A Jina is encircled by a giant halo of ref, green, blue, gold, and white. Within the halo are different creatures, including a tiger, bird, naga, and devotees. The Jina sits nude on a throne with his legs crossed and hands together. Above him are clouds in the sky, and below a monk and devotees.
This is an illustration in a Digambara Jain manuscript of verse 34 of the Bhaktamara Stotra.
This verse praises the glorious halo that surrounds the Jina on his Enlightenment. The presence of the halo is one of the eight pr?tih?rya or so-called miraculous manifestations that accompany the Jina after his Enlightenment. Here the verse describes how the Jina’s halo of light puts to shame all the heavenly bodies. Greater than a multitude of suns, it is also gentler than the moon at night. The poet means to say that the light of the Jina’s halo is comforting not burning, something that is said in Sanskrit poetry of the light of the moon. At the same time, the light of the Jina is as brilliant as the light of countless suns. And by this seeming paradox the poet tells us that the light of the Jina’s halo is not of this world. The halo with its concentric circles also suggests the miraculous preaching assembly, which in turn alerts us to the marvelous appearance of the halo. Like the preaching assembly it is filled with beings of different realms of rebirth: humans, animals, and gods. The small crowned figure at the bottom worshipping the Jina is probably the god Indra.
Eight worshippers sit to the right of a sky-clad (nude) Jina and monk. They each raise beads in their hands. Below them a struggle is depicted. Two men in shorts wrestle, while a snake, tiger, and elephant rera up beside a fire.
In the Jain religion, book production reflects the integral relationship among the laity, monastic community, and the Jina, or enlightened Jain teacher. The dedication of sacred books for shrines is required of devotees, and while commissioning a book fulfills the lay obligation of charity, beholding a book helps the individual achieve the proper mental state for spiritual guidance. It was customary for a lay donor to commission a copy of a text for presentation to his spiritual teacher and ultimately to the temple library.
This watercolor depicts a group of three children, three adult females, two adult males, and one small dog. An adult male plays a string instrument on the far left side, and an adult female sits on the lower right side; the rest stand. All the figures wear vividly colored clothes.
This drawing depicts a fresco executed by Giovanni Battista Pozzo (c. 1563-1591) for the Peretti Chapel, Santa Susanna, Rome. The scene is the conversion of St. Genesius, a third-century actor who was about to perform a play ridiculing the rite of baptism. He saw a vision during his performance of angels holding a book with his sins and Genesius converted on the spot.
It has been suggested by Szilvia Bodnár that this drawing, and another drawing showing this composition in the collection of the Albertina, predate the final fresco, which is in a horizontal format while the two drawings are portrait format.
A portrait of Victor Hugo. It is a profile image with his head turned to the right side. He has a long shaggy beard and a collared shirt.
This is a portrait of the famous Romantic poet, novelist and dramatist Victor Hugo. The French writer is known for the novels Les Misérables (1862) and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831). Here Rodin, shows him in three quarter view. This, the sixth state, is part of a series of works with different compositions that the sculptor made. This version was published in the illustrated review "Les Lettres et les Arts" (Sept. 1889) and was featured in Gustave Geffroy's "Le Statuaire Rodin."
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27.94 x 35.56 cm (11 x 14 in.)
Children outside playing, a girl in front is wearing a clown costume and has a painted face.
A nude monk on the top left sits before a Jina at top right. Three Hindu gods, Harihara, Garuda, and Nandi venerate the Jina in the bottom registers.
A book like this would have been comissioned by a lay devotee to illustrate canonical Jain texts as well as demonstrate peity. Texts like these would have been used for meditation and monastic education.