Help with help: In frames-capable browsers this help page is in a separate window. If you can't find MOA, it's probably in a window right behind this one.


Tips for beginners:

There a few things you might want to remember to help making using the features of MOA easier.

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Difference between search and browse



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Searching: what type of search to choose

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Searching: narrowing your search

On any advanced search you can narrow your search by restricting by date or type of text.

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Searching: simple searches

A simple search is quick and easy. Enter a word or phrase including an author's name; the search looks for it anywhere in any of our texts. You can specify whether you would like to look in just books, just journal articles, or both.

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Advanced searching: Bibliographic searches

Bibliographic searches are useful for quickly locating items with a known title or author. You may also search using a known subject heading or for a keyword anywhere in the bibliographic citation .

For example:

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Advanced searching: Boolean searches

Boolean searching allows you to combine up to four search terms.

For example:

Same page or work option

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Precedence of Boolean Operators

Boolean expressions are operated on from left to right. This means that you will need to take some care in formulating your search.

For example:You wish to find any texts that mention the word mother AND either the words honor OR duty.

Your search should be formulated as: honor OR duty AND mother.

Understanding the results:

If you had formulated your search as mother AND honor OR duty you would have gotten a very different set of results. Why? Help topics

Advanced searching: frequency searches

Frequency searching allows you to specify the number of times a search term appears in a given work

For example: if you want only those texts in MOA in which the terms "agriculture" appears at least 15 times (thus increasing the chances that the work is really about agriculture and doesn't just mention it in passing) enter 15 in the text box. Then press the submit button. You will get back a list of items that contain the word "agriculture" at least 15 times.

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Advanced searching: proximity searches

Proximity searching looks for the co-occurrence of search terms.

For example:

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Advanced searching: index searching

Index searching allows you to look through lists by Author, Title, or Subject.

To do an index search,:

  1. select a category from the pull-down menu
  2. enter the desired author's last name, title, subject heading or a portion thereof in the adjacent box
  3. submit your terms to the database by clicking the "search" button
  4. The database will return a list of names, titles, or subjects that fall within range of your index term(s). The author's name, title,or subject that most closely matches your search will be highlighted. You may have to scroll to find it.
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Searching: understanding results

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Browsing: browse the journals

You may look through the journals by individual journal title. The browse page offers you a list of the 8 titles available in the University of Michigan MOA.

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Browsing: the bibliography

You can also browse through a bibliography of journal articles and and books (organized alphabetically by author's last name or by title if there is no author).

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Processed texts vs page images

The UM MOA resources have been encoded in a simple SGML form (a 40 element DTD conforming to the TEI Guidelines); consequently, we are able to seamlessly integrate both automatically processed (i.e., "raw") texts, and texts whose OCR and encoding is carefully evaluated (i.e., "cooked" texts). Users who encounter a "cooked" text will find attractively rendered HTML with links to page images, while "raw" texts are presented as page images until resources can be found to improve them.

Many users have asked if they can have access to the plain, uncorrected OCR text. We believe that in most cases people will still want to look at the page images of the books and journals, but have decided to make the text available to users so thet can save it, cut and paste, and to use the "find" feature on their Web browsers to locate a word on a page. We think that this will be of benefit to our users. Before deciding if you want to retrieve the plain text, you may want to consider some examples.

If you want to view the plain text, there are a couple of tools to do so:

For books and journal articles: page by page viewing. Go to the desired page and choose "view as text" from the view as menu in the toolbar at the top. You will be able to page through the text until you choose another "view as" option (such as 75% or thumbnail).

For books: You may choose to view an entire book in plain text. When you click on the download link, you will be presented with a dialog box that gives you the option of saving the file. Save the file to your computer; you will then be able to open it in your browser or a word processor. Please be aware that some of these texts are as long as 1,000 pages and will take a long time to download, particularly over a modem. Such a large download may also crash your Web browser. Also, please note that for an entire text the plain text is not broken up or formatted by page -- it is one big block of text.

Migration from "raw" to "cooked" takes place gradually, based on the availability of resources and specific demands. The Humanities Text Initiative, a part of the Digital Library Production Services at the UM, will undertake the process of proofing OCR and refining markup based on user demand.

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Bibliographic citations:

The bibliographic citations for books are similar to standard library catalog record, but have the advantages of hypertext including:

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Navigating and viewing a text

When you begin to view an article or book, you will also see a separate navigation frame at the top of your browser that looks like this (without the number labels).

An image of the navigation bar.  Contents listed below.


This is what the various parts mean

  1. Previous page: Click on this icon. It goes to the previous page of the text.
  2. Page #: indicates the number of the page you are viewing and the total number of pages in the text
  3. Next page: Click on this icon. It goes to the next page of the text.
  4. View as: sets the size of the image you are viewing. If you have a smaller monitor you might want to choose a low percentage. "View as" is a button and must be clicked on to activate a size change. The percentages are in a pull down menu. The size you choose will stay in effect until you change it or end your session. Other options on this menu include:
  5. Go to page #: Jumps to a desired page that you enter in the box. Especially handy for moving from a table of contents to a section of a book or journal. "Go to page #" is a button and must be clicked on to jump to the desired page.
  6. Go to: jumps to special purpose pages such as title pages, tables of contents, and lists of illustrations. "Go to" is a button and must be clicked on to jump to the desired page. The special pages are listed in a pull down menu. Not all texts will contain the same choices.
  7. Navigation links: Links to other parts of the MOA.
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Printing a text

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