The warfare of science.: By Andrew Dickson White.
White, Andrew Dickson, 1832-1918.


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Page  5 PREFATORY NOTE. Is its earlier abridged form this address was given as a Phi Beta Kappa oration at Brown University, and, as a lecture, at New York, Boston, New Haven, Ann Arbor, and elsewhere. In that form, substantially, it was published in THE POPuLAR ScIENCE MONTHLY. I have now given it careful revision, correcting some errors, and extending it largely by presenting new facts and developing various points of interest in the general discussion. Among the subjects added or rewrought are: in Astronomy, the struggle of Galileo and the retreat of the Church after its victory; in Chemistry and Physics, the compromise between Science and Theology made by Thomas Aquinas, and the unfortunate route taken by Science in consequence; in Anatomy and Medicine, the earlier growth of

Page  6 PREFA CE. ecclesiastical distrust of these sciences; in Scieintific Education, the dealings of various European universities with scientific studies; in Political and Social Science, a more complete statement of the opposition of the Church, on Scriptural grounds, to the taking of interest for money; and, in the conclusion, a more careful summing up. If I have seemed to encumber the text with notes, it has been in the intention to leave no important assertion unsupported; and in the hope that others -less engrossed with administrative care than myself-may find in them indications for more extended studies in various parts of the struggle which I have but sketched. A. D. W. CORNELL UNIVERSITY, March, 1876. 6

Page  7 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. I PURPOSE to present an outline of the great, sacred struggle for the liberty of science-a struggle which has lasted for so many centuries, and which yet continues. A hard contest it has been; a war waged longer, with battles fiercer, with sieges more persistent, with strategy more shrewd than in any of the comparatively transient warfare of Coesar or Napoleon or Moltke. I shall ask you to go with me through some of the most protracted sieges, and over some of the hardest-fought battle-fields of this war. We will look well at the combatants; we will listen to the battle-cries; we will note the strategy of leaders, the cut and thrust of champions, the weight of missiles, the temper of weapons; we will look also at the truces and treaties and note the delusive impotency of all compromises in which the warriors for scientific truth have consented to receive direc

Page  8 8 THE WARFARE 0F SCIEXCE. tion or bias from the best of men uninspired by the scientific spirit, or unfamiliar witl scientific nethods. My thesis, which, by an historical stL dy of this warfare, I expect to develop, is the following: In all modern history, interference with science in the supposed interest of religion, no matter how conscientious such interference may have been, has resulted in the direst evils both to religion and to science-and invariably. And, on the other hand, all untrammeled scientifjc investigation, no matter how dangerous to religion some of its stages may have seemed, for the time, to be, has invariably resulted in the highest good of religion and of science. I say " invariably." I mean exactly that. It is a rule to which history shows not one exception. It would seem, logically, that this statement cannot be gainsaid. God's truths must agree, whether discovered by looking within upon the soul, or without upon the world. A truth written upon the human heart to-day, in its full play of emotions or passions, cannot be at any real variance even with a truth written upon a fossil whose poor life ebbed forth millions of years ago. This being so, it would also seem a truth irrefragable, that the search for each of these kinds of truth must be followed out on its own lines, by its own methods, to its own results, without any interference from investigators on other lines, or

Page  9 'EGI,iNILVG OF THE STRUGGLE. 1)y other methods. And it would also seem logidial to work on in absolute confidence that whatever, at any moment, may seem to be the relative positions of the two different bands of worklers, they nmust at last come together, for Truth is one. But logic is not history. History is full of inter- ferenees which have cost the earth dear. Strangest of all, some of the direst of them have been made by the best of men, actuated by the purest motives, and seeking the noblest results. These interferences, and the struggle against themn, mnake up the warfare of science. One statement more, to clear the ground. You will not understand me at all to say that religion has done nothing for science. It has done much for it. The wvork of Christianity has been mighty indeed. Through these two thousand years, despite the waste of its energies on all the things its Blessed Founder most earnestly condemned-on fetich and subtlety and war and pomp-it has ul(dermined servitude, mitigated tyranny, given hope to the hopeless, comfort to the afflicted, light to the blind, bread to the starving, joy to the dying, and this work continues. And its work for science, too, has been great. It has fostered science often. Nay, it has nourished that feeling of self-sacrifice for human good, which has nerved some of the bravest men for these battles. Unfortunately, a devoted army of good mnen 9

Page  10 10 TIlE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. started centuries ago with the idea that inidependent scientific investigation is unsafe-that theology must intervene to superintend its methods, and the Biblical record, as an historical compendium and scientific treatise, be taken as a standard to deterinie its results. So began this great modern war. GEOGRAPItY. The first typical battle-field to which I would refer is that of Geography-the simplest elementary doctrine of the earth's shape and surface. Among the legacies of thought left by the ancient world to the modern, were certain ideas of the rotundity of the earth. These ideas were vague; they were mixed with absurdities; but they were germ i(leas, and, after the barbarian storm which ushered ill the moderm world had begun to clear away, these germ ideas began to bud and bloom in the minds of a few thinking men, and these men hazarded the suggestion that the earth is roundis a globe.' 1 Moost fruitful among these were those given by Plato in the Titrn(ets. See, also, Grote on Plato's doctrine of the rotundity of the earth. Also Sir G. C. Lewis's Astronomy of the Ancients, London, 1862, chap. iii., sec. i. and note. Cicero's mention of the antipodes and reference to the passage in the Timinus are even more remarkable than the original, in that they much more clearly foreshadow the modern doctrine. See Academic Questions, ii., xxxix. Also, T:tsc. Quest., i., xxviii., and v., xxiv.

Page  11 GEOGRAPHY. The greatest and most earnest men of the time took fright at once. To them, the idea of the earthl's rotundity seemed fraught with dangers to Scripture: by which, of course, they meant theiri inteTpectation of Scripture. Among the first who took up arms against the new thiinkers was Eusebius. lie endeavored to turn off these ideas by bringing science into contempt, and by making the innovators understand that he and the fathers of the Church despised all such inquiries. Speaking of the innovations in physical science, hlie said: "It is not throiugh ignorance of the things admired by them, )buLt through contempt of their useless labor, that we thinkl little of these matters, turning our souls to better things." 1 Laetautius asserted the ideas of those studying astronomy to be "mad and senseless." 2 See Eitse~ius, Prep. Ev., xv., 61. 'ee lactazn(ius, Iltst., 1., iii., chap. 3. Also, citations in lT'Vliecll, Hist. 1Itdisct. Sciences, Lond., 1857, vol. i., p. 194. To understand the embarrassment thus caused to scientific men at a later period, see Letter of _-Ag-icola to Joaclmiizuts <oadianuis in 1514. Agricola asks Vadianus to give his views regarding the antipodes, saying that he himself does not know what to do, between the Fathers on one side and learned men of modern times on the other. On the other hand, for the embarrassment caused to the Church )by this mistaken zeal of the Fathers, see Kepler's references and Fromund's replies; also De Jforean, Paaedoxes, p. 58. Kepler appears to have taken great delight in throwing the views of Lactantius into the teeth of his adversaries. 11

Page  12 THB WARFARE OF 3CIB.CE. But the attempt to " flank" the little phalansof thinkers did not ncu d, of oourse. Even -snet nen a Lactantius and Esebius cannot pooh-poo down a new scientific idea. The little band' thinkers went on, and the doctrine of the rotun. dity of the earth naturally led to the considermtion Of tie tenants of the earth's surface, and another germ idea was warmed into lifc the idea of tl existence f.,.the antipodes, the idea of the. exi' ence of countries and men on the hemisphere' posite to ours.' " At this the war-sprit waxed hot. Those grei and good men determined to fight. To' all 6 them such doctrines seemed dangerous; to mort of them they seemed damnable. St. Basil and St. Ambrose: were tolerant enougli to allow that a rans might be saved who believed the earth to be round, and inhabited on its opposite sides; but the great majority of the Fathers of the Church ' Anot&'r yrn ide, etc See Ptao, Tim,r 62 C., Jowet~ translatio, ~ Y. ed. Also1 Po, pp. 449, /. Also 4' .oaademndc e-' and WU For cilati and summarie sft, lse fI,. Ind. v&i o, oL L, p. 189, and M it. &.i H de la Gg., Pris, 1873, pl 96. Also prdi, & opragli c, i, i pvaari Hi anfioai, ]renze, I dp. f, p.184, eq.1 4 "' lr opinon ot Basil, Aubroe, and othe rs, ee Lm. ~ / ~ it i Bum, New York, 187;, oL, p79, U A,. Ic Atn R de Dea Not4da, Wvr, 18M

Page  13 GEOGRAPfY. Bttely denied the possibility of salvation to such iisbelievers - ;. Ttantius asks: a... Is there any One so80 inseles as to believe that there are men whose footsteps are higher than their heads -that the erops and treo grow-downward?-that the m[in, and snow and hail fall upward toward the earth I t4.. But if you inquire from thoe who defend thee marvelous fictions, why all things do not fall ibt that lower part of the heaven, they reply that such is the nature of things that heavy bodies are bore toward the middle, like the spokes of a wheel; while lght bodies, such as clouds, smoke, and flire, tend from the centre toward the heavens on all sides. Now, I am at loss what to say of those who, when they have once erred, steadily persevere in their folly, and defend one vain thing by another."1 St Auo,stine seems inclined'to yield a little in regard to the rotundity of the earth, but he fights the idea that men exist on the other side of the !'OeL sayig that " Scripture speaks of no such doe 'xudants of Adam." But this did not avail to check the ides. What may called the flank movement, as represented by Eusebius, had failed. The direct battle given y Ictantins, Augustine, and other, had failed; 6i -xth- cntry, therefore, the opponents of one new He built a great fortress and retired 13

Page  14 14 2HGE WARFARE OF SCIEENCE. into that. It was well built and well braced. It was nothing less than a complete theory of th,: world, based upon the literal interpretation o:' texts of Scripture, and its author was Cosma Indicopleustes.' According to Cosmas, the earth is a parallelo gram, flat, and surrounded by four great seas.. the outer edges of these seas rise immense wa closing in the whole structure. These walls su port the vault of the heavens, whose edges ax cemented to the walls; walls and vault shut in tI earth and all the heavenly bodies. The whole o this theologic, scientific fortress was built mot carefully, and, as was then thought, most script urally. Starting with the expression, To a'ytov lKOo'tO'o applied in the ninth chapter of Hebrews to thf tabernacle in the desert, he insists, with other in terpreters of his time, that it gives a key to th( whole construction of the world. The universe is For Lactantius, see Instit., iii., 24, translation in the Ante. Nicene Library; also, citations in Whewell, i., 196, and in St., Ma tin, Histoire de la Geographie, pp. 216, 217. For St. AuguStine'; opinion, see the Civ. D)., xvi., 9, where this great Father of the Church shows that the existence of the antipodes "nulla ration( credendum est." Also, citations in Buckle's Posthumous WIorks. vol. ii., p. 645. For a notice of the views of Cosmas in connectionr with those of Lactantius, Augustine, St. John Chrysostom, anc others, see Sohoell, Histoire de la Littgrature Grecque, vol vii., pp. 37, et seq. i'

Page  15 GEOGRAPHY. therefore, made on the plan of the Jewish Taber nacle-box-like and oblong. Coming to details, he quotes those grand words of Isaiah, "It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth,... that stretcheth out the heavens like a curtain, and spreadeth them out like a tent to dwell in," 1 and the passage in Job, which speaks of the "'pillars of heaven." Il e turns all that splendid and precious poetry into a prosaic statement, and athr therefr(rn)m, as lie thinks, tre-as.res for science. This vast box is then divided into two compartments, one above the other. In the first of these, men live and sta'rs move; and it extends up to the first solid vault or firiinu-aent, where live the angels. ait J1 part of whose business it is to push and pull the sun and planets to and fro. Next he takes the text, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters," 3 and other texts from Genesis. To these he adds the text from the Psalms, "Praise him, ye heaven of heavens, and ye waters tliat ], above the Iteavens," 4casts that outburst of poetry nto his crucible with the other texts, and, after '-bjecting them to sundry peculiar processes, brings c lt the theory that over this first vault is a vast ciStern containing the waters. He then takes the 1 Isaiah xl. 22. 3 Genesis i. 6. 2 Job xxvi. 11. 4 Psalm cxlviii. 4. 14 15

Page  16 16' THE WARFARE 0F SCIENCE. expression in Genesis regarding the " windows of lheav-en,"~ axl:! est:.A!Qli:',,.,1,'~.,?trinlc reaarding the' heaven,",ii~. tlc regtllation of the.;til. Y:!ic't i afterward supple ientie( t)3-e tle (:,tlin tti thie ang,els not only, plill ani pitL! t], 1.:vcnly l)(cdies, to lioht the eaithi, bit also (,pen and close t Al v windows of" heaven to water it. To find the character of the surface of the earth, Cosmnias st udies t}e tf!le of shew-b-read ir the Talbernac(le. Thec dW nion-s of that taitu i :I-c to, -liizi t]iat the ertth is fiat and t-iet a(va lon' t.-1 1l,,.,(ad 1 the four tcll f'te.rl of thle tal)le s5 l bolize thie ftir seasons. To aeeolint for thle nmove ment of the sun, Cosnlas sffgests thiat at the noirt t of the earth is a great moiuntain, and thliat, at night, the suin is carried behind this; buit some of the comimeintators venittired to express a (1)iubt here they tio?lit tlhat tllc s il-t ws 1l)she istc, lt a g.reat pit it ni,hit. and,. wa,It':' I'..t iii tlh:mrtin,.; Notlinig cani le more touchiing in its sinmpi't' than'-,!)}1ff of his great a'inment. ie. b)nrsts forth in raptiures, declaring thiat 3Ioses, th prophets, evangelists, and apostles, agree to t+h(truth of his doctrine.2 Genesis vii. 11. 2 See Jfontfaeucon, Collectio Arova Patrun, Paris, 1706()', t. p. 188SS; also pp. 298, 299. The text is illustrated with engraving showing walls and solid vault (firmament), with the whole app,'. ratus of "fountains of the great deep," "windows of heaven,

Page  17 GEOGRAPEY.r Such was the fortress )built agtaiist human sciCull,e ii tilt ixtil ccilttuly, )v C(Osiltias aiid it stood. Tie inniovators attacked it in vaiin. The greatest mli ds in the Church devoted themselves to buttrcssiug it with new texts, and throwing out new outworks of theologic reasoiin.,. It:to,l:(i f11 for iNw-, It'tL'cl.eto'. wlhen1 a bisltop.) —.. ",tIi,h of alzbur'-aisscrt hi~ jeiitLf in the existence of the aintt,i' "s. It happened that there then stood in Germany, ill the first years of the eighth century, one of tlhe greatest and noblest of nien-St. Boniface. His learning was of the best then known; in labors he was a worthy successor to the apostles; his genius for Chlristian work made hih, unwillingly, Primate of Ger-ilany; his devotion afterward led him, willingly, t tit,rtyrdon. There sat, too, at that time, on the i t(ll th t, grett Chlristian statesmanPp-)e Zachairy. Boniface hninediatcly dlec]arse agaiinst tile2 revivtl of such a teiriil he esy ais the existenre of the antipodes. lie declares that it amounts to the declaration that there are men oIt angels, and the mountain behind which the sun is drawn. For an timperfect re(luction of one of them, see article lfaps in KJtig,t's 1)ictiona',, of' I~chanics, New York, 1875. For still another theory, very droll, and thought out on similar principles, see Mungo Park, cited in De Vorygan, Paradloxes, 309. For Cosmas's joyful summinil g up, see ~llontfaucon, Collhctio ZVova P-atrut, vol. ii., p. 255. 17

Page  18 iS THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. the earth beyond the reach of the means of salvation; he attacks Virgilins; he calls on Zachary for aid; effective measures are taken, and we hear no more of Virgilins or his doctrine. Six hundred years pass awvay, and in the fourteenth century two men publicly assert the doctrine. The first of these, Peter of Abano, escapes punishment by natural death; the second, known as Cecco d'Ascoli, a man of seventy years, is burned alive. Nor was that all the punishment: that great painter, Orcagna, whose terrible works you may see on the walls of the Campo Santa at Pisa, immortalized Cecco by representing, him in the flames of hell.' Still the idea lived and moved, and a hundred years later we find the theologian Tostatus pro I Virgil of Salzburg. See Neander's Hlistory of the Christian Chutrch, Torrey's translation, vol. iii., p. 63. Since Bayle, there has been much loose writing about Virgil's case. See Whewe:7, p. 197; but for best choice of authorities and most careful winnowing out of conclusions, see De Moryan, pp. 24-26. For very full notes as to pagan and Christian advocates of doctrine of rotundity of the earth and of antipodes, and for extract from Zachary's letter, see ~Jfigne, Patrologica, vol. vi., p. 426, and vol. xli., p. 487. For Peter of Abano, or Apono, as he is often called, see Tirabosch,i; also Giniguena, vol. ii., p. 293 also Naude, Histoire des Grantd honlmes accuses de Mayie. For Cecco d'Ascoli, see Jlont0cla, Histoire des Ifathmcatiques, i., 528; also, Daunou, ]tudes Historiquet, vol. vi., p. 320. Concerning Orcagna's representation of Cecco in flames of hell, see Renacn, Averrois et l'Averroisme, Paris, 1867, p. 328.

Page  19 GEOGRAPffY. testing against the doctrine of the antipodes as "itualfe." li He has invented a ne\w inisdlt lte folh,lwing syllogismi: The apostles -weie com n-mltldc4 t~, go into all the world, and t,, preachl the g,,slselt to every crI-(ittrt' telt)'(! hii( i, t go to an? suii pat of thie world as thle antit),ies, tlie di(l not preachl to any creatures thleree 1:1o n0 antil)()odes exist.' Thllis is just before the time of :Columbus. Colull t,s is the next warrior. The world has heard of his battles: how the Bishop of Ceuta worsted himi in Portugal; how at the J-unta of SaJl1nl'ln(. the tlheologians overw1helmediie him with lquotartiotis from the lwsl, froium t i Paul and froic St.:\lli';Ltint. _ \ 1 i\'in qI'ttc (C,lutubus w: as tririx'a,hat.l ad it!x' his Y(C v'i' greatly . st1r~.kgtl ekted tlie teor, t of the eart's Sl-),iericity the ('}ItLrcl, ])y its hig(hest authority, was again soleiinlv committed to the theory of the earth's flatiess. In 1493 Pople Alexander VI. issues -a )lll ht:iln. (owo.i1 a line of demiarkation upon the ea-itlh as a fliat (-disk; this line was drawn from >irthl to soutl, west of the Azores and Canary Islands; and the Pope, in the plenitude of his knowledge and powers, declared that all lands I For Columbus before the Junta of Salamanca, see Irvinyg's Colutnbus, Murray's edition, vol. ii., pp. 405410. Figuier, Sa vants du Afeoycn Aye, etc., vol. ii., p. 394, et seq. Also, H?umboldt, istoire d(le iat Crogf-apvtie du Arouveau Contineit. t 19

Page  20 20 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. discovered east of this line should belong to the Portuguese, anid all discovered west of it should belong to the Spaniards. This was hailed as an exercise of divinely illuminated power in the Church; but in a few years difficulties arose. The Portuguese claimed Brazil, and, of course, had no difficulty in showing that it could be reached by sailing to the east of the line, provided the sailing were sufficiently long-continued. The bull of Pope Alexander quietly passed into the catalogue of ludicrous errors.' But in 1519 Science gains a crushing victory. Magalhaens makes his famous voyages. Hle proves the earth to be round, for his great expedition circumnavigates it; he proves the doctrine of the antipodes, for he sees the men of the antipodes; 2 bult even this does not end the war. Many earnest and good men oppose the doctrine for two hundred years longer. Then the French astronomers make their measurements of degrees in equatorial and polar regions, and add to other proofs that of the lengthened pendulum: when 1 See Daunou, ttudes Historiques, vol. ii., p. 417. 2 For effect of Magalhaens's voyages, and the reluctance to yield to proof, see lienri Afartin, Histoire de France, vol. xiv., p. 395; St. Jfartin's Histoire de la Giog., p. 369; Peschel, Geschichte des Zeitalters der.irtdeckungen, concluding chapters; and for an admirable sumnmary, Draper, Hist. Int. Dev. of Europe, pp. 451453.

Page  21 GEOGRAPHY. this was done, when the deductions of science were seen to be established by the simple test of mneasurement, beautifully, perfectly, then and then only this war of twelve centuries ended.' And now, what was the result of this war:, The efforts of Eusebius and Lactiantius t deaden scientific thought; the efforts of Augustiine to combat it; the efforts of Cosmas to stop) it.-yo (logrn,. tisan; the efforts of Boniface, and Zalchary, an,." others t.) stop it by force, conscientious as they all were, had resulted in what? Simpn l)yi fN,:,in' into many noble minds this moiCst fortialtte coltvi(:ti,,n, thit Scieice and Religion are eneminies simiply in driving,away from religiom h,,.ts of the best men in all those centuries. The result was wholly bad. No optimism can change that verdict. On the other hand, what was gained by the warriors of science for religion? Simply, a far more ennobling conception of the world, and a far truer conception of Hiim who made and whlo sustains it. Which is the more consistent withI a great, true relig,ion —the cosnmography of Cosmas, or that of Isaac Newton? Which presents the niobler food 1 For general statement as to supplementary proof by measurement of degrees, and by pendulum, see Somnerville, Plays. Geog., chapter i., ~ 6, note. Also Hit6mboldt, Cosmos, vol. ii., p. 736, and v., pp. 16, 32. Also Ifontucla, iv., 138. 21

Page  22 22 THE WTVARFARE OF SCIENCE. for religious thought-the diatribes of Lactantius, or the astronomical discourses of Thomas Chalmers? ASTRONOMY. The next great battle was fought on a question relating to the )osition of the earth among the heavenly bodies. On one side, the great body of conscientious religious men planted themselves firmly on tlihe geocentrie doctrine-the doctrine that the earth is the cenltre, and that the sun and planets revolve about it. The doctrine was old, and of the highest respectability.' The very name, Ptolemaic theory, carried weight. It had been elaborated until it accounted well for the phenomena. Exact textual interpreters of Scripture cherished it, for it agreed with the letter of the sacred text.2 But, most important of all, it was stamped with the seal of St. Thomas Aquinas. The sainted theologian-the glory of the Medieval Church, the "angelic doctor "-he to whom it was believed an I Respectability of Geocentric Theory, Plato's Authority for it etc., see Grote's Plato, vol. iii., p. 257. Also, Sir G. C. Lewis, Astronomy of the Ancients, chap. iii., sec. i., for a very thoughtful statement of Plato's view, and differing from ancient statements. For plausible elaboration of it, see Fromundus, Aniti-Aristarehus, Antwerp, 1631. Also ljfelanchthon, i?itia Doetrince Physicae. g For supposed agreement of Scripture with Ptolemaic theory, see Fromundus,.passimn, Melanchthon, and a host of other writers.

Page  23 ASTR0ONOM[Y. image of the Crucified had spoken words praisiliL: his writings-had shown in his treatise on,li( Heaven and Earth, by philosophy, theology,,, revelation, that the position of the earth mus -iL in the centre.' Still the germs of the heliocentric theory hlad been planted long b)efore, and wvell planted; it had seemed ready even to bloom forth in the fifth century, from the mind of Martianus Capella, and in the fifteenth from the mind of Cardinal de Cusa; but it could not be forgotten that St. Thomnas had elaborated the opposite view; the chill of dogmatism was still over the earth, and up to the beginning of the sixteenth century there had come to this great truth neither bloom nor fruitage. l See St. ThTomas Aquinas, Liber de Celo et Mundo, sec. xx. 2 For Germs of leliocentric Theory planted long bebfore, etc,, see Sir G. C. Lewis; also, Draper, Intellectaeel Developement of Europe, p. 512; and for a succinct statement of the claims of Pythagoras, Phlilolaus, Aristarchus, and Martianus Capella, see Hefer, Hist. de l'Astronomie, 1873, p. 107, et seq. For germs among thinkers of India, see Whewell, vol. i., p. 277. Also, lVhite2zc, Oriental aend Linguistic Studies, New York, 1874; Essay on the Lu~nar Zodiac, p. 345. 3 For general statement of De Cusa's work, see DrIaper, Intellecteal Development of Europe, p. 512. For skillful use of De Cusa's view in order to mitigate censure upon the Church for its treatment of Copernicus's discovery, see an article in the Catholic lVorild for January, 1869. For a very exact statement, in a spirit of judicial fairness, see lVhewell, iHistwoy of the Inductive Sciences, p. 275 and pp. 379, 380. In the latter, Whewell cites the exact 23

Page  24 24 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. Quietly, however, the soil was receiving enrichment, and the air warmth. The processes of mathematics were constantly improved, the heavenly bodies were steadily though silently observed; and at length appeared, afar off from the centres of thought, on the 1)orders of Poland, a plain, simple-minded scholar, rwho ist, fairy littered to the X+( t ruth, now s o commonplace, then so astounding,, that the sin and planets do not revolve about the earth, but that the earth and planets,'-\-ev aboit the sun, and that man was iope. iii,t ha d been a pr ofessor at iome, bLit, K~opernik had been a professor at Dlome, but? words of De Cusa in the -)e Docta Ignorantia, and sums up in these words: "This train of thought might be a preparation for the reception of the Copernican system; but it is very different from the doctrine that the sun is the centre of the planetary system." In the previous passage, Whewell says that De Cusa" propounded the doctrine of the motion of the earth, more, however, as a paradox than as a reality. We cannot consider this as any distilncet anticipation of a profound and consistent view of the truth." For Aristotle's views and their elaboration by St. Thomas Aquinas, see the treatise De Celo et Afen(lo. It is curious to see how even such a biographer of St. Thomas as Archbishop Vaughan slurs over the angelic doctor's errors. See Vaytghan's Life cad Labors of St. T/loicas of Aqtin, pp. 459, 460. 1 For improvement of mathematical ptocesses, see Draper, JItcllectlu(l D,e!(,7opmet of Europe, 513. In looking at this and other admiral le summaries, one feels that Prof. Tyndall was not altogether right in lamenting, in his farewell address at New York, that Dr. Draper has devoted so much of his time to historical studies.

Page  25 ASTRONOM H[. as this truth grew within himn, he seemed to feel that at Roine he was no longer safe.' To publish this thought was dangerous indeed, and for more than thirty years it lay slumnbering in thle minids of Kopernik and the friends to whom he had privately intrusted it. 1 Kopernik's danger at Rome. The Catholic 1,Vorld for January, 1809, cites a recent speech of the Archbishop of Mechlin before the University of Louvain, to the effect that Copernicus defended his theory, at Rome, in 1500, before two thousand scholars; also, that another professor taught the system in 1528, and was made Apostolic Notary by Clement VIII. All this, even if the doctrines taught were identical with those of Copernicus, as finally developed, which idea Whewell seems utterly to disprove, avails nothing against the overwhelming testimony that Copernicus felt himself in danger-testimony which the after-history of the Copernican theory renders invincible. The very title of Fromundlus's book, already cited, published within a few miles of the archbishop's own cathedral, and sanctioned expressly by the theological Faculty of that same University of Louvain in 1630, utterly refutes the archbishop's idea that the Church was inclined to treat Copernicus kindly. The title is as follows: "Anti-Aristarchus I Sive I Orbis-Terroe I Imrmoblilis i In quo decreturn S. Congregationis S. R. E. I Cardinalium I IDC. XVI adversus Pytha I gorico-Copernicanos editurn defecnditur I Antwerpi,-e MDCXXXI." L'Ep;~iois, Galilee, Paris, 1867, lays stress, p. 14, on the laroaching of the doctrine by De Cusa, in 1435, and by AVwidmianstadt, in 1533, and their kind treatment by Eugenius IV. and Clement VII., but this is absolutely worthless in denying the papal policy afterward. -l,:i'ye, Gcschichte dles -laterialisinus, vol. i., pp. 217, 218, while admiitting that De Cusa and Widmanstadt sustained this idea atnd received honors from their respective popes, shows that, 25

Page  26 26 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. At last he prepares his great work on the Ptevoltitioit of the Heavenly Bodies, and dedicates it to the pope himself. He next seeks a place of publication. He dares not send it to Poime, for there are the rulers of the older Church ready to seize it. He dares not send it to Wittenberg, for there are the lcql_:,f Ib(t]stlts n ess hostile. It is therefore intrusted to Osian(ler, of N'ureiniberg.' But, at the last moment, Osiander's courage fails himl. 1Ie dares not launch the new thought boldly. Hle writes a groveling preface; endeavors to excuse Kopernik for his novel idea. lHe inserts the apologetic lie that KIopernik procountids the doctrine of the movement of the earthl, not as af(cxt, but as an hyp)othesis; he declares that it is lawful for an astronomer to indulge his imagination, and that this is what lKopeinik has done. Thus was the greatest and most einnobling, perhaps, of scientific truths-a truth not less enno when the Church gave it serious consideration, it was con(dlemned. There is nothing in this view unreasonable. It would be a parallel case to that of Leo X., at first inclined toward Luther and the others, in their "squabbles with the begging friars," and afterwvard forced to oppose them. That Copernicus felt the danger, is evident, among other things, by the expression in the preface, Statior 2ize exl)ode7dun cuen tatli opinione clamitant." For dangers at Wittenberg, see Lange, Geschichte (c'cs Jfateri(iisnls?, vol. i., p. 217.

Page  27 ASTRONOMY. bling to religion than to science-forced, in corning into tile world, to sneak and crawl.: On the 24th of tIay, 154o, the newN-ly-printedcl book fi'rst arrived at the house of Kopernilk. It was pnt into his hands; but he was on his deatlibed. A few hours later he was beyond the reach of those mistaken, conscientious men, whose consciences would have blotted his reputation, and perhaps have destroyed his life. Yet not wholly beyond their reach. Even death could not be trusted to shield him. There seems to have been fear of vengeance upon his corpse, for on his tombstone was placed no record of his life-long labors, no mention of his great I Osiander, in a letter to Copernicus, dated April 20, 1541, had endeavored to reconcile him to such a procedure, and ends by saying, " Sic enim placidiores reddideris peripatheticos et theologos quos contradicturos mletuis." See Apologia Tychonis in Kepleri Opera Omnia, Frisch's edition, vol. i., p. 246. Kepler holds Osiander entirely responsible for this preface. Bertrand, in his Foiedateurs de l'Astronomie Afoderne, gives its text, and thinks it possible that Copernicus may have yielded " in pure condescension toward his disciple." But this idea is utterly at variance with expressions in Copernicus's own dedicatory letter to the pope, which follows the preface. For a good summary of the argument, see Fieguier, Savants de la Renaissance, pp. a78, 379. See, also, citation from Gassendi's life of Copernicus, in Flarnmarion, Vie de Copernic, p. 124. Mr. John Fiske, accurate as he usually is, in his recent Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy, appears to have followed Laplace, Delambre, and Petit into the error of supposilng that Copernicus. and not Osiander, is responsible for the preface. 2, i

Page  28 28 THE WARFARE OF SCIEXNCE. discovery. There were graven upon it affecting words, which may be thus simply translated: ": ask not the grace accorded to Paul, not that given to Peter; give me only the favor which thou didst show to the thief on the cross." Not till thirty years after did a friend dare write on his tombstone a memorial of his discovery.' The book was taken in hand by the proper authorities. In due time it was solemnly condemned; to read it was to risk damnation; and the w-orld accepted the decree.2 The earnest theo ' Figuier, Savants (le la Renaissance, p. 380. Also, _amiimrarion, Vie de Cope nic, p. 190. 2 The "proper authorities " in this case were the " Congregation of the Index," or cardinals having charge of the "Index Librorum Prohibitorum." Recent desperate attempts to fasten the responsibility on them as individuals seem ridiculous in view of the simple fact that their work is sanctioned by the highest Church authority, and required to be universally accepted by the Church. Three of four editions of the "Index" in my own possession declare on their title-pages that they are issued by order of the pontiff of the period, and each is prefaced by a special papal bull or letter. See, especially, Index of 1664, issued under order of Alexander VII., and that of 1761, under Benedict XIV. Copernicus's work was prohibited in the Index "donee corrigatur." Kepler said that it ought to be worded " donee explicetur." See Bertrand, Fondateutrs de l'Astronomie Moderne, p. 57. De Aforyan, pp. 57-60, gives the corrections required by the Index of 1620. Their main aim seems to be to reduce Copernicus to the groveling level of Osiander, making of his discovery a mere hypothesis; but occasionally they require a virtual giving up of the whole Copernican doctrine, e. g., "correction" insisted upon for

Page  29 ASTROVOMY. loi-: f the period iinmmediately wheeled their I)atteirit2,f tarcd leaiiiii(", to supl1)toIt thle C,hrc in its effort to b)eat b)ack the terlil)le doctrilc that the erllt]L revolves about the stui. A1iioigo the XloSt -igoru us of themi in Xorthern Europe was I''o),it~dius. i'roin tlhe shadow of the Cathedral ofl-,tverp lie selit forth his faimous treatise, the a,-,i'.,,s, full of the strongest argulimenits agailist the ilew theory. IHis very titlepage was a contemptuous insult to the memory of Kopernikl, since it paraded the assumption that the new truth was only an old and exploded theory of Aristarchus. He declares that "sacred Scripture fights against tel CoperiicaIs."' To prove that tihe sui revolv-es about the earth, he cites the passage in the Psalims which speaks of the suin " whitlch eoiethl forthi as a bridegroomi out of his clmmail)er." To prove that the earth stands still, he quotes the passage firomi Ecclesiastes, " the earth standeth fast forever." To show the utter futilitv of the Copernican ideas, he indulges in scientific reasoning as he understands it-declaring that, if the hated theory were true, "the wind would constantly blow from the east; we should withli great difficulty hear sounds against such a wind;" that "buildings, and the earth itself, cap. 8, p. 6. For scholarly account of the relation of the Prohibitory and Expurgatory Indexes to each other, see Hezdham, Liter. ary Policy? of the Chur)ch of Ro;ze. 29

Page  30 30 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. would fly off with such a rapid motion;" and, greatest weapon of all, he works Lip, by the use of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas, a demonstration from theology and science combined, that the earth must stand in the centre, and that the suin must revolve about it.' Doubtless many will at once exclaim against the Roman Catholic Chutrch for this. Justice compels me to say that the founders of Protestantism were no less zealous against the new scientific doctrine. Said Martin Luther: "People gave ear to an upstart astrologer, who strove to show that the earth revolves, not the heavens or the firmament, the sun and the moon. Whoever wishes to appear clever must devise' some new system, which of all systems is, of course, the very best. This fool wishes to reverse the entire science of astronomy. But Sacred Scripture tells us that, Joshua commanded the sLun to stand still, and not the earth." Melanlchthon, mild as he was, was not behind Luther in condemning Kopernik. In his treatise, Initia -Doctrince Physicce, he says: "The eyes are 1See Fromundus's book, cited above, passim, but especially the heading of chapter vi., and the argument in chaps. x. and xi. For interesting reference to one of Fromundus's arguments, showing by a mixture of mathematics and theology, that the earth ;.s the centre of the universe, see Quetelet, Histoire des Scieices IfJ(ithgmatiques et Physiques, Bruxelles, 1864, p. 170.

Page  31 ASTROIVOMAY. witnesses that the heavens revolve ill the space of twenty-four hours. But certain men, either from the love of novelty, or to make a display of ingenuity, have concluded that the earth moves; and they maintain that neither the eighth sphere nor the sLun revolves... Now, it is a want of honesty and decency to assert such notions publicly, and the example is pernicious. It is the part of a good mind to accept the truth as revealed by God, and to acquiesce in it." ~Ielalcelitlio1I then cites passages from the Psalmus and(i f'roim Ecclesiastes wvllich he declares assert positively and clearly Tlmt the earth stands fast, aid thiat the sun nioves around it, and adds eigllt other proofs of his proposition that " the earth can be iiowhere, if not in the centre of the universe." And Protestant people were not a whit behind Catholic in following out these teachings. The people of Elbing made themselves merry over a farce in which Kopernik was the main object of ridicule. The people of Nuremberg, a great Prot 1 See Luther's Tischreden, 1rrnischer's A?tsfabe. Also, Jlelanchthon's Initia Doctrine Pthysicce. This treatise is cited under a miistaken title by the Catholic IVorld, September, 1870. The correct title is as given above. It will be found in the Corptes -Reformatorum, ed. Bretschneider, Halle, 1846. (For the above passage, see vol. xiii., pp. 216, 217.) Also, Lange, Geschichte des Alfaterialisnmus, vol. i., p. 217. Also, Prowe, Ueber die Abhd7ifigkeit des Copernicus, Thorn, 1865, p. 4. Also, note, pp. 5 and 6, where text is given in full. 31

Page  32 32 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. estant centre, caused a medal to be struck, Witliinscriptions ridiculing the philosopher and his theory.' Then was tried, also, one piece of strategy very common formerly in battles between theologians themselves. It consists in loud shoutings that the doctrine attacked is outworn, and already refuted-that various distinguished gentlemnien have proved it false-that it is not a living truth, but a detected lie-that, if the world listens to it, that is simply because the world is ignorant. This strategy was brought to bear on lIopernik. It u'S shown that his doctrine was simply a revival (,f the Pythagorean notion, which had been thoroughly exploded. Fromundus, as we have seen in his title-page and throughout his book, delights in referring to the doctrine of the revolution of the planets around the sun, as " that Pythagorean notion." This mode of warfare was }mitated by the lesser opponents, and produced, for some time, considerable effect.2 But the new truth could neither be laughed down nor forced down. Many minds had received it; only one tongue dared utter it. This new warrior was that strange inortal, Giordano Bruno. For treatment of Copernican ideas by the people, see Catholic World, as above. See title-page of Fromundus's work cited in note at bottom of p. 392; also, Melanchthon, ubi supra.

Page  33 ASTROIVOX Y. TIe wvas hunted from land to land, until, at last, he turns on his pursuers with fearful invectives. For this he is imprisoned six years, then burned alive and his ashes scattered to the winds. Still the new truth lived on; it could not be killed. Within ten years after the martyrdom of Bruno,' after a world of troubles and persecutions, the truthl of the doctrine of Kopernik was established ly the tetlcscope of Galileo.2 hlerCint was fufilledl ie, f tll- anost touilching ,f; ll,t,cl tcic0s. TYears before, the einellmies of Ko l,li i 1ld said to hint, "If your doctrines were) true Venus would show,l.ases like the moon." K{:,perniik answered: "' -ou ale rigt-t; I lkiow ni.t what to say; but God is go(1,. aid will in time find ai an swer to this obljection." 3 The od- ) . See Batltolhness, Vie de Jordano Bruno, Paris, 1846,-vol. i., pp. 121 and pp. 212, et seq. Also Berti, Vita di Giordano Bruno, Firenze, 1868, chapter xvi. Also WThewell, i., 294, 295. That Whewell is somewhat hasty in attributing Bruno's punishment entirely to the Spaccio delta Bestia Trionfante will be evident, in spite of Montucla, to any one who reads the account of the persecution in Bartholmess or Berti; and, even if Whewell be right, the Spaccio would never have been written, but for Bruno's indignation at ecclesiastical oppression. See Tire-tboschi, vol. xi., p. 435. 2 Delambre, tistoire de l'Astronomie mnodernte, discours pr6liminaire, p. xiv. Also Laplace, Systeme du Monde, vol. i., p. 326, and for more careful statement, Cepleri Opera Ocnnia, edit. Frisch, tom. ii., p. 464. - 3 Canttt, Ifistoire Uvoivers(ll, vol. xv., p. 473. 33

Page  34 34 THEE WARFARE 0F SCIENCE. given answer came when the rude telescope of (X1l i1,:, 1toased tlhe plases (of Vecus. On1 this new clmamplion, Galileo, thie war was long and bitter. The supporters of what was called "sound learning" declared his discoveries deceptions, and his announcements blasphemy. Semi-.(,iqetific 1rIofessors, endeavoring to curry favor w-itl tihe Churcli, attacked him with shani science; earnest preachers attacked him with perverted Scripture! 1 I shall present this warfare at somie length, because, so far as I can find, no careful outline of it has been given in our language, since the whole history was placed in a new light by the revelation of the trial documents in the Vatican Library, published for the first time by M. de l'Epinois in 1867. The first important attack on Galileo began whenli he announced that his telescope had revealed I A very curious example of this sham science is seen in the arrlgumentl, t]eqltly used at the timne, that, if the earth really movedl.1 - tone falling from a height would fall back of the point irame(liately- tlow its point of startin g. This is used by Fromun d';: ~,ir:t easttt. It appears never to have occurred to him to tes t, Li, TIatitti, }, dI(pping a stone from the topmast of a ship. But the most beautiful thing of all is that Benzenburg has experimentally demonstrated just such an aberration in falling bodies as is mathematically required by the diurnal motion of the earth. See JScions, Principles of Scien?ce, vol. i.', p. 453, and ii., pp. 31(}, 311. I

Page  35 ASTRO-VOJ~Y. the moons of tlhe planet Julpiter; thle eneily saw that this strengthened the Copernican theory, and ,gave battle immediately. Tlhe whlole theory was denounced as impossible and impious. Professors, bred in tlle mnixed science favored by the Clhurch,' ar,ued thlat tle Bible (dearly showed, )y- all applical)le t,.- tiere, -,mld be only seven 1lab'eta' tlat this w ],rove,'l )v thle seven (,)'le}t eal(ilejti,, Ls (f t,l \,)',vy[)5C, by tlihe,, 1.-l>.,t: le( C(lll,T:ti(:L, thle Tabl)ernacle, anid 19- tlh QV1,.',,I-';.' -, Asi' 2 the(-logians showed thle desttructive Coluls,1ateices wtliichl must logically result to flundamental Christian truths: bishops and priests nttered impressive warnings to their flocks; and multitudes of thle faitliful besought the Inquisition to protect the fold by dealing speedily and sharply with the heretic. In vain did( Galileo tryto save the great truths le had discovered, T)v his letters to the Benedictine Castelli and the Grand-duchess Christine, in whilch he a rgued( that literal il i ol iJttcp':)t tiollol not be applied to s(,ieiLee; it was de(lared that bv making such a- arigmnet hii h'eIii s was onlv See Delambre as to the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter being the turning-point with the heliocentric doctrine. As to its effects on Bacon, see Je,ons, Pi'incip!es of Science, vol. ii., p. 298. 2 For argument drawn fromi the candlestick and seven churches, see Delanibre. 35

Page  36 36 THE WARFARE OF SC[ENCE. rendered more detestable; that he was "worse thani Tnither or Calvi." In vini (li(t ltir tr o prove the existence of satellites by showilng themn to the doubters through htis telescope. They either declared it impious to look, or, if they did see them, denouticed them as illlsi,i L' fw,, thLe devil. Good Father Clavius lel tlr-it to' see satellites of Jupiter, men had to make an lnsitituiinent which would create themn." The war oi the C(c-)erniean theory, whichl up to that time had Reeii carried onl quietly, now flamed forth. It was declared that the doctrline was proved false by the stainding still of the sun for Joslhua; lI)y the declarations that " the founl4ations of the earth are fixed so firm that they cannot be moved," and that the sun " runneth about from one end of heaven to the other." 2 Thle Dominican father, Caceini, preached a sermon from the text, "A Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? " and this wretched pun was the first of a series of sharper weapons; for b)efore Caceini finishes, hlie insists that "geonmetry is of the devil," and that " mathematicians Libri, vol. iv., p. 211. De Jfoyaen, Paracdoxes, p. 26, for account of Father Clavius. It is interesting to know that Clavius, in his last years, acknowledged that "the whole system of the heavens is broken down, and must be mended." 2 Caitt?, Histoire U-niveesele, vol. xv., p. 478.

Page  37 ASTRO'O IYOY. should be banished as the authors of all heresies;" and, for this, the Church authorities gave Caccinii promotion.' Father Lorini proved that the doctrine was no t only " heretical," but "atheistic," and besought the Inquisition to intervene. The Bishop of Fiesole screamed iu rage against the Copernicean system, and proposed to denounce Galileo to the granlddukle. The Archbishop of Pisa secretly sought to entrap Galileo and deliver himn to the Inquisition at Roiue. Thlle Archbishop of Florencee solemnly conldemned thlle doctrines of IKopernik and Galileo as unscriptural. But by far the ilost terrible chamipion who appeared ag(ainst him was t!)clarn, liu,,,e of the grieatest of tlieologiaiis, and one f thlle I)ooi-est of scientists. lIe was earnest, sincere, learned, but made the fearful mistake for the world of applying to scie6lnce, direct, literal interpretationr of Scripture." The weapons whlichl meii )f Bell,rmiii's stamp used wN-eie thleological. They held up before the wo lMd~ie dreadful consequences wliich must result l For Caccini's attack, see Delaimbre, -Hist. d7e l'Ast2oni., disc. pr6limi., p. xxii.; also, Libri, Hist. (les Scinces afhl., vol. iv., p. 232; also, -IJatin, Gctlilee, pp. 43, 44. 2 For Bellarmin's view, see Qtiiiet, Jesuits, vol. ii., p. 189. For other objectors and objections, see Libri, IJistoire des Sciences 3Jfathlnatiqu7es en Italie, vol. iv., pp. 233, 234; also, Arftin, W'ie de Gtlilee. 4 ,37

Page  38 3I T-TE WARFARE OF SCIEXCE. to Christian theology were the doctrine to prevail thlat the heavenly bodies revolve about the sun, and not about the earth. Their most tremendous theologic engine against Galileo was the idea that his pretended discovery "vitiated the whole Chris tlan plan of salvation." Fathler Lecazre declared that it " cast suspicion on the doctrine of the \fI uca:latio".' ()thlers declared that it " upset the whole basis of tlteoloyv; that, if the earth is a planet, and one amono several planets, it cannot I e tliat tinvy suel great tlhings have been lonie espe cially for it, as thle Christian doctrine tealhes.. If there are ttlCr Iplauets, since God makes noth inig in- vain, thlley minst be inhabited; but how can these iilhabitants be descended from Adam? Itow cait tllev trace back their origin to INoah's ark; I:ow can they have l)een redeeed l)by the Saviour? 1 Nor was this argument confined to the theolo gians of the Roman Church; Melanehthon, Prot estant as he was, had already used it in his attacks upon the ideas of Kopernikl anld his school.' In addition to this prodigious engine of war, there w-as kept up a terrific fire of smaller artillery Lin the shape of texts and scriptural extracts. But the little telescope of Gai;eo' still swept See TrIouessart, cited in Fl'[7?i2eesion, Jfon(es Imayinaires et Pids, sixicrme edition, pp. 315, 316. 2 Initict Doct)ince Psie, pp. 220, 221.

Page  39 ASTRONOMY. the hel-vens, and the next revelatiorn antounceed was tile sv-tem-f — lI,UPttins anid ~lles in the iiooll. This was a sig(ial for aiiothler attack. It 7was dc(lare d l thiat this, ((111te(lI witl l th le st,tatellnt that t!ee iiloon si s l)y I ligt e;cf etc(t from the sun, was a contrad(lti,),f the sttehent in (-ele- sis tlhat the umoon is a l geat itr like ithe. I To miake the matter worse, a painter, placing the inoon in a religious picture in its usual position beneatd the feet of the Blessed Virgin, outlined on its surface mountains and valleys; this was denounced as a sacrilege logically resulting froml tlhe astronomier's heresy. The next struggle was aroused whlen the hlate(d telesce,-,),e revealed spo)ts,upon the sun,,rn( til.ei moti,i. x tt ii:ch ini(dicated tlhe sunr's rotation. Monsignor Elei, head of the UTniv-ersity of Pisa, forbade: the Professor of Astronomy, Castelli, to mientioii these spots. Father BusaeLs, at the University of [nnspruck, forbade the astronomer Seieiner to allow the new discovery to be known there. At the College of Douay and the UnTiversity of Lonvain it was expressly placed under the ban, and this became the general rule among, tl-he Catholic universities and colleges of Europe. The Spansis universities were specially inttolerant of this ancd similar ideas,' and up to a recent period tley were See 7cknor, itst. of Spct. Litepature, vol. iji. 30

Page  40 40 THE WARFARE 0F SCIEXCE. strictly forbidden in the most important university of all-that of Salamanca. In 1820 the Abbe Settele, professor at the College of Rome, laving announciieed a work on Optics and Astronomv, the master of the sacred palace, under the authority of the old decrees against the teachings of IKopernik and Galileo, forbade the publication, and it was not until 1822 that Pope Pius VII. sanctioned a decision of the Inquisition permitting such teachings.' Such are the consequences of placing the instruction of mien's minds in the hands of those inainlv absorbed in the work of saving men's souls.2 Nothing could be more in accordance with the idea recently put forth b)y the Bishop of Alontpellier, that the Church is alone fully empowered to promulgate scientific truth or direct university instruction; but science gained the victory here also. -News came of observations of the solar spots, not only from Galileo in Italy, but from Fabricius in Holland. Father Scheiner then endeavors to make the usual treaty; he promulgates a pseudo-scientific theory-a statement based on a religious science "-which only provokes derision. But the war grew more and more bitter, and See Th. Hllartin, Galilee, pp. 34, 208, and 266. See jIra-ti?, Galilee, pp. 34 and 208; also a curious note in the erlier English editions, Lyeill, Pt'inciples of Geology, Introduction.

Page  41 ASTROIVOXY. the prilncipal weal3pons in it are worth examiningi'. They are very easily examined; you may pick them ul) oni any of the battle-fields of science-, but on that field they were used with more effect than on almost any other. These weapons are two epithets' IJfidel" and' Atheist." Thle battle-fields of science are thickly strewn with these. They have been used against almost every iman who has ever done anything new for his fellow-mven. The list of those who have been denounced as infidel and atheist includes almost all great men of scienee-general slcholars, inventors, philaanthropists. The deepest Christian life, the most noble Christian character, have not availed to shield combatants. Christians like Isaac Newton and Pascal and John Locke and John Milton, and even Iloward and Fanelon, have had these weapons hurled against them. Of all proofs of the existence of a God, those of Descartes have been wrought most thoroughly into the mninds of modern men; and yet the Protestant theologians of Holland sought to bring him to torture and to (leath b)y the charge of atheism, and the Roman Catholic theologians of France prevented the reinderiing of any due honors to him at his burial.l For curious exemplification of the way in which these weapons have been hurled, see lists of persons charged with "infidelity " anl " atheism," in Le -Dictionnaire (les Athees, Paris, An. viii. Also, H, Histo)'y of eRaionalism, vol. ii., p. 50. For case of Descar-t-cs, see Saisset, Descartes et ses p2-ecureseurs, pp. 103, 110. 41

Page  42 42 THE WAR FARE OF SCIENCE. These epithets can hardly be classed withl civilized weapons. They are burning arrows. They -et fire to great masses of popular prejudices sioke rises to obscure the real questions; fire )iursts forth at times to destroy the attacked party. They are poisoned. They go to the hearts of lovilg womnen, they alienate dear children; they injire tihe man after life is ended, for they leave )oisoned wounds in the hearts of those who loved inm best-fears for his eternal happiness-dread of the Divine displeasure. Of course, in these days, these weapons, though often effective in disturbing good men and in searing good women, are somewhat blunted. Indeed, they not unfrequently injure assailants more than assailed. So it was not in the days of Galileo; they were then in all their sharpness and venom. Yet far more vile than the use even of these weapons-vile indeed beyond belief —was the attack by the Archbishop of Pisa. It is a remark made by one of the most mioder.tte and judicially fair of modern philosophic historians, that, of all organizations this world has lnown, the Romian Church has caused most nude:erved woe and shed most innocent blood; but, in the whole terrible succession of Torquemadas and Arbues and Granvilles, the vilest enemy of the human race is probably this same Archbishop of Pisa.

Page  43 ASTRONO'JO Y. This iman, whose cathedral is more truly consecrated by the remembrance of Galileo's observation of the lamp swinging before its altar, than by all the church services of a thousand years, began a siege against the great philosopher. Galileo, after his discoveries had been denounced as contrary to Scripture, had been induced to write to the Duchess Christine and to his friend Castelli two letters, to show that his discoveries might be reconciled to Scripture. The archbishop saw his opportunity: he determined to get hold of these letters and exhibit them as proofs that Galileo had uttered heretical views of theology and the Scriptures, and thus to bring the astronomer lhopelessly into the cluLtchl of the Inquisition. The archbishop begs Castelli, therefore, to let liiii see the original letter in the handwriting of Galileo. Castelli declines; the archbishop tlhei, wliilc, as is now revealed, writing constantly aid l)itterlv to .the inquisitors against Galileo, p)Iofesses to Castelli the greatest admiration of Galileo's,genius, and a sincere desire to know mole of his disco — eries. Castelli is seduced by this; but Galileo stll'dily forbids sending the letter, and the arelhbislhop is obliged to resort to open attack. The whole struggle to crush Galileo and to save him would be amusing were it not so fraught with evil. There were intrigues and couniiter-intrigues, plots and counter-plots, lying and spying, 43

Page  44 44 TIIE TVWARFARE OF SCIENCE. and in the thickest of this seething, squabbling, screaming mass, priests, bishops, archbishops, cardinals, and even the future Pope Urban VIii. himself. It is most suggestive to see in this crisis of the Church, on the eve of the greatest errors in churchl policy the world has known, ill all the efforts and deliberations of these consecrated leaders of the Church, at the tomb of the Prince of the Apostles, no more sign of the guidance ol presence of the IIoly Spirit than i: a caucus of New York politicians. 3ut the opposing powers were too strong. In 1.615 Galileo is summoned by the Inquisition to Rome, and the minle, which had been so long preparing, was sprung. Pope Paul V. and the cardinal inquisitors order eleven theologians of the Inquisition to examine these two propositions whilch had been extracted from Galileo's letters on the solar spots: Fis't, that the sun does not nove about the earth; secondly, that the earth does move about the sun. The eleven theologians solemnlyv considered these points, and in about a month rendered a solemn decision that "the first proposition, that the sun is the centre, and does not revolve ibo.t the earth, is foolish, absutrd, false ig theology, a(lid heretical, beccause expressly conztrary to Iold/ ^ jz)A/:tf'e; (land that the second proposition, t/h:tt the earth is not the eent2e), but revolves about the stm, is absurd, false in philosoih)y, and,

Page  45 ASTRONOMXY. frost a theoloygical p)oint of view, at least opp)osed to the trute faith." I The pope himself, Paul V., now intervenes; hlie orders that Galileo be brought before the Inquisition. Then the great man of science in that age i; brought face t o face with the greatest theologiin: Galileo is confronted by Cnardiill Bellarimin. Bellarmin shows Galileo the erlior of his opinion, and orders him to renounce it. De Landa, fortified by a letter from the pope, ordering the astronomer to be placed in the dungeon of the Inquisition should he refuse to yield, commanlds him to " abandon entipely the opinion that the su8i is the centre of the iniverse, and that the earth moves, and to abstain from sustaining, teaching, or defending that opinion in any manner whatever, orally or by writing." a Galileo bowed to this order, was allowed to retire, and the whole proceeding was kept secret. About ten days later, on Marchl 5, 1616, the Congregation of the Index, moved thereto, as we have seen, and as the letters and documents now brought to light show, by Pope Paul V., solemnly rendered their decree: that the doctrine of the double movement of the earth about its axis and about the sun is false aird entirely oQt?ictry 1 See the original documents in Epinois, pp. 34-36. Martin's translation does not seem exactly correct. See full official text in Epinois. 4:5

Page  46 46 THE WARFARE OF SCIEXCE. to IJoly Sc/ijtuee; that this opinion must neither be taught nor defended. The same decree colndemned the writings of Kopernik, and all writ?,gs ctih afirm, t motion of the earth. The great workl of Kopernik was interdicted until corrected in accordance with the views of the Inquisition; and the works of Galileo and Kepler, though not mentioned by name, were included among those implicitly condemned as "affirming the motion of the earth." The condemnations were inscribed upon the lendex, and to the Index was prefixed the usual papal bull giving its monitions the papal sanction. To teach or even read the works denounced or passages condemned, was to risk persecution in this world and damnation in the next. Human science had apparently lost the great decisive battle. For some time Galileo remained at Riome perfectly submissive.' Pope Paul V. petted him, and al seemed happy in the ending of the long war. BIBut, returning to Florence, something of his old scientific ardor stirred within him; and at last Cardinal Barberini, who had seemed liberal and friendly, having been made pope under the name 1 See proofs of this in Jiartin. The reader should be reminded that the archives exposed within the past few years have made the statements of early writers untrustworthy on very manlly of the nicer points.

Page  47 iSTrONOJ[Y. 47 of Urban VIII., Galileo conceived new hopes, and ag,ain in a published w-ork alluded favorably to the Copernican system. New troublles ensued. Galileo was induced to visit Romie agrain, and Pope Urban tried to cajole him into silence, and personally took the trouble to try to shlow the astronomer his errors by argument. Othier opponents were less considerate. Workls appeared attacking, his ideas-works all the more unmanly, since their authors knew how Galileo wvas restrained by force from defending himself; and, as if to accumulate proofs of the fitness of the Church to take charge of advanced instruction, his salary as professor at the University of Pisa was taken from him. Sapping, and miining began. Just as the Arcll)isliop of Pisa some years before had tried to betray Galileo with hloneyed words to the iLn(qisition, so now Father Grassi tried it iand after various attempts to draw- him out by flattery, suddenly denounced his scientific ideas as "leading to a denial of the real presence in thlle Eucharist." And here science again loses ground. Galileo had announced his intention of writing upon the tleory of the tides, but he retreated, and tlins was lost a great treatise to the world. For the final assault, the park of lheavy artillery was at last wheeled into place. You see it on all the scientific battle-fields. It consists of gen 47

Page  48 48 THE TiWARFARE OF SCI~EVCE. eral denunciation; and Father Alelchior Inchlofer, of the Jesuits, brought his artillery to bear well on Galileo with this declaration: that the opinion of the earth's motion is, of all heresies, the most abominable, the most pernicious, the most scandaloius; tloat tlhe iimm)obility- of the earth is thrice sacire(: tlL.t alrgumient against the iniiniortality of the soul,l tlhe Crealtor, the incarnation, etc., should l)e tolerated sooner than an argumient to prove that the earth moves.' But this state of things could not be endured ~orever. Urged beyond forbearance, Galileo prepares a careful treatise in the forin of a dialogue, exhibiting the arguments for and against the Copernican and Ptolemlaic systems. He then offers to sul)lmit to any conditions the Church tribunals may impose, if they will but allow it to be printed. At last they consent, imposing the mnost humniliating condition of all, which was a preface written by Father Ricciardi and signed by GalJileo, in wvhich the whole worlk w-as virtually exhibited as a play of the imagination, and not at all as opposed to the trltlth laid down in 1616 by the Inquisition. The new work met with prodigious success; it put new weapons into the hands of the supporters of the Copernican theory. The preface only eimbittered the contest; it was laughed at from one 1 See Inchfofer's Tractatus SUllcpicus cited in Galileo's letter to Deodati, July 28, 1634. I

Page  49 ASTRONOOMY. end of Europe to the other as ironical. This aroused the enemy. The Jesuits, Dominicans, and the great majority of the clergy, returned to the attack niore violent than ever; and Pope Urbani ~III., his personal pride being touched, after some hlalting, joined the clerical forces. The first important piece of strategy was to forbid the sale of the work; but the first edition had already been exhausted and spread throughlout Europe. Urban now became angry, and both Galileo and his works were placed in the hands of the Inquisition. In vain did the good Benedictine Castelli urge that Galileo was entirely respectful to the Church; in vain did he say that " nothilig that could be done could now hinder the earth from revolving." He was dismissed, and Galileo was forced to appear in the presence of the dread tribunal without defender or adviser. There, as was so long concealed but as is now fully revealed, he was menaced with torture by express order of Pope Urban, and, as is now thoroug,lly estal)blished by documentary evidence, forced to abjuire under threats, and subjected to imlprisonment by command of Urban, the Inquisition deferring in the most servile manner to the papal authority. The rest of the story the world knows by heart; none of the recent attempts have succeeded in mystifying it. The whole world will remenmber forever how Galileo was subjected certainly to 5 49

Page  50 50 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. incdig,nity and imprisonment equivalent to physical torture; 1 how he was at last forced to pronounce publicly, and on his knees, his recantation as follows: "I, Galileo, being in my seventieth year, being a prisoner and on mily knees, and before your eminences, having before miy eyes the Hloly Gospel, which I touch with my lhands, abjure, curse, and detest the error andl thle heresy of the movement of the earth." I-e was vanquished indeed, for he had been forced, in the face-of all coming ag,es, to perjure himself; and, to complete his dislhonor, he was obliged to swear to denounce to the Inquisition. any other man of science whomi hlie should discover to be supporting heresy-the "heresy of the movement of the earth.' Nor was this all. To the end of his life, nay, after his life was ended, this bitter persecution was continued, on the supposition that the ,great truths hlie revealed were hurtful to religion. After a brief stay in the dungeons of the Inquisition, he was kept in exile from family, friends, all his noble employments, and held rigidly to his promnise not even to speak of his theory. When, It is not probable that torture in the ordinary sense was administered to Galileo, though it was threatened. See Tl. lfartin, TKe de GClilie, for a fair summing up of the case. For text of the abjuration, see E~)iiois; also, Pivdeate Life of Gealilo, Aplpendix.

Page  51 ASTRONOM[Y. in the midst of intense bodily sufferings from disease and mental sufferings from calamities in his famiily, ihe besought some little liberty, hlie was met with threats of a recommittal to his dungeon. When, at last, a special commnissioiier had reported to the ecclesiastical authorities that Galileo had become blind and wasted away with disease and sorrowv, lie was allowed but little more liberty, and that little tempered by the close surveillance of the ecclesiastical authorities. Hle was forced to bear contemptible attacks on himself and onI his worlds in silence; he lived to see his ideas care fully weeded out ~rom all the church colleges and universities in Europe; and when, in a scientific world, he happened to be spoken of as "renowned," the Inquisition ordered the substitution of the word "notorious." 1 Nor did the persecution cease with his death. Galileo had begged to be buried in his family tomb in Santa Croce; the request was denied: his friends wished to erect a monument over him; thlis, too, was refused. Pope Urban said to the emnbassador Niccolini that "it would be an evil example for the world if such honors were rendered to a mian who had been brought before the Roman Inquisition for an opinion so false and erroneous, swho had conmmunicated it to many I.~artiz, p. 227. 51

Page  52 THE WAR~ARE OF SCIENCE. othlers, and whlo had given so great a scandal to Christendom." 1 In accordance, therefore, with the wish of the pope and the orders of the Inquisition, Galileo was buried ignobly, apart from his family, without fitting ceremony, without monument, without epitaph. Not until forty years after did Pierozzi dare to write his epitaph. Not until a hunIch'ed years after did Nelli dare transfer his remains to t Santa Croee and erect above them a suitable monument. Even then the old conscientious hostility lburst out: the Inquisition was besought to prevent such honors to "a man condemned for notorious errors;" and that tribunal refused to allow any epitaph to be placed above him which had not first been submitted to its censorship. Nor has that old conscientious consistency in hatred yet fully relented; hardly a generation since has not seen some Alarini, or De Bonald, or rallaye, or De Gabriae, suppressing evidence, or torturing expressions, or inventing theories, to blacken the memory of Galileo and save the reputation of the Church.2 1 Jftrtin, p. 243. 2 For the persecution of Galileo's memory, see TlA. Mfartin, chaps. ix. and x. For documentary proofs, see De I'Epinois. For a collection of the slanderous theories invented against Galileo, see Ifartiz, final chapters and appendix. Both these authors are devoted to the Church, but, unlike Monsignor Marini, are too upright to resort to the pious fraud of suppressing documents or interpolating pretended facts.

Page  53 ASTRONOMf'Y. The action of tile Church authorities corresponded( well to the spirit thus exhibited; not until 1r, over one hbundred years after his condemnation, was it removed, and then secretly; not until 1S35, over two hundred years after his condemnation, was the record of it expunged from the ictlex. But this is by no mneans the only imiportant part of this history. Hardly less important, for one who wishes to uniderstand the character of the warfare of science, is it to go back over those two hundred years between that fearful crime and its acknowlecl,gment, and study the great retreat of the army of the Church after its disastrous victory over Galileo. IHaving gained this victory, the conscientious believers in the Bible as a compendium of history and text-book of science exulted greatly. Loud was the rejoicing that the "heresy," the' infidelity," the " atheism," involved in believing that the earth revolves about its axis and moves around the sun, had been crushed by the great tribunal of the Chlurch, acting in strict obedience to the expressed will of one pope and the written order of another. But soon clear-sighted men saw that this victory was a disaster. From all sides caine proofs that JKopernik and Galileo were right; and although Pope Urban and the Inquisition held Galileo in 53

Page  54 54 TTiE TVAI-FARE OF SCIEXCE. strict seclutsionl, not allowing him even to,I)eak regarding the double motion of the earth; and althoughi the condemnation of "all books which affirmI the motion of the earth" was kept on the Index; and although the colleges anid universities under Churchl control were compelled to teach the opposite doctrine, it was seen that the position gained by the victory over Galileo could tnot be miaintained for ever. So began the great retreat -the retreat of the army of Chlurch apologists through two centuries of sophistry, trickery, and falsehood. The first important move in the retreat was a falling back upon the statement that Galileo was condemned, not because he affilmled the motion of the earth, but because he supported it fromin Scripture. For a considerable time this falsehood zserved its purpose; even a hundred and fifty -ears after Galileo's condemnation it was renewed hy the Protestant Bfallet du Pan,' in his wish to gain favor from the older Church; but the slightest critical examination of the original documents, recently revealed, show this position utterly untenable. The letters of Galileo to Castelli and the Grand-duchess Christine, in which he spoke of the Copernican theory as reconcilable with Scripture, were not published until after the condemnation; and although the Archbishop of Pisa had 1 See Jfartin, pp. 401, 402.

Page  55 ASTRONOMY. endeavored to use them against him, they were but casually mentioned in 1616, and entirely left out of view in 1633. What was condemned in 1(116 as "'absurd, false in theology, and heretical, becaulse absolutely contrary to Holy Scripture," wavs the proposition that " the s8tn is the cent,re abouz which the earth erevolve8;" and what was coindeinned as " absurd, false in philosophy, and, from a theologic point of view at least, opposed to the true faith," was the proposition that " he eacrtl is ,ot tle ceintre of the universe arcl immovable, but acts a dietrnaal motion."' What Galileo was made, by express order of Pope Urban and by the action of the Inquisition under threat of torture, to abjure, was " the error acl heres2y of the m-ovement of the earth." 2 Whlat the Index, prefaced by papal bulls binding its contents upon the consciences of the faithful, for two hundred years steadily condemned, were " all books which aqffr the motion of the earth." Not one of these condemnations was directed against Galileo's private letters to Castelli and Christine affirming the possibility of reconciling his ideas to Scripture. Having been dislodged from this point, the 1 See -)e l'Epinois, p. 35, where the document is given in its original Latin. 2 See translation of the abjuration in appendix to Private Life of Galileo, London, 1870. 55

Page  56 56 THIE WTARFARE OF SCIE.YCE. Church apologists sought cover Lraider the statement that "Galileo was condemned not for heresy, but for contumacy," and for "wanting, ill respect for the pope." 1 As to the first point, the very language of the various sentences shows the falsehood of the assertion; they speak of "heresy," and never of " contuinacy." As to the last point, the display of the original documents settled that forever. It was proved by them that from first to last he had been toward the pope most patient and submissive. IHe had indeed expressed his anger at times against his traducers; but to hold this the cause of the judgment against him, is to degrade the whole proceeding, and to convict the pope, Bellarmnin, the theologians, and the InquLisition, of direct falsehood, since they assigned entirely different reasons for their conduct. From this, therefore, the apologists hastily retreated. The next rally was made about the statement that the persecution of Galileo w-as the result of a quarrel between Aristotelian proessors on one side and professors favoring the experimental method on-tile other, and that at first Cope Urban favored l See zl]ariIi, who manipulated the original documents to prove this. Even Whewell appears to have been somewhat misled by him; but Whewell wrote before De l'Epinois had shown all the documents, and under the supposition that Marini was an honest man.

Page  57 ASTROO[OMY. Galileo. But this position was attacked and carried by a very simple statement. If the Divine guidance of the Church is such a sham that it can be dragged into a professional squabble, and the pope made the tool of a faction in bringing about a most disastrous eondemnatior of a proven truth, how does the Church differ fromn any human olganization sunk into decrepitude, managed by simipletonls and controlled by schemners? If the argument be true, the condition of the ClLhurch is worse than its enemies have declared it. Amid the jeers of an unfeeling world the apologists sought new shelter. The next point at which a stand was made was the assertion that the condemnation of Galileo was "' provisory;" but this proved a more treachlierous shelter than the other. When doctrines have been solemnly declared, as those of Galileo were solemnly declared, "contrary to the sacred Scriptures," " opposed to the true faith," and "false and absurd in thieology and philosophy," to say that such declarations are " provisory," 1 is to say that the truth held by the Church is not immutable; from this, then, the apologists retreated. While this retreat was going on, there was a constant discharge of small-arms in the shape of innuendoes, hints, and small sophistries, by small I See Marini. 57

Page  58 58 THE WARFARE OF SCIE~-CE. writers; every effort was made to blacken Galileo's private character; the irregularities of his early life vwere dragged forth, and stress was laid on breaches of etiquette; but this succeeded so poorly, that in 1850 it was thought necessary by the Romnan court to cover their retreat by some more careful strategy. The original documents of the trial of Galileo hlad, during the storms of the early part of the century, been transferred to Paris; but after several years, in 1846, they were returned to Rome by the French government, on the express promnise b)y the papal authorities that the decisions should be published. After various delays, on various pretexts, in 1850 the long-expected publication appeared. The ecclesiastic charged with presenting them to the world was Monlsignlor M1arini. This ecclesiastic was of a kind which has too often afflicted the weary earth —fox-like in cunning, eat-like in treachery. Despite the solemn promise of the papal court, the wily MIarini became the instrument of the Romlan authority in evading the promise; by suppressing, a document hlere, and interpolating a statement thlere, he managed to give plausible standing-ground for nearly every important sophistry ever broachled to save the reputation of the Church and destroy the reputation of Galileo. Hie it was who supported the idea that "Galileo was condemned not for heresy,

Page  59 ASTPO NVO [I Y. but for contnumacy," and varions othler assertions as grondclless. The first effect of A~onsignor 3[arini's book seemed favorable in covering the retreat of the Churchl; aided by him, such vigorous writers as Ward w-ere ablle to thlrow Up temiporary ijtrenchments between the Churchl and the iindignation of the world. But some time later camie an investigator very different froim wily 3fonsignor AIarini. This man was a Frienlichmanl, 31. de l'Epinois. Like alarini, De l'Epinois was devoted to the Chutrch, but, unlike 3liarini, he could not lie. IHaving obtained access, in 1SC7, to the Galileo docnments at the Vatican, lie publlisled fullv all those of importance, wvithout suppression or piously-fraudulent manipulation. Tlhis miale all thle intrencllments based u1poIl 3Iarini's statements untenable. Another retreat had to be made. And now was made the most desperate effort of all. The apolocistic army, reviving all idea whichl popes and Church had spurned, declared that thle pope, (ts )o0ie, had never condemned the doctrines of 1Topernik and Galileo; thlat hle had condemned themn as a iuan siiiply; tl-hat tlherefore the Church hladcl never been committed to them; that the- wvere condlemned by the cardinals of the Iinquisitioii a,nd Index, and that the pope had evidentlv b)ee restrainecfl from signing, their condein 59

Page  60 60 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. nation I)y Providence.' Nothing could show the desperation of the retreating party better than ju,gglery like thlis. The facts are, that from Pope Urban downward, amonlg the Church authorities of the seventeenth century, the decision was spoken of as miade by the pope and the Churchl. Urban VIII. spoke of that of 1616 as made by Pope Paul V. and the Church, and of that of 1633 as made by himself and the Church.2 When Gassendi attempted to raise the point that the decision w-as not sanctioned by the Church as such, a great theological authority, Father Lecazre,2 rector of the College of Dijon, publicly contradicted him, and declared that it " was not certain cardinals, but the supreme authority of the Churelc," that bad condemned Galileo; and to this statement the pope and the Churlch gave consent, either openly or by silence.3 The suspected thinkers, like Descartes and others, who attempted to raise the same point, were treated with contempt. Father Castelli, who had devoted himself to Galileo, and knew to his cost just what the condeinnation meant and who made it, takes it for granted, in his letter to the papal authorities, that it was made by the Church. Cardinal Querenghi I See Epiiois and T7h. lfaortin, passinm. 2 See pages 136, 144, and elsewhere in _leartin, who, much against his will, is forced to allow this. 3~ artin pp. 146, 147.

Page  61 ASTPR O-0J[I". ill hlis letters, the emlbassador Gticceiardini in' his dispatchlles, tlhe historian Viviani it' his biograplhy of Galileo-all writinog ilinder Church inspection at the time-take the view that the ChliLrell' condemnted Galileo. The Inquisition itself, baecked by the,greatest theologian of the time, Bellarmiin, tookl tlhe same vien w 1 and if this were not enough,l Vwe have the R)omian Index, conltaining the coildeiIiationI for nearly two hlntildred years, prefaced )by a solemiin bull of the reigning pope, binding the condemnation onl the consciences of the whole Churchl, and reiterating year after year the condetination of "all books whichl affilrm the llmotionl of the eartli' as daimnable.2 To attenmpt to face ill this, added to the fact that the Inquisitionl condeiiiie(d Galileo, and required his al)jirationl of ' the heresy of the ioveinmeit of the eartl-l " by written order of thlle pope, was soon seen to be impossible. Iii spite, thenl, of all the casuistlry of DI)e l'EpiilOiS and all the special pleadings of 31. Alartin, the sturdv coiilluoin-senlse of the world proved too stirong; and now comes to view the most astoundimg defense of all-thlat hinited at by Viscounlt (le loniald and developed in tle _D,t4i(t Pievvie. This was nothing less than an attemplt to retreat raider a clhargle of deception against t!le hlmighity 1 See Malrtiii, p. 145. 2 See note on condemnation of Kopen.ilk. 6 61

Page  62 62 TIE VAP~1PE OF SCIEiVCE. iiiimiself. The arigiment is as follows " s ut it .nay well be doubted whethlier the Chiir-eli did :t'tard thte progress of scientific tritlh. AVlmat (it, was the v catt-ts,e tlst o A tlb,h 1t ;it t, p es at' ti,,t i,ln l'. ( i,rs l-t;,-l. uttt it'. (',(l \!4.i,[ +1 1t C]it,.'ud.nd, miorcover', since li tlt~l-l Tt fit S,, tV act as to retard the progress of scientific trnth, it -vould be little to hler discredit even if it were true tlat slie bad followed lis exam,n1ple,." With this, the retreat of tlle army of a)(lo,gists is cou1plete; firther thltan this, througlh - mazes of soplhistry and into depthls of contempt, tliey could not go.t For the attempt to make the crime of Galileo a l)reach of etiquette, se DI)?t6liit aes'ie', as above. T'itcu,cll, vol. i., 393. Citation from "a?'ini: " Galileo was punished for trifling with the authorities to which he refused to sulbinit, and was piutished for ol)bstinate contumacy, Inot heresy." The sufficient answer to all this is, that the words of the iniflexible sentence designating the condemnned books are: "Lilri oiflnes qui affirlnant telluris 111otum." See Bertreti!, p. 9. As to the idea that "( Glileo was punished not for his opinion, but for )asing it on Srip)tule," the answer may be found in the Rolian Index of 1701-. in which are noted for condemnation " Lilri omnes docenites miobilitatemi terrm ct iinmolilitatemi solis." For the way in whichl, when it was found con-eniient in argument, Church apologists insisted that it was "the Supreme Chief of the Church, by a ponitifical decree, and lnot certain cardinals," who condecmied Galileo and his doctrine, see Father Leeazrc's letter to Gassendi in Flari.ito,, ip'a. f itb d.s 3f)o).,4d p. 427, andl tran VIII.'s own declarations as given

Page  63 AST-ROVO3~Y. Do) noOt nd(lerstandl mie here as casting blameie on the )olllnaii Clhu'elh at larg,e. It inmust in fairness ])e sai(l, that somie of its best meii tried to stop this reat mistake. Ev-en Pope ULrban liimiself w0nould la-e been gladl at one time to stopl) it; but t]e ceurenit was too strong, anld lie weakly yieldeld, l,ec,,~,/ing a )itter perseector.' Thlle whole of the eivilize — world w-as at fautlt, Protestant as'Well as Cathlolic, aiid not any particular part of it. It was iiot the fault of relig,ion; it was the fault ocf tlle sholrt-siglitedl viewvs which narrovw-miinded, loudvoiced miien are ever pirone to miix in witlh religion, aid to iisist are religion.' b)v Maritin. For the wav in whllichl, when necessary, Clhurch apologists asserted the very contrary of this, declaring that " it was isstied in a doctrinal decree of the Congregation of the Index, and hot as the lIolv Father's teaching," see.lDblin Retiew, Septeml)er, 1855. iAnd for the most astounding attempt of all, to take the )blame off the shoulders of )both pope and cardinals, anld place it upoi the Almnighty, see the article abl)ove cited, in the )Dttblin iJ6riee, Septembler, 1865, p. 419. For a good summary of the valiots attempts, and for replies to tlhemi in a spirit of judicial fairness, see /'h. I itit i, J5e de Galilee, thlough there is some special pleading to save the infalliblilitv of pope and Church. The l)ilbliolgaphy at the close is very valuable. F or Blaronius's remark, see D)e Jforgyctn, p. 26. Also, 117ci-cil, vol. i., p. 394. 2 For an exceedingly striking statement, by a Romian Catholic historian of genius, as to popular demanad for persecution, and( the pressure of the lower strata, in ecclesiastical organizations, for cruel measures, see Btlin,,s, Le Ptotestatttiste coipar~ au Calliolieis,iie, etc., 4th el., Paris, 1855, vol. ii. Archbishlop Spauldling 63

Page  64 64 THE TAPEARE OF SCIENCE. nBLt the losses to the earth in the long war against Galileo were followed by losses not less unfortunate in other quarters. There was thlien in Europe one of the greatest thinkers ever given to mankind-e-Rne' Descartes. -Iistaken thoLgh many of his theories were, they were fruitful in truths. The scientific warriors had stirred new life in him, and he was working over and summingig up in his mighty mind all the researches of his time; the result must make an epoch in history. Iis aim was to combine all knowledge and tliought into a " Treatise on the World." tIis earnestness hle proved by the eleven years wlhich lie gave to the study of anatomy alone. Petty persecution he had met often, but the fate of Galileo robbed him of all hope, of all energy; the battle seelmed lost; lie gave up his great plan forever.' But chlampiols pressed on. Campanella, full of vagaries as hlie was, wrote his Al)ologi(a -)ro G7alileo, thioughl for that and other heresics, reli has something of the same sort in his 3iscellanies. L'Epinois, Galilee, pp. 22, ct seq., stretches this as far as possible, to save the reputation of the Church in the Galileo matter. HI nboldt, Cosmos, London, 1851, vol. iii., p. 21. Also, Loange, Geschichte des Jfaterialismnus, vol. i., p. 22, where the letters of Descartes are given, showing his despair, and the giving up of his best thoughts and works to preserve peace with the Church. Also, Saisset, Descaetes et ses precurse?rs, pp. 100, et seq. Also, Jolly, Hist. d? io,t verneft Intellectual au XVI[e Siecle, vol. i., p. 390

Page  65 ASTRONOMY. gious anid political, he seven times underwent tor — ture.1 An} lTel)ler comes. IHe leads science on to grleater "ietoi'icse. Toparnik, great as lie was, coul( lh,t dli.cep.taln:e ~Iis s(ieittific reasoling enitirel-y t'',,I tlle tlee,logical bias. Tlte doctrines of Ais ttt Iii(] Tlio-,ii,i AN(uiiinias as to tlle iecessarv su },,'i,jity,f tie circle, hl9d vitiated tlhe miltc,I feat,f I is sy-stem, and left!),,eaclies in it throuLgli x;lui,:lt t-ltc Cl (:'~ vts n,.t sJ:xIV tv) enter. IKepler ;,Cos t]lt<c. eriors, and, by iwoldeifu-l g,efitiS iii in i')'i r l( vi~rintiu't ilti(Ild v-ig,or in thought, he brinigs to the world t}he tliree laws which l)ear Iii name, aud this fortress of science is complete. Ile thinks and speaks as one inspired. lHis battle is severe; he is sometimies abused, soinetimies ridiculed, sometimes imprisoned. Protestants in Styria and at Tuibingen, Catholics at Rome, press upon himi;' but [Newton, Halley, lradley, and the othler great leaders follow,, and to science remains the victory. Libi-, pp. 149, et seq. 2 Fromnundus, speaking of Kepler's explanation, says: "Vix teneo ebullientem risum." It is almost equal to the Aiew to Cfltirclt Jotrntal, speaking of John Stuart Mill as "that small sciolist," and of the preface to Dr. Draper's recent work as " chippering." How a journal generally so fair in its treatment of such subjects can condescend to use such weapons, is one of the wonders of modern journalism. For Protestant persecution of Kepler, see vol. i., p. 392. Among other things, Kepler's mother was declared a witch, and this was followed by a reminder of the Scriptural injunction, " Ye shall not suffer a witch to live." 65

Page  66 THE WARFARE OF SCIENTCE. And yet the war did not wlloly end. DTnriiig the seventeenth century, in all France, after all the splendid proofs added by 1Kepler, no one dared openly teach the Copernican theory, and Cassini, the great astronomer, never declared it.' In 1672 Fathler Riccioli, a Jesuit, declared that there were precisely forty-nine arguinents for the Copernican theory and seventy-seven against it; so that there remained twenty-eight reasons for preferring the orthodox theory.2 Toward the end of the seventeenthl century, after the demonstration of Sir Isaac Newton, even Bossuet, the " eagle of Meaux," among the loftiest of religious thinkers, declared for the Ptolemaic theory as the Scriptural theory;' and in 1724 John Hulltchinson published in England Ills ZJ[oses's P/i-nc/)ITa, maintaining that thle Hebrewv Scripttres are a perfect systemn of natural phlilosopliy, and are opposed to the NewNtomian theory of gravitati(on.4 In 1746 Boscovich, tllhe great atlhctlaticia-t of the Jesnits, used thlese words:'As tfor me, full of respect for the Holvy Scriptriies and the decree of the hIoly Inquisition, I reg,ord t]e earth as iimmiovable; nevertheless, 1 For Cassini's position, see Henri J.airtin, Hist. de France, vol. xiii., p. 175. Dacto, Jttcles Historiques, vol. ii., p. 439. 3 Bossuet, see Bert)raoid, p. 41. 4 For Hutchinson, see Lydll, Principles of Geology, Introduc tion.

Page  67 AST.ROYO[XY. fo1r -ipiiciy in e xpla tio, I ill l airgie,s if tlhe eaitll mloves, for it is pro-vedl that of tle two?pc(tllees tle alppearanci s f- vor tlhat idea.l " AI(-I even at a date far within ou1r own nineteenth century, the authlorities of the Spanish universities vigorously excluLded the Newtoian system, and the greatest of them all, thlle Uliv-ersity of Salamanca, held it lunder the ban until a very recent period.2 Xor hlas the opposition failed even in our own timne. On the 5thi of AIay, 1829, a great multitude assembled at Warsaw, to do honor to the memory of Koperiiik, and to unveil Thlorwaldsen's statue of him. Kopernik haid lived a pious, Chlristian life. IlIe was well known for unostentatious Chlristian charity. Withl his religious belief no fault had ever been found; he was a canon of the chlurch of I Boscovich. This was in 1746, but in 1785 Boscovich seemed to feel his position in view of history, and apologized abjectl-y. B(rtirand, pp. 60, 61. See also Whewell's notice of Le Sueur and Jacquier's introduction to their edition of Newton's Principia. For a clear statement of Bradley's exquisite demonstration of the Copernican theory by reasonings upon the rapidity of light, etc., and Foucault's exhibition of the rotation of the earth by the pendulum experiment, see Hloefe', Iist. de l'Astronomie, pp. 492, et. seq. For the most recent proofs of the Copernican theory, by discoveries of Bunsen, Bischoff, Benzenburg, and others, see Jevons, Prin(ciplles of Science. 2 See note in introduction to LEell's Principles of Geology; ilso, BPtckle Hist. of Civ. in England, vol. i., chap. i. 67

Page  68 TIIE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. Franenibeig, and over his grave had been written the miiost touching of Christian epitaphs. Naturally, then, the people expected a religious service. fall was understood to be arranged for it. The procession miarchled to the churlch and waited. The hour passed, and no priest appeared; none couLld be induced to appear. IKopernik, sin ple, charitable, pious, one of the noblest gifts of God to the service of religion as well as science, wvas still held to be a reprobate. Five years after tliat, his book was still standing on the Index of books prohibited to Christians; and although, in 1 757, under Benedict XIV., the Congregation of the Index had secretly allowed the ideas of lopernik and Galileo to be simply tolerated, it -Najs not until 1822, as we have seen, that Pius VII. allosowed the publishing of them at RPome; i d not Luntil 1835 did the prohibition of them filly disappear from the Index.1 I Bertrand, Fod(aatetirs (le l'Astron. M[od., p. 61. Flaemmarion, T'ie (le Copernic, chap. ix. As to the time when the decree of condemnation was repealed, various authorities differ. Artaud, p. 307, cited in an apologetic article in.Dublin Review, September, 1865, says that Galileo's famous dialogue was published in 1744, at Padua, entire, and with the usual approbations. The same article also declares that in 1818 the ecclesiastical decrees were repealed by Pius VII., in full Consistory. Whewell says that Galileo's writings, after some opposition, were expunged from the Ifdex Expergatorius in 1818. Cantu, an authority rather favorable to the Church, says that Copernicus's work remained on the

Page  69 ASTR ONOMY. The Protestantismi of England was little better. In 17'72 sailed tihe famous Englishl expedition for scientific discovery under Cook. The greatest by far of all the scientific authorities chosen to accompany it was Dr. Priestley. Sir Joseph Bankls had especially iinvited him; but the clergy of Oxford and Cambridge intervened. Priestley was considered ulisound in his views of the Trility; it was suspected that this would vitiate his astronomical observations; he was rejected, and the expedition crippled.' Nor has the warfare against dead chamipions of science been carried on only by the older Church. On the 1()thl of M,ay, 1859, wvas buried Alexallder von Hllumboldt. Iis labors were among the greatest glories of the century, and his funeral one of the most imposing that Berlin had ever seen; amiong those who honored tlhemselves by their presence was the prince regent-the present emperor. 13ut of the clergy it was observed that inone were present save the officiating clergyman and a few regarded as unorthodox.2 it,lex as late as 1835. Ceattu, Histoire Universdle, vol. xv., p. 483; and with this Th. Martin, not less favorable to the Church, but exceedingly careful as to the facts, agrees. 1 See 1reld, History of ti]e ]Roall S%ciet/, vol. ii., p. 56, for the facts and the admirable letter of Priestley upon this rejection. I Bi't]s and Lassell, Life, of Hitijoboldt, London, 1873, vol. ii., p. 411. 69

Page  70 70 THE WA~RF~PE OF SC.[EiVCE. Xor have attelmpts to renew the battle been wanting in these latter days. The attempt in the Chlurchl of England, in 18S64, to fetter science, which w+as brought to ridicule by Herselhel, Bow — ring, and De Miorgan; the Lutheran assemblage at 3erlin, in 1868, to protest against " science falsely so called," in the midst of which stood Pastor IKnak denouncing the Copernican theory; the Syllabus," the greatest mistake of the Roman Church, are all examples of this.' /- \nd now, what has been won by either party (in this long and terrible war? The party which \would subordinate the ilethods and aims of scicece to those of theology, though in general obedient to deep convictions, had given to Christianity a series of the worst blows it had ever received. Thley hlad made large lnumbers of the best mei inii Europe hate it. Why did Ricetto and Bruno and Vanini, when the crucifix was presented to them in their hours of martyrdom, turn from that blessed image waith loathing?. 2 Simply because Christianity hlad been mnade to them identical with the most liorril)le oppression of the mind. For the very amusing details of the English attempt, and of the wav ill which it was met, see -De Mforgan, Paradoxes, p. 42. For Pastor Knak and his associates, see Revue des Deux Bfondes, s1868. 2 For a striking account, gathered from eyewitnesses of this frightful scene at the execution of Bruno, see letter of Scioppiis in appendix to vol. iv. of Libri, Hist. des,athgeiatiques.

Page  71 hlad -wellniglh engulfed them. On the othler hand, w-lhat had science done for religion? Simply thlis: Kopernikl, escaping perseeution only by death; Giolrdano Bruno, burned alive as a monster of impiety; Galileo, imprisoned and hulmiliated as the worst of misbelievers; Kepler, Ilronted alilke by Protestiiit and Catlholi(. had given to religion great ne foundations, great new, ennobling conceptions, a great new revela-J tioi of tlhe iiglit of God. t Unle the oldl s-ystei we hlave that princely astr: iioi,ier, A (folo} ~f Castile, seeing the Tep-verty of tlte Ptolec:inc system,.-et knowing nio othel. stnrt'iii Eu riope with tl t l:.ihem nv tIlot it lie 1ali been p-resent at eCieatio)1L l,i l la re._l('gestd C better ordering, of thle 1t ell )(:loes. In(lei the new system you lhave Kepler, filled witlh a e ligioiis spirit, exclaiming, "I do think the tlhonltits

Page  72 72 THE WVARFARE OF SCIENCE. of God." 1 The difference ill religious spirit betw een these two men marks the conquest made in thlis, even by science, for religion. But we cannot leave the subject of astronomy without noticing tle most recent warfare. Especially interesting is it because at one period the battle seemed utterly lost, and then was won beautifully, thoroLughlly, by a legitimate advance in scientific knowledge. I speak of the Nel)ular THypothesis. The sacred writinTs of thle Jvews wM-ichl we hlave iilieiited( sl)eak ] ter lly of tle creation of the lieav.clty 1)t)dies byN dire(t iiterv-ention, aind for the conveiien(ce of the earthl. This was t-e view of the Fatllier of tTe C1ll r(,r,, an(ld was transmitted thrtough the great (doctors in tlieology. -Atore than thlat, it was crystallized in art. So hlave I seen, over the portal of the Cathedral of - Freiburg, a representation of the Almighty making and placing numbers of wafer-like sluns, moons, and stars; and at the centre of all, platter-like and largest of all, the earthl.2 The qines ol the Creator's face show that tHe is oblliged to contrive; the lines of his musclesC shown that lte is obliged to toil. I As a pendant to this ejaculation of Kepler may be cited those wondrous words of Linn,-eus: "Deum omnipotentem a tergo transeuntem vidi et obstupui." For papal bull representing the earth as a flat disk, see Daunou, ttudes Historiques, vol. ii., p. 421.

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Page  74 74 TTIE WAPFARE OF SCIENCE. as they said, it had proved the truth of Scripture. They had junped to tLe conclusion that all nebula i'.lust be alike-that if some are made up of svstens of stars, all must be so made lup; that none (:lit be masses of attenuatedcl gaseous matter, becciise some are not. Science, for a time, halted. The accepted doetrine became this: that the only reason why all the nebula are not resolved into distinct stars is because our telescopes are not sufficiently powerful. Put in time came that wonderful discovery of the spectroscole and spectirum analysis, and this was supplemented by Fraunhofer's discovery that the spectrum of an ignited gaseous body is discontinuous, with interrupting lines; and this, in 184:6, by I)raper's discovery that the spectrum of an ignited solid is continuous, with no interrupting lines. And now the spectroscope was turned upon the nebull, and about one-third of them were found to be gaseous. Again the nebular hypothesis comes forth stronger than ever. The beautiful experiment of Plateau on the rotation of a fluid globe comes in to strengthlen if not to confirm it. But what was likely to be lost in this? Simply a poor conception of tihe universe. What to be g(ained? A far more w-ortly ideea of that vast power which works in the universe, in all things by law, and in none by caprice.1 1 For Bruno's conjecture (in 1591), see Jevons, vol. ii., p. 299.

Page  75 CHEMI[STRY ANrD PHYSICS. CIEMIISTRY AND PIIYSICS. The great series of battles to whiechi I next turn rith youL were fought on those fields occupied )by such sciences as Chemnistry and Natural Philosophy. Even before these sciences were out of their childhood; while yet they were tottering mainly toward childish objects and by childish steps, the champions of that same old mistaken conception of rigid ScriptuLral interpretation began the war. The catalogue of chemists and physicists persecuted or thwarted would fill volumes. The first entrance of these sciences, as a well For Kant's part in the nebular hypothesis, see Lange, Geschlic7lte des Mate-rialismzts, vol. i., p. 266. For value of Plateau's beautiful experiment very cautiously estimated, see W. Stanley Jevons, Principles of Science, London, 1874, vol. ii., p. 36. Also, Elisee Reclus,!'tle Earth, translated by Woodward, vol. i., pp. 14-18,for an estimate still more careful. For a general account of discov eries of nature of nebula by spectroscope, see Draper, Confict between RPeligion and Science. For a careful discussion regarding the spectra of solid, liquid, and gaseous bodies, see Schellen, Spectrum A)alysis, pp. 100, et seq. For a very thorough discussion of the bearings of discoveries made by spectrum analysis upon the nebular hypothesis, ibid., pp. 532-537. For a presentation of the difficulties yet unsolved, see article by Plummer, in London Popular Science Review for January, 1875. For excellent short summary of recent observations and thought on this subject, see T. Sterry! Hunt, Address at the Priestley Centennial, pp. 7, 8. For an interesting modification of this hypothesis, see Proctor's recent writings. 75o

Page  76 76 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. defined force, into the modern world, be,gan in the thirteenth century. But the thirteenth century was marked by a revival of religious fervor; to this day the greatest and best workls of the ca thedral-buLilders are memorials of its depth and strength. Out of this religious fervor naturally came a great growth of theological thought and ecclesi - astical power, and the spirit of inquiry was soon obliged to take account of this influence. First among the distinguished men who. in that century, laid foundations for modern science, was -Albert of Bollstadt, better known as Albert the Great, the most renowned scholar of Germnany. Fettered though he was by the absurd methods of his time, led astray as he was by the scholastic spirit, he had conceived ideas of better methods and aims. His eye pierces'thie mists of scholas ticism; he sees the light, and draws the world toward it. Hle stands among the great pioneers of modern physical and natural science. He aids in giving foundations to botany and chemistry, and Hunmboldt finds in his works the germ of the com prehensive science of physical geographyl. I For a very careful discussion of Albert's strength in investigation and weakness in yielding to scholastic authority, see Kopp, Ansichteu uiber (lie Aufyabe der Ciemnie von Gbeer his St((hl, Brauns'h?teig, 1875, pp. 64, et seq. For a very extended and enthusiastic biographical sketch, see PoucAtet. For comparison of his work

Page  77 CHIEMISTR Y AND PI YSICS. The conscience of the time, acting, as it supposed, in defense of religion, brought out a missile which it hurled with deadly effect. You see those mnediseval scientific battle-fields strewed with such: it was the charge of sorcery, of unlawful compact z with the devil. This missile was effective. You find it used against every great investigator of Nature in those times and for centuries after. The list of great mnen charged with magic, as given by Naud6, is astounding. It includes every man of real marlk, and the most thoughtful of the popes, Sylvester II. (Gerbert), stands in the midst of them. It seemed to be the received idea that, as soon as a man conceived a wish to study the works of God, his first step must be a league with the devil.' This missile was hurled against Albert. He was condemned by the authorities of the Dominican order, subjected to suspicion and indignity, and only escaped persecution by yielding to the ecclesiastical spirit of the time, and working mainly inll theological chlannels by scholastic methods. It was with that of Thomas Aquinas, see Milman, History of Latini, vol. vi., 461. J 6tait aussi tris-habile dans les arts ii,~cauiq?~es, ce q~ee lef t soutponoter d'etre sorcier. Sprenyel, Histoir e de la Mfi(eci?e, vol. ii., p. 389. 1 For the charge of magic against scholars and others, see Nautde, Apoloyie pour les grands horinres accuses (le Magie, passin. Also,J[alfi',!, iist. de la Jfacie, troisieme edit., pp. 214, 215. Also, Cuvier, Hist. dles Sciences ivaturelles, vol. i., p. 396. 7, i

Page  78 THE WA-RFARE OF SCIENCE. a sad loss to the earth; and certainly, of all organizations that have reason to lament the pressure of those ecclesiastical forces which turned Albert the Great from the path of experimental philosophy, foremost of all in regret should be the Christian Church, and especially the Roman branch of it. Had the Church of the thirteenth century been so full of faith as to accept the truths in natural science brought by Albert and his compeers, and to have encouraged their growth, this faith and this encouragement would to this day have formed the greatest argument for proving the Church directly under Divine guidance; they would have been the brightest jewels in her crowvn. The loss to the Church, by this want of faith and courage, has proved, in the long-run, even greater than the loss to science. The next great man of that age whom the theological and ecclesiastical forces of the time turn from the right path is Vincent of Beauvais. Vincent devoted himself to the study of Nature in several of her most interesting fields. To as tronomy, mineralogy, botany, and chemistry, he gave much thought; but especially did hlie devote himself to the preparation of a full account of the universe. Jiad he taken the path of experimental research, the world would have been enriched with most precious discoveries; but the impulse followed by Albert of Bollstadt, backed as it was

Page  79 CHEfIIISTRY ANID PHYSICS. by the whole ecclesiastical power of his time, was too strong, and, in all the life-labor of Vincent, nothing, appears of any permanent value. He built a structure which careless observation of facts, literal interpretation of Scripture, and theological subtilizing, combined to make one of the most striking monuments of human error.' But the theological ecclesiastical spirit of the thirteenth century gained its greatest victory in the work of the most renowned of all thinkers of his time, St. Thomas Aquinas. In him was the r theological spirit of his age incarnate. Although he yielded somewhat, at onle period, to love of studies in natural science, it was he who finally made that great treaty or compromise which for ages subjected science entirely to theology. He it was whose thought reared the most enduring barrier against those who, in that age and in succeeding ages, labored to open for science the path by its own legitimate method toward its own noble ends. Through the earlier systems of philosophy as they were then known, and through the earlier theologic thought, he had gone with great labor and vigor; he had been a pupil of Albert of Bollstadt, and from him had gained inspiration in science. ' See -trades sur Vincent de Beauvais par l'Abbg Bourgeat, chaps. xii., xiii., xiv. Also, Pouchet, Histoire des Sciences Xaturelles au 4f[oyen Age, Paris, 1853, pp. 470, et seq. 79

Page  80 80 THE TWARFARE OF SCIENCE. All his mighlty powers, thus disciplined and cultured, he brought to bear in making a treaty or truce, giving to theology the supremacy over science. The experimental method had already been practically initiated; Albert of Bollstadt and Roger Bacon had begun their work in accordance with its methods; but St. Thomas Aquinas gave all his thoughts to bringing science again under the sway of the theological bias, metaphysical methods, and ecclesiastical control. Hie gave to the world a striking example of what his method could be made to produce. In his commentary upon Aristotle's treatise upon " Heaven and Earth" he illustrates all the evils of such a combination of theological reasoning and literal interpretation of the Scriptural with scientific facts as then understood, and it remains to this day a prodigious monument to human genius and human folly. The ecclesiastical power of the time hailed him as a deliverer; it was claimed that striking miracles were vouclsafed, showing that the blessing of Heaven rested upon his labors. Among the legends embodying the Church spirit of that period is that given by the Dollandists and immortalized by a renowned painter. The great philosopher and saint is represented in the habit of his order, with book and pen in hand, kneeling before the image of Christ crucified; and as he kneels the image thus addresses him: " Thomas, thou hast written well concerning

Page  81 CHEM[ISTRY AND PPHYSICS. me; what price wilt thou receive for thy labor?" To this day the greater ecclesiastical historians of the Roman Church, like the Abbe' Rohrbacher, and the minor historians of science, who find it convenient to propitiate the Church, like Pouchet, dilate upon the glories of St. Thomas Aquinas in thus making a treaty of alliance between religious anrid scientific thought, and laying the foundations for a "sanctified science." But the unprejudiced historian cannot indulge in this enthusiastic view. The results both for the Church and for the progress of science have been most unfortunate. It was a wretched step backward. The first result of this great man's great compromise was to close that new path in science which alone leads to discoveries of value-the experimental method-and to reopen the old path of mixed theology and science, which, as Hallam declares, "after three or fobr hundred years had not untied a single knot, or added one unequivocal truth to the domain of philosophy;" the path which, as all modern history proves, has ever since led only to delusion and evil.' I For work of Aquinas, see St. Thoenas Aquinas, Liber de Ccelo et -If?I~do, section xx. Also, Life and Labor?s of St. Thomzas of Aquin, by Archbishop Vaughan, pp. 459, et seq. For his labors in natural science, see Hoefer, Histoire de la Chiimie, Paris, 1843, vol. i., p. 381. For theological views of science in miiddle ages, and rejoicing thereat, see Pouchet, Hist. dles Sci. Sat. aue 3Ioyen Age, ,tbi supra. Pouchet says: "En g6ne6ral au milieu du moyen age 81 (

Page  82 82 THE WARFARE OF','CIENC~. The path thus unfortunately opened by these strong men became the main path in science for ages, and it led the world farther and farther from any fruitful fact or hopeful method. Roger Bacon's investigations were virtually forgotten; worthless mixturei s of literal interpretation of Scripture with imperfectly authenticated physical facts took their place. Every age since has been full of examples of this, buLt out of them I will take just one; and it shall be no other than that Franceis Baconl, who, more than any other man, led the modern world les sciences sont essentiellement chretiennes, leur but est tout,A-fait religieux, et elles semblent beaucoup moins s'inquieter de l'avancement intellectuel de l'homme que de son salut eternel." Pouchet calls this "conciliation" into a "harmonieux ensemble" "la plus glorieuse des conqu~tes intellectuelles du moyen age." Pouchet belongs to Rouen, and the shadow of the Rouen Cathedral seems thrown over all his history. See, also, L'Abbe Rohrbacher, tHist. de i'-4qlise Catholique, Paris, 1858, vol. xviii., pp. 421, et seq. The abbe dilates upon the fact that "the Church organizes the agreement of all the sciences by the labors of St. Thomias of Aquin and his contemporaries." For the theological character of science in middle ages, recognized by a Protestant philosophic historian, see the well-known passage in Guizot, h%s. tory of Civilization in Europe; and by a noted Protestant ecclesiastic, see Bishop Hanmpden's Life of Thomas Aquinas, chaps. xxxvi., xxxvii. See, also, Hallam, Middle Ages, chap. ix. For dealings of Pope John XXII., and kings of France and England, and republic of Venice, see Figuier, L'Alchimie et les Atchimistes, pp. 140, 141, where, in a note, the text of the bull Spondent Pasiter is given.

Page  83 CHE-LrSTRY A-MD PHYSICS. out of the path opened by Aquinas, and back into the path trod by Roger Bacon. Strange as it may at first seem, Francis Bacon, whose keenness of sight revealed the delusions of the old path and the promises of the new, that man whose boldness in thought did so much to turn the world from the old path into the new, presents, in his own writings, one of the most striking examples of the Strength of the evil he did so much to destroy. The 25ovne, Ocganumm, considering the time when it came from his pen, is doubtless one of the greatest exhibitions of genius in the history of human thought. This treatise it was which showed the modern world the way out of the scholastic method and reverence for dogma into the experimenetal method and reverence for demonstrated fact. In the course of it occur many passages vlwhich show that the great philosopher was fully alive to the danger, both to religion and to science, arising from their mixture. Early in his ar,gument he says: "But the corruption of philosophy from superstition and admixture of theology separates altogether more widely, and introduces the greatest amount of evil, both into lwhole systems of philosophy and into their parts." And a little later he says: "Some moderns have indulged this vanity with the greatest carelessness, and have endeavored to found a Natural Philoso-phly on the first of Genesis and the Book of Job, 83

Page  84 84 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. and other sacred Scriptures, so' seeking the dead among the living.' And by so much the miore is this vanity to be restrained and coerced because their expressions form an unwholesome mixture of things human and divine; not merely fantastic philosophy, but heretical religion. And so it is very salputary that, with due sobriety of mind, those things only be rendered to faith which are faith's." 1 Still later, in his treatise, Bacon returns to the charge yet more strongly. Hie says: "Nor is it to be overlooked, that natural philosophy has in all ages had a troublesome and stubborn adversary in superstition and the blind and immoderate zeal for religion. Thus it has been among the Greeks, that they who first proposed to the yet unprepared ears of men the natural causes of lightning and tempests were condemned, on that head, for impiety toward the gods; nor by some of the old fathers of the Christian religion were those much better received, who laid it down from the most sure demonstrations, such as no one in his senses could nowadays contradict, that the earth is rounld, and asserted in consequence that there must be antipodes. Furthermore, as things are now, the condition of discourses on Nature is made severe and more rigorous in consequence of the summaries and methods of scholastic theolo l The Aot;?v( O)ganon, translated by the Rev. G. W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1855, chap. lxv. i,

Page  85 CHEMISTR Y AND PHYSICS. gians, who, while they have, as far as they could, reduced theology to order, and have fashioned it illto the form of an art, have besides succeeded in miingling, far more than was right of the quarrelsome and thorny philosophy of Aristotle with the b)ody of religion." "The fictions, too, of those who have not feared to deduce and confirm from the principles and authority of philosophies the true Christian religion, have the same tendency, though in a different way. These celebrated the wedding of faith and sense, as though it were lawful, with much pomp and solemnity, and soothed the minds of men with a grateful variety of things, but, meanwhile, mingled the divine with the human in ill-mlatched state. And in mixtures like this of tlieology with natural philosophy, those things only which are now received in philosophy are included; while novelties, though they be changes for the better, are all banished and driven out." And, again, Baeon says: " Lastly you may find, thanks to the unskillfulness of some divines the approach to any kind of philosophy, however improved, entirely closed up. Sonimec, indeed, inll their simplicity are rather afraid, lest perhaps a deeper inquiry into Nature should penetrate be- yond the allowed limits of sobriety." Still further on Bacon penetrates into the very heart of the question in a vigorous way, and says: " Others, 8 85

Page  86 86 TIIE WARFARE OF SCIE~YCE. more craftily, conjecture and consider that, if the means be unknown, each single thing can be referred more easily to the hand and rod of Goda matter, as they think, of very great importance to religion: and this is nothing more nor less than wishling to please God by a lie." And, finally, he says: "Whereas, if one considers the matter rightly, natural philosophy is, after God's word, the surest medicine for superstition, and also the most approved nourishmient of faith."' No man who has thought much upon the annals of his race can, without a feeling of awe, come into the presence of such inspired clearness of insight and boldness of utterance. The first thouglht of the reader is, that, of all men, this Francis Bacon is the most free from the unfortunate bias he condemns. He certainly cannot be deluded into the old pathi. BtLit, as we go on through the treatise, we are surptrised to find that the strong arn of Aquinas had been stretched over the intervening ages, and had laid hold upon this miaster-thinker of the sixteenth century. Only a few chapters further along we find B3aeon, after alluding to the then recent voyage of Columbus, speaking of the prophecy of Daniel regarding the latter days, that " imany shall run to and fro and knowledge be increased," as " clearly signifying that it is in N'?ovrz Or7anon, chap. lxxxix.

Page  87 CIIEMVISTR Y A/D PHYSICS. the fates, i. e., in providence, that the cirlcumnavigation of the world, which throughli so many lengthy voyages seems to be entirely complete or in course of completion, and the increase of science, should happen in the same ag,e." 1 Here, then, we have this great man indulging in that very mixture of literal Scriptural interpretation and scientific thought which he had condemned, and therefrom evidently deducing the conclusion that these great voyages and discoveries, which were the beginning of a new world in thought and action, were the end of all things. But in his great work on The Aclvcvncement of Lea ing the firm grip which the methods he condemned held upon him is shown yet more clearly. In his first book he shows how ' that excellent Book of Job, if it be revolved with diligence, it will be found pregnant and swelling with natural philosophy," and endeavors to show that the "roundness of the world,"' the "fixing of the stars, ever standing at equal distance," the "depression of the southerni pole," "C matter of generation," and "matter of minerals," are " with great elegancy noted." But, curiously enough, he uses to support some of these truths the very texts which the Fathers of the Church used to destroy them, and those for whici he finds Scriptural warrant mnost clearly are such as science I Yovum Organon, chap. xciii. SI7

Page  88 Ss THE WARFARE 0OF SCIENCE. has since disproved. So, too, he says that Solomon was enabled by " donation of God" in his proverbs "to compile a natural history of all verdure." 1 Certainly no more striking examples of the strength of the evil whilch he had all along been denouncing could be exhibited than these in his own writings; after this we cease to wonder at his blindness to the discoveries of Kopernik and the experiments of Gilbert. I pass from the legions of those who from that day to this have stnumbled into similar errors by degrading our sacred volume into a compendium of history or a text-book of science, and turn next to a far more serious class of effects arising from the great mediaeval compromise between science and ~heology. We have considered the wrong road into which so many master-spirits were led or driven; we will now look at the war brought against those men of science who persevered in the right road. The first great thinker who, in spite of some stumbling into theologic pitfalls, persevered in this true path was Roger Bacon. His life and works seem until recently to have been generally misunderstood. He has been ranked as a suiperstitious alchemist who stumbled upon some inven 1 Bocon, Y'le Ad)vacement of Learning, edited by W. Aldis Wright, London, 1873, pp. 47, 48.

Page  89 CHEM[ISTRY AXD PHYSICS. tions; but more recent investigation has revealed him to be one of the great masters in human progress. The advance of sound historical judgment seems likely to bring nearer to equality the fame of the two who bear the name of Bacon. Bacon of the chancellorship and the -Yovum Oracton may not wane; but Bacon of the prison-cell and the O1)zts I[ajits steadily approaches him in brighltness.' More than three centuries before Francis Bacon advocated the experimental method, Roger / Bacon practised it, and the results as now revealed are wonderful. He wrought with power in philosophy and in all sciences, and his knowledge was sound and exact. By him, more than by any other man of the middle ages, was the world put on the mnost fruitful paths of sciencethe paths which have led to the most precious inventions. Among them are clocks, lenses, burning specula, telescopes, which were given by him to the world, directly or indirectly. In his writings are found formula for extracting phosphorus, manganese, and bismuth. It is even claimed, 1 For a very contemptuous statement of Lord Bacon's claim to his position as a philosopher, see Lanqe, Geschickte des -~aterialismus, Leipsic, 1874, vol. i., p. 219. For a more just statement, see Brewster, Life of Sir Isaac Newton. See, also,.vons, Principles of Science, London, 1874, vol. ii., p. 298. 89

Page  90 90 THE WTARFARE 0OF SCIENVCE. with much appearance of justice, that he investigated the power of steam. He seems to have very nearly reached also some of the principal doctrines of mrnodern chemistry. But it should be borne in mind that his method of investigation was even greater than these vast results. In the age when metaphysical subtilizing was alone thought to give the title of scholar, he insisted on Seal reasoning and the aid of natural science by mathematics. In an age when experimenting was sure to cost a man his reputation, and was likely to cost him his life, he insisted on experiment and braved all its risks. Few greater men have lived. As w-e read the sketch given by Whewell of Baevn's process of reasoning regarding the refraction of light, he seems fairly inspired.' On this man came the brunt of the battle. The most conscientious men of his time thought it their duty to fight him, and they did it too well. It was not that he disbelieved in Christianity; that was never charged against him. His orthodoxy was perfect. He was attacked and condemned, in the words of his opponents, "i)rol)ter .casdam novitates s8ugpectas." He was attacked, first of all, with that goodly 1 Kopp, in his Ansichiten, pushes criticism even to some skepticism as to Roger Bacon being the discoverer of many of the things generally attributed to him; but, after all deductions are carefully made, enough remains to make Bacon the greatest benefactor to humanity during the middle ages.

Page  91 CHEM[ISTR(Y AND PHYSICS. old missile, which, with the epithets "infidel" and "atheist," has decided the fate of so many battles -the charge of magic and compact with Satan. He defended himself with a most unfortunate weapon-a, weapon which exploded in his hands and injured him more than the enemy, for he argued against the idea of compacts with Satan, and showed that nmuclh whichl i, ascribed to deimons results from matu-'al imeans. This added fuel to the flame. To limit the power of Satan was deemed hardly less impious than to limit the power of God.' The most powerful protectors availed him little. His friend Guy Foulkes having been made pope, Bacon was for a time shielded, but the fury of the enemy was too strong. In an unpublished letter, Blackstone declares that when, on one occasion, Bacon was about to perform a few experiments for some friends, all Oxford was in an uproar. It was believed that Satan was let loose. Everywhere were priests, fellows, and students rushing about, their garments streaming in the wind, and everywhere resounded the cry, " Down with conjurer!" and this cry, " Down with the conjurer!" resounded from cell to cell and hall to hall.2 1 For an account of Bacon's treatise, De Y,dltitate.Ma,ice see Hooefer. 2 Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, Braunschweig, 1843, vol. i., p. 63;

Page  92 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. Btt the attack took a shape far more terrible. The two great religious orders, Franciscan and I)ominican, vied with each other in fighting the new thought in chemistry and philosophy. St. Dominic, sincere as he was, solemnly condemned research by experiment and observation. The general of the Franciscan order took similar grounds. In 1243 the Dominicans solemnly interdicted every member of their order from the study of medicine and natural philosophy, and in 12S7 this interdiction was extended to the study of chemistry.' In 1278 the authorities of the Fran and for a somewhat reactionary discussion of Bacon's relation to the progress of chemistry, see a recent work by the same author, Ansichten iiber die Aufgabe der Chemie, Braunschweig, 1874, pp. 85, et seq. Also, for an excellent summary, see Hoefer, Hist. dle lt Chimie, vol. i., pp. 368, et seq. For summaries of his work in other fields, see T17tewell, vol. i., pp. 367, 368. Draper, p. 438. Saisset, Descartes et ses Prcu?rseurs, deuxieme edition, pp. 397, et seq. Tourrisso r, ]'rogris de la pensie huniaine, pp. 271, 272. Sprenqel, Histoire de la ilfdecine, Paris, 1865, vol. ii., p. 397. Cuvier, Tistoiee des Sciences Naturelles, vol. i., p. 417. As to Bacon's orthodoxy, see Saisset, pp. 53, 55. For special exalmination of causes of Bacon's condemnation, see WVaddington, cited by Saisset, p. 14. On Bacon as a sorcerer, see Featherstonaugh's article in Vouth Amrericaa Review. For a good example of the danger of denying full power of Satan, even in much more recent times, and in a Protestant country, see account of treatment of Bekker's Jfonde Enchanti by the theologians of Holland, in Nisard, Histoi-e des'ZLivres Poptlwaires, vol. i., pp. 172.173. :Htenri jJc,rti;, Hist. de France, vol iv., p. 283.

Page  93 CHE-iISTRY A[D PHYSICS. ciscan order, assembled at Paris, solemnly condemned Bacon's teachings. Another weapon beg-an to be used upon the I)attle-fields of that time with much effect. The Arabs had made noble discoveries ill science. Averroes had, among many, divided the honors with St. Thomas Aquinas. These facts gave the new iissile: it was the epithet "Mahometan." Thlis, toe:, was flung with effect at Bacon.' ,, Il w-as at last conquered. Hie was imprisone(l fr' fourteen years. At the age of eighty vears hie Aas released from prison, but death alone took himn bevond the reach of his enemies. Hlow deeply the struggle had racked his mind may be gathered from that last affecting declaration of hlis: "Would that I had not given myself so much trouble for the love of science!" Sad is it to think of what this great man might have given to the world had the world not refused the gift. HIe held the key of treasures which vwould have freed mankind from ages of error and misery. With his discoveries as a basis, with his method as a guide, what might not the world have gained! Nor was the wrong done to that age alone; it was done to this age also. Thte — iiiteenth century was robbed at the same time with the thirteenth. But for that interfer 1 On Bacon as a "Mahometan," see Saisset, p. 17. 93

Page  94 94 THE WARFARE OF SCIENXCE. ence with science, the nineteenth century would, without doubt, be enjoying discoveries which will not be reached before the twentieth century. Thousands of precious lives shall be lost in this century, tens of thousands shall suffer diseomfort, privation, sickness, poverty, ignorance, for lack of discoveries and methods which, but for this mistaken religious fight against Bacon and his compeers, would now be blessing the earth. In 18S68 and 1869, sixty thousand children died in England and in Wales of scarlet fever; probably nearly as many died in this country. Hlad not Bacon been hindered, we should have had in our hands, by this time, the means to save twothirds of these victims; and the same is true of typhoid, typhus, and that great class of diseases of whose physical causes science is just beginning to get an inkling. Put together all the efforts of all the atheists who have ever lived, and they have not done so much harm to Christianity and the world as has been done by the narrow-minded, conscientious men who persecuted Roger Bacon, and closed the path which he gave his life to open.' I F'or proofs that the world is steadily working toward great discoveries as to the cause and prevention of zymotic diseases and of their propagation, see Beale's Disease Germns, Baldwia Latham's Sanitary Enyineering, Mlichel Levy, Traite d'Hygiene Publiq'ue et Piivtee, Paris, 1869. And for very thorough summaries, see President Barnard's paper read before Sanitary Congress

Page  95 CHFM[ISTRY AND PHYSICS. Bult, despite the persecution of Bacon and the defection of those who ought to have followed him, champions of natural science and the experimental method arose from time to tihe during the suceediing centuries. We know little of them personally. Our main knowledge of their efforts is derived from the efforts of their opponents and persecutors. In 1317 Pope John XXII. issued his bull SI)out(lei Pariter, nominally leveled at the alchemists, but really dealing a terrible blow at the L.eginning,s of the science of chemistry. In 1380 Charles V. of France carried out the same policy, and even forbade the possession of furnaces and apparatus necessary for chemical processes. tUnder this law the chemist John Barillon, for possessing chemical furnaces and apparatus, was thrown into prison, and it was only by the greatest effort that his life was saved. In 14)04 Henry IV. of England issued a decree of the same sort; and in 1418 the republic of Venice followed the example of pope and kings But champions of science still pressed on. An-! tonio de Dominis relinquishes his archbishopric of Spalatro, investigates the phenomena of light, and ldies in the clutches of the Inquisition.1 in New York, 1874, and Dr. J. C. Dalltoi's Anniversary I)iscourse o; tale Oviffiy and Propafatiocz of Disease, New York, 1874. l Antonio de Dominis, see AMontitcla, Hlist. des Jfctthginatiques, vol. i., p. 705. IIumnboldt, Cosmos. Libri, vol. iv., pp. 145, et seq. 9a

Page  96 96 THE TVARFARE OF SCIENCE. Pierre'de la lamnee stands up against Aristotelianism at Paris. A royal edict, sought by the Church, stopped his teaching, and the massacre of St. Bartholomew ended his life. Somewhat later, John Baptist Porta began his investigations. Despite many absurdities, his work was most fruitful. His book on meteorology was the first in which sound ideas were broached. Hiis researches in optics gave the world the camera obscura, and, possibly, the telescope. In chemistry he seems to have been the first to show how to reduce the metallic oxides, and thus to have laid the foundation of all those industries based upon the staining and coloring of glass and enam els; and, last of all, he did much to change natural lphilosophy fromn a "black art " to a vigorous open science. He encountered the same old policy of conscientious men. The society founded by himi for physical research, "I Secreti," was broken uip, and he was summoned to Rome and censured.' In 1624 some young chemists of Paris, having taught thile experimental method and cut loose from Aristotle, the Faculty of Theology besets the Parliament of Paris, and the Parliament prohibits this niew chenmical teaching under penalty of death.2 I For Porta, see Hoefer, Hist. de la Chemnie, vol. ii., pp. 102106. Also, Kopp. Also, Sprenygel, Hist de la Ml[decine, iii., p. 239. Also, -I[lfsset-Parth ay. 2 Henri.J;trtin, Histoire de France, vol. xii., pp. 14, 15.

Page  97 CHEMISTRIt ANTD PHYSICS. The war went on in Italy. In 165)7, occurred the first sitting of the Acead emi clel Cimento, at Florence, under the presidency of Prince Leopold dei leledici. This Academy promised great things for science. It wvas open to all talent. Its only fundamental law was "the repudiation of any favorite systemn or sect of philosophy, and the obligation to investigate Nature by the pure light of experimient." The new Academy entered into scientific in-, vestigations with energy; Borelli in mathematics, Redi in natural history, and many others, pushed on the boundaries of knowledge. Heat, light, magnetismin, electricity, projectiles, digestion, the incompressibility of w-ater, were studied by the right miethlod and with results that enriched the world. The Academy was a fortress of science, and siege was soon laid to it. The votaries of scholastic learning denouneed it as irreligious. Quarrels were fomented. Leopold was bribed with a eardinal s hlat and drawn away to RPome; and, after ten year s of beleaguering,, thle fortress fell: Borelli was left a beggar; Oliva killed himself in despair. .'YSiei, Floirentit?e History, vol. v., p. 485. Titaboschi, Storia della Literat?trsa. Henri l~artin, Histoire de Franece. Jevons, Pri1lcipl(s of Science, vol. ii., pp. 36-40. For value attached to Borelli's investigations I)v Newton and Huyghens, see Brei,wster's 9 9,

Page  98 98 THE WAR FA RE OF SCIENCE. Still later, just before the great discoveries by Stahlll, we find his predecessor Becher opposed with the following syllogism: "King Solomon, according to the Scriptures, possessed the united wisdom of heaven and earth. But Kinig Solomen sent his vessels to Ophir to seek gold, and he levied taxes upon his subjects. Now, if Solomon had known anything about alchemy, he would not have done this; therefore Solomon did not know anything about alchemy (or lchemistry in the forIn whichl then existed); therefore alchemy (or chemistry) has no reality or truth." And we find that lBechier is absolutely turned away from his labors, and obliged to devote himself to proving that Solomon used more money than he possibly could have obtained fromll Ophir or his subjects, and therefore that he must have possessed a knowledge of chemical methods and the philosopher's stone as the result of them.' And, ill our time, Joseph de AIaistre, uttering his hatred of physical sciences, declaring that mana Life of Sir Isaac Newton, London, 1875, pp. 128, 129. Libri, in his Essai stur Gclilie, p. 37, says that Oliva was summoned to Rome, and so tortured by the Inquisition that, to escape further cruelty, he ended his life by throwing himself from a window. 1 For this syllogism, see -Figtier, L'Alchimie et ks _les imistes, pp. 106, 107. For careful appreciation of Becher's position in the history of chemistry, see Kopp, Ansichten iiber die Aufgabe der Chenie, etc., von Geber bis Stahl, Braunschweig, 1875, pp. 201, et scq.

Page  99 ANATOMY AND MEDMICINE. has paid too deaily for them, asserting that they must be subjected to theology, likening them to fire —good when confined, but fearful when scattered about-this brilliant thinker has been the centre of a great opposing camp, an army of good men who cannot relinquishl the idea that the Bible is a text-book of science. ANATOMY AND MEDICINE. I pass, now, to fields of more immediate importance to uis-to anatomy and medicine. It might be supposed that the votaries of sciences like these would be suffered to escape attack; unfortunately, they have had to stand in the thickest of the battle. The Clhurch, even in its earliest centuries, seems to have developed a distrust of them. Tertullianl, in his "Treatise upon the Soul," stigmatizes the surgeon Herophilus as a " butcher," and evidently on account of his skill in his profession rather than on account of his want of it. St. Augustinie, in his great treatise on the City of God, which remains to this day one of the treasures of the Church, speaks with some bitterness of "medical men who are called anatomists," and says thit "with a cruel zeal for science they have dissected the bodies of the dead, and sometimes of sick persons, w-ho have died under their knives, and have ./....!*.: 99

Page  100 100 THE WVARFARE 0F SCIENCE. inhLmanly pried into the secrets of the liuman body to learn the nature of disease and its exact seat, and how it might be cured!"' But it wvas not until the mixture of theology and science had begun to ferment, in the thirteenth century, and the ecclesiastical power had been aroused in behalf of this sacred mixture, that the feeling against medical science broke into open war. About the beginning of that century Pope Innocent III. forbade surgical operations by priests, deacons, or subdeacons. Pope I-Ionorius went still further, and forbade medicine to be practised by arelhdeacons, priests, or deacons; in 1243 the Dominican authorities banished bookls on medicine from their monasteries; somewhat later, Pope Boniface VIII. interdicted dissection as sacrilege.2 For Tertullian's views, see the De Animena, chap. x. For views of St. Augustine, see the De Civ. Dei, book xxii., chap. 24. 2 For Boniface VIII. and his interdiction of dissections, see Buckle's Posthuzozus }Forks, vol. ii., p. 567. For injurious effects of this ecclesiastical hostility to anatomy upon the development of art, see Woltman, Holbein and His Time, pp. 266, 267. For an excellent statement of the true relation of the medical profession to religious questions, see Prof. Acland, General Relations of Jfedicine in Jfodern Times, Oxford, 1868. For thoughtful and witty remarks on the struggle at a recent period, see Maury, L'Ancienne Acadenmie des Sciences, Paris, 1864, p. 148. Maury says: " La faculte6 n'aimait pas A avoir affaire aux theologiens qui procedent par anathemes beaucoup plus que par analyses." ,%.e ; *. *e ~ ~:

Page  101 AXATOMY AND MEDICIXE. Toward the close of that great religious cen tury came a battle which serves to show the spiit of the tiiue. The great physician and chemist of the day wvas Arnold de Villa Nova. Although hle has been overrated by some modern hlistorianls as a votary of the experimental method, and underrated by others as a votary of alchemy, the sober judgment of thle most thoughtful has acknowledged himn as one of the most useful forerunners of modern masters in medical ald chemical science. The missile usual in such cases was hurledc at him. IIe was charged with sorcery and dealings with the devil. The Archlbishop of Tarragona first excommunicated him aind drove him from Spain; nlext lie was driven from Paris, and took refuge at Montpellier; thence, too, he was driven; finally, every place in France was closed against hiih, a(nd lie became an outcast.' Suchl seemed the fate of men in that field who 1 For uncritical praise of Arnold de Villa Nova, see Figtiier, L'Alchiosie et les Alchimistes, 3eme edit. For undue blame, see Hoefer, Histoire de la Chtirnie, Paris, 1842, vol. i., p. 386. For a mnore broad and fair judgment, see Kopp, Geschichte der Chemie, Braunschweig, 1843, vol. i., p. 66, and vol. ii., p. 185. Also, Poic. chet, Histoi-e des Sciences Naturelles air Moyen Age, Paris, 1853, pp. 52, et seq. Also, Draper, Int. Dev. of Ererope, p. 421. Wlhe. well, Hist. of the Indtct. Sciences, vol. i., p. 235; vol. viii., p. 36. Fridault, Hist. de la Af~decine, vol. i., p. 204. 101

Page  102 10)2 THE WARFAPRE OF SCIEN~CE. gained even a gliimmer of new scientific truth. Even men like Cardan, and Paracelsus, and Porta, who yielded much to popular superstitions, were at once set upon if they ventured upon any other than the path which the Church thiought soundthe insufficient path of Aristotelian investigation. W5e have seen that the weapons used against the astronomers were mainly the epithets" infidel" and "atheist." We have also seen that the missiles used against the chemiists and physicians were the epithets " sorcerer" and "leaguer with the devil," and we have picked up on various battlefields another effective weapon, the epithet " Iohammedan." On the heads of the anatomists and physicians were concentrated all these missiles. The charge of atheism ripened into a proverb: "Ubi scet tres medici, ibi sunt duio athei." lfagic seemed so common a charge that many of the physicians seemed to believe it themselves. Mohammedaiinism and Averroism became almost synonymous with medicine, and Petrarch stigmatized Averroists as "men who deny Genesis and bark at Christ."' Not to weary you with the details of earlier I Renan, At,erroes et l'Averroisme, Paris, 1867, pp. 327, 333, 335. For a perfectly just statement of the only circumstances which can justify the charge of "atheism," see Dr. Deems's article in POPULAR SCIENCE MIONTHLY, February, 1876. } II I

Page  103 A VA TO [Y TI)VD VED)ICliVE. st ruggles, I will select a great benefactor of imankind and champion of scientific trLLth at the period of the revival of learning and the ReformationAndreas Vesalius, the founder of the modern science of anatomy. The battle waged by this man is one of the glories of our race. The old methods were soon exhausted by his early fervor, and he sought to advance science by truly scientific means- by patient investigation and by careful recording of results. From the outset Vesalius proved himself a ,naster. In the search for real knowledge he braved the most terrible dangers. Before his time the dissection of the human subject was thoulght akin to sacrilege. Occasionally an anatomist, like 3Iundinus, had given some little display with such a subject; but, for the purposes of investigation, such dissection was forbidden.' As we have already seen, even such men in the early Churchl as Tertullian and St. Augustine held anatomy in 1 lWhewell, vol. iii., p. 328, says, rather loosely, that Mundinus "dissected at Bologna in 1315." How different his idea of dissection was from that introduced by Vesalius, may be seen by Cuvier's careful statement that the entire number of dissections by Mundinus was three. The usual statement is that it was two. See Ce,vier, Hitst. des Sci. eaf., tome iii., p. 7; also, Sprengel, Freda?e1t, and Hallan; also, Littre, Medecine et Mgdeci/r, chap. on anatomy. For a very full statement of the agency of Mundinus in the progress of anatomy, see Portatl, Hist. de l'Atatomie et de la Chirur. gric, vol. i., pp. 209-216 103

Page  104 104 THE WARFARE ()F SCIENCE. abhorrence, and Boniface VIII. interdicted dissection as sacrilege. Through this sacred conventionalism Vesalius broke without fear. Braving ecclesiastical censure and popular fury, he studied his science by the only method that could give useful results. No peril daunted him. To secure the material for his investigations, he haunted gibbets and charnelhouses; in this search he risked alike the fires of the Inquisition and the virus of the plague. First of all men he began to place the science of human anatomy on its solid, modern foundations on careful examination and observation of the human body. This was his first great sin, and it was soon aggravated by one considered even greater. Perhaps the most unfortunate thing that has ever been done for Christianity is the tying it to forms of science which are doomed and gradually sinking. Just as, in the time of Roger Bacon, excellent but mistaken men devoted all their energies to binding Christianity to Aristotle; just as, in the time of Reuclilin and Erasmus, they insisted on binding Christianity to Thomas Aquinas: so, in the time of Vesalius, such men made every effort to link Christianity to Galen. The cry has been the same in all ages; it is the same which we hear in this age for curbing scientific studies-the cry for what is called " soundc

Page  105 AIVATOMY AND VUEDICINE. learuinig." Whether standing for Aristotle against Bacon, or Aquinas against Erasmus, or Galen against Vesallus, or making mechanical Greekl verses at Eton instead of studying the handiwork of the Almnighty, or reading Euripides with translations instead of Lessing and Goethe in the original, the cry always is for "sound learning." The idea always is that these studies aresafe. At twenity-eight years of age Vesalius gave to the world his great work on human anatomy. With it ended the old and began the new. Its researches, by their thorouglhness, were a triumph of science; its illustrations, by their fidelity, were a triumph of art. To shield himself, as far as possible, in the battle which he foresaw must come, Vesalius prefaced the work by a dedication to the Emperor Charles V. In this dedicatory preface he argues for his method, and against the parrot repetitions of the mediaeval text-books; he also condemns the wretched anatomical preparations and specimens made by physicians who utterly refused to advance beyond the ancient master. The parrot-like repeaters of Galen gave battle at once. After the manner of their time, their first missiles were epithets; and, the almnost infinite magazine of these having been exhausted, they began to use sharper weapons-weapons the-l ologic. 105

Page  106 106 THE JVARFARE OF SCIENCE. At first the theologic weapons failed. A conference of divines having been asked to decide whether dissection of the human body is sacrilege, gave a decision in the negative. The reason is simple: Charles V. had made Vesalius his physician, and could not spare himi. But, on the accession of Phlilip II. of Spain, the whole scene changed. That most bitter of bigots must of course detest the great innovator. A new weapon was now forged. Vesalius was charged with dissecting living men,' and, either firom direct persecution, as the great majority of authors assert, or from indirect influences, as the recent apologists for Philip II. allow, Vesalius became a wanderer. On a pilgrimage to the Hloly Land to atone for his sin, hlie was shipwrecked, and in the prime of his life and strength he was lost to this world. And yet not lost. In this century he again stands on earth; the painter Hiamaln has again given him to us. By the magic of Hamann's pencil, we look once more into Vesalius's cell. Its windows and doors, bolted and barred within, betoken the storm of bigotry which rages without; the crucifix, toward which he turns his eyes, syibolizes the spirit in whichl he labors; the coitse I For a similar charge against anatomical investigations at a much earlier period, see Litter,:I[decine et _lecins, chapter on anatomy.

Page  107 A-14 TOMY A.XYD ~IEDICIiVE. o-)f the plague-stricken, over which he bends, ceases to be repulsive; his verv soul seems to send forth rays from the canvas wVhilch strengthen us for the good fight in this age.' lie was hunted to death by men who conscientiously supposed he was injuring, religion. His poor, blind foes destroyed one of religion's greatest apostles. What was his influence on religion? He substituted for repetition, by rote, of worn-out theories of dead men, conscientious and reverent searching into the works of the living God; he substituted for representations of the human structare-pitiful and unreal-truthfutl representations, revealing the Creator's power and goodness in every line.2 I hasten now to the most singular struggle and victory of medical science between the sixteenth anld nineteenth centuries. Early in the last century, Boyer presented Inocullation as a preventive of small-pox, in Franee; thoughtful physicians in Enland, led by Lady AlIonta,gu and MAlaitland, followed his example. 1The original painting of Vesalius at work in his cell, y) Hamann, is now at Cornell University. 2 For a curious example of weapons drawn from Galen and used against Vesalius, see Lelebs, Life of Goethe, p. 843, note. For proofs that I have not over-estimated Vesalius, see Portal, tbi sw,p.a. Portal speaks of him as "le yetie le plus droit q~t'eut 7'E'iope;" and again, " Tl.c. ae it p,zrait u,z des plus grands hoinTtes fq?i ait existe." 107

Page  108 108 THE WA.RFARE O SC.ENCE. Theology took fright at once on both sides of the Channel. The French theologians of the Sorbonne solemnly condemned the practice. English theologians were most loudly represented by the RPev. Edward Mlassy, who, in 1722, preached a sermlon in which he declared that Job's distemper w-as probably confluent small-pox, and that he had been doubtless inoculated by the devil; that diseases are sent by Providence for the punishaent of sin, and that t,e proposecl attempt to prevent thlem is'a diaboli(cal (,peratioiin."' This sermon was eutitled "' Thie D)aiigerous and Sinful Practice o)f IJocuLlation." Not less absurd was the sel-mon of the Rev. Mlr. D)elafaye, entitled " Inoculation an Indefensible Practice." Thirty years later the struggyle was still going on. It is a pleasure to note one great churcliman, Maddox, Bishop of Worcesteir, giving battle on the side of right reason; but as late as 1753 we have the Rector of Canterbury denouucing, inoculation from his pulpit in the primatial city, anld niany of his brethren followilng his examiple. Almong the most common weapons lurled by chulrchlmen at the supporters of inoculaioIn, during all this long vwar, were charges of sorcery andt atheismli.' l Sce SpIrey(cl, Histoire de la -Jedecine, vol. vi., pp. 39-80. For the opposition of the Paris Faculty of Theology to inoculationi, see the Journal de Baibier, vol. vi., p. 294. For bitter denunc.ations of inoculation by the English clergy, and for the noble

Page  109 A-4VTOM[Y AiVD [~DICIE~. Nor (lid Jenner's blessed discovery of vaccination e-ap)e opposition oni similar glronlnds. I 1798 Sn anti-vacciIne so(ietv w ~as r formde (lc l'e')mene aiit pilhysicians, calliing oil the peolc(I 0f Eofland to suppress vaccination as "bidding defiance to Ileavcn itself-even to the will of God." and declariing that "the law of God prohibits the practice." I.n 1803 the Rev. Dr. Ramnsden thundered ag,ainst it iii a sermon before the University of Cambridg'e, mingling texts of Scripture wit caluinnies against Jenner; but Pltumptre in England, Waterholse in Aimerica, and a host of other good men and( true, press forward to Jenner's side, and at last science, lhumanity, and right reason, gain tlhe victory. But IL pass to one typical conflict in our days. In 1847 James Youtmg Simpson, a Scotch phlysician of emiinence, advocated the use of anaesthetics in obstetrical cases. Immiediatelv a stormi arose. Firom pulpit after pulpit sll h a use of chlloroform was denoiunced as stand a,-iiL-. thlem hby Maddox, see Be-on, Life of Jeoner, vol. i., pp. 231, 23 nd vol. ii., p1p. 39, 40. For the strenuous opposition of the samei clerg-, see 1171d(, Hiistor-y of the 2?ofal Society, vol. i., p. 464, note. Also, for the comical side of this matter, see Vic/. ols's Li,i','/ l/llst'(ttiolts, vol. v., p. 800. 1 For th, opposition of conscientious men in England to vacci nation, see J,Is, Life of Sir Jdoses }i Simpson, Baet., London, 1873, pp. 245, 049; also, Bcaron, Life of Jeiioer, ubi suprea, an,. vol. ii., p. 4:; also, Ioirks of Sir J. I' Siinpson, vol. ii. 10 1 ( 10

Page  110 110 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. imnpious. It was declared contrary t( JIoly Writ, and texts were cited abundantly. Thie ordinary declaration was, that to lse chloroformn was " to avoid one part of the primneval curse o oI n. SiVt l:,-all wr -,,te Ic'mpltlet'after l-),thll-Iiet to defend the blessing which he brought into use; but the battle seemed about to be lost, when he seized a new weapon. "My opponents forget," said he, " the twenty-first verse of the second ehapter of Genesis. That is the record of the first surgical operation ever performed, and that text proves that the Mtaker of the universe, before he took the rib from Adam's side for the creation of Eve, caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam." This wvas a stunning blow; but it did not en= tirely kill the opposition. They had strength left to miaintain that "the deep sleep of Adam took pla(!e 1)(,efore the irit-i(1(ucetion of pain into the Vol.-l(l -- ii; the state of innuocence." 2 Bit now a new eliampion intervened - Thomas Chalmers. WAVith a few pungent arguLments he scattered the enemy forever, and the greatest battle of science against suffering was won.' But was not the victory won also for reli'gion? Go to yonder monument, in Boston, to one of thc discoverers of ancesthesia. Read this inscription I See Du,It.s, Life of Sir J. Y. Simpson, pp. 215-222. 2 ]bid., pp. 256-259. 3 ]bid., p. 260; also, Tords of Sir J. Y. Sim?pson, ubi sutpra.

Page  111 GEOL OG G I from our sacred volume: " This also cometh from the Lord of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel ,lud excellent in working." GEOLOGY. I now ask you to look at another part of the great warfare, and I select it because it shows more clearly than any other how Protestant nations, and in our own time, have suffered themselves to be led into the same errors that have wrought injury to religion and science in other times. We will look very briefly at the battlefields of Geology. From the first lispings of this science there was war. The p)revailing doctrine of the Church was, that'. iii tic beginning God made the heavens and the earth; " that " all things were made at the be<ri,l] i, of the world; "' and that to say that stones -ai d f(, sil s, have been made since " the beginning," is contrary to Scripture. The tl-heological substitutes for scientific explanations ripened into such as these: that the fossils are "sports of Nature," or " creations of plastic force," or "results of a seminal air acting upon rocks," or "models" made by the Creator before he had fully decided upon the best manner of creating various beings. But, while some latitude was allowed among these theologico-scientific explanations, it was held es ill

Page  112 112 THE WATRFA-RE 0F SCIENCE. seutial to believe that they were placed in all the strata, on one of the creation-days, by the hand of the Almighty; and that this was done for some mysterious purpose of his own, probably for the trial of human faith. In the sixteenth century Fracastoro and Palissy broached the trLe idea, but produced little effect. Near the beginning of the seventeenth century De Clave, Bitand, and De Villon revived it; straightway the theologic faculty of Paris protested against the doctrine as unscriptural, destroyed the offending treatises, banished the authors from Paris, and forbade them to live in towns or enter places of public resort.' At the middle of the eighteenth century, Buffon made another attempt to state simple and fundamental geological truths. The theological faculty of the Sorbonne immediately dragged him from his high position, forced him to recant ignominiously, and to print his recantation. It required a hundred and fifty years for science to carry the day fairly against this single preposterous theory. The champion who dealt it the deadly blow was Scilla, and his weapons were facts revealed by the fossis of Calabria. But the advocates of tampering with scientific reasoning now retired to a new position. It was strong, for it was apparently based on Scripture, 1 Morgv, Life of Palissy the Potter, vol. ii., pp. 315, et seq.

Page  113 GEOLOG Y. tlooull, as the whole world now knows, an utterly false interpretation of Scripture. The flew position was, that the fossils were produced by the I)eluge of:N~oah In v-ain hlad it been shown, b)y sueli devoted Clristilans as Bernard Palissy, tliat this tleory was ntterl ulntenrable; in vain did good imen lprotest tgrainst the injury sure to result to religion by tying it to a scientific theory sure to be explodedl: thle doctrine that fossils were the remains of ani_mals (d-ownled at thle flood contiinued to t)e upheld },y the (reat majority as "sound doctrine'," and as a blessed means of reconciling science with Scriptuire.1 To sustain this "Scriptural view," so called, efforts were put forth absolutely herculean, both by Catholics and Protestants. Mazurier declared certain fossil remiains of a imanii,,l discovered in France, to be bones of gialnts lmen-tioed in Scripture. Father Torrubia did the sanie thing in Spain. Increase Mather sent similar remains, discovered in Amierica, to England, with a similar statement. Scheuchzer made parade of the bones of a great lizard discovered in Germany, as the homo diltrvii testis, the fossil mnan, proving the reality of the Deluge.2 I Audiat, Vie (le Palissy, p. 412. Cantu, Hist. Utiverselle, vol. xv., p. 492. 2 For ancient beliefs regarding giants, see Leopardi, Saggyyio 113

Page  114 114 THE WAREARE OF SCIENCE. In the midst of this appears an episode very comical but very instructive; for it shows that the attempt to shape the deductions of science to meet the exigencies of theology may mislead heterodoxy as absulrdly as orthodoxy. About the year 1760 news of the discovery of miarinle fossils in various elevated districts of Europe rec'clted ~otaire. Ile, too, had a thieologic s.ystein to support, though his system was opposed to that of the sacred books of the Hebrews. Hle feared that these new discoveries might be used to support the ]iosaic accounts of the Deluge. All his wisdom and wit, therefore, were comipacted into arguments to prove that the fossil fishes were remains of fishes intended for food, but spoiled and thrown away by travelers; that the fossil shells were accidentally dropped by Crusaders and pilgrims returning from the Holy Land; and that sopra gli errori popolari, etc., chapter xv. For accounts of the views of Mazurier and Scheuchzer, see Buiichner, f~an in Past, Present, and Future, English translation, pp. 235, 236. For Increase Mather's views, see Philosophical Tramsactiois, xxiv., 85. For similar fossils sent from New York to the Royal Society as remains of giants, see Weld, History of the Royal Society, vol. i., p.421. For Father Torrubia and his Gigantologia Espanola, see '-iArchitc, Introduction d l'.tude de la Paleontoloyie stratiographique, Paris, 1864, p. 202. For admirable summaries, see Lyell, Principles of Geology, London, 1867; D'Archiac, Ggologie et Palioitologie, Paris, 1866; Pictet, Trait6 de Paleonztoloyie, Paris, 1853; Vezian, Prodrome de la Giologie, Paris, 1863; Haeckel, History of Creation, New York, 1876, chapter iii.

Page  115 GEOLOGY. sundry fossil bones found between Paris and 2tampes were parts of a skeleton belonging to the cabinet of some ancient philosopher. Through chapter after chapter, Voltaire, obeying the supposed necessities of his theology, fights desperately the growing results of the geologic investigations of, his time.' But far more widespread and disastrous was the effort on the other side to show that the fossils were caused by the Deluge of Noah. No supposition was too violent to support a theory which was considered vital to the Bible. Sometimes it was claimed that the tail of a comet had produced the Deluge. Sometimes, by a prosaic rendering of the expression regarding the breaking up of "the fountains of the great deep," a theory was started that the earth contained a great cistern, from which the waters came and to which they retired. By taking sacred poetry as prose, and by giving a literal interpretation of it, Thomas Burnet, in his "Sacred Theory of the Earth," Whiston, in his "Theory of the Deluge," and others like them, built up systems which bear to real geology much the same relation that the "Christian Topography" of Cosmas bears to real 1 See Voltaire, Dissertation sur les Chanyei)ents arrives cdans notre Globe; also, Voltaire, Les Singularit&s de la Nature, chapter xii., near close of vol. v. of the Didot edition of 1843; also, Jrcvous, P'inrciples of Science, vol. ii., p. 328. 115

Page  116 116 THE WARFARE OF SCIENCE. geography. In vain were exhibited the absolute geological, zoological, astronomical proofs that -no universal deluge, or deluge covering any great extent of the earth, had taken place within the last six thousand or sixty thousand years; in vain did Bishop Clayton declare, that the Deluge could not have taken place save in that district where Noah lived before the flood; in vain was it shown that, even if there had been a universal deluge, the fossils were not produced by it: the only answers were the citation of the text, "And all the high mountains which were under the whole heaven were covered," and denunciations of infidelity. In England, France, and Germany, belief that the fossils were produced by the Deluge of Noah was insisted upon as part of that faith essential to salvation.' It took a hundred and twenty years for the searchers of God's truth as revealed in Nature-suchli men as Buffon, Linnaus, Whitehurst, and Daubenton-to push their works under these mighty fabrics of error, and, by statements which could not be resisted, to explode them. Strange as it may at first seem, the war on ge 1 For a candid summary of the proofs from geology, astronomy, and zoology, that the Noachian Deluge was not universally or widely extended, see ][cClintock and Strong, Cyclopeedia of Biblical YTheology and Ecclesiastical Literature, article IDeluge. For general history, see Lyell, D'Archiac, and Vezian. For special cases showing bitterness of the conflict, see the Rev. Hir. Davis's Life of Rev. Dr. Pye Smith, pas.sim.

Page  117 117 olog,y was waged more fiercely in Protestant coulntries than in Catholic; the older Chiurell had leiarneld, by her earlier wretched mtistales what dalngers to hier claimn of infallibilitv lav ill nieddlig' w-ithl a growing science; in Italy, then entirely under papal control, little open opl)ositionl w-as made; and, of all countries, Enlgland furnished the miost bitter opponents to geology at first, and the most active negotiators in patchiing up a truce on a basis of sham science afterward.' Yoiu have noted already that there are, generally, two sorts of attack onl a new science. First. thlere is thlle attack by pitting against science some great doctrine in theology. You saw this iii astronomy, vwhen Bellarnain and others insisted that the doctrine of the earth revolving about the sun is contrary to the doctrine of the ilncarniation..... So now, a,ainst geology, it was urged that the scientific doctrine that the fossils representedcl animals wvlich died before Adam, was contrary to the doctrine of Adami's fall, and that " deathl entered the vworld by siln." Thlen, there is the attack by literal interpreta For coijmparison between conduct of Italian and Englishl ecclesiastics, as regards geology, see Lyell, Priiciplcsf GClocj/, tenth English ed., vol. i., p. 33. For a philosophical statemient of reasons -why the struggle was more bitter, and the attempt at deceptiv-e comipromises more absurd in England than elsewhere, see .}[,:')/, L'Aneiein:1e ade(l dic (es S.ciseces, second edition, p. 152. GEOL O G Y. 1 ~

Page  118 118 TIIE 4ARFARE1 Of SCIE-VCE. tion of texts, based upon the idea that tlh Bible is a comlpendiium of history or a text-book of natural science, whlelich serves a better purpose, g,elerally, ill rousiing prejudices. Tovwardl the close of the last century, in EIng,lan(l, tie opponents of geology on Biblieal grounds seemied likely to sweep all before themi. Cramipilg our sacred volunie within the rules of an hiistorical eompendl, they showed the terrible dang'ers arisiing from the revelations of geology, which il-ake the earthl older thlan the six thlousai(d years requiredL by rchlbishop Usher's interpretation of the Ol(1 Testamient. inor was this panic confilned to ecclesiastics. Williams, a thoughtful layman, declared that such researches led to infidelity and athleismi, and are " nothling less than to depose the Almii-hLtv Creator of the universe from his office." The poet Cowper, one of thle mildest of menl, was also rotused b)-v these dangers, and ini his imost elaborate poemi wrote "Somie drill and bore The solid earth, and from the strata there Extract a register, by which we learn That he who made it, and revealed its date To Moses, was mistaken in its age!" Ai(d difficult as it is to realize it now, w-itlihii the imen -or of many of us the battle was still a^gin' nmost fiercely in England, and both kinf(is of artillery usually brought against a new science

Page  119 GEOL OG 1F veie ili fnll play, and filling the civilize(d world w-itli their roar. l (:,ult thirty -ears ago, the Perv. J. Atellcor B)rowns, the PRev. Henry Cole, and others, were ;rling at all geologists alikle, aind especially at nIIC Chlr4 istian divines as D)r. Bucklan-,d:dl D)ean Cmnyvl)ec:re, and Pve Smithl, and siuch religiois scllola)rs as Prof. Sedgwvick, the epithets of "1 infilel."' iiplgner of the sacred recordl," aid 1 a,, sailant of the v-olume of God." 1 Their favorite w-eaponi was thle charie that these men were "attacking the trutl of God," forTetting that they were sinply opposi1o,Y the mistaken interpretations of Alessrs. Brownii, Cole, anid i-tl!ers, likle themi, inadequately infor-med. Tliev dleclaredI geology " not a subject of lawful inquiry," denouncing, it as "a dark art," as 4"(ldmoerons and disreputable," as " a forli)idden prov-inec," as " infernal artillery." an( as " an a.-ftil evasioni of the testimony of revelatioii." 2 Tliis attempt to scare men fromr the science !-avi.r failedl, various other mneans were taklen. To sav nothin( ablout England, it is ]tuLniliatin: to) ]nii:ian nature to remembl)er the ailiovaTicees. -,l even trials, to -hilel the pettiest an II 1arrow ir thsce citations, see Pic/ i, P i'iil-,lcs of (coff(., ilitroituc'tioln. 2 See Pj/e Siiith, D D., andoloy a nd Script,'e, pp. 156, 157, 1~i l+;" 11.9

Page  120 12-) TIIE TT'-RF.4AE OF SCIECV'E. est of imen sbl)jected suchl Clristian scholars iln our own country as Benjamini Sillimani and Edward IIitelicockl and Louis Agassiz. ]3ut it is a dLity and a pleasure to state leire that one (rteat Christian sehliolar did lhoiior to re]igion and to himself by standing Up for tlhe claims of science, despite all tlhese clamors. That man w-as -Nicliolas AViseiman,. I)etter klnown afterwvard as Cardlaial AViseiman. The conduct of this pillar of the Iloiuani Catholic Church contrasts nol)ly wN-ithl that of tiliid Protestants, Mhio were filling Engl-and wvitli slhrieks and denunciations.' And lhere let ine note, that one of the prettiest slirmiislhes iii this war w-as made in New England. Prof. Stuait of Andover, justly hlonored as a I-Ielube- s(l,la, virtually declared that geology w-as becomiilng, dangeroius; that to speak of six p)eniod(s of tii-iie for the creation was flyiitn iii the face cf Scrii-)ture; that Genesis expressly speaLs of six d(vs. each made up) of anii eveiling and a mlorlill', a1! no)t six periods of timie. To im 1r eplied a plrofessorl iln Yale College, .lnamc s Iino "]e-' In an article adminiral3Ie for ~ ii w it alnd lkiidly temper, hlie show ed that Genll'ix,, it:Itr,.,1 i, f asol tyix,i~ ii t' as tt ii rof. u tait had I Tl'iser-,(i a TlIeI,le Lecturrs o7 tlIc Conscction 6ct,t:,t- Sci'jtcc ai(nI 2i(r'r,:c, Y i O, first Anmericar eclition, New Y(,tk. 147-.

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Page  122 192 THE Ti1RFARE OF SCIEVCE. Butt tlhese weapons did not succeed. They werle like Chinese gongs and dragon - lanterns against rifled cannon. B-uckllandi, I've Smith, L-ell, Silliiman, IIitchcoel, itulireilison, Agassiz, Diia, ain(l a host of noble chamipions besides, press oln, and thle battle for truth is won. \id (I q-as it won merely for mIen of science? Tle wh-lole civilized world declares that it was won for reli,ioni-thlat thereby was infinitelv increased thle lknowle(g,e of the power and good,less of God. POLITICAL ECONOITY. FVroin the many qulestions on which te sutpporters of riglht reason in Political aind Social Science hlave only conquered conscientioiis opposition after ceinturies of w-ar, I select the taling, of interest on loans; iii hardly any struggle has rigid adhlerence to the Bible as a scientific text-book )eeln morie proloinged or inijurious.1 Ceirtainly, if the criterion of trith, as regards aniy (Iietrine, be thlat it has been l)elieved in the Clhureli " al-way-s, every-where, and bv all, then on no point mavy a Christian of these days l)e more sure tha.n that every saving,s-institution, e-ery loan aidt t'rust comipany-, every )bankl, ever loan of 1 For another greoat error of the Church in political economy, leading to injulry to coimmerce, see ind1, Histo7 Of Jfercd.n$/4;2)]ip, London, 1 S7-4, vol. ii.

Page  123 POLITICA4L ECOiVO[-. capital bv an individual, every iieans by whilch accumulated capital has been lawfully lent, even at tlhe m4ost moderate interest, to make the masses of imen workers rather than paupers, is based on deadly Sill. The fathers of the Christian Chlrelh received fromlI the ancienit worlld a strong prejudice against any talkingl of interest whatever; in Greece, Aristotle hadll conldemned it; ill Rolme it was reg,arded lturing ilany egenerations as a crime.' But far grieater, in the early Chlurlch, was the influence of certain texts in the Old and New Testaiinents. Citations from Leviticus, Deuteronoly, the Psalms, Ezekiel, and St. Luke, were universally liel( to condeimn all loans at interest.2 On tltese texts the doctrine and legislation of the itnivelrsal Cluirch, as regards interest for Iloley-, were based and developed. The fathers of the Eastern Chliueh, and aimong tlhemn St. Basil, St. Ciirsostou', aind St. Gregory Nazianzen I See Jr',', tqisto7y of Us?/r, Philadelphia, 186G, p. 25) ilso, Coq7t(,iii (ei(1 Guillaumin,.Dictio?naire de l'co,womic P'olitielqe, articles ]ntt, t and Usure; also, Lecky, Histo,ly o{ ]'atioiz,iismii iet v'ol. ii., chapter vi.; also, Jereomy B~citftc(ii's D:. /;' fC f ( ~''!/, Letter X.; also, 2]r1.. D. S. Dickiiisoes i e8 ch i) ti, S'oat fof o'ot? )ok, vol. i. of his collected wriitiugs. Of,ll the summaries, Lecky's is l)y far the best. 2 The texts cited most frequently were Leviticus xxv. 36, 3.; Deu'erioinomy xxiii. 1-; Psalmns xv. 5; Ezekiel xviii. S and 17; St. LukeL vi. 3). See Leck1; also, Dic'eki'ou's Spccc/t, as above. 1'-)

Page  124 124 7HE WARFARE OF SCIE~VCE. the fathlers of the WVestern Chlrcell, a( am noln themi Tertullian, St. Ambrose, St. Ang;nstine, and St. Jeroine, joined most earnestly ini this condeiimnationI. St. Chlrysostomi says' WhaVat can he more innreasoial)le than to sow' witlhout land, witihout rain, withiout plouigls?. All tlose lwho give themiselves up to this damnaable agricultire shall reap oiily tares. Let us cut off these mionistrous l)irltlls of,old and silver; let us stop this execraI)le feciundity." St. Jerome thlrewv tlle argum ient nto the form of a dilemma, whichl was used as a w-eap(,;ni against nionev-lenders for centuries.' Tllis entire agreemelit of thle fathlers of the Church led to the crlstallization of the hlostilitv to interest-bearing loans into inuihberless decrees of popes and councils, and kings,and leoislatures. thronulgouit Cln'istendom, durinig miore than fifteen lhunidred yea-rs; and(] the canon law was slhaped iIt aicco)'dauce withi these. In thie ninth celitury, Alfred, in Eingland, confiscated the estates of imoneyleindes, and denied them buriial in consecrated grounid; andc similar decrees were made in other parts of Europe. InI the twvelfthl century the Greel Cliurlch seems to have relaxed its strictness somew-hiat, buit the Roman Chlurchl only grlew- more andi more se-vere. St. Bernard, reviving religious I ee )ictio Sei(i ( de l'Ecoi2omiie Politiq?e, articles Jat('et iiland Z.Ti?e for these citations. For some doubtful reservations )ade v St. Aurustine, see Ift?rray.

Page  125 POLITICAL ECO3OJU I: earnestness in-i the Church, wvas especially streniuous illn d(enouncing loans at interest; and, in 1179, the Tluird Council of the Lateran decreed that e-very inllpenitent money-lender should be excllcled( fromn the altar, from absolution ii tle hour of deith,l and from ChrlIistian burial! In thlle thlirteenthl centuLry this mrnistaken idea was still imore firinly knit into the thloug'ht of the Church by) St. Tlhomas Aquinias; hostility to loans at iiiterest hlad been pourecl into his mindi, not olllv froni the Scrilptures, but fioin Aristotle. At the beginning of the fourteenthl century the Council of ~ienne, p)resided over I)by Pope Cleient V., declared that, if any one) "slall pertina~ciously plresumlie to affirm that the taklinrg of interest for imioney is not a sin, we decree linn to be a lheretic fit for punishlment." 1 The econouincal and social results of this conscieitious policy were exceedingly unifortunate. Aloney coiuldl only be loaned, in most couitries, at tlhe risk of incurring odiium in this world anid clamiiation i1.1 the next; hencee there was I)but little capital and few lenders; hlence came enormous rates of interest; thereby were commerce, mainnfactures, aiid general enterprise dwarfed cl, while pauperism ilourished. But evenI worse than this were the mloral re See citation of the Latin text in Lecku. 123

Page  126 12s} TIIE WARFARE OF SCIE-CLE. sults. For nations to do whlat they belie-e( is evil is oly seconcl in bad consequenices to thleir doing, -what is ieally evil: all len ding, aiInd bl orrow-ing, eveni for the most legitimate pul-poseS aiid at tlhe mlost i-easonaT)le rates, tended to delase the char.cter of l)otlh borrow-er and( lender.' And tllese moral evils took more definite shapes than might .It filrst bIe tlhong,ht possible. Sismoldi, one of the iost tholog,htful of imoidern political plhilosoplhers and listorians declares that the proliibition of inteiest f4,r the use of mionev ill Continental Europec dild very miiech to promote a passioin for luxtiry "ll-d to diseonurage economy; the ricL Awho were not ei,g:ed in business finldii ng o ea1sy way of eifplloying, their savings productively.' These evils behcame so manifest, when trade beran to revive throghliout Europe in the fifteenth eeiturZ, that most earnest eflorts vwere miade to induce the Chnurch to change its position. Tie first important effort of this kind was madle I)y Joohn Gerson. His general learning had made lliIti Chancelor of the University of Paris Iis sacie(I learning made him the le,ading theolo(ian aid orator at the CoLincil of CoIstance; his piety led mene to attrilbute to him " The Ibuitatioii 1 For this mioral effect, see LJoitestjieu, l (ei! ((s Lois, lib. xxi., cltli. xx. 2 See citation in Lecky

Page  127 POLITICAL ~COiVO-iV}. f Clhrist." Shaking off thleolog,ical shlaekles, he declaredl: "'Better is it to lend money- at reasoinail)le interest, and( thuts to giv-e aid to the poor, thanI to see themi reduced by poverty to ste,ll, waste their oodls, and sell, at a low price, their personal and real piroperty."' Bit this idea was at once suppressed hy the (hIi-urchl-bhnied beneath citations from Scripturle, t,le fathlers, councils, popes, and the caiiou law. Even iii the miost active countries tllere seemed no hope. In England, Lnder Ilenry VII., Cardinal -Aorton, the lord-clhancellor, addressed Parliament, .slking tlhem to take inlto consideration loans of iuonev at interest, and the result was a law whlich im-posed on lenders at interest a fine of a hundred l)(-)p(nds, hesides tlie annullIenIt of the loan and, to show that thlere was an offence a,ainst religion inv-olved, there was added a clause reserviing to the Clmredi, notwithstanding this punLishment, the correction of their solls according to the laws of tllhe ,Maie."' Simiilar enactments were m1ade )y civil autlhoritv in various parts of EIurope, and, as a cli,:ax, just as the trade and commerce and mianufactures of the modern epoch hlad received an inmmiense iimpulse from the great series of vo-ages of dliscovery, l)- such as Colminbus, Vasco de Gaina 1 See Coqt'citc (id( Guillai2)tini, article Int'e'et. 2 See Ci-' itk's HIstory of British Commer-ce, chapter vi. The statute cited is 3 J'itll VII., chapter vi. 1297

Page  128 128S THE WcltRF-A-R E OF SCIE-VCE. Iatagellaii, and the Cabots, this barrier agaiInst eiiterprise was strenIgthlened by a decree frloiii Pope Leo X.' Buit this mistaken policy was not confined to the older Clircli. The PReformed Cliurel w-as led bv Luthler aind several of his associates illto the same lille of thoug,ht aind practice. Said Luthler: "To exchange anythling with aiiy one and gain by the exchang,e, is not to do a charity, bat to steal. Ever- usurer is a thief worthy of the gibbet. I call tlhose usurers whlo lend money at five or six per cent." 2 The Eng,islis Reforiiiers showed the same tendenie-. Ullider lHenry A7III., the law of I-henry TII. against taking interest had been modified; I)ut the revival of religions feeling unLder Edward VI. cauLsed, in 15529, the passage of the " ill of ULsurv." In this it is said "Forasnuchl as usurv is bv thle -Word of God ntterly prohibited, as a vice miost odions and detestable, as in divers places of the HIolv Scriptures it is evident to be seen, which thing by nio godly teachings and persuasions can sink into the hearts of divers greedy, iuncharitable, and covetous persons of this reallm, nor yet by any terrible tlhreatenings of God's wrathl and ven See Lcch-y. - See citation from the Tischnieden, in Guil?in ndI C'oqf - li, article JIterrt.

Page  129 POLITICUAL ECONVOMY. ?:eance," etc., etc., it is enactedcl that w-hlosoever shall thereafter lend money "for any mianner of iusury, increase, lncre, gain, or interest, to bI)e hIad, received, or hoped for," shall forfeit principal aand interest,.and sutffer imprisonment and fine at the linl', sI pleasure.' I-)ut, most fortuInately, it happened that Calvin t,iiied( in the rilght direction, and there was dev-elop)ed aimong Protestants the serviceable fiction that "usr" means il7eyal or ol))Iessivc interest. Under cover of this fiction commerce and trade reviv-ed rapidly in Protestant countries, though withl occasional checks from exact interpreters of Scripture. But, in the older Church, the more correct thloulli less fortunate interpretation of the sacred texts ielating: to interest conltilnued. Wh-en it was attemptedl in France, in the seventeenth century, to argue that " usulry " means oppressive interest, the Thleolog,ieal Faculty of the Sorbonne declared lthat uslury is thle takling of any interest at all, no matter lhow- little, and the eighteenth chapter of Ezekiel was cited to clinch this judgment. Another attempt to ease the burden on industry ai(nd commerce was made by declaring, that ' usury means interest deimanided not as matter of favor but as matter of rilght." This, too, was soleilily condemned by Pope Innocent XI. 1 See Crtik's Histor-y of B)itish Comzmoerce, chapter vi. 129

Page  130 130 THE WARFARE OF SCIE-VCE. Again the arimy of righlt reason pressed forw ard, declaring that " usury is interest greater tlitan the law allonvs." Thlis, too, w-as eondemined, and the declaration that " usury is interest o11 loans not for a fixed tiime" was condemned by- Pope Alexanlder VII. Still the attachingg forces pressed on, and almlong thlem, in the seventeenthl century, in Fraiee, was Iichard Simion: lie attempts to gloss over the strict interpretation of Scripture in this matter bv an elab)orate treatise: lie is iimmediately confronted yv Bossuet. It seems hardly possible that onie of the greatest intellects of a period so near us could have been so douibly deceived. Yet Bossuet, the glory of the Frenel Church, one of the kIeeiest andc stroligest of thlinkers, not only mingled Scriptiure wiith astronomiy, and opposed the Copernican theol-ry, but also miingled Scripture w-ith political ecoinomy, and deinounced the leading of money at interest. He declared that the Scriptures, the councils of the Church fromi the beginning, the popes, the fathers, all interpreted the prohibition of "usury to be a prohiblition of any lending at interest, and Bossuet demonstrated this interpretation as the true one. Simoin was put to confusion, and his book condemnsed.,1 1 For citation, as above, see LecAy. For further account, see 7'ul,rcs (le Bossrt, edition of 1845, vol. xi., p. 33().

Page  131 P7OLIT-T%IL xC_OVOMY. Tlie,e was but too mtiehll reason for Bossuet's interpretation. Thlle prohibition of thlis, one of the miost simjple and beneficial principles in political and ecol(,)mical science, -as affiraied not only by the fatliers, but by twenty-eig'ht councils of the Cliureli (-;ix of them general councils), and by seventeen popes, to say liotliing of inniunmerable doctors in tleologv and cainon law.1 ]But ab)out the middle of the eio,liteenth centnrv the evil could be endured no longer-a way of escape?ls be found. The army opposed to the Churc]i hadl becom-e so fornidable, that the Roman anitlorities saw that a concession niust be made. I,u 174S appeared A[ontesquieu's Sl)i?it of t/lee L(, l; in it w-vere concentrated twenty years' stuny ald(l thlloutrghllt of a great thinkler on the necessities of the world about him. In, eighteen iontlis it wenit thlroulgh twenty-two editions, and it was traInslated into every civilized language; this woik attacked, amiong othier abluses, the positionI of tlhe Cliirch regarding interest for money. TlIe Clhurchl authorities hlad already taken the alaimi. B~eiienlict XIV. saw that the best thing for ltiii-u-tay, the only tliing-was a stiuender under formui of a compromise. In a brief he declared( sal)tantially that the law of the Church I Sce citationl fi'om Coucina in Lecky; also, acquiescence in this it'ierctatit) l,vy -fil. Dickinson, inz Speech in Senate of Ncw }brl', al)ove iuotel. 131

Page  132 POLI Ti"(IL COVO_[XY. Thliele was btit too imuch reason for Bosstiet's inteirpietation. The prohibition of this, onle of the mIost simple anId beneficial principles ini political and eco,()m,.ical science, w-as affirmed not only by the fatlhers, but by twenty-eiglht councils of the ChurchiII (six of them general councils), and by seventeen popes, to savy nothing of inniiuerable doctors in thleology and canon law.' But al)out the middle of the eig'hteenth centirv the evil could b)e eindured no longer-a way of escape?/ztt be found. The arimy opposed to the Clhurc}h hadl becomle so formidable, that the Roman aiutltorities saw that a concession iunist be made. In 1 7S appeared Alontesquiieu's S)i);it of the -L?; in it were concentrated twenty years' study aind thoughlt of a great thinler on the necessities of the world about him. In eighteen monthls it vwent through twenty-two editions, and it was translated into every civilized language; this work attackled, almong othler abluses, the positionI of the Clurch regarding interest for money. The Churchll authorities had already taklen the alarm. Beinedict XIV. saw that the best thing for lihu-iiaty, the only thing-was a surrender unlder forini of a compromise. In a brief hle decdared( s)stanti,ally that the law of the Church ISce rItationI f'roi Coocina in Lecky; also, acquiescence in this intc,l)rctati-'l,y Jfr. Dickinson, in Speech in Senate of Nw YIrk, al)ov-e quotel. 131

Page  133 INDUSTRIA'L SCIENCES. D)id time i)erlnit, we migholt go over other battle-fields 11o less instructive thlan thlose we lhave seen. We iiiighit go over the b)attle-fields of A'ricultural Progress, and note lhow, by a imiost curious perversioni of a text of Scriptulre, many of the peasantry of Russia were prevented from laising and eating potatoes, and hlow in Scotland at the begiinning of tlhis century the use of faniiil,g'-mills for wiuilllowivig grain wias denounced tas cntrary to the text " the wind blowethl whlere it listetli," etc., as leaguing wvithl Satan, wiho is prinee of thle powers of tlhe air," and as suffic;eict cause for excoIIlmmunication from the Scotch itircii. Se e (I.7,:; <.?', DOCtc),u etc., cited 1)y Guillauiiiin a(nd (Coqu: illn. 2 JI istory of S<c,,l/,!, vol. viii., 1-p, )11. See, also. 12

Page  134 S1 4 TIIE OlRFRE 0F SCIE~-CE. Ae miihi t go over the battle-tields, -:, Civil Eniiiieeriu, anid note hlow the ]ntrodueti,.} of railN-avs ijto Fr-ance wavs declared, )y ain t hbishllop, to l)e an evidence of tle divitie disi)Ieasire against countiry innkeepeers i ], set neat bef)ore tlleir ests on fast-day-s, a111 Tlonv vwete pinishied bv seeing travelers earnied 1)- their dloors anid low railro i)ad a anl, teegral)li weie deioineted fromit noted pilpits as " l]ealds of Aiti'lIrist." Aind thien we igih,lit pass to Protestaint Eng,la(~ndl anid recall thie sermion of the Curate of -c)otierhiithe at the breaking in of the Tlianies Tuninel, so destructive to life and prolpertA-, declairingr that "it was btit a just judg,ienit iiponl the p,)iesiniil)tlois aspirations of itiortal nia.' " ~VP-IOUS SCIENCES. WAe miht go over the 1)attle-fields of Etnol,gy and note hlow, a few yea rs sinice L h(-nored Ame(:ricaiin investigator, proposiing il l lerini( soeiety thie disssioi of tie (lnestion bet'we-ei the 'J~ ~ ~~() teqi,,ii f[ause tJc::rie,'s views in Seott~s Olt lortelity, chapter vii. For ,le cae of a l)erson de(barred from the commutinion for "laising lhe (d Yil' wind " with a w-ininowN-iItig-macline, see 1 ias of 1.'iI' j l SO,}(8cn, vol- ii, Thlose doubting the'..tbl(ritv i)r noti-es of S-impson may be reminded that he was, to the day of his death, c,ne of the strictest adherents of Scotchl- orithod v. : See ~?t'oo1 of Sii. B1t'e7'e. for Mtay 20, 1827, in o;te of L A5. )',-,, p. 30.

Page  135 VFARIOUS SCIE~NCES. oligin1,:f the 1iuman race fron a single p-)air and frola,1y )pairs, w-as calleTl to order and silenced as atllcstic, by a Protestant divine whose inemlory is justlv (lear to thousands of us.' Ilnteiesting would it be to look over the field of )Ieteorology-beg,inning, withl the conception, supp,)()<ed to b)e scril)tnral, of anTg,els openinrg and slutting, "thle windows of leaven" and letting out tie waters that be above the firrnament' uponi tle earthl-continuinLg througl the battle of Fromuinu(lus and I3odin, down to the onslaught llupoI LeckLy, iii our own tiue, for drawinu a logiecl an(l scientific conclusion froiom thle doctrine that mcetc,-d,1,1,o' is obedient to laws' AV,e migh,t go over the battle-fields of Cartogrmphy atlml sue how at one period, on accouLnt of exprlesii(ons in Ezelkiel, any map of the world which did n-)t place Jerusaleilm in the centre, was looked on as illl1ioius. This scene will be recalled, easily, by many leading ethrlnologists in America, and especially ) bv Mr. E. G. Squier, formerly minister of the United States to Central America. 2 The meteorological battle is hardly fought out yet. M[anv excellent llen seemr still to entertain views almost identical witi tiose (,t'f over two thousanl years ago, depicted in Tl/e Cloud(s of Aristoi,!mntes. 3 Tlese te-ts are Ezekiel v. 5 and xxxviii. 12. The progress of geograplilical knowledge, evidently, caused them to be softened down s,iiewliat in our Khing Jamies's version; but the first of tb,ii red,l, in the Vulgite, "Ista est Hierusalem, in medio gen 135

Page  136 136 THE WAERFARE OF SCIEXVCE. AVe mighlt go over tlhe battle-fields of Social Sciene in Protestant countries, anid note tle opposition of conscientious men to the takin7 of the censuts, in Sweden and in thle United States, on account of the termns in which the numbering, of Israel is spoklen of in the Old Testament.' And w-e might also see how, on similar gr(ounds, religious scruples have been avowed againist so benefiecial a thing as Life Insurance.2 tium posni earn et in circuitu cjus terias; " and the second reads in the Vulgate "in medio terre," and in the Septuagint'ri b,Y Zu(pa;%v T'S?ys. That the literal centre of the earth was meant, see proof in St. Jerome, Commentar. in Ezekiel, lib. ii., and for genieral proof, see Leopardi, "Saggio sopra gli errori popolari degli anitichi," pp. 207, 208. For an idea of orthodox geograplhy in the middle ages, see lJ;iJlt's Essay on 4rchc(ology, vol. ii.. chapter "On the Iap of the WAVorld in Hereford Cathedral." For an examnple of the depth to which this idea of Jerusalem as the centre had entere(l into the thinking of the great poet of the miclddle ages, see Da72t, If(ci'o, Canto xxxiv.: "E se' or sotto l'emisperio giunto, Chl' e opposito a quel, che la gran secca Coverchlia, e sotto'1 cui colmno consunto Fu l'uom che nIacque e visse senza pecca." 1 See lfichaelcs, Coomentorics on the lTwus oj' Ifoscs, 1 S 74, vol. ii., p. 3. The writer of the present article himself witnessed the reluctance of a verv conscientious man to answer the questions of a census marshal, Mr. Lewis Hawley, of Syracuse, N. Y., and this reluctance was based upon the reasons assigned in II. Samuel chapter xxiv. 1, and I. Chronicles, chapter xxi. 1, for the nulmber in, of the children of Israel. 2 See Dc lorcgaz, P.arto(doxes, pp. 214-220.

Page  137 SCIE-VTIFIC I-A STR UFC TIO. SCIENTIFIC INSTPIUCTION. But an outline of this lkitid would be too itleagre witl~,ut somie sketchl of the warfare on ilistructioii is science. Not without profit would it be to note more at length how- instruction in thle Copernican thleoI-ry w-as kIept out of the Church universities in every great Catholic country of Europe; how they concealed the discovery of the spots on thle sun; how ilianly of them excluded the Newtonian demonstr-ations; lhow, down to the present time, the two great universities of Protestant Englanid and nearly all her intermediate colleg,es, under clerical suipervisioin, hlav-e excluded the natural and physical sciences as far as possible; and lhow, from probalvy niiiie-tentlis of the universities and colleges of the YUnited States, the students are graduated with either no klnowledge or with clerically emnasculated klnowledge of the imost careful modern thought on the nist important problems in the various sciences, in history-, and in criticism. Fromi the dismissal of the scientific professors froa the University of Salainanca by Ferdinaind VII. o(f Spain, in the beginning of this century, downr to sundry dealings with scientific men in our own- land and timne, we might study another interestiutg phase of the same w-arfare; but, passing all tliis, I shall simply present a few typical conflicts that lhave occurred within the last ten years. 137

Page  138 i.JS THE t4~FAtRE OF SCIEOVCE. During, the years 1867ST and 1SC)8 the vwar wlhich had been long smioulderingi in France, between tile Church and the whole system of Frenlch a(dvancedl educeation, came to an outbreak. Tovward the end o-f the last century, after the Church had held possession of advanced instruction in Fralee for more than a thousand years, and had, so far as it \vas able, made experimental science contemptible; and after the Clhurch authorities had deliberately resisted and wrecked Turgot's noble plans for thle establishment of a system of public schools, the French nation decreed the establishment of the most thorough and complete system of the higher public instruction then known. It was kept under lay control, and became one of the great glories of France. But, emboldened by the restoration of the BourIbons, the Church began to undermine the hated system, and in 1868 had made such progress that all was ready for an assault. Foremost among the leaders of the b)esieging party was the Bishlop of Orleans-DupanlonpL-a man of miuch buzzing vigor. In various ways, and especially in an open letter, he had fought the "3Iaterialism" of the School of MIedicine at Paris, and especially were his attacks leveled at Professors ~ulpian and See, and the Nlinister of Public Instruction, Dturuy, a man of great merit, whose

Page  139 SCIE~VTIFIC L~STR UCTIO-. ,.ily crime was a ciqiet resistance to clerical coiltrol.1 In these writings, B13ishop Dilupanloup stigniatized Darw-in, Ituxley, Lyell, tnci othlers, as authors of' shameful theories," and made esp)ecial use of the recent phrase of a naturalist, that "'it is more glorlious to be a molnkey perfected than an Adam ilegenerated." The direct attack was made in the Frencl Senate, and the storming party in that body w-as led b) a venerable and conscientious prelate, Cardinal (le Bonneclhose. It was cliarged by Alrchlbishop de Bonnecliose Ici his party, that the tendencies of the teaelhingsl of thlese professors were fatal to religion and mlorality. A heavy artillery of phrases wvas Ihurled, silch as " sapping the foundations," etc., "breakinio d6own the bulwarks," etc., etc., and, withal, a new nissile was used with much effect, the epithet ofl "materialist." The result can be easily guesseid; crowds came to the lecture-rooms of these professors, and the lecture-roomn of Prof. See, the chief offender, was crowded to suffocation. A siege was begun in due form. A youngi physician was sent by the cardinal's party into the heterodox camip as a spy. Having heard one lecture of Prof. See, he returned with information I For -DupanlOolp, Lettre d un, see the Revue de The. rl]euttique, 1868, p. 221. 1139

Page  140 140 THE IF4ZAfPE OF SCI,VCE. that seemed to promise easy victory to the hesie. mig prt' y. He brought a terrible statement. oine thlat seemed enough to overwhelm See, Vulpian, !)uiriy, and the whole hated system of publlic iinstiructionI in France. G-)od Cardinal onneelhose seized tl-he tremrendons weapon. Rising in his place in the Senate, lie launched a most eloquent invective against the Alinlister of State who could protect such a fortress of impiety as the College of -ledicine; and, as a climax, hie asserted, on the evidence of his spy fresh fron Prof. See's lecture-room, that the professor had declared, in his lecture of the dav before, that so long as he had the hlonor to hold his professorshlip he would combat the false idea of the existence of the soul. The weapon seemed resistless, and thle wound fatal; but Al. Duruy rose and asked to be heard. Ilis statement was simply that he held in his hand documentary proofs that Prof. See nevei made such a declaration. I-e held the notes used !)y Prof. See in his lecture. Prof. See, it appeared, l)elonged to a school in medical science which conm1)ated the idea of an art in medicine. The infliamed imagination of the cardinal's too eager emissary had, as the lecture notes proved, led hiii into a sad mistake as to words and thoughts, and had exhibited Prof. See as treating a theological w-hen hlie was discussing a purely scientific ques.

Page  141 SCI~EVTIFI C ISSTP UCTI O V. tion. Of the existence of the soul the professor hlad said notlin,g. The forces of the enemy were immiediately turned; they retreated in confusion, amid the laughlter of all France; aind a quiet, dignified statenieit as to the rights of scientific instructors by Wvurtz, the deani of tlhe Faculty, completed their discomifiture. Tliis a Mwell-mieant attempt to cheecl hvlat was feared might be dangerous in science simiply ended in bringing ridicule on religion, and tllhlruting still deeper into the 0~inds of thousands ef nmei that most niistaken of all mistaken ideasthe conviction that religion and science are enemies.' Btut justice forbids our raising, an outcry agailist P-oiian Catholicismn alone for this. In 1S864 a nmumber of excellent mnen in England drew up a declaration to be signed by students in tlhe naturLal sciences, expressing " sincere regret that.researehes into scientific truth are perverted by some in our tihme into occasion for casting doubt upon the truthl antd authenticity of the Holy Scriptures." For general account of the Vulpian and See matter, see Rec2tc (hlS Deuzx Jfoi(ils, 31 Mai, 1868. C/uroitiqte de la Qui)zzainte. pp. 763-765. As to the result on popular thought, may l)e noted( the followning comment on the affair hy the Pev?te, w-hell is as free as possib)le from anything like rabid anti-ecclesiastical ideas Lle a''t vti-aiiitt cGitieuse, iOst5Ctive, (tsstZ triste ct iieiiiie', pot, ((-5't- saOe." For WVurtz's staltemient, see Rvr(ie ic 77tI.(et)Ct;, for 1868, p. 303. 141

Page  142 142 HTIE~ Ti-A fAPl E OF SCIEiY CE. Nine-teinthis of tle leading, scientific inmei of Enland refused to sign it. -'or was this the worst Sir Jk-,ii Herschel, Sir John Bowring, and Sir AV R. a-Iiilton, adi istered t lirolgi the press, casti ati,n S which roused general indignation against the proposers of the circular, and Prof. De AIorgan, b)y a p)arody, covered miemorial and imeiuorialists w-itih ridicule. It was the old mistake, and the old( result followed in the minds of mniiltitudes of thlougitfuil yotng men.' Anid in yet another Protestant country this same w-retchled mistake was miade. In 1868, several excellent ehurhelmen in Prussia thought it tlheir duty to mieet for the denunciation of " science falsely so called." Two results followed: Upoii the,great miajority of these really self-saerifieiig men —lwhose first utterances showed cra-ss i,gnorance of the theories thev attacked-there camie q-uiet and widespread contempt; upon Pastor inakl, lwho stood forthi and proclaimed views of tihe univterse wvhich he thoi,ughit Scriptural, lbut w hichi most schoolboys knew to be childish, came a buil t of good-natured derision froml every quarter -)f the Gerlmaii nation.2 A\ rifare of this sort against Science seelmsIpetty indeed; but it is to be guarded against ii 1 D)e 4fl.)r/c(P, P-o(trloxes, pp. 421-428; also,.Da)e ey's Essays. St(. tle Berlin niewspapers for the summer of 18BS, especially lil',,l,',.s'c.

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Page  144 144 THE TIA~FARE OF SCIENYCE. iint-Beuve are types; and there are mrany sions thlit tlhe samie causes are producing the same resuilt in our own counitry. I mig,htt allude to anotler battle-field in our )In- land and time. I m-ighlt shovw how an atei pt to meet the great want, in thle State of New York, of an institution providing scientific instrulletion, has been met with loud outcries from iiiany excellent menei, wiho fear injury thereby to i-eligion. I might picture to you the strategy -whlichl has been used to keep earnest young mien -froim an institution wl-ich, it is declared, cannot l)e Christian beceause it is not sectarian. I migitll lay before you wonderful lines of argument which lhave been made to show the dangerous tendencies ,of a j,laii wh-iech gives to scientific studies the aue weiglt as to classical studies, and which lays no less st'ress oln iodern history and literature than )1l, anltient history and literature. I nigi,ht show how it has been denounced by1) the friends anud agenits of denominational colleges :uId in miany sectarian journals; howv the most preli,,sterous cliar(,es have been made and b)elieved 1)y .,,(od men; llow- the epithets of " godless," " infi,. l",'' irrleligiolus," "nureligious,"' " athleistie.' liave b)een hurled against a body of Clhrlistian tirustees, professors, and students, and with little -L,actical result save arousing a suspicion in the minds of large bodies of thoughtful young n.en,

Page  145 S UJ,17 A R Y. that the churches dread scientific studies untramnmeled by sectarianism. SU-NMARY. You have now gone over the greater struggles in the long war )etweeii Ecclesiasticism and Sciencee, anld have glanced at the lesselr fields. You have seen tle conflicts in P'hysical Geography, as to the formi of the earth; in A-strononiy, as to the I)lace of the earth in the universe, and the evolution of stellar svsteins ill ctecordance witli law; in Cleiiiistrv and Physics; ill Aniatony and MIedicine; in Geology; in Mieteorolo,gy; in Cartography; in thle InduLstrial and Agricultural Sciences; iii Political Eecoiioiny and Social Science; and in Scientific Instruction; and each of these, whei fully presented, has shown'lthe following results Fi;,'t. In ever- case, whether the war has been long or short, forcible or feeble, Science has at last grained the victoriv. Secolt(ly. In every case, interference with Scienc,c in the supposed interest of religion, has )rougtlit dire evils on both. 27h;,,'d[2. In every case, while this interference, d(ltiring its continuance, has tenided to divorce religion from the most vig,orous thinhling, of the world, and to make it odiolus to nmultitudes of the -ost earnest thiklers; the ti-ipiuph of Science lias led its former conscientious enemies to make 13 145

Page  146 146 THE WARETARE OF SCIENVCE. new interpretations and lasting adjustments, which lhave proved a blessiig to religion, ennobling its conceptions and bettering its methods. And in addition to these points tliere should be brought out distinctly a co'/oll(/7/, wN-hicil is, that science must be studied by its o\-n nieanis and to its own ends, unmixed witl- the iiieans and Uliiibiased bv the motives of iivesti,,gtors in other fields, and uncontrolled bv consciences uieniliglhtened by itself: Tlhe very fing,er of the Alnmiglity seems to have writtel thle prioofs of this truth oi i humanl hlistory. SNo one can gainsay it. It is decisive, for it is this: _7hej e t(t(s )evce beei at scieKiti~c tlie()/yfranzc~fzcR the c eo S,i1 e:ttexs, 1of( l2 oi? ])tictlly,, l,wich/ t,s beelt,,ac to,~'Pled. Such attemlpts have only subjected tleir authors to derision, and Cii'istialllitv to suspicion. FlOoni (-osimas findiing his pl-ai of tle iuiuverse in tlie JeN-isli tabenac icle, to Inreatse Aiathler sendiing miastodtion's bones to EliQani,d ais the remains of gianits mentioned in Scil)ttitre fromi B)cllari-tin declaring that the siii cainnot be the centre of tl-e univmerse, because such anl idea " vitiates the whole Scriptuiral plani of salvations, to a reenet writer declariing that an evolution theorly cannot be true, because St. Paul savs that'" all flesh is not the sam,e flesh," the result has alvwa —s b)een the same.' I n t!l( (IturcA Journal, New York, May 28, 1874, a revi(wer,

Page  147 it or not-is a denial of every article of the Christian faith. It is supl)relme fi)llv to tatlk as some do about accommodatting Christianitv to D)arwviisim. Either those who so talk do not understant(l /Cllristiaiiity. or thley do not understand Darwinism. If wV(, have l, men and molkevsi, woymen and( bahoolns, oysters and eat(le', a1ll ldveloi)(d' f'r(,ot an origilial n-ionad and germn, then St. Pautl's gr:'n.m dl,1iveranee-' Aill flesh is not the same flesh. Thiere is ~m111. ki of flesh of mn(i, aniotlher of beasts, anothe,' of fishes, andl anotlei of i,irds. There are bodies celestial and hodies terrestriattl -ia\v bt still v('r grand in our funeral-service, but very 2ntrtue to t t. Tlhis is tile same dangerous line of argument which C't(c'ini indulg'ed in in (alileo's time. Dangerous, for suppose D n nwinisw m " be pi]'o,Ce tr/P.! For a soothing potion hy a skillfl hliinl, se'II VhIvii onT the consistency of evolution doectrines:vith teleological idleas; also, Ree. Sit/izic[ Ioitffon, Fi.. S., Prb ii/t)'os of -,iiioeln jiecit,i ic.s. London, 1,7S3, preface, and page 156, for somne interesting i(ldeas onl teleological evolution. I For some excellent remarks onl the fuitilitv of such attempts rand outcries, se(- the 1.:'. Dr. Dt)iils, iA POPULAR SCIENCE MONTHtLY for February-, 187(,. T'o all who are inelitied to draw scientific conclusions from Biilical texts, mayv be commended the advice of a good old G e rrtan divine of the Reformiation period: " Seeking the iiilk of the Word, do not press the teats of Holy Writ too hard,"

Page  148 148S THE JVARfIAiE~ OF SCIENCE. Such facts showv, too, that the sacred books of the worild were not given for any such l Tpurp)ose as that to which so many nei have endeavored to wrest thenm-the purpose served l)y coimpends of history and text-boolks of science. Is slepticism feared? All history shows that the only skepticism which does permanent harm is skepticism as to the value and safety of truth as truth. Ro skepticism has proved so corrosive to religion, none so cancerous in the human brain and heart. Is faith cherished? All history shows that the first article of a saving faith, for any land or time, is faithl that tlieire is a Power in this universe strong enough to nmake tr uth-seekingo safe, and good ecnough, to makle trutlih-telling useful. I-Itay we not, then, hope that the greatest and best mien in the Church-the men standing at centres of tlioug'iht-will insist with )pow-er, more and more, that religion be no longer tied to so injurious a policy as that which this warfare reveals that searchers for truth, whether in theology or natural science, work onI as friends, sure that, no matter hown much at variance they may at times seem to be, the trutlhs they reach shall finally he fused into each other? The dominant religious conceptions of the world will doubtless l)e greatly miodified by science in the future, as they have beenii in the past; and the part of any wisely re

Page  149 COUCL US~ON. lig,ious person, at any cenitre of influence, is to see that, in his generation, this readjustment of relig,ion to science be made as quietly and speedily as possible. No one needs fear the result. No matter whether Science shlall complete her demonstration that man has been on the earth not merely six thousand years, or six millions of years; no miatter whether she reveals new ideas of the Creator or startling relations between his creatures; no matter how many more gyves and clamps upon the spirit of Christianity she destroys: the result, when fully thought out, will serve and strengthen religion not less than science.' AWhat science can do foi the world is shown, not bv those who have labored to concoct palatable ntixtunes of theology and science-Imen like 1 In an eloquent sermon, preached in March, 1874, Bishop Cummins said, in substance: "The Church has no fear of Science; the persecution of Galileo was entirely unwarrantable but Christians should resist to the last Darwinism; for that is evideutly contrary to Scripture." The bishop forgets that Galil,o's doctrine seemed to such colossal minds as Bellarmin, and Luther, and Bossuet, "evidently contrary to Scripture." Far mnore logical, modest, sagacious, and full of faith, is the attitude taken bv his former associate, Dr. John Cotton Smith: "For geology physiology, and historical criticism have threatened or destroyed only particular forms of religious opinion, while they have set the spirit of religion free to keep pace with the larger generalizations of' modern knowledge."-Picton, The.J,ystery of Jfatter, London, 1873. p. 72. 149

Page  150 150 THE WA-RFA~E OF A%7[ CE. Cosmas, and Toirubia, and Burnet, ancd Wliiston -but by men who have fougLht tle good fight of faith in truth for trhth's sakesinen like IRoger 1Bacon, and Vesalius, and Pa-lissv, and Galileo. AVhat Cliristianity can do for the world is siown, Inot by men who have stood on the high paces screaming in wvratl-h at the advance of science; not by me-ii who have retreated in terror into the sacred caves ri,'d iefused to look out upon the uni-veise as it is; bout by mnen who have preached and praetised the riighteous ess of the prophets, and the aspirations of the Psalinist, and the bllessed Sermonl oil the Alount, and " the first )reat colulnhuLnent ond the second whicih is like anto ito' fid. -aa es's cdefinition of " pure reliCo,ito; and lidecfilel.' It is show in ill the Potian Church, not by Tostattus and BeJlain,iii but by St. Carlo Borroineo, and St. Vincent de Paul, and Fc'nelon, and Eug,lnie de Gurim; in tle Angli(cani Chlurch, not )by I)ean (;oclkburn, )tut )vby IIowrd, tid( Jeneier, and WVilberforce, and Florence _Xi-'htingale; in the (German Clhurch, not h)v Pastor 1inak, but bv Pastor Fliedner; in the Am'-iericaii Church, not by the Alathers, but b) sucl as 13ishiop AVhliatcoat, and Chanliiing, and aIiuhlenberg, and Father DT)e Smet, and Samutel My, and IHarliet Stowe. Let the warfare of Science, then, be change(d. Let it be a warfare in which Religion and Science

Page  151 CONCL USION., slall stand together as allies. not agai-ist each other as enelnies. Let the fight be for truiith of every lkind against fIalsehlood of every kind for justice against iliustice; for right atgainst wrong; for tlhe living kernel of religion rathler tlihai the dead and dried huslks of sect aind dogma; and the gireat powers, lwhose warfare hlias brog,hit so ianyi slffel'in,s, sliall at last join inll Iinisteriin( tlirou( ea rth God's richest blessingrs. THE END. 151

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Page  154 THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC SERIES. Works already Published. 1. FORMS OF WATER, IN CLOUDS, RAIN, RIVERS, ICE, AND GLACIERS. ByProf. JOHN TYNDALL, LL. D., F. R.S. I vol. Cloth. Price, $.50o. II. PHYSICS AND POLITICS; OR, THOUGHTS ON THE APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF "NATURAL SELECTION" AND "INHERITANCE" TO POLITICAL SOCIETY. By WALTER BAGEHOT, Esq., author of "The English Constitution." I vol. Cloth. Price, $i.5o. III. FOODS. By EDWARD SMITH, M.D., LL. B., F. R. S. x vol. Cloth. Price, $1.75. IV MIND AND BODY: THE THEORIES OF THEIR RELATIONS. By ALEX. BAIN, LL. D., Professor of Logic in the University of Aberdeen. I vol., l2mo. Cloth. Price, $i.5o. V. THE STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY. By HERBERT SPENCER. Price, $I.50. VI. THE NEW CHEMISTRY. ByProf. JOSIAH P. COOKE,Jr.,ofHarvard University. I vol., ~2mo. Cloth. Price, $2.00. VII. THE CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. By Prof. BALFOUR STEW ART, LL. D., F. R. S. I vol., I2mo. Cloth. Price, $I.5o. VIII. ANIMAL LOCOMOTION; OR, WALKING, SWIMMING, AND FLYING, WITH A DISSERTATION ON AERONAUTICS. By J. BELL PETTIGREW, M.D., F. R. S. E., F. R. C. P. E. I vol., 12mo. Fully illustrated. Price, $I.75. IX. RESPONSIBILITY IN MENTAL DISEASE. By HENRY MAUDS LEY, M.D. I vol.,.2mo. Cloth. Price, $2.50. X. THE SCIENCE OF LAW. By Prof. SHELDON AMOS. I vol., 12mo. Cloth. Price. $1I75. Xl. ANIMAL MECHANISM. A TREATISE ON TERRESTRIAL AND AEiRIAL LOCOMOTION. By E. J. MAREY. With I27 Illustrations. Price, $I.75. XII. THE HISTORY OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN RELIGION AND SCIENCE. By JOHN WM. DRAPER, M. I). LL. D., author ot "The Intellectual Development of Europe." Price, $2.75. XIII. THE DOCTRINE OF DESCENT, AND DARWINISM. By Prof. OSCAR SCHMIDT, Strasburg University. Price, $I.50O. XIV. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIGHT AND PHOTOGRAPHY. IN ITS APPLICATION TO ART, SCIENCE, AND INDUSTRY. By Dr. HERMANN VOGEL. ioo00 Illustrations. Price, $2.00. XV. FUNGI; THEIR NATURE, INFLUENCE, AND USES. By M. C. COOKE, M. A., LL. D. Edited by Rev. M. J. BERKELEY, M. A., F. L. S. With 'og Illustrations. Price, $i.5o. XVI. THE LIFE AND GROWTH OF LANGUAGE. By Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, of Yale College. Price, $.50. - XVIIo MONEY AND THE MECHANISM OF EXCHANGE. By W. STANLEY JEVONS, M. A., F. R. S., Professor of Logic and Political Economy in the Owens College, Manchester. Price, $1.75. XVII1. THE NATURE OF LIGHT, WITH A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF PHYSICAL OPTICS. By Dr. EUGENE LOMMEL, Professor of Physics in the Uni versity of Erlangen. With I88 Illustrations and a Plate of Spectra in Chromolithography. Price, $2.00. XIX. ANIMAL PARASITES AND MESSMATES. By Monsieur VAN BENEDEN, Professor of the University of Louvain, Correspondent of the Institute of France. With 83 lllustrations. Price, $I.5o.