year ending June 30, I889, was 4,653; the average number was 3,7I5. The cost of maintenance, excluding construction cost, was $619,866. As already said, the whole of this cost was borne by the State, except that of clothing, etc., for which was collected during the year $39,930.32, of which the counties paid $28,550.64. The number of insane in the county almshouses, exclusive of idiots, when last inspected, was I,542, of whom 891 were in the county insane asylum of Cook County (Chicago). 40 insane persons were also found in the county jails of the State. I have no means of ascertaining the total number in jails and almshouses during the year. The average number of insane persons cared for both by the State and by the counties is about 5,200. I estimate the number of those not so cared for at 3,000. There are three private asvlums in Illinois; but the number of patients is small, and half of them are from other States or Territories, one of these private establishments having had till lately a contract to take care of all patients committed from the Territory of Wyoming. The only insane paupers in Illinois, so regarded in law, are the insane in almshouses. The total number of paupers, sane, and insane, in the county institutions during the year ending March 31, i888, was 20,538. This includes the insane inmates of the Cook County Insane Asylum (1,327) and of the Cook County Hospital (8,093), many of whom do not properly belong to the pauper class, having always earned their own living when in health. Deducting these, the total number of inmates of almshouses alone was II1,I8; the average number about 4,000. Including the Cook County Insane Asylum and Hospital, the average would be nearly 5,500. The cost of maintaining county institutions for the year, including these two, was $8I3,767.18; excluding them, it was $418,166.1. The average cost of a pauper, therefore, in a county almshouse is between $ioo and $120 a year, or about $2 a week. The annual cost of out-door relief is about $68o,ooo. I cannot undertake to furnish any estimate of the number of persons so relieved. The State Board does not visit nor receive reports from private charitable institutions. Therefore, your question as to children in these institutions must remain unanswered. Of the iI,II8 inmates of almshouses mentioned above, 416 were under sixteen years of age. So far as I know, we do not put off our poor children upon the people of other States, but take care of our own, as we think they ought to do. How many are sent to us I cannot tell. Mr. Brace, I think, sends us none. The New York Juvenile Asylum has a Western agency at Normal, Ill.; but it exercises a good degree of supervision over children placed out, and I have heard no complaint of its opera

Page  128 128 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES tions. We have a society in Illinois for receiving and placing out destitute children, which is maintained by private charity; but it is comparatively new, and has not attained the full measure of its prospective usefulness. The whole number of prisoners in the State penitentiaries (two,at Joliet and Chester) during the year ending Sept. 30, i888, was 3,034; average number, 2,084; cost of maintenance (gross), $339,781.42; deducting earnings, $287,955.53, net cost, $51,825.89, or less than 50 cents a week. The whole number of prisoners in the county jails during the year ending March 31, i888, was 8,328; average number, 700; no earnings; allowance to sheriffs for support, $125,000 or $130,000, averaging, say, 50 cents a day. The only State Reformatory is the Reform School for Boys at Pontiac. Whole number during the year ending June 30, 1889, 482; average number, 318; cost of maintenance, $52,160. No deductions for earnings. In the Chicago House of Correction, year ending Dec. 31, i887, the whole number was Io,717; average number, 764; cost of maintenance (gross), $68,507.39; earnings, $45,887.51; 'boarding Cook County prisoners, $9,352.45; fines, $I2,264.50; net cost, $I,002.93. No official record is kept of immigrants to Illinois; and I know of no State or federal officer charged with the duty of looking after them. They are handled with much skill by the railroads, at Chicago; and statistics concerning them might perhaps be procured from that source. As to the insane, this State is partially alive to the necessity for making larger provision for their care. Our system of commitments exclusively by the county courts enables us to watch the dockets, which show about I,500 persons adjudged insane each year, of whom an unknown percentage are chronic cases, and many of them readjudications, relating to discharged patients formerly in the State hospitals. The last General Assembly appropriated $360,ooo for 9oo additional beds in three of the State hospitals, which will increase the total capacity of the four to 4,500 or 4,600. It also appropriated $50,000 for an insane criminal asylum on the grounds of the Southern Penitentiary at Chester. All attempts, however, to secure the attention of the legislature to the need for a revision of our lunacy laws have thus far proved futile, though the subject has been urged upon their notice continuously for the past 20 years. The evils of compulsory trial by jury cannot be so great as they are sometimes said to be, or they would have become more apparent to judges and to the public at large; and the medical profession as a whole would have taken more interest in the question and made a more vigorous effort to reform the system. The only recent legislation of importance relating to the insane is that conferring power upon the State Board of Charities to fix and alter, from time to time, the boundaries of the insane districts of Illinois. There is no special drift apparent in legislation concerning paupers. This is a burden not seriously felt by us as yet, though it is growing out of proportion to the population.

Page  129 REPORTS FROM STATES 129 We have been very much behind other States in the care of neglected, abandoned, and destitute children. The only class for which the State has done anything is soldiers' orphans. For these we still maintain a home at Normal, and the last General Assembly appropriated nearly $70,000 for its improvement. But the need for action is becoming more apparent, and every year brings us nearer to the day when the legislature will be ready to do its duty in this regard. Much interest in the subject has been aroused in Chicago by a controversy over the Chicago Industrial School (which went to the Supreme Court), a full account of which will be found in the " Tenth Biennial Report of the State Board of Charities" (pp. 76-86 and 272-292). The opinion of the court is there given in full as to the right to appropriate public moneys for the support of inmates of sectarian institutions. The legislature passed, last winter, an act requiring the State Penitentiaries to adopt the Bertillon system of measuring criminals for their identification. A bill for the adoption of the indeterminate sentence and, the parole system passed the House, and only failed in the Senate, because a minority were able, under the two-thirds rule, to prevent its coming to a final vote upon its passage. The appropriations for the next two years to charitable and correctional institutions in Illinois are as follows:Maintenance. Construction, etc. Total. For the Insane,... $1,072,000.00 $585,I47.70 $1,657,147.70 Idiots,.... 132,000.00 48,.o 8,900.008,9.0 Deaf and dumb,.. 200,000.00 28,200.00 228,200.00 Blind,...... 76,000.00 31,750.00 107,750.00 Soldiers and sailors,. 260,000.00 32,000.00 292,000.00 Soldiers' orphans,. 95,000.00 75,618.00 170,6I8.00 Eye and Ear Infirmary, 54,000.00 5,552.00 59,552.00 Total charitable,. $I,889,ooo.oo $807,I67.70 $2,696,167.70 State Reform School,. $92,000.00 $4,600.00 $96,600.00 Penitentiaries,... 230,000 00 37,400.00 267,400.00 Total correctional,. $322,000.00 $42,000.00 $364,000.00 Total charitable,. 1,889,000.00 807,167.70 2,696, 67.70 Aggregate,.. $2,211,000.00 $849,I67.70 $3,060,I67.70 Average peryear $1,530,083.85 = annual per capita tax of 38.74 cents. The only event of general interest during the past year is the investigation of the Cook County Insane Asylum by the county court, which revealed gross deficiencies and irregularities, coupled with more or less abuse of patients by attendants, some of it of a very serious nature. Two of the attendants were tried for murder in the criminal court, and acquitted. The superintendent, Dr. Kiernan, was removed from office by the Board of County Commissioners which elected him. This is not a State institution, and the county alone is responsible for its condition and management. It is fair to Dr.

Page  130 130 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Kiernan to say that he had inaugurated several important reforms, and that no superintendent can be held to too rigid account for an institution governed by a committee. of the county board, since he has not the independent authority ordinarily vested in the superintendent of a State institution. INDIANA. Estimated Population, 2,500,000. Indiana has now a Board of Charities, but no Lunacy Commission or Prison Commission. She has provided well for the unfortunate and criminal classes in twelve institutions supported by the State,namely, four asylums for the insane, three prisons, and three schools, besides an Institution for Feeble-minded Children, temporarily located at Richmond, and the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown. The Southern Prison is at Jeffersonville, the Northern Prison at Michigan City, the Reform School for Boys at Plainfield; the Woman's Prison and Reform School for Girls, the Central Insane Asylum, the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, and the Institution for the Education of the Blind, at Indianapolis; the Northern Insane Asylum at Logansport, the Southern Insane Asylum at Evansville, and the Eastern Insane Asylum at Richmond. The asylum at Evansville is now being fitted up and furnished, and will be occupied within the next few months. The asylum at Richmond is occupied by the feeble-minded, and will not be opened for the insane until the building for the feeble-minded, now in the course of erection at Fort Wayne, is completed, which will not be before the first of May, I890. Each of the twelve institutions is under the control of a separate Board of Directors, consisting of three members. The cost of maintenance at these institutions for the last fiscal year, and the appropriations for the succeeding year, and the number of inmates in each, are as follows: — (i) The Hospital for the Insane (Central Asylum) at Indianapolis: inmates at the close of the year, I,526; cost of maintenance, $260,000; appropriation for succeeding year, $260,ooo. (2) Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb: inmates, 300; cost of maintenance, $53,680.97; appropriation for succeeding year, $55,000. (3) Institution for the Education of the Blind: inmates, 128; cost of maintenance, $24,014.6; appropriation for succeeding year, $28,000. (4) Women's Prison and Reformatory for Girls at Indianapolis: inmates, 138; cost of maintenance, $30,000; appropriation for succeeding year, $40,000.

Page  131 REPORTS FROM STATES I3I (5) The Reform School for Boys at Plainfield: inmates, 462; cost of maintenance, $60,ooo; appropriation for succeeding year, $66,000. (6) State Prison (South) at Jeffersonville: inmates, 539; cost of maintenance, $77,937.70; appropriation for succeeding year, $85,ooo. (7) State Prison (North) at Michigan City: inmates, 702; cost of maintenance, $99,417.36; appropriation for succeeding year, $Ioo,ooo. (8) Asylum for Feeble-minded Children at Richmond: inmates, 239; cost of maintenance, $26,081.60; appropriation for succeeding year, $76,000. (9) Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home at Knightstown: inmates, 340; maintenance for past year, $54,447.85; appropriation for succeeding year, $75,600. (Io) The Northern Insane Hospital at Logansport: inmates, 309; cost of maintenance from March, i888, to Nov. i, I888 (the close of the fiscal year), $24,849.81; appropriation for succeeding year, $85,000. (The cost of maintenance includes the pay of all officers and all other expenditures, except small sums for repairs for some of the institutions, for which there were special appropriations.) The above outlay is not entirely at the expense of the State. The earnings of all institutions are paid into the State Treasury, and the earnings of the two prisons were $7,I39.6I in excess of their expenditures. One-half of the cost of supporting the boys at the Reform School and the girls at the Reformatory is paid by the several counties. A report of the financial condition and the needs of the different institutions is made by the respective Boards to the Governor at the close of the fiscal year, and he submits such reports to the legislature. In addition to the appropriations mentioned above for the ordinary expense of the different institutions, there was appropriated for the erection, completion, and furnishing of buildings for the Feebleminded Institution at Fort Wayne the sum of $193,400. These buildings are now in the process of erection. As soon as completed, the children will be transferred to their new quarters, probably in May, I890. There were also appropriations for a steam plant and fire protection at the Reform School for Boys ($27,000); for the building of a hospital at the Reformatory for Girls ($6,ooo); for additional buildings at the Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home ($50,000); for the construction of a sewer at the Northern Prison ($Io,ooo); for an additional school building at the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb ($50,000); for additional buildings and improvements at the Institu

Page  132 132 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES tion for the Blind ($45,ooo); for the completion and equipment of the Southern and the Eastern Hospitals for the Insane the sum of $165,000, and for their running expenses, when opened, $85,ooo each. Thus we have a total appropriation for the above-named institutions of $I,381,500.00. Our law provides for the erection of homes for orphans in each county, or two or more counties may join together in the support of one. The homes thus established and supported by counties and those established by private organizations furnish to the orphans of the State comfortable homes. Our last legislature established a State Board of Charities, consisting of six members, three from each of the two leading political parties, with general powers of inspection and advice. The State Board of Health already had general powers over all citizens of the State as far as the public health was affected. The legislature also established, in certain counties, a Board of Children's Guardians, whose duty it is to take charge of any child under fifteen years of age whose surroundings are pernicious, and provide a home for such children. We believe this to be a very wholesome law. The legislature also gave to County Boards the power to establish homes for worthy, indigent old women. The drift of legislation during the last five years, upon subjects upon which this Conference will treat, has been liberal, advanced, and upon a high scale; and now the dependent classes are in nearly as good condition as legislation can make them. Of the 1,24I prisoners in the prisons, 529 were under the age of twenty-five years when committed,-a fact showing the necessity of an intermediate reformatory prison for young men. Our jail and poorhouse system is gradually improving. The law requires the grand jury to examine each county jail and poorhouse, and report to the Court each session. The State Board of Health has heretofore given much attention to them, and did much for their sanitary condition. Now that we have a State Board of Charities whose special duty it is to look after those county institutions, we shall expect our jails and poorhouses to be equal to those of any State. Public opinion is becoming more sensitive, and demanding humane treatment of all the unfortunate. We have no law to prevent the incarceration of boys in the county jails with old and hardened criminals. The seeds of a life of crime can be sown in a boy's mind while confined in jail with tramps and criminals.

Page  133 REPORTS FROM STATES I33 Reports on the condition of the State institutions are made to the Governor each year, but no report is made from county or city institutions. There is no division of the expenses between the counties and the State in the State institutions, except, as mentioned above, in the reformatories. The counties support their institutions. I have no statistics for an estimate of the cost of those in the county institutions; the cost at the State institutions is given above. For immigrants, we have no supervision. There are many charitable organizations throughout the State that are doing a grand and noble work. (Signed) L. A. BARNETT. IOWA. Estimated Population, 1,800,000. This State has no Board of Charities, nor Lunacy Commission, nor general Prison Board, but has a State Board of Health with ample powers. The State supports no poorhouses, but three insane asylums, two prisons, two reform schools, schools for the blind, for the deaf, and for the feeble-minded, also an Orphans' Home, and a State Soldiers' Home. The insane now number two thousand, besides those in the county poorhouses. The cost of their support exceeds $300,000 annually. The county poorhouses with their farms contain upward of two thousand inmates, and the sum expended by the counties for indoor and outdoor relief is more than $6oo,ooo. No report having been received from Iowa, fuller information cannot be given. KANSAS. Population (official census, I888), 1,518,552. Kansas has no general Board of Supervision. The State assumes the entire expense of caring for those admitted to State institutions; the counties care for all other classes of public dependants. Reports concerning municipal expenditures for the poor are filed in the offices of the county clerks, and no general statistics independent of institution reports are returned to the State capitol. All insane people adjudged to be public charges and not admitted to the asylums on account of a lack of room are supported by their respective counties; and these are reimbursed out of the State treasury. Our probate courts are liberal in their interpretation of the law; and during the last year only seventeen private patients were supported in the asylums. It is probable that the law will be amended so as to agree with present practice; to wit, State support

Page  134 134 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES of all the insane. The total number of patients remaining in our two asylums June 30, 1889, was 1,235; and the sum required for their support, added to the sums paid counties for the support of those not admitted on account of a lack of room, aggregates $242,300, which represents the annual burden to the public on account of this class of dependants. The following exhibit shows the average number of dependants, defectives, and delinquents cared for in the public institutions of Kansas for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, and the annual average per capita cost of their support: — Average No. Expenditure Classification. supported. per capita. Insane Inmates,.......... 1,2IO $I79.48 Feeble-minded Youth,....... I03 184.46 Dependent Children....... 107 I8I.25 In School for Blind,........ 83 201.34 In School for Deaf........ 214 2I.02 In Reform School,..... 204 174.66 State Penitentiary Convicts,..... 86 146.00 The number of prisoners reported in the above table as being in the Penitentiary includes only those sentenced by our State courts. The number of these State prisoners in the Penitentiary June 30, i888, was 887; the number remaining on June 30, 1889, was 836, a decrease during the year of 51. The Penitentiary, through the mining operations conducted by the State, is entirely self-supporting. Therefore, the aggregate cost to the State for the support of the 2,782 persons mentioned in the exhibit, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1889, was $353,064.79, or $126.91 per capita; and this expenditure includes ordinary repairs and also many items for permanent improvements. About 54 per cent. of the State prisoners in the Penitentiary are under the age of twenty-five years. The legislature at its last session appropriated $Ioo,ooo for the continuance of work on the State Industrial Reformatory, to be modelled on the Elmira plan; and the sum of $25,000 was appropriated for the establishment of a Girls' Industrial School, which has been located at Beloit and is in process of erection. KENTUCKY. Estimated Population, I,8oo,ooo. This State has a Board of Health, but no Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission. There are two State Prisons, at Frankfort and Eddyville, under a Prison Board; three Asylums for the Insane, all

Page  135 REPORTS FROM STATES 135 crowded; a State School for the Blind at Louisville, and one for the feeble-minded at Frankfort. The only public reform school is that maintained by the city of Louisville. The counties maintain their poor, but not generally in almshouses. Only a few of the larger counties have well-managed almshouses. The counties do not report fully to the State either the number or cost of their poor. No report has this year come from Kentucky. LOUISIANA. Estimated Population, I,IO10,00. Mr. Lane, the Corresponding Secretary for this State, having died in I887, no report was available. There is no Board of Charities, but an efficient Board of Health. MAINE. Estimated Population, 675,ooo. There is no Board of Charities nor Lunacy Commission, but a State Board of Health, a Board of Prison Directors, with some general powers, and a Bureau of Labor Statistics, which publishes some useful facts concerning the poor. The State institutions are an Asylum for the Insane at Augusta, which is crowded, a State Prison at Thomaston, a State Reform School for Boys at Cape Elizabeth, a State School for Girls at Hallowell, and a new Asylum for the Insane, established by law not far from Bangor, but not yet built. The poor are maintained chiefly by the town system, but information concerning them is not available. MARYLAND. Estimated Population, I,ooo,ooo. Maryland has a Lunacy Commission, but no State Board of Charities nor Prison Superintendent or Commission for the whole State. Laws of i886 (Chapter 487, Section 13) provide that the Lunacy Commission "shall have supervision over all institutions, public, corporate, or private, in which insane persons are detained." In regard to the State Board of Health, it is provided in Laws of 1874 (Chapter 200) and Laws of i880 (Chapter 438) that the secretary of this Board "shall from time to time, and whenever directed by the governor or the legislature, make special inspections of public hospitals, asylums, prisons, and other institutions." All institutions receiving State aid are required to make biennial reports to the governor and legislature. The State Lunacy Commission, the Directors of the Penitentiary, and the Board of Managers of the State Insane Asylum do make annual reports to the governor.

Page  136 I36 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Each county, and the city of Baltimore, has its respective almshouse, in which paupers and the harmless insane are maintained at the expense of the county or city. Some of the counties and the city of Baltimore have a special insane department connected with their almshouses, where all classes of the insane can be properly cared for. The Revised Code of I878 (Article 26, Section 9) requires that the Managers of the Maryland Hospital for the Insane "provide accommodation for at least 250 pauper lunatics of the State who may be sent to the said hospital for curative treatment, which number shall be from time to time apportioned by them among the several counties and the city of Baltimore, according to their respective populations." The Report of the Lunacy Commission, dated Dec. i, i888, gives the whole number of insane in the different institutions, public, corporate, and private, including almshouses and the Maryland State Penitentiary, as I,658,-,405 white and 253 colored. Of this number, about 450 were in the Baltimore and county almshouses. Both the city and the counties provide for a large number of insane in private institutions and in the Maryland Hospital for the Insane. The Annual Report of Bay View Asylum (Baltimore City Almshouse) for i888 gives the total number of inmates for the year as 3,757, the average number being I,093. The amount expended during the year was $77,070.77, making the cost per capita $70.5I. The average number of inmates in county almshouses, not including Baltimore, for the year i888, was about 740, at a cost of about $90 per capita. In addition to the above, the counties have a large number of pensioners, for whom they appropriate about $30,000 per year. As to children, no reliable statistics are at hand, on which to base an estimate. The average number of prisoners in 1888 was 1,323, distributed as follows: Penitentiary, 587; House of Correction, 286; City Jail, 376; County Jails, 74. yuvenile Reformatories.- The House of Refuge for Boys at Baltimore had 200 inmates Nov. 30, I887. 86 were admitted during the year, and o00 dismissed or released on tickets of leave. There remained Nov. 30, i888, 186. The Female House of Refuge (a Protestant institution for girls) had 52 inmates Jan. i, i888; committed during the year, I9; returned from homes, 6,- making a total of 77 inmates; dismissed to relatives or placed in homes, 15; number remaining Jan. i, I889, 62. The House of Reformation for Colored Boys (report published bienially) during the two years from Nov. 30, 1885, to Nov. 30, I887, had 447 inmates; number remaining in the house Nov. 30, I887, 253. The Industrial Home for Colored

Page  137 REPORTS FROM STATES I37 Girls had, from the opening of the Home in March, 1883, till Dec. 31, i888, 263 girls committed to the institution by the courts and magistrates; and in i888 the statistics are as follows: committed, 38; apprenticed, 32; placed out to service, ii; discharged being of age, I8; discharged on probation to parents, 0o; died, 4; remaining Dec. 31, i888, 6i. In St. Mary's Industrial School (a Catholic institution for boys) there were 420 inmates Nov. 30, 1887; admitted from then till Nov. 30, i888, 189; and remaining at this date, 436. There were 336 of this number committed by magistrates of Baltimore, 72 by magistrates of the counties, and 28 not committed. Receipts of this school for the year ending Nov. 30, i888, were: from State appropriations, $15,ooo; city, $20,000; shops (earnings), $7,032.46; donations, $2,670.22; board of boys, $905.82; farm, $506.12; total, $46, I4.62. The House of the Good Shepherd (a Catholic institution for girls) had 207 inmates Jan. i, i888; received during the year, 99; dismissed, 85; and 7 died, leaving 214 inmates Jan. i, I889. The annual cost per capita in this institution is from $75 to $80. The total immigration to Baltimore during i888 was as follows: from Austria, 2,213; Bohemia, 1,532; Canada, 4; Denmark, 293; England, 930; Germany, 21,158; Hungary, 710; Ireland, 410; Norway, 241; Nova Scotia, 4; Netherlands, 7; Poland, I09; Russia, 2,460; Roumania, 64; Scotland, 34; Sweden, 743; Switzerland, 27; Wales, i8; British West Indies, 4; Belgium, o1; Cuba, I; British Guiana, 4; Spain, I; Brazil, 6; San Salvador, I; France, I; Italy, 3; total, 30,988. There is a State Board of Immigration. One of the most important laws recently passed is the act of I886, creating a Lunacy Commission, as already mentioned. An act of 1884 provides that "all persons confined in city jail for offence punishable by such confinement under sentence of criminal court shall be kept at hard labor." A law of 1882, chapter 480, makes it a misdemeanor for any parent, guardian, or custodian to apprentice or hire out any child for public dancing, rope walking or dancing, begging, or any mendicant business. There has been no recent legis lation on immigration.' The total appropriation for the support of public institutions is: by the State, $I69,900; by Baltimore City, $245,980.60; total, $415,880.60o MASSACHUSETTS. Estimated Population, 2,150,000. There is a State Board of Lunacy and Charity which acts as Commissioners of Lunacy, with power "to investigate the sanity and condition of any person committed to an asylum, hospital, etc., or re

Page  138 I38 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES strained of his liberty by reason of alleged insanity, at any place within this Commonwealth ": this Board "shall discharge any person so committed or restrained if, in its opinion, such person is not-insane or can be cared for after such discharge without danger to others, and with benefit to himself." The same Board has general charge of immigrants who may arrive at any port in Massachusetts, in order that neither the State nor any town or city shall be compelled to bear the burden of their support without security; and may institute prosecutions for violation of the laws relating to alien passengers. It has general supervision over the State charitable institutions; is required to visit all such institutions and other places where State paupers are supported, and also to visit and inspect every private asylum for the insane. It may transfer pauper or insane inmates from one State charitable institution or lunatic hospital to another, or may send them to any place or State to which they belong; and it has ample powers in regard to boarding in families the chronic and harmless insane. The Board has many other powers defined at great length in the statutes, such powers to be exercised in co-operation with the trustees of the respective institutions; it has, indeed, very extensive powers of supervision, of advice, and, in some cases, of control over the State charitable institutions and lunatic hospitals, together with the custody, care, and education of pauper children. There is a Prison Commission which exercises powers over prisoners similar to those which the Board of Lunacy and Charity has over the insane and the poor. Reports are annually received by the Governor and C6uncil of the amount of money expended by the different public authorities for the poor, the insane, for prisoners, and for the supervision of immigrants (the latter being included in the report of the Board of Lunacy and Charity). The Prison Commission makes an annual report, including reports on the State Prison, the Reformatory Prison for Women, the Massachusetts Reformatory at Concord, the agents for aiding discharged convicts, and that concerning the County Jails and Houses of Correction. This report also includes tables showing the result of criminal prosecutions in the courts. The State institutions for the poor, the insane, and the idiotic, make annual reports, through the trustees of the different institutions, to the Governor and Council. Similar returns of the local poor are made to the Board of Lunacy and Charity by cities and towns, and are reported by that Board to the Governor and Council. Paupers are either State paupers (those that have no settlement in any city or town of the State) or Town paupers (those

Page  139 REPORTS FROM STATES 139 that have a settlement in some city or town in the State). The former receive support or relief from the State, either directly through State institutions or indirectly through local authorities; the latter receive aid from local authorities alone. The pauper insane are divided into State and city and town charges, under the same regulations as other paupers. (a) So far as can be ascertained, the whole number of insane coming under public supervision the past year was 6,833,-2,317 supported by the State, 3,428 supported by cities and towns (all of whom rank as paupers), and 1,083 supported by individuals. The average number of the insane known to the authorities was 5,I57, of whom 8I9 were on private support, the rest were public charges,-1,752 supported by the State and 2,586 by cities and towns. The cost of maintenance, including $85,00ooo for construction expenses, was not less than $900,000. (b) The number of the poor supported wholly at public expense was I8,734 within the year, with an average number of II,286. Of the whole number, 12,000 were supported in almshouses, 5,500 in lunatic hospitals and asylums, and 1,234 in private families. Of the average number, 6,500 were in almshouses, 3,400 in lunatic hospitals, and the rest in private families. The cost of full support was about $I,500,000. At the same time $650,000 was paid for the partial support of 50,000 persons, in all, or 17,846 at a given date. (c) Concerning children supported by the State, the year closed with I,063 children, above three years old, placed in families or with friends (729 in families and 334 with friends) outside of institutions and subject to visitation. Of these, 880 required no expenditure except for supervision, and 183 had their board paid by the State. Of this last number, 141 were paid for from an appropriation of the State Board, and 42 from that of the State Primary School. There were 803 juvenile offenders in custody on the first of October, I888, which is about the average of the year. Of these, 513 were cared for in families, and 290 were supported at the several institutions named below. The appropriations for the State Primary School, State Reform School for Boys, and the State Industrial School for Girls, for the year I888, amount to $103,500. The cost at the first was $3.07 per week, at the second $4.13, and at the last $4.90. Of the children boarded from the State Primary School during the past year, eight between the ages of three and eight years were legally adopted, and two placed in families on written indenture.

Page  140 140 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Sept. 30, i888, there were 42 of these children, and $3,825.59 had been expended for them. The cost per child (under ten years of age) is $i.86 per week. The State Board of Lunacy and Charity has charge of the placing out or boarding out for pay of other poor children; and the number of such children was 141, as already said. The number of foundlings and destitute children under three years old, supported by the State (in the Department of Out-door Poor) during the same year, was I65,- 54 at the Massachusetts Infant Asylum and iii in the immediate charge of the State. Of the former, 33 were disposed of as follows: from the Infant Asylum, I4 adopted or placed on trial for adoption; 4 discharged to mothers; 9 retained at the asylum with a view to adoption; 2 were discharged to the Department of Out-door Poor; and 4 died. Of i i under the immediate charge of the State, 13 were adopted, i6 transferred to the Department of In-door Poor, 8 were discharged to parents, and i8 died, making a total of 55. Of the whole I65 infants, 79 remained Sept. 30, i888, 22 on trial for adoption without expense, 8 on trial at expense, all, except 5 of the latter, being less than three years old. The expense for support and clothing of these children during the year was $I5,212, of which $6,8I9 was expended for those in the Infant Asylum, $8,028.I3 for foundlings, etc., in families, and $365.1 I for indigent and neglected children, under three years of age, committed by the courts. (d) The number of prisoners remaining in all the prisons Sept. 30, i888, was 5,698, as follows: in Jails, 670; Houses of Correction, 2,216; House of Industry, Boston, 1,I85; State Prison, 564; State Farm, 134; Reformatory Prison for Women, 242; Massachusetts Reformatory, 687. Of the whole number, 4,8I9 were men, and 879 were women. Average number of men in the Charlestown State Prison, 556; net cost of support, $I31.03. Average number of men in the Concord Reformatory, 792; net cost of support, $I54.94. Average number of women in the Sherborn Reformatory Prison, 216; net cost of support, $221.26. Average number of prisoners at the Bridgewater State Farm, I34; net cost, $2.02. All managed by State authority. The average number of prisoners in the county prisons was 2,767; net cost of support, $I29.49, including males and females. There are 21 county prisons,- 14 jails and Houses of Correction combined; 5 separate jails, and 2 separate Houses of Correction. The cost of these for the. year i888 was $447,202, an increase of $62,996 over

Page  141 REPORTS FROM STATES I41 1887. Receipts from labor and other sources were $88,883, an increase of $4,478 over I887. The number of discharged male convicts assisted was 435: of these, 238 had been in the State Prison; 197 came from different Houses of Correction within this Commonwealth. The State expended during the past year for this work $4,I3I. The number of discharged female prisoners receiving aid was 563, at a cost of $I,957 -(e) The amount charged to the United States son account of newly arrived aliens, supervision of immigration, and support and removal of immigrants, in the Department of In-door Poor, for the year ending Sept. 30, i888, was $13,282.75, the amount of head money collected being more than $22,000. Immigration at Boston for the year was: — Country. From Ireland,. England, Wales, Scotlanc,.. German", France,. Russia.. Poland,.. Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Holland, Italy,.. Spain,.. Portugal, Denmark, Hungary, Austria... China,.. Australia, Turke,. Greece, All other countries, Total,.. Males. 7,936 6,298 75 1,871 362 59 1,203 463 6 3,991 837 8i IS 38 9 4 146 I9 66 2 22 5 4 1,351 24,863 Tourists and Females. Visitors. Total. 7,585 1 I5,531 4,441 271 I I,oi 36 2 II3 1,573 25 3,469 i61 II 534 I6 36 III 456 1,659 72 535 3 9 2,996 I 6,988 464 4 I,305 12 76 169 6 21 10 48 4 3 I6 I -3 8 82 2 230 6 25 23 89 2 3 25 7 12 4 531 I40 2,022 18,488 584 43,935 Immigration at New Bedford (head money, $420): males, 539; females, 301,-total, 840. At Provincetown (head money, $24.50),: males, 36; females, 13,-total, 49. At Gloucester (head money, $3): I man, 5 women,- 6 in all. In all Massachusetts, therefore, there were 44,246 immigrants arriving by water.

Page  142 142 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The State Board of Lunacy and Charity execute the United States laws concerning immigrants. The State appropriations for the year i888 were as follows: To be expended under the oversight of the Board of Lunacy and Charity,.. This includes the following sums, paid to the State Lunatic Hospital, Northampton,... " <" Taunton....... " " Danvers....... (" "( Worcester,....... "( " Westborough,...... Worcester Insane Asylum,. In all...... 349,748.oo00 State Farm at Bridgewater,.. State Almshouse, Tewksbury,... State Primary School, Monson,.. Lyman School for Boys, Westborough,.. State Industrial School for Girls, Lancaster, Massachusetts Reformatory, Concord,. Reformatory Prison for Women, Sherborn, State Prison, Charlestown,.... Agent for discharged female convicts,.. Prison Commissioners (contingent expenses),........ *.. $I9,640.30 20,345.37 30,701.29 22,649.33 I5,879.27 I6,367.47 $125,583.03 $55,600 IOO,I00 54,000 30,900 i8,6oo 168,400 57,000 125,000 3,000 4,300 An act for the better protection of infants was passed in I889; another act appropriating $I50,000 to build an Inebriate Asylum; and $35,000 was granted the Trustees of the State Almshouse at Tewksbury, to remodel the male hospital there. MICHIGAN. Estimated Population, 2,200,000. (The statistics for the year ending June 30, i888.) Michigan has a State Board of Corrections and Charities and a State Board of Health, but no Lunacy Commission, Prison Superintendent, or Commission for the whole State. No board has general powers in regard to the insane or other dependent persons: a board of control for each institution governs its own, subject to the provisions of law. Reports of money expended are received at the State capitol,- of State appropriations by the AuditorGeneral, of county expenditures by the Secretary of State. The expenses for supporting dependants, etc., by funds from the public treasury are only divided in the case of the insane. The insane in asylums are a county charge for two years; those remaining in asylums longer are, after two years, State charges.

Page  143 REPORTS FROM STATES 143 The Insane.-Whole number for the year, 3,070. In asylums, 2,778; in poorhouses, 292. Of this number in asylums, 208 are private patients. The average number for the year is 2,5i8. The cost of the insane at the Michigan Asylum was: - Current expenses,........... I.85,483.53 Officers' salaries,........... 10,000.00 At the Eastern Michigan Asylum: Current expenses,............ I180,670.66 Officers' salaries,............ 9,650.oo $I95,483.53 190,320.66 At the Northern Michigan Asylum: Current expenses,. Officers' salaries... At the Asylum fpr Insane Criminals: Current expenses,.. Officers' salaries,........ $96,7IO.I2 * -..... - 7,350.00..... 24,045.78...... 2,990.00 104,o60. 2 27o,35-78 $516,900. oo Total,............ The Public Poor.- Their number was:In poorhouses,... Average number,... Under sixteen years of age,.. Outside poorhouses,. Permanent,.. Temporary,.......... 4,590.2,I85~..... * 7379....... 27,288... 2,328........24,960 The expense at poorhouses (exclusive of cost of farms and buildings) was.... Outside of poorhouses, temporary relief,. Permanent relief,. Total,.. In asylums (given above), average, 2,037,. School for the Blind,.... School for the Deaf (average, 298),... State Public School (average, 207),.. The cost of the public poor was more than.. Namely,- Asylums (given above),.. School for the Blind,.. School for the Deaf,... State Public School,.. Expense for paupers,... Children. In poorhouses (given above) mostly idiots and feeble-minded,..... In homes, from State Public School,.. Out on trial, "..... In the State Public School,..... $243,838.74 363,580.82 34,513.29 $641,932.85 2,312 87 301 407 $1,280,000.00 516,900.09 22,797.08 63,0o5.97 36,282.59 64I,932.85 379 873 120 I85

Page  144 I44 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Children from the State Public School are placed in homes which have been approved by the county agent of each county, or State agent of the institution, and supervised by such county agent. The law provides that the home of any child who is indentured in Michigan shall be so approved. Prisoners. At State House of Correction and Reformatory (June 30, I888)........... 405 Total during year,............,o39 Daily average,......... 392 Current expenses, less labor of prisoners,.... $36,708.76 At State Prison: June 30, I888,............. 761 Total during year,............ 1,o48 Daily average,............. 772 Current expenses, less labor of prisoners,.. $18,634.04 At Detroit House of Correction: June 30, i888,............. 373 Total during year,......... 2,339 Daily average,............ 414 (Statement of cost not received.) Reformatories.- Reform School for Boys, Lansing: June 30, i888,.............. 444 Total during year,........... 674 Daily average........... 435 Current expenses, less labor of inmates,... $64,844.87 Industrial Home for Girls, Adrian: June 30, I888,............ 21I Total during year,............ 224 Daily average,............. 207 Current expenses,.......... $32,278.84 Jails. Total number in jail during year,...... 10,367 Average number,........... 3674 Number sent to State Prison,...... 234 " " State House of Correction,.. 572." " Detroit House of Correction,. 464." " Reform School,...... I36 " " Industrial Home...... 42 Expense. For Maintaining jails,........... II5,35775 Arresting and imprisoning in jails,....23,289. o Taking convicts to prisons, etc.,..... I3,39098 Other items,........ 1,561.43

Page  145 REPORTS FROM STATES I45 Legislation.- Mr. Randall has reported on some useful enactments in regard to children (p. 5 of this volume). At the session of I889, no important legislation in respect to insanity was had; but measures were defeated which were distrusted by the friends of State care for the insane. It has been since I877 the State policy to care for its chronic insane. Previously, they were frequently removed from the old Michigan Asylum (at Kalamazoo) to county receptacles, to make room for new cases. When the Eastern Michigan Asylum at Pontiac was organized, a law was passed for the transfer of all the insane then in county houses to one of the State asylums; and it was made illegal to detain insane persons in county houses. To lighten the burden upon counties, a special law provided that the expense of the insane become chargeable to the State after two years' residence in the asylum at county expense. This law has worked well, has secured to the chronic insane a permanent comfortable home, and has placed them outside of local control and partisan influence. It was claimed by the Wayne County delegation in the legislature (from Detroit) that the burden of taxation for the care of the insane thus fell with undue weight on certain counties, while others did not bear their share; and an ineffectual attempt was made to repeal the law. The majority of the people had become attached to it, believing it a wise and humane enactment. The Trustees of the four asylums in joint session memorialized the legislature against its repeal, and the friends of patients wrote letters to their representatives to the same end. This bill failing, there was hurriedly passed, near the close of the session, a bill placing upon a legal footing the county asylum near Detroit. It was the only county asylum for insane in the State; and the representatives from Wayne hoped to legalize and perpetuate it, placing its patients upon the same footing as those of the State asylums. The bill did not obtain the governor's signature, and the plant at Wayne is consequently being abandoned as an asylum. Above 60 patients have been transferred to Pontiac, and arrangements are making to send as many more. This action places Wayne County abreast of the other progressive counties, and seems to secure the State policy above indicated from change. The legislature also enacted the following important laws: — Providing for (i) Indeterminate Sentences and Parole.- Its provisions are based largely on the Ohio law, permitting the judge to pronounce a general sentence of imprisonment, the term of such imprisonment

Page  146 146 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES to be terminated by the Boards of Control of the prisons, except that such term shall not exceed the maximum term provided by law for the crime; nor shall he be released until after he has served at least the minimum term provided by law for such crime. The usual provision is made authorizing the Boards of Control to parole prisoners sentenced under the act. (2) Disorderly Persons.-The law relating to such persons was revised so as to provide for cumulative sentences, and a minimum as well as a maximum sentence. It is thus hoped to prevent repeated sentencing of the same persons (during 1888 there were ten persons recommitted to the Detroit House of Correction from sixty to seventyone times), which Captain Nicholson, of the Detroit House of Correction, calls "trifling with crime in its incipient stages, and which," he says very truly, "produces only loss of self-respect, contempt for the law, and incorrigibility." (3) Stolen Goods.- Junk-dealers have been prohibited purchasing from minors under sixteen years of age: penalty from $5 to $25 fine and cost, or imprisonment for thirty days, or both. This law was the outgrowth of the experience of our county agents, who found that, in our large cities particularly, the cause of much larceny by boys was the encouragement given them by junk-dealers. (4) Ill-treated Children.- A class in the past unprotected and uncared for by statute has been provided for by the legislature of I889. In the act, an ill-treated child is declared to be one whose father, mother, or guardian causes or permits such child to engage in any occupation that would be likely to endanger his health or life, or deprave his morals; a child whose father, mother, or guardian is an habitual drunkard or of notorious or scandalous conduct, or a reputed thief or prostitute, or who habitually permits the child to frequent improper places or the company of improper persons, or who, by vicious training, depraves the morals of the child,- such a child may be taken from the custody of such father, mother, or guardian, and be placed with a suitable person as its guardian, or he may be placed in the State Public School at Coldwater to be subject to such disposition as the laws regulating such institution provide. With this additional law on her statute-books, Michigan is prepared to care for all cases which the county agent encounters while performing his duties among her unfortunate children. (5) Industrial Home for Discharged Prisoners.-Although this is not a State institution, the legislature, appreciating the good work done, and approving the management under which such "Home"

Page  147 REPORTS FROM STATES I47 is, gave it endorsement by appropriating $1,200 for each of the years i889 and I890, to aid in its maintenance. The expenses of the "Home" being largely met by the labor of its inmates, the appropriation, though seemingly small, is enough to cover the deficit. MINNESOTA. [To bottom of p. 150 by H. H. HART.] (I) The present estimated population of this State is I,300 -000. (2) We have a State Board of Corrections and Charities, with supervisory power over the State, county, and municipal correctional and charitable institutions. We have also a State Lunacy Commission of three physicians, whose duty it is to visit the hospitals for insane semi-annually and to report thereon to the governor. (3) The State Board of Corrections and Charities receives monthly reports of the expenditures for the care of insane, paupers, prisoners, and other dependants. (4) The State Hospitals for Insane, the Schools for the Deaf, Blind, and Feeble-minded, the State School for Dependent Children, the State Reform School, State Reformatory, State Prison, and Soldiers' Home are maintained from the State treasury without any charges back upon the county or upon individuals, except that a small annual charge, not exceeding $40 per capita, is made for the clothing and travelling expenses of children in the Schools for the Deaf, Blind, and Feeble-minded. Inmates of the Soldiers' Home drawing pensions are required to turn over to the Soldiers' Home their pensions, except $4 per month. Fifty out of eighty counties have county jails. Counties not having jails board their prisoners in other counties, paying for board, fuel, and jailers' fees. Each city and village in the State maintains a lock-up for temporary detention of municipal prisoners. Paupers are a charge upon the several counties in which they have a legal residence, unless otherwise provided by law. Fourteen counties have the "town system " of poor relief, whereby paupers are made a charge upon the several cities, villages, and townships. In two such counties, county almshouses are maintained at county expense, a charge being made back upon the several cities, villages, and townships for the care of their poor. Where the county system prevails, the five county commissioners in each county are ex-offcio superintendents of the poor.

Page  148 148 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES There are only twenty-five poorhouses maintained in the whole State, the aggregate number of inmates being less than 300. Counties having no poorhouse board out in-door paupers in families. (5) A. Insane. (Year ending July 3I, i888.) N.B.-Inmates of insane hospitals are a charge upon the State without any distinction as to private and public patients. Whole number of insane persons maintained, 2,234; average number, 1,696. Net cost (deducting sales of products), $280,800; per capita cost, $170 per annum. B. Public Poor. (1887.) Total number (in poorhouses), 669; average number, 295. Net cost of maintenance, $46,000; annual cost per inmate, $155; weekly cost per inmate, $2.97. (Out-door relief.) Total expenditures, $243,ooo. Estimated number of cases of out-door relief, I,500. No insane persons are included among the public poor in this State. C. Dependent Children. The State School for Dependent Children cared for 138 children. Average number, 67. Total cost of maintenance, $I5,400; cost per capita, $232. Children were cared for in institutions, as follows: — Institutions. State Public School, Owatonna... Home of the Sacred Heart, Iona,.. Catholic Orphan Asylum for Boys, Minneapolis, Catholic Orphan Asylum for Girls, St. Paul, German Catholic Orphan Asylum, St. Paul,. Average No. Estimated Cost. 67 $15,400 24 74 * 70 * 50 Catholic Orphan Asylum, St. Joseph, Sheltering Arms, Minneapolis, Washbourne Home, Minneapolis, Protestant Orphan Asylum, St. Paul, Orphans' Home, Vasa,.. Totals,..... Cost per capita,.. D. Prisons. Prisons. State Prison (1887-88),... City Workhouse (I887-88), In county jails (1887),.. In city and village lock-ups, Reform School (1887-88),....... 36.... 25.... 58.... 50.... - 39.... * 493.... II 4,200 5,000 6,400 3,0oo i,6oo 2,200 7,000 6,800 2,400 $54,000 Cost. $46,700 42,200 58,134 40,000 rotal No. of Prisoners. 627 3,697 2,678 I4,815 328 Average No. 427 247 i65 IOO 238 The average number of Reform School inmates was 208 males and 30 females. Prison labor. Convicts in the State Prison were worked under the

Page  149 REPORTS FROM STATES i49 "contract system," which was abolished Sept. i, i888. Convicts in the St. Paul and Minneapolis Workhouses were employed chiefly in improving grounds and buildings. Convicts in the county jails had no work. Boys in the State Reform School manufactured wagons, hand-sleds, and tinware on State account. The State Reformatory Prison for young men is not yet opened. E. The statistics of the State Board of Corrections and Charities show the following facts with reference to the percentage of inmates in public institutions furnished by the foreign-born population of the States named: - Foreign-born State. Population. Minnesota........ 38.2 per cent. Wisconsin,.... 30.8 Iowa,........ 6.o " Michigan,.......'. 23.7 " Illinois,......... 18.9 " Ohio,...........8 " Pennsylvania,....... 13.8 " Massachusetts,..... 24.9 Average,...... I9.3 " Foreign-born Convicts in State Prisons. 36.7 per cent. 37.8 " 17.7 " 31.8 " 19.8 " 155 ". 20.0 27.8 " 22.9 " It will be observed that Minnesota is the only one of the eight States mentioned whose immigrant population furnishes less than its share of convicts. We have no State Board of Immigration, that board having been abolished by the legislature. (6) The legislative appropriations for the State correctional and charitable institutions for the fiscal year ending July 31, 1889, were as follows: Institutions. Hospitals for Insane, School for the Deaf,... School for the Blind, School for Feeble-minded,. School for Dependent Children, State Prison,... Reformatory,... Reform School,.. Soldiers' Home... Totals.... Current Expenses... 294,840.. 40,000 ~. 15,000.. 40,000 22,550 75,000.. 40,000. 20,000. * 547,390 Buildings, etc. Totals. $95,900 $390,740 40,000 15,000 8,000 48,000 52,750 75,300 105,150 180,150 6,ooo000 116,ooo 2,700 42,700 25,000 45,000 $405,500 $952,89o for the past six years The drift of the legislation and its results have been as follows - I883. State Board of Corrections and Charities established; State Prison enlarged and improved; building of detached wards for insane,

Page  150 I50 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES auxiliary to main buildings, authorized; schools for the blind and feeble-minded enlarged. I885. Incorrigibility cases in the State Reform School made a charge upon the State instead of the counties; third Hospital for Insane established; State School for Dependent Children established; State institutions required to take annual inventories. I887. State Reformatory for young men established; State Soldiers' Home established; Custodial Department added to the School for Feeble-minded; Schools for the Deaf, Blind, and Feebleminded reorganized as the Minnesota Institute for Defectives; provision made for removing the State Reform School from the city of St. Paul to a large farm in the country; contract labor abolished in the State Prison. I889. State Prison law recodified; warden to be appointed by managers; prison school established; wages averaging ten cents per day allowed convicts; contract system allowed for one-half of the convicts, if necessary to secure employment. Convicts may be transferred from the State Reformatory to the State Prison and paroled therefrom. A State agent may be appointed to aid discharged prisoners. Uniform system of transacting business of State institutions established; postal rights of insane patients defined. The State Board of Corrections and Charities offered to the legislature of I889 estimates of the current expenses of the State correctional and charitable institutions, which were adopted without essential modification. This Board offered to the legislature of 1885 nine recommendations, of which seven have been adopted; to the legislature of 1887, six additional recommendations, of which four have been adopted and a fifth partially adopted; to the legislature of 1889, fifteen additional recommendations, of which nine were adopted and two more were partially adopted. The total number of recommendations made by the board to the legislature since its inception in 1883 is thirty, of which twenty have been adopted, three have been partially adopted, and seven are still pending. THE COUNTY BOARD AT ST. PAUL. The Board of Control in St. Paul exists under State legislation; it consists of three members and a Secretary. This Board has supervision over the City and County Hospital and the County Almshouse. It was found necessary to organize such a Board to look after the interests of the poor, to alleviate suffering, and to protect

Page  151 REPORTS FROM STATES I5I the city and county from imposition on the part of a large class of unemployed men (and women, too) found in every community. It is unfortunate for our race that the habit of dram-drinking, so common among a large class of men, brings with it poverty; and the innocent and unoffending wives and children become the sufferers. An enlarged public sentiment throughout our country suggests means of relief; and, that the relief may be extended to the unfortunates fairly and promptly, it is necessary that the subject be relegated to a Board the members of which will devote their time and energies in that direction. But dram-drinking is not the only thing that produces want. The loose laws regulating divorces in the United States have created the impression in the minds of many that marriage is only a contract to be set aside at the pleasure of either party. The result of this is seen in broken-up homes, where the husband and father deserts his wife and children, and leaves them to the tender mercies of communities. It is here that the Board of Control appears upon the scene, furnishing temporary relief and securing honorable employment for the deserted ones. Justice, mercy, and all the finer feelings of our nature call loudly upon the Congress of the United States to enact uniform marriage and divorce laws, which shall apply to all the States and Territories, replacing the loose laws now found in the different States. Could this be accomplished, who can estimate the good to flow therefrom? How much misery and suffering would be spared the women and children of our land! Who can tell the great reduction in the number of the dependent classes? Our Almshouse and City and County Hospital care for all persons who are too old or feeble to care for themselves, while there are found in every community many persons who can become self-supporting, if temporarily assisted. On certain days in each week, the Board attends at its office to hear the petitions of all such, and, after examination, affords the necessary relief. This prevents street begging and petty larceny on the part of the worthy, yet unfortunate, class. For a long time, it was the custom of some of our neighboring cities to ship to us their "lame, halt, and blind "; but, by watching closely for their arrival, and shipping them back at once, we have broken up the custom, which cannot be too severely condemned. Every community should look out for its own poor, and not expect to thrust them upon their neighbors. (Signed) I. P. WRIGHT, Treas. Board of Control.

Page  152 I52 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES MISSISSIPPI. Estimated Population, 1,400,000. Here is a State Board of Health, but no Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission. The insane in asylums are increasing, and now number more than six hundred. There are two State asylums, at Jackson and Meridian. The State Prison at Jackson leases its prisoners. There is a School for the Blind and one for the deaf. The counties care for their own poor and for prisoners, but make no report to the State government. No report came this year from Mississippi. MISSOURI. Estimated Population, 2,500,000. No State Board of Charities exists here; for, though one was established some twenty years ago, it was soon allowed to die. There is no Lunacy Commission, although the number of the insane in asylums exceeds 2,500. There are three of these asylums supported by the State,-at Fulton, St. Joseph, and Nevada. There is also a large city asylum at St. Louis. The State Penitentiary is at Jefferson City, with many inmates. At St. Louis is a State School for the Blind, at Fulton one for the deaf; and a Training School for Minors and an Industrial Home for Girls have been recently established. No report from Missouri was this year received. NEBRASKA. Estimated Population, I,ooo,ooo. This State has not yet a Board of Charities nor a Lunacy Commission. Its State institutions are one prison at Lincoln, two insane asylums at Lincoln and Norfolk, three schools for the blind, deaf, and feeble-minded at Omaha and Beatrice, an Industrial School at Kearney, a Soldiers' Home at Grand Island, a Home for the Friendless at Lincoln, and an Industrial Home for Women and Girls elsewhere. The cities and counties maintain their own poor, and make no report to the State. No report was this year received from Nebraska. NEVADA. Estimated Population, 75,000. This small State has seldom reported to the Conference. It has no State Boards of any kind, and few paupers or other dependants. There is a State Prison at Carson City, and a State Insane Asylum at Reno. The poor are locally maintained. NEW HAMPSHIRE. Estimated Population, 375,000. New Hampshire has no State Board of Charities, but a Board of Health, which acts as a Lunacy Commission by recent statute. There is one State Lunatic Asylum, managed by twelve trustees, receiving

Page  153 REPORTS FROM STATES I53 their appointment from the Governor and Council; and these appointments are made independently of political parties. The Trustees are a Board of Inspection. The Governor and Council, with the President of the Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives, are also, ex officio, a Board of Visitors. The Asylum is mostly, though not exclusively, devoted to the care of self-supporting patients, those who are a public charge being supported at small asylums connected with the ten county almshouses. The management of these asylums is wholly in the hands of the County Commissioners, who are elected by popular vote of the counties. Till this year, the State had not provided by law for any supervision or inspection of these county asylums by a State official; but an act making all persons deprived of liberty by reason of insanity the wards of the State has been passed in I889. Under this law, the State Board of Health is made also a Commission of Lunacy, charged with the duty of inspecting all institutions where the insane are in custody. They are required to keep full records of admissions, discharges, and deaths, as well as other statistical matter, and make annual reports to the Governor and Council. There is only one State Prison. The Governor and Council are, ex officio, a Board of Management and Supervision. Specific duties are assigned to a sub-committee of the Council. The warden is appointed by the Governor and Council annually, and makes a report to the same body. There is one reform school (legally called the "Industrial School") for the reformation of juvenile offenders, which admits both sexes. It is managed by seven trustees, receiving their appointment from the governor. This board is a corporation for the transaction of business. It appoints a superintendent, who is treasurer and general manager, and resides in the institution. He makes an annual report to the Governor and Council, giving such information and statistics as the by-laws may require. The inmates are supported variously,- offenders under the United States laws at the expense of the general government; those committed under State laws are chargeable to counties, towns, or individual parents or guardians, when of sufficient ability to pay. Each of these three institutions has a separate management; and neither the Board of Health nor any other board has general powers in regard to paupers, prisoners, or other dependent persons except the insane. Reports of the State Asylum, the Industrial School, and State Prison, showing the money expended by each, are received at the State capitol. Those of counties, cities, and towns are not necessa

Page  154 I54 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES rily sent to the capitol, but are generally found in the State Library. Such reports as are made to the State are in custody of the Secretary of State. County reports are made to the citizens. The expense of supporting juvenile delinquents (over and above earnings) has been explained above. The balance of expense in the State Prison (above earnings) is paid by direct legislative appropriation. Paupers chargeable to counties are supported by a county tax. The representatives in the legislature from the several towns in a county constitute a legislative board to make appropriations for county expenses, which are assessed to tax-payers in the towns. Paupers chargeable to counties are those who have no settlements in towns; those having town settlements are at town expense; there are no State paupers. The expense of supporting the criminal insane at the State Asylum is paid directly from the State treasury. According to the act just passed, any pauper in the county asylums, who, in the opinion of the Lunacy Commission, needs remedial treatment, will be transferred to the State Asylum, and while under such treatment will be supported at the expense of the State, paid to the asylum directly from the State treasury. The State Asylum is self-supporting, charging sufficient for the board of patients to pay current expenses and repairs. Few towns publish reports; and I have no means of furnishing statistics of support of town paupers, whether sane or insane. Some towns board out their insane paupers at the asylums of the counties in which they are located, and pay for board such varying sums as may be agreed upon by the parties. I am unable from any data at my command to give any but imperfect answers to the different parts of question 5, but will state such as I have: "A." Insane connected with the State Asylum.- Whole number under care, 481; average number, 336.86. Cost (including repairs and officers' salaries), $85,334.31; cost per week for each patient, $4.87 +(This includes construction and permanent improvements, such as extension, new plumbing, etc.) Of these, about 80 per cent. were supported at private expense; the others, part by counties and towns, and the rest (criminal insane), by the State, as above explained. Those supported by the counties or towns (while there) are not distinguished from private patients, being charged for board at the minimum price ($4 per week, exclusive of clothing). Private patients are charged according to agreement with friends, and the indigent of the private class are assisted in payment by the asylum and the State charities.

Page  155 REPORTS FROM STATES I55 The County Insane Poor.- It is not possible to report accurately the number in the county asylums for the year I888; but a fair estimate is 450 at the close of that year, in all the counties. These were not all in the asylums, but either there or in the almshouses with ordinary paupers. I cannot give the accurate numbers confined in the asylums by themselves, nor the cost of support of the insane there; for the county reports do not separate these from ordinary paupers in their accounts. It may be questioned whether the insane paupers cost more than the sane. The cost per week, including clothing of the paupers, averaging all the ten counties, was for the year $i.68, the highest being $2.64, in Merrimack, and the lowest $1.28, in Coos. There are no means of giving numbers or cost of paupers in towns. Under subdivision "B" of question 5, it is not possible, with the sources of information at my command, to furnish definite statistics. Town reports are not to be had to any great extent; and no two counties report on the same plan. In some there is a penal department for temporary boarders, arrested for minor offences; but the cost of these is not kept separate from the general almshouse expenses. This applies to most of the heads under " B." In this thing is seen very clearly the need of a State Department of Charities and Corrections, which we have not yet reached. "C." There are several orphans' homes in the State; but these are all private charities, supported without public aid, and make no annual reports, so that their numbers and cost can only be gained by visitation or special correspondence. One is supported by individual contributions; another is connected with a sectarian school, and similarly supported; and a third is supported by the income from a fund left for the purpose by the late Countess of Rumford. The pauper children of the State are included in the county almshouse population. There is no organization for sending poor children out of the State, or boarding them out. "D." The whole number of prisoners in the State Prison for the year I888 was I57, and the average 112-. The total expense was $18,391, and the excess of expenses over earnings $3,942. The prison labor is under contract to a bedstead manufacturer. The prisoners were all men except one. In the Industrial School, the whole number in I888 was I60, the average I8. The cost for the year was $18,158.41, exclusive of $1,489 expended for improvements. The earnings derived from, labor are not reported, and probably not kept. Various kinds of light in-door and out-door labor are done.

Page  156 I56 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES I have no means of giving statistics of county jails as to numbers or expenses, separate from what was given under the head of the county insane, as there is no uniform mode of keeping them. There is no reformatory for adults - men or women - in the State. We have now a Bureau of Immigration, but I know of no means of ascertaining numbers. Foreign immigrants come in through ports in other States, but none land in this. There is a constant passing to and from the Province of Quebec, and Canadians are rapidly accumulating in our manufacturing towns and cities, and even in the rural districts; but no public records of these transitions are kept. The new Immigration Commissioner, who is also Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, is making an effort to supply abandoned farms with Swedish and Norwegian occupants. The State appropriations amount to $132,6I8. I append a copy of the new act making the insane the wards of the State, and establishing State supervision over all restrained of personal liberty on account of insanity.* This act is regarded by all who have an intelligent interest in the insane as an important step in advance. The State Board of Health, as at present constituted, will perform the duty vigorously, and wake up the State to a new interest in the treatment of the chronic insane. I anticipate that we shall see decided reforms in the care of those in the county asylums. (Signed) J. P. BANCROFT. NEW JERSEY. Estimated Population, 1,500,000. An efficient Board of Health, a Board of Charities which performs little work, no Lunacy Commission, and no general Prison Commission are found in the State. The Bureau of Labor publishes many facts bearing on the social condition of the people; and the Board of Health sometimes reports on the State establishments and the jails and poorhouses of the counties. The latter are improving, but not yet in the best condition. There are two large and crowded insane asylums at Trenton and Morris Plains, a State Prison at Trenton, a State Reform School at Jamesburg, and several well managed county asylums and other local establishments. A State Charities Aid Association with recognized powers makes the inspection of all the establishments more thorough. No full report from New Jersey came in this year. * Printed on a preceding page (80).

Page  157 REPORTS FROM STATES 157 NEW YORK. Estimated Population, 6,ooo,ooo. No report came in from New York; but this State is well known to have a State Board of Charities, a State Lunacy Commission, a Prison Bureau, controlling three State prisons, and a State Immigration Bureau holding over until better arrangements can be made. There are five large State asylums for the insane in operation at Utica, Binghamton, Buffalo, Poughkeepsie, and Willard, and two under construction at Ogdensburg and at Matteawan. The latter will replace the Auburn Criminal Asylum, which is still occupied. The very successful State Reformatory at Elmira still prospers under the administration of Mr. Brockway, and a new statute regulating labor in all the prisons has gone into effect this year. The State Board of Charities reports on the State, county, and city establishments; and the Lunacy Commission, of which Dr. Carlos F. McDonald is chairman, will report on the insane of the State, who now number between I6,ooo and 20,000. The insane of New York City have had their condition somewhat improved. The whole cost of the dependent and defective classes in New York to the public now exceeds $I2,000,000 yearly, and increases. The State establishments generally are in good condition, although sometimes overcrowded: the county establishments are not so well managed, on the whole. NORTH CAROLINA. Estimated Population, 1,650,000. No report has come from this State. Like Missouri, it once had a State Board of Charities; but this was long since abolished. It has no Lunacy Commission; but the state of affairs in the oldest insane asylum (that of Raleigh) shows that one is much needed there. Two other insane asylums exist,- for whites at Morganton, and for colored persons at Goldsboro. The chief prison is at Raleigh; but the convicts are also employed on public works elsewhere, under a special prison board. The counties have their own prisons and poorhouses; but no full report of them is made, nor do the State establishments report on any uniform system. NORTH DAKOTA. Estimated Population, 350,000. The following appropriations for the biennial period in each case were made by the Territorial legislature: — In I887, for two years:Prison at Bismarck.- Subsistence, $25,000; employees and incidental expenses, $46,260.

Page  158 158 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Insane Hospital, Jamestozn.- Maintenance, $45,000; employees and incidentals, $5o,ooo. School for Deaf-mutes.-Maintenance, $22,000; employees and other expenses, $11,250. Reform School.- Maintenance and other incidental expenses, $I2,000. In I889, for two years:Prison at Bismarck.-Maintenance, $i6,ooo; salaries and incidental expenses, $4I,000. Jamestown Insane Hospital.- Maintenance, $50,000; employees and other expenses, $64,500. School for Deaf-mutes.- Maintenance, $17,000; employees and other expenses, $i6,800. Reform School.-Maintenance, $5,ooo; employees and other expenses, $6,ooo. There was no appropriation for lands or buildings by the legislature of I889 for any of these institutions. OHIO. Estimated Population, 4,000,000. We have a State Board of Charities having supervision over all organized charitable and correctional institutions of the State. Reports are received at the State capitol, by the auditor, of all money expended by institutions under State control, and, by the Board of State Charities, of all money expended by counties (as well as the State) for charitable and correctional uses. The State institutions for dependants and delinquents are supported by the State. The counties support infirmaries, children's homes, and county jails. Insane persons generally are supported by the State. There is no further local division. (a) Whole number of insane persons during the year, 6,000; average, about 5,500. Whole cost for the year of the insane, including insane paupers, $825,200. All are supported at public cost, and no distinction is made between rich and poor. (b) Public Poor.-Whole number, 13,500; average number, 8,000; whole cost, $725,ooo. These are all in county infirmaries. Total number receiving out-door relief, 40,000; whole cost, $400,000. No average of this class can be made. Total pauper cost, $I,I25,000. (c) 3,000 children are supported, in 32 public homes, at a cost of $200,000. Average number, 2,o00. There are 4,000 children in the care of private institutions, supported at a cost of $325,000. More

Page  159 REPORTS FROM STATES 159 than one-half this number are in Catholic institutions, and 305 in a Jewish orphan asylum. There is no organization for sending children out of the State or to receive from other States. The above numbers do not include an aggregate of 2,500 children cared for and educated in State institutions at a public expense of $285,000oo. For the whole 9,500 children, $81o,ooo is paid. (d) In the State Prison, the whole number is 2,120; average number, i,390; whole cost, $230,000. In the county jails, whole number for the year, 9,397; cost, $1oo,ooo. There is but one State Prison (at Columbus), the earnings of which more than support the institution. The boys' and girls' reformatories contain I,I92 inmates; whole cost,. $70,000. (e) We have no Immigration Board. There has been no new or special legislation within the last five years. OREGON. The population of this State is probably slightly in excess of 300,000; and, when its vast area is considered, it is not to be wondered at that its institutions and modes of treating its dependent classes are very unlike those prevailing in older and more densely populated States. Indeed, the demand for labor generally being in excess of the supply, and other kindred circumstances rendering it a comparatively easy matter not only to make a living, but also to save and make provision against accident and emergency, there has been little poverty here, and but small incentive to crime (if we omit crimes resulting from recklessness and violence). It is only of late years that our people have felt the necessity of considering the questions relating to charities and corrections; and even now this consideration takes, in a large degree, the direction of preventing the evils of pauperism and crime - seen as existing elsewhere - rather than the cure of that which, as yet, has not.made itself very conspicuous here. Up to quite a recent period, each little neighborhood in our State has been much like a large family, in which each member was known to and made a subject of interest by his neighbors. This is still largely the case, even in towns of one or two thousand inhabitants. These things must be borne in mind if our true position is to be understood. And it must also be remembered that it is only during the last seven years that we have been connected, by railroads, with other portions of the United States; and that therefore, prior to that time, we were almost entirely free from the inroads of tramps, gypsies, and other vagrants.

Page  160 i6o0 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that we have not as yet either a State Board of Charities, a Lunacy Commission, a Prison Superintendent or Commission for the whole State, a State Board of Health, or that there is no Board in existence having general powers in regard to insane persons, paupers, prisoners, or other dependent persons. The same conditions may likewise be held responsible for the fact that there are no reports received at the State capitol of the amount of money expended by the different public authorities (State, county, city, or town) for the poor, the insane, for prisoners, etc., otherwise than as the same are treated in State institutions or are recipients of State aid. The division of expense of supporting dependants and delinquents from the public treasury, between the State, the counties, and the towns, is somewhat primitive, although simple. There is one Penitentiary supported by the State; the county and city (or town) jails being supported by the counties, cities, or towns, respectively. The cost of transporting prisoners from the several counties to the State Penitentiary is borne by the State. There is also only one public Insane Asylum, located near the Penitentiary at Salem, and supported by the State; the State also bearing the expense of transportation of patients thereto. There is no reimbursement of the State by the counties from which these convicts and patients come. Each county takes care of its own poor, but is, in the case of foreign paupers (or paupers having no legal residence in the State), reimbursed by the State. The amount thus expended by the State for the fiscal year 1887-88 in support of these foreign paupers was about $3,450. Of these, fully half were born outside of the United States. There is but little uniformity in the manner in which the several counties keep their accounts, the law giving the largest latitude; and there is not much chance of obtaining accurate information embracing the whole State, or any large proportion thereof, until laws are passed calling upon the county and city authorities to furnish some appointed State officer with their statistics. That such laws should be passed is the opinion of all prominent State officials whose duties have brought them in contact with the support of dependants and delinquents. And that there should be no further delay than possible in obtaining such legislation is patent, when it is considered that accuracy and uniformity in reporting such facts are not obtained except by years of practice and observation. In spite, however, of all these defects, and many others in our system (if such it can be called) of charities and corrections, our

Page  161 REPORTS FROM STATES I6I charitable and reformatory institutions will in many respects compare favorably with some of the older States. Concerning them the following facts may be reported:THE STATE PENITENTIARY. The whole number of convicts who were inmates of the prison at any time during the two years ending Dec. 31, i888, was 520, of ages as follows:Between 13 and I5 years of age,....... 4 " 15 " 16 " "......... II I6 " 20 " "......... 46 " 16 " 20 " "......... 46 " 20 " 25 ".......... 124 ( 25" 35........... 187 " 35" 45 " "....... 87 " 45 " 55....... 36 55 " 65. ( ~...... i6 " 65 " 75....... Over 75 years of age,......... I Unknown,................ 6 Total,.............. 520 The lowest number in the Penitentiary at any one time was 240; and the highest, 293. The total expenditure for these two years (exclusive of construction) was $69,287; and the cash earnings amounted to $4I,903. But some repairs and improvements were made out of the general fund; and the net expense per convict per diem is estimated at 13 7-1o cents. The prisoners are all industriously employed, most of them (on an average, I65 men) under contract in a stove foundry within the penitentiary walls, where they do good work under kind discipline. Indeed, apart from the prison garb, no marked difference is apparent between them and any ordinary body of men pursuing like occupation. Among other work performed, the prisoners have raised 4,000 bushels of potatoes and all the other garden vegetables used in the prison. The worst features of the prison are, probably, defective ventilation, the placing of two in each cell, and the absence of any provision for a paid chaplain or school-teacher. THE STATE INSANE ASYLUM Is under a Board of Trustees, consisting of the Governor of Oregon, Secretary of State, and State Treasurer. The whole number of patients treated during the two years ending Nov. 30, i888, was 854, the daily average being 475, at a net expense of $I40,004, or a per capita per week of $2.82. No patients are supported in the institution at private cost, none being looked upon as paupers, but the whole

Page  162 I62 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES considered as a State charge; and there is no distinction made in connection with previous social condition, but all are fed, clothed, and housed alike, according to their actual condition and necessities. The food is good, the accommodations excellent, and the care and treatment fair. A library of 328 volumes, supplied at cost of the State, has proved a source of great pleasure and profit to the inmates. STATE SCHOOL FOR THE EDUCATION OF DEAF-MUTES. This institution is under a Board of Directors,- nine in number,three of whom retire every two years. The Governor of Oregon, Secretary of State, and Superintendent of Public Instruction constitute a Board of Visitors. The whole number of pupils on the rolls during the years I887 and I888 was 39, and the average during I888 about 26, at an average cost of maintenance and instruction of each pupil of $204.67 per annum. In addition to funds supplied by the State, $250 was furnished by private subscriptions, with which a small printing-press was purchased. The object of this school is to render the pupils capable of self-support; and it is considered a duty of the State to furnish such education. This school demonstrates how much can be accomplished by the untiring effort of one man; for it owes its present admirable condition almost entirely to the labors of the Rev. P. S. Knight. The total cost for the past two years was $16,258. OREGON INSTITUTE FOR THE BLIND. This is under a Board of Managers, consisting of the Governor, Secretary of State, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. The whole number of pupils during the two years ending Dec. 31, I888, was 19, with an average attendance between o0 and 12, the highest number in attendance being 15. This was supported by State appropriations aggregating $o0,000, of which $2,000 was for construction and $8,ooo for maintenance. These sums were exhausted, and were supplemented by private donations amounting to $297.50. The institution, like the mute school, is not looked upon as a charity, it being considered a duty of the State to furnish the education. While small, it is excellently conducted. The above institutions are all supported entirely by the State; and any outside assistance has been a mere present in addition to what the legislature had deemed sufficient. CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY. The State also renders assistance to the Children's Aid Society for Orphans and Friendless Children. This society consists of twelve

Page  163 REPORTS FROM STATES I63 ladies, with whom the government rests. It was started in I866 by a donation of ten acres of land, and received $1,500 State aid for the years I872-73, and a like amount each year from 1876 to i886 inclusive; while in 1887 and i888 it has received $2,500 each year, $i,500 of which was toward running expenses and $i,ooo toward building. The institution is unsectarian, and furnishes a home for needy children, who are transferred to permanent homes as soon as such can be found for them. Children of sufficient age attend the public schools. It afforded a home for 27 children during the past year, and 14 were furnished with permanent homes. It is now being enlarged with a view to increase its capacity so as to give room for Ioo children. THE HOME. The last legislature (January and February, I889) appropriated a sum of $5,ooo toward the maintenance of what is known as "The Home," an institution in the city of Portland, under the management of the Ladies' Relief Society of that city. This corporation owns a block of land 200 feet square, on which is a large, substantial, and w.ell-appointed building, with an average of 70 children, ranging in years from 2 to 12. They are furnished with a good home, attending the public schools and the Sunday-schools and churches of various denominations. The main idea is to furnish homes to children who either have none or whose homes are unsuitable. The society insists upon payment from parents or guardians of something toward the support of children placed therein, when they are in position to furnish it. The charge is adapted to their ability, ranging from $3 to $8 per month. But children are not refused when there are no parents able to support them. The society endeavors to place the inmates of the home out in private families whenever practicable, and to this end encourages and promotes the adoption of the little ones by respectable and kind citizens desirous of adopting children. Such are the institutions receiving State support and assistance. COUNTY AND CITY JAILS AND POORHOUSES. Here we have the greatest need of reform, especially in the treatment of prisoners. Not that there is any brutality used, or any insufficiency in quality or quantity of the food supplied; for this is far from being the case. But the jails are mostly very unfit for the purpose; and some of them are most disgraceful. Successive grand juries have reported against some of these prisons, term after term; every one connected with their administration has declared them a crying dis

Page  164 I64 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES grace; and yet a false economy —in reality a cowardly fear of increasing the public expenditure —has stood in the way of reform. Many of these jails are in the basement of the county court-houses; while others are mere cages, without room for jailer or guard, the prisoners in the latter being locked up at night in their cells, beyond reach of any assistance in case of fire, sickness, or death. These jails have but few inmates and frequently lie vacant for months, Multnomah County jail, located in the city of Portland, being the only one where crowding takes place. This last is something fearful,- partly underground, imperfect in construction, and inadequate in capacity. It is quite impossible to keep it free from the foulest odors, and the air is enough to breed pestilence; while, owing to the prisoners being congregated in a common passage-way in the daytime, and several sleeping in the same cell at night, the moral atmosphere is still worse. Indeed, were it the intention to promote physical and moral ill-health, it would be difficult to found an institution promising larger returns. The city jail of Portland is about as bad: other city jails are little more than cages for the confinement of noisy drunkards. In the Multnomah County jail, the whole number of prisoners during the year i888 was 6I8, and the average number 40. The total cost of food and guard was $6,335, at the rate of $3 per week for each prisoner. This sum of $3 is paid the sheriff for each prisoner, the sheriff paying the necessary jailers and feeding the prisoners. The following table, showing the amount paid each month during the year i888, will indicate the fearfully crowded state of the jail at times, especially when it is considered that the jail only has proper accommodation for about thirty, while frequently over Ioo have been confined there (and for a large portion of the time as many as 75), from 7 to 9 men being crammed into a single cell (of I2 x o1 x 6 feet) to sleep. Monthly cost at $3 per week:January,............. 572.I4 February,.......... 549.42 March,........... 399.85 April,............. 220.21 May,........... 241.72 June,............ 210.85 July,............. 28.I5 August,............ 404.86 September,........... 628.71 October,........... 918.86 November,........ I, I60.57 December,........... 8Io.oo $6,335.34

Page  165 REPORTS FROM STATES i65 The county and city jails are, with few exceptions, sadly in need of reform, or rather of demolition and rebuilding. THE COUNTY POOR. The care of the poor in the counties is without system, the most prominent object seeming to be to keep the expenditure at a minimum. In most counties, the poor are boarded out; but as nearly all our paupers are old and infirm, and are generally boarded either with friends or with some deserving people needing the assistance given by this board-money, the plan is not so objectionable as might appear. It can hardly be expected of counties with an average of from 2 to 6 paupers that they would keep institutions for boarding these few. The county of Multnomah has a poor-farm in the suburbs of Portland, where it boards and cares for its paupers. During the year i888 there was an average of 43 inmates, who were maintained at a cost (exclusive of construction) of $6,265.33. The population of the county is probably between 60,000 and 70,000, but is so rapidly increasing that a true estimate is very difficult. OTHER CHARITABLE AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. Among these may be mentioned the three hospitals, under the control respectively of the Episcopal, Catholic, and Methodist churches. The inmates generally pay something toward their support; but many are cared for free. Many of the churches have schools, where a few pupils are admitted either free or at reduced rates. The Humane Society, located in Portland, has done considerable work in looking after the welfare of young children, together with other good work. But the society that has done most for the young is the BOYS' AND GIRLS' AID SOCIETY. A few extracts from the Report of this society will best show the extent and character of its labors. This Report covers the year ending May 2, i888. Balance on hand May 3, I887,...... $883.70 Received from Sunday collections,...... 863.35 Interest from deposits,......... 2I.50 Total,.............. $1,768.55 Paid out on Secretary's warrants,..... 620.41 Balance on hand May 2, i888,.... $1,143.I4 The work is at present carried on without any of the equipments that ordinarily belong to societies of this kind. We have no home,

Page  166 i66 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES no superintendent, no visiting agent. All that is accomplished is by the exertions of the individual members of the Board of Trustees; and it is due to the chairman of our executive committee to say that the bulk of the work is done by him. The work of the year may be stated briefly, as follows:Number of cases of all kinds, 240; number of children provided with homes, 36; number of cases in justice court and in jail, 34; number of tramps, io. The other cases were misdemeanorsin character, and hardly admit of classification. During the year past, the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society have taken from the jail and hands of the court twelve boys who would have been sent to the penitentiary, a number of others who would have been detained for a term in jail; and the society has saved the county and State expense in nearly every other case (240 in number), immediate or contingent. CONCLUSION. An increased interest is taken by our people in the various questions appertaining to charities and corrections; and the work of prevention and cure keeps pace with the evils that invariably attend the increase and condensation of population. Several movements, such as the establishment of free kindergartens and the formation of a City Board of Charities in Portland, are decidedly in the right direction, and give fair promise of success. One of our greatest present needs is legislation calling for returns, from city and county officers, of statistics appertaining to these subjects and relating to their various localities, such returns to be made at stated periods to some properly appointed State Board or officer. PENNSYLVANIA. I. The estimated population is 5,000,000. 2. The State has a Board of Public Charities, which annually appoints a Committee on Lunacy having charge of all matters relating to lunacy, subject to the control and direction of the Board of Charities. Neither the State Board of Health nor any other board except the State Board of Charities has any general power or authority in regard to insane persons, prisoners, or other dependent persons. 3. Reports are received by the president and secretary of the Board. 4. The cost of supporting the indigent insane in State hospitals is divided between the State and the counties, the State paying not over $2 per week for each indigent insane person. The cost of sup

Page  167 REPORTS FROM STATES I67 porting inmates of almshouses is met by the 67 counties in the State, all but I8 of which have almshouses. In these I8 counties the poor are supported by what is known as the "township system," under which overseers are elected, with power to collect a tax and disburse it in such manner as they may deem best calculated to carry out the object of the law. For the care and support of the defective and delinquent classes, State aid is extended; in the case of defectives, for the indigent class only. The blind children cost at the rate of $300 per annum, the deaf and dumb children at the average rate of $250, and the feeble-minded children at $I75 per annum. The charitable institutions organized by individuals or associations, such as homes, general hospitals, etc., are supported by income from endowments and contributions from charitable citizens. State aid is occasionally granted. A. 5. Whole number of insane,.......... 6,510 Average number,............... 5,920 Cost for the year i888, excluding construction expenses,. $I,29,337.69 Private patients,............ 896 Public patients,.................. 5,614 B. Number in insane hospitals,........... 5,857 Number of insane in almshouses,........ 588 Number of insane in prisons,.......... 65 Public Poor in 49 county almshouses: whole number remaining Sept. 30, I888, including the 588 insane inmates, 8,503 Amount expended for their support, deducting receipts,. $I,204,423.00 Out-door Relief in 49 counties: whole number supported during the year ending Sept. 30, I888,...... I8,046 Expended for their support,.......... $261,880.00 Township Poor in I8 counties: whole number supported during the year,.............. 4,89 Amount expended for their support,....... $298,362.53 C. Whole number of children in homes, families, or poorhouses in i888, about........... 6,ooo The different Children's Aid Societies of the Commonwealth, located in various counties (notably the Philadelphia and Pittsburg societies), are constantly at work securing homes in private families or in public institutions, etc., for children bereft of parents or otherwise unfortunate. They have been specially active in removing chil* Of this number, 492 are reported in Section B, the Public Poor.

Page  168 168 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES dren between two and sixteen years of age from almshouses, and placing them in private families and homes. State aid has been and is extended to'these societies. D. Whole number of prisoners for the year ending Sept. 30, i888......... Average number,...... Cost of support above earnings..... Number in State penitentiaries Sept. 30, i888.... Cost therein above earnings derived from labor, At the Eastern State Penitentiary at Philadelphia, conducted on the separate, or individual, system, the number of prisoners remaining Sept. 30, I888, was, Average daily number,...... Cost of support per capita per annum, labor and profits deducted,........ At the Western State Penitentiary at Allegheny, conducted on the congregate system, the number of prisoners remaining Sept. 30, i888, was.......... Average daily number,...... Cost of support per capita (labor and profits deducted), Number in county jails, workhouses, houses of correction, and houses of refuge,.... Cost above earnings derived from labor.... 6,508 5,000oo $904,640.o0 1,767 $148,990.92 I,II4 I,I00 $60.30 653 650 $I20.71 4,741 $755,649.08 A State Industrial Reformatory for young men between fifteen and twenty-five years (first offenders) has been recently opened at Huntingdon. E. Immigrants.- Number received during the year ending June 30, i888........ From Ireland,.. 7,987 England,.. 1I,543 Wales,... 745 Fron Scotland,.. 3,504 Switzerland,. 36 Sweden,..3,320 Norway,. 1,260 Spain,... I Hungary,.. 80 Greece,... All other countries,.. a Germany,. France,.. Russia,.. Poland,.. Belgium, Holland, Italy,.. Denmark, Austria,. Unknown,.. * 259 37,0i8. 5,062 I84 770 * 1,358 368 I4I 86 127 I57 20 The State Board of Charities, by appointment of the the Treasury, acts as an Immigration Board. Secretary of

Page  169 REPORTS FROM STATES I69 6. Recent Legislation.- The passage of the Lunacy Act, and placing its administration under the direction of the State Board; the establishment of an Industrial Reformatory for young men convicted on first offence; the law forbidding the keeping of children between the ages of two and sixteen years in almshouses or poorhouses; and the passage of an act regulating the amount of the expense to the State, for the care and treatment of the indigent insane,- are the most important recent acts. The State appropriations to the various institutions for the year i888 amounted to $1,528,028.22. The amount appropriated for the year beginning June 1, I889, is not yet accurately known, but will approximate the amount for I888. RHODE ISLAND. Estimated Population, 335,000. No report came from this State, of which the charities are so systematically organized on a single farm in the town of Cranston, near Providence. There is an administrative Board of State Charities, but no Lunacy Commission; nor is the state of the lunacy law quite satisfactory. The county and town establishments are kept up, but the growth of the State establishments tends to reduce the number of the inmates. Particularly is this true of the chronic insane, who are accumulating in the fast-growing asylum on the State farm. The whole number of the insane in Rhode Island approaches 900, apparently, though no such number has been reported. The cost of their support annually exceeds $Ioo,ooo: the cost of all the other dependants and delinquents may be $I50,000. SOUTH CAROLINA. Estimated Population, 1,250,000. No report has come in from this State, but it has no Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission. The State establishments are few, and the county jails and poorhouses are not regularly reported on. SOUTH DAKOTA. Estimated Population, 400,000. No Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission exists here. There is an insane asylum at Yankton, and there are two or three other State establishments. No figures can yet be given for these, the State being so newly organized. The poor are supported by the counties, under the direction of the County Commissioners. Criminals and insane are accommodated by

Page  170 170 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES the State in its institutions at State expense. All insane persons not admitted to the hospitals are supported at the expense of their county. The estimated cost of the insane of all Dakota during the years 1887, 1888, was $300,000, including the construction funds of both hospitals, as well as the actual maintenance of inmates, salaries of officials, etc. The number of insane treated during the past two years in both hospitals of Dakota was about 6oo; average number of inmates in both years, at any one time, 261. In general, there has been unusual generosity shown by the legislative bodies in appropriating for the use of the hospitals, not only in the matter of maintenance, but also in the construction of suitable buildings. There are no data which will give you information desired concerning the public poor, children, and criminals. A movement is now on foot to establish an institution for the care and training of feeble-minded children. An institution is needed for the purpose of aiding this class as much as any now in existence are needed. TENNESSEE. Estimated Population, I,8oo,ooo. This State has a Prison Board and a Board of Health, but no Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission. The State establishments report to the legislature, but there are no official reports from the county prisons and poorhouses or from the private and local charities, which are numerous. There are two State insane asylums, the Eastern and the Western, besides a central asylum at Nashville, where also is the chief State Prison. No report was received this year from Tennessee. TEXAS. I. Population.-When the last census was taken, Dec. 3I, i887, the population was 2,015,032, a gain of 423,283, or 26.59 per cent., since I880. At the same ratio of gain, the percentage of increase in population from I880 to I890 would be about 38, and would give the State a population of 2,200,000 at this time. 2. State Boards.- There is neither State Board of Charities nor Lunacy Commission. Neither the State Board of Health, nor any other Board, has any powers over paupers, insane, or dependent persons. 3. Reports. —None are made except by State authorities: these report to the Comptroller. Counties and cities make no reports, as they only expend local funds, and report to the local authorities,county courts and city governments.

Page  171 REPORTS FROM STATES 17I 4. Support of the Insane and Paupers.- Each county takes care of its own paupers: the State has nothing to do with them. Insane persons are cared for by county authority, after being adjudged insane, until they can secure admission to the State Asylum, then the State pays all expenses. 5. Number of Paupers.-Total number, I85I: these are supported by the counties, at an average of $7.67 per month. Of these, 582 were colored, 248 foreign-born, and 721 white Americans. About 35 counties have poor-farms run by the county, on which they maintain about 835 paupers; the remaining 7i6 are generally contracted (let out) by the counties to the lowest bidder for their maintenance. The insane are confined in two Asylums, and the legislature of 1889 appropriated $150,000 for the erection of a third (the Southwest Texas Asylum). Persons admitted to these institutions are tried on a writ of lunatico inquirendo, by a jury before the County Judge; if found insane, they are sent to the asylum as soon as there is room; until then they are held in county jail at county expense. The oldest Asylum is at Austin, the State capital. Remaining there Oct. 31, i888, 585 patients; treated during the year preceding, 707; daily average, 569; the cost per capita (per month), $I4.55. Asylum No. 2 is at Terrell, in North Texas. Remaining there Oct. 31, i888, 403 patients; treated during the year, 662; cost per capita per month, $13.89. There are two children's homes, both small institutions, and maintained by private subscription. The State Orphans' Home has just been built, and opened (on the i5th of July). It will have a capacity of 200; and all orphan children under fourteen years of age are to be admitted, subject only to such restrictions as the board deem necessary to the welfare of the institution. There are two State Penitentiaries. At the two are worked about I,570 prisoners, namely: on railroads, 409; on contract farms, 920; on share farms, 259; on State farm, I74. The whole number of convicts was 3,332 Oct. 31, i888; average cost per capita per month, about $io. All convicts are under State management, and all State institutions have a Superintendent and a Board of Managers for each institution, except the penitentiaries, which are all under one board, and each prison under a Superintendent, and the whole penitentiary system under a General Superintendent and a Financial Agent. There are no Reformatory Prisons in the State for men or women, no Workhouses, or Houses of Refuge, except "poor-farms," as above stated. Jan. 3, 1889, this (Gatesville) House of Correction and Re

Page  172 I72 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES formatory for Boys under sixteen years of age was opened, with 25 inmates, transferred here from the penitentiary. We now have 52; our capacity is I50; there is no machinery for industries, and no appropriation, except for maintenance. We also have a Deaf and Dumb Asylum for whites and one for colored persons, and a Blind Asylum. These are officered by the State, and all running expenses except clothing paid by the State. There is no State Board of Immigration; some railroads have immigration agents in Europe and the States, and in some counties local boards supply temporary wants and find employment for immigrants. 6. Legislation.- All legislation in Texas, of late years, has been of a philanthropic spirit, looking to the amelioration of all her unfortunate classes, whether diseased or criminal. Of course, we have not yet reached the perfection that has been attained by our older States; but the strides of the last ten years have been marvellous, and we expect in another ten years to be abreast with most of the old States in all these particulars. Our appropriations for the fiscal year ending Feb. 28, I890, are as follows:Lunatic Asylum (Austin),........... II3,8IO.OO Lunatic Asylum (Terrell),......... 86,840.00 New Lunatic Asylum (building),...... 150,000.00 Blind Asylum,.............. 40,610.00 Deaf and Dumb Asylum,.......... 43,2I0.00 Orphan Asylum,............. 19,500.00 Deaf and Dumb Asylum (colored),..... I8,8Io.oo State Penitentiaries, all their earnings and.... 8I,000.oo State Reformatory,............ II,295.00 (Signed) BEN. E. MCCULLOCH, Supt. House of Cor. and Reform, Corresponding Sec. for Texas. GATESVILLE, TEX., July 25, I889. UTAH. Estimated Population, 250,000. No report from this Territory, of which the charities are not well organized. VERMONT. Estimated Population, 350,000. There is no Board of Charities or Lunacy Commission, unless that name be given to the State Supervisors of the Insane, who look after this class in the Brattleboro Asylum and elsewhere. A new asylum is to be built at Waterbury.

Page  173 REPORTS FROM STATES I73 All insane poor persons or paupers, when in the asylums, are supported by the State wholly. When not in the asylum, their care falls upon the towns where they reside. The same is true of the sane poor; but there are no statistics concerning the public poor, unless insane. The whole annual cost at the Brattleboro Asylum was, last year, $66,ooo, or $3.75 a week; showing an average of 340 during the year. There must have been as many more cared for by the towns. VIRGINIA. Estimated Population, I,8oo,ooo, There is a State Board of Health, but no Lunacy Commission or Board of Charities. The counties maintain their own poor, but make no return to the State authorities. There are four asylums for the insane maintained by the State, which are all crowded; and there is one asylum for the deaf and blind. There is also but one penitentiary, at Richmond; but an increasing number of the convicts are employed at other places on four of the Virginia railroads: namely, with the Roanoke and Southern Railroad, 13; the Farmville and Powhatan, IIo; the South Atlantic and Ohio, 86; and the Abingdon Coal and Iron Railroad, 6,- all this at the close of last year, when the whole number was 98I. Only 593 remained at Richmond, therefore, while a year before (Oct. i, I887) there were 798 at Richmond, and only I69 employed elsewhere. Of the whole number (967), only I87 were white; while of the 98I in I888 I89 were white. The Penitentiary is crowded, and is open to serious criticism. The county jails and workhouses also appear to be in bad condition; and the superintendents of the insane asylums complain that patients coming to them from the jails and poorhouses (where many insane persons are) are often infested with vermin, and in other ways give indications of neglect and ill-treatment. The convicts are employed under contract at Richmond, and are also hired by contractors for the railroad work. Concerning these railroad contracts, the surgeon and superintendent at Richmond report as follows:THE SURGEON. Referring to the very much increased rate of mortality for the past year as compared with previous hospital reports, we can readily account for this difference when we take into consideration the following facts: In the first place, the State has been called upon to furnish the different railroad companies a much larger number of convicts; secondly, the very unfavorable season of the year when these men were called for. And especially would I mention the treatment and manner in which these men were handled

Page  174 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES I74 by those in charge. Ordering these men, as must be done, directly from cells and workshops, and exposing them, thus totally unprepared, to the vicissitudes of camp life, coupled with this sudden and unaccustomed hard labor, must necessarily and seriously impair the health and strength of many, thereby not only causing a large number to be returned for treatment as unfit for railroad work, but in many instances these convicts thus broken down and sent in are usually slow in returning to the contract, and accomplish but little as compared with their former work. THE SUPERINTENDENT. Our expenses have greatly increased by the hiring of convicts to the different railroads, additional guard-hire, clothing, feeding, medical attention, etc. These men were hired under what is generally known as the Van Doran Act, for the hiring of convicts on public works, approved March 6, 1886. You will see that the expense of maintaining these men on railroads is greater than the amount of hire received, or to be paid to the State by the roads for their hire at forty cents per day. Within the Penitentiary there is no instruction whatever given to the prisoners. The work which they are made to do, in the shoe factory and in and about the buildings, is desultory, irregular, and in no sense educative. There is no matron for the female ward, no proper nurse in the hospital, and no attempt whatever to separate, much less individualize, the prisoners of either sex. General Armstrong adds:While this condition, or rather the continuance of this condition, is discouraging, the explanation is so evident as to clearly indicate what the next step should be. Nobody interferes, nobody asks questions, nobody investigates, simply because nobody cares. There is no public sentiment in the matter, and to create an interest is the first necessity. Legislators do not move in advance of their constituents; and we cannot secure any legislative reform in our present criminal system until the people of the State are educated to the point of demanding it. I believe that this Conference can do much to this end by diffusing its literature among the clergy and officers of institutions and of the State, and through the newspapers; and I should recommend that some systematized work of this sort be undertaken, if possible, during the coming year. WASHINGTON. Estimated Population, 200,000. No report has come from this new State. WEST VIRGINIA. Estimated Population, 750,000. There is no State Board or Lunacy Commission having authority throughout the State over the various classes of public dependants; but the State Insane Asylum at Weston, the State Penitentiary, and

Page  175 REPORTS FROM STATES 175 the Deaf and Dumb Asylum are managed by separate boards for each establishment. The boards report to the governor; but there are no reports from counties, cities, or towns, and therefore no record of what is done by the State as a whole. The poor, except the insane, are supported by the counties, the State making no provision except for the insane. The regulation of poorhouses is vested in the county courts. The insane are the most numerous and costly of the State dependants, and a second asylum for them is now building. At the old asylum in Weston, the whole number of patients in i888 was 806; the average number, 746; and the total cost for a year, $97,284, -an average of less than $2.25 a week. At the State Penitentiary there were 263 convicts, costing for the year $40,423, which must be diminished by their earnings; but these are not reported, nor is there any return from the county jails. It has been proposed to build a State Reform School; but nothing has yet been done. There are two Homes for children, both in Wheeling, and both small, having no more than 25 children each. These are supported as private charities. WISCONSIN. Estimated Population, i,6oo,ooo. We have a State Board of Charities, a State Board of Health, and a State Board of Supervision, the latter being a Board of Trustees for all the State institutions. Reports are received of the amount of money expended for the insane, the poor, prisoners, etc. These reports are perfect for the State institutions, but defective from the local authorities, especially in relation to crime and out-door relief. The reports on insanity and poorhouse relief are practically perfect. The Insane.- The State supports all the insane who have no residence (not pauper settlement) in any particular county. The insane in State hospitals who have a residence in any county are supported by the State; but a special tax is levied on each county for its own insane at the rate of $1.50 a weekplus the clothing bill. Insane persons in county asylums are supported by the county, with the aid of an appropriation of $I.50 a week from the State, subject to the approval of the State Board of Charities. Insane persons from other counties pay $I.50 a week and the clothing bill, while the State adds an appropriation of $I.50 a week, so that each county actually gets $3.00 a week plus the clothing bill, for the insane from other counties. Virtually, it gets the same for its own insane, being relieved from the special tax and receiving the appropriation. Paupers.- Counties having the full county system support all their

Page  176 176 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES poor from the county treasury. Counties having the town system support all paupers not having a pauper settlement (after one year's residence without relief) in any town. In these counties the town supports all town paupers. Many counties have a mixed system, in which the county supports a poorhouse for its own paupers and receives the poor sent by the towns at a fixed rate, the towns and the county both giving out-door relief each to its own poor. Prisoners.- Prisoners in jail are supported by the county; in police-stations or lock-ups, by the city or village. In some cases, a jail is also hired as a city police-station. Usually, in that case, the city is charged for all its prisoners, including tramps and drunkards. A. The Insane (for year ending Sept. 30, I888):State Hospital. Northern Hospital. Milwaukee Hospital. County Asylums. Whole Number, 792 I,012 472 1,569 Average Number, 479 634 333 1,294 Current Expenses, $93,155 $125,220 $69,355 $I10,204 Per Capita Cost, $3.74 $3.80 $3.88 $1.64 Total Average Number, 2,740. Total Cost, $397,934. B. Paupers in Poorhouses: Total population during the year,......... 730 At close of the year, Sept. 30, 888,........... 923 Total net expense,............... $73,989 Average weekly cost,................ $.64 There are no others in poorhouses. The amount of out-door relief we estimate at $275,000 a year. This is based on defective returns, but is by careful comparison of one year with another. The total cost of pauperism is therefore about $350,000 a year for both in-door and out-door relief, but not including the insane or the dependent children. C. Children.-The State Public School for Dependent Children had, during the year above named, a total of 276, an average of 16, and I86 at the close of the year: it now has about 250. A large number are already placed in families. The cost for the year was $20,128, and the average weekly cost $3.34, There are only a few children in poorhouses,-mostly idiots. I am sorry to say we have no State provision for idiots in Wisconsin. We have several orphan asylums and homes for children, mostly Catholic. I think the Catholics have about a thousand children in orphan asylums and in their industrial schools. Probably, all the Protestant denominations have five hundred, including those in the Wisconsin

Page  177 REPORTS FROM STATES I77 Industrial School for Girls. We have successfully combated the Children's Aid Society of New York, and other organizations which dump children by the carload into a county, and then run away and leave them to shift for themselves. No such organization exists in Wisconsin, either to send out children or to receive them. Children are placed out from the State Public School and the various industrial schools at little or no cost. None are boarded out. D. Prisoners.- (Year ending Sept. 30, 1888.) State Prison: gross expense, $6I,074; net expense, $I2,I67. Total prisoners, 639; average, 441. Average weekly cost (gross), $2.66; (net), $0.53. In jails, total number 4,641 at the close of year i888. There are no returns of cost in jails, and no returns at hand for the House of Correction at Milwaukee, which receives many prisoners. There is no reformatory prison in Wisconsin. E. Immigrants.-We have no Immigration Commission. Twothirds of our adult population is foreign: we therefore receive a large foreign immigration still. The bulk of them are Germans, Scandinavians, Poles, and Bohemians, about in that order. We are also losing a large body of the native population by removal to the States and Territories further West. Milwaukee (our largest) is a German city. The drift of legislation for five years has been hardly perceptible, except that we have stopped the overgrowth of State institutions, and that we have successfully established the county system of care for the chronic insane. Indeterminate sentences were last winter made optional with the judges, and a few convicts have been thus sentenced. REPORT FOR THE CURRENT YEAR. During the past year, the State institutions of Wisconsin have not changed materially in their work, except in the following particulars: The State Public School for Dependent Children has reached its full capacity, and some difficulty is experienced in placing out the children fast enough. This, however, will doubtless be soon provided for, so as to prevent the overgrowth of this institution and its change from the original and wise plan declared in the law establishing it, that it should be maintained as a temporary home, and not as a place in which to bring up the children. There is to be a change in the warden of the State Prison, the new warden going into office Oct. 15, I889. Additional county asylums for the chronic insane have been

Page  178 i78 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES erected. We now have eighteen of them in operation, with a population of nearly sixteen hundred. Two others will be ready this fall, when we shall have more than enough room in our hospitals and asylums, without overcrowding, for all the insane in the State that need public care. We now have no insane in jails, and only about twenty in poorhouses,-all of whom have liberty and occupation. In the county asylums, the system of open doors still continues; and we are rapidly introducing the method of general dining-rooms. More than half these asylums now have each a single dining-room for all inmates. Experience shows great advantages in this plan, with no disadvantages. Some asylums are now experimenting in the direction of abolishing all window guards. Most of them still retain an iron sash for this purpose, but none have besides any bars or other form of window guards. One asylum has removed all guards whatever, except a wire screen, which is placed in the window of a single room whenever necessary for an excited patient, and removed when not so needed. The superintendent says that no danger or trouble has resulted, so far, from this extension of liberty. Several other asylums are removing the guards from a portion of the windows. We shall watch with interest the result of this experiment. One superintendent has organized a literary society in his asylum, meeting weekly. Legislation in I889 has been as follows:Indeterminate sentences, with conditional liberation for convicts in the State Prison, are now optional with the trial judges, and a few persons have actually been sentenced under this law, whose value is chiefly as an entering wedge for the future. The State Board of Charities and Reform has been given full power to condemn jails or police stations which are unsafe to keep prisoners with ordinary vigilance by the jailor, or are dangerous to the health of prisoners, or do not provide for the proper separation of men from women, or of old from young, as already required by law. This power will be exercised by the Board cautiously, but the knowledge of its existence is already having some effect upon the authorities of some counties. The name of the Milwaukee County Asylum has been changed to Milwaukee Hospital for the Insane, which is more appropriate, as it receives both acute and chronic cases, and is virtually a State hospital. This change was compelled by the fact that a county asylum for the chronic insane is now in existence in Milwaukee County, and avoids the confusion that would have resulted between the two institutions. The Wisconsin Veterans' Home at Milwaukee

Page  179 REPORTS FROM STATES I79 has received an appropriation from the State of $50,000 for building purposes. In return, the title is vested in the State, but the Grand Army of the Republic is guaranteed possession and use of it as long as it is needed for a soldiers' home. It is increased to a capacity of two hundred persons, a large part of which number will consist of soldiers and their wives, occupying small two-room cottages. A change has been made in the amount and form of aid given by County Soldiers' Relief Commissions. A larger amount may now be appropriated by each county board for this purpose, and the relief need not be given in cash, but may be given in such form as will be best for the applicant. Our already strict laws to protect the chastity of girls and to break up houses of prostitution have been made still stricter. Our compulsory education law has been made stricter by giving each school board power to extend the compulsory period from twelve to twenty-four consecutive weeks in each year, and to employ truant officers. Children under thirteen are not allowed to be employed in stores, factories, and mines, except they already have a fair education, and then only upon the permission of the county judge, with such conditions as he may dictate. But the feature of this law which is now causing most discussion is that which refuses to consider any private school a legal place to send children under this act, unless English instruction is given in reading, writing, arithmetic, and United States History. So many friends of private schools object to this that it would seem that the English language is not taught at all in a considerable number of them. (Signed) A. 0. WRIGHT. WYOMING. Estimated Population, 90,000. There are but ten organized counties in this Territory, and only one of these (Laramie, in which is Cheyenne) has built a poorhouse under the law authorizing them to do so. Nine counties are provided with good court-house and jails; and there are two convict prisons in the Territory,- the United States Prison at Laramie, costing $70,000 for construction, and the new Territorial prison at Rawlins, now building, which will cost $Ioo,ooo. At present the Territorial convicts are kept in the Illinois Prison at Joliet, and average about 80. Young delinquents are maintained at the Colorado Reform School in Golden,- the whole expense for convicts being about $I5,ooo a year. The Territory in i886 appropriated $30,000 for an insane asylum

Page  180 I80 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES at Evanston, 7,000 feet above the sea level, which has been so far completed as to receive 50 patients, at a cost of about $50,000. It was opened in April, I889; and about 40 insane persons who had been boarded at the expense of the counties in a private asylum at Jacksonville, Ill., were transferred to Evanston. The new asylum is managed by a board of three directors; and this and the Penitentiary Commission make up the list of boards, for the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Cheyenne has never been opened. The Evanston Asylum is heated by steam and lighted by electricity. The cost is high, owing to the small number of patients. The cost at Jacksonville was $300 a year. SUMMARY OF STATES. In the above reports, no mention is made of the State of Montana, with an estimated population of i80,000, nor of the Indian Territory, with a population of 30,000, the Territories of Arizona (60,ooo), Idaho (Ioo,ooo), New Mexico (130,000), or the District of Columbia (250,ooo). The States, now 42 in number, had in the beginning of I889, by our estimate, a population of about 62,000,000, the Territories about 670,000, and the District 250,000,-in all, therefore, 62,920,ooo. How exact is this estimate will appear when the census of I890 shall have been made. In I880, the population of the whole region was 50,I55,783; but of what are now States the population was about 49,625,ooo. Among this population of 49,625,000 in I880 were then reported 90,614 insane persons, or about one in every 547. In some States, the proportion was much greater, exceeding one in every 350 in Connecticut and Massachusetts, one in every 340 in New Hampshire, and one in every 330 in Vermont. There is no reason to suppose that the proportion is any less now; for everywhere that statistics are collected the insane are seen to increase beyond the general population. It is therefore fair to estimate the insane, among the 6o,6oo,ooo who inhabit the States, at no less than 150,000, or one in 400. Less than half the 90,6I4 of i880 were in hospitals and asylums (40,942), but this number has now greatly increased. In California, more insane persons are reported in the asylums than were counted in the whole State in i880 (3,300 to 2,503); and the proportion of asylum patients to the whole population of the State is one in 380. At this rate there would be in all the States about i6o,ooo insane asylum patients; but the real number does not exceed Ioo,ooo. The cost of maintaining these patients varies from $2.25 a

Page  181 REPORTS FROM STATES I8I week in West Virginia and $2.82 in Oregon to $3.75 in Vermont, and upwards of $4 in some other States. The average cost is perhaps $3.25 a week, as in Massachusetts, or between $I2,000,000 and $i6,ooo,ooo for the whole country. In Pennsylvania, which is, perhaps, a fair average of the whole country in this respect, the insane in asylums are more than one in every i,ooo of the people; and their cost is more than 20 cents for each inhabitant. This would make the cost of the insane in asylums for the whole country about $13,000,ooo annually. In Ohio, corrected figures give $685,ooo as the cost of an average of 4,400 insane persons, including many paupers,about $3 a week and 17 cents for each inhabitant. No report having come in from New York, we were obliged to pass that great State with very brief mention. But we have since received in the new State Charities Record, issued by Miss Louisa Schuyler's organization, 21 University Place, New York City, a condensed statement of the field of charities and correction in that State, which seems worth quoting. It is as follows:-: During the year ending Oct. I, i888, nearly half a million people in the State of New York received public aid, varying in amount from a few bushels of coal to the means of support for the entire year. One person in every twelve o*f the six millions was thus, to a greater or less extent, a public beneficiary. The numbers in the several classes into which these dependent people are divided are given as follows in the Report of the State Board of Charities: insane, 14,772; idiotic and feeble-minded, 1,208; epileptic, 302; blind, 656; deaf and dumb, 1,344; orphan and dependent children, 19,717; juvenile delinquents and offenders, 4,678; reformatory prisoners, 828; disabled soldiers and sailors, I,o6I; hospital patients, 3,688; adult persons in incorporated homes and asylums, 6,560; poorhouse and almshouse inmates other than above classes, 9,510; outdoor patients to whom dispensaries and hospitals of the State have extended medical or surgical relief, 385,622; outdoor poor relieved by cities and counties of the State, 48,950,-a total of 498,894. If to these were added the inmates of penitentiaries, jails, workhouses, etc., and those who receive charities from other than the above sources, it would no doubt be found that fully three-quarters of a million are wholly or in part dependent upon the charity of the other five and a quarter millions. The annual expenditure for charitable purposes through the various institutions of the State exceeds $13,000,000. Including the sum spent for reformatories, penitentiaries, etc., and for outdoor relief, it amounts to $17,000,000. Besides this, much is given through private charitable institutions and individuals. New York State spends, it is estimated, one-fifth, perhaps one-fourth, of the total amount expended in charities in the United States.

Page  182 I82 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES We do not vouch for the correctness of the estimates in the above summary; and we may point to a constant source of error in some of these figures, which vitiates every aggregate and percentage of persons made up from them. Innumerable and uncounted duplicates appear in the list, particularly among the persons entered as receiving outdoor relief, medical or eleemosynary. The 385,622 outdoor patients do not, in all probability, include more than 250,000 different individuals; and of these perhaps 25,000 also appear in some of the other classes. Moreover, it is not merely from the fixed population of 6,000,000 that these hundreds of thousands are taken in a year, but from the much larger aggregate - not less than 8,000,000, probably- who are within the State during twelve months. Among this moving population are some 350,000 immigrants, and not less than a million persons who move back and forth along the roads and waterlines and through-railways of New York. It would therefore be more correct to say thatp5erhaps half a million persons are wholly or in part dependent upon the charity of more than seven millions; for the charitable funds of New York are by no means all given by the residents of that State. The paupers have never been reckoned up for the whole country with any exactness. Mr. Wines, in i880, estimated those in poorhouses, almshouses, etc., at 88,665, or one in every 563 of the population. At this rate there would now be I09,236 almshouse paupers in the country, and this is not an excessive estimate. Pennsylvania reports about 8,000, at a yearly cost of some $I,200,000, or $I50 for each pauper. This is rather a high cost; but the whole expense for this class in the whole country cannot well be less than $14,000,000 for, say, IIo,ooo indoor paupers, or $125 each. In Massachusetts, the cost of about 6,500 almshouse poor is about $770,ooo. In Ohio, an average of 6,200 costs $625,000. The cost of outdoor relief in Ohio was $400,000 for 40,000 poor persons; in Pennsylvania, about $500,000 for 25,000 persons; in Massachusetts, about 650,000 for an average of 17,000 poor persons. It is safe to estimate the outdoor relief in the whole country at more than $io,ooo,ooo, expended for an average of 250,000 persons, and for at least 600,000 different persons; nor can the whole pauper expenditure of the United States be estimated at less than $25,000,000, or 40 cents for each man, woman, and child of the population. The District of Columbia, being the seat of the national government, with a great hospital for the insane and a disproportionate number of helpless or shiftless persons, incurs a larger outlay in

Page  183 REPORTS FROM STATES i83 proportion to the number of its inhabitants than most, perhaps any, of the States; while the distant and thinly settled Territories incur less than their proportionate share. The report submitted by Mrs. Spencer does not give the figures of cost for the District, and only in part the number of dependants and delinquents. All the public appropriations are made by Congress; and it is not always easy to secure the attention of that body to the wants of the locality in matters of charity and correction. REPORT FROM THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. The nearest approach to a board of charities for the District yet attained was a commission appointed, the present year, to visit all charitable and reformatory institutions, examine their condition,'investigate their management, and report recommendations to the District Commissioners, who are required by law to make a similar report to Congress. This commission reported that they found "no grave scandals nor excessive wastes nor misappropriations nor absurd inefficiency"; and, in general, that the institutions were under wise and careful administration. They found hospital accommodations ample, and the several institutions of that class -the Columbia for Women, the Garfield, the Homceopathic, the Children's, etc. —cleanly, well ventilated, cheerful, and under skilful medical supervision. What is more remarkable in this District, considering previous conditions, they found abundant provision for foundlings. The new Washington Hospital for Foundlings (17I5 Fifteenth Street) has excellent accommodation for fifty infants, while but nine are now in charge. An appropriation of $7,000 had been secured for its maintenance (an allowance of about $800 per year for each infant), and another appropriation of $5,ooo for a building for colored infants. Yet the commission found but six colored infants needing this care; and these are now at an institution for destitute colored women and children (Eighth Street and Grant Avenue, N.W.), where 9 aged women and IIo children are cared for, and where an open sewer, cesspools after rains, and slaughter-houses in the vicinity, all have a tendency to lessen the number of infants, children, and adults. The officers declare that they have had no epidemics or serious sickness, but have endured great suffering from these causes. The commission recommend that the six colored infants be removed to the second floor of the Hospital for Foundlings, and that all the perils to life and health which surround this institution, and also endanger the Garfield Hospital on the adjoining eminence, be at once removed. They also recommend that the almshouse, workhouse, and hospital, now under one administration (known as the Washington Asylum), be separated widely and effectually, by placing the almshouse on a farm where sufficient accommodations and appropriate labor shall be provided. These suggestions, all wise and timely, are approved by the District Commissioners, and will be adopted if Congress can be prevailed upon to give the matter proper attention.

Page  184 I84 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The intendant of the Washington Asylum recently reported the number of inmates in almshouse, June 30, 1889, i80; number of inmates in workhouse, 245, —an increase in the almshouse over last year of 24, and in the workhouse of 89. There have been committed to the workhouse during the year 3,533; discharged, 3,444. Of these, 1,993 were different persons; 290 were committed twice; 92, three times; 39, four times; 12, five times; 7, six times; 5, seven times; i, nine times; and i, eleven times. Of the above number, ii6 white and 855 colored persons were under twenty years of age. What a field, "white unto harvest," the District of Columbia Workhouse offers to experiments of the indeterminate sentence plan, and to reformatory methods in dealing with criminals! True, the men have not been idle cumberers of the ground, like the two thousand prisoners coming and going at the United States Jail. The male employees of the workhouse have performed labor for the District and the institutions valued at $33,069 during the year; and raised produce, $4,126.30. Total credit due the institution, $37,195.30. There were 8i8 females committed to the workhouse during the year, 218 white and 600 colored. Of this number, 305 were committed once; 85, twice; 28, three times; 30, four times; io, five times; ii, six times; i, seven times; and 2, eight times. Of these, 4 white and 266 colored persons were under twenty years of age. There are now 98 female prisoners in the workhouse, a larger number than ever before. "The majority of them," says the intendant, "are dissolute young colored women of the vilest class. They are beyond the sense of shame, deaf to reasoning advice, and delight in nothing so much as obscene language and lewd actions." He asks for the construction of a place and the devising of a mode of " short, sharp, and decisive punishment." He wants the building to be divided into "separate small cells, ventilated and secured against the escape of sound," from which it appears that he has already devised the mode of punishment. It is quite to be expected that when men, with the best intentions, undertake to reform abandoned women, they should not seem to have a special vocation in that direction. These girls undoubtedly need the constant presence of refined, specially consecrated women, plenty of wholesome manual labor, an entire abstinence from meat and other gross diet, and continual training in decent behavior and worthy thoughts and ambitions. A type that should prove too degraded to be influenced or saved through such means should still remain in charge of women during life. The experience of Washington and other cities in dealing with abandoned white girls is instructive. When we had no shelter nor provision for that class, the number sometimes reached as high as 2,500; and arrests, convictions, and commitments to the workhouse kept courts and officers busy the year round. Now that we have a House of the Good Shepherd and a House of Mercy, it appears that only four white girls under twenty years of age were committed during the past year. At last, a Girls' Reform School bill has passed Congress; but, strange to say, although earnest women have been working for it

Page  185 REPORTS FROM STATES i85 these seventeen years, the bill provides for a board of trustees entirely of men, and, more strange still, of men who have never been known to take the slightest interest in the subject of the reformation of women. They undoubtedly are interested in the purchase and sale of land and in contracts for buildings and supplies, and it becomes women to be grateful, if incidentally any good should happen to be done. The new board of District Commissioners desire your secretary to express to you their sincere regret that the District of Columbia cannot be represented by an official delegate to this Conference. (Signed) SARA A. SPENCER. The Committee on Reports from States regret that so many States, and some of them quite important, have failed to make reports. We have endeavored to supply this omission as the Proceedings go through the press, but much will still be lacking to a full exhibition of the condition of the whole country in those particulars which interest the Conference. A few errors and omissions have been discovered, particularly in Colorado, where the State Insane Asylum is at Pueblo, not in Denver, and where a Board of Immigration has just been created, as in New Hampshire and Vermont, to invite immigrants. In Ohio, later figures give $I,025,o000 as the whole pauper cost, the indoor paupers (6,200) costing $625,000; while an average of 4,400 insane persons cost $685,ooo, the whole number, including paupers, being 6,461. It is worth mentioning that the new State of South Dakota has provided in its Constitution for a State Board of Charities, which will probably have also the powers of a Lunacy Commission. Our estimate of the population of the two Dakotas should perhaps be reduced for North Dakota to 275,000, and for South Dakota to 375,000. We have given much space to certain States, either because they have not hitherto been fully reported or because there is something peculiar in the organization of their charities. In particular, we have printed the Oregon report in full, as a model to those who may hereafter write for the first time the complete report of a State. But such fulness is not needful when the essential facts have once or twice been gathered and put on record in the annual volumes of the Conference. It is more desirable that brief and uniform reports, capable of being summed up at the end in some concise manner, should be made by the person or persons in each State best competent to do it. This will not always be the Corresponding Secretary, but that official ought to be able to find those who will do this needful work. (Signed) F. B. SANBORN. HASTINGS H. HART.+ *The report from Minnesota was furnished by J. D. Ludden, and revised by the Committee, except that relating to the County Board of St. Paul, which was furnished by Mr. Wright.

Page  186 X. frert tineargartten. PRACTICAL RESULTS OF TEN YEARS' WORK. ABSTRACT OF PAPER BY MRS. SARAH B. COOPER. Eleven years ago there was not one Free Kindergarten west of the Rocky Mountains. To-day there are forty-eight in San Francisco and Oakland alone, including those in orphanages and day homes. Over forty of these are in San Francisco, and several others are in process of incubation, so to speak. Branching out from San Francisco as a centre, they have extended in every direction, from the extreme northern part of Washington to Lower California and New Mexico; and they have planted themselves in Oregon, Nevada, Colorado, and in almost every large city in California. The work in San Francisco has been phenomenal. No city in the Union has made such rapid strides in this work among the little children. This is owing largely to the fact that persons of wealth have been induced to study the work for themselves, and have become convinced of its permanent and essential value to the State. The first Free Kindergarten west of the Rocky Mountains was opened in San Francisco, in September, 1878. It had its inspiration in Professor Felix Adler, who was then on a visit to this coast. In July preceding, he addressed a meeting composed of representative citizens, and presented the claims of the Free Kindergarten, as a preventive of crime and a foundation for reformatory work, in such a strong and convincing manner as to awaken an interest that soon found expression in the organization and opening of the first Free Kindergarten, at 64 Silver Street, with Miss Kate Douglas Smith as its accomplished, well-trained, and most successful teacher. It should be mentioned, in this connection, that Professor Adler and S. W. Levy, president of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, visited leading business men and secured 130 monthly subscriptions of a dollar each with which to carry on the work. Under these auspices a society was organized and incorporated, under the name of the Public Kin

Page  187 FREE KINDERGARTENS i87 dergarten Society (afterward called the Pioneer), whose president, Judge Solomon Heydenfeldt, and an energetic and efficient band of co-workers, still carry on three large and flourishing Kindergartens in needy portions of the city. The second Free Kindergarten was opened under the auspices of a large Bible class, in October, I879, from the conviction that a religion which has everything for a future world, and nothing for this world, has nothing for either. The city swarmed with multitudes of neglected children. They must be looked after. They must be saved to themselves, to the commonwealth, and to the world. Stirring articles were written, showing that, in order to do this, we must get hold of the little waifs that grow up to form the criminal element just as early in life as possible; must hunt up the children of poverty, crime, and brutality, the children that flock in the tenement houses, on the narrow, dirty streets, the children who have no one to call them by dear names, children that are buffeted hither and thither,-" flotsam and jetsam on the wild, mad sea of life." This is the element out of which criminals are made. These were some of the thoughts that found expression through the vigorous press of San Francisco, which I do not hesitate to affirm has done more to plant Free Kindergartens all over this Western Coast and in the islands of the sea than any and all other agencies combined. The Jackson Street Kindergarten Association seemed destined to prosper from the start. Six Kindergartens were organized the first four years, and then the society was incorporated under the name of the Golden Gate Kindergarten Association, with many of the philanthropic ladies and gentlemen of San Francisco as officers and members of the board. The fifth year marked an era in Kindergarten work. Mrs. Leland Stanford, who had been a liberal contributor to the work from the first, now dedicated a large sum for the establishment of Free Kindergartens in this city and the adjacent towns, in memory of a beloved and only son. From first to last, Mrs. Stanford has given over $45,000 to this work. Over one thousand little children, from two and one-half to five years of age, have been trained by this sweet, memorial ministry. The Lester Norris Memorial Kindergarten was also founded in memory of the beautiful and beloved boy whose name it bears. In many places throughout the country, bereaved parents are turning their thoughts toward needy, neglected children, and are thus finding comfort in their sorrow by supplying a vicarious motherhood to those who, through poverty, misfortune, or

Page  188 I88 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES sin, are left without this divine nurturing. It will be a fine thing for this world when we have more of that which has been beautifully characterized as the universal motherhood; that sort of motherhood which feels a personal responsibility for universal childhood; that sort of motherhood which feels that every child has a claim upon her love and tenderness, for all are children of a common Father. The work of the Golden Gate Association has been greatly prospered. It has continued to increase, until now it has under its care i8 Kindergartens, with a total annual enrolment of something over I,500 children, with 36 teachers, including principals and assistants. And every Kindergarten has a kind, wise, and motherly matron, who lives in the building, and looks after the children out of school hours, and keeps everything in good condition. Of these 18 Free Kindergartens, 8 are memorial schools. The Lux-Potter Kindergarten bears the name of a bright, promising grandson. Two fine Kindergartens are sustained by Mrs. Senator Hearst, another by Mrs. A. J. Pope. Two others are carried on by a band of royal workers,- the Helping Hand Society, under the efficient leadership of Mrs. D. W. Folger. The Huntington Kindergarten is among the last organized. The Willard Kindergarten was established by a gift from the noble woman whose name it bears. The Produce Exchange of San Francisco is the only commercial organization in this country that supports a Kindergarten. During the ten years of organized work, about $9o,ooo have been received by the Golden Gate Association for the work. About sixty earnest, self-sacrificing, benevolent ladies belong to this Association, and are untiring in their labors in behalf of the children. The Silver Street Society is another incorporated body which carries on three large and flourishing Kindergartens, numbering 250 children. This work is largely sustained by Mrs. Charles B. Alexander. The Pacific Kindergarten Society is also incorporated, and carries on one large school. Besides these incorporated societies, there are a large number of Kindergartens carried on by churches and individuals. The First Congregational Churches of this city and of Oakland sustain Free Kindergartens, as does also the First Presbyterian Church of Oakland. The Buford Kindergarten of this city has been greatly aided by St. Luke's Episcopal Church and the First Presbyterian Society. This is practical Christian work. Mrs. Charles R. Story has carried on a Kindergarten, by her faithful efforts, for nearly nine years. The young ladies of the High School, aided by the

Page  189 FREE KINDERGARTENS I89 Alumne of the same institution, support the Occidental Kindergarten. It is a noble work. There are excellent Kindergartens connected with the Protestant Orphan Asylum, the Protection and Relief Society, the Little Sisters' Infant Shelter, and many of the Catholic Educational Institutions and Day Homes. Besides these there are several private Kindergartens that receive more or less free pupils. Including all these there are, as nearly as can be estimated, about 50 Kindergartens in San Francisco that have a total annual enrolment of about 4,500 children between the ages of two and one-half and seven years. As nearly as can be computed, the annual cost per capita is $I5.65. The cost per pupil in the public schools of the city is $20.83. When it is remembered that the Free Kindergartens have their own rents to pay, the average cost for each child compares most favorably with that of the public schools. Aside from the munificent gifts of Mrs. Stanford, and the large and liberal patronage of other ladies, there are hundreds of equally generous, self-sacrificing men, women, and children, who give with liberal hand. As before stated, nearly every large city on this coast has one or more Free Kindergartens. Oakland has five. Sacramento has opened three flourishing schools within the last four months. Los Angeles, San Jose, Fresno, Menlo Park, Mayfield; and Portland, Ore., Reno, Nev., Tucson, Ariz., and Tacoma, Wash., all have their Free Kindergartens. The Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, in Berkeley, is making a noble experiment with this new education. The Home for the Feeble-minded, in Santa Clara, employs two fine Kindergartners, who are meeting with remarkable success. It is not possible to realize the bearing of the Free Kindergarten work upon the future of this great State. After ten years of faithful work among the needy children of this city, we are prepared to show substantial results that cannot be gainsaid or denied. The record which these children make when they go into the public school is a tribute to the value of this training not only in the developing of all the faculties, but in the unfolding of the moral nature as well. There is a steady stream of influence that flows back into the families, which tells for good, no matter how wretched and degraded the households may be. The parents come to feel that their children are of some value, and they treat them with more consideration and kindness. The children feel that somebody loves them, and they unfold and blossom like plants in the sunshine.

Page  190 I90 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The Kindergarten prepares for the arts and trades. It lays a good, strong foundation for industrial education. It takes the little child at three years of age, and, through the use and agency of utilized play, sets the wheels of industrious habits in motion. In the Kindergarten, the child is taught to pay for what he gets,to earn it by effort and industry. He is taught to scorn to lean on the help and work of others. He is not only taught what objects are, but he is taught to produce them. He is taught to create. Selfdependence and self-reliance are thus cultivated. He is thrown upon his own resources just as much as possible. It is a maxim of the Kindergarten that all help which smothers self-help is disastrous in its results upon the pupil. Before the close of our first year's work at 116 Jackson Street, many voluntary testimonials like the following came from landlords and business firms in that locality: "You are doing a good work among the 'hoodlum' element: we don't have so many broken windows as we used to have." Another came in the shape of a generous annual subscription, with this simple announcement, " Keep on with the little urchins: they 'nip ' no more fruit and vegetables nowadays." Still another testimonial came at the second Christmas festival, from the dealers in that neighborhood, in the shape of a generous purse of money, laid upon the table, with the brief suggestion, "A voluntary offering to the very best sort of work that can be done for the city." Then came a large donation from the Produce Exchange, inspired by brief visits to the Kindergarten and witnessing the results of the training. And this annual donation has become a fixed thing, increasing with each year, until now the Produce Exchange Kindergarten is one of the most attractive of our Free Kindergartens. That the moral tone of the locality has been uplifted is best demonstrated by the fact that, gradually, the wretched parents in many instances have been led to feel that their children must have a better chance to live decently than the Barbary Coast affords. And so, one by one, the families have moved into better surroundings. And it is fair to hope that, with fresh longing for the betterment of their children, may come a new desire to live better lives themselves. The Kindergarten seems to act as a revelator to these parents, showing them that their children have a substantial value; and, recognizing this fact, they set about making better conditions for family life. The removal of a large number of families from the Barbary Coast determined us to seek new quarters, where a larger number of clildren could be reached.

Page  191 FREE KINDERGARTENS 19I We have spoken of the physical and moral results of the work accomplished. But we have abundant testimony, also, in regard to intellectual results. For the aim of the Kindergarten is to harmoniously develop and unfold the threefold nature of the child, and in fair order and freshness lead him on in ways of pleasantness and paths of peace. It should be understood that the Kindergarten concerns itself with the development of faculty rather than the mere learning of set lessons: it devotes itself more to ideas than to words; more to things than to books. Its mission is to beget within the child the power of assimilating knowledge and turning it into practical use. That the Kindergarten does this is proved, over and over again, by the record of the children that go from our Kindergartens into the public schools. By sheer development of faculty, by having learned how to learn, they often distance children several years older than themselves. And it is a fact that three prize pupils of the public schools were children from the Produce Exchange Kindergarten, then on the Barbary Coast. And it must be remembered that these children came from the by-ways and alleys of one of the most destitute and wretched portions of the city. From the first year of our work until now, the School Boards of the city have shown signal kindness to the Kindergartens. They adopted two classes in the early stage of the work, and these were sustained until a lack of funds compelled their discontinuance. It has been in their power on many occasions to prove their fellowship and good feeling, and they have never failed to do so. During the past year, the present school board has taken a step forward by employing a competent, skilful, and enthusiastic Kindergartner-Miss Annie Stoval-to instruct all the teachers of the primary grades in the theory and practice of the Kindergarten. All our Kindergartens are provided with ample conveniences for bathing and dressing the children, when necessary. Kind and motherly women are employed as matrons, who live in the respective buildings, and are always ready to assist in service to the children. It is not uncommon for the good matron to give a warm breakfast to some child who has come, unwashed, uncombed, and breakfastless, to the one haven of comfort,- the Kindergarten. Many of the little children are mere babies: they have had no training in habits of neatness, and they have everything to learn. The heavy cares of the Kindergarten teacher are greatly lightened by the ready services of these faithful coadjutors, who live in our school buildings.

Page  192 192 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES In referring to this sort of care for neglected children, a strong and vigorous writer of this city says: "The society which snatches the little Arab from the street, and, by giving him home, shelter, protection, and guidance, makes him feel that the world is not all a desert, and its denizens not all Ishmaelites, is doing untold good. We once thought that to the parental influence might be safely trusted the child. We now know that there are parents too indifferent and too brutal to be trusted.... The parent may transmit physical infirmities; but if to good women and good men are given the training of boys and girls, and if these children are surrounded by good influences, there are more prizes than blanks to be drawn in the lottery. We commend the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, the Kindergarten Schools, and all kindred charities, to our generous people, not only as objects of charity, but there is business in it for the tax-payer. As a question of political economy, the meanest rich man from whose sordid soul taxes are wrenched as blood from the turnip, might well figure a profit to his ledger account if he would aid in this direction. It is easier to prevent crime than to punish it. If organized society would do more to rescue young folk from a life of crime and idleness, dissipation and mendicancy, it would be more economical. Aid Societies and Kindergarten Schools are less costly than almshouses criminal reformatories, and prisons." The first Kindergarten training on this coast was done by Miss Emma Marwedel. Later, one of her first pupils, Miss Smith,- now Mrs. Kate Douglas-Wiggin,- took up this work, and, aided by her sister, Miss Nora Smith, during the past nine years the California Kindergarten Training School has sent out over 200 trained Kindergartners, who are doing valuable work all over the Pacific Coast; and some of them have gone to distant Territories and to the Islands of the Sea. And now, in closing this paper, I beg to say that it seems to me it has been clearly demonstrated that the best education for the prevention of pauperism and crime is that sort of education which, from earliest childhood, develops all the powers of body and mind, fosters good habits, cultivates a right spirit, imparts practical information develops skill and capacity, and trains the young to active and skilled industry. The fact that a large number of paupers and criminals cannot read and write has been deemed a conclusive argument to the effect that all that was needed to suppress these dire evils was to teach the people to read and write. The truth is, illiteracy is not the primal cause of pauperism or crime.

Page  193 FREE KINDERGARTENS I93 The State, the community, the patriotic citizen, must train the children for honorable citizenship. Better, far better, that we plant Kindergartens and organize industrial schools, and educate the young for work, than to let them grow up in such a manner as to be good for nothing else than to fill our prisons, jails, and penitentiaries. Crime cannot be hindered by punishment. Crime can only be hindered by letting no child grow up to become a criminal. We may make laws and constitutions on paper; but character is a growth, and to all growth belongs the element of time. We must call the little children from the very earliest years, and prepare them for useful and honorable citizenship. Take the very little child into the Kindergarten, and there begin the work of physical, mental, and moral training. Put the child in possession of his powers: develop his faculties; unfold his moral nature; cultivate mechanical skill in the use of the hands; give him a sense of symmetry and harmony, a quick judgment of number, measure, and size; stimulate his inventive faculties; make him familiar with the customs and usages of well-ordered lives; teach him to be kind, courteous, helpful, and unselfish; inspire him to love whatsoever things are true, and pure, and right, and kind, and noble. And, thus equipped, physically, mentally, and morally, send him forth to the wider range of study, which should include within its scope some sort of industrial training: that is, the putting of the boy or girl into the possession of the tools for technical employment, or for the cultivation of the arts of drawing and kindred employments; and, still further on, the boy and girl should have a completed trade. Thus will they be prepared to solve the rugged problem of existence by earning their own living through honest, faithful work. Victor Hugo puts it forcibly, but truly, when he says, " Every case of vagabondage has its root in a neglected child." What, then,-briefly summarized,-are some of the practical results of ten years' work in the Free Kindergartens? As to adults: - First (and let me say that I deem this first in point of essential import and value): A deeper, wider, and more far-reaching sympathy between the top and the bottom of society. "The rich and the poor meet together, and the Lord is the Maker of them all." Second: An evident moral uplift, slow but sure, in the localities where our Kindergartens are located. Third: An increasing self-respect among parents, more affection in the households, and a decided tendency to place a higher value upon their children. Fourth: A slow and steady growth in moral quality, and in the

Page  194 194 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES substantial virtues of practical daily living,- such as sobriety, industry, economy, thrift, self-dependence, good manners, kindness, and temperance in all things. As to the children: - Fifth: A vast heaven-land of happiness, never dreamed of before, in which the powers and graces of body, soul, and spirit symmetrically unfold, just as do the plants under the genial, entreating rays of the sun. Sixth: The perceptible growth and development of the creative powers, the moral and esthetic sense, and a love for that which is pure, true, honest, and of good report. Seventh: The growth of a love to God and a love for each other, which is "the fulfilling of the law," and which will fit them to be manly men and womanly women, doing their part well in the work of life, and making this world the better for their having lived in it. KINDERGARTEN CULTURE. ABSTRACT OF A PAPER BY MRS. C. W. DOHRMANN, STOCKTON, CAL. A recognition of the necessity for kindergarten culture, and its speedy adoption by all the States of the Union as a part of the public school system, is a most important and urgent necessity, and would prove of great benefit to the coming generations. It has been delayed, perhaps, not so much from a lack of appreciation of its beneficial results, as from the fact that the masses have not as yet been able to comprehend its educational value. They have looked upon it as a work of charity, and have been unable to grasp the fact that instruction and play can and must go hand in hand. The Kindergarten takes hold of the child at the most important epoch of life,- the formative period. Impressions precede expressions, and we should be most careful that the child receive none but the best impressions, especially when we consider that these will be lasting and affect his whole after life. In the Kindergarten, amidst beautiful surroundings, by the harmony of poetry and song, in the contemplation of all that is good, noble, and beautiful, the child is led to a recognition of the beauty of a stainless character. He is taught self-respect, industry, and the value of a well-ordered and well-spent active life. Here the little one, though permitted to exercise his self-will, learns to do so not for selfish gratification only, but in recognition of the

Page  195 FREE KINDERGARTENS I95 fact that he is one of a community, and has a common share in all that interests them. He becomes self-helpful by ministering to others. He is taught to look upon work of all kinds, no matter how menial, as honorable and desirable, since it is to the workers that we owe a debt of gratitude for most of the comforts that surround us. Truthfulness, honesty, politeness, reverence, and veneration are fostered. Abhorrence of all that is vicious and undesirable is firmly implanted. The punishment of children who give way to expressions of violence and temper lies in the deprival of privileges and enjoyment, brought on by the child himself through his own carelessness and fault. The drift of education in the past has been almost exclusively toward mental development at the expense of moral and manual training. Since education, to be perfect, must have for its aim the ultimate harmonious development of the entire nature of man, and since it must begin at the formative period of childhood, it should be so arranged as to give scope to all his activities. Language is taught by leading the child to give proper expression to all impressions; reading, by the study of objects through analyzing the parts, properties, and peculiarities of every new object he meets; writing, by the reproduction of such objects, be it through sewing, drawing, building; arithmetic, through the process of teaching numbers by the handling, accumulating, and dividing of his kindergarten toys; rhetoric, by noting the expression of others and the contrast in the various expressions; music, through songs and games; poetry, through verses and tales; geometry, by studying the forms of objects, their comparison, and a reproduction of their outlines or surfaces; natural history, through the games and consequent talks upon the habits of animals and plants; religion, through contemplation of nature, the recognition of the truth that we owe all these beauties to Him who is All-pervading, who guides and guards us and protects and loves us, and whose name the infant lips are taught to breathe with tenderest love and sublime adoration. Politics are taught by leading the child on to recognition of the necessity of well-ordered society, his own duties toward his fellow-beings, and his loyalty to his country. This training should not be stopped after leaving the Kindergarten proper, but should be continued and applied throughout the entire common-school system, so as to give the young, especially those who leave school about the age of fourteen, an industrial education that will fit them to battle with life. Each boy and girl should be fitted

Page  196 I96 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES for some trade, and the girls should receive a thorough domestic training, since in their hands lie the welfare of the future homes and domestic happiness. Let us, then, not leave any effort unattempted which will have for its result the permanent engrafting of the Kindergarten on the publicschool system.

Page  197 XI. poorbouoes an aIlnmtoub e. I. EMPLOYMENT IN POORHOUSES. BY A. O. WRIGHT, SECRETARY OF THE WISCONSIN STATE BOARD OF CHARITIES AND REFORM. There are three things in which an average pauper delights,- dirt, disorder, and idleness. And there are three things, therefore, which need special care in a poorhouse,- cleanliness, good order, and employment. These are not entirely separate from one another. There is a close connection between them. Good house-keeping is only kept up by constant labor; and disorder and mischief are the natural result of idle hands. The ordinary poorhouse of the United States, where there is no supervision by a State Board of Charities, is usually allowed to drop down into a neglected and unwholesome condition, physically and morally. It is easier to adapt the poorhouse to the ideas of the paupers than to adapt the paupers to what a poorhouse ought to be. The consequence is that too many become models of all that a poorhouse ought not to be. Such poorhouses as those of Maryland, as described by Dr. Chancellor, are the natural result of letting things drift. Idleness is the cause of a large part of pauperism, and is associated with almost all of it. Along with idleness go all the various vices; and where a number of idle, vicious people, with no self-respect, are herded together, with no strong and wise rule over them, it is easy to see what the result will be. Regular employment for the inmates of a poorhouse is healthful for them, as it is for everybody everywhere. Regular employment promotes good order and good morals, in a poorhouse as well as elsewhere, and regular employment promotes the happiness of the inmates. It reduces the chronic grumbling of the average pauper, who is dissatisfied with himself and therefore with his surroundings. It turns the current of his thoughts away from his own miserable self,.and gives him something useful and valuable to think of. It makes him feel that he is not wholly useless, and gives him some measure of self-respect and manliness.

Page  198 I98 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES And, not least, regular employment helps to prevent the pauper from lapsing into that state of dementia which may be more or less marked as a form of insanity. For just as the idle monotony of the old-fashioned insane asylum tended to keep people insane, so does the idle monotony of the average poorhouse to-day tend to make people insane,-people who are already predisposed to insanity by their vices, their diseases, and their ignorance. A considerable fraction of the insane have become so in poorhouses, and have either been transferred to asylums or are still kept in poorhouses, as insane paupers. Employment is a preventive of insanity in such cases. Finally, regular employment in a poorhouse discourages lazy loafers and keeps them out of the poorhouse. In a pecuniary point of view, this is the best argument in its favor. The labor test is the best practical test that has ever been devised to sift out the really needy, and therefore deserving, from those who can, but will not, earn their own living. The labor test is the one thing dreaded by tramps. It is the best method of reducing unnecessary out-door relief, and it is the best method of driving the drones out of a poorhouse. Our poorhouses have about twice as many inmates in winter as in summer. A labor test will keep many of these away, and thus reduce the expense of pauperism to the community. With the above exception, labor in poorhouses has little pecuniary value. This is doubtless the one great reason why it has not been sufficiently insisted on hitherto. It is easier and perhaps cheaper to hire the work all done than to secure a part of it from unwilling and inefficient help. People who are capable of earning their own living ought not to be in a poorhouse, and people who are fit inmates of a poorhouse cannot earn much by labor. Nevertheless, labor in a poorhouse is the cheapest thinglin the end, for the reasons already stated. Now, let us study a little more closely some of the conditions and limitations of our subject. Not every inmate of a poorhouse is capable of any labor. Some are sick in bed, some are broken down with extreme old age, some are infants, some are helpless idiots, some are so crippled that they cannot work. At least one-fourth of the inmates of an average poorhouse may then be taken off the list of available workers at once. Others are not capable of general work around the house and farm, but can only do some particular things. Others are unwilling, and have all manner of excuses and dilatory tactics to avoid the disagreeable demand for work. Ingenuity, en

Page  199 POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES 199. ergy, and patience are needed by the superintendent and matron to arrange the work so that every inmate who can work, more or less, shall do so, and at the same time so that the needful work about the institution be kept up. Some special classes need mention. The insane and idiots ought to be placed in special institutions; but, in most of our States, there is not sufficient provision for these classes, and many of them must, perforce, be placed in poorhouses. Ordinarily, they are neglected or abused, more through ignorance than intentional cruelty. Many are confined in cells, others are chained or tied up. Many of them are allowed to live in their own filth in a neglected condition. Now, so long as the insane and idiots are kept in poorhouses, they should be properly cared for. And the most important element in their proper treatment is employment. The experience of the best hospitals and asylums is that most insane and idiots can be trained to work by care and patience. Many of our best poorhouses have had the same experience in training insane and idiots to labor, and thereby greatly improving their condition. It is entirely possible in every poorhouse where these classes are found to train them to labor, and thereby make it possible to give them liberty. Another class found in poorhouses, wherever there is no public hospital, is the class of mothers with children. These are generally illegitimate children; and the mothers are often anxious to get rid of them, and leave the poorhouse or the hospital as soon as possible. It is poor policy for the public to encourage this. The usual practice is to receive these women in the last stages of pregnancy, and to discharge them as soon as they are able to work, with or without their children, as they themselves prefer. The poorhouse or the hospital - for these remarks apply to either - thus becomes a convenience to lying-in women and an encouragement to licentiousness. The true policy should be to require these women to stay and work long enough to pay for the care and expense to which they have put the public. The justice of this is obvious. It has two incidental advantages in addition,- labor itself has a good moral effect upon them, and the time spent with their children serves to attach them, so that they will usually keep and care for them themselves. The mothers keeping their children and nursing them means a much smaller death-rate among children and less liability of the mothers asking for public care in a like case again. Any one who will inquire into the effect upon women of uncertain morals of free lying-in hospitals, foundling asylums, and other means of making it easy to

Page  200 200 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES have children and to dispose of them will be led to favor any system which makes these mothers keep their children and pay for their own care during the lying-in period. This is just what this system does. And, if necessary, as it frequently would be, we ought to have legislation to commit such mothers for three or six months after childbirth. With feeble-minded women, it is very desirable that they be kept from having children, with the heredity of feeble intellect and the disadvantage of bastardy. The State of New York has a custodial home for this class of cases. In States where there is no such home, it is wise to keep them in poorhouses, in order to prevent their having children, even in cases where they could earn their living outside. I know a few cases of chronic alcoholism who, with their own consent, are protected from temptation by remaining at poorhouses, although they would be fully able to earn their living outside, if they would let liquor alone. They are rightly kept in a poorhouse as a reformatory and protective institution. In order to secure the best results, some form of commitment to a poorhouse ought to be provided for by law. In most cases, the admission of inmates is purely voluntary on their part. No formal investigation is made as to the fitness of the applicant for admission, and often not even an informal inquiry. The fact that a person wishes to be admitted to a poorhouse is usually considered prima facie evidence that he ought to be, unless some excellent reason against it appears on the surface. On the other hand, a person who does not wish to be placed in a poorhouse is rarely placed there. Sometimes, pressure is brought to bear upon a person who applies for poor-relief, or who is already receiving it, to go to the poorhouse, by refusing outdoor relief and leaving the poorhouse as the only chance of relief open. This is often intended to cut off relief from unfit applicants, and has that effect. But it also frequently allows persons to be admitted who ought to support themselves outside. There is another phase of the matter: some persons refuse to go to a poorhouse who ought to go there. For these cases, some form of commitment by legal authority is desirable. We now have it in the case of tramps. We might also have a legal commitment for perhaps six months in lying-in cases. We ought to have a legal commitment for an indefinite period to the poorhouse for feeble-minded women of child-bearing age, where there is no special institution for them. We ought also to have commitments, either for a definite or an indefinite period, for chronic drunkards, instead of sending them to jail for an endless succession of short terms.

Page  201 POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES 201 The objection will doubtless be made that this changes the poorhouse from a charitable to a reformatory institution. I admit that it does so in some measure, and I claim that all good poorhouses are now reformatories for most of their inmates, and that we ought to recognize the facts in the case and act accordingly. The mass of the inmates of a poorhouse now need the restraints of a little law. A little more careful sifting of cases admitted, such as a formal commitment would require, would be a good thing, and a legal commitment would make compulsory labor easier to secure. The poorhouse should be made a reformatory, with enforced cleanliness and enforced order and morality from all, and enforced labor from all who are able, each according to his capacity to work. That labor in a poorhouse is entirely practicable is proved by the experience of many of the best poorhouses everywhere. I will instance only two. The State Farm at Bridgewater, Mass., has buildings which are a model for a State institution in simplicity, solidity, usefulness, and economy. Most of the inmates are committed. One building is devoted to the criminal insane, and nearly every one of this worst class of insane is kept at work cane-seating chairs. The effect of this employment is most wholesome. A greater degree of liberty is given here than in other criminal insane asylums; and it can be given because of the regular occupation for the inmates, which keeps them busy and therefore out of mischief. Tramps in large numbers are sent here, and are obliged to labor. Those sent for the winter only, accept labor as a disagreeable necessity. But those towns from which the magistrates sentence tramps to one year at Bridgewater are generally shunned by the vagabond fraternity, because labor in summer is the last thing they are looking for. State paupers are also sent here; and, with the exception of a few who are unable to work, all have some light employment. The results are most wholesome. This institution suffers from overgrowth like most State institutions, but with that exception is a model; and the secret of its successful management is occupationfor every inmate who is physically capable of labor in any degree. A few weeks ago, July 9, I889, I visited the Sauk County Poorhouse in Wisconsin, and made full notes with reference to the question of occupation, too full to give here. There is a county asylum for the chronic insane upon the same farm, in which 95 per cent. of the inmates labor, and all have almost perfect liberty. Of the paupers proper there were at the time of my visit thirty-five

Page  202 202 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES persons, of whom only seven did no work. The reasons for lack of employment in these cases were as follows: one was sick in bed, one was paralyzed, one was blind and eighty-six years old, one was blind and eighty years old, one was eighty-five years old and had rheumatism so badly as to need constant attendance, one was an idiot child perfectly helpless, and one was a little child. The other twenty-eight inmates were at work at something. Twenty of them did a full day's work or nearly so. By this it is not meant that their work was worth as much as ordinary labor. With the exception of two feeble-minded persons, their labor was worth only a little in a pecuniary sense. But it was valuable to them. Each had a certain definite kind of work to do, and was held responsible for it. At a previous visit, I had gone around, unaccompanied by any officer, and inquired of each inmate what he or she did in the institution. You should have seen the pride with which they exhibited to me their little work, in the way of sewing, knitting, gardening, care of cattle, and so on, and the satisfaction they took in it. Contrary to the usual rule in visits to poorhouses, I heard not one single complaint from an inmate. Some years earlier I had visited this poorhouse, before the present superintendent and matron were in charge, and had seen the handcuffs and cells which were used to coerce refractory inmates. Nothing of the kind is now used or needed. This condition of affairs was not attained easily. When I advised the superintendent and matron, on their taking charge, to secure labor from the inmates as much as possible, I at the same time warned them that they would be lied about, and would have trouble in securing labor from lazy paupers. It so happened; and at one time I feared they would lose their place, so strong had the feeling become in the county on account of the false stories started by drones who had been stung out of this hive of industry. But that is all over now, and the people of the county recognize that the poorhouse is admirably managed. These are not selected paupers in a simple country community. They average as bad as any, several have long lines of pauper ancestry, and all are of the pauper class. Now, these examples, one from a large and one from a small poorhouse, show what is possible in the way of employment in poorhouses. What is done in these two can be done everywhere, and ought to be done. When that time comes, the name of poorhouse will carry a different impression from what it now does. In our effort to secure the proper treatment of children and insane, by their removal from

Page  203 POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES 203 poorhouses, we have sometimes unfairly denounced poorhouses, and have talked of them as if they were incapable of being brought up to a high level. Now let us go to work and try to improve them. Among the chief means of doing this will be to enforce the idea of employment in poorhouses. 2. THE MICHIGAN POOR IN ALMSHOUSES. BY HAL C. WYMAN, M.D., OF DETROIT, MICH. Pauperism, says Worcester, implies maintenance by public charity. A poor man, and even an indigent man, may maintain his independence and self-respect; but a pauper is degraded in his own eyes and the eyes of others. A condition of this kind is deserving of study. Both the degradation and the pauperism should be remedied. Their causes should be carefully analyzed and studied for the purpose of preventing their propagation. We know that from the earliest times some of our fellow-men have been subjects of charity. The history of pauperism is a history of the human race. We have heard that some of the ancient inhabitants of Europe killed their aged parents, who were unable, through the infirmity of years, to earn their living,- a horrible remedy for pauperism caused by physical disability. Many savages are said to kill their comrades who are wounded in battle, and thereby made incompetent to fight their way through life. In the struggle for the survival of the fittest, the weak individuals often become the wards and dependants of their stronger fellows. Civilization, in its present exalted state, aims to so temper its principles that all people who are too weak to care for themselves shall be cared for by their friends or by the public. No one is allowed to die of starvation or exposure because he is not himself able to provide food and shelter. Society regulates the relations of individuals to each other, and says who are one's friends in matters of maintenance and who is entitled to public charity. The exercise of these principles makes us desire to see the smallest possible number made objects of public charity. With that aim, the causes of pauperism are studied and remedied. A transcendental surgery has developed, which seeks to cut out and destroy every root, branch, and fibre in our social system which contributes to the development of pauperism. It is less brutal and bloody than that practised by savages. The civilized soldier does not kill his weak

Page  204 204 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and wounded comrade. The modern mother does not drown her deformed or defective child, but nourishes and trains it, exercising all the ingenuity of art to make it independent and self-sustaining in the battle of life. An examination of 57 reports from 62 Michigan county poorhouses, received in July last, showed 1,840 inmates, all paupers in the sense the word has just been defined. July was selected for making the study, because it is, in Michigan, the month most favorable for independent maintenance, and the poorhouses at that time contain only the most extreme cases. For convenience of study, the causes of pauperism in these institutions may be arranged in two primary classes; namely, (i) causes originating in the individual, (2) causes originating in the environment of the individual. The former class contains about I,380, the latter about 460 cases. CLASS I. may be divided into several sub-classes, as follows: (a) intemperate drinking, (b) intemperate eating (gormandizing), (c) bad economy in the purchase and preparation of foods, (d) indolence and general shiftlessness. (a) Intemperate Drinking.- In regard to intoxicating liquors, many adult inmates, keepers tell me, need to be constantly watched, else they will run off to the village and get drunk. The former residence of the inmates has much to do with intemperance. Those who come to the poorhouse from the cities most frequently owe their poverty to drink, while the inmate from the rural districts usually owes his poverty to general and perverse shiftlessness. This is probably owing to the greater facility with which the shiftless class in cities obtain liquor. Less labor is required to get it. A drink is often the payment one of this class receives for his indifferent labor. In Wayne, - the most populous county in the State, where Detroit is situated,the poorhouse contains 445 inmates. The larger proportion of these had been residents of Detroit. Mr. P. Blake, one of the most experienced superintendents of the poor in the county, says that 75 per cent. of the inmates who have been citizens of Detroit owe their poverty to intemperance. (b) Intemperate Eating.-Almost every poorhouse I have visited contains several examples of poverty caused by overtaxing the digestive organs. The quantity of food eaten by some of these cases is to be compared with that taken by some animals (serpents, for example), which become torpid and inert when their stomachs are filled. Numerous cases of indisposition and laziness are to be traced to the habit of gormandizing. The food provided in the poor

Page  205 POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES 205 houses is sufficiently varied to cure these cases, if the amount of food eaten was properly proportioned to the quantity of energy expended in physical labor. (c) Bad Economy in the Purchase and Preparation of Food.- What is commonly called "good living" by industrious people is frequently a cause of poverty. A physician of wide experience has often remarked that the expensive "sirloin" and "porterhouse " steaks make many people unable to pay their bills, and bring them finally to the poorhouse. Many inmates, during their working years, wasted their earnings in this way. Thee Irish and the English inmates are occasionally found to have been subjects of the same bad habit. I do not remember to have found a single instance of a Frenchman, a German, or a Pole, whose presence in the poorhouse could be traced to lavish expenditures for food. Much good for prevention of this cause of pauperism could be done by teaching how to get nutritious dishes out of cheaper meats. The finer and more expensive meats are often cooked with less labor than the cheaper meats. The poor man's wife, busied with the care of numerous children, is often compelled to prepare her husband's meal quickly. She goes to the market and gets the expensive steak instead of the cheaper neck and stew pieces, because she can cook and serve it quickly; ignorantly thinking that time is of more value than money in this respect. Domestic economists can find a rich field for the exercise of their skill in the preparation of cheaper and better foods. (d) Indolence and General Shiftlesesss.- The term "general shiftlessness " does not cover the remote causes of pauperism, but it is in common use, and characterizes one in whom a lack of energy and vitality is conspicuous. Many cases of shiftlessness are due to natural and acquired weakness of fibre and absence of bodily and mental tone. I have been surprised at the number of cases which could be traced to hereditary origin. The descendants of the French, who settled in Michigan late in the seventeenth century, have a written record, dating from the founding of Detroit in I701. Some of these people, commonly called Canadian or Michigan French, who are found in the poorhouses in the eastern and northern parts of the State, have been paupers for several generations, and come from families who labor intermittently. Descent from a line of indolent fishing and hunting French and Indian ancestors is the cause of the shiftlessness and pauperism of some such inmates. However, in proportion to the whole number of shiftless people in Michigan poor

Page  206 206 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES houses, but a few are born in the State. The majority come from Canada, Great Britain, and Europe. They are often tramps. A great many work only during the harvest season or when berries are ripe; and yet they can, with the aid of their wives and children, get together a little money with which to buy tobacco, go to the circus, or add to the scanty wardrobe. If the intemperate and shiftless people were removed from our poorhouses, we should have remaining those mainly who owe their pauperism to poor health. And their number would not be nearly what it is now, because many of those who suffer from poor health can trace their sickness to their own improvidence, shiftlessness, and intemperance. The poorhouses are an unsatisfactory remedy for such cases. They promote temperance by enforcing prohibition, but do not inculcate ideas of thrift and industry to take the place of appetites for drink and indolence. The sense of pride which keeps the industrious man out of the poorhouse does not operate on them. The jails are not a deterrent. Michigan has no code of laws which properly restrict this class. The ordinances of cities and villages which apply to vagrants encourage instead of restraining them. A remedy could be had by adopting a forced military system. The State could provide a military service, which would include all paupers who are found, after medical examination, to be able to do limited military duty. They would not make first-class soldiers, but such are not required in times of peace. They would prove useful as guards for the property of the State and, in times of threatened disaster by flood or fire, could be used to protect private property. Even in time of war, they would be better than nothing. Wars have always had a depressing effect on mendicancy and pauperism. Before the Revolution, Rush tells us, beggars were common and tramped from town to town, but the exigencies of war found a serviceable place for them. About eleven hundred of Michigan's poorhouse paupers could be utilized for limited military service. To the battle-trained veteran they might suggest the army which Shakspere recruited for Sir John Falstaff, but to the groveller in poorhouse statistics they would represent a body of men whose lives had been of no use to themselves and less to others, who could be maintained in that way and yield something in return, whom military discipline would teach cleanliness and compel industry. CLASS II.-The class into which I have assembled the causes having their origin in the environment of the pauper contains (a) disease, (b) insanity, idiocy, imbecility, (c) old age and childhood.

Page  207 POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES 207 (a) Disease, when found in Michigan poorhouses as a cause of pauperism, does not embrace a wide range of maladies; and it is so blended with vice and intemperance that distinctions are made with difficulty. Enumerated as- follows, there are: of epilepsy, 58 cases; paralysis, 55 cases; disease of bones and joints, 42 cases; chronic syphilis, 41 cases; consumption, 23 cases; cancer, 9 cases. Fever cases are rare. It is seldom that injuries resulting from accidents, broken bones, etc., are found in the poorhouses. Defective education, bad morals, and disrespect for family ties bring many of these sick people to the poorhouses. Some of them have left homes where their energies were needed, and lost their health among strangers. The lumber operations in the forests of the State attract many young men from the East. Their home ties are broken; and, when they are sick and have been improvident, they go to the poorhouses. (b) Insanity, idiocy, and imbecility number respectively 3I2, I28, and 183 cases. The records kept are often greatly confused in respect to these causes. The insane are sometimes numbered with the idiots and imbeciles. In making my inquiries, I defined the insane as those who, having had a mind, had lost it; idiots, those who never had a mind; and imbeciles, those whose minds had not developed during childhood and youth. (c) Old Age and Childhood. —This class contains 378 persons over seventy years of age, and I58 under twenty years. Many of these people are enrolled among the insane, idiotic, and imbecile. The presence of so many old people among the paupers leads to the inquiry, What brought them there? The keepers generally answer, Drink, but, I believe, often incorrectly. It is hardly fair to assume that strong drink is the sole cause of pauperism in a man seventy or eighty years of age, and in his wife of equal age. He may have drunk in his youth, and wasted the hours which should have been devoted to honest toil; but it is doubtful if a man or woman of the age mentioned could have wasted much vital energy by drink, because, in these times, the man who gives his time wholly, or even in part, to drink dies young. His health is early so undermined that his earning power is destroyed, and he becomes a pauper of a different class. Those people who have entered the poorhouses because of the infirmities of age must not be confounded with those who have grown old therein. The latter generally owe their poverty to indolence, undervitalization, and the absence of power in the poorhouses to compel them to work ten hours a day, at a time of life when they had the physical strength to do a full day's work. The

Page  208 208 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES former require more careful study for the discovery of the causes which made them poor. Bad judgment, bad education, and evil associations are among the most frequent causes. Business failure cannot always be traced to bad judgment, if we are to understand good judgment to mean average ability to recognize opportunities and foresee results. Hard times, some say, made them poor. Others say the mortgage on the farm. The high rate of interest common in some parts of the State often imposes debts which the diminished earning power of age is unable to pay. Sometimes the debts have been accumulating for years, the added principal and interest increasing in greater ratio than the value of the farm. Cases of this kind might be classed under the head of bad judgment; but it appears to me that the judgment has not been so bad as the exigencies of the times. It is true that but few people in a given locality have suffered in this way, while the majority have prospered; yet a careful inquiry does not show that paupers of this class are weaker mentally than their more fortunate fellow-citizens. We all remember the pathos with which King Lear says, " How sharper than a serpent's tooth it is to have a thankless child!" Some of the old people in our poorhouses are there because their sons or daughters will not care for them. Superintendents do all in their power to prevent the occurrence of such cases, and induce the children and grandchildren to take care of their relatives. But, where there is a want of filial feeling and family pride, such cases will occur, in spite of rules and scouting. Many of the class under twenty years of age are idiots. They are pitiful examples of the sins and ignorance of parents, the stupidity and folly of the State. Parents should be better and know more. This State should do as other States have done,- provide them a home by themselves, where they can be taught and cared for. The State has, however, wisely established a school for the education of any child of sound mind and body who may be found in a poorhouse. Still, enough remain of unsound mind and crippled bodies to make a class of r58 persons under twenty years of age. It is sad to see a bright child deprived of the advantages of this school because the accident of birth or the ravages of disease have left him with a deformed or crippled limb. Bad philanthropy, if I may be allowed to use the paradoxical term, is a cause of pauperism. Charitable organizations, which exist in almost all the cities and villages of our State, are not always as wise and careful in the administration of charity as they should be.

Page  209 POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES 209 People are aided who are able to aid themselves; and, through habit of submitting to extraneous help, they learn to disregard the adage, "Self-help is the best help," and gradually drift to the poorhouse. The number of these cases I am not able to compute, but they are altogether too frequent. The establishment of savings societies by city and village philanthropists would do much to prevent pauperism among the shiftless and intemperate classes. The anatomy law has diminished the number of inmates of Michigan poorhouses. Under its provisions, the bodies of all paupers whose friends do not bury them are sent to the medical colleges. Not infreqently, an old man, when he contracts his last illness, will be taken from the institution to die and be buried elsewhere. Often, the friends come and take away the remains and bury them,- not to spare the pauper the pain he would suffer by the prospect of being dissected, but from a desire to spare themselves the knowledge that one of their family has become a subject for the dissecting-room. Many of the paupers are indifferent to the disposition made of their bodies after death; while others will bargain their old chests, relics, and the small sums which they may have hoarded, for the purpose of honorable interment. Since the passage of this law, the able children of the poor are more reluctant to let their aged and diseased parents become paupers. The mystery and horror of the dissecting-room have proven a stimulus to energy and vitality in those whose sense of pride and love of family ties were not strong enough to compel them to do their whole duty in the work of civilization.

Page  210 XII. winutrt ant Ditrcusiono. SECRETARY'S REPORT. FIRST SESSION. Wednesday night, Sept. ii, I889. The sixteenth annual session of the National Conference of Charities and Correction began on Wednesday night, Sept. ii, I889, in Union Square Hall, Post Street, San Francisco, Cal. Music was furnished by the Lohengrin Glee Club. Ex-Governor George C. Perkins, chairman of the Local Committee of Arrangements, presided. Prayer was offered by.Rev. Charles Dana Barrows. Addresses of welcome were made by Hon. R.-W. Waterman, Governor of California (page ix), Hon. E. B. Pond, Mayor of San Francisco (page x), and Hon. George C. Perkins (page x). Responses were made by Rev. Fred H. Wines of Illinois (page xii), Rev. Oscar C. McCulloch of Indiana (page xv), and Dr. Charles S. Hoyt of New York (page xvi). The annual address was delivered by the President of the Conference, the Rt. Rev. George D. Gillespie, of Michigan (page xviii). On motion of A. E. Elmore, of Wisconsin, the following resolutions were passed:Resolved, That the members of this Conference from each State and Territory present to the President the name of some person from such State or Territory to be placed on the Committee on Credentials, and also some person from such State or Territory to be placed on the Committee on Time and Place of the next National Conference. Resolved further, That the President appoint a committee of nine on the organization of the next Conference, and also another committee of nine on resolutions or propositions submitted for the consideration of the Conference; and all such resolutions or propositions shall be referred, without debate, to said committee. The benediction was pronounced by Rev. Jacob Voorsanger; and at 9.30 P.M. the Conference adjourned to the parlors of the Occidental Hotel, where a reception was given to the delegates by the ladies of San Francisco.

Page  211 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 2 I I SECOND SESSION. Thursday morning, September 12. The Conference met at 9.30 A.M., President Gillespie in the chair. Prayer was offered by Rev. Charles W. Wendte, of Oakland, Cal. The following committees were announced:On Organization: Dr. Charles S. Hoyt, New York; Fred H. Wines, Illinois; Dr. A. G. Byers, Ohio; John Glenn, Maryland; H. H. Hart, Minnesota; Lucius C. Storrs, Michigan; H. M. Blackstone, Massachusetts; A. O. Wright, Wisconsin; Dr. Walter Lindley, California. On Resolutions: A. E. Elmore, Wisconsin; W. A. Johnson, Indiana; C. A. Murdock, California; Dr. C. I. Fisher, Massachusetts; William Ball, Michigan; Mrs. J. S. Sperry, Colorado; Mrs. L. Wolcott, New York; Dr. G. Vivian, Minnesota; Mahlon K. Paist, Pennsylvania. The order for the day was Reports from States. In the absence of the chairman, F. B. Sanborn, the reports from various States were presented by F. H. Wines. Additional reports were then called for from other States. Mrs. Joseph F. Spear read the report from California (page 119). DISCUSSION ON REPORTS FROM STATES. Rev. Charles William Wendte, of Oakland, Cal., said that the appropriation of $4,277,416 for the next two years, as given in Mrs. Spear's able and comprehensive report, showed on one side a desire on the part of the people to be generous in making provision for the delinquent and defective classes; but, on the other, it showed a lack of wisdom and of insight into the conditions of charitable and penal administration. One cannot be sure how much of this was due to political consideration, but he thought the publication of all the facts would do good. It would open the eyes of people as. to the methods employed by the State. He wished to ask Mr. Wines as to the comparative expense of the California system and that of Illinois or Pennsylvania. He thought California was open to the charge of extravagance. Rev. Jacob Voorsanger wished to take up the gauntlet for California. While the figures were very large, he wished to purge the State from the charge of wastefulness and extravagance. 'He rejected the proposition that California could be compared with other States. It is too young, and the conditions are too peculiar to allow it to be placed on the same basis with any other State. In the appropriation referred to, there is a large amount for the purpose of buildings. That should be dedutted in the first place. Then the appropriation for soldiers' homes should be deducted. The population is cosmopolitan. It is made up not only of Americans, but of Italians,

Page  212 212 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES French, Mexicans, Germans, Chinese, and other nations, and not the best people of those nations. It is therefore natural that the per cent. of criminals should be high, larger than anywhere else. He thought, also, that the climate was perhaps productive of diseases that come under the scope of the State's provision, so that it was a matter of law that the percentage of disease, crime, and evil should be larger than in the East. If it were true that the State was extravagant, it might be owing to the youth and inexperience of California, which was only organized in I850. He thought it to the honor of California that there were more institutions for children to the thousand population than in the East. There was little to discourage in the outlook; but, at the same time, he would like to see something done which should take every institution in the State out of the reach of political control. That is the great need of California. Politics, so far as its influence on education and charity is concerned, is fast becoming a curse. The time is coming when the intelligent people of the State will unite and compel the legislature to listen, till the various institutions of California shall be guided by humane, and not by political considerations. Rev. O. C. McCulloch, of Indiana, asked whether Dr. Voorsanger would favor taking institutions from what seemed to be religious control. It was evident that most of the children were under the care of sectarian institutions. He thought 4,3i7 an enormous number of children to be gathered in institutions. Aside from the fact of the undesirability of gathering them together in this way, was there no danger of multiplying private institutions and of filling them up and keeping them filled up? Dr. VOORSANGER.- If I could be satisfied that the State would give its dependants a religious education, Christian, Jewish, or whatever it might be, I should be perfectly satisfied to confide the children to the State; but I cannot conceive such a thing. It is not a sound education in which religious and moral training has no part. I believe it is safe to leave the children with the churches. With boards appointed by the religious denominations, we have at least the hope that the religious education of the children will be looked after. One reason why the number of orphans is so constantly increasing here is that the population of the State shifts, and that poor people come without means, and throw themselves almost from the first on the support of the State. Many are told beforehand that they will be looked after if they come here. This class fill our orphan asylums and our county jails. The East cannot be compared with this State on account of this condition of things. Your institutions are old and well formed. Your boards have made a study of these questions. Here we are new. We have to look for methods that will fit our conditions. I am personally a firm believer in religious denominations receiving no support whatever from the State, so long as they choose to keep its children.under their own roofs.. Mr. MCCULLOCH.- Does the Hebrew Orphan Asylum receive any aid from the State?

Page  213 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 213 Dr. VOORSANGER.- It receives about two and three-quarters per cent. of the money, and has about two and a half per cent. of the children. It does not need the money. It simply receives it because the State distributes it. The Hebrew Orphan Asylum has an endowment of $200,000 of its own. You will find the Hebrews among the first, if not the very first, who will refuse the State's money the very moment that the opinion prevails that private institutions should take care of their own. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-I understand that to be the attitude of the Hebrews everywhere. Their care of their poor is exceptional. I understand that Dr. Voorsanger believes that every denomination should take care of its own children. Dr. VOORSANGER.- I do. Mr. WENDTE. —If I understand the matter, in the States most distinguished for correctional and charitable work but a small percentage of children is kept in institutions. They are placed in homes. One great trouble in herding them in institutions is that they are kept too long, sometimes till they are sixteen or eighteen years of age. They are found useful, and are kept at work on the place. I heartily indorse what has been said as to the wrong of the States appropriating money for any institution, sectarian or private. Let the State itself take care of its dependent children and its defective classes, and let private and religious institutions which have children in their keeping pay for it themselves. If we compare our appropriations with new States like Minnesota or Michigan, I cannot help thinking that we shall be found to be extravagant. CHARLES A. MURDOCK, of California.- We ought to be set right in this matter. We need criticism, but we have a defence in part. This array of figures is startling; but, if we deduct the amounts for special appropriations, the residue is not so much after all. There is first an appropriation of $360,000 for two reformatories. These are to be at Los Angeles and at Ione. The first is under the control of a special board of trustees, apart from politics; the second, under the prison directors. For the insane, we were obliged to make new appropriations, sad as the fact may be. Our insane asylums are crowded. It is admitted that they are well managed. Provision had to be made for the blind. Then, as to the feeble-minded children, we have about one hundred crowded together, and have to refuse applications every day. There are more than six hundred such children in the State who ought to be in an institution. What is to be done? We have an appropriation of $170,000 for a site and new buildings. This provision was absolutely necessary. The same is true of the Home for Soldiers' Widows and Orphans. For these special purposes, over $2,300,000 out of the $4,277,4I6 will be used. Now we come to the weak point, —4,3I7 children in institutions. That is not to our credit, but we can say that we are improving. Formerly, these institutions received direct State appropriations; but now they are only paidpro rata for the orphans and half-orphans they support. There is, however, no check on the number of children

Page  214 214 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES that may be kept in institutions. That is where we need a State Board of Charities. It is behind the age to herd children like this. They should be placed in homes. If sectarians are not willing to allow the State to put them in homes, they should pay their own bills. It is the duty of the State to make good citizens, not good Protestants, Catholics, or Hebrews. Miss Jessie A. Schley, of Minnesota, said she did not understand who the "State's children" were, unless they were the children of infidels, for she thought that almost every child belonged to some church, and that, as the parents pay the taxes, they should be the ones to decide to what institution their children should be sent. Mr. WENDTE.- All the children in the community are the children of the State, and especially the orphaned and unfortunate. If any parent desires to have his children brought up in a particular creed, that parent has a perfect right to do it, but let him pay for it himself. Miss SCHLEY.- Why should I pay taxes to have my child educated as an infidel? Mr. WENDTE.- I do not know of any State institution where there is no provision for religious or moral training of some kind. Either there is a chaplain or the children are sent to church, or there are religious services in the institution. J. S. Appel, of Colorado, asked what influences had prevented the legislature of California from establishing a State Board of Charities. Mr. MURDOCK.-Two years ago a bill for that purpose was introduced into the legislature. Two gentlemen went to Sacramento, and in half a day satisfied the committee that it ought to be reported favorably; and it was so reported. There was a fair prospect of its passing. But for some mysterious reason -perhaps not so mysterious, but not open, certainly -the report suddenly melted away; and of course the only inference we could draw was that the people most interested in the effect of that bill were the ones who opposed it. George B. Katzenstein, of California, said that orphans under the present laws of California cannot be retained after fourteen years of age, or that support cannot be drawn for them after that age. The system might have been abused in the past, but it cannot be now. He believed that children were maintained at far less cost to the State in private institutions than they could be in any other way. Dr. WALTER LINDLEY, of California.- The learned rabbi and Mr. Murdock have expressed my sentiments in defending California. We have worked very hard to induce our legislators to expend these millions, and we do not like to have people come from the East and indiscriminately discourage them. This is a very long State. Southern California lies over five hundred miles from any insane asylum. During the past year over two hundred insane sick people were sent five hundred miles, in the care of a turnkey or jailer, to the insane asylum, because the State of California has never made provision for an insane asylum in that densely populated country. To criticise the action of the legislature under such circumstances is a sad mistake. As has been said, the reform school, which had gone out of existence,

Page  215 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 2I5 has been re-established by an appropriation of $360,000. We are to have two on the most modern charitable and useful basis, and we propose to utilize your ideas in this work. The report from the State of Indiana by Mr. L. A. Barnet was read by W. A. Johnson (page 130). In closing, Mr. Johnson asked that Mr. McCulloch, who had been largely instrumental in securing the new Board of Charities of that State, should speak on that subject. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-The Board is the result of effort that has been going on for six years. Mr. Wines and Dr. Byers helped us in securing it. Perhaps a few words about it may be suggestive to the people of California. Before the legislature came together, while the newly elected men were in that impressionable state in which every new legislator is when he is desirous of useful information, we used to send them, about once a week, various papers on State Boards of Charities. If you keep this up long enough,- and you can, for there is plenty of good material,- by the time the legislature gets to Sacramento you will have something to work on. We knew that Ohio and Minnesota were working successfully on a very simple plan, and we took that plan and adapted it to our use. Then we brought Mr, Johnson from Chicago, and he is now our secretary. The report from Maryland was presented (p. I35). Mr. John Glenn, of Baltimore, was asked to supplement the report from Maryland. Mr. GLENN.- Our report contains almost everything that Maryland has to say; and I will confine myself not to what we have done, but what we want to do. We are in the condition of a State governed by politics. Our institutions are visited by the grand jury and a committee from the legislature, whose duties are apparently largely gastronomic; and this changes the view of the condition of things. In one instance, I wanted to see what could be done with our almshouse, so two of us went to visit it. We were received with lemonade and sandwiches. We made our investigation, and it was not so favorable as it might have been. We went to the mayor, who is one of the trustees, and had a long conversation, and found him with the most roseate ideas of the condition of things. On examining into the matter, we found that an elaborate spread had been given to the mayor; and we could understand why he should take one view, and we another! This is one thing to which, I think, we should give very careful attention. It is at the basis of every charity. If you have an almshouse for your community arranged on such a plan that "none comes too early and none remains too late," you are lost. We have one of the most magnificent and best conducted almshouses in the United States. As one of the inmates told me, "I have not struck such a Piccadilly as this anywhere." We give them whiskey and tobacco rations. Whenever they want to come, we throw open our

Page  216 216 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES gates and arms to them; and we take good care of them there. During the winter they are well fed, and, when the summer comes, out they go, and spread over the country; and, when cold weather comes again, they are as regularly there. They are as regular as migratory birds. We have a population of about fifteen hundred, of whom six or seven hundred are perfectly able-bodied. This is a great temptation for the politician. These men,- and I speak what is to go on record and what I am'responsible for,-when the time for action comes, are marshalled out to vote; and they vote as regularly as I do, and a good deal more so. These are things that ought to be attended to. The management of an almshouse ought to be non-political. Second, they ought not to be too comfortable. Beggary is not so much a condition as it is a disposition. You will find the beggar type in the highest classes. We have the beggar type right round us; and, if the almshouses were made as comfortable as the Occidental Hotel, the only effect would be to raise the class of beggars that would go there. Therefore, it is one of the most important things that we can do to make two divisions, one a division for the child of misfortune,- that is, the child of the State,- who must be taken care of comfortably, and one for the man who is capable of work and will not work. To make him comfortable in the workhouse is a crime. What I would advise you to do, and what I am going to do, is to get our almshouse divided into two parts, one to take care of the child of misfortune, and the other to take care of the beggar who shall come. But, when he comes, he will be put under influences which never yet have been considered sufficiently in the treatment of the beggar. We are to-day in the midst of what we would call the reform movement,- reform in the care of the insane, in the treatment of children, in the discipline of criminals. We have tried various means with the beggar. In olden times we hanged him: he did not mind it. We have cut off his ears, we have imprisoned him: it does not do any good. The only hope for the beggar class is to take up our idea of reform, and look on him as a quasi-criminal, and bring him under reformatory influence. We must not let him come and go as he chooses, but when arrested for the first time, when the horror of imprisonment is on him, make imprisonment short. If he insists on coming a second time, make it long enough to bring him under reformatory influence. A great many of our beggars have never known what a home was, what property was, what anything that makes a citizen was; and, when they come for the first time into one of these institutions, these things ought to be placed before them just as much as they are at Elmira. The other matter about which I would like to speak is the formation of a Board of Charities. We have been trying to do that, but we have met the same difficulties that have been encountered in almost every State. We want to induce our people to form such a board. We want it to visit the different institutions. We want a perfectly non-partisan board that will speak up manfully as to the exact condition of things.

Page  217 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 2I7 These are the two things that we are going to try for in Maryland, and I hope you gentlemen of California will set us the example. Mrs. A. JACOBS, of Colorado.- It struck me, as I listened to the gentleman from Maryland, that, when men lose their responsibility and we have to take care of them in this way, that the first step should be to disfranchise them. I think, if you took the vote from them, so that they could not say who should be our governors and our senators and representatives, we should find our poorhouses empty. Colorado is in a peculiar condition. We are known as the sanatorium of America. Every part of the land throws upon us its consumptives, and we have received them with open arms. We have become the dumping-ground of the States. We feel it keenly. We have no almshouse in Colorado. We have merely the county poorhouse and farm. There is no place to take care of the women. We have a Ladies' Relief Society and a Home for the Friendless, in which we have a ward for women with children who have no work and who are deserted by their husbands. We have also a cottage home for fallen women, a foundling asylum also, and a county hospital for people who come in there. We have St. Luke's Hospital and a hospital that is now being formed for women, especially for the treatment of female troubles and also for women who have no homes who come to us in wretched conditions. We take them in and care for them. Our work is peculiar. We have a large population of foreigners, who come from every land and clime, who are also not of the best classes. With these we find great difficulty in dealing, and our worst work is among the children of this class. Most of them are degraded and filthy, but we take the little ones into our kindergarten. As an instance of what we have to contend with, one little girl came to us; and every time we dressed her and sent her home clean, she would come back in her old clothes, crying. Her parents would strip her every night, and pawn her clothes, and get beastly drunk. To save the child, we had to do a similar thing: we stripped her every night, and sent her home in her old ragged clothes, and then dressed her up clean in the morning; and we made her a self-respecting little girl. We want laws made for the women and children of our cities, laws made by the men who are wise in their day and generation, that, when a man or a woman shows himself or herself incapable of taking care of his or her children, they, the children, should become the wards of the State, and all the women of the nation should know how to take care of them, and have hearts to do it. There is one thing that we object to, the States taking care of dependent children, and having boards of men only to rule them. Women of large hearts, women of great and noble character, selfsacrificing mothers,- these are what our day and age demand. O women of this generation, it is to you the race is looking for redemption. It is in your hands and in your power. Bring up your little boys and girls with this feeling, and the influence of your life shall go down for generations. Every day that you and your children do some good, that day is added to your day and your race.

Page  218 2I8 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES "Count that day lost whose low descending sun Views from thy hand no worthy action done." In the Associated Charities, which we have recently formed in Denver, we have eleven societies which have joined together. We meet every Monday; and it is a sort of clearing-house whereby imposters are black-listed, the noble poor are taken care of nobly, and we never give their names or conditions to the public. I object seriously to the name of pauper for little children. It is a word they have no right to bear. No child is a pauper. If it is from pauper parents, it is your duty and mine to take that child from the paupers and make it our charge, and give to it the influence to which it has a right. The Jews in olden time would never step upon a piece of paper, for they said the name of God may be written upon it; but here are these little children, with the image of God impressed upon them, and day by day from the cradle up they hear this name. One little girl came to me, crying, and saying she would not go to the school again. "Why?" I asked. "That child called me a pauper." She was no pauper, because she was taken care of by a kind-hearted woman. It is the fault of our women that better influences are not thrown round these little ones. Our women are studying Browning and Plato, but the living questions of the day they do not understand. We must know what is going on in the world. We must teach our children that there is no grander mission on earth than work. It is the fault of our women that work in its highest and noblest type is looked down on, and that such questions are being discussed as, "Is Marriage a Failure?" "Are' we Happy in our Homes?" and a thousand similar ones. The care of dependent children should not only be the duty of women, but should be their highest pride. In Denver, we are compelled to place our girls in the only institution at our disposal, the House of the Good Shepherd. Some of these little girls are incorrigible, some vicious and immoral, and some have "no visible means of support" and no one to take care of them. In the House of the Good Shepherd there is a department of weakminded called the "innocents." These girls are placed with the "innocents," as it was thought they would get less harm than with the other members of the home. We hope to gain much in the knowledge of the best way of work at this Conference; for we are very much like the girl who had worked very, very hard all her life, and her mistress was consoling her. " Oh, never mind, Emma dear, some day you will have a long day of rest." "No, ma'am, it will never, never come to me. If I were to die to-morrow, the next day the trump would sound; and it would be resurrection day, and I should have to go to work again." J. S. APPEL, Colorado.- Our governor is very much interested in these subjects, and he has commissioned us to bring home reports to aid us in our work in our State. We have in Colorado a Reformatory for Boys at Golden. We have a Board of Health, but no Board of Charities. The Board of Health was formed mainly to prevent the

Page  219 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 219 importation of Texas cattle fever into Colorado. The legislature was called on to examine the reform school at Golden after it was ascertained by the newspaper press that something wrong was going on there. The legislature appointed a commission to examine into it, and the superintendent was removed. This shows the necessity of a State Board of Charities. The governor could have had the matter referred to them, and much cruelty would have been avoided. Our penitentiary and insane asylum are visited by a legislative committee, who go on a brief expedition at every biennial session. The prison is ready to receive them, and they come back and report a glowing condition of things, and the excellent way in which they are conducted. Our State Insane Asylum at Pueblo is now being enlarged and very much improved. We are trying to establish a State Conference of Charities, so as to bring every possible force to bear to have our State enroll itself with those which have State Boards of Charities. DISCUSSION OF STATE BOARDS OF CHARITIES. H. H. Hart, secretary of the Minnesota State Board of Corrections and Charities, was asked to speak of the formation of that Board. Mr. HART.- Six years ago, Minnesota organized a State Board of Corrections and Charities. The organization was largely due to the efficient work of Rev. M. McG. Dana, D.D., whose work there was similar to that of Mr. McCulloch in Indiana in that respect. It was found that a great deal could be done by a close study of the older States. Every new State ought to have better institutions and buildings than the older States, because the new can begin where the old left off. The work of a State Board is largely the comparative study of the institutions of other States. It is very true that, if the experience of different States is studied carelessly, you will make great mistakes. We have about the same population as California, about a million and a quarter. We, too, are building up new institutions. Within four years, we have organized our State school for dependent children, a new hospital for the insane, a second prison which is to be a reformatory for young men, a State Soldiers' Home, and we are building a new reform school,-five new institutions of this class. Last year, we expended in the support of these institutions, nine of which are now running, about five hundred and fifty thousand dollars for current expenses. You have appropriated almost a million a year, about twice-what we have. We expended during the past year, which was a very heavy year on account of new institutions, $440,000 for building and equipping new institutions and for additions to institutions already existing. You are appropriating for the next two years for this purpose nearly two millions and a half, twice as much as we for the same purpose. On the face of it, that looks like an extraordinary expenditure. We have had during the past year an average of about eighteen hundred insane; and I under

Page  220 220 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES stand you have had something over three thousand, or nearly twice as many. We have had 424 prison inmates. You have had about 2,300 inmates. In view of the discrepancy in the number of inmates, the question is no longer, Why is it that you expend so much? but Why is it that you care for so many more people than we do? Do not make a mistake, and find the trouble in the wrong place. There comes in the advantage of a comparison with the experience of other States. Take again the care of dependent children. Four years ago, the Governor of Minnesota recommended a State school for dependent children like the one in Michigan. The legislature made an appropriation for such an institution. A board of trustees was appointed to take steps for its organization. They supposed they must lay the foundation for an institution for six or seven hundred children. At the suggestion of the State Board of Charities, the trustees sent to Michigan, and asked a gentleman to come and give them some information. Mr. Foster came, and spoke for three-quarters of an hour before the trustees and other gentlemen. The result was that, instead of asking for an appropriation for six hundred children, they made provision for one hundred and fifty; and in our State we have at the present time a little over one hundred children in our care, and we have cared for all that offered themselves. This provides for all that would otherwise go into the county poorhouse. The indications are that we shall, with a maximum capacity for two hundred, provide for all who become dependent upon the State for support. We have a very efficient system of private institutions, Protestant and Catholic; and, with this machinery, it is likely that we shall be able to care for this class of children for a great many years to come. If you will study that system, you can ascertain how it will be applicable to this State. We have found that the State Board was able to render aid to State institutions. There was at first suspicion of the Board. The institutions thought it would interfere with their prerogatives. But we are now called on constantly to advise with the trustees of these institutions as to new buildings and other matters. We are recognized by all as one of the best friends they have in the State. Mr. GLENN.- Do you think that the State should have anything to do with the orphans? Mr. HART.-I believe that the worst thing that can happen to a child is to be brought up in a county almshouse. The State steps in, not to bring up the child, but to provide a temporary refuge until it can be transferred to the normal condition of a child; that is, in some good family. The State acts as an intermediary for the transfer of the dependent child into a home, where it can be properly cared for. It takes one step farther. It holds the guardianship of the child till it comes of age, looks after its interests, employs a visitor to visit the child and ascertain its condition from time to time, and, if the home is not suitable, to transfer it to another. We do not consider that it is the province of the State to bring up children, but simply to take charge of them temporarily.

Page  221 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 221 Mr. MCCULLOCH.- Have you a Soldiers' Orphans' Home? Mr. HART.- We have. Mr. MCCULLOCH.- Do you find a disposition to keep the children there longer than is for the good of the children? Mr. HART.- I ought to say that we have had one. We married off all the orphans and closed the institution up. We propose to do the work so well in caring for dependent children that our provision shall be good enough for the soldiers' orphans or any one's orphans. We see no necessity for making any distinction. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-I would like to ask Mr. Wines what he knows about these Soldiers' Orphans' Homes. In our State there is a disposition to gather up more and more children, and to retain them in the Homes. There are about three or four hundred applications on file. Mr. WINES.- Soldiers' orphans must marry at an early age in Indiana. In Illinois, we have soldiers' orphans who sit at the table in high-chairs. Soldiers' orphans are born every year. The almost universal tendency is to retain children in institutions just as long as possible. The town where a Home is established finds it profitable to have the appropriations expended there. The more orphans, the larger the appropriations, and the greater the benefit which the town receives. If an effort is made to secure the passage of a law unfavorably affecting soldiers' orphans, the town resists it. Then there is a natural feeling of sympathy for the orphans of soldiers, which expresses itself through legislation, and which will not allow them to be placed on the same footing with other dependent children,-a feeling that they have special rights and privileges, which should be accorded them. Any one who should run against that sentiment in Illinois would find himself "unhorsed," in a political sense. Q.- Isn't it a higher privilege for a child to be placed in a good home in a private family than to be kept in an institution? Mr. WINES.- I think so, but you cannot argue agaiVst a sentiment. With regard to another point which has been mentioned here, it is a mistake to suppose that the inmates of State institutions are not brought under religious influence. In our State, they are given every possible opportunity in this direction. The law in Illinois makes it the right of a minister of religion, of any denomination, to enter any State institution and to see the inmates of his own faith, if they desire to see him.* If we had a Mormon in either of our penitentiaries or insane hospitals, and a Mormon preacher were to come there, he would have the right to enter and to administer religious instruction *The following is the text of the statute alluded to: "An Act to secure to clergymen of all denominations free access to the fienitentiary atjoliet, and to all other ienal reformatory and charitable institutions in the State of llinois. SEC. i. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, that clergymen of all denominations shall be admitted freely and without hindrance or restraint to visit at pleasure any inmate confined in the penitentiary at Joliet or in any other prison, reformatory, or charitable institution belonging to the State of Illinois, subject to such rules and regulations as may be established by the officers in charge of said institutions: Provided, however, that any clergyman so applying shall produce to the officers in charge of such institution, visited as aforesaid, satisfactory evidence from the church authorities to which he belongs that he is a clergyman in good standing." [Approved March 28, i874. Revised Statutes, Chap. xo8, ~ 5so.]

Page  222 222 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and consolation to that prisoner or patient according to his own religious faith. If we had a Hindu prisoner, and a Hindu priest should come that way, he would have the same right. In our larger institutions, we have Roman Catholic services as well as Protestant. And, if a Roman Catholic patient is about to die, it is the custom of our superintendents to notify the priest, in order that he may administer the rite of extreme unction. It is a mistake to suppose that State institutions cannot respect the religious faith and conviction of every inmate. They ought to do so, if they do not. Dr. VOORSANGER.- I wish to emphasize my own opinion that orphans should not be educated by the State. While the State may permit anybody to go into its institutions and teach religion, the State as such has no religion. There is a sentiment underlying the education of children that the State does not and cannot possess. It is bound to look upon all people alike. It collects money by taxation, it pays salaries to have its work done; but it cannot have any sentiment. Religion has it. The State supports children in an asylum: religion educates them in the home. The underlying sentiment constitutes the difference between the two words "asylum " and "home." Take our institution, for instance, and see whether the State could do for our children what we do for them. You know well that we will teach our children that due respect to the laws of the State and that due obedience to their obligations which would make good citizens, but here we have an institution where a hundred children are being educated both as Jews and as American citizens. We give them such an education as we would give our own children. And I want to say, with all deference to the gentlemen who believe that children who are dependent on the State can be supported in private families, that there is no private family that is compelled to take payment for boarding such children that can give a child such an excellent education as an institution or home that has plenty of money. Take our own institution again. We give our children an excellent education; and at the age of thirteen or fourteen we send them out, but not to go adrift. We apprentice them or teach them some useful trade. About four months ago nine or ten gentlemen came together to consider whether it would not be a wise plan to encourage these children, as we do children in our own homes after they leave school; and we got together a fund of ten thousand dollars, the income of which is to be devoted to giving books and premiums, as we do to our own children, and to giving to the young ladies after they have left the institution a little dowry in case they get married. These are wise provisions that can only be instituted when orphans are under the care of the religious sentiment. It cannot be done under the care of the State or in case the State pays for them in private homes. I hold that the best and safest thing we can do is to leave them with the churches, with that religious s.entiment that has never failed; and I do wish and hope that that religious sentiment will always be independent enough to never ask any favors of the State. Dr. BYERS.- In Ohio, we care for children in county homes. No

Page  223 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 223 child over two years of age is allowed to remain in an infirmary, unless its mother is an inmate there. In that case, the child is removed at four to a county home, whether the mother is in the poorhouse or not. We give them the advantages of an education and of domestic training; and, as fast as we find homes, the children are placed in them. Ohio provides for its insane in six asylums. One of these is a county asylum at Cincinnati, accommodating to-day 793 patients; one at Dayton, with 600; one at Cleveland, with 600; one at Athens, with 800; Columbus, 9oo; and the new one at Toledo, with i,o60. The last is, perhaps, more strictly on the segregate system than any other insane asylum in the country. The patients are distributed. through about twenty cottages; and three times a day the monotony of ward life is broken by the patients going to their meals in a common dining-room, one for men and one for women. The institution is heated by natural gas and lighted by electricity, and is thoroughly furnished and equipped. We find the system to work admirably in its curative influence, while it promotes the happiness of the inmates. The poorhouses are very much improved over former years. They are no longer the habitations of cruelty and places of neglect and squalor that we found them when the State Board of Charities began its supervision. Our county jails are also very much improved. We are seeking to have every jail so constructed that there shall be separate confinement for every person arrested and awaiting trial. We do not believe any jail can be safe if bad men can be herded together, nor can the morals be improved by such herding. Where we have secured separate confinement, we have quiet, cleanliness, order, and a generally improved condition of things. We have a Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home, but we have not had the success of Minnesota in marrying off our orphan children. We have a great many soldiers who are still having additions to their families. We accommodate about nine hundred orphans at Xenia, and in addition to that number we have nearly three hundred for whom the State provides in county homes. These children are educated up to about sixteen years of age, and then, if they have families where they can have fair treatment and care, they are remanded to their custody; but the parents, as a rule, are averse to having them placed out. We are seeking to secure good homes for those that are homeless, for our soldiers' orphans seem to be multiplying on our hands; and we are yielding to the sentiment of which Mr. Wines spoke. We are having a good administration of these institutions. Our penal system is perhaps as advanced as any in this country. We are finding that the effect of the parole system is excellent. Under that, prisoners under a minimum sentence can be paroled and allowed to go free on certain conditions, the primal condition being that they shall have employment from responsible parties, that they shall behave themselves, and shall report at short intervals. A failure to report, a misdemeanor, or improper conduct of any kind, subjects them to

Page  224 224 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES rearrest and reimprisonment without trial. The influence of this has been good in the discipline of the prison. Men behave better than I ever knew them to, because the parole depends on their behavior when in prison. Surveillance tends to promote their good conduct outside. They are not permitted to leave the State. Occasionally, we find that the friends of a prisoner who has a good home propose to provide for him, or sometimes we find employment for a man in another State; but, in case he is allowed to leave the State, he must be pardoned. In three years, perhaps, we have had as many as five such cases, where pardons were issued to such persons under these circumstances. At our last session of the legislature, it was enacted that the cumulative sentence should apply to misdemeanants, or that, after the third conviction, misdemeanants should be considered under the criminal law as habitual misdemeanants, more commonly known as "rounders," or in some localities as " dead beats." These will not in future be allowed to make their usual rounds from the street to the saloon and from the saloon to the prison, and so on. We have in our workhouses persons who have been sent up to these institutions as many as fifty times. But, under our present law, the misdemeanant will suffer the penalty of the cumulative sentence, for life, if necessary. Our habitual criminal law applies to the criminal in this way. After a third conviction, stated in the indictment and proved to the jury, he is sent to State prison, and held for life. If we cannot reform the criminal, then, at least, we propose to protect society. Mr. HART.- How many children have you in county asylums or homes? Dr. BYERS.- We call them homes, and we try to have a home atmosphere about them. We have good family government and family care. We have to-day thirty-three county homes. We have eightyeight counties in the State. The annual population is between thirtyfive and thirty-six hundred children in these homes. Mr. HART.- How many have you in private orphan asylums? Mr. BYERS.-Taking the Hebrew asylum at Cleveland, which is one of the best institutions in our State, there would be about five hundred there, about as many in the Protestant, and probably a larger number in the Catholic asylums. I cannot give the numbers. Mr. HART.- Then you would estimate that you have about sixtyfive hundred children of the dependent class in Ohio. Dr. BYERS.- Yes. Mr. HART.- Not much behind California. Lucius C. Storrs, of Michigan, made the report from that State (page 142). Adjourned at 12.30 P.M. THIRD SESSION. Thursday night, September 12. The third session of the Conference was held in the First Congregational Church at 8 P.M., the president in the chair. Prayer was

Page  225 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 225 offered by Rev. J. H. Warren, D.D. The subject for the evening was " The Care and Disposal of Dependent Children." In the absence of the chairman of the committee having this subject in charge, H. S. Shurtleff, of Massachusetts, his paper on "The Massachusetts System " was read by Charles A. Murdock (page I). A paper on " Free Kindergartens: Practical Results of Ten Years' Work " was read by Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper (page i86). The subject was then thrown open for discussion. DISCUSSION OF KINDERGARTENS. Mr. Murdock bore testimony to the advantage of the kindergarten in the School for Imbeciles at Santa Clara. It not only adds happiness to their lives, but it seems to develop their feeble minds as nothing else does. He was glad to say, also, that the Women's Educational and Industrial Union had determined to have a class to teach children's nurses kindergarten methods, as it could not fail to add to the value and usefulness of the services of these nurses. Mrs. Charles Dohrman, of Stockton, believed in the kindergarten as one of the best means of saving the generations of the future. The work of the past has been mainly in the direction of reformation: in the future, it will be more in the way of prevention. A great deal of attention is paid to the prevention of physical contagion, and too little to the danger of moral contagion that is lurking in every corner in the cities and the towns. Children must be taught that the root of evil lies in idleness; and that is one of the lessons of the kindergarten. Another is the lesson of neatness and purity; and still another is that we are all brothers and sisters of one great family. All these lessons will help the children to grow up to be better fathers, mothers, brothers, and sisters. Rev. James Woodworth said that, from a long experience with criminals, and from a knowledge of their early history and the influences under which they have been brought up, he would venture to assert that of the children who were now being trained in kindergartens very few will hereafter be found in prisons as criminals. He was convinced that the kindergarten is one of the most powerful agencies for the prevention of crime. Bishop GILLESPIE.- I have heard teachers say that certain kindergarten scholars who had been used to what they called " play-study " do not work properly in classes when they come into them in the schools above the kindergarten. Can any one answer that? Mrs. DOHRMAN. —The public school teachers of Stockton have made that complaint very frequently. They also say that the children that have been brought tip in kindergarten are too inquisitive, have too many questions to ask, and require too much individual information. They heartily approve of the system as the best means of developing the original or creative faculties and of observation; but the public school system will not permit them to give sufficient

Page  226 226 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES time to carry on this system. There they must have class-work. The rigid discipline necessary to carry out the work as mapped out for the teacher, to be done within a limited period of time, makes this kindergarten beginning an apparent detriment to the completion of their labors. Rev. OSCAR C. MCCULLOCH, Indiana.- The kindergarten should be considered not merely as a way of amusing and of making happy little children. We should study it as a preventive of future crime and trouble. It seems to me that the effort of every kindergarten association ought to be directed toward urging the incorporation of kindergartens into the public school system. I believe that the results hoped for and claimed for it can never be reached, so long as it is dependent on the individual initiative. Should every millionaire in San Francisco take up this work, still you could not reach the vast swarm of little children who need it. The provision that a State makes for its children should comprehend this method. Six years of lost life is what every child knows under our present system. Said a mother to Charles Darwin: " My child is two and a half years old. When shall I begin its moral education? " " Madame," he replied, "you have already lost two and a half years of the most important period of its life." When the child has lived to the age of six with no care, sixty years of culture and kindness will not suffice to efface the impressions of those lost six years. This education is desirable, not only for the intellect, but for the heart and conscience; and our State Boards of Education should take into consideration the desirability of bringing the school age down to three, and of incorporating the kindergarten upon our present system. I believe this to be one of the most necessary things for the present age to undertake. "Out of earth's elements mingled with flame, Out of life's compounds of glory and shame, Fashioned and shaped by no will of their own, And helplessly into life's history thrown, Born by the law that compels men to be, Born to conditions they cannot foresee,"come little children. They ask not to come. What welcome do we give them? Simply social neglect; and by and by, at a large expense, after they have received their education on the street, we open to them the doors of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, our houses of refuge and reform, our reformatories and our prisons. The most beautiful picture that the world holds in its keeping is the Madonna of Saint Sixtus in Dresden, that wonderful creation of Raphael. It is a mother and a little child, the most beautiful child face that ever was, the mother with pleading, wondering look, with the little child in her arms. That is the spirit of the modern time. That is the prophecy of the coming age. Every little child has such a possibility. Behind the imbrutedness of the street child lies the possibility of a quick mind. Who makes us to differ? What are they but what we might have been! There, down in the bottom, lies your and my

Page  227 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 227 possible child. Said Horace Mann, "I will make it possible for the poorest man in Massachusetts to have as good an education as the richest can have." The duty we owe the children is not a question of sentiment: it is a question deeper than sentiment,- it is a question of justice. Mr. HART. — I want to call attention to the first paper read this evening, which I consider of great importance. It is thought by some that, to a great extent, in the name of charity and with the most anxious desire to do good, we have been responsible for the murder of the innocents in institutions for little babies. When at Omaha, I saw what to me was a very sad sight,- fifteen or twenty little babies gathered in a small room, laid on beds or couches, and cared for by attendants who were overtaxed. I have become convinced that there ought never to be more than two or three babies in one room. In Minnesota, the Sisters of Charity have tried the experiment of placing babies in well-selected and supervised homes; and the result has been very good. Many cities have foundling hospitals; but the practice of establishing them ought to be stopped. There ought to be a well-ordered system of boarding out children, with suitable mothers, who will take proper care of them. I counsel those interested to study this subject carefully. W. ALEXANDER JOHNSON, Indiana.- I want to call attention to one point with reference to kindergartens. A common argument in their favor is that they will save money to tax-payers. But there is a stronger argument in their favor. Within the past one hundred years there have been several great forward steps in benevolence. The old benevolence was simply relief. Then came the idea of reformation, then prevention, and now at the end we have got an idea that is above them all. We want to apply benevolence to the betterment and enrichment of life, to make lives more beautiful. I know of no better means to this than the kindergarten. Everything there has respect to beauty: color, shape, form, song, dance, music, flowers,-all these belong to the kindergarten. No child can go through a training of two or three years in this school without having its sentiment of beauty developed. No child can grow up under such training without being a better man or woman, whether a better artisan or not. We are safer when helping to make people's lives better than in any other way of help. It is safer to give a luxury than a necessity. Give a man that which he ought to earn, and you degrade him. Give him something that he cannot earn, and you benefit him. I visited your beautiful garden on the Cliff to-day. I saw the statues, the flowers, the trees, and the ocean beyond. And I was told that all this was the private property of a gentleman who enjoys it himself, and therefore wishes others to enjoy it also; and I said, There is the very essence of modern charity, not giving, but sharing a beautiful possession with the poor and the rich alike. We may give freely if we give rightly. Give that which will not degrade, but elevate. I have heard a thoughtful man say that he was doing a man less harm by giving him a thing harmful in itself,- but not a neces

Page  228 228 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES sity of life,- like beer or whiskey, than if he gave him a good thing that he ought to have earned for himself. I say to people who wish to give to the poor, and who feel that they cannot give coal and clothes and flour without danger of reducing the family to pauperism, "Give something that is not necessary: give a luxury." Give to the poor in the same spirit as you give a Christmas gift to a friend. I hold that such relations between rich and poor are to be the final development of charity, the hopeful and helpful charity of the future. Miss Jessie A. Schley read a brief paper on, " The Care of Working Girls," of which the following is an epitome: — Miss SCHLEY. -There should be many homes in every city at convenient distances from the shops most employing girls. These should be Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish; and the ministers of the several religions should visit and instruct the inmates of each. This would prevent "rooming," and the cheap, low boarding-houses which are the cause of the fall of so many. The homes should be made suitable and inviting. I have received in my St. Paul home, since starting it five years ago, about fifteen hundred young girls. Of these there were about one hundred married persons or widows. My home is called the "Young Girls' Home "; and we charge but $2.50 per week for the use of the whole house, board, lodging, use of reading-room containing newspapers, pamphlets, and between five and six hundred good books. We have bath-rooms for the girls' free use. We have a large laundry, with stationary tubs also for their use. We charge twenty cents each time they wash, but supply them with the materials necessary. We give the young ladies parties every few months, to which they invite their young gentlemen friends, and entertain them until midnight with square dancing, charades, checkers, and other harmless games. We also have during the winter months meetings of the " Enterprise Literary and Musical Club "; but these only last until I0.30 P. M., and. only such are permitted to become members as can contribute to the.entertainment of others by music, a recitation, or reading. The young gentlemen belonging to it must also do the same; and the "Investigating Committee" of the club carefully ascertain who they are before they are voted in as members. We also give every young girl married from the home a wedding breakfast. We have had about fourteen weddings. We do not receive women over thirty. I think forty about the right number to keep a home homelike. We have begun classes of individual instruction in the day and evenings, to teach grown girls and women who wish to improve. Dr. C. S. Hoyt, of New York, expressed the hope that more time would be given at another session for the discussion of the care of dependent children. Mr. John Glenn, of Baltimore, presented an invitation to the Conference to hold its next session in Baltimore, in the following words.

Page  229 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 229 Mr. GLENN.- I had the honor of inviting you to hold your session this year in Baltimore. I have also the pleasure of yielding to California. I come now again to tender that invitation from the Charity Organization Society of Baltimore and other leading institutions. The character of the men who have signed it is the best evidence that I can give of the interest taken in the business of this Conference and of the character of the reception which it may expect. The invitation is signed by the Governor of the State of Maryland, the Mayor of Baltimore, the President of the Johns Hopkins University, the President of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Presidents of the Board of Trade, the Chamber of Commerce, of the Corn and Flour Exchange, of the Board of Health, and forty presidents of our leading institutions. Mr. J. S. Appel, of Denver, said that the Governor of Colorado, in commissioning him as delegate from that State, also commissioned him to extend an invitation, on behalf of the State of Colorado, to hold the Conference in Denver next year. W. ALEXANDER JOHNSON, of Indiana.- I wish to say that I have in my possession autograph letters from the Governor of Indiana, the Mayor of Indianapolis, the President of the Chamber of Commerce, and others, offering a cordial invitation to this Conference to meet in Indiana next year. The new State Board of Charities is represented here for the first time; and we want your influence to help in building up the good opinion of the State in behalf of the Board. These invitations were referred to the Committee on Time and Place. Adjourned at Io.Io P.M. FOURTH SESSION. Friday, September 13. The Conference met in Union Square Hall at 9.30 A.M., the President in the chair. Prayer was offered by Rev. H. H. Hart. A communication was read by the secretary, from Nashville, Tenn., inviting the Conference to hold its next session in that city. It was referred to the Committee on Time and Place. A paper was read by C. Irving Fisher, M.D., of Tewksbury, Mass., entitled "The Other Infectious Disease: or, A Plea for a Hospital" (page 57)Gen. J. F. Marshall, of Boston, was asked to open the discussion. DISCUSSION. Gen. MARSHALL.-I have spent twenty years of my life in the Sandwich Islands. The natives are a gentle, yielding people, like their climate. In their vocabulary there is no word for chastity. When Captain Cook arrived there with his men, the result may be

Page  230 230 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES imagined; and I believe it is true, as it has been stated in history, that this disease of which Dr. Fisher has been speaking was introduced by the crew, officers and men, of Captain Cook's vessel. It spread all over the islands; and the consequence is that there is hardly a sound Hawaiian to be found to-day. If the restrictions which are recommended by Dr. Fisher could have been introduced then, they might now be a people of sufficient vitality to maintain themselves, instead of being a degenerate and dying race. During my life there, the small-pox made its appearance, after I had been there some ten or twelve years. The most vigorous measures were at once taken against it by the authorities. A board of health was established, with supreme authority. I was one of the commission appointed to take charge of the Island Tawai, which was a little distant from the rest of the group. We had supreme power. We instituted a strict quarantine; and the consequence of our vigorous action was that on that island there were only nine cases of small-pox, nearly all of which came down before we knew of the existence of the disease. If the same vigorous measures had been taken with reference to this dreadful venereal disease, the consequences would have been very different. I most heartily second the suggestion of Dr. Fisher as to the necessity and advisability of adopting legal restrictions with reference to this most insidious and devitalizing disease. In a life of fourteen years at Hampton, Va., during which Indian pupils were first brought to the Hampton School, I had farther opportunity to see the effects of this disease. We found very few of the first Indian pupils who were brought there were sound, although, under the orders of the government, the physician at the agency was required to examine and only send sound Indians. We wrote to him to know why so many unsound Indians came to us, and the reply was that hardly a sound Indian was to be found on the reservation. And such is the fact. One of the chief reasons why our American Indians, whom we suppose to be the perfection of vigorous health, are quite the contrary, is the prevalence of this disease. All physicians admit this; and we find traces of the same disease in the children. I cannot but strongly urge the importance of establishing such hospitals as Dr. Fisher recommends. Dr. Walter Lindley, president of the California Medical Society, was asked to speak. Dr. LINDLEY.- My experience of fourteen years in California leads me to agree with Dr. Fisher in believing that it is necessary in every city to have at least special wards in which to treat this kind of disease. I do not know as it would be absolutely necessary to have separate hospitals, as you would have for diphtheria or small-pox, but certainly there should be separate wards; and I believe that almost universally that is the case with the hospitals in California. I have a ward specially devoted to that line of diseases. I disagree with Dr. Fisher in believing that this is one of' the most deadly diseases. In my experience for many years in a hospital with two

Page  231 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 23I hundred beds, I have seen very few deaths from syphilis. Aside from a few cases of brain tumor and a few cases of infantile diseases, I have never seen a death from syphilis. I have seen many a patient die from other diseases quicker than he would if he had not been affected with this disease; but to be able to write in my report that this death was from syphilis has been very rare. The facts are that there is no disease which is so amenable to treatment as this. There are very few diseases of which we can say such and such a remedy is going to cure it; but the medical profession knows that there is a specific remedy for this. Furthermore, there seems to be such a thing as for a race to get accustomed to a disease. Take the Sandwich Islanders: when the disease was first brought in there, it was much more fatal than it is now. I believe that the reason there are so few deaths from it among Americans and Europeans is because the people of those lands have become accustomed to the disease. The systems are not ruined by the slight taint brought down from generations back of them. But, though this is not a deadly disease, I do heartily coincide in the importance of bringing this subject before you, from the influence it will have in securing separate places set apart for the treatment of this disease. Dr. FISHER.- We are not so far apart as to the curability of the disease. I would like to hear from Dr. Vivian, of Minnesota. Dr. G. VIVIAN.- My opportunities for observing this disease have not been so great as those who have spent more time in the great cities, and especially on the seaboard; but I am sorry to say there is no part of our country, however remote from cities, where it is not found, and, however small the practice of physicians may be, there are few who have not too much of it brought to their observation. While Dr. Fisher speaks specially of the dissolute and low, the disease is by no means confined to them, as his remark might seem to imply. In Europe, it is everywhere prevalent, from prince to peasant; and even the experience I have had would show that no class of society here is free from it. There is no country so new that it has not found its way there. I went to Lake Superior in early days; and, as soon as I began practice, I found that disease was very commdn among the Indians, and that it was communicated by them to the whites. I believe the whole medical profession is agreed in a belief in the necessity of some means of restriction. The question is how to do it. It is the legislative rather than the medical aspect of this question that demands the attention of this Conference. If the sufferers were confined to the guilty, to those who bring this disease upon themselves, it would not demand so much attention as it does now. It is the innocent who suffer: it is the unfortunate women and children who must be protected. Dr. Lindley has said that it is not a deadly disease. It is not directly, but it is indirectly so. Many who die with other diseases might have lived, had there been no complication with syphilis. A great many children die because their parents had syphilis. Dr. Charles S. Hoyt, being called on, spoke as follows:

Page  232 232 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Dr. HOYT. —In the management of this disease, we can have no control over those who keep out of the hands of the State. I think we have no law in any State that would restrain a man with this disease; but I think he ought to be restrained as much as a lunatic or a leper. If a leper should appear here, pains would be taken to isolate him and take care of him. I do not know why we should not do the same thing with a syphilitic man or woman. I believe in an inquiry similar to that required in lunacy. When the patient is well, then allow him his liberty. If the certificate of a physician is given that he is cured, he may be returned to society. This is a question that affects public morals and the welfare of society; and government must protect the people. The results are most fearful, as seen by any one who has devoted much time to the subject. I am heartily in favor of restriction; and I believe it should be stringent, and that men and women should be held in enforced custody, as we hold lunatics, when they are suffering from this disease. Mrs. SPERRY, of California.- As a nurse for many years, my experience has been that a person tainted with this disease, like a person who has been in the habit of drinking, is much harder to care for in every way: whereas, if his system were clear of these poisons, we should not consider the case troublesome. I am surprised that this is not considered a deadly disease. I have always felt that, if this were a complication in any other disease, it became almost a fatal case. That has been my experience as a nurse. Mrs. G. A. WELLS, of Indiana.- In our work among little children there is not one phase that touches us so keenly as this terrible disease coming among our infants. I do not think we have ever been able to save a baby that has come to the asylum tainted with this disease. If it is possible to save these children, I should like to know it. They seem to dwindle away as it is, and we cannot save them. Dr. H. WARDNER, of Illinois.-I am glad to see this subject brought forward in a place and before an audience like this, where it will excite interest. It is a subject not mentioned usually in polite society. It is so abhorrent to the feelings of people in general that it is ignored. Dr. Fisher speaks of it as a deadly disease. Dr. Lindley thinks it is curable. According to my experience, in a practice of between thirty and forty years, I believe, while it is apparently curable, that it is never wholly eradicated. You may strike an axe into a tree, and the tree will heal up, and the wound be obscured; but the wound is still there, covered up. So it is with a syphilized person. At the International Medical Congress at Copenhagen, this subject came up for discussion. It was claimed that syphilization, similar to vaccination, was a means of prevention. One young person presented himself as a case who had been syphilized. He was asked if he were married. He said no, he should never be, for what father would give hiss daughter to a syphilized man? I believe that, while a father may be apparently free from this disease, he can yet transmit it to his children. I have

Page  233 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 233 seen this in my own practice. I have in mind a father who is to all appearances a strong and healthy man, but one-half of his children are syphilitic by inheritance. If this subject could receive the attention that I believe it deserves, it might be a greater benefit to humanity than our efforts to protect society from small-pox and other infectious diseases. Mrs. SPERRY.- I have known a person who for six years seemed to be perfectly cured of this disease. I could give the name of the person and of the physician. Recently, that disease has broken out again. This leads me to believe that the disease cannot be radically cured. Dr. BYERS. —The subject under discussion is one of extreme delicacy, and yet it is one of great importance as relating to public morals and health. The horrors of it can never be described by human language. The thing for us to do is, if possible, to find the remedy for this frightful condition of things. We have sought for a number of years in our own city to impress the minds of the legislature with the importance of legislation in regard to it, and have suggested, as being just, right, and humane, that persons arrested for crime and misdemeanors, having constitutional disease of the character described this morning, should be held under restraint, in prison, if necessary, until the contagious character of the disease shall have been removed,- if it be possible to remove that contagious character, and, if not, that these people shall be held under perpetual restraint. Public health demands it. Public morals are equally interested in having it brought under control. If any better remedy can be devised than restraining such people so that the health of the community shall not be contaminated, no greater benefit could be conferred on the public than to secure its adoption. Mr. JOHNSON, of Indiana.- In visiting poorhouses, I have found considerably over one-half of the men and frequently a large proportion of women so diseased. In the Cook County Infirmary of Illinois, I was told by the receiving officer that probably three-fourths of the men were so diseased. In going through the institutions for the feeble-minded and for the insane, and looking over the family history of those received, the proportion having a bad family record in this respect is terrible. In the history of the Jukes family, you may.remember that a very large number, if not the whole family, were so affected. In the inquiry presented last year to this Conference by Mr. McCulloch, which he called "The Tribe of Ishmael: A Study in Social Degradation," he showed that a larger proportion were diseased in this way than were intemperate. The inference that I have drawn from my own observation is that a vast mass of poverty, pauperism, insanity, and imbecility comes from this cause. What is the remedy? Dr. Fisher suggested one hospital in every city where people may voluntarily come. That seems a very temporary palliation. The most terrible thing about it all is the heredity of the contagion. It is these children that excite our pity. They are the ones that suffer most. Every woman who proves herself, by repeated

Page  234 234 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES offences, incapable of self-control and virtuous life, should come under public control, and after one, two, or three convictions should be kept in confinement for life, says Mrs. Lowell. There is a general agreement that any incorrigible habitual criminal should be kept in prison for life; and why not an incorrigible misdemeanant? In the Chicago police court, I saw a woman receive her fiftieth sentence for drunkenness;. and I was told by an officer there that one received a few days before her one hundred and tenth sentence! In every police court we find these people who come again and again. The lesson seems very plain. If a person has been arrested a certain number of times, his sentence should be made indeterminate: he should stay in prison until he is fit to go out. If such people cannot be made sober and moral, they should be kept as a separate class of the community. Give them good food, and let them work, but keep them apart. I think Dr. Byers is right when he says that every man or woman who is proved to be of that character should be kept securely away from the community. The next generation would reap great benefit from such a method. Dr. VIVIAN.- Dr. Lindley says that this disease is very amenable to treatment. He is correct; but, in order to eradicate it, it requires a prolonged course of treatment such as these patients do not receive. Dr. Van Buren, of New York, says that a patient should be under observation for two years; that is to say, long after it seems to be cured, and in practice it is always very difficult to induce patients to continue treatment after they think they are well. The class under consideration now are seldom under the observation of any physician long enough to be cured. I remember hearing a distinguished physician once say that, if a man died of syphilis, and his ghost should reappear on this earth, and could be subject to examination, we should still find syphilis, so hard is it to eradicate it. Mrs. JACOBS, of Colorado.- Every week we have girls in the police court sentenced to a fine or imprisonment. Usually, they have some friend who pays the fine; and they go back to their old lives, spreading this disease, and our sons and our daughters are subject to the contamination of their presence. Our laws are defective. When such persons are taken to our jails, they should be taken care of in hospitals provided for the purpose. Kind and good doctors should place their condition before them. Many of these girls are very ignorant; and, if we could keep them in the hospitals long enough, and have good women go among them, they might be saved. As it is, they are like the tribe of Ishmael,- every hand is against them. We cannot take them into our own homes, therefore we must have places where they can be taken care of. Then, when they are cured, we should secure good places for them in pleasant homes, and look out for them in the future, and never let them go back to their old life. Dr. VOORSANGER.-One of the evils from which modern government suffers is that legislation tends altogether to the mere prevention of evil, and not to the encouragement and promotion of good. Legislation, or that part of it which we call police regulation, takes care of

Page  235 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 235 the criminal only after his crime is perpetrated. There is on the statute-book of no country that I know of any encouragement to do good. That fact alone might make thinking people suspect that the infusion of the religious sentiment in legislation would be a sound thing, because the religious idealism of a nation has always com-. mended the good as well as prevented the evil. You talk about these poor creatures who, after a course of crime, are subject to these horrible diseases. Do you know of anything that is being done except to drag them before the courts of justice when, perchance, they have committed crime? or, what is worse in the eyes of society, when they are detected? Is anything done in the homes of the children of to-day by which it might be made impossible in the future to produce people who lead such a life? Is there any sentiment promoted by the State that would teach these boys and girls what is clean and what is unclean? Is there sufficient care taken in our own homes of the cleanliness of boys and girls, particularly when puberty begins? Are they taught that the greatest danger to their lives sets in then, unless they pay attention to sanitary regulation that should govern their lives? I say it is the duty of a Conference like this to go farther than the mere ascertainment or prevention of crime. Devise, if you can, some system of education by which both men and women, the very moment the name applies to them, will consider it dangerous to their own health to set out upon a course of this kind. Go further, if you can under the peculiar regulations of your States and country. Encourage your boys and girls to marry early, as early as possible. Cure them of the sickly social sentiment that boys must be men of means before they can support wives, that wives must be comfortably supported before they will condescend to call a young man their husband. Go to the root of the evil; and I have no doubt that, in your long and useful career, you will find that the evil lies not so much with these poor fallen creatures who propagate this horrible, unclean. disease,- that they are rather the deplorable results of conditions that originate in the social features of the homes of American parents. It is a mistake to think that it takes twenty-five hundred a year for a young man and woman to be married on. I was twenty-one when I married, and my father sent me his blessing. I shall encourage my children to marry whenever they choose; and I shall encourage them to believe that a young husband and wife, provided they mean it earnestly with themselves, can get on with very little, and leave the future to the Almighty and their own efforts. If we would go back somewhat to patriarchal times, and endeavor to remove some of the social evils in our midst, the chances are that there would not be so many of these diseases in the world. This may not be the opinion of a physician; but it is the opinion of a clergyman. I cannot ascribe the root of this evil so much to indi'vidual sin as to the conditions that exist in society itself, conditions that perhaps are the result of our civilization, but that show very palpably to my mind that there are phases of our modern civilization that are decidedly injurious. Years ago, when our fathers came to

Page  236 236 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES this country to brave the world and make their fortunes by their own efforts,-when young men would take their young wives to their homes, choosing to brave dangers and hardships together,- I do not believe there were then so many bawdy houses or so much private prostitution. Mr. Fretwell, of London, England, thought that one of the best ways of preparing children to live a life of purity when they should become men and women was through the cultivation of idealism. This finds out the natural tendencies of children. It is the kind of education that the kindergarten gives. It keeps them so wholesomely interested that they positively have no time for the evils of the world. Dr. Fisher, in closing the discussion, said that enough had been said to show that the work of the Conference is broad and inclusive. He thought that we must protect ourselves by legislation as far as the members of the dissolute classes are concerned. But there was duty on parents as well. If, said he, we would have our children grow up to be pure, I am sure that we as parents have much to do. If the child is old enough to ask questions, he is old enough to receive the answers such as the parent can give; and we should not withhold an answer to any question which a child shall ask, which pertains to his moral and physical growth. Mr. W. G. Steele, of Portland, Ore., read a letter from Portland, signed by Rev. T. L. Eliot, D.D., Miss Helen F. Spaulding, Henry Failing, J. Black, and W. G. Steele, inviting the Conference of Charities and Correction to hold a series of meetings in Portland after the adjournment in San Francisco. On motion, it was voted to accept this invitation; and the Executive Committee was instructed to make arrangements for such a meeting. The following resolutions were offered by Dr. C. S. Hoyt and referred to the Committee on Resolutions:Resolved, That this Conference heartily indorses conferences of charities and correction, for sections of the country, States and cities, as means of creating and diffusing interest. Resolved, That it is suggested to the representatives of States and Territories to have the reports of their States and Territories here presented published in their leading newspapers. Mrs. Charles W. Dohrman, of California, read a paper on "Kindergarten Culture," an abstract of which is given on page 194. A paper by Hon. C. D. Randall of Michigan, on " Protection of Ill-treated Children," was read by Secretary L. C. Storrs (page 5). The discussion was opened by Dr. C. S. Hoyt.

Page  237 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 237 Dr. HOYT. —It seems to me that these benevolent ladies have a project in view which would overturn their good work, in their plan to incorporate the kindergarten in the public school system. The proper home is the best kindergarten. If all children had good home surroundings, we should not need any kindergartens. Good women, our wives, mothers, sisters, and daughters, may be of great service to children who have not proper home influences, by providing kindergartens for them; and they are all the better for being thus engaged. I am opposed to any plan that takes this work out of their hands and makes it a part of the public school education; and I feel that it would be a great misfortune in California to transfer it to the State. Mr. JOHNSON, of Indiana.- I want to express myself in favor of kindergartens as part of the school system. The present teachers are necessarily paid like any other teachers. You cannot use volunteers for this work. They must have special training for several years. It requires great ability to be a successful kindergartner, as much as to become a successful minister, lawyer, or doctor. It is a skilled profession, and ought to be well paid. The ladies who promote this work are not themselves teachers. And, even if this were taken from them, there is plenty of other work waiting. There is work for all that their heads and hearts and hands and purses can do. The most important thing that now stands in the way of making the kindergarten a part of the public school system is the lack of skilled kindergartners. We are only getting ready for this great work. I am emphatically in favor of the kindergarten being made a part of the school system of every State and Territory. I have been led to believe that in New York the public funds are called on to a large extent for the care of dependent children; that they are supported in private and sectarian institutions, at the expense of the tax-payer, if not by a State, by a county tax; and that is one of the things philanthropists deplore, in the State of New York. Dr. HOYT.- The dependent children in New York are, to a certain extent, supported by the public. Each locality supports its own children in asylums and other institutions, furnished and carried on by benevolent organizations. We have no State institutions for dependent children except for defectives,-blind, deaf-mute, and feebleminded. All these asylums and institutions possess more or less funds, which are increasing every year, so that many of them are able to maintain children at one-half the actual cost; and they maintain them often without charge to the public. I believe all the dependent children of New York in time will be maintained wholly by private benevolence. Mr. GLENN.-I think we are going too rapidly in our desire to relieve the private individual and the Church from their positive duties. I have no doubt that the State may come in under certain circumstances, but only to supplement. Take the kindergarten. You must have a paid teacher. That paid teacher's business is to teach those children, and it requires a trained teacher. Where, then, is the les

Page  238 238 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES son of these ladies? Every little child that is there is their child. They visit their homes. They take an interest in them individually; and that maternal, that sisterly influence, or whatever influence women can bring to bear upon them, is brought to bear on these children. The State can never supply this maternal element. I agree with Dr. Hoyt. We ought to be careful how we interfere with public sentiment. The individual has emotions and sentiments, and we ought to gratify them. The Church has duties which it ought to fulfil. Take these emotions and duties out of the work, and where are you? You are interfering with one of the fundamental principles of society. To take the kindergartens out of the hands of the individual and put them into the hands of the State would be injurious to society. Mrs. C. MASON KINNE, of California.- I have been connected all my life with charity and educational work; and I feel that our State should take up and incorporate our kinderwork in its educational system for this reason. Our charitable people are doing a grand and noble work, bringing sunshine into many homes every day. But we have people who are neither rich nor poor who are neglected. There are thousands of children who have good fathers and mothers, who mean to do right, but who do not see and who cannot be made to feel the needs and wants of their children, who are not brought close to their little ones every day. They think a child is like grass,- that it will grow by itself in sunshine and air. The parents are of medium means. They live in boarding-houses and hotels or furnished rooms, and their little children from three to six years old are on the street with hired nurses. If these little children could go into the public schools and be amused and instructed three or four hours a day, a great want would be met. I am not speaking of the very rich or of the very poor. When I have seen the children of the poorest classes happy, bright, clean, and learning something every day, I have often felt sorry for the children of our mechanics and laboring people, because they are not having done for them — because they are not charity children-what we are doing for poorer children. If, anything can be done for them, it can be done in the public schools. The following Committees were then appointed:On Credentials: Dr. A. G. Byers, Chairman. California, Mrs. Joseph S. Spear, Jr.; Colorado, Mrs. A. Jacobs; Illinois, Dr. H. Wardner; Indiana, Dr. G. Wells; Massachusetts, Mrs. J. I. Kimball; Michigan, Mrs. Mary A. Mayo; Minnesota, Isaac P. Wright; Maryland, Charles Lee Smith; New York, Mrs. Harriet M. Hermance; Ohio, Dr. A. G. Byers; Oregon, W. G. Steel; Pennsylvania, Mrs. M. K. Paist; Wisconsin, Mrs. D. H. Johnson. On Time and Place: California, Dr. Jacob Voorsanger; Colorado, J. S. Appel; Illinois, James Bottom; Indiana, John K. Elder; Mary

Page  239 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 239 land, John Glenn; Massachusetts, Dr. C. I. Fisher; Michigan, Dr. Hal. C. Wyman; Minnesota, G. H. Merrill; New York, Oliver J. Tillson; Ohio, Dr. A. G. Byers; Oregon, W. G. Steel; Pennsylvania, M. K. Paist; Wisconsin, Mrs. E. P. Fairbanks. Adjourned at 12.15 P.M. FIFTH SESSION. Saturday night, Sept. 14, I889. The Conference met at 8 P.M., the President in the chair. The subject for the evening was " Charity Organization." The report of the committee having that subject in charge was read by the chairman, Rev. O. C. McCulloch, of Indiana (page io), who then directed the discussion, which was opened by Mr. John Glenn, of Baltimore. Mr. GLENN.- There are one or two points in the report on which I would like to speak. In the immense increase of idle people which is taking place in our large cities, occasioned by the results of introducing machinery, it is a matter of self-preservation to devise some means to meet this rising tide. Perhaps the best thing I can do is to tell you what we are trying for in Baltimore. Our society has a central office where general business is attended to. Besides that, the city is divided into six districts, each with an agent assisted by a district board. It is well always to divide the city into districts. If it were possible to get them as small as at Elberfeld, it would be so much the better; for then we could become personally acquainted with every person, rich and poor, in each district, so as to know certainly every one that needed relief and every one that was willing to give it. In I887, we were very fortunate in getting an able man who had the two qualities of the sympathetic and the detective, two qualities absolutely necessary in any one connected with charity. If the detective is superior, the poor get too little help; if the sympathetic is in exuberance, it is demoralizing. "His heart and hand both open and both free, For what he has he gives, what he thinks he shows; Yet gives he not till judgment guide his bounty." That is what I believe to be the essence of charity organization; and it is very important that any person who undertakes it should keep that always in mind. Besides this organization in different sections of the city, we were fortunate through this gentleman of whom I have spoken, Mr. Warner, to be able to connect ourselves with the university, and thus to have charity organization taken up in a scientific way. I want to emphasize this, that the word " scientific" ought not to repel any one. We are accused, too, of being non-religious because we are non-sectarian. This charge is without ground.

Page  240 240 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The Bible says, " Do the will of my Father, and ye shall know of the doctrine "; and that will is that we should visit the widow and the fatherless in their affliction. In other words, true religion means to do the work. Charity Organization says, To do the work means to bring yourself in direct contact with the poor, and make the personal factor, the friendly visitor, the means of their regeneration. Science says, First collect your facts, and then induce your theories; and these facts can only be gathered by personal contact with the work. And thus we see that religion, charity organization, and science are in perfect harmony. President Gilman, of Johns Hopkins University, took hold at once with us, and got Mr. Warner to deliver half a dozen lectures as part of the regular curriculum. Now, therefore, the young men of the university are studying social problems; and we have an increased number of young men taught by the university to go out into the world, understanding how to meet the problems of poverty. Not only has it had that effect, but it has reacted on the Charity Organization Society, and put us on a higher plane than we should otherwise have occupied, and kept us there. B. P. FLINT, of California.- The report of the chairman is very encouraging to us, in'San Francisco; for it is evident that, where in the East they have been successful, we have been successful here, and wherein they have failed we have also failed,- that is, in co-operation. A year ago last February, an effort was made to establish a Charity Organization here. We have been in operation sixteen months. We were assisted by the mayor, chief of police, and other public officials. Our registrar and assistant have had enough to do. We have more than three thousand cases recorded. Our work has come to us mostly from individuals, and not from societies. We have discussed a wood-yard, and we certainly need one. The people who come from no place, and are going nowhere, appear like flocks of birds. If they receive nothing, they disappear; but we have helped many, and met with a measure of success. Wherein we have failed has been, as I said, in co-operation with other societies. Some have done well by us; but most of them have treated us with indifference. We have opened correspondence with all, but have had few replies. A lady came to us the other day, a woman of good address, calculated to deceive any one, asking for aid. We found that that had been her mode of existence for years. We could do nothing about it; and she is as free as ever to call on any society for aid and make her living as before. This is an instance of the need of co-operation. We have utterly and completely failed of co-operation with the churches of this city. We addressed a circular letter last spring to one hundred and seven churches in this city. Only eight responded in any way. A few replied that they would give us their co-operation, and that they would preach a sermon on charity organization; but only one; so far as I know, has as yet preached any such sermon. Ninety-nine churches.made no reply whatever. Therefore, I am compelled to say that we have had but little support from the clergy of San Francisco. To us it has been a great disappointment; and we would gladly do

Page  241 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 241 anything within our power to gain their moral support. We do not ask them for money. I am glad to say that our call on the business men of San Francisco met with cheerful response, and that we have all the money needed to manage the Charity Organization Society of San Francisco. On the whole, we are ready to say that there is good reason to hope for the future. We believe that the Associated Charities have come to stay; and we are going to fight it out on this line, Rev. C. W. WENDTE, of California.- I have been asked to say a word with reference to our Oakland Associated Charities. They are perhaps unique in some respects. When the Associated Charities Society was being organized, there was a convention of charter makers in our city, and they were asked to make provision for $150 a month, to pay for the office rent and superintendent's salary of the Associated Charities of Oakland. They responded favorably; and we are to-day in receipt of this money. It enables us to give all our time and thought to the ideal purposes of our society. This connection with the municipality has caused some comment and doubts, but thus far it works well. It increases our sense of responsibility and links us with the officials of the city, and we have the more perfect co-operation with the latter. The.second feature of our work is this: we have been empowered to investigate all newly created benevolent agencies which may appeal to the public for countenance and support. We have thus examined the claims of several societies (such organizations are constantly springing up), and have found some worthy and some unworthy. Of two that we condemned, one is dead, the other dying. Two we have commended; and our approbation has helped them. Third, we are empowered to examine into the work of existing societies, and to ask for quarterly reports from them giving accounts of their work. This has been done and is helpful to all. At present from every society in the city we get active co-operation. The churches, Protestant and Catholic, have been helpful, and the pastors have been the leaders in this work. The city officials also have been exceedingly kind from the mayor down. One of the conditions on which we receive this appropriation of $I50 a month from the public funds is that we shall gradually take charge of the out-door public relief. We showed by figures how much wastefulness there was in the usual municipal methods of appropriating relief funds; and we have tried to reduce the expense, and at the same time to give more thorough, more prompt, and wise relief to the deserving poor. Ultimately, we hope to assume all out-door relief. Mr. Nicholas Longworth, of Cincinnati, left $io,ooo to the unzorthy poor; and we also try not to draw the line too sharply, but to give more abundant honor to that part which lacks. Our outlook is very promising. A sum amounting to about $I20,000 has recently been left by the late Anthony Chabot for the establishment of a Woman's Shelter and Creche. We are about to erect suitable buildings, and hope to have the offices of the Charity Organization and half a dozen other benevolent societies of Oakland in the same build

Page  242 242 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES ing. It will be connected also by telephone with the various hospitals and institutions of the city. Our building will thus be modelled after the Chardon Street Bureau in Boston and the Fitch Building in Buffalo. Mr. J. S. Appel, of Denver, said that it was a pleasure, while busy in the meetings, to remember that one's coworkers were thinking of the Conference. He then read the following telegram from Rev. Myron Reed: - To the President of the National Conference of Charities and Correction: On behalf of the city of Denver, we desire to extend to your body a cordial invitation to hold its next annual session at the Queen City. Do not fail to come. WOLFE LONDONER, Mayor. MYRON W. REED, President Charity Association. We have been trying to meet this question of deciding whether a pauper is worthy or not. We have connected ourselves with the Friendly Inn. It has a wood-yard which we use as a labor test, and, when a man comes and wants a night's lodging, we send him to the place where he can work for it; and we thus know whether he is worthy or not. The subject of Charity Organization was discussed for a long time in Denver before action was taken. We then adopted the type of the Indianapolis plan. But it was somehow impossible to unite the various organizations until a band of noble women organized themselves into the King's Daughters, and around this were crystallized the different elements of the city. A mass meeting was called, and a committee of seven appointed. We collected $21,000; and, after a good deal of calculating and studying of reports, we made an appropriation for the year in monthly allotments, as follows: to the Ladies' Relief Society, $500; Denver Orphan Home, $300: the Woman's Hospital, $300; the Ladies' Hebrew Society, $150; the Humane Society, $ioo; the Day Nursery and Kitchen Garden, $85; Free Dispensary, $25; Flower Mission, $0o; St. Luke's Hospital, $50; Charity Organization Society, $I25. This money is paid monthly. As soon as we had made these appropriations, we called for a meeting of all the charity societies; and they came, to the number of forty-two, who were represented at that meeting. Almost without exception, every institution in the city was represented. Mr. Myron Reed was elected president. We have weekly meetings, at which all the reports of the different associations are received and acted upon. The business men of our city are pleased with the experiment, and are willing, if it is renewed, to increase their subscriptions, if necessary. Another thing that we wished to do was to get a matron for our city jail; and this we accomplished. We have also nearly freed our city from street begging. We have one matter which we wish to bring before you for action. A great many people are brought to us whom we must send back to their homes. We are not able to get

Page  243 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 243 passes for them on account of the interstate law. At a meeting held before we left Denver, I was requested to present this resolution to this Conference:CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY, ROOM 8, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. DENVER, COL., Aug. 2, I889. At a regular meeting held this day by the Charity Organization Society, the following resolution, offered by Rev. Thomas Van Ness, was unanimously passed: - Resolved, That the Charity Organization Society instruct its delegates to lay before the Convention of Charities, to be held in San Francisco in September next, two important matters; namely, the co-operation of all societies represented, first, in securing half-rate fares for the worthy poor over the different railroads, and in keeping, as far as practicable, the poor of each city within its own jurisdiction. GEO. D. KEMPTON, Secretary. I beg leave to have it referred to our Committee on Resolutions. The communication read by Mr. Appel was referred to the Committee on Resolutions. A paper entitled " Scientific Charity," by Mrs. Glendower Evans, of Massachusetts, was read, in her absence, by Rev. Thomas Van Ness (page 24). The discussion was then resumed. - 'ars. L. WOLCOTT, of New York.-The particular point I wish to speak on is the giving of immediate relief in urgent cases of distress. I would say, Never give even one penny; but telephone, telegraph, or send a messenger to the Charity Organization Society, and let the agent or representative look into the matter. This will be done in a very short time. Fully ninety per cent. of cases of apparent distress applying for immediate aid are undeserving. If I found a family in distress, I should go to some poor neighbor; for the poor are very good to each other. People do not starve in two or three hours. We have arranged with a prominent relief society to grant immediate relief when necessary. I have also a list of benevolent individuals on whom I can call for immediate relief. I might cite an instance to show how easily the agent, and even thorough workers, can be deceived. In the early part of the summer, a decent, respectable German man came into the office, and told me what seemed a very plausible tale of distress: that he was originally from New York, had gone to Cincinnati, and had worked in a Bologna sausage factory; that, being so much in the ice-house, his eyes had become affected. He gave the name of the firm that employed him. When he was unable to work longer, he said, he went to the City Hospital, and was treated some weeks. Finding that his eyes did not improve, he came to New York, with the express purpose of being treated. He went to one of our large eye infirmaries, but could not be taken as an in-patient because of excess of patients; and he was

Page  244 244 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES now without money, friends, or home in the city. This was about five o'clock in the afternoon. Here seemed to be a very decent man in a state of great distress. Well, I said, I will see that you are taken care of until I can look up your credentials. I gave him a note, stating that he seemed to be a decent man in distress, and sent him to one of the many lodging-houses with which our city abounds. I knew that for fifteen cents he could there find a night's lodging, and that I could appeal to a benevolent individual to pay the bill. I then sat down and began to write to find out about his credentials. The result was that the New York Infirmary knew no such man. From Cincinnati I heard that there was no such street, and no firm of that name, and no man of that name had been known in Cincinnati for three years. Then followed two days of waiting while I looked after other credentials. All answered in the same vein. I went down to my friend of the Olive Tree Inn. The man had never gone there. I have never seen him since; and yet I hear of him wandering about in New York, appealing to people by his own decency and their weakness, and living nicely upon the general public. If any one of those people would refrain from giving him anything, and just consult our records, they would find him to be a fraud. I believe there is nothing the matter with his eyes; but in the evening or a dim light there might appear to be some trouble. I admit that I was entirely deceived myself. One other point. When I visited the Century Club this afternoon, I was asked where New York and Boston got their wonderful friendly visitors. We do not get them: we take the raw material and train it, and often the least promising of our friendly visitors turn out to be the very best. Those who come with gushing sentiment soon find out that they have to work, and tax themselves and their strength; and they drop out. We have here this evening one of our best visitors. She came unprepared into the work; and I want her to tell of one of her worst familiesr hom she handles beautifully. May I ask Mrs. Houghton to speakj? ( Mrs. HOUGHTON.-When I went to Mrs. Wolcott, a year ago, I was entirely green. I knew nothing practically about friendly visiting, although I had read about it and thought about it for years. She gave me an interesting but very difficult case, a woman whose husband had died, leaving her with five children and the sixth born soon after his death. 'I went to see her. The woman was exceedingly neat, kept her children beautifully, and her rooms looked clean and nice; but the difficulty seemed to be to secure any support for the family. For a time she could not work; and, after that, she alienated every one with whom she came into relations, by her fearful temper. People are always attracted by her at first, for she is a nice, intelligent, capable-looking woman; but she shortly becomes a bother and worry and aggravation to every one with whom I have brought her into contact. There is only one exception to this rule, and that is myself. I have never seen her out of temper; and I have seen her on an average once in three days, and under all circum

Page  245 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 245 stances of necessity and trial. They have lacked for everything. I have never heard her say anything but what was perfectly pleasant and sweet, except that she has no sense of propriety as to the use of sacred words. When I first came to her, her eldest son was in the Catholic Protectory. She told me that she had " put him away " to keep him out of temptation. The truth was, he had been sent there for the third time for stealing, as she finally confessed to me. It seemed to me that the boy ought to be taken out and put to work, that he might help support his mother; and, after some little difficulty, I got him out. I found work for him in a wall paper factory, where he had been before, and put him into a night school; and he did very well. He earned three dollars a week; and that was all they had to live on except one dollar a week from the St. Vincent de Paul Society. I had tried to get the woman on the widows' fund; but she had terrified all the ladies with her temper, and they would not be convinced that she was a worthy case. It was a long time before we could find work for her; but we did it, and she is working hard and faithfully, so hard that she is almost injuring herself. Her boy's health began to run down, from the paints and color in the wall paper factory; and I was trying to find other employment for him, when I learned he had been discharged for quarrelling with another boy. I went to inquire about it, and was told that he had merely been discharged as a lesson, and would be taken back after a week. But before the week was over, early one morning,- before I was up, indeed,- his little sister came to tell me that he had been arrested for stealing, and would I go down to the police court that morning to get him off, and would I lend her mother a shawl to wear to court, for hers was in pawn? Well, I did both; and I confess that the latter was a severer strain upon my friendliness than the former. So I made my first acquaintance with the police court. The boy had not really stolen. He had attempted to carry off some old iron which was in a cellar-way; and I honestly doubt if he had any idea that it belonged to anybody. He knew it was not his; but he wanted to sell it, because they were suffering for food. But his record was against him: he had been three times in the Protectory, and we could do nothing. He was sent to the House of Refuge, where he is doing very well, and is earning his own discharge by good conduct. He has been eleven weeks without a bad mark, and another week will entitle him to go home. The superintendent assures me that he is an entirely changed boy. Our House of Refuge is managed by a man who has a perfect genius for that work,- Mr. Israel Jones. He has been superintendent for thirty-five years, and is not in the least institutionalized. It has been an excellent thing for this boy to be under his care. When I went to bid the mother good-by, she melted into tears. Her work now is cleaning railway cars at the Grand Central Station. She begged me not to go by cars, because there were "accidents in them cars that no one knew anything about, —I should certainly be killed before I got back."

Page  246 246 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES But on assuring her that it was very important that I should come here, and romising to write to her every week, she consented to let me corrme Mr. MCCULLOCH. —That is the personal touch, the patient dealing day by day with cases that you see are complicated and not simple. That is what is needed. Rev. THOMAS UZZELL, of Colorado.- In the city of Denver there is a spot known as "The Bottoms." It lies near the river, and is about half a mile in width and three miles in length. That is my parish. Into this section of the city the city's poor are crowded. Most of the workingmen live there. The worst saloons in the city are there, and the worst houses of prostitution. I thought that would be a magnificent place to build a church. We went to work and built one. We have revival services, seven services a Sunday, and there I preach the gospel. By preaching the gospel, I mean that I tell the people to wash their hands and faces and clothes, and to keep their bodies and their hearts clean; to live right in the community, and do the best they can. Is not that a good gospel? I think I can safely say that one thousand have been converted, each of the five years, to the praise of God. We have a church of one hundred and seventy-five. A good many ask if it pays to preach to such a crowd. I say it does. I do not know where a man can put his revenue to better use. Mr. Uzzell narrated many instances of the reform of intemperate men in this section of the city, through the influence of his mission church. He then continued:Soon after beginning this religious part of my work, I found that the people needed something besides the Bible. They needed food, clothing, and employment. I found that one of the hardest bills to pay was the doctor's bill, and so I said, I will help them; and we set up a free dispensary. I furnished the medicines; and it is astonishing how many drugs a man can buy for twenty-five dollars, at wholesale! I had no idea there was any such profit in the drug business. I am convinced that, when I cannot sustain my family by preaching, I can with a little drug store on the corner. The dispensary succeeded far beyond what we had expected. We treat about one hundred patients every month. I believe there is a blessing in this. It is pretty hard for a man to be religious with seven-day ague. Suppose I should come to one in that condition, and ask him to become a Christian when he was shaking so that his teeth were likely to be shaken out of his mouth. He might answer me as Mother Van Cott was once answered, when passing through a congregation, speaking to each on the subject of religion. Coming to a big Swede, she put her hand on his shoulder, and asked, " Would not you like to work for Jesus?" He looked up in surprise, and replied, "No, I would rather not: I have just got a job with an ice-man." So I should let the Bible wait awhile, and should come with quinine pills for a little.

Page  247 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 247' We have a free night school, where from seventy-five to one hundred persons have been learning. A colored woman, ninety years old, learned to read the Bible there; and it gives me great satisfaction to hear Aunt Rebecca read a few passages intelligently. For two years we had a kindergarten, but it has been dropped for a time. Last summer Mr. Appel said that he would furnish me the money, if I would do the rest of the work, and give the poor children there one day's outing. So one day we took out into the country ten thousand children. Mr. Appel is here. He paid for the outing, and he ought to know. We took them out into a large park, and brought them back without loss of life or limb. Last Christmas we concluded that it would be a good thing to help the children in our neighborhood, by giving them a Christmas dinner. Seven hundred sat down to a good turkey dinner; and the little fellows went away happy. The money to carry on this mission is all raised by one individual, except $600. It costs $3,000 a year. Mr. MCCULLOCH.- It is very evident that here is an organized charity all by himself. Adjourned at o1 P.M. SIXTH SESSION. Saturday morning, Sept. I4. The Conference met at 9.30 A.M., the President in the chair. Prayer was offered by Rev. Charles S. Mills. The report from theState of Wisconsin was read by A. O. Wright. Dr. C. S. HOYT, of New York.- I wish to submit briefly the present condition of affairs respecting immigration. The number of immigrants for i888 was 539,85; for I889, 438,164,-a falling off of 101,20I. During the past year an investigation into the subject of immigration was made by a special committee of Congress, of which Mr. Ford, of Michigan, was chairman; and a bill was introduced into Congress at its last session, embodying substantially the recommendations made by this Conference through its committees of former years, to regulate and control immigration. The shortness of the session last winter precluded action; but the subject will no doubt become one of exciting interest during the next Congress. The Committee on Organization has provided for a standing committee on immigration, to present the matter at the next session of this Conference. The following resolution was offered by W. A. Johnson of Indiana: - Resolved, That a standing committee on the publication of charity literature be appointed, to have special relations with the International Record and other similar publications. Referred to Committee on Resolutions.

Page  248 248 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Mr. Johnson explained that there was great necessity of providing for the publication and distribution of charity literature. He thought a Charity Tract Society might be a good name for such means of distributing this kind of literature. While acting as Secretary of the Charity Organization Society of Chicago, he had published a monthly paper, which was successful. In connection with this, he made a reprint of eight pages from the paper, and published it at a very low price. This paid its way from the beginning. He wished that the printing of the International Record might be resumed. Dr. Byers asked for information as to the present condition of the Record. Bishop Gillespie, in the absence of Mr. Wines, replied that Mr. Wines had sunk three thousand dollars in the publication of the Record, and was persuaded that it could not be sustained by subscription. The only way to sustain it was for those interested to come forward and subscribe liberally. Mr. McCulloch thought this a subject of great importance. There should be some organ which should diffuse information connected with the subjects that the Conference represents. There is not another body, he said, having so large interests, without an official organ. He was sure the various State Boards would subscribe with pleasure to a monthly paper which should contain the latest information on all these subjects. Mr. Storrs, of Michigan, said that the State Board of Michigan subscribed largely for the Record, as other Boards had done; but, in spite of that, money had been sunk in that paper. He hoped that it would be brought up again, and put on a permanent footing beyond any peradventure. Mr. McCulloch hoped that the Record would be resumed, and would be made the official organ of the Conference of Charities and Correction. He thought there ought to be some way of sustaining it. Mr. Glenn, of Baltimore, said that all were ready to recognize the value of the Record,-no better paper was wanted. He thought, if a committee were formed to take the matter in charge, subscriptions might be obtained sufficient to carry it on again. He thought this one of the most important resolutions brought before the Conference. Mr. Johnson said that the Record had never had any advertising of any consequence. He thought it impossible to make any paper successful without an endowment or good advertising. Dr. Byers thought that, if the Record were revived, and subscribers and good advertisements secured, it could be sustained. Mr. McCulloch then offered the following resolution:Resolved, That a standing committee of five be appointed by the Executive Committee, which shall be known as the " Publication Committee," whose duties it shall be to issue such tracts and papers on matters of charity and reform as may seem to them best, and, further, to consider the advisability of resuming the publication of the International Record as the organ of the Conference.

Page  249 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 249 Mrs. Barrows said she hoped that the duties of the Publication Committee would include the reprinting of special papers from the volume of Proceedings, as there was constant inquiry for such papers from persons who did not care or who were not able to buy the entire volume. The order of the day, the report of the Committee on Employment in Poorhouses, was then taken up; and Mr. W. A. Johnson was called to the chair. A. 0. Wright, of Wisconsin, chairman of the committee, took charge of the discussion. A paper was read by Dr. H. C. Wyman, of Detroit, on "The Inmates of Michigan Poorhouses" (page 203). A paper on "Employment in Poorhouses" was read by A. O. Wright (page I97). DISCUSSION ON POORHOUSES AND ALMSHOUSES. The discussion was opened by H. M. Blackstone, Superintendent of State Farm, Bridgewater, Mass. Mr. BLACKSTONE.-I am in hearty sympathy with the paper which has just been read, and believe that it can be summed up in two points,- compulsory employment and State control of this class of people. If those two things could be brought about, it would be a good thing. Mr. STORRS, of Michigan.-I want to indorse what our friend from Bridgewater has said in regard to State control. I have visited Bridgewater, and that institution is under State control; and I do not see any way of bringing these poorhouses up to where we want them, until we centralize all this work. As Mr. Wright has said, one great objection made by the keepers of poorhouses is that it is much cheaper and less trouble to do the work than to set a man to work and then set another man to watch him to see that it is done. In Michigan, a large proportion of the inmates are unable to work. In Marquette County, all the wood supply for the county poorhouse is prepared by the paupers. In Saginaw County, much of the housework is done by paupers. But in the majority of poorhouses there is little labor done. Any effort to bring such a thing about is objected to by the County Board of Supervisors. I do not understand how any reform can be introduced where these poorhouses are not supervised by State Boards. Dr. BYERS.-Up to this time poverty is no crime; and, as long as we rank it as a misfortune, I, for one, shall never consent to have it associated in any wise with the enforced restraint which we apply to criminals. Mr. WRIGHT.-Is insanity a crime? We restrain the insane. Mr. JOHNSON.-When I was appointed Secretary of the State Board of Charities of Indiana, I found to my surprise, and a little bit to my

Page  250 250 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES terror, that there were ninety-two counties in the State, each with a poorhouse and a jail, and many with a County Orphans' Home. It was my duty to visit them all once a year. I thought there were far too many. But, since hearing what is said of other States, I am glad we have so many; for I believe that the advantage of a small population in the poorhouse atones for many things. Most of our poorhouses are small, having from fifteen to sixty inmates. Many of the paupers do a fair share of work. I think a poorhouse should be a quiet, orderly place, where people too old for work, or who have fallen behind in the race, and who have no families to care for them, should have tender and gentle care the rest of their lives. It ought not to be a place for criminals or the insane, or for children, or for imbeciles. Employment is, of course, good. I have seen a woman ninety-five years old paring potatoes for dinner, and proud to do it. There is one point in the paper which I want to enforce. It is with respect to imbecile women. In every poorhouse that I have visited, there are some of these. Nearly all have one, two, or three children, generally illegitimate. They ought to be in the custody or care of the State. A few weeks ago I visited a poorhouse in our State which had many things about it which I did not approve. The superintendent was harvesting. Presently I heard a loud talking, and down the field came three teams, one driven by the superintendent, one by an idiot boy who had never spoken a word in his life, and one by an idiot boy who talked all the time. The boys could plough corn as well as any one. They were excellent teamsters: they worked all the time. One was eighteen, the other twenty years of age. Both had been brought up on the poor-farm, and had been trained to do useful work. I went one day into a poorhouse where there were about fifty inmates. In the ironing-room I saw five little girls, tidy, bright, and clean, ironing. In the kitchen I saw others doing various work. Everywhere were cleanliness, good management, kindness. The children called the superintendent and matron papa and mamma. The week before I had visited a county orphan asylum, and had seen the children crowded together, poorly clothed, not very well fed, and with poor occupation. I said to myself, Does it make so much difference as to what you call it, an asylum or a poorhouse? It depends upon the people who are at the head whether it is a good place or a bad place. We have, near Indianapolis, a poor-farm. I asked the superintendent what he did when an inmate would not work. He said, "If I have a man able to work who will not work, I send him away." I do not see any other way to secure work from able-bodied paupers but the apostolic plan: " If any will not work, neither shall he eat." But in the State of Indiana there are very few able-bodied paupers in the poorhouses. Mr. WINES.- I wish to give the Wisconsin Board of Charities credit for supervising the work of the county institutions with more zeal, devotion, and intelligence than perhaps any other board in the United States. While it may be true that Mr. Wright's paper does not distinguish sufficiently between the worthy and unworthy poor,

Page  251 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 25I yet that board has done a wonderful work in improving the Wisconsin poorhouses. It has accomplished what I think no other board has accomplished to the same extent. It has separated the insane from other paupers to an uncommonly large degree, and has created a remarkable system of county insane asylums under rigid State supervision. The people of California may see in this one of the great arguments for a State Board of Public Charities. I have very little faith in the government of any institution by a committee of a county board of supervisors. The county board is a little legislature, more apt to be influenced by trivial political considerations than are the members of a State legislature; and its affairs are administered in purely local interests, especially in the interest of political leaders of low grade, who seek to secure places for the friends who supported them in caucus and at the election. We have in the city of Chicago a poorhouse which is worthy of commendation in some respects; but it is not what it would be, were it not for the influence of local politicians in the appointment of officers and employees, and, I fancy, even in the admission of inmates. Where a board, like the State Board of Wisconsin, thoroughly supervises the administration of the county almshouses, and reports on them, and sees that abuses are remedied, the condition of the almshouses cannot be what it is in a State which has no such supervision. In Illinois, since our State Board was created, twenty years ago, probably one-half of the counties have built new almshouses. Nearly one-half, perhaps, have built county jails. This has been the result of the exposure of abuses that were brought to light by State inspection. The character of the officers in charge of them has improved. A great deal more pains is taken to exclude persons who have no claim to their benefit, and a great deal better care is given to those who are admitted. I think that would be the result, in a new State, to a still greater degree than in an old one. One word as to the construction of poorhouses. I am coming more and more to the conclusion that, for all our institutions of every sort, we build too large houses. If we were to build smaller houses, and more of them on the same ground, we should have a better classification of inmates. If a poorhouse is to be what Mr. Wright says it often is,- a lying-in hospital, an insane asylum, an idiot institution, an inebriate institution, a workhouse, an almshouse, and an orphan asylum, all in one,- I think it would be better to have each one of these departments in a separate building. There should be classification on the grounds of the institution instead of in the institution itself. Dr. FISHER, of Massachusetts.- The difference between an ideal and a real almshouse seems to be considerable. I sympathize with Mr. Wright's paper, looking at matters from my own standpoint. In Massachusetts we have no county almshouses. The towns receive those people who have acquired a settlement from having lived in the town a certain number of years and paid taxes, or from having enlisted in the war from that town. Those who have not acquired a settlement are sent to the State Almshouse at Tewksbury when they

Page  252 252 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES come to want. From 1871-75 I was one of the resident physicians in the House of Industry and House of Reformation in Boston Harbor. There we received the drunkards, petty thieves, and prostitutes. At the State Almshouse I find a large number of these very people. They are no better now morally than they were then, when behind prison bars. On the other hand, they are just as vicious, more so. The question comes whether they are going to work or not, whether they are going to do the thing they are told to do. We do not expect them to work, unless they are able. Every man and woman passes into the hospital, and is submitted to a thorough examination; and, if there is any doubt about ability, they are not made to work. When they are able, we require them to do so. When they frankly tell us that they did not come to work, and that they will see us in a warm place first, I believe there is something to be done in the almshouse about that time. I do not believe in turning those people out upon the community to tramp, beg, steal, and get drunk, and be sent back again. I say to them, " Either you will go out with that officer and work, or you will be locked up." We approach somewhat the idea of Paul, "If a man will not work, neither shall he eat." We do not call the rooms where they are shut up " cells." We call them " strong rooms." They are places where a man or woman can step aside into solitude, and think the matter over upon a non-stimulating diet of bread and water. We have a few that are benefited by that sort of treatment; and in our average thousand we have also a few of the class of whom Mr. Johnson spoke, and whom I think an almshouse should be for, —those who are infirm, who have outlived their ability to work, those whose children are unkind or who have no one to take care of them. For such, we try to make our home as pleasant as possible. But surrounding these are the criminals who spend half their time in prison. Mr. Blackstone, of the State Farm, has the same sort. It is a matter of chance where the vicious ones go, whether to us or to prison. Wherever they are, they require about the same kind of treatment; and many years' experience convinces me that the more promptly and thoroughly the discipline is administered, the better for the individual and the institution. ISAAC P. WRIGHT, Minnesota.-I desire to make a few remarks on the organization which I represent on this floor; namely, the Board of Control of St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minn. Our Board consists of three directors, appointed by the six judges of the District Court of Ramsey County. The manner of the appointments removes them wholly from politics, which is a grand stride in the right direction. Our Board has charge of the city and county hospitals, county almshouse, and a general charge of all the poor within the limits of our city and county. The Board is authorized to appoint a city physician, who has full charge of the city and county hospitals, and who is authorized to appoint three assistants and such other attendants as may be necessary, subject to the approval of our Board. It is made his duty to attend to all the sick not able to pay for medical or surgical services, and to supply them with such

Page  253 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 253 medicines as their cases require. He is held responsible for the good care and orderly management of the hospitals, and has charge of all sick paupers within the limits of the city and county. The Board also appoints a superintendent and matron for the county almshouse and farm, who are governed by established rules, or instructions given from time to time; and they are held to a rigid compliance with them, and required to see that they are faithfully obeyed by all under their charge. The Board appoints a secretary, whose duties are defined partly by law and partly by the Board itself. He keeps a faithful record of all the proceedings of the Board. All necessary supplies for the hospital and almshouse are purchased by a member of the Board, on requisitions made by the city physician, matron, or superintendent. The requisitions are carefully examined by the Board, and nothing is purchased that can be dispensed with in the interest of economy, or that is not absolutely necessary for the comfort of those in our charge. Two members of the Board constitute a quorum, and a less number cannot act. One thing commends the Board to the favorable opinion of our people, and that is its ability to act promptly in all cases of emergency. Our funds are furnished by the Board of County Commissioners and the City Council, the latter supplying one-third, the former two-thirds. We pay cash for all supplies, and hence we are able to purchase them at the lowest market price. There is another feature of the Board that might be profitably imitated elsewhere, and that is the perfect harmony it sustains to all city, church, or other relief associations, to the city and county officials, Chamber of Commerce, Police Department, and, in fact, with all the citizens. With this harmony and good feeling, it is impossible for any one to suffer long for the necessaries of life, whether sick or well, without its being brought to our attention. We provide for foundlings, pay for the care of imbeciles, mutes, and the blind, who are admitted into the State institutions. We have some blind persons in the almshouse, but under no circumstances do we admit able-bodied persons to that institution. Males and females are quartered in separate apartments; and they are never together except at meals, and then they occupy separate tables. Our Board supplies many sick and unfortunates with transportation to their homes, if it is thought best. We have many sad and distressing cases to deal with. Many deserted wives with their helpless children appeal to us for aid; and, where the cases are worthy, they are never sent away empty-handed. In many cases, we assist them in bringing their neglectful husbands to a discharge of the duties they owe to them and their children. Last winter, we secured the enactment of a law, under which we had a man arrested in a neighboring city, whose family we had partially supported for a year, brought here, and he was compelled to pay her $5o and to promise to support her in the future. The law is a good one, as it makes it a misdemeanor for a man to desert his family; and, when he does so, he is punishable by fine or imprisonment, or both, in the discretion of the court. The

Page  254 254 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES population of our city is about 225,000. We have in the almshouse forty-four inmates. It is our rule never to admit children under any circumstances, provision being made for them in the orphan asylums or elsewhere. The Board of Control has been in existence for seven years; and it is universally admitted to be the most efficient agent yet devised for the alleviation of the sufferings of the poor and distressed in our community. The Committee on Time and Place reported that four invitations had been received for the next Conference,-from Baltimore, Denver, Indianapolis, and Nashville. The committee recommended that the next meeting be held in Baltimore, as nearly as possible in the middle of May, the exact time to be fixed by the Executive Committee. Mr. WINES.- I made the motion in the committee last night that the time of the meeting should be left to the Executive Committee. I know what I meant by that. I meant that the Executive Committee should be untrammelled; that it should have plenary power to call the session for any day of any month that it chooses to appoint. I think the report simply expresses the desire that the Executive Committee should have the meeting in the middle of May, if possible. Dr. FISHER.-That is as I understand the spirit of the motion. Mr. ELMORE.- As I understand it, the gentleman from Illinois was not a member of the Committee on Time and Place. Dr. BYERS.- Mr. Wines was proxy, by a vote of the committee, for a member of that committee from Illinois who had to leave. Mr. WINES.- It is important that this should be understood. The Executive Committee had to take the responsibility of holding this meeting at San Francisco, when the Conference voted to hold it at San Diego. We do not want to fix that responsibility again on any one; but we do want it understood that the Executive Committee has absolute power to fix the date of the meeting. Mr. HART.- That there may be no misunderstanding, I move that the report read as follows: " That the next meeting of the National Conference of Charities and Correction be held in Baltimore, about the middle of May, I890, unless in the judgment of the Executive Committee some other date is preferable." On motion, the report was divided, and the vote was first taken as to the time of the meeting. It was unanimously voted that the next meeting of the Conference should be held, if possible, about the middle of May, unless in the judgment of the Executive Committee some other date should seem preferable. Before the vote on the place was taken, a statement was made by Dr. Wyman, in which he repeated the various invitations that had

Page  255 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 255 been given, stating that the chief reasons which decided the committee in favor of Baltimore were the partial understanding that the Conference would go there, the unusual advantages found in the connection of the Johns Hopkins University and Hospital with work of this kind, the fact that unusual efforts had been made there to spread information in regard to charities, and that the presence of this Conference might be helpful in that work; and, finally, the character of the formal invitation, which was signed by about fifty of the leading presidents and managers of organizations in the city of Baltimore. Mrs. Jacobs, of Colorado, thought there were as strong reasons why the Conference should go to Denver. Mr. Appel, of Colorado, moved to substitute Denver for Baltimore. Mr. Glenn hoped the Conference would vote in favor of Baltimore as the place entitled to receive it at its next session. Mr. Hart, of Minnesota, spoke in favor of Baltimore, while warmly applauding the enthusiasm of Denver..Mr. Johnson, who had brought the invitation from Indiana, withdrew it for next year in favor of Baltimore. Mr. Sperry urged that the vote should be for Colorado. Dr. Byers thought that the Conference committed itself to Baltimore last year so far as one Conference could act for another. He hoped the people of Colorado would not be discouraged, but would receive the Conference another time. The vote was then taken on the amendment to hold the next Conference in Denver instead of Baltimore. The amendment was lost. Mr. Appel, of Colorado, renewed the invitation to Denver for another year, and moved that the invitation to go to Baltimore in I890 be unanimously accepted. Mrs. Sperry, of Colorado, seconded the motion. The vote was then taken, and was declared unanimous in favor of going to Baltimore in I890. Mr. Johnson, of Indiana, renewed the invitation to go to Indianapolis in I891. Adjourned at I2.I5 P.M. SEVENTH SESSION. Saturday night, September I4. The Conference met at 8 P.M., the President in the chair. The Committee on Resolutions made a partial report through the chairman, A. E. Elmore, of Wisconsin.

Page  256 256 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Mr. ELMORE.-Your committee to whom was referred the following resolution,Resolved, That this Conference heartily indorses conferences of charities of the country, States and cities, as means of diffusing information and creating interest; Resolved, That it is suggested to the representatives of States and Territories to have the reports of their State or Territory, here presented, published in their leading newspapers,would respectfully report that they fully agree with the sentiments therein expressed; and several of them know from experience in their States that conferences of charities and correction, known in some instances as meetings of superintendents of the poor, county agents, State conferences, etc., have done and are doing good in those States. In Wisconsin, where several State conferences have been held, the legislature passed a law authorizing the publication of the Proceedings at the expense of the State. Mr. MCCULLOCH moved the adoption of the first resolution. Mr. ELMORE thought it was better to consider them together, as they were germane. Bishop GILLESPIE. —I can speak of our experience in Michigan with reference to this subject. We have had for several years a conference of county agents and Convention of the Board of Corrections and Charities. We humbly follow the plan of the National Conference, and have papers on various subjects, followed by discussion. We hold these meetings in different towns throughout the State, not always going to the largest towns, because we can often get a better audience in the smaller. The interest in these conventions has increased, and I think they have been the means of diffusing useful information. What the people chiefly need is information. My experience has been that, wherever there are grievances, they are soon corrected, if you bring them to the notice of the people. The officials are often narrow-minded, and they are afraid of becoming unpopular. The supervisor is afraid he will injure his chances to go to the legislature if he approves of a new poorhouse or a new jail. But the people are not willing to have a jail that is a disgrace or a poorhouse where the inmates are not properly cared for. As the two points in the resolution are to be considered together, I will also add the testimony of my own experience as to the importance of information on these subjects by a tract and leaflet system. The Proceedings of our conventions are published and paid for by our own Board. We have also a convention of superintendents of the poor. The publication of their Proceedings is paid for by the legislature. A bill is passed every year to pay for them. We endeavor to call the attention of colleges, of the clergy, and of various religious bodies to these matters; and in this way we are gradually succeeding in getting up a decided interest in our institutions.

Page  257 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 257 A. O. WRIGHT, of Wisconsin. —I think the first Conference of Charities in this country was held in Wisconsin. Bishop GILLESPIE.- Wisconsin seems somehow to be always ahead. Mr. WRIGHT.- New York has for many years had a convention of superintendents of the poor; but the first State Conference of Charities was held in Wisconsin, and Mr. Giles and I can claim the honor of originating it. It was held in i88i, and we have held them ever since. We now have authority to publish the Proceedings at State expense. The meetings have had a very good effect in bringing together the officers of the State and county institutions and getting them acquainted with one another, in discussing subjects of mutual interest and in arranging visits between each other. Dr. C. S. HOYT, of New York. —The superintendents of the poor of New York organized, I think, in 1871. I have attended all their State conventions but two, and they come together as well organized for their work as this Conference is organized. The convention for this year was held in August, and continued three days. Papers bearing on the construction and management of poorhouses, the care of the insane and of dependent children, and other kindred subjects, were read, and discussed in an orderly, intelligent, and dignified manner. The convention appointed a committee to attend this Conference; but the distance was such that no one could be induced to come. It gives me great pleasure to testify to the usefulness and efficiency of the State conventions of the superintendents of the poor of New York. Probably there is no office within the gift of the counties of that State that is regarded as more important than that of county superintendent of the poor. Great care is exercised in most of the counties in the selection of these officers. The people are so alive to the importance of good officers in the management of the affairs of the poor that, when one is secured who meets the public requirements, he is retained for a long series of years. Cayuga County has a superintendent of the poor who will complete thirty-six consecutive years of service next January. I think we have some twenty superintendents who have served four or more terms of three years each. We have also a large number who are serving in their second or third terms. Though politics run high in the State, these officers are generally long continued when they prove efficient. Mr. WINES.- In order to the advancement of organized charity, a large amount of visitation is essential. It is important that the charitable and correctional institutions of each State should be freely visited by the people. It is equally important that superintendents of institutions should exchange visits with each other, and become thoroughly acquainted with each other's work. It is important, too, that the superintendents of institutions, and all other persons interested in the administration of public and private charity, should visit institutions outside of their own State. They should attend, not only their State conferences, but this National Conference also, if they would have their ideas broadened and at the same time crystal

Page  258 258 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES lized. The more visitation there is between institutions, and the more the institutions are seen and understood by the people at large, the better. By way of illustration, permit me to refer to the Associated Charities of San Francisco. You will never do your work in a thoroughly satisfactory manner until the men and women who are connected with these Associated Charities shall have visited the State institutions of California. You must know where you are going to put an insane man or woman, what to do with your blind, or with a deaf and dumb or feeble-minded child. You need to know your hospitals and your orphan asylums. If persons who are engaged in the practical work of the Associated Charities do not study institution work, they neglect their duty. Moreover, the more you see of charitable work, the more interested you will become in it. When I was here, two years ago, in attendance upon the Pacific Coast Conference of Charities, I was much interested and instructed by the addresses and remarks of your own people. It has been a cause of serious regret to me that the Pacific Coast Conference was dropped. In such a conference, you bring together people interested in all these various topics, who win each other's confidence, form mutual attachments, and thus strengthen the whole work. If you desire to secure the creation of a State Board of Charities in California, you should first organize a local conference, in which you will become acquainted with one another and learn to stand together, so that you may become a power with the legislature for the accomplishment of this purpose. So long as you are isolated, you can do nothing. In union is strength. People generally have a wrong idea of charity. They think it consists in putting their hand in their pocket, and giving something to somebody on the street. When they have given something, they fancy they know all about it. But they know nothing at all, if they do not know what the legislature of their State has done and is doing for the relief of suffering and the prevention of pauperism and crime. More than that, if you deserve to be an intelligent and efficient helper in the cause of charity, you must know what the legislature ought to do. You need to acquaint yourself with the best methods of organizing and governing institutions, to become familiar with the principles of classification of the unfortunate, and with the different methods of dealing with different classes of persons who require relief or restraint. You should know practically something about institution work, the work of organized charity in cities, and the work done by private relief societies. It would be just as safe to intrust the running of a locomotive to the first man picked up on the street - a man who has never seen a steam-boiler in his life- as to commit the administration of charity to people who will not study the principles which govern its successful administration. You can no more acquire a knowledge of these principles without labor than you can master the higher mathematics without labor. If you think people perceive the ultimate effects of charitable interference by intuition, you are mistaken. Their benevolent impulses, when uninstructed, are not a safe guide to action.

Page  259 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 259 If the good people of San Francisco are ever to apply correct principles of relief, repression, and prevention of social miseries in the legislation of this State, it is essential that you should have some sort of meetings somewhere in which to exchange ideas, and where people who understand the subjects under consideration will discuss them with an earnest and resolute purpose to bring about needed improvements and reforms. When you know each other well, and work together, there will be no trouble about getting your institutions on a proper basis. But mutual acquaintance and confidence are an indispensable prerequisite to influence. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-I would like to make the same application to a Conference of Charities in a city. I attribute whatever success we have had in Indianapolis to the public meetings held on Sunday evening following Thanksgiving Day. We meet in the Opera House. There are usually twenty-five hundred people present, and often there have been from one to two thousand people turned away. We call the meeting "Ten Minute Talks on Phases of Charity." These are printed in the newspapers from shorthand notes. The Indianapolis papers will give from four to six columns of the report of that one meeting. The central churches give up their services, and their ministers are on the platform. Reports are made from our orphan asylum, our kindergarten, our benevolent society, our charity organization. They are not statistical. It is an inspirational presentation of these various charities. In this way, the education of the people is largely effected. These records are afterward gathered into a' pamphlet, and are distributed by the thousand throughout the city, and thus the people know what is going on in charity work. Mr. JOHNSON, of Indiana.- Let me give you an instance of the value of this knowledge of institutions. When I was connected with the Charity Organization Society of Chicago, a young lady, one of our best and most efficient visitors, came to me one day for advice about one of her cases. It was that of a poor woman who could support her family, were it not for the terrible burden of an imbecile child, five years old. I asked her if she did not know about the State School for the Feeble-minded. "Yes," she said, "but the mother will not let the child go." I found that the young lady did not know much about the school, so I took down the report of the Twelfth National Conference, and asked her to read the paper by Mr. Richards about his training of an imbecile boy. She read it, and became enthusiastic about the system. She then visited the mother, talked with her, and described the school in such terms that she consented at once to send the child; and two or three days later the child was entered at the school. The mother was relieved of her burden, and the family became entirely self-supporting. If I had not been able to present the matter in this way, and if she had not presented it to the mother, that family might have remained a burden many years. Every visitor of the Associated Charities ought to know what the State institutions are for, and the conditions of admission to them. They ought also to know the condition of their county poor

Page  260 260 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES houses. If these are not what they should be, the visitors may help to make them better. Undoubtedly, as has been said, a State Conference of Charities would be helpful in this respect. Dr. C. S. HOYT.- It has long been the practice of the State Board of Charities of New York, while its annual report is in type, to print extra copies of its appended papers. They can be thus printed at very slight expense, and become very useful for distribution. We print them generally without covers, making a simple title on the outside leaf. There is no way, I believe, in which this Conference can do more good than in thus printing and distributing many of its papers. Mr. H. H. HART.- A few weeks ago, I wrote to Mr. Letchworth, of New York, asking him a question bearing on the Boards of Charities. He sent me by return mail three documents which had been printed in the way that Dr. Hoyt describes, which gave me exactly what I wanted, and saved him the trouble of writing. As to the importance of people informing themselves with regard to these matters, I once served on an investigating committee of an insane asylum. They heard testimony, and one physician who was testifying as an expert was asked as to the comparative merits of the cottage and the congregate systems. He had to confess that he did not know the difference. Mr. ELMORE.- In Wisconsin, when we first commenced the State Conference of Charities, it was hard work to get thirty people present. Now we have a room in the Capitol at Madison crowded; and to-day, if the people of Wisconsin had their choice, and could have but one, they would say, Give us the State Conference of Charities, and not the National Conference of Charities and Correction. And yet the legislature of our State has authorized the whole Board to attend the National Conference of Charities and Correction, wherever it may be held, and to subscribe for two hundred copies of the Proceedings. Our expenses are paid by the State. It is of immense value to the people of our State that the officers of the State Board should attend such meetings; and I know, if the people of California would hold a State Conference for three successive years, they would get a Board of State Charities, and I think they would in two years. We cannot get on without a State Conference in Wisconsin; and I believe that, if we could meet in each congressional district in the State, it would be of immense help. I had no opportunity in the discussion of Mr. Wright's paper to say anything. I wonder if I may not talk a little about paupers in Wisconsin, in connection with this subject. Mr. Johnson drew a beautiful picture of what a poorhouse should be; but what are the poorhouses to-day in Indiana? Not one of them comes up to his picture. I assert, without knowing the facts. But I can tell him that there is not one single insane person in prison or in jail with us, unless with the consent of the State Board. We have in Wisconsin room for two hundred more insane than we have in the hospitals and asylums; and the State Board has the right to take them from

Page  261 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 26I counties where they are not well cared for and put them somewhere else. We visit every poorhouse in the State. When a man says, " I am hungry, and want something to eat, and must have it," we reply, "All right, sir; but you seem to be an able-bodied man, and, if so, you must work and pay for it." If such a man will not work, and we are obliged to keep him, we must shut him up and give him bread and water until he consents. We treat our paupers well; but, if those who are able will not work, we say, Neither shall they eat. Mrs. DOHRMAN, Of California.- I want to testify to the benefits of a State Conference of Charities. We have no poorhouse in Stockton; but the work of taking care of the outside poor falls on a Ladies' Aid Society. There is also a Catholic Aid Society. Until local conferences were held, we hardly knew how to do our work. We are gradually learning what is right; and, through this Conference here, I have got a still better insight into the management of institutions. I certainly indorse the desire to have a State Conference of Charities. It will meet a great need. Mr. JOHNSON.- I believe, with Mr. Elmore, that paupers who will not work and are able-bodied should be compelled to work, only the poorhouse is not the place for such people. A poorhouse is not a prison, or it should not be, any more than a lunatic asylum is a place for imbecile children. Mr. MCCULLOCH.- The place for a man who is in need, if he will not work, is the workhouse, not the almshouse. You are under no obligation to feed a man who will not work. Do not go back of that great charter of English liberties which was fought out at Runnymede, which insures that a man shall be consigned to prison only by due process of law, and shall have a defence. That is too precious a principle for State Boards of Charities to break down. Mr. ELMORE.- Suppose a man will not work and will not go away: what are you going to do about it? We cannot let him starve, so we give him bread and water. There are a great many cases which no law covers; and the law of common sense must be followed. The law of humanity is superior to all your statute laws; and there are many cases where you must exercise common sense, and that is something we have a great deal of in Wisconsin. Mr. WRIGHT, of Wisconsin.- I advocate employment as a very good means to get rid of this sort of people. I also advocate the commitment of some classes of persons to the poorhouse, committing them so that they can be held for good reasons. Dr. VOORSANGER.-When a man happens to be so unfortunate as to lose his mind, he is treated in many States as a common criminal, - arrested, tried, and committed. What can be done to change that state of affairs? A man who is insane is not a criminal: he is sick. Has that subject ever engaged the attention of this Conference? Mr. WINES.- I see Mr. Hart smile. Dr. Voorsanger, despite his great learning, ability, and benevolence, himself affords an illustration of the need of a State Board of Charities in California. There is scarcely any subject which has been more fully discussed or on which

Page  262 262 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES there is a more voluminous literature. But it is hardly worth our while to go into it this evening, since the subject of insanity will come up on Monday. Bishop GILLESPIE.-Will Mr. Wines now tell us whether the International Record is to be continued or not? Mr. WINES.- Some of the members of the Conference will remember that many years ago I suggested that the Conference ought to have an organ. It hardly answers a sufficient purpose to have these papers read and to discuss them here, unless we can bring the subject to the attention of the public during the intervals between our annual sessions. The project of an official organ has been discussed also by the National Prison Association. But neither of these organizations has ever seen its way to establish a journal. At last it occurred to me that I would myself try to do what others would not undertake. I did so, and the International Record was published by me for two and a half years. The experiment resulted in financial loss. The manufacture and distribution of that paper cost a little over six thousand dollars. At the date when publication was suspended for want of funds, it had something more than one thousand subscribers in the United States. During a portion of the time they paid one dollar a year, but during the latter part two dollars. After deducting the commissions paid to the publishers, the receipts were only twentyfive hundred dollars, making a deficit of thirty-five hundred dollars, which I had to pay myself or get the friends of the enterprise to pay for me, in addition to two and a half years of unpaid labor as editor, struggling to establish it. I have not seen my way clear to start it again, because I am neither willing nor able to assume the pecuniary responsibility. It was printed in New York. I have ascertained that it can be published in the West much cheaper. I find that I can have an edition of five thousand copies printed at my own home for about twenty-five hundred dollars a year. But, in order to resume publication, it is absolutely necessary that there shall be a guarantee fund raised, which will secure the payment of the printer and enable me to distribute the paper through the mails. I am willing to give any amount of time and labor necessary, as editor, up to the measure of my strength, without compensation. But there are great difficulties in the way of making a special journal like this self-supporting. You cannot get advertising until you have succeeded in getting subscribers. It is difficult to persuade competent writers to furnish articles, when you do not pay for them. If the Conference wants an organ, it should provide for the payment of the bills. I have not yet returned any money to subscribers, because I have always believed that I should be able to give them the papers for their money. I still believe that some one will come forward and put this journal on its feet. But that is a matter of faith, and not of sight. The trouble with rich men is that they are willing to invest money, as a rule, only where there is a visible result. They will buy real estate, and erect buildings for an institution. They will endow institutions, because in

Page  263 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 263 that case they see their money converted into bonds and drawing interest. But ask them to throw away five hundred or a thousand dollars, by putting it into a purely educational enterprise like the Record, and they will not do it. It is casting bread upon the waters; and they say, " I see no outcome." Such a paper ought to be circulated at first, and to some extent, gratuitously. When the public is once acquainted with it, it will support it. But this requires money, and I have not the money with which to do it. The vote was then taken on the report of the Committee on Resolutions, which was unanimously adopted. The following resolution offered by Mr. Storrs, of Michigan, was referred to the Committee on Resolutions: - Resolved, That the Sixteenth Conference of Charities and Correction provide a standing committee, to be composed of one delegate from each State represented, to be nominated from the delegation from each State, to take charge of the printing and publishing of the Proceedings of the Conference, to provide an official organ, and to publish papers deemed necessary, providing ways and means therefor. Adjourned at 9 P.M. EIGHTH SESSION. Sunday, September 15. The Conference sermon was preached in the Unitarian church, Sunday morning, by the pastor, Rev. Horatio Stebbins, D.D. Dr. Stebbins was assisted in the service by Rev. F. H. Wines, Rev. H. H. Hart, and Mr. John Fretwell. NINTH SESSION. Sunday night, September 15. The evening session was held at the Congregational church. Rev. F. H. Wines presided in the absence of Bishop Gillespie. Rev. Charles D. Barrows read the Scripture lesson and offered the opening prayer. Mr. WINES.-The meeting this evening has been called at the suggestion of the Local Committee of Arrangements, in the interest of the Associated Charities of San Francisco; and the evening will be devoted to the consideration of that subject, —the work of charity organization in large cities. The National Conference of Charities and Correction is a body of men and women devoted to the study of social questions, with special reference to the evils which afflict society, and to the possible or probable remedies for these evils. Charities and correction are a subject of interest to everybody. When I say that it interests everybody, I do not mean that it enlists everybody's attention, but that it is of importance to everybody.

Page  264 264 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES It interests the State, whose concern it is to uplift the weak, at the same time that it represses the rapacity of the strong. The presence of the dangerous classes is a constant menace to the security of any government, even of a republican government. It is of interest to the Church, because the fight against crime is only one form of the conflict with sin in the world,- a struggle which has been committed to the Church as its special mission. Charity (love) is the fulfilling of the law. The church which does not realize that righteousness is profitable for the life that now is, as well as for that which is to come, can hardly be said to have risen to the conception of its duties and responsibilities. It is of interest to society,- society at large, not society in the limited sense of the word, including only the rich and the fashionable,- because the evils which grow up among the poor and the degraded must, in the end, affect the condition of the rich. It is of interest to the statesman, to the philanthropist, to the political economist, to the physician (from a sanitary point of view), to the lawyer, to the clergyman, to the business man, to the tax-payer. I can hardly think of any class of people, no matter who they may be, which ought not to be interested in this subject. I am sorry to say that there are comparatively few who take an active interest in it; but this is an age which is distinguished by the prevalence of a tendency to specialization. It is the age of specialists; and, as some men must give themselves to the study of the natural sciences in general, and to the study of some one branch of science in particular, so must other men, of course, give themselves to the study of social science, with special reference to some particular aspect of the social problem. We have seen a wonderful advance in physical science during the last half-century. The advance of social science must follow. The spirit and aims of this Conference are little understood by the world at large; but they are in reality far in advance of the age in which we live. I think we are leading public opinion in the right direction, although the public seems to be following at a respectful distance. There seems to be a general impression that any one who is deeply interested in charitable work is more or less of a crank, and it is a common belief that our Conference is composed largely of long-haired men and short-haired women. If any of you are disposed to entertain this belief, I wish that you would come and see us. I am reminded of an article by Burdette, in which he replies to some one who thanks God that he is not a crank: " My son, you might thank God if you were a crank. What is a crank? A crank is a thing that turns a wheel. To be sure, it turns only one wheel. But that is what makes the ship go. No, my son: when God wants to make a crank, he takes the very best material that he has in his workshop; and out of the refuse he makes weathercocks. You can take your choice, my son, whether you will be a crank or a weathercock." We are turning our one wheel with all our might. We are hardly strong enough to do the work. We want help. We want your sup

Page  265 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 265 port and co-operation, and we extend to you a very cordial invitation to attend as many of our sessions as you can. We have a strong and earnest hope that, having come three thousand miles to see you, we may be able to help you to lay a better, deeper, and more stable foundation for the work of the Associated Charities of San Francisco, and to secure the interest and activity in that work of many of the good men and women of this city who as yet have taken no actual part in it. Mr. MCCULLOCH.- It is proposed to present this subject of organization of charity to you this evening, in its various phases: first, to explain the movement in general; second, to detail the methods of organization; third, to show the value of organization; fourth, to show the necessity of the personal element in charity; and, fifth, to voice the appeal for help. The organization of charities is a new movement in America. It is not yet twelve years old. It was introduced into the city of Buffalo in 1877, having been brought here from London. It was introduced into London, by Miss Octavia Hill, from Elberfeld, and was first known as the Elberfeld system for the better care of the poor in cities. It is sometimes called the Associated Charities movement. It is, perhaps, more frequently known as the Charity Organization movement. The latter words better express the movement, which is an attempt to organize the charities of a city. The splendid word " organization," as we know, characterizes every modern movement: why should it not characterize charity? For many years there has been a growing conviction that, with this immense progress of modern times, there is a corresponding progress in poverty; and that there is a deeper depth than poverty into which many people are falling, which is called "pauperism." There is a feeling that, with all the sympathetic attention to the poor and the development of many beautiful charities, the problem is not solved. To introduce this subject, I cannot do better than to make an object lesson from this chart, which represents a diagram of what is called "The Tribe of Ishmael: A Study in Social Degradation." It is taken from the records of the Charity Organization Society of Indianapolis. It represents thirty-five families, numbering seventeen hundred and eighty-five persons, and united by descent and marriage traced through six generations, every one of whom has been a criminal, a prostitute, or a pauper. These seventeen hundred and eighty-five persons are a part of six thousand, of whom we have full and accurate records. Their history is detailed on over ten thousand pages of records, which have grown up through twelve years of long investigation. At the bottom, society rests on people who have broken off, dropped down into pauperism. You should distinguish between poverty and pauperism. A pauper is a person who will not work, who has dropped into the degraded class, who has lost his selfrespect, lost the praise of society, who asks aid continually without making an endeavor for self-aid, and whom others must help. For pauperism there can only be a steady and intelligent application of

Page  266 266 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES principles which look either toward self-help or toward the cutting off from relief. For poverty there must be instant, adequate, and wise aid. Now, then, the need of organization in charity rests on this,- the existence at the bottom of a rapidly growing class of paupers, men, women, and children, numbering, as they have numbered in Indianapolis alone, over six thousand individuals, and the presence of the poor who need aid to keep them from falling into pauperism. This chart represents thirty-five out of two hundred and fifty families. These thirty-five were chosen because they came first. The central family is called "Ishmael." We can trace it back to 1795. Thirtyfive families came to Indiana about 1840, from Kentucky and Tennessee, paupers when they came. They have married and intermarried until you have this result. I presume that at the basis of your own social structure there lies the same possible condition. It is to anticipate the possible fall of men and women and little children that we come to speak. It is to check the enormous waste of money and time that we come to speak. It is in the interest of the poor, to keep them from dropping into this condition, that we come to voice our appeal for a larger and better organization of charities in your cities; that there shall be no longer dread of people dropping down into this state of degradation; that children may be saved for manhood and womanhood. This is the reason for our coming, that in this city of San Francisco we may help you to study into the best methods, and that you may support loyally and earnestly your recently organized movement of the Associated Charities. THE METHODS OF ORGANIZATION. Mr. JOHNSON.- The methods of organization vary in every city. Occasionally, a condition of things may exist which makes it possible for a society to organize itself and at once take into co-operation all the charities of the city. That condition, however, is rare. I cannot give you in ten minutes anything like an outline of the method of organization. I will give you a few glimpses of it. First, we must have a central body which has relations with all the other bodies,the hub of the wheel, as it were. This is called by various names, sometimes a Charity Organization Society, sometimes a Central Board of Associated Charities. You have chosen the latter name; and, if you will remember this name and its meaning, if you will always bear it in mind, if you will test every method, every attempted plan, by the words "Associated Charities," you will not go far wrong. Associated does not mean consolidated. There should be no desire to take the work of charity out of the hands of the societies already doing it. That is the last thing we should wish to do. How can this co-operation be secured? There is a text of Scripture which says, "If any would be great among you, let him be the servant of all." If we would get co-operation, we must prove usefulness. The Associated Charities must be made useful to every other charitable body in the city. It must be the centre of information, of

Page  267 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 267 registration. The officers and agents of the society must solicit the privilege of being useful. You cannot insist upon being useful to people against their will. You must patiently offer your services again and again. So doing, you will secure the co-operation, one after the other, of the various organizations for charity which exist in the city. Eventually, after years of patient effort, you will have the whole body of charity in the city associated and organized; and then you will be ready for very fine work. In seeking this co-operation, follow a plan something like the one proposed by a French officer during the war with Spain. He proposed to the general that he, with nine other perfect swordsmen, should challenge ten of the Spanish officers to single combat, should kill them and challenge ten more, and so on until, the officers being gone, the army would fall an easy prey. So you must take in detail one church or society after another; and by usefulness, by perseverance, and by humility —for of all humble societies the Associated Charities must be the most humble, you will be accused of pride no matter how humble you are- you will win them all. I believe that is the only way to secure thorough co-operation in any city. You know the general plan and method of the society. It involves a certain amount of centralized work and a wise division of responsibility between paid laborers and volunteer laborers. This proper coordination of official and private work is of the greatest importance. Do not trust to official work for all, nor to volunteer work for all. There is danger in indiscriminate giving. It feeds all kinds of tramps and paupers; but it has the element of charity in it: it is personal and direct from benefactor to beneficiary. Another element of danger and a different one is in officialism. In that there is not the essence of charity, the personal touch that makes charity worth something. It is apt to be cold and heartless, and to repel modest worth. You want to avoid both of these dangers; and you can do so by the careful division of work between those who do it as a business and those with whom it is a matter of sentiment only. I want to give two illustrations of practical work in securing cooperation by usefulness. I want to tell you how our society won a church and a man, both of whom I greatly desired to win. Let me say that in Chicago we had very serious opposition,- an opposition which is developed in every city where there has been a well-organized relief society at work. The good people of the relief society imagine that they are doing just the work that the Charity Organization purposes to do. It takes a long time for them to learn that there is something better, or at any rate something else good besides that which they are doing. In Chicago we had such a society twenty-five or thirty-five years old. It had long enjoyed the support of the richest men in the city, although it had not got the universal confidence of the people. It believed that it could get all the money necessary. It believed that it was doing all the work necessary. The effect of its opposition was to hamper us in our work. But a little opposition in the beginning is a good thing for a society.

Page  268 268 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES If everything is smooth sailing, you get to thinking that you know all about it; and the results are disastrous. We had gained a few churches; but there was a particular one which I was very anxious to gain, and I will tell you how we did it. In our western district, I happened to be present when a case came up for discussion. It was that of an old lady of fifty with a son of sixteen. The boy was delicate, but was earning four dollars a week. That was all their support. It was not enough to keep them; and the old lady had gotten into the way of going round to ask help. We found out what church she belonged to, that it had plenty of money, and that it was giving her occasional help once in a month or so, but not enough. I said to the agent, We should go and see the pastor, lay the case before him, and show him that the boy was doing all he could, and ought not to be made to feel like a pauper. The amount he could earn was not sufficient: they needed about two dollars more a week. The agent went to the minister, and laid the case before him, and showed him that it was the duty of the church to provide a regular pension for the old lady until the son was able to earn more money. He saw it at once, and said: "That shall be done. That is just the way to help them. Could we not see that until you told us?" Then we told him that we wanted him to send the money, and not let the old lady have to ask it; and he said that should be done. From that day, a lady from the church relief society regularly came, and paid the old lady two dollars a week. I met the pastor shortly afterward, and he said, " How are you getting on?" I said, "Fairly; but it takes a good while to get a new idea into people's heads." "Yes," he said, "it took three years to get it into my head, but it is there now." And then he told me of the case I have given you. From that time we had that church and its officers on our side. The vice-president of the First National Bank of Chicago is a very benevolent, public-spirited man. He had been nominally a supporter of the Charity Organization Society, and had given a few dollars to get rid of the solicitor, probably, but did not use us. I met him one day at the Bureau of Justice, and, as we walked away, he asked how the society was getting on. I said, "Pretty fairly; but we want better support." He said, "I nearly sent you a man the other day who came and asked for money; but I hesitated between a ticket and a dollar, and the dollar won." He then told me the applicant was a railroad man, who claimed to have come from the South, and had a wife and child; was out of work, but would have employment in a few days, and so he gave him a dollar to help him over. I replied: "You should not have done so, or else you should have given him more. You say that he had a wife and child to support for three days. A dollar was not enough to do that. If, as you think, he had never begged before, you started him on a career of beggary. After begging from you, it was easier to ask from others. There are half a dozen other bankers near you, to whom he could go. He probably made five or six dollars, an amount which he never before made

Page  269 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 269 in a day in his life. He may have found out for the first time how well begging pays." The gentleman replied: " I see I have done wrong. The next man I will send to you, and test your society whether it can do better." He sent a man not long afterward, under similar circumstances, an Englishman, who had worked in car-shops. He belonged to that class of persons who are, perhaps, of all, the readiest to become paupers. It is not their fault: it is the fault of the vile system of pauper relief in England. He came to me, and I said, "Would you rather work or beg?" He said he would cheerfully work; "but I have got a wife and child, and my wife is delicate, and they are hungry." I said that I would attend to that. I gave him a note to an agent that would secure for his wife and child a good dinner. I also gave the man a note to the wood-yard, saying, "Give this man work, and pay him in cash until further orders." The man reached the wood-yard about half-past ten in the morning. The agent went to see the wife and child, and looked out for their dinner, which was paid for by the Saint George's Benevolent Society. By noon the man had earned his dinner. He got some petty jobs outside the yard, and by evening he had earned a dollar and fifty cents. The next day he went back to work, and again earned about a dollar and fifty cents, and so on for several days. Then there was a chance for a few days at two dollars a day and his meals. The following week he got a situation as assistant janitor; and I went to the vice-president of the bank and told him what had been done, —the family helped, pauperism avoided, and all at a cost of thirty cents in money, and some brains, and in that case we happened to have both available. We secured that gentleman as a firm friend to our society. He put up one of our signs in his office: "This office subscribes to the Charity Organization Society, and refers to it all applicants for relief." In both of these instances, you see, we proved usefulness as the price of co-operation.. There are so many institutions claiming public support, and advancing excellent theories which seem to justify their claim, that public men are apt to be conservative about admitting new claimants; but demonstrate usefulness, and you are sure of public and liberal support. THE PRACTICAL ADVANTAGE. CHARLES LEE SMITH, Baltimore.- I shall tell you of the practical advantages of organization in Baltimore. We are overcoming the opposition which was at first encountered, and of which there was formerly a great deal. One advantage is that it brings the different societies into harmony with each other. You want to bring them all together, have them understand the methods of the Charity Organization Society, and thus prevent the overlapping of relief. The Charity Organization Society is a clearing-house for the charities of the city. Every case reported to the society is investigated, and a record is made of it. Then any individual or society may make application, and the facts are given. If we have not the facts in the

Page  270 270 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES office, an investigation is made at once. We have telephone communication with the different societies. Cards are distributed throughout the city; and, if a beggar applies at a door, he is given a card giving his name and address and also that of the party referring, and either he is asked to bring it to us or it is mailed to us, or it is sent by a message-boy. Only in that way can an individual or society give intelligently, especially in a large city, where there are different churches and organizations doing the same kind of work. A case came up on one occasion of a woman who had her child baptized in seven different churches, that she might get relief from each. If the first church had reported to the Charity Organization Society, and left a record with us, when this woman applied to the next church, and they had so reported to us, we would have stopped the fraud. But seven churches were thus imposed on before the matter was brought to our notice. Another case where fraud was practised was that of a young man, rather seedy in appearance, but of good address, who went from house to house, asking for a suit of clothes. When our agent investigated, he was found with seven or eight good suits of clothes that had been given him. Those were "for his friends," he said, when asked about it. Another case where the imposition was soon stopped was that of a young man who had been crippled and was appealing for help. His condition appealed to charitable people, and help was lavishly given. The case came to us. We found that his father was an engineer on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, who was amply able to support his son; and through the instrumentality of a friendly visitor this was brought about, thus rescuing the son from beggary. The Charity Organization Society not only discovers frauds, but another advantage is that it brings the giver and receiver of alms into closer relations with each other. A case that occurs to me was that of a man from New England who lost his position in Baltimore. Many, but fruitless, were his efforts to'find work. When reported to us, the family was in a starving condition. We investigated the case, and found that the first want was for food, which was immediately supplied. A friendly visitor was found for the family, profitable employment was soon secured for the husband, and they.were saved from pauperism. Thus by the use of the society fraud may be prevented, and adequate relief may be found for the worthy by securing for them what might otherwise have been given to the unworthy. I do not know how many relief-giving societies you may have in San Francisco. In Baltimore, we have more than one hundred and twenty, not including those subsidiary to the churches. We have a German relief-giving society, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, the Society of St. George, and many others. An Irishman having an English wife, the one Catholic the other Protestant, needing help, may with propriety appeal to numerous societies; and the charity organization clearing-house is needed, that they may not be supported in idleness, and from honest poverty drift into pauperism and trust

Page  271 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 27I to the community for support. In Baltimore, besides individuals, nearly all the leading churches and relief-giving societies co-operate with us. Recently, one pastor sent in a long list of pensioners; and it was found that some were drawing from three or four different churches. In every one of these cases, we tried to secure adequate relief, and to prevent the unworthy from receiving the help that should have gone to the worthy. We have a large majority of the representative citizens working with us. To succeed, any Charity Organization Society must have the co-operation of the citizens as well as that of the churches and benevolent societies. Another advantage is that this method tends to stop door to door begging. Several years ago, it used to be the case that you could hardly go through any street of Baltimore without finding beggars. Before our society came into existence, they were in the habit of receiving twenty-five cents here and there, thus enabling them to live without working. Now, when a case appeals for aid, it is usually sent to us. Our first object is to get work for both the worthy and the unworthy. We want the unworthy to become worthy. Ours is a charity that suffereth long and is kind. It is called "scientific charity ": I prefer to call it "Christian charity." I have given you briefly some of the advantages from organization that we have realized in Baltimore. They are advantages which may, and I hope will, be realized in San Francisco. WORK OF THE FRIENDLY VISITOR. Mrs. JACOBS, of Colorado.- In Denver we have a Relief Society of fourteen years' standing under our control, and a wood-yard where we can send tramps and those who try to get work and cannot get it. We have beds for them, and food. They have to work for what they get. We have a sign up, " No one can enter here unless he earns what he eats and his lodging." Last year, we took care of six hundred and forty men. We sell the wood to our friends, and the wood-yard is almost self-supporting. That is one way of ridding a city of men who apply for help, when you do not wish to give them money. We have also a Home for the Friendless, where the aged, and children of poor working mothers, are taken in, and also women who have not found opportunities or means of support. We also take care of the out-door poor. The city is divided into districts. In every district we have a number of lady visitors. The moment a case is reported, we have our own agent to look after it. We have rooms connected with our Associated Charities, where we have clothes and shoes to distribute. We try to send every child to school who is of school age, and we try to have all that we can go into the free kindergarten. When a case of need is found, if worthy, help is given at once, and a visitor sent for. One day a doctor called, and said, "Will you go with me to see an urgent case?" Wei went. In the room, a very pleasant room, we found a most beautiful young woman, with a little boy. She had arrived penniless, friend

Page  272 272 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES less, was unable to secure work, and was on the verge of committing suicide. I said to her: "Do not be discouraged. Let your mother heart look up. Look at your lovely boy: you have much to live for." I said to her, "Although we have never seen you before, you are one of us." We took her to the Home, with her boy, and secured for her nursing at twenty dollars a week. But this lasted only a short time. Again she was thrown on her own resources, and was in no condition to face the world. We started a mending bureau for her, and circulated tickets in every laundry in the city, with references, saying that we would take charge of mending. That woman now has more work than she can possibly manage. She has bought a sewing-machine. Her boy is a messenger; and they are both comfortable and happy. That is the way friendly visiting is done. It does not consist in going into a house, and saying: How do you do? I am sorry for you. I will come again to-morrow. The work of the friendly visitor means to come yourself, dear mothers: it means taking your little children with you, and teaching them how to take care of the poor, how to throw themselves into their positions, how to make them manage, and to know that the world requires duties from them from infancy to manhood. It is not what we give, but what we share. You must make the poor feel that you are part and parcel of them; that they can come to you for advice; that you can come to them day or night; that you can say to them, How can I help you? how can I better your condition? to let them know that you are their friend, indeed. It is in our homes that we must begin. We must interest our children in doing charitable work. At Thanksgiving time, we wanted to give every poor family in the city a Thanksgiving dinner. We went to the public schools and asked for help, and you have no idea how those little ones loved to give it. We told them they might bring anything that was convenient. Some brought apples. We received barrels and barrels of apples. We told others that they might bring potatoes, and we received barrels and barrels of potatoes. Finally, the teachers had to restrain them, or they would have filled the schoolroom with their gifts. That is what we need,- that our little ones should be interested. Every Christmas we take our district visitors, and go into the house of every family that is recorded on our books, and give turkey and cranberries, tea, coffee, and everything donated, shoes and clothes. We want everybody to feel that, when they come to us, it is not in fear, but it is in love. That is what we mean by friendly visiting. Now, a word as to how we are imposed on. A man was sent to me by the railroad authorities. He had a despatch saying that his wife, who was on her way to him, had been robbed of $I6o and her tickets. What could we do? We sent to one of the officers of the Union Pacific Road, and asked to have her sent forward. He replied that it was impossible, unless the ticket could be found. Until that was produced, the Interstate Commerce Law prevented him

Page  273 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 273 from doing anything more. I sent the man to the Caledonia Society. The secretary was gone. Then I said, "I will take the responsibility, and advance the money." We had no meeting for a few days. Meantime, we had a cyclone of John Thomases. He had been to Rev. Myron Reed, who had given him $Io. He had been to Dean Hart, who had given him $12. In fact, he had been all over town with this telegram. The people had been sympathetic and helped him. But Mr. Reed found out about it, and John Thomas was under arrest. He had received $85 in one week. Here is another case. A poor woman came to me, and said: "I need advice so badly. Cannot you help me?" I replied, " I will do so, as far as lies in my power." "I have a daughter," she said, "of seventeen, whom I cannot control. I am a dressmaker. I am not able to watch her. She is not a vicious girl, but incorrigible. What can I do?" I said, "You and the girl come here." I found, on seeing her, that we could do nothing with her. I went to the police justice, and put the case before him, and told him that it was to be absolutely private; that I did not want the girl to go before the courts; that I wanted the case disposed of privately. Every time a young girl's name is put in the paper in such a connection it is a brand. For the sake of the future redemption of girls, it ought to be prevented, if possible. The judge asked the girl what possessed her to act so. She said that, when she got out, she did not want to go home. The girl was committed for one year to the House of the Good Shepherd. She threw her arms around my neck, and said, " I will do everything you say, if you will not part me from my mother." " Lizzie," I said, "it is too late. You could have been such a comfort to your mother: now you must leave her, when she needs you most. But at the end of the year you will be released, and, I hope, a better, wiser, and purer girl." I went occasionally to see her. The last time I was there, she said: " Mrs. Jacobs, with all my heart I thank you for putting me here. I begin to see how wrong I have been. Help me to be a good girl, and, when I come out, you will see what I will do for mother." We hope that this will be the case; for is there anything better or sweeter than a pure girl? And, mothers, let me appeal to you to bring up your boys to be as pure as your daughters. Bring them up to respect women, to remember that all the women they see are somebody's mothers, wives, or daughters, and that, if they see women in a degraded condition, they will look on them with a pitying eye, and not help them to be more degraded. I was once notified that a girl was lying helpless at the jail. I went to the jail, and asked to see the girl. On a forlorn bunk was lying a poor, sick, friendless girl, ill almost unto death and a stranger. I asked her how she came there. She said that they found her on a step. I asked the officers why they did not send word to us, but they replied they had not time. The girl told me that, on being sent to the jail, she had to be stripped and examined by the men. That made me mad. We called a woman's meeting of the women of the city, and we did not invite a man to preside. There was not a man

Page  274 274 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES on the platform. Women advertised the meeting, women wrote the programmes, and did the praying and the talking. We told the men of that city what we thought of the condition of affairs in the jail. We told them that it was an outrage that a woman should be stripped and examined by men. We told them that there should be a woman at the police station. They replied that there was no appropriation to pay for such an officer. We made up the necessary sum ourselves, and they hired a woman. Last June, a city appropriation was made; and now a police matron is one of the regular force. The next thing we are going to have is a house of detention for women. Whenever a girl comes to your doorstep, do not send her away. Take her in and talk to her, and see what you can do for her before she is put into the hands of the public. I am glad to hear that you have here a club of young workinggirls. When a girl stands all day in a store, she wants, just as all girls want, some diversion. We want homes for such girls, where they can have a library and amusement and a place to receive callers. In all these matters, you must go out into the world, and do for others what you would like others to do for you in the same condition. AN APPEAL FOR LIGHT. Mr. VAN NESS.- A cry for help, for better conditions of existence for all, that is a tremendous subject to touch in the ten minutes at my disposal. But let me briefly mention some of the tendencies of the day. As introduction, two pictures: one represents the bleak New England coast, the sea in the distance, and a little ship riding in the harbor; and in the snow a group of people are kneeling in prayer, thanking the Divine Father for his care and guidance during a stormy voyage. Who are these people? They are the Pilgrim Fathers. They have endured storm and cold. They brave the wilds of a new country, and all the perils consequent upon a new civilization; and for what? To enjoy religious liberty. Another picture. In the foreground of it you see a table in old Independence Hall, Philadelphia, upon which is lying a document shortly to be made most famous. Certain men are signing it, and thereby pledging their lives, fortunes, and sacred honor to what? To political liberty. Do these pictures stand for facts? Let us see. The United States, while it is in theory, both politically and religiously, acting on the principle that all men are brothers, and that one human life is as valuable as another, is socially acting on just the reverse principle. I need not more than call your attention to this fact, for it is apparent to all. The poor American day laborer may be very much consoled to learn from the lips of the preacher that his soul is an emanation of the divine and destined for immortality; but, perhaps, while he is hearing this, he has to stand in the vestibule of the church, or take an obscure seat somewhere, because his social position is not such as to warrant the usher in showing him to a front

Page  275 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 275 pew. Or again, his pride may be highly gratified to learn at the evening ward meeting or convention that even the presidential chair is within his reach; but he will find the next day that his place is on the rear, or in some back street, and that not a door on Fifth Avenue or Beacon Street is open to him on that account. Worse than all, his position is as rigidly fixed in the factory or the mill as it is in the street and in society. Politically, educationally, religiously, our theories are toward equality; but socially and economically the tendencies are just the reverse. In one direction, they are working toward a higher life; in another, they are toward clans and caste. We are having all sorts of new reform movements, Nationalism and Socialism, etc., to bring these opposite tendencies into harmony; but all these movements will prove abortive. Why? Because these things cannot be remedied in any one country. The same thing is going on in all countries. Let me illustrate. There is a little country in Europe, Switzerland, shut up by its hills and mountains. The Swiss people say: "We will be independent of other countries. We will make a specialty of watch-making, and confine it to ourselves." By and by, men in Connecticut make delicate machinery for clocks and watches; and the watches thus made are now being turned out by the thousands, and the Swiss find that their slow hand-work is left behind. So it is going on through the whole world. We are competing with one another, one city against another, one nation against another. Hence the present industrial tendencies: on the one hand, this aggregation of capital attempting to bring machinery to better perfection, that we may compete with France, Germany, and other countries in their products; and, on the other side, crowds of workmen driven by necessity into changed economic relations. Thus our labor market is being overcrowded, and labor competition becomes bitter and cruel. With the better machinery and better plans of manufacturers, needed to compete with other countries, men are being thrown out of employment. What shall they do? Not very long ago a man came to my study, who had been working fifteen years at one thing. All this time he had been doing just this one little, intricate thing; but machinery was invented which could do that particular thing, and he was no longer needed. That is the condition of hundreds. That is the industrial tendency. What is to become of such men? We are in a transition period. Meantime, these same working people and their families are being educated, getting new wants, with less to satisfy them. What is to be done? We want to keep these people thus thrown out of employment from falling into the pauper class from despair, from becoming anarchists. When they lose employment, we want to keep them from begging, to raise them up and put them into harmony with the new industrial conditions. It is necessary for those people who believe in uplifting the human race to work for it now, to listen to this appeal from below,-not to wait until Bellamy's twentieth century commonwealth comes, not to wait until the kingdom of God comes, but in this present period to seek out the causes, and see if there is

Page  276 276 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES any remedy for the evils of the day. This is true, not only of California, but of Colorado, and of all the country. Men of all nationalities need help. There is a cry for life. Let us put our shoulders to the wheel, and see what we can do. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-The conclusion of the whole matter is this: that by faithful study of existing conditions, by gradual co-operation of all the relief agencies now established, it is possible to check the downward movement. It is no easy task: it is not a dilettante work; but it is possible. It is possible to adjust and settle some of the difficulties. It is possible to keep little children, through the kindergartens, from falling into misery and idleness. It is possible to keep young girls from leading a life of shame,-for twelve, or even two, men or women to make a charity organization society for that purpose. These associated efforts will prevent the growth of great evils, and will assist us in the restoration of just so much wasted and fallen humanity. At the beautiful gate of that temple which Herod built, a lame man is lying. He has been lame from birth. Medical and surgical skill are wanting. His only thought is of alms that shall buy shelter and food, and which he receives from the men who pass through the gate. He asks an alms of Peter and John. Peter says, "Silver and gold have I none." His heart is heavy. His hand falls. "Silver and gold have I none." What else can help the lame man? Is there no help besides that? " Silver and gold have I none"; but, "such as I have, I give thee,"- the personal help of a loving heart. "Such as I have,"-the personal individual self of every man and woman. "Such as I have,"- the experience gained through long observation. " Such as I have," — this sympathy that has come through sorrow. "Such as I have,"- the pity that I feel as I think of the men and women and little children. "Such as I have," —in the name and in the spirit of Jesus of Nazareth, walk and live. Such asyou have, you wealthy souls, men and women,- not necessarily wealthy in money or stocks, but wealthy by reason of the endowment which the Highest has given you; wealthy by reason of the opportunity offered you, by the endowment of personal affection, by the opportunity of co-operation; wealthy by reason of your ability to help the man who lies at the beautiful gate of our civilization, lame, and lagging on the road. Shall we not take hold? Can you not, as you make your splendid progress from strength to strength, stop to think of those who have fallen out by the way, who have no strength and no health? Will you not take hold of this social problem, and each day bring back with you at least one man who has fallen among thieves by the Jericho road? Adjourned.

Page  277 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 277 ' TENTH SESSION. Monday, Sept. 16, 1889. The Conference met at 9.30 A.M., the President in the chair. Prayer was offered 'by Rev. H. H. Hart. The special order for the morning was "The Care of the Insane." Dr. Hoyt, of New York, was called to the chair. A paper by Dr. W. W. Godding, of Washington, D.C., on "The State in the Care of its Insane," was read in his absence by Dr. E. T. Wilkins, superintendent of the Napa Asylum for the Insane (page 63). The discussion was opened by Dr. Wilkins. DISCUSSION ON CARE OF INSANE. Dr. WILKINS.- What Dr. Godding has to say about the quantity of land and water for an asylum should be axiomatic, yet it is a fact that few institutions have selected sites having all the advantages that he has prescribed. An abundant supply of water, coming by gravitation into the buildings, is of much importance. Land is the cheapest thing that a State can purchase, but there are few institutions that I have visited in this country or in Europe with sufficient land. I have never seen one with too much land and water. At Stockton, we have only one hundred and twenty acres, with over fifteen hundred patients. It is utterly impossible for the officers to do justice to themselves or to their patients on that little patch of land. They cannot even dispose of their swill to hogs, for they cannot keep them on account of the odor. The sewage question is of great importance. Of course, we cannot get all the things we want in one location. The great difficulty here has been water. Some of our institutions have suffered very much. One institution at San Quentin pays thousands of dollars a month for water. At Stockton, they have to pay considerable for water; but it has to be pumped. At Santa Clara there is abundant water, but only 276 acres of land, rich and productive; but it is deficient in two points. There is only seventeen feet fall in three-quarters of a mile. The water comes from artesian wells, and irrigates the whole; but it has to be pumped into the house -more than a million gallons a day - from the two wells. It is within thirty-nine miles of San Francisco; and it is in a healthful, country, not so beautiful as ours because the hills are not so close and we have more ground,-twelve hundred acres, and not an acre to spare. They have not so fine a view; and the climate is not so,delightful, with its broad surface, of the bay, which tempers the wind coming from the sea. We have the advantage of having the water come into our building and separate fire reservoirs, two million gallons coming in an eight-inch pipe, with power to go all over the building. The sewage empties half a mile from the house into tidewater. There is not an asylum in Southern California where we have

Page  278 278 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES not been preaching land and water, water and land. When I said that I wanted an acre of land and a hundred gallons of water a day for each patient, they thought it would take our whole appropriation to get the land. I devised a plan by which we should hold the land, and let the next legislature appropriate for the buildings. I judge the legislature was impressed with this device; for the commissioners have selected a location for the new institution for the feeble-minded with sixteen hundred acres of land and two hundred thousand gallons of water a day, and the governor has approved, and they are going to put those children there. I congratulate them on the wisdom they have exercised. Mr. Nims, of Washington, asked if the asylums of California were not sufficient for the insane. Dr. Wilkins replied that no insane person had ever been denied admission to an insane asylum in California, but they were overcrowded and the legislature had appropriated a million dollars for another. Mrs. A. A. Gleeson, of Pasadena, said that she wished to protest against certain points in the paper. Her experience in fifteen years' practice in a sanitarium had been that insane patients boarded out in plain farmers' homes, one or two at a time, were much more apt to recover than when huddled together in large institutions. Dr. Byers said that the asylum at Napa was one of the most attractive he had seen; and the great family was so happy and bright that, with one exception, he would not have known but it might have been a National Conference of Charities and Correction. Dr. FISHER.- We are all familiar with the name of Dr. Godding as one of the most eminent superintendents in the country. His experience is much larger than mine; and it is perhaps my more limited experience that gives me more hope of the boarding-out system. At the State Almshouse in Massachusetts, we have three hundred and fifty insane patients of the chronic class: three hundred of them are women. Within the past two or three years there has been adopted a plan for boarding out by which some of these have been put into families, the State paying three dollars and a quarter a week for their board. Q.- Who selects the patients? Dr. FISHER.- The State Board of Charities exercises the same power here as in placing neglected children. We sent out about sixty women. It was my fortune to know the condition and progress of some of them intimately; and I believe that for those patients who have become quiet, in whom the acute stages are past and they have come into a condition of dementia, their prospects are better, and they are much more likely to improve under the influences of family life than in the institutions where large numbers are gathered together on the congregate plan. The public have very erroneous ideas in regard to the insane. The popular idea is that they are maniacs, utterly dangerous in a home. But those of us who are familiar with the subject realize that many are more like children in mind, that

Page  279 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 279 they are not maniacs, that they can be safely taken into our homes, and that in these homes they will receive individual attention and teaching, as we teach children, and that they may gradually develop and become better able to take care 'of themselves and to be helpful than if they were left in the asylum or hospital. I remember some persons, living far away from any city in a farming community, asked me about taking boarders; and I suggested that they take the insane. They lifted up their hands in holy horror at the suggestion. Very well, I said, come down and see me, and perhaps you can pick out some one. The experiment was tried. They took one, and then another, and they became interested in those wards, as they were to them, and the patients soon became helpful. They learned to wash dishes, make beds, and to do plain sewing. It is this individual attention which develops them faster than can be done in the asylum. We who have charge of institutions realize that the average insane attendant is quite desirous of getting her living "in the line of the least resistance," and that she will educate patients to do a certain amount of her work if she can. When my assistants knew that I was about to send out patients, they objected to having those whom they had trained sent; but the patients went. Then I observed that the attendants picked out other patients and devoted their attention to them individually, that they might train them to do the work of those sent out. So I considered the reaction of this system as beneficial to the institution. The activities and energy of the attendants were roused in the process, educating patients up to a degree of helpfulness; and they did not fully relapse into the state of indifference in which they were before. So I have been willing and glad to put out my best patients to board, believing that it was better for the patient to receive the kindly care of the family, and better for the institution. Of course, great care must be exercised in selecting the family into which these patients go. There will be those who regard only the loaves and fishes, hoping to, get work out of their boarders, and will overwork them. The families who take these patients must be watched over by supervising boards as carefully as those in which neglected children are placed. There is a great responsibility on boards of charity in supervising this work. But I cannot but believe that there will be more and more of these unfortunate people who will be put into homes where they will receive the help of the family life and will develop into conditions of helpfulness, and that many eventually will be kept free of expense, the State still holding supervision over them. A. O. WRIGHT, of Wisconsin.- We draw a broad line between the acute and chronic insane. Our county asylums do not receive recent cases: they go to the State hospital. Our system is of recent growth, and is not finished yet. We have two State hospitals, one accommodating 450, and the other 650 patients, and always overcrowded. Our county asylums have been relieving this overcrowding. We have no insane in jails. There are about twenty in poorhouses, where they are well cared for.

Page  280 280 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The way in which the State exercises its power over the county insane asylums is this. In addition to the regular supervision which the State Board of Charities and Reform has over them, the power to inspect, to recommend, and to report, it has certain executive powers. No building can be erected without our approval. When the location and plans are approved and the buildings are finished, we then certify to the Secretary of State that such a county asylum is within the law; and from that time it receives an appropriation from the State, conditioned upon the annual approval by the State Board of Charities and Reform of their bills. The very first thing I have to do when I go back is to go through the items of eighteen hundred bills coming in on the ist of October, and present them to the State Board of Charities and Reform as soon as I have got through. For a year we have been discussing these asylums, to see whether we will continue to accept them. We are watching them all the time, and so know beforehand that they will be approved. I shall carefully audit the bills, however, to detect errors in the items. Appropriations upon these bills will be made to the amount of about one hundred and fifty thousand dollars this year for the eighteen small asylums now in operation. This power of the purse is a great power. It enables us to remove superintendents when necessary. We have been compelled on two occasions to notify county authorities that they must remove certain men; and it has been done. If it had not been done, they would not have received their money. Thus we secured a change in the management of the institutions. A DELEGATE.- Do you think that was just? Mr. WRIGHT.- We think so. In one case, the superintendent was drunk for nine days; in the other case, he was starving the inmates. We agree with the statement of Dr. Godding as to the amount of land needed, only instead of one acre to an inmate we have from two to four acres for each patient, and we find that more could be used. Land is necessary, in order to have plenty of stock; and a portion of it should be woodland, partly for employment and partly for fuel. My ideal would be to have at least four acres for each inmate. We have not to exceed one hundred patients in one asylum: that is our rule. You cannot have much less than that on the ground of economy; but I think that one hundred is about the limit of economy, and that a larger number would cost more proportionately. The counties put up the buildings at their own expense, but on our plans. They are built of solid brick, with solid brick partition walls, and cost between three and four hundred dollars per capita. We are able, by having a small number together, to have a system of open doors. All day long, from early morning until dark, the outer doors stand open; and every inmate is at liberty to go in and out at his pleasure anywhere near the building. We get monthly reports from all the asylums; and once in three months some of the members of the State Board visit them, so that these reports are verified. We reject none except homicidal cases. Broken down, old, crip

Page  281 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 28i pled, and blind demented persons, all unable to work, make up about ten or fifteen per cent. of the total number. We have about seventy-five per cent. at some occupation; and that, we think, is a good record. If some of our superintendents had more enterprise and more faith, we could get a better average. The best asylums have from eighty-five to ninety-five per cent. at some occupation; that is to say, every inmate, capable of doing any work does some work. About one-half of all the inmates are busy all day. I do not mean to say that their work'is worth much pecuniarily. There are some whose work is worth as much as that of a sane person, however. We encourage our superintendents to bring up the laboring capacity of these insane people, not for the sake of getting work out of them, but for the sake of keeping the inmates employed. We have in many cases a crude system of manual training. In some cases, we have been able to train back the intelligence through this manual training. An attendant will take an entirely demented person by the hand, and clasp the hand over some tool, and then move the hand round to do the work. It may be something as simple as dish washing. She will teach her to hold the dish, without dropping it, in one hand, and the cloth in the other. By patience and steady teaching, the patient will learn the operation, and with this activity of the body comes back little by little the lost intelligence. We have had a great many cases of that kind. The recoveries of the chronic insane are few; but the improvement in their condition and in their happiness is marked under this system, and many are so far improved that they can go home, and all are more content than.they ever were before. We claim that by taking the chronic insane out of the hospitals it leaves the superintendent more time to attend to the acute and recent cases. We claim, also, that it is more economical and natural to transfer these people to farm life. We think that the money that is usually spent on large fine buildings can be better spent in caring for the patients. In many of our Eastern States, a portion of the insane are cared for at great expense in State hospitals, and another large portion are not cared for properly in jails and poorhouses. The same amount of money used more economically would care for all the insane; and that is what we claim we are doing. When we say that the cost of maintenance for our insane averages about $I.75 a week, gentlemen from other States say that we are not doing it properly; but leaders in this Conference who have visited our institutions have satisfied themselves that this is not false, but true economy. The economy comes in the fact of having a larger amount of land and a larger amount of labor from the insane, and that we raise a large part of what we use. Our bills for fuel, meat, and vegetables are small, because we raise them all. We are asked if we have physicians for superintendents. No: we would rather not have them. Good physicians cost too much, and poor ones are worse than none at all. We have visiting physicians, the best in the neighborhood, who visit regularly, who are the health officers of the institution

Page  282 282 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and advisers in regard to the treatment of the insane. Our superintendents are from the best class of farmers. Salaries range from eight to thirteen hundred dollars, including board for themselves and families. We try to secure the services of good farmers and their wives; and the wives are often the better of the two. We say to the county officers, In selecting a superintendent, see what kind of a wife he has. If you can find a good woman, and the man is tolerable, that will do. The woman has charge of the interests of the house. She has the home life in her hands, and that is the most important part. Dr. WYMAN. —I am not the superintendent of an insane asylum; and I am sorry that nione of our superintendents are here to answer Mr. Wright. I visited the institutions in Wisconsin, and can bear witness to what he says. It is true that we have more brains than we use. God has been lavish with this as with other gifts. When that part of the brain which a man has used most becomes exhausted, the most rational thing to do is to develop the latent portion that has never been developed. And the treatment which Mr. Wright has described is just the treatment to do that. But I am sorry to say I have not seen work of that kind done in State asylums as much as in private institutions. I have learned to believe with probably the best alienists that the men who cure the largest number of the insane are those who manage private institutions. There is reason for that. No doubt the methods which the superintendent of the public hospital adopts may be as good, but his responsibility is vastly different. He has not only the work of the physician to do, but he is the keeper of the insane. If we look at the history of the insane, we shall find that the man who first broke the shackles of the insane and made them free, and led them out of the dungeon, was not a keeper of the insane, but a physician. It was Pinel. The physician should not be concerned with looking after the bread and butter and such things. I am sorry that our institutions have so frequently combined the offices of the superintendent or keeper and the physician. In our State of Michigan, where we have something like twenty-five hundred people in the insane asylum, our legislature has not voted a million dollars for a new asylum. Our people are beginning to think that one of the questions of the hour is, What shall be done with the insane? We had notice more than a year ago that there was not room for another patient; but they have crept in till the institutions are fuller than before. This thing, however, has developed from the pressure. So many coming in, others have had to go out, and a larger per cent. has been " cured." We have learned to see that the proportion of cures depends on the amount of pressure on the institution. That is a very simple way of treating the insane; but I call it the keeper's way, and not the physician's. The asylum superintendents want another institution that will hold from seven to fifteen hundred people. But a smaller army want to develop smaller institutions, to scatter the 'inmates, to get them out where they can have more liberty and more opportunity for labor. We want to develop

Page  283 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 283 what Mr. Wright has designated the county or cottage system, as distinct from the large asylum system, which will hold only a small number. That matter is still in controversy in Michigan. We have a stay in the matter till the legislature meets again. How it will come out I do not know. Those interested in the large asylums are opposed to the development of the small ones. We feel that the work of the large asylums must be supplemented; that there is something to be done besides the work of the superintendents. Dr. WILKINS, California.- I may say a word about placing the insane in families. I visited Gheel with great interest, where we find, perhaps, the perfection of the family system. About eleven hundred insane are boarded in that community. About eight hundred families take boarders. They receive a franc a day for each patient kept by them. Most of the families take but one patient, a few two, but four is the limit that any one can take. They help to do everything. In Scotland they have undertaken this to a limited extent; and, when I was there, I was taken by the commissioners for an entire day round to see the different families where these people were boarded. In each place, I think, the plan was working admirably. But in my report which I made on my return to California, and in which I commended this system, I expressed the opinion that the difficulty in this country would be to find persons who were willing to take charge of the insane, even for the compensation paid by the State in caring for them in the asylum. We have encouraged relatives and friends to take patients from the asylum. I have never objected to having a patient taken out that I thought was harmless. We have encouraged them to go out on trial, on leave of absence. There is a great prejudice in this State against the insane. A few miles from here a board of supervisors passed an ordinance concerning a private asylum that was to be built in that neighborhood, that it should be surrounded by an eight-foot brick wall with guards, and that no insane person should be allowed to go out without an attendant. That is the kind of prejudice we have to meet, and it will take time to overcome that. In Massachusetts, more people are willing to take these people for a small consideration. The older the community and the denser the population, the more readily you will find homes for them. Perhaps the plan of Mr. Wright might help to overcome this prejudice. I have never been in favor of large asylums. As to the location of asylums, I believe they should be placed, like public school-houses, where they are most needed. They should be easy of access, so that the relatives can go and see for themselves how the patients are cared for. For years many of our insane people have had to go five hundred miles, sometimes in iron shackles, I am sorry to say; and, many of them being poor, of course their friends could not visit them. One great difficulty here is that people are too ready to send their friends to insane asylums. We have people who bring friends who are perfectly harmless, but who are a little troublesome at home. Many of our patients could go home if they had some one there to look after them. We have adopted the cottage system in connection with our

Page  284 284 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES institution at Napa, and I hope to extend it. The people are raising small fruits, cultivating the land, and are employed usefully. Employment is the great thing in their care. Mr. JOHNSON.- We have in Indiana a State system, and propose to take care of all the insane by the State; but I do not suppose we shall soon accomplish it, because by the time we complete one hospital there are enough insane waiting to fill it and another. I was visiting one of our county poorhouses a few weeks ago, and went into the farm-yard, where a man was working. As soon as he saw the superintendent, he picked up a pitchfork and ran at him. I started back in consternation. But the superintendent coolly said, "You aren't mad, are you, Bill?" "No," was the reply: " are you?" And he turned back, and went on with his work. The man was perfectly harmless, but he scares people nearly out of their wits. The superintendent is a man of courage and an excellent officer. He knows how to treat this man; and the man is happy, except on Sunday, when he grumbles and swears because he is not allowed to work in the barn-yard. Six out of seven officers would keep that man locked up all the time. But, given his liberty, he is the best worker on the farm. We have small county poor-farms, and most of them are in the care of good men and women; and, where there are a few insane upon them, they are well cared for. I believe that a great many of the chronic insane could be kept the same as any other paupers. If there are no children to tease them, they get on very well. Dr. VIVIAN, Minnesota.- Dr. Voorsanger asked a question about committing insane persons to asylums. He thought they were arrested and treated as criminals, that they were not considered as they ought to be, as merely sick people. It has been my duty to act as juryman and aid in the commitment of a great many insane people to insane asylums; and it seems to me the best way to answer his question is to give a real instance. Some years ago a patient of mine, a farmer, was so injured as to require an amputation. His wife had to leave the farm, and come to town to take care of him. The people were poor, but not paupers. They could take care of themselves, when well and at home, but could not pay for a nurse. His wife had to stay with him night and day. Affairs at home did not go right; and, in consequence of the physical strain, and worry, she became insane, so violently insane that she attacked me with a knife, and without assistance I could not have got away from her. The question came up, What shall we do with this woman, with few friends and away from home? In Minnesota, the complaint is made to and the patient is brought before the probate judge, who appoints a jury. Generally, two physicians and himself constitute that jury. Why is this done? That the matter may be made public. If one or two physicians had the power to send a person to an asylum, perhaps five hundred miles off, this power might sometimes be improperly used. We have all heard of such cases. The patient is said to be "tried" by this jury; but he is not tried, in any proper sense of the word. He is publicly examined. The patient is brought before the judge, and

Page  285 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 285 the relatives and friends may come if they choose. The jury are furnished by the State with printed questions, as to the residence of the patient, his nativity, his family history, whether he has been insane before or not, and, if insane before, whether treated in any institution, whether his parents or grandparents or brothers or sisters have been insane, as to the character of the attack; if insane before, whether it was acute, how long the attack lasted; in short, as much of the history of the patient as possible, and this in the presence of as many spectators as choose to present themselves. The patient who is declared insane by this jury is taken to the State hospital, and these papers are taken along, that they may give the superintendent some clew as to what he may expect. If the patient is a woman, the law requires that a woman shall accompany her. Dr. WILKINS.- That is the custom, but not the law in California,that a woman shall have the company of a woman when taken to the State asylum. Dr. VIVIAN.-All this publicity is for the protection of the patient. Mr. WRIGHT.- Suppose the person were too sick to be removed? Dr. VIVIAN.-Then the jury would adjourn, to meet at the patient's house or temporary residence. Dr. VOORSANGER.- Why does an insane man need any more protection and all this publicity than a man who has consumption? Dr. VIVIAN.- Because there is a wide-spread feeling in all communities that patients are sometimes taken to institutions of this kind who are not insane, and detained there for months or years. It is to prevent any suspicion of that kind, and to make it as difficult as possible to do so. It seems to be the best method of protecting the patient and notifying all concerned that he has rights that the law respects. Dr. CHARLOTTE B. BROWN, California.- If you were to visit the new City Hall of San Francisco between the hours of eleven and twelve, and see the commitment of the insane in our city, and think that the patient might be your sister or mother, you would think it one of the most trying experiences of your life. There has to be a public examination on account of suspicion; but I think we need to see if we cannot make this a personal matter, and screen our friends from over-publicity. Our City Hall is the passage-way of children going to and from school; and I have never been at a commitment where there were not from twenty to thirty children walking in front of the room where the patients were being committed, and staring in, especially if there was a violent patient. The patient is usually sane enough to know what it means to be taken there; and it is not strange if he is violent. However kindly you talk, these women regard it as a disgrace to be committed as insane. The City Hall does not seem the proper place. A physician's office would be more desirable; and children and hangers-on of such a place are not suitable witnesses. I know it is difficult for a physician to go to dif

Page  286 286 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES ferent houses to examine patients; and it may be that it would be wiser to pay for such service, and have the patient quietly examined in the presence of half a dozen witnesses. Go and see the commitments here for yourselves, and see if this is not a subject that should be brought to the attention of the public. Mr. JOHNSON. —With regard to sending patients out, there is no one so anxious to discharge patients cured as the superintendent, especially when his institution is crowded. I do not believe that many superintendents under any circumstances would keep a man after he was ready to go out. In one institution that I visited, I found the wife of the superintendent played the part of watching to see that all who were ready should be allowed to go. In Indiana, we discharge temporarily. If the mania returns, they come back without a new commitment. In our Central Insane Hospital, about eight to ten per cent. are usually out on a leave of absence, which is really a tentative discharge. The report of the Treasurer, F. B. Sanborn, was read in his absence by the Secretary, and on motion was referred to the Executive Committee. It being announced that General Nelson A. Miles was present, Dr. Hoyt and Dr. Voorsanger were appointed by the President a committee to escort him to the platform, that he might address the Conference. Gen. NELSON A. MILES. —Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen, this is entirely unexpected to me. I met my friend Dr. Hoyt on the street,- and I was glad to see him, as we were old friends and associates twenty odd years ago, and we had not met for several years, -and he asked me to come to this Conference. Then my friend Dr. Lindley came to me this morning, when I was overwhelmed with official business, and asked me to be present at this meeting; and I consented to come. But I did not expect to say anything. I have nothing to say that would interest or benefit you. But I can certainly give you my hearty sympathy and good will. I wish you every success and every encouragement. You are certainly engaged in a most commendable enterprise, and one that should receive the serious consideration of all thinking people within the borders of our republic. The number of criminals and of the unfortunate classes in our communities and of children who are being produced and trained under the influence of crime in this country is a serious consideration for all thoughtful people. It was my duty, some years ago, to inspect for military purposes the penitentiaries of the States from Maine to Kansas,- which at that time was pretty well west,- with a view of ascertaining their system of government. The observations which I made at that time in visiting those different institutions, in which we saw thousands and tens of thousands of men in prison cells, and the impression made on my own mind, were that the influences that had brought

Page  287 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 287 them there were two,- bad parentage and alcohol. That seemed to be the general verdict, not only of convicts, but of wardens and of men who were interested in the subject. I was associated at that time with Dr. Wines, since dead, who was the leader in this humane work both here and in Europe. I will not take your time further, but I thank you for your attention. The following resolution, presented by Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, was read by the Secretary and referred by vote to the Committee on Resolutions - Resolved, That the Conference of Charities and Correction assembled in San Francisco heartily indorses the free kindergarten work for needy and neglected children, as a foundation for reformatory work and a preventive of crime, and earnestly commends the establishment of such work in all large cities as a wise, kind, and prudential measure in behalf of little children and of society. Adjourned at I2.10 P.M. ELEVENTH SESSION. Monday night, Sept. I6, I889. The Conference met at 8 P.M., the President in the chair. The Committee on Resolutions reported through the chairman, Mr. Elmore, as follows: - Mr. ELMORE.-Your Committee on Resolutions to whom was referred a communication of the Charity Organization of Denver relating to securing half-fare for worthy poor on different railroads (page 243) have instructed me to report the same back, and ask to be discharged from the further consideration thereof, as being beyond our powers. On motion, the committee was discharged from further considering that resolution. Mr. ELMORE.-Our committee has agreed to substitute for that resolution, for the consideration of the Conference, the following: - Whereas a serious complaint has been received from the delegates of a Western State, as to the practice of sending sick persons to be cared for by their charity, therefore,Resolved, That this Conference would recommend that societies and benevolent individuals exercise very great caution in sending charity patients to other points, unless means are provided for their support upon arrival at their destination. Adopted. Mr. ELMORE.- Your committee has also instructed me to recommend the adoption of the resolution presented by Mr. Johnson of Indiana, as follows:

Page  288 288 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Resolved, That a standing committee on the publication of charity literature be appointed, to have special relations with the International Record and other similar publications. Mr. WINES.- It seems to me that that resolution is so vague as to be of no value whatever. If the Conference is to revive the publication of the Record, that resolution will have no effect whatever: it must take different action from that. On motion, this resolution was referred back to the Committee on Resolutions. The order of the evening was then taken, and the report of the Committee on State Boards of Charities was read by the chairman, H. H. Hart, of Minnesota (page 89). A paper on " State Boards of Charities" was read by Dr. A. G. Byers (page 99). DISCUSSION ON STATE BOARDS. Mr. HART.- There was prepared some four years ago a bill for a State Board of Charities for California. It seems to me to be an excellent bill, resembling the laws of Ohio, Minnesota,.Michigan, and Indiana. One feature of it is peculiar, that the State Board shall have power to receive and to hold donations from any and every source for the benefit of charities, and administer the same in conformity with the expressed will of the donor. I find on consultation with the members of the committee, of which I am chairman, that this meets with their approval. It will not take long to vindicate to the people of California the usefulness of a State Board, if such a bill be passed. The following is the section to which I refer: - " SECTION V. Said Board shall have power to receive and hold, except as hereinafter provided, donations from any and every source for the benefit of public charities, or for any particular public charity in this State, and to manage and administer the same and the income thereof in conformity with the expressed will of the donor or donors, or, in the absence of any such expressed will, in conformity with the principles of equity and natural justice, and so as that the amount donated, and the interest thereof, shall do the greatest good to the greatest number; but, in all cases of such donations, it shall be the duty of the Superior Court of the county of Sacramento, as a Court of Chancery, having full power over all trusts and trust property, before any such donation or donations can be received, upon the application of the Attorney-General in behalf of said Board, to adjudge and prescribe the conditions and limitations, as to safe and advantageous investment, upon which said Board can receive and hold the same, and which conditions and limitations the said Board must comply with before any such donation or donations can be received by it; and at all times thereafter the said Court shall have power, as a Court of Equity, upon the application of any citizen of the State, upon a showing therefor satisfactory to the Court, to inquire into the adminis

Page  289 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 289 tration of any such donation or donations by said Board, and upon such inquiry, and after due notice to said Board, to adjudge and determine what, if anything, shall be done by said Board to insure the safety as well as the most advantageous investment of said donation or donations, and to enforce its judgment and determination by such proceedings and process as pertain to a Court of Chancery." [From Act to create a Board of State Commission of Charity, San Francisco, Feb. I8, 1885.] Mr. MCCULLOCH. - I would like to urge upon California the formation of a State Board of Charities. Our Board in Indiana is of such recent formation that there is no report to be made of what it has done. I may say that it is based on the law of Ohio and Minnesota, except that we have two women upon the Board. The States of New York, Massachusetts, and some others, have women upon their Boards. The Board is non-partisan, appointed from the two political parties which had the largest number of votes at the last election. I cannot perhaps be of more assistance to the States of Oregon, California, and Colorado than by simply reading the appeal which I made to the legislature early in its session, asking for the consideration of this question. I said: - "The object of the State should be to protect its people, to insure to them free activity and pursuit of happiness, to found schools, to care for the weak, the neglected, the broken. This cannot be left to private benevolence. The business is too large, and the impulse that guides such benevolence too spasmodic. Think of the vast multitude needing this care. The insane already number 3,000; the deaf and dumb, the blind, the feeble-minded, orphans, reform schools, and outdoor poor, all swell the list of those needing public care. In the various State institutions there are of this class of helpless inmates 4,100, whose annual cost of maintenance is over $600,000. In the various jails there have been confined during the year 12,000 prisoners, costing, in all, $141,506. The helpless in the county asylums have numbered during this time 3,342, and the insane confined in the same places 1,5I8. The total cost of these county dependants is estimated to be $985,467; and, when to this we add the exact cost of keeping the inmates of the State institutions at $609,320, we have a total of $1,794,787 for maintaining annually the dependants of this State. Among the county expenditures, out-door relief alone costs $77I,000, and was extended to about 7,000 persons. Here we have a vast army of these defective, dependent, and criminal classes, numbering thousands on thousands. They are so scattered that we do not and cannot realize their numbers or condition. Could they be massed and caused to pass through the streets of our city, would we not cry in despair, 'What shall we do with them?' There would pass by us old men and women, broken by the struggle for life; others broken by vice; criminals, old and hard-faced, young men and women, confined for first offences; boys from the Reform School; little, fatherless, motherless children, worn and haggard, with the look of old men and women in their eyes,-all, all a sad ghastly company, the broken

Page  290 290 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES fragments of our civilization. Would we not say, 'What can we do for them?' Would not the instincts of pity, the sense of justice, be aroused? But these are all around us, though we do not see them; and to neglect them is to expose ourselves to the dangers of ignorance, crime, and passion. While the State, in the main, is caring well for its blind, its deaf and dumb, its insane, its inmates of reform schools, thousands being spent annually on them, still one most pressing need in addition to this at the present time is an official Board of State Charities, to have intelligent supervision of all the subjects for State charitable aid. Twelve of the great States have created such Boards. They inspect, they counsel, they advise, they suggest; and all progress in the better and more economical methods there seen is due to them. Twenty-five million dollars of expenditure are annually supervised by these men. It is they who have sounded the words 'reform' in prison management, 'humanity' in insane administration, 'prevention' in the care of neglected children, that are echoing over this great country. I ask the legislators to consider the case of the children who have been neglected, especially. Our school fund is an honor to the State; but these institutions do not reach low enough, either in years or conditions. The age is limited to six years, and between the ages of three and six the children of the poor are getting their education on the street. I think that the kindergarten system should become a part of the public schools, and fill this interval. Here the little ones could be warm, happy, and housed. What a blessing! They would thus be protected during three years vitally formative of character. This would rescue thousands who are growing up into the vicious and criminal classes in our cities. They can be seen in every alley and street. I have the names of several thousands of these in this city. I can give you- the names of two hundred young girls that, ninety-nine chances in a hundred, will in a few years swell the ranks of our prostitutes. I can show them to you, and you will agree with me. I can do the same with the boys, who, you will acknowledge, are almost destined to find lodgment in the penitentiary. Such facts startle us, but they are present before our eyes. Why should we pride ourselves on our fifty millions of wheat, or our sixty millions of corn, and say we are prosperous, when we are neglecting these thousands of children? 'The pity of it, Iago; O Iago, the pity of it!' But what can the State do about it? What would I have legislators do? I would authorize each city to organize a board of public dependants, part of whose duties should be the care of neglected children. These boards should be composed of six or more men and women, serving without pay, and appointed by the judges of the circuit courts. They would have public control of the children. If they saw them begging upon the streets or idly gathering on the corners, they should take possession of them, take them to an established temporary home, until their attendance at some part of the school system outlined was arranged. They should inspect factories, and forbid children under the legal age being employed there, and perform many kindred offices. They would be to

Page  291 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 29I the physical and moral safety of our helpless classes of children what the schools are to their intellectual education. All of these boards would be under the organization and inspection of the State Board of Charities I have described. There is another matter I would like the legislature to give its attention to,- the proper reformation of young or first offenders. We have for our criminal population the penitentiary, the jail, the Reform School for Boys, the Reform School for Girls. The two last named are doing good work under efficient superintendents, but in the jails are congregated a large mass of persons that give us the deepest solicitude. What we need for the juvenile offenders and young men there confined is a reformatory like that for young men at Elmira, N.Y., where the records show that eighty per cent. of all that become inmates return to form useful members of society, whereas the record of our present penitentiary and jail system is that sixty per cent. of those who serve a first sentence become professional criminals. I scarce need argue the merits of the former system with thinking men. Economy alone, if no higher motive, would convince our tax-payers, who give their hundreds of thousands yearly to the maintenance, in confinement, of these professional criminals, that it is not a wise system we possess. I have passed in review the armies of the suffering, the dependent, and the formative criminal class. Some kind of action is needed, as all will agree. I believe that action upon the lines I have laid before you, on the part of our legislators, is what is needed. Let our legislators, while considering the other needs of our government, be not unmindful of the pressing necessities of the neglected young of our civilization." I then mailed printed addresses by Mr. Wines to the newly elected members of the legislature, and followed them up with an address which Dr. Byers had given on the same subject. At last a bill was presented, and was referred to the Committee on Benevolent Institutions. I saw the members of that committee, and at last had the pleasure of sitting down beside them as, with but one dissenting vote, the law creating a Board of State Charities was passed. Rev. James Woodworth, California, asked to hear from Mr. Edmond T. Dooley as to what had been done in California about establishing a Board of Charities. Mr. DOOLEY, California.- The bill which I prepared for the establishment of such a Board was based on the law of Ohio and Massachusetts. It was perhaps too radical for the time,- assumed a condition of things, of life, and of education upon this question which California did not have. It undertook to accomplish too much at once, no doubt. Perhaps too prominent in that bill was the desire to head off the appropriations of funds for private asylums that had the custody of large numbers of dependent children. That has always been a matter of a good deal of study with me. When in I886 I first proposed the Pacific Coast Conference of Charities, I had primarily in

Page  292 292 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES mind the need of a State Board of Charities. And when in the following year we organized the second Pacific Coast Conference of Charities, that was still our central purpose, as it was still the soul of my desire in asking this Conference to come to California,- that we might have you address yourselves to our special conditions and needs; that you might give us more light and some stimulation upon this very important question. It is almost impossible for me to say anything upon this theme without laying special stress upon the child part of it, because I think the child inclusive of every other interest. We have now appropriations amounting to upwards of two million dollars a year for eleemosynary purposes,- an amount exceeding that reported by Mr. Hart and Mr. McCulloch for Minnesota or Indiana, though the population of the latter State is perhaps double that of ours. The appropriations made by our last legislature for these purposes for the current biennial period exceeded $4,277,000, and $i,ooo,ooo besides will be required for dependent children and adults during the same period. In this State's short existence, by the end of the present two-year period, some $33,000,000 will have been spent for eleemosynary purposes. About one dollar out of every five ($5) paid out of the State treasury goes directly in this way. Through exclusively private and practically irresponsible hands, nearly seven millions of this money have gone,- some four millions to asylums, usually sectarian, for dependent children. I am deeply and perpetually concerned, more than by any other feature of our social or political existence, that the State has no voice or part in determining who are or are not fit subjects of its bounty for the merely dependent. More than money is involved here. There is no check upon this private use of public funds: the admission of inmates, their care, instruction, period of detention and discharge, are all matters of purely private regulation. It seems to me this is a question of gravest concern, that we need nothing more than we do an efficient central power to superintend and regulate these vast interests. Hon. W. C. Hendricks, Secretary of State of California, was invited to speak. Mr. Hendricks expressed the regrets of the people of Sacramento that the Conference was unable to accept the reception which was waiting the members as they passed through that city. He was glad to welcome the Conference to California. With all the boasted intelligence of the people, it seemed impossible to make the legislators understand what was meant by a State Board of Charities. He hoped that this Conference would enlighten them, though it would have succeeded better in this, had the press given better reports of the meetings. Dr. HORATIO STEBBINS, California.-I have been greatly interested in the sessions of this Conference. The valuable paper which has been read with reference to State Boards is of vast importance to us in California; and, if the men and women who are

Page  293 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 293 present here this evening have got hold of the intelligence that is communicated in that paper, if they have got a consecutive idea of it, and are convinced of its intellectual, social, moral, and religious truth, there are people enough here now, if they will seize that intelligence, to come forward, and establish within three years a State Board of Charities in California. I am not discouraged by what has been called here the indifference of public opinion. That can be accounted for in saying that we have no great public opinion on anything. These hills and sand-heaps represent the general condition of society in California. It is sandy, unconnected; it is not homogeneous. And that is not because of the perversity of the people: it is because of our history, our origin, our development, up to this time. It is all perfectly natural, according to the most philosophic ideas. We, here in California, are very respectable people, though we belong to different political parties and have different religious organizations and charitable organizations. We have a great many organizations. They are the natural development of human society as it was first thrown in here forty years ago, on this sand-slope, over which this city has gradually extended. Another difficulty which we encounter is that our charities have been adopted and appropriated by these multitudinous organizations. They pervade all society and all ranks of social life. The difficulty is to get a consensus of opinion and principles to raise them above these little cliques. Now, concerning this organization that we propose, and that I believe we can carry but, what we want to do is to follow the suggestions that have been laid out so admirably by Secretary Hart. It is of great importance to us, fellow-citizens. It is enough for us to have had this Conference here, if this new State can be imbued with the intelligence and spirit of that paper. We have a Board of Equalization here, which adjusts the inequalities of taxation and secures a creditable supervision of the assessment of taxes which the people pay for the administration of the affairs of the State. What the Board of Charities is for is to do more intelligently and advantageously for the charities of the State what the Board of Equalization does for the tax-payers of the State. It is as plain as a pikestaff. It can even be made to appear plain to the press. Why do you laugh when I say the press? I will tell you why. Because the press in California is not a leader of public opinion; and it is because in California there is no public opinion to lead. That is it. I want to tell Secretary Hart that his paper was made for us, and that I hope we shall take it from Mr. Hart's heart to our hearts. Mr. HART.- If we may judge from these remarks, there is sand enough in San Francisco to put any measure through which is necessary to the welfare of California. Mr. A. O. WRIGHT.- The value of a Board of Charities can be put into two words: it unifies, and it connects. It unifies the work within the State, and it connects with the work of other States. It brings together the scattered operations of State, county, and city,

Page  294 294 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES and of private benevolent institutions, and makes one whole of them in the view of the State. And, then, it connects with other States through such a Conference as this, by correspondence, visiting, etc. This method of comparison is the new method of science. It is the best method of studying practical subjects. One institution is compared with another, and one State with another, to the benefit of all. Those connected with institutions compare their institutions with others, and in this way they become social philosophers. They compare expenses, methods, buildings, management, and learn to understand what is best as they did not before. It becomes not a question of local pride as to whether the State shall give to an institution or a locality as a favor, but what is best for the interest of the whole State. Then, by comparison with other States, new light is thrown on the whole subject. The State Board of Charities is thus constantly learning and constantly teaching others. By the necessities of its position, it is compelled to use the comparative method in social science, as a number of isolated institutions by themselves are not compelled to do. Mr. WINES. -I should like to say a word in regard to our experience. It was the opinion of a great many well-informed men in Illinois, when the State Board of Public Charities was created, in I869, that it would prove to be the "fifth wheel of a coach." They supposed that it meant a place for some political parasite, who would draw a salary from the public funds, without rendering any service in return. I was advised not to take the position of secretary, when it was tendered me, because my friends feared that it would be impossible for me to accomplish anything. Opposition to our work manifested itself, in the first place, among the superintendents of the institutions of which we were given a certain general supervision. I remember very well the first visit that the Board made to a State institution, the superintendent of which politely greeted us with the salutation, "I suppose that this is the smelling committee." The superintendents had a suspicion that we were not their friends; that we were going about the State for the sole purpose of discovering and exposing wrong-doing on their part. But, before I entered upon the discharge of the duties of my office, Governor Palmer, who is a wise man, said to me: "You have never before been in public life, I believe. There are two very important things for every public man to remember: first, to do right; second,- and, on second thought, I am not sure but it is just as important as the other,- to appear to do right, for the appearance of wrong-doing may be as disastrous to one's self and to the interests which one represents as if an actual wrong had been perpetrated." He added, "Another thing I wish to impress on your mind: the people of the State of Illinois will always prefer to hear good of their institutions rather than evil." We adopted the rule, at the outset, that we would never create a sensation or a scandal by reporting to the governor or to the legislature any wrong that we might discover in any institution (unless it was of a serious nature) if we could right it ourselves. If an abuse comes to an end, that is

Page  295 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 295 the end of the whole matter. We soon convinced the institutions that we were not unfriendly to them. We had also to encounter opposition of another sort, from the localities in which the institutions were situated. One of our early discoveries was a defective water supply for the institutions in the town of Jacksonville. In one of them there was not water enough to bathe the children in, and we so reported. Soon after the opening of the next session of the General Assembly, one of the members of the House from Jacksonville, a lawyer, came into my office, and. said, "I want to know what you mean by attacking my people." I replied: " I am not aware that I have attacked your people. Our Board has reported that there is not water enough in Jacksonville for the use of the State institutions, and it is true." But our report resulted in finding a remedy for the evil complained of! Every town which has a State institution within its limits derives certain benefits from its presence, through having so much public money spent there; and the aim of every such town is to have as large appropriations made for the institution as possible, whether they are needed or not. When these localities see a State Board of Charities established, which they fear will make accurate estimates of the reasonable cost of doing the proper thing, they feel that it is likely to prove an obstacle to the accomplishment of their purely selfish purposes, and they naturally combine to destroy, or at least to cripple it. Another member of the Illinois legislature, a senator, once moved a reduction of the salary of the secretary, and apologized to me for his action by remarking,-he represented a town in which there is an institution,- "If we have the secretary of the Board to fight, we want a cheaper and an inferior man." We accordingly adopted the rule of dealing with our institutions one at a time. We have never reported more than one of them at any one session of the General Assembly, and the legislature has always stood by us. After two or three such experiences, the institutions began to be afraid of us, and to say, "We had better consult with the State Commissioners: if they are not in favor of certain appropriations, it is useless to ask for them." We have no trouble with the institutions now. At the last session of the legislature, it was my duty, under a resolution adopted at the preceding session, to draft a bill for an act making appropriations for the State institutions in a single measure. I made a careful estimate of the amounts which would be required for the ordinary expenses of eleven institutions, with an average population of more than six thousand inmates. The amount appropriated for two years was about two million dollars, the largest appropriation ever made for the general fund in a single act. The bill was drawn by me, before a single candidate had been nominated in any county of the State. But, when the legislature convened in the city of Springfield, the bill was passed precisely as I drew it, without the change of the dotting of an i or the crossing of a t. The members knew that the State Board knew what it was about, that it was fair and honest, and that the estimates presented were in accordance with its deliberate independent judgment.

Page  296 296 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES The result of the establishment of the Board in Illinois has not only been to keep the institutions in line, but it has made the superintendents feel that they cannot afford to be crooked. Fortunately, they are all honorable men. But we should certainly find out any dishonesty and expose it, if they were to attempt it. They know that they cannot be extravagant, without our pointing it out to the legislature; and they are very careful not to indulge in any flagrant extravagance. The influence of the Board has been felt not only by the State institutions, but it has improved the system of county care of the poor and of criminals to an extraordinary degree. We have accomplished a good deal. I have held the position of secretary for twenty years. During all that time, the Board has acted as a committee of the legislature, ad interim. While its relations to the institutions are close, it has no executive power, no direct responsibility for their management; and -its relations to the legislature and to the governor are still closer. I attend every session of every committee of the legislature in which any measure is considered that affects the interest of any State charitable institution. My advice is often asked, and sometimes taken. I see that the committee has the information which it requires, in order to enable it to form an intelligent judgment as to the propriety of every pending measure. Our relations with the governor of the State are very intimate. I am almost one of his private secretaries, in so far as the State institutions are concerned. He depends upon us to some extent both for information and for advice. He knows that nothing will happen in any institution, which requires his personal attention, without its being brought to his notice; and his mind is at perfect ease, so long as nothing is said to him about them. Our relations are also close with the press. We furnish to the press, at the end of every three months, a printed statement, showing the number of inmates, the receipts, expenditures, etc., in this branch of the State government. All the accounts of the institutions come before us to be audited. Our certificate that we have examined them and found them correct, when it has been approved by the governor, is accepted by the auditor of public accounts; and he never sees the institution vouchers, which are filed in our office, and go no further. Our financial system was examined lately by an expert book-keeper from the State of California, who said that he could not imagine anything better. I do not believe that the affairs of any State in the Union are conducted more honestly than those of Illinois. I do not believe that there is a bank or a corporation of any description which exercises more care in its financial management than is exercised by the officers of the State of Illinois. We have, in my judgment,- and I have had a fairly good opportunity to know,-a thoroughly honest administration of the great public trusts committed to them. We are proud of the work which we have accomplished. We are not abreast of some of the States in the care of neglected and destitute children; but in some things, especially in the care of the insane, I think. that we are in the lead. I do not believe that the

Page  297 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 297 care of the insane in the United States to-day would have been what it is if it had not been for the adoption of the system of detached wards in the construction of the hospital at Kankakee, the same system which, I understand, has been adopted at Santa Clara. I believe that, if the State of California will establish a State Board of Charities, and if the Board, by patient continuance in welldoing, can outlast and overcome the opposition which may be manifested,- the indifference of the public and the ignorant interference of professional politicians,- the history of this State and of the Pacific Coast will be very different from what it will be if such a board is not created here. It will make the managers of your institutions acquainted with each other and interested in each other's work. It will be a nucleus around which public opinion will crystallize. Dr. Stebbins says that the California press does not lead public opinion. The press does not do that anywhere. It reflects public opinion. But at the same time it helps to create public opinion here as elsewhere; and, if the press of this State will co-operate with the better elements of society for the establishment of such a board, it will not be many years before you will have it. If we can help to bring this result about, you will always be glad that we paid you this visit, as we are certainly very glad that we came to see you and have had the opportunity to learn so much from you. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-This question has been put into my hands to ask Mr. Wines, "What is the attitude of the political parties in the State of Illinois toward the Board of Public Charities?" Mr. WINES.-In answer to this question, I may say that we framed the bill of which I have already spoken. It was considered by two separate committees in each House. When it was taken up, a member of the committee asked, "How has this bill been framed?" I replied: "On the basis of the experience of the last fifteen years. Take the first institution named in the bill, the Northern Hospital for the Insane. Its average annual expenditures have been so much for salaries and wages, for food, for clothing, for fuel and light, etc. With the same number of patients in the institution, its expenditures for the coming year ought to be so much, item by item, and so much in the aggregate." So I took up three or four institutions, one after the other. Before I had finished, this gentleman interrupted me and said, " Is that the way in which the bill has been prepared from beginning to end?" I replied, "Yes; and, if the committee will take the time, I will go over it all." "No," he said, "it is not necessary. Mr. Chairman, if that is the way in which this bill has been framed, no one can do any better than that. I move that we recommend its passage." By every one of the four committees that bill was reported back, without a dissenting voice from a Democrat or a Republican; and it passed the House and the Senate, I think, without a dissenting vote from any member of either party. There may have been a few negative votes, but certainly there were not many. Mr. A. O. WRIGHT.- Nevertheless, the cost of the institutions was made an issue in the campaign?

Page  298 298 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Mr. WINES. —Oh, yes. But that was political humbug, and was so understood by everybody. In regard to the tenure of office of superintendents, Illinois has been a Republican State ever since the war. That has given the superintendents a long lease of office, and they have had time to learn their business thoroughly, which is one reason of the excellence of our. institutions. But on one occasion a party of gentlemen from the East visited the Insane Hospital at Kankakee., One of them inquired of me whether there was much political interference with their management. "No," I said, "I think not. But here is the superintendent: you may ask him. Doctor, how many employees have you appointed since you took charge of the hospital?" "About a thousand," was his answer. I continued, "Will you please state to this gentleman how many of these have been appointed by you at the solicitation or suggestion of any officer of the State, any member of the legislature, or any prominent politician of either party?" He replied, "I should say not to exceed a dozen." Politics does not cut any figure in our appointments. The charge brought by some Republicans in the last legislature was that we appoint too many Democrats. The Democrats had charged, in the campaign, that we were appointing too many Republicans, and that we were paying them too high salaries. But an inquiry revealed the fact that the majority of employees in some of the institutions under Republican superintendents were Democrats. On the other hand, a Republican board of trustees elected a Democratic superintendent of our Soldiers' Home. There is no good reason why public institutions should be managed in the interest of politics or made a part of the political machine. It is not the interest of the party that is to be subserved by them: it is the interest of the unfortunate inmates and of the public at large. Mrs. E. B. Fairbanks, member of the State Board of Charities of Wisconsin urged the people of California to make a place for women on their Board, when it was framed. Dr. STEBBINS.- I was pleased with the plucky way in which Mr. Wines stood up for Illinois, and with the clear manner in which he states that the charities are carried on with freedom from political influence. The time was when our insane asylums were managed by political influence. The superintendents changed with the change of administration; and for twenty-five years our State has swung, now this way, now that, like a pendulum. In the twenty-five years, I believe the governors have been alternately Republican and Democrat. The late governor, H. H. Haight, a Democrat, found that distinguished man, Dr. Shurtleff, the superintendent of the asylum at Stockton. He was told that he must displace Dr. Shurtleff, and put in a Democrat. Governor Haight said that he would make a change in that doctrine; that that should no longer be a part of the administration of charities, so far as he could prevent it; that he would break with h s party, if necessary, but that he would stand by the reappointment

Page  299 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 299 of Dr. Shurtleff, who was a Republican. I stand here to applaud the name and memory of Henry H. Haight. I wish also to applaud the name of that distinguished man, physician, scholar, gentleman,- Dr. Shurtleff, — a man who wore out his rare powers in the labors of his great profession. We have, therefore, taken the initiative in this matter; and what we hold to-day we shall continue to hold, and we shall establish a Board of Charities whose administration shall be free from political influence and from the influence of cliques which desire to get something for our city, our town, our society. Dr. WILKINS.- As the oldest active member or superintendent of a great institution in California, being the resident physician of the Napa Asylum, I rise to corroborate every word that has been spoken by Dr. Stebbins of the late lamented Governor Haight, and his noble action in keeping Dr. Shurtleff in office because he was the proper man, and because he was ready to sacrifice his chances for the governorship, which I believe it cost him, to carry out that noble principle. So far as these institutions are concerned, I believe they are entirely removed from politics. I have lived through several administrations at Napa. I have been elected by Republican and by Democratic boards. Our boards of trustees have come from both parties. At this time a majority of the board of that institution appointed by our present governor are not of his politics. It was the same with his predecessor, and others who have taken the same course as Governor Haight; and I believe I can say that politics has nothing to do with the asylums of this State. I believe that the principles initiated in your report, and faithfully carried out by the Board of Charities, would do good to the institutions of this State. Any man who has been before a legislature begging for appropriations for the sufferers under his care, and gets them as a personal favor, knows that, if there were an intelligent Board of Charities, composed of five, six, or seven persons, he could lay these matters before them, and get the appropriations for his institution without going to Sacramento. If we had such men as Mr. Wines, who could go through and visit the different institutions of the State, and say, Gentlemen, what do you want? they would find out what was needed, and those things would be recommended by them. There would be no more committees appointed to visit institutions, to go from house to house without looking at or hearing anything about them. Dignity would be preserved, and the wants of the sufferers would be met. Another thing. It is a well-known fact that these Boards of public charities save trouble to institutions. It is because these things are not properly understood, because the different charities are fearful of losing some advantage that they have, that you find opposition. It is a fear that there will be committees whose duties shall be to find something wrong. Any one who is at the head of an institution ought to desire to have it visited. I have not been able to get an Executive to visit our institution for the last twelve years. I have urged and urged the Executive to attend our board meetings, but without success.

Page  300 300 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Our present governor has promised to visit us. I want him to come and see what we are trying to do. Another thing. If we had had a State Board of Charities, do you suppose it would have taken twelve years to get twenty-five thousand dollars for two infirmaries? It is a very important thing to have these infirmaries to take care of the sick and those who need special attention, diet, and nursing. But you could not persuade a legislature, when there were not three of the same men in successive legislatures. I think this visit of the Conference of Charities and Correction will open the eyes of our people. Our people mean to do right; but they do not always stop to think what is right or what is the way to get at it. If they will pursue a non-partisan policy, if they will be an Advisory Board, if, when they see that things are not'properly conducted, they will advise how to improve them, we should receive the greatest benefit. The following resolution was offered by Mr. Charles A. Murdock: Resolved, That it is the sense of this Conference that one of the most urgent needs of the State of California in respect to the proper administration of charities and correction is a State Board of Charities, similar in character to those already adopted in thirteen States, and now being conducted to the manifest advantage of those communities. On motion of Mr. J. S. Appel, of Colorado, the resolution was amended by substituting the words "various States of the Union" for "State of California." The resolution as amended was referred to the Business Committee. The Committee on Organization reported through Dr. Hoyt, chairman, a list of officers and committees for the Conference of I890. The report was adopted, and the persons nominated were declared elected (page ix). It was voted that the Committee on Legislation- for the Insane, appointed in x888, be continued. It was voted that the several committees be authorized to add to their own number, and that the Executive Committee be empowered to add to any of the committees. Adjourned at o1.30 P.M. TWELFTH SESSION. Tuesday, Sept. I7, I889. The Conference met at 2.30 P.M., the President in the chair. Invitations were accepted to visit the State and county hospital, and also to attend a reception to be given by the Woman's Occidental Board of Foreign Missions.

Page  301 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 30I The report of the Committee on the Ideal Prison System for the State was presented by Dr. A. G. Byers, of Ohio, chairman (page 42), and was followed by the reading of letters from William H. Mills (page 50), of California, and Mrs. J. S. Sperry, of Colorado (page 55), members of the committee. The following resolution, offered by Miss Jessie A. Schley, of St. Paul, was referred to the Committee on Resolutions: - Resolved, That the ladies of the Sixteenth National Conference of Charities and Correction urge the importance of the appointment of a matron for every county and city jail in the United States, to take the chief charge of women and girls committed to them. DISCUSSION ON PRISON SYSTEMS. Dr. BYERS. —I wish to speak of the habitual criminal law referred to on page 49 of my paper. On one particular of that law the opinion of the Supreme Court has been invoked, and it has been decided that the fact of previous convictions must be stated in the indictment. This fact must not only be stated, but must be proved to the jury. The prisoner being indicted after two convictions is sent to the penitentiary for life, and must remain there unless pardoned by the governor. Mr. HART.- Have convicts been sentenced under that law? Dr. BYERS.- No: because we have not had a legislature to revise the law. But we feel the moral effect of this law already. Professional criminals do not stay with us. They dread this life imprisonment very much, and they come out here to California, or to some other convenient place. Mrs. J. S. SPERRY, Pueblo, Col. —I think it is our duty to speak for women and girls in prisons. We ought to protest against the indiscriminate confinement of the sexes. The usual separation or partition in the common jail is bars, which is an injustice to men, much more, I think, to women, boys, and girls. We insist on separate imprisonment in our Pueblo jails. All these regulations are under the control of the City Council, who do not always enforce the laws, while many hold the police and marshal responsible. For instance, we have an ordinance for the suppression of houses of prostitution, gambling, and the closing of saloons on Sunday. I asked the marshal why these laws were not enforced, why he did not close them up. He replied, "There are always enough in the Council to object." The city marshal can do nothing about it. But I do believe that women ought to see to the women and children. The first commitment of a young person is a terrible thing. There is no telling the amount of good we might do in this direction. I want to say that I do not believe in carrying bouquets to prisoners. When a body of men have heard their trial, the prisoners have been sentenced, and judgment passed, they are put into prison for punishment. I do not believe in carrying flowers to these miserable

Page  302 302 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES wretches. They ought to be treated as they deserve. You can help them in other ways; but, when it comes to patting them on the back when they are just as bad as can be, I do not believe in it. They will break open your house and rob you the next day if they get a chance. They laugh in their sleeves at those who carry flowers to them. Let us look things square in the face, and help to carry out justice and reform without sentimentality. Rev. W. H. HILL, Chaplain of San Quentin Prison.- So far as I heard the paper of Dr. Byers, I can indorse every word of it; and I wish that such a prison as he there sketches could be found in every State. I have been for eight years where I could have personal observation of a penal institution with over thirteen hundred inmates. I find that prisoners are generally actuated by one of two motives,- of benefiting themselves or fear of punishment. I believe that ninety per cent. are more actuated by the first than the last. The system of punishments never began to exercise the good that the system of credits has done, by which a prisoner purchases freedom, so that a man sentenced for ten years can get out at the end of six and a half years. If we treat a man like a man, he will behave like a man. That is true in nine cases out of ten; and, if that tenth man is a brute or a devil, he must be treated as such in some measure, but it need not be by the lash. When. Judge Ames assumed the duty of warden, he said there should be no more flogging. Some of the old officers told him that he could never get along that way. "I shall try it," he said; and, before long, one of the very worst men, who had tasted the lash more than once, committed a gross act, I believe made an assault on the guard. One of the officers said to Judge Ames, " Now you must flog that man." "I shall not do it," said Warden Ames, "until I have tried my remedy." That remedy was simply solitary confinement on bread and water. In less than a week, that man begged that he might go to work, and promised that he would never again violate the laws of the prison; and he never did. I do not believe in the idea suggested, that all the inmates of the prison shall be treated exactly alike. There are men, and I believe a majority, who are trying to do the best they can, striving to redeem themselves, who never violate the laws of the prison. Shall they be reduced to the level of your miserable opium fiend, who does not care for God, man, or the devil? I say, No. Hold out before those men who are trying their best the prospect of bettering themselves. As to the treatment of discharged prisoners, shame on this State that there is no provision for them: They are turned out with nothing but a half-fare to the place they came from, and five dollars in money. Then they come down to this city, which is full of infernal rum-holes. Where are your Christians who will take them by the hand? It would take a search-warrant to find them, and then you could not do, it. Thirty or forty come out every month, with no one to lend them a helping hand. Take hold and help these men! Speak a kind word to them, and that alone will turn the fate of many a man. Give them a chance to reform. Charles Montgomery has personally found homes

Page  303 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 3o3 for two hundred and fifteen ex-convicts, and out of that number two hundred and six turned out well; that is, nine out of two hundred and fifteen were failures. Do you wonder that I plead for these poor men, those set adrift with every man's and every woman's hand against them? I do not ask you to take them into your houses, but to help them to support themselves, that they may stop being criminals,that they may be producers instead of mere consumers. Rev. JAMES WOODWORTH, of California.- I regard Mr. Mills as one of the most intelligent penologists in this State. When he was an editor, matters relating to prison management were discussed in his paper more intelligently, I believe, than in any other journal of this State. He seems to have grasped the idea which lies at the foundation of all true penology, and which must be at the basis of any correct prison system. I will illustrate the idea with a little story. It was once the custom in some of the States to sell at auction, to those who would take them for the least compensation, the paupers who were dependent upon the town. If the pauper was able to work, the fortunate bidder would get the benefit of his labor. Such a custom prevailed some years ago in Indiana, though this incident occurred in Illinois. A farmer on the border of the State went into Indiana and bought a pauper, whom he brought home and set to hoeing corn. The neighbors heard of it, and came to him, saying, "We hear you have a pauper working for you. Where is he?" " Out there in the field," was the reply. The neighbors went down into the field, where a figure was seen holding a hoe, and formed a circle around him, keeping, however, at what seemed to them a safe distance at first, but gradually drawing nearer, till they saw that the figure resembled one of themselves. Finally, one, more bold than the rest, ventured to speak to him, when a short conversation ensued. When they went back, they said to the farmer: "You played a nice game on us. You said you had a pauper at work for you." "Well, isn't that a pauper?" he asked. "That a pauper! Why, that's a man," was the reply. The truth has dawned upon a good many since then, as it did upon these men, that a pauper is a man; but the average mind has yet failed to comprehend fully the fact that the prisoner also is a man, and no prison system which ignores this truth that he is one, made in the image of God, and still retaining a remnant of his likeness, can be made successful; while the administration of any prison warden or superintendent who neglects or refuses to recognize the principle involved must result in a lamentable failure. Treat prisoners, then, like men. Endeavor to develop the manhood that is in them, and place good men in charge of the prisons. A perfect system would secure different treatment for every man. Prisoners should not be treated by wholesale, all alike, any more than should the children of a family. Mrs. Cameron, of Oakland, said that there was a little Home in Oakland where discharged prisoners were received and helped. Employment is found for them, and those who need are fitted out with

Page  304 304 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES tools to a certain extent. In this way, men on leaving the penitentiary are helped to live an honest life. Bishop GILLESPIE.- It is very manifest that this is a Conference of Charities rather than of Correction. There are very few prison officials in this Conference. I think there is not a warden here; and I doubt if there are over three or four who are connected with prison work inside of prison walls. The reason of that is, I think, that there is now a National Prison Association, which, very unhappily as it seems to me, meets a little after this association. This explains why we have not more prison men here. Notwithstanding, I would ask a question which appeals to the experience of those familiar with prisons. In visiting our State Prison at Jackson, I found on Saturday afternoon the whole body of prisoners, with the exception of a few under restraint, in the open court of the prison, in familiar intercourse, just as familiar as could be held in this room. They were playing foot-ball. The question I would like to ask is whether, in the judgment and knowledge of those who have had experience, this is wise. To an outsider it seems that it may be dangerous. I asked an experienced warden what he thought about such things. He replied that there were two occasions on which the prisoners in his reformatory were allowed to mingle in the yard,-the Fourth of July and Thanksgiving Day. He said he had never known of any difficulty to occur during those days, but that there was likely to arise great necessity for discipline after them. Lately there occurred at our prison at Jackson an assault, where one prisoner assaulted another; and it grew out of something which had taken place in the open court. When asked why he waited to assault the man, he replied that he did not want to deprive his fellowprisoners of their liberty. I am glad to hear what has been said about the folly of sending bouquets to and coddling prisoners. I think it is perfect nonsense. I have known the men to turn round and laugh at those who presented them. We should treat prisoners as men, and not as children. Mr. WOODWORTH.-At San Quentin, it is the custom for certain numbers to be together Sunday afternoons in the yard. Mr. HILL.- On holidays, at San Quentin they play base-ball, and are very expert. They have also a regular ball once a year, when they dance nearly all night. Yesterday was the celebration of Mexican independence, and about two hundred were allowed to dance in one of the vacant workshops. I. have never heard a complaint that it was injurious to discipline. About the Sunday matter, I do not know that the discipline is any worse or better for it. I think it pleases the men more to have a run in the yard than to be locked up in their cells. We have thirteen hundred men in San Quentin, and only eighteen women. Mrs. SPERRY.- In our penitentiary we have between four and five hundred prisoners; and, leaving out a few of the more vicious, they are allowed to keep the holidays. I have never heard of any serious trouble arising from it.

Page  305 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 305 With regard to discharged prisoners, our State gives to each one ten dollars and a suit of clothes. We try to get them work, and often succeed. I think some attention should be given to the ex-convict. Many are willing to commence life anew; but without character, money, or friends, and so many temptations to repeat their crime, is it strange that many serve more than one penitentiary term? Mr. STORRS, of Michigan.- In the Michigan report is included the report of the Home for Discharged Prisoners. In regard to our State Prison at Jackson, Mr. Hatch, its warden, is a man of advanced ideas in prison matters. An illustration of this has been given in what has been said this afternoon. Warden Hatch has adopted 'another scheme. He depends very largely on the prisoners to carry out the discipline of the prison. A large number of his prisoners are interested in holding the others in check. There was an inmate of Jackson prison who had received punishment for disobeying a certain rule. There was in the prison another man whom the warden felt could influence this man who had disobeyed,- one who might be termed the worst prisoner. After the prisoners were locked in at night, the warden went to the cell of this man, knocked at the door, and asked the prisoner if he might come in. "Of course you can come in here, warden," said the prisoner. The warden replied: "This is your private room after you are locked in. I do not intend to intrude, but I want you to help me." "I cannot help you here, can I?" asked the man. "Yes," he replied, "I think you can. You know such a prisoner," naming the one who had been punished for breaking one of the rules. "Yes," he replied. "Well," said the warden, "that rule has to be obeyed." "Yes," answered the man, "it has to be obeyed, and I think that fellow is a chump for not obeying it." "I want you to go to him and tell him so," said the warden. "Tell him he is a chump." He left the case in that prisoner's hands, who worked the reformation of that other man, besides being benefited by such work himself. So the warden is using his own prisoners to aid in carrying on the reformations in that institution. Dr. BYERS.- I should like to answer Bishop Gillespie's question. I was once in conversation with the warden of a prison in Massachusetts, and I asked what was done with the refractory class of prisoners, usually a small class. He replied that it was a difficult problem. He had had one man who tried him to the extent of his patience. He absolutely did not know what to do with him; and he said to the prisoner, "If you are ever brought before me again, reported for punishment, I do not know what I shall do. But I promise you that I shall devise some punishment that will bring you to terms." The fellow went on, and was reported again. When he was brought before the warden, the latter said, " I do not know what to do with you." He replied to the warden, "Try something new." The warden said the man spoke with such complacency that it filled him with a sense of intense resentment toward himself, who, clothed in authority, had the man absolutely in his power, and yet he could stand there and say

Page  306 306 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES with such impudence, "Try something new." "In the fierceness of my wrath," said the warden, "I said: 'I will do it. I wish I could think of something new, and I would try it very quickly."' The man changed his voice, and said, "Forgive me." "And then," said the warden, " after the thrill of anger came the thrill of regret; and, without hesitating a moment, I said: 'I forgive you. Go back to the shop, and resume your work. I have nothing against you."' " From that moment," said he, " that man became my friend and an obedient prisoner." We want a little of the law of forgiveness. It was my privilege to be present at the first opportunity given the prisoners in the Ohio penitentiary to converse at meals. I shall never forget it. It was the Fourth of July. After the exercises in the chapel, the warden said: " Now you are going to have dinner, and I shall remove the restriction of silence. I want you to talk and have a good time. After the chaplain asks the blessing, you may feel at liberty to talk." The blessing was asked, and there came down on those twelve hundred prisoners a silence so profound that you could feel it. It went into the very depths of your heart,- a silence broken only by the heart-beat. There was not an inspiration, not a breath. Breathing seemed to be suspended,- a silence so profound that it seemed utterly impossible to break it. Not a man moved. They sat utterly unable to speak. At last, I passed along the line of men and said: " Why don't you talk? You are always trying to do it when it is against the rule. Why not talk now? " They looked up and said, " We cannot, we cannot: it is too much." And they said it with sobs. The kindness came so suddenly, so unexpectedly, and in such spirit, that they were unable to control their feelings. It was an overwhelming sensation, the law of kindness asserting its force over hard and unruly natures. When the spell was broken, and the talk began, it was with bated breath. From that time to this, those men, for good conduct, have been permitted to talk at table every Sunday. Each week, when the minimum of offences is reached, they are allowed to talk. When the weather is fit, we let these men go into the yard and converse; and on holidays they have sports. The result has been very satisfactory, so far as the behavior of the prisoners is concerned. It does not strike all of the officers yet; but we hope to get them reformed some time. Adjourned at 4.45 P.M. THIRTEENTH SESSION. Tuesday night, September 17. The Conference met at 8 P.M., L. S. Storrs in the chair. The subject for the evening was " Reformatories." A paper by Colonel Gardiner Tufts, Superintendent of the Massachusetts Reformatory for Men, was read, in his absence, by Mr. Storrs (page 103).

Page  307 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 307 DISCUSSION ON REFORMATORIES. J. W. BROWN, of Minnesota.- My experience of the past eighteen years, spent in juvenile reformatories, does not lead me to coincide with the views of the paper just read, in some respects. I have spent five years in reform schools conducted on the congregate plan. I know something of the relationship existing between the superintendent and his boys in a school conducted on that plan. I served three years in an institution conducted on the congregate plan; and during that time the superintendent did not spend fifteen minutes with the boys during play hours, and it would not have been pleasant for him to do so. That was in some measure the fault of the superintendent, but largely that of the system. It is demoralizing to crowd large numbers into any institution. I believe there is no system of conducting a reform school like that of the family, in its truest sense. There is no place on earth so good for a child as a good home; and the nearer we can make a juvenile reform school conform to a good home in all its relations and influences, the more will be accomplished in the way of reformation. I would not place the maximum age at which boys and girls should be committed to juvenile reformatories higher than sixteen years. I think the police of every city of any considerable size will testify that the hardest cases are young men between the ages of sixteen and twenty years. In Minnesota there is no minimum age fixed by statute at which children can be committed to the reform school. Children have been received as young as two years, charged with incorrigibility and vagrancy, and the commitment indorsed by the judge of the district court. Children from five to twelve years of age should not be compelled to spend the most impressionable portion of their lives in an institution with, and in the intimate society of, more hardened criminals. If you would visit some of the jails in Minnesota, and see children of tender years shut up with hardened criminals while they are awaiting trial, and see the company they are obliged to keep for days and months, you would, I think, agree with me that, if we would not add to the long roll of criminals in our land, some place other than a common jail is necessary for the confinement of juvenile delinquents. Notwithstanding the fact that I was brought up under good old Calvinistic doctrine, I believe there is no hell hereafter worse than some of the jails in Minnesota; and yet the jails of Minnesota are far better than the average jails in this country. Great wisdom should be exercised in the establishment of reform schools. Wise legislation is the first necessity; and we should see to it that they are absolutely free from political domination. If the Minnesota State Reform School has been beneficial in any degree to those who have been committed to its care, it has been largely owing to the fact that it has been entirely free from political control. The first superintendent held that office during the first eighteen years,

Page  308 308 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES when he resigned. The first president of the board of managers held that position more than twenty years. Suitable buildings, with facilities adapted to the necessities of the school, are important. The location should be selected with reference to the moral tone of its surroundings. No school could be made a success located in a lawless community. Next in importance is the selection of proper resident officials. The superintendent should be a man of large heart, warm sympathies, and good executive ability. The question has arisen whether, after all, reform schools do reform. The greater portion of the children who come to us, and to all juvenile reformatories, come from the sadly neglected classes. They have little or no education, and come in rags and filth. One little fellow came to us one day in spring, looking as though he had just come out of a coal-bin. "Johnny," I said, "when did you wash last?" "When I went into the river last year," was the reply. These children are put into clean clothes, they attend school, are taught some useful employment, are given Sunday-school and church privileges, and attend religious worship every evening. They go out from the school clothed. They have a fair education, and the foundation of a good trade. They are prepared to earn an honest living, if they will. While we cannot say that all boys and girls sent to reform schools are reformed, we know they are benefited. I could name a great many of the graduates of our school who are to-day occupying positions of trust and honor in our own and other States. We have sent out more than eight hundred boys since the organization of the school in I868. Some have fallen back into crime, and there are to-day three in our penitentiary. The majority, I believe, are doing well. Mr. H. H. HART.- Do you know that those are the only boys in the penitentiary who have been in your school? Mr. BROWN.- I believe that those are the only ones. Mr. HART.- Have you ever investigated the matter? Mr. BROWN. —I did, personally, three years ago. In our State penitentiary I found one, only, who had been an inmate of our school. In the St. Paul city Workhouse not one did I find who at any time had been an inmate of our school. I believe that ninety per cent. of our graduates do well. Mrs. SPERRY.- Do you have girls in your school? Mr. BROWN.- We have only a few girls. They occupy a separate department of the same' institution. They come to the boys' department only on Sunday afternoons, to attend religious services in the chapel. Most of the girls come from the dregs of society, and must be watched very closely after leaving the school lest they fall back into their evil ways. Miss'SCHLEY.- Why are there so many more boys than girls? Is it because the girls are better? Mr. BROWN.- I am in doubt as to whether the girls are better or the magistrates think they are not worth saving. You will not, however, find so much difference in numbers in the Eastern institutions.

Page  309 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 309 A large number of delinquent girls are committed to the House of the Good Shepherd, a Catholic institution, in our State. Mrs. MAYO.-Michigan has gathered into her Industrial School five hundred girls; and we are very confident that seventy-five per cent. of those five hundred girls committed to our care will lead upright, honest lives. I have wondered all through this Conference why it was that we should reach almost the last day before asking, What are we going to do for the girls? It is all right to save the boys and men; but let us reach out a strong right hand at the same time to the girls. We must remember that some day these girls are to be the mothers of the nation. You have been talking about saving criminals. In most instances, these criminals come from bad homes. We must go back, and make the homes what they should be. The sons and daughters in these homes must be educated, heart and hand. A DELEGATE FROM COLORADO. —It seems to me very important that boys and girls should be cared for in separate institutions. It is a great mistake to have them together in reform schools. All girls should be made self-supporting, or capable of earning their own living, no matter in what condition they are brought up. Every girl should feel that she is armed and equipped to support herself, if necessary. In the Colorado school, girls are taught all kinds of housework, and how to do it thoroughly. They learn how to make their own clothing, knit their own stockings, and to make everything that is necessary for themselves, except their shoes, and to do all in a good, smart, workmanlike way. They get, besides, a pretty good English education. In such an institution as the Girls' Industrial Home in Michigan, I believe they receive better instruction of all kinds, intellectual, moral, and religious, than they would have received in nine-tenths of the families. There is another point. When you incorporate industrial schools, put upon their boards a majority of women. I wish that upon every Board of Correction and Charities there might be a good, smart, sharp woman. A woman can see farther into a rat-hole than any man. She can smell quicker, and is a better housekeeper. There should certainly be a majority of women where women and girls are to be cared for. I would like also to have women on poorhouse boards. Industries must be brought into our schools. We put nineteen girls to work making straw hats; but it m'ade such a howl among those who believed only in free labor that we had to stop. Nineteen girls coming into competition with free labor outside! When we send girls out, we give them good, plain clothing. If a girl goes out on ticketof-leave, a part of her wages is reserved by the State, and put to her credit, so that she has a nice little sum in her hand when she is free. I have known them to have from ninety to one hundred and fifty dollars when they come of age, which is quite a sum for them with which to start in life; and a good many of them get married. I do not believe in the congregate system. I believe in the home system; but I do not believe in putting five hundred into a home. The smaller the number, the better the home will be. I would not like to put over forty girls into any one home.

Page  310 310 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES See that the officers are good, and, with women on your board, you will make a success of your schools. Mr. W. BALL.- I wish to bear testimony as to the truth of what Mrs; Mayo has said. Michigan takes care of her unfortunate girls in a generous and watchful manner, a number of hundreds of them. She also takes care of her wayward and unfortunate boys. They, after conviction in the proper tribunals for misdemeanors, are sentenced to the Reform School for Boys until the age of seventeen, unless sooner discharged. The age of commitment is not under ten nor over fifteen years. In the Michigan Reform School there are many bad boys, and a good many not necessarily bad, only from surrounding circumstances. I wish I could believe that the Michigan boys turn out as well as those boys spoken of by Mr. Brown. Our boys do not generally turn out so well. Some go to the bad, and bring up in the Houses of Correction or State Prison. There are numerous instances where, by careful guidance and keeping them in sight until they can withstand temptations, they do well, and become good, honest, and law-abiding citizens; but they are not in the majority. I think no boy should be sent to the Reform School under the age of ten or twelve years. The idea of sending children in swaddling-clothes to the Reform School, like those children spoken of by Mr. Brown! It seems to me to be absurd. Some States keep their boys until they are eighteen. Boys who have proved themselves incompetent to take care of themselves should not be kept so long as that. If they are to go out to commit crimes, they might as well go at seventeen as eighteen; and they will sooner be placed under proper restraint in other places and their bad example removed from among the younger boys of the school. Boys worthy of confidence should be placed out on the ticket-of-leave plan. The places to which they are sent should be as far from their old home and haunts as possible. In Michigan the cottage plan has proved very efficient, and is considered as the model one, the paper taking a different view to the contrary notwithstanding. I differ with some who have spoken this afternoon as regards the credit system. As applied to prisons, I have observed that the worst offenders, those who are the shrewdest and sharpest, get the most credit, not because they are the men who are reforming and ought to go out, but because they take advantage of the offer to shorten their stay in the place to which they are sent. I am not in strict sympathy with this sentimental notion that men guilty of crime after crime can be converted by so generous treatment as some would give. I believe that a prison (and I do not know but a reform school) should be a place of punishment for crimes rather than a good boardingplace. I believe in being just before being too generous to offenders against the law. I would like to give in detail the system pursued in the Michigan Reform School, in which all citizens take a deep interest,- the results more generally; but so much time has been consumed by those preceding me that I will not weary your patience with anything like a long speech, and I thank you for the time you have so patiently given me.

Page  311 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 3Tr Dr. WALTER LINDLEY.- I have been interested in California, for the last ten years in trying to get a bill through our legislature that would put us on a plane with many of the Eastern States. And at the last legislature a bill was passed appropriating two hundred thousand dollars to establish a school for juvenile offenders, to be under the care of a board of three trustees; also an appropriation of one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, to establish a school which shall be a reformatory, to be conducted by the Prison Commissioners. After these appropriations were made, I took a trip East to see what they were doing there, and to bring back ideas for the management of our schools. The first place I visited was New Orleans. There they have a reform school that was first a marine hospital, then a pesthouse, and, when it got too bad, it was turned into a reform school. The superintendent was an old sea-captain, who was disabled so that he could not handle his vessel. I decided that we should not adopt the New Orleans methods. But from there the record was good. In Cincinnati, they still have the congregate system; but it is a good school of that kind, and they hope to change to the family system before long. " In Philadelphia there is a great building, an immense structure, and from nine to twelve hundred children. But they have their plans to move into the country. In New York, the House of Refuge is doing excellent work. In the Catholic Protectorate I found twenty-three hundred children. I did not like the boys' department. It is in the hands of the Brothers. They are teaching the boys a great many valuable things. In the girls' department I saw some beautiful exemplifications of what they are doing. They learn everything, from making bread to using the type-writer, dressmaking, shirt-making, and laundry work. In Meriden, Conn., and Rhode Island, I saw the cottage system, which pleased me very much. In Connecticut they have one hundred and ninety acres in a farm. The result of my trip was to confirm my admiration of the cottage system as the best for teaching the inmates work that will be useful. We have in this State a Board of Trustees. We had forty acres donated, and have purchased one hundred and twenty-five more, thirteen miles from Los Angeles, in Whittier, a Quaker settlement. We expect to get to work, inside of a few weeks, on the building, and propose to make our Reform School an institution that will be a credit. Mr. STORRS.-In Michigan we have a system of county agents. After a child is arrested, the county agent is advised with, and the child is practically placed under his protection. The result has been that only about one-third of those who have been arrested for trivial offences have found their way to the Reformatory. I would suggest that you take into consideration, then, the providing for an officer of some sort, who shall come between the man who is paid for arresting a child and the justice who shall try that child and the child himself. Some of our county agents put the parents of children arrested under

Page  312 312 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES bonds. They work in various ways; but the result has been that comparatively few who have been arrested find their way to the Reformatory. The following resolution was offered by W. A. Johnson, of Indiana - Resolved, That this Conference commends the action of the governor and legislature of the State of California in making an appropriation for the establishment of reform schools for juvenile delinquents; and Resolved, That we approve the action of the Board of Trustees of the California State Reform School in adopting the cottage, or family, system. Bishop GILLESPIE.- Let me suggest that you study the matter of classification here. From the observation of our Michigan institutions, I think it is a matter worthy of serious consideration as to how these children should be classified, —not, certainly, according to the conduct of the children after they come into the institution. Dr. Byers thought there was something to be said in favor of congregate institutions. He wondered whether they kept cradles for the babies in the Minnesota Reform School. Children under five or six years of age, he thought, need to be formed, not reformed. Such children should be put into homes, not into reformatories. Adjourned at 10 P.M. FOURTEENTH SESSION. Wednesday morning, September I8. The Conference met at 9.30 A.M., the President in the chair. Prayer was offered by Rev. G. B. Allen. The subject for the day was "The Care of the Feeble-minded." In the absence of the committee having that subject in charge, the discussion was conducted by Mr. Charles A. Murdock, one of the Executive Board of the California School for Feeble-minded. Mr. MURDOCK.-When Paul in his letter to the Thessalonians besought the church to "comfort the feeble-minded," he uttered a charge that in its fullest sense the world is just beginning to heed. Blackstone defines an idiot as "one that hath had no understanding from his nativity, and therefore is by law presumed never likely to attain any." But it happens that many things "presumed by law" are not, as a matter of fact, true; and, with the progress of man's love for man, and the patient investigation and effort that have sprung from it, it has been found that "understanding" may be attained in many cases formerly thought hopeless. From our standpoint of to-day two things seem wonderful: first, that it remained for this century to begin systematic effort to develop defective minds;

Page  313 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 313 and, second, that this effort has reached in forty years such grand proportions and found so general an acceptance in the public mind. We Californians are proud of our material achievements, and look admiringly on this city that in the days of '49 was not even a dream; but about the same time that the discovery of gold drew from the four quarters of the world the people who founded our State there began in the State of Massachusetts an experiment whose results we must acknowledge of greater significance, if, with the olden prophet, we believe that God " will make a man more precious than fine gold, even a man than the golden wedge of Ophir." In April, 1846, the Massachusetts legislature appointed a Board of Commissioners to inquire into the condition of the idiots of the Commonwealth. Dr. Samuel G. Howe, that lofty leader and patient worker, was made the chairman. In May of 1848, an act was passed in accordance with the recommendation of the Commissioners, providing for an experimental school; and in October ten idiotic youths, mostly from the almshouses, were gathered in one wing of the Institution of the Blind at South Boston, and placed under the care of Dr. Howe, who had agreed to conduct the school without charge. This, I believe, was the first school for feeble-minded, although in July of the same year Dr. H. B. Wilbur, of Barre, received into his family a single pupil. New York and Pennsylvania followed in i85i, and others soon after. At present, fifteen States have asylums for idiots and feebleminded, supported by legislative appropriations. In July, 1883, a meeting of some of our citizens, which had been brought about by a few devoted women, determined that an institution for the care and training of feeble-minded children should be established. An association was soon afterward formed, funds were collected, and in May, I884, the Home was formally opened at Vallejo. The legislature in the following winter adopted the movement, making an appropriation of $25,000 for a site and $20,000 for two years' maintenance. A Board of Five Trustees was appointed by the governor; and Mrs. Ariel Lathrop was by them elected president, and has since been re-elected every year. At the time the State assumed charge of the institution, March, i885, there were twenty inmates. There have in all been admitted to the Home i60 children. Of these, 7 have died and 36 have been discharged, leaving our present population at 117, 51 of whom are females, and 66 males. This number is the utmost capacity of our Home at Santa Clara; and we have application for I29 waiting accommodation. Our school is under the charge of four teachers, and the course of instruction is principally object and oral teaching, interspersed with kindergarten classes and the primary branches as taught in the public schools. We also have a sewing-class of 25 girls, doing good work. In our articulation class, several, during the past year, have been enabled to connect sentences who formerly could only articulate a few simple words, and some have been enabled to articulate who never before spoke intelligibly.

Page  314 314 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Eighty-three of the inmates attend school day or evening. We have also a class of io in orchestral music, all doing well. We have 21 epileptic cases who are under special dietary treatment, and I7 asylum cases. Our school work is our main reliance for mental training, and our results are encouraging. Dr. Osborne in his last report says of it: - "Each child has been tempted along rather than driven, and induced to strengthen its intellectual strides with each succeeding occupation rather than wearying itself with monotonous drill. So far as the same has been practical and advisable, the studies have been of half hour sessions daily, and alternate with play in the school yard, or some other form of relaxation. The variety of our instruction and diversity given to all our exercises has proved to be both pleasing and strengthening to the enfeebled minds, as well as conducive of permanent beneficial results. "No one who has taken the pains to critically inspect either our schools or our exhibit of school work can longer doubt of the utility of educating this class. Neither can any one question the feasibility of instructing, training, or schooling imbeciles in the higher arts and lines of study; and he must be indeed callous to demonstration and blind to established fact who would dare assert longer that our work in any of these particulars is an experiment. It is through and by the school-room, properly equipped, carefully managed, and rationally set with work, that we must hope for the greatest ultimate good for these children. It must be considered-as it is, in fact-the chief factor of all the lines applicable to the reformation of the feebleminded child. If the school training that a strong child receives is of the benefit and importance to it that the attention and expense bestowed upon our public and private schools would indicate, how very important must be the special forms of schools designed particularly for the weak! "From personal observation, we are convinced that, while the ornamental ard aesthetic should not be lost sight of, the chief attention should be given to those practicals which carry a sensible, every-day significance with them." Of scarcely less importance is our industrial department; and the results reached are most encouraging evidence of how these lives are broadened and led forth by patient and intelligent effort. It has many advantages. The child trained to some useful handiwork is in a measure self-sustaining, and certainly contributes to the pleasure and comfort of the others in the home. Again, it is restful and helpful to the child to be able to do something. Restlessness, impatience, temper, are forestalled by occupation. Our superintendent says:"The most valuable form of industrial work for the feeble-minded begins in the kindergarten, as modified by our teachers, who of necessity must draw largely upon their own inventive skill. In this adaptation of it, it has proved of great benefit in all our beginnings. Following it, to those qualified to take them up, are the higher

Page  315 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 3I5 branches of simple art and decorative work, sewing, etc. Repousse is not only a splendid drill in ornamental work, but it has also a commercial value, and in its more perfect execution drills the hand to steady symmetrical efforts, the eye to form, size, color, and general relief, and the brain to a truer conception of the lines of beauty and the relations of cause and effect. Music may also in its instrumental application be considered a form of industrial training. The skilful handling of the violin, the fingering of the keys of the clarinet, piano, or horn, in fact the proper use of any of the band or orchestral instruments, presuppose considerable drill of certain muscles to regular rhythmical movements, which must of necessity correspond with and respond to a like systematical action of the mental forces. Thus both the physical and the psychical are at the same time invigorated, and permanently developed. These lead up to the grosser forms of work, such as tailoring, shoemaking, broom-making, mattress-making, carpentering, and wood-carving, and work upon the farm and grounds." Our wards are encouraged to usefulness and helpfulness. " In the dining-rooms, all of the work is done by girls, under supervision of the dining-room attendant. Chamber-work, sweeping, dusting, scrubbing, hand and machine sewing, preserving of fruit, dressing and caring for smaller children, assorting, folding, and keeping in order the clothing of the institution, are done almost exclusively by the inmates. "There are now about twenty girls regularly employed in various occupations in and about the home, some of these supplementing regularly employed help. A few are capable in most lines of supplanting our regular help. The boys assist on the farm and in the garden by hoeing, cultivating, milking cows, etc. They also attend to their own dormitory work; sweep, dust, assist in dressing and caring for small boys, under the supervision of attendants, run sewingmachines (with which occupation they are much delighted), assort clothing, and perform various other duties under supervision." The children are very fond of music, and a number of them sing and play quite well. They are generally affectionate and appreciative, and grow very fond of their matron and teachers. It is pathetic to see their preference for their foster mothers over their own parents. We have lately established an Institution Bulletin, published quarterly, which we will gladly mail to any persons who will send their names. It gives interesting facts and incidents concerning our work. The last number tells of a successful experiment in the line of a vacation outing. A vacation of a month was given, from June 14 to July S5; and those children whom it would benefit and who could be taken by their parents were allowed to go home. The others were taken in details of from six to twelve to a delightful camp established twelve miles from the institution, in the Santa Cruz Mountains, and named for our kind governor "Camp Waterman." Every few days these details alternated, giving the greatest amount of variety. The children enjoyed it all. The superintendent says: -

Page  316 3i6 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES "As an educational feature, we consider it worth a year of continued school-room work. It was object teaching on a grand scale, whose benefits can never be computed by statistics. The squirrel, the jack-rabbit, the flowers, the speckled beauties of the trout streams, the bullfrogs, the jay-birds that fluttered about our camp in great numbers and pilfered the tidbits placed on the tables for them, the gorgeous butterflies, with all the rest that was theirs to enjoy, set the sluggish machinery of their brains actively at work, to dig out from the waste places of their minds the ore of a quizzical intelligence, which, under the careful manipulation of our teachers and attendants, has been reduced to the fine gold of practical knowledge. In every sense, the camp was a grand success, and in its results will do honor to our illustrious executive, whose name it bore." The census of i880 gave the number of imbecile children in the State at over 500; and it is probable that 700 is a low estimate of those who at the present time should be under our care. The legislature has been generous in its appropriations, and at the last session provided $170,000 for a new site and buildings, $15,ooo for furniture, $15,000 to secure water and drainage, and $8I,ooo for two years' maintenance,-in all, $28I,000. For four months the trustees have been examining sites,- about 130 were offered,-and last night reached a decision. By the bill we were limited to 30 per cent. of our appropriation ($5I,ooo) for the site, which should not consist of less than 300 acres. The tract of land selected lies in the beautiful valley of Sonoma. It cost less than the sum mentioned, and embraces over i,6oo acres. It is watered by three living streams, two of which rise on the place and give us Ioo,ooo gallons of water daily, at an elevation of I50 feet above the building site. There are over 50,000 fruit-trees on the place, besides acres of vines and hundreds of acres of pasturage. Two railroads pass through the land, and will give us stations on it. The climate is perfect, the situation picturesque, the location central; and, altogether, the trustees are jubilant, and feel that the millennium is at hand. There seems no reason why our Home should not be the equal of any institution in the land. We shall not be satisfied with any lesser glory. The extent of our domain will render isolation and classification easy. We propose having for the proper custodial care of low-grade cases a separate building, supplied with its own kitchen, baths, treatment wards and dormitories, but contiguous to the main building. For that sadly afflicted class, the epileptics, for whom our superintendent has especial sympathy, we likewise propose a separate building. For the high-grade cases of adult males, our farm will offer abundant employment in the dairy, wood-chopping, fruit cultivation, etc.; and the same class of girls can add to their present household dutiessuch healthful out-door work as grape-picking, light gardening, fruit, packing, etc. We firmly believe that, if the legislators of any State not yet pro

Page  317 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 3I7 vided with a home for the feeble-minded could see with their own eyes what has been accomplished, they could not fail to provide at once a similar home. It is no matter of sentiment: such treatment of defective children is counselled by expedience, invited by economy, and demanded by justice. The name of our institution clearly states the twofold objects of the modern idea,- "the care and the training." The pioneers in the work, Wilbur and Howe, began with the training: their aim was to educate. Their experiment was successful; but, with the best efforts of to-day, barely a third of the children trained are susceptible of being so improved as to become self-supporting, safe members of the community. What shall be done with the other two-thirds? When training has done its all, what next? What are the rights and privileges of this defective class, and what is the policy or duty of the State? Humane sentiments will accord these unfortunates the privilege of support,-the strong will bear the weak; but they will not accord them the right of unrestricted liberty. It is against the interest of society that this class shall be allowed to bring into being children who shall be like afflicted, or who from congenital causes shall swell the alarming numbers of our insane, our criminals, and our paupers. Not alone from self-interest has society a right to stop this source, but in the prevention of the human misery that these children shall themselves suffer. And hence comes the care to complement the training. The custodial class proper is large: the expense to the State of caring for it would be great; but economy and philanthropy combine in dictating that policy. Could we present what those of special experience and observation know to be the facts as to the number of criminals, paupers, and especially insane, whose parents were mentally defective or morally irresponsible, there would be common consent, not only that we ought, but that we must, by the custodial care of' these pitiable beings, prevent their propagation. Wise efforts at reform of every nature are directed more and more to the source of the stream,- to prevention through the removal of causes; and, surely, here is a source that can be controlled. In the treatment of this class, we shall be wise when we unite mercy with justice,- care for them tenderly, add what light we may to their darkened lives, but hold them firmly from doing the ill they know not of. A paper on " The Care of Idiotic and Feeble-minded Children," by Henry M. Dechert, of Pennsylvania, was read in his absence by Mr. T. H. Hausman (page 83). A paper on " Public Aid for the Feeble-minded," by Mrs. George Brown, of Barre, Mass., was read in her absence by Mr. Treat (page 86).

Page  318 318 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES DISCUSSION ON CARE OF THE FEEBLE-MINDED. Mr. JOHNSON. —If that delightful location of sixteen hundred acres had been chosen by the trustees of the California School for Feebleminded after this Conference, what a piece of glory it would be for us! We should have said, "That is the result of the Conference." But it was chosen while we were here, so we will claim it only as a thing we like to hear of and see. There are some points that have been made that I should like to question. One is the percentage of boys and girls made fit for outside life. One institution claims 35 per cent. If that institution returns to ordinary life 35 per cent., it certainly is very chary in receiving low-grade cases. In Indiana, we do not hope to return o1 per cent.; but we do not refuse any cases. We believe the lowestgrade cases need the tenderest care. I think io or 15 per cent. would be the outside estimate of those safe to send out. But to train to self-support is a very different thing. We hope to train 65 or 75 per cent. to support themselves within the institution. In our Indiana institution, we have 270 children, They each wear out, on the average, two pairs of shoes a year. They make in the shoe-shop all the new ones and repair all the old ones. We have only one practical shoemaker,- no other help in the shop except the imbecile boys. When we bought shoes, they cost considerably more, and did not last half so long. Some of the boys who work at this trade were quite stupid when they came to us. The boys also do their own tailoring and make their own shirts, while the girls do all of their own sewing. In the laundry, the boys do the washing and the girls do the ironing. What we need now is to adopt the principle of custodial care. Let it be understood that every imbecile is there for life, unless he or she shall be competent to go out as an ordinary free citizen. This is of great importance. I do not believe there is any work so statesmanlike, humane, and Christian as the care of the feeble-minded of the State. We find training the mind through the hand, what is commonly called manual training, more successful than through the eye and ear only. The ordinary work of the schoolroom - reading, writing, and arithmetic -gets on slowly. Each day the children learn a little, but the next day they seem to have forgotten most of it. It is touching to see girls in their teens struggling in the primary grade. The garden affords work for the boys. We have one epileptic boy who was very violent and hard to manage. He was put into the garden detail, and showed a great liking for his work. He now works hard all day, and so gets rid of his superfluous energy; and his spasms are less frequent and less painful than formerly. We do not separate the epileptics from the others. The lowest grades, what we call custodial cases, are by themselves: the rest are all together, except as the sexes are kept apart.' The feeble-minded are very affectionate creatures. They soon remember any one who has been kind to them; and nowhere does

Page  319 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 319 a little kindness go such a long way. They are made happy by a pleasant word or a pat on the cheek; and they cluster around one, eager for the touch or the smile. Even the lowest grades soon lose their repulsiveness, as one becomes familiar with them. We have a few who are bright, and many who are very sweet and nice. Still, they have weak wills and feeble minds. They would be unsafe in the outer world. They must be kept quietly, safely, away from the world, living like the angels in heaven, neither marrying nor given in marriage. Mr. Murdock asked Mr. Wines to take part in the discussion. Mr. WINES.- In the census of Great Britain (and of some other countries), no distinction is made between the insane and idiotic. They are all classed together as insane persons. Whether this is be cause those who organized the census did not appreciate the difference between a lunatic and an idiot, or because the difference is so difficult to recognize, I do not know. I suppose that, if I should take to a large poorhouse the average superintendent of an insane hospital, and show him the inmates of the institution, it would be impossible for him to say which of the imbeciles whom he would see there were simply demented insane persons and which of them were, in fact, idiots. But I think that, if I should take the superintendent of an institution for idiots to the same almshouse, and show him the same population, he would pick out with reasonable certainty all those who were true idiots, and separate them from the others. This is because, as an Irishman might say, an idiot, to those who know the class, is not so much like an insane person as an insane person is like an idiot. But, to one unfamiliar with the distinctions between them, they are so nearly alike that any census which may be made either of insane persons or of idiots must contain a large percentage of error in classification. In the last census, we undertook to classify them, and we arrived at some proximate degree of precision; but it was, after all, only an approximation. The distinction between an insane person and an idiot is this: the insane person is one who has come to mental maturity, and then, from disease of the brain, has lost to a greater or less extent his mental capacity. The idiot is one who never did arrive at the full development of his mental powers, by reason of some impression made on him, either prior to birth or after birth, before arriving at the age of puberty.* A great many of these children are no doubt prenatal idiots, more, perhaps, than we suspect. Many of them lose their minds in consequence of the acute diseases of childhood, or from accidents which arrest the development of their nervous and mental organizations. The number of idiots is greater than any one unfamiliar with the subject would imagine. I sometimes think that there must be as * Some physicians would confine the term "idiot" to persons born with weak intellects. But Griesinger says, " By the term 'idiocy' we are to understand those conditions in which a state of mental weakness has existed from birth, orfrom early infancy."

Page  320 320 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES many of them as of the insane. Idiots are often hidden from sight in the homes where they live,- their family and friends are ashamed of them,- and a great many idiotic children are not recognized by their parents as such. Some years ago, a lady called on me, and brought with her a little girl seven years old. While I talked with the lady, I drew the child to me, took her on my lap, and observed that she had a very remarkable tongue, with a deep longitudinal furrow down the centre. The lady saw that I noticed it, and said, "That is a seven months' child." " Ah!" I said. I looked at her a little longer, and then asked her mother, with some hesitation, " Why don't you send her to Jacksonville?" "What is in Jacksonville?" "There is a school where feeble-minded children are tenderly cared for by an excellent superintendent." The mother flared up: "You call that a feeble-minded child! That is the smartest child you ever saw in your life! Get down out of that man's lap, pet! He doesn't like you! " What constitutes a feeble-minded child I do not know. We know a true idiot. You have no idea, perhaps, of the physical degradation of the true idiot. I have in my mind now a man, possibly forty years old, who has never outgrown the state of infancy. Everything that has to be done for a baby has to be done for him, even to. feeding him with a spoon and amusing him with a rattle. I have seen a full-grown woman, in the yard of a county almshofse, creeping on allfours, just like a baby, and playing with straws, as a little child would play. Nothing that can be done for her will ever change her. You mothers, who have brought up babies, can hardly realize the physical care that, in some exceptional cases, has to be bestowed on these unfortunate creatures. Mr. Johnson speaks of their affection,-yes; but it is the affection of a baby. Some never walk; some never speak, and can never be taught to speak; they cannot attend to their own physical wants, but will have to be cared for like babies, even if they live to old age. Idiots are not all alike. There are as many varieties of character and habit among them as among the members of this Conference. You find them all along the line, from the low type of which I have spoken up to a condition of simple feeble-mindedness. The rule about admitting a blind child to an institution for the blind is that he shall not be able to see to read, or that he can distinguish letters by sight only with great difficulty. Similarly, we admit to our schools for idiots children who are so backward that they are incapable of being taught in an ordinary school with other children, even though they may not be true idiots. Some people, however, have a very exaggerated notion of idiots and feeble-minded children. They suppose them all to be wholly incompetent. I have heard superintendents of hospitals for the insane argue learnedly that an idiot could not be insane, because insanity is a disease of the brain, and idiots have no brains. I never saw an idiot who did not have a brain, such as it was: it may have been very small and very imperfectly organized. Some of these

Page  321 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 321 idiots are exceptionally talented in certain directions, as Blind Tom was in music, or as others are in drawing or in some branch of mechanical industry. Many of them are capable of being made useful to a large extent, even though they may be unable to talk. I have seen idiots who were useful on a farm, for instance, who could not speak a word. Is not a mule valuable on a farm? Yet he cannot talk. I do not agree with what has been suggested, rather than said, in one of the papers just read,- that any large number can be made useful without oversight and direction. They are useful under direction, just as a horse is. But you cannot make a horse useful except under direction. You cannot get out of an idiot what is not in him; and all expectation that you are going to make men and women even of ordinary intelligence out of idiots, by any system of training which you may adopt, is a vain anticipation. You may correct bad habits, you may develop and improve them; but they must remain under control, in order to be of any real service to the world, and very many of them will be of no service whatever in any direction, but simply a burden to be carried by those who love them. While it is important to maintain training-schools for persons of this class, yet the longer you observe the work, and the more you know about it, the more you will feel that these institutions must, to a large extent, be custodial in their character, especially for girls. The idiot girl is exposed as no other girl is exposed in the world. She has not sense enough to protect herself from the perils to which women are subjected. I suppose the majority of our criminals in the penitentiaries are more or less imbecile. Certainly, the great majority of that class of women who excite the pity of men and the scorn (for the most part) of their own sex are to a large degree imbecile. If they were not so, they would not be what they are. We must make up our minds to take these children, to train them as far as possible, and to hold them as long as possible. This form of charity is the purest charity in which the State can engage, because the persons to whom it is extended are the most in need of it, and because there is not the least prospect of any pecuniary return from it. There is no reason why imbecile children and imbecile women should not be cared for by-the State as much as the demented insane. There is the same reason for such care in both cases. I am extremely glad to hear what California has done already in this direction. With that immense number of acres, she ought to be able to develop a system of care surpassing that of any other State in the Union. On twelve hundred acres of land you can not only establish different buildings, but different groups of buildings,- separate colonies for different classes,- remote from each other. I shall look with great interest and expectation to the results of the work done in this State by an exceptionally intelligent and enthusiastic Board of Trustees. Mr. WooDwoRTH.-You make use of several terms,- idiots, feebleminded, insane, demented insane. How many classes do you include under those terms?

Page  322 322 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES Mr. WINES.- I do not know whether I can make it clear. A person who becomes insane, whether the form of insanity be mania or melancholia, —in other words, whether it manifests itself in mental exaltation or in mental depression,- tends to become demented whenever the disease, if the patient does not recover, has run its full course. The final result of insanity is dementia. I have seen a row of such demented persons sitting on a bench in the ward of an insane hospital, who did not have sense enough to take their medicine. It had to be poured into their mouths. That is extreme dementia. Idiocy is a condition resembling and approaching that; but it originates early in life, whereas dementia is the result of disease later in life. Both of these conditions are included under the general term "imbecility." Feeble-mindedness is a form of idiocy approaching the ordinary state of children. The feeble-minded child is not a true idiot perhaps, but very backward and dull of intellect. You would do a wonderful work, for yourselves and for your State, if you would only become familiar with the various classes of imbeciles and of feeble-minded by personal observation. Go and visit your insane asylums, your idiot schools, your prisons, your pauper institutions, and learn to know these people when you see -them, as you learn to know the various plants and flowers in your gardens and in the fields. A DELEGATE.- You say that the asylums should hold them as long as possible. Does any State forcibly detain them through life? Mr. WINES.- There is no need for forcibly detaining them. DELEGATE.- Wouldn't they go away of their own accord? Mr. WINES.- The great mass of them would not. They are happy where they are. Girls ought to be so kept. I do not agree that, because there are seven hundred idiotic children in California, you must have an institution capable of taking care of seven hundred, since many of them can be kept at home, and ought to be kept there. Mrs. BARROWS.- May I ask Mr. Wines what is to be done with moral imbeciles? Mr. WINES.- That is a hard question. Many of these moral imbeciles are sent to penitentiaries. President GILLESPIE.- What dismissal is there from the Jacksonville School for the Feeble-minded? Mr. WINES.- That school has now been removed to Lincoln. There is no formal dismissal, except that the friends are notified that the children cannot be kept any longer. President GILLESPIE.- No age is fixed? Mr. WINES.- Not at all. The legislature at its last session made an appropriation for a custodial building for idiotic girls. We shall take about one hundred, and keep them probably for life. Our intention is to add to that from time to time, and to take these girls from the poorhouses and off the streets. Many of them are the children of feeble-minded mothers. President GILLESPIE.- What proportion do you send away as fit to be returned, who can as well be kept at home?

Page  323 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 323 Mr. WINES.- I doubt whether many can be kept at home equally well. We send them back, because they are pushed out of the asylum by the demand for the admission of new cases. They are usually very troublesome and burdensome in their own homes. Mrs. SPERRY.- Where there is no school for imbeciles, would you send a feeble-minded child to an insane asylum or to a poorhouse? I have in mind a little child who ran after her sister with a butcherknife, a child who is certainly imbecile. Mr. WINES.- If you had a good almshouse, I should rather put her there. The laws forbid insane asylums to receive idiots, as a rule. Within a year or two, a complaint was made to me that a certain idiot girl was being outrageously abused in one of the counties of Illinois, and I was urged to investigate the case. I found that she was no girl at all, but a woman forty or fifty years old. She was a wee bit of a creature, almost a dwarf, having never attained her physical growth. Her hair was partly gray. She could not speak a word; and she looked more like an animal than a human being. She was at home with her father and mother, who were very poor, living in a humble cottage in front of a railroad, where trains passed every hour. She had a constant desire to run away. The erratic tendency in her was uncommonly strong. The moment she was released, she would go, and often she would run for miles and miles before she could be overtaken. Her parents had invented a peculiar way of restraining her. The story that I heard was that she was chained; but she was not. They had stretched a long wire from the door of the room which she occupied to the trunk of a tree at some distance from the house, and made it fast at each end. Then they had taken a long leather strap, attached to a ring at one end, so that it would slip back and forward on this wire, and the other end they had fastened about her throat, but loosely, so as not to hurt her, any more than a collar would hurt a dog. She could go up and down the yard as far as the wire and this strap would let her, and could go in and out of her room at her own pleasure. She had two short clubs which she used as playthings and with which she could defend herself against attack. I knew that nothing could be done for her. Her mother loved her with a love that knew no bounds. For, of all the children of any mother, those who are feeblest awaken the deepest, tenderest affection. She took care of this creature as no attendant could have been hired to do it. The unfortunate woman was not suffering at all. She was a mere animal, well cared for as an animal; and I concluded to let her alone. When I was in the army, I had charge of the refugees who fled or were brought by our troops from North-west Arkansas into South-west Missouri. On one occasion, when I had an unusual number to provide for, some one came to me and said that among the new arrivals was a "snake-girl." What a " snake-girl " might be, I could not imagine. I was gravely informed that she had the body of a woman, which terminated in a point like the tail of a snake. This story seemed to me incredible, the offspring of a superstitious fancy.

Page  324 324 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES I went to one of our army surgeons, and asked him, as he was a physician, to investigate the case, and let me know what was really the matter with the girl. He did so, and reported that, where her limbs joined her body, they were no larger than my wrist, that they were drawn up so that her knees touched her breast and her heels her thighs, and that, instead of feet, she had only rudiments of feet, which tapered off to points, with no resemblance to ordinary feet and no indication of toes. This was why the ignorant called her a " snake-girl." She was about twenty-one or twenty-two years old. She had never been dressed, for she could not be. She was put into a loose sacque, without arms, merely a bag with a draw-string around the neck, but it covered her, so that she was not exposed to observation. She could not sit up; could not turn over; had never in any way helped herself with her hands; and had never uttered an articulate sound. When she wanted anything, she gave an unearthly grunt; and, when her wants were supplied, she grunted again. I said to the mother, who had a large family of children,- not less than a dozen,- as she sat under a tree, without even a tent to shelter her from the sun or rain, with no food, no occupation, no friends: "This girl must be a great trouble to you. I do not know, but I think perhaps I could get some benevolent people in St. Louis to provide for her in an institution, so as to relieve you of her." She glared at me with the eyes almost of a fury. " Give up that child! give up that child! I will give up every other child I have before I would give up that child!" That is the mother's heart. And I thought of that passage in Scripture: "Though a mother may forget her sucking child, that she should not have compassion on the son of her womb, yet will I not forget thee "; and in that hour I got a new sense of the love of God for his children, which I have never lost, and which has often comforted me in my own deepest sorrows. Mr. JOHNSON.- Among our poorhouses there is hardly one that has not one or more feeble-minded but able-bodied men, and they are generally about the best hands on the farm. There is hardly a poorhouse where there are not two or more feeble-minded women, with from one to four illegitimate children each. I think that is about as strong a proof of the need of custodial care for feeble-minded girls as we could find. Dr. STEBBINS, California.- It is manifest that among the themes which have challenged our humane sentiments no theme has taken a deeper hold on the Conference than this. That is a suggestive fact. The concluding words of Mr. Wines, touching the revelation of maternal love as the eternal symbol of the love of God, must have touched us all. And we may say, indeed, that that human heart has been bereft which has never had such illustrations of human affections leading us upward to that almighty and encircling love of God that holds us all. I do not think I shall be charged with extravagance when I say that the subject we are talking about is not surpassed in its importance by any theme that comes before us. We are talking about idiots. What is an idiot? Sorrowful and pitiful as it is to

Page  325 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 325 speak of such a creature, an idiot, my friends, is one of the most distinguished signals of the dignity, the greatness, and the destiny of our human nature. Idiots are possible only in the human race, in the human family. The theme is so large, it offers such a field for philosophic speculation and humane sentiment, that I cannot avoid giving some of the moral and spiritual aspects of it. No scientific demonstration has determined the minimum of human faculties. Where is the human creature that walks upright or that lies helpless, like the "snake-girl" under the tree in Missouri, of whom we can say that humanity is there extinguished? We know that the maximum of humanity is very great. It is easy to find illustrations, culminating in the divine manifestation in Jesus Christ; but who will say on the downward scale where it stops? or where, quenched in sense or mired in the clay of the body, the divine spark becomes extinct? No: never will science make the discovery, do I apprehend. Then there is something else in regard to this condition, this imbecility, feebleness of mind, idiocy: it is individuality carried to its last extremity. The idiotes is the one cut off, isolated, by himself, unable to communicate with others. That is the idiot. But there are some things in regard to this condition which raise the question of our destiny. Did ever the unhappy mother of an idiot believe that her imbecile son or daughter was merely a brute? I cannot conceive it. I have never known such a phenomenon in my life. There are some things in the New Testament - I am not going to be theologic - that suggest that our immortality is an attainment, that it is not an endowment. We sometimes look into human faces, that are not idiotic faces either, and we say, Is there anything there that can sustain itself and rise above the mighty floods and waters of death? It is not the idiotic countenance only that suggests that. There is a countenance of deviltry, of hell, and self-will that also awakens that question in our mind and heart. And now concerning this charity. I was much touched by what Mr. Wines said of the purity of this charity, the simplicity, the sweetness, and the love of it. We talk learnedly about the worthy and the unworthy, the fortunate and the unfortunate; but when we understand the whole thing, if ever we do understand it, as the Infinite understands it, we shall know what it means when we say that the only true charity is to the unworthy and the hopelessly unfortunate, the children of sin, of ignorance, and misery. And now another lesson. You will pardon me for saying that I have myself taken philosophic satisfaction in talking with these people. In my early studies I had a glimpse in the morning dawn that made me think I should give up the profession to which I was dedicated. I had an ambition to be a great physician and an aspiration to be the superintendent of an asylum for the insane or for the feebleminded. The study of human nature, its character, its temptations, its weaknesses, its divine manifestations, and its final destiny, were of deepest interest to me. Pardon this personal allusion; but it illustrates what may not be alien to your own thoughts and feelings. Then, too, let us not be deceived in talking about the feeble-minded:

Page  326 326 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES we are all feeble-minded. That remarkable man, Thoreau, who had a touch of genius, thought he would lead a life of loneliness on the shores of Walden Pond. But he was visited by all classes of men: paupers from Concord, philosophers from Boston, and all sorts.of people came to hear his unique experience. And he relates this: Among my visitors there was one unhappy creature from the poorhouse at Concord. He was accustomed to walk out across the fields on a sunny morning, and sit down with me on a log by the lake-shore; and there we talked together. Once he turned to me and said, "I know what ails me: I am feeble-minded." Thoreau said, of all the men that visited him, philosophers, Christians, statesmen, that pauper was the only man who knew what ailed him. I wish to express my sense of gratitude for this occasion. I thank you for your benignant presence here, for I read in your faces profound sympathy and deep tenderness combined with wisdom. And may I interpolate a word in behalf of California? We see here a remarkable instance of the sporadic appearance of one of the best things in the midst of some of the worst. We have in California an institution for the class of imbeciles of whom we have been speaking, with opportunities and facilities unsurpassed in any State in the Union. This is a remarkable social fact, that out of such crude conditions should have sprung so promising an institution. Dr. BYERS.-The institution in Ohio is one of the oldest and perhaps one of the best educational institutions for feeble-minded children. They do not take idiots. They do not seem to comprehend that it is the more needy, the more humble, the more dependent, the more unworthy, that need most the help which the charitable can bestow. Dr. WHITWELL.- One point has been referred to before this Conference, of which I might say a word,- the tendency toward sterility of the criminal class. The first effect on the man or woman who falls into the criminal class, their morals being debased, might be toward fertility. But we find from numerous and unquestioned instances, where this tendency has been followed through two, three, or four generations, that it is toward mental debasement and idiocy, and, as a result, sterility. Rev. J. B. Silcox, of Oakland, thought that the State should take imbecile girls and forcibly detain them. They should be protected at once, and not wait for three or four generations to pass, even if the tendency then was toward sterility. If a man is insane, the State by force takes him under charge and deprives him of his liberty. If he has committed a criminal offence, the State by force takes him under charge and' keeps him from committing crime. Surely, the harm done by the imbecile in many ways, and more especially by repeating the evil by propagation, would warrant the State in keeping him as it would an insane person or a criminal. Such a method is not only good statesmanship, but it is wise and Christian humanity. Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper, of California, said that she wanted to emphasize the value of the State School for Imbeciles. She related the

Page  327 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 327 case of a woman who came to her in distress, because, though she had a large family to support, she was tied down with an idiot child. On bringing the case before the Institution for the Feeble-minded, the child was at once accepted. The peculiar form of feeble-mindedness manifested by the child at home was malicious mischief and cruelty. It has now been brought into ways of kindness, and is quite docile; while the mother, freed from this burden, is able to care for the rest of her family, and her gratitude knows no measure. A DELEGATE said he would like to ask Mr. Wines his opinion as to the possibility of training imbecile children to become self-supporting. Mr. WINES.-A large number of imbecile children, from respectable families, are returned, when discharged from the institution, to their parents. The intense sympathy which parents feel for their defective offspring is to a certain extent a disqualification for taking proper care of them. They are apt to be too indulgent. They do not correct their faults. They do not bring them under control. And many parents, especially those who are not otherwise ignorant, do not know how they ought to be treated. They cannot train them for useful avocations about the house. But, when the child has been sent to the institution and brought under control, and its most outrageous habits have been corrected, and it has been taught to do certain things which its family did not suppose it could do, it may be returned to the family, and made a comparatively harmless and agreeable inmate. As to the placing out of children who have no proper homes to which to go, there is a small percentage of those who are trained in these schools who can be made good farm-hands and house servants of the lower grade, provided they get into the right hands after they leave the institution. If they get into the wrong hands, nothing can'be made of them. I do not think a large percentage can be made self-supporting. Dr. STEBBINS.- I understand you to mean by the term " self-supporting " able to go out and be their own guides. Mr. WINES.- No: I mean that they can earn by their labor, under direction, as much as it costs to maintain them. A few can do that; but they must always be directed. A great many can never do that, though they may contribute something toward their own support. Mr. HART, Minnesota.- We have had some experience in regard to this matter of training. We established ten years ago a training school for feeble-minded children. The idea seemed to be prevalent that a large proportion, especially of selected children, might be brought to a point where they could be self-supporting. That has run ten years; and we find, instead of their going out and being able to care for themselves, we are brought to the point of making them permanent charges, and we have opened a custodial department especially for the care of the older girls. Our observation in the poorhouses is that these feeble-minded girls grow up to be the great curse of the community. Many of them become mothers; and their children are almost always feeble-minded. It is absolutely essential that such girls should be the subjects of permanent guardianship. Not only do they

Page  328 328 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES become the mothers of children like themselves, but they become the source of great corruption, especially to the growing boys of the communities where they are. I am more and more convinced that it is the duty of the State to take custodial charge of the adult imbecile as of the chronic insane. The difference between the adult imbecile and the chronic insane, so far as practical purposes are concerned, is the difference between tweedledee and tweedledum. They need essentially the same care, and I believe that the public must provide for it. I would not advise any State to establish a school in the hope that it can reclaim any considerable number so that they can take care of themselves. That has been the experience of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Massachusetts, and of other States. From our own school we used to send the children home every summer. The number sent home has steadily diminished until this year probably not fifteen per cent. went home; and the number will grow less and less. That indicates the tendency to the accumulation of children who are to become a permanent care to the State. Dr. STEBBINS. —Is Minnesota moving in the direction of taking permanent control of them? Mr. HART.- Yes: we occupy this year for the first time a building for the older girls, and have purchased a large farm, with the expectation that it will be utilized for the boys. Dr. STEBBINS.- The economical aspect of this question is comparatively new, isn't it? Mr. HART.- I think no one knew what it was coming to. I think it would, however, be unfortunate to lose sight of the humanitarian aspect of this question. There is no more beneficent thing for the community and for parents than institutions for imbeciles. There have been many cases where mothers were practically exiled from the community because they could not go out for shame at having such a child. There is one thing that might be suggested in the way of education, especially for boys: a department might be opened to train boys for an occupation in which they might shine, to serve as jurors! In Chicago, within a few days they have had great difficulty in obtaining a jury. If the Illinois School for Feeble-minded would establish a department of this kind, they might train up a class who could be taught not to read the papers, to sit straight, look wise, and to write guilty without spelling it "gilty "! Dr. STEBBINS.- Do not for a moment misunderstand me. I would not sink the humane in the economic aspect; but since the custodial care must become permanent, and whatever useful faculty is developed must be under direction, is not the industrial side one of the most striking features? It seems to me that such custodial institutions furnish a remarkable instance of the union of economic policy and of humane sentiment. Dr. BYERS.- The institution in Ohio for the feeble-minded, as I said, is an educational institution; but we have had to keep girls, because it was unsafe to let them return to the poorhouse. Dr. Doren, the superintendent, has made the proposition to the legislature of Ohio that, if it will furnish the land, he will cultivate it with the labor

Page  329 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 329 of the boys, and will produce enough to support the institution and supply with fresh vegetables all the year all the public institutions of the State. That is an answer to those who want to know the economic phase of the question. Mr. JOHNSON.- This system not only makes these people almost self-supporting, but think of the immense saving in the next generation! That is the strongest economic argument. Each hundred dollars that we spend now will save a thousand in the next generation. The following communication from the Methodist Episcopal Church was read by the Secretary:To the National Conference of Charities and Correction: The following preamble and resolutions were passed unanimously by the California Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at its annual session at Pacific Grove, on the I6th day of September, I889:Whereas there is now in session in the city of San Francisco "The National Conference of Charities and Correction"; and Whereas it is one of the unfortunate phases of human society, especially in large cities, that the vicious, the bold, and the deceiving are ever appealing - often with success —to the benevolently inclined, while the worthy poor frequently suffer, because unable to identify themselves, or unwilling to subject themselves to the suspicion of unworthiness too often warranted by experience,- therefore, Resolved, (I) That we extend to the "National Conference of Charities and Correction" our hearty thanks for the interest they are taking in planning for the relief of the needy without encouraging the vicious; (2) That we promise such aid and co-operation in their laudable and timely efforts as our means and opportunities may warrant; (3) That a copy of these resolutions, signed by the bishop and secretary of this conference, be immediately forwarded to the "National Conference of Charities and Correction." On motion of Mr. Wines, this was referred to the Committee on Resolutions, with instructions to prepare a suitable reply. Adjourned at 12.15 P.M. FIFTEENTH SESSION. Wednesday night, September I8. The Conference met at 8 P.M., the President in the chair. In accordance with the wish of the Conference, the subject of child-saving was resumed. The first speaker was Mr. David Heap, of San Francisco; and the following is an abstract of his remarks: — Mr. HEAP. —I have the honor to be the superintendent of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, which has a large home in this city. This society has been in existence fifteen years, doing voluntarily what we think the State ought to undertake. We deal with children who ought to be in a reformatory and with defective and dependent children. The word "children" includes girls as well as boys. We

Page  330 330 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES hope, when the Whittier School is in full operation, that the work we have undertaken with reference to delinquent children will be lightened, if not done away with. Though we have not been able to separate the sexes entirely, we quite agree with the principle. Mr. Charles A. Murdock, one of our trustees, was largely instrumental in the passing by the legislature, of which he was a member, of section 1388 of the penal code, which provides that a judge may suspend judgment on any case, and commit the boy or girl to an unsectarian association, such as our Boys' and Girls' Aid Society is. Such suspension may be for as long a period as the circumstances of the case may seem to warrant. Last year, we received at the hands of police judges and judges of the superior courts II7 children, boys and girls. I cannot say from memory, but I should think about one-fourth were girls. I think I may say, whatever the construction you may put on the word, that we have saved at least 75 per cent. of those II7 delinquents; and you must remember that they were actually proved guilty of some minor offence. The city of San Francisco with great liberality provides that one of its police officers shall be told off for our special work; and that officer, generally in connection with myself, attends the police courts of this county every morning, and we try to trace for other boys and girls just what the crime is with which they are charged,- for this I17 does not by any means represent the number who are charged with crime,- and we are frequently instrumental in getting them released and sent back to their parents, by undertaking that there shall be a friendly surveillance. The so-called Industrial School has no department for girls. It makes an arrangement with the authorities of the Magdalen to take them. The city and county pay fifteen dollars a month for every girl sent there; and girls frequently remain there till they are eighteen years of age. Boys committed to us are not so dealt with. They are committed to us for a period of two months, which may be shortened or lengthened largely at our own discretion. We are allowed for every case twentyfive dollars from the city and county; and that is supposed to be for two months' board and maintenance. If we keep these children four and five months, as we frequently do, we get no further allowance from the city and county. As soon as we think they are fitted to be trusted again, either we allow them to go back to their homes, if after close scrutiny by us we think the homes are suitable places, or we send them into the country. When necessary, we get guardianship power from the probate court. That is one point on which I want to ask assistance. We greatly need some simpler form of guardianship. I want to see the time when mere committal to an institution like ours shall carry with it letters of guardianship. That is not so now; and we frequently have most bitter contests with the parents, who charge us with trying to rob them of their children. The society in its corporate capacity cannot exercise guardianship; and, if it be taken out in the name of the chief officer, the officer may change, and we have to go over the whole ground again, with the added difficulty that the child in the mean time may have become fourteen years of age, when the law allows him the privilege of nominating his own

Page  331 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 331 guardian. In the next place, parents who had consented in the first instance to our obtaining guardianship may have passed away or may have left the State, and we have to be at the trouble of tracing them. As to the best method of caring for dependent children, if any institution has a large number to care for, let it by all means be on the cottage system. We make boarding out our cardinal principle. We do not like to keep children in our house for a long period. We think that herding together a number of boys is a bad thing. We therefore find private homes for them as soon as we think they are fit to go away; and we often find families that take considerable interest in them, and we feel that this is the best way to care for them. On motion of Mr. McCulloch, it was voted that speeches should be limited to five minutes. Mr. Woodworth spoke of his confidence in the possibility of the reformation of criminals, and related several instances where men who had been prisoners had reformed and were now good and useful members of society. He referred to the Industrial School, which was "nominally a school for the reformation of boys as well as girls," and continued: We had once in charge of that school as superintendent a man who could not write his own name. It was proposed to test this; but, while the test was pending, he ran away, and has never been heard of since. I think almost every intelligent man in San Francisco who is familiar with these things will agree with me when I say that, if the place of superintendent were vacant today, and there were a number of candidates,- a lawyer, a minister, a merchant, a printer, and a saloon-keeper,- the saloon-keeper would have the best chance. That brings me to the point of what I have to say. If we are to reform men and boys, we must begin by reforming our reformatory institutions. We must reform the men who have charge of them. We must create public opinion. Until our reformatory institutions are sustained by public opinion, they will be reformatory only in name. Dr. Charles S. Hoyt, of New York, addressed the Conference on the subject, and spoke against the State assuming the care of dependent children. Rev. C. W. WENDTE, Oakland. —Some of us who are interested in the subject of dependent children would like to know what the system is of which we have heard in Pennsylvania, where dependent children are not placed in institutions at all, but are taken at once into private homes. Mr. MCCULLOCH.-The work has been done through the Children's Aid Society, which has branch agencies throughout the State. As they get hold of children from the courts, they at once place them in temporary homes till they can get permanent boarding-places for them. They have visitors who look after them. The main point is

Page  332 332 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES that the little child shall know nothing of institution life, but pass directly from its parents into some home through the intermediary of this society. Mr. Brown, of Minnesota, said that he had just visited the San Francisco Industrial School, and had come away with a better impression than he expected. Eighteen boys were at work in the field, and twelve or fifteen more were grading the grounds. The building is badly planned; and some of the rooms are very gloomy, especially the dining-room. The superintendent seems to be doing as well as he can under the circumstances. Mr. Brottlebank, of California, closed the discussion by maintaining that the State should educate orphans, when dependent, if they are deprived of both parents, and that all orphans have claims upon every Christian and benevolent heart. The Committee on Resolutions reported through the chairman, A. E. Elmore, as follows:Your Committee on Resolutions, to whom several resolutions and papers have been referred and recommitted, beg leave to report as follows: - The settled policy of the Conference is to ignore all platforms. Our fundamental law is, Hear all sides of all questions, allow the freest expression of opinion, but adopt none, as a Conference. There may be something better. Several resolutions referred to us will therefore not be reported upon at this time. Resolutions in answer to the message received this morning from the California Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church: — Resolved, That the Sixteenth National Conference of Charities and Correction assembled in San Francisco has received with pleasure and grateful appreciation the resolutions of sympathy and approval of the California Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Resolved, That this Conference is deeply sensible of the immense power for good of such a body of organized Christianity as the Methodist Episcopal Church, and highly values the pledge of aid and co-operation in the sacred cause of the poor, the distressed, and the unfortunate which the California Conference has voluntarily proffered. Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be signed by our President and Secretary, and be forwarded to the presiding officer of the Methodist Episcopal Conference. Second, the resolution commending the Governor and legislature of California for passing a law for the establishment of a reform school we approve; but there is still a difference of opinion with those best qualified to judge which system is the best, and this committee does not wish to enter into such controversy. The indi

Page  333 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 333 vidual opinion of your committee is in favor of the resolution; but we ask for its postponement. Third, we recommend that the resolution offered by Charles A. Murdock with reference to State Boards of Charities be adopted. On motion, the report of the committee was adopted. Dr. HOYT.- The Executive Committee have had under consideration the report of the Treasurer for the past year. Notice has been furnished that the vouchers have been forwarded; but they have not yet reached the committee. I move, therefore, that the matter be referred to the Executive Committee of the next Conference. Voted. A paper by Mrs. Kinne, of California, entitled "Where are the Ninety and Nine? " and one by Mrs. Ella S. Cummings, of California, on "The Care and Treatment of the Feeble-minded," were referred to the Committee on Printing, with leave to print. The report of the Committee on Legislation for the Insane was ordered printed without reading. Mr. Wines, of Illinois, offered the following resolutions of thanks, moving their adoption: — Resolved, That the thanks of the Conference are due and are hereby cordially tendered to the citizens of San Francisco for the hospitable reception given to its members, especially to the Local Committee for the admirable arrangements for their personal comfort and for the convenience and efficiency of the work of the Conference. Resolved, That we thank in particular those members of the Local Committee who met us at Port Costa, and have been so assiduous in their attendance and personal courtesies, among whom we desire to mention by name Mrs. Joseph S. Spear, Jr., the secretary of the committee; the Rev. Dr. Stebbins for his sermon to the Conference on last Sunday morning; the members of the press for their full and accurate reports of our proceedings; and the proprietors of the Occidental and Palace Hotels for many kind attentions. Resolved, That we have enjoyed every moment of our stay upon this coast, that our visit has been marred by not one unpleasant incident, and that we think we measurably appreciate the grandeur of the history and future prospects of California and of its metropolis, which impresses us as a truly metropolitan town; that the receptions so generously tendered us by the Local Committee at the Occidental Hotel, by the Century Club, by the Young Women's Christian Association, and by the ladies of the Occidental Mission Home for Chinese Women, were most enjoyable, and that we were charmed with the excursion around the bay of San Francisco, that unrivalled harbor of the world for extent and natural beauty. We have to thank the citizens of Oakland for a pleasant afternoon, including a drive about that beautiful city of homes and to the State University at Berkeley; the managers of the Mechanics' Institute for an invitation to the fair; and the Southern Pacific Railroad for the promised excursion of to-morrow to Palo Alto. Resolved, That we can render no return for all these kindnesses further than to

Page  334 334 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES express bur interest in the welfare of the city and of the State, and our hope that by co-operation of all the political, religious, and social elements of this community, their charities, including their public and private charitable and correctional institutions, may reach the highest stage of development, usefulness and efficiency, and prove models for the imitation of the world. Mr. John Glenn, of Baltimore, seconded the motion, and spoke as follows - Mr. GLENN.- Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen of California, ladies and gentlemen of the Local Committee, in rising to say a few last words, I find my own words inadequate for the purpose. It is no easy task to speak of the courteous dignity of our President, of the genial kindness of those with whom we crossed the continent to meet you, and the unwearying courtesy and the splendid hospitality with which you, ladies and gentlemen of the Local Committee, have met us. Speaking for the Maryland delegation, I can only say we came to you as strangers, we go back again feeling that we have a home upon the Pacific; and we only hope that, by accepting our invitation to meet us next year at Baltimore, you may give us the opportunity of making you feel at home in the Monumental City. In speaking for myself, I can only say that I never can forget the kindness that I have received; and I have only learned to know you well enough to make me wish soon to come back again and know you better. And now let me say the most difficult of all words, "good-by "; but let me use these words only in their best and truest sense, —in the sense in which our Saxon forefathers would have used them,-God be with you. Mr. Hart said that he took great pleasure in supporting the resolutions. The delegation from Minnesota had looked forward to the Conference with great anticipation, which had been more than realized. He had expected generosity and hospitality, but he had never seen such generosity and hospitality as had been exercised by the people of San Francisco. He had also visited the Napa Asylum for the Insane, the San Quentin Prison, and other places, and had everywhere met the same delightful courtesy. It seemed even to affect the servants everywhere. He told a story of a backwoodsman who thought the people of Boston would " sort of hats to live so far away," and closed as follows: "Since I have come to this coast, and experienced the delights of it, I almost hate to live so far away. In behalf of this Conference and in behalf of the State which I have the honor to represent, I desire to tender my most heartfelt thanks for all of the kindness which we have experienced in public and in private. We shall carry away with us memories that shall be ever green in our hearts." Mrs. Jacobs, of Colorado, said that it had given her great pleasure to meet with the Conference; and the delegates from Colorado re

Page  335 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 335 echoed the grateful words of the previous speakers. The work done by the Conference had broadened and developed all who had taken part in it. She would not say good-by, but, in the sweet old German words, would say, Auf Wiedersehen. The resolutions were'then passed unanimously by a rising vote. Addresses were made in response by Rabbi Voorsanger, Rev. C. W. Wendte, and Mr. C. A. Murdock, of which the following are abstracts: - Dr. VOORSANGER. —The Local Committee, representing the citizens of San Francisco, are deeply touched by these expressions of your kindness and what you are pleased to call your gratitude. To my own mind there occurs a little scene that I have witnessed time and again. In our old Jewish homes, it is a fond habit to eat fish on Friday night. I have seen a student of eighteen or nineteen coming to a strange place, received into a family, and invited to take the Sabbath eve meal with them. The father had made it his undisputed privilege to have the head of the fish every Friday night. It belonged to him. But the young student began to speak of the law and the beauties of that knowledge he had gained, when the little girl, who was in the habit of handing round the fish, was about to hand to her father the head, as usual. On hearing the student speak, she stood stock-still before him, and dropped the plate with the head right in front of him, saying, " To-night, it belongs to you." That is our custom in California,- the best that we have belongs to our guests. And permit me to say that I believe, if the census of the citizens of San Francisco, especially of those who have attended this Conference, were to be taken, that they would say with one voice that they have received a great deal more than they have given. The Local Committee, in making preparation for your reception, knew very well that they would meet with a number of ladies and gentlemen of established character and reputation, who were to come here for deliberation and the discussion of weighty affairs; but perhaps few of us realized the great extent of your work or of your benign influence upon us. Few of us were aware of the great fact that you would read the horoscope of our own usefulness, and teach us ideas by which in the future we may be able to work with more light than we have heretofore. The old Latin poet says that words going from our lips are like the wavelets of a river that speed on their way never to return. I do not like to think so in the present instance. I think that the words spoken in this hall, bearing on the great work of humanity, will somehow linger in the hearts of Californians, and in proper time will materialize into great and abiding blessings for our own people. And now, in thinking of a word of blessing and farewell to the friends who have been with us, and whom we have delighted to honor, perhaps I can do it best by culling one of the pearls of Oriental literature and applying it as best I can. In an old book that we study fondly and with reverence there is

Page  336 336 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES an anecdote of an old rabbi who, in traversing the country from one city to another, was required to pass through a desert. Beneath his feet was the blistering sand, above him the cloudless sky; and the rays of the sun fell with scorching heat upon his head. And there was within his reach neither food to satisfy his hunger nor water to quench his thirst. Nor was there shade beneath which he could repose and rest. And, while making his appeal to that benign Providence that holds humanity in the hollow of its hand, he espied not far away a date-tree bearing luscious fruit; and by its side a pool of cool, fresh water, giving him food for his hunger, water for his thirst, and shade for his bent, tired body beneath the leaves of the date-tree. After he had been fed and his thirst was quenched, he extended his arms in benediction, and said: 0 tree! O tree! how shall I bless thee? Shall I ask Heaven to give thee more shade? Shall I ask that thy fruit may be more luscious and more rich? or that the water by thy side shall be clearer and still more refreshing? Nay: I shall ask God that from thee may come forth branches that shall bear just as good fruit, that in future time may bless the weary traveller as thou hast blessed me. So from this National Conference, in its journeyings from city to city, may there come forth associations of like character, imbued with the same spirit, blessed by the same brave and bold courage to speak truth and bless the land, in its cities, its hamlets, in its valleys and on its mountains, so that sorrow and trouble may be chased beyond the confines of the land, and peace and happiness be hailed as kings. We were glad of your presence, and we pray the All-Father that you may return to your homes in peace and find your dear ones happy, and that the future may bring you increased measure of usefulness. God bless you and good-by. Mr. WENDTE.- Mr. Chairman and friends, the rabbi's story of the Friday night fish reminds me of another. One of our local magnates was entertaining friends from afar, and he thought the best thing to set upon the table was a gigantic salmon, weighing about twenty'pounds. Shortly after it was sent home, a neighbor, with kindly intent, sent a still larger fish, weighing some sixty pounds. What to do with this abundance of riches he did not know; but his steward was equal to the occasion. When the guests were gathered round the board, and the soup had been served, the servant brought in a magnificent fish. The guests were delighted, and exclamations of surprise were heard. But just as it reached the head of the table the servant stumbled, and the fish slipped to the floor. "Bring on another," cried the steward; and presently a still larger salmon appeared, much to the amazement of the guests..Our worthy rabbi is the enticing soup, I am the small salmon which is about to slip to the floor, and the still larger fish of the feast is yet to come. I find myself suddenly and unexpectedly called on; but he must be dull of imagination and sympathy who cannot find in his heart some words of appreciation and gratitude for this occasion. We feel abundantly enriched by your counsel and your sympathy. You have quickened our faith in this divine business of redeeming humanity

Page  337 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 337 through the power of human love. Your words and counsels, believe me, will linger after you have gone, to strengthen us in our work, which sometimes seems so discouraging and hard, and to give us new hope that in good time our virgin State shall take its rightful place by your side in this great work of saving and blessing the world. We are a very young community. Only- forty years ago where you are now gathered was a wind-swept wilderness. That huddle of houses by the seashore has grown into a city of four hundred thousand people. In philanthropy and reform we have made a good beginning. We have genuine impulses, and our faces are set in the right direction. Aided by your counsel and example, we shall do yet nobler work in caring for the unfortunate and in redeeming humanity through the power of a mighty faith and a mighty love. Farewell till we meet again, or, as our friend from Colorado said, Auf Wiedersehen. Mr. C. A. Murdock was called on for a speech. He responded in a few words, saying that it had been rather embarrassing to hear so much said about gratitude; and he promised the Conference that, when it came again to California, San Francisco would do something that it might really be proud of. You remember, said he, the circumstances under which you came here. It was not a very cordial invitation on our part. We could not make it so without seeming to reflect upon the other end of the State, which we did not want to do. But, when you decided to come, we put our shoulders to the wheel and did what we could. At first there was very little interest; and we realized how few there would be to do the real work, and we were almost discouraged. But I shall take the lesson to heart, that I need not be discouraged by small beginnings, if a few people decide that a thing can go through. I have been pleased to see the increasing interest, as shown in the large audiences. I have gained so many new ideas on so many new subjects that I shall never forget this Conference. It will have a far-reaching influence in this city and this State. Good-by. Dr. STEBBINS.- I will not deny that we are gratified at the resolutions you have adopted. We have humility enough to desire your applause and your approval. I always take it to be a sign of humility to desire to be well thought of by one's fellows; and we here in California, though accustomed to speak well of ourselves, and quite inclined to boast ourselves when we are here alone, are yet gratified to have strangers come from abroad and speak well of us. I thank you, in the name of the Local Committee and in the name of our citizens, for the resolutions which you have passed. You have come here, ladies and gentlemen, travelling over areas of space which would have astonished our fathers. You have come at large expense to men and women of moderate means. You have come with unselfish purpose, with no desire for personal benefits or personal welfare beyond the highest satisfaction that can come to the hearts of wise men, the consciousness of disinterested motives. You have brought to us the results of your experience in older communities than ours. You have given that experience with great simplicity and complete

Page  338 338 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES liberality. For myself, I acknowledge my debt to you; and I am only sorry that I have not been at liberty to meet more of you personally. Let me speak to you just as I feel. As I have sat and looked at your faces, I have said to myself that I saw there a light reflected from above, a look of benevolence, of wisdom, of chastened experience. And, amid all these sorrowful themes that you have discussed, I have seen the play of wit and mirth and fancy such as only truly good men can enjoy. Let me speak of one of your number as he has impressed me, your friend and companion from Baltimore. You have noticed that, as he has walked to and fro in this hall, a young man of gentle manners has put his own hand in the older man's arm and guided him. If the light of day is quenched upon his eyes, we surely have seen and we know that the light within shines with exceeding beauty. And now, ladies and gentlemen, you go from us. When I part with my friends, I like to go with a strong heart, and I like that tears of gratitude and gladness should mingle in one cup. Go, go, ye bearers of truth; go to your homes consecrated by pure affections, to the places which enjoy your benignant labors. Go to the circles of daily duty and life; but, wherever you go, remember, and we will remember, though we are separated by mountains and rivers, that those who think the same thoughts, who are swayed by the same great affections and by the same great motives, cannot be far apart. Bishop GILLESPIE.- It becomes me to utter the last words this evening, except the words of greeting from the incoming President. I wish to preface my remarks with the confession that I was opposed to coming to California. I thought of the long journey, of the great expense, which I knew many would be unable to bear. I thought of September as being an unfortunate time for business men. I thought of San Francisco as a busy city, that might not pause to consider matters of charity and correction. It might give this body of men and women an opportunity to transact business, with all the privileges they needed; but would the people concern themselves further about the Conference? So I acknowledge that I sent a telegram to the Executive Committee, which was to the effect, "Do not go to California." And now I stand here to-night to say that I think, if my advice\had been followed, a great mistake would have been made. Much has been said of the benefit of this Conference to you; but we, too, have received great benefit. We have seen new phases of charity. We have learned very much, and we are all the better qualified to take part in. the proceedings of future conventions because we have been here and have heard from you for these few days. Then we have been benefited by the hours of night that we have spent in that wretched part of your city, the Chinese Quarter. We shall understand better the Chinese question, when in our papers we shall find this subject discussed. The benefit of this Conference to you is even more than you think. You may or you may not get your State Board of Charities,- I sincerely hope you will,- but it cannot but be that a new impulse has been given to the cause of charities and correction.

Page  339 MINUTES AND DISCUSSIONS 339 It has been my honor to preside over this Conference. I want to emphasize the word honor, because there has been no work in it. The arrangement is so admirable that puts the chairman of each committee in charge when that committee reports that I have had only the honor, and not the work. When I shall pass away, my record will not only be ecclesiastical, but will remain in connection with this Conference. I rejoice in the union. I am proud of both relations. There is only one thing I have to reject; and that is the sympathy that you have bestowed on me, saying, "You must be very tired." I know that age indicates weariness; but, ladies and gentlemen, you have kept me too busy, by your many attentions, to be tired. I have not even been tired enough to go to sleep. As to the hospitalities we have received,-if we were conscious at first that we were far from home, from the moment we reached those excellent hotels and met your committees it was all gone. I told the Conference, when it-elected me its President, that they had made a wretched selection for a presiding officer, as I had a bad habit of forgetting names. But I have done admirably well in remembering your faces and names, because your kindness has so impressed them on me. I live in a little city in Michigan; and, should any of you ever be there, I beg you to inquire for the Michigan bishop who presided over the National Conference of Charities and Correction when it met in California, and I will not forget you. I shall not be able to offer you any of the large fruit that you have so liberally placed before us; but I will give you just the heartiest welcome in the world. It now becomes me to introduce to you the new President, so admirably adapted to fill this chair that I feel as if I ought to apologize for having preceded him in the list of Presidents. My dear friend, Dr. Byers, when you saw a basket of roses presented to me at the banquet the other evening, you may have been a little envious. The roses are faded, but the memory shall not fade; and I wish for you that, when you enter upon this office, you, too, may be greeted with a shower of roses. Dr. A.' G. BYERS.- Ladies and gentlemen, I would like, if I could find words to express the sense of obligation, to bear additional testimony to the gracious and generous entertainment afforded this Conference from the beginning until this final hour by our San Francisco friends. Your presence at every session has contributed to make up an audience which of itself has given peculiar interest to the Conference. Your intelligent participation in the various discussions of social topics, your interest in the subjects relating to the organization of public and private charities, have been so in keeping with your social hospitality that perhaps nothing more can be said. No one here feels disposed to flatter. No one here can be insensible to the favors with which the members of this Conference have been received and entertained during its sessions. It will always be a pleasant recollection to those who have shared your hospitality and witnessed your zeal and good works.

Page  340 340 SIXTEENTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES To the members of the Conference generally, I wish to express my sense of personal obligation for the honor you have conferred upon me by my election to the presidency of the Conference for the ensuing year. I would be glad if I could summon to my aid some rugged words, terse and strong, by which I might express my appreciation of the honor thus conferred. The words usually employed on occasions of the kind are worn so smooth by constant use and repetition that they cannot adequately express the feeling that comes to me now. To be the President of the National Conference of Charities and Correction is an honor indeed. To be associated with people who from disinterested motives are seeking to promote the higher interests of humanity by affording protection to the weak, relief to the destitute, comfort and cure for the sick and sorrowing,-to preside over the deliberations of those who meet to confer in regard to practical methods in philanthropic work,- is, I repeat, an honor indeed. I shall make no further attempt to characterize the people constituting the Conference: this has been done so faithfully and well by Dr. Stebbins, in his brief but eloquent portraiture of the Conference, that nothing need be added. What a photograph he made! How striking the likeness! We each of us recognize it at once, and, for one, I wish to thank Dr. Stebbins; for, without claiming the likeness, I may truthfully say it is the best picture I have ever had taken. I allude to it as indicating the honor that one must feel when called upon to preside oven such an association. It is a further honor to be the successor of my good friend, Bishop Gillespie, with whom for many years I have been associated in the work of this Conference. Holding as he does high ecclesiastical position, working as we have known him to do in the forefront of social and moral reform, he has with us be