The Patrons of husbandry on the Pacific coast.: Being a complete history of the origin, condition and progress of agriculture in different parts of the world; of the origin and growth of the order of Patrons, with a general and special grange directory, and full list of charter members of the subordinate granges of California. Also, of the foes of the farmers, or monopolies of land, water, transportation and education; of a protective tariff, currency and banking.
Carr, Ezra S. (Ezra Slocum), 1819-1894.

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Page  B ______ _ ~ ffiffiffi ffiffiffiffl ~ffi__ AGRICULTURE IN THE OLDEN TI [Santa Barbara Mission, Established A. D.


Page  2 LEntered according to Act of Colngrss, in the year of our Lord 1875, by A. L. BANCBROFIT & COMPANY, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. x


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Page  5 P R EFA( E. To present in a compact and readily accessible form the annals of the farmers' movement in California, with a summary of the advantages thus far secured by combination and cooperation, was the primary object of this work. In addition, I have thought it desirable to show the general relations of agriculture to human progress; to give the results of recent official investigations into railroad affairs, and to treat of some other questions of general public interest, by summarizing important and recent reports not generally accessible to Patrons. Again, I know of no single work in which the statistical information which farmers so often need for reference can be obtained. I have endeavored to meet this want, in the discussions of the various subjects to which such information appropriately belongs. As the work grew upon my hands, I have found that the presentation of my subject involved a constant reference to authorities. As far as possible, therefore, I have allowed each witness to speak for himself, to the exclusion of all claims to originality on my own part. I am greatly indebted to able writers, Professor Perry, President Anderson, Henry George, Hon. M. M. Estee and others, who have placed their valuable papers at my disposal, and I only regret that want of space has made it necessary for me to exclude any portion of them. The second chapter, defining the "office of Agriculture in the Social Economy," is a condensation of the instruction in Political Economy, given more than twenty years ago, to college classes, by the late John H. Lathrop, LL. 1)., first President of the Universities of Missouri and Wisconsin. In the chapter on "Agriculture in the Public Schools," it will be observed that the agitation of this question is not a recent thing in agricultural bodies. The Grange hashdone little more than to organize the public sentiment of farmers for the effective exer

Page  6 PREFACE. cise of their legitimate powers. Its progress is no marvel to those who have been in sympathy with the working classes of the country, who understand their needs, and are ready to lend a hand in removing their burdens. Great care has been taken to insure correctness in the statistical part of the work, and to omit nothing of importance in the documentary history of the State Grange. The names of the charter members, having been copied from the original dispensations, where the signatures are not unfrequently nearly illegible, it has been impossible to entirely avoid orthographical mistakes. The attempt to preserve a complete record of the founders of Subordinate Granges, will, we trust, excuse a few unavoidable errors in its execution. Valuable assistance has been rendered by the officers of the State Grange, and especially by W. H. Baxter, its Worthy Secretary; also by the officers and agents of the various business associations. To Mr. Edward Vischer, of San Francisco, who has kindly furnished the rural illustrations from his own admirable sketches of California life and scenery; to the editors of the "Rural Press," and other agricultural and local journals, I am under many obligations. E. S.C. OAKLAND, August 1st, 1875. 6

Page  7 C 0NTENTS. PART FIRST. RELATION OF AGRICULTURE TO PROGRESS. CHAPTER I. ORGANIZATION OF LABOR. pAGE. The Masonic Fraternity-Guilds-Movements of Labor in the present cen tury-The Spirit of Industry constructive-What Equality is-How Edu cation promotes Equality-Self-Love vs. Social Feeling-Mr. Seward's Opinion-All great Movements Historical as well as Progressive...... 17 CHAPTER II. THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY. Man and Nature —Agriculture the Foundation of Industry-Raw Materials First Steps toward Manufactures-Civilization regards all the Processes ot equal Value-The Social Body, its different Parts and Functions How Division of Labor increases Production, and begets Exchange or Commerce-Commerce a Charge upon Agriculture-Magnitude of the Tax-How this enriches the Farmer —Money as a Commercial Agent Office of the Railroad and of Money to cheapen Exchange —Relations of Agriculture to the Professions: to the growth of Towns: to Science... 20 CHAPTER III. AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. Civilization a relative Term-Wealth-Wild Wheat and Rice-The Date: Millet-Egyptian Agriculture and Horticulture-Flax Culture-Grana ries, Models of our Elevators-Condition of the People-China-Confu cius' Teachings-How Silk Culture was Promoted-Implements-Size of F'arms —Wages-Japan, compared with Great Britain-Wheat Culture Rural Life in Greece-Xenophon a Farmer —Hesiod's Works and Days -Public Gardens-Decay-Aristotle the Father of a rational Polity Slavery-Rome-Patricians and Plebeians-Size of Farms-Common Pasture-Tenants-Cato's Steward-The Eome of To-day.............. 25 CHAPTER IV. AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE. Germany and England-Ranks-Folks Land and Rents-Degradation of the British Laborer-Allowance of Food —Elevation of the Mechanical /

Page  8 CONTENTS. PAGE. Class-Proportion of Land Owners to Population —Wages of Laborers -How England is Fed-Scotland a Wheat Growing Country —Amelioration of Climate through Agriculture-Pedigree Cattle and Sheep-France -Small Farming and Population —Wheat Culture-The Late Wer — Holland and the Low:Countries-A Model for California-Deep Tillage -Diversity of Crops-Use of Machinery-Night-soil and ManuresRotation-Modern Germany-Beet Culture-Maize Culture in AustriaRussia our Rival in Wheat-Conclusion............................... 38 CHAPTER V. AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. American Independence due to the Farmers —The South Atlantic States Want of System-Cotton and Tobacco-Gov. Hammond on South Caro lina Agriculture-Georgia Silk Culture-Gov. Collier on the Wants of Alabama-The Old Dominion and the Old Commonwealth contrasted — Emigration-First Agricultural Societies and Journals established in the South-How diversified Industry would have secured Emancipation — Louisiana-Texas................................................... CHAPTER VI. AGRICULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES. Value of Statistical Reports-Highest average Yield of Wheat in Massachu setts-A Southern View of New England —Value of Hay Crop-Vermont and the Wool Interest —What the New England States raise and what they eat-The Empire State- Genesee Wheat-The Weevil-Fish and Fur Culture-Profits of Cheese and Butter Factories-Mr. Arnold on the Future of Dairying-Pennsylvania —New Jersey a Market Garden -Cranberry Culture —Peach Culture in Delaware and Maryland....... 53 CHAPTER VII. FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES. The World's Granary-Relative Value of Corn and Wheat-Stock Farming vs. Wheat Farming-Improved Implements-Trial of American Ma chines-Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky-California and Oregon Agriculture of the Catholic Missions-John Gilroy and his Neighbors Large Wheat Fields-Enormous Crop of 1872-Market for California Wheat-Farmers not enriched by this Stream of Wealth-Tonnage Prices -California the Centre of Wine and Wool Production -Table Showing Yield and Price of Farm Products in each State for 1873: Ex hibiting Value of Farm Property: Number of Persons engaged in Agri culture and other Occupations....................................... PART SECOND. THE FARMERS' GREAT AWAKENING. CHAPTER VIII. THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. Gathering of the Clubs-Mr. Hyatt's telling Report on Shipping —Proposal for a Convention-Expression of Opinion-A Summary of Complaints 8 .46 61

Page  9 PAGE. Organization of the Farmers' Union at Sacramento-Fraudulent Wheat Quotations................................................ - 75 CHIAPTER IX. HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES. Meeting of the Board of Directors-President Bidwell's Remarks-Major Snyder advocates building Co6perative Warehouses-Judge McCune on Fares and Freights-Sonoma Club-Mass Meeting at Stockton-Thirty Thousand Dollars subscribed-MIr. Baxter appears on the Scene-Con vention at San Francisco-How the Grangers negotiated for Sacks and didn't get them-Gen. Bidwell's Address-A Lady's Suggestions —Mr. Hallett on the Future of the Wheat Market-Convention recommends the Formation of Granges —Winding up of its Affairs.................. 87 CHAPTER X. THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. How established-Messrs. Kelley and Saunders —A Cloud no bigger than a Man's Hand-Significance of Names, "Grange" and "Patron" Eligibility: Organization and First Officers: First Four Dispensations Growth on the Upper Mississippi-Eighty Granges a day in Iowa — Third Annual Session-What the Patrons propose to do-Official Decla ration of Purposes-Constitution and By-Laws....................... 104 CHAPTER XI. WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. Growth —Causes of Numerical Strength-Granges of the first and second Growth-Investments and Savings —General and incidental Benefits Worthy Master Adams' Address at Charleston-Summary of Proceedings -What was done about the Texas Pacific Railroad, and why it was done. 118 CHAPTER XII. ANNALS OF THE STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. Orianization at Napa-Representation —Address of N. W. Garretson-Spe* cific Objects stated-Resolutions-State Book of Plans-Election of Officers and Executive Committee-Agencies provided for-First An nual Meeting-One Hundred and Four Granges in Three Months — Worthy Master Wright's Address-Report of Committee on Irrigation- Committee of Inquiry into Agricultural Department of University — Election of Officers for two ensuing Years-Presentation to Brothe: Garretson-Installation-Professor Carr's Lecture..................... 131 CHAPTER XIII. CONSTITUTION OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE-BY-LAWRULES-OiORDER... 153 CHAPTER XIV. BUSINESS OPtRATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. Agency established in San Francisco-Mr. A. F. Walcott appears for E. E. Morgan's Sons-Firm endorsed by prominent Houses-Agreements and Precautions-State Agent-Competition produces better Prices-Savings of the first Year-Grangers' Bank Meeting-Organization-Dairy Agency-Stanislaus Saving and Loan Society-Warehouses at Mlodesto 9 CONTENTS.

Page  10 CONTENTS PAGE. — Davisville Grange incorporates-Colusa County Bank —WaterfordWarehouses and Business Associations............................. 159 CHAPTER XV. THE SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. Large Attendance —Worthy Master Hamilton's Address —A Grange Funeral -Festival of Pomona-Important Resolutions-Abstract of Report of State Agent: of the Executive Committee: of the Treasurer: of the Lec turer: of the Manager of Dairy Produce Department: of Committee on the Agricultural College of the State University: of the Committee on Irrigation: of the Committee on Education and Labor: of the Committee on the Good of the Order........................................... 173 CHAPTER XVI. THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS. The Wheat Shipping Business —The Wheat King and Mr. Walcott-Advance in Freights ik 1872-3-Exaggerated Estimnates of the Crop of 1874-5 MWIr. Walcott's various Enterprises-The Sack Purchase-Failure of Morgan's Sons proves a Blessing in Disguise-Called Meeting of the Grange-Practical Fellowship-All's Well that Ends Well-Discontinu ance of Dairy and Produce Agency-The Business Association formed -Officers and Articles of Incorporation of the Grangers' Business Asso ciation............................................................ 201 PART THIRD. 'GRANGE DIRECTORY AND RECORD. CHAPTER XVII. GRANGE DIRECTORY. Officers and Members ot the National Grange-California State Grange-E,x ecutive Committee: of District and County Councils: of Organizing Deputies-Subordinate Granges of California, arranged by Counties-Ne vada Subordinate Granges —The Grange Record: of the Charter Mem bers of each Grange in California and Nevada-Oregon State Grange Officers-Executive Committee and Organizing Deputies-Subordinate Granges of Oregon: of Washington Territory: of Idaho............... 211 PART FOURTH. AIs AND OBSTACLES TO AGRICULTURE ON THE PACIFIC COAST. CHAPTER XVIII. LAND MONOPOLY. Mr. J. Stuart Mill's Axiom-The Public Domain, and its Distribution-Lands in California-Prosperity shown by the Proportion of Farms to Popu lation-Disposition of State Lands-Effects of Consolidation of Landed Interests in England- Spanish and Mexican Domination -Mexican 10

Page  11 CONTENTS. PAGE. Grants, and a discreditable Chapter-of History-Bounty of the Federal Government-How the State Lands have been Manipulated-Discrepancy between Federal and State Laws-Eastern College and Indian Scrip-Swamp and Tide Lands-Agricultural College Grant-Railroad Grant-California Peerage, and status of our Landlords-Discrimina-. tion in Taxation-Remedies........................................ 290 CHAPTER XIX. WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. Canal and Water Companies: How authorized-Legislation favorable to lMo nopolies-Los Angeles Convention-Voice of the People-Gov. Dow ney's Address-Memorial of Colorado to Congress-Congress appoints Irrigation Commissioners for California —Mr. Brereton's Views of Agri culture in the San Joaquin Valley-Conclusionsrarrived at by the Com missionera.............................................. 304 CHAPTER XX. THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. Cost of Irrigation-Loss by Absorption-Amount of Water required per Acre-Amount used in Foreign Countries —Primary, Secondary and Ter tiary Ditches-Bases of Estimates-Ownership of Water-Mr. Estee's Views concerning Legislation-Italian Authorities quoted —Dr. Ryer's Hints toward a ~xlutirn of the Problem-Irrigtion and Public Health. 319 CHAPTER XXI. TRANSPORTATION. Results of Railroad Ive.stigation by Congress-Committee: how formed Exhaustive Researches-Magnitude of Interests involved —Inadequacy of Means of Transportation-Defects and Abuses-Discriminations and Extortions-Stock Watering-Capitalization of Earnings-ConstructioN Rings-Unjust Discriminations-General Extravagance and Corruption of Railway Management-Combinations and Consolidations-Nominal Capital and fictitious Stock-Excess of Capital over Actual Stock-Illus trations-How Evils maybe remedied-Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations-Congress may regulate Inter-State Transportation,. 329 CHAPTER XXII. RAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION IN WISCONSIN. Railroad Legislation in Wisconsin-Abstract of the Potter Law-Abstiact of Report of Commissioners-Nature of the Controversy between the Peo ple and the Railroads-Self-interest of Corporations not a sufficient Guaranty against Extortions-Competition tends to Consolidation-Evils of Railway Construction and Management-Causes of undue Cost Construction on Credit-Corrupt letting of Contracts —Misappropria tion of Land Grants-Illinois Law-Supervisory Duty of States holding Land Grants-Illinois Decision..................................... 336 fi

Page  12 CONTENTS PAGE. CHAPTER XXIII. MANAGEMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION. Management of Railroads in Operation-Railroads as Merchants-Rings American Genius displayed in Stock Watering-Unskillful Management — Excessive Charges-Railroad Side of the Question-Benefits conferred -Public Character of Railways established —Necessity of Control, and consequent Right of Supervision —Interests of Capital require Control -Insecurity of Railroad Investments —How Control may be exercised Faulty Legislation-Summary of Conclusions-Ohio Commissioners -on Railroad Rates...................................................... 342 CHAPTER XXIV. RAILROADS IN CALIFORNIA. California Railroads: Routes, Length and Gauge-Senator Cole on the Pub lic Interest in Railroads-Mr. Stanford's Report on the Financial Con dition of the Central Pacific-The Railways of the World-Funded Debt and net Earnings of the Railroads of the United States................ 350 CHAPTER XXV. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. First urged by Massachusetts Agricultural Society —Manual of Agriculture prepared-Action taken by other States-Obstacles to Success-Profes sor Turner on Text-book Monopolies-Superintendent Northrup's Views on the Educational Value of Labor................................... 359 CHAPTER XXVI. HIGHER AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. H)w provided for by Foreign Governments: France: Germany: Royal Agri cultural School at Wurtemberg: Russia —Beginnings in the United States —The Congressional Grant-Evasions and Perversions-A Liter ary Kite with an Agricultural Tail-An Example of Good Faith-The Record of California-President Anderson's Ideal of an Agricultural College.................................................. 364 CHAPTER XXVII. THE INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION OF WOMEN. 'Voman as an Industrialist-The Field of Domestic Life-Her Vocation as a Paid Laborer-Housekeeping as a Fine Art-Training Schools for Women in America and in Europe-Dr. Kobler's Institute at Gotha-How Wo men are Instructed in the Cost of Living............................. 385 CHAPTER XXVIII. PAPER MONEY AND A PROTECTIVE TARIF. False Lights —General Principles-What Currency is —Legislation required -Professor Perry's Views —Dialogue between Bonamy Price and the New York Capitalists —Origin of Tariffs-Effects of Protection upon Ag ricultural Industry-Tariffs Take, but never Give-Table showing Total Amount of Property and Taxation in the United States.................. 392 12

Page  13 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XXIX. BANUS AND MONEY. Farmers need Cheap Money-Legislation controlled by Capitalists-Farmers and Lawyers in Congress-Exemption of Bonds from Taxation-Rate of Interest a Test of Prosperity: of Civilization-Banks and Banking —Sav ings Banks-Paper Promises made Legal Tenders-Professor Bonamy Price on Crises and Panics-Financial Success of English Cooperative Associations........................................................ 412 CHAPTER XXX. EXCEPTIONAL CONDITIONS OF THE PACIFIC COAST AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PROSPERITY. Summary of Advantages: of Disadvantages —Wet and Dry Seasons-Varia bility of the Average-Irregularity in each year-Tabular Statement of Extremes of Rain-fall-Seasons of Drought-Amount of Rain needed to secure a Crop-Amount actually Determined —Fences and Fuel-Forests and the Rain-fall-Forests and Inland Navigation.,.................. 424 CHAPTER XXXI. AGRICULTURAL COMMUNITIES. Isolation of Farmers-Decrease of Agricultural Population: Causes-Genesis of the Middle-man: He devours both Farmer and Mechanic-Better Ed ucation the Remedy-Recruits for the Agricultural Army-Immigration Table-Scandinavia in America-Superiority of the Colony System Vineland, a model Rural Colony-Outlook and Conclusions........... 432 CHAPTER XXXII. SELECTED POETRY FOR THE GRANGE. The Granger's Politics, R. W. Emerson's Ode and Boston Hymn........... 445 The Granger's Religion, "No Sect in Heaven."............................. 447 The Granger's Centennial Hymn, by J. G. Whittier....................... 450 The Celestial Harvest Feast; or, the Reaper's Dream, by T. B. Read....... 451 The Granger's Doxology.............................. 454 13 PAGE.

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Page  15 A-UTTHORS QUOTED. ADAMS, D. W., W. M. National Grange. ALIEXANDER, Gen. B. ANDERSON, Hon. M. W. ANDERSON, J. A., President Kansas Agricultural College. ARNOLD, L. D., American Dairyman's Association BIDWELL, Hon. JOHN. BRERETON, Hon. R. M. CARPENTER, S. H., Professor Wisconsin University CARR, Dr. E. S. CARR, Mrs. JEANNE C. COLE, Hon. CORNELIUS. DAVIDSON, Professor GEORGE, United States Irrigation Commissioner. DODGE, J. R., United States Statistician, Department of Agriculture. DEWEY, A. T., Pacific Rural Press. EATON, Gen. JOHN, United States Bureau of Education. ESTEE, Hon. M. M. EMERSON, RALPH WALDO. FELTON, C. C., President Harvard College. FLINT, CHAS. L., Secretary Massachusetts Agricultural Society. FLAGG, W. C. President Illinois Farmers' Association. GARRETSON, N. W., General Deputy, National Grange. GEORGE, HENRY, Editor of San Francisco Evening Post HALLETT, Hon. EDWIN. HAMILTON, J. Mt., W. M. California State Grange. HOYT, J. W., United States Commissioner to Paris and Vienna Expositions. HIGBY, Hon. A., Chairman of Legislative Committee on Edaucation in California HITTELL, Hon. JOHN S. HYATT, Hon. T. HART. LATHROl, J. H., " Chancellor" University of Wisconsin. McKUNE, Hon. J. MENDELL, Col. G. H., United States Irrigation Commissioner. MOORE, Mrs. J. P. MILL, J. STUART. NORDHOFF, CHARLES, Author of "Communistic Societies in U. S.," etc, etc NORTHRUP, Hon. B. G., Superintendent of Schools, Connecticut.

Page  16 AUTHORS QUOTED. PrINEY, Hon. GEO. M. PERRY, Prof. A. L., Professor of Political Economy, William's College, Mass. POWELL, GEORGE MAY, American Institute. PRICE, Prof. BONAMY, Professor of Political Economy, Oxford, England. RYER, Dr. M. W. READ, T. BUCHANAN. SEWARD, Hon. W. H. STOCKBRIDGE, Professor Massachusetts Agricultural College. SNYDER, Hon. J. R. SEARS, Prof. CHAS. TURNER, Professor J. B., Jacksonville, Illinois. WRIGHT, J. W. A., W. Lecturer of California State Grange. WHITTIER, J. G. W ILARD, Hon. X. A., President New York Dairyman's Association. 11 l 01? 16

Page  17 PART FIRST. RELATION OF AGRICULTURIE TO PROGRESS. CHAPTER I. ORGANIZATION OF LABOR. ' Order is the condition of all progress; progress is the object of order. It is rational-to look at the evolution of society from a historical stand-point."-Auguste Comnte. THE MASONIC FRATERNITY-GUILDS-MOVEMENTS OF LABOR IN THE PRESENT CEN TURY-THE SPIRIT OF INDUSTRY CONSTRUCTIVE-WHAT EQUALITY is-How EDUCATION PROMOTES EQUALITY-SELF LOVE VS. SOCIAL FEELING - MIR. SEWARD'S OPINION- ALL GREAT MOVEMENTS HISTORICAL AS WELL AS PRO GRESSIVE. THE history of the Masonic Fraternity is that of the first attempt of labor to elevate itself by organization. Originally consisting of a simple association of practical builders, who traveled from place to place in pursuance of their calling; they gave the name of lodges to their temporary camps, and bound themselves by the solemnities of an oath and ritual to cooperation and fellowship. The advantages thus gained for defense were equally powerful for improvement-the skill of each became a tangible benefit to all; the offices were elective, and conferred honor upon the most skillful and capable. From this simple beginning, a purely industrial and social order was not only enabled to maintain and extend itself through the most turbulent periods of European history, but to become a. teacher of democratic and religious principles, and to exercise in many cases a controlling influence upon the policy of governments. In process of time, ad.ctual participation in a particular calling was no longer required, a symbolic representation of the underlying truths and principles of the order, sufficing to preserve its unity and usefulness. 2

Page  18 ORGANIZATION OF LABOR. During the middle ages, other classes of laborers organized into guilds, and wrought out their emancipation from the condition of serfs to that of freemen. In all these movements, those mechlanic arts which were nearest to the necessities imposed by war, took precedence. Next in order were those which ministered most directly to the luxury and vanity of kings and nobles. It was reserved for the latest and most Christian era to witness the uprising of the agricultural class to a true understanding of its office in the social economy, of its disabilities, and their proper remedy. The movement which has been so nearly simultaneous in England and America, finds its explanation in conditions and dangers almost identical in their nature and effects, though differing in many important particulars. In England, for instance, a monopoly of land, without suffrage, has degraded the farm laborer to a state of helplessness, for which emigration seems the only remedy. In America, though land is abundant and cheap, and suffrage universal, the centralization of the power of capital has created other monopolies, which, having obtained a controlling influence in the government, are equally subversive of the interests of the people. The English farm laborer tills another man's land at starvation wages; the American farmer tills his own at starvation prices, while the rich are growing richer, and the poor poorer, and the separation of society into antagonistic classes, is becoming more and more complete. No single individual, or class of mankind, has intentionally set itself to construct an oppressive system; these are evil growths in the rank soil of human selfishness. The responsibility of their existence should be shared even by those who suffer from them, lacking the individuality and selfrespect to maintain the position of freemen. It is probably not more just to blame capital for the exclusive attention it pays to its own interests, than to blame labor for neglecting to claim the consideration that is due to its influence upon the public welfare. During all the vicissitudes through which industry has passed, there have been reasons why the masses of the people could not look upon the accumulation of capital as the first step in its own progress. They had too often experienced its oppressive power to appreciate its constructive value; they is

Page  19 HOW EDUCATION PROMOTES EQUALITY. have not always remembered that a large capital has the same inviolable character as a small one; that the banker's millions (if they are savings), are as sacred as the peasant's cow and miner's pick. Edward About, in his admirable papers to workingmen, says: "To lay violent hands upon capital is to attack the incarnation of labor, and it is as monstrous to strip a man of his savings as to reduce him to slavery. Slavery is the coinfiscation of potential labor, the other crime would confiscate labor performed." This whole subject may be put in a nutshell. All men set out in life with more or less capital, the gift of nature. To that is added, in proportions not more varied than are the natural faculties of men, a share in-the savings of those who have gone before. Capital, therefore, as we stand related to it to-day, is the saving of either the product of nature or of labor. Education, which adds so much to every man's natural capital of intellectual faculty, and gives him the power to call it into service at any time, also enables him to take a greater share in the accumulation of others. It is the great equalizer of human conditions. It is both a power and a preparation for the exercise of power. The ignorance, the partial and defective education of laboring men, whether farmers or mechanics, is the most serious drawback to their progress; and from whatever monopolies they suffer, that of education is the worst. Hitherto, the superior training and culture of the aristocratic and professional classes have given them preponderance in government; they have, naturally enough, made laws to suit their own interests. It makes little difference whether we live under a tyranny which denies us rights, or one which monopolizes privilege. The division of men into classes has been maintained by the inequalties of intellectual condition. They must necessarily disappear; an equal and just distribution of the good things created by labor, must necessarily arise whenever labor is intelligent enough to create its own safeguards. Self-love is still so much stronger than social feeling in the human breast, that no man can safely entrust the irresponsible guardianship of his well-being to another. This is as true of classes as of individuals. Social progress,-therefore, depends upon a true equality; a true reciprocity. Said WTilliam H. Seward: "Free labor has at last apprehended 19

Page  20 20 THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY. its rights, its interests, its powers and its destiny, and is learning how to organize itself in America." The final organization is far in the future; the germ of it lay far back in the past. No great constructive movement can originate which is not historical as well as progressive in its spirit; it must otherwise limit itself to temporary conditions, and a few generations. In order that we may rightly understand the work of our noble order, the Patrons of Husbandry, we need to examine the economy of civilized society, and the relations of agriculture to civilization. CHAPTER II. THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY. "The hand is almost valueless at one end of the arm if there be not a brain at the other end."-Horace 4lann. MAN AND NATURE-AGRICULITURE THE FOUNDATION OF INDUSTRY —RAW MATE RIALS-FIRST STEPS TOWARD MANUFACTURES-CIVILIZATION REGARDS ALL THE PROCESSES OF EQUAL VALUE-THE SOCIAL BODY, ITS DIFFERENT PARTS AND FUNCTIONS-HOW DIVISION OF LABOR INCREASES PRODUCTION-HOW IT BEGETS EXCHANGE OR COMMERCE-COMMERCE A CHARGE UPON AGRICULTURE; MAGNI TUDE OF THE TAX-HOW THIS ENRICHES THE FARMER-MONEY AS A COMMER CIAL AGENT-OFFICE OF THE RAILROAD AND OF MONEY TO CHEAPEN EXCHANGE -RELATIONS OF AGRICULTURE TO THE PROFESSIONS: TO THE GROWTH OF TowNs: To SCIENCE. IN the beginning, man was alone- with nature. Without arts, without capital, without implements, he took his sustenance from the bosom of the earth, as the common mother of the race. It was his destiny not only to share the spontaneous productions of nature with his fellow animals, but to search out the physical elements and determine their capabilities; to make the needful combinations-to bring into action their productive powers; not only to supply the animal wants, and minister to the pleasure of his organic nature, but to render them tributary to his intellectual, moral and social development, and his ultimate spiritual elevation and well being. In the discharge of this great duty, every avocation of man has its work to perform. It is the province of agriculture to begin the process by the tilling of the ground, as the term imports, by stimulating and guiding the productive energies of the physical elements to results infinitely transcending, in

Page  21 AGRICULTURE THE FOUNDATION OF INDUSTRY. quantity and quality, the. yield of the same —.elements, unaided by human agency. The gross results of agriculture constitute what is called Raw Material, because, with the exception of fruits and green vegetables, material products do not come from the hand of the agriculturist prepared for human use. They are gross and incomplete; the proper material which the arts are to take and fashion into forms of utility and beauty, adapted to the satisfaction of the physical wants, and the gratification of the tastes of men. In the three great classes of our physical wants,-food, clothing and shelter,-how few are the commodities which come from the agriculturist ready for the consumer. Men want not wheat, but bread; therefore the crop, as raw material, must be subjected to the manufacturing processes of the miller and baker. Men want not wool, but clothes; therefore the fleece must undergo successive changes in the hands of the carder, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller and the dyer, before it reappears in the form of cloth. And what does the cloth avail, till the tailor, with his divine art, finishes-the man? So men want not timber and stone, but houses, barns, ships, temples of education and temples of religion; and here again the raw material must be subjected to numberless changes to fit it for the purposes of masonry and architecture. It is obvious, therefore, that there is nothing in the hands of the artisan, the merchant or the manufacturer, that has not previously been in the hands of the farmer. Agriculture thus lies at the foundation of the economical structure of society. But too much of relative dignity and importance must not be assumed by agriculture in consequence of this distinction. To him who enjoys the final product, the initial, the medial, and the finishing process, are all equally important. It is true, that without the raw material furnished by the agriculturist, the occupation of the artisan, merchant and manufacturer is gone forever. But without the labors of these, what would be the value of the raw material? Would it be produced at all? It is true, that the industrial structure rests upon agriculture as the foundation. But what is the value of a foundation, and would it be laid at all, if no superstructure were to be built upon it? It is no disparagement to agriculture that it cannot say to manufacture, "I have no need of thee," or to the mechanic-arts, "I 21

Page  22 22 THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY. have no need of thee." It is no disparagement to all or any of these that they cannot say to commerce, "we have no need of you." It ennobles all these, that none of them any more than the professions, can say to education "we have no need of thee." As in the natural body, there is a divine harmonyrunningthrough the whole structure of the body economical. One member cannot suffer without all the other members suffer with it. In all civilized countries the division of labor agid of employmenis corresponds to the degree of civilization which there prevails. In the production of material wealth in its thousand departments, agriculture, mechanic arts and manufactures, this division of labor results in a vast increase of every kind of production, through tine and labor saved, and the means furnislied for intellectual, moral, and social improvement. But again, the division further begets the need of Exchange, and of anl extended system of exchanges, for the mutual benefit of the producers; and owing to the different and sometimes distant localities of production, transportation is also necessary. To effect the latter with economy and dispatch, the accumulation and combination of capital has been required. The true principle of the division of labor is, that inasmuch as all produced values are the results of agriculture and manufactures, commerce ought to take to itself whatever share is on an average a fair remuneration for its service, leaving in the hands of producers a balance far exceeding in amount and value their whole production, providing they were obliged to effect transportion and exchanges themselves. Although the setting up of the mercantile class, reacts upon production, enlarging its volume, and enriching the producers themselves; still, it is an ultimate and fixed fact, which ought to be distinctly understood, that commerce is a charge upon agriculture and manufacture-that the whole cost of commercial machinery must withdraw just so much of the gross value produced, from the hands of the producer. If the process be clumsily and expensively performed, he suffers, and is less prosperous. The farmer, therefore, is interested in every improvement of the commercial process which will diminish the expenses of transportation and exchange, as truly as in the improvements in manufacture or in implements, which will diminish the cost of production. When we look at the vastness and complication of the machinery of commerce, by land and by sea; and the enormous expense of maintaining it, we may well wonder at the miracle,

Page  23 COMMERCE A CHARGE UPON AGRICULTURE. that the shoulders of agriculture and manufacture are broad enough to sustain, uncrushed and unbent, the whole burden of the charge. And yet they do sustain it. 1Not a dollar goes into the treasury of these improvements which is not taken from the produced values of those who are ultimately the mutual parties interested in the exchange, and in the consumption of the commodities transported. The gross values of the producer are diminished, aye, taxed, if you please, to this amount,-and the farmer pays his portion of the tax. But is he oppressed by it? Not unless the process has been fraudulent, because: 1st. In consequence of a reduction in the cost of exchange which commerce secures, his produce is worth more on his farm. 2d. The merchandise which he needs costs less for the- same reason. 3d. Because' the commercial- agency takes away-a smaller portion of his produced values, leaving a larger balance in his hands; he is affected precisely as if his land had become-more pro&uctive; therefore his real estate rises in value. We will now look at morey as a commercial agent. Gold and silver coin, embodying the two qualities of universal receiyability and divisibility at will, has been adopted by common consent and the action of civil governments as the money of the commercial world, and is as distinctly a part of the machinery of commerce, as the railroad or steamboat. It is the office of the railroad to facilitate and cheapen transportation, and this constitutes its whole value as a railroad; so it is the office of coined money to facilitate and cheapen exchanges, and this constitutes its whole value as money., Were barter entirely convenient and economical, money would have no office to perform,-no necessity would have suggested its creation-its presence in the business of the world would be without meaning; it would never have been thought of. Wheh we consider what an enormous sum of money the exchanges of this country require; that file annual charge for this expensive commercial agent is the yearly interest of this sum, with the addition of the annual cost of the coinage, the loss by the wear and tear, by shipwreck and otherwise, we wonder ag,ain, are the shoulders of agriculture and manufacture -broad enough to sustain the burden of this charge? They do sustain it, with incalculable advantage and profit to the producer. For the simple reason that money, although 23

Page  24 24 THE OFFICE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE SOCIAL ECONOMY. itself an expensive agent, so facilitates and cheapens exchanges, as to relieve agriculture and manufacture from the far greater cost of making these same exchanges by the time and labor consuming processes of barter. We have seen that agriculture is interested in the-prosperity and improvement of all mechanical and manufacturing interests; that agriculture in comnmon with the arts is interested in -the prosperity of commerce. Agriculture, in common with manufacture and commerce, is interested in the prosperity of the professions. Without the agency of these; without the sound social conditions of HEALTH, ORDER and MORALITY, production would be at an end. So much for the economic argument. Above all, it is interested in that agency which terminates not on the physical products, nor yet directly on social conditions, but on' the man himself. The raw material of the educator is the young mind, the unformed intellect of the community. This resulting product is the finished man, prepared by varied knowledge and discipline, and by special training, to act well his part as agriculturist, artisan, merchant, capitalist, physician, lawyer, or teacher; useful in the civil state, and in those more exalted relations which concern him as a member of the human family, and a subject of the universal empire of God. The educator, whether of the school or the press, stands at the point of power, and applies the moving force to the mechanism of human society. His is the highest office in the social economy. Agriculture is interested in the prosperity and growvthl of large towns. -A town or city is a part of the business mnachinery of the country. In some agricultural communities there has sprung up a narrow jealousy of the town, grudging its prosperity, tainting legislation by unequal taxation, and a denial of the facilities necessary to healthy development. In the large town the principle of competition is the most active, and furnishes the best check upon monopoly. The interests of town and country are mutual and harmonious. Lastly, agriculture is interested in the improvement and perfection of its own processes, in the discoveries of science and their applications, in that close union of the intellect of the state with its productive arm, which will finally do away with social distinctions, and leave each individual to stand on his personal merit as a part of the social system.

Page  25 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. CHAPTER III. AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. "It began to be a question whether Egypt was going to live much longer, when she paid more attention to embalming her grandfathers than she did to inspiring her children." CIVILIZATION A RELATIVE TERM-WEALTHI —WILD WHEAT AND WILD RICE-THE DATE-MIILLET-EGYPTIAN AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE-FLAX CULTURE -GRANARIES MODELS OF OUR ELEVATORS - CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE CHINA-CONFUCIUS A TEACHER OF AGRICULTURAL THRIFT-HOW SILE CULT URE HAS BEEN PROMOTED-IMPLEMENTS-SIZE OF FARMS-WAGES-JAPAN COMPARED WITH GREAT BRITAIN-WHEAT CULTURE-RURAL LIFE IN GREECE -XENOPBON A FARMER-HESIOD'S "WORKS AND DAYS "-PUBLIC GARDENS DECAY-ARISTOTLE THE FATHER OF A RATIONAL POLITY-SLAVERY-ROME PATRICIANS AND PLEBEIANS-SIZE OF FARMS-COMMON PASTURE-TENANTS CATO'S DESCRIPTION OF A STEWARD-THE ROME OF TO-DAY. A COMPLETE history of agriculture has yet to be written. From the traditions of different nations, their works of art, and their literatures, we find abundant evidence that, however splendid the superstructure, the civilization of every nation has rested where it does to-day, upon the toil of millions for their daily bread-the satisfaction of the common wants of humanity. Whatever may afterward be added to improve, adorn and elevate the social or spiritual condition of man, his relation to the soil remains unchanged; there is the basis of his prosperity. It was given to him "for usufruct alone," not for consumption, and still less for profligate waste. Wherever the obligation to maintain the harmonious balance between organic and inorganic nature has been met, there we find the oldest and most permanent civilizations. Wherever the selfish pursuit of profit, the vile principle "After us the Deluge," has been the ruling motive, the deluge has followed, leaving in its wake a human deterioration which corresponds with the destruction of virgin lands. From the old center and cradle of the race we may trace man as he flies from the arena of his own actions, in Palestine, in Greece, in Italy, in the north of Africa and Spain, leaving behind him soils rendered infertile through the demolition of forests, "thorns and thistles," or the depauperated fornms of once noble races of plants. Having reached the western limit, the tide of emigration must ere long return upon its course, to restore and recover the wastes it has-created. Indigenous species of animals and plants needlessly extirpated, must be replaced by alien forms, and the balance re-adjusted as far 25

Page  26 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. as a better knowledge of the laws of animal and vegetable life will make such readjustment possible. Civilization is a relative term. It does not consist in the multiplication or mrodes of supply of the artificial wants of mankind; it is the development of social order in place of individual independence and savage lawlessness. It is the improvement of the mass through the perfection of its units. This is a common sense view of the subject, and common sense, as Mir. Guizot says, "is the genius of mankind." Civilization, therefore, determined by the character of the units of the social order, is susceptible of continual progress, and the highest perfection. But it is dependent upon physical agents, chiefly upon climate and soil, which determine the most important conditions of human welfare. The first step of progress is the accumulation of wealth, which in all regions of the earth is created by labor. The moment man produces more than he consumes, the law of distribution comes into play and we see a movement toward an organization of industry. It does not depend upon race. The same Mongolian and Tartar tribes which, wandering over the steppes and barren lands of Central Asia, never emerge from the rudest condition of pastoral life, because they never accumulate; have risen to the highest civilization whenever they have broken through the mountain ranges and descended into more fertile regions. The wild Arab, whom we know best as the Bedouin of the desert, transplanted to Persia or Spain, left noble architectures behind him, and made valuable contributions to literature and science. Even the Indian races of the new world, wherever nature permitted the accumulation of the wealth derived from a genial climate and fertile soil, have left, as in Mexico and in Peru, splendid monuments of their advancement in the arts of life. Everywhere the basis is the same; it was rice and wheat culture on one continent, maize on the other. How many ages were consumed in impressing the stamp of utility upon the products of wild nature it is impossible to tell. Some of the most useful food plants are found in a wild state. Wheat in upper Egypt and the hill country of India; rice of excellent quality, though not identical illn. species, abounds in the North American lakes. But the wild wheat is a thin and comparatively miserable 26

Page  27 EGYPTIAN AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. seed, unfit for bread, and the wild rice, though productive, is black and coarse compared with its cultivated kindred. The notable proportion of flesh-producing material contained in wheat represents to us the flesh and blood of thousands of generations who have persisted in bringing it to its present perfection. As with wheat and rice, so all the varied products of our gardens and fields are trophies of man's conquest over wild nature, for to whatever he bring his intelligence, he seems to impart an added beauty and utility. A wild plant or animal is only such in its relations to him, its separation, so to speak, from his uses; and the nearer animal life approaches to man in the scale of power and intelligence, the more capable it seems of entering into his service. This process of assimilation began in the morning of time, and has left no trace of its earlier steps. The oldest agricultural records are seen upon the Egyptian monuments, where we find the foodful date tree everywhere represented. The banks of the Tigris, Euphrates and the Nile were doubtless the scene of the earliest attempts at agricultural labors in propagating and increasing the fertility of this tree, upon which both men and animals depended for sustenance. It is a singular fact. that the date requires artificial impregnation. This fact was early discovered, and led to a simple festival known to this day as the marriage of the palm, in which not only the peasants, but camels, asses, and even fowls and dogs participate. The exuberance of vegetable life in the valley of the Nile, where a favorable temperature is constant, and where inexhaustible fertility is maintained by the periodical distribution of new materials, accounts for the speed with which wealth was created and population increased. Four hundred date palms may be grown on one and three quarters acres of land, each bearing a hundred pounds of fruit. From the rich soil of the river the lotus furnished a nourishing seed or bean, from which the bread of the common people was made. Later the dhourra, or millet, which now yields to the labor of upper Egypt a return of two hundred and forty fold, served the same purpose. All these plants and their modes of culture are described in pictures and hieroglyphics which seem to defy the effacing finger of time. We also find upon the Egyptian monuments the earliest rec 27

Page  28 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. ords of the application of machinery to the cultivation of the soil. We see the plow represented, with handles to guide it, yoked oxen harrowing in the grain, laborers hackling it upon an implement set with sharp teeth, and herdsmen, distinguished from other laborers by their dress, bringing in sheep and wool. In the tomb of Menophres at Saccara, two bulls are represented. The symbolic worship of the bull gave a peculiar sanctity to bovine animals. Not only does picture-writing reveal the condition of the —art of agriculture, but it gives us a glimpse of the social state. In a tomb at Erlethya we see a proprietor inspecting his farm. Before him goes a writer with implements; obsequious servants follow with stool and slippers, his bow and quiver. His dress shows what manner of man he was; he wears a collar and robe, and holds in his hand both scepter and staff. Two herdsmen bring in cattle, one prostrates himself, while the other is in the attitude of a person reporting the condition of the flocks. Upon the tablet is written, "cattle, 122; rams, 300; goats, 1,300; swine, 1,500." On another tomb 944 sheep are mentioned as the property of the occupant. In the Scriptures we find an account of the -first grain monopoly, viz: that of Joseph, who, with Pharaoh,- created a corner in wheat. Horticulture in all its departments was also carried to great perfection;'the variety of gourds, cucumbers, melons, fruits and vines which added to the luxury of a vast population, is most surprising. Flax was grown in abundance, and the modes of its preparation for the spinner were identical with those now used. Their granaries, of which millions lined the banks of the Nile, are the models of the grain elevators of our own time. But in all this creation of utilities man himself was left out of the account. What remain to us as monuments of a civilization, falsely so called, are but stupendous and convincing proofs of a revolting despotism, based upon cruelty and upheld by superstition. "The very resources which the people had created were turned against themselves." The condition of the captive Israelites was that of the toiling millions upon both hemispheres, where the accumulation of wealth without its dispersion secured to the upper classes a monopoly of the very sources of power. National improvements were made which are the wonder of modern times, but the masses of the people received no 28

Page  29 CHINA. benefit from them. The reckless prodigality with which labor was expended in works of doubtful utility showed the esteem in which it was held. A man was of as little account to the builders of the Pyramids as is the reef-making polyp to the inhabitant of the coral islands. What was true of Egypt was equally-true of India, of Mexico and Peru; wherever the separation of a nation into castes divid,d society against itself, and planted the seeds of its dissolution in the ignorance of the masses of the people. The notable exception which China furnishes to other ancient nations, is due to the fact that centuries ago she began to organize and practically develop the national intellect. She has thus, to a considerable degree, obviated the evils of caste, created a motive for industry and thrift, and maintained herself in permanent prosperity, while other nationalities have melted away. China owes her immense population and wealth to the most thrifty and skillful agriculture practiced on the face of the earth, except in Japan and Holland. Shoo-Ming, the primeval farmer, who first substituted grain for raw meat, and the Emperor WTanti, who took the plow into his own hand and originated one of the great festivals of the nation, are more highly-honored than those monarchs who aggrandized the Empire by the conquest of new peoples. One of their Sagas, "Keep your lands clean, manure them richly, make your fields resemblea garden," though it has a modern sound to us, is of great antiquity. Scarcely any other country exhibits such practical obedience to the teachings of its prophets as China gives to those of Confucius, whose laws regulating labor are still carried into effect by the government. As the government, i. e., thle Emperor, is the universal owner of land, the only security the laborer enjoys with respect to its possession is the perfection of its culture; for, though the law allows him to be dispossessed at pleasure, custom continues it in the same family for many generations. There is sound statesmanship in the proclamation of Wan Choo Tung, Commissioner of Revenue of the Nan Kiang provinces, in the year 1845, who desired to introduce the silk culture into his district. After a somewhat exhaustive lecture on the advantages of this industry, he commands "all our officers to assemble the village gentry and elders, and let them admo 29

Page  30 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. ish the' people and lay down the best rules, and let the same be published with descriptive plates. Let the father instruct his child, the husband his wife, then shall we see men at the plow, and women at the loom; no laborer will be unemployed, and no resource of the soil be lost." Still higher patronage is given to this culture by the Imperial example. The Empress-.must make silk-weaving one of her occupations, and to her is committed the homage due to the god of the silk-worm. Long before the era of European civilization, China appears to have understood the true relations of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The division of labor led to wonderful results in the perfection of manufactures and the extension of commerce. Marco Polo tells us that the Chinese have used paper money since the year 119 B. C. We know they had established banks, and conducted financial operations by promissory notes and bills of exchange, at an early period. Every practicable spot in China is devoted to tillage, which is mostly accomplished by hand labor. Implements are few, light and simple in construction. The le or plow is of wood, with an iron point, and is drawn by a-single buffalo. Only the edge of the hoe is of iron; the harrow has teeth thickly set, and ten inches long, an excellent pulverizer. The bamboo rake, used for harvesting, gleaning, gathering scraps of manure, may be said never to leave the hands of the Chinese farmer. The bill hook or leen is another instrument, serving all the purposes of pruning-knife, scythe and sickle. Six or eight acres is a large farm. Divided by belts or lines of carefully tended grass, instead of fences, these garden farms present a finished picture of the highest cultivation. Two and even four crops are obtained yearly from the same ground by alternating grain and vegetables. Liquid manure is freely used; ashes, oil cake, night soil, lime from bones and oyster shells, even human hair from the barbers is carefully saved. The wages of the lowest description of laborers averages-about sixty cash, (30 cents) per month, and the cost of maintenance is from a dollar to a dollar and a half. Artisans, such as carpenters and blacksmiths, receive five dollars a month, with a corresponding increase in the cost of maintenance. In the year of 1013 of our era, Tchin-Tsoung published the census of the industrial population, and reported 21,966,965 30

Page  31 JAPANESE WHEAT CULTURE. engaged in agricultural pursuits, not including women or young people under twenty-one years of age. In the year 1732 the imperial taxes were removed from the tenants of farms andcl placed upon the larger proprietors; and for the further encouragement of a class of such vital imnportance to the empire, it was decreed that the governor of every city or village of a certain number of inhabitants should send to the court the name of the most successful farmer, distinguished for good conduct and the good will of his neighbors, for frugality, and freedom from excesses. This wise and diligent agriculturist was thereupon raised to the dignity of a mandarin of the eighth order by letters patent. He might visit the governor, sit down in his presence and drink tea with him. Respected for the remainder of his days, he should receive the honorable funeral of a mandarin on his decease; and while his name was written on the tablets of his ancestors, it would be cherished by the government as of one who had rendered the highest service to his country. Of all countries, Japan is the most remarkable for the development of her agricultural resources. There the agricultural interest has been protected by the most enlightened conduct toward the producing classes, who stand next in rank to the defenders of the State. A very interesting paper on this subject, contributed by Hon. Horace Capron to the report of the Department of Agriculture for 1873, shows that even in wheat culture we have much to learn from the large experience of this thrifty and intelligent people. The well-known practice of the Japanese and Chinese in dwarfing plants, throwing their strength into fruit or flowers, at the expense of wood or leaves, is applied to wheat, thus shortening and thickening the straw, increasing the size of the heads, and rendering it less liable to lodge. Japan is far too tempting a subject to be more than touched upon here. If "China is old, and immovably conservative," Japan, not younger in years, but in the spirit which welcomes new truths in science and new applications of these to the arts of life, is vigorous with an eternal youth. In Japan we have a stable civilization based upon absolutism, imperiled by the existence of caste, isolated for unknown centuries from intercourse with other countries, yet maintaining 31

Page  32 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. itself within narrow limits by an almost universal, practical education, and the dignity accorded to the pursuit of agriculture. The organization of the national intellect is as complete, and far more rational than that of China. That government may be considered as having builded "better than it knew" which discriminated in favor of the agriculturists in respect to educational privileges; for these classes are necessarily the most averse to changes in government. Political disturbances and agitations, like war, are a constant threat to the prosperity of the farmer, and to him, sooner than the representative of any other class, may new ideas be intrusted with safety to the nation. Japan gives us the highest example-of national thrift, if the density of population in proportion to extent and original excellence of territory is the test. The surface is broken by ranges of mountains, the coast by bays and inlets which render navigation dangerous, and the variations of temperature are excessive. Yet she feeds, cluthes, shelters and instructs a larger population than that of Great Britain. The perfection of culture which has enabled her to accomplish this, unassisted by foreign commerce, must be studied in detail tD be understood. She has done it mainly by the most wonderful economy of fertilizing materials, and the preservation of her forests. Rural life in Greece is presented in a charming book which has woven the facts of the nation's life into a prose poem. President Felton says: "If the Greeks were preeminently a nation of poets and artists, they were no less preeminently a nation of farmers." Here for the first time we find the rural home. The pictures which Homer gives of the scenes of rustic toil are fresh and enchanting as those in the pages of Whittier. Nor were the Hellenes unlike our New England forefathers in the virtues of thrift and temperance, in their proverbial philosophy, the wit which goes "like bullet to its mark," or their weatherwisdom. Like the American Indian, they knew the time of day by the turning of leaves and the opening and shutting of flowers. The charm of Homer to the English mind is in the familiarity of scenes which are depicted in his immortal lines. The Greek mind absorbed beauty as the Greek body took in health and wholeness (another word for holiness) from the earth it loved. "The love of rural life was one of the deepest passions 32

Page  33 RURAL LIFE IN GREECE. of the Grecian heart, beyond the realm of Arcadia, real or ideal." Through the whole compass of Greek literature the sights and sounds of the country-the murmuring of the bees, the rising sun smiting the earth with his shafts, the rich meadows, the- cattle feeding in the pastures-furnish images on which the city poets delight to dwell, and share with the sea the thoughts that move harmonious numbers. The plains of Attica were covered with rural homes; the country was full of little sanctuaries for the rural deities, nymphs, and others who frequented them. In the Greek classics we not only find how much they knew of agriculture, but how little we have improved upon their knowledge. They knew the virtues of guano, fish and sea-weed in the corn fields; that land recovered its strength by lying fallow; that hay ricks might become heated and burn up. Though the grain was trodden out by cattle or horses on the threshing floor, they had invented the flail, and a winnowing machine; and well they knew the value of the potent juice of those golden or purple clusters which grew on every tree and sunny wall. They trained their grapes from tree to tree, making lofty arches, beneath which the breezes could freely play, abundant currents of pure air being regarded as no less essential to the perfect maturing of the grape than constant sunshine. The art of preserving the grape itself for the use of the table, either in a fresh state, or as raisins, was everywhere practiced. The richest agricultural and horticultural contributions have come down to us from the master minds of Greece. They drew their inspiration directly from nature herself, and not from what some earlier writer had said about nature. The pupil of Socrates, the leader of the immortal retreat of the ten thousand, wrote from his farm at Elis: "Agriculture, for an honorable and high-minded man, is the best of all occupations and arts, by which men procure a living. For it is a pursuit that is most easy to learn and most pleasant to practice; it puts the bodies of men in the fairest and most vigorous condition, and is far from giving such constant occupation to their minds, as to prevent them from attending to the interests of their friends or their country. A man's home and fireside are the sweetest of all possessions." Hesiod's "Works and Days" are devoted to- the rustic lore which embodied the experience then attained. Nor can we fail 3 33

Page  34 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. to see how apt those Yankees of the Orient were to snatch every improvement, every new culture from the' nations they conquered, as we read Homer's description of the gardens of Alcinous, where flourished High and broad fruit-trees that pomegranates bore; Sweet figs, pears, olives and a number more Most useful plants did there produce their store, Whose fruits their hardest winters could not kill; Nor hottest summer wither; there was still Fruit in his proper season; all the year Sweet zephyr breathed upon them, blasts that were Of varied tempers, these he made to bear Ripe fruits, these blossoms, pear succeeded pear, Apple grew after apple, grape the grape, Fig after fig; time made never rape Of any dainty there. In Greece, also, we have the first example of public gardens created by the magistrates for the use of the citizens; and history takes account of the botanic garden founded by Theophrastus, at Athens. Another was created by Mithridates, King of Pontus, 135 years before Christ. It is very pertinent to our subject to inquire how all this came to be changed-to find a reason for the Greece of today.* Mr. Felton ascribes it to the lack of a common central government; to the seeds of division planted by the predominance of the city over the country; to extensive migrations, and the formation of rival confederacies. All these were, doubtless, modifying causes, but we must look upon the Greek experiment at civilization in a broader light-as one ot many great experiments necessary to precede a conception of society in which the quality of the units should be of the first importance. Plato-looked with distrust upon popular governments. He considered the people little better than a mob, and would have subjected the individual entirely to the State. Not so Aristotle, the father of a rational polity. He maintains that the legitimate object of government is not to increase the wealth of the few, nor to favor the poor at the expense of the rich, nor to encourage mere equality, nor to promote trade and commerce only, but to make good and virtuous citizens, and to promote hap *I Of Athens there remains only a small castle, a hamlet, undefended from foxes and wild beasts. Its people, once free, are now under the yoke of slavery to the cruelest brutes,"Nicholas Goibel, a writer of the 16th century. 34

Page  35 CAUSES OF GRECIAN DECAY-ROME. piness. Those, therefore, who can contribute most to these results have the best title to a share in the government. He proceeds to show that the middle, i. e., the producing classes, who are exempt alike from the temptations of poverty and riches, are most likely to be governed by reason. Nor was this great practical philosopher ar mere utilitarian. "The most nec essary and useful things," he said, "are undertaken for the sake of leading toward the most beautiful." The military arm was only valuable in preserving peace. Labor was valuable in securing leisure for -the highest enjoyments. The decay of Greece began in the degradation of labor, through the introduction of slavery and the growth of luxury. Education, at first exceedingly practical, aiming at bodily and moral, as well as intellectual perfection, grew more and more one-sided, and ended in speculations upon philosophical subjects, mental gymnastics, as profitless in their relations to popular welfare as the theological dogmas have been which have divided the world. Agriculture became more and more subordinated to trade and commerce. The mines were all worked by slaves. The ratio of the free to the slave population brought from the shores of Asia, became as one to three; and as almost every eminent citizen was owner of from fifty to one thousand slaves, we can understand the rapidity with which the thousand years of Grecian civilization drew to its close. Having shown that in the free States of Greece we find the elements of all that is best in society, and a philosophical recognition of the true relations of man and land, we will turn to Rome, where civilization presents the same phenomena of progress and decay. As in Greece, we here find the supreme power of the State derived from laws made by common consent of the people, and that the division of land was made according to families, reserving a portion for common use. The early Romans had only two arts-war and agriculture. Every husbandman was also a soldier; and as the laws forbade him to sell or alienate his land, the growth of population naturally led to the establishment of a patrician class. The whole policy of Roman war and conquest rested on the desire to extend their territory, and with it the freehold system, of such vital consequence to the State. The Roman government never lost a foot of land; 35

Page  36 AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD. every vanquished nation was compelled to merge itself into the yeomanry of Rome, or to cede a third part of its domain, which was thereupon converted into Roman farms. It has been well said, that many nations have gained victories and conquests as the Romans did; but none have equaled them in securing to the plowshare what was won by the sword. The extent of a middle sized Roman farm was about twelve and a half acres, the chief crops wheat, and spelt, which is even better adapted than wheat to primitive cultivation. Peas, beans, and a great variety of vegetables were diligently cultivated. The rearing of cattle for milk or meat does not appear to have been practiced until later times. From the Greeks they borrowed the culture of the olive, fig and vine. The farmer and his sons guided the plow, which was drawn by the ox or cow; horses, asses and mules being used only as beasts of burden. The cattle, geese and swine were kept in the agrariumn or common pasture. So perfectly was the plowing performed, and so closely were the furrows laid that harrowing was dispensed with altogether. The farmer had many holidays-going weekly to market and keeping zealously all the religious and family festivals. After the winter sowing, a whole month was considered a holiday. At a very early period there seems to have been no distinction made between the rights of the large or small land-holder in the common pasture, which was the property of the State, and not of the community. Day laborers were common, but there were few slaves, and as these were of the same blood and race, captives from Etrurian or Volsoian neighbors, they were permitted and doubtless encouraged to work out their freedom. A careful reading of Roman history, especially that part of it which relates to the division of society into two great classes, patricians and plebeians, the differences that arose about the use of the common pasture, the concentration of land and capital into fewer hands, dispossessing the small farmers and cultivating estates with rural slaves, is necessary to a right understanding of the agricultural condition of modern Europe; In the sixth century, (Roman era,) Roman husbandry consisted in themanagement either of the large estates of the aristocracy, or of the pasturage, i.e., the public or common lands, or in the tillage of petty holdings. Mommsen says "the whole system was pervaded by the unscrupulousness characteristic of the 36

Page  37 ROMAN SLAVER:r-CATO S STEWARD. power of capital. Slaves and cattle were now-placed on the same level; they were fed as long as they could work as a matter of economy, and sold when they were worn out, as a matter of economy also." One of Cato's maxims was that a slave must either work or sleep, and no attempt was ever made to attach the slaves to their estate or to their master by any bond of human sympathy. The abject position of the practical husbandman, not enslaved, is further shown in Cato's description of what a steward ought to be. "He is the first to rise and the last to go to bed; he is strict in dealing with himself as well as with those under him, especially his stewardess; he is careful of his slaves and oxen; is always at home; never borrows nor lends; makes no visits and gives no entertainments; troubles himself about no worship, save of the gods of the hearth and field; leaves all dealings with the gods and with men to his master; he modestly meets that master faithfully and simply, and conforms to his instructions." By this time, such of the yeomanry as were not swallowed up by capital, held small parcels of land, and were generally so poor that the hoe was substituted for the plow in their labors. The farmers were irretrievably ruined, and the more so that they gradually lost the moral tone and frugal habits of the earlier ages of the republic. The other branches of industrial arts were undeveloped, the force and energy of the population being consumed in war and commerce. From the third to the fifth century of the Roman era, capital had waged its warfare against labor by withdrawing the revenues of the soil from the working farmers, in the form of interest on debt, and transferring the capital thence derived to the field of mercantile activity opened up by the commerce of the Mediterranean. There was no longer an agricultural class among the citizens; and although a high and even an improved culture was maintained, it was simply the application of the capitalist system to the produce of the soil. Cato, who regarded himself as a reformer, and had declared that farmers made the bravest men and the best soldiers, states that Italy at the end of the sixth (RPoman) century, was far weaker in population than at the end of the fifth, and no longer able to furnish its former war levies. The half savage herdsman who confronts the traveler in the Roman Campagna, is an unconscious witness of the estimation 37

Page  38 AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE. which noble and aristocratic Rome placed upon her citizen farmers while the nation was shaping itself. "She did not exactly desire their destruction, but allowed it to run its-course, and so desolation advanced with gigantic steps over the flourishing land of Italy, where countless numbers-of free men had lately rejoiced in well earned prosperity." CHAPTER IV. AGRICULTURE IN MIODERN EUROPE. GEMANY AND ENGLAND-RANKES-FOLES LAND AND RENTS-DEGRADATION OF THE BRITISH LABORER-ALLOWANCE OF FOOD-ELEVATION OF THE MECHANICAL CLASS -PROPORTION OF LAND OWNERS TO POPULATION-VARIATIONS IN CONDITION WAGES OF LABORERS-HOW ENGLAND IS FED-SCOTLAND A WHEAT GROWING COUNTRY-AMELIORATION OF CLIMATE THROUGH AGRICULTURE-PEDIGREE CAT ILE AND SHEEP-FRANCE-SMALL FARMING AND POPULATION-GREAT PRODUC TION OF WHEAT-THE LATE WAR-HOLLAND AND THE Low COUNTRIES-A MODEL FOR CALIFORNIA-DEEP TILLAGE-DIVERSITY OF CROPS-USE OF MA CHINERY-NIGHT SOIL AND MANURES-ROTATION-MODERN GERMANY-BEET CULTURE-MAIZE CULTURE IN AUSTRIA-RUSSIA OUR RIVAL IN WHEAT-CON CLUSION. THE orderly development of agriculture among the Germans was retarded by the military spirit which distinguished them, and by a policy exactly the reverse of that pursued by the Romnans. The Germans returned the lands to the people they conquered, on condition of receiving military assistance, and required of their tributaries that one half of the popuLlation should alternately fight and till the soil. The feudat system arose in their dislike of agricultural pursuits, and was entirely subversive of the freehold or allodial rights essential to their successful prosecution; and although these rights were preserved in some parts of Germany and France, the tendency to vassalage was almost irresistible. Indeed, there was no other security in those distracted times, either for life or property, and the oath of fealty exacted from the peasant by-the lord, was required of the lord himself to the next higher in authority, and so on until it rested at the-throne; thus diminishing in all classes the sense of degradation. In the long procession of nobility, first came the Earls Palatine, then simple Earls, then Companions in Germany, corresponding to the Thanes of England, then the Ceorls or tenants, 38

Page  39 DEGRADATION OF THE BRITISH LABORER. and lastly the slaves-or villains who tilled the soil. These aristocratic distinctions were engrafted upon Great Britain, with other Teutonic customs, during the Saxon ascendency. Agriculture was introduced into Britain by the Gauls, one hundred years before the Roman invasion. The division of land followed the Roman custom, i. e., it was divided into "hides," a hide being about as much as could be cultivated with a single plow, or from sixty to one hundred and twenty acres. No man was allowed to guide a plow who could not construct one. To reclaim land geve the use of it for five years. Just at this period the Saxon distinction between "folks land," or the property belonging to the State and the people at large, and bocland, or private property, begins distinctly to appear, as also the system of rentals. According to the law of Ina, king of the West Saxons in the eighth century, a hide of plow land paid the following rent, viz: Ten casks of honey; three hundred loaves of bread; twelve casks of strong ale; thirty casks of small ale; two oxen; ten wedders; ten geese; twenty hens; ten cheeses; one cask of butter; five salmon; twenty loads of forage, and one hundred eels. In the time of Alfred the Great, we hear complaints that arable lands were exhausted of their natural fertility, and three fourths of that which was susceptible of cultivation was devoted to pasturage. The English farmer earned his black and bitter bread during the 3fiddle Ages, known as a "churl" or hind, with little motive for self-improvement or that of his lands. The plowman, shepherd and swineherd belonged to the soil, and fishermen were rented and sold with the fisheries where they were employed. The cottager's house was a thatch-covered hut, chinked with mud or clay, without chimney, window or floor. A hide, dressed with the hair on, swung like a hammock, served him for a bed; there were no mills except those operated by hand. He was his own tailor, tanner and clothier. The kit of a blacksmith consisted of four pieces; a carpenter's of six. There was no division of labor. The plow, a pick, a clodbreaker, spades, sickles and baskets for winnowing grain-comprised the list of agricultural implements. The allowance of the laborer was two herrings-a day, a loaf of wheat or barley bread, and milk from the manor house, with which to make his cheese. 39

Page  40 AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE. Twenty years after the accession of William the Conlquerer, nearly the whole territory of England had been wrested from its original proprietors and given away, making the condition of the agricultural population even worse than before. Still the art of agriculture progressed, thanks to the monks, and the proportion of freemen increased in consequence of the nlecessity for handicrafts which required intelligence and skill. By the year 1367, forty-eight "mysteries of labor," as the various employments of saddlers, brewers, masons, etc., were called, had been established in London and were strongly organized into guilds and fraternities. But the laws strictly forbade the teaching of any mystery to a husbandman or son of a husbandman. The mechanics having achieved an acknowledged political position as free subjects of the crown, the agricultural serfs showed signs of following their example. A statute of the First IRichard (1377), is made "at the grievous complaint of the Lords and Commons of the realm, that in many parts the villains who owe services and customs to said lords have of late and do daily withdraw their services, and affirm them to be utterly discharged of all manner servage, due as well of their body as of their said tenures, and will not suffer any distress or other justice to be made upon them, and which more is, gather themselves in great routs, and agree by such confederacy that every one shall aid the other to resist their lords with the strong hand." The memorable request of such a "confederacy," headed by Wat Tyler, "for the abolition of slavery for themselves and their children forever; for the reduction of rent, and the privilege of buying like other men in fairs and markets," resulted in the addition of insult to the injuries of this long-suffering class. "Rustics ye have been, and are," the king told them, "and in bondage ye shall yet remain-not such as ye have heretofore known, but in a condition incomparably more vile." From that time it was enacted that all persons who had been employed in any labor or service of husbandry until the age of twelve should from thenceforth abide at the same labor, and be forever incapable of being put to any other business. The evil effects of this irrational discrimination exercised toward agricultural industry, were not confined to the farming class, nor so England alone. Tenancy at will and tenant rights are more serious matters for English statesmanship to deal with now than 40

Page  41 RATIO OF LAND OWNERS TO POPULATION. they were before the Great Charter secured personal rights and a trial by jury to every freeman born upon English soil. At the time of the Norman conquest the population of England was supposed to be a million and a half, and the roll of land owners numbered over 45,000. In 1861, with a population of 20,000,000, the number of land owners is reduced to 30,000, and every twentieth man is a pauper. In Ireland, just before the famine, the rural population amounted to twenty-five for every hundred acres; in France, at the same period, to sixteen; in England to twelve, and in the Scotch Lowlands to five. Land monopoly has driven two millions of agricultural laborers out of Great Britain. The English farm laborer has been cheated of his manhood; first, by a monopoly of government, which, by withholding the ballot, kept him in a servile condition; second, by monopoly of land, which destroyed the highest motive for industry, viz: the improvement of his condition, and the attainment of a permanent home; and third, a monopoly of education. In 1848 an English statesman was asked if something could not be done to check the stream of emigration setting from Ireland toward America. "Not while middlemen hold all the land as agents of the aristocracy, and get all the profits," was the significant reply. Professor J. Thorold Rogers has given us a history of British agriculture from 1259 to 1793. He shows, from carefully collected data, how gradually the emancipation of the agricultural classes took place; how the aristocracy were eating each other up with expensive wars and the extravagance of courts; how the yeomanry lost ground during the reformation; what was their Golden Age, and that the English peasant is again becoming a serf, and the yeomanry disappearing in the absorption of nearly all the land by a small number of great proprietors. If the end of labor, and of wealth created by labor, is man himself, the civilization of England finds a parallel in that of Rome, and for the same reasons. Its agriculture, successful and wonderful in its results during the last century and a half, is an exhibition of the power of capital applied to land. The deyelopment of agricultural wealth and of civilization in the United States and in Australia is an exhibition of the power of manhood similarly applied. The advance in the price of agricultural labor in England has 41

Page  42 AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE. been slower than in other countries. In 1273 the hay nmakler got 2~2d. an acre; 24d. in 1400, with board; women laborers 8d. and fed themselves. The price for washing and shearing sheep was a penny a score; in twenty years sixteen were sheared for a penny, then ten, and finally eight. WVe read of one farmer at about the year 1500 who gave his women shearers 1-ld. a day and fed them. And yet Joseph Arch tells us that agricultural labor, all things considered, fared better then than now. The price of meat and dairy products in England makes cattle raising more profitable than grain. Some one has said, and it is very near the truth, that a failure of the turnip crop for two years would bankrupt England. Agriculture is therefore growing in importance hourly, and so are all questions involved in the feeding of that vast and rapidly increasing population. England is increasing her acreage as fast as she can, by reclamation, and reducing her pasturage. The culture of sainfoin, a crop good for six or seven years, has proved advantageous, also of buckwheat for fodder. In 1789, 9,000,000 acres were cultivated; in 1869, 36,100,153; in 1870, 46,177,370, of which 11,755,053 acres were devoted to wheat culture. How far that goes in feeding the English millions is best seen by a statement of the imports of wheat and flour from the United States for fifteen years. Year. Cwt. wheat. Cwt. Flour. 1856................................................ 5,542,983 2,892,518 1857...............................................2 1858................................................ 1859................................................. 1860................................................. 1861................................................. 1862.................................................. 1863.................................................. 1864.................................................. 1865................................................. 1866.................................................. 1867................................................ 1868................................................ 1869................................................ 171 1870................................................. England cannot afford to raise her breadstuffs. She is compelled to make meat, hence the great preponderance of her agricultural work must be in the direction of hay and root crops. In these she is eminently successful. Of Scotch farming, it may be said that it has made great 42 2,819,934 2,576,791 159,926 6,479,339 10,866,891 16,140,670 8,704,401 7,895,015 1,177,618 635,239 4,188,013 5,908,149 13,181,507 12,372,176 1,464,867 1,764,795 216,462 2,254,322 3,794,865 4,449,534 2,531,822 1,745,933 256,769 280,792 722,976 676,192 1,711,000 2,154,751

Page  43 FRENCH AGRICULTURE. advances in the last century, chiefly from the superior education of the agricultural class. So great have been the agricultural improvements that the climate is already perceptibly ameliorated, the winters commencing a month later, and the snow disappearing a month earlier. Yet until the breaking up of the clans and the large consequent emigration of the Highlanders to Canada, there was no husbandry in Scotland worthy of the name. It now produces the finest wheat in the United Kingdom. The farms range from fifty to a thousand acres; the latter, however, is exceptionally large. One fifth of the cereal crops are oats. The breeding of pedigree cattle and sheep commands the attention of the best Scotch farmers. The condition of farm laborers is far superior to that in England, and rural economy is better understood. 3Ir. W. Little, in a treatise on the technical education of farmers, says: "The success to which British farming has arrived is owing to mechanical rather than scientific causes. Drainage, steam culture, and a liberal use of capital we have tried; but now chemistry in its application to artificial manures is taking such a prominent position, it is of the first importance that our farmers should be educated, should have such a general knowledge of science as will serve them in their labors." Great attention has been paid to the production of timber in Scotland; and the results of her experiments show that no crop pays better in the end, than trees. Larch and pine are the chief varieties of timber produced. French agriculture, like that of England, proves that industry requires freedom for its success. In lectures upon special cultures I have given the history of several movements, experimental and educational, which have been of immense importance to this nation; but the want of land is the great want of the French farmer. Small farming in the department of the Nord is carried on to excess, "even to misfortune," according to French authorities. In spite of the developments of manufactures, the population is in the proportion of one to two and a half acres, or greater than in any country except China. France produces almost as much wheat as the United States, upon a territory not larger than Texas. She has, through her work of acclimatization, done more than any other nation to improve the breeds of animals, changing the Spanish merino sheep into the superior French variety. She has also made great advances in vet 43

Page  44 AGRICULTURE IN MODERN EUROPE. erinary science. She has made herself rich and great by the persistent development, side by side, of all the- branches of agriculture and manufactures. The rapidity with which France has recovered from the effects of the late war, is due to the prosperity and hoarded wealth of the small land-holders, whose savings were laid upon the altar of patriotism; a good augury, we feel, for the ultimate success of the republic. It is in Holland, that country "redeemed by weeds from the dominion of the sea," that we find the laborer and the land enjoying the highest prosperity. There is no waste land in the Low countries, and no waste of human power. Recreation withl this frugal people is not so much rest as a change of occupation; and while neither art nor any higher culture is neglected, there is no subordination of the useful to these ends. Deep tillage is the characteristic of husbandry in the Low countries, and the most perfect adjustment of the system of rotation to the special conditions of the soil. " No manure, no coin; no coin, no commerce," has been on the lips of the Fleming for generations. The following table shows the diversity of products which would be obtained from-one thousand acres: Cereals and farm crops.................................. 387.34 Alimentary roots.................................................... 50.66 Manufacturing plants..................................... 25.22 Legumes, pears, beans, vetches, etc............................26.38 Fodder plants........................................................ 59.83 Prairie land............................................................ 139.19 Fallow............................................................. 31.08 Gardens...................................................... 19.17 W o od............................................................... 186.58 Waste (at rest-or periodically cultivated)................................... 124.55 Total..............................-.................-...... 1,000.00 A great deal of machinery is used by the large farmers. Tanks for the collection of night soil are seen along the roadsides; parings of turf and animal droppings are carefully gathered and composted. Liquid manure is preferred on account of its freedom from weeds. An hectare is frequently treated with 50-100 hectolitres, especially for tobacco. We cannot wonder at the enormous crops which are obtained. Dung pits are made for the excrements of cattle. Ammoniacal fertilizers are so perfectly saved that the stables are fresh and sweet as a Flemish 44

Page  45 ROTATION OF CROPS IN HOLLAND. kitchen; and besides all these natural resources, manure is manufactured in great quantities. The commonest way is to add sulphate of iron to animal manures at the rate of one kilo of the sulphate dissolved in twenty pints of water, to the manure of twenty head of cattle. Cattle abound. The introduction of Durham cattle added one third to the value'of this kind of stock; but other breeds are used. The rotation practiced in Flemish husbandry is as follows: First, potatoes; second, rye, with carrots; third, flax; fourth, rye; fifth, turnips; sixth, oats. This is for a poor, sandy soil. For the best soils: first, tobacco; second, colza; third, wheat, with clover; fourth, clover; fifth, rye; sixth, oats; seventh, flax; eighth, turnips. We have here the great principles of successful farming admirably illustrated-rotation, fine tillage, high nanuriig. Even flax growing, which is considered in England an exhausting crop, is made beneficial to the soil of Flanders, and gives an average crop of thirty-three or thirty-four hundred weight to the acre. Between Ghent and Antwerp a cow is kept for every three acres of land. The beet-root is of immense value to Hollanld, and also to France and Germany, in supporting their cattle and in giving additional value to the manure. Throughout Modern Germany, from the Baltic Sea to the borders of Italy and Turkey, the resources of science and education are fully utilized in the development of agriculture. The beet sugar culture, in which not less than one hundred and fifty colleges are giving practical instruction, is but one of many examples of the earnestness of government in this direction. Austria is giving great attention to the culture of maize, and the utilization of the whole plant, leaves, stalks, and grain. But it is in Russia, the great rival of the Pacific Coast in the production of cereals, that we find the most remarkable improvements. She is already in a position, through the unexampled development of her agricultural and manufacturing resources, to be the dictator of all Europe, because she can consume more of all that they produce, and can produce more of all that they consume. Her trade is worth nearly or quite 600,000,000 of rubles. Great Britain and the other European countries devoured over 100,000000 rubles worth of her wheat in 1867; and she has been increasing her export at the rate of 20,000,000 rubles per annum. She has been exporting flax, and flax seed, tallow, raw wool, honey, wax and hemp, in a steady stream for 45

Page  46 AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. years; while the unspent forces of a new and rising population are applied every year, to the land. Her marvelous advances ill industrial education will be spoken of in another connection. The study of the details of experimental farming in France, Germany, Austria and now in Russia, should be a part of the training of every American farmer. In no European country can the time-honored privileges of class give way to the necessities and claims of agricultural labor without a conflict; while in America, free lands, liberty of conscience and free education offer to it a prospect as boundless as it is inspiring. As every narrow sentiment of nationality is here becoming lost and merged in the more exalted sense of humanity, so the distinctions of class and the jealousies between capital and labor will lose themselves in an equality of education, and the application of science to the laws of individual, social, and national life. CHAPTER V. AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. "The provision in the Mosaic code, (Leviticus, xxvi, 35,) that the Israelites should abstain from agriculture every seventh year, was probably intended to prevent the soil from being ex. hausted by excessive cultivation." AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE DUE TO THE FARMERtS —THE SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES WANT OF SYSTEM-COTTON AND TOBAccO-GOV. HAMMOND ON SOUTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURE-GEOr,GiA SILK CULTURE-GOV. COLLIER ON THE WANTS OF ALA BAMA-THE OLD DOMINION AND THE OLD COMMONWEALTH CONTRASTED-EMI GRATION-FIRST AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES AND JOURNALS WERE ESTABLISHED IN THE SOUTH-DIVERSIFIED INDUSTRY WOULD HAVE SECURED EMANCIPATION LOUISiANA-TEXAS. THE history of agriculture in the United States covers a brief period as compared with that of other nations, yet per haps on no other part of the earth's surface has the lesson of man's true relation to the land been more impressively written. Our historians have scarcely deigned to notice any of the important facts concerning it; among the storied names of eminent men, we find soldiers, sailors, authors and inventors, while those of the benefactors of agriculture have no place. Yet it was to this class that America owes her independence. Tories swarmed in the cities; and it was commonly stated in England that the Revolution was one of "yeoman, who left their plows 46

Page  47 THREE EMINENT FAR31ERS. in their furrows, to aid the farmer of Mount Vernon," in unyoking their land from tyranny. Three illustrious farmers, George AVashington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson, did not obey the injunction to "let politics alone," and are therefore less known than they deserve to be as Patrons of Husbandry. They were not only practical but scientific cultivators. Jefferson devoted much time to improvements in plows, and Washington kept himself fully informed by maps and weekly reports of the exact condition of his crops, when absent on his campaigns. But the rank and file do not seem to have profited by these illustrious examples. We have at least a hint of the reason in a letter from Sir William Berkeley, Governor of Virginia, in 1641, to the home government. "But I thank God," he says, "there are no free schools or printing, for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has divulged them, and libels against the best government. God keep us from both." At first, the virgin soil amply repaid the labors of the husbandman. The lighter and poorer lands first brought under tillage were soonest exhausted of their fertility; there was little attempt at systematic rotation in the Northern, and still less in the Southern States, where cotton and tobacco formed.the surplus crops, and found the readiest market abroad. These staples were cultivated without manure, and the result proved how fatal to the prosperity of a country the exclusive production and monopoly of any great staple may become, even where there is a regular, extensive and profitable demand for it. Notwithstanding the encouragement given to silk and other cultures, by the British government, cotton and tobacco received more and more attention; as the land gave out, population pushed backward, the cost of transportation to the seaboard in a country whose resources are undeveloped, being usually considered less than the cost of reclaiming lower and richer lands. Thus emigration peopled Tennessee, Kentucky, and the Gulf States, where the exceeding fertility of the river bottoms offers some exceptional features to the inevitable results of exclusive cropping. The bottoms of the MIississippi, Yazoo, Red, Arkansas, and Big Black Rivers, are unrivalled for the production of cotton and sugar-cane, but the — carefully kept statistics of the years of French domination, now in possession of that govern -47

Page  48 AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. ment, show that those surpassingly fertile regions are by no means inexhaustible. Texas, an empire in the extent of her territory and her boundless prospective wealth, will do well to heed the warning voices of her elder sisters. Among the original thirteen States, South Carolina took the lead in the initiation of new cultures. Her most eminent family possessed in Eliza Lucas Pinckney, a gentlewoman, fitter than almost any other to have reigned over the Republican Court, or to be the Ceres of a national grange, a matron profoundly interested in the development of the State. She introduced the culture of rice and indigo into Carolina. She made silk culture the fashion, and carried to England sufficient spun silk, grown and manufactured by herself, to make three dresses, "remarkable for beauty, fineness and strength." One of these gowns was presented to the Princess Dowager, another to Lord Chesterfield, and the third was handed down in the Pinckney family for many generations. In an address before the South Carolina Institute, in 1849, Gov. Hammond said: " But a small portion of the land of this State will now produce two thousand pounds of ginned cotton to the hand. It is thought our average production cannot exceed twelve hundred pounds, and a great many planters do not grow over a thousand, that is about two per cent. in cash on the capital invested, after paying current plantation expenses. Our State must soon become utterly impoverished, and in consequence wholly degraded. Depopulation to the utmost possible extent must take place rapidly. This process has been going on year by year, at first hardly noticed, but illustrated so constantly now as to be within the knowledge of every one of us. The most fatal loss which exemplifies the decline of our agriculture and the decay of our slave system, has been owing to emigration. No war, famine or pestilence has checked the natural increase of population, but our census shows that it is diminishing at the rate of eight thousand per annum, our slaves being carried off by their owners from a soil that has yielded twelve hundred pounds to one that will produce eighteen hundred. While the fertile regions of the south-west are open to cotton planters, it is in vain to expect any improvement. If a people would flourish, their industrial system must embrace not only agriculture but manufactures and commerce, and cherish each in due proportion." 48

Page  49 PATRIOTIC SOUTIHERN GOVERNORS. During the same year Gov. Collier, of Alabama, in his address before the Legislature, said: "We are exhausting our lands without an effort to reclaim them. Alabama grows cotton in abundance, at a profit below the statute rate of interest, while she yields to the manufacturer in Europe or New England, exclusive of the cost of transporting the raw material, a profint exceeding her own of at least two hundred per cent. The NorLhern States are growing richer, while Alabama, with her delightful climate and her varied resources, is growing poorer; because, instead of bringing the loom to the cotton, we are sending our cott(,n to the loom. It is a mistake to suppose that the white man is disinclined to labor at the South, on account of the climate, or among a different and subordinate class of laborers; the trouble is that labor is not remunerative or sufficiently diversified." An address -to the planteTs of Georgia, by oneof her patriots, sets forth the same facts in even stronger terms: "If we intend to recover our former prosperity, and preserve even the present value of our lands, we must not only understand our present condition, but what it is likely to be in the future. The lands of the Southern States, taken as a whole, including that portion of the Mississippi valley, properly southern, when first settled were more valuable, considering climate, soil, their extent, and that of their sea-coast, than those of any other country. To speak within bounds, they would produce, (with bad tillage,) thirty bushels of Indian corn, and eight or ten hundred pounds of seed cotton to the acre; less than half a century has reduced their productiveness, in the older states, to twelve bushels of corn, and three or four hundred pounds of cotton. Continue the same destructive system, judge of the future by the effects of the past, and our progress to ruin will be accelerated, until we are compelled to abandon the country. But it may be said, and is said by the planter,'I will continue to make cotton, I will move to Arkansas or Texas.' Shall we delude ourselves by resorting to this merely temporary expedient? For in truth it is no remedy; it increases for a time the productiveness of cotton, and by so much the quantity of worn-out lands. Its temporary benefits to the emigrant are at the expense of the Old State. The time is coming witlih-alarming rapidity when we can neither raise corn nor cotton." Upon the settlement of Georgia tle culture of silk was (con 4 49

Page  50 AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. temnplated as a principal object of attention. Lands were granted on condition that one hundred mulberry trees should be planted for every ten acres cleared. Had this industry been persistently fostered, Georgia might have become to America what Lyons is to France, for the quality of the product was ulnrivaled. A package of raw silk weighing two hundred pounds, exported in 1790, brought the highest price in the foreign market. It is interesting to contrast the policy of the ()Old Dominion with that of the Old Commonwealth. M1assachusetts, keeping the factory and the farm in close contact, though sorely crippled at times by a policy thrust upon her by the South, has, during all that period, "against even the laws of nature," drawn the cotton of other States to her looms, the iron of other States to her anvils, the wool of other States to her factories, their leather to her lapstones, until the value-of herb soil, per foot, has exceeded the value of the same per acre in States which set out with her in the race. It was humiliating to the statesmen of Virginia, remembering that she was among the first to call attention to agricultural improvements in the structure of implements, in the qualities of domestic animals, and to the importance of diffusing agricultural information, to feel herself thus distanced. Her eastern shore seemed to invite a direct emigration from Europe, and was cut with natural canals offering the cheapest transportation; yet, ten or twelve years before the civil war, her most enlightened and patriotic citizens were endeavoring, through her agricultural societies, to do something for "the depressed and wretched condition of the farming interests throughout the State." In most of the counties of the tide-water region there was a great extent of waste land, impoverished by the injudicious culture of corn and tobacco. In the year 1845, a hundred and twenty families from the Northern States settled in Fairfax county, and purchased 24,000 acres of land, at a cost of about $180,000. These settlers, by their industry and skill, not only fertilized and beautified their own estates, but imparted to their neighbors a part of their own indomitable energy. In a very few years the advance in the price of land averaged fifty per cent. Col. John Taylor, of Caroline, said "he was satisfied that wheat would not pay (grown by slave labor), when the product fell below ten bushels to the acre." The average product was then eight bushels! It is seven at the present time! r"o li

Page  51 FIRST AGRICULTURAL ASSOCIATIONS. As early as 1816, Mir. Jefferson had said: " WVe must now place the manufacturer alongside of the agriculturist." It must not be supposed that we would undervalue the-capacity or the patriotism of the Southern land-holders. In no part of our country has there appeared a more genuine attaclhment to the land, or a more earnest desire for improvement. The first agricultural associations were formed in the South; that of South Carolina was started in 1784, and is still in existenlce. The Philadelphia society, in 1785; that of New York City, in 1791; the "ilassachusetts society for promoting agriculture," in 1792. The first Agricultural Exhibition was held in Pittsfield, Mass., May 10, 1810. The South also took the lead in the importation of valuable stock. Maryland was the first to establish agricultural journals, and to ask the aid of government in behalf of agricultural education. In fact, Maryland ranks next to Massachusetts in the traits which are required by a progressive agriculture. The zeal and earnestness with which her noble sons —her Calverts, Caprons and others, addressed themselves to this work, is beyond all praise. In 1824, John S. Skinner, who had in 1819 commenced the publication of the American Farmer, distributed in Maryland a new and till then unknown fertilizer, in the shape of two bushels of guano, received directly from the Pacific, and accompanied it with translations from Humboldt and Ulloa concerning its nature and uses. Nor was the sunny-land wanting in model plantations, homes and farms, adorned with everything which art and luxury can add to the charms of rural life. Her temptation and her trial lay in a direction better understood now than it was before the war, in the distance of her market, and the cost of transportation. Increase in the value of land, increase in population, diversity of employments, tend toward freedom as certainly as matter obeys the law of gravitation. In a Southern journal of 1850, we read: "If a demand for labor existed in the slave States, consequent upon making a market on the land for its products, the necessity for emigration would pass away, and immigration would begin. The people of the South would not then desire to go to Califoriia, nor would those of the North deem it necessary to pass laws to prevent them from so doing. All the discord between the different portions of the Union results from a system which tends continually to depreciate the r,)I

Page  52 AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. -value of the laborer and the land. For, with increase in value, division of the land naturally follows. Great plantations would become small ones, each of which would yield more than is now yielded by the whole. Small farms would come, cultivated by negro tenants, who step by step are becoming free, while their masters are becoming rich." But this peaceful solution was not to be. To the blighting effects of a mistaken policy, was added the scourge and desola tioni of war! All honor to thle noble spirits, north and south, who labored with their might to hold a united country to the pursuits of peace; and, failing in this, waited for the cloud to pass, ready to rebuild the waste places, and lay the foundations of an everlasting commonwealth. In this glorious work the Gr)ange is to-day the most efficient helper. The South is of vast extent and resources. Hard as it is to restore land without animals, and hard as it is to obtain forage upon land that is thin and poor, " there is life in the old land yet;" its hills are seamed with iron and coal; it has gold and lead, limestone and salt. Above all it has children, than whom none are more noble; with great memories of a brilliant past, and everything to hope for in the future. Louisiana, whose sugar industry was her strength, who has suffered so much from the war, is still enduring an almost total eclipse of productive energy. The want of capital, and the want of confidence, are serious obstacles, to which the want of labor may be added. Her late slave population forsook the country for the towns and cities; the planters were forced to employ imported Chinese laborers in their place. Add to this the wasteful system of manufacture of the cane sugar-which MI. Boucherau believes to result in the actual burning up of a hundred millions of sugar annually,-and we can realize the relations of social order to progress, in any direction. The acreage of sugar production is now small-not more than one hundred and fifty thousand acres; Louisiana might supply the whole United States. Her condition is one which every State in the Union is interested in improving, especially those to whom she offers facilities for building up a vast interior commerce. Texas, the largest State in area, is yet small enough in population to offer a camping-ground for half the discontented nations of Europe. Lands as good as the sun shines upon. may 52

Page  53 THE SEVEN WONDERS OF NEW ENGLAND. be had for twenty to forty cents an acre. She raises the finest cnrn and cotton; her flocks abound; she needs only wisdom in her councils, to make herself the seat of a great southern civilization. CHAPTER VI. AGRICTULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATEb, - " The country's flinty face Like wax their fashioning skill betrays, To fill the hollows, sink the b ills, Bridge gulfs, drain swamps, build dams and mills, And fit the bleak and howling place For gardens of a finer race "-R. fl. Emerson. Y.ILUE O-F STATISTICAL REPORTS-HIGHEST AVERAGE YIELD OF WVHEAT IN MASSA CHUSETTS —A SOUTHERN VIEW OF NEW ENGLAND —VALUE OF HAY -ROP-VER aMONT AND THE WOOL INTEREST-WHAT THE NEW ENGLAND STATES RAISE AND WHAT THEY EAT —THE EMPIRE STATE —GENESEE WHEAT —THE WEEVIL —FISI AND FUR CULTURE-PROFITS OF CHEESE AND BUTTER FACTORIES —MR. ARNOLD ON THE FUTURE OF DAIRYING-PENNSYLVANIA AND HER COLONIES-NEW JERSEY A iIARKET GARDEN- CRANBERRY CULTURE-PEACH CULTUIE IN DELAWARE AND MIARYLAND. COMPARISONS are odious; but it is only by their constant use that we are able to form correct estimates either of our standing or of our progress. The reader will find appended at the close of Part First several tables made up from the reports of the Agricultural Department at Washington, which will enable him to estimate the great value of such information. IHe will observe that the average yield of wheat per acre is larger in Miassachu-' setts than in any State except Oregon; while that of tobacco is greater by two thirds than in any of the so-called tobacco States. However small the acreage may be, the increase in the average productiveness, year by year, is a test of successful agriculture. With the poorest soil and most trying climate, New England has contrived her remarkable success, "spinning her improvements out of her own bowels, as a spider spins its web." She has done this mainly by the application of brains to her affairs. The results tersely described in a Southern journal of the year 1848, are far more marked at the present time. "The seven wonders of New England," in the eyes of a Southern traveler: 1. Every man is living in a bran, span new house, or one 53

Page  54 54 AGRICULTURE IN TIHE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES. that looks as if it had been painted Ins white as snow within the past week. 2. All the houses are of wood, whlile all the fences are of stone, which in some places lie so thick as to require to be removed at the rate of a ton from six feet square. 3. Wood for house and kitchen all sawed and split up into one uniform length and size, and snugly piled away under cover of an open shed, so that the work of house and kitchen may suffer the least possible.interruption; in a word, a place for everything and everything in its place. 4. The care obviously bestowed in the saving and preparation of manure by accumulation and composting. 5. Universal attention to a bountiful supply of vegetables and fruit adapted to the climate. 6. Not a poor or superfluous ox, cow, horse, hog, or sheep; the proportion of the short-lived, expensive horse, being, on the farm, wisely and economically small. 7. The seventh wonder is, after a day's ride in stages at seven and a half miles an hour, or on railroads at thirty, where are these people's staple crops? What do theymake for sale? Where are their stack-yards of wheat, straw and fodder? Where their tobacco-hiouses and gin-houses; their great herds of cattle and swine, rooting in the swamps, browsing in the fields, or reposing in the shade? How do they contrive to keep out of debt, and never repudiate? How do they go on improving their rocky farms, carrying stun from their hills to under-drain their meadows, building school-houses within sight of each other, and expending millions on education, while, buying for themselves, one a little bank stock; another a little railroad stock, or that of a neighboring factory, where he sells his milk, apples, poultry and potatoes; once in a while adding to his farm by paying one hundred dollars an acre for some smaller parcel in the neighborhood. The key to the riddle is, diversity of industries in general, and of agriculture in particular." The same writer speaks of the eighth wonder, viz., that one county in Massachusetts, to which was apportioned two thousand dollars of the surplus money distributed by the general government, "to be loaned on good security to the farmers of said county," could not find a farmer who wanted to borrow money. This, it must be confessed, was more than thirty years ago, before the era of bonds and subsidies.

Page  55 DESTRUCTION OF PASTURAGE. This flattering picture shows what energy and economy of time and labor may accomplish with indifferent materials. The records of the State Agricultural Society, and Legislature of AIassachusetts prove with what zeal she has set herself to correct her own mistakes. A committee on "exhausted pastures" issues a circular inquiring of the owners of pasture lands if they are exhausted in any degree' what amount of stock they will carry; what amount they carried ten, twenty, and even forty years ago; what have been the results of sheep pasturage, acnd other questions, the replies to which, published and widely circulated, make every reading farmer understand how much of his land is taken away in milk; why his cows gnaw at old bones, and what must be done to keep them from gnawing. A recent lecture by Prof. Stockbridge, of the Agricultural College, before the State Board of Agriculture, illustrates the usefulness of such investigations so well that no apology is needed for quoting it here: I find we have said to each other, and to the world, that the hay crop is the most valuable of any single crop cultivated; that the hay and grass crop combined is worth in the aggregate, in the United States, somewhere between five and six hundred naillions of dollars. This is its money value; and, more than all that, we have said to the farmers of the country, that its value in dollars and cents is as nothing compared with its indirect value, in the influence it has in preserving the fertility of our farms, as being the great source of manurial supply. Ve have said that no farm can be kept in a high state of fertility, or do otherwise than depreciate, if in its ordinary management, we sell the hay produced upon it; and no llman's farmi is supporting itself or him, where the grass crop is depreciating. So great is the value of the grass crop of the country, that we can afford to take our best soils up, and to, bring our poorer soils to the highest degree of fertility for the production of feed. Now in regardcl to our pasture lands. The Board of Agriculture have agreed unanimously to this: that there has been a great deterioration in the producing power of our pastures for the last fifty or one hundred years; that the time was when our hill-sides yielded an abundance of sweet, nutritious grasses, which made milk, butter, cheese and beef of splendid quality. Our pastures do this no longer, and the brambles and briars growing in the place of those sweet, natural grasses, do not do it. The cause of the deterioration is apparent; it is because we have been building up animal structures or manufacturing cattle products which have been taken away from the fields which produced them, never to return; that when all the products have not been transported to the market, we have taken the milk for the manufacture of butter and cheese; and the manurial qualities that were contained in the milk left at home, have been given to other fields, instead of beiiig carried back to the pastures which produced 55

Page  56 t'6 AGRICULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES. them; and that we have thus been sending away hundreds of tons annually from those New England pastures in the form of phosphates and sulphates in the bones of animals, and nitrogen in their muscles and tissues. Again, we have said to the world, that from one third to one fourth of all these pasture lands should never have been deprived of their original forest covering. Yfe cannot keep the soil in place in pasture or in cultivation. Our mountains and hill-sides should not only be allowed to go back again to forests; this should be assisted by systematic effort. The effect of this would be to shelter our cultivated lands, to make our climate mooe equable, and to give us a more equal distribution of rain, instead of having alternate seasons of drought and floods. Of the Agricultural College of Massachusetts, and her large contributions to agricultural knowledge, mention will be made in another connection. She leads all the States in respect to an enlightened, agricultural economy, and is the pattern followedcl by the rest of New England. Vermont, making her maple woods more than supply her own sugar, has always been sufficient for herself. She has played an important part in developing the wool interest of the whole country. The Spanish and French merino sheep, introduced by Consul Jarvis, of Weathersfield, have been improved by late importations, until the Vermont flocks have become standards of excellence. Her Morgan, Black Hawk and Hambletonian horses have enjoyed an equally high reputation. Of the six States east of the Hudson, Vermont comes nearest to raising its own bread, producing 454,000 bushels of wheat in 1869, or a bushel and a peck to each inhabitant; taking the army ration of twenty-two ounces of flour per day as a basis for computing the consumption of bread, it follows that Vermont raises bread enough to supply the people of the State thirty-seven days, and that to make up the deficiency, they are obliged to purchase 3,836,000 bushels per annum. Mlaine makes the next best showing in the cultivation of wheat, producing in 1869, 278,000 bushels, sufficient to last eleven days, and purchasing 8,500,000 bushels. New HIampshire, with a decreasing population, was a trifle behind Maine, producing 193,000 bushels, a little more than half a bushel to each inhabitant-and purchasing 4,360,000 bushels, or- ten day's supply. Connecticut makes a much poorer show than New Hampshire, producing 38,000 bushels, enough to supply the people

Page  57 GENESEE WHEAT. with bread for ten days, and purchasing 7,518,000 bushels. MIassachusetts, though having a larger area than Connecticut, raised only 34,000 bushels, which, ground to powder, was sufficient to give the inhabitants of the State bread enough for breakfast and dinner, but not enough for supper. The people of this commonwealth purchase 20,300,000 bushels of wheat. Rhode Island raised 733 bushels of wheat in 1869, and purchased about 3,000,000 per annum. The six New England States together purchase in round numbers, from 40,000,000 to 50,000,000 bushels of wheat, and quite as much of the other grains, or in round numbers 100,000,000 bushels of grain. The early farming of the Hudson and Mohawk valleys owed much to the Dutch element which preponderated in the population. Neat stone walls, clean fields, well built houses for families, and substantial barns for stock, were common before the Revolution. Wheat and all the cereal crops gave abundant returns; orchards throve, and flocks and herds multiplied, while the climate permitted the culture of more delicate fruits than that of New England. As cultivation progressed in a westerly direction, the growth of wheat became more and more profitable; this again received an immense stimulus from the opening of cheap water communication between the great lakes and tlhe Atlantic. Genesee wheat and the flour of the Rochester mills, became a synonym for perfection of breadstuffs. The great Genesee valley, and countless less noted spots along the head waters of the Delaware and Susquehanna, poured a flood of plenty toward the sea-board. Mllanufactures flourished, as also inland commerce; while the system of internal improvements consumed the labors of a vast army of foreign emigrants. The forests disappeared before the greedy locomotives, or were wasted by accidental fires. The averages of cereal crops perceptibly diminished. The weevil appeared, at first in isolated and limited districts, but ere long it became impossible to grow wheat with profit between Lake Ontario and the southern line. The southern counties resorted to dairying and stock farming; those nearest the metropolis, to market gardening to a considerable extent; until gradually all the benefits of a diversified industry were fully manifested. Cattle breeding has received a large share of attention. The memorable cattle sale at which the eighth 57

Page  58 *53 AGRICULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES. "Duchess of Geneva" brought the sum of 830,000, shows the high estimate placed upon Short-horns. The present condition of agriculture in the Empire State is most flattering. Her scientists have diffused so much information respecting the laws of forestry, that the State is moving with unanimity to preserve a large part of the Adirondack mountain region, the forest feeder of her noble rivers, from further devastation. The preservation of natural pasturage will follow. Among other recent industries, fish culture and fur culture deserve attention; the one for its novelty, the other for its immense importance. Trout raising has been made as certain and profitable as that of chickens and turkeys. The fur bearing animals have retired before civilization to such an extent that their extermination has been looked upon as probable. In 1867, Mr. Rassigue, of Oneida County, New York, commenced the rearing of minks, which can be done anywhere, all that is needed being a constantly flowing spring, and a small plot of ground. They breed rapidly, are subject to no diseases, and are worth from five to eight dollars a head, when grown. The development of the dairying interest in the United States would require a volume for its full explanation. Mr. X. A. Willard, to -whom it owes so much, stated, little more than a year ago, that American dairying represents a capital of more than $1,000,000,000. The cheese product in 1872 sold for $30,000,000, and the butter product for $200,000,000. Nine years ago, the first cheese factory was established in Oswego county; now, there'are fifty. In one town are five factories, which work the milk of 2,200 cows. One of them made over 200,000 pounds of cheese. The number of cows in the county has increased from 10,000 to 30,000, under the stimulus of cooperation and association; each cow representing in herself, including land for keeping, factories, implements, and fixtures for marketing, a capital of $300, making a total investment of $9,000,000 in the dairy agriculture of the county. The average product of cheese per cow does not exceed 350 pounds in a season. Many dairies make an average of fifty pounds of butter per cow, also. Two hundred pounds of butter per cow is considered a good yield for butter dairies. Mr. L. D. Arnold, before the New York Dairymen's Association, thus states his views upon the future of dairy husbandry.

Page  59 CONSUMIPTION OF BUTTER AND CHEESE. "At the present rate of increase of population in the United States, the year 1900 will find us with 100,000,000 of inhabitants. If we continue to consume cheese at no greater rate than at present, it will require two and a half times the quantity that we now consume; or 450,000,000 to supply the annual home consumption. The shipping demand must also increase. Nothing but a war with England can prevent it. The English are a cheese-eating people, and are now using twice as much per head as we do. Nor is that rate of consumption likely to be abated. It is tihe readiest and cheapest way to supply the laboring man with animal food, as it contains twice as much nutrition, pound for pound, as meat; while more pounds of cheese than meat can be produced from a given quantity of feed. The population of England is increasing, while her cheeseproducing capacity is not. Germany supplies her with what we do not; and, as no other European country produces any quantity for export, the increasing wants of England must be supplied from the United States. If we continue to consume cheese at the present rate, and England also, the increase of population will require for the year 1900, not less than a billion pounds!" Then there is the butter interest, larger still. We export bitt little butter, but we consume three and a half times as much as we do of cheese, varying from thirteen to seventeen pounds per head per annum. I have often heard dairymen predict a high reward for dairy products in the future, especially for cheese, because the demand was so rapidly exceeding the limited capacity of the dairy districts of tihe country. The State of New York is more exclusively devoted -to dairying than any other State in the Union, but only a small portion of the State is accredited as being good dairy land. Pennsylvania has so nearly the same natural advantages and manufacturing interests as the State of New York, that her agriculture has developed in a similar manner, though without as many vicissitudes. The Keystone of the "Old Thirteen," Pennsylvania has been the mother of the States upon her western boundary; she attracted the first, and has been the theatre of the most successful attempts at foreign colonization. The Friends, the Swedes, the Moravians, the Mennonites, and various other religious sects, have assisted in giving a peculiar character to her instit~utions, while the superiority of her soil, 59

Page  60 60 AGRICULTURE IN THE EASTERN AND MIDDLE STATES. and the industries growing out of her mineral wealth, have maintained the balance of power most certain to secure prosperity. New Jersey is the market garden of two great thriving cities, and fruit and vegetable-growing has there attained the greatest perfection. A blackberry grower, in West New Jersey, with seventy-five acres in cultivation, realized therefrom a net profit of $14,000. The cranberry has proved one of the most profitable crops. Sixty acres, in bearing, have netted over $13,000. Cranberry lands have brought $1,000 per acre. The agriculture of New Jersey has been created by facilities of transportation; waste lands are being rapidly reclaimed, and her growth is steady and continuous. Sixty-six per cent. of all the land in New Jersey is improved in farms, whose average value per acre is $86 14; the largest of any State in the Union. Delaware and Maryland deserve more extended notice than our brief limits will allow. They are fast coming to be the garden spots of America. The peach crop of these States is immense-the average net profit of the crop of 1871, was seventy-five cents per basket. A peach farmer of Middletown, Delaware, cleared $3S,000 from four hundred acres. The "Peach Blossom Farm," in Kent County, 1VIaryland, contained six hundred acres of trees just coming into bearing, and was sold in winter for $31,500. The same year the purchaser sold peaches enough from it to amount to $52,000. One canning establishment in Dover, Delaware, consumed in 1873, of peaches, 18,000 bushels; of pears, 2,000 bushels; of tomatoes, 480 tons; of strawberries, 30,000 quarts; of cherries, 30,000 pounds. In all these States, the advancing condition of agriculture is largely due to the influence of education and the press. The most influential journals-and those not especially devoted to this subject-maintain an extensive correspondence, and give considerable space to the treatment of matters of agricultural interest, at home and abroad.

Page  61 INCREASE OF MIAIZE CULTURE. CHAPTER VII. FARPMING IN THE WESTERN STATES. "Consumption is the crown of production, and the wealth of a nation is only to be estimated by what it consumes."-John Ruskin. THE WVORLD'S GRANARY-RELATIVE VALUE OF CORN AND WHEAT-STOCH FARM ING VS. WHEAT FARMING-IMPROVED IMPLEMENTS: TRIAL OF AMERICAN MA CHINES-MISSOURI, TENNESSEE AND KENTUCKY-CALIFORNIA AND OREGON AGRICULTURE OF THE CATROLIC MISSIONS-JOHN GILROY AND HIS NEIGE BORS-LARGE WHEAT FIELDS —ENORMOUS CROP OF 1872 —-!'IARKET FOR CALI FORNIA WHEAT —FARMERS NOT ENRICHED BY THIS STREAM OF WEALTH —TON NAGE: PRICES —CALIFORNIA THE CENTER OF WINE AND WOOL PRODUCTION. PASSING the great lakes, the emigrant farmer found a country awaiting him, where Providence, in the abounding conditions of prosperity, to use the language of one of their number, had not only " smiled, but laughed outright." A sea of verdure richer and more luxuriant than the meadow lands of the Connecticut or Genesee, dotted here and there with park-like, natural plantations of oaks, indicated lands for the plow, and sites for the homestead. Priceless in prospective value, it came almost without price into the hands of the settler. A season's labor in breaking the strong sod of the prairie, made it ready for wlleat, secured him against want, and in the possessory right to the soil. The winters were not more severe, though a little more open than those of the northern sea-board. The northern belt of States, Mlichigan, Wisconsin and Iowa, soon poured a silver stream of wheat into the granaries of the world; Ohio, Illinois, Indiana and Missouri, also wheat growers to a considerable extent, contributed a golden stream of corn, the noblest product of the new world. Up to the year 1800, the export of American corn had only exceeded, by a trifling amount, two million bushels. This crop is first set down in the census of 1840, at three hundred and seventy-seven million five hundred and thirty-one thousand eight hundred and seventy-five bushels; in 1850, it covered thirty-one million of acres, and yielded six hundred million bushels; in 1860, it amounted to eight hundred and thirty-eight million seven hundred and ninety-two thousancl seven hundred and forty-two bushels, the export being worth ten million dollars. The ease and certainty with whichi the farmer may provide 61

Page  62 FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES. for his live stock in winter, through the great productiveness of maize, has made pork raisiny one of the most important features of western agriculture. The State of Iowa reports many fields which produce as high as one hundred and five bushels of Indian corn to the acre. In the year 1872, over two and a half millions of acres were devoted to this crop, which covered one fourth of all the land in cultivation, and the supply was so greatly in excess of the demand, that large quantities of it were used as fuel; corn at eighteen cents a bushel being cheaper than wood at eight dollars and fifty cents per cord. In the year 1872, Illinois raised the enormous quantity of two hundred and seventeen million, six hundred and twenty-eight thousand bushels of corn. It is very important that the farmer should understand the relative value of corn and wheat, and how a surplus of either affects the market. The increase in the production of corn always brings a proportionate increase in live stock, fed and fattened with it, and thus the productiveniess of the soil is maintained by corn culture to a far greater degree than by wheat. The agricultural prosperity of what are now called the States of the Interior, is due far more to corn than to wheat and wool. Wlheat culture in those States, though developed to an enormous magnitude, has had the same history and results that have been sufficiently dwelt upon in describing exclusive production on the Atlantic coast. "If wheat growing was the only branch of western husbandry, the country would soon be poverty-stricken. They cannot compete with the newer lands of California and Oregon," says the President of the Michigan State Agricultural Society. " Our old agriculture, to save itself from ruin, must turn to new sources of wealth, must seek new branches of husbandry, and learn lessons of political ecollnomy from her immediate and older neighbors, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. All those have relinquished wheat growing, because it became necessary to do so, and have turned their attention to stock. The products of her dairies, her beef and pork, are worth more than her wheat ever was, when the land no longer refused to yield wheat." The process of soil deterioration from continuous wheat culture, was far more rapid west of the great lakes-than it-had been at the East, in the days of the sickle and the scythe. The invention of improved implements has saved millions of dollars 62

Page  63 AGRICULTURAL IMPLEifENTS. a year in the cost of teams and wages, thus increasing the aggregate of production, and of consequent exhaustion, by millions of bushels. Not only have improved plows, harrows, and cultivators led to this, but also threshers, mowers, reapers and headers, saving waste in harvesting, until we feel that only the more economical use of the steam plow is needed, to diminish the amount of manual labor to its minimum quantity. At the international exhibition, at Paris, in 1855, American machines, though comparatively imperfect at that time, were brought into competition with the world. The trial was made about forty miles from Paris, on a level piece of oats, with machines which cut and reaped at the same time. The American machines were successful; the judges could hardly restrain their enthusiasm, but cried: "Good! good!" "Well done;" while the excitable people shouted for the American Reaper: "That's the machine!" The report said: "All the laurels have been gloriously won by Americans; and this achievement cannot be looked upon with indifference, as it plainly foreshadows the ultimate destiny of the New World." Three States, lying in the heart of the continent, rich in forests, in mineral wealth, and in navigable streams, seem to hlave been designed by nature for the most successful and varied industrial development. Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee, have a climate which enables them to grow fruits and vines, as well as cotton and corn, fine horses and mules. Their best lands are yet unwasted and unworn; the energies of the people, paralyzed during the civil war, are now bent toward improvements in agriculture and in education. To the Catholic missionaries, who, from the spacious harbor of San Diego to Mendocino Bay, prospected the grandest field for a successful agriculture to be found on the surface of our planet, belongs the credit of being the pioneer agriculturists of the Pacific Coast. - It must also be confessed that they were the first labor monopolists; the whole race of aborigines were compelled to work without recompense, for the benefit of the Church, though the Fathers exacted no more than they cheerfully rendered in their own persons. All the improvements, the vineyards and orchards, the countless herds and flocks added nothing to the wealth of the ignorant natives who produced them. The missions were the centers of a stock-raising experiment on a vast scale, without which the subsequent history of Califor 4

Page  64 FARM3ING IN THE WESTERN STATES. nia would have been impossible; the trade in hides and tallow having brought in the settlers by-whoni the gold discovery was made. The accumulation of wealth by the fathers was enormous. According to Rev. Walter Colton, chaplain of the U. S. ship Congaess, the first Protestant clergyman that resided in California, in 1825, the Mission of San Francisco owned 76,000 heacl of cattle; 950 tame horses; 2,000 breeding mares; 84 stud of choice breed; 820 mules; 79,000 sheep; 2,000 hogs, and 456 yoke of working oxen. The Santa Clara Mission had 74,280 cattle; 407 yoke of working oxen; 82,540 sheep; 1,890 horses, broken to saddle; 4,235 breeding mares; 725 mules, and 1,000 hogs. This mission, in the year 1823, branded 22,400 calves, as the increase of that year. Thle Mission of San Jose had 62,000 cattle; 840 broken horses; 1,500 mares; 420 —mules; 310 yoke of working oxen, and 62,000 sheep. Tile Mission of San Juan Bautista, as early as 1820, ownledl 43,870 cattle; 1,360 tame horses; 4,870 mares and colts, and 96,500 sheep. The San Carlos Mission, in 1825, had 84,600 cattle; 1,800 horses and mares; 365 yoke of working oxen, and 7,500 sheep. The Soledad Mission, in 1826, owned 36,000 head of cattle; a larger number of horses and mares than any other mission; 70,000 sheep, and 300 yoke of oxen. The Mission of San Antonio, in 1822, had 52,800 head of cattle; 1,800 tame horses; 3,000 mares; 500 yoke of oxen; 600 mules; 48,000 sheep, and 1,000 hogs. The San Miguel Mission, in 1821, had 91,000 cattle; 1,100 tame horses; 3,000 mares; 2,000 mules; 170 yoke of oxen, and 74,000 sheep. The Mission of San Luis Obispo had 84,000 cattle; 2,000 tame horses; 3,500 mares; 3,700 mules; and 72,000 sheep. One of the fathers of this mission took one hundred thousand dollars with him when he left for Spain, in 1828. All the other missions were equally rich in stock; while the specie in the coffers of the fathers, and the value of the goldcl and silver ornaments of the churches, exceeded half a million of dollars. When,John Gilroy, the first permanent home-maker, settled .64

Page  65 INCREASE OF POPULATION. in the Santa Clara valley, (1814,). his nearest neighbors on the North were the PRussians, at Bodega. Eight large ranches covered the land lying between San Jose and Los Angeles. There was not a flour mill or a wheeled vehicle on the coast. The people lived on wheat, cracked in mortars, maize, beef, fish and game. One thousand bushels of wheat, the first cargo I hlave seen mentioned, was shipped from Monterey to South America, prior to 1820. The product of 1874 reached twenty-eight millions seven hundred and eighty-four thousand five hundred and seventy-one bushels. California, as we see, is not alone in this wonderful development of her resources. Oregon has some advantages over her for wheat and stock raising, and has improved them well. Both these young States are the reservoirs and sources of a river of breadstuffs which is flowing to the markets of the world in a stream of unequaled magnitude, commensurate with the scale of operations which have produced them. As we need to see the mammoth trees, not once, but many times, before the mind takes in the grandeur of their dimensions, so one must grow into a realization of the proportions of our agricultural industry and its requirements. From 1848 to 1862 California obtained her flour from Chili and the East. In 1856 and 1857 she imported one hundred and twenty thousand barrels from Oregon, and thirty thousand from the Atlantic States. These importations did not cease entirely, though they were diminishled for two or three years, when the two years drought again raised them to seventy-two thousand nine hundred and thirtysix barrels from Eastern ports, forty-three thousand three hundred and forty-seven fromn Chili, and nineteen thousand five hundred and twenty-nine from Oregon. From that time the tide began to set in the other direction. Some remarkable facts stand out prominently in connection with the Pacific slope States and Territories. First of all, it appears that the population increased, between 1850 and 1870, no less than three hundred and eighty-seven per cent., or nearly quintupled. Tho increase during the latter ten years was not at as high a rate as during the former, but still it mounts to the ,very respectable figure of fifty-seven per cent. Between 1850 and 1860 the number of improved acres increased more than fine-fold; between 1860 and 1870 the increase was equal to almost one hundred and fifteen per cent.; and the number in 5 65'

Page  66 FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES. 1870, as compared with 1850, was nearly twenty times as large In the cash value of farms the increase shown is in a nearly similar ratio, the figures being almost thirteen times as large for 1870 as for 1860. The increase in the extent of wheat cultivation is yet more striking. There was over fourteen times as much wheat raised in 1860 as in 1850; nearly three times as much in 1870 as in 1860, and more than thirty-eight times as much in 1870 as in 1850. As to all kinds of cereals, there was over fifteen times as much produced in 1860 as in 1850, nearly two and one half times as much in 1870 as 1860, and nearly thirtysix times as much in 1870 as in 1850. The amount of cereals produced per head increased nearly sevenfold in the twenty years ending in 1870. The increase in the value of manufactured products during the same period was considerably more than five-fold. It is hardly necessary to say that no other group of States in the Union makes such an exhibit as this in reference to its agriculture. In California we have the largest w7eatfield in thIe worldc. On one side of the San Joaquin river it extends for thirty miles, on the other about fifty, with an average width of eighty miles; six hundred and seventy-two square miles, or four hundred and thirty thousand and eighty acres. With the average yield, in good years, of sixteen bushels to the acre, this field will produce one hundred and six thousand four hundred and thirty-eight tons, and would require a train of cars nearly two hundred miles long to move it away. It is owned and worked by different parties, but is only broken by the river which flows through it. The Livermore and San Joaquin valleys raised over twelve million bushels in the year 1872. Three wheat farms in the San Joaquin, with areas respectively of thirty-six thousand, twenty-three thousand, and seventeen thousand acres, averaged nearly forty bushels to the acre, some portions running up to sixty bushels. The years 1870 and 1871 had been dry years, and nature had thus provided the wheat lands with a partial Sabbath. In 1872 an unusual breadth of land was seeded, but as the season advanced the estimates rose to ten, twelve, and finally to twenty millions of centals. How could such a crop be disposed of? A prominent grain firm in San Francisco had already some sixteen warehouses in different parts of the State, which would contain from 66

Page  67 OCEAN TRANSPORTATION. five hundred to ten thousand tons each. Once in the warehouse, the farmer who is out of debt can afford to bide his time, and the advance in prices. If he is in debt, warehouse expenses only sink him deeper. One large commission house, that of Isaac Friedlander, was at this time buying three fourths of the grain exported, having agents scattered throughout the State, making estimates of the crop and the supply of tonnage required to move it, the rates at which it could be bought, etc., etc. All the wheat sent to England is purchased prior to arrival. Houses dealing in wheat here make known to the grain brokers in Liverpool all these facts, who, on behalf of the grain merchant there, contract with our merchants for the purchase and delivery of grain in that city; which, from the year 1869 to 1872, had taken twenty-four million centals. During this period, the Eastern States had taken of us about two million five hundred thousand centals. Australia, two thirds as much; China, about seven hundred thousand; Peru, two hundred thousand; the balance went to various points of the southern coast and islands. The flour export was also considerable; taken together, up to July, 1872, it had been thirty-seven million five hundred and fifty-nine thousand six hundred and twentyseven centals, of a value of upwards of seventy-one mnlillion dollars. lowv mtch of this ev'et to t/efarmrier? Few were prepared to answer this question. Many could say, that, practicing all reasonable economy, they could not make days' wages by raising wheat on their own lands, while the parties handling the wheat were becoming rich. Knowing these facts, they began to look into the reasons. The first thing they learned was, that the whole business of marketing had been taken out of their hands; that they were ignorant of a great many questions that affect legitimate trade; while to cope with speculative trade, they were utterly incompetent. The agents of production, commerce, and transportation, had got the upper hand, and were likely to hold it, unless they could free themselves by cooperation. Finding that England was likely to be their principal market for many years, the wheat growers set themselves to learn something about ocean transportation. They found that in 1866, one hundred and twelve vessels carried off the crop; fifty-two were bound for Liverpool; twenty-four for Australia; twenty for eastern ports, and sixteen for China. The next year 6 "i

Page  68 FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES. almost doubled the number; two hundred and twenty-three ships left the port of San Francisco laden with wheat. The crop of 1872 required three hundred and eighty-tlhree vessels; the freight of which would go far to provide a mercantile marine for this coast. In July of that year, the rate of tonnage to Liverpool was ~4 15s. per ton, or $1 14 per cental; the average for twelve years was about ~2 l1s. per ton, or a little more than sixty-one cents per cental. The highest prices ever reached were in the years 1858, when it brought $6 75 per cental, andi 1865, when it brought $5 30 per cental. The lowest price was in November, 1860, when distilling wheat was sold in San Francisco for $1 00 per cental. The farmers found that inland transportation was effected by rail, steamboat, and barge. The crop of 1872 was sufficient to load sixty-five thousand railroad cars; or about one thousand three hundred and forty average sized barges. The railroad freight rate from Merced, one of the great centers, was thirteen cents per cental; from Butte, by barge, $6 00 per ton; from Chico, $6 00; from MIerced county, $4 20, and from Monterey, by steamer, $5 00. The handling, re-loading, etc., of this great crop would require the labor of several hundred persons. Not only the cereal crops, but the other great staples of wine and wool were concerned in this question of transporta tion. The wool interest has yielded the highest average profit. Indeed, California is the banner State in the quantity of the staple produced, the size of her flocks and the average weight of her fleeces. The climate is very favorable; and when woolgrowing becomes essentially an agricultural business, from the necessary restrictions of the pasturage system, alfalfa promises to take the place occupied by grass and clover crops in the east, and to keep the proportionate advantages in our favor. But it is to the fruit and vine cultures that we may look for the most distinguishing features of our husbandry. As our wines grow in the world's esteem; as our raisins find their way into the world's markets; as our choice and luscious fruits, without loss of flavor, variously prepared for export, become inldispen sable luxuries, and bring remunerative prices, small farms will exceed in profit the large ranches of the present day; and California will more and more resemble the belt of fruit-growing States on the Atlantic Coast. 68 -1

Page  69 WINE, WOOL AND WHEAT SHIPMENTS. The following table shows the shipment of wine and wool to-New York, via Panama, from January 1, 1874, to October 31, 1874: VINE. WOOL,. RAW. MONTH. Gallons. Value. Pounds. Value. January................ February..... 113,088 $ 75,626 434,339 $ 78,248 March..........J. April...................} May.................... 172,629 109,702 286,679 70,467 June.................... July.......... ).......... August.................. 150,813 92,212 338,985 69,598 September............... October.................... 64,837 44,224 800,194 136,753 TOTAS_........ F 501,367 $321,764 1,860,197 $355,066 SAN FRANCISCO. The receipts and shipments by sea of flour and wheat for seventeen harvest-years, each closing June 30, were-as follows: FLOUR. WHEAT. TOTAL WHEAT* Years. Receipts. Shipments. Receipts. Shipments. Receipts. Shipments. Barrels. Barrels. Bushels. Bushels. Bush7els. Bushels. 1S57................. 38,127 36,541 566,716 37,095 757,351 219,800 1858)............... 35,456 5,387 405,086 6,335 582,366 33.270 1819 *................ 68.500 20.577 721,670 205 1,063,170 103,080 18609 *................ 91,400 58,926 1,641,710 636,880 2,138,710 931,510 1861*................ 122,8(09 197,181 3,607,200 1 2,549,873 4,221,245 3,535,778 1862............... 111.269 101,652 2,419.110 1,4190,74() 2,975,455 1,9~8,000 1863................ 149,825 144.883 3,151,295 1,7e79,420 3,900,420 2,461,835 1864Z................. 99,298 152,633 3,073,066 1,78s,486 3,5(9,556 1,548,651 18665s................ 61,670 91,479 848,605 42,281 1,156,955 500,676 1866................. 166,843 279,554 3,570,653 1,732,525 4,404,868 3,130,295 1867................ 300,397 465,337 8,697,560 6,060,306 10,199.145 8,386,891 1868.............. 206,176 423,189 8,401,990 6,339,630 11l,599,851 8,515)i,625 1869e................ 207,980 453,920 10,5-8.971 7,2?.0,873 11,60l,871 9,560,473 1870.............. 171,108 352,9C2 10,941,776 8,10(6,485 11,797,316 9,871,295 1871.............. 120,913 196,219 7,967,090 5,953,073 8,571,655 6,934 168 1872s................ 146,749 270,079 3,908,350 2,3410,636 4,642,09 5 3,691,031 1873................ 328,990 263,645 18,580,830 16,371,146 19.725,780 17,488,371 * Including flour reduced to wheat-bushels. The receipts and shipments of the first six months of the harvestyear, closing December 31, 1873, were as follows: Flour, receipts, 262,068 barrels; shipments, 328,031; wheat, receipts, 9,614,186 bushels; shipments, 7 -844,861 bushels; total wheat and flour reduced to wheat-bushels, receipts, 10,244,526 bushels; shipments, 9,485,016 bushels. 69

Page  70 FARMING IN THE WESTERN STATES. The flour-barrel in the above table contains 200 pounds; wheat is estimated at 60 pounds per bushel. The manufactures by the city mnills during the last four calendar years were as follows: 1870, 250,000 barrels; 1871, 240,000 barrels; 1872, 310,000 barrels; 1873, 250,000 barrels. Of the exports of 1873, nearly all the wheat and the largest part of the flour were sent to the United Kingdom. This flour export, however, was an exceptional trade resulting from the failure of European wheat-crops. In the previous years the flour export to the British islands was comparatively small. The receipts of corn, rye, oats, and barley for eight harvest-years were as follows: Years. Corn. Rye. Oats. Barley. Bushels. Bushels. Bus hels. Bushels. 1865-66............................................... 76,071 4,107 891,025 2,080,675 1856-67.............................................. 44,285 12,142 910,983 1,603,5s0 1867-68.............................................. 54,821 10,000 936,602 1,4(2,'718 1808-69..............................................100,800 7,857 790,000 1,305,917 1869-70...............................................119,100 8,035 883,111 1, )73,668 1870-71............................................... 149,107 15,170 881,944 1,585,372 187J-72............................................... 67,678 15,890 1,066,902 1,655,610 1872-73............................................... 214,285 19,642 659,80 2,281,893 Corn and rye are to a very small extent exported, the small supply being required mostly for city consumption. During 1873 the export of oats amounted to 9,541 bushels, against 16,950 bushels in 1872. The exports of barley in 1873 were 434,816 bushels, against 293,588 bushels in 1872 and 20,618 bushels in 1871.. 70

Page  71 F_~~~~~~~~~~ 2 Rt;,gE, sj ~~~~~~~~,@ -' -- -. - *.a........' E.. *. ~.. * *.~... * *. *.. *..' 0~~ ~ ~.. -.......... .... ~.0,~: P~:: ~o- Bs:ls ~.:~~~~~...:::~: ii:'is:ii": ~oo....wc wt~~g. ~~....Bushels. -.O.O.... CD Co Co C - o O GVU S - s. cn Fz Gz cn c; cn ru cn cncn cn A co Gr b:3 gbushe0. I I - - Priceper~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -,.. - - - - Co - CoS CoSCo S CoCoCoCoCo CoCos - Co Co Co55 CoCoCoCo CsCo Sc : I Bushels. I -- - - Price per CoCossCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCoSCo. CocsCossCoS-CoCoCo Co Bushels. Co Co Co Co CoCo Co - - - -. -.... - - — - Priceper * Co::: -CoCoCoCo~~~~~~~~~CoCoCoCo bushel. S. CoCossCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCoCo B Co. O.. G " 1 0'. - .D C C;A 1.. ) - Bushels. 4 Price per.' bushel. I-. |- | —

Page  72 62. 1',1537 194,072,(, 58 246,132,550 104, 287,161 59,535,219 129, 330,486 15,664,521 97,716 055 116,113.4i 7 91,303,94 2 100,971,937 59,489,613 282.027,3(j9 120, 892.738 383,099,155 1,200,458,541 461.762,426 736,257,562 1,1011,8 39,G31 359,964,310 124,C87.403 496,150,156 492,789,746 117,553,537 38,343,187 184,521,470 30,475,381 3,09-1,672 3,007,829 2,C93,324 1,072,735 6,371.235 465,705 6,529,454 4.739,1i26 325,441 4.770.410 3,954,596 a., xo ~vai o....... Maryland....... Virginia...... North Carolina.. South Carolina.8 Georgia......... Floridla........ Alaba.nma........ 5!ississippi..... Louisia na....... Texas.......... Arkansas........ Tennesse..... 'West Virginia. Kentucky... Ohio............. MIichig,an....... Indian......... Illinois......... Wisconsin....... Minnesota....... Iowva............. 5Iissouri......... Kansas........... Nebraska........ California........ Oregon......... ,Nevada.......... Dakota........... Montana......... Idaho............ Washington...... wVyoming........ Colorado........ Utah............. Arizona.......... N ew M-exico...... District Columbia District olsimhia 3,800,230 39,450 114,916 3,954,596 30 93 2,897 I 18,433,698 28,187, 669 21,993,967 12,443,510 30,156,317 5,212,157 26,690,095 29,940,238 15,929,188 37,425,194 17,222,506 55,084,075 17,175,420 66,2~37,343 120,300,528 49,809,869 83,776,782 149,756,698 45,310,882 20,118,841 82,93'7,133 84,235,273 23,173,185 6,551,185 37,96-1,7i-2 6,828,675 1,445,4i9 779,952 1,818,693 520,580 2,103,313 441,795 2,871,102 2,149,814 143' 996 2,389,157 114,916 417;32 '248 50 200'90 97 53 St 37 109 22 83 43 98 01 14(i 21 125 7 t 113 50 122 79 224 09 273 50 200 00 450 41 380 98 438 08 395 62 341 31 28'z3 57 415 53 286 29 ~3"2 50 311 7.,l 329 36 3 o51 18 72 83 212 10s 1;~,0 78 71 52~~ 2(i;5 9 7 51 07 163 79 54 61 33 70 51 92 30 03 3,')(; 7 2,412 1,006 887 385 i35D 448S 63l5 C05 544 1.050 1,G34 1,467 8,023 2,4G6 2,7G0 2,935 2,2S54 1 ('.59 2,,.CO 1,867 1 CO5 l C,',9 3,835 2,300 1,495 1,1',2 1,275 734 1 6F.9 2,822 1,010 454 253 255 2,897 170,3(i9;,6,8 213 O,,r45 78 211,083 44 808,7G3 94,559,468 9,917 9.0 67,733),036 81,716,5,6 63,215,421 60.1 9,950 40,(!29,698 213,7 1' 7 47 101,601.381 311,233,916 1,054,465,226 393,240,578 6311,804,189 920,50;,34:6 300,414,,064 97,847,442 '92,C62,441 39,903,017 90,327,040 30,242,186 141,2t0.028 22,352,939 1,483,~05 2,085,235 729,193 492,860 3,978,3H1 1~,187 3,385,74:8 2,297,922 1613140 2,260,1-9 3,800,230 5,268,676 4 921,036 4 082 111 2,282,946 4,614,701 505,074 3,286,924 4,456,C33 7,159,~33 3,396,793 2,237,409 8,199,487 2,112,937 8,572,896 25,692,787 13,711,9;19 17,676,591 31,576,,87 14,239,364 6,721,1~'0 20,G09,582 15,59C;,426) 4,053,312 1,549,716 5,316,690 1,293,717 163,718 142,612 145,438 59,295 280,551 5,723 272,604: 291,390 20,105 121,114 39,450

Page  73 CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. NUDIBER AND PROPORTION OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE SEVERAL CLASSES OF OCCUPA TIONS IN THE STATES AND TERRITORIES OF THE UNITED ST.TES, AS DEDUCED FROM THE CENSUS OF 1870. N umber in agricultural occupations. Number of persons in all occupations. Number in profes sional and personal occupations. Number. Per cent. 2,684,793 21.47 42,125 11.54: ............................. 8,115 51. (;6 1.4,877 1.0.94 76,112 31.90 3,625 20.62 38,704 20.01 2,704 45 93 11,3'89 28.25 29,845 60.86 10,897 17.95 64,083 14.41 1 423 13.08 151,931 20.48 80,018, 17.42 ...... 58,484 17 20,735, 16.74: 84,024 20.27 65,317 25.48 86,092 17.03 79,226 30.64 131,291 22.64 104,728 25.91 28,830. 21.36 40,522 12.71 106.)03 21.14 2,674 19.03 10,331 23.56 7,431 27.61 18,523 15 42 83,380 28.17 7,535 25.66 405,339 27.19 51,290 14.60 168,308 20.02 6,090 19.88 283,000 27.73 ]9,679 22.22 34,383 13.07 54,396 14.78 40,S,82 17.24 5,3] 7 24.71 21.032 19.34 98,521 33.87 2,207 22. 6l 16,699 14.49 58,070 19.83 3,170 47.71 United States..........3,47 Alabama............................. Alas -a............................... Arizona.............................. Arkansas............................. California............................ Colorado............................. Connecticut.................... Dakota............................... Delaware.............................. District of Columbia................. Flori da.............................. Georgia.............................. Idaho................................ Illinois............................. Indiana............................. Inidian Territory.................... Iowa.................................. Kansas............................... Kentucky............................ Louisiana............................ SIine................................ Iaryland............................ Massachusetts........................ Iichigan........................... Minnesota............................ Mississippi........................... Missouri............................. Montana............................. Nebraska............................. Nev-da.............................. New Hampshire...................... New Jersey........................... New Mexico.......................... New York........................... North Carolina....................... Ohio..................................0 Oregon............................... Pennsylvania........................ Rhode Island......................... South Carolina....................... Tennessee........................... Texas................................ 1)tah................................ Vermont............................ Virginia.............................. Washingto n......................... V,'est Virginia........................ WAisconsin............................ Wyoming............................. 73 States.and Territories. .LVumber. 5,922,471 291,628 1,285 109,310 47,863 6,462 43,C53 2,522 15,973 l,'165 42,492 333,145 1. 4(i2 ,97(,,441 266,777 10,263 73,2, —,8 261,080 141 467 82,011 80.449 72,810 187,211 7 5, 1 , 7 259,199 263,,1,8 2,111 23,115 2,0-,-O 46,573 63,128 18,668 374..'33 269,238 397,0,)4 3.3,248 260,051 ,11,780 206,654 267,020 166,7-13 10,428 57,(,83 244,550 3,771 73,960 159,687 1 165 Per cent. 47.35 79.84 ....... i. 21.3 80.41 20-05 36.75 22.57 42.84 39. C,2 2.78 70 75. f,9 13.41 50.73 58. C8 61 07 59. J 3 62.97 55. J6 39.89 31.12 12.56 40.'i,'2 56.65 81.29 52.20 15. (i3 52.73 6.69 33. 76 21.32 63. C,8 25.10 76.C4 47.21 43.22 25.8 13-30 -78 48 72.56 - 70.22 48.46 53.31 59. , 6 38 C4 64.19 54.53 ,.48 Number. 12,505,923 365,258 0 0 135,9-i9 238,648 17,583 193,421 5,887 40,313 49,041 60,703 444,678 10,879 742,015 459,369 i4, 276 123 852 414,593 256.432 208,225 258,543 579,844 404,164 132,657 318,850 505 556 14,048 43 837 26,911 120,168 296,036 26,861 1,491,018 351,299 8,'O,889 30,651 1,020,544 88,574 263,P,Ol 367,987 237,126 21,517 108,7C3 412,665 9,760 115,229 292,808 6,645

Page  74 74 CLASSES OF OCCUPATIONS. NUM-BER, ETC., OF PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE SEVERAL CLASSES-OF OCCUPATIONS, ETC.-Continued. Number in manuNumber in tradeNubrimau anumber in trade factures and ie po tan iore. a rpt chanical an d min ing industries. Number. 2,707,421 United States.........................6 9 Alabamna............................. Alaska............................... Arizona............................. Arkansas............................. California............................... Colorado............................... Connecticut............................ Dakota.............................. Delaware................................. District of Columbia.................. Florida............................... Georgia.............................. Idaho................................ Illinois................................. Indiana............................. Indian Territory........................ Iowa.................................. Kansas............................... Kentucky............................. Louisiana............................. NIaine............................... NIaryland.............................. Massachusetts........................ Michigan............................. Minnesota........................... Missis sippi........................... Missouri.................................. Montana.............................. Nebraska.............................. Nevada............................... Nuew Hampshire...................... T'ew Jersey............................ Tew Mexico............................... New York.............................. North Carolina....................... Ohio................................. Oregon.............................. Pennsylvania......................... P,hode Island........................... South Carolina...................... Tennessee............................ Texas................................ Utah................................. Vermont............................. Virginia............................... Washington.......................... West Virginia,........................ Wisconsin............................ Wyoming......................... y 2 Total pop ulation. States -and Territories. 38,925,598 996,992 70461 41,710 484,471 582,031 47.154 537,451 40,501 125,015 131,700 188,248 1,184,109 20,533 2,539,8191 1,680,637 68,152 1,194,320 373,299 1,321,011 726,915 626,915 780,894 1,4-7,'51 1,187,234 446,056 827,922 1,721,295 39,895 129,322 58,711 318,300 906,096 111,303 4,387,464 1,071,361 2,665,260 101,883 3,522,0;io 217,353 707. C06 1,258,520 818,f,,.gg 99,581 330,551 1,225,163 37,432 42,014 1,064,9S5 11,518 Number. 1,191,238 14,435 591 5,491 33,165 2,815 24,720 204 3,437 6,126 3,023 17,410 721 80,422 36,517 ............ 28,210 11,762 25-292 23,831 28,115 35,542 83,078 29,588 10,582 9,148 51,885 1,233 4,628 3,621 8,514 46,206 863 234,5SI 10,179 78,547 2,619 121,253 10,108 1 8,470 17,510 13,612 1,665 7,132 20,181 1,129 6,897 21,534 1,646 Per cent. 9.52 3.95 - 80 4.' 4 13.90 16.01 12.,78 3.47 8.53 12.48 4.98 3.92 6.63 10.84 7.91 8.18 9. "A 6.10 9.2-1 13.50 13.75 14.33 7.32 7.98 2.87 10.8(l, 8.78 10.56 13.46 7.08 15.61 2.94 15.73 2.90 9.31 8.54 11.88 14.41 3.22 4.76 5.74 7.74 6.56 4.89 11.57 5.98 7.35 24.77 Per cent. 21. 65 4.67 17.23 4.61 34.15 26.62 44.64 7.76 23. CO 23.88 7.07 6.08 66.85 17.95 16.56 13.74 14.63 10.66 10.07 29.78 2 —i.49 50.47 20.45 14.01 3.13 15.80 57.16 13.15 51.24 38.74 34.90 7.82 31.98 5.86 23-43 28.36 34-91 53.07 5.23 7.00 6.70 19.09 20.79 11.97 27.18 15.34 18.28 25.04 .17,070 i','O'3'9' 6,271 81,598 4 681 86,i-,44 457 9,514 11,705 4,2 —,l 27,040 7,273 133,221 76,057 18,126 44,197 25,807 62,007 63,P,26 292,665 82,637 18,588 9,981 79,850 8,030 5,763 13,789 46,5i-)3 103,322 2,295 476,775 20,592 197,010 8,694 356,240 47,,P,07 13,794 29,061 15,879 4,107 22,616 49,413 2,653 17,673 53,517 1,664

Page  74A

Page  74B ffl ViEW OF OAK KNOLL IN THE NAP. [A Pioneer Farm, 1856.]

Page  75 PART SECOND. THE FARMERs' GREAT AWVAKEENING. CHAPTER VIII. THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. "The day is coming, aye, it is near, when working men shall rule this nation."-DDavid Bra). crick. GATHEr,ING OF THIE CLUBS —ME. IIYATT'S TELLING REPOIT ON SHIPPING-PROPO SAL FOR A CONVEINTION-EXPRESSIONS OF OPINION-A SUIMAIrY OF COMI PLAINTS-ORGANIZATION OF TIUE LFAMErS' TJNION AT SACRAMENTO —FRAUDU LEN-T WHEAT QUOTATIONS. DUR,PING the years 1871-2, the farmers of California began to feel the necessity of combining for their own protection and improvement. The feeling of discontent with their condition, and the conviction that their difficulties were not inseparable from their calling, was almost universal. The wheat growers had the largest interests at stake, and were mostly concerned in the question of reducing the cost of tranlsportation, but the fruit growvers were even more strongly resolved to strike for freedom from the exactions andl combinations of middle-men, who, they insisted, were receiving the lion's share of the profits. The ifarmers seemed everywhere fully awake to the idea that an inteli,gent cooperation could best be effected by associations confined to those engaged in agriculture. A club was gathered in Sacramento on the 7th of December, 1871, and from this time onward the work of organization proceeded rapidly. Stockton drew to its club the intelligent farmers of the San Joaquin, and elected Dr. Holden as their President. At Oakland a "Farlinlg, iHorticultural and Industrial Club" was formed, for improvement in the theory and practice of agriculture, horticulture, and other industrial and domestic pursuits, which was pre

Page  76 THE FAR.IERS IN COUNCIL. sided over by the Professor of Agriculture, and heldcl its meetinis in the lecture room of the University. San Jose6 organized .lay 4, and opened by discussing the question of grain sacks. Napa had a large anld infiue(ltial club. Santa. Cruz, Sonoma, Contira (,osta and tlohe neigJiboring counties, discussed a, geat variety of questions of local and(l gieeral interest in their meetings, which were duly reported iii the rural Press. This exclhangige of views and experiences, i)ot onlly between neighborhoods, but different sections of the State, was felt to be of great benefit, and it was truly sui'prisilng to see wha,t a wide range of subjects were thus broughlt to tiho tests of experience. Toward the end of the season, the clubs a,t Napa, and Sa,crameneilto laid before the other associations a proplosal for, convention during the State Fair in September, requesting each to appoint delegates, and by previous expressious of o)inlion, indicate what was to be considered. This request me(t with universal approval, andcl large delegations were appointed. The subjects which most profoundly interested the farmerns, are indicated by the following extracts from tllheir proceedii)gs, as publishedl at the time. The report of the committee at the Oaklanld Club, August 23, 1S72, embolied tile results of their investigations into tllhe shipping business: To demonstrate the ur,gent necessity of a league or association amonig farmers to prevent the Shylockls, who are preying upon them, from carrying off all the farmers' profits, and makina g them mere lhewers of wood, and drawers of water, and delvers inll the soil, to lbenefit a few heartless grain speculators, let us look at the manner ii whichl the grain market has been manipulated the present season in California. WVe are told that the prices here are governed b- the prices of grain in Liverpool. How is this? Oni tue 2dl day of August, instant, the Liverpool market for Califorina wheat was quoted at ils. 8d., and the same day, in San Francisco, at $1 55 to $1 60 per hundred pounds. On the 12th of August, instant, the Liverpool quotations were ].2s. 4d.; and onl the 13th, the ieext day, in San Francisco, the speculators paid only $l 60 for "good shipping." Here, it will be seen, was an advance in the Liveirpool marklet, from the 2d of August to the 13th, from lls. 8d. to 12s. 4d., or over fifteen cents; and how did thle San Francisco miarket respond? How much did the wheat buyers of San Francisco advance the prices? Not one cent. Again, onl the 21st of Septeimber of last year, the Liverpool market was quoted at 12s. 8d., only 4d. more than on the 13th of August of this year, and wlheat was then (in September) selling in the San Francisco market at $2 70; vwhile this August, with the Liverpool 76

Page  77 RIEPORT ON SHIPPING AND PRICES. market at 12s. 4d. (only 4d. less), they pay but $1 60 per cental -a difference between last year and this of $1 10 against the California farmer, when the difference should be but 4d., or less than eight cents, making a clean shave of $1 02 on every cental, or over sixty cents on every bushel. It seems that while these speculators pay out but $5 more for freight, they pay $22 per ton less this year than the last for wheat. But we are told by these wheat sharps, these bread buccaneers, that the present low price of wheat in the California market is necessarily caused by the high price of freights, the increased charges for shipping, and because they are obliged to pay ~4, or $20 per ton to Liverpool. Is this true? Is this the legitimate cause of depressing the price of wheat? Let us prick this pretty bubble and see it collapse. Twenty dollars per ton is one cent per pound. Now, to offset for the high rates of freight now charged the farmer; to have made last year's profits compare with those of this year, the freight last year ought to have been forty cents a ton less than nothing. But what were the actual freights paid last autumn? We find it noted in the Daily Bulletin of November 15th, "grain to Liverpool direct, ~2," and as high as ~2 7s. 6d., or nearly $12 (according to a recent number of the Alta California), was paid during that year. So that, instead of the buyers being able to pay us $2 70 per cental for wheat in San Francisco, by reason of its being carried to Liverpool for nothing, they were paying ten dollars a ton or over, or half a cent per pound; add which to the present price of wheat, $1 60, and we have $2 10 per cental as the present value of wheat inl this market; and this is what the farmer ought now to receive, and would receive, but for the disreputable "rings" formed to monopolize the carrying trade. But do these bread buccaneers really pay ~4 or $20 per ton freight? It is well understood that the chief mogul of the buccaneers chartered a large number of ships more than he was prospectively in need of for legitimate purposes, at ~2 to ~3, and then pretended to re-charter them to his fellow-clansmen of the "ring" at ~4 per ton, or thereabouts. That's what makes this pretext of high freights, andl not the real scarcity of ships. There are numbers of disengaged vessels in our harbor every week, and more arriving daily. Wheat is now being shipped from Philadelphia to Liverpool, at $6 per ton, and by steamer at that. Does this indicate a scarcity of shipping? Here we find these remorseless speculators (if their re-charters are genuine), making the snug sum of $5 or more on every ton, or $5,000 on each ship of one thousand tons capacity, at the expense of the farmer, to say nothing of the advance the speculators get in buying wheat at $1 60 and selling it at over $3 per cental. No wonder, under these circumstance, that we should see such paragraphs as the following, which we clip from a recent San Francisco daily paper: "It is a curious fact, and one which has been observed by not a few, that when wheat is most wanted in this market, up go the Liverpool quotations, and, encouraged by a healthier market, in come the supplies; but on their arrival down go the Liverpool quotations, and this market instantly responds. Those who manipulate the wires 77

Page  78 THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. must be in a very doubtful state regarding the wheat prospects by the uncertain and frequent changes made in the quotations." Your committee can here only allude to the petit larceny attempt to swindle the farmers by the wheat sack extortion. And now, what is to be done to counteract these plots against the interests of the farmer, and to enable the farmer to.obtain a living price for his grain-the honest earnings of his hard labor, earned by the sweat of his brow, and by days of ceaseless toil and by nights of watchful care? Your committee are expected to suggest a remedy. The one proposed by the resolution of the Napa County Club, and endorsed by various agricultural associations of the kind in Sacramento, San Jose, San Joaquin and other places, to form Protective Unions by counties and districts, and to concentrate in a strong State Institution, meets the approval of your committee, with some modifications perhaps; but we deem it now too late to perfect any organization that shall be effective the present season. But farmers have the power to make their efforts felt, and at once; and that is by holding on to their grain crop until a fair price shall be offered. Those in immediate want of money can get what advances they may need on their wheat, and sell it when it reaches a living price. Compel these ship-grabbers to pay heavy demnurrage on their empty vessels for a few months, and it will bring them to terms. Let those speculators who attempt to "corner" the farmer, beware that they do not find themselves "cornered," as in a late remarkable instance in Chicago, resulting so disastrously to the buccaneers. We regret there should be any antagonism between the farmer and the produce dealer. It is not the fault of th-e farmers; they only seek what is right and just; they ask only a reasonable compensation for their labor and capital; they are willing to live and let live. They are willing to sell their products at rates that will allow a fair margin of profits for the honest dealer, but they are not satisfied to have all their profits and earnings carried off by the speculators. Free trade and farmers'-rights are what we seek. We cannot consent to be made the victims of dishonest combinations and over-reaching avarice and monopolies. Between the farm laborer, clamoring for increased wages, though far better paid in California than in any other country in the world, and the greedy middle-men and intriguing produce gamblers and grasping railroad monopolists and the insatiable tax-gatherer, the farmer, who can come out even at the close of the year, may well congratulate himself as a fortunate man. It is only indefatigable industry, keen sagacity and untiring perseverance, that will enable him to do this. All other callings and industries have their co-operative associations for their protection and advancement. The farmer must have his or he cannot prosper, nor attain those rewards of labor and industry that he has a right to claim. Your committee would conclude by recommending that five delegates be chosen by the Oakland Farming, Horticultural and Industrial Club, to meet representatives from like associations in other portions of the State, at Sacramento, on Monday evening, September 22d (during the State Fair), as suggested by the Sacra 78

Page  79 NAPA AND CONTRA COSTA CLUBS. mento Club, to consider the propriety of an effective organization throughout the State, for their mutual protection and advantage. Respectfully submitted, by T. HART HYATT,e CnR. BAGGE, Commi ttee. In the Napa Club, Mr.- Nash spoke very earnestly to the same subject. He said:. The great trouble with farmers of all classes was, after having produced their crops, to get adequately paid for them. They needed organization, as they had everything to contend with. The cost of hired help, mechanics' bills, and profits were extortionate. They have to give what is asked, and take what is offered. The costs of shipping eats up everything. What one thing can we raise and make a profit? Had spent some time with Mr. Lewellyn in Alameda county. He had found there that the farmers and fruit growers had combined and hired a steamboat to ship their produce. They don't shipfany more by railroad, which used to charge them $1 50 per chest for small fruits. They now ship per steamer at 622 cents, at which the boat is making money, and weeds and dog fennel are growing up around the depot. In the present state of things, we are making nothing and can make nothing. It cost $1 per chest to pick my berries, and I have seen plenty of strawberries sold this year at $2 and $3 per hundred pounds. Everything is eaten up by expenses, leaving the farmers nothing. Many of them cannot keep the sheriff outside their fences. We must find out some plan of co-operation, such as they have in some places at the East, and have co-operative stores and shops, for our own protection. We may yet do something by a thorough and general organization. In the Contra Costa Club, the President, Mr. Jones, said: In regard to co-operation, the most of the small farmers labored under the difficulty of being obliged to hypothecate their crops, and consequently were under the control of capitalists. We see that capitalists are now controlling tonnage, and almost everything that the farmer requires. He thought that if farmers were thoroughly organized, they might control these matters. It would be a good thing if farmers would unite and create a capital so as to be able to relieve the small farmers in their time of need, and by this means enable them to get their small farms in good condition, so that in a few years they would be entirely independent of capitalists. Mr. Porter said he supposed the object of all farmers would be to produce as much as possible themselves, such articles as they were obliged to have, because the cost of transporting all comes out of the farmer. There is no doubt that farmers might produce a great deal more than they do. If a farmer puts all his land in wheat, it takes up all his time; if he would put in less wheat and raise some of the articles he is compelled to buy, he would save more money and be better prepared to devote a portion of his time to something else. If a judicious system of exchanges could be institl',ed, it would do away 79

Page  80 THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. with many of the fees of middle-men-a great saving to farmers. In regard to the securing of tonnage, he did not know that it would prove a disadvantage to us; it might be an advantage. If the buyers engage the tonnage to ship their own purchases of wheat, we will be benefitted; if they charter ships to sub-charter, then we are not benefitted. Mr. Fish thought the system of farming, as now practiced,' was ruinous to the owners of the land. WVe have to pay so many commissions that it leaves nothing to the small farmer; he thought the system of freights was in the hands of a monopoly; thought we ought to have a system of co-operation in regard to disposing of our crops. Those whose experience gave them the right to speak with authority, declared concerning the wheat market, that in no other State in the Union are the great body of wheat growers so completely under the thumb of one man as in California; no other State in which there is not something like competition in the market, and generally more than one outlet for the disposal of the surplus product. It is simply strange that one man only in California of those possessing ample means, should have been found with brains enough to have made some provision for the purchase and shipment of our wheat crop. A summary of the farmers' complaints and their causes appeared in the Rural Press of September 7th. "Inl addition to the impositions practiced upon the farmers by middle-men, who crowd themselves in between the producer and consumer, and unnecessarily, and by every art in their power, increase the cost of all agricultural products as much as possible, while passing through their hands, we may mention another great wrong, the effect of which, particularly in this State, falls heavily upon the agriculturists. We refer to the additional rate of interest which is charged upon all moneys loaned in the country, over and above the rate charged for money loaned in the large towns and cities. For many years the savings and other banks of the cities refused to loan money even upon real estate which was not located within the city; thus, with wonderful stupidity, refusing to assist in the development of the agricultural resources of the State, upon which all other industries, and even the banking or money-loaning business itself, depends for its continued and permanent prosperity. Time has shown them their mistake by cities being forced into unnatural growth and beyond the necessities of the country, and consequent depreciation of city property and want of city demand for money. "Being forced to keep their money laying in their vaults idle or seek loans in the country, they adopt the latter; but make it a rule to require country borrowers-to pay from an eighth to a so I

Page  81 VOICE OF THE PRESS. quarter per cent. more per month than they ask on city loans; thus still adhering to the suicidal policy of crippling the industry which lies at the foundation of the prosperity of other industries and of the State. "This discrimination of the banks and monleyed men against the agricultural industries, is as unjust to the farmer as it is unwise in those who practice it. It induces or compels a forced system of cultivation without proper fertilization of the land. It prevents necessary improvements, without which the country cannot possess the appearance or reality of thrift. It comlpels the farmer to sell his grain at whatever hlie can get for it, thus throwing him into the clutches of another class of sharpers. The grain buyers conspire together to form rings and corners to catch the producer in a tight place and rob him of his crop-or. at least, of his legitimate profits thereon. It is a common remark in this country, that the price of grain is kept down after each harvest until after the bulk of it has passed out of thi hands of the producers, and then, by combinations of the buyers, forced up to an illegitimate price, thus forcing from the consumers-the common laborers, mechanics and manufacturers of the State-au improper proportioni of their wages ancd profits for the staple articles of life, and at the same time discouraging the introduction and success of manufacturing industries, upon which, and the additional consumers they would bring, the producers must depend for their home market-the most profitable and reliable market in any country. "It would seem as though we had named difficulties enough, with which farmers are beset, to arouse them to united action for the purpose of breaking the chains which bind them down, but there are still others, compared to which those enumerated are but trifles. Chief among these is the freight monopoly. The whole carrying trade of the State is now virtually in the hands of one company. Whether it shall cost the farmers of the State one sixteenth, one eighth, one fourth or one half the value of their crops to move them to market, is absolutely at the discretion of an organization which has absorbed all the railroads and all the steamboat routes of the State. This company has it in its power to-day to reduce the cost of putting the surplus products of the State on the wharves of our seaport towns and cities to the least possible figure, and thus spread 6 81 0

Page  82 THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. prosperity and contentment all over the State, and secure the good-will of the entire producing classes; or it has the power temporarily to extort an unjust and unreasonable amount for the performance of this labor, and thus oppress the agriculturists, drive prosperity and thrift from their doors, produce suffering and discontent throughout the land, and provoke the ill-will and the combined opposition of the people who have this labor to give and the freights to carry, and who, while acting as individuals, have no influence or power, but who, when forced to combine, will have all the influence and all the power. "There is no proposition clearer than that a, liberal policy, adopted and carried out by the capitalists, the produce dealers and grain buyers and freighting companies of the State toward the industrial classes, will result in the mutual benefit of all, in the increased population and redoubled prosperity of the State. Equally clear is the other proposition that the opposite policy will secure the opposite effect and will form a combination of those industrial classes for their own protection. "The organization of the farmers' clubs throughout the State i.,. one of the first fruits of this latter policy. It is an evidence that the farmers feel their wrongs and know and mean to apply the remedy. They have the power to regulate alike the rate of interest on money, and the rate of freights on railroads. They have the power to dispense with all middle-men, and by co-operative systems, to dispose of their own produce directly to the consumers, free of all commissions and all unnecessary charges." The Sacramento convention brought together the following delegates: Sonoma County Club-R. A. Thompson, A. W. Middleton, William H. Rector, Henderson Holmes, G. W. Davis, John Adams. Napa County Club-J. B. Saul, James M. Thompson, W. H. Nash, Wm. Gouverneur Morris, T. L. Griggs, W. A. Truebody, J. M. Mayfield, W. A. Fisher. Vacaville and Pleasant Valley Fruit Growers' Association —T. 0. Bingham, Wm. Cantelow. Sacramento County Farmers' Club —I. N. Hoag, S. N. Baker, W. S. Manlove, James Rutter, Willianm M. Haynie. Oakland Farming, Horticultural and Industrial Club-Dr. E. S. Carr, T. Hart Hyatt, Christian Bagge, A. D. Pryall, and A. T. Dewey. Santa Clara County Club-W. H. Ware, Jesse Hobson, C. T. Settle, Chipman, Cary Peebles. Sutter County Club —John MlcIlmoil, M1. Wilson, C. P. Berry. 82

Page  83 FARMERS' UNION PROPOSED. San Joaquin County Club —Dr. E. S. Holden, J. N. TW. Hitchcock, Thomas C. Ketcham, C. Grattan, H. C. Wright, WV. G. Phelps, James Smythe, L. H. Brannock. Santa Cruz County Club-Benjamin Cahoon, J. R. Locke. E1 Dorado County Club-G. G. Blanchard, Robert Chalmers. Sonoma Vinicultural Club-W. MA. 3McPherson Hill, Major J. R. Snyder, Wm. Hood. T. Hart Hyatt submitted the following: In view of the stern, exasperating fact that the farmers of California, when spared the calamity of a loss of crops from drougiht, floods, mildew, or blight, are met by a more withering scourge in the form of railroad monopolies and pestilent grain rings and bread-sharks, whereby the farmer is robbed of the fruits of his hard toil and lifelong earnings, and left without enough in many cases to reimburse him for his expenditures, while the merciless speculators are fattening on their unjust gains, building palaces and sporting princely establishments on the plunder thus taken from the hard working farmer; and in view of the fact that nothilng can be effectually clone by the farmer without co-operative and vigilant, energetic, united action; therefore, be it Resolved, That the convention deem it expedient forthwith to establish and organize a Farmers' Protective Union League, to be composed of the members of all the local agricultural and horticultural clubs and associations in the State, who may desire to join the league; and to hold semni-annual meetings alternately at Oakland, 3Iarysville, Stockton, Napa City, San Jose, Sacramento, and at such other points as may be deemed practicable. That said league be organized under the laws of the State, and be duly incorporated, so far as it may be necessary to enable it to transact business in a legal manner; to be a business, not a sporting institution; that it appoint an Executive Central Committee, who shall be emxpowered to transact business for the league during the intervals of its regular meetings. The said league to have power and authority to organize and establish a Produce Exchange, a Farm Stock Exchlange, and a Farmers' Saviings, Deposit and Loan Bank; and to do all other things that may be found necessary to advance the rights of the farmers of California. All seemed earnest in their action, and united and determined on the main objects of the association. The tenor of the general remarks showed a desire to strengthen the influence of the convention by calm, deliberate action, attempting no dictation and making no demands in any direction without the power to enforce them. President Fisher recommended that warehouses be built at convenient points for shipment, where farmers can safely put their grain and keep it. It was suggested that foreign capital, or any other capital demanding a low interest, can ask for no safer security. The money can always be had when the grain is put up, and as long as it is needed and at rates that we can stand. Our great crops, once in our storehouses, we can also have the power to co-operate and deal directly with foreign buyers. We can show what we have 83

Page  84 TIIE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. in our hands, and they will know what ships can profitably be sent this way at the right time. Messrs. Blanchard, Phelps, Rector, Morris, and others favored building sufficient warehouses to carry out, as far as practicable, the objects desired. Dr. Carr urged that there was a still higher work for the State Farmers' Club whereby they may secure the worthy object of getting fair prices for our products. Let us arrange to work up our own produce into brain and muscle. Encourage manufacturing, and diversified farming, giving all the needs and comforts of life cheaply. If low prices shall discourage sending enormous quantities of wheat out of the country annually, it may be in the end a 'blessing rather than a calamity. Wheat crops as now produced, year after year, are taking the cream of our rich and generous yielding soil. As our lands grow poorer, immigration and all industry is discouraged. It is the noble work of our F?armners' Club to bring about a better order of things and make the utmost of the rich resources that are within our reach on this highly favored coast. Mr. Morris endorsed Dr. Carr's remarks, and stated that his taking the United States census returns for the State developed to hint the fact that in a quite recent year one export of wheat brought us less money than we sent away for boots and shoes manufactured abroad. The census returns also bring painfully before us our lack of suitable employment of boys and girls. Occupation is needed for them, that we may have the right men and women of to-morrow to develop and increase our naturally rich possessions. Mr. Blanchard counseled making the best of things beyond our present control. When we cannot build competing railroads, let farmers and fruit-growers combine, see what, unitedly, is the best they can do without the railroads-immediately and prospectively — and then show railroad men how they stand in their own light by keeping up high prices, preventing industry from being profitable, keeping back settlement, and retaining undeveloped districts for their slim trains to pass through. Talk business, drive sharp bargains. Railroad men have not all the brains and business tact, and producers have frequent opportunities to make points in their own favor. A Constitution and By-Laws were adopted, and the following officers elected, viz: Hon. John Bidwell, President; J. R. Snyder, of Sonoma, E. P. Holden, of San Joaquin, T. Hart Hyatt, of Alameda, W. S. Manlove, of Sacramento, D. C. Feeley, of Santa Cruz, and W. H. Ware, of Santa Clara, Vice Presidents; I. N. Hoag, Secretary, and A. T. Dewey, Treas urer. The farmers were now organized, but there was not yet suf ficient unanimity of sentiment, or experience in management, to secure that without which sentiments and resolutions would prove of little avail, viz. incorporation. The statement that the quotations of California wheat in Liv 84

Page  85 FALSE WHEAT QUOTATIONS, erpool, were below the real markliet rates prevailing there, and that false telegraphic quotations had been intentionally made for the purpose of further depressing prices in California, was confirmed on the arrival by mail of the "M1ark Lane Express," the representative of the produce interests of England, both agricultural and commercial. The loss to the farmers for August amounted to $168,870, which went into the pockets of the operators. For the year it would not have been less than $1,560,000-2,340,000.* An attempt was made to excuse these discrepancies, by the statement that the higher quotations from the "3Iark Lane Express" were for "club," and those telegraphed for "average white wheat;" but inasmuch as the amount of "club" raised or shipped is trifling, this explanation only served to stimulate further inquiry, when it was found that these misquotations had been continued through the fourteen months, with one single exception. On the 28th of November, 1871, the true average price of wheat in Liverpool had been telegraphed. All the rest were from 1 cent to 22 cents; averaging 10 cents lower than the real quotations. Our own dailies had innocently published these fraudulent reports, based in some cases also upon grain circulars issued in England in the interest of the buyers. The " Mark Lane Express" alone remained above suspicion. What could be done about it? The farmers might protect themselves by the establishment of a Wheat Bureau in Liverpool, or of an agency authorized by the State Board, whose business it should be to tabulate imports, exports, crop returns, information as to prices brought by different grades, etc., etc. The Rural Press summed up'the subject in its issue of '-,,ovember 16, in a manner which gave the people at large an understanding of all its relations: The average rate of tonnage for the last four months for chlarters effected in this port has been ~4 15s., and the difference between this, and that really paid for ships chartered previous to arrival, has been ~1 15s. per ton, or 42 cents per cenital. This has been the average profit of those who received the principal part of the tonnage bound to our port for the last six or eight months, on every cental of wheat exported this harvest year. F'rom the 1st of July to the 3d of November, the exports have amounted to 3,355,318 centals, which at 42 cents each, gives a profit of $1,409,235 55, at least one million dollars of which must have found its way into the pockets of a single firm. If this came out of the pocket of one *See "rlural Press" of October and lovember, 1872, 85

Page  86 THE FARMERS IN COUNCIL. speculator and went into those of another, we would not mind. And there is every reason to fear that a proportionally large sum will be extracted from the pockets of the farmers for the balance of the season. If this should be the case, and should the amount of wheat available for export, equal that which would be intimated by the estimates of some of our prominent men, the loss to the farmers and the gain to the speculators will not be less than $5,888,000. At nineteen bushels an acre, the loss to the farmer would be seven dollars and ninety-eight cents, or nearly eight dollars per acre, and on a farm of one thousand acres, producing such an average crop, the loss would be almost $8,000. It is hig-h time then that farmners should awake to the situation. If taxes of this amount were levied on them, or attempted to be levied, they would rise in open rebellion, and yet they tamlely submit to this imposition, or make a few feeble and ineffectual protests, and there the matter ends. It will be seen from our table that the average of freights for the eleven years ending December, 1871, was ~2 10s. 8d. only. If the farmers of the State were united on the matter, they could freight ships or build them, and the cost of carrying wheat to Liverpool would not exceed ~2 10s. WVith wheat for export equaling fourteen million centals, they would then save in one season, the sum of $7,560,000, or 54 cents per cental, or $10,260 on every farm of one thousand acres. During the balance of the harvest year, with the vessels which have already loaded cargoes for England, and those on the way now known to be engaged, we have one hundred and seventy-seven vessels. Now, calculating by the average cargoes which have already been loaded, there would, supposing fourteen million centals to be available for exportation, be required four hundred and ten vessels. So that we require arrivals of one hundred and sixty-four more besides those already on the way known to be chartered for wheat in order to carry away the largest possible margin of export. Those at present available will carry away 10,151,658 centals; and there being now on the way to this port altogether one hundred and eighlty-seven ships, this ensures us a far more satisfactory prospect for the balance of the year. In this connection we may mention a circumstance that has come under our notice during the last fortnight which shows how completely are the farmers at the mercy of the grain speculators. A merchant in Visalia, whose interests are intimately connected with those of the farmers of his section, desired to assist them in obtaining better prices for their wheat, and in order to do so, he contracted at reasonable rates for a ship with one of our largest shipping houses in this city. The house in question generally bears a good name, but unfortunately the merchant only made a verbal contract with it. Hie was sooni after approached by an agent of Mr. Monopoly or a party in his interest, who endeavored to obtain the ship from himn. But the merchant was firm. This agent then says to him, "I suppose you expect to load the ship." The reply was, "Yes, certainly I do, I have eingaged it, and shlall send it." Whereupon Monlopoly's representative rejoined, "Let me tell you, (or mnark my words,) you won't send that ship." Within forty-eight hours the 86

Page  87 PRESIDENT BIDWELL'S VIEWS. merchant received a notification from the house that they could not possibly let him have the ship. We can give the names of the parties to any of our readers who may desire to have them. We have been accused of bringing charges on freight rings and grain rings needlessly, but we think that a perusal of our article, and a knowledge of such means as here shown to be made use of to keep all the available tonnage mainly in the hands of one house, will convince our readers that our denunciation of the unworthy means made use of to rob the farmers of this State, have been both timely and needed. CHAPTER IX. HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES, MEETING 01 THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS: PRESIDENT BIDWELL'S IEMARKS: MAJOR SNYDER ADVOCATES BUILDING CO-OPERATIVE WVAREHOUSES: JUDGE MCCUNE ON FARES AND FREIGHTS-SONOMA CLUB-M.ASS MEETING AT STOCKTON: THIRTY THOUSAND DOLLARS SUBSCRIBED - MR. BAXTERi APPEARS ON THE SCENE - CONVENTION AT SAN FRANCISCO- How THE GRANGERS NEGOTIATED FOR SACKS AND DID'NT GET THEM-GEN. BIDWELL'S ADDRESS —-A LADY'S SUGGESTIONS -— MR. HALLETT ON THE FUTURE OF THE WHEAT MAIKET —-CONVENTION RECOMMENDS THE FORMATION OF GRANGES: WINDING UP OF ITS AFFAIRS. THE history of the Farmers' Union is virtually that of the emancipation of California agriculture from its oppressive burdens. It has been seen that the local clubs were the centers of influence, and the germinal points of enlightened public opinion, while the board of directors were active in perfecting plans for immediate relief. President Bidwell called a meeting ot the board, in January, "to devise means by which the cost of moving and marketing the crops of the approaching season might be reduced, thus enabling the farmer to realize a larger percentage of profit. The charges for sacks and freight to a market at home or abroad were so great that the farmer was scarcely remunerated for his labor of production; and this state of things did not so much arise from natural causes as from the exorbitant exactions of those by whom the material for sacking, the money to move produce, and the means of transportation were provided. It was the interest and the duty of the farmers, by combined action, by organization, by finlancial or political power and influence, to endeavor to protect themselves; to demand, exact and enforce justice and common 87

Page  88 IHOW THE CLUBS BECAM3E GRANGES. honesty from those with whom they deal. There is but one way for the farmers to succeed in the accomplishment of these objects, and that is the organization of local clubs, and the steady support of the State Club in its efforts in their behalf. If the farmers in all portions of the State will come together and form local clubs, and put themselves in correspondence and business relations with the State Farmers' Union, in such a manner as to authorize the officers of this association to act for and bind them under necessary moral and financial obligations, in my opinion, the relief which they seek can be obtained, to a great degree at least, and industrial prosperity may become general throughout the State. " But, while the farmer remains aloof from his neighbors while he continues to act on the selfish individual policy —other classes, such as importers and manufacturers of agricultural tools and implements, imrporters and manufacturers of sacks, common carriers, grain dealers, commission merchants and money loaners, will unite for the advancement of their own interests and ends, and will take undue and unjust advantages of the farmer; will oppress, prey upon him, and eat out his substance, and continue to keep him poor and dependent. Farmers now, unorganized, are weak and in a great degree helpless, and they have but little courage to make an effort to free themselves or better their condition; but let one hundred thousand farmers of this State unite together, and act as one man, through an honest and reliable organization, demanding only common justice, but exacting this to the last degree, and with a firm and united front, and there is no power in the land that can prevent the attainment of their just demands. The farming interests of the country need some wholesome legislation to place them on an equal footing with other occupations, and to relieve them from the exactions of heartless monopolies; and if farmers will but unite to send the proper men to represent them in our legislative halls, both State and National; will see to it that our judicial and executive offices are filled withi honest, efficient and reliable men, it will then be but an easy matter to secure such legislation and such constitution and execution of the laws as their interests and the best interests of the State demand. For the purpose of emphasizing the idea, I repeat," said Gen. Bidwell, "and I wish I could sound it in 83

Page  89 ACTION OF THE SONOMA CLUB. the ears of every farmer in the State, the only salvation of the agricultural interests, the only safety to the individual interests of the farmer, is in union of interest and union of action." lajor J. R. Snyder, of Sonoma, warmly advocated the careful selection of county supervisors, looking toward the improvement of the roads; and also the building of co-operative farmers' warehouses. The taxing of growing crops was declared to be unjust and oppressive; and the Board resolved to call upon the local clubs for a repeal of the law at the next session of the Legislature. Before the Stockton Club, Judge J. IH. McCune gave an able address, which was afterwards widely circulated, on the carrying trade, and the subject of fares and freights. The Sonoma Club struck directly for an immediate incorporation. They said: "It is manifest that while the moral benefits of a mere association of farmers are apparent, and much good may be derived therefrom, yet in order to market our crops cheaply, control freights, make successful war on monopolies obnoxious to our interests, we need some more effective machinery than that afforded by a mere social organization. There must be a financial and commercial element in our organization to mluake our power felt." To carry out these ideas they made the following specific recommendations, which are interesting to us, at the present time, only as showing the clearness with which remedial measures were already outlined in the minds of the farmers: 1st. We recommend the incorporation of this Club, as provided by section two hundred and eighty-six of the Civil Code of the State, as a corporation "for the encouragement of, or business of ag,riculture, horticulture and stock-raising;" that we maintain our social character, as it is at present, so that none but those interested in the farmers' progress may be members thereof, and by which we may choose our associates. 2d. In order that a pecuniary profit may accrue, we recommend the incorporation of a "County Farmers' Union," upon the basis of a capital stock of say not less than $100,000, the paid-up capital of which shall be $10,000, and increased as necessity demands. Part of this stock may be taken by the several local or district farmers' clubs, and the remainder by farmers whose operations are large, and whose wants the local clubs could not supply. This County Union could enter the market, buy sacks at reduced rates, secure by the large interest of its operations cheap freight, both by ship and car, build or lease warehouses, accumulate funds for loaning to farmers, secured by storage of crops, and be the farmers' consignee and mid 89

Page  90 HlOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES. dle-men. The farmers holding stock would thus control both the capital and the crop, and could easily prevent it from being an engine of oppression. It need not necessarily be organized to secure profit and declare dividends; these results would be obtained by cheap freights and increased prices for produce, and the profit would be found in "farming." Each stockholder should be a member of a Farmers' Club. 3d. We also recommend the incorporation-of theState- Farmers' Union, with a capital of $1,000,000. The benefits to be derived from this organization may be outlined as follows: The several clubs at their meetings can report the prospects of the crops from time to time, to the Union, and the probable amount of the several products; the estimates of the county thus made and forwarded promptly to the officers of the State Union, will enable them to make estimates of the number of sacks required, and the tonnage necessary to convey the crops to foreign markets. The officers of the State Union, by observation of the prospects in foreign countries, and the East, will be enabled early to form an estimate of the value of the several products of export. Thus the farmers, by their agents, will be able to fix the prices of their own products, and by the moneys and credits established by and represented in these exportations, they will be able to maintain the prices they may agree upon. Thus organized, thus combined for the maintenance of our rights, we will be able to bid defiance to the monopolists who have been preying upon us in the past; and if we cannot entirely dispose of the "middle-men," who stand between the producer and consumer, we shall be able at least to induce a more liberal division with us, of the fruits of our toil, to compel them to live less sumptuously, to ridle in less elegant carriages, drawn by slower horses. Nor was this all talk, as the liberal subscriptions to the stock of the local and county clubs bore testimony. All farmers, whether members of the clubs or not, were invited to co6perate in obtaining sacks at reducedcl prices. At the above-mentioned meeting of the Sonoma Club, Mr. Isaac De Turk proposed the establishment of an experimental farm, and supported his views by strong and well considered reasons. The Dixon Club drew up a petition to Congress for the repeal of the duty on grain sacks, which was duly communicated to the other clubs for their signatures. On the 1st of March, there was an immense gathering of farmers at Stockton, to incorporate the San Joaquin Farmuers' Union, with a proposed capital stock of $300,000. This indeed looked like a "revolt of the field." "Farmers should combine against monopolists," said Mr. Paulsell; "and to protect their own interests, the association proposed to de 90

Page  90A 9

Page  90B 0 W. H. BAXTER, W. S. of State Grange of California.

Page  91 FIRST STEPS TOWARD THE GRANGE. vise some plan of getting to foreign and domestic markets without having their products go through the hands of so many middle-men; to import grain sacks direct, instead of allowing California merchants to swallow up the farmers' earnings by enormous profits." The sum of nineteen thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot, and eleven thousand subsequently, making a total of thirty thousand dollars on that Saturday afternloon. By the first of April, there was a chain of farmers' organizations completed on the Pacific Coast, from E1 Monte in Los Angeles County, to Walla Walla, in Washington Territory. It began to appear likely that greater privacy in carrying on the large business interests contemplated by them, would be inldispensable. In the Spring of 1871, W. IH. Baxter, residing on his farm near Napa City, had communicated with the Secretary of the National Grange, with respect to the wants of agriculturists in California, the social isolation in which so many of them lived, and the exactions which they suffered. Certain plans for their relief had been shaping themselves in his mind, which, through this correspondence, he found anticipated, or met to a reasonable extent by the statements of the purposes and practical effects of that Order. In August, 1871, he received a commission-as Deputy of the National Grange for California. Mir. Baxter at once began to spread information with regard to the objects and advantages promised in the new organization, but his hearers, for the most part, were already members of clubs, and had no suspicion that any open organization would necessarily fail before the combination of intellect and capital with which the farmers had to contend. Patient and persistent, Mr. Baxter watched his opportunity, and was content to bide his time, which came even sooner than he expected, at the Farmers' Union Convention, which met in San Francisco, on the 8th of April, 1873, and was fully represented by delegations from all the Clubs, and by those who are now the leading Patrons in the State. The convention was opened by an address from President Bidwell, who said: We are convened as farmers and representatives of the farming and industrial interests of California. For several years a growing want has been felt among the farmers of the State for co-opera 91

Page  92 HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES. tion through a State organization, and that feeling found expression in the formation of this California Farmers' Union in September last, during the State Fair at Sacramento. In that movement there was something very American in its character-a directness, an abil ity to improvise, to meet emergency. In a word, there was some thing to be done, and they met and did it. One of the grievances of the past year complained of by farm ers is the enormous price imposed for sacks in which to market or store their wheat. Instead of eleven to thirteen cents, which would have been a fair price, they have had to pay fifteen to nineteen cents, or an aggregate overcharge in the State of half a million of dollars. Instead of $12 50 per ton freight on wheat from San Francisco to Liverpool, which would have been a fair rate, ocean tonnage became monopolized and demoralized, and farmers were made to suffer to the tunle of probably $2,500,000 more. That interior freights are too high, all agree, and the overcharge on wheat alone may be within the actual limits if placed at half a million more. In how many other ways farmers are and have been unjustly taxed I will not undertake to enumerate. The aggregate' totals, at a moderate estimate, cannot be stated at a lower figure than three to five millions; and the universal complaint of the farmers is that they are burdened beyond their ability to bear. [Hiow many frugal and industrious farmers during the past year-which was one of overflowilg abundance, and coincided with high prices and large demand in Liverpool and elsewhere-were obliged to borrow money to pay their State and County taxes?] At a meeting of your Board of Directors, convened January 3d last, in this city, the question of grain sacks for the coming harvest was considered. There was still time to order from Dundee, and a committee of the Board made every possible effort to arrange with a reliable house for a promise to furnish sacks at the lowest definite rate, and on such terms as to time and responsibility as the committee could recommend and the farmers afford to accept, with the view of communicating the information to the several clubs for their acceptance. For some time we were hopeful of success. But I must say, as one of the committee, we utterly failed to accomplish our mission in that respect. The'parties could not do as we wished. After repeated delays, the manufacturers or the holders would not agree to a stipulated price, which would make it an object for farmers to accept. This subject is submitted to your consideration, with the suggestion that the manufacture of sacks in this State should, by every means in our power, be encouraged as the only adequate remedy for existing wants in that respect. In order to bring about efficiency on the part of your Board of Directors, and enable them to meet your reasonable expectations, I beg leave to suggest that at' least the President, Treasurer and Secretary, if not a quorum of the Board, should reside in San Francisco or Sacramento (San Francisco, everything considered, would be preferable, I think), and have some certain place of business. The officers named must necessarily be on the Executive Committee, and it is indispensable, in my judgment, that they be where they can 92

Page  93 PRESIDENT DIDWELL'S ADDRESS. meet as often as necessary to transact business. I take it for granted that you are in earnest and mean business, and if so, you must have a habitation as well as a name. Believing this to be absolutely necessary, if you propose to continue this State organization in any form whatever, with a capacity for usefulness, I propose to resign my position that you may be free to adopt any plan or measure giving promise of efficiency. At this point, it may not be improper to take a view of the situation in another direction. Agriculture in California has many advantages, but it has also its disadvantages. First, you have a soil of wonderful and varied productiveness. No other land teems with fruits and useful products of such rare excellence, and in so great variety andl abundance. Look at the cereal capacity of your State. Take for instance wheat-bread, the staff of life. If a premium were offered for the smallest yield of wheat in this State-on any land timely and properly managed-it would be difficult, in my opinion, to establish a smaller showing than ten bushels per acre, in any ordinary or average season, from land chosen by any sane man, up to this date. On the other hand, sixty to seventy bushels per acre are not uncommon; twenty bushels per acre by no means an extravagant average in some sections; and estimating the aggregate product in the United States at three hundred million of bushels, your total for 1872 gives the enormous proportion of one twelfth of all the wheat raised in all the States and Territories of this extended and productive country. Next, you have a climate so serene, salubrious, equable, reliable, and invigorating, that its fame is becoming world-wide; thousands are being attracted hither from the Atlantic sea-board and other countries, from considerations of climate alone. You have almost six months of summer sun and cloudless skies to ripen your cereal crops, and give a harvest season, of which the people on the Atlantic side of the continent can have no conception. You have another advantage in the lay of the land, and the almost perfect condition of the soil. While in other States and Territories vast outlays from the very beginning have been necessary to clear lands of timber, or to drain them because too wet, or to irrigate because too dry, or to fertilize because too poor; here in this favored sunny realm the lands cultivated have, with few exceptions, come to you from the hand of nature, ready for immediate use, and all you have had to do was literally "to sow and reap and gather into barns." Nor is this all. The general topography of the grain regions has enabled farmers to introduce with advantage the most approved agricultural implements and machinerv. You sow grain as well as reap by horse-power; you thresh by steam-power; and you are, many of you at least, looking impatiently to the time in the near future, when you shall be able by steam to stir and pulverize the soil with greater profit than is possible by animal power. In addition to the advantages named, your State abounds in mineral, pastoral, and other resources. But I cannot further dwell on the pleasant side of the picture (though in itself inexhaustible), 93

Page  94 HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES. except to remark that great as has been nature's lavishness, inll points of mineral wealth, that of the soil has run past them, and become, and is henceforth to be, the leading and paramount in terest. But it is not all sunshine, even in California. As the brightest skies become overcast with the darkest clouds, and the richest soil produces the rankest weeds, so even in this fa,vored land you have your trials and troubles. You can produce, but you have no reliable adequate markets at home or abroad for your products. Even when there happens to be a demand, combinations intervene and cut you off. I submit, then, that it is our interest to unite in order to encourage manufactures and build up useful industries in our own State, and thereby enlarge home market; and in order to bring about reasonable transportation and other expenses, and enable you to go into the markets of the world, and compete with all the world with your surplus products. As it is now, we are, in comparison with the Atlantic coast, at a disadvantage of more than fifteen thousand miles (practically more than half the circumference of the globe), in order to reach Europe. And from this there is no escape. Your cargoes must double Cape Horn, or do worse, by doubling the Cape of Good Hope, or still worse, by doubling all the capes of Southern Asia, and thence through the Red Sea and the Suez Canal. The other lines-overland by rail and the Isthmius-are by their charges practically closed, and therefore I do not take them into ac count. By the nearest feasible route, then, the Pacific Coast is the re motest place on earth furnishinig.bread to European markets. Nev ertheless, enterprise and superior natural advantages enabled you for long years to contend against distance, and overcome obstacles innumerable, till you won for California as wide a reputation for bread and other agricultural products, as for the precious metals. You have made her name like that of Egypt of old, almost a synonym for plenty. There is a limit beyond which burdens cannot be borne, even by California farmers. As long as freights, sacks, and other expenses left even a small margin, you said nothing. You could pay fair rates for every needful outlay, and still have a margin, though small, on which to base hopes for the future. You could afford to await the growth of home industries and the influx of population to the State, knowing, as you did, that she possessed the elements, though undeveloped, of a glorious future. It is true the elements which bear so heavily on your prosperity are not the growth of a day, but they are none the less dangerous, for they have become well-nigh formidable. But when speculation and reckless adventure organize against you, and demoralize every legitimate business, enhance every risk and increase every expense-inl other words, when freighit rings, grain rings, sack rings, and all sorts of combinations, regulate their own charges, dictate the prices of your produce, and practically block up every avenue between you and your markets-can you remain insensible, silent, apathetic? 94

Page  95 DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES. Do we not owe it to ourselves as well as to those who are to come after us, to devise reasonable safeguards for the agricultural interests of our State, and to say with the united voices of forty thousand farmers, and the forty thousand more whose best interests are inseparable from the farming interest, that they shall not, with our consent, be enslaved. What avail all your boasted advantages? What, though your soil is unsurpassed and you amaze the world with its productiveness; what, though your valleys and plains have been made ready for use by nature's lavish kindness, and give to labor larger returns than any other known country; what, though your landscape charms, your climate invigorates, and your cloudless skies give you a harvest season from June to October; of what advantage, I say, are all these, if you are to groan under oppression, lose the fruits of your labor and the control of your destiny? Of course, farmers whose interests are indissolubly linked with the general welfare should not and do not propose to make an invasion on vested rights or retard legitimate industries of any kind whatsoever. They simply ask for protection. I can say for myself, and' I speak the sentiments of the farmers generally, as I believe, in the following declarations: That agriculture is and ever m1ust be the fundamental industry of this and all other prosperous States, and more than any other industry creates and sustains commerce and manufactures, and furnishes the material to feed and clothe the world. That transportation is indispensable to agricultural prosperity, and that it is our duty, as farmers, to promote the construction of roads, canals, vessels and all modes of conveyance calculated to facilitate the movement of agricultural products. That the charges on lines of transportation should be regulated by law, and not left to unlimited monopoly; and if such regulations be found impracticable on existing lines, they should be made applicable to all future lines, until reciprocal relations shall be fully established between the producer and the common carrier. We declare that farmers and all others should be equal before the law; that all laws should be enacted without bias, and executed without partiality; and to this end we declare that neither farmers or others ought to furnish legislative, executive, or judicial officers with free passes, or in any manner do anything calculated to improperly influence them in the discharge of their public trust; and that no officer, or candidate for office, ought to accept, nor shall any officer, with our consent, be hereafter elected who will accept of at free pass, or other gift. We declare that all laws taxing growing crops, mortgages, or book accounts, or other mere memoranda calculated to enhance interest on money, which farmers and others in need have to borrow, are wrong in principle and oppressive in operation, and ought to be repealed. We declare that it is the duty of Congress to so regulate commerce among all the States of this Union that agriculture shall not be oppressed by unnecessary burdens. We declare that these vital questions are above all party issues. 95

Page  96 HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GBANGES. On the second day, the Committee on Resolutions- reported the following, which were adopted: Resolved, That the rates charged for freights over the railroads in this State are ruinous to our agricultural interests. 2d-That in our opinion the corporations operating these roads, being the creations of our laws, are, and should be, under the control of our statutes, and that the maximum rates of freights should be so fixed by statute as to prevent extortion, and leave the producer a margin of profit on his productions, and that way freights be charged only in proportion to the distance the freight is sent with the charge for through freight. 3d-That if we find it impracticable under present management of such roads to obtain a fair reduction of such freights, we will agitate the subject and insist that the railroads built by the money of government shall be operated by the government in the interests of the people, rather than by private persons for personal aggrandizenient. 4th —That as these matters are political, we will so far make this a political body as to cast our votes and use our influence for such nien for our State Legislature as will carry our views into effect. 5th -That inasmuch as the farmers of this State find themselves a prey to moneyed rings, in the matter of grain sacks, we refer this matter to the Executive Committee of this body, with instructions to consider the propriety of utilizing State-prisoni labor, either at San Quentin or Folsom, in the production of a sufficient number of sacks each year, for our home consumption, to be sold to the farmers at their actual cost, thus saving the profit now made from us by dealers. 6th-That our Executive Committee also consider such other remedies for the wrongs we now sustain in that regard, as shall, to them, seem practical. 7th-That there being less tariff on the raw material for sacks, we can and ought to provide ourselves with the manufactured article without paying any margin to mere dealers in sacks. 8th-That our Executive Committee consider and propose a plan for the organization of co-operative banking, which shall put the farmers of the State in the possession of means sufficient to protect themselves from the rings formed by capitalists to appropriate to themselves the profits of our industry. 9th-That the Executive Committee be requested to propose some plan for the co-operation of farmers in each locality in the sale of their products and the purchase of necessaries, with a view to retain among the producers the profits now made by mere dealers. 10th-That our Executive Committee also consider and provide a plan for stowing grain and other farmers' products, with a view to enable farmers to retain their crops till they can get for them the highest market value. The Committee on Communications presented a very able paper, by Mrs. J. Preston Moore, delegate from the Oakland 96

Page  97 MRS. MOORE'S SUGGESTIONS. Farmers' Club, embodying suggestions, "how to move the crop:" By means of an agency under the control of the California Farmers' Union, to be constituted in the following manner: lst.-The officers of the California Farmer's Union to be a Board of Directors, to meet quarterly or oftener, and pass upon all matters pertaining to the agency, to have free access to the books at all times, etc., call meetings, etc. 2d.-The agency to consist of three departments. (1) Financial. A manager to arrange sales and all money matters at home and abroad; to pay all transportation and other expenses in shipping the crop, and to have the general oversight of all the other departments. (2) Transportation. A man to attend to the receiving and receipting for the wheat, and bringing to shipping ports, making terms with railroads and vessels for carrying. (3) Shipping. A man to attend to the loading and storing, arranging the cargoes to the best advantage for sale. These three to constitute an Advisory Board, with power to appoint clerks and agents, and subject to the Board of Directors. 3d.-An agency in London under the control of the Advisory B6ard, to make sales by means of telegrams and letters. 4th.-Actual cost of transportation from places of production to points of shipment and other expenses, to be charged against wheat of each farmer, and to be deducted with interest from his proportionate amount of wheat sales. 5th.-The Advisory Board to decide relative value of each farmer's wheat at time of its receipt, according to relative value in the English market at the time. (This refers to different qualities as the difference between coast and other wheat.) There to be but two discriminating clauses against any farmers' wheat, viz: relative cost of transportation to shipping point, and relative quality of wheat. 6th.-Money to be advanced by agency to the farmers on, before or after receipt of wheat, according to percentage that may be agreed upon by Board of Directors, say up to ninety per cent. of its value at time of reception, and balance to be paid him on the yearly settlement of the whole crop, say in June. 7th.-The yearly average of prices obtained for whole crop, to be determined say in June, or earlier if possible, and each farmer credited up at sale of same, and finally settled with and paid in full. This settlement would involve all the elements of expenses and profits in the business of the year. Such an agency would save in all shipments the five per cent. on amount of freight, and in many cases the seven per cent. paid by the ships to the parties chartering. For instance, a vessel of 1,500 tons at ~4 per ton for freight, would pay five per cent., $1,500 commission, and paid here as soon as loaded. This arrangement would save here for selling one per cent., and in England two to three and one half per cent. Of course the farmers must furnish the business credit of the agency. Each club must decide the relative responsibility of its members, and enter into written obligations to meet this. The 7 97

Page  98 HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES. club must a; a whole meet their responsibility, and look to its members for thor proportion in case of loss. This will necessitate the incorporation of the clubs as the first step. The State Board of Directors will decide the relative responsibility of each club, based on the amount of property each represents. To make these credits available, the members of each club will be responsible to the club, and the club to the Board of Directors. The Board, which ought to consist of the prominent and most responsible members of all the clubs, would be responsible to the agency, and thus give it the necessary credit. There is no doubt about the wealth of the agricultural interest, but to make it available to transact their business as they wish, it must be thrown into such legal and business form as will make it a security at once certain and convertible. To reap the advantages of a farmers' bank the farmers must own it. To do this, it will be necessary for each farmer to set aside in a good year (such as this promises to be), a certain sum for the formation of the bank, and for which he would receive stock in the bank, and thus participate in the profits to the amount of his stock; and, as banks never pay less than one per cent. a month to their shareholders, and often more, this would be a good investment for the farmner. This bank would be under a separate agency. Each club would be largely interested in the welfare of this bank, and as each club would be well acquainted with the standing of each of its members, it would be necessary, before any member could get money, to make application to the club, and obtain a written recommendation from it. Thus the club guarantees each of its members to the bank, and in case of loss the club will have to pay and collect of its mnembers whatever they fail to recover of the delinquent. This, of course, is for money obtained as advances. This bank would do a regular banking business, charging the regular rates of interest, but giving the farmer the same rates as business men in the city, and the preference. A very important subject in this connection is the warehousing, or storing the wheat, in order that the rush of the sales may he distributed over a longer time, and thus holding the power over the shipping, which cannot afford to wait, and giving the agency a better chance to obtain better charter parties. The Committee on Communications also reported, presenting the following memorials and petitions: To the Honorable Representatives elect, and Senators of the Pa cific States: We, your constituents, farmers and laborers and others, carrying the industries and development of the States of the sunset slope, would most respectfully crave your attention to our wants; and through you, ask of Congress relief of a grievous burden-an uncalled-for tax upon our industries. The farming interests of the States of California and Oregon are carried forward with great difficulties, when compared with the same interest East. 98

Page  99 CONGRESSIONAL PETITION. We seek the same market for the disposal of our grain, though three thousand miles farther west, and six thousand by the only route open to us-the sea. We have also the enormous expense of sacking our grain-forty to eighty dollars per thousand bushels; twelve million sacks to move the crop of 1872, in the State of California alone, averaging not less than fifteen cents a piece to your humble petitioners, the farmers of the State, mnaking nearly two million dollars tax on the farmer to enter the market with his products in competition with his eastern brother, and six thousand miles more water freight too; and now, in addition to all that burden, the government has placed a tariff upon the importation of sacks, thirty and forty per cent., and material for manufacture. This is the last pound to the camel's burden, and is the chief cry we have for redress; and we would ask at your hands, that the tariff on jute and all material for sack manufacture be removed, and all duty on sacks be taken off, as far as the ports of California and Oregon are concerned. This would relieve the over-burdened farmer of California of about one half million dollars tax; as it is claimed by experts that the State manufactory can now compete with the foreign trade at one cent profit per sack; by the removal of tax on raw material it still has the more advantage, and we, your petitioners, will also gain, and not lose anything, as we do not raise the sack materials in the State. And we believe our eastern brothers will not complain when they see how match we already endure; and not unmindful of the great benefits to a State of home manufactories, we must say that the present Jute Company does not command our strong sympathies, as they have run the mills almost exclusively for the speculators, instead of the demands of the trade, with the greatest good to the greatest number. All of the above is most respectfully submitted, and for relief we would ever pray. To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled. The undersigned petitioners, citizens of the United States, of the State of California, respectfully represent That all taxes should be as equally borne by all the people of the United States as possible. That a tax that reaches one part of the country and leaves the rest untouched, or nearly so, is manifestly unjust. And your petitioners would further represent that in their opinion the import duty collected by the United States, of thirty to forty per cent. on our grain bags, and the material of which they are manufactured, is a tax which has almost entirely a local bearing; that it is unjust to, and discriminating against, the agricultural interests of the Pacific Coast; that while the grain surplus of the Atlantic States is moved to the sea-board, and thence to Europe in bulk, we, under an inexorable custom, are compelled to put ours in sacks for which we get no adequate return; that the import duty on the sacks used in California the past year amounts to over one half million of dollars, which is equivalent to a "direct export tax" of that amount upon the wheat crop of California; that said tax is bur 99 ..1...:...

Page  100 HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GRANGES. densome and unjust; and we pray your honorable body to repeal tlhe import duty on all burlap bags and all material of which they are manufactured, that they may be admitted free of duty, and your petitioners will ever pray, etc. The Committee-on Granges and Patrons of Husbandry reported as follows: 1st. The organization presents a medium of establishing and maintaining a better state of social and confidential relation among the farmers. 2d. The necessity of transacting our business within ourselves, without publishing our intentions to the world. 3d. The unprecedented success of this organization, the Atlantic States is a good evidence that it will, in a measure, meet our wants as an agricultural community; therefore, Resolved-That it is, in the opinion of this body, expedient to establish among the farmers of the State, Granges of the Patrons of Husbandry. Mr. Hallett, of Butte, by leave, read an essay upon the dangers to the wheat crop of California, which was adopted: The future of the market for California surplus wheat presents, I think, some new aspects. Great Britain is the buyer of the surplus breadstuffs of all the world. She procures supplies from Russia, Austria, Germany, France, Italy, Chili, the Atlantic and Pacific ports of the United States, to which must now be added Australia. The' average annual import of great Britain is about three million of tons. The nearest sources of supply are the ports of the continent of Europe; next come the Atlantic ports of the United States; then Australia and Chili, and last California. The transit between these ports and Great Britain is by the ocean, and the cost of transportation is, therefore, in a general way, proportioned to the length of, voyage. The price of breadstuff at the ports of export will be equal to the English price, less the cost of transportation thither, and less a further margin proportioned to the time required for transit, which provides for the interest on the money paid for the wheat, and the contingencies of the fluctuation in the English market. Hence, it follows that wheat at a California port must be sold lower than wheat of the same quality at the ports of any other exporting country in Christendom. And in reference to this item of quality, it must be remembered that the high grades of Baltic, of Chilian, of Australian and Western American, rate as high as Californian. The question to be investigated is, therefore, whether there is a definite prospect and danger that the surplus from those other countries which are in competition with California are likely to so supply the market in the near future as to reduce the selling cost of wheat at a California port to, or below the cost of production. The facts necessary to be learned in order to arrive at a judgment ,.. 100

Page  101 FUTURE OF THE WHEAT M1ARKET. on this question, are not so numerous but that they be ascertained by an inquiry, which this body may set on foot. Some of the points to be specifically answered are, as I understand them, these: First-As I understand the area adapted to the growing of wheat in Western Russia and Eastern Austria is nearly, if not quite, adequate to the production of the entire surplus demand by England; that a lack of facilities for transportation has, in the past, prevented such production, just as lack of the same facilities prevented it in California; that with the supply of such facilities an increase of production is to be looked for, not unlike the increase which California has shown in the last, and promises in the next season. Even though the increase should not be affected in Russia with the same suddenness that has been effected by California energy, yet it may be expected to be equaled in two, three, or four seasons. Also, I understand that the facilities for wheat transportation in Russia have already been supplied by the railways built by the Government during the past two years, and which are still in progress; but the reason the surplus did not increase has been that those two years were bad ones, just as they were in California in 1870 and 1871; that the Russian and European crops generally were injured by floods and excessive wet; but a recurrence of such seasons is no more to be expected than drought in California; in fact, continual crops must be expected to maintain their "average" yield; that this average will be applied in Russia to an enormously increased area, and that this area is capable, with the increase of transportation facilities, of indefinite extension. And in order to perceive the full significance of this development, it is only necessary to remember that Russia regularly supplies two thirds of the total English import, or two million of tons out of three million. An increase of only one half, therefore, in her surplus, would suffice to supply the wants of Great Britain, to the exclusion of every other exporting country. But France and Germany offer a larger surplus than that of Caliifornia-which has been suspended the past two years, first, by the war, and next by a bad crop year-which has a prior chance in the English market; that is, which pays a lower transportation to get there; next comes the Russian surplus; and next that of the Atlantic American sea-board, paying a freight of only $5 to $7 per ton. Last of all are the Pacific ports of Chili, Australia and California, paying freights, which are at the comparative rates of $12, $15 or $20 per ton —of which California pays the highest. The difference between freights to England from New York and from San Francisco, is never less than half a cent. per pound. Now, to show that we are not dealing with a speculative and remote danger, but with an actual and near one, it must be borne in mind that the price of first-quality wheat in England, in average seasons, during a series of years past, has been under $2 50 per one hundred pounds; it has even run as low, if I remember right, as $2. It was sold at these prices at a profit, by the exporting countries, which are still the competitors of California, and which have since increased their facilities for transportation; that is, their facilities for laying down their surplus in England in larger quantities and at 1-01

Page  102 HOW THE CLUBS BECAME GPRANGES. less cost than ever before. Yet, at the prices of average seasons ill England, in past years, California wheat would have to secure lower freights than there is now any reason to count on, in order to pay the cost of its production, with a surplus offering from the Continent increased beyond the old figures, the average English price will rule lower than there, and as we have seen, California wheat must then be shut out as a living crop. The only point remaining to be inquired into, in this chain of reasoning, is the question whether continental producers can afford to lay down their surplus in England at the rates which will exclude California. Experience has shown that they can. But the facts attending that production, so far as I have been able to learn themthe almost nominal rates of wages paid in the wheat districts of Russia and Austria, with the improved facilities for transportation to the wheat ports, satisfy me that the wheat from these districts will cut out, not only California, but will cut out the surplus of our great West, even allowing it the benefit of the cheapest possible rates of transport to the Atlantic sea-board. If these facts as here suggested are all true, it is of the first importance to California producers to know them. The production of such a surplus as we have moved the past season, with the English market quoted at nine to ten shillings, would be as great a calamity as a drought. What could be done with the wheat? Absolutely nothing. It would not pay to harvest; there are not the animals in the State to eat it; it could not be ground for flour to China. Nothing could be done with it. And so far from this being an imaginary state of affairs, it is the state of affairs which we are to expect-whiich is probable —during the narkleting of our harvest for 1874. And all the facts of the situation can be easily learned in time for, our farmers to govern themselves. Probably most of the information is already in the archives of the State Department at Washington, in the reports of the American Consuls at Odessa, Riga and Dantzig, or, perhaps, as to the new Russian railways, in the documents forwarded from the Minister at St. Petersburg. Or, if it is not there, a circular from the Department addressed to those officers, asking the specific information, would produce it; and the Department at the solicitation of this body, presented through our Representatives, would not hesitate, I am confident, to issue such a circular. If action be taken now, the information can be received by this organization by the time the next harvest is fully secured, and before the work for the following year is laid out. The facts of the situation can be laid before every producer in the State, and he will go to work with his eyes open. Later in the season, as the reports of the condition and prospects of the continental crops are received, their full signification will be understood, and producers will act understandingly in the disposal of their crops. I believe the prospect to be, that a surplus of half a million tons of wheat in California in 1874 will not repay the cash outlay of making it; and I therefore feel that this organization cannot do a more useful thing than lay before the class whom it represents, the facts which will either confirm that belief or show it to be unfounded. 102

Page  103 SLDDEN RISE IN SACKS. Prof. E. S. Carr offered the following resolution: Resolved, That a diminished demand for our cereals in foreign markets being a reasonable expectation, that the Farmers' Union authorize the preparation of a report by a suitable committee upon the relative profits of other agricultural products suitable to our climate with a view to the encouragement of manufactures, a better home market, a more diversified, and consequently a more independent system of industry. Prof. Carr spoke to his resolution, calling attention to the necessity of diversifying agricultural products to prevent depletion of the soil and to create home consumption, invite immigration, and work up home products. Mr. Baxter was invited to address the Convention on the subject of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry; and, as if to enforce the views he laid down of the advantages of a secret organization, the sack committee, whose instructions had been to ascertain and report the best terms upon which sacks could be obtained for the coming crop, reported that no sacks could that day be obtained at the rates offered on the first day of the session. The proceedings of the Convention becoming known, some combination had been effected by which a very material advance in the price of sacks had been reached, and the farmers were again at the mercy of the operators. All the sacks in the eastern markets were but an item in the large prospective demand. The Convention at once passed a resolution authorizing the Executive Committee to incorporate a part or the whole of itself as a Branch Association, co6perative with the Farmers' Union, county and local incorporations, and proceeded to elect the following officers: President, John Bidwell; Secretary, I. N. Hoag; Treasurer, A. T. Dewey; Executive Committee, C. J. Cressey, of Stanislaus, J. V. Webster, of Oakland, J. D. Fowler, of Hollister, Prof. E. S. Carr, of the State University, Prof. Lippett, of Sonoma. The Convention them adjourned. The "Farmers' Union" never met again, except for a final settlement of its affairs. President Bidwell said on that occasion, that its one year of existence had marked an era in California agriculture; the lesson of combination and co6peration had been learned, with a benefit to the farmers of not less than three million of dollars. The continuance of this work was formally turned over to the Granges, and the Union ceased to exist. 103 44,

Page  104 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. CHAPTER X. THE ORDER - OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. HOW ESTABLISHED —-MESSRS. KELLEY AND SAUNDERS —- A CLOUD NO BIGGER THAN A MAN's HAND —SIGNIFICANCE OF NAMES, "'GRANGE" AND "PATRON" —ELIGIBILITY: ORGANIZATION AND FIRST OFFICERS: FIRST FOUR DISPENSATIONS —-GROWTH ON THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI: EIGHTY GRANGES A DAY IN IOWA —-THIRD AN NUAL SESSION —-WHAT THE PATRONS PROPOSE TO DO —-OFFICIAL DECLARA TION OF PURPOSES —-CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS. "INDUSTRY requires its captains as well as war." During the last twenty years, the observant and philosophical watchman upon the walls of privilege, might have observed in various quarters the gathering of the clans of discontented laboring men. The doctrine of equal rights under the law, the power to enforce this doctrine through the ballot, had been gained; there was needed an organization through which these could manifest themselves. Political or financial combinations had felt secure during all the historical struggle between wealth and power on the one side, and numbers on the other, because, wherever combinations of workmen were not interdicted by law, advantage was taken of the diversity of interests among them, to neutralize their influence. In France the antagonism of certain industrial interests was stimulated to an unnatural degree; in America, the same thing was accomplished by ranging the great body of agriculturists in separate political camps. The need of a great conciliating, centralizing influence was felt, before the civil war. It soon afterward became an imperative necessity, for the industry of the South was utterly paralyzed, while that of the North was staggering under burdens too great to be borne. The associations hitherto organized for the improvement of the farm, were utterly inadequate to. cope with the monster monopolies which had taken a firm grasp of Congress and upon capital. It was very natural that the great awakening should begin where the magnitude of the dangers was most apparent, viz: at the seat of government. In January, 1866, under an order from President Andrew Johnson, Mr. O. H. Kelley, of the Agricultural Bureau, commenced a tour of inspection of the Southern States, during which he conversed freely with the farmers and planters, and 104 0

Page  105 MESSRS. KELLEY AND SAUNDERS. came to th3 conclusion that the industrial reconstruction of that section would require the mutual aid and cooperation of the whole country. The political Union which had cost so much; which had watered the whole breadth of the land with tears; which the agriculture of the country had got to pay fpr with so many years of toil, required for its security a social and industrial union and harmony of interests, only to be reached by a close bond of association. Mr. William Saunders, of the Bureau of Agriculture, an intelligent and thoughtful Scotchman, whose extensive correspondence had made him familiar with the struggles of the farmers in all sections of the country, entered warmly into the views expressed by Mr. Kelley on his return. Mr. Kelley had proposed, through some organizations like that of the Freemasons, to link the farmers into a solidarity. The originators of the movement were Mr. Kelley, Mr. William Saunders, then and at present Superintendent of the garden and grounds of the Department of Agriculture; Mr. William M. Ireland, Chief Clerk of the Finance office of the Postoffice Department; MIr. John R. Thompson, of the Treasury Department; Rev. Dr. John Trimble, of the Treasury Department, and Rev. A. B. Grosh, of the Department of Agriculture. On the 5th of August, 1867, they compiled the first degree of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. Eight days after, Mr. Saunders left Washington for St. Louis, with the purpose of establishing the Order in the West, thus opening the way for the labors of the chief apostle, MIr. Kelley, during the following year. The generic name of the Order explains itself, and covers in a general way the requirements for membership. The word "Grange" is pure old English, used by the older as well as recent writers and poets, in the sense of a farm-stead or rural residence. In its symbolical application it means the hall or place of assembly of Grangers or Patrons of Husbandry, whatever their degree. The National Grange was organized at Washington, at the residence of Mr. Saunders, on the evening of December 4, 1867, by the election of the following officers: Master, William Saunders, of the District of Columbia; Lecturer, J. R. Thompson, of Vermont; Overseer, Anson Bartlett, of Ohio; Steward, William Muir, of Pennsylvania; Assistant Steward, A. S. Moss, 105

Page  106 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. of New York; Chaplain, Rev. A. B. Grosh, of Pennsylvania; Treasurer, William M. Ireland, of Pennsylvania; Secretary, O. H. Kelley, of Minnesota; Gate Keeper, Edward F. Farris, of Illinois. The next step was to test the workings of the ritual in a subordinate Grange. One was therefore formed, consisting of about sixty members. The first dispensation for a subordinate Grange was granted to an application from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; the second to one from Fredonia, New York; the third to a Grange at Columbus, Ohio, and the fourth to one in Chicago. Only ten Granges were organized during the first year; at the end of the second, they numbered thirty-one. The great center of the growth of the order was in the States bordering the Mississippi. In Iowa, subordinate Granges were formed in the spring of 1873, at the rate of from sixty to eighty a day. With irresistible power the great wave has increased and swelled in volume, until it has reached both oceans. It lifted the bowed head of the South; it included both sexes; it became a powerful educator. The only element to which any objection could be made, viz, that of secrecy, could not compromise it, while the work to which it was solemnly pledged, was pure and honorable. It was not a political organization; but in the words of the New York Tribune, it "altered the political equilibrium of the most steadfast States." Its objects and plans are well expressed in an address by Worthy Master Saunders, at the third annual session of the National Grange, February 4, 1870: To increase the products of the earth, by increasing the knowledge of the producer, is the basis of our structure; to learn and apply the relations of science, so far as relates to the various products of the vegetable kingdom, and to diffuse the truths and general principles of the science and art of agriculture, are ultimate objects of our organization. We fully avail ourselves of the valuable results of scientific investigations in establishing principles (which, although sometimes difficult of discovery, are generally of easy application when properly understood), and seek to disseminate knowledge upon every subject that bears upon the increase of the productions and wealth of the nation. One of the first duties of every Grange is to form a good library. This should be well supplied with elementary works in the various branches of natural history; standard works on agriculture, horticu ture, pomology, physiology, rural architecture, landscape-gardening, breeding and raising of live-stock, and those of similar import. It is suggested that treatises on principles and fundamental laws 106

Page  107 WOMEN IN THE GRANGE. should have special preference. The practices, more varied in their details, will be found fromn time to time in the periodicals devoted to these subjects. The social relaxation from everyday duties and toils, inculcated and encouraged in the Order, is keenly appreciated by its members. The barriers to social intercourse that are thrown around society by despotic fashion, are ruthlessly thrown down with us, and we meet on a common footing, with a common object in view, viz, of receiving and contributing the highest enjoyments of civilized society. To make country homes and country society attractive, refined, and enjoyable; to balance exhaustive labors by instructive amusements and accomplishments, is part of our mission and our aim. The admission of women to full membership, and their assistance in the workings of the Order, is proving of incalculable value; it is, indeed, doubtful whether the objects of the institution, especially in regard to the refinements of education, and all that tends to brighten hearths and enliven homes, could have been accomplished without their presence and aid. In establishing an organization of this kind, we must not allow our energies to relax by an apparent indifference, or even avowed hostility to our cause. This we must expect, as there is no popular movement exempt from opposition. There is always a class of doubters who predict failures; others misconstrue motives, and still others who freely give opinions without investigating the objects sought to be attained, or the methods by which they are to be accomplished. The secret ceremony of initiation of members has been objected to by a few persons; but we are already well convinced that the efficient discipline necessary to secure permanent organization could not be attained by any other means, thus completely realizing the only object that suggested its adoption; and it meets the warm approval of all those who have experienced the transitory existence of rural clubs and societies, and who recognize in our simple, but efficient rules, elements of success, based upon a solid and lasting foundation. The Patrons of Husbandry propose: 1. To secure for themselves, through the Granges, social and educational advantages not otherwise attainable, and thereby, while improving their condition as a class, ennoble farm life, and render it attractive and desirable. 2. To give a full practical effect to the fraternal tie which unites them, in helping and protecting each other in case of sickness, bereavement, pecuniary misfortune, want, and danger of every kind. 3. To make themselves better and more successful farmers and planters, by means of the knowledge gained, the habits of industry, and method established, and the quickening of thought induced by intercourse and discussion. 4. To secure economies in the purchase of implements, fertilizers, and family supplies, and in transportation, as well as increased profits in the sale of the products of their labor, at the same time lessening the cost to the consumer. 5. To entirely abolish the credit system, in their ordinary transactions, always buying and selling on a cash basis, both among themselves and in their dealings with the outside world. 107

Page  108 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY; 6. To encourage co-operation, in farming, and in other branches of industry, especially those most intimately connected with agriculture. 7. To promote the true unity of the Republic, by drawing the best men and women of all parts of the country together in an organ ization which knows no sectional bounds-no prejudices-and owes no party allegiance. DECLARATION OF PURPOSES. Declaration of purposes of the National Grange,-adopted at St. Louis, February, 1874; also by the State Grange of California, October 10, 1874: Profoundly impressed with the truth that the National Grange of the United States should definitely proclaim to the world its general objects, we hereby unanimously make this Declaration of Purposes of the Patrons of Husbandry: 1. United by the strong and faithful tie of agriculture, we mutually resolve to labor for the good of our Order, our country, and mankind. 2. We heartily indorse the motto: " In essentials, unity; in nonessentials, liberty; in all things, charity." 3. We shall endeavor to advance our cause by laboring to- accomplish the following objects: To develop a better and higher manhood and womanhood among ourselves. To enhance the comforts and attractions of our homes, and strengthen our attachments to our pursuits. To foster mutual understanding and co-operation. To maintain inviolate our laws, and to emulate each other in labor to hasten the good time coming. To reduce our expenses, both individual and corporate. To diversify our crops, and crop no more than we can cultivate. To condense the weight of our exports, selling less in the bushel and more on hoof and in fleece; less in lint, and more in warp and woof. To systematize our work, and calculate intelligently on probabilities. To discountenance the credit system, the mortgage system, the fashion system, and every other system tending to prodigality and bankruptcy. We propose meeting together, talking together, working together, buying together, selling together, and in general acting together for our mutual protection and advancement, as occasion may require. We shall avoid litigation as much as possible by arbitration in the Grange. We shall constantly strive to secure entire harmony, good-will, vital brotherhood among ourselves, and to make our Order perpetual. We shall earnestly endeavor to suppress personal, local, sectional, and national prejudices, all unhealthy rivalry, all selfish ambition. Faithful adherence to these principles will insure our mental, moral, social, and material advancement. 4. For our business interests, we desire to bring producers and consumers, farmers and manufacturers, into the most direct and friendly relations possible. Hence we must dispense with a surplus of middle-men; not that we are unfriendly to them, but we do 108

Page  109 DECLARATION OF PURPOSES. not need them. Their surplus and their exactions diminish our prof its. WVe wage no aggressive warfare against any other interests whatever. On the contrary, all our acts and all our efforts, so far as business is concerned, are not only for the benefit of the producer and consumer, but also for all other interests that tend to bring these two parties into speedy and economical contact. Hence we hold that transportation companies of every kind are necessary to our success, that their interests are intimately connected with our interests, and harmonious action is mutually advantageous, keeping in view the first sentence in our declaration of principles of action, that "Individual happiness depends upon general prosperity." We shall, therefore, advocate for every State the increase in every practicable way, of all facilities for transporting cheaply to the seaboard, or between home producers and consumers, all the productions of our country. We adopt it as our fixed purpose to "open out the channels in nature's great arteries that the life-blood of commerce may flow freely." We are not enemies of railroads, navigation and irrigation canals, nor of any corporation that will advance our industrial interests, nor of any laboring classes. In our noble Order there is no communism, no agrarianism. WVe are opposed to such spirit and management of any corporation or enterprise as tends to oppress the people and rob them of their just profits. We are not enemies to capital, but we oppose the tyranny of monopolies. We long to see the antagonism between capital and labor removed by common consent, and by an enlightened statesmanship worthy of the nineteenth century. We are opposed to excessive salaries, high rates of interest, and exorbitant per cent. profits of producers. We desire only self-protection and the protection of every true interest of our land by legitimate transactions, legitimate trade, and legitimate profits. We shall advance the cause of education among ourselves and for our children, by all just means within our power. We especially advocate for our agricultural and industrial colleges that practical agriculture, domestic science, and all the arts which adorn the home, be taught in their courses of study. 5. We emphatically and sincerely assert the oft-repeated truth taught in our organic law, that the Grange, National, State, or Subordinate, is not a political or party organization. No Grange, if true to its obligations, can discuss political or religious questions, nor call political conventions, nor nominate candidates, nor even discuss their merits in its meetings. Yet the priciples we teach underlie all true politics, all true statemanship, and, if properly carried out, will tend to purify the whol political atmosphere of our country. For we seek the greatest good to the greatest number. We must always bear in mind that no one, by becoming a Patron of Husbandry, gives up that inalienable right and duty which belongs to every American citizen, to take a proper interest in the politics of his country. On the contrary, it is right for every member to do all in his power legitimately to influence for good any political party to which he belongs. It is his duty to do all he can in his own party to put down bribery, corruption, and trickery; to see that none but competent, faithful, and honest men, who will unflinchingly stand by our industrial interests, are nominated for all * * * 109

Page  110 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. positions of trust; and to have carried out the principle which should always characterize every Patron, that the office should seek the man, and not the man the office. We acknowledge the broad principle that difference of opinion is no crime, and hold that "progress toward truth is made by difference of opinion," while "the fault lies in bitterness of controversy." We desire a proper equality, equity, and fairness; protection for the weak, restraint upon the strong; in short, justly distributed burdens and justly distributed power. These are American ideas, the very essence of American independence, and to advocate the contrary is unworthy of the sons and daughters of an American republic. We cherish the belief that sectionalism is, and of right should be, dead and buried with the past. Our work is for the future. In our agricultural brotherhood and its purposes, we shall recognize no North, no South, no East, no West. It is reserved by every patron, as the right of a freeman, to affiliate with any party that will best carry out his principles. 6. Ours being peculiarly a farmers' institution, we cannot admit all to our ranks. Mlany are excluded by the nature of our organization, not because they are professional men, or artisans, or laborers, but because they have not a sufficient direct interest in tilling the soil, or may have some interest in conflict with our purposes. But we appeal to all good citizens for their cordial co-operation to assist in our efforts toward reform, that we may eventually remove from our midst the last vestige of tyranny and corruption. We hail the general desire for fraternal harmony, equitable compromises, and earnest co-operation, as an omen of our future success. 7. It shall be an abiding principle with us to relieve any of our oppressed and suffering brotherhood by any means at our command. Last, but not least, we proclaim it among our purposes to inculcate a proper appreciation of the abilities and sphere of woman, as is indicated by admitting her to membership and position in our Order. Imploring the continued assistance of our Divine Master to guide us in our work, we here pledge ourselves to faithful and harmonious labor for all future time, to return by our united efforts to the wisdom, justice, fraternity, and political purity of our forefathers. CONSTTUTION OF THE NATIONAL GRANGE OF TtIE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. PREAMBLE. Human happiness is the acme of earthly ambition. Individual happiness depends upon general prosperity. The prosperity of a nation is in proportion to the value of its productions. The soil is the source from whence we derive all that constitutes wealth without it we would have no agriculture, no manufactures, no commerce. Of all the material gifts of the Creator, the various productions of the vegetable world are of the first importance. The art of agriculture is the parent and precursor of all arts, and its products the foundation of all wealth. The productions of the earth are subject to the influence of natural laws, invariable and indisputable; the amount produced will consequently be in proportion to the intelligence of the producer, and success will depend upon his knowledge of the action of these laws, and the proper application of their principles. Hence, knowledge is the foundation of happiness. 110 .,4:.....

Page  111 PREAMBLE AND CONSTITUTION. The ultimate object of this organization is for mutual instruction and protection; to lighten labor by diffusing a knowledge of its aims and purposes; expand the mind by tracing the beautiful laws the Great Creator has established in the universe, and to enlarge our views of creative wisdom and power. To those who read aright, history proves that in all ages society is fragmentary, and successful results of general welfare can be secured only by general effort. Unity of action cannot be acquired without discipline, and discipline cannot be enforced without significant organization; hence, we have a ceremony of initiation which binds us in mutual fraternity as with a banid of iron; but although its influence is so powerful, its application is as gentle as that of the silken thread that binds a wreath of flowers. The Patrons of Husbandry consist of the following organization: Subordinate Granges. First Degree: Maid, (woman,) Laborer, (man.) SecondDegree: Shepherdess, (woman,) Cultivator, (man.) Third Degree: Gleaner, (woman,) Harvester, (man.) Fourth Degree: Matron, (woman,) Husbandman, (man.) State Gra(nge. SECTION I. Fifth degree. Pomona, (Faith.) Composed of the Masters of Subordinate Granges and their wives, who are Matrons, provided that when the number of Subordinate Granges in any State becomes so great as to render it necessary, the State Grange may, in such manner as it may determine, reduce its representatives by providing for the election of a certain proportion of those entitled to membership in the State Grange from each county; and the members so chosen shall constitute the State Grange. Sec. 2. There may be established District or County Granges in the fifth degree, not to exceed one in each county, composed of Masters and Past Masters of Subordinate Granges, and their wives, who are Matrons, and such fourth degree members (not to exceed three), as may be elected thereto by the Subordinate Granges, under such regulations as may be established by State Granges. Such District or County Granges shall have charge of the educational and business interests of the Order in their respective districts, and shall encourage, strengthen and aid the Subordinate (oranges represented therein. Dispensations for such District or County Granges shall issue from the State Grange, and under such regulations as the State Grange may adopt. National Grange. Sixth Degree: Flora, (Charity.) Composed of Masters of State Granges and their wives who have taken the degree of Pomona, and the officers and members of the Executive Committee of the National Grange. Seventh Degree: Ceres, (Faith.) Members of the National Grange who have served one year therein, may become members of this degree upon application and election. It has charge of the secret work of the Order, and shall be a court of impeachment of all officers of the National Grange. Members of this degree are honorary members of the National Grange, and are eligible to offices therein, but not entitled to vote. CONSTITUTION. ARTICLE I.-Section 1. The officers of a Grange, either National, State, or Subordinate, consist of and rank as follows: Master, Overseer, Lecturer, Steward, Assistant Steward, Chaplain, Treasurer, Secretary, Gate-keeper, Ceres, Pomona, Flora, and Lady Assistant Steward. It is their duty to see that the laws of the Order are carried out. Sec. 2. In the Subordinate Granges they shall be chosen annually at the regular meeting in December, and installed at the regular meeting in January, or as soon thereafter as practicable; in the State Granges, once in two years, and in the National Grange once in three years. All elections to be by ballot. Vacancies by death or resignation to be filled at a special election at the next regular meeting thereof-officers so chosen to serve until the annual meeting. Sec. 3. The Master of the National Grange may appoint members of the Order as deputies to organize Granges where no State Grange exists. III

Page  112 112 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. Sec. 4. There shall be an Executive Committee of the National Grange, consisting of five members, whose term of office shall be three years. Sec. 5. The officersof the respective Granges shall be addressed as "worthy." ARTICLE II.-Section 1. Subordinate Granges shall meet at least once each month, and may hold intermediate meetings. Sec. 2. State Granges shall meet annually at such time and place as the Grange shall, from year to year, determine. Sec. 3. The National Grange shall meet annually on the third Wednesday in November, at such place as the Grange may, from year to year, determine. Should the National Grange adjourn without selecting the place of meeting, the Executive Committee shall appoint the place and notify the Secretary of the National Grange and the Masters of the State Granges at least thirty days before the day appointed. ARTICLE III.-The National Grange, at its annual session, may frame, amend, or repeal such laws as the good of the Order may require. All laws of State and Subordinate Granges must conform to this Constitution and the laws adopted by the National Grange. ARTICL; IV.-The Ritual adopted by the National Grange shall be used in all Subordinate Granges, and any desired alteration in the same must be submitted to, and receive the sanction of the National Grange. ARTICLE V.-Any person engaged in agricultural pursuits and having no interest in conflict with our purposes, of the age of sixteen years, duly proposed, elected, and complying with the rules and regulations of the Order, is entitled to membership and the benefit of the degrees taken. Every application must be accompanied by the fee of membership. If rejected the money will be refunded. Applications must be certified by members, and balloted for at a subsequent meeting. It shall require three negative votes to reject an applicant. ARTICLE VI.-The minimum fee for membership in a Subordinate Grange shall be, for men, five dollars, and for women, two dollars, for the four degrees, except charter members, who shall pay-men, three dollars, and women, fifty cents. ARTICLE VII.-Section 1. The minimum of regular monthly dues shall be ten cents from each member, and each Grange may otherwise regulate its own dues. Sec. 2. The Secretary of each Subordinate Grange shall report quarterly to the Secretary of the State Grange the names of all persons initiated during the qutLrter, and pay to the Secretary of the State Grange one dollar for each man, and fifty cents for each woman initiated during the quarter. Also a quarterly due of six cents for each member, said report to be approved and forwarded at the first session of the Grange in each quarter. Sec. 3. The Secretary of the State Grange shall pay to the Treasurer of the State Grange all moneys coming into his hands, at least once every ten days, taking his receipt therefor; and shall report quarterly to the Secretary of the National Grange the membership in the State. Sec. 4. The Treasurer of each State Grange shall deposit to the credit of the National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry, with some Banking or Trust company, to be selected by the Executive Committee, in quarterly instalments, the annual due of five cents of each member in his State, and forward the receipts of the same to the Treasurer of the National Grange. Sec. 5. All moneys deposited with said company shall be paid out only upon the drafts of the Treasurer approved by the Master and countersigned by the Secretary. Sec. 6. No State Grange shall be entitled to representation in the National Grange whose dues are unpaid for more than one quarter. ARTICLE VIII.-Section 1. All charters and dispensations issue directly from the National Grange. Sec. 2. Nine men and four women having received the four Subordinate degrees, may receive a dispensation to organize a Subordinate Grange. Sec. 3. Applications for dispensations or charters shall be made to the Secretary of the National Grange, and be signed by the persons applying for the same, and be accompanied by a fee of fifteen dollars. Sec. 4. Charter members are those persons only whose names are upon the application, and whose fees were paid at the time of organization. Their number shall not be less than nine men and four women, nor more than twenty men and twenty women. Sec. 5. Fifteen Subordinate-Granges working in a State can apply for authority to organize a State Grange.

Page  113 AMENDMENTS TO CONSTITUTION. Seec. 6. Where State Granges are organized, dispensations for the organization of the Subordinate Granges heretofore issued shall be replaced by Charter from the National Grange without further fee; and thereafter all applications for Charters for Subordinate.Granges shall pass through the office of the Master of the State Grange, and must be approved by him before they are issued by the National Grange. When so issueld, thle Charter shall pass through the office of the Secretary of the State Grange and receive the signature and official seal of that office. Sec. 7. No Grange shall confer more than one degree on the same person at the same meeting. AnRTICLE IX.-The duties of the officers of the National, State-and Subordinate Granges shall be prescribed by the laws of the same. Ar.TicLE X.-Section 1. The Treasurers of the National, State and Subordinate Granges shall give bonds, to be approved by the officers of their respective Granges. Sec. 2. In all Granges bills must be approved by the Master, and countersigned by the Secretary, before the Treasurer can pay the same. ARTICLE XI.-Religious or political questions will not be tolerated as subjects of discussion in the work of the Order, and no political or religious tests for membership shall be applied. ARTICLE XIII.-The Master of the National Grange and the members of the Executive Committee shall be empowered to suspend from office any officer of the National Grange who may prove inefficient or derelict in the discharge of his duty, subject to appeal to the next session thereafter of the National Grange. ARTICLE XIV.-This Constitution can be altered or amended by a two thirds vote of the National Grange at any annual meeting, and when such alteration or amendment shall have been ratified by three fourths of the State Granges, and the same reported to the Secretary of the National Grange. it shall be of full force. [Our readers will observe, by comparing it with the Constitution as it existed before the meeting at St. Louis, that the new Constitution, as herewith given, changes entirely the status of Past Masters and their wives, as members of the National Grange and of State Granges. Formerly, as honorary members of these bodies, they could attend at their own expense, take part in debate, serve on committees, be eligible to office, in short, be active members in every way, except to vote. In the National Grange, under the old law, if it was deemed expedient to appoint them on standing committees to report at the next session, it could be done, and their expenses paid out of the treasury. Under the new law all this is changed. In State Granges Past M/asters and their wives can now attend if they wish to and "look on" as fifth degree members. In the National Grange, ditto, as sixth degree members. If their past experience and training are of any value, it goes for naught. That is all. In other words, the National and State Granges are now more exclusive in their privileges than formerly. The changes in the new Constitution were in force at the late session of the National Grange, and will be in force at all sessions of State Granges for the ensuing year. Of the amendments proposed at St. Louis, all were ratified and became laws, except four, namely, those relating to 1. The seven founders becoming life members. 2. Past M{asters of National Granges, and their wives. 3. Increase of representation. 4. Increase of membership fees. These four were lost. It is important for our members, everywhere, to observe that as the Constitution now stands (Art. VIII., Sec. 7), different degrees can be conferred on different persons at the same meeting, but no' on 8 113

Page  114 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. the same person. It is equally important to observe that, according to Art. V., to be eligible to become a member in future, they musti be engaged in agriculture as a pursuit, and must have no interest conflicting with the purposes of our Order.] BY-LAWS. ARTICLE I.-'the fourth day of December, the birthday of the Patrons of Husbandry, shall be celebrated as the anniversary of the Order. ARTICLE II.-Not less than the representation of twenty States present at any meeting of the National Grange, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. ARTIcLE III.-Questions of law and usage arising in Subordinate Granges, shall be decided by the Master, subject to an appeal to the Mlaster of the State Grange. Questions of law and usage arising in the State Grange, or brought by appeal from the Subordinate Grange, shall be decided by the Master of the State Grange, subject to an appeal to the Master of the National Grange, whose decision thereon shall be final. ARTICLE IV.-It shall be the duty of the Master to preside at meetings of the National Grange; to see that all officers and members of committees properly perform their respective duties; to see that the Constitution, By-Laws and resolutions of the National Grange, and the usages of the Order are observed and obeyed, and generally to perform all duties pertaining to such office. ARTICLE V. —It shall be the duty of the Secretary to keep a record( of all proceedings of the National Grange; to keep a just and true account of all moneys received and deposited by him in the fiscal agency; to countersign all drafts drawn by the Treasurer; to conduct the correspondence of the National Grange; and to perform such other duties appertaining to the office as may be required by the Master and Executive Committee. It shall be his duty, at least once each week, to deposit with the fiscal agency holding the funds of the National Grange, all moneys tht may have come into his hands, and forward a duplicate receipt therefor to the Treasurer, and to make a full report of all transactions to the National Grange at each annual session. It shall be his further duty to procure a monthly report from the fiscal agency, with whom the funds of the National Grange are deposited, of all moneys received( and paid out by them during each month, and send a copy of such report to the Executive Committee and the Master of the National Grange. He shall give bond in such sum and with such security as may be approved by the Executive Committee. ARTICLE VI.-Section 1. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to issue all drafts upon the fiscal agency of the Order, said drafts having been previously approved by the Master, and countersigned by the Secretary of the National Grange. ,Sec. 2. He shall report monthly to the Master of the National Grange, a statement of all moneys deposited to his credit in the fiscal agency, and of all drafts signed by him during the previous month. Sec. 3. He shall report to the National Grange at each annual session, a statement of'all moneys deposited in the fiscal agency, and of all drafts signed by him since his last annual report. Sec. 4. It shall be his duty to collect all interest accruing on investments mado by the Executive Committee, and to deposit the same in the fiscal agency. ARTICLE VII. —It shall be the duty of the Lecturer to visit, for the good of the Order, such portions of the United States as the Master or the Executive Conmmittee may direct, for which services he shall receive compensation. ARTICLE VIII.-Section 1. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to exercise a general supervision of the affairs of the Order during the recess of the National GC-range. They shall have authority to act on all matters of interest to the Order, when the National Grange is not in session; shall provide for the welfare of the Order in business matters; and shall report their acts in detail to the National Grange, on the first day of its annual meeting. Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to furnish to the Masters of the several State Granges, at the commencement of each quarter, a statement of the receipts and disbursements of all moneys by the National Grange during the preceding quarter. Sec. 3. The Executive Comnittee shall, at the close of each annual session of 114

Page  115 BY-LAWS. the National Grange, appoint two of their number, who, together with the Worthy Master of the National Grange, shall constitute a Court of Appeals, to which shall be referred all appeals that may be taken to the National Grange. The Worthy Master, as President of the Court, shall convene the Court whenever the business in his hands shall make it necessary, and when thus convened, the Court shall try all cases coming before it, or continue the same as the equities of each case may demand. It shall prescribe its own mode of procedure; its decisions shall be final and must be reported to the next session of the National Grange. ARTICLE IX. -Section 1. Such comrensation for time and service shall be given the Master, Lecturer, Secretary, Treasurer, and Executive Committee, as the National Grange may, from time to time, determine. Sec. 2. Whenever General Deputies are appointed by the Master of the National Grange, said Deputies shall receive such compensation for time and services as may be determined by the Master and the Executive Committee; provided, in no case shall pay from the National Grange be given General Deputies in any State after the formation of its State Grange. ARTICLE X.-Section 1. The financial reports of Subordinate Granges shall be made on the first day of January, the first day of April, the first day of July, and the first day of October. Sec. 2. State Granges shall date their financial existence three months after the first day of January, first day of April, first day of July, and the first day of October, immediately following their organization. Sec. 3. The financial year of the National Grange.shall close on the 30th day of September. ARTICLE XI.-Each session of the National Grange shall fix the compensation of its members. ARTICLE XII.-Special meetings of the National Grange shall be called by the Master upon the application of the Masters of twenty State Granges, one month's notice of such meeting being given to all members of the National Grange. No alterations or amendments to the By-Laws or Ritual shall be made at any special meeting. ARTICLE XIII.-Upon the demand of five members, the ayes and noes may be called on any question, and when so called, shall be entered by the Secretary upon his minutes. Ar,TICLE XIV.-Past-Masters are Masters who have been duly elected and installed, and who have served out the term for which they were elected. AnTICLE XV.-Vacancies in office may be filled at any regular meeting of the Grange. ARTICLE XVI.-Two or more Subordinate Granges may be consolidated in the manner following, to wit:-. Application for permission to consolidate shall be made to the Master of the State Grange and his consent obtained. One of the consolidating Granges shall then vote to surrender its Charter and to consolidate with the other; and the other must vote to receive all the members of the surrendering Grange. A copy of each vote, duly authenticated, must be transmitted to the Secretary of the State Grange, and the surrendered charter must be returned to the National Grange, through the office of the Secretary of the State Grange, with the fact and date of its surrender and consolidation endorsed thereon, authenticated by the seal and signature of the Secretary of the State Grange; provided, that nothing herein contained shall be construed to authorize the surrender of the charter of a Grange in which nine men and four women shall desire to continue the organization thereof. ARTICLE XVII.-Section 1. In case satisfactory evidence shall come to the Master of a State Grange, that a Grange has been organized contrary to the laws and usages of the Order, or is working in violation of the same, it shall be the duty of the Master to suspend such offending Grange, and at once forward to the Master of the National Grange notice of the same, together with the evidence in the case, who shall, if in his opinion the good of the Order requires such action, revoke the Charter of such offending Grange. Sec. 2. Granges, whose Charters are thus revoked, may appeal to the National Grange at its next session for the final action of that body, ARTICLE XVIII.-Members of the State and Subordinate Granges shall be amenable to their respective Granges under such regulations as may be prescribed by the State Granges for the trial of causes in their respective jurisdictions; provided 115

Page  116 THE ORDER OF PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. that members of the Subordinate Granges shall be allowed the right of appeal to their State Granges, and members of the State Grange shall be allowed the right of appeal to the Court of Appeals. ARTICLE XIX.-Each officer required by law to report to the National Grange at its annual sessions, shall furnish, in connection with his report, an itemized statement of the expenses of his office for the current year. ARTICLE XX.-The Secretary of each State Grange shall send to the Secretary of the National Grange, two printed copies of the proceedings of his State Grange, as soon as practicable after each annual session, and also copies of the Constitution and By-Laws of his State Grange, and the Secretary of the National Grange shall preserve, in his office, one copy of each of these documents. ARTICLE XXI.-All communications, circulars, and all other documents transmitted by the officers of the National Grange, or any department thereof, to the Subordinate Granges, shall pass through the office of the State Grange to which they belong. ARTICLE XXII.-These By-Laws may be altered or amended at any annual meeting of the National Grange by a two thirds vote of the members present. ELIGIBILITY. Of all applicants, either for charter membership or othei:wise, the questions shouild be asked: 1st-Are they "engaged in agricultural pursuits?" 2d-Have they "any interests in conflict with our purposes?" If they are not agricultural pursuits they are not-eligible. If they have any conflicting interest they are not eligible. Organizing officers and the members decide these points. The amendment which embodies the above restriction was brought in at the St. Louis meeting in 1874; more explicitly deflinlg the original requirement. Like-all other amendments it required the ratification of twenlty-seven State and Territorial Granges. It is now the law of admission, but not an ex post facto law; is not retroactive, and cannot affect any member already in the Grange. RULINGS. ' To the Rulings of our Worthy Master Adams, masters and mem)ers in all the States must render a cheerful obedience, until an appeal may be sustained by the National Grange. A married woman derives her eligibility to become a member of a Grange from the eligibility of her husband, and if he is not eligible and worthy of being admitted to the Grange, the wife should not be admitted alone. It is not safe or good policy to admit married women to the Grange whose husbands are opposed to our Order, or who, being eligible, have no disposition to join it. Unless the bylaws of a Subordinate Grange fix a time which must elapse before a new application can be made for a rejected candidate, there is nothing in the National Constitution to prohibit the application being renewed at any subsequent meeting. If the Master of a Grange has good reason to believe that some of the members have cast black balls by mistake, he should, before declaring the result of the ballot, make such statement and recommend another ballot. If, however, he declares the ballot, and the 116

Page  117 TREASURER'S REPORT. mnembers themselves are satisfied a mistake has been made, it will be in order for some one to move for a reconsideration. And if a majority of the members vote to reconsider, the ballot may be taken over again and the result must be final. A ballot can only be reconsidered at the same meeting the vote is declared. The Treasurer's report of the National Grange for 1874 has been made public. The total receipts were $132,151 28, of which $129,315 00 was for dispensations to 8,621 Granges; $1,261 68 for dues from Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin. These are the only States from which dues are reported, and nothing was received from Iowa of dues for 1873. The expenses for the year seem to have been $79,343 75, leaving a balance in the treasury of $52,807 53. The largest item of expense was for printing —$29,314 40. The salaries amounted to $5,416 67-of which Secretary Kelley received $3,500. The contingent expenses were $13,840 81. There was paid to deputies $5,983 35; to Executive Committee, $1.039 00; traveling expenses, $1,188 00; mileage, $546 80. It seems the treasury was empty at the beginning of the year, and owed Secretary Kelly, $3,321 74. The National Grange has seventy thousand dollars invested in registered sixes. The investment was made through the Farmers' Loan and Trust Company, in New York, which acts as financial agent for the Grange. This company is one of the strongest and safest in the country, having gone through all the panics and financial crises without suspension or question of its integrity or ability,to meet every obligation. If, however, the company should fail, remember that the bonds are registered, and so have the entire security of the nation's good faith. Besides this bond investment, there is a working fund, varying, of course, but averaging about twenty thousand dollars. This fund is also on deposit with the financial agent in New York, and a monthly report is made by the agent to each member of the Executive Committee, setting forth the amount on deposit from day to day, with the receipts and disbursements. The Secretary of the National Grange also sends weekly to each member of the Executive Committee a full statement of the amount of money received and disbursed through his office. No money is paid out by the financial agent without the order of the Worthy Master, countersigned by the Secretary, the orders being made at the request of the Executive Committee. 117

Page  118 WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. The Committee also directs all purchases, and audits all bills; so that not a dollar is expended without its knowledge. The Treasurer keeps an accurate account of all moneys, and countersigns orders before they are paid by the financial agent. Accounts are opened upon the books of the Secretary with the several State Granges, and each is duly credited with all moneys received from it, and charged with whatever is disbursed for its benefit. The balance, less its proportional share of the expenses of the National Grange, shows what we will call the deposit of that Grange with the National Grange. These balances or deposits are held as sacred trusts for the benefit of the State Granges, to be used, as during the past year, to the amount of more than twelve thousand dollars, in the relief of suffering, or in such other manner as may be determined on hereafter. More than twelve thousand dollars has been expended during the year for the relief of suffering from grasshoppers, from floods, and from other disasters; the several amounts having been paid back to the State Granges, out of their deposits, and so far as possible in proportion to those deposits. The general disposition of the Order is toward a reduction of salaries, the abolition of the supply feature, and, disregarding all party ties, to act unitedly for the common good of all classes, and for the whole country. CHAPTER XI. WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. GROWTH-CAUSES OF NUMERICAL STRENGTH-GRANGES OF THE FIRST AND SEC OND GROWTH-INVESTMENTS AND SAVINGS-GENERAL AND INCIDENTAL BENE FITS-WORTHY MASTER ADAMS' ADDRESS AT CHARLESTON: SUMMARY OF PRO CEEDINGS: WHAT WAS DONE ABOUT THE TEXAS PACIFIC RAILROAD, AND WHY IT WAS DONE. IN 1873 ten States were represented in the meeting of the National Grange. In 1874 the number had swelled to thirtyone, and the business of the Central Bureau, at Washington, required a heavy staff for its successful prosecution. No great enterprises are moved without a corresponding outlay of brain and money power; but it was marvelous to the uninitiated, to see what the "little drops of water and little grains of 1-18

Page  119 CAUSES OF GROWTH. sand," falling so quietly. from the coffers of the Subordinate Granges, were accomplishing when gathered together. The monopolists who had thought the farmers' movement unlikely to "prove much of a shower," began to lay in a stock of umbrellas. They also began to devise schemes for dividing and creating distrust within the body of the Order. But so thoroughly had the organization prepared itself for any stress of weather; so strong was it on its central principle that "the good of the whole could only be reached by the perfection of its parts," that its growth has scarcely been checked by even momentary disasters. It was not until the fall of 1873, however, that, owing to the agitation prevailing throughout the United States in respect to monopolies, especially oppressive in the North-west, the power of the Grange began to be felt in the land. From the original centers of its strength, without any effort at pro!ogandism, it had spread in all directions; in truth, it had a center in every true Patron, from which an unconscious influence proceeded, until at the opening of the year 1875, its membership was estimated at not less than one million four hundred and thirty thousand. There were other negative causes for this unprecedented growth, among which may be named class-spirit, a debauched currency, protective tariff, railroad combinations, combinations of manufactures, plow-makers and others. The Granges of the first period may be termed the fighting Granges; for they bore the brunt of the great conflict with monopolies, and led the way to concession andl peace. They had unpleasant things to say, and they said them in unmistakable English. Some excesses of zeal were exhibited, and the Western Granges narrowly escaped the fate of becoming a third political party. It must be admitted by all that they possessed wise and temperate leaders. Dudley W. Adamns, the present W. MI. of the National Grange, and Colonel Cochrane, Master of the Wisconsin State Grange, declined nominations for the highest offices in their respective States. The Order now contains, in round numbers, twenty-two thotusand Subordinate Granges, distributed as follows: Missouri, Iowa, and Indiana, each two thousand; Illinois and Kentucky, each one thousand five hundred; Kansas, one thousand three hundred; Ohio and Telnnessee, each one thousand one hundred; Texas, eight hundred; Georgia, seven hundred; Alabama and 119

Page  120 WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. Mississippi, six hundred and fifty; Ainnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Arkansas, each five hundred and fifty to five hundred and seventy-five; Nebraska, six hundred; North Carolina, four hundred and sixty; Virginia and Pennsylvania, each four hundred; South Carolina, three hundred and twenlty-five;'New York, two hundred and seventy-three; California, two hundred and fifty; Louisiana, two hundred and ten; Oregon, one hundred and seventy-five; Washington Territory, (under jurisdiction of Oregon,) fifty-two. Vermont, West Virginia, Maryland, Florida, New Jersey, Colorado, MVIassachusetts, Wyoming Territory, Maine, Dakota, New Hampshire, Canada, Montana, Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, and Connecticut, make the grand total at the present time, not less than a million and a half. Complete statistics of each State, or of the whole membership, are not given to the public, for obvious reasons. it will be seen that the South and the South-west are the strongest in proportion to their population. But at the present moment the Granges are multiplying in the Eastern States with great rapidity. North and South are linked by the Grange into an industrial and fraternal unity; and are already proving the benefits of cooperation in commercial exchanges. The "Granges of the second growth," Missouri, Mlichigan and Wisconsin, have especially devoted themselves to the promotion of business enterprises; have been careful and economical, and have "held aloof from politics." In 3Missouri, however, so many Grangers found themselves in the legislature, that it was. proposed to organize a Legislative Grange, while Wisconsin, under a Granger Governor, carried her legislative war upon the railroads to a successful termination. The Patrons have invested their capital as follows: In Grange banks; in direct trade unions; in elevators and warehouses; in grist-mills; in pork-packing houses; in bag factories and brick yards; in blacksmith shops, machine and implement works; in broom factories; in cotton-gins, and cotton-yarn factories, in the South; in fruit-canning establishments; in transportation enterprises by rail, ship, and boat; in homestead associations, cooperative land companies, immigration associations and insurance companies. Not less than $18,000,000 is thus invested. The estimate of savings through co,peration is $100 per head for*.four hundred thousand active Grangers. 120

Page  121 0 AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. During the past year one hundred and fifty headers have been built and sold in Nebraska alone. The price has been $150 each, while the dealers were charging $325-a discount of 54 per cent., and a total saving in first cost of $26,250. Over three hundred Werner harvesters have been built in the three States of Iowa, Nebraska anLd 3innilesota, and sold at $140, a saving on each machine of $80, and a total saving to the buyers of $24,000. The orders for the Werner this year very far exceeded the capacity of the factories to supply, and next year it is thought that three thousand of them will be called for. They have everywhere given entire satisfaction when well made and in the hands of competent operators. In a recent trial in Minnesota between the Werner, the Marsh and the Massillon, the Werner was adjudged the best of the three. Fully fifteen hundred cultivators have been made and sold during the past year, the price being $18 to $20 50 for an implement in every way as good as those generally sold for $30 to 835. The coming season a spring-tooth sulky rake will be made and offered for about $25, such an one as now brings $35 to $45. These rakes will be made at Des Moines and Dubuque, and probably at other places also. A seeder will also be offered for about $40. It is called the gang-plow seeder, and is equal in value to those now sold for $65 to $75. A Bessemer steel beam plow is now making at Des 3ioines, at the Given plow-works, which can be sold for $18. Mr. Given will fill Patrons' orders first at that price, while others must wait to be served afterwards, and at a higher price. These plows are first-class in every respect, far superior and much lighter than any ordinary iron beam plow. A mower is now making in New York, of which our Order will have entire control. All the parts usually made of iron are, of Bessemer steel; the movement is very simple, and the draft light. It is provided with self-oiling boxes, which require attention but two or three times a week, and generally it is firstclass in all its parts. It will be sold in Iowa, freight paid, for not more than seventy-five dollars. Arrangements will soon be completed to get sugars and syrups direct from members of our Order in Louisiana through the agency in New Orleans. Samples and prices are promised. Prices of syrups, of course, vary with the market; but last year the best pure cane syrups were sold in New Orleans for thirty-five cents per gallon. 1-21

Page  122 WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOAIPLISHED. Tile agency in New Orleans is now ready to receive flour, corn, bacon, and other western products, in exchange for sugars, syrups, etc., which the South has to spare. In general, it may be said that the business operations of the Order have more than tripled during the past year. Business agencies are established in more than twenty-five States, including all the Western, Southern and Pacific States; and in the Eastern States such agencies are rapidly multiplying, and while increasing in numbers they are perfecting their plans of doing business. Col. Shankland is in constant correspondence with the several agents, and is making numerous journeys to attend their conventions. County and district agencies, auxiliary to the State agencies, are forming everywhere, and all are increasing in efficiency as they learn the routine of business, and as the members of the Order learn the facilities and savings of the agencies. For example: Inl Iowa more than half the elevators are now in the hands of Patrons, and elevator companies, cooperative stores and mutual insurance companies are constantly increasing. Some of them, while saving largely for their customers, are also making large profits for themselves. Of course their success depends much on the experience, tact, zeal and honesty of the agent in charge; but in a general way it may be said that all are doing well and meeting the expectations of their founders. By way of illustration, a fire insurance company in Wisconsin, which is carrying four hundred and fifty thousand dollars of risks on the following plan-payment of one dollar and fifty cents for survey and policy, and one tenth of one per cent. on the risk-has not lost a dollar in a year. A State and National organization of colored men, has been formed at the South, not political in its character, which claims to be an auxiliary to our Order and which desires to receive its supplies through our agencies. Indeed, already several carloads of goods have been furnished them in this way. Under the special charge of Col. Aikin, of South Carolina, another member of the Executive Committee of the National Grange, the collating and publishing of information about the crops and markets is a matter fast assuming vast consequence. His reports are more complete in their statistics and more prompt in their issue than the corresponding reports of the Government Bureau of Agriculture. It is hoped to be able 122

Page  123 ARBITRATION VS. LITIGATION. soon, by means of the accurate information which the Granges furnish at home, and the facilities of corresponding agencies abroad, to lay before our members, each month, a comprehlensive digest of the condition of the markets and the prospects of the crops throughout the world, which will guide them both in their planting and their sales. One of the best features of the organization of the Patrons of Husbandry is the settlement (,f differences, whether pecuniary or otherwise, between members, by arbitration. Instead of going to law, and feeing lawyers, officers and courts, and spending time and money to secure some legal or technical advantage of a neighbor, by the plan introduced in the Granges all these little questions of dispute are now settled in an equitable and generally in an amicable mannlier by reference to committees or arbitrators consisting of mutual friends. It is true that this plan deprives the lawyers, officers and courts of a great deal of business, and, consequently, of a great deal of money; but, while they are the losers in a pecuniary way, the farmers are the gainers, not only in a pecuniary sense, but in many other ways. Friendship between individuals is thus promoted and maintained; neighborhood difficulties are avoided, and the whole community of farmers are greatly the gainers; while outsiders are none the wiser. This is certainly a very commendable and valuable feature of the Order. Upon such articles as tea, sugar, coffee, kerosene, etc., the average saving has been from five to fifteen per cent.; clothing from ten to twenty per cent.; machines and implements from thirty-five to forty per cent. This work is mostly done through the State agencies; that of Indiana exceeded two hundred and fifty thousand dollars last year. The New York Evening Post sums up the general benefits of the Grangers' organization, as follows: The railroads have been taught that there is a higher power, viz: public opinion, which they cannot wantonly defy. A body of regplating laws has been collected and tested (in Wisconsin), which will serve as a guide and foundation for all future and more final and just legislation. The agriculturists have partially awaked to the fact that the chief cause of their troubles is "protection;" that they are systematically and legally plundered for the sake of the Eastern manufacturer; that cheap transportation, by means of road-bed, rails and rolling stock, swollen in cost by a high tariff, is an impossible thing. The 123

Page  124 'WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. high tariff makes the annual repairs on our railroads cost millions of dollars more than they should; and the farmers, in the form of dearer freights, must pay these needless millions forever. "W hoever would be free, himself must cast the vote." The annual address of Worthy Master Adams, at the last session of the National Grange, held at Charleston, February, 1875, will be read with pleasure by every Patron, and received as the most authoritative expression of the sentiments which will govern the future of the Order in the United States: Patrons of Husbandry: From the snow-clad hills, the flowery vales, the golden shore, and prairie lands we meet together by the historic palmetto. Not as nomads who gather at a shrine in obedience to a sentiment do we come, but as chosen representatives of the fraternity, whose object is the moral and material advancement of the greatest industrial interests of the great republic. Standing as we do to-day upon the narrow line which divides the past from the future, about to step forward into that time which is all unseen by human eye, it behooves us to well scrutinize the track behind us, that we gain thereby some clue to the path before. One year ago, we met beyond the Father of Waters, and congratulated ourselves on the growth and strength of our gigantic young Order. To-day, by the ever-sounding seas, we proudly proclaim that our members have increased one hundred-fold. Two more sister States (Miaine and Montana), have joined our ranks, and the few remaining ones are joyfully on the way. The work has spread from ocean to ocean. The winds have wafted the sounds across, and now they come back like echoes from the other shore, asking us to extend to other people a helping hand. This uprising and organizing of a great and scattered interest has not a parallel in the history of the world. The magnitude and force of the movement has surprised its friends, and astonished and alarmed its foes. It has burst upon us with the suddenness of the erratic comet, yet promises to remain with the brilliancy and permanency of the sun. It found the agriculture of the nation unorganized, isolated, unrecognized, weak, plodding, and their voices virtually unheard in the councils of the land. To-day, they are organized, united, strong, thoughtful, and duly respected and recognized as one of the great powers that be. Though much has now been done in awakening thought and clearing the field, yet we have but just stepped upon the mount and caught a faint glimpse of the promised land. Right before us it lies awaiting our possession. But ere we fairly reach the goal and fully possess the land, we see a wide and dreary waste is to be crossed, which will tax to our utmost our prudence, our perseverance, and our valor. The positions of honor and trust, the avenues to great wealth, the molding of the political, financial and educational institutions of the nation, have long been in the hands of members of other callings. This monopoly will not be given up without a struggle; and whoever enlists in the Patrons of Husbandry, in the expectation of an easy victory, reckons without his host. Our movement has been and will be met by a most determined and persistent warfare-every 124

Page  125 ADDRESS OF D. W. ADAMS. means which talent, wealth and place can command, will be used. So, while we believe in the goodness of God and the justice of our cause, we must maintain unbroken ranks and keep our powder dry. In many of the States, the work of organizing Granges has been nearly completed, and the noise and enthusiasm attending it, is suc ceeded by comparative silence. The Order is there passing through the ordeal which shall reveal its weakness or display its strength. Though enthusiasm and noise were very suitable and efficient means to kindle the flame, they are not the materials with which to maintain a steady and lasting heat. To preserve the vantage ground we have gained, and ensure permanence and further advancement, we must be able to show to our members and the world, that material and moral gain does and will result from our organization. We must keep our ranks full, our faith strong, our work puree and our actions wise. One year ago T called the attention of this body to the fact that the Subordinate Granges are the foundation and life of our Order, and urged the necessity of aiding them by devising profitable and agreeable plans of work and recreation, so that the present membership and interest would not only be maintained, but increased. Owing to a press of business, no action was taken in this matter, and the Subordinate Granges have been thrown on their own resources. I am happy to announce that most of them have been equal to the emergency, but many of the weaker have lainguished and failed simply for want of a little paternal aid and counsel in their infancy. We cannot afford to thus allow the weak (for whom especially we should provide), to fall by the wayside. It is our stern duty, and should be an unmixed pleasure to tend, direct and uphold them. If we fail in this, we fail in carrying out one of our cardinal principles. Let me then most earnestly request you to give this subject your attention as one of the most important which ever came before you. It would be impossible, even were it desirable, at this time to discern all the grave subjects which will demand your attention, but there are some which I cannot pass without a brief notice. Prominent among these is the subject of transportation, in which every citizen has an interest, either as a producer or consumer. There is a deep-seated and well-founded conviction that the present modes of carrying commodities are uselessly expensive. The people and the government have liberally aided in the construction of railroads and canals in the expectation that increased facilities would result in the cheaper rates of transportation. We relied implicitly on the idea that by building numerous routes we would attain the benefits of competition, and secure fair rates; but sad experience has fully proven that increase in number and strength of transportation companies only results in more gigantic an1l oppressive combinations. Though we have some powerful lines between the north-west and north-east, yet instead of their competing to reduce rates, they have, within a few days, formed a new combination, by which western bound freights have been advanced. To remedy this alarming and growing evil the people, in their individual capacity, are powerless, and only through their united action as sovereigns can they obtain redress. In some of the States something of this has been done, but it has been necessarily fragmentary 125

Page  126 WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. and wholly inoperative on through freights. It is utterly impracticable for the several States to act in concert through the different legislatures. I see, then, no solution of this question, but for the people of the several States, through their representatives to the General Government, to stretch out their strong arm between the people and those corporations. I know I speak the sentiments of the people, when I say we would do no wrong to the capital nominally invested in railroads. We fully recognize their capacity for good, and all their just claims, but we demand justice and protection for the people. But even if railroads do carry at fair rates, still the fact stares us in the face, that transportation of heavy commodities is at least an expensive luxury, and our true policy is to bring producer and consumer nearer together, and so lessen the transporting. We, of the South and West especially, should spare no pains to introduce and foster manufactures in our midst, that we be not obliged to transport our raw material out and the manufactured article in. We of the East, where manufactures are many and strong, should, with equal assiduity, promote the cultivation of the raw material, that the terrible strain on transportation be lessened. I have long ago said that the history of the world or its present condition does not afford a single example of a country which has remained permanently prosperous by the production and exportation of the raw material, but their tendency is all the time toward a condition of dependence and poverty. This position has not been disputed, and I believe cannot be. How important, then, that we cultivate the most amicable relations between all the productive industries, as only by mutual development can we be mutually prosperous, and the whole body politic be maintained in vigorous health. A thousand years ago learned and thoughtful chemists devoted the energies of a lifetime to a vain search for the wonderful philosopher's stone, whose magic touch should convert the baser metals into purest gold, and thus fill the whole world at once with wealth and luxury. To-day we have numerous citizens who are eagerly pursuing the same phantom. They are torturing their poor brains to devise some plan whose talismanic power will transmute bits of printed paper into countless millions of actual money of such a subtle nature that true as the needle to the pole, it shall go straight to the pockets of the poor, and like a subtle "Will-o'-the-wisp," forever evade the clutches of the rich. It is an indisputable fact that our country is now seriously suffering from a derangement of finances. We need not to be at a loss to know the cause. It is a solemn reality that our country has passed through a most wasting civil war. It cost us in money, time lost, industry disturbed, material destroyed, production stopped, more than ten billions of dollars. That immense sum was in four years subtracted from the wealth of the country. It was consumed, and is forever gone. It made us comparatively poor. To bridge over the emergency of the hour, the government issued great volumes of irredeemable paper currency, which we used as money, and thus for a time disguised and hid our poverty. By using this currency our judgment of values became more and more confused as 126

Page  127 FAVORABLE REPORT OF FINANCES. we drifted further from the world's standard. We totally failed to realize our changed circumstances and to inaugurate a corresponding system of economy and industry, and, consequently, with an inheritance of debt, extravagant habits and distorted judgnilent of values, we have been incessantly drifting to leeward. Out of this trouble there is no royal road. Only by a return to habits of industry and economy, guided by intelligence, can we regain our wealth and remove our load of debt. As an auxiliary to this, we want a staple and sound currency, that shall be a reliable measure of values, and recognized as such by all the civilized world. For we may gain this truth from others and our own history, that an irredeemable, fluctuating currency always favors speculators and sharpers, at the expense of those engaged in productive industry. In an order like ours, which is still in the formative state, it has not seemedl strange that many cases have presented themselves during the past year which were provided for by no written law. To meet these emergencies it has devolved upon me, as the chief executive officer of the Order, to make numerous rules for our temporary guidance. These have been placed in the hands of your committee for arrangement, and will be submitted for your consideration. Some cases have arisen involving points of such doubtful expediency that I have hesitated about taking the responsibility of making rulings. To cover these additional legislationii will be needed. An amendment to the Constitution has been adopted and ratified, providing for County Granges, under the direction of State Granges. I am fully convinced, from visiting several States, that the widest possible difference will exist in the organization and management of these Granges in the different States. Under proper and efficient rule they cannot fail to be of eminent value to the Order, but if loosely and carelessly constructed they will be a source of endless annoyance and confusion. As the Masters of all the State Granges are here together in council, it might be well for this body to prepare a complete system of management of Fifth Degree County Grainges, and send it to the States. This would not, of course, go to the States as law, but recommended as a plan prepared by and embodying the combined judgment of the Masters of all the State Grangres. I doubt not such a plan would be generally welcomed, and would tend to produce uniformity in the work in the several States. The principal office of the National Grange, under the maliagement of our Worthy Secretary, is each year assuming a more systematic and perfect shape. The amount of business done and the manner of doing it, will be fully shown in his report. It is an agreeable fact to state that the revenues of the National Grange have been above the expenditures, thus leaving a balance in the treasury, as will appear by the report of the Worthy Treasurer. This subject of our finances is one upon which the members of our Order are particularly and very properly quite sensitive, and we owe it, not only to them, but to ourselves, that the receipts and disbursement of all moneys be conducted in a manner which will commend itself to the judgment of business men. In our work as a body, and in our association with each other as sisters and brothers, let our deportment be such as to cast a halo over the noble occupation we follow, unite in closer bonds our great 127

Page  128 WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. fraternity, and intensify the patriotic affection we feel for our cornmon country. Following is a summary of the proceedings of the National Grange, at its last session as furnished by Bro. J. W. A. Wright: 1. The emphatic request for Congressional aid, with proper restrictions, to the Texas Pacific Railroad. 2. Action favoring the construction of a double steel track railway from the Mississippi river near St. Louis, to the Atlantic at some northern point. 3. Resolutions favoring the speedy completion of the Spartansburg and Asheville Railroad, thus connecting Chicago and other western cities with the Atlantic at Charleston, by a route of one hundred miles shorter than by any other. 4. Hlearty approval of the resolutions of the Agricultural Association of Georgia, which recommend the construction of canals to connect the Ohio and Tennessee rivers with the Atlantic. 5. Recommendation of government aid to repair the levees-on the Mississippi. 6. Advocating the-opening, by national aid, of the mouth of the Mississippi. 7. Request to Congress for reduction of tax on tobacco. 8. Expressed opposition to an injurious extension of patent rights. 9. Recommendations with regard to the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia. 10. Resolutions favoring the early completionof the Washington National Monument. 11. Adoption of the Constitution of the National Grange, as amended at the last session, and ratified by three fourths of the State Granges. 12. Other important amendments to the Constitution and ByLaws. 13. Careful preparation, for the use of the Order, of a Parliamentary Guide and a Digest of Decisions on Constitutional Questions. 14. Decisions to move the headquarters of the National Grange from Washington to some point in the West, which the members of the Executive Committee are to select. 15. Distribution of part of the funds of the National Grange, as a loan without interest to the different State Granges. This loan is in the proportion of two dollars and fifty cents to each Subordinate Grange in each State, but it is not intended to be divided among the Subordinate Granges. 16. Additional safeguards have been thrown around the expenditure of the funds of the National Grange for the ensuing year, looking chiefly to economy. 17. No one result of this session was more satisfactory than the proof that, in spite of all malicious assertions of hostile papers to the contrary, our worthy Secretary and Treasurer have handled all the funds entrusted to their keeping, with the most perfect integrity. 128

Page  129 TEXAS PACIFIC RAILROAD. 18. The election of members of the Executive Committee was an important matter. At the last session it was determined to increase the number from three to five. D. W. Aiken, of South Carolina, is re-elected for three years, and the two new members are D. T. Chase, of New Hampshire, and John T. Jones, of Arkansas. R. E. Shankland, of Iowa, continues for two years, and William Saunders, of Washington City, for one year. 19. The National Grange will meet in San Francisco next November, if, on investigation, it is found that the expense to its Treasury will not be too great. 20. An important change made by the ratification and final adoption of the new Constitution is, that Past Masters are'no longer, as such, even honorary members of the National or State Granges. The following is a report of the Committee and the resolutions adopted concerning the Texas Pacific Railroad: Your committee, to whom was referred resolutions of the Texas State Grange, and of numerous other bodies in different sections of the United States, to extend its aid to the Texas Pacific Railroad, have had the same under consideration, and ask to make this report: Your committee have viewed with great interest the expressions of approval and appeals to Congress to forward this great work, emanating from the State Granges and Boards of Trade, from the Pacific to the Atlantic, and are impressed with the great and obvious benefits which would result to this whole nation by the speedy completion of this road; and as it is an enterprise too vast to depend alone for its success upon private capital, equal justice to all sections of our common country requires aid of the National' Government to forward this work, under the proper restrictions and safeguards, insuring the Government against loss, and the people against unjust impositions and discriminations. Your committee therefore submit the following resolution: That this National Grange earnestly invites the attention of Congress to the necessity of a speedy completion of the Texas Pacific Railroad, and asks of that body reasonable aid *to the company, which has inaugurated this great national enterprise, under such cautionary restrictions and safeguards as the prudence and wisdom of Congress may devise to guarantee the Government against loss, and protect the agricultural interests of every section of the country against unjust discriminations in the price of transportation. The reasons for the action of the National Grange are thus explained by Worthy Master Hamilton: The friends of the Texas Pacific, when they came before the National Grange, never asked for anything which might prove injurious-they merely asked the endorsement of the agriculturists of our country to a bill then before Congress, which was intended and well calculated to develop the resources of millions of fertile acres of our territory, open up beautiful homes for thousands of our fellow citizens, check the monopoly already existing in the carrying trade across this continent, between Asia and the cities and sea-board on 9 129

Page  130 WHAT HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED. our Atlantic coast; add to the national population, the national in dustry and the national wealth; increase the taxable resources of the country, add to its revenues and lessen the public debt. They urged it was a public duty to utilize the. enormous national capita] that now lies idle in the vast southern region between Texas and the Pacific coast. They pointed to that vast national domain, capable of producing untold quantities of corn, wheat, wine, cotton, wool and stock; and which, from its want of accessibility and distance from market, could not be profitably brought under cultivation. This wealth, with the rich mines of gold, silver, lead, copper, and coal in Southern Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Southernl Utah, Nevada, and Southern California, was shown to be unavailable to the nation by reason of distance from mercantile centers and cost of transportation. Justice to the Southern States demanded that they should have the same rights and facilities to develop their material wealth and increase their productions as had been extended to the Middle and Northern States. Their products, cotton, tobacco, rice, and sugar, are of great value to the nation, and the Northern and Middle States have a direct interest in everything which has a tendency to stimulate the growth of agricultural products in the South. Our military commanders, Generals Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Hancock, Meiggs and Ingalls, have all testified that the extension of the railroad from our south-western frontier to the Pacific coast is a military necessity, and that it would substantially end our Indian troubles by the facilities it would give the military to control these wild and savage people. The bill indorsed by the National Grange, and which it recommended to the speedy action of Congress, does not ask for one acre of the public domain, beyond what may be needed for roadway and stations, nor one dollar as a gift from the public treasury, nor any bonds, the principle or interest of which the government was expected to pay,-none of these were asked for-but simply that the government would guarantee an interest of six per cent. upon the bonds of the road, to the extent of $30,000 per mile, agreed that every guard and restriction necessary to prevent extortion, or unjust discrimination, or fraud of'any kind, either towards the people or bond-holders, should be placed by Congress in the franchise. The security offered against loss on this guarantee is vast and comprehensive. First, the road surrenders every acre of the valuable lands hitherto obtained. Second, it gives the whole of its earnings for transportation for the government. Third, it gives ten per cent. of the entire gross receipts of the road. Fourth, in default of payment the road itself becomes forfeit. Was better security ever exacted by capitalist? The propriety and security of this great work was so apparent to the members of the National Grange, that the vote, in regard to it, was almost a unit. The Miasters from Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, ald other States, where Patrons have been contending so earnestly against railroad monopolies, were so well satisfied of the benefits and advantages to be derived from opening another great thoroughfare across our country from Atlantic to Pacific shore, and that 130

Page  130A

Page  130B J. W. A. WRIGIHT. P. W. M., and Present Lecturer of State Grange of California.

Page  131 ORGANIZATION OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. all necessary guards and restrictions to prevent imposition and fraud would be tlhrown around it, gave it their hearty support; and not one of them had an idea their action was in the least degree a departure from the principles which should control the action of Grangers, or a violation of the objects and purposes of the Patrons of Husbandry, as fully set forth and given to the world in our Platform of Principles. CHAPTER XII. ANNALS OF THE STATE GRANGE OF -CALIFORNIA. OROANIZATION AT NAPA-R PEPRESENTATION: ADDRESS OF N. W. GAR.,ETSON: SPECIFIC OBJECTS STATED 1ZESOLUTIONS: STATE BOOK OF PLANS: ELECTION OF OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: AGENCIES PROVIDED Fl'OR-FIRST AN NUAL MEETING-ONE HUNB.EED AND FOUR GRANGES IN THRIEE MONTHIS WORTHY MASTER WRIGHT'S ADDRESS-REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON IRRIGATION: COIMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO AGRICULTURAL DEPARTMENT OF UNIVERSITY — ELECTION OF OFFICERS FOR Twvo ENSUING YEARS-PRESENTATION TO BRO. GARRETSON-ILSTALLATION-PROF. CAIR'S LECTURE —CONSTITUTION AND B-Y LAWS. THE organization of the State Grange of California took place at Napa, on the 15th of July, 1873, scarcely three months after the adjournment of the Farmers' Union Convention. MIeanvwhile, a special deputy from the National Grange had been lusy organizing the necessary number of Subordinate Granges, whichl were now convened; the First President of the State Agricultural Society, Hon. J. M. Hamilton, Worthy Mlaster of Guenoc Grange, appeared among the good men and true, who had been active members of the Union, and upon whlose shoulders the burden of responsibility was afterward cast. The following Granges were represented by their proper officers: AVW. H. Baxter and Mrs. Baxter, Napa Grange; W. A. Fisher, Past Miaster, Napa Grange; E. B. Stiles, W. San Joaquin Grange; J. D. Spencer and Mrs. Spencer, Stanislaus Grange; T. Hart Hyatt, Vacavy'le Grange; WAV. M. Thorp and Alrs. Thorp, Chico Grange; J. B. Jolley and Mrs. Jolley, Merced Grange; J. D. Reyburn and Mrs. Reyburn, Salida Grange; R. C. Haile, Suisun Valley Grange; G. IV. Henning, San Jose Grange; J. D. Fowler, Hollister Grange; Al. S. Manlove and Mrs. Manlove, Sacramento Grange; W. M. Jacklson and Mrs. Jackson, Yolo Grange; Nelson Carr and Mrs. N. Carr, Bennett Valley Grange; G. W. Davis and Mrs. G. W. Davis, Saita Rosa Grange; T. H. Merry and Mrs. T. H. Merry, Healds I'El) I

Page  132 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFOENIA. burg Grange; J. A. Clarkl, Elmiira Grange; J. C. Merryfield and M,rs. Ierryfieldcl, Dixon Grange; J. ~I. Hamilton, Guenoc Grange; J. AI. 3layfield, Yountville Grange; J. J. Hicok, Granld Island Grange; L. WA. Walker, Petaluma Grange; N. L. Allen, Salinias Grang,e; J. W. A. Wright, Turlock Grange; G. B. Crane anld Mrs. G. B. Crane, St. Helena Gralnge; I. G. Gardner and MIrs. I. G. Gardnier, Greyson Grange; B. V. WVeeks, Pescadero Grange; J. H. Heg,eler and Alrs. J. H. Hegeler, Bodega Grange; A. T. Dewey and Mits. A. T. Dewey, Temnescal Grange. N. W. Garretson, representing the Wortlhy Miaster of the National Gran,ge, opened the session with an eloqluent and instructive address. He said: It seems but as yesterdclay, (so short is the time,) since your no10w fair and beautiful State was unreclaimed, unsoug'ht and unlvaluled but for its gold. Its civilization was confined to mining camps, and its bread and fruit supplied from distant fields. Very soon, hlowever, it was demonstrated that the capabilities of these valleys for producing the cereals wvere great, and their adaptation to fruit culture unrivaled. The effect of this was, not only to change tilhe cldreams of emigrants to this land of perpetual summer and sunshine, but it marked a change also in their character. Women, the refining guardians of our race, now swelled the caravan that stretched across the plains and poured over the mountain ranges or that landed fromri the crowded steamers. Men and women with strong arms and brave hearts were now coming to make homes and plant upon the Pacific Coast a new civilization. Your experiences in reaching California then, though bitter at the time, are garnered with the traveled past, and serve you now-a store of wonders to repeat to those who now cross the continent, borne in palaces of luxuriant ease. I am presuaded that in no State have the industries found so rapid a developlment as in California. At a single bound she takes rank as the first wheat-producing State in thile Union, exporting last year to England alone not less than five hundred thousand tons. Vhile the products of your gold fields have been great, and have largely swelled the treasuries of the world, the product of your whleat fields, under judicious tillage, will be far greater, affording a mlore abiding wealth, and promising a far more stable prosperity. The fertility of your soil is equalled only by the enterprise and intelligenrce of its tillers. I utter these words as the sum of my observations since I have come among you. I think I see in the farmers of California a discerning intelligence not so general elsewhere. W'ithl this characteristic attribute, these men might have successfully prosecuted almnost any business pursuit; but seeing the wondrous capabilities for profitable production offered by the cliversitv of soil and climate in this suminmer-land, their hearts responded to the invitations of nature, to the comfort and enjoyment of farm life, to that pursuit above all others, God-given and ennobling —Agriculture. Little did they dreamn while their thoughts were given to this work, that many of those they fed were combining for the impover 132 w

Page  133 THE FARMERPS' BURDENS. islhment of their benefactors. Yet it is true that these men, who stand between you and the market, and whose duty it is to transfer and distribute the products of your labor to and among the consumers of the same, for a reasonable toll, have combined to flank the law of "demand and supply," forming rings and corners at your expense, and are gambling recklessly and wickedly- your rights and your money being their stakes. They have gotten to themselves fortunes, and, to complete their work, these ill-gotten gains are employed as a corruption-fund, to turn aside the arm of justice, and buy the nien to whom you have intrusted your dearest interests in the State and National Legislatures. Laws that have sheltered you from the rapacity of these capital combinations are quickly repealed, and other laws are enacted by which other rings are formed to prey as vampires upon your material and industrial interests. Extravagant salaries, without precedent elsewhere, are fixed for your public functionaries, while the system of prodigality is inaugurated, which, if continued, must terminate in your bankruptcy; for, to meet this unwise expenditure of public funds, heavy assessments of taxes must be made, in the apportionment of which a discrimination, as unscrupulous as it is invidious, is made against the farmer in the interest of the money power. This work of public corruption and labor-impoverishment, to which I have alluded, is by no means confined to California, but is wide-spread and threatening throughout our whole country. Its deadly leaven has been at work in the councils of our nation, and threatens to-day, more than any other agency, the overthrow of our free government. At the sight of developments within the few months past at Washington, good men grow sick and turn away. As unpromising as this picture makes our future, we have grounds for hope, for the people are the source of power; anid, thank God, they are waking up all over the land —in almost every hamlet and school-house. The farmers, yes, and the farmers' wives-God bless them-are in council. For a like purpose you are convened to-day, as American citizens, as representatives of the great producing interests of California, and as representatives from your respective Granges, to consider the state of the country, and to discuss the necessities of the hour. We are here to form the California State Grange of Patrons of Husbandry. You will remember that the eyes of the oppressed farmers, all over this State, are turned to you for relief, while your enemies will most diligently scrutinize your every act. Conscious, then, of the weight and importance of your duties here, you will, as the State Grange, define for the Order, in this State, a line of future action, which, in your judgment will, at the earliest possible day, most surely emancipate labor from the despotism of capital combinations; one that will bring about the needed reform in your State and inter-State commerce, and drive from places of honor and trust the corrupt horde who have fattened upon your substance. With clean hands and pure hearts should we come to such a work. Therefore let each lay upon the common altar of this new Order whatever he may lave of selfish ambition, or of mercenary motive, 133

Page  134 ANNA.LS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. and, joining hands, let us covenant, upon the very threshold of our organization, that the meetings, the counsels and the labors of the Order in California, shall be dedicated to the cause of justice and humanity. That we pledge each to the other that we will labor faithfully, patiently, earnestly and persistently, to purify the moral, social, business and political atmosphere of our State and Nation, bearing ever in mind that if we would triumph in the unequal conflict upon which we now enter, we must fear God, obey our laws and maintain our honor, not forgetting that a good Mlatron, as also a good Husbandman, is noted at all times and everywhere for his or her fidelity. The specific objects were declared to be: 1. To establish cooperative systems of trade, thus bringing producers and consumers as near together as possible. 2. To establish banks from which ftarmers could obtain loans at reasonable interest. 3. To make arrangements for the purchase of farming imiplements, sacks and machinery, directly from nmanufacturers. 4. To obtain direct shipments on more favorable terms, and storage at lower rates; drawing upon their products advances at the lowest rates of interest. 5. To secure the establishment of Grange stores; and, 6. The gradual substitution of the cash for the credit system; and, finally, 7. The eventual introduction of shipment in bulk. The Convention resolved: To labor for the reduction of railroad fares and freights, by using all legitimate means to obtain the necessary legislation; for the reduction of port charges; for the introduction of European laborers; for an increase of tonnage for "our own purposes;" for irrigation; for the elevation and increase of our mechanical industry, all of which work was distributed among proper committees. As a record of Grange intelligence, and in order to secure a full expression of feeling upon the methods in which these objects were to be carried out, every member of Subordinate Granges was invited to present a concisely written plan, to be classified and kept as a State Book of Plans. It was also resolved to offer two premiums for the best plan for a general system of cooperation. The election of officers resulted as follows: J. W. A. Wright, Master; J. M. Hamilton, Overseer; Thos. H. Merry, Lecturer; N. L. Allen, Steward; W. MI. Jackson, Assistant Steward; W. 134

Page  135 FIRST ANNUAL MEETING. A. Fisher, Treasurer; W. HI. Baxter, Secretary; J. D. Fowler, Gate Keeper; T. IH. Hyatt, Chaplain; Mrs. I. G. Gardner, Lady Assistant Steward; Mrs. G. W. Davis, Ceres; Mrs. W. H. Baxter, Pomonla; Mrs. T. H. Hegeler, Flora. Resolutions were passed authorizing the Executive Committee, consisting of Brothers Jolley, of Merced county; Merryfield, of Solano county; Allen, of Monterey county, Gardner, of Stanislaus county; Thorp, of Butte county, and Mayfield, of Napa county, to employ a central Business Agent in the city of San Francisco, under bonds and guaranties which should prevent the use of such agency for speculative purposes. It was furthermore resolved, "to be expedient that the State Grange should have an agent or correspondent residing at Liverpool, authorized to charter ships in the proper season to convey grain crops to European or other mnarkets; to make arrangements for advances of money on cargoes of grain, and on such other securities as the farmer may be able to command, at the lowest rates of interest; also to have laborers and emigrants sent out to California by ships coming hither for cargoes, etc." The fullest exchanges of information between the Subordinate Granges and the State Agent, between the latter and State Agents of other State Granges, was recommended and provided for. The State Grange then adjourned, FIRST ANNUAL MEETING. At the first annual meeting of the California State Grange, held October 14, 1873, at San Jose, the following Granges were represented: ALAMEDA COUNTY.-Livermore Grange, Daniel Inman, Master; Temescal Grange, Oakland, Alfred T. Dewey, Miaster. BUTTE COUNTY.-Chico Grange, W. M1. Thlor,), Master; Nord Grange, G. WV. Colby, Master. COLUSA COUNTY. —Antelope Valley Grange, H. A. Logan, Master; Grand Island Grange, J. J. Hicok, Master; Plaza Grange, Olimpo, F. C. Graves, Mlaster; Princeton Grange, Princeton, A. D. Logan, Master; Funk Slough Grange, E. C. Hunter, Master; Sprillng Valley Grange, D. H. Arnold, Master; Willows Grange, J. W. Zumwalt, Master. CONTRA COSTA COUNTY.-Danville Grange, Danville, Chas. Wood, Master. EL DORADO COUNTY.-Pilot Hill Grange, Pilot Hill, P. D. Brown, Master. HUMBOLDT CouXTY.-Kiwelatti Grange, Arcata, Lewis R. Wood, Master; Table Bluff Grange, Jackson Sawyer, Master; Ferndalo 135

Page  136 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. Grange, F. Z. Boynton, Master; Elk River Grange, Theodore Meyer, Master. LAKE COUNTY.-Guenoc Grange, Guenoc, J. M. Hamilton, Master. Los ANGELES COUNTY.-LOS Angeles Grange, T. A. Garey, Master. MERCED COUNTY.-Badger Flat Grange, W. F. Clarke, Master; Merced Grange, H. B. Jolley, Master. MONTEREY COUNTY.-Hollister Grange, J. D. Fowler, Master; Pajaro Grange, D. MI. Clough, Master; Salinas Grange, N. L Allen, Master. NAPA CouNTY. —Napa Grange, W. H. Baxter, Master; St. Helena Grange, G. B. Crane, Master; Yountville Grange, J. M. Mayfield, Master. SAN Lus OBIsPo CouNTY.-Cambria Grange, Rufus Rigdon, Master; Moro City Grange, A. J. Mothersead, Master; Old Creek Grange, Isaac Flood, Master; San Luis Obispo Grange, Wm. Jackson, Master. SANTA BARBARA COUNTY.-Carpenteria Grange, O. N. Cadwell, Master; Santa Barbara Grange, O. L. Abbott, Master; Santa Maria Grange, Joel Miller, Master. SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY.-Castoria Grange, Samuel Gower, Master; Linden Grange, John Wasley, Master; Lodi Grange, J. W. Kearny, Master; Liberty Grange, Justus Schomp, Master; Rustic Grange, J. A. Shepherd, Master; Stockton Grange, Andrew Wolfe, Master; West San Joaquin Grange, E. B. Stiles, Master; Woodbridge Grange, J. L. Hutson, Master. STANISLAUS COUNTY.-Ceres Grange, W. B. Harp, Master; Grayson Grange, I. G. Gardner, Master; Salida Grange, Joseph Reyburln, Master; Stanislaus Grange, J. D. Spencer, Master; Turlock Grange, J. W. A. Wright, Master; Waterford Grange, R. R. Warder, Master. SOLANO COUNTY.-Dixon Grange, J. C. Merryfield, Master; Suisun Valley Grange, R. C. Haile, Master; Vacaville Grange, E. R. Thurbur, Master. SONOMA COUNTY.-Bennett Valley Grange, Nelson Carr, Master; Bodega Grange, J. H. Hegeler, Master; Cloverdale Grange, Chas. HI. Cooley, Master; Healdsburg Grange, T. H. Merry, Master; Petaluma Grange, L. W. Walker, Master, D. G. Heald, Secretary; Santa Rosa Grange, Geo. W. Davis, Master; Sonoma Grange, 'Leonard Goss, Master; Windsor Grange, A. B. Nalley, Master. SACRAMENTO COUNTY.-Sacramento Grange, W. S. Manlove, Master. SANTA CLARA COUNTY.-San Jose Grange, G. W. Henning, Master; Santa Clara Grange, Cary Peebles, Master. SAN MIATEO COUNTY.-Pescadero Grange, B. V. Weeks, Master. SUTTER COUNTY.-Sutter Grange, W. C. Smith, Master; Yuba City Grange, T. B. Hull, Master. SANTA CRUZ COUNTY.-Santa Cruz Grange, Benj. Cahoon, Master. VENTURA COUNTY. —Saticoy Grange, Milton WVasson, Master. YOLO COUNTY.-Antelope Grange, W. G. Clark, Master; Buckeye Grange, Wm. Sims, Master; Capay Valley Grange, R. R. Darby, Master; Hungry Hollow Grange, G. L. Parker, Master; West 136

Page  137 WORTHY MiASTER WRIGHT'S ADDRESS. Grafton Grange, A. W. Morlis, Mlaster; Yolo Grange, W. I. Jackson, Master. Total, 104. P.KsT MASTERS PRESENT.-Napa, W. A. Fisher; San Jose, Oliver Cottle. MATRONS PRESENT.-Badger Flat Grange, Mrs. S. J. Clarke; Bennett Valley Grange, H. L. Carr; Bodega Grange, R. L. Hegeler; Chico Grange, S. J. Thorp; Cloverdale Grange, E. N. Cooley; Danville Grange, C. A. Wood; Elmira Grange, A. Clark; Grayson Grange, S. M. Gardner; Hollister Grange, S. F. Fowler; Healdsburg Grange, E. E. Merry; Linden Grange, C. E. Wasley; Lodi Grange, E. M. Kearny; Liberty Grange, H. J. Schomp; Merced Grange, L. W. Jolley; Napa Grange, S. C. Baxter; Nord Grange, C. A. Colby; Old Creek Grange, Elizabeth Flood; Petaluma Grange, Jane Walker; Sacramento Grange, F. L. Manlove; Salinas Grange, C. L. Allen; Santa Barbara Grange, L. E. Abbott; Santa Maria Grange, Charlotte Miller; Saticoy Grange, S. E. A. Higgins; Stanislaus Grange, M. A. Spencer; St. Helena Grange, Mrs. Frank Crane; Stockton Grange, A. Wolf; Yolo Grange, Kate Jackson; San Jose Grange, Mrs. 0. Cottle. COMMITTEES. -The following committees were appointed during the session: Publication Commnittee.-J. D. Spencer, T. A. Garey, A. J. Mothersead. Immigration Commnittee.-R. C. Haile, W. A. Fisher, Leonard Goss. Signal Bureau Commnittee.-W. S. Manlzve, T. A. Garey, J. W. A. Wright. Irrigation Committee. —H. B. Jolley, E. B. Stiles, Wm. M. Jackson, J. W. A. Wright, T. A. Garey. Autditing Committee.-O. L. Abbott, Nelson Carr, L. W. Walker. Committee on Constitution and By-Laws.-J. D. Fowler, G. W. Henning, E. B. Higgins, WV. H. Baxter, I. G. Gardner. Conmmnittee on Resolutions.-W. S. Manlove, G. W. Colby, O. L. Abbott. Trade and Banks.-W. A. Fisher, G.'V. Davis, N. L. Allen, J. D. Spencer, G. B. Crane, A. T. Dewey, J. J. Hicok, Oliver Cottle, R. C. Haile. Educationt and [University.-. W. A. Wright, W. H. Baxter, O. L. Abbott. On the second day the State Grange being opened in due form, N. W. Garretson, Deputy of the National Grange, and Daniel Clark, Master of the Oregon State Grange, and fraternal delegate to this Grange, were introduced by Worthy Master Wright, as follows: Fellow Patrons of the- -State of California: A hearty welcome to our first annual meeting. And heartily do we greet you, our brother, who first gave life to the body of our Order on this coast. To this 137

Page  138 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. household of our brotherhood, we welcome you cordially, after your additional labor of love for two months by which you have brought into existence another State Grange out of our lamentable chaos of farmers, which, strange to say, has existed from Adam's day to this. And cordially do we welcome you, my brother, who as the WTorthy Master of the new State Grange, represent among us, our monopolyridden brothers of Oregon and Washington. We rejoice to have you both with us, that you may share our happiness and our work. On the 15th of July, three months ago, the State Grange of California was organized with delegates from twenty-eight Subordinate Granges. To-day we meet for fraternal greeting and earnest work, as the representatives of one hundred and four Granges throughout the State of California, while our visiting brother represents sixtyfive Granges for Oregon and Washington. Rapid as may seem the growth of our Order upon the Pacific Coast, especially when we remember that the past three months are among the busiest of the year, it has been slow in comparison with its progress throughout the United States. Although our National Grange was first organized December 4, 1867, when it convened in Washington City, January 7, 1873, for its sixth annual session, there were, as officially announced, but one thousand three hundred and fifty-nine Subordinate Granges in the United States, and three in Canada. By our latest official reports, there are now seven thousand three hundred in the United States, and eight in Canada. This shows an increase of some six thousand Granges in nine months time. Nearly half of these, or some two thousand eight hundred, have been added in the last three months; for when our State Grange adjourned in July, the number officially reported was four thousand five hundred and thirtyfour. In the month of August alone, eight hundred and twentynine Granges were organized in the various States and Territories, and fifty-one in one day. In January last, but ten State Granges had been organized, although Subordinate Granges existed in twenty-two States. To-day there are twenty State Granges, and the Order is found in thirty-one States and three Territories. Nor is it confined to America alone. The farmers of Great Britain have written to our American Granges to know the principles of our organization. They tell us that they too are forming such associations, and wish to make their work conform with ours. Our Ritual is being translated into German, that the farmers of Germany may enjoy the benefits which our Order proposes to secure for its members. So broad then are our principles of unity, harmony and brotherhood, so well do they meet a common want of the human race for social, mental and moral advancement, for improvements in agriculture and in our business transactions, that our noble institution is not only national, but is fast becoming international and cosmopolitan in its character. Should any still doubt the excellence of our Order to meet the farmers' wants, or dread its secrecy, or fear that it is political, or may in some way interfere with their personal independence, or if any of its other features appear objectionable, when superficially examined, is not this grand rallying of the tillers of the soil under the banner of the Patrons of Husbandry, a sufficient answer to all such 138

Page  139 WORTHY MASTER WRIGHIIT'S ADDRESS. doubts? Has its success ever been surpassed in the history of any secret organization? And this too among farmers, who, as a class, are extremely cautious and slow to move. Had we not found in it all the elements of success, we should long since have abandoned it. But the better it is understood, the more popular it becomes. WVe find one of the most attractive features of our Order in this fact: its growth is not confined to any section of our country. While Iowa takes the lead as our banner State, with over 1,800 Granges, the following figures show a corresponding increase of Subordinate Granges in various Northern and Southern States, since the middle of July: Kansas, from 315 to 597; Indiana, from 238 to 435; Ohio, from 72 to 151; Missouri, from 416 to 879; Tennessee, from 50 to 175; Mississippi, from 149 to 378; Alabama, from 14 to 96. This, recollect, is the increase during the last three months. Yes, our brotherhood is equally valued in all parts of our land. It extends from the granite hills of New England to the mountain-girt valleys of the Pacific. Our brothers and sisters are rallying from the rice and cotton, and sugar lands, which are fanned by the balmy breezes of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as from the grain and stock farms that are swept by the bracing winds of our Northern lakes. And we feel alike toward all the members of our brotherhood For in the handling of our productions, and in supplying our wants, we have suffered from like impositions and like oppression, and, on common ground, we now seek the same redress, the same independence, to be gained by lawful, peaceful means. Let our thoughts dwell for a moment on some of our principles and purposes which are liable to be misunderstood and misrepresented. We do not make war against railroads and other internal improvements, but against the spirit of their mnanagement. WVe would rejoice to see in our valleys and mountains a network of railways, and a thorough system of mining, irrigating and navigable canals; they would support and give employment to millions of happy people, and would, when seconded by deep plowing and thorough cultivation, give absolute certainty to calculations on crops and investments; yes, would truly make an earthly paradise of our parched and suffering valleys. We wish to see them succeed. But we do not wish to see them so endowed and managed as to enable those controlling them, to grow rich by preying upon the necessities of our people. We want the water of our State, as well as the air, which the Creator has made the freest of all things on earth, to be kept as free as human laws can make it, consistent with the success of human enterprise, for impartial distribution to supply the wants of our producing classes. We do not make war upon mere concentrated capital, called, under some of its forms, monopoly. Capital and labor must go hand in hand for the successful development of any country. But we oppose the tyranny of all such monpolies as become oppressive. If we cannot create a monopoly without making it oppressive, we say, "Don't create it." If we cannot correct any existing monopoly so that it will cease to be oppressive, we say, "Put it down, if it can be done." WVe do not make war upon just freights and fair profits, but only 139

Page  140 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. upon those which are made exorbitant and burdensome by the men who handle our productions and supply our wants. We do not wage war against fair rates of interest. But we do not think it is right for the moneyed men of our land to get from twelve to twenty-four per cent. upon their loans, and spend their days in tapestried homes and luxurious offices, while the hard-fisted sons of the soil cannot realize two per cent., nay, cannot realize any profits, as the reward of that earnest and unceasing labor, which furnishes bread for millions of our race. WVe would like to see such a division of profits made, that while it would take nothing from the welfare and happiness of the capitalist, it would enable our producing and laboring classes to supply their homes with more of the comforts and enjoyments of life. WVe make no war on labor, for the whole Grange movement is in friendship to our laboring, as well as our producing classes. The truth is, we wage war on no other interests. We only demand our rights, without wishing to trample on any rights of our most exalted or humblest citizens. WVe are merely unwilling for our farming interests to remain the only ones unprotected, while we have all the bills to pay. It is the inequality, the want of equity, the preferences and privileges of the few over the many, to which we are opposed. A proper equality, equity and fairness, protection for the weak, restraint upon the strong, in short, justly-distributed burdens and justly-distributed power, are American ideas, the very essence of American independence, and to advocate the contrary is unworthy of the sons of an American republic. Our Order, as has been repeated; is not a political organization. We do not even allow thle discussion of political questions inside the Grange; but as farmers, who in the past have been an oppressed class, and have borne our oppression too silently, we are allowed to say this much: If our present system of trade and our present political organizations can be so modified and controlled as to secure what we justly require and demand, we shall be content: but if we find that any system of trade or any political party stands between us and our rights as farmers, we say, in imitation of our brothers in Illinois, "Let them all die." WVe wish always to bear in mind that we do not expect to accomplish our purposes, as producers, by our own unaided efforts, but we hope our demands will appear so just, when properly understood, that every reasonable and ungrasping capitalist, banker, trader, representative of the press, railroad man, grain-buyer, warehouse-keeper, ship-owner-yes, all who are engaged in the development of our industries-every professional and laboring man; nay, more, every uncorrupt and incorruptible politician and office-holder, will heartily aid us in our work. We need their co-operation; but we candidly confess that, as ours is peculiarly a farmers' institution,'we want the aid of most of these classes outside the gate. If they really have the will to help us, they can do so quite as effectually-and perhaps more so-without being allowed to enter the sacred portals of the Grange. We wish to remove from our hearts all jealousies, and hatred, and bitterness of feeling toward others, and to co-operate cordially with all associations, and men who will sincerely labor with us for 140 I

Page  141 WORTHY MASTER WRIGHT'S ADDRESS. the accomplishment of our purposes, to secure the good of our fel low beings. Especially are we in sympathy with that enterprising representative of the laboring classes of England, ]lir. Joseph Arch. We heartily welcome him to America, and hope he will visit our Coast, that he may learn whether the capacities of our climate, soil, and other resources can meet his wants. We should rejoice to be able to furnish homes for tens of thousands of his people. Indeed, Patrons, pardon me, if, in view of the silent work of reform which is steadily going on throughout our land, I seem to go too far in saying, we have lived to see a day of glory for the farmers of America. It is not here alone that this good work is going on, but throughout the length and breadth of our land, and it is extending to other lands. Yet let us encourage no spirit of boasting. In all due reverence would I remind you of the sacred words, "Glory to God in the highest, peace on earth, good will toward men." But there is a part that remains for us to do. In all its truthl, let us practice the advice not to forget the precepts of our Order. Oh, let us remember, at all times, the fraternal tie and all the requirements of the sacred obligations which bind us together. Let it be our study to understand, and our pride to obey them. We should cultivate a spirit of obedience toward those we place in authority. If we think or know a Patron has so far forgotten his duty as to be guilty of a wrong, let us throw a veil of charity over all that has been done amiss. Let us not openly condemn, until he has been proved guilty by the proper authority. Let us remember, it is one of our first duties to protect all our members, however humble may be their position among us, from any misrepresentations, especially from the vile tongue of slander, which may be used against them. Let us ever strive to put the best, rather than the worst, construction upon the acts of every brother or sister of our Order. Let us be up and doing. Be firm, be prudent, be earnest, be true, and success will as surely follow our efforts as the mid-day's sun shall continue to shine. To insure the highest degree of success we must impress upon our members the vast importance of preserving the secrecy not only of our unwritten work, but of all our business arrangements. Never forget, these are for Grange members only. Secrecy is the invaluable means of keeping our own counsel. Let us continue to work together in harinony, for the accomplishment of our purposes. Let us act, rather than talk. Remember everything depends on action -action-action! Who can tell the good that, with the blessing of Providence, may be accomplished for our race and nation, and for every race and nation by our united efforts, with the aid of all good citizens! Who can tell what the result may be when the nations of the earth shall assemble in 1876 to celebrate in one grand jubilee the hundredth anniversary of American liberty, equality, and independence-the children of Washington, Putnam and Jefferson, our farmer leaders, who nobly led American farmers a hundred years ago! Brothers and sisters, again congratulating you on the solid work accomplished since we last met, let me express to you my heartfelt thanks for your undeserved kindness toward myself personally. I can only assure you that I have endeavored to labor faithfully to 141

Page  142 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. redeem my pledge, that I would perform the duties of this responsible position to the best of my ability during my short term of office. Pardon me for any errors I may have committed in serving you. Believe my assurance, that my heart and hand are fully with my brother farmers in this work, and ever shall be. WVe declare to the world, that "Human happiness is the acme of earthly ambition," and that "Knowledge is the foundation of happiness." WVe should ask no greater happiness for our future lives than successful labor, wherever duty calls, with our fellow Patrons of Husbandry, for the good of all mankind. For my own part, I confess that never have I enjoyed the true happiness of life more fully than I have in the performance of the duties which have fallen to my lot. During the few remaining days of my term of office, let me feel assured of your kind forbearance and the constant assistance of your valuable counsels. I have the pleasure of introducing to you Bro. Daniel Clarlk, Worthy Master of Oregon and WVashington State Grange, who comes with Brother Garretson as fraternal delegate to our present session. Bro. Clark thanked the brethren for the hearty welcome extended, and congratulated them on their remarkable success in this State. The movement is a grand one, and we hope to accomplish great things for the producers of this coast and nation. As fraternal delegate from Oregon and Washington Territory, he was here to cement yet more closely the relationship between the farmers of the different sections of our great Pacific Slope. He will be able to take back a report that shall make glad the hearts of the people up North. The great wall of partition has been broken down, and henceforth we will all work as one people. He gave every assurance of hearty co-operation on the part of the Patrons of his jurisdiction in all matters pertaining to the interest of the Order. Bro. Clark was followed by Deputy Garretson, who said: It was not necessary for him to repeat assurances of his pleasure at meeting us again. He could not express his feeling-was not gifted with an eloquent tongue. He rejoiced in our success. Four months ago this movement in this State was in embryo-the first Subordinate Grange was just organized. Now, behold! Subordinate Granges extend along a line from north to south a distance of seventeen hundred miles, from San Bernardino in Southern California to Dayton in Washington Territory. They are planted for the redemption of humanity. On going to Oregon he found twenty Sub-Granges ready to organize. They take hold with a will - they are baptized with the spirit of reform. He found, four hundred miles in the interior, a fertile belt of country well populated, with every natural facility for home making and fortune making, yet in a most deplorable condition. The Columbia river is their only outlet to the ocean. Its falls had been seized upon by a monopoly, the Oregon Steam Navigation Company, and these farmers there were bottled up and corked 142

Page  143 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION. in. While the government has been building railroads and princely monopolies, it has neglected the husbandmen of the north. They look to this jurisdiction to help them secure an appropriation to open the Columbia river, and to relieve the AVillamette river of the obstruction to navigation. He thanked the Grange again for their greeting, and begged that, while others were laboring in the field, he might be permitted to retire to a fence corner. The Committee on Transportation and Legislation reported as follows: Your committee, to whom was referred that portion of the "Declaration of Purposes of the State Grange" of California having reference to the subject of transportation and legislation, beg leave to report, first: It has been said that "cheap transportation of persons and property is a national necessity." Nowhere can the force of this axiom be more fully realized than here in our favored State. With a territory great in extent, affording within its limits the preductions of both torrid and temperate zones, with a climate varied as its productions, and with a population gathered from all parts of the globe, we can readily understand how facilities for bringing producer and consumer together will contribute to our comfort and convenience. Our wheat, our wool, our wines, our fruit, our minerals, all sources of wealth, health and luxury, must be transported either in a raw or manufactured state; to fetch and carry them, so that the greatest good will ensue to the greatest number, is a study well worthy of the political economist, and its solution will remove an oppressive burden which now hangs like a millstone around the neck of the producer of our State. Our present avenues for transportation of freight are either insufficient or do not perform their proper work. Our inland water courses are blockaded for months during the dry season by sand bars and shoals. The exorbitant rates in many cases charged for transportation on railroads make the cost of moving our crops to market almost prohibitory, and in years of plenty the producer can scarcely realize the cost of production. These things, with the unjust discrimination sometimes made, cause fluctuations, which at times unduly excite, at other times depress and destroy the agricultural and manufacturing interests of our State, and have a tendency even to depopulate it. While we recognize in the railway an effectual instrument to aid in developing the agricultural resources of the State, and believe that the public interests of the country and its producers would be subserved by fostering the further development of the railway system, provided such a judicious management can be obtained as will secure equitable and just treatment in the way of fares and freight to all localities through which they pass, yet we are satisfied that the present system of building and managing railroads is injurious to the best interests of the producers: 1st. In companies having such special privileges granted them as enable them, after obtaining large subsidies and stock subscriptions from individuals, corporations and counties, to depreciate the value of stock to such an extent as to enable an interested ring to secure the entire control of the road and deprive those who aided in 143

Page  144 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. its construction, by furnishing funds, from having any voice in the management of it. Then giving this ring the power to build and equip the road at a fictitious cost, the profits of which go into their own pockets, and farther permitting them, in order to have large dividends, to compel the producer, consumer and traveler to pay excessive fare and freight on such road. 2d. In permitting the consolidation of what should be rival lines in our State, inasmuch as such action is contrary to public policy in building strong monopolies which defy competition, facilitates the charging of exorbitant rates and discriminates unjustly in favor of or against localities, and enables such monopolies to attain their objects, by introducing in our legislative and judicial halls, and by the use of our safeguards for their own selfish ends, to carry out a policy which builds up the carrier at the expense of the producer or consumer. Farmers should encourage the opening and establishing of new routes, under proper restrictions, and retain controlling interest in them. Canals from interior points to communicate with our navigable streams should be constructed; narrow-gauge railways, so much cheaper in construction and operation than the present broad-gauge, are well adapted to cheap transportation, and would help meet the exigencies required. All farmers, as well as Patrons of Husbandry, should unite in an effort to secure a reduction of freight and fare and charges on inland as well as ocean routes, and withhold their voice, their votes and subscription from all transporting corporations which will not agree that such uniform, equitable rates shall be fixed by the State authorities as will afford a fair remuneration to them, and, at the same time, will not be an oppressive burden to the producer and consumer. Another and true way to correct and alleviate the present trouble and assist the producer of this State, would be to create a home consumption for our products by encouraging and drawing to us manufactories. These, by affording us consumers at home, would do away with all need of transportation of much that is now surplus. If a moiety of the subsidies, by farmers to railroads in this State, had been invested in manufactories, our population would have been so increased that the home market for produce would be double what it is now. If the demand for transportation was curtailed this much, the surplus we have to spare would find a ready market at compensating rates. The subject of oceanic and internal transportation is of such a varied nature and of such vast importance, that your committee have approached it with reluctance. Especially as the whole subject is now in the hands of the special committee of the United States Senate, who, with a great deal of care and considerable expense, are now gathering facts and statistics to make a report which will, no doubt, be made public in time to enable us to derive as much or more real information and benefit therefrom, than from any report your committee, with the limited means at their command, could possibly make. The agriculturists of this as well as other States, may justly complain of the unequal burdens imposed upon them for the support of State and Federal governments, while they receive no more, and in many cases not near so much, care and protection from the Govern 144

Page  145 INEQUALITY OF TAXATION. ment as other industries; yet the statistics show the producers (we include in this class, the farmer, the stockman, the fruit-grower and the mechanic), either directly or indirectly, pay nearly all the taxes that are required for the machinery of the Government. Our lands are taxed, our stock is taxed, our crops are taxed, our improvements are taxed, and in addition to this we pay most of the tax and tariff which is required by the Government from manufacturers. We pay in addition to the cost of transportation on all articles which are brought from abroad, whether of luxury or comfort, the revenue which the Government receives from their importation. The capitalist who has money invested in bonds or other securities, or is engaged in manufactures, compels the party who uses or consumes the same to pay all the tax which is imposed on him, so that it matters not to him how excessive or onerous the tariff may be. All he has to do is to add the percentage necessary to cover this expense and collect it without diminishing his profits. The Government has fallen into the hands of the consumers rather than the producers of the country, and per consequence a system of unjust discrimination has been adopted and carried out, which makes the producers mere hewers of wood and drawers of water, to their more favored fellow citizens. This state of affairs has been brought about mainly by the fact that the producers, as a class, have had their time so occupied with the attention necessary to the successful management of the particular industry in which they are engaged, that they could not or have not taken that active part in the administration and control of State and National affairs which they should. Demagogues have usurped power; chicanery and fraud have been successfully used to control the masses; party tactics and selfish intrigue have been permitted to usurp the place of brain and muscle. The remedy for this is for the producers to arouse from their lethargy, to awake from their slumbers, and not only assist but carry out the measures necessary to reform these abuses. Let their power be seen, and felt, and heard in every part of our Governmnent; in the administration of their local affairs, in our legislative forums, in our judicial halls. Let the mechanics and farmers see to it that none but good, honest and true men fill our State and county offices, none but the true representatives of our interests appear for us either in our State or National capital, men who are closely identified with the bone and sinew of the land, who have suffered from the same ills as ourselves, who have felt the crushing, grinding power of the monopolies which have weighed us down. We respectfully submit as the most practical way to accomplish these objects and secure the reforms we need, that such legislation shall be had as will make in each county the District Attorney exofficio chairman of the Board of Supervisors, with the power to veto all appropriations made by the Board for the payment of moneys which in his judgment are illegal or not actually necessary for public uses. The District Attorney to be liable on his official bond for any malfeasance in office while acting as Chairman of the Boards. This, we believe, would effectually check the extravagant and illegal appropriations so often made, and provide for the impartial action of bodies which combine the functions of the legislative, judicial 10 I 145 I

Page  146 * ANNALS OF STATE GRAYGE OF CALIFOPRNIA. and executive branches of government without, in many cases, being able to properly discharge the duties of either. Again, believing as we do, that the subject of freights and fares of railroads should be controlled by the Legislature, their rights to do so having generally been admitted under those powers which give the States the right to compel common carriers to establish reasonable rates of freight or fare (the Supreme Court of Minnesota has so decided, and the statutes of New York and Massachusetts expressly declare it), we, therefore, propose that our Legislature at its next session, do establish a uniform standard of fares and freights on the railroads and steamboats of this State, which shall give a reasonable and just remuneration for the distance traveled and service performed. These rates to be conclusive and absolute, but subject to revision at specified times by the Legislature, and that a commission of three or five tax-paying citizens be appointed by the Legislature, whose duty shall be executive and supervisory, to whom shall be referred all matters of controversy growing out of any illegal charges, or arbitrary and oppressive acts on the part of railways or steamers, and who shall see that these carriers comply with the requirements of their charters, and perform all the services for which they were created. The commission would afford protection and redress to every individual having dealings with the companies, without obliging them to apply to the courts at great expense or delay. In order to secure more uniform and equal taxation, we recommend that the duties enjoined upon our assessors be more definite and specific, and penalties be inflicted upon them when it can be shown that they have made unfair or unjust discrimination in fixing valuation or assessing land and property in the same locality, or when they consent to receive any special favors from large property holders or tax payers, even if it is but a railroad pass. We recommend that our representatives, both at Sacramento and at Washington, be petitioned to interfere in our behalf, and redress our grievances by carrying out the measures proposed, or if the plans suggested are not practicable, or will not have the desired effect, let them devise some other way by which taxation shall be reduced and made uniform and equal; freight and fares be regulated so as to prevent unjust discrimination and oppressive rates; additional facilities for transportation be encouraged and built up, and the agricultural and mechanical industries of our country receive more fostering care from the heads of our government. Adopted. J. M. HAMILTON, T. H. MERvY, G. W. HENNING. The Committee on Irrigation reported as follows: We find it impracticable at this time, even if we wished to do so, to report the draft for a bill for presentation to the Legislature of this State, providing for a general system of supplying water for irrigating, mining, and other purposes. The draft for such a bill, is, from the nature and novelty of the subject to be treated, a work difficult in itself, and requiring, in its proper execution, a more accurate judgment, greater skill and a more thorough knowledge of leg 146

Page  147 PREPORT OF IRRIGATION COMMITTEE. islation than your committee feel that they possess. After mature deliberation, we have reached the conviction that a general bill, applicable to the whole State, can, and ought to be prepared, perfected, and enacted into a law, having for its objects the utilizing of all the inland waters of the State, and their uniform and equitable division and distribution, under the authority and control of the State, among the actual land owners of the State, regardless of whether such lands yield to the hand of industry precious metals only, or the less precious, but far more indispensable article of bread. And to accomplish these ends we recommend the appointment of a committee by this State Grange, to be composed of five members, with authority to prepare, or cause to be prepared, the draft for a bill to be presented to the next Legislature, and in that regard to expend such sums of money as they shall deem to be necessary; and we further recommend that the several Subordinate Granges of this State shall petition the next Legislature of California for the enactment of a general law, having for its design the carrying into effect the objects above mentioned. Recognizing the natural division of our seasons into dry and rainy, and that the farmers of the State are wholly dependent for remunerative crops upon a sufficient supply of water-and recognizing and looking fully in the face the further fact, that nearly all of the inland waters of the State, available for the purposes of irrigation, are now under either the practical or asserted control of corporations, or confederated capital, in some form, we earnestly recommend the adoption of the following declaration of principles, as expressive of our purposes in that regard: 1st. We hold that the inland waters of this State, not claimed by the general government for navigation purposes, its lakes, rivers and streams, are, and of right ought to be, the property of the State, or of the people thereof, subject to their use and control, through their creature, the Legislature of the State, and that each inhabitant of the State is of right as much entitled to the use and benefit of his equitable proportion of the inland waters of the State as he is to a sufficiency of the free air of heaven. 2d. That the asserted proposition, that a few, or any number of men, can, under the for ms a~p- 1HNiiea.a corporation, lay claim to, and hold, as private property, the first riglit, o-'r-exdsive privilege to use, for their own gain, to the impoverishment of t-h -- eral public, any of the inland waters of this State, is false. That it is indefensible in law or equity, and an unblushing outrage on the people, and especially the farmers of this State. 3d. That it is not only the right, but the duty of the Legislature of this State, to at once take and retain the control of all the inland waters of this State, and by a general law, so far as it does not conflict with any of the rights of the general government, provide the mode and means for dividing and surveying the whole State into Irrigation Districts, and of distributing under fixed, equitable rules, the waters of each District among the land and mine owners thereof, whose land and mines are susceptible of being advantageously supplied with water. That the State should pay the cost of laying out and surveying the several districts; that the lands and mines of each district, susceptible of being advantageously supplied with wa 147

Page  148 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE (OF CALIFORNIA. ter, should, by a tax levied thereon, pay for the construction of, and keeping in repair, the canals and other means of conveying the water, and for that purpose each district should be authorized to issue its bonds. And further, that in order to secure the inhabitants of this State in their right to the use of the inland waters therein, the Legislature should, at its next session, provide a way for conldemning every and all actual asserted or pretended prior right, privilege or franchise to, or in the use of any of the inland waters of this State whether held or claimed by individuals or corporations, and the same should be condemned to the public use of supplying the lands and mines of this State with water, and the price of the thing condemned should be paid out of the District fund. All of which is respectfully submitted. H. B. JOLLEY, WMI. M. JACRSON, EDWIN B. STILES. Brother Stiles offeredr the following resolutions: Resolved-lst. That the Committee on Irrigation proceed, immediately after the adjournment of this State Grange, to provide or cause to be provided, for presentation to the Legislature of the State of California, at its coming session, a bill founded upon the general principles laid down in their report, this day offered to the State Grange, providing for a general system of Irrigation throughout the State. 2d. That the said Committee be, and are hereby instructed, to provide printed petitions asking the Legislature to pass a law for a General System of Irrigation throughout the State, and cause the same to be distributed throughout the State to the Subordinate Granges, and that each Subordinate Grange be requested to appoint a committee to circulate the same, and obtain the largest amount of signatures possible to the same, and that the same be returned to the Worthy Secretary of the State Grange, prior to the 25th day of November, 1873, and by him returned to the Committee on Irrigation. 3d. That it be made the special duty of each Master of Subordinate Granges to. impress upon the members of his Grange the great importance of immediate action; to the end that any bill presented to the Legislature may have the full benefit of all the influence which this State Grange can exert, and an influence which even political demagogues dare not disregard. On Friday, 17th, the election of officers for the ensuing two years was held, and resulted as follows: Master-J. M. Hamilton, Guenoc, Lake County. Overseer-O. L. Abbott, Santa Barbara. Lecturer-J. W. A. Wright, Turlock, Stanislaus County. Steward-N. L. Allen, Salinas. Asssistant Steward -Wm. M. Jackson, Woodland. Chaplain-I. C. Gardner, Grayson. Treasurer —V. A. Fisher, Napa. Secretary-W. H. Baxter, Napa. Gate Keeper-R. R. Warder, Waterford, Stanislaus County. Ceres -MIrs, G. W. Davis, Santa Rosa. Pomona-M'Irs. S. C. Baxter, 148

Page  149 PRESENTATION TO BRO. GARRETSON. Napa. Flora- irs. R. S. Hegeler, Bodega. Lady Assistant Steward-Nlrs. S. WI. Gardner. A recess was ordered, during which Worthy Master elect, on behalf of committee appointed for that purpose, presented to Bro. N. W. Garretson, Deputy Master of National Grange, a beautiful silver service, as a testimonial of appreciation and fraternal regard. Bro. Garretson responded briefly as follows: Accepting then this precious offering as a testimonial, not only of your loyalty to the principles that I officially represent, but also of your kind appreciation of my feeble services in their establishment on this coast, I tender you in the name of the National Grange of our Order, and also in my own behalf, unaffected and unmeasured thanks. I shall preserve with care this gift, that is rendered thrice precious by the recollections of this day, and the noble patronhood of (California. With this valued token of your regards I shall soon pass your great mountain chain, from the lofty summit of which I may for the last time look into the valleys of this coast; the abodes of those I have learned to love so well. The thought of parting with them saddens me, even now, for I shall leave my heart behind. I shall go from you to gather with the patron hosts of the great Mississippi Valley, to join in their harvest song and to sit down at their harvest feasts. Then, I will speak of you, and of your loving hearts, and words of cheer. And when old winter shall gather about him the northern winds, and sweep down in snowy tempests upon my prairie home, I will gather my little ones around the. fireside and talk of this coast. I will tell them of the loving and generous dwellers here, and how pained I was to part with them. I will show them this beautiful cane, from the brothers of the State Grange of Oregon, and also these jewels, the gift of my sisters there. I will then point to this solid silver bar, the product of your own fair State and the valued and valuable testimonial of your regards, and before laying my little ones down to sleep, and while their infant lips are employed with their evening prayer they will think of you (and lisp my father's friends). And when months and years shall have come and gone, and I perchance shall be forgotten here, if in the stillness of the night, you should hear whispered at your pillow in accents of gratitude and love a friendly presence near-be not afraid, for it will be me. God bless you. The silver service was all of modern style and of exquisitely wrought patterns, consisting of forty-three pieces, the whole laid in a large and substantial leather-bound case. In addition to this was a butter dish which attracted much attention for its elegance and novelty of construction. After recess the Grange proceeded to elect an Executive Committee for the ensuing term, as follows: J. 31. Hamilton, W. M., chairman, Lake county; J. G. Gard .149

Page  150 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. ner, Stanislaus county; J. C. Merryfield, Solano county; H. B. Jolley, Merced county; Thos. A. Garey, Los Angeles county; G. W. Colby, Butte county; A. B. Nally, Sonoma county. The following resolutions, offered by W. H. Baxter, were adopted: Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed on the subject of agricultural education. Said committee to inquire particularly into the Agricultural Department of the State University-what improvements, if any, should be made, and what legislation, if any, is required to secure to the farmers of the State the full benefits of the Agricultural College grant. Resolved, That the true meaning and intent of the Congressional grant (see Act of eighteen hundred and sixty-two), was to establish primarily, "Agricultural" or "Mechanics Arts" Colleges, and that the funds derived therefrom should be first applied to these purposes, and that the State should render such aid as may be necessary. Such colleges should be mainly under the control of men engaged in these pursuits, and should be practical as well as theoretical. J. W. A. Wright, W. H. Baxter, and 0. L. Abbott, were appointed on this committee. The Grange then proceeded to the installation of officers. Previous to the ceremony of installation, a richly-mounted gold-headed cane was presented to Worthy Master Wright, by the Executive Committee, as a token of fraternal regard and appreciation of his services. In retiring, Worthy Master J. W. A. Wright, spoke —-as follows: Having been called to labor in another portion of the field, and while I am willing to serve you wherever I can, I confess to a feeling of no small relief, now that I surrender into most competent hands the very trying and laborious duties of Master of the State Grange of California. And to you, my brother, who relieve me, I would say: We are not yet safe beyond the dangerous shores of our harbor. Keep a sharp look-out for hidden rocks and reefs. We are on a treacherous coast for so large a ship as ours. Storms may arise at any hour. But when they come, stand at the helm, and see that all our officers and crew shall do their duty. I am sure you will. You will find that our ship is staunch and true. Be vigilant that none come on board who have no right to be in our counsels. Should any come who have no right to be here, let them understand that if you find they are the cause of any storms likely to prevent a safe voyage, you will make Jonahs of them all. MIay success attend your efforts, our brother from Oregon, in the new field over which you have been called to preside. Assure our brothers of your jurisdiction, when you return to them, that the 150

Page  151 A LECTURE ON EDUCATION. Patrons of California will cordially co-operate with them in any measures that can secure our mutual interests. Your welfare is ours. Success and happiness attend you, our brother from Iowa, on your return to a joyous home. May your useful life long be spared, that you may continue to labor, as we are sure you have among us, with an eye single to the good of our Order. To you, brothers and sisters of San Jose Grange, we return our thanks for the courtesies you have shown us during our session. With all my heart, I thank you for the handsome and valued testimonial of your regard. To all of you, my brother officers and friends, at this parting hour, my feelings go out in earnest sympathy and fraternal love, strengthened by the memories of the past. Believe me, I shall ever be willing to labor with you in any part of our symbolic field for the successful accomplishment of our purposes. Let us remember, my brothers and sisters, "a good name is rather to be chosen than great riches, and loving favor rather than silver and gold." Accept my thanks for all your fraternal kindness toward ine. God bless and preserve you all, and grant continued prosperity to our cause. Brother, I cheerfully transfer to you the gavel, as Master of the State Grange of California. Worthy Master Hamilton made some feeling and appropriate remarks on taking his seat. Dr. E. S. Carr, Professor of Agriculture of the California State University, (Worthy Lecturer of Temescal Grange), gave an interesting address, a portion only of which we are permitted to present to our readers: In coming before the Patrons of Husbandry, I lay down the role of instructor, and sit as a learner in the common school of experience -as a fellow laborer with you for a common end, viz: the advancement of the industrial classes. I have been about the State a good deal in pursuance of my duties as Agricultural Professor in the People's University, finding more opportunities to learn than to teach, and I have learned much of the difficulties you have to contend with; perhaps I have seen more plainly than you could yourselves that the greatest was the lack of ready, trained intelligence in meeting those difficulties, or in other words, allowing the brains of others to use your hands for their own, rather than your benefit. Here as elsewhere, labor has been a blind giant, conscious of his strength, yet impotent to use it for his own advantage. And here as elsewhere, the giant's eyes are opened at last, to see how little mere strength is worth, without skill to direct and utilize it. Dr. Carr then proceeded to show that "education" must go into the ballot, before the laboring man, even in America, could maintain his personal and industrial rights; because it is the key to order and organization. Intellectual faculty is capital; it is a blessed and most hopeful sign of the times that men are organizing everywhere, not only for relief and protection, but for improvement and social unity. The speaker drew a vivid picture of the disabilities of agricultural 151

Page  152 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. laborers in England, and showed how much they had already accomplished by peaceable co-operation. Chancellor Lowe struck the key-note of their position, when he said in the British Parliament: "Let us educate our new masters." D'Israeli, speaking of the first efforts of this patient, long-suffering class toward their own emancipation, said: "We have long been mortgaging industry to protect property, and the hour of foreclosure has come." The great watchwords of the time are education and association. Both these desiderata are fully recognized in this organization, so unprecedented in its growth, so beneficent in its aims, so wide reaching in its influence. Of all combinations originating under strong necessities for resistance, it is the least revolutionary, the most patient and progressive. It is no part of our business to foster enmities and widen differences between capital and labor-but on the contrary to learn how these can be associated into a true equality. Capital in the hands of educated labor is not one tool, but many, the grandest piece of its complex machinery. The increasing subdivision and specialization of labor is a sufficient guaranty that the principles of co-operation will never work adversely to the interests of capital. These views were amply and variously presented and illustrated in their educational, political and social aspects. While the Granges would never become political in a narrow and partisan sense, any more than churches are, the speaker said he believed they were destined to become an immense power in the purification of our politics by carrying into them a higher sense of responsibility, and the more direct and constant influence of our best womanhood. Resolutions complimentary to Bro. Daniel Clark, W. M. of Oregon, and to Bro. N. W. Garretson, Deputy of the National Grange, Patrons of Husbandry, were unanimously adopted. t was moved by J. W. A. Wright that the State Grange of California include in its memorial to Congress a petition for the requisite appropriations to improve the navigation of the Columbia and Willamette rivers, as such improvement is absolutely necessary to relieve the farmers, who depend upon them as commercial avenues, from the oppression of existing monopolists. Adopted. The following resolutions were also offered by Bro. Wright: Resolved, That the State Grange of California is in full sympathy with the mission to this country of IMr. Joseph Arch of England, and that we cordially invite him to visit our Pacific Coast with a view to bringing among us immigrants from the laboring classes of Europe, whom he represents. Resolved, That the Committee on Immigration be instructed to communicate this invitation to Mr. Joseph Arch, and report his answer to the Executive Committee. Adopted. State Agent, G. P. Kellogg, and Mr. Walcott, of- E. E. 152

Page  153 CONSTITUTION. Morgan's Sons, were present, by invitation, during a recess in the evening, and enjoyed a social interview, after which the State Grange was formally adjourned. CHAPTER XIII. CONSTITUTION OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE, PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. ARTICLE I.-This Grange shall be known and designated as the California State Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry. ARTICLE II.-The membership of the State Grange shall consist of Masters of the Subordinate Granges and their wives, who are Matrons. Past Masters and their wives who are Matrons, are honorary members, and are eligible to hold office, but not entitled to vote. ARTICLE III.-Section 1. The officers of State or Subordinate Granges shall consist of and rank as follows: Master, Overseer, Lecturer, Steward, Assistant Steward, Chaplain, Treasurer, Secretary, Gate Keeper, Ceres, Pomona, Flora, and Lady Assistant Steward. It is their duty to see that the laws of the Order are carried out. Sec. 2. In the Subordinate Granges they shall be chosen annually; in the State Grange once in two years. All elections to be by ballot, and a majority shall elect. Vacancies by death or resignation to be filled at a special election at th e next regular meeting thereof-officers so chosen to serve until the annual meeting. Sec. 3. There shall be an Executive Committee of the State Grange, consisting of six members, whose term of office shall be two years, three of whom shall be elected each year. Sec. 4. The officers of the respective Granges shall be addressed as "Worthy." ARTICLE IV.-The State Grange shall hold its regular annual meetings on the first Tuesday in October, at such place as the Grange may from time to time determine. Special meetings may be called by the Executive Committee, by giving written notice to each Subordinate GraNige, thirty days preceding, or by a vote of the Grange at a regular meeting. ARTICLE V.-Section 1. One third of all Subordinate Granges entitled to representation, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Sec. 2. The Ritual adopted by the National Grange, shall be used in all Subordinate Granges, and any desired alteration in the same must be submitted to, and receive the sanction of the National Grange. ARTICLE VI.-Section 1. Any person interested in agricultural pursuits, of the age of sixteen years (female), and eighteen years (male), duly proposed, elected, and complying with the rules and regulations of the Order, may be admitted to membership and the benefit of the degrees taken. Every application must be accompanied by the fee of membership. If rejected, the money will be refunded. Applications must be certified by members, and balloted for at a subsequent meeting. It shall require three negative votes to reject an applicant. Sec. 2. No member who is not actually engaged in agricultural pursuits, shall hold office in this Grange. Sec. 3. No person shall hold at one time more than one office provided for by this Constitution. ARITICLE VII.-The minimum fee for membership in a Subordinate Grange shall be, for men, five dollars, and for women, two dollars, for the four degrees, except charter members, who shall pay —men, three dollars, and women, fifty cents. ARTICLE VIII.-Section 1. The minimum of regular monthly dues shall be ten cents from each member, and each Grange may otherwise regulate its own dues. Sec. 2. The Secretary of each Subordinate Grange shall report quarterly to the Secretary of the State Grange, the names of all persons initiated or passed to higher degrees. Sec. 3. The Treasurer of each Subordinate Grange shall report quarterly; and pay to the Treasurer of the State Grange the sum of one dollar for each man, and 153

Page  154 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. fifty cents for each woman initiated during that quarter; also, a quarterly due of six cents for each member. Sec. 4. The Secretary of the State Grange shall report quarterly to the Secre tary of the National Grange the membership in this State, and the degrees con ferred during the quarter. Sec. 5. The Treasurer of the State Grange shall deposit to the credit of the National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry with some Banking or Trust Company in New York, (to be selected by the Executive Committee,) in quarterly install ments, the annual due of ten cents for each member in this State, and forward the receipts for the same to the Treasurer of the National Grange. Sec. 6. All moneys deposited with said company shall be paid out only upon the drafts of the Treasurer signed by the Master, and countersigned by the Secre tary. Sec. 7. No State Grange shall be entitled to representation in the National Grange, whose dues are unpaid for more than one quarter. Sec. 8. The fiscal year of this and Subordinate Granges shall commence on the first day of January, and end on the last day of December in each year. ARTICLE IX.-Section 1. Reports from subordinate Granges relative to crops, implements, stock, or any other matters called for by the National Grange, must be certified to by the Master and Secretary, and under seal of the Grange giving the same. Sec. 2. All printed matter on whatever subject, and all information issued by the National or State to Subordinate Granges, shall be made known to the mem bers without unnecessary delay. Sec. 3. If any brothers or sisters of the Order are sick, it shall be the duty of the Patrons to visit them, and see that they are well provided with all things need ful. Sec. 4. Any member found guilty of wanton cruelty to animals shall be expelled from the order. Sec. 5. The officers of Subordinate Granges shall be on the alert in devising means by which the interests of the whole Order may be advanced; but no plan of work shall be adopted by State or Subordinate Granges without first submit ting it to, and receiving the sanction of, the National Grange. ARTICLE X.-Section 1. All charters and dispensations issue directly from the National Grange. Sec. 2. Ninle men and four women having received the four Subordinate De grees, may receive a dispensation to organize a Subordinate Grange. Sec. 3. Applications for dispensations shall be made to the Secretary of the National Grange, and be signed by the persons applying for the same, and be ac companied by a fee of fifteen dollars. Sec. 4. Charter members are those persons only whose names are upon the ap plication, and whose fees were paid at the time of organization. Their number shall not be less than nine men and four women, nor more than twenty men and ten women. Sec. 5. Fifteen Subordinate Granges working in a State, can apply for authority to organize a State Gra-vge. Sec. 6. When State Granges are organized, dispensations will be replaced by charters, issued without further fee. Sec. 7. All charters must pass through the State Granges for record, and receive the seal and official signatures of the same. Sec. 8. No Grange shall confer more than one degree (either First, Second, Third or Fourth) at the same meeting. Sec. 9. After a State Grange is organized, all applications for charters must pass through the same and be approved by the Master and Secretary. ArTICLE XI.-The duties of the officers of the State and Subordinate Granges shall be prescribed by the laws of the same. ARTICLE 12.-Section 1. The Treasurers of the State and Subordinate Granges shall give bonds to be approved by the officers of their respective Granges. Sec. 2. In all Granges bills must be approved by the Master, and countersigned ' by the Secretary, before the Treasurer can pay the same. ARTICLE XIII.-Religious or political questions will not be tolerated as subjects of discussion in the work of the Order, and no political or religious tests for membership shall be applied. ARTICLE XIV.-AAny brother or sister who is in good standing, clear of the books of the Grange, and who has attained to the Fourth Degree, is entitled to a 154

Page  155 BY-LAWS OF CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE. withdrawal-card, upon the payment of the sum of one dollar. Persons bearing .uch cards may be admitted, without additional fees, to membership in another Subordinate Grange, but shall be subject to the same form of petition, examination and ballot, as those first applying for membership, except that a majority vote shall elect them. ATrCTILE XV.-Persons making application for membership in our Order shall apply to the Subordinate Grange nearest to them, unless good and sufficient reasons exist for doing otherwise. In such cases, the Grange to which application is made, shall judge the reasons, and may consult the Grange nearest the applicant. ARTIcLE XVI.-It shall be lawful for Subordinate Granges to form themselves into Councils for the purpose of facilitating the transaction of business, buying, selling and shipping, or such other purposes as may seem for the good of the Order. They shall be governed, and the membership regulated, by such laws as the Council may, from time to time, make, not in conflict with the Constitutions of the National and State Granges. They may elect a business agent to act in concert with the Executive Committee; and it shall be their duty to inform the Master of any irregularities practiced by Deputies within their jurisdiction. ARTICLE XVII.-Section 1. The Executive Committee shall be empowered to try and suspend from office any officer of the State Grange who may prove inefficient or derelict in the discharge of his duty-subject to appeal to the ensuing session of the State Grange. Sec. 2. A MIaster of a Subordinate Grange is amenable to a Court constituted by the Grange of which he is a member, and an appeal lays from such Court to the State Grange. ARTrcLE XVIII.-.This Constitution may be amended at any regular meeting of the State Grange, provided that any proposed amendment shall have been presented to the Executive Committee, and by it reported to the Masters of Subordinate Granges, three months previous to the meeting of the State Grange. BY-LAWS OF THE CALIFORNIA STATE GRANGE. ARTICLE I.-Section 1. It shall be the duty of the Master to preside at all meetings of the Grange; to see that all officers and members of committees properly perform their respective duties; to see that the Constitution of the National Grange, the By-Laws of this State Grange, and the usages of the Order, are observed and obeyed; to sign all drafts upon the Treasury, and to perform all other duties usually pertaining to such office. Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of Masters of Subordinate Granges to take charge of all books and papers containing the work of the Order, private instructions, etc., and they shall not allow the same out of their possession, except for use in the Grange. Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of the Overseer to assist the Master in preserving order; to preside over the Grange in the absence of the Master, and in case of the vacancy of the office of Master, he shall fill the same until the next annual meeting. Sec. 4. The duties of Lecturer shall be such as usually devolve upon that officer in a Subordinate Grange. He shall also visit Subordinate Granges throughout the State, when requested to do so by the Executive Committee. Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the Steward to have charge of the inner Gate, and perform such other duties as are required by the Ritual. Sec. 6. The Assistant Steward shall assist the Steward in the performance of his duties. Sec. 7. The Secretary shall keep an accurate record of all proceedings of the Grange, make out all necessary returns to the National Grange, keep the accounts of the Subordinate Granges with the State Grange, and pay over quarterly to the. Treasurer all moneys coming into his hands and take his receipt for the same. He shall also keep a complete register of the namies and numbers of all Subordinate Granges, and the names and addresses of Masters and Secretaries. Sec. 8. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to receive all moneys, giving his receipt for the same; to keep an accurate occount thereof, and pay all orders of the Grange signed by the Master and Secretary; to render a full account of his 155

Page  156 ANNALS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. office at each annual meeting, and deliver to his successor in office all moneys, books and papers pertaining to his office; and he shall give bonds in a sufficient amount to secure the money thiat may be placed in his hands-said bonds to be approved by the Executive Committee. Sec. 9. The Treasurer (,f each Subordinate Grange shall report quarterly, and shall pay to the Secretary of the State Grange the sum of one dollar for each man and fifty cents for each woman initiated during the quarter; also a quarterly due of six cents for each member. He shall send at the same time a duplicate of his report to the Secretary of the State Grange. The Treasurer of the State Grange shall send a receipt to Treasurers of Subordinate Granges, and a duplicate to the Secretary of the State Grange. Sec. 10. The Treasurer of the State Grange shall keep his balance with the Grangers' Bank of California. Sec. 11. The Treasurers and Secretaries of Subordinate Granges shall file copies of their quarterly reports certified by the Master. Sec. 12. The Gate Keeper shall see that the Gates are properly guarded, and shall have charge of all property committed to his keeping. ARTICLE II.-Section 1. All Committees, unless otherwise ordered, shall consist of three members, and shall be appointed-two by the Master and one by the Overseer. All Committees shall be composed of both brothers and sisters, unless otherwise specially provided. Sec. 2. At the regular annual meeting a Committee on Finance shall be appointed, whose duty it shall be to audit all accounts previous to their being paid. To them shall be referred the reports of the Secretary and Treasurer for examination. Sec. 3. The Executive Committee shall consist of the Master, who shall be Chairman, and six members elected by ballot, who shall hold office for two years, three being elected each year. But no two shall be elected from the same county. They shall have authority to act on all matters of interest to the Order, when the State Grange is not in session; shall provide for the welfare of the Order in business matters, and shall report their acts in detail to the State Grange on the first day of its annual meeting. They shall also make such report at special meetings of the State Grange as the good of the Order may demand. Sec. 4. The Executive Committee shall hold its regular meetings quarterly on the first Tuesday of January, April, July and October. ARTICLE III.-The Secretary shall see that the quarterly dues of the Subordinate Granges are promptly paid, and in case the dues remain delinquent two quarters, the delinquent Grange shall be reported to the Master of the State Grange. On receiving such notice it shall be the duty of the Master to warn the delinquent Grange, and if the dues are not forwarded in thirty days, the Master shall advise the Master of the National Grange of such delinquency, and recommend the revocal of the charter of the delinquent Grange; and any Grange whose charter has been thus revoked may petition the State Grange for re-instatement. ARTICLE IV.-Subordinate Granges shall defray the expenses of their delegates to the State Grange. ARTICLE V.-The Master of the State Grange shall appoint at least one deputy in each county, where a proper person can be found, who is a Master or Past Master, whose duty it shall be to organize new Granges, upon application being made to him by proper persons residing in his district; to install officers of Granges when the same have been elected; and to be vigilant that no disorder shall obtain in the Grange under his jurisdiction, and to promptly report any such disorder to the Master. They shall have exclusive jurisdiction in their respective districts, and their rulings on questions of law and points of order shall be respected, until overruled by the Master of the State Grange. They shall receive for organizing new Granges their necessary expenses. They shall be appointed for one year, subject to removal for cause by the Master. No other Granges shall hereafter be recognized except those organized by Deputies as herein specified, excepting only those organized by the Master of the State Grange, or one especially deputized by him. ARTICLE VI.-Section 1. An appeal may be taken from the decision of the Master of a Subordinate Grange to the District Deputy, and from thence to the Master of the State Grange. Sec. 2. On trials, an appeal from the judgment of a Subordinate Grange, lies to the State Grange, and must be presented to the Executive Committee at least ten days prior to the meeting of the State Grange. 156

Page  157 RULES OF ORDER. AnTICLE VII.-Section 1. Any member of a Subordinate Grange, who may wish to change his pursuit, or enter into new business relations which may bring him in conflict with the interests of the Grange, must first obtain consent of his Grange. Sec. 2. Persons holding a membership in any Subordinate Grange within this jurisdiction, who may so change their pursuit, or become so associated in business relation that their pecuniary interests are in conflict with the interests of the Order, or with the attainment of any of the objects of this Order, shall be deemed to have forfeited their membership in the Grange. And it shall be the duty of any Subordinate Grange in which such person may hold membership, upon written complaint and charge being made by ten members of ths Order, to institute an investigation of such sharge; and if upon investigation it shall appear that it is founded upon facts, said Subordinate Grange shall without delay expel such unworthy person from its fellowship, giving thereof the notice required by law. Sec. 3. It is further provided that if any member of our Order shall reflect disgrace upon the same by grossly immoral or improper conduct, or if his acts shall show that he is in sympathy with our enenmies, and is disposed to obstruct or defeat the work of our Order, rather than aid in the attainment of its objects, such person shall be adjudged to have forfeited his membership, and upon proof being made of his guilt, he shall be expelled from the Grange. Sec. 4. Upon the filing with the Master of any Subordinate Grange the complaint of ten members of our Order, specifically charging that any member of his Grange is guilty of a violation of any of the provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this article, it shall be his duty to investigate, without delay, the ground upon which such charges are made, using reasonable diligence to bring the offender to trial thereon, and notifying said complainants and defendants of the time and place at which said investigation will by had. Sec. 5. It is further provided that, should any Subordinate Grange with which a complaint is filed, as provided in Section 3 of this Article, refuse to entertain said complaint, or neglect to bring its accused member to a speedy trial thereon, it shall thereby forfeit its membership in this body, with all benefits accruing therefrom; and it shall be the duty of the Master of the State Grange to recommend to the Master of the National Grange, the revocation of the charter of said offending Grange. Sec. 6. An accused party shall have one week's notice of the time at which a Committee of Investigation will be raised, and all such Committees shall be elected by ballot. Sec. 7. Secretaries of Subordinate Granges shall report to the Secretary of this Grange the names of all persons expelled from their respective Granges, and he shall report the same quarterly to all Subordinate Granges in the State. ARTICLE VIII. A ballot on application for membership in a Subordinate Grange, may be reconsidered at any time prior to initiation, immediately upon application of three members, or after one week's notice by one member. ARTICLE IX.-These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting of this Grange by a vote of two thirds of the members present. PRULES OF ORDER. 1. When the presiding officer takes the chair, the officers and members shall take their respective stations, and at the sound of the gavel there shall be a general silence. The Grange shall then proceed to open in regular form. 2. No question shall be stated unless moved by two members, or be open for consideration unless stated by the Master. And when a question is before the Grange no motion shall be received, unless to close; to lay on the table; the previous question; to postpone; to refer, or to amend. They shall have precedence in the order in which they are arranged, the first three of which shall be decided without debate. 3. Any member may call for a division of a question when the sense of it will permit. 4. The yeas and nays shall be ordered by the Master, on the call of any member, duly seconded. 157

Page  158 ANNXXIAS OF STATE GRANGE OF CALIFORNIA. 5. After any question (except of indefinite postponement) has been decided, any member who voted in the majority may, at the same or next meeting, move for a reconsideration thereof; but no discussion of the main question shall be allowed unless reconsidered. 6. No member shall speak more than once on the same subject, until all the members wishing to speak have had an opportunity to do so, or more than twice without permission from'he chair. And no member, while speaking, shall name another by his or her proper name, but shall use the appropriate designation belonging to his or her standing in the Grange. 7. The Master or any other member may call a brother or sister to order while speaking; when the debate shall be suspended, and the brother or sister shall not speak until the point of order be determined, unless to appeal from the chair, when he or she may use the words following, and no others: "Master, I respectfully appeal from the decision of the chair to the Grange." Whereupon the Grange shall proceed to vote on the question: "Will the Grange sustain the decision of the chair?" 8. When a brother or sister intends to speak on a question, he or she shall rise in his or her place and respectfully address his or her remarks to the Worthy Master, confining him or herself to the question, and avoid personality. Should more than one member rise to speak at the same time, the Worthy Master shall determine who is entitled to the floor. 9. When a brother or sister has been called to order by the Worthy Master for the manifestation of temper or improper feeling, he or she shall not be allowed to speak again on the subject under discussion in the Grange, at that meeting, except to apologize. 10. On a call of five members, a majority of the Grange may demand that the previous question shall be put, which shall always be in this form: "Shall the main question now be put?" And untilit is decided shall preclude all amendments to the main question and all further debate. 11. All motions or resolutions offered in the Grange shall be reduced to writing, if required. 12. When standing or special committees are appointed, the individual first named is considered the chairman, although each has a right to elect its own chairman. Committees are required to meet and attend to the matters assigned to them with regularity, and not by separate consultation, or in a loose and indefinite manner. 13. The Worthy Master, by virtue of his office, may attend all meetings of committees, take part in their deliberations (without voting, however), and urge them to action. (In the appointment of commnittees, the Worthy Master, who should ever preserve a courteous and conciliatory deportment to all, not overlooking the humblest member, has many opportunities for bringing humble merit into notice, and of testing and making available the capabilities of those around him. He should carefully avoid both petulancy and favoritism, and act with strict impartiality.) 14. In all cases, not herein provided, "Cushing's Manual" shall be our parliamentary law. 1.58

Page  159 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AT WORK. CHAPTER XIV. BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND-ORGANIZATIONS. AGENCY ESTABLISHED IN SAN FRANCISCO-MR. A. F. WALCOTT APPEARS FOR E. E. MORGAN'S SONS —FIRM ENDORSED BY PROMINENT HOUSES —AGREEMENTSAND PRE CAUTIONS-STATE AGENT-COMPETITION PRODDCES BETTER PRICES-SAVINGS OF THE FIRST YEAR-GRANGERS' BANK MEETING-ORGANIZATION —I)AIPRY AGENCY — STANISLAUS SAVINGS AND LOAN SOCIETY —WVAREIOUSE AT MODESTO —DAVISVILLE GRANGE INCORPORATES —COLUSA COUNTY BANK —WVATERFORD-WVAREHOUSES AND BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS. SHORTLY after the adjournment of the State Grange the Executive Committee met at the Russ House in San Francisco, to carry out one of the most difficult tasks ever undertaken by men unacquainted with each other, and with the modes of carrying out such extensive business transactions in the great commercial centers. They considered it their wisest course to form an alliance with some well established house, and for this purpose various firms were invited to a friendly conference. Among these appeared the old and well known house of E. E. Morgan's Sons, shipping merchants between New York and Liverpool, represented in San Francisco by their local agent and managing partner, Mr. A. F. Walcott. The advantages offered by this firm appeared to the Committee such as to warrant a careful examination into his standing and references. A special committee, consisting of Brothers Mlerryfield, Jolley, and Mayfield, after visiting the London and San Francisco Bank, the Fireman's Fund Insurance Company, and other responsible firms, reported the house of Morganl's Sons as sound and good, with credit at the London and Sani Francisco Bank for half a million of dollars. The arrangements entered into were that the Executive Committee should employ an agent of their own, who should have full access to the books of the shipping firm to examine therein any accounts with Patrons of Husbandry; to all telegraphic and other communications from Liverpool or other markets relative to prices, rates, or other matters bearing on the interests of the farmers, in consideration of which, the committee agreed to use their influence throughout the State to secure the shipping of Patrons' produce through the above mentioned firm. Great care and deliberation was required in the choice of the Grangers' agent, 159

Page  160 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. who must be a thorough business man, and above suspicion. They did not fix upon any one at that session, nor until a circular letter had been sent to each of the Subordinate Granges, asking them to name such parties as were competent and willing to serve. The election fell upon G. P. Kellogg, of Salinas, who qualified by filing bonds to the amount of two hundred thousand dollars, and entered at-once upon his varied and difficult task. Hle took rooms in the building occupied by Morgan's Sons, and immediately put the Granges in possession of all the information commanded by the firm. In order to relieve patrons of limited means, who were compelled to realize at once on their crop, the Executive Committee requested Mr. Walcott to add to his sole business of shipper, that of purchaser, which he promised to do to the extent of twenty or thirty thousand tons. So lively was the competition pushed by the old wheat ring, that in a very few weeks the prices went up even higher than the Liverpool quotations would warrant, and Mir. Walcott, having entered into this competition, extended his purchases from thirty to nearly a hundred thousand tons. The price steadily rose from $1 50 per cental to $2 3721. Meanwhile, the State Agent, watching closely to see that his employers were fairly dealt with, was making favorable terms with dealers in implements and importers, as will be seen in the official reports. MIr. I. G. Gardner, a member of the Executive Commnittee, acted as assistant to Mr. Kellogg, until the resignation of the latter in January, 1874, when the Committee placed Mr. Gardner in full charge, tendering their own security for the faithful performance of his duties. The efficiency with which these obligations were met, is best shown by the footing-up of the operations of the first year, as follows: Amount saved on sacks, $450,000; amount saved on tonnage, at $5 per ton, $3,000,000; amount saved on agricultural implements, $160,000; amount saved on groceries and general merchandise, $200,000; amount saved on grain of 1873-74, at 15 cts. per cental-9,000,000 cenlitals-$1,350,000. Total, $5,160,000. The magnitude of these operations, and the growing confidence of the people in the agency, already warranted the establishment of a Grangers' Bank. Early in April, 1874, the Executive Committee issued a call 160

Page  160A I I

Page  160B .r ~ ~ -,. i..t, -j THEE (JRANGERS' BANK; Offices of Fire Insurance Association and Executive Committee, Corner California and Leidesdorfif Streets, San Francisco. THE GRANGERS' BUSINESS AS 30CIATION, orro of Market a(nd Fremiont Streets, Sain Francisco.

Page  161 SHIPPING IN BULK. for a convention, to consider ways and means to give greater unity and efficiency to their business operations. On the 21st, two hundred delegates, representing one hundred and thirty-one Granges, met in San Francisco, for a comparison of views. After a full discussion, it was Resolved-That a general svstem of banks and warehouses, with a central bank in San Francisco, is an absolute necessity for the future success of the Order." A committee of seven was appointed to prepare a plan of organization, which was substantially the same as that afterward adopted. $500,000 was subscribed to the capital stock, which was fixed at $5,000,000, in 50,000 shares of $100 each. It was resolved to incur no expense until after $100,000 should have actually been paid in by the stockholders. The committee on warehousing reported a plan for the establishment of a general warehouse or depot for the sale of -Granger's products, and for branch warehouses or storage companies, to be established under regulations of the Executive Committee. The question of shipping in bulk also came up for consideration. It was "Resolved, That this Convention endorse the proposition to change the system of handling and shipping grain in sacks, now in operation in this State, to a system of handling in bulk. "Resolved, That from this day, we, as farmers and producers of wheat and other produce in California, will work for the change of the system above referred to." Mr. A. F. Walcott was introduced by the Executive Committee, and gave a full explanation of the shipping interest, the state of the foreign market, and replied to inquiries which Patrons desired to make, in respect to his agency. The confidence which Mr. Walcott had inspired in the large body of farmers with whom he had business relations, resulted in his election to the Presidency of the bank, when it went into operation, some three months later. The Secretary of the State Grange was also appointed Secretary of the bank corporation. The Grangers' Bank of California is organized under the Statute of 1872, known as the Civil Code. Its capital stock is fixed at five million ($5,000,000) dollars, divided into fifty thousand (50,000) shares of the par value of one hundred ($100) dol 11 161

Page  162 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. lars each. Its place of business is in the City and County of San Francisco, State of California. This bank has been organized for the purpose of enabling the Patrons of California to secure to themselves such advantages in obtaining money for use in the agricultural portions of the State upon as favorable terms as it can be obtained in the city for commercial purposes; believing that the landed security of the agriculturist is equal to, if not better than city property as a basis of credit, and at the same time giving people of every class an opportunity of safely and profitably investing their money. A careful perusal of the By-Laws will show that they are so framed as to have all the safeguards, not inconsistent with law, that it is possible for them to have. BY-LAWS OF THE GRANGERS' BANK OF CALIFORNIA. ARTICLE 1. The name of this Corporation shall be "GRANGERS' BANK OF CALIFORNIA. " ART. 2. The principal place of business shall be in the City and Countyof San Francisco, and State of California. ART. 3. The bank shall have a capital stock of five million of dollars, divided into fifty thousand shares, of the par value of one hundred dollars each. ART. 4. None but Patrons of HIusbandry, or corporations composed exclusively of Patrons of Husbandry, shall be permitted to subscribe to the capital stock of this bank, and such persons or incorporations shall not be permitted to subscribe in excess of five hundred shares. ART. 5. Stockholders of this bank shall be such persons or corporations as may have executed, or shall hereafter execute a subscription to the capital stock in form such as the Board of Directors may prescribe, and shall pay to the cashier of the bank all called assessments, or any person to whom said stock has been duly assigned. ART. 6. The powers of the corporation shall be vested in a Board of eleven (11) Directors, who shall be elected by the stockholders at the annual meeting, and shall hold their office for the term of one year, and until their successors are elected and qualified. ART. 7. The Directors shall be stockholders of the corporation, and Patrons of Husbandry, resident of the State of California, and citizens of the United States, and shall hold at least five shares of the capital stock. ART. 8. A majority of the whole number of Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and every decision of a majority of the persons duly assembled as a Board (if not in conflict with these By-Laws), shall be valid as a corporate act. ART. 9. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at the office of the corporation, at least once in every two months, and at such other times as the Board of Directors may direct, and special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at the same place, upon the call of the President; and it shall be the duty of the President, Vice President, or Cashier to call special meetings upon request of five Directors, or upon request of stockholders representing one quarter of the stock issued. No notice need be given of the regular meetings, in addition to that furnished by this Article; but of special meetings, the President or Cashier shall cause all Directors residing outside of San Francisco, to be notified by mail or telegraph, mailing the same seven days prior to such meeting, and all Directors residing and being in the city and county of San Francisco, and to any others to whom it is practicable to give such personal notice, to be personally notified. 162

Page  163 BY-LAWS OF GRANGERS' BANK. ART. 10. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in the office of any Director, by death, resignation, or other cause, the Board of Directors shall appoint a successor for his unexpired term. Provided, that if more than one vacancy shall occur in the Board in any year, a meeting of the stockholders shall be called by the Board of Directors within thirty days, giving at least twenty days' notice of such meeting, by advertising the same in some newspaper published daily in the city of San Francisco, for the purpose of filling such vacancy or vacancies. AnT. 11. Whenever any Director shall cease to be a stockholder, his office becomes ipso faeto, vacant; such vacancy shall be filled as provided in Article 10. ART. 12. The Board of Directors shall elect from their number a President and Vice President of the corporation, who shall hold their office for one year. ART. 13. The President or Vice President, or either of them, may be removed from office at any time on the vote of seven Directors in favor of such removal. ART. 14. The Board of Directors shall appoint a cashier, an attorney, and such other officers, agents, clerks or servants, as the business of the bank shall require define their powers and prescribe their duties, subject to the By-Laws, and shall fix the salaries or compensation to be paid all officers, agents, clerks, or servants of the corporation. ART. 15. The President, Vice President and Cashier shall have charge and custody of the funds, property, books, papers, and other matters of the corporation, under such rules, regulations and restrictions as the Board of Directors shall prescribe in the By-Laws, or by express resolution from time to time made or passed. ART. 16. The President, Vice President, and Cashier, shall have power to buy and sell bills of exchange, to make loans under such regulations and restrictions as may be fixed by resolutions of the Board of Directors, to keep the Common Seal, and each shall have the power to affix the same to all papers, instruments, or documents, on behalf of the Corporation, requiring the Seal; they shall each have the power to collect all moneys due the Corporation; to make, execute, and deliver all receipts, releases, acquittances, or other papers, writings, documents, or instruments on behalf of the Corporation, proper or necessary in the ordinary course of business of the Bank; and generally to carry on the business of the Corporation, subject to the control of the Board of Directors, expressed through the By-Laws, or such express resolutions as may from time to time be passed; and they shall each report to the Board of Directors, when required, each and-everything by them, or either of them, transacted. ART. 17. The President and Vice President shall not both be absent from the State at the same time, and in case of the absence of either from the Bank, his duties and powers shall devolve upon and be performed by the other; and each to be eligible to such office shall be a stockholder to the amount of five shares. ART. 18. It shall be the duty of the President, and in his absence the Vice President, to preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors, and at all meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation. ART. 19. It shall be the duty of the Cashier to keep or cause to be kept such books as the business of the Bank may require, under the control and instructions of the Board of Directors. He shall attend personally to the business of the Bank at such hours as the Board of Directors may determine. He shall also be required to give bonds for the faithful performance of his duties, in an amount to be fixed by the Board of Directors. ART. 20. The Board of Directors shall appoint from their number a Finance Committee of three, whose duties shall be defined by resolution of the Board of Directors. ART. 21. The Board of Directors shall appoint an Auditing Committee of three from their number, whose duty it shall be to count the cash and examine the books, vouchers, documents, papers, and other assets of the Bank; to report upon the same to the stockholders at their annual meetings, and to the Board of Directors from time to time, as they may direct. ART. 22. The annual meeting of the stockholders for the election of Directors shall be held at the office of the Bank, on the second Tuesday of October of each year, at one o'clock P. M. ART. 23. The call for the annual meeting of stockholders, and for the annual election of Directors shall be signed by the President, Vice President, or Cashier, and published at least once a week for four consecutive weeks next preceding the day of meeting, in at least three'newspapers of general circulation throughout the State. If from any cause no quorum shall be present, the meeting may adjourn from time to time without further notice. 163

Page  164 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. ART. 24. At all meetings of the stockholders one vote shall be counted for each share of stock not exceeding fifty share, and one additional vote shall be counted for each twenty-five shares, or fractional part of twenty-five shares in excess of fifty, upon which all called assessments have been paid. Each stockholder may be represented at any meeting of the stockholders by a proxy, who must also be a stockholder; provided said proxy shall have filed his credentials with the Cashier at least ten days next preceeding each meeting; provided further that no person shall be allowed to hold proxies representing more than one hundred votes. ART. 25. The Board of Directors shall have power to regulate, from time to time, the rate of interest to be charged upon loans and allowed upon deposits. ART. 26. All transfers of stock shall be subject to all debts and equities in favor of the Corporation, against the person or corporations making such transfer, and existing or arising prior to the regular transfer thereof upon the books of the Corporation; and no transfer of shares shall be made upon the books of the Corporation, until all dues and demands thereon, due to the Corporation from the party orparties representing such shares, shall have been paid. ART. 27. All transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, and no tiansfer shall be binding on the corporation until so entered, or until all assessments thereon have been paid. No stock that has been transferred on the books of the Corporation within thirty days next preceding any meeting of the stockholders, shall be entitled to representation at said meeting. ART. 28. Certificates of stock shall be issued to the original stockholders of this Bank, to the number of shares by each subscribed in the original articles of association, as evidence to each of the number of shares by him owned in the capital stock, and the manner of transferring shares shall be by endorsement and delivery of the certificates thereof, such endorsement being by the signature of the proprietor, or his or her attorney, or legal representative. No stock shall be transferred without the surrender of the certificate, and upon such surrender the word "cancelled" shall be written across the face of the certificate by the Cashier, and the signature of the officers shall be erased, and such certificate so cancelled, shall be preserved by pasting the same to the stub from which it was torn in the Certificate Book. The transfer books shall be closed for two days prior to the annual meeting and the payment of dividends, and the dividends shall be paid to the stockholders in whose names the stock shall stand when the books are closed. ART. 29. The officers of the Bank are strictly prohibited from loaning its funds on mining stocks. ART. 30. The Board of Directors shall have power to dispose of the stock of the Bank at rates not less than the par value, and after the first of October, 1874, may fix such premiums on the stock as in their judgment may be deemed just. ART. 31. All persons subscribing to the capital stock of the Bank, are required to sign their names to the By-Laws. The bank went into operation on the first of August, 1874, at 415 California street, San Francisco. Beautiful and commodious rooms, with the necessary private rooms attached, accommodate both the bank, the Executive Committee, Secretary, and other officers of the State Grange. Amid the surging throng of capitalists, speculators, and schemers, which crowd the money-changers' highway, is set the financial headquarters of our most important industry. It was created for the Patrons, with especial reference to small stockholders; $2,517,000 of the capital stock has been taken up, $2,000,000 is on deposit in the bank. Its stock is owned by one thousand five hundred and forty-three Patrons of Husbandry, and the number of depositors is correspondingly large. It is managed by the following Board of Directors: 164

Page  165 OTHER BUSINESS ASSOCIATIONS. J. V. Webster (President), of Alameda county; Calvin J. Cressey (Vice President), of Stanislaus county; Thos. McConnell, of Sacramento county; John G. HIill, of Ventura county; J. C. Merryfield, of Solano county; John Lewelling, of Napa county; Gilbert W. Colby, of Butte county; J. P. Chrisman, of Contra Costa county; F. J. Woodward, of San Joaquin county; C. S. Abbott, of Monterey county; F. A. Cressey, Secretary. Current accounts are opened and conducted in the usual way, and interest at the rate of one quarter of one per cent. per month, is allowed on the minimum monthly balance. Deposit receipts in sums of fifty dollars and upwards received, and receipts given for the amounts, payable on thirty days' notice of withdrawal. These deposits bear interest at rates varying with the current rate of discount. Deposits for fixed periods are received, and interest allowed at the following rates: three months, six per cent.; six months, seven per cent.; one year, eight per cent. About this time, the Executive Committee deemed it advisable to establish a Dairy Agency in San Francisco, and proceeded to appoint Mr. J. Hegeler, of Sonoma (County, who opened a depot for the disposition of this class of products. The bonds of this sub-agency were fixed at twenty thousand dollars. The Farmers' Saving and Loan Society of Stanislaus County had organized in March, 1873, and incorporated with a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The spirit with which the farmers were pushing these various interests was shown at the meeting in Modesto, when four of their number took fifty thousand dollars' worth of stock. One hundred thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot. The Grange Warehouse in Modesto was provided for in the same business-like manner, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars. Davisville Grange decided to incorporate with a capital stock of fifty thousand dollars. Colusa County called its Bank meeting February 25th, 1874, and incorporated with a capital of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, all of which was subscribed. As a local institution, under judicious management, it is a perfect success, and has benefited its patrons by relieving them of the necessity oft 165

Page  166 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. borrowing money on call of men who were most likely to call just when wheat was on the rise. Grand Island Grange, which had but thirteen members, incorporated, bought out their only merchant, and established a cooperative store. Waterford Grange incorporated May 23d, 1873. A few days later, articles of incorporation were filed at the office of the Secretary of State, for Grangers' warehouses at Antelope Station, and at Antioch. Up to the present time, cooperative companies have been formed for storing grain, and warehouses established as follows: At Modesto, Stanislaus county; at Merced City, MIerced county; at Yuba City, Sutter county; at Woodland, Yolo county; at Colusa, Colusa county; at Dixon, Solano county; at Antioch, Contra Costa county. In other places warehouses have been leased, and in others they are projected to be built. Before the close of another season, we shall probably see Granger warehouses at Vallejo, C(ollinsville, Monterey, and other points convenient and accessible to large ships, and also at sundry stations along the lines of railroad in the interior. Thus it will be seen that when the Grangers talk of "handling their own products," they do not mean merely hauling them to town in their own wagons and selling them to the first bidder. They mean a vast system that will secure to the producer a fair price for his crops, and to the consumer the crop at a fair price -mutual protection against the impositions and extortions of middle-men. There is another class of incorporations, all of which have grown into existence within the past year. First among them in point of time, and we believe also in magnitude, is the Farmers' Cooperative Union of San Josed. The capital stock is one hundred thousand dollars, of which the entire amount is subscribed. This Association set out by purchasing the stock and good will of Pfister & Co. for thirty thousand dollars. They have since increased the stock to perhaps eighty thousand dollars, have spread out so as to occupy several large store-rooms, and are in a most flourishing condition. They include in their invoices hardware, agricultural'implements, and a general line of groceries. The Grangers' Union of Stockton started a little more than a year ago, with two hundred and fifty thousand dollars capital, I 166

Page  167 CO-OPERATIVE STORE AT LOS ANGELES. but by careful management has achieved a greater success in proportion to the actual investment than any similar institution on the coast. The Farmers' Bank of Dixon, (Solano county) went into operation less than a year ago with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars, and like the others, is to-day giving testimony to the fact that farmers can conduct even a banking business with safety and profit. The Grangers of Southern California being comparatively isolated, felt the necessity of cooperative exertions even more than the great wheat-growing counties had done. A co6perative store at Los Angeles, established with a capital of twentyfive thousand dollars, has been satisfactory beyond their expectations. The stock was mostly groceries and agricultural implements. The stockholders realize the difference in the net results of buying at wholesale for cash, and at retail on time. But they reach out toward larger benefits. Their objects are stated to be: 1. The establishment of one or more stores, warehouses, etc.; the buying and selling of goods, machinery and agricultural products; the borrowing and loaning of money; the buying, holding and selling of such real estate as may be necessary for its own use; and the conduct of a general mercantile business. 2. Principal place of business, Los Angeles. 3. Capital stock one hundred thousand dollars, divided into two thousand shares of fifty dollars each, five dollars per share to be paid on or before April 1st, 1874, and the balance in installments, as may be called for by the Board of Directors, not to exceed ten dollars per share per annum. 4. None but Grange members can hold stock, and no person can hold more than ten shares. 5. Each family containing one Grange member can obtain all the privileges of the company by holding one share of stock. 6. Goods are to be sold to stockholders and their families at as near cost as possible, and the usual prices are to be charged all outsiders. 7. All farm produce is to be bought or handled on-commission by the company. 8. Money to be loaned stockholders for legitimate farming operations at the lowest rates of interest. It is also the intention of the company to assist stockholders 167

Page  168 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. in every way it can consistently with its own safety. It will, as soon as practicable, borrow funds with which to assist those who are now in the clutches of merchants or others, if such persons endeavor to oppress our members because they seek to better their condition by this method of cooperation. The company is organized for the benefit of its stockholders, and any system of relief to them that can be devised and safely carried out will be inaugurated for the common good. Encouraged by the success of the experiments mentioned above, the Visalia Grangers have just opened a similar institution with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars. At Grand Island, Colusa County, one has recently been inaugurated, as also one at Meridian, Sutter County; but neither of these has been in operation long enough to show a balance sheet. Santa Barbara just now announces an incorporation with a capital of fifty thousand dollars, and we doubt not will soon give a good account of herself. San Buenaventura is also on the way, and sundry other places are discussing the matter, with every probability of soon reaching the point of incorporation. Everywhere the local merchants have displayed more or less hostility toward these enterprises, until they become satisfied that, if the Grangers were only let alone, they would pursue the "even tenor of their way," without making war on any legitimate business; and gradually matters have adjusted themselves so as to work without friction. In addition to what has already been mentioned, the Grangers of the Salinas Valley have constructed a narrow-gauge railroad from Salinas City to Monterey, that they might get their grain from the field to the ship at the nearest point, and at the least cost. The Salinas is a large, fertile valley, opening out to the coast with a first-class harbor, and there is no reason why its products should not be shipped direct to European markets, thus avoiding the expensive carrying and handling via San Francisco. The Grangers saw the opportunity, seized it, and have made a grand success of the project, without detriment to any other interest. Other projects of a similar character are under discussion, with promises of success, and we see no reason why the Grangers, if they have the means, should not become railroad builders as well as anybody else. The Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company is another achievement, the present standing of which, after an existence 168

Page  169 FIRE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. of less than a year, would be ground of congratulation to any incorporation. It was worked up to its present efficient condition by J. D. Blanchar, a gentleman of long experience in insurance, who had retired to the quietude of a farm on account of ill health. He was a member of Napa Grange, and entered into the movement with his whole soul, appreciating, as most farmers could not, the great advantages of cooperation. The company was instituted with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars, all of which has since been paid up, to insure farm property on the mutual plan, at its actual cost, thereby saving to the farmers the amount they were obliged to contribute in other companies to cover losses on city property. A "cash plan" was also introduced, so as to enable the company to take risks on town property, granger stores, warehouses, etc. At the last meeting of the Directors, a proposition was made to further increase the capital stock to three hundred thousand dollars. The risks amount to about one million and a half, with no losses.and the company is classed A 1, by the Commissioner. CONSTITUTION OF-THE CALIFORNIA MUTUAL FIRE-INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. We, the undersigned, citizens of California, and Directors of The California Mutual Fire Insurance Association, in pursuance of the insurance laws of California, do hereby associate together for the purpose of forming an incorporated association, to insure dwelling houses, barns, or other buildings, and personal property in the same, belonging to farmers, against loss or damage by fire. OFFIcERS.-J. D. Blanchar, President; I. G. Gardner, Vice President; G. P Kellogg, Treasurer; W. H. Baxter, Secretary. DIREcTORS.-A. Wolf, J. D. Blanchar, 1. G. Gardner, G. P. Kellogg, W. H. Baxter. TRUSTEES.-J. M. Hamiltoil, J. C. Merryfield, G. W. Colby, H. B. Jolly, A. Wolf, I. C. Steele, A. B. Nally, O. L. Abbott. And we declare this instrument to be the Agreement and By-Laws of the Association by which it shall be governed, subject only to the Constitution and laws of the State. NAME.-This Association shall be known as the California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association; and its principal place of business shall be in the City and County of San Francisco, State of California. ANNUAL MEErnG.-The Annual Meeting shall be held on the first Tuesday of October of each year, at San Francisco, and may be adjourned from time to time until the business is completed. No other notice than these By-Laws need be given for the Annual Meetings. Special meetings may be called by the Secretary or President, or on the order of two Directors, and notice given by notification by mail. OrrFFICEns.-The officers of said Association shall consist of five (5) Directors, to be elected by ballot, at the annual meeting, by a majority vote of the stockholders present; and the Directors shall elect a President, Vice-President, Treasurer and Secretary. Ten shares or over will entitle a stockholder to one vote. Provided, in case there should be no election, the then incumbents of 169

Page  170 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS. such offices shall hold over respectively until there is an election, and their successors have qualified, and any stockholder shall be eligible to hold office. DUTY OF OFFICERS.-Section 1. The Directors shall have power to appoint such officers and agents as they deem necessary, and to fix salaries and commissions of all officers and agents. They shall have power to make contracts, transfer property, and provide for a definite sum of money for insurance therein, or issue cash policies in lieu of being assessed. They shall audit all claims of the Association not otherwise provided for; determine the rates and time of insurance, amount of money to be deposited, and by virtue of their office shall become agents of the Association. Sec. 2. The President shall sign all policies, inspect the books and accounts of the Association, and appoint officers pro term to fill vacancies occasioned by death, removal or resignation of officers; preside at all meetings when present and perform such other duties as may seem connected with his office, and required by the By-Laws. He shall attend to the commencement and prosecution of all suits or actions in which the Association, or any of its officers, as such, may or shall be interested and in like manner defend against all such suits or actions. Sec. 3. The Vice-President shall act at the exclusion of the President, whenever the President shall be absent, unable, or neglect from any cause whatever, to perform the duties required of him. When the President and Vice-President are absent from a meeting, the members may elect a President pro tempore. Sec. 4. The Secretary or Deputy shall keep a record of the proceedings of all meetings, and keep all necessary books and accounts, file and preserve all papers, documents and instruments required to be kept in his office. He shall issue policies for the insurance of the property mentioned in the Charter, and he may cancel policies at any time for the non-fulfillment of the requirements of this Association, audit all claims on the part of the holder or holders thereof, and audit all claims presented against the Association for payment, and generally transact all business of the Association in the absence of the Board of Directors, not inconsistent with the By-Laws, and make all assessments against the persons insured, and draw all orders on the banks for money for losses and expenses of the Association, in accordance with the By-Laws; and he may appoint agents to receive applications for insurance, and shall make a report annually. Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to keep all moneys coming into his hands, subject to the order of the Secretary, for actual losses and expenses of the Association. He shall give bonds, with sufficient sureties, to an amount satisfactory to the Directors; and he shall make a report in writing at any time when required by the Board of Directors. Any officer may be removed for neglect of duty, malfeasance, or misfeasance in office, by a majority vote of the Directors. FEES AND ASSESSMENTS.-All persons insuring shall pay a fee of $5 00, which includes the issuance of the first policy for five years; and thereafter all policies issued or renewed shall be subject to, and pay $1 25 in U. S. Gold Coin. And shall be ratably assessed, and are hereby bound to pay all their proportion of all losses and expenses happening to and accruing in or to said Association. WITHDRAWAL.-Any person may withdraw at any time, by paying her, his or their proportion of indebtedness to the Association, up to the time of their withdrawal and surrender of policy, when any balance due such person will be refunded. DEPOSIT MONEY.-Section 1. Each person insuring in this Association shall make a deposit of two per cent. on the amount for which his, her or their property is insured, for the purpose of meeting assessments for losses and expenses of the Association, and the money so received shall be deposited with the Grangers'. Bank of California, and a Certificate of Deposit issued to the depositor for the amount; the money so deposited to draw interest as may be agreed upon by the Directors with the Bank. And when the deposits in the said Bank shall amount to over fifty thousand dollars, the President, Vice-President, Secretary, Treasurer and Directors shall have power to withdraw from said Bank the excess of fifty thousand dollars, and deposit the amount so withdrawn with local banks in other parts of the State, or invest the same in real estate securities, school or county, or township or county bonds of this State, as they may deem prudent, and for the best interests of the insured. Sec. 2. When a promissory note is given for the deposit-money, the insurance shall be good on said note, provided the policy shall not have been canceled; and 170

Page  171 BY-LAWS OF INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. in case a loss occurs previous to the payment of the said note, the Secretary shall retain out of the amount allowed for loss when adjusted, the amount of said note and interest. Sec. 3. If, at the expiration of a policy, there is deposit-money on hand it will be refunded, by giving thirty days' notice, and also forwarding the certificate of deposit and the policy; and if it shall ever so happen that the deposit-money of any person insured should be insufficient to pay the proportion of losses and expenses of the Association for the time insured, the Secretary shall notify such person, and he, she or they, can withdraw, or deposit such an amount of money as the Board of Directors may deem sufficient to pay the proportion of losses and expenses for the unexpired term of the insurance. INSURANCE.-Section 1. Property of those insuring may be removed at the pleasure of the owner, to any other locality where such property can be insured, if not more hazardous; the party must notify the Secretary of the removal, with a description of the new locality, and pay a fee of one dollar and twenty-five cents. Sec. 2. Insurance in this Association shall be effected for five years, and all policies, and alterations in policies, shall expire in five years from date of first policy. Sec. 3. Any person insured in this Association may have the policy canceled at any time, on making application to the Secretary, and returning the policy and certificate of deposit; and in ninety days the money deposited, less the amount of assessments and proportion of expenses, will be refunded; and the Secretary is authorized to cancel any policy whenever he deems advisable, after the Policy Note given becomes due, unless said note shall be renewed or paid within thirty dlays; and for non-conformance with the rules and regulations of the Association. Sec. 4. The insurance shall cease upon the sale of the property insured, but the insurer shall be holden for all assessments, until the policies shall be legally withdrawn and canceled. Sec. 5. If ashes are kept in a wooden box, caskl or vessel of any kind of wood, in any buildings insured, that will endanger the same, or when out of doors, if not deposited twenty feet from buildings, the Association will not be responsible for any loss resulting therefrom. No stove pipe must come nearer than four inches of wood or other combustible material, unless protected by a funnel. Kerosene or fluid lamps must never be filled while burning. Smoking, or playing with matches, or carrying open or lighted lamps or candles in or about barn, or other places liable to take fire, are prohibited. Wooden fire-boards must be lined with zinc, sheet-iron, or tin, when a stovepive enters the chimney. This Association will not be responsible for any loss occurring by or through the neglect of any portion of this section. Sec. 6. Altering or improving any building does not affect the policy, provided these By-Laws are not violated, nor the risk increased by such alteration or improvement. Sec. 7. Any person found guilty of fraud or false swearing, in any manner affecting the risk, will thereby forfeit his insurance. Sec. 8. Upon the death of any person insured, the insurance will continue good to the heirs or legal representatives. Sec. 9. Any person insured wishing to insure the same property in another association, must notify the Secretary and obtain consent. Sec. 10. If the buildings insured shall at any time be used for the purpose of carrying on or exercising therein any trade, business or vocation denominated by insurance companies as hazardous, or extra hazardous, the insurance shall be null and void. Sec. 11. Whenever any person having insurance in this company, shall mort gage the property insured, the policy shall thereby terminate and become void, unless upon written application to the Secretary he waive the said forfeiture, and give a written certificate of such waiver. Sec. 12. This Association shall pay no more than five hundred dollars on any one animal. Sec. 13. If any person shall allow any insured building to become vacated or unoccupied for a period to exceed thirty days, without the consent of the Secretary, the insurance on such building and its contents shall be null and void, until said building is again occupied. Sec. 14. Every person applying for insurance shall make a true statement of the amount of incumbrance, if any, both real and personal. 171 I

Page  172 BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS, LOSSES.-Section 1. In case of loss or damage by fire, the Secretary, or Di rector residing in the county in which the fire occurred, or both, or an agent, may proceed to investigate the cause and origin of such fire or damage, and ascertain by evidence the liability of the Association. Sec. 2. When any person insured shall sustain a loss or damage by fire, he shall, within thirty days after such loss, deliver to the Secretary a particular statement in-writing of such loss or damage, signed by him, and verified by his oath or affirmation, and also, if required, by proper vouchers, and stating also the whole cash value of the property lost or damaged; how the building was oc cupied, and by whom, at the time of the loss; how the fire originated as far as he knows or believes, and that the fire occurred by misfortune, and without fraud or evil practice; also declare whether any insurance existed thereon in any other company, and if so what amount; and if required, submit to a full examination. Sec. 3. No person shall have claim for more than two thirds the value of buildings, or household furniture and wearing apparel, at the time destroyed, nor more than the amount of insurance; such loss to be determined by the Directors. But in case a disagreement shall arise between the insured and the Directors in regard to the settlement of loss by fire, the same shall be determined by three referees, not interested, mutually chosen by the insured and Directors, and their decision shall be final; and the reasonable expenses of such referees shall be equally borne by the Association and the loser. Sec. 4. No claim for loss or damage shall be valid against the Association, unless presented within thirty days from the date of loss. Sec. 5. In case of fire or loss or damage thereby, or by exposure to loss or damage thereby, it shall be the duty of the assured to use all possible diligence in saving and preserving the property; and if they fail to do so, this Association shall not be held answerable to make good the loss or damage sustained in consequence of such neglect; or from any loss occasioned by steam threshers. Sec. 6. Ill case of any loss or damage to the property insured, it shall be optional with the Association to replace the articles lost or damaged with others of the same kind and equal quality, and to rebuild or repair the building or buildings, within a reasonable time, giving notice of their intention to do so within thirty days after the preliminary proofs shall have been received at the office of the Association. OFFIcE.-Section 1. All policies issued shall be signed by the President and Secretary, and shall take effect at twelve o'clock, noon, on the date of the application. Sec. 2. The fiscal year shall begin and close at twelve o'clock, noon, of the same day of the annual meeting. Sec. 3. The books of the office of the Association shall be open for inspection during business hours. Sec. 4. In case of a deficit or deficits arising from the non-collection of any assessments made for any purpose herein mentioned, provided for the assessing and collecting of sums to pay losses or damage by fire, or other purposes, another assessment can be made for such deficit or deficits. 172

Page  172A I

Page  172B ;~~~~ ~~ ~~ ~~~~~i4 ~~~;~~ ~/~Y<4/jj;/;:%i <. ji ~ ~~~;~;~/~>~~~;~>;#~~ -; ~:</;~~/;:~><;;//~7v~ ~ / HON. J. M. HAMILTON, . M. of State Grange of California.

Page  173 PROGRESS OF THE ORDER. CHAPTER XV. THE SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. LARGE ATTENDANCE -WORTHY MASTER HAMILTON'S ADDRESS-A GRANGE FU NERAL-FESTIVAL OF POMONA-IMPORTANT RESOLUTIONS —ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF STATE AGENT: OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: OF THE TREASURER: OF THE LECTURER: OF THE MANAGER OF DAIRY PRODUCE DEPARTMENT: Oil COMMITTEE ON THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE OF TIHE STATE UNIVERSITY: OF THE COMMITTEE ON IRRIGATION: OF THE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR: OF THE COMMITTEE ON TIHE GOOD OF THE ORDER. THE State Grange of California convened for its second annual session in Stockton on the 6th of October, 1874, and was opened by Worthy Mlaster Hamilton, in the usual form; eighty Masters, seven Past Masters, and twenty-seven Matrons were present, and others were added from day to day, as the meeting progressed. Not only was the time during three daily sessions crowded with work, but a daily meeting of the Fruit Growers was held, to dispose of questions affecting their interests alone. All Fourth Degree members were cordially invited to attend the session in that degree. The largest hall in Stockton, beautifully decorated with appropriate emblems of the plenteous harvest, was prepared for the occasion, to which the services of an excellent choir gave an additional charm. From the instructive address of the Worthy Master, we gather the following report of progress and specific recommendations: One year ago we numbered one hundred and four Granges, with a membership of three thousand one hundred and sixty-eight. Today we report two hundred and thirty-one Granges, with a membership of eighteen thousand five hundred, to which may be added a membership of two hundred in the State of Nevada, at present under our jurisdiction. Our Order has been progressing. It has made a steady and vigorous growth. Our power and strength have been appreciated. Our business arrangements have been so conducted that we have derived great good from them, but they have not been as effective as they should have been. This is from a variety of causes, among which may be placed that misunderstanding which seems to prevail in regard to the duties of Patrons to each other and to the Order. Our organic law provides for an association intended for co-operative purposes, each part of which is dependent upon some other to make 173 0

Page  174 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. it effective. These parts;, taken singly, are but weak and imperfect; but when all are combined, they make a machine of wondrous power and utility. When we become Patrons, we agree to relinquish lmany individual rights we previously enjoyed, and bind ourselves to cooperate for certain purposes. These purposes are plainly prescribed, and, to a great extent, the mode of accomplishing them is pointed out. No Patron, no Grange, no Council-under the arrangement of our organic law-has any right to adopt any plan for business purposes, without first ascertaining whether such plan is in accord with the general good of the Order. No one can be allowed to carry out selfish views, and devise a system which, although advantageous to themselves, may be injurious to other members or other parts of the Order. Our strength lies in our united action, and in order to carry out our objects there must be no jarring, no clash, no discord; but all must work smnoothly together, each must perform the duty assigned to it. The general objects we have in view are so plain we need not err therein, but, hand in hand and shoulder to shoulder, we should keep step in our onward march, and be true to ourselves and to each other. In order to accomplish this, it is absolutely necessary that we must not only be united in our efforts, but we must adhere to plans formed by those we have placed in position for that purpose. If there are any who cannot do so, they are out of place. They may be with us, but they are not of us; their presence, their voices, their acts, are elements of weakness instead of strength, and we should avail ourselves of the ample means which have been provided by our laws to remove such from among us. A due regard is not always observed to our obligation to keep secret the work of our Order; our business arrangements are often divulged without any intention of wrong doing. Patrons give some friend, or perhaps some member of their family, information as to some of the advantages we derive from our connection with the Order. This is wrong. Each one should always remember that they are pledged to strict secrecy in regard to all information of every kind they receive in the Grange. No one has any right to divulge to an outsider what occurs within our gates-not a word spoken or an act taken of any kind. The business arrangements confided to us are not our own. They belong to others, and we have no right, either morally or legally, to use the property of others in such a way that the owners thereof may be injured by our act. The Grangers' Bank is an institution growing out of our necessities. Without it we are destitute of an important auxiliary to carry out the plans and purposes we have in contemplation in regard to storing, shipping, and selling grain in the home and foreign markets, in the arrangements contemplated for the future, for procuring direct from manufacturers, on the most favorable terms, such articles as were needed by Patrons. With it, we have financial facilities afforded by which we can be assisted in the operation of our agencies, be aided in carrying our crops, and obtaining such money accommodations as from time to time are almost indispensable, without having to pay exorbitant rates of interest. Although a difference of 174

Page  175 THE BANK AND INSURANCE COMPANY. opinion did exist among Patrons at the inception of the enterprise, as to the expediency of attempting to carry it through at the time, and the prospect of its final success, the bank is now an established fact. It has been in operation nearly three months, and the amount of business done through it, and the superior facilities it affords for the transaction of our business, are so apparent, that these differences have become almost entirely removed. Patrons are now stockholders, I believe; fully double the number of shareholders in any other bank in California, and these are from every part of our State. By far the largest number of certificates are for a few shares of stock. Thus the responsibility for its proper management, and the benefit to be derived from it, are shared by so many members of our Order, that it is in reality, as well as name, the Grangers' Bank of California. From the opportunity afforded me for observation, I am able to say that all the business transactions and all the financial arrangements are carried on in such a safe and conservative manner, that, as long as the present policy is pursued, I cannot see how any disaster can overtake it, or any injury arise from it. The interests of the stockholders are so well guarded, and their control and management of it so directly in their own hands, that nothing but gross neglect on the part of the friends of the Bank will ever allow any advantage to be taken of it, or a loss sustained by those investing money in it. Over 1,300 Patrons are now stockholders in the Bank, having 10,802 shares. This, I believe, is more than double the number of stockholders in any other bank in California, and they are from every part of the State. Thus the impossibility of its improper management. The Grangers' Insurance Company meets a great want among the agriculturists of this State; and Patrons, instead of having to depend upon others to assist them in repairing losses, which from time to time are sustained from fire, have a friend of their own, bred and born in the Order, managed and controlled by themselves, of but a short existence, still fast assuming vast proportions; and from the rapidity with which Patrons are availing themselves of the security it affords them against losses, its popularity is becoming more and more manifest, and confidence in it is becoming stronger every day. Its policies embrace all the most improved features adopted by other fire associations; the care exercised in taking only what are termed by all underwriters first-class risks; the low rates of premium required-all recommend it strongly to the patronage of our Order, and all should unite in availing themselves of the benefits to be derived. And now, Patrons, let me again remind you, we have our task before us, and all our ability will be taxed to devise plans to- accomplish it; all our energies will be required to carry it into effect. If we are but true to ourselves and the cause we have espoused, by the light of the new era which has dawned, we will secure better and brighter days for the tillers of the soil than they have ever enjoyed. Ve will establish a test of true manhood, and make honor, honesty, and capacity the crucible in which to try men's fitness for place and power. When this is done, we will realize the benefits we have 175

Page  176 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. sought for, and then, but not until then, can we sit under our own vines and fig-trees without molestation, and enjoy the fruits of our labors. The death of Sister Stephens, one of the charter members of the Stockton Grange, having occurred during this session, the State Grange adjourned for the purpose of attending her funeral, and with the solemn and impressive service of the Order, the remains of the deceased Sister were coiiltt.edc to the grave. On the evening of the third day, the hall having been duly prepared, the Fifth Degree was conferred upon one hundred and four Masters and thirty-six MVIatrons; when the festival of Pomona was celebrated by two hundred of her votaries. The creed of the Patron requires that the social features of the Order be ever held as of the highest importance. A great number of resolutions were presented and discussed during the session, which illustrated the benefits of the Grange in calling attention to defects in legislation, and the bearings of other pursuits and interests upon agriculture. Among the more important resolutions adopted were the following: Whereas, The State Grange of California believes that conference and consultation with transportation companies is preferable to legislation, when it can accomplish the same. Therefore, Resolved, That our Executive Committee be requested to confer with the Directors of the Central Pacific Railroad Company, and see if they cannot secure from them such reductions on freights and fares as may seem desirable and just; also, that they confer with other transportation companies of our coast for similar reductions. Resolved, That in view of the great scarcity of domestic help in this State, it shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to take immediate steps to perfect such arrangements with the Order in the Atlantic States, as will enable us to import female help under the auspices of the Order. Resolved, That the attention of the farmers of this State should be directed to the culture of cotton as one of the staples, thereby producing that diversity of products so necessary to develop our agricultural wealth. Resolved, That as soon as the Secretary of the State Grange is notified of the ratificati6n of the amendments to the Constitution of the National Grange by the proper authority, the Executive Committee of the State Grange are hereby authorized to establish regulations for the organization of County or District Granges. Resolved, That the Executive Committee are hereby authorized to immediately mature a plan for the incorporation of the State Grange as a corporate body, for the purpose of carrying out the demands of our Order. 176

Page  177 * REPORT OF THE STATE AGENT. The various official reports furnished gratifying proof of the earnestness and economy with which the work of the Order had been prosecuted. They are necessarily presented here in a greatly abridged form. First in importance was the report of the State Agent, Bro. I. G. Gardner, as follows: WAVhen the office was first opened, it had to contend with men brought up and trained in mercantile pursuits, who looked upon our movements with suspicion, well knowing that, should we preserve harmony amongst ourselves, great innovations would necessarily be made. I have spared neither time nor patience in the endeavor to place the office in a position that would compel the respect of its enemies, and protect, to the fullest extent, the interests of our Order. The amount of money saved to purchasers, during the short period of my agency, has reached the sum of $15,000, while the expense of the same, including salary of agent, clerk-hire, etc., has been $411 66, over and above its earnings, which are derived from commission alone, at one half the rate charged by commission houses. During the greater portion of the time Bro. Kellogg was in the office, no commissions were charged. The business of the agency is increasing, and more confidence appears to exist in its operations as experience is acquired. The direct savings upon actual purchases, through the agency, are insignificant, compared with the indirect influence such purchases have had on the general market throughout the State. As the accompanying statement shows the amount of business in the matter of purchase done by the agency, the general effect of its influence has produced the following results. Last year, when there were short crops, and a large surplus of agricultural implenments, the maximum discount that could be obtained on such implements, for cash, was five per cent.; and even this concession was made only to those whose experience taught them that a discount was due. In many cases, three per cent. was the greatest amount allowed. This year, with an abundant harvest, causing a demand beyond the supply of agricultural implements, through the operations of this agency a discount of fifteen per cent., for cash, on the large purchases of implements by said agency, has been allowed. I estimate the reduction on groceries and general merchandise, by thie efforts of this agency, to be five per cent. on $4,000,000-a clear saving to the Patrons of $200,000, over and above the present prices paid by those who do not and cannot belong to our organization. On sacks, we have caused a reduction of one cent each, aside from the still greater reduction caused by the large importation thereof by E. E. Morgan's Sons, as per agreement with our Granges. The consumption of sacks this year has been 15,000,000, on which a clear saving has been made of one per cent., or $150,000 more. Through the operations of E. E. Morgan's Sons, and the various other means made use of by the Executive Committee, we are enabled to give the following figures as the result of our operations for the first year: 12 177

Page  178 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. Amount saved on sacks, $450,000; amount saved on tonnage, $5 per ton, $3,000,000; amount saved on agricultural implements, $160, 000; amount saved on groceries and general merchandise, $200,000;. amount saved on our own grain last year, 15c per cental, 9,000,000 centals, $1,350,000. Total, $5,160,000. The Treasurer, W. A. Fisher, reported: Receipts to June 30, 1874.................. $8,846 14 For dues and contingent fund contribution...$7,598 14 Commissions from agency................ 1,248 00 $8,846 14 Disbursed upon drafts to September 17, 1874$6,891 60 Cash on hand in bank....................1,954 64 $8,846 14 Report of Executive Committee: The efforts put forth by them, were first directed toward carrying out your instructions with reference to legislative matters placed in their hands, viz: Irrigation, Public School Lands and the State LUniversity, the committees of which will make detailed reports. The next, establishing an agency for the sale of Dairy Produce, the report of which will be presented under its proper head. Then came the all absorbing and most vital of business matters for their consideration, that of providing sacks and tonnage for the coming season and this present crop. Tlheir efforts in this direction have been made manifest by the circulars which have been sent to every Grange in the State, urging upon the members of the Order everywhere, to take such steps as the Committee believed to be necessary in order to carry out the principles of business for which we have combined; also in sending those who were informed upon the subjects, to visit and explain, so that all might understand in relation thereto, and understanding, all could work in harmony and unison toward solving the great and difficult problem of the " capability of the farmer to transact business for himself." Then the momentous question of a financial institution forced itself upon them for consideration. The popular feeling and disposition seeming ripe, and the time propitious for its establishment, a convention was called, and the results are before you; although not under the control of the Executive Committee, or the State Grange, still inaugurated by them for the good of the members of the Order. 4 And, finally, they were called upon to consider the propriety of sanctioning another proposition, pregnant with good to the members of the Order and the farmers of the State; one that will save to them hundreds of thousands, aye, millions of dollars per annum, keeping in our own hands, instead of flowing into the coffers of those who have become millionaires from the hard earned dollars of the tillers of the soil, and whose affection for us is measured by the amount they can compel us to contribute to the stream flowing to their ocean of wealth. That proposition was the "California Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association," like the bank, not under their control, 178

Page  179 EXPENSES OF MANAGEMENT. but sanctioned and recommended by them for the good of the members of the Order, and farmers generally. The actual cash expenses paid for railroad fare and hotel bills during the past year by the Executive Committee, is as follows: Individual expenses: J. M. Hamilton, $278 65; I. G. Gardner, $155 50; J. C. Merryfield, $176 50. J. M. Mayfield (Old Committee), $43 25; G. WV. Colby, $320; H, B. Jolley, $224 50; N. L, Allen (Old Committee), $84; W. MI. Thorpe (Old Committee), $28; A. B. Nalley, $163 25; W. H. Baxter, Secretary, $135. Total $1,668 65. Printing bills, $34 50; printing, $337 51; Masters' attendance at N. G., $600; Masters' printing, $10 75; Lecturers, $171 50; Treasurer, $79 50; office of Secretary, $207 77; express charges on sundries, $53 60; State Grange agency, 2,318 85; salary of Secretary, 13 months, $1,300. Total $5,081 03. Total expenses as per account, $6,724 18. The Lecturer, J. W. A. Wright, reported: The first two weeks after our adjournment at San Jose, October 19th, 1873, were spent chiefly in work connected with the investigation and Memorial concerning the Agricultural and Mechanic Arts College of the State University, as will appear in the report of the University Committee. Eden Grange, Alameda County, was also organized October 25th, at Haywards, by request of the Worthy Deputy of Alameda County, Bro. Dewey; Oristimba, November 4th, and Cottonwood, November 10th. From December 9th to 31st, inclusive, my entire time was devoted to organizing Granges in Fresno, Tulare, and Kern counties. During this time I traveled seven hundred and fifty miles, and had the satisfaction of leaving fourteen good Granges in counties where our work had not been previously carried. The first twenty days of the new year were occupied almost exclusively in installations, chiefly by invitation, in Turlock, Rustic, Yuba City, Colusa, Meridian, Woodville, Napa, and St. Helena Granges. Two days of this time were also spent at Sacramcnto, in conference with the Worthy Master and Executive Committee, and members of the Senate and Assembly, to determine the best mode of proceeding with our Memorial on the University. The following week was spent in making preparations to attend the meeting of the National Grange at St. Louis. As you are aware, Past Masters of State Granges are members of the National Grange, but no provision is maae My tlat loc1y to pay their expenses in attending its sessions, as they are only honorary members. Yet by the voluntary contributions of some of our fellow Patrons for the purpose, chiefly in Napa and St. Helena Granges, as they wished me to attend that meeting as your Past Master, and by the generous fees allowed by the Granges whose officers I installed, I was enabled to accompany our Worthy Master in that ever memorable session. The next two months were spent in Alabama and Mississippi with my friends and family. I had thus an opportunity to confer with our southern brethren about the mutual interests of our Order, and it is most gratifying to be able to testify to the fact, that nowhere 179

Page  180 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. do you find more devotion to the principles of the Patrons of Hlusbandry than among our southern brothers and sisters, and their name is legion. They hail with joy the glad tidings from all parts of our land, that reform and haIrmony are fast becoming the watchwords of our people. None believe more strongly than they do the great truth, based upon the pure principles of the Grange, that "in our Union is our strength." They rejoice that the time has come, when in the work of the Grange, by the aid of its many outside friends, we find promise of an educator, a harmonizer, and a peacemaker, which, if used in good faith and with prudent action, can eventually be the salvation of our country. Let each of us at all times, fellow Patrons, so act as to lend whatever influence we may have to secure that great result so devoutly to be wished. To sum up my efforts for the year, as it has resulted, allow me to report that since our last session, I have traveled over three thousand miles in our own State, some six thousand miles in attending tile National Grange; have visited twenty-seven out of thirty-eight counties in California where Granges exist; have organized thirtyyone Granges in addition to the nine organized while Master of the State Grange; have visited twenty-five Granges already organized, and there met members of more than one hundred neighboring Granges; have delivered seventy-eight addresses, of which some fifty were public; have rehearsed our unwritten work some eighty times in Granges, and hundreds of times in private; have written hundreds of letters, and devoted in all some two hundred days of my time to the interests of the Grange. These labors of the year have been a small tax upon the treasury of the State Grange, from which I have drawn less than one hundred and twenty dollars for my services; in addition to fees for organizing and installing, this has met my expenses and left me a small surplus. The duties of the office have been performed in the midst of miany private disappointments, struggles and trials in the management of my own farm and business. Report of John H. Hegeler, Manager of the Dairy Produce Department: In representing to the Executive Committee of the California State Grange this report, I give the figures, suggestions, etc., so each may draw their own conclusions. The house was opened informally for business on the first of January, 1874, during which month the sales amounted to $432 03; in February, to $2,423 48; in March, to $8,099 73; in April, to $9,742 16; in M3ay, to $10,033 94; in June, to $10,209 88. In July, it dropped to $8,533 21; in August, $11,107 02; and in the last month, September, it ran up to $13,877 94, making a total for the first nine months of $74,460 36. The total number of shippers on the books is 301; the total commissions, $2,481 12; the total expense account amounts to $2,570 36, of which nearly $1,000 is for rents and $450 for store fixtures. Charged to loss and gain, for bad debts and money otherwise lost in the course of business, $1,222 04, making a loss to the business, so far, of $1,311 28. 180

Page  181 MARKET IN PHILADELPHIA. While I do not expect that the business will clear itself by the end of the year, yet I hope and believe, from the manner in which it increases, that it will be more than self-sustaining in another season. Everything seems to bid fair for the Granlgers to do the great business in this line in the future. In fact this is now very generally admitted, even by those who, not many months ago, stigmatized us as not understanding the business, and that of necessity we would freeze out, as we had "neither credit nor capital." To show how near freezing out we came, I will state that during the month of September there were received in San Francisco, from all sources, some eighty-three thousand pounds. Of this amount, there were received by us, nineteen thousand eight hundred and twelve pounds, or nearly one fourth of the whole amount; and when we come to know that there are forty-eight firms engaged in selling dairy produce at wholesale, we know that we are not going to die. out yet awhile. The matter of dried fruits deserves more than a passing notice. The fact that California-grown fruits are among the finest, at once gives us a prominent position among the fruit-growers of the world. But the mere matter of prominent position is not all we want-we must have a proper renumeration for our investment and our labor. As green fruits are so common and cheap in this State, we are compelled to look abroad for a market, and since the establishment of the various drying machines and apparatuses, this is now not so difficult as before. With this end in view, I have made permanent arrangements with the house of Miles, Carson & Co., in Philadelphia, who are probably the heaviest dealers in this commodity in the United States, to handle and sell for our house dried fruits, honey, and butter. I have every reason to believe the business will succeed. In speaking of the business done, I speak usually of butter, as that is my principal business; yet there is much done in other coinmodities. Very nearly all the cheese of the Petaluma factory has found a market through the Grange agency, besides much dairy cheese; also eggs, poultry, potatoes, honey, and dried fruits. The matter of potatoes is an important interest, and requires more attention than it now receives. But when it comes to be considered more thoroughly, you will find it a very difficult thing to manage. For the special benefit of the potato-growers, I have employed the services of Wm. H. Alexander, who is also a Patron, and member of Tomales Grange, and who has had several years of experience in selling potatoes. As to honey, it must find a market out of this State, to be profitable to the farmer. Now, let us look at the practical results of our enterprise. There are now made in California, as near as can be approximated, about nine million nine hundred and twenty thousand six hundred and twentyeight pounds of butter, besides cheese. Of this, about seven million nine hundred and thirty-six thousand pounds finds a market throughout the State. In looking over my account sales for the butter sold in 1872, which was an average year as to price, I find the average price per pound, for the first nine months, to be twenty-five and oneeighth cents, while this year, for the same dairy, during the same 181

Page  182 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. time, I find the price to have been thirty-three and one sixth cents per pound, a difference of eight and one twenty-fourth cents per pound, or a clear gain of six hundred and thirty-eight thousand two hundred and thirty-three dollars to the dairy interests of the State. This difference is, to a very great extent, traceable to the existence of the Grange store in San F?rancisco, for several reasons: one being that, to a very great extent, it prevents combinations against farmers to break the market. On the contrary, it has a tendency to create a sharp competition between the various -dealers to get the highest possible price for their products. One of the greatest wants of the dairy farmers is a bank that will supply them with means for prosecuting their business, and, at the same time, leave them free to sell their products as best they can. The manner in which this borrowing business is done in California is such that the commission merchants virtually own or control the entire products of the State by the advances they have made. Banking and money loaning are no part of a legitimate commissionl business, and the man who goes to a merchant to borrow money on the article he is to sell, places himself at the mercy of that merchant. Moreover, every commission merchant is the agent of the farmer for whlom he sells, and any business that is conducted in such a manner as to make a farmer's agent a speculator in his products must breed corruption. Now, the proofs and illustrations. It has been the practice, since the building of the railroad across the continent, of our largest dairy produce commission houses, to send car-loads of butter East each season, about February, March, or April, as the openness of our winters enables us to make butter here much earlier than in the East. It always so happens that the butter market here "breaks up" just about the time our merchants get ready to ship East, and the price suddenly drops from forty or fifty cents per pound to twenty-five or thirty. And why not? The agent of the dairymenthe commission man-buys this butter, buys it of whom? Of the dairyman? No, he buys it of himself, to ship on a speculation of his own. This agent, then, fixes the price on the very article he buys. It is simply this: Ilegeler, a commission merchant, sells to HIegeler, a speculator, ten tons of butter, and Hegeler, the merchant, fixes the price to Hegeler, the speculator. If any one thinks the dairymen profit by this kind of an arrangement, they see things in a different light from myself. During the spring and summer much butter is packed, by both farmers and speculating commission merchants, who pack much Of the butter consigned to them, and the process just explained of buying of themselves is here repeated. If the product is supposed to be short, every pound possible is bought, and prices are purposely held down till all is secured, which being done, the prices are at once put up. Yet, the dairyman is in no wise profited by this rise, as he has probably sold the products of his toil, while the profits of all this, the farmers' hard toiling, goes into the hands of middle-men speculators. But you say it is not necessary always for the farmer to sell while prices are low-he, too, can hold on for the usual rise in price. 182

Page  183 HE WHO SOWS, MUST ALSO REAP. Very well, suppose I am a commission merchant, I buy all I can, say I buy two thirds of the yield, that is of the surplus, the remaining one third is held by the farmer; the fact becomes known to me. I am aware there is a surplus in the country. Then what do I do? I offer only my own butter for sale, while that which I hold in trust for the farmer, on consignment, I keep in the background, and do not offer for sale. I dispose of mine at a fair figure, and when I have sold all I have of my own, I then offer yours. But the butter market having been supplied, yours will form the surplus-the result must be as it was last year-a tumble in the prices. The one is sold at a good figure, while the other must suffer his to be slaughtered; as we are all human, and self-preservation being the first law of nature, it is hardly necessary to say that the party slaughtered is the farmer. It has been my study to look up the evils of this system of trade. They are necessarily evils of a system-perhaps there is no one who, under the same circumstances, would not take advantage of these business opportunities; and, therefore, we should not attack the persons engaged in it half so much as we should attack the system itself. The remedy for all this is simple enough. It lies alone within ourselves-within the Grange, I mean. To this body, and to this body alone, will devolve this duty of transforming this great evil into a better and healthier mode of business. It lies simply in this: the farmer must become his own business man; he must be his own business manager; he must be his own salesman; he must, not only sow, but he must reap; and he must not cease to garner his products till he is done, and he is not done when he places his golden grain in his barn, but he shall have done when he has reaped the reward of his toil by a proper remuneration and exchange of his products for the necessaries of his life and household. No one can be so good an agent for the farmer as the farmer himself; or at least he should be the creature of the farmer, and not, as is now the case, the farmer the creature of the agent. My idea is, that the State Grange should own the business, and it is the duty of every Patron to patronize it to the fullest extent possible. Second Annual Report of Brothers Jolley, Stiles and Wright, Committee on Irrigation: While the past year has been one of unexampled prosperity in most parts of the State, it has also demonstrated the absolute necessity of the immediate adoption of some system of irrigation, which will enable hundreds of the small farmers of this State to retain their homes, which they cannot do, unless their farms afford them the means of support for their families. The San Joaquin Valley, which seems destined to be the Garden of the Continent, and especially that part west of the San Joaquin River, has suffered to an alarming extent in the last year from drought, and we feel safe in calculating the loss at sufficient to construct a canal from Tulare Lake to Antioch. In accordance with the instructions of this State-Grange, and the Preamble and Resolutions adopted by this Grange at its last session, 183

Page  184 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. we prepared and printed five hundred copies of a petition to the Legislature for an act creating a general system of irrigation, setting forth the views in the aforesaid Resolutions, and caused the same to be distributed throughout the State to every Grange then organized. AVe also issued a circular letter to each Mlaster, askinga in the name of this State Grange his personal influence in furthering this enter prise, by obtaining signatures to these petitions. In such localities as have realized, by the saddest of experience, the great need of this measure, the petitions were very generally signed; and we were en abled to present the petition to the Legislature backed by the names of several thousand petitioners. We regret to say, that in some of those localities where the need of such a system is not as plainly felt, or where it would prove of less direct advantage than elsewhere, subordinate Granges refused to give their countenance and support to the measure, and disregarded the fact that this State Grange had authorized such effort, and considered it to be of vital importance to the agriculturists of this State. We believe it to be the grandest scheme, and entirely feasible withal, ever inaugurated in this State, and one which would, if successfully carried out, bring to us untold wealth, and fill our valleys with an immense population. In conformity with the instructions of this Grange, your Committee prepared a "bill to provide for a general system of irrigation throughout the State," which system was to have been inaugurated and conducted by the State, authority vesting the rights to the water in the soil forever; and although imperfect, as human institutions always are, it would have been the initiative of one of the grandest enterprises yet projected for the benefit of the agriculturists of the State, and one than which no other is more needed at this day. As can be seen by reference to section 12, page 4, of this bill, it was required that the expenses on the part of the State, in carrying out the provisions of this act, should "in no case exceed the sum of thiirty thousand dollars in any one year." So that the objection that it would have been a great expense to-the State does not hold good. The deep interest felt in the success of this measure induced a portion of your Committee to spend most of their time in Sacramento, during the time of preparing the bill and its pendency before those august bodies, the Senate and Assembly. Our efforts to discharge our trust as a Committee were ably seconded by West San Joaquin Grange, No. 3, which spared no expense in their power to secure the success of the measure, sending to the aid of your Comminittee its Worthy Overseer, to whom your Committee tender their sincere thanks for his earnest efforts. Our bill was presented in the Assembly January 21st, 1874, by Brother Venable, of Los Angeles, and was known thereafter as "Venable's Bill." Your Committee would take this opportunity to publicly return their thanks to Brother Venable for his efforts in behalf of this great enterprise. After the usual delays attendant upon all Legislation, the bill was passed by the Assembly by a majority of thirty. The bill was then introduced in the Senate, and although there seemed to be little direct opposition to it, did not come upl) on its final passage until March 24th, 1874. The principle seemed gen 184

Page  185 HOW VENABLE'S BILL WAS DEFEATED, erally accepted that something should be done, and the die seemed about to be cast in our favor; but on the eve of our triumph, a new party appeared in the field. The friends of that giant monopoly known as the San Joaquin & Kings River Canal Company, rushed to the State Capital in force, and in the few hours which intervened our defeat was accomplished, and on the next day the labor of the year was ignominiously defeated. How this was accomplished, we leave you to imagine. Their influence, whether exerted through solid argument or other wise, was more potent than the prayers of thousands of farmers. Your Committee return thanks to the Executive Committee of this Grange for the aid extended by them, enabling one of our Committee to remain in the capital during the pendency of this question. Your Committee would ask of this State Grange a renewed effort to accomplish this great enterprise, and recommend the discharge of the present Committee and the appointment of a new Committee, who shall be peculiarly alive to this great subject. In conclusion, your Committee would recommend to every Patron a careful perusal of the very able address, delivered by Hon. 3I. M. Estee, at the opening of the late State Fair, as being replete with facts and information of great importance to the farmers throughout the State. RPeport of Committee on Good of the Order: Whereas, It can be shown from statistics accessible to every one, that the insurance business of the State of California in 1873 amounted to $184,345,589, with a profit of $2,377,970, out of which the foreign companies do business in fire risks to the amount of $86,094,960, with a net profit of $970,478; and that marine risks amount to a business of $56,823,425, with a profit of $973,980, of which business, $24,502,587 is done by foreign companies, with a net profit of $359,199, making a total net profit to the foreign companies doing business in this State, of $1,329,677; and, Whereas, It is notorious that the whole, or a larger part of this immense sum is placed at the disposal of our opponents, the grain speculators, and other middle-men of San Francisco, and their agents in the interior of the State; and, Whereas, The By-Laws of the California Farmers' Fire Insurance Association, an institution formed in our own Order, provides that all funds shall be deposited in the Grangers' Bank at San Francisco, thereby placing them where they will be used in our favor, instead of against us; and, Whereas, This Company proposes to take fire risks on farm buildings at lower rates than have heretofore obtained, thus securing a material economy, in accordance with the principles of our Order; therefore, be it Resolved, That it is the duty of every member of the Order to forward the interests of the Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association, so far as can be done without conflicting with any private right or interest. The efforts of the State Grange to put the Agricultural Col 185

Page  186 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. lege upon a practical foundation, are presented in the report of the Standing Committee on Education and the University, J. W. A. Wright, W. H. Baxter and 0. L. Abbott, as follows: Having our duties mapped out for us, by the resolution passed at the first annual meeting, requiring us "to inquire particularly into the condition of the Agricultural Department of the State University, what improvements, if any, should be made, and what legislation, if any, is required to secure to the farmers of this State, the full benefits of the Agricultural College grant," etc., etc., your Committee went immediately to work, Brother Wright proceeding to Oakland to investigate, became acquainted with the President of the University and most of the Faculty, and collected as many facts as possible bearing upon the subject under consideration. Learning that the MIeehanies' Deliberative Assembly of San Francisco, had, almost simultaneously with the State Grange, appointed a committee of three for a similar purpose, and to avoid any conflict of action between the representatives of the two great industrial classes of our State, whose interests are so clearly mutual in developing the agricultural and mechanical departments of our University, we determined, after several conferences, upon joint action by the two bodies. The result was a most cordial and happy unity of action between these industrial elements; and, after much deliberation and care, a joint memorial to the State Legislature was prepared, asking for such timely enactments and appropriations as would tend to properly develop and foster the industrial features of our great institution, in accordance with the evident intent of the organic Acts of Congress and the State Legislature. The Chairman of your Committee, in accordance with the wishes of the other members, spent the greater part of two weeks in such investigations and conferences; and in drafting, with the aid of Judge Sawyer, the Chairman of the Mechanics' Committee, the memorial aforesaid. Early in January, he visited Sacramento, and laid the joint memorial before our Executive Committee, and they heartily endorsed it, as appears in the official copy. In conjunction with Worthy Master Hamilton, and other members of the Executive Committee, he presented and explained the memorial to our fellow Patrons in the Senate and Assembly, in whom we found able co-workers for this and all our petitions for reformatory legislative action. At this memorable Grange Conference in our State Capital, a plan of proceedings was also agreed upon to present this memorial to the Legislature, and to prepare the necessary resolutions, and a bill to carry out the provisions asked for. This memorial is herewith presented as document "A." Care should be taken, however, at all times, to distinguish between the investigation which resulted from our memorial, and another which was made at the same time, and which developed deplorable irregularities in applying funds for University buildings. These two investigations were entirely separate, but are too often confounded by those not fully posted as to the facts in the case. Mlost of the after-work in the Legislature, which was brought about by our memorial, was left in the hands of our WTorthy Bro. 186

Page  187 REPORT ON THE STATE UNIVERSITY. Hig,bie, of Los Angeles, Chairman of the Assembly Committee on Education, who was ably seconded by numerous zealous members of our Order, and equally zealous representatives of the Mechanics' Association, whom the people had placed on guard in our legislative halls. WVe must not, however, omit to mention, that while subsequent investigations in the Legislature were going on, and when Bros. Hamilton and Vright were absent at the National Grange in St. Louis, Bro. Baxter performed all the duties of the Committee. He went to Sacramento several times at the summons of the Investigating Committee. During some five or six weeks he devoted miuch of his time to answering questions of the Committee, and of some of the Regents with whom he was confronted. It should be well understood by all of us, that none of the acts of this, or any other of our Grange Committees that visited Sacramento last winter, partook in the least of a partisan character; but appeals in behalf of our industrial interests were made impartially to our friends of every political party, and we found they met us without any regard to party distinctions. Hence our strength. We should not fail to mention that our worthy brother, Professor Carr, gave us material aid in all this work, whenever he was called upon to do so. The result of these many earnest efforts for the advancement of the great cause of industrial and practical, as well as 6f theoretical education on this Coast, was the hearty approval of the measures recommended in our joint memorial by the legislative Committees on Education, and the preparation of a bill enacting the necessary reforms, which was within an hour of the time of passing, when pledges came, understood to be authorized by the present Board of Regents, that if said bill was not passed, and the matter was dropped, Brother Carr, the able and experienced Professor of Agriculture in the State University, would not be interfered with, but would be permitted, in good faith, to carry out, under his most competent supervision, and by use of the liberal appropriations of the Legislature, the various ideas advanced in the joint memorial. All these, and subsequent facts, however, are so fully and ably set forth in the unanswerable statements of Professor Carr, in his recent history of this entire struggle, that we deem it necessary merely to refer to his noble paper, which is filed herewith as document "B." Unfortunately for the cause of industrial education, and unfortunately for the educational interests of a vast majority of the citizens of this State, the pledges given were believed to be reliable, and no further effort was made to pass the bill. Yet that bill would, unless killed by the Senate, have been a law within an hour after these pledges were made, and would at once and forever have removed the only obstacle that exists to making our valued University eventually one of the most complete embodiments of the true University idea in the world, an ornament to the cause.of modern education, and a far greater honor to our State than we can ever hope to see it under the blighting hand of a selfish and moneyed aristocracy and monop oly, which, like all its kindred "rings" everywhere, has too long 187

Page  188 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. been at once the bane of our American institutions and the vampire which is slowly but surely withdrawing for itself the life-blood of our people. The subsequent history of this movement, culminating in the sum mary, and, we believe, unjust removal of Professor Carr from the chair of Agriculture, is too well known to all of you to require repe tition now. You are aware that the only answer of the Regents to the joint inquiry of the Committee of the State Grange and the .Niechanics' Deliberative Assembly, as to the reason for Professor Carr's removal is, "unfitness and incompetency." They do not deign to tell us what they mean by "unfitness and incompetency." They do not condescend to give a single fact to prove this charge. Hence, we can but believe the removal of our brother was unjust, and would here place on record our solemn protest against that act of the Board of Regents and the manner in which it was consum mated. Our investigations for the past year lead us to believe that the management of the financial affairs of the University, and especially of its agricultural and mechanical interests, has not been for the best interests of this noble institution, in whose complete and successful development the people of California, including, most certainly, its industrial classes, have a deep interest by our inalienable rights as American citizens in a representative government. In proof of this, we beg leave to call your attention to the following facts and figures: We find that Congress "for the benefit of Agriculture and the MIechanic Arts," as indicated in the title of the Act of July 2, 1862, gave to the State of California one hundred and fifty thousand acres of land for the maintainance "of at least ore college whose leading object should be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to promote the liberal and practical eduation of the industrial classes in their several pursuits and professions in life." That the administration of this grant, both in respect to the management of the fund and the educational provisions adopted, was confided to twenty-two Regents of the University of Californiaorganized in March, 1868. The organic act of said University required that a College of Agriculture should first be established, that priority of development and of privileges should be accorded to it, and next to a College of Mechanic Arts, around these other colleges were required to be successively organized. We find that neither in the choice of Regents for said University, nearly all of whom are lawyers and capitalists of San Francisco, nor in the distribution of its instructional force or other educational facilities, have these plain requirements of the law been complied with. Your Committee are satisfied that the facts presented in the memorial to the Legislature with respect to instruction in Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, were well and correctly stated, the theoretical instruction in science related thereto being such only as is common in all colleges not industrial in their leading objects, with a solitary exception of a single professorship, viz.: that of Agriculture, since made vacant by the summary and as yet unexplained removal of Professor Carr. No practical instruction, either in Agriculture or iss

Page  189 REGENTS' FINANCIAI OPERATIONS. the Mechanic Arts, has ever been given, nor has the manual labor system, required by law in connection with its construction, and made a prominent feature in other industrial colleges, been encouragecl or practiced. Ve find in the organic laws of the University provisions which virtually give absolute control of its property to the Regents, allowing them to sell, invest, reinvest, bestow, etc., to put their own construction upon the meaning of grants, gifts, and endowments, without requiring them to take any oath of office, with no guaranty for the rightful exercise of these powers and no redress, should they be abused. The terms of the organic act states that their office "shall be held and deemed exclusively a private trust." The presentation of the memorial of the State Grange and Mechanics to the Legislature, in compliance with the resolution at the San Jose meeting, resulted in a fuller exhibit of the financial affairs of the University than had previously appeared. A joint committee of the Senate and Assembly, appointed at their request, received from them as testimony an official report dated March 3, 1874, "which was carefully considered by them, unanimously adopted, and certified to as correct in all the particulars." WVe find this report to contradict itself in important particulars, to be at variance with other facts well attested, and documentary evidence, especially in regard to the sale of lands donated by Congress, and the investment of the proceeds. The Regents tell us (in page 37 of their Statements) that they have either sold or contracted to sell the entire grant of 150,000 acres at $5 per acre in gold coin, net, 20 per cent. being paid down, and the remaining 80 per cent. bearing interest at 10 per cent., which should give a productive fund of $750,000, or an income of $75,000 per annum. With prudent management, this would be the value of the Congressional grant to-day, even at the low price (for California) of five dollars an acre. The law of Congress requires the proceeds from the grant to be invested in United States, State, or other safe stocks. Paying no attention to this requirement, the Regents have invested it as follows: Of the $114,025 47 received of purchasers, $20,000 was invested in a vacant lot in the city of Oakland, for which the Agricultural department had no use whatever; $11,386 25 in paying interest on a debt injudiciously assumed by the Regents; $2,929 26 for some purpose not explained; amounting in all to $34,315 51, expended for the purchase of the Brayton estate, for which Regent Tompkins was agent. The remainder, $79,709 96, is deposited by the Treasurer of the University, Regent Rtalston, in the Bank of California, of which Regent and Treasurer Ralston is President, and bears interest at six per cent per annum. while the Regents of the University, on a mortgage of $50,000, assumed in the purchase of tbe aforesaid Brayton estate, are paying nine per cent. per annum. The 80 per cent. credit upon $150,663 58 is in the form of notes bearing interest at the rate of 10 per cenlt. per annum. Applications on file with the Land Agent of the University, and certificates of deposit to the amount of $94,573 are now in his hands, and this money all or mostly in the Bank of California. No account for interest allowed appears in the exhibit of the Regents, though we learn that 189

Page  190 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. in connection with recent events interest has lately been paid. Four dollars credit per acre on 94,573 acres, amounting to $378,292, should have been drawing interest-otherwise the income from the Land Fund is diminished at the rate of $37,829 per annum. A still more serious evil appears in the fact that the Regents have so framed their regulations that the purchaser is not Obliged to pay interest on the credit portion of his purchase-mnoney until his title is obtained. The time intervening between the application and rendering of patent may be extended for years while the land is occupied and cleared of timber. No bonds had been given guarding against such a contingency up to the first day of July last, while on page 36 of the Regents' Statements we find that 8,840 acres have been forfeited and returned to the Land Fund. We have seen from the Regents' Statements that $79,709 96 of the Agricultural Land Fund was drawing six per cent. interest in the Bank of California, and $94,573 drawing no interest at all up to the 1st of July last, as appears from the books. In the statements we are informed that "the remainder, $34,315 51, was temporarily invested in the purchase of four full blocks, with extensive improvements, in the heart of the growing city of Oakland, being the property formerly owned by the College of California, and the Brayton estate. This property is subject to a mortgage of $50,000, bearing interest at the rate of nine per cent. per annum," (and they are loaning nearly twice the amount to the Bank of California at six per cent. at the same time!) "It has cost to date, including $11,386 25 paid as interest on the mortgage, t+:e sum of $112,476 25, and is valued by the most competent experts at a minimum of $150,000." This statement is not correct. These four blocks cost the University far more than is here represented. Block No. 1, known as the College Block, cost the University $49,030 04. Other property was received with this block, and turned over to MIrs. Brayton in part payment for blocks Nos. 2 and 3. Blocks Nos. 2 and 3 cost $94,315 51, in this manner. The Regents assumed a $50,000 mortgage for Mrs. Brayton, "and transferred to the vendors the outside property, valued at about $30,000, adjoining the University site at Berkeley, which had been obtained from the College of California. The property (blocks Nos. 2 and 3) was thus obtained without any additional -ash expenditure." On the $50,000 mortgage, $11,386 25 interest was paid by the Regents, and also, $2,929 51 for some unexplained purpose, amounting to $94,315 51, the entire cost of blocks Nos. 2 and 3. The fourth block, vacant, and of no use to the institution, was subsequently purchased of the Brayton estate for the sum of $20,000. Block No. 1 cost $49,030 04; block Nos. 2 and 3 cost $80,000; block Nos. 2 and 3 interest on mortgage $11,386 25; item for which no account is given, $2,929 26; block No. 4 cost $20,000. Total cost of four blocks "in the heart of the growiig city of Oakland," as shown by the Regents, $163,345 55. On the same statements, the following glaring misrepresentation appears with regard to these same blocks: "Since the removal of the University to Berkeley, this property is no longer essential. It is growing in value, however, year by year. Should it be deemed 190

Page  191 COSTLY SPECULATIONS. best to dispose of it, it will realize a sum, say $150,000 at least; sufficient to pay off the mortgage of $50,000, to repay the Land Fund the $34,315 51 borrowed, and leave a surplus of $65,684 49, yielding in the shape of profit a far larger interest upon the amount of the Land Fund invested than could possibly have been derived from any ordinary safe investment." This statement was designed to lead the Legislature of California to infer that the four blocks cost but $84,000, and that $65,000 had been gained by the speculation, when in fact these four blocks cost, years ago, $163,345 55, which was 813,345 55 more than the Regents claim them now to be worth, although in the heart of the growing city of Oakland. If this were all that the Regents have so adroitly attempted to conceal, there would be less cause of complaint. The "outside property, valued at about $30,000, adjoining the University site at Berkeley, which had been obtained from the College of California," transferred to Mrs. Brayton, in part payment for blocks Nos. 2 and 3, was worth to the Agricultural Department of the University for experimental purposes, at least $200,000, which is probably not far from its present commerical value. This indicates that the Brayton job has cost the institution about $175,000, and robbed the experinmental farm of nearly, if not quite, two hundred acres of ground essential in making up the necessary varieties of soil and location. The Regents estimate the remaining two hundred acres directly adjoining, although less valuable, and sheltered for horticulture, at one thousand dollars per acre, while the water rights parted with are practically inestimable. Still further, your committee find that the Regents obtained from the College of California and other sources, nearly four hundred acres of land entirely by donation. The liabilities of the College of California assumed by the Regents, amounted to $49,030 04, a debt not equal to the amount realized on the College property, or Block No. 1, in the growing city of Oakland, at the recent sale. The Berkeley property was donated, and in some cases the terms of the deed are explicit, for an Agricultural College, and yet the choicest lands, those nearest the city of Oakland, lands rapidly advancing in value since the removal of the University, have been sold for a mere nominal sum, while of the two hundred acres remaining, only about five have been set apart for agriculture and horticulture. Not a spadeful of earth had been turned, or an agricultural experiment made, when the Committee appointed by the State Grange commenced its labors. Yet the Professor of Agriculture had been persistently and repeatedly calling attention to this, had submitted plans for work and for instruction by experts, plans for farm buildings, with estimates of cost, and such other information as was needed to secure intelligent action. In their reply to the Memorial of Grangers and Mechanics, of August 8th, 1874, the Regents, under date of September 1st, 1874, state that "within the past year the Berkeley property has been surveyed and mapped, and the right places marked out for agriculture, horticulture, botanical garden, and forestry." We find that as early as MIay, 1870, the Professor of Agriculture was asking to have these places marked out, and a 191

Page  192 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. definite working plan adopted, and that these requests were repeated year after year. We find that the resolution of the Board authorizing Professor Carr to employ a gardener, passed September 18thl, 1872, was made practically inoperative by failure to locate or mark out these " right places" for his operations, which has only been done "within the past year." The same is true of their statement that $500 was placed at the disposal of Professor Carr to secure the aid of competent lecturers on special subjects, no such money having been placed at his disposal, while his requests to have lectures from Dr. Strentzel and other competent parties named by him, with subjects and number of lectures specified, was disregarded. On page sixty-eight of their Statements, the Regents say they have been "desirous of securing progress in the Department of Agriculture, and have asked for appropriations which would give it more efficiency. They have requested means for the improvement of the grounds." By turning back to page fifty-three of this extraordinary document, we find that they have expended $21,151 05 for such improvements, not one feature of which was agricultural or horticultural, a sum much larger than was required to carry out the wishes of the Professor of Agriculture, who was never consulted with regard to them. This sum was expended under the direction of Dr. MIerritt, Chairman of the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, "exclusively as a private trust." Your Committee cannot too strongly urge that the interest of the people of the State, and especially of the agricultural and other laboring classes, does not end with the administration of the Congressionilal grant, and the Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges. The Regents say that they have received from the State $412,694 79, exclusive of the $300,000 for building purposes; including this and the $80,000 appropriated last winter, we have the sum of $792,694 79. The income derived from other sources of endowment, subject to the disposition of the Regents as a "private trust," are the proceeds of seventy-two sections of "Seminary lands," of ten sections, given to the State for public buildings, the Act of endowment approved April 2, 1870, giving an income of $50,000 per annum, all of which add enormously to the resources of the institution, with prudent management. But neither in respect to the disposition of public lands, the employment of funds thence derived, or in the direction of the instructional force employed in the University, do we find the evidence we have diligently sought of the fitness or competency of the Board of Regents to manage an institution created for the benefit of the whole people. We find that, in consequence of their unfitness, incompetency, and bad management, the interest of the Agricultural College has been entirely subordinated, instead of being a leading one in the University, as the law requires; its future usefulness crippled by loss of lands of the greatest importance to practical education, and the prospect of an additional grant from Congress jeopardized, which would secure an additional income of $30,000 per annum. In view of all these facts, we earnestly recommend to the Patrons of California and their friends to adopt such measures as will best 192

Page  193 MEMORIAL OF GRANGERS AND MECHANICS. remove, through the action of our next Legislature, the wrongs in the management of the State University, of which we think we most justly complain. The memorial above referred to was also signed by Hon. E. D. Sawyer, C. C. Terrill, and M. J. Donovan, on the part of the MIechanics. It presented the case as follows: Your petitioners, in behalf of the industrial classes of California, both agriculturists and mechanics, would respectfully call the attention of your honorable body to the condition and wants of the State University. WVe make this petition with all due deference to the Honorable Board of Regents and Faculty of our University, and with no desire to interfere improperly with any of their rights or duties. But we believe the interests of the people of the State, for whose benefit especially this noble institution was established, require that greater efficiency be given to the agricultural, mechanical, and other industrial instruction therein, without diminishing the usefulness of those departments already in successful operation. Your petitioners find that the State University resulted from an Act of Congress entitled "An Act donating public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide Colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." By this Act one hundred and fifty thousand acres (more or less) were donated to California. In accordance with this munificent provision of the United States Government, our Legislature passed an Act establishing a University, and prescribing that its most prominent features should be Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. By reference to the last report from each of the thirty-eight States that shared in this national endowment to the Department of Agriculture at Washington, we find nearly every one of them carrying out both the letter and the spirit of the Act of Congress; "that they are attended by over three thousand students, most of whom are practically pursuing agricultural and mechanical studies," with well stocked farms, work-shops, and all necessary appliances of instruction. In the same report, we read that "in California a farm of about two hundred acres has been provided for the Agricultural Department, but it has not been improved, nor are the students instructed in agriculture outside of the school-room. The Act of Congress requires that the "leading object" of the Industrial Universities shall be without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the Legislatures of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in their several pursuits. The organic Act creating the University requires that the College of Agriculture shall first be developed, "and next, that of the Mechanic Arts." We find that of the monthly appropriation (six thousand dollars) for the regular expenses only one twentieth is now devoted to the Agricultural Department, and that one Professor is discharging all the duties of instruction on the subjects related tb it. No technical instruction in the mechanic arts has thus far been given. 13 193

Page  194 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. The instructional force of the University (besides the President) is as follows:-One Professor of Latin and Greek, and two Assistants; one instructor in Hebrew; one Professor of Mathematics, and two Assistants; one Professor of Modern Languages, and two Assistants; one Professor of Chemistry, and two Assistants (advanced students;) one Professor of Physics and Mechanics; one Professor of Geology and Natural History; one Professor of Civil Engineering and As tronomy; one Professor of Rhetoric, History, and English Lan guage; one instructor in Drawing; one Professor in Agriculture, Agricultural Chemistry, and Horticulture. Your petitioners do, therefore, request, that in accordance with plans pursued at Cornell, the Massachusetts and Michigan Agricul tural Colleges, the Universities of Missouri, Illinois, and many others (as may be seen from the report already referred to), that whatever State aid is granted for our University, and as rapidly as the income from the land sales is received, it may be "first of all applied to the extending of the Colleges of Agriculture and the Me chanic Arts, and all the departments of instruction which directly bear upon the studies pursued in them." With this object in view, we earnestly recommend a sufficient appropriation to carry out the following objects: Fir\. The improvement of such portions of the University grounds as may be required to illustrate practically the subjects taught in the Department of Agriculture, and the adaptation of this State to various cultures. The erection of a plain, convenient, and commodious farm house, with suitable outhouses, to be occupied by the Professor of Agriculture, or some practical farmer to act under his direction. To this an orchard, vineyard, vegetable and flower garden, and a poultry yard should be attached; also, a propagating house, and, as soon as practicable, a conservatory. The culture of cereals, textiles, and other valuable vegetable productions; the rearing of stock, bees, and silk worms should be illustrated, on a, small scale, epitomizing the entire range of agricultural industries. Second. The appropriation of a sufficient amount to secure the necessary practical instruction in the mechanic arts; to provide blacksmiths', carpenters', cabinet and machine shops, and printing press, under the supervision of competent persons. We by no means expect to accomplish all this at once, but we ask means to secure to the youth of our State, with proper economy and despatch, the advantages enjoyed by students of the best developed institutions which owe their existence to the same foundation. We desire that the grounds of our University, its museums, parks and gardens, may eventually become as instructive as those of the Garden of Plants at Paris; and that our College of Mechanic Arts may, without needless delay, rival the Technological School in Boston. We ask that in keeping with the educational standards of the age, the principles of object teaching and practical instruction be conducted in connection with the ideal and theoretical, and occupy in the chief school of the State, the position which their importance demands. WVe believe that nowhere will the dignity of labor be so strongly impressed upon the mind as in those higher institutions of learning, organized for the benefit of the most important class of 19,i

Page  195 CHANGES RECOMMENDED. laborers, where the acquisition of skill goes hand in hand with the acquisition of knowledge. We find that the Board of Regents, as at present constituted, does not sufficiently represent the various portions and interests of the State. Though composed of gentlemen of the highest position and worth, they reside, mainly, in San Francisco and Oakland, and although they have been zealous in their efforts to secure the prosperity of the institution, we believe that the best interests of education would be promoted by an amendment of the Act so as to unify the University with the other departments of State-education. We, therefore, respectfully ask such amendment of this Act, and of other Acts, as shall constitute a State Board of Education, having charge of the University, the Normal School, and other public schools, and to consist of fifteen Regents, viz: Seven ex-officio-the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the Assembly, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, President of the State Agricultural Society, Master of the State Grange, and President of the Mechanics' Institute of San Francisco; also two members from each Congressional District, to be appointed from their districts by the Governor, with the consent of the Senate, for their first terms, and afterward to be elected by the people as vacancies occur. We also recommend that any nine members shall constitute a quorum, as the Board of Education, or as the Board of Regents for the University, or as the Board of Trustees of the State Normal School. We ask that they may be so selected as to represent the various industrial interests, occupations, and professions of the citizens of the State. The law (Article IV, section 1,450 of the new Code) clearly provides that the Secretary of the Board of Regents must be a practical farmer, and must reside and keep his office at the site of the University. These requirements having been hitherto disregarded, we recommend that the law be either rigidly enforced or essentially modified. It is generally understood that a portion of the lands donated by Congress for the purposes of industrial education in California, have been sold at five dollars per acre, one fifth of the amount having been paid down, and it is understood that the fund thus obtained has been used in paying professorships and scholarships in our University. But it is the misfortune of the people of California to know very little about these lands and their present condition, while they do know that in other States, in consequence of mismanagement, only a small part of the real value of school and University lands has been realized. In some instances timber lands valued at thirty and fifty dollars per acre have been taken up, the first payments made, the timber removed, and the lands forfeited. It is clearly the right of the people to have correct information on this subject. We do therefore petition your honorable body that a University Committee be carefully selected from your number whose duty it shall be to examine fully, minutely, and impartially into the location and present condition of all lands donated to California for these purposes; to ascertain what has accrued from the sales thereof, and how the same has been expended; and that the necessary power be granted them to send for persons, books, and papers, to administer 195

Page  196 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. the necessary oaths, and take the testimony for the thorough investigation of the whole question, and that the results of such investigation be published without unnecessary delay, for the information of the people. In view of the important fact that another bill was introduced into Congress, at the late session (by Mr. MIorrill, the author of the original bill), which it is expected will be passed during the coming winter, giving to each of the industrial Universities in operation an additional grant of five hundred thousand acres, we also request that our Legislature memorialize Congress so to amend the law regarding the locations upon unsurveyed lands as to protect actual settlers in their improvements up to the time that the locator can make his selection by sections or subdivisions. As a means of redress for seizures under the existing law, we also recommend that our Legislature forthwith pass an Act, providing that in all cases where contests have arisen, or may hereafter arise, before the Board of Regents of the University upon University lands, and the contestant shall feel aggrieved at the decision of said Board, he shall have the right of appeal to the District Court, by giving the usual notice of said appeal. We respectfully recommend that all the University funds be kept in the State Treasury, subject only to order in proper form for University disbursements. As we are now informed that the funds hitherto appropriated are exhausted, and that additional appropriations will be required at the present session, to add other and needed improvements, in accordance with the original plan, your petitioners would respectfully ask that in addition to the sum required for monthly current expenses, the following be specifically appropriated: For farm, buildings, implements, stock, etc., twentyfive thousand dollars; for annual farm and garden expenses, payment of students and other labor, salary of farmer and gardener, expenses of lectures from experts in special cultures, agricultural, entomology, veterinary science, etc., collection and preparation of specimens for museum of agriculture, and incidental expenses, fifteen thousand dollars; for mechanical shops, printing press, steam engine, and their appurtenances, fifty thousand dollars; for annual expenses of mechanical shops, printing press, superintendence, students and skilled labor, collections of models and raw materials for museum of Mechanic Arts, lectures on technical subjects connected with mechanical pursuits by skilled persons, and incidental expenses, fifteen thousand dollars. It is expected that this will furnish the carpenters', cabinet work, and printing for the institution. It should be borne in mind that these departments are to be created, and that no part of the twenty thousand dollars already expended for chemical and physical apparatus, will supply their technical needs. The completion of the central building, according to the: original plan, is a prime necessity in accomplishing the great purpose of the University; for, in the absence of suitable rooms for the present Museum and Library, it has been considered necessary to occupy for this purpose, a part of the College of Agriculture, a building designed to supply the wants of this department, as is indicated by 196

Page  197 OBJECTS TO BE ATTAINED. the appropriate and bountiful emblems that adorn its outer walls. In this exigency, the entire Agricultural Department is forced into the limited space of the north half of the basement of this splendid structure, thus placing in a subordinate position, which it was never intended to occupy, what should be the most prominent department of the State University. We find that a building containing an Assembly Hall, Museum, etc,, can be erected of wood at a cost of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars; of brick, with granite facings, two hundred and fiftysix thousand dollars. The labor of students can be utilized in the construction of this and other needed edifices, and deserving young men can ill this way be aided in paying a part at least of the expenses of their education. Suitable dwellings should at once be erected for the accommodation of the professors and club houses for the students upon the University grounds, for which a moderate, rent might be charged. At present, both professors and students are compelled to live at Oakland, five miles distant, or to provide themselves accommodations in the yet sparsely-settled neighborhLood of Berkeley, at an expense greater than their means will justify. The entire energies of the University body should be concentrated in and around its scholastic home. In conclusion, we would repeat that it is not now our object to undervalue what has been so well done in the erection of buildings, of which the State may be justly proud; in the opening of the doors of the University to both sexes; in making its instruction in all departments free; in organizing the Military Department and Labor Corps; and in securing a Faculty of zealous and able men. But, believing that the first and highest employment of men is to feed, shelter, and clothe the world, we ask that the graduates of our industrial colleges may be "peers of scholars in mental culture, and peers of laborers in manual skill and physical development." The relations of labor to study are admirably stated in the report of the Missouri University. "The pupil must study till he knows what should be done, why it should be done, and how. When this is done, the intellectual division of labor is finished. The pupil must labor till he can do work in the farm and shop with skill; then the manuaal division of an industrial education is finished. In agriculture, he should thus learn whatever is done on the farm, in the garden, orchard and nursery. If it is asked:'Who shall direct the labors of the pupils?' we answer:'The teacher of the principles put in practice, that useless and impracticable theories may not be introduced."' Agriculture is far from being an exact science, and its conditions on this coast are peculiar. WVe ask that our University be made useful to the largest number of our citizens, by accurate annual reports of work done, experiments made, and results arrived at. Agriculture, in its various departments, should be so taught and practiced in our University as to send forth scientific farmers, whose labor and skill can utilize the soil and develop its greatest re sources, while the mechanical department should graduate learned and skilled mechanics, who stall add dignity anld worth to labor; and it is the earnest desire and purpose of agriculturists and me chanics of this State to make these great departments of industry 197

Page  198 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. the leading features of our State University, and for this purpose we expect your cordial co-operation, and such appropriations as are necessary. Nor do we think that any mechanical schools in San Francisco, valuable as they may become, can supply the place of the College of Mechanic Arts, as provided by the original plan of the State University. We also request the present Legislature to order that block letters be prepared and placed upon the east and west faces of the main building of the University, marking it for all time with the words, "Agricultural College of the University of California." Document B. is omitted, as not properly belonging to tihe annals of the State Grange. It was a reply made by Professor Carr to these committees for a "full statement of the history of the Agricultural College, with a view to laying it before the people and the next Legislature."* The following Report of the Committee on Education and Labor, was enthusiastically adopted: When Congress, at the opening of its last session, appointed a Committee on Education and Labor, it seemed a recognition by the highest legislative body of the country, that these great interests are indissolubly connected. So we believe, and a thorough and practical education being the only means by which labor can be elevated, your committee desire to present a few suggestions with regard to improvements in our public schools, high schools, and university. Our schools, both higher and lower, have naturally grown up on English models, and were then made to fit the needs of the aristocratic classes, rather than of working men and women. This is the reason why so much of our elementary instruction imparts a knowledge of words rather than of things. Germany, France, and other European countries, are far ahead of England and America in both the quality and quantity of education furnished to the laboring classes, for they seek to impart skill, along *On the occasion of Professor Carr's removal from the Agricultural Professorship of the University, (August, 1874,) Worthy Master Hamilton, who had been appointed a member of the Board of Regents, made this protest: I protest against the summary removal of Professor Carr at this time: 1st-Because such removal will be in direct violation of pledges made by friends of the University to the House Committee on education of the last Legislature. 2d-I believe such an act is in opposition to the wishes of a large class of the friends of the University, viz., the agriculturists and mechanices of California, and will go far to confirm the belief that the vacating of the Chair of Professor of Agricultule at this time is more to gratify personal feeling than to subseawe the public interest. ad-Because such removal will have the efaet of strengthening opposition to the present management, and give color to the charge now so openly preferred: That the President and Regents are striving to build up a purely literary institution at Berkeley at the expense of the agricultural and mechanical interests, and are thus diverting the University from the original purpose for which it was formed, by either ignoring entirely or making those objects secondary which the organic act declared should be primary ones. 4th-Because the summary dismissal of any Professor of the University for alleged incompetency, without first granting the accused the privilege of a hearing, and an opportunity to defend himself from the charges made again-t ihim, is demoralizing in its tendency, and is not in accordance with the principles of right and equity which should ever prevail in the management of the institution. A great number of the Subordinate Granges sustained the action of their Worthy Master, and embodied their opposition to the present management of the University in the trongest terms. 198

Page  199 REPORT OF CO]MMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR. with the merely mental training which is given them. They have consequently the best trained workmen in the world, both in agriculture and the arts, as all our best educators freely acknowledge. To get more of this practical or technical education into our common schools, is a great desideratum, and for it two things are necessary. First, an enlightened public opinion, which will create a demand for improvement; and, second, better teachers and better books to meet the demand. The teachers should be able to "throw a light" upon all the subjects of common life, and the books should convey some definite knowledge adapted to the capacity of the pupil. For instance, no study is better adapted to the comprehension of a child than elementary botany, which is made practical by what he daily sees done in agriculture and horticulture. Even young children should be encouraged to observe and collect the useful and wild plants of the neighborhood, to bring them to school, and to find out all about them. This finding out all about things is the alpha and omega of education. Putting the findings into practice is all there is of labor, except its drudgery. These are simple principles which every Patron can recognize. Our watchword is "Progress." The three R's, "readin,''ritin' and 'rithmetic," are no longer sufficient for us; especially if these are fed out to us as dry husks, while all the juice is kept for the benefit of other pursuitS We, ourselves, want more knowledge of the natural sciences, and we want our children to have it secured to them at the period of their lives when such knowledge is gained most easily. We want suitable books to tell the children all about the plants, animals and birds with which they daily come in contact. If they do not exist, and there is no school, botany, or natural history for this coast, let them be made. In short, we want our children to grow up around us with a respect for our calling, even if they choose a different one, and so to fit them for it that they may carry it on by better methods to higher ends. And, therefore, while we as Patrons mean to look very sharply at all proposed changes in our methods of instruction, and to "prove all things," as far as we are able, we also mean to change for the better whenever we can. We are aware that text-books, or the implements of instruction, are to be improved just as much as the implements of husbandry; and we believe that the new education will require them as fast as it is perfected. Under our laws, wisely framed in this respect, all such changes must be gradual, thereby making them less oppressive. Though all matters relating especially to this subject are made the business of the State Board of Education, we nevertheless feel that it is within our province to present to that body, either through our own Executive Committee, or such other way as the Grange may direct, an expression of our sentiments; and therefore, suggest the adoption of the following resolutions: Resolved, That it is the opinion of the State Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry that all our public institutions, from the primary school to the university, should be developed also in the disection of practical and technical education. 199 I*

Page  200 SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. Resolved, That to this end elementary studies in botany and other branches of natural history, in their relations to agriculture and horticulture should be introduced into our district schools. Resolved, That we desire the State Board of Education to encourage the preparation and gradual introduction of text-books which are adapted to the wants of this coast; and that, while protecting the people from unnecessary expense, it is their duty, other things being equal, to foster home industries in the selection of text-books, apparatus and furniture for our public schools. Resolved, That our more advanced classes should be instructed in the rights and duties of American citizenship, viz: The "duty of earning a living," of obedience to the laws, respect for religion, the rights of property, the privileges and responsibilities of the ballot, what monopolies are, how industry of one kind creates another, etc. The standing committees for the following year were announced by the Worthy Master as follows: Resolutions-J. W. A. Wright, R. C. Haile, J. D. Spencer. Constitution and By-Laws-A. T. Dewey, G. W. Henning, W. S. Manlove. Finanice-H. A. Oliver, J. Earl, and Sister Colby. Good of the Order-J. D. Fowler, John Wasley, Ed. Hallett, Sisters Manlove and Carr. JIaster's Message and other Reports-G. W. Colby, W. McPherson, J. M. Thompson. Commercial Relations-James Shinn, R. G. Dean, H. M. Leonard. Co-operation and Transportation —C. G. Bockens, Wm. Erkson, C. Cutter, Andrew Wolf, and Daniel Inman. Education and Labor-Sister E. S. Carr, Brother Meyer (Humboldt,) and Sister Dean. State University-O. L. Abbott, W. H. Baxter, J. W. A. Wright. Immitgration-O. L. Abbott, J. Earl, J. D. Spencer, J. B. Carrington, R. G. Dean, in addition to the old committee, which was continued. Legislation-Thos. Fowler, W.. K. Estelle, G. B. Crane. Irrigation-H. B. Jolley, R. G. Dean, Ed. Evey, M. Lammers,.J. A. Hutton. Judiciary-J. D. Spencer, T. H. Merry, R. C. Haile, H. S. Case, D. Inman. American Finance-J. W. A. Wright, E. S. Carr, W. McPherson Hill, O. L. Abbott, W. S. Manlove. Grange Statistics-J. B. Carrington, Thos. A. Garey, J. D. Spencer. Arrangements of Business-J. D. Fowler, Sister E. S. Carr, Ed. Hallett, Sister W. S. Manlove. Centennial Committee-B. P. Kooser, J.W. A.Wright, H. B. Jolley, Andrew Wolf, O. L. Abbott. Executive Committee-J. M. Hamilton, Chairman; J. C. Merryfield, G. W. Colby, A. B. Nalley, A. D. Logan, H. M. Leonard, J. M. Thompson. The State Grange then adjourned to meet in San Francisco the second Tuesday in October, 1875. 4 200.

Page  201 MR. WALCOTT AND THE WHEAT KING. CHAPTER' XVI. THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS. THE WHEAT SHIPPING BUSINESS-THE WHEAT KING AND MR. WVALCOTT-ADVANCE IN FREIGHTS IN 1872-3-EXAGGERATED ESTIMATES OF THE CROP OF 1874-5 MR. WALCOTT'S VARIOUS ENTERPRISES-THE SACK PURCHASE-FAILURE OF MORGAN'S SONS PROVES A BLESSING IN DISGUISE-CALLED MEETING OF THE GRANGE-PRACTICAL FELLOWSHIP-ALL'S WELL THAT ENDS WELL-DISCONTIN UANCE OF DAIRY AND PRODUCE AGENCY-THE BUSINESS ASSOCIATION FORMED -OFFICERS AND ARTICLES OF INCORPOIRATION OF THE GRANGERS' BUSINESS AS SOCIATION. THE reader who has patiently followed the history of the farmers' movement thus far, has not failed to notice the competition established in the years 1873 and 1874 between the agent of E. E. Morgan's Sons, Mr. Alfred Walcott, and the "Wheat King," Mr. Friedlander. The latter gentleman, of high standing in the business circles of San Francisco, had for many years controlled the grain shipping interests of the coast. lIe had numerous agents along the lines of railroads, and throughout the wheat-growing districts, and was ready to advance money to the farmels for the purchase of machinery, or to meet their pressing debts, to provide for harvesting expenses, purchase of sacks, pay of help, etc. The difficulties and ill-feeling which arose between the parties who had thus mortgaged their crop and the party who had the power to fix its value, was incident to the peculiar condition of wheat culture on this Coast, which had partaken largely of the speculative character which marks the transitional period of our industries. So heavy were the operations of the single firm which combined the functions of money-lender, merchant and shipper, that any opposition which appeared was immediately absorbed, and the farmers were fully persuaded that firms purporting to act independently, with branch houses in Liverpool, were really the agents through whom the Wheat King received his orders for cargoes. The advances in the foreign markets being telegraphed to San Francisco three or four weeks before the great body of the farmers could avail themselves of it, the prices of wheat and rates of freight were practically beyond their control. The appearance of a competitor whose paper was good for a 201

Page  202 THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS. large amount with the London and San Francisco Bank, and whose policy had been announced as the upbuilding of a "slow, safe, permanent shipping business," was naturally welcomed by the Patrons. The crop of 1872-3 had been a large one; to move it Mr. Friedlander had chartered every available ship at from ~3 10s. to ~4 5s., and at once rushed the freight market up to ~5 13s. In thus re-letting his low-priced vessels, a large profit was gained. It is a very difficult matter to form a correct estimate of the amount of the wheat crop, and the shipper has his risks as well as the farmer. The Sacramento Record issued a circular of inquiry in 1873, containing a blank schedule to be filled up with the acreage and prospective yield of each of the principal crops, to which the leading farmers so generally responded, that this paper was able to lay before its readers what proved to be a correct esti mate of the export of that year. A similar circular issued in May, 1874, warranted, on the testimony of the farmers, the extraordinary estimate of eight hundred and seventy-five thousand tons for shipment; four hundred and fifteen thousand tons more than the shipment of the previous year, including the Oregon wheat shipped from this port. The crop of 18734 gave cargoes to two hundred —and fortyseven ships, and was valued at $19,400,000. The crop of 1874-5 would require four hundred and thirteen ships, and at the average prices of the previous year, was worth over $40,000,000. Mr. Walcott had made his own estimates, and had chartered some seventy vessels to arrive, at prices varying from ~4 to ~4 10s. By the time they did arrive, a surplus in the foreign market had lowered the price of wheat and of rates in San Francisco, and consequently the crop came forward slowly. Mr. Walcott had not only the Grangers' business on his hands, but in prospect commissions from farmers outside of the Order; nor was the wheat business the only one which had attracted his attention. One of the most important complications deserves to be mentioned here. We have seen how grievous a burden the farmers had felt the sack monoply to be upon the wheat industry, and in previous chapters have noticed their efforts to extricate themselves. In February, 1874, the agent employed by the Executive Committee, Mr. Gardner, called their attention to the fact that a corner was about to be made in sacks. A circular was immediately sent to all the 202

Page  203 .THE GRANGE FLEET. Subordinate Granges, advising them of the fact, and requesting them to signify whether they wished to import, and what number they were willing to take and pay for on delivery. There being no time to lose, Mr. Walcott took the responsibility, and at once ordered two million sacks from Dundee, which, becoming known to the wheat ring, they at once "unloaded," in many instances at less than cost prices. When the supply ordered by 3Ir. Walcott arrived, by steamship, thus further enhancing its cost, the sack market was at its lowest. Meanwhile, the admiration of eastern. Patrons was challenged by the sailing of the Grange fleet of California, loaded by the different Granges, some at Vallejo, some at Antioch, where it was demonstrated that vessels could be loaded without risk, and others at Oakland and San Francisco. The "doubting Thomases and unbelieving Philips" in the Eastern Granges were bidden by their masters to "get up and shake themselves," for while they had been "napping and grumbling, the Grange fleet of California, where the Order was little more than a year old, with a membership of sixteen thousand, had out-done Iowa, three and a half years old, with a membership of one hundred thousand." "Let us rejoice," they said, "that the farmers of California have courage and brains enough to enter the markets of Europe with their own produce, shipped on their own account. Who will now say that the millenium is not near at hand." But the Grange fleet was destined to encounter financial storms and breakers, and the millenium of the monopolists, when "the lion and the lamb would lie down peaceably, with the lamb inside of the lion," was yet further off. At the time of the failure, the firm of E. E. Morgan's Sons had loaded and dispatched seventeen cargoes of wheat for the Grangers, in 1874. Five of these were sent off in August, eight in September, and four in November. The Antioch, Colusa, Collinsville, Dixon, Hollister, Livermore, Merced, Modesto, Plainsburg, Stockton, Turlock and Yolo Granges, had engaged in this trade. These seventeen vessels carried over twenty thousand tons of wheat. With one exception, they were all chartered to arrive at ~4 and upward. The firm had fifteen vessels then in port, under charter to load wheat, chiefly at 85s., though two got 87s. 6d., and one was taken on the spot at G0s. It appears that it was customary for the shippers to ads 203

Page  204 THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUM3PHS. vance twenty dollars per ton on all grain as it was shipped, or received for shipment, the balance to be paid to the farmers when freight and commissions were deducted on the sale of the wheat in Liverpool, but some of the farmers had neglected to obtain these advances. Time must necessarily elapse before the cargoes could be heard from. What could be done? The Grange was not a corporate body; the Executive Committee were powerless to act in so grave an emergency. The London and San Francisco Bank withdrew its support from Mr. Walcott, and thllough the prominent firm of Daniel Meyer & Co. came at once to his relief, he was forced into bankruptcy. The business of E. E. Morgan's Sons was complicated, and the Executive Committee who had access to his books and papers, found that time was required before definite statements could be made of losses and liabilities. MAr. Walcott had been doing a mixed business, within and outside of the Grange, and individual Patrons had been doing business with him on their own account, without consulting the State agent. The warfare which Mr. Walcott had waged with the wheat ring, had been an unequal one, for they could afford to lose a season's profit in breaking him down, trusting to an advance in the foreign demand. The confidence of the Grangers in Mr. Walcott's busi, ness talents was more than matched by that of the most experienced commercial houses in San Francisco, upon whom the weight of the failure fell even more heavily. Most unfortunately for himself, for his financial backers, and for a considerable number of Patrons who had trusted implicitly in his judgment and integrity, Mr. Walcott failed; but most fortunately for the success of the farmers' movement towards emancipation. Now, for the first time, the farmers had a true view of their helplessness, who knew how to grow a crop, but not how to dispose of it to their own advantage. The whole body of Patrons were now ready to incorporate, pay their own agents, and employ their own capital. The lesson was at once improved; and those who best understood how the disaster had happened, were the most patient and unshaken in their confidence in their officers, who labored day and night to lessen the severity of the loss. Another blessing in disguise included in the failure, was that it demonstrated the moral status of the Order. When, in August and September, it was seen that ships could be obtained at a much lower rate than that specified in Morgan's 204

Page  205 SPECIAL MEETING. Sons' charters; that sacks had fallen also, and that failure was inevitable, the Grangers were advised to repudiate a transaction not binding in law, and save themselves; but they did nothing of the kind. As a body, they stood by their agreements and by the firm, as will be seen in the resolutions of the Stockton meeting. Mr. Walcott, who had previously resigned the Presidency of the Bank, turned over his books and unfinlished business to tile Executive Committee, who issued a circular proposing to take entire charge of the wheat and wool interests heretofore managed by him, and thus take advantage of the low prices of tonnage. A special meeting of the State Grange was also called to convene at San Francisco, on the 4th of November. At this meeting, attended by a large delegation from the Subordinate Granges, Mlr. Walcott's books, accounts, etc., were presented for examination. He was present whenever desired, to give explanations, and the whole business interests of the Order were freely canvassed, resulting in renewed confidence in the prudence and fidelity of the Executive Committee. But no other feature of that meeting will so long be remembered by those who participated in it, as the noble spirit of fellowship which led those who had lost much in the failure of Morgan's Sons, to come to the relief of those who had lost their all. Costly as the education in business had proved, it was felt to be worth all it had cost, and there was a determination to equalize the burden by substantial and immediate assistance to the greater sufferers. The failure of Morgan's Sons undoubtedly hastened the foundation of the Grangers' Business Association, for the members were daily made to feel, in attempting to repair their losses, that faithfulness and ability counted for nothing, without authority to act as the legalized officers of a corporation. "Going to war without arms," was no longer to be thought of. It had been proposed to incorporate the State Grange, but that could not be done under the State laws. Whether to have one or several'incorporations, was a serious question. The fruit growers, wool growers, and dairy interest, all requ;red separate handling. It was finally resolved to include them all in one incorporation, in which those interests should be represented respectively, by men of their own choosing as directors. Again, to define the scope of the organization was no easy 205

Page  206 THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS. task. Having determined the necessity and feasibility of doing something, what, how, and how much, remained to be settled. While it was felt that anything that might become necessary to protect the commercial interests of Patrons was consistent with the scheme, it was clear that speculation was no part of a farmer's business. It was, therefore, determined to limit the functions of the incorporation to a factor's business, and the articles of agreement were framed accordingly. As Grangers, it is not intended to make war upon any legitimate business, nor to interrupt commerce in any of its established channels. But they do propose to protect themselves by all proper means, and to avoid all unnecessary expense in the transportation of their products, thereby securing better pay for their labor and the use of their capital. They do not object to reasonable commissions, but to extortion. Another question that has very generally agitated tlhe minds of Patrons, and that was thoroughly discussed by the convention, was the relative-importance of local incorporations. It was deemed safe to leave it to Patrons to settle for themselves according to the circumstances of their respective localities. These local incorporations may become important auxiliaries to the Business Association, and the Association must, when once established, contribute largely to their success, by affording them facilities and connections for trade at the central market of the State, which, without it, they cannot have. While, therefore, the benefits are reciprocal, it seems more needful first to nurture the trunk, whence the branches may be sent out to cover with their beneficent shade every Grange and every Granger in the land. Some idea of the amount of business that may be reasonably expected to be done by the Association during the present year, may be formed by considering the amount of transactions at San Francisco in agricultural and dairy products during the year 1874, of which the following is a reliable statement: dairy products-total value, $5,000,000; wheat-21,000,000 centals, at $1 70, total value, $35,700,000; wool —40,000,000 pounds, total value, $6,800,000; barley, oats, hay, etc.,-total value, $5,000,000; fruit crop-total value, $2,000,000; wine -total value, $4,000,000. We omit all mention of poultry, eggs, beans, potatoes and other products, each of which amounts to a large business of 206

Page  207 THE FINAL RESULT. itself. We have, however, mentioned enough to show an aggregate business of nearly $60,000,000 per annum. The proportion of this vast business which shall be diverted into this channel will depend upon the disposition of the members of the Order-inasmuch as the above statement is but an aggregation of the business done by the farmers of the State. At 351 Market street, San Francisco, conveniently accessible to the wharves and depots, the Grangers' Business Association now stands ready to do its proper share of the farmers' commercial work. The Grange is now for the first time a completed organism, with producing, distributing and assimilating functions working harmoniously together for the material and social advancement of the tillers of the soil. By resolution of the Executive Committee, the Dairy and Business Agencies, which have accomplished so much for the benefit of the Patrons, are formally discontinued, and will hereafter constitute departments of the Business Association. This Business Association, which promises to be of such substantial benefit to the farmer, is organized under the following ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION. KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS: That we, the undersigned, have this day associated ourselves together for the purpose of incorporating, under the laws of the State of California, a corporation to be known by the corporate name of "Grangers' Business Association, of California." And we hereby certify that the purposes for which this corporation is formed, are: As factor and broker, and not otherwise, to deal in all kinds of agricultural produce, live stock, wool, agricultural implements, and general merchandise. Also, to ship grain and other merchandise to and from foreign and domestic ports, as factor and broker, and not otherwise. Also, to charter and load vessels to and from foreign and domestic ports, as factor and broker, and not otherwise. That its principal place of business shall be in the city and county of San Francisco, State of California. That the time of its existence shall be fifty years from and after the date of its incorporation. That the number of its Directors or Trustees shall be eleven; and the names and residences of those who shall serve until the election of such officers and their qualification, are: J. M. Hamilton, Lake County, California; J. C. Merryfield, Solano County, California; G. W. Colby, Butte County, California; A. B. Nalley, Sonoma County, California; J. M. Thompson, Napa County, California; A. D. Logan, Colusa County, California; H. M. Leonard, Santa Clara County, California; Wmn. McP. Hill, Sonoma County, California; O. Hubbell, Marin County, California; G. P. Kellogg, Monterey County, California; D. Inman, Alameda County, California. That the Capital Stock of this corporation shall be one million dollars ($1,000,000), in gold coin of the United States, divided into forty thousand shares of the par value of twenty-five dollars ($25) each. In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals, this 16th day of February, A. D. 1875. G. W. COLBY, WV. M]CPHERSON HILL, J. C. MERRYFIELD, A. B NALLEY, A. D. LOGAN. 207

Page  208 THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS. At a meeting held on February 18th, 1875, a complete organization was effected, with the following result: BY-LAWS. ARTICLE I. The name of this corporation shall be the GRANGERS' BUSINESS ASSOCIATION OF CALIFORNIA. ARTICLE II. The said Corporation shall have a capital stock of one million dollars, gold coin of the United States, divided into forty thousand shares of twentyfive dollars each. ARTICLE III. The principal place of business of said Corporation shall be at the City and County of San Francisco, State of California. ARTICLE IV. None but Patrons of Husbandry shall be permitted to subscribe to the capital stock of this Corporation. ARTICLE V. Stockholders of this Corporation shall be such persons or corporations, composed of Patrons, as may have executed or shall execute a subscription to the capital stock-in such form as the Board of Directors may prescribe-and shall pay to the said Corporation all duly levied and called assessments, or such persons or corporations as the stock may be duly assigned to in accordance with these By-Laws. ARTICLE VI. The powers of the Corporation shall be vested in a Board of eleven Directors, who shall have been elected, and who shall hold office for the term of one year, or until their successors should have been elected and entered upon the discharge of their duties. ARTICLE VII. The Directors shall be citizens of the United States, Patrons of Husbandry, and Stockholders in the Corporation, and hold, each, at least ten shares of the capital stock. ARTICLE VIII. A majority of the whcle number of Directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, and every decision of a majority of the persons duly assembled as a Board (if not in conflict with these By-Laws), shall be valid as an act of this Corporation. ARTICLE IX. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at the office of the Corporation, at least once in every three months, and at such other times as the Board of Directors may prescribe. Special meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held, at the same place, upon the call of the President or Vice-President. It shall be the duty of the President or Vice-President, in case from any cause the President cannot act, to call special meetings, either of the Board of Directors or of the stockholders, upon the written request of five directors, or upon the written request of stockholders representing one tenth of the stock issued. Due notice of such requested meeting of the stockholders shall be given by mail, and also by publication, as prescribed in Article xxiv of these By-Laws; and all business which could be transacted at a regular meeting of the stockholders may be done at such requested and specially called meeting. No notice of the regular meeting of the Board of Directors shall be requisite other than that prescribed herein; but of all special meetings the President or Vice President shall cause all Directors residing out of San Francisco to be notified by mail or telegraph; and all Directors residing and being in San Francisco, and any others to whom it is practicable to give such personal notice, shall be personally notified. ARTICLE X. The Corporation shall have power, through its officers and employes to deal, as a factor, in all kinds of agricultural produce, live stock, wool, agricultural implements and general merchandise; and also, as a factor, to import and export all articleles appropriate or fitting to agricultural pursuits. ARTICLE XI. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in the Board of Directors by death, resignation or otherwise, the Board of Directors shall fill the same by appointing a successor for the unexpired term. ARTICLE XII. Whenever any Director shall cease to be a stockholder, his office shall become ipso facto, vacant; and such vacancy shall be filled as provided in Article xi. ARTICLE XIII. The Board of Directors shall elect from their number a President, and Vice President of the corporation, who shall hold their offices for one year, or until their successors are elected and entered upon the discharge of their official duties. ARTICLE XIV. The President or Vice President, or either of them, may be removed from office at any time on the vote of seven Directors in favor of removal. 208

Page  209 BY-LAWS. ARTICLE XV. The President and Vice President and Teasurer shall give bonds for the faithful discharge of their respective duties, in such sums as may be prescribed by the Board of Directors; and for their services shall receive such remuneration as may be fixed by said Board. ARTICLE XVI. The Board of Directors shall have power to appoint a Secretary an Attorney, and such other officers, agents, clerks and servants, as the business of the Corporation may require, define their powers and prescribe their duties, subject to these By-Laws, and shall fix the salaries or other compensation to be paid to such officers, agents, clerks and servants of the Corporation. ARTICLE XVII. The President and Vice President shall have charge and custody of the funds, property, books, papers and other matters of the Corporation, under such rules, regulations and restrictions as provided by these By-Laws, or the Board of Directors may prescribe by resolutions duly passed and entered upon the minutes of said Board. ARTICLE XVIII. The President and Vice President shall not both be absent from the State at the same time, and in case of the absence of either, his duties and powers shall devolve upon and be performed by the other. ARTICLE XIX. It shall be the duty of the President, and in his absence, the Vice President, to preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors, and at all meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation. ARTICLE XX. It shall be the duty of the Secretary to record correctly all the proceedings of the stockholders at their meetings, and of the Board of Directors. ARTICLE XXI. The Board of Directors shall, from their number, appoint an Auditing Committee of three, whose duty it shall be to count the cash, examine the books, vouchers, documents, papers, and other assets of the Corporation; to report upon the same to the stockholders at their annual meetings, and to the Board of Directors from time to time, as they may direct. ARTICLE XXII. The Board of Directors shall, from their number, appoint a Finance Committee of three, whose duties shall be defined by resolution of the Board of Directors. ARTICLE XXIII. The annual meeting of the stockholders for the election of Directors shall be held at the office of the Corporation, on the third Wednesday of February of each year, at ten o'clock A. M. ARTICLE XXIV. The call for the annual meeting of stockholders, and for the annual election of Directors shall be signed by the President or Vice President, and be attested by the Secretary, and be published at least once a week, for four consecutive weeks next preceding the day of meeting, in at least three newspapers of general circulation throughout the State. If from any cause no quorum shall be present, the meeting may adjourn from time to tinme without further notice. ARTICLE XXV.-All transfers of stock shall be subject to all debts and equities in favor of the Corporation against the person or Corporations making such transfer, and existing or arising prior to the regular transfer thereof upon the books of the Corporation; and no transfer of shares shall be made upon the books of the Corporation, until all dues and demands thereon, due to the Corporation, from the party or parties representing such shares, shall have been paid. ARTICLE XXVI.-All transfers of stock shall be made on the books of the Corporation, and no transfer shall be binding on the Corporation until so entered, or until all assessments thereon have been paid. No stock that has been transferred on the books of the Corporation within thirty days next preceding any meeting of the stockholders, shall be entitled to representation at said meeting. ARTICLE XXVII.-Certificates of stock shall be issued to the original stockholders of this Corporation, to the number of shares by each subscribed in the original articles of association, as evidence to each of the number of shares by him or her owned in the capital stock; and the manner of transferring shares shall be by endorsement and delivery of the certificate thereof, such endorsement being by the signature of the proprietor, or his or her attorney in fact, or legal representative. No stock shall be transferred without the surrender of the certificate, and upon such surrender the word "cancelled" shall be written across the face of the certificate by the Secretary, and the signatures of the officers shall be erased, and such certificate, so cancelled, shall be preserved by pasting the same to the stub from which it was torn, in the Certificate book. The transfer books shall be closed for two days prior to the annual meetings and the payment of dividends, and the dividends shall be paid to the persons in whose names they stand as stockholders at the time when the books are closed. ARTICLE XXVIII.-All the net earnings and profits in said business of the Core 14 209

Page  210 THE PATRONS' TRIALS AND TRIUMPHS. poration, over and above actual expenses paid, or for which the Corporation is liable, shall, by dividends duly declared by the Board of Directors, be divided among the stockholders, pro rata their stock, and in no event shall indebtedness be incurred other than in the proper, legitimate business of the Corporation; provided, the amount of indebtedness that may be incurred, shall not exceed the amount of stock actually subscribed. OFFIcERS.-President, Daniel Inman; Vice-President, T. J. Brooke; Treasurer, John Llewellyn; Attorney, A. W. Thompson; Secretary, Wm. Vanderbilt; Auditing Committee, R. C. Haile, Thomas Flint, I. C. Steele. Finance Committee, Amos Adams, Thomas Upton, C. P. Kellogg. Directors.-Daniel Inman, of Alameda County; Thomas Upton, of Merced County; T. J. Brooke, of San Joaquin County; I. C. Steele, of San Mateo County; Amos Adams, of Sacramento County; Wm. Vanderbilt of Marin County; John Llewellyn, of Napa County; Thomas Flint, of San Benito County; A. W. Thompson, of Sonoma County: R. C. Haile, of Solano County; G. P. Kellogg, of Monterey County. 210

Page  211 PART THIRD. GRANGE DIRECTORY. CHAPTER XVII. THE NATIONAL GRANGE. OFFICERS: [aster-DUDLEY W. ADAMS, Waukon, Iowa. Overseer-TnoMAs TAYLOR, Columbia, South Carolina. lecturer-T. A. THOMPSON, Plainview, Wabash county, MIinnesota. Steward-A. J. VAUGaAN, Early Grove, Marshall county, Mississippi. Assistant Steward-G. W. THOMPSON, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Chaplaiit-Rev. A. B. GROSH, Washington, District of Columbia. Treasurer-F. M. McDOWELL, Corning, New York. Secretary- O. H. KELLEY, Washington, District of Columbia. Gate Keeper-O. DINWIDDIE, Orchard Grove, Lake county, Indiana. Ceres-MrS. D. W. ADAMS, Waukon, Iowa. Pomona —MRs. O. H. KELLEY, Washington, District of Columbia. Flora-MRs. J. C. ABBOTT, Clarkesville, Butler county, Iowa. Lacdy Assistant Steward-Miss C. A. HALL, Washington, District of Cohnmbia. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 'WILLIAM SAUNDERS, Washington, District of Columnbia, D. WYATT AMEN, Cokesbury, Abbeville county, South Carolina. E. R. S A AND, Dubuque, Iowa. MEMBERS: State. Master. Address, Alabama.........W. H.. Chambers......... Oswichee, Russell county. Arkansas............. John T. Jones.......... Helena, Phillips county. California........... J. M. Hamilton.......... Guenoc, Lake county. Colorado............ R. Q. Tenney..........Fort Collins, Larimer county. Delaware............ (United with.......... Maryland.) Dakota.............. E. B. Crew............ Lodi, Clay county. Florida.......... B. F. Wardlaw..........Madison, Madison county. Georgia............. T. J. Smith............. Oconee, C. R. R., Wash'ton co, Illinois............. Alonzo Golder.......... Rock Falls, Whitesides county. Indiana............. Henley James..........Marion, Grant county. Iowa................A. B. Smedley.......... Cresco, Howard county. Idaho............... (United with............ Oregon.) Kansas........... M. E. Hudson.......... Mapleton, Bourbon county. Kentucky...........M.D. Davie............. Beverly, Christian county. Louisiana...........H. W. L. Lewis.........Osyka, Pike county. Maine............Nelson Ham............ Lewiston, Androscoggin county. Maryland...........Jos. T. Moore........... Sandy Springs, Mont. county. Massachusetts....... Joseph P. Felton........ Greenfield, Franklin county. Michigan........... S. F. Brown............. Schoolcraft, Kalamazoo county. Minnesota........... S. E. A da ms............ Monticello, Wright county. Mississippi.......... W. L. Hemingway....... Carrollton, Carroll county. Missouri........... T. R. Allen.............Allenton, St. Louis county. Montana-..........- Brigham Reed............Bozeman, Gallatin county.

Page  212 GRANGE DIRECTORY. State. Master. Address. Nebraska........... Wm. B. Porter..........Plattsmouth, Cass county. New Hampshire..... Dudley T. Chase........ Claremont, Sullivan county. New Jersey..........Edward Howland....... Hammonton, Atlantic county. New York........... George D. Hinckley......Fredonia, Chatauqua county. North Carolina...... Columbus Mills......... Concord, Cabarrus county. Nevada.............. (United with............ California.) Ohio................ S. H. Ellis......... Springboro, Warren county. Oregon "I.....I Daniel Clark......... Salem, Marion county. Pennsylvania........ D. B. Mauger........... Douglassville, Berks county South Carolina...... Thomas Taylor.........Columbia, Richland county. Tennessee.......... William Maxwell........ Humboldt, Gibson county. Texas............ William W. Lang........ Marlin, Falls county. Vermont........... E. P. Colton............Irasburg, Orleans county. Virginia........... J. W. White............. Eureka Mills, Charlotte county. West Virginia.......B. M. Kitchen-.......... Shanghai, Berkeley county. Wisconsin............. John Cochrane.......... Waupun, Fond du Lac county. Washington......... (United with............ Oregon.) CALIFORNIA STATE GLRANGE. OFFICERS. Master-J. M. HAMILTON, Guenoc, Lake county Overseer-O. L. ABBOTT, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara county. Lecturer-J. W. A. WRIGHT, Borden, Fresno county. Stewiard-N. L. ALLEN, Salinas, Monterey county. Assistant Stewa(rd-WM. M. JACKSON, Woodland, Yolo county. Chaplain-J. A. HUTTON, Yolo, Yolo county. Treasurer-J. B. CARRINGTON, Denverton, Solano county. Secretary-W. H. BAXTER, 6 Leidesdorff street, San Francisco.' Gate Keeper-R. R. WARDER, Waterford, Stanislaus county. Ceres-Mrs. G. W. DAVIS, Santa Rosa, Sonoma county. Pomona —Mrs. S. C. BAXTER, Napa city, Napa county. Flora-M-rs. R. S. HEGELER, Bodega, Sonoma county. Lady Assistant Steward-Mrs. S. M. GARDNER, Grayson, Stanislaus county. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE! J. M. HAMILTON, W. M1I., Chairman, Guenoc, Lake county. I. G. GARDNER, Grayson, Stanislaus county. J. C. MERRYFIELD, Dixon, Solano county. H. M. LEONARD, Santa Clara, Santa Clara county. J. M. THOMPSON, Suscol, Napa county. G. W. COLBY, Nord, Butte county. A. B. NALEY, Windsor, Sonoma county. CALIFORNIA DISTRICT AND COUNTY COUNCILS: ALAMEDA COUNTY-Joel Russell, Haywood, M.; T. Hellar, S. Los ANGELES AND SAN BERNARDINO DISTRICT-T. A. Garey, Los Angeles, IL; J. F. Marquis, Anaheim, S. MENDOCINO COUNTY-L. F. Long, Ukiah City, M.; J. A. Knox, Sanel, S. M1ONTEREY AND SANTA CRUZ DISTRICT-J. R. Hebbron, M.; A. F. Richardson S. NAPA DISTRICT-J. D. Blanchar, M.; H. W. Haskell, S. SACRAMENTO, EL DORADO AND PLACER DISTRICT-Officers not reported. SAN Luis OBISPO COUNTY-A. J. Mothersead, M.; J. M. Marnnon, S. SANTA CLARA COUNTY-H. M. Leonard, M.; I. A. Wilcox, S. Regular meetings every three months, alternately at Santa Clara and San Jose. SANTA BARBARA AND SAN Luris OBISPO DISTRICT-Officers not reported. SOLANO COUXNTY-J. B. Carrington, M.; J. M. Jones, S. SONOMA COUNTY-Wm. McPherson Hill, M.; S. T. Coulter, S. 212

Page  213 LIST OF ORGANIZING DEPUTIES. STANISLAUS COUNTY-R. R. Warder, M.; Vital E. Bangs, S. TULARE COUNTY-W. S. Babcock, M.; J. S. Urton, S. VENTURA COUNTY COUNCIL-Daniel Rouillish, M,; James S. Harkey, S. WEST SAN JOAQUIN DISTRICT, (Merced, San Joaquin and Stanislaus counties.) W. J. Miller, Oristimba, M.; Thomas A. Chapman, Oristimba, S. LIST OF ORGANIZING DEPUTIES County. Deputy. Post-office. Alameda.................... Thos. Heller............... Eden. Amador....................H. Vanderpool............ Plymouth. Butte....................Ed. Hallet................. Chico. Butte...................... Wm. M. Thorpe............Chico. Butte.....................G. W. Colby...............Nord. Colusa................... J. J. Hicok................Grand Island. Colusa.....................D. H. Arnold............... Spring Valley. Contra Costa............... R. G. Dean................Antioch. E1 Dorado............. A. J. Cristie............ Coloma. Fresno....................J. W. A. Wright............Borden. Humboldt..................H. W. Arbogast............ Arcata. Inyo...................... T. J. Furbee...............Bishop's Creek Lake......................H. A. Oliver...............Guenoc. Los Angeles................Thos. A. Garey.............Los Angeles, Los Angeles................Ed. Evey...................Anaheim. Mendocino................. R. M. Wilson........... Cahto. Merced....................H. B. Jolley............ Merced City. Modoc...................... I. S. Mathews..............Fort Jonest Mono......................T. J. Furbee...............Bishop's Creek, nyo. Monterey..................J. D. Fowler...............Hollister. Placer.....................A. D. Neher............... Roseville. Sacramento................W. S. Manlove............. Sacramento San Benito.................J. D. Fowler.............. Hollister. San Francisco............ I. G. Gardner..............San Francisco. San Francisco............ J. H. Hegeler.............. San Francisco. San Joaquin...............A. Wolf............... Stockton. San Luis Obispo...........A. J. Mothersead......... Moro. San Luis Obispo...........Isaac Flood............. Old Creek. Santa Barbara.............O. L. Abbott.............. Santa Barbara. Santa Clara................. G. W. Henning.............San Jose, Shasta.....................J. T. Dinsmore............. Reading. Siskiyou................... I. S. Mathews..............Fort Jones. Solano....................J. B. Carrington............Denverton. Solano.................... R. C. Haile...............Suisun. Solano....................J. C. Merryfield............Dixon. Sonoma...................Geo. W. Davis........ Santa Rosa. Sonoma...................A. B. Nally.............Windsor. Sonoma...................T. H. Merry...............Healdsburg Stanislaus.................J. D. Spencer..............Modesto. Stanislaus..................J. D. Reyburn..............Modesto. Sutter.....................Geo. Ohleyer............... uba City. Tehama.............. A. J. Loomis..............Farmington. Tulare.....................M. S. Babcock.............Kingston, Fresno. Yolo........................ Wm. Sims............. Buckeye. GENERAL DEPUTIES. Alameda.............. Ezra S. Carr................ Oakland. Fresno.....................J. W. A. Wright (W. L.).... Borden. Lake................J. M. Hamilton ( W. M.).... Guenoc. San Francisco..............W. H. Baxter (W. S.)......6 Liedesdorff Street. San Francisco..............John H. Hegeler........... San Francisco. Solano...........-........... John B. Carrington........... Denverton. NEVADA. ..................A. J. Hatch.....,......... Reno, 213

Page  214 GRANGE DIRECTORY. CALIFORNIA SUBORDINATE GRANGES, ARRANGED BY COUNTIES This list contains the names of Masters and Secretaries so far as reported, elected to serve during the year 1875. In Granges not reported we continue the names of last year's officers: AMIADOR COUNTY. Name of Grange. Master. Secretary. Post-office. Jackson Valley.....Jesse D. Hamrick.. Lansing J. Dooley Ione City. Plymouth......... Harding Vanderpool S. C. Wheeler...... Plymouth. South Sutter....... Thos. Boyd........ G. R. Richardson.. South Sutter. ALAMEDA COUNTY. Centerville........ Jas. Shinn......... M. B. Sturgis...... Centerville. Eden..............Thos. Hellar....... Wm. Pearce....... Haywards. Livermore....... D. Inman..........F. R. Fassett....... Livermore. Sunol.............E. M. Carr........ S. W. Millard...... Sunol. Temescal.... J. V. Webster...... John Collins....... Oakland. BUTTE COUNTY. Chico............ E. Hallet......... H. W. Barnes..... Chico. Evening Star.......A. D. Nelson..... A. M. Woodruff.... Nelson. Hamilton........ H. L. Lasselle....Anson Brown...... Biggs' Station. Honcut......... John C. Moore....D. F. Newbert.....Moore's Station. Nord........... G. Van Woert..... Peter Kern....... Nord. CALAVERAS COUNTY. Calaveras.......... M. F. Gregory..... Mrs. Rodgers...... Jenny Lind COLUSA COUNTY. Antelope Valley... John Sites....... P. Peterson....... AntelopeValleyCenter.............D. Bebee........ Mrs. Carrie Wellay. Colusa. Colusa.............J. O. Wilkins...... R. Jones.......... Colusa. Freshwater........P.S. Perdue....... R. A. Wilsey........Colusa. Funk Slough...... L. D. McDow......E. C. Hunte.r...... Colusa. Grand Island...... Wmn. Ogden........J. H. Duffield.....Grand Island. Newville........ B. N. Scribner..... S. Osborne.......Newville. Plaza..............M. Kendrick.......J. W. Bower......Jacinto. Princeton........ R. R. Rush........P. H. Scott...... Princeton. Spring Valley......B. Lucas..........T. Singleton....... Spring Valley. Union.............J.F. Garr..........W. W Dollings.... Princeton. Willows..........J. W. Zumwalt.....G. T. Hicklin..... Princeton. CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. Alhambra........ J. Strentzell...... W. A. Frazer....... Martinez. Antioch.......... M. A. Walton...... J. D. Darby........Antioch. Danville.......... C. Wood......... J. R. Sydnor.......Danville. Point of Timber.... H. C. McCabe...... E. W. Carey....... Point of Timber. Walnut Creek...... M. S. Gray........ R. M. Jones......... Walnut Creek. EL DORADO COUNTY. Clarksville....... R. T. Mills........ I. Maltby.......... Clarksville. El Dorado......... C. G. Carpenter....J. M. B.Weatherwax E1 Dorado. Pilot Hill........ John Bishop.......A. J. Bayley.......Pilot Hill. Placerville....... William Wiltse.... H. G. Hulburd...... Placerville. Suitter Mill.......J. G. O'Brien...... H. Mahler........... Coloma. FRESNO COUNTY. Adams.............T. P. Nelson....... T. Wyatt.......... Big Dry-Creek, Borden............ H. L. Patterson....J. Fontaine....... Borden. Fresno........... D. C. Libby........F. Dusy...........Fresno City. Garretson..........Jos. Burns........ H. C. Higby.......King's River. Rising Star........W. W. Hagar.....W. M. Poage......Panochi. Sycamore............ A. C. Bradford.......J.A. A.Men........ Sycamore. 214

Page  215 CALIFORNIAL SUBORDINATE GRANGES. HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Name of Grange. Master. Secretary. Post-office. Elk River..........T. S. Stewaart.....D. A. DeMerritt.... Eureka. Ferndale......... F. Z. Boynton......E. C. Damon.......Ferndale. iRiwelattah....... D. D. Averill...... F. McPhee........ Arcata. Mattole...........Jacob Miner...... David Simmons....Petrolia. Rohnerville....... H. S. Case........ S. Strong...... Rohnerville Table Bluff........ J. Sawyer..........E. Clark.......... Table Bluff, INYO- COUNTY. Bishop's Creek...... A. Dell............ W. T. Wiswall...... Bishop's Creek. Independence......J. W. Symmes....D. Beurtis...... Independence. Lone Pine......... J. J. McCall..... A. H. Johnson...... Lone Pine. HERN,i COUNTY. Bakersfield.......J. R. Riley.......P. D. Jewett......Bakersfield. Cummings Valley.. G. Thompson..... T. Yates........... Tehaichipa. Linn's Valley...... S. W. Woody..... S. E. Reed.........Glenville. New River.........W. Norton.........L. G. Baker.......Bakersfield. Panama......... H. D. Robb........J. F. Gordon...... Bakersfield. Rising Star........ C. Valpey.......... J. W. Craycroft.....Panoche. Tehaichipa....... J. Norboe..........J. Prewett......... Tehaichipa. Weldon............J. B. Bartz........James Swan.........Weldon. * LASSEN COUNTY. Lakeside.........Geo. H. Bingham.. John Theodore.... Janesville. LAXE COUNT. Guenoc........... T. Sopher.......W. C. GreenfielcL.. Guenoc. Kelseyville.........D. P. Shattuck.... T. Ormiston......Kelseyville. Lakeport........ J. W. Boggs........N. Phelan......... Lakeport. ILower Lake........J. W. Howard......Lucy S. Wilson.... Lower Lake. UpperLake........ D. V. Thompson... D. Q. McCarty... Upper Lake. LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Alliance............. J. D. Durfee....... J. W. Mansfield.....E1 Monte, Azusa..............W. W. Maxey...... J. C. Preston..... E1 Monte Compton..........J. J. Morton....... T. V. Kimble...... Compton. E1 Monte..........J. T. Gordon......A.H. Hoyt.........E1 Monte. Enterprise.........T. E. Alexander.... Mrs. Alexander.....Los Angeles. Eureka.........C. Burdick......... P. C. Tonner...... Spadra. Fairview...........E. Evey........ J. M. Guinn.........Anaheim. Florence......... Philip How........ R. Ramsey...........Los Angeles. Fruitland.......... N. O. Stafford..... L. H. Collins...... Santa Anna. Los Angeles........T. A. Garey....... S. A. Waldron......Los Angeles. Los Nietos......... F. B. Granlin...... W. S. Reavis...... Los Nietos. New River........ W. Newton........ S. G. Baker........Los Nietos. Orange........... J. Beach........... L. J. Lockhart..... Orange. Silver.............H. L. Montgomery. W. P. McDonald... Los Nietos. Spadra.............A. T. Currier......Jos. Wright........ Spadra. Vineland...........A. B. Haywood.....R. L. Freeman..... Tustin City. Westminster.....M.. I. B. Craig....... W. F. Poor......... Westminster. Wellington.........A. H. Hawley.....J. N. Mann....... Wellington, MENDOCIND COUNTY Cahto.............H. Braden.........H. Clark.......... Cahto. Little Lake....... A. P. Martin....... W. A. Wright...... Little Lake. Manchester....... B. F. McClure.....W. F. McClure.... Manchester. Pomo.......... J. Mewhinney...... G. B. Nichols..... Pomo. Potter Valley....... L. A. Preston...... Mrs. Slingerland... PotterValley. Round Valley......P. Handy......... William Ford.......Covelo. Sanel............. E. M. Carr......... M. Gregory....... Sanel. Ukiah........... Thos. A. Lucas.... A. O. Carpenter.... Ukiah. 215

Page  216 GRANGE DIRECTORY. MARIN COUNTY. Name of Grange. Master. Secretary. Post-office. Nicasio........... P. K. Austin....... J. W. Noble........ Nicasio. Point Reyes....... N.H. Stinson..... A. H. Stinson...... Point Reyes. Toma]es........... Wm. Vanderbilt.... R. H. Prince....... Tomales. MERCED COUNTY. Badger Flat........A. P. Merrit....... W. F. Clarke....... Los Banos. Cottonwood........ J. L. Crittenden... J. WI. Daley........ Cottonwood. Hopeton........... John Buddle....... T. Egleson....... Hopeton. Los Banos......... A. P. Merrit..... W. F. Smith....... Los Banos. Merced...........W. E. Elliot......Jas. B. Ralston.... Merced. Plainsburg......... P. Y. Welch......T. J. E. Wilcox..... Plainsburg. Snelling...........Erastus Kelsey....Frank Larkin...... Snelling. MODOC COUNTY. Modoc........,... A. V. Coffer........ M. Waid........... Willow-Ranch. MONTEREY COUNTY. Hollister.............. R. Ruckledge...... Mary E. Cowan..... Hollister. Morning Star...... C. E. Williams..... F. Blake........... Castroville. Pajaro............. D. M. Clough...... L. B. Johnson....... Watsonville. Salinas............J. R. Hebbron..... Clara Westlake..... Salinas. NAPA COUNTY. Berryessa........ J. W Smittle...... L. HI. Buford...... Monticello. Calistoga.......... W. B. Pratt........ C. H. Menefee...... Calistoga. Napa............. J. B. Saul..........A. A. R. Utting.... Napa City. Pope Valley........ J. A. Van Arsdale.. C. A. Booth......Pope Valley. Rutherford........ G. S. Burrege...... H. W. Crabb....... Yointville. St. Helena.........J. Llewellyn....... Chas. A. Stcry..... St. Helena. Yountville......... J. M. MVayfield...... F. Griffin.......... Yountville. NEVADA COUNTY. Indian Springs.-......T. J. Robertson... L. Horton.......... Indian-Springs PLACER COUNTY. Lincoln............ John Lewelling.... A. Story........... Lincoln. New Castle........... John C. Boggs.... B. P. Tabor........ New Castle. Roseville..........A. A.D. Usher........ Robert Ward....... Roseville Sheridan............... D. H. Long........ S. J. Lewis........ Sheridan. PLUMAS COUNTY. Plumas......... A. J. Spoon........ H. F. Lander....... Sierra Valley. SACRAMENTO COUNTY. American River.... J. A. Evans........ W. W. Kilgore.....Patterson. Cosumnes......... J. A. Elder........ J. H. Atkins........ Sheldon. Eik Grove.........Julius Everson.....Delos Gage........Elk Grove. Enterprise......... G. J. Martin....... W. A. Root........ Brighton. Florin............ L. Fuscette........J. J. Bates........ Florin. Franklin...........Amos Adams....... P. R. Beckley......Franklin Galt............... J. C. Sawyer....... J. L. Fifield........ Galt. Georgiana..........F. M. Kittrell...... G. A. Knott........ Rio Vista. Sacramento........W. S. Manlove.....E. F. Aiken........Sacramento. Sherman Island.... J. M. Upham......W. M. Robbins..... Emmaton. Walnut Grove...... S. Runyon........ J. V. Prather..... Walnut Grove, SAN BENITO COUNTY. Hollister...... J. D. Fowler....... S. F. Cowan........ Hollister., Mountain.............G. Butterfield...... J. W. Mathews......... San Benito. SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. Rincon......... F. M. Slaughter.... John Taylor........ Rincon. Riverside.......... W. B. Russell..... G. W. Garcelon...... Riverside. San Bernardino.... Geo. Lord......... H. Goodell, Jr..... San Bernardino. 216

Page  217 CALIFORNIA SUBORDINATE GRANGES. SAN DIEGO COUNTY. Name of Grange. Master. Secretary. Post-office. B3alena........... C. 0. Tucker....... Mrs. C. O. Tucker.. Balena, Bear Valley........W. H. H. Dinwiddie C. H. Moseley..... Bear V.lley. San Bernardo...... Z. Sikes..........T. Duncan......... San Bernardo. San Luis Rey...... M. E. Ormsby.... L. J. Crombie......San Lais Rey. San Jacinto.......T. D. Henry....... Mrs. M. Collins.... SanJacinto. National Ranch.... F. A. Kimball...... S. T. Blackmore.... National Ranch. Poway............J. F. Clhapin..... E. D. Frank....... Poway. SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Atlanta......... S. Myers..........M rs. J. W. Moore.. Morano. Castoria...........F. J. Woodward.... Eugene Kaye...... Stockton. Collegeville....... P. P. Ward........ S. R. Chalmers.... Collegeville. Elliot..............Henry H. West.... N. S. Misiner.....Elliot. Farmington...... Wm. St. J. Rodgers E. O.Long......... Faurmington. Liberty............J. M. Wood........Victor Jahant......Acampo. Linden........... E. B. Cayswell.... JamesWasley...... Linden. Lockeford........ G. C. Holman..... S. S. Stewart....... Lockeford. Lodi..............John Parrott....... Mirs. N. Crouch..... Lodi. Rustic............ L. P. Whitman.....H. C. Willis.......Lathrop. Stockton........... T. L. Ketchim.....E. N. Allen........ Stockton. Washington........J. W. Sollars....... MI. L. Cook........Washington. West San Joaquin.. C. E. Neeham......J. Quackenbush.... Ellis. Wildwood........... E. D. Morrison.... W. M. Muncey.....Wildwood. Woodbridge........Ezra Fiske.........A. S. Thomas......Woodbridge SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. Arroyo Grande......W. H. Nelson......B. J. Wood........Arroyo Grande. Cambria...........C. H. Ivins........ H. Olmstead.......Cambria. Moro City........H. Y. Stanley..... Jas. Allen......... Moro City. Old Creek........ R. C. Swain........ Chas. S. Clark..... Old Creek. Paso Robles....... H. W. Rhyne..... J. P. Mooky.......Paso Robles. San Luis Obispo... Wm. Jackson...... E. L. Reed........San Luis Obispo Summit........... J. V. N. Young.....A. T. Foster.......Paso Robles. SAN MATEO COUNTY. Crescent........... H. M. Jewell......James Compton.... Crescent. La Ionda.....b. M. Woodhams.... Mrs. Woodhams.... La Honda. Ocean View.......I. I.G. Knowles...... E. Robson......... Ocean View. Pescadero......... B. V. Weeks......... H. B. Sprague.... Pescadero. San Mateo..........A. F. Green........ C. E. Rowe........San Mateo. SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. Carpenteria.......... S. H. Olmstead..... Henry Fish........ Carpenteria. Confidence..........A. Copeland.......J. T. Austin........ Guadaloupe. Santa Barbara...... 0 O. L. Abbott....... V. F. Russell....... Santa Barbara. Santa Maria........ S. G. Lockwood.... S. J. Nicholson.... Santa Maria. SANTA CLARA COUNTY. Gilroy...............W. Z. Angeney..... H. Coffin.......... Gilroy. Mayfield...........F. W. Weisshaar... J. Ponce........M... ayfield. San Jose.......... Wmn. Erkson....... Rufus Fish......... San Jose. Santa Clara.......... S. J. Jameson...... I. A. Willcox......... Santa Clara Saratoga.'..........Willis Morrison.... Mrs. J. Farwell..... Saratoga. SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. Ban Lomond.... John Burns........Jas. Burns......... Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz........ G. C. Wardwell....T. Pilkington..... Santa Cruz. Watsonville.......J. McCollin........ Sarah Redman..... Watsonville. SHASTA COUNTY Cottonwood........ G. G. Kimball.... John Barry......... CottonwoodL Millville.........J. P. Webb........Geo. W. Welch..... Millville. Reading......... J. F. Dinsmore..... S. J. I. Gilbert..... Reading. 217

Page  218 GPRANGE DIRECTORY. SISKIYOU COUNTY. Name of Grange. Master. Secretary. Post-office. 2Etna........... John McBride...... T. S. Wilson...... Etna. Fort Jones......... J. S. Matthews.....J. W. Tuttle........ Fort Jones. Mt. Bolivar........ R. M. Hayden...... J. A. Cole...........-Callahan's Ranch. SOLANO - COUNTY. Binghampton......A. Bennett.........E. A. Beardsiey..... Binghampton. Denverton.........J.. B. Carrington.... G. C. Arnobld....... Denverton. Dixon.............J. C. Merryfield.... J. A. Ellis.......... Dixon. Elmira......... J. A. Clark......... M.D. Cooper..... Elmira. Montezuma........ T. Hooper.......... C. K. Marshall..... Collinsville. Rio Vista......... A. B. Alsip........ John H. Gardener.. Rio Vista. Rockville..........W. A. Lattin..... J. R. Morris....... Cordelia. Suisun Valley...... J. M. Jones........ Mrs. R. B. Canovan Suisun Valley, Vacaville......... E. R. Thurbur..... Oscar Dobbins..... Vacaville. Vallejo............ S. S. Drake........ Chas. B. Deming... Vallejo. SONOMA —COUNTY. Bennett Valley...... N. Carr............ G. N. Whitaker.... Santa Rosa. Bloomfield.......Wmn. H. White.....A. B. Glover.......Bloomfield. Bodega.......... E. S. Piune.... E. H. Choney......Bodega Cloverdale......... Chas. H. Cooley.... F. W. Davenport... Cloverdale. Geyserville......... P. Moore....... H. Wiedclersheim.... Geyserville. Healdsburg......... B. B. Capell....... M. Gladden.....H iealdsburg. Petaluma..........W. W. Chapman.. Freeman Parker.... Petaluma. Santa Rosa........ Geo. W. Davis..... J, A. Obreen....... Santa Rosa. Sebastopol........ J. M. Hudspeth.... W. J. Hunt........ Sebastopol. Sonoma...... Wm. McP. Hill... T. S. Cooper.......Sonoma. Two Rock.......... John IR. Doss...... J. C. Purvine...... Two Rock. Windsor......... E. H. Barns........Edgar Lindsey..... Windsor. STANISLAUS COUNTY. Bonita...*.........J. W. Treadwell.... A. B. Crook........ Crow's Landing. Ceres.............. H. W. Brouse....... R.. Whitmore.... Ceres. Grayson........... Wm. Love......... A. C. Lander....... Grayson. Oak Dale.......... A. S. Emery...... C. B. Ingalls....... Oak Dale. Oristimba..........W. J. Miller........ E. H. Robison.....Hill's Ferry Salida............. P. Vincent........A. H. Elmore...... Modesto. Stanislaus..........V. E. Bangs......E.. R. Turner....... Modesto. Turlock........... C. S. Campbell..... W. S. Robinson.... Turlock. Waterford........ S. M. Gallup....... J. Booth........... Waterford. PUTTER COUNTY. North Butte....... B. R. Spillman..... J. D. Dow..........North Butte. South Sutter........ Thos. Boyd........ Geo. R. Richardson. South Sutter. Sutter............. W. C. Smith....... J. M. Gladden......Meridian. Yuba City.......... B. F. Walton...... J. Hondy.......... Yuba City. TEHAMA. COUNTY. Farmington........ C. F. Foster....... S. H. Loomis...... Farmington. New Salem....... 0O. Harris.........W. T. Hains.......Paskento. Red Bluff.......R. H. Blossom.... C. E. Fonda........ Red Bluff. TULARE COUNTY. Christmas....... W. M. Stuart...... C. H. Robinson.... Visalia. Deep Creek....... G. F. Jefferds.....W. G. Pennebaker.. Farmersville. Franklin.......... W. L. Moreton.... G. W. Camp....... Grangeville. Keystone.......... Erastus Axtell...... N. B. Golden...... Grangeville. Lake............ M. S. Babcock.....Mrs. E. D. Simmons Grangeville. Mussel Slough......Wisley Underwood. Wmn. Land........Grangeville. Mount Whitney.... G. W. Duncan.....A. Thompson......Mount Whitney. Tulare............ D. E. Wilson...... Victoria Wright.... Tulare. Tule River.........E. H. Baker....... Miss J. Gilmer..... Portsville. Visalia............ T. Fowler.......... 0O. Blakely........Visalia. Woodville.......J. A. Slover..... J. Stewart.......Woodville. 218

Page  219 GRANGE DIRECTORY. TUOLUMNE COUNTY. Name of Grange. Master. Secretary. Post-office. Sonora............. G. C. Soulsby...... R. F. Williams..... Sonora. VENTURA COUNTY. Ojai............ C. E. Soule........ J. Hobart.......... Nordhoff. Pleasant Valley... W. P. Ramsener... W. 0O. Wood....... Pleasant Valley. San Pedro....... WV. H. Vinyard.....D. D. DeNure.... Hueneine. Saticoy............ Milton Wasson.... Miss A. Baker...... Saticoy. Sesipe............ S. A. Guiberson.... T. Marple.......... San Buenaventura Ventura........... J. Willett.......... C. Preble.......... San Buenaventura YOLO COUNTY. Antelope.......... W. J. Clark........T. F. Hughes......Antelope. Buckeye...........Wm. Sims........ L. Moody..........Buckeye. Cache Creek....... S. A. Howard...... P. B. Butler....... Cache Creek. C-pay Valley...... J. N. Rhodles....... Howland Bower.... Capay Valley D)avisville.......... J. C. Campbell.....W. Hand..........Davisville. Hungry Hollow.... T. A. Gallup.....Mrs. artz....... Oat Valley. West Grafton...... A. W. Morris...... G. W. Parks..... Yolo. Yolo...............J. A. Hutton....... D. Schindler...... Woodland. YUBA COUNTY. Marysville.......... C. G. Bockius..... Jas. M. Cutts —.. Marysville, NEVADA SUBORDINATE GRANGES. ALFALFA, Reno, G. W. Huffaker, M.; T. B. Eloher, S. EAGLE VALLEY, Eagle Valley, G. W. Chedig, M.; O. A. F. Gilbert, S. CAPSON VALLEY, Genoa, R. J. Livingstone, M.; J. S. Child, S. WASHOE VALLEY, Franktown, Elias Owens, M.; G. D. Winters, S. WELLrINGTON, Wellington, Esmeralda county, A. H. Hawley. M.; J. N. Mann, S. MERRITT, Mason Valley, Esmeralda county, Kimber Cleaver, M.; Clark ('leaver, S. PARADISE, Paradise Valley, B. F. Riley, M.; W. Perkins, S. VINXNEMUCCA, Winnemucca, Wm. B. Haskell, M.; Hez. Barns, S. ELKO, Elko, Jos. A. Tinker, MI.; Jos. L. Keyser, S. LA-NEVILLE, Laneville Valley, Edwin Odell, Ml.; Henry M. Freeman, S. IIALLECK, Camp Halieck Station, J. S. Fenn, M.; Maurice Geary, S. STAR. VALLEY, Humboldt Wells, D. E. Johnston, MI.; Cha.. J. Whitney, S. CLOVER VALLEY, HIumboldt Wells, F. Honeyman, M.; W. B. Raymond, S. 21.9

Page  220 THE GRANGE RECORD: CONTAINING A LIST OF CHIARTER ME~,IBEPS OF EACH GRANG)2 IN CALIFORiNIA AND NEVADA. CALIFORNIA. PILOT HILL GRANGE, No. 1. PILOT HILL, EL DORADO COUNTY. Organized August 10, 1870, by A. A. Bayley, General Deputy. P. D. Brown, Master, S. S. Blue, Mrs. S. C. Owens, A. J. Bayley, Secretary, A. Martin, Mrs. P. D. Brown, J. W. Davis, Wmi. Norvall, Mrs. G. B. Mudd, A. A. Bayley, J. R. Clow, Mrs. U. J. Bayley, John Bishop, Silas Hayes, Miss Jane Jones, James H. Rose, J. S. Martin, Miss Mary Jones, John Marshall, T. T. Lovejoy, Miss A. R. Lovejoy, C. S. Rogers, Wenm. H. Matherley, Miss M. R. Brown, Thos. Owens, George B. Mudd, Miss J. E. Bayley. J. P. Bayley, Mrs. C. H. Jones, NAPA GRANGE, No. 2. NAPA, NAPA COUNTY. Organized March 8, 1S73, by W. H. Baxter, General Deputy. W. A. Fisher, Master, Levi Hardman, A.A. R. Witting, J. Walter Ward, Secretary,Paris Kilbourn, Wm. H. Winter, W. H. Nash, J. M. Mansfield, G. W. Henning, Daniel Gridley, C. A. Menefee, Mrs. W. H. Nash, L. W. Evey, J. L. Marshall, Mrs. C. Plass, James M. Thompson. W. W. Smith, Mrs. Blanchar, T. H. Thompson, Jas. B. Saul, Mrs. J. M. Mansfield, Wm. Fleming, D. Squib, James Hill. WEST SAN JOAQUIN GRANGE, No. 3. ELLIS, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized April 14, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. E. B. Stiles, Master, M. Lammers, Julia E. Fox, H. W. Fassett, Secretary, P. T. Gomer, Savilla L. Hatfield, A. P. Stocking, Mrs. P. T. Gomer, Mrs. Lammers, L. Gish, Alex. Girvan, J. Chrisman, J. Carroll, Wm. B. Hay, W. Haynes, C. D. Needham, Ellen Hay, Charles B. Geddes, J. Field, Mary E. King, Amelia R. Geddes, C. E. Needham, Oiive L. Needham, KRate Girvan.

Page  221 THE GRANGE RECORD. STANISLAUS GRANGE, No. 4. MODESTO, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized April 15, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. D. Spencer, Mlaster, Mrs. Luella Curtis, F. H. Ross, AVm. S. McHenry, Sec'y, Lizzie J. Turner, Mrs. F. H. Ross T. D. Harp, F. S. Bentley, Mrs. S. Royes, WV. B. Wood, C. J. Cressey, Stephen Royes, J. R. Briggs, John Murphy, James McHenry, Garrison Turner, J. D. Hart, B. Drake, D. T. Curtis, A. M. McHlenry, G. B. Douglass Miss Mary J. Webster, VACAVILLE GRANGE, No. 5. VACAVILLE, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized April 18, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. T. Hart Hyatt, Master, Joseph Longmire, Ozias Bingham, T. Hart Hyatt, Jr., Secey, Leonice Longmire, Josephine W. Bingham, W. J. Dobbins, Wm. Butcher, A. C. Hawkins, George Kay Miller, W. B. Dairs, E. R. Thurber, Mrs. M. R. Miller, Mrs. Ermeline Dairs, Geo. N. Weldon, WV. C. Harris, Miss Lula Hyatt, Stephen Hill, Mrs. W. C. Harris, Mrs. E. A. Dobbins, Mrs. L. Decker, Wmn. Cantelow, M. R. Miller, Mrs. M. R. Deker. Mrs. Wm. Cantelow, CHICO GRANGE, No. 6. CHICO, BUTTE COUNTY. Organized April 30, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Secretary. Wm. M. Thorp, Master, J. M. Ball, Mrs. W. M. Thorj, Jonathan Martin, Sec'y, J. W. Scott, Mrs. I. Eddy, Edward Hallett, M. Barnes, Mrs. C. Bowman, (George W. Colby, J. B. Swain, Jr., Mrs. C. E. Elliott. Allen Henry, H. Bay, R. M. Turner, George Van WVert, Mrs. E. Hallett, C. Bowman, J. F. Jaggerd, Mrs. G. W. Colby, C. E. Elliott, Jos. Eddy, Mrs. A. Henry, Wmin. Van Were, Mahlon Grey, Mrs. G. Van Wert, H. York. Willard Bassett MERCED GlRANGE, No. 7. MERCED CITY, MERCED COUNTY. Organized May 3, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. H. B. Jolley, Master, W. S. Fowler, Francis J. Kieth, H. M. Hamilton, Sec'y, E. R. Elliott, Laura A. Atwater, W. E. Elliott, F. V. Harmon, Fannie A. Fowler, W. H. Atkinson, F. G. Poor, Edward Clark, Thomas Upton, William W. Grey, Catherine Clark, N. S. Rogers, Clara M. Upton John A. Perry, James A. Kieth, Louisa W. Jolley, Orsina MI. Grey. MI. D. Atwater, Jennie Rogers, 221

Page  222 THE GRANGE RECORD. SALIDA GRANGE, No. 8. MIuRPHY'S PzECINCT, 1VIMODESTO, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized May 6, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. D. Reyburn, Master, L. Dickey, Secretary, Henry Miller, A. J. Carver, Wm. H. Chance, M. Byrum, George Sherman, Wmn. R. Scanberg, Mrs. M. Byru m, G. Usher, S. E. Scanberg, Anabel Wilkinson, Mrs. Louise Shoemaker, Miss Cora McIDonald, Melinda Shannon, John W. McCarthy. SUISUN VALLEY GRANGE, No. 9. SUISUN, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized May 9, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. R. C. Haile, Master, A. T. Hatch, Secretary, Hattie Haile, L. S. Storg, J. B. Lemon, S. M. Best, J. S. Wood, J. M. Gassin, Peter Long, James L. Miles, Geo. C. McMullen, SAN JOSE GRANGE, No. 10. SAN JosE, SANTA CLARA COUNTY, Organized ivlay 13, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Oliver Cattle, Master, S. H. Herring, Secretary, B. F. Watkins, J. M. Battee, Hiram Pomeroy, Marshall Pomeroy, J. W. Haskell, M. W. Drinkwater A. J. Fowler, James McLellan, HOLLISTER GRANGE, No. 11. HOLLISTER, SAN BENITO COUNTY. I Organized May 14, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy, J. D. Fowler, Master, S.F. Cowan, Secretary, C. D. Fowler, Wm. H. Oliver, Wr. p. Phillips, A. Sally, Elizabeth Sally, K. D. Pearce, Mrs. M. C. Pearce, Patrick Cullen, 222 Wm. Wilkinson, Wm. Shoemaker, J. W. McDonald, ]D. W. Dickey, C. E. McDonald, Mrs. C. E. Miller, M. E. Reyburn, Mrs. Chance, R. E. McMullen, L. Abernathie, J. H. Beauman, G. H. Pangburn, Adeline Pangburn, Joseph Blake, Mary Hatch, Adeline Pangburn, Jennie Lemon, Isabella Best, Ella J. Wood Mrs. A. Gossin, Sarah A. Long, Sampson Smith, Thomas M. Swan, J. G. Edwards, John C. Kirby, H. C. Henderson, Ellen Cannon, R. Keams. L. F. Chipman, S. F Ayer, H. 6. Paine, E. M. Settle, C. A. Ladd, H. S. McClay, L. J. Watkiiis, S. T. Watl-,i-ns, Harriett Pomroy, James Singleton, Charles G. Thoma% Joseph R. Holland, Edmund Ladd, Caleb Cadwell, D. Campbell, C. T. Settle, P. A. Singleton, Stella Cottle, ITarriet R. CadwelL T. L. Williams, H. W. Cothren, J. A. Evans, C. S. Phillips, F. B. Nast, Mark Pomeroy, C. W. Pomeroy, P. L. Nash, Mrs. A. W. Nasb, L. H. Cook, L. I. Cook, Job Malsbury, Jesse Ross -R. Rucklidge, E. Haslan, F. iM. Ware, 1U. E. Cowan, S. P. Fowler.

Page  223 THE GRANGE RECORD. SACRAMENTO GRANGE, No. 12. SACRAMENTO, SACRAMENTO COUNTY, Organized May 17, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Secretary. W. S. Manlove, Master, WVm. M. Haynie, Sec'y, "Irs. F. L. Manlove, R. S. Sackett, Amos Adams,, James Holland, Edward F. Aiken, YOLO GRANGE, No. 1I WOODLAND, YOLO-COUNTY. Organized May 19, 1873, by W. H. Ba Wm. M. Jackson, Master, R. B. Blowers, D. Schindler, Secretary, Mary Blowers, Catherine Jackson, C. Barney, E, R. Jackson, Mrs. M. Barney, Kate Jackson, J. J. Dexter, MIary 0. Schindler, Mrs. H. W. Dexter, WV. S. Flournoy, D. P. Diggs, C. A. Flournoy, Mrs. J. E. Diggs, POINT OF TIMBER GRANGE, No. 14. POINT OF TIMBER, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. Organized May 20, 1873, by WV. H. Baxter, Deputy. R. G. Dean, Master, James B. Henderson, Delia Carey, J. E. WV. Carey, Secretary, Thomas McCabe, Minnie J. Carey Mrs. R. G. Dean, H. C. Gallagher, Mark A. Walton, I. H. Baldwin, A. Richardson, P. A. Henderson, Mrs. Mary H. Baldwin, C. H. Carey, A. Plumley. ELMIRA GRANGE, No. 15. ELMIRA, VACA STATION, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized May 27, 1873, by T. H. Hyatt, Deputy. J. A. Clark, Master, Mi. D. Cooper, Secretary,.. MIrs. Annette Clark, G. W. Frazer, Mlrs. A. E. Frazer, D. C. Glen, Mrs. Mary Glen, James Wells, Mrs. A. Wells, Kenneth MIcPherson, BENNETT VALLEY GRANGE, No. 16. BENNETT VALLEY, SANTA ROSA, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized May 27, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Nelson Carr, Master, Mrs. C. Lyman, Mrs. A. Burnham, J. H. Plank, Secretary, Holeman Talbot, G. W. Wilks, Mrs. H. L. Carr, Mrs. H. Talbot, Lovanda Wilks, Isaac De Turk, E. Peterson, Walter Phillips, B. Lacque, Susanna R. Plank, Rettie Phillips, Sarah A. Lacque, John Burnham, George N. Whitaker, 'Anna M. Lacque, A. Burnhamn, Elmira E. Whitaker, Aaron Lacque, Joseph C. Burnham, Daniel E. Miller, G. Lyman, 2 2!J' Robert Williamson, William Kendal), I - ith, , -P. Sm Theo. K. Stewart, Mrs. A. M. Haynie, 1. N. Hoag, Mrs. I. N. Hoag. Robert Roberts, ][). A. Roberts, H. Deaner, T. P. Po-ud, Miss M. J. Naison, W. W. Harrison, H. Deaner. R. W. Frost, G. M. Gates, Mrs. Sarah Gates, 'vV. H. Black, . B. Mefford, F. M. Gates, George R-anschart, J. C. Suggs, W. C. Swart, Miss Mary Finley, Mrs. J. B. McPherson, S. T. Hoyt, Mrs. Mary Hoyt, 1\,I. L. W'lliams, T. G. Frost, S. Rippy, Mrs. L. E. Rippy, lvlr,s. L. E. Cooper, C. C. Turner, Jackson Turner,

Page  224 THE GRANGE RECORD. SANTA ROSA GRANGE, No. 17. SANTA ROSA, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized May 28, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. G. W. Davis, Master, J. A. O'Brien, Secretary, Ellena R. Davis, A. T. Coulter, Rachel MI. Coulter, John Adams, HEALDSBURG GRANGE, No. 18. IEALDSBURG, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized May 29, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Thomas H. Merry, Master,William S. Moss, L. M. Holt, Secretary, A. Wagenseller, Mlrs. T. H. Merry, Robert Finley, A. J. Spoon, D. Lamb, L. Alexander, R. Foster, Ira Proctor, I. Le Leymance, Charles Alexander. A. Bonton, I. N. Stapp, iElon Catlin, Alice Alexander, Philip S. Peck, DIXON GRANGE, No. 19. DIxoN, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized June 3, 1873, by W. H. Bauter, Deputy. J. C. Merryfield, Master, Jas. O. Johnson, Wm. Steel, James A. Eilis, Secretary, Thos. E. Kelley, bbie Steel, Susannah Mlerryfield, Mrs. E. Kelley, I. E. Russell, J. S. Garnett, A. McPherson, Mrs. F. Russell, Margaret Garnett, S. McBride, Florence Johnson, Jos. Kline, J. L. Read, Andrew Marshall, Jane Kline, Henrietta E. Ellis, Mrs. Marshall, J. G. MeMahon, J. M. Dudley, Mrs. McPherson, L. McMahon, Mrs. Dudley, Mrs. McBride, H. E. MeCune, John Love, B. R. Newell, B. S. McCune, Ellen Love, S. Radcliffe. GUENOC GRANGE, No. 20. GUENOC, LAIE COUNTY (removed to Middleton, Lake County). Organized June 5, 1873, by W. HI. Baxter, Deputy. J. M. Hamilton, Master, W'm. C. Greenfield, Mrs. J. A. Murphy, A. A. Ritchie, Secretary, H. A. Oliver, John Good, J. P. Brandt, WT. Matthews, R. L. Hicks, WNV. R. Matthews, D. M. Copsey, Jas. N. Hamilton, WV, R. Coburn, J. S. Capps, S. A. Copsey, Mrs. C. Coburn, N V. G. Cannon, Mrs. Copsey, A. H. Cheeney, Mrs. L. S. Cannon, J. W. Brown, Mrs. A. H. Cheeney, J. C. Murphy, Mrs. Brown. J. B. Greenfield, YOUNTVILLE GRANGE, No. 21. YOUNTVILLE, NAPA COUNTY. Organized June 7, 1873, by Wt H. Baxter, Deputy. J. M. Mayfield, Master, J. Falkenstin, William T.Bradley, F. B. Hopper, Secretary, L. Falkenstin, Mary C. Bradley, Charles Hopper, II. H. Harris, J. W. Johnston, A. M. Crow, Mrs. L. Harris, A. M. Johnston, Mrs. Crow. Mary E. Hoppei, Rosalie Mlayfield. P 2 -1 9 H. D. R. Adams, H. P. Holmes, tebecca Holmes, IVillen W. Gauldin, P,ichard Fulkerson, Sallie Fulkerson, Theodore Staley, Cra-wford P. League, 0. J. Speenhoff, R. A. Thompson, S. C. Gauldin, II. C. Spencer, arah A. Pecl,-, Rachel S. Spencer, Nettie Tribbs, Mary Dow, Charles Alexander, I. G. Dow, H. Hammeken.

Page  225 THE GRANGE RECORD. GRAND ISLAND GRANGE, No. 22. SYCAMORE i Grand Island), COLUSA COUNTY. Organized June 10, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. J. Hickoc, Master, Thomas Phillips, Mrs. M. Stinchfield, J. C. WVilkins, Secretary, Frank Boardman, Mrs. M. V. Welsh, William Ogden, John Oman, Thomas Eddy, P. A. Earp, John Welch, Emma Ogden, W. S. Green, Isaac Howell, W. H. Pollard, J. O. Zumwalt, Ed. Howell, Oulda Pollard, Wmn. Ash, Jacob Myers, Wm. McClure, Howell Davis, C. Kopf, James Hearen, Mrs. S. Davis, R. S. Browning, Gideon Giles, MIrs. Jane HIoro', Moses Stinchfield, IU. E. Earp. PETALUMA GRANGE, No. 23. PETALUMA, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized June 14, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. L. WV. Walker, Master, Nelson Wiswell, Theodore Skillman, Daniel G. Heald, Secretary,Rosie C. Wiswell, Elizabeth ieald, G. O. Green, Wm. Comstock, John Neal, Alfred Symonds, James WV. Todd, H. Gibbs, D. S. Sutton, Louisa Skillman, John Powell HIannah Sutton, SALINAS GRANGE, No. 24. SALINAS CITY, MONTEREY COUIT. Organized June 17, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. N. L. Allen, Master, Jeason Parson, William Ford, Samuel Cassidy, Secretary,M. Hartnell, J. H. Campbell, C. S. Abbott, H. Whisman, William Quentell, W. S. Stephens, I. G. Baxter, C. Laird, James R. Hebbron, J. C. Storm, Mrs. H. Laird, J, W. Trigh, MIrs. C. L. Allen, George Abbott, H. S. Bull, Miss Clara Abbott, Wmi. F. Ramsey, MIrs. Kate Bull, Ida C. Ilebbron, Annie Whisman. Ira Tucker, CAMBRIA GRANGE, No. 25. CAMBRIA, SAN Luirs OBISPO COUNTY. Organized June 19, 1873, by W. HI. Baxter, Deputy. Rufus Rigdon, Master, Mary Scott, A. C. Buffington, C. I. Ivins, Secretary, J. C. Mc Ferson, Wm. Cooper, L. Utley, G. Van Gorden, J. L. Leffingwell, B. B. Tripp, Mrs. A. Van Gorden, James M. Woods, Alex Cook, M: C. Morris, 0. P. McFadden, N. Steward, M. B. Martin, Mrs. V. J. McFadden, J. D. Campbell, MIrs. M. E. Ivins, Wmn. Skinner, E. A. Everett, Mrs. E. M. Utley, G. W. Proctor, F. W. Utley, Mrs. G. Ml. Blunt, ira Van Gorden. J. Scott, Mrs. A. Everett, 15 225

Page  226 THE GRANGE RECORD. OLD CREEK GRANGE, No. 26. OLD CREEz, SAN Luis OBISPO CoUNTY. Organized June 20, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Isaac Flood, Master, L. H. Draper, Lula H. Preston, Richard M. Preston, Sec'y,Alexander Fraser, Ruth A. Kester, Angus M. Hardie, John Greening, Mary J. Clark, Nathaniel Nickolls, James L. Kester, Sarah A. Nickolls, Robert C. Swain, Elizabeth Flood, Agnes Hardie, Charles S. Clark, Mary V. Nuckolls, Mary Jane Draper, Travis Phillips, Martha F. Phillips, M. A. Greening. Samuel Kingery, Jane S. Kingery, MORO GRANGE, No. 27. MoRO, SAN Luris OBISPO COUNTY. Organized June 21, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Secretary. J. Mothersead, Master, D. H. Whitney, Miss Annie-Cock, H. Y. Stanley, Secretary, G. C. Cock, Miss Lizzie Riley, G. S. Alford, C. V. Shanver, S. Langlois, Franklin Riley, S. C. Stephens, James Allen, J. R. Cock, S. J. Cock, D. Taylor, T. J. Stephens, F. W. Parker, Mary Riley, G. F. Austin, Mrs. H. G. Riley, M. E. Austin, William Langlois, Mrs. C. A. Cock, A. 0. Yates. SAN LUIS OBISPO GRANGE, No. 28. SAN Luis OBISPO, SAN Luis OBISPO COUNTY. Organized June 23, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Secretary. William Jackson, Master, Joseph See, Mary C. Jackson, G. W. Smith, Secretary, J. W. Slack, Marie Leff, G. W. Hampton, J. B. Hazen, May A. Johnson, D. M. Johnson, W. A. Dunbar, Elizabeth See, Charles H. Johnson, Ira Johnson, J. L. Hazen, Samuel Cook, Sarah M. Johnson, H. I. Smith, E. Leff, E. A. Johnson, M. J. Reed, A. T, Brians, Nancy E. Barnett, Theresa Lef. Es L. Reed, Mary M. Freeborn, TURLOCK GRANGE, No. 29. TuRLOCK, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized July 1st, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. W. A. Wright, Master, Edward McCabe, Mrs. M. J. Hall, J. A. Henderson,, Secretary, Pleasant Henderson, Mrs. W. Fulkerth, B. H. Dean, M. C. Monroe, Mrs. C. T. Campbell M. J. Hall, W. F. Huddleston, Mrs. E. S. Russell, S. H. Crane, James Kehoe, - Mrs. S. H. Jefferds, John Warner, Michael Kerrigan, Miss Ora Warner, A. S. Fulkerth, Mrs. J. Warner, Miss Lilla Deane, E. Warner, Mrs. A. S. Fulkerth, Richard Brown, William Fulkerth, Mrs. S. H. Crane, E. S. Russell, Charles T. Campbell, Mrs. C. T. Campbell, S. H. Jefferds. John Fox, 226

Page  227 THE GRANGE RECORD. . HELENA GRANGE, No. 30. ST. HELENA, NAPA COUNTY. e 24th, 1873, by N. W. Garretson, Deputy. Charles Wheeler, Mrs. R. M. Chamberlin H. M. Allen, Mrs. A. Clock, D. O. Hunt, Mrs. F. J. Crane, David Edwards, Mrs. H. M. Allen, D. K. Rule, Mrs. G. Backus, F. K. RIule, Miss Carrie Backus, David Cole, Miss Louisa Allison, H. J. Allison, Miss Kate V. Edwards, EH. A. Pellet, Mrs. C. Wheeler, Richard Garnett, Mrs. D. K. Rule G. B. Crane, Master J. L. Edwards, Secretary, R. M. Chamberlin, R. A. Haskin, William Denning, I. G. Norton, A. ('lock, John York, Guierdon Backus, MI. Vaun, J. G. Sayward, GREYSON GRANGE, No. 31. GREYSON, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized June 6, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. I. G. Gardner, Master, L. Funck, A. Bronson, Geo. H. Copeland, Sec'y, J. H. Terry, Mrs. Julia Richards, It. B. Smith, M. Frydendall, Miss Jennie Phelps, N. D. Phelps, L.L. Brown, Irs. Sarah M. Gardner, J. W. Beuschoter, W. Love, Mrs. E. T. Phelps. R. Garner, L. A. Richards, PESCADERO GRANGE, No. 32. PESCADERO, SAN MATEO COUNTY. Organized July 1, 1873, by N. W. Gaxretson, Deputy. B. V. Weeks, Master, L. Chandler, Mrs. Olivia Morehead, H. B. Sprague, Secretary, S. Armes, N. Corey, F. S. Morehead, E. D. Moore, J. B. Holinshead, I. H. Osgood, R. W. Fogg, M.D. Hopkins, R. Knowles, Mrs. H. E. Reed, J. Wilson, N.M. Brown, Mrs. S. R. Corey, J. Beeding. J. S. Read, Mrs. E. B. Moore, WINDSOR GRANGE, No. WNDsoR, SONOMA COUNTY Organized July 8, 187w H. Marden, E. Tants, I. W. Calhoun, M. T. Wallace, BHenry Bell, Mrs. Martha Wallace, Charles Clark, Elinor L. Lindsey, Mary M. Clark, S. M. Calhoun, BODEGA GRANGE, No. 34. BODEGA, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized July 9, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. John H. Hegeler, Master, D. J. Cunningham, Mrs. J. H. Hegeler, W. Smith, Secretary, James Kee, Mrs. A. S. Perrine, A. S. Perrine, James Watson, Mrs. E. H. Cheney, E. H. Cheney, Henry Ross, Mrs. Theresa Warnekey. Christian Warnekey, 227 A' B. Nally, Master, J. H. McClelland,Ser, H. L. Ruiayou, S. V. R. Klink, Ben Clark, H. I. Poole, . Edgar Lindsey, I. W. Bailache, E. H. Barnes. R. A. Petray, Mrs. N. A. Kenneday, Martha A. Clarlk, Mrs. M. E. Pool, George A. Morgan,, John M - Laughlin, G. H. Kennedy, William Brooks, Mrs. Mary Barneg, Mrs. S. B. Klink, I. H,. Loughlin.

Page  228 THE GRANGE RECORD. TEMESCAL GRANGE, No. 35. OAKLAND TOWNSHIP, ALAMEDA COUNTY. Organized July 10, 1873, by N. W. Garretson, Deputy. A. T. Dewey, Master, E. D. Harmon, Mrs. A. T. Dewey, C. H. Dwindele, Secretary, A. B. Dixon, Miss Elnora Bagge, Christian Bagge, N. B. Byrne, Mrs. Jeanne C. Carr, J. B. Woolsey, W. Applegarth, Mrs. S. E. Dixon, John Kelsey, H. G. Babcock, Mrs. Nellie G. Babcock, J. V. Webster, John S. Collins, P. H. Cordez, Charles Bagge, Emily Bagge, W. B. Ewer. Ezra S. Carr, LOS ANGELES GRANGE, No. 36. Los ANGELES, LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 2, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Thos. A. Garey, Master, J. H. Brewer, Mrs. M. J. Stanley, H. S. Parcels, Secretary, C. E. White, Mrs. E. C. Potts, J. Q. A. Stanley, R. M. McCreary, Mrs. E. E. Thomas, Mvilton Thomas, J. W. Potts, irs. J. Hamilton, T. D. Hancock;, A. N. Hamilton, Mrs. M. McCreary, J. MI. Stewart, C. H. Hass, Mrs. M. M. Brewer. R. M. Town, Mrs. S. HIass, COMPTON GRANGE, No. 37. COMPTON, Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 4, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. A. Higbie, Master, Sarah E. Burlingame, C. Martin, J. A. Walker, Secretary, Edla Kimball, Lewis A. Carey, J. E. McComas, W. G. Goss, A. M. Peck, H. Burlingame, Lilly T. Brower, F. W. Steele, H. H. Morton, A. E. Putney, C. W, Turss, J. G. Hathorne, Ada C. Steele, Martha Coltrin, Robert Orr, C. W. Coltrin, C. B. Wright, G. D. Compton, Amanda Walker, John Angelo, Emily Compton, Lizzie McComas, Rebecca Angelo, Timothy V. Kimball, J. J. Martin, ENTERPRISE GRANGE, No. 38. LA Dow, Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 5, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Y. C. Alexander, Master, B. F. Shirley, C. P. Switzer, W. T. Henderson, Sec'y, Mrs. William Dryden, J. F. Lewis, J. A. Nichols, Mrs. S. I. Green, Henry Vogt, M. J. Golden, Mrs. S. W. La Dow, John Erick, A. M. Southworth, Mrs. Susan Brown, J. B. Middleton, R. K. McGue, Miss Fanny Dye, Mrs. J. A. Nichols, S. W. La Dow, Wmi. Dryden, Mrs. M. A. Alexander, M. M. Green, J. H Snyder, Mrs. E. S. Buttersworth, E. S. Butterworth, Milton Krytzler, Miss M. E. Hall, C. M. Jenkins, David Foster, Miss Fanny Juden. 228

Page  229 TIHE GRANGE RECORD. FAIRVIEW GRANGE, No. 39. FAIRVIEW, Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 6, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Edward Evey, Master, Miss Mary E. Kellogg, Rev. C. Gridley, J. D. Taylor, Secretary, Mrs. Marian Clarkl, Wm. H. Hill, J. J. Hill, Miss Mary E. Austin, Wmn. M. Richter, B. F. E. Kellogg, Mrs. Gertrude Gwin, Thos. Boswell, Andrew Bittner, Mrs. E. A. Gridley, Wm. Neabeck, D. W. C. Cowan, Byron Clark, Alex Henry, John Gwin, B. Snodgrass, Erastus Johnson, H. C. Kellogg, F. A. Gates, Miss M. J. Boswell, Mrs. R. A. Evey, G. A. Greely, Miss Jeckie Snodgrass. Mrs. Mary O. Kellogg, ORANGE GRANGE, No. 40. RICRtLAND, LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 7, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Thomas Brown, Master, Silas Yearnal, J. P. Shaffer, J. W. Anderson, Secretary,Mrs. C. M. Hickox, E. W. Squires, Patterson Bowens, Mrs. A. Davenport, WV. G. McPherson, C. M. Marshall, Mrs. C. Marshall, Joseph Beach, S. N. Falkington, A. A. Falkington, Mrs. S. V. Gregg, J. H. Gregg, A. Hickox, MIrs. Sarah M. Anderson. Stephen McPherson, SILVER GRANGE, No. 41, Los NIETOS (TowN OF GALATIN), LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 8, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. I. H. Burke, Master, E. R. Wylie, Secretary, R. H. Mayes, Mrs. R. H. Mayes, AV. H. Pendleton, Sr., F. M Matthew, S. E. Matthew, I. WIV. Doster, S. S. Thompson, Mrs. M. Thompson, E. R. Wylie, W. WV. Standifer, NEW RIVER, No. 42. NEW RIVER, Los ANGLES COUNTY. Organized August 9, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. R. B. Guthrie,.Master, S. G. Baker, J. A. Montgomery, D. S. WVardlaw, Secretary, E. J. Elliott, S. T. Moore, A. L. Sutton, M. F. Harlow, T. D. Sackett, WV. Newton, A. A. Sutton, WV. A. Sackett, I. S. Elliott, R. J. Meek, M. J. McGaugh, T. J. Kerns, I. W. Settle, Mrs. C. Newton, D. M. Harlow, L. Wardlaw, Julia Holgate, C. J. Meek, S. T. Cornm, Susan A. Corwin, G. H. Sproul, D. B. Goodwin, S. A. Goodwin, HI. Schlesselman, S. Holgate, N. A. Guthrie. MI. G. Se.tle, 229 I. T. Carney, J. W. Venable, Jno. C. Ardis, Wm. Wylie, Hu.,h Forsman, Elizabeth Forsn'lan, H. L. Montgomery, M. B. Montgomery, L. L. Beq-aette, Mrs. M. A. Bequette, A. Short, Sarah A. Short, D. W. Tuttle,. T. D. Cheney, G. W. Pallett, W. P. McDonald, 1. H. Btirke, Mary Btirke, M. B. Crawford, A. C. Crawford, S. G. Reynolds, Dora Burnett.

Page  230 THE GRANGE RECORD. EL MONTE GRANGE, No. 43. LEXINGTON TOWNSHIP, EL MONTE, LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Organized August 11, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Geo. C. Gibbs, Master, J. H. Grey, Secretary, Josiah M. Grey, Geo. H. Peck, Mrs. G. H. Peck, John T. Gordon, A. J. Howard, H. A. Messenger, R. J. Floyd, George H. Clark, LOS NIETOS GRANGE, No. 44. OLD Los NIETOS, LOS ANGEL1ESCOUNTY. Organized August 12, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. E. B. Grandon, Master, John F. Marquis, Sec'y, J. E. Fulton, W. S. Reavis, J. W. Cate, D. Y. Sorensen, Jno. Condra, M. B. Condit, Thomas Harvey, S. H. Butterfield, SEBASTOPOL GRANGE, No. 45 SEBASTOPOL, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized August 15, 1873, by George W. Davis, Deputy. J. M. Hudspeth, Master, William Bones, Joseph Purrington, Sec'y, Mrs. Elinor Walker, John Walker, Mrs. E. P. Berry, WV. W. Petross, Mrs. E. A. Hicks, James Grigson, Mrs. Sidney Ross, A. J. Peterson, Mrs. Hattie Lappum, J. Marshal, H. E. Manifer, L. Ross, B. B. Berry, John Gallagher, P. McChristian, A. Barnes, M. C. Hicks, FRESHWATER GRANGE, N4 FR.ESHWATER, COLUSA COUNT Organized August 9, 1873, by J. J. Hi I. H. Durham, Master, Mrs. R. A. Wilsey, R. A. Wilsey, Secretary, P.S. Pardue, J. P. Rathbun, F. D. Graham, J. C. White, M. J. Britton, W. C. White, Mrs. M. Rathbourn, W. A. Dunham, L. H. Baker, Mrs. E. Graham, I. H. Dunham, Mrs. E. J. Dunham, Mrs. B. C. Dunham, 230 Sarah F. Clark, M. F. Quin, L. J. Hix, Mr.-,. L. Hix, L. S. Barnyard, F. W. Gibson, Wm. H. Winston, W. S. Arnold, Stepheia Penfold, Albert Gibbs, L. Muth Rathmussen, Peter Penfold, E. A. Floyd, Mrs. G. C. Gibbs, Asa Ellis, Mrs. A. Ellis, E. Stallcup, 1. Avis, .Alrs. I. Avis. James Stewart, Mrs. J. F. Marquis, Mrs. J. W. Cate, Mrs. Villa Marquis, Mrs. J-. Mitts, A. J. Hudson, Daniel Standler, E. Stockton, J. Mitts, Elan Martin, Thomas Isbell, W. H. Russell, Mrs. M. B. Condit, Alrs. S. E. Rea-vis, .Alrs. M. M. Fulton, lklrs. E. Stockton, lklrs. Louisa Isbell, Mrs. Melissa Stockton, R. S. Stroud, 1. W. Perkius. J. W. Sullivan, Owen MeChristian, L. Harbiiae, George A. Fruits, H. Lappum, Mrs. H - A. Petross, Mrs. Eliza Grigson, Mrs. Mary Sullivan, Mrs. Eliza Harbine, Mrs. Frances Purrington. James Catlin, Mrs. Sarah Catlin,, William F. Lamburth, Henry Marshall, William Fulton, William Bell, Miss M. Marshall, William Marshall.

Page  231 THE GRANGE RECORD. WILLOWS GRANGE, No. 47. MONROE, COLUSA COUNTY. Organized August 11, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. J. WV. Zumwalt, Master, G. S. Hicklin, Secretary, S. C. Longmire, H. P. Grey, Joseph Zumwalt, IV. G. Kung, C. R. Summers, I. H. Arrmfield, P. H. Scott, F. M. Luts, F. McIntyre, A. T. Stubblefield, M. A. Zumwalt, A. M. Stone, Mrs. Amanda Armfield, I. M. Clark, C. K. West, A. E. Duncan, J. D. Mecum, COLUSA GRANGE, No. 48. COLUSA, COLUSA COUNTY, Organized August 15, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Secretary. I. F. Wilkins, Master, E. B. Bainbridge, Sec'y, Valler Colmes, John P. Bainbridge, Stephen Cooper, Sarshel Cooper, T. S. Coleman, I. R. Wiert, H. N. Yates, J. S. Scoggins, John K. Rowland, Mrs. L. Kilgore, Mrs. J. F. Wilkins, Mrs. E. B. Bainbridge, Peter Dolan, I. R. Fryer, I. M. Culp, Logan Kilgore, SATICOY GRANGE, No. 49. SATICOY, VENTURA COUNTY Organized August 16, 1873, by W. H. B. Milton Wasson, Master, Joseph L. Alderman, E. A. Duval, Secretary, Mrs. Maria A. Wasson, Joseph B. Kelsey, Olney Whitesides, E. B. Higgins, Theo. A. Kelsey, Joseph Alderman, Jno. F. Cummrins, Abner Haines, Mrs. E. A. Duval, Chas. O. Hara, )Daniel Ellsworth, Mrs. M. A. Ellsworth. G. W. Crissma,ln, SANTA BARBARA GRANGE, No, 50. SANTA BARBARA, SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. Organized August 19, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. O. L. Abbott, Master, Sarah E. A. Higgins, Mary F. Hamer, Robert W. Smith, Sec'y, W. F. Russell, Jane Rosenberg, J. C. Hamer, Josephine Harton, C. Kenny, J. A. Johnson, James M. Short, Elvira Kenny, W. E. Foster, M. Hickok, Ada J. Eaton, D. C. Mayfield, T. H. B. Rosenberg, Virginia F. Russell, M. H. Lane, Louisa Abbott, Jesse Handford, Joseph Pierson, Julia A. Foster, George Williams. Elizabeth Pierson, 231 Benjamin Lee, Charles Strong, W. B. Small, J. A. Towle, Emily West, Sarah I. Scott, Adeline Longmire, Mary Zumwalt, Barbara E. Duncan. L. T. Stormer, 1. W. Walsh, R. Jones, John Chp-ney, Mrs. J. P. Bainbriclge, Miss Mattie Stormer, Mrs. J. G. Stormer, 1. F. Wilkins. Wm. Evans, Mahlon Thome, Miss Mary E. Wasson, Miss Helen D. Evaias, Mrs. 1\1. E. Kelsey, Mrs. E. C. Alderman, J. K. Gries.

Page  232 THE GRANGE RECORD. kRPENTERIA GRANGE, No. 51. RPENTERIA, SANTA BAPRBAI%A COUNTY. August 20, 1873, by WV. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. L. Crane, John Walker, Jennette Crane, Juliette Walker, John Pettigrew, Emilia Walker, W. S. Callis, H. D. Woods, VW. J. Bradford, L. L. Woods, James Ward, T. A. Cravenis, Theo. Woods, Ben. Morris, Clara Woods, Jno. A. Walker, J. B. Wall, M. E. Pettinger, E. H. Pierce, John Cross. M. A. Pierce, O. N. Cadwell, M.aster, T. E. Thurmand, Sec'y, James A. Blood, Mrs. C. L. Blood, Albert Doty, Lucetta Doty, RobeIt McAllister, Dan Turner, Frank Hartshorne, G. E. Thurmand, E. W. Thbrmand, SANTA MARIA GRANGE, No. 52. SANTA MARIA, (SUEZ,) SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. Organized August 22, 1873, by W. HI. Baxter, Secretary. Joel Miller, Master, Susan M. Stowell, Maggie C. McElhany, M. D. Miller, Secretary, Mary E. Stephens, J. H. Harris, J. Wheeler, Henry Stowell, Elizabeth Harris, Mary D. Wheeler, Maurice Flynn, H. S. Sibley, Sarah A. Wheeler, R. D. Cook, Charlotte Miller, Jeannette F. Wheeler B. rl. Wiley, S. E. Linebaugh, Speer McElhany, V. T. Morris, Milton D. Miller, Joel Miller, J. M. McElhany, M. H. Stephens, John J. Prell, Isaac Miller, M. P. Nicholson, Eliza Prell, Annie Miller, L. L. Nicholson. J. B. Linebaugh, PLAZA GRANGE, No. 53. MONROE (OLIMPO), COLUSA COUNTY. Organized August 23, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. Norton Farnsworth, Mrs. L. A. Fields, Mrs. Nancy Carpenter, Mrs. M. Kirlipatrick, Mrs. E. Booth, Miss Nellie Ashurst, R. P. Gosein, W. H. Carpenter, Edmund Fields, John Rice, F.. Graves, Master, Wright F. Green, Sec'y, Al. Kendrick, I. N. Mecum, J. W. Williams, M. R. Booth, M. E. Pordyke, A. J. Harris, F. J. Kirkpatrick, F. C. Graves, Thomas E. Brown, CASTORIA GRANGE, No. 54. CASTORIA (ELLIS), SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized August 25, 1873, by Edwin B. Stiles, Deputy. Sewall Gower, Master, J. W. Seaver, Mrs. Medora Carter, John H. Strahan,Secretary,N. J. Sharp, Mrs. M. A. Strahan H. W. Cowell, James Carter, H. M. Ellis, F. J. Woodward, G. I. Chalmers, George W. Smith, J. M. Barber, Mrs. Chalmers, Mrs. Smith, I. H. Wolfe, S. A. Leavy, A. W. Brush, Joshua Cowell, Mrs. M. Martin, Mrs. Brash, E. Benson, Mrs. Loraine Cowell, Mrs. Gower, F. A. Graves, Mrs. Vinette Cowell, Mrs. Leavy. 2 "D2 W. Norton, R. Creed, Janies A. Poague, J. C. White, R. D. Jones, Mrs. Susan Harris, Mrs. A. C. Kendrick, Mrs. E. J. Brown, Mrs. A. E. NVilliams, Mrs. L. J. Graves.

Page  233 THE GRANGE RECORD. SONOMA GRANGE, No. 55. SONOMA, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized August 26, 1873, by G. W. Davis, Deputy. Leonard Goss, Master, William Burris, J. R. Snyder, Alfred V. Lammot, Sec'y, Obed Chart, D. C. Young, William McPherson Hill, WV. A. Berry, H. Appleton, A. S. Edwards, O. B. Shaw, Maria E. Young, A. F. Haraszthy, S. T. Craig, Anna M. Harding, David Burris, O. W. Craig, Phebe Chart. LINDEN GRANGE, No. 56. LINDEN, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized August 28, 1873, by Edwin B. Stiles, Deputy. John Wasley, Master, Mrs. Jane Latham, S. H. Boardman, James Wasley, Secretary, L. A. Morse, Samuel Titus, David Lewis, Mrs. H. A. Morse, Mrs. Helen Titus, Mrs. M. A. Lewis, E. B. Cogswell, P. Fitzgerald, John Patterson, William F. Prather, John Archers, Mrs. E. Patterson, Thomas Wall, William H. RPussell, J. W. Hill, N.E. Ailing, Mrs. J. Russell, Mrs. Jane Hill, William Snow, James Duncan, A. S. Drais, Mrs. J. Snow, George Klinger. R. Latham, Mrs. C. Wasley, WATERFORD GRANGE, No. 57. WATERFORD (HoRR'S RANCH), STANI;,LAUS COUNTY. Organized August 25, 1873, by J. W. A, Wright, Deputy. R. R. Warder. Master, Wm. Fitzhue, H. B. Davis, WA. C. Collins, Secretary, John Wooters, L. H. Pinkston, Thomas Johnson, J. W. Sheldon, I. H. Barham, S. MI. Gallup, J. B. Booth, W. J. Warder, James Kincaid, Mrs. L. J. Pinkston, Wells Reynolds, R. H. Bentley, Mrs. Jas. Kincaid, M. R. Harbert, L. C. Davis, Mrs. S. M. Gallup, Mrs. I. H. Finney, W. W. Baker, Mrs. W. C. Collins, Mrs. J. Johnson, W. C. Collins, Miss L. A. Collins, Mrs. R. H. Bentley, I. H. Finney, Mrs. L. C. Davis, Mrs. J. H. Barham. W. P. Crow, UNION GRANGE, No. 58. UNION TOWNSHIP (PRiINCETON), COLUSA COUNTY. Organized August 13, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. W. Davis, Master, S. Thomas, Samuel Peckwell, J. L. McDaniel, Secretary, John Annond, S. N. Davis, M. Davis, A. Beal, Mlrs S. A. McDaniel, E. McDaniel, J. L. McDaniel, Mrs. Sarah Bassett, John Garr, J. H. Black, Mrs. M. A. Luman, WVm. Lumnan, Stephen Miller, Mrs. Ida Annond, J. W. Bassett, James Bounds, Mrs. E. McDaniel. .2 3 "a'

Page  234 THE GRANGE RECORD. SPRING VALLEY GRANGE, No. 59. SPRING VALLEY, COLUSA COUNTY. Organized August 2, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. D. H. Arnold, Master, A. R. Stone, H. I. Teel, J. B. Lucas, Secretary, Mrs. H. J. Teel, P. Grenell, T. S. Asbreckel, Mrs. E. W. Reed, E. Weigel, F. W. Lahn, Mrs. Mary Hoskins, C. Richey, J. M. McElroy, Mrs. Amelia Julion, F. Bushore, E. Haskins, Mrs. A. M. McElroy, Mrs. Sarah Haymond, Wm. Kaorth, Joseph Wholform, Mrs. Julian Lucas, L. T. Hayman, F. B. Reed, Mrs. B. Piechey, W. C. Henny, Thomas Singleton, Mrs. N. Arnold. Henry Davidson, Samuel Wattenberger, SUTTER GRANGE, No. 60. MERIDIAN, SUTTER COUNTY. Organized August 8, 1873, by J. J. IIicok, Deputy. W. C, Smith, Master, S. F. Davis, William Johnson, M. C. Hungerford, Sec. Mrs. Minnie Doty, A. Moore, Henry Burgett, Miss Joanna Fonts, H. C. Jones, William Harris, Mrs. A. O. Colclasure, William Doty, J. S. Davis, Mrs. S. E. Harris, Mrs. Bell Jones, J. G. Jones, Mrs. E. Fouts, Mrs. E. A. Smith, Joseph Johnson, F. A. Jones. Mrs. Maria Jones, J. F. Fouts, John Birk, Mrs. E. Birks, M. C. Hungerford, John H. Colclasure, Nancy E. Moore. Jacob Doty, E. Jones, SAN BERNARDINO GRANGE, No. 61. SAN BERNARDINO, SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. Organized August 26, 1873, by Thomas A. Garey, Deputy. E.G. Brown, Master, John F. Gould, W. C. Wiseman, John F. Gould, Secretary. Lewis F. Cramn, A. Parker, A. B. Anderson, Mrs. Carrie W. Shelton, H. Saverkreup, R. Shelton, Mrs. Ida Gould, E. Sheldon, James T. Greves, Mrs. M. E. Wills, Mrs. M. A. Parks, George D. Carlton, H. G. Clelmments, Mrs. M. E. Coble. Mrs. R. E. Gould, George Lord, Mrs. A. R. Wiseman, R. Shelton, W T. Russell, Miss Ida M. Wills. William H. Gould, PRINCETON GRANGE, No. 62. PRINCETON, COLUSA COUNTY. Organized September 1, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. A. D. Logan, Master, R. R. Rolston, Michael O'Hore, P. R. Rush, Secretary, Mrs. Mary L. Coldern, Philip O'Hore, A. Coldern, Miss Alice Cartmel, H. Jemison, H. M. Moe, Mrs. A. S. Helmstreet, John Boggs, F. M. Mayfield, Mrs. F. M. Mayfield, F. Quint, C. W. F. Jemison, L. H. Helphenstein, Mrs. M. B. Helphenstein, James Moe, A. H. Helmstreet, Mrs. M. E Rush, A. H. Patterson, Charles High, Mrs. C. High A. Oliver, 234

Page  235 THE GRANGE RECORD. CLOVERDALE GRANGE, No. 63. CLOVERDALE, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized September 2, 1873, by T. H. Merry, Deputy. Charles H. Cooley, Master,M. E. Black, Mrs. P. Sink, D. M. Wambold, Secretary,Robert E. Lewis, Mrs. Mary Waite, H. Keir, J. M. Hartsock, W. M. Howell, Mrs. Keir, J. B. Cooley, America Hall, J. G. Heald, J. A. Carne, John Edwards, Mrs. R. Heald, J. F. Elam, A. Hartsock, William H. Black, R. E. Lewis, Samuel Larroson, William N. Waite, Mrs. E. N. Cooley, William Caldwell, Miss Mary Waite, S. Cook, S.D. Howard, D. M. Wambold, W. D. Sink, D. W. Hall. S. Larsson, Daniel Sink, CERES GRANGE, No. 64, WEsTPORT (MODESTO), STANISLAUS COUN. Organized August 31, 1873, by J. D. Spencer, Deputy. W. B. Harp, Master, S. W. Rush, Mrs. M. B. Kittrell, M. B. Kittrell, Secretary, J. M. Henderson, Mrs. J. M. Henderson, L. C. St. Clair, M. B. Kittrell, Mrs. S. Ellenwood, J. B. Sanders, L. L. Harwick, Mrs. P. Harp, J. M. Berry, Mrs. L. C. St. Clair, Miss M. Davis, E. Hatch, Mrs. L. L. Harwick, Miss M. Hatch. YUBA CITY GRANGE, No. 65. YUBA CITY, SUTTER COUNTY. Organized September 9, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. F. B. Hull, Master. Mrs. M. C. Hardy, H. Pinney, S. R. Chandler, Sec'y G. F. Starr, W. P. Harkey, G. W. Carpenter, Mrs. E. J. Starr, Clarinda E. Harkey, Catherine Carpenter, O. M. Walton, B. F. Frisbie, J. A. Wilkinson, C. J. Bockius, Mrs. M. J. Frisbie, John C. Smith, H. D. Littlejohn, S. E, Wilson, James Littlejohn, George Ohleyer, S. R. Chandler, R. Barnett, Ellen Ohleyer, T. B. Hull, Elizabeth Barnett, Emily L. Wilkinson, James T. Smith, W. W. Ashford, Mrs. S. E. Walton, Mrs. M. S. Smith. Joseph Hardy, EUREKA-GRANGE, No. 66. SAN JOSE TOWNSHIP (SPADRA), Los ANGELIES COUNTY. Organized September 8, 1873, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. P. C. Touner, Master, S. Hoofner, George Blake, Jos. Wright, Secretary, Mrs. A. Humphreys, Mrs. N. Rlake. Cyrus Burdick, W. F. Thompson, W. C. Martin, Mrs. A. M. Burdick, R. S. Arnett, Mrs. R. C. Martin, A. Caldwell, Mrs. Bella Fryer, W. T. Martin, Joseph Fryer, Thomas Wright, Mrs. M. Martin, R. C. Fryer, Miss Mollie Wright, Samuel Arnett, Littleton Fryer, Miss Elsie Wright, Miss Ella Arnett. John Egan, 235

Page  236 THE GRANGE RECORPD. GEYSERVILLE GRANGE, No. G7. GEYSERVILLE, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized September 11, 1873, by Thos. H. Merry, Deputy. Cal. M. Bosworth, Master, Elizabeth Low, Cyrus P. Buckley, RIt. R. Leigh, Secretary, Mrs. A. M. Jacobs, Louisa Hamilton, G. H. Jacobs, A. G. Geigh, Mre. C. M. Bosworth, N. H. Stiles, Luella S. Walcott. William Ellis, J. PI. Wisewiver, L. G. Ellis, Mrs. M. L. Morehouse, W.m. S. Beeson, A. S. Bemick, C. P. Moore, Caroline W. Beeson, S. T. Caldwell, Electa Moore, Emmon Hamilton, G. H. Benjamin, Henry Wiedersheim, C. M. Bosworth, WV. J. Powell, Kate Turner, Eli Cummings, Marcella Powell, William Hixon. WVilliam Low, SANTA CRUZ GRANGE, No. 68. SANTA CRUZ, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. Organized September 13, 1873, by J. D. Fowler, Deputy. B. Cahoon, Master, M. J. Leonard, G. C. Wardwell, J. W. Morgan, Secretary, Thomas Leonard, H. Winkle, James L. Grover, Charlotte Cahoon, John Doyle, James Corcoran, E. B. Cahoon, Benj. P. Kooser, Henry Thurber, V. Humphrey, P. Leonard, Joseph Francis, Catherine Humphrey, J. Archibald, D. W. Madden, Henry Daubinbiss, Mrs. J. Archibald. D. C. Feeley, Martin Kinsley, LIBERTY GRANGE, No. 69. ACAMPO TOwNsHIP, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized September 11, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy, Justus Schomp, Master, J. Van Valkenburg, J. N. Woods, J. J. Ermlie, Secretary, S. R. Thorne, Victor Jahant, J. S. Crawford, Jno. Welsh, James Nolan, N. A. Knight, Mrs. P. Jahant, A. J. Woods, Benj. Fugitt, Mrs. J. M. Tracy, Jno. Discoll, Peter Jahant, Mrs. H. W. Child, Charles Neal, T. M. Tracy, Mrs. J. Schomp, Thos. Burns, H. W. Childs, Mrs. R. Thorne, Mrs. N. A. Knight, C. C. Fugitt, Mrs. A. J. Woods, Mrs. J. Van Valkenburg, W. R. Pearson, Miss Kate Childs, Mrs. Victor Jahant. STOCKTON GRANGE, No. 70. STOCKTON, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized August 12, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Andrew Wolfe, Master, John Taylor, P. W. Dudley, Wmn. G. Phelps, Sec., W. D. Ashley, I. F. Harrison, W. L. Overhizer, S. V. Tredway, A. Burkett, T. E. Ketchumn, Mrs. Chas. Sperry, George West, Andrew Showers, Mrs. George West, Wm. H. Fairchild, J. Lander, Mrs. Wm. H. Fairchild, H. E. Wright, T. J. Brooke, Mrs. A. Burkett, J. H. Cole, Freeman Mills, Mrs. W. L. Overhizer, Mrs. F. Mills, I. Marsh, Mrs. r. J. Brooke, Mrs. John Taylor, Charles Sperry, Mrs. J. Marsh, Mrs. Andrew Wolfe. 236

Page  237 THE GRANGE RECORD. SANTA CLARA GRANGE, No. 71. SANTA CLARA, SANTA CLAR COUNTY. Organized August 19, 1873, by George W. Henning, Deputy. Carey Peebles, Master, B. F. Headen, I. N. Senter, I. A. Wilcox, Secretary, M. L. Grewell, W. Oliver, F. Garrigues, E. Vandine, Mrs. J. A. Wilcox, J. J. Owen, Frank Parks, Benj. Craft, H. Goepper, Rush McComus, A. Woodham, H. M. Leonard, Miss M. Watkins, L. J. Grewell, I. Knowles, Mrs. L. Smith, Henry Sillick. MIrs. A. Knowles, B. F. Stinson, FRUITLAND GRANGE, No. 72. TUSTIN CITY TOWNSHIP, Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized September 15, 1873. D. G. McClay, S. W. Merritt, Mrs. Julia Hayward, A. T. Bates, Mrs. Mary Tustin, W. C. McClay, Mrs. M. J. Armstrong, I. T. Tedford, Mrs. S. N. Stine, Samuel Robinson, Mrs. A. M. Robinson, Mrs. M. J. Nichols, Robert McFadden, Mrs. Harriet C. Abbott, Silas Ritchie, Mrs. Sarah V. Cassad, Wm. H. Tedford, Mrs. M. A. Merrill, J. J. Johnson, Mrs. A. E. Tedford. A. B. Hayward, Master, Elton R. Nichols, Sec., D. H. Samis, Columbus Tustin, E. R. Nichols, Wm. A. Abbott, Thomas Cassad A. D. Stine, I. T. Johnson, N. O. Stafford, A. T. Armstrong, DAVISVILLE GRANGE, No. 73. DAVISVILLE, YOLO COUNTY. Organized September 23, 1873, by Wm. M. Jackson, Deputy, Chas. E. Greene, Master, Mrs. Geo. W. Pierce, Andy McClary, John Krimmer, Secretary, Rodney M. Bennett, G. L. Luddington, H. P. Martin, W. D. Wistine, J. C. Campbell, Mrs. H. P. Martin, Mrs. Chas. E. Greene, Mrs. W. D. Wistine. Geo. W. Pierce. Dwight Cooley, ARROYO GRANDE GRANGE, No. 74. ARROYO GRANDE, SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. Organized September 20, 1873, by A. J. Mothersead, Deputy. David F. Newsom, Master, Jesse Castael, Susan Henry, D. F. Whittenberg, Sec'y, James Brannan, Angie Morse, WV. H. Nelson, L. R. Branch, H. H. Johnston, James Morse, Angelina Morse, Henry Hess, Albert Fowler, Susan Hess, Daniel Henry, Frank Branch, Eli Edwards, Edward Shaw, R. J. Branch, Lizzie Nelson, Annie Johnston. Ri F. Branch, Sarah Fowler, ALLIANCE GRANGE, No. 75. BoG DALE DISTRICT (EL MONTE), Los ANGELES COUTY. Organized September 22, 1873, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. S. S. Reeves, Master, Mrs. Henrietta Dukes, W. P. Cooper, J. W. Marshall, Secretary, Mrs. Lydia A. Reeves, E. S. Harris, James D. Durfee, Miss Alice A. Reeves, J. A. Anderson, Charles Dougherty, Miss Mary J. Reeves, A. V. Dunsmore, W. H. Guinn, Mrs. A. J. Dougherty, Miss Fannie Mark, S. S. Reeves, Alfred Gibson, Miss Jennie Mark, W. D. Cole, G. W. Mark, Miss Martha Marshall, George W. Durfee, A.S. Harris, Mrs. iviLary A. Marshall. Mrs. Diantha Durfee, 2'07

Page  238 THE GRANGE RECORD. LAKEPORT GRANGE, No. 76. LAKEPORT, LAKE COUNTY. Organized September 18, 1873, by J. M. Hamilton, Deputy. I. C. W. Ingram, Master, N. Phelan, Secretary, J. J. Bruton, J. S. McClintock, N. Phelan, As William Gesner, J. P. Denny, B. D. Green, I. F. Burger, C. Sweigert, LOWER LAKE GRANGE, No. 77. LOWER LAKE, LAKE COUNTY. Organized September 20, 1873, by J. 5IL Hamilton, Deputy. Mack Matthews, Master, G. H. Snow, Secretary, W. H. Cunningham, I. S. Fruits, H. H. Wilson, J. W. Howarl, Hanson Hazell, James A. Harris, Mack Matthews, G. H. Snow, I. D. Hendricks, BADGER FLAT GRANGE, No 78. Los BANos, MERCED- COUNTY. Organized September 20, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. W. F. Clark, Master, Alfred Merritt, Secretary,. W. W. Parlian, Sam Fle Fowler, Wm. Phillips, James Torey, Joseph Merritt, Welcome Fowler, William Stockton, Jo. Friedman, LOS BANOS GRANGE, No. 79. Los BANOS, MERCED COUNTY. Organized September 20, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Wm. M. Viney, Master, H. C. Wainwright, Sec'y, B. F. Davis, G. H. Wiley, William Jones, Mrs. W. M. Viney, Mrs. A. F. Munch, Miss Mary Mitchell, W. G. Jones, Owen Hughes, 238 John Jones, A. Wittenburger, Cyrus Cutler, 1. I. Hendricks, W. A. Christy, William Christy. Robert McCullough, P. M. Daley, Mrs. Louisa Thompson, Miss Mary Thompson, Mrs. B. D, Green, .Alrs. J. F. Burger, Mrs. J. McClintock, Miss M. P. McClintock, llrs. L. C. Burriss, Mrs. P. M. Daley, 21rs. E. A. Hammock, Mrs. J. W. Boggs, J. W. Boggs, J. C. Thompson. J. L. Jackson, C. L. Wilson, 1. C. Crigler, R. R. Nichols, IvI. H. Hendricki4 E. Armstrong, C. Stubbs, M. M. Snow, F. M. Herendon, Rotigh Matthewi4, A. E. Noel, Edward Beckley, 0. J. Copsey, Sarah M. Howard, Nancy J. Cunningham, S. T. Smith, Jane Copsey, L. S. Wilson, Amanda Crigler, A. R. Nichols, 0 E. k. DeWolf. Mrs. W. W. Parlin, N. H. Spencer, John Fowler, A. J. Fowler, J. W. Maples Jesse Webb, 1. B. Yule, Mrs. 0. K. Jones, Mrs. Jesse Webb, Mrs. J. W. Maples. 0. K. Jones, J. W. Parker, R. Alford, Mrs. Sam'l Fowler, Mrs. J. W. Parker, Mrs. R. Alford, George Taber, Mrs. W. F. Clark, Miss Jane Fowler, Mrs. W. Phillips, R. S. Vanderburg, Henry Acker, John Shaffer, Mrs. S. J. Horner, Mrs. John IU eglashan, Mrs. G. Shaffer Andrew McGlashan, D. M. Wood, G. F. Lawrence, A. S. Alunch, Mrs. C. H. Wiley, S. T. I-lorner, Jno. McGlashan, Jos. McCarthy, Isaac Acner, George Shaffer, Jay Brown, Mrs. B..F. Davis, Alrs. J. Shaffer, Mrs. A. McGlashan.

Page  239 THE GRANGE RECORD. HIOPETON GRANGE, No. 80. HOPETON, MERCED COUNTY. Organized September 23, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. John Ruddle, Master, J. M. Strong, Miss Laura Stockard, Thomas Eagleson, Sec'y, John W. Collins, Miss Alice Stockard, Fred Danner, A C. McSwain, W. W. Stockard, S. E. Smyer, Travis Marshall, W. L. Silman, W. L. Coates, Mrs. T. J. Ramsey, David P. Woodruff, Wm. Little, Mrs. A. C. McSwain, J. M. Scott, A. S. Ellis, Mrs. John Ruddle, J. H. Payne, B. De)ashmutt, G. R. Scruggs, Cyrus Paine, Mrs. T. Eagleson, Mrs. W. L. Silman, Mrs. J. M. Scott, T. J. Ramsey, Mrs. J. W. Collins, Mrs. V. Biggs. BLOOMFIELD GRANGE, No.-81. BLOOMFIELD, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized September 25, 1873, by G. W. Davis, Deputy. Wm. H. White, Master, S.H. Church, Mrs. A. P. Hall, D. Bruner, Secretary, A. A. Boyington, Henry Hall, William Lacost, J. Boyington, D. H. Parks, C. E. Colborn, W. N. Wakefield, Ollie White, Isaac Kuffel, Delia Edminster, Mrs. S. A Canfield, A. B. Glover, C. Parks, Mrs. 0. M. Colborn, Mrs. A. B. Glover, W. W. Parks, James Carvey, Wm. D. Canfield,' Wm. P. Hall, Jesse B. Smith. Wm. S. Edminster, CACHE CREEK GRANGE, No. 82. COTTONWOOD, YOLO COUNTY. Organized September, 1873, by Wm. M. Jackson, Deputy. D. B. Hlurlburt, Master, Mrs. A. Shinn, D. Q Adams, L. D. Stephen, Secretary, C. Farlin, L. D. Stephens, H. Fredericks, N. Carbin, E. R. Holton, Mrs. M. Hurlburt, B. W. Smith, Mrs. S. J. Holton, H. Saling, Miss M. Frederick, Mrs. E. Holton, Mrs. C. F. Saling, G. N. Dameron, E. Sebald, J. H. Norton, R. G. Tadlock, Mrs. E. Sebald, Mrs. S. J. Norton, W. T. Cottle, Mrs. J. Margel, J. Edger, G. Woods, W. N. Mardus. G. Shinn, RUSTIC GRANGE, No. 83. LA.THIOP, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized September 29, 1873. J. A. Shepherd, Master, Joseph Heintz, Mrs. J. Parks, Henry Moore, Secretary, Mrs. J. K. Meyer, Mrs. D. Visher, George W. Haines, Mrs. H. Moore, Miss Emma Sperry, W. R. Bailey, Miss S. E. Shepherd, H. S. Howland, Eugene Kay, Miss E. E. Shepherd, Le Roscoe Howland, O. F. Atwood, J. K. Meyer, Thos. Parks, L. P. Whitman, Henry Moore, W. J. Reynolds, George W. Sperry, Dennis Visher, Miss N. M. Haines, Samuel W. Boice, Mrs. S. W. Boice, Miss P. A. Sperry. Thos. Gardner, 239

Page  240 THE GRANGE RECORD. WOODBRIDGE GRANGE, No. 84. WOODBPIDGE, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized September 30, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. T. J. Pope, J. Hemphill, Mrs. T. Henderson, Mrs. J. L. Keagle, Mrs. H. Beckman, Mrs. E. Dayton, Mrs. Perley, Mrs. W. B. White, Hirs. H. G. Gillingham, Mrs. I. Emdy, J. L. Hutson, Master, A. McQueen, Secretary, E. J. McIntosh, E. Fisk, C. L. Robinson, G. H. Ashley, G. W. Bressler, A. McQueen, H. G. Gillingham, H. Beckman, W. B. White, DANVILLE GRANGE, No. 85. DANVILLE, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. Organized October 1, 1873, by R. G. Dean, Deputy. Charles Wood, Master, John B. Snyder, Sec'y, John Stern, Jonathan Hoag David N. Sherburn, Robert B. Love, Thomas Flournoy, William Bell, Wi lliam W. Cox, Isaac Russell, Robert O. B aldwi n, Francis E. Mattison, David A. Caldwell, John W. Kerr, Mrs. Sallie E. Boone, Miss Lizzie Stern, 3/rs. Charles Wood, Mrs. Amelia Love, Miss Hattie Van Patten, Mrs. Sarah Labaree. ELK GROVE GRANGE, No. 86. ELK GROVE, SACRAMENTO COUNTY. I Organized October 4, 1873, by W. T. Manlove, Deputy. O. S. Freeman, Master, Caroline M. Treat, Ezra W. Simons, Delos Gage, Secretary, Asel B. Davis, Prudence Simons, Julius Everson, Joseph H. Kerr, Alvira H. Everson, David Upton, Thomas McConnell, Sobeiska Brown, Sullivan Treat, Louisa C. McConnell, Agnes R. Gage, Mary Kerr, Alfred Dixon, Enoch Drew, George H. Kerr, Wm. Parker, James K-iat, Martha Dixon, Asa H. Simons Milton Sherwood NORD GRANGE, No. 87. NORD, BUTTE COUNTY. Organized October 6, 1873, by W. M. Thorp, Deputy. G. W. Colby, Master, Herman McCargar, Lyman C. Cole, Secretary, Mrs. G. W. Colby, H. W. Steuben, Mrs. Jane E. Ash, Charles Pettit, Mrs. Adaline McCargar, William Vettel, Mrs. Emeline Warren, Alexander Ash, James F. Wright, J. R. Haughton, S. C. Bragg, John McIntyre, Lemuel Sweeny, Albert Carman, John B. Bragg, Philander McCargar, Edclward Warren, James MicCargar, 240 Dr. E. Dayton, Thomas Henderson, J. L. Keagle, A. M. I-Tastner, T. S. Moore, A. R. Elliott, I. Emdy, H -C. Shattuck,. 2vtrs. G. H. Ashley, liss J. F. Bressler. I Albert W. Stone, Hugh NViley, Mrs. Mary Hoa,,, Miss Livia Laba'ree, Mrs. Francis Riee, Mrs. Mary A. Jones, John Camp, James 0. Boone, Leonarcl Ecldy, 'vvade Hays, Robert MeCargar, Lyman L. Cole,, Alexander Thrower, John Thompson, William Jasper, Mrs. Charles Pettit, Mrs. Eliza' JcCargar, Mary Carlisle, Mary Taylor, Mrs. S. G. Bragg.

Page  241 THE GRANGE RECORD. KIWELATTA GRANGE, No. 88. ARCATA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized September 30, 1873, by T. H. Merry, General Deputy. Lewis K. Wood, Master, D. D. Averill, Secretary, Clarissa S. Wood, David H. Tower, J. J. Jule, F. F. Lansdale, H. L. Lansdale, Naomi Handy, Mary Handy, John H. Pratt, Calista Pratt, WEST GRAFTON GRANGE, No. 89. WEST GRAfTON (YOLO), YOLO COUNTY. Organized October 3, 1873, by W. M. Jackson, Deputy. A. C. Morris, Master, J. G. Bower, Jr., Josiah Rinsella, G. W. Parks, Secretary, George Thacher, W. S. Manor, Jay Green, J. F. Nason, A. W. Morris, F. Schleiman, Mrs. Susan Bower, Mrs. Alice Mapes, John McClintock, Mrs. C. Wizard, James M. Packman, L. L. Burr, I. T. Hadley, George W. Parks, W. H. H. Dinwiddie, J. W. Brown, Mrs. Schleiman, J. G. Ely, I. G. Bowers, Mrs. Sarah Brown, Mrs. Mary Leggett, Theo. Wizard, E. S. Grey. CAPAY VALLEY GRANGE, No. 90. CAPAY, YOLO COUNTY. Organized October 4, 1873, by Wmn. M. Jackson, Deputy. R. R. Darby, Master, Tillie Walters, R. R. Darby, P. M. Savage, Secretary, Wm. H. Duncan, E. B. Walters, J. P. Goodnow, P. M. Savage, Mrs. S. C. Darby, Jail Woods, M. Lambert, Mrs. Helen Duncan, John M. Rhodes, D.C. Rumsay, Mrs, L. Savage. LIVERMORE GRANGE, No. 91. LIVERMORE, ALAMEDA COUNTY. Organized October 8, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Daniel Inman, Master, 'F. R. Fassett, Secretary, W. W. Wynn, J. H. Taylor, J. T. Taylor, A. J. McDavid, J. H. Mahinney, Valentine Alviso, J. T. Taylor, Arthur St. Clair, 16 241 James F. Denning, S. Myers, J. G. Dolson, L. H. Jansen, George Zehendner, Daniel B. Judd, - Lucinda Averill, J. Sowash, Louisa Sowash, David H. Tower, Albert Hall, Sophroiaia Hall, James Sinclair, Mary Sinclair, James Burk, Frank McFee, G. B. Kneeland, A. B. Kneeland, D. N. Dilla., H. W. Arbogast. John Foscalina, B. J. Salisbury, Mrs. A. P. Francis, Mrs. Mattie inaldo, Mrs. Joanna Brackett, Mrs. Mattie Bowles, Joshua A. Neale, E. S. Allen, J. W. Clark, E. P. Bragdon, F. J. Clark, E. P. Bragdon, E. M. Carr, J. H. Brackett, Jesse Bowles, Mrs. AdeNa E. Taylor, Mrs. Helen A. Fassett, Mrs. M. Taylor, Mrs. J. J. Inman,

Page  242 THE GRANGE RECORD. LODI GRANGE, No. 92. LODI, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized August 29, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. J. W. Kearney, Master, W. H. Post, Mrs. E. Lawrence, D. Dickerson, Secretary, R. Woods, John Gerard, A. J. Ayres, D. Kettleman, L. M. Morse, C. T. Elliott, Mrs. J. M. Fowler, J. Talmadge, C. P. Aliison, Mrs. O. O. Norton, Stephen Purdy, Samuel Fredum, Mrs. W. H. Post, Frank Turner, Mrs. A. W. Gove, O. O. Norton; Mrs. J. W. Kearny, Mrs. C. P. Allison, John Parrot, Mrs. J. Gerard, J. M. Fowler, E. Lawrence, Mrs. J. Talmadge. A. W. Gove, Mrs. L. M. Morse, PAJARO GRANGE, No. 93. WATSONVILLE, PAJARO TowNsiP, MONTEREY COUNTY. Organized October 10, 1873, by J. D. Fowler, Deputy. D. M. Clough, Master, S. B13. Marcus, Peter Cox, G. W. Roadhouse, Sec'y, Alexander Keer, Mrs. Rebecca Cox, D. Crawford, J. E. Trofton, Mrs. N. A. Uren, Mrs. D. Crawford, J. J. Roadhouse, N. A. Uren, D. M. Clough, John Olinger, Mrs. C. E. Roadhouse. AZUSA GRANGE, No. 94. AZUSA TOWNsHIP (EL MONTE), Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized October 3, 1873, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. W. W. Maxey, Master, Mrs. Alvina Thompson, L. Barnes, J. C. Preston, Secretary, Mrs. M. A. Justice, W. S. Neal, Thos. Allen, Mrs. M. O. Dougherty, Jas. Dougherty, J. S. Thompson, Mrs. M. L. Preston, A. J. Justice, E. R. Thompson, Callie L. Dougherty, J. H. Malone, C. Thompson, Miss Ellen Barnes, J. M. Casey, W. J. Dougherty, E. T. Justice, D). G. Malone, I. C. Barnes, D. L. Dougherty, W. J. Deshield, G. W. Bohannan, I. C. Preston, Mrs. E. Barnes, Mrs. Q. A. Allen, I. T. Collins, Mrs. Indiana Justice. Mrs. Lucy W. Maxey, FLORENCE GRANGE, No. 95, FLORENCE (Los ANGELES); LOS ANGELES COUNTY. Organized October 6, 1873, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. H. Gibson, Master, Frank Farris, A. Nelson, Wm. Porter, Secretary, Mrs. Janes, J. M. Spencer, H. C. Thomas, D. Farris, G. B. Farris, R. B. Russell, Mrs. Mary Farris, Wm. Porter, H. Gibson, Mrs. H. C. Thomas, J. W. Wilkinson, Josiah Russell, MIrs. R. M. Russell, John Chapman, John Willey, Mrs. Sue C. Spencer, Mrs. A. Gibson, E. J. Durell, I. D. Farris, Mrs. N. J. Russell, Thomas Gillette, William F. Farris, Miss L. J. Russell, Charles Hazard, I. F. Durell, Mrs. P. D. H. DuLrell, H. P. Hiett, Louis L. Rice, Miss Nannie Farris. 242

Page  243 THE GRANGE RECORD. BUCKEYE GRANGE, No. 96. BUCKEYE, YOLO COUNTY. Organized October 6, 1873, by W. M. Jackson, Deputy Wm. Sims, Master, Mirs. Eliza Norton, J. R. Briggs, J. G. Allen, Secretary, F. G. Russell, Mrs. Julia Briggs, R. A. Daniels, Miss Saphrona Ely, E. G. Bray, Daniel Robinson, T. C. Goodwin, Mrs. E.G. Bray, I. P. Grafton, Mrs. Susan C. Goodwin, J. G. Allin, J... Maxwell, W. 0. Campbell, J. W. Ely, Mrs. Anna Maxwell, Mrs. 0. Campbell, Mrs. Cornelia Ely. I. W. Norton, HUNGRY HOLLOW GRANGE, No.-97. YOLO, YOLO COUNTY. Organized-October 7, 1873, by W. M. Jackson, Deputy. G. L. Parkcr, Master, Mrs. M. C. Parker, J. B. Dungan, G. L. Perkins, Secretary, P. Fishback, Miss C. 11. Dutton, A. H. Nixson, John A. Zimmerman, Mrs. Lizzy Parker, T. J. Parker, C. 0. Perkins, R. J. Mattock, T. J. Gallup, C. H. Dresser, Frederick Mast, J. M. Parker, Mirs. Alice W. Dresser, Irs. J. O. Fishback, C. P. Du Bois, J. B. Nixson, Gottlieb Mast, iMrs. A. E. Dutton, J. E. Young, Gottlieb RIath, Mrs. E. M. Young, N.E. Spaights, Mrs. C. Parker, G. L. Parker, I. M. Dutton, Edwin Blodgett kNTELOPE GRANGE, No. 98. ANTELOPE, YOLO COUINTY. ctober 8, 1873, by W. M. Jackson, Doputy. S. W. Foster, T. D. Snelling, L. B. Lewis, Mrs. S. A. Vaughn, Mrs. S. A. Lewis, Hi. Garrett, D. L. Ashley, Wm. B. Carter, L. C. Lane, Miss M. C. Vaughn, ,J. Y. De Rose, W. J. Clark, Mrs. B. De Rose, Mrs. C. Clark, Wm. Dresser, Miss K. Burgoyne, Mrs. H. S. Dresser, I. L. Rollins. Organized, W. J. Clark, Master, C. L. M. Vaughn, Sec'y, A. W. Dunigan, Miss R. Dunigan, L. Dunigan, Henry Yarrick, W. O. Dresser, Wm. M. Campbell, Mrs. S. S. Campbell, A. B. Richmond, FUNK SLOUGH GRANGE, No. 99. FUNK SLOUGH (COLUSA), COLUSA COUNTY, Organized,October 8, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. E. C. Hunter, Master, C. A. Kupper, J. D. Rice, Russell Delapp, Secretary, Miss E. Benjamin, W. S. McClevy, I. F. Daley, Miss C. Benjamin, I. W. Daley, I. A. Sutton, Mrs. A. Alexander, G. W. Sutton, T. Harden, L. D. McDow, Miss L. Daley, G. Harden, T. B. McDow, Miss Anne Sutton, Oren Phelps, A. Alexander, Mrs. Dodson, O. V. Daley, Mark Hubbard, Mrs. L. J. McDow, G. H. Abelil, R. J. Barnes, Mrs. S. E. McDow, T. H. Dodson, I. G. Wolfe, Mrs. T. Harden. I i 243 i II ii i i i i i i

Page  244 THE GRANGE RECORD. ANTELOPE VALLEY GRANGE, No.. 100. ANTELOPE VALLEY (COLUSA), COLUSA COUNTY. Organized October 10, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. HI. A. Logan, Master, D. T. Seheaine, Wm. Roseniuerg, A. T. Welton, Secretary, Mrs. S. A. Logan, Arthur T. Welton, R. T. Clark, I. A. Cleghorn, H. H. Graham, Mrs. S. C. Clark, Mrs. C. A. Cleghorn, Mrs. R. J. Graham, P. Peterson, M. A. Cleghorn, I. D. S. Taylor, Mrs. L. M. Peterson, M. H. Sechaine, G. W. Cardwell, MrIs. M. B. Aycoke, Mrs. R. B. Sehaine, MIrs. Rebecca Cardwell, A. A. Seheaine, John Rosenberg, Elizabeth Seheaine. Mrs. Jane Seheaine, TABLE BLUFF GRANGE, No. 101. TABLE BLUFF, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized October 2, 1873, by T. H. Merry, General Deputy. Jackson Sawyer, Master Minerva Buyatte, T. Y. Clyde, B. H. C. Pollard, Sec'y, Elan B. Long, D. A. DeMeritt, Edwin P. Vance, Elizabeth Long, James Wolgamott, Samuel Foss, Jerry Quill, O. McNulty, Mary Foss, Julia Quill, Ellen McNulty, A. S. Frost, I. P. Walsh, John McNulty, Charles C. Foss, Mary Walsh, Hannah Sawyer, Patrick O'Rourke, Hannah Pollard, E. Tiernay, Catherine O'Rourke, T. J. Knight, I.E. Still. Louis Buyatte, H.P. Dothen, Patrick Quinn. FE.NDALE GRANGE, No. 102. FERNDALE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized October 3, 1873, by T. H. Merry, General Deputy. F. Z. Boynton, Master, Mary E. Spencer, R. J. Bugbee, Charles Barber, Sec'y, WVilliam Williams, G. G. Dudley, Ann Boynton, R. S. Tyrrell, Margaret Dudley, Addle Winfield, John Smith, Andrew Denman, William Stover, Malvina Stover, Rebecca Denman, James Smith, L. C. Church, William H. Spencer, Jane Smith, William Taylor, George W. Griffith, Jacob Criss, J. R. Kinsley, James S. Freeman, Martha J. Criss. Orrin Chapman, Rebecca FreemanJ. C. Dungan, Sarah Chapman, Joseph Davenport. ROHNERVILLE GRANGE, No. 103. RHONERVILLE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized October 6,1873, by T. H. Merry, General Deputy. B. T. Jamison, Master, H. S. Case, Vm. M. Henry, Samuel Strong, Secretary, Mrs. E. C. Case, A. H. Bradford, A. D. Sevier, Homer Drake, L. C. Beckwith, Martha J. Jamison, W. R. Worthington, Matthew Perrott, Sarah Sevier, Elizabeth W.Worthington, S. A. Perrott, Maria G. Strong, John W. Cooper, C. Hanson, Sarah E. Strong, C. S. Chamberlain, Rolla Bryant, Mrs. Caroline Beckwith, Job Tower, Lizzie Bryant. 244

Page  245 THE GRANGE RECORD. ELK RIVER GRANGE, No. BUCKSPORT, HUMBOLDT COUN Organized October 7, 1873, by T. H. Merry, Theodore Meyer, Master, Sophronia C. Shaw, D. A. De Merritt, Sec'y, Mrs. D. E. De Merritt, F. L. Meyer, Waterman Fields, Ella M. Williams, Ruth Ann Haw, S. B. Lane, S. N. Stewart, Alex. Forbes, Joseph Scott Stewart, F. S. Shaw, SNELLING GRANGE, No. 105. SNELLING, MERCED COUNTY. Organized October 23, 1873, by H. B. Jolley, District Deputy. Daniel Yeizer, Master, W. G. Hardwick, Mrs. Martha Spears, WV. L. Hanmlin, Secretary, Mrs. W. L. Hamlin, Mrs. Mary E. Yeizer, A. B. Anderson, L. J. Burns, Erastus Kelsey, G. L. Baker, S. R. Spears, Mrs. Malinda Kelsey, EDEN GRANGE, No. 106. HAkYWARDS, ALAMEDA COUNTY. 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, P. M. & L. Cal. State Grange. Tim Houschildt, Wm. F. Hellar, I. H. Wisener, J. H. Prouse, Charles Prouse, Joel Russell, Mrs. Mary Kimball, H. F. Nebas, Mrs. H. W. Rice, John Bagge, Miss Emma Templeton, Wim. Knox, Mrs. E. Hellar, John Donlkell, Mrs. R. L. Knox, Mrs. J. Russell, Miss S. M. McCrea, Mrs. Ida C. Wielbye, Mrs. J. C. Mormsen, sIrs. Maria Bagge. ROCKVILLE GRANGE, No. 107. ROCKVILLE, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized October 29, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. W. A. Lattin, Master, Rush Lattin, Mrs. McMorris, J. R. Morris, Secretary, E. Barbour, Mrs. Amy Lattin, R. H. McMillen, J. McMullen, Mrs. Kate Gambel, A. Gambel, MIrs. E. Barbour, Mrs. C. P. Foster, A. S. Gambel, Mrs. C. J. Pitman, J. E. Fliggle, J. M. Baldwin, Mrs. C. M. Baldwin, Mrs. A. M. Cox, B. O. Foster, I. D. Tisdale, P. G. Cox. P. A. Russell, Mrs. Georgia Fliggle, KELSEYVILLE GRANGE, No, 108. KELSEYVILLE, LAKE COUNTY. Organized October 29, 1873, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. Cal. State Grange. D. P. Shattuck, Master, C. C. Barker, Mrs. L. P. Ormenston, J. Ormenston, Secretary, Anderson Benson, Mrs. S. F. Piner, G. W. Piner, Thomas Ormenston, Mrs. F. M. Stonebreaker, Barton Kelsey, John Shirley, Miss N. E. Stonebreaker, Seth Rickabaugh, I.11. Penfrow, Miss Blanche Ormenston, Z C. Beardsley, James Tryon, Mliss E. A. Beardsly. R. R. Robinson, D. E. Mills, t iI 245 S. 0. Showers, G. H. Shaw, Margaret Shaw, Willian-i Orton, Jacob W. Gardner, Sophia B. Gardner. I Organized October 25, Thomas Hellar Master, Wm. Owen, Secretary, H. W. Rice, Edwin Kimball, H. Momsen, George E. Baxter, J. C. Ward, Thos. A. Cunningham, J. Shilling, C. F. A. Ba,,ge,

Page  246 THE GRANGE RECORD. UPPER LAKE GRANGE, No. 109. UPPER LAKE, LAKE COUNTY. Organized October 30, 1873, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. Cal. State Grange. D. V. Thompson, Master, M. Deniston, L. T. Matcalf, D. Q. McCurty, Secretary, W. W. Meredith, Jerome Sleeper, George A. Lyon, Mrs. E. Ford, R. C. Tallman, George Thornington, Mrs. Lucy Meredith, Mrs. Sarah Doty, A. J. Doty, Nancy S. Parmer, Mrs. E. Townsend, Emry Townsend, Miss E. Sleeper, Mrs. Mary Coombs, Henry Parmer, George Ford, Mrs. I. J. Doty, J. B. Robinson, I. W. Doty, Mrs. MI. C. Thompson, M. Shepard, M. Sleeper, Miss Betty Thompson. Samuel Coombs, J. B. Howard, ORISTIMBA GRANGE, No. 110. HILL'S FERRY, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized November 4, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. W. J. Miller, Master, L. S. Bennett, Miss J. E. Newell, Thos. A Chapman, Sec'y, D. W. Eachus, Arthur A. Bithin, T. R. Hutchinson, W. S. Underwood, M. G. Bennett, Tyler Bithin, Mrs. M. Newell, S. V. Porter, E. P. Bennett, Mrs. M. Ellen Underwood, S. J. Foxe, B. B. McGuire, Mrs. S. J. Bithin, W. Underwood, MIrs. S. M. McGuire, W. L. Pryor, B. D. Noxon, MIrs. C. F. Hutchinson, Peter Hansen, Mrs. Mary E. Underwood, P. M. Peterson, C. C. Eastin, Mrs. Susan Wilkinson, William Wilkinson, Mrs. J. W. Miller, Mrs. Emma C. Eastin. ATLANTA GRANGE, No. 111. ATLANTA, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized October 30, 1873, by E. B. Stiles, Deputy. W. J. Campbell, Master, Mrs. Lou Vischer, T. M. Gardner, Wm. Dempsey, Secretary, Mrs. Margaret Miller, I. W. Moore, A. W. Hunsacker, Mrs. Jennie M. Lombard, Ernst Wagner, Samuel Myers, Mrs. Samuel Myers, Joseph Frost, Levi Niciwinger, Putnam Vischer, Milton Miller, Mrs. N. P. Hunsacker, Isaac Kock, D. L. Campbell, Mrs. T. M. Gardner, David Lombard, H. H. Clendennin, Miss Emma T. Gardner, T. W. Gilbert, Mrs. Caroline W. Gilbert. Mrs. J. W. Moore, BONITA GRANGE, No. 112. CROW's LANDING, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized November 1, 1873, by J. D. Spencer, Deputy. J. W. Treadwell, Master, Mrs. S. A. Pierce, A. R. Kirkwood, A. B. Crook, Secretary, Mrs. F. A. Loomis, George Medrie, James M. Bond, Mrs. M. P. Garrett, F.M. Smith, B. R. Pierce, Mrs. Amanda Huttoin, A. C. Hutton, WV. E. Garrett, Mrs. SI T. Bond, " Mrs. L. A. Crook, W. C. Cattron, Wm. Fisher, Miss R. J. Daniels, A. G. LuLcas, I. A. Clark, Mrs. E. Treadwell, Edward Loomis, M. V. Morin, Mrs. M. Hayes, WV. H. Battenfield, D. Hayes, irs. Margaret Clark. Benjamin Fowler, 246

Page  247 THE GRANGE RECORD. VALLEJO GRANGE, No. 113. VALLEJO, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized November 8, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. G. C. Pierson, Master, Mrs. Lavina Wilson, B. B. Brown, Charles B. Deming, Sec'y, Mrs. Ehzabeth Greenwood,John Fletcher, Ira Austin, John F. Deming, Ml M. Carter, George H. Greenwood, Chas. B. Deming, S. S. Drake,. William Carter, Mrs. Annie G. Deming. Mrs. Anna Carter, A. P. Ryerson, John Wilson, Joseph Wilson, Mrs. Celia Hunter, James Hunter, Mrs. Hattie G. Deming. Irs. Hattie Pearson, Gustavus C. Pierson, Mrs. Thirza Drake, UKIAH GRANGE, No. 114. UKIAH CITY, MENDOCINO COUNTY. Organized November 4, 1873, by T. H. Merry, Deputy. W. D. White, Master, N. O. Carpenter, Sec'y, Elisha Weller, John M. Morris, Mary Morris, J. B. Short, Thos. R. Lucas, Martha Lucas, I. M. Faught, Philip Howell, Mark York, POTTER VALLEY GRANGE, No. 115. POTTER VALLEY, MENDOCINO COUNTY. Organized November 6, 1873, by Thos. H. Merry, Deputy. John Mewhinney, Master, J. E. Carner, Thos. McCowen, Sec'y, H. Slingerland, Samuel Mewhinney, A. H. Slingerland, Donah M. Mewhinney, J. B. Endicott, J. G. Bush, Charles Raider, Thaddeus Dashiels, J. M. Elliott, Samuel McCulloch, Lavinia Grover, J. R. Ross, Eli Jones, Life Farmer, Mary A. Smith, Catherine Farmer, George Burkhardt, COTTONWOOD GRANGE, No. 116. HILL'S FERRY, COTOWOO TONWOOD ToNsHIP, MIERCED COUNTY. Organized November 10, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, P. M., L. Cal. S. G. I. L. Crittenden, Master, J. J. Doyle, Secretary, W. F. Draper, I. M. Daley, Jerry Stergeon, C. S. Johnson, R. M. C. Hale, E. L. Stergeon, G. E; Mills, I. T. Sparks, t I i i i iI I I 247 I i i Elizabeth Bartlett, Helen Carpenter, Samuei Orr, G. W. Jackson, J. C. Cook, Fraiaces Ouseley, I Nathan Bartlett, Lavinia G. White, L. M. Riiddick, Charles Bartlett, Mary E. Bartlett, J. R Henr.y, S. C. Henry, R. Clark, A. 0. Carpenter, J. B. McClum, M. W. Howard, John Crawford, Elizabeth Howell, Clara S.'vvarmseller. i B. Pemberton, R. Carner, S. H. McCreary, John Leonard, Jos. Thornton, Rebecca'NIeCiilloch, Catherine Endicott, (,'.. J. H. Nichol,4, G. B. Nichols, S-arah Spencer. Henry Whitworth,' G. Estes, Wm. Eachus, Mrs. A. Stergeon, Mrs. M. E. Coyle, Miss K. Sanford, Mrs. C. Draper, Mrs. A. M. Crittenden, Miss Belle Tiniiin, Miss H. Campbell, INI. 0. Babcock, A. C. TinDin, Wm. Ruff, Oscar Babcock, R. Coyle, L. Sweitzer, Bates De Hart, Mrs. I. A. Mills, I Mrs. S. E. Tinnin, 31rs. M. E. Sparks.

Page  248 THE GRANGE RECORD. WILDWOOD GRANGE, No. 117. DENT (ATLANTA), SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized November 12, 1873, by Edwin B. Stiles, Deputy. Joseph Leighton, Master, E. J. F. Merouse, F.M. Furman, A. B. Munson, Secretary, Mrs. Joanna Purvos, J. M. Parbos, John Ward, Mrs. Mary Brown, Frank Stanley, J. W. Gann, Georgie Ella Leighton, Wm. H. Snow, A. H. D. McIntosh, Mrs. Hizziah Brown, Wm. M. Muncey, Geo. E. Blanchard, MIrs. Maggie Pride, Mrs. Sarah Stanley, Geo. N. Cole, I. S. Muncey, Mrs. Emma Marvin, Wm. A. Bedford, Wm. Allen. Albima Allen, G. W. Brown, Samuel Hall, Mrs. A. S. Munson, J. H. Brown, I. B. Paynon, Miss Laura Dossey. SARATOGA GRANGE, No. 118. SARATOGA, SANTA CLARA COUNTY. Organized November 10, 1873, by G. W. Henning, Deputy. Francis Dresser, Master, S. P. Hutchinson, Wm. Pfeffer, Jennie Farwell, Secretary, Willis Morrison, Wmn. M. Reid, Abyah McCall, Mrs. M. E. Hutchinson, E. M. Dresser, Hobart N. Cutler, Mrs. S. M. Morrison, J. Cox, I. C. Hutchinson, Mrs. J. Nickle, Mrs. A. M. McCall, D. R. Scott, Mrs. E. S. Reid, Mlrs. H. N. Cutler, Jas. W. Loyst, Wm. Cox, Mrs. C. D. Dresser, Andrew J. Loyst, F. B. Nickle, WALNUT CREEK GRANGE, No. 119. WALNUT CREEK, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. Organized November 15, 1873, by R. G. Dean, Deputy. Nathaniel Jones, Master, Mrs. C. S. Hollinbeck, Wm. S. Huston, Wm. R. Daley, Secretary, Mrs. Mary A. Livingston, Walter Renwick, John Larkey, Mrs. E. C. Jones, Mrs. E. C. Larkey, D. F. McClellan, Mrs. Martha Renwick, Mrs. Lemantha Hammitt, A. W. Hammett, Mrs. Esther M. Fales, Mrs. Mary S. Hickman, Edward Worden, H. M. Hollinbeck, Mlrs. M. L. Huston, F. Langenkamp, S. B. Hickman, Miss Eliza J. Jones, James T. Walker, John H. Livingston, Mrs. Mary C. Walker, Orrin Fales, CENTREVILLE GRANGE, No. 120. CENTREVILLE, ALAMEDA COUNTY. Organized November 18, 1873, by Wm. H. Baxter, Deputy. James Shinn, Master, M. J. Overacker, E. Miehaus, John L. Beard, Secretary, A. R. Hall, Rufus Denmark, B. D. F. Clough, E. T. Randall, J. R. Clough, Wm. Tyson, M. L. Babb, E. Tyson, F. Perez, Comfort Healy, Mary G. Healy, F. B. G-ranger, Samuel P. Marston, S.P. Osgood, A. S. Clark, John Proctor, Mary Denmark, Wm. Healy, L. E. Osgood, Mrs. H. Overacker, John Lowrie, N. L. Babb, Mrs. C. S. Overacker, Howard Overacker. ~248

Page  249 THE GRANGE RECORD. CONFIDENCE GRANGE, No. 121. GAUDALUPE, SANTA BARBARA COUNTY. Organized October 27, 1873, by O. L. Abbott, Deputy. A. Copeland, Master, W. J. Cock, Mrs. Nancy A. Preston, J. F. Austin, Secretary, E. J. Preston, Mrs. S. Copeland, H. C. Venable, Azariah Kennedy, Mrs. M. A. Venable, J. S. Miller, John Biggs, Mrs. S. E. Miller, Orrin Miller, Elias Sansome, Mrs. L. G. Miller, W. T. Scott, W. J. Hudson, Mrs. Ellen D. Austin, T. W. Roberts, Charles Silvarer, Mrs. Ellen Norris, B. O. Walker, Mrs. Mary M. Johnston, N. W. Best, James A. Norris, Mrs. Sarah L. Walker, John W. Emrich, W. F. Johnston, Mrs. Hannah M. Cock, W. A. Templeton. GEORGIANA GRANGE, No. 122. GEORGIANA (WALNUT GROVE), SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized November 19, 1873, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. F. M. Kittrell, Master, Peter Hanson, Mrs. Mary A. Hensey, George A. Knott, Sec'y, I. N. Holt, Sarah A. Pool, H. F. Smith, F.M. Pool, Sarah Raney, C. P. Hensey, J. H. Slayton, Louisa Holtl J. P. Norman, DENVERTON GRANGE, No. 123. DENVERTON, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized November 21, 1873, by James A. Clark, Deputy. Jno. B. Carrington, Master, John Tomlie, Nathan Barnes, G. C. Arnold, Secretary, I. H. Bullard, Mrs. E. H. Barnes, Mrs. H. P. Carrington, S. H. De Puy, C. E. Garfield, John B. Roper, Mrs. H. E. De Puy, Mrs. U. Garfield, Samuel Stewart, James Blyth, Wm. Spencer, Mrs. J. E. Stewart, O. D. Ormsby, Mrs. Rebecca Spencer, Wm. Bacon, T. C. Stewart, G. B. Eustace, G. Y. Stewart, Mrs. Grace Stewart, G. C. Arnold, John Bird, Miss Mary E. Cook, Mrs. S. J. Arnold, Jas. Jones, G. N. Daniels, R. H. Barkeway. Mrs. S. F. Jones, WATSONVILLE GRANGE, No. 124. WATSONVILLE, SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. Organized November 22, 1873, by J. D. Fowler,-Deputy. Joseph McCollum, Master, Mrs. Louisa Martin, J. C. White, A. F. Richardson, Sec'y, A. Cox, L. A. Lee, E. A. Knowles, Mr;s. R. W. Cox, J. M. Ripley, R. T. Gallagher, Miss L. C. McNealy, A. F. Richardson, T. Martin, B Gallagher, Mrs. E. McCollum, A. Hanson, V. Westcott, Miss Lottie Knowles, J. C. Drew, M. Gagner, Mrs. H. M. Westcott, J. Struve, A. McNealey, Miss Mary Wiley. Mrs. Adelia Ripley, il 249

Page  250 THE GRANGE RECORD. CALISTOGA GRANGE, No. 125. CALISTOGA, NAPA COUNTY. Organized November 25, 1873, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. Cal. S. G. I. N. Bennett, Master, Sebastian Martz, John Cyrus, L. Hopkins, Sec'y, Martin Martz, Isaac Bradley, Andrew Safely, Mrs. Lovina Cyrus, John C. Willoughby, James M. Wright, Mrs. M. J. Martz, L. H. Hopkins, J. C. Wright, John Hoover, Mrs. Catherine Bennett T. T. Walker, W. B. Pratt, Miss Alice Bennett. John Martz, Peter Teal, RED BLUFF GRANGE, No. 126. RED BLUFF, TEHAMA COUNTY. Organized November 26, 1873, by W. M. Thorp, Deputy. R. H. Blossom, Master, L. B. Healy, George Peels, John Curtis, Secretary, Mrs. L. B. Healy, H. C. Copeland, J. C. Tyler, George B. Tabor, Mrs. H. C. Cope]and, Mrs. J. C. Tyler, H. A. Rawson, Wm. B. Parker, Mrs. R. H. Blossom, Andrew Jelly, George Champlin, I. S. Cone, N. Merrill, Mrs. Geo. Champlin, Mrs. I. S. Cone, Mrs. N. Merrill, Samuel Jennison. WESTMINSTER GRANGE, No. 127. WESTMINSTER, Los ANGELES COUNwTY, Organized November 19, 1873, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. M. B. Craig, Master, Robert Eccles, D. W. Lawton, Henry Stephens, Secretary George Danskin, Joseph Bingham, L. P. Webber, Mrs. George Danskin, Thos. Edwards, Robert Strong, Amelia V. Lawton, James McFadden, I. D. Bowley, Mrs. V. C. Anderson, Sarah L. Patterson, N. Frank Poor, Martha, M. Edwards, Ella A. Jaquette, John Anderson, Converse Howe, Mrs. Olive W. Stephens, John Mack, James Taylor, Julia G. Bowley, G. M. Crittenden, Jesse Davis, Mrs. F. S. Bowley, Lot M. Jaquette, J. A. Davis, Mrs. W. C. McPherson. RIVERSIDE GRANGE, No. 128. RIVERSIDE, SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. Organized November 25, 1873, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy E.G. Brown, Master, C. E. Packard, T. L. Abel, W. W. Kimball, Secretary, Mrs. M. A. Russell, J. T. Tobias, P.S. Russell, Mrs. Eliza M. Sheldon, K. D. Shugart, W. B. Russell, Mrs. M. T. Shugart, N. D. Millard, J. P. Herbert, Mrs. Arabella S. Lord, Wm. Craig, A. J. Twogood, Miss Josie Craig, Miss Letile C. Brown, J. W. North, G. D. Carleton, Mrs. Ann L. North, E. R. Pierce, G. W. Garcelon, Mrs. A. A. Pierce, J. G. North, G. H. Cleft, Mrs. Mary F. Garcelon. 250

Page  251 THE GRANGE RECORD. ENTERPRISE GRANGE, No. 129. BRIGHTON, SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized December 12, 1873, by W. S. Minlove, Deputy. Jasper M. Bell, Master, Nelson Shaver, R. J. Brown, Maurice Toomey, Sec'y, Ada M. Shaver, T. L. Williams, Stephen M. Haynie, Mary C. Nordyke, John D. Morrison, A. A. Nordyke, Euphernia Bell, Al. Root, George Wilson, Marie W. Parker, Mary M. Gunter, J. Campbell, J. R. Gilleland, Margaret A. Haynie, H. A. Parker, R. S. Jamison, Sarah Martin, A. M. Gunter, M. Toomey, 3lary M. Brown. J. J. Martin, J. D. Bennett, FLORIN GRANGE, No. 130. SAN JOAQUIN TOWNSHIP (FLORIN), SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized December 17, 1873, by W. S. Manlove. Caleb Arnold, Master, Mary J. Caottle, David Rees, Wm. Scholefield, Sec'y, J. J. Bates, Elizabeth Rees, William H. Starr, Charles Jackson, Daniel Buell, Catharine A. Starr, Charles Lea, Phebe Arnold, D. H. Buell, G. 11. Jones, C. A. Phillips, Susan A. Buell, E. J. Taylor, WVarren A. Smith. Isaac Lea, Celia A. Taylor, LOCKFORD GRANGE, No. 131. LOCFORD, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized December 29, 1873, by E. B. Stiles, Deputy. G. C. Holman, Master, Phoebe Stewart, John McDowell, Sol. G. Stewart, Secretary, Thos. Clement, A. J. Williams, Jerome Rider, John Trethaway, George Trethaway, B. P. Baird, Mrs. A. A. Meyerle, Mrs. Montgomery, WV. Moffatt, John Carpenter, Mrs. Meyerle, B. Thomas, Thomas Kenny, Mrs. rl'. Clements, J. F. McDowell, Mrs. G. C. Holman, Mrs. Williams, C. 1R. Montgomery, F. C. Meyerle, Jonathan Andrews, Mary A. Trethaway, G. B. Ralph,. Irs. Carpenter, E. P. Meyerle, Elizabeth Ralph, GARRETSON GRANGE, No. 132. CENTREVILLE (KING'S RIVER,) FRESNO COUNTY. Organized December 10, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy, W. J. Hutchinson, Master, John Carey, W. D. Mayhew, W. W. Phillips, Secretary, Philip Weebe, Wm. Hutchings, Joseph Burns, Mrs. J. Burns, Joseph Imrie, W. L. Graves, Mrs. J. Stephens, Robert Lacy, Andrew Jackson, Mrs. A. H. Strathan, Charles Hunter, George Hobler, Mrs. L. V. Graves, Allen Helm Joseph Elliott, Mrs. A. Miles, Mrs. J. Elliott, A. H. Strathan, Miss A. A. Hutchinson. Mrs. G. Hobler, L. W. Jones, Mrs. C. E. Phillips, Mrs. A. Jackson, John Fuller, Jerome Stephens, .i I 251

Page  252 THE GRANGE RECORD. FRESNO GRANGE, No. 133. FRESNO, FRESNO COUNTY. Organized December 10, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright. H. W. Fassett, Master, C. Walters, G. Dahl, F. Dusy, Secretary, S. Hamilton, I). C. Libby, Win. Helm, J. H. Bartlett, W. M. Coolidge, J. M. Amsa, Mrs. F. Dusy, C. J. Hobler, R. K. Estell, Mrs. M. J. Potter, G. Helm, G. W. Gretter, Mrs. M. Conklin, F. E. Tadlock, G. A. Slocum, Mrs. B. P. Gretter, I. W. Tadlock, Otto Brandt, Miss E. L. Smith, Mrs. C. Walters, S. C. Smith, Mrs. M. Ross, Mrs. S. E. Freeman, W. MI. Potter, Mrs. F. Helm, Mrs. D. C. Libby. LAKE GRANGE, No. 134. VISALIA, LAKE TOWNSHIP, TULAnE COUNTY. Organized December 11, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright. M. S. Babcock, Master, N. T. Gardner, R. P. Grey, E. J. Bendick, Sec'y, Andrew Foster, C. W. York, E. D. Simmons, G. Foster, W. R. Sullinger, H. P. Grey, J. Robinson, John Sbores, J. F. Phillips, Mrs. J. Martin, James Lebbey, H. W. Byron, Mrs. N.J. Gardner, Jno. Heinlan, R. J. Wilson, Mrs. E. D. Simons, Mrs. W. It. Sullinger, D. Rhoades, Mrs. R. J. Grey, Mrs. J. Shores, J. Martin, Mrs. H. W. Byron, Mrs. J. Sibley, Henry Rhoades, Mrs. C. W. York, Mrs. H. Rhoades. FRANKLIN GRANGE, No. 135. VISALIA, LAKE TOWNSHIP, TULARE COUNTY. Organized December 12, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. F. Wyruck, Master, H. Johnson, Mrs. N.J. Wyruck, A. B. Crowell, Sec'y, Aaron Jones, Mrs. A. Bloyd, M. W. Bloyd, James Jones, Mrs. M. B. Chambers, J. F. Betts, I. J. Cole, Mrs. N. J.' Cole, Peter Kanawyer, Mrs. Sarah Betts, P. A. Kanawyer, J. J. Kanawyer, Mrs. M. B. Chambers, G. A. Hackett, J. B. Fretwell, Mrs. A. K. Kanawyer, Chas. Hackett, John Chambers, Steven Hicks, Mrs. M. J. Fretwell, T. Jenkinson, Samuel Doyle, Mrs. P. A. Kanawyer, H. V. Harkins, A. B. Crowell, Mrs. M. A. Kanawyer. DEEP CREEK GRANGE, No. 136. FARMERSVILLE, FARMERSVILLE TOWNsHIP, TULARE COUNTY. Organized December 13, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright. W. G. Pennebacker, M., A. H. Ballard, L. Teague, F. J. Jefferds, Sec'y, A. Hinds, B. Miles, J. C. Goad, Mrs. Carrie Wood, Geo. Neilson, G. F. Pennebacker, Mrs. N. Jeffards, A. W. Matthewson, D. Wood, Mrs. A. A. Davenport, F. L. Castael, Wm. Davenport, Mrs. LauraVanValkenburg,A. Parker, J. League, Mrs. T. A. Allen, J. D. Vaugh, B. Ballard, Miss Katie Gilmer, Mrs. C. Miles, F. G. Jeffards, Mrs. S. J. Pennebacker, Mrs. G. B. Catron, G. B. Catron, W. J. Ellis, Mrs. L. Matthewson, Win. Ballard, 252

Page  253 THE GRANGE RECORD. TULE RIVER GRANGE, No. 137. PORTERVILLE, TULARE COUNTY. Organized December 16, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright. G. A. Williamson, Master, W. S. Henrahan, Anson Hadley, N. T. Blair, Secretary, D. M. Vance, Andrew S. Mapes, L. M. Bond, J. M. Owen, S.C. Sorrels, J. B. Rumford, Mrs. M. McKelvey, L. W. Lloyd, L. P. Ford, Mrs. E. J. Sorrels, J. W. Wilcoxon, C. W. McKelvey, Mrs. J. A. Loyd, H. C. Kelley, C. S. Brown, Mrs. Sarah Hadley, T. W. Hyndman, J. B. Hockett, Mrs. S. N. W. Rumford, Miss Caroline Leeds, J. F. Griffin, Miss Carrie Helton, MArs. M. J. Ford, J. Hurton, Miss L. A. Ford, Miss Carrie Wilcoxon. PANAMA GRANGE, No. 138. PANAMA (BARERSFIELD), KERN COUNTY. Organized December 20, 1873, by J. WV. A. Wright, Deputy. H. D. Robb, Master, S. Baker, O. J. Lundy, J. F. Gordon, Secretary, I. S. Ellis, J. D. Stockton, F. P. May, O. Troy, James Inglis, J. W. Haworth, Mrs. P. E. Lundy, Wmi. N. Booth, O. B. Ormsby, Mrs. J. A. Ormsby, A. Charlton, A. Noble, Miss Phebe Stockton, H. C. Loomis, J. Carlock, Mrs. M. B. Noble, V. Barker, Geo. Carlock, Mrs. A. Lundy, Mrs. L. M. Stockton. J. M. Lundy, Mrs. M. L. Caldwell, Mrs. A. H. May, C. B. Caldwell, Mrs. C. N. Carlock, Mrs. E. E. Haworth. BAKERSFIELD GRANGE, No.139. BAKERiSFIELD, KERN COUNTY. Organized December 22, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. S. Jewett, Master, P. Tibbett, A. C. Marid, Jerome Troy, Secretary, S. I. Jones, C. H. Mayo, L. S. Rogers, D. W. Herndon, M. W. Gates, J. S. Riley, Mrs. S. iose, Allen Rose, L. L. Reeder, Mrs. R. TilAbbett, D. W. Walser, Walter James, Mrs. P. Tibbett, A. A. Cochran, Robert Trewin, Mrs. C. L. Rogers, P. D. Jewett, J. S. Anderson, Mrs. A. Stine, Mrs. 1R. Reeder, P. A. Stine, Mrs. L. James, Mrs. J. D. Jewett, E. Tibbett, Mirs. E. Baker, Mrs. E. C. Jewett. NEW RIVER GRANGE, No. 140. NEW RIVER (BAKERSFIELD), KERN COUNTY. Organized December 23, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. John G. Dawes, Master, Jas. J. Phillips, Jesse Cole, James Dixon, Secretary, E. S. Henley, A. F. Gage, P. C. May, S. B. Henley, Robert Plunkett, Wm. Canfield, Mrs. J. Said, R. Swift, B. K. Said, Mrs. M. J. Gage, W. W. Drury, Wim. H. Gage, Miss Ella Said, Dave Chester, I. R. Watson, Miss Belle Gage, Mrs. E. J. Brown, F. A. Tracy, Miss Kate Said, Mrs. W. Canfield, W. S. Brown, Mrs. N.M. Watson, MIrs. J. Chester. R. J. Waldon, G. W. Bevis, 253 I t i

Page  254 THE GRANGE RECORD. CHRISTMAS GRANGE, No. 141. VISALIA, TULARE COUNTY. Organized December 25, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. A. B. Corey, Master, Thos. Gamlin, J. T. McQuiddy, W. H. Stuart, Secretary, Mrs. J. M. McQuiddy. William'armer, A. C. Jeffards, Mrs. L. Jeffards, N. T. Woodcock, Josephus Perrin, Mrs. M. E. Prather, WnVm. L. Morton, J. L. Prather, Mrs. M. A. Morton, J. Lambert, N. Archibald, Mrs. Z. Lambert, J. R. Doty, C. W. Flewellin, Mrs. F. A. Hatch, C. M. Hatch, G. W. Cotton, Mrs. E. E. Bock, C, C. Lambert, B. F. McComb, Mrs. T. L. Gamlin, G. Slight, B. Y. Bock, Mrs. S. A. Cotton, Mrs. P. H. Doty. VISALIA GRANGE, No. 142. VISALIA, TULARE COUNTY. Organized December 26, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Wiley Watson, Master, W. H. Peck, Mrs. Traverse, H. C. Higby, Secretary, I. N. Peck, Wmn. Smith, J. P. Jones, W. R. Owens, John Cutler W. M. Meadows, W. J. White, I. D. Keener, John Pogue, Miss Mary Toombs, Thos. Snider, B. G. Parker, Mrs. W. Watson, R. Bennett, James Beck, Mrs. Mattie Harter, T. McGee, J. E. Lowry, Mrs. M. C. Parker, Miss. S. R. Meadows, John Toombs, Mrs. S. E. Peck, Miss Mary N. Pogue, G. W. Stephens, Mrs. Belle Boyer, Miss Alice Toombs. ADAMS GRANGE, No. 143. DRY CREEK, FRIESNO COUNTY. Organized December 27, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. T. P Nelson, Master, P.O. McMahon, I. A. Jack, Thos. Wyatt, Secretary, W. B. Wyatt, David Barton, Thos. J. Hall, Mrs. Jane Hogle, T. S.' Wyatt, Thos. Jeans, Mrs. M. Hieskell, B. C. Wier, J. P. Potter, Mrs. M.-H. Nelson, J. M. Hieskell, Logan F. Potter, Mrs. Mary Hall, James Jeans, G. B. Jack, Mrs. M. B. Ross. A. M. Darwin, W. W. Shipp, Miss Laura Jeans, Mrs. M. J. Shipp, E. H. Patterson, Mrs. S. F. Doak, Mrs. M. Jack, R. B. Freeman, Mrs. Belle Jeans, Mrs. C. C. Wier, David Ross, BORDEN GRANGE, No. 144. BORDEN, FR:'SNO COUNTY. Organized December 31, 1873, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. J. W. A. Wright, Master, J. G. Crowder, Miss Maggie Borden, J. H. Pickens, Secretary, W. S. Patterson, Mrs. M. E. Crowder, I. A. Pickens, Mrs. C. Dennett, L. A. Sledge, R. L. Dixon, Mrs. J. A. Pemberton, W. B. Bennett, H. S. Patterson, Mrs. J. Burcham, John B. Fontaine, Joseph Borden, Jr., Mrs. M. Patterson, H. St. J. Dixon, J. S. Pemberton, Mrs. F. Borden, I. Burchamn. 254

Page  255 T[HE GRANGE RECORD. ANTIOCH GRANGE, No. 145. ANTIOCH, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. Organized December 27, 1873, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy, J. P. Walton, Master, James D. Darby, Sec'y, Josiah Wells, Mrs. Addie Wells, W. J. Smith, Delia T. Smith, Wm. Ellsworth, Wmn. Gelchrist, Thos. Shannon, Wm. Davison, Seth Davison, , No. 146. UNTY. . A. Wright, Deputy. Wmi. D. Smith, James Barry, D. D. Fox, George Shaw, I. R. Bates, E. A. Shepperd, Christopher Westenhaver, Mrs. H. S. Eaton, MIrs. C. Taylor, Mrs. J. Cutts. G. P. Bockius, Master, Peter Grass, James M. Cutts, Secretai.y, Andrew Grass, L. P. Walker, George R. Sanders, N. Sewell, Mrs. M. C. Brockins, G. F. Kelser, Mrs. M. Smith, John Seaward, Mrs. A. W. Sewell, A. Eaton, Mrs. C. D. Kelser, H. S. Taylor, Mrs. M. E. Walker, W. H. Drum, Miss Mary E. Eaton, S. Grant, Miss Mollie Sewell, Fred Grass, FRANKLIN GRANGE, No. FiAN_mIN (GEOnGETOWN), SAc*EN Organized January 10, 1874, by W. S. Ma Amos Adams, Master, Thos. Anderson, P. R. Beckley, Secretary, Martha Miller, Isaac F. Freeman. Amanda Moore, George Morse, Wm. Johnston, J. M. Stephenson, J. W. Moore, PLEASANT VALLEY GRANGE, No. 148. PLEASANT VALLEY (SAN 3BUENAvENTUEA) VENTURA COUNTR. Organized January 10, 1874, by Milton Wasson, Deputy. Dan. Rondebush, Master, R. Browning, Secretary, Charles Brooks, Elmer Drake, J. S. Harker, J. B. Robins, J. Sisson, W. H. Walker, John Mahan, A. S. Clark, I 255 C. L. Donaldson, D. S. Hawkins, ,Henry W. Baker, J. W. Darby, Sarah A. Sellers, I Wm. Sellers, H. B. Jewett, Phebe Jewett, James Dukes, ,T. 0. Carter, F. J. Quant, Amanda M. Wells" Abbott Sellers, JaD.ce C.- Smith, D. R. Benedict, Phebe B. Benedict, G.'vV. Kimball, Wm. Wiggin Smith, I. P. Walton' A. G.,Darby, Troy Dye, Fidelia Dye,. Sarah C. Beckloy, Eben Owen. N. 0. Wood, Miss Ollie Walbridge, Miss Myra Walbrid,e, Mrs. Sarah Walker, Miss Libbie Sisson, Mrs. Rachel Rondebush, Joseph Davenport, W. P. Ramsauer, H. Evans, 1. B. George, B. Z. Barnette, E. P. Fo.-,ter, Wm. Hughes, John Saviers, Wm. Walbridge, Mrs. L. A. Clark,. Miss Annie Wood, Mrs. Ruth Brooks, Mrs. N. R. George, 'Mrs. H. Evans.

Page  256 THE GRANGE RECORD. CLARKSVILLE GRANGE, No. 149. CLARESVILLE, EL DORADO COUNTY. Organized January 13, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy, Robert T. Mills, Master, Peter R. Willot, George C. Fitch, J. Malby, Secretary, C. F. Maltby, Egbert L. Wilson, Charles Chapman, Emma Woodward, Joseph Jouger, Nettie Chapman, William Woodward, Charles Porter, John F. York, A. Morrison, S. Euer, W. D. Rantz, Samuel Kyburz, Clara S. Euer, Amelia T. Rantz, Rebecca S. Kyburz, I. W. Wilson, J. E. Butler, Albert B. Kyburz, Carry E. Atwood. Elizabeth Mills, MANCHESTER GRANGE, No. 150. MANCHESTER (PUNTA ARENA), MENDOCINO COUNTY. Organized January 14, 1873, by Thos. H. Merry,Deputy. Joseph Wooden, Master, Mrs. C. W. Lane, Mrs. D. P. Cain, B. F. McClure, Secretary, David Clanton, Clark Fairbanks, C. B. Pease, W. F. McClure, G. W. Davis, Mrs. C. B. Pease, Joseph Shepard, Mrs. A. A. Wooden, William Munro, Mrs. J. Shepard, A. B. Kendall, Adin Antrim, Wmin. Shoemaker, Mrs. M. H. Kendall, Mary Antrim, John D. Taughey, H. Veumngerholz, Mrs. M. J. Caughey, Hiram Gilmore, S.S. Hoyt, Wm. Antrim, Mrs. C. R. Gilmore, S. C. Hunter, W. R. Lane, D. F. Cain, Mrs. S. M. Hoyt. LITTLE LAZE GRANGE, No. 151. LITTLE LAKE, MENDOCINO COUNTY. Organized January 20, 1874, by T. H. Merry, Deputy. G. B. Mast, Master, Miranda H. Lambert, F. L. Duncan, Wm. A. Wright, Sec'y, A. Simonson, Catherine Duncan, P. Muir, M.d. Simonson, Elijah Frost, R. V. Doggett, Z. Simonson, James Frost, I. S. Gardner, A. P. Martin, Jesse C. Thompson, I. H. Fettin, Hester Ann Sawyer, Peggy Sawyer, M. C. Fettin, Parmelia Mast, S. Harten, W. V. Powell, E. J. Muir, M. K. Sawyer, Mlary A. Powell, T. Hardwick, Wm. A. Blosser, Daniel Lambert, S. E. Gardner, John Robertson, TWO ROCK GRANGE, No. 152. Two ROCx, SONOMA COUNTY. Organized December 16, 1873, by J. H. Hegeler, Deputy. John R. Doss, Master, Hamilton Gaston, John H, Freeman, John H. Freeman, Sec'y, Mrs. John Doss, Frank Hill, W. D. Freeman, Mrs. H. E. Tower, N. A. Clark, J. Furgeson, Mrs. Carrie Ent, M. Johnson, Wm. H. Thompson, Mrs. Annie Hastead, J. Malsead, Howard Andrews, Mrs. G. Giberson, Mrs. Mary Freeman, John Pervine, Wmn. H. Smith, Mrs. M. M. Freeman, John R. Doss, W. Church, Mrs. Emma M. Smith, A. A. Brown, F. A. Tower, Mrs. Mary A. Brown, Frank Freeman, Charles Giberson, Miss Hattie Ent, M. Laufenberg, Wilbert Smith, 256

Page  257 THE GRANGE RECORD. TOMALES GRANGE, No. 153. TOMALES, MARIN COUNTY. Organized December, 17, 1873, by John H. Hegeler, Deputy. H. Guldager, R.HHrne!ertP,Ienry Elpich, Mrs. Phebe J. Huntley, Miss Amelia Walters, Mrs. F. W. Bemis, Mrs. S. Duncan, . Mrs. D. B. Burbank, Thos. J. Johnson, F. A. Plank, F. W. Bemis, POINT REYES GRANGE, No. 154. POEINT REYES (OLEMA), MARn COUNTY. Organized December 20, 1873, by John H. Hegeler, Deputy. N. H. Stenson, Master, Mrs. John A. Upion, John A. Upton, Secretary, Mrs. F. B. Crandall, T. B. Crandell, Mrs. Wm. P. Ruggles, Wm. P. Ruggles, Mrs. Wm. Evans, Wm. Evans, Mrs. S. C. Perham, S. E. Perham, Mrs. James Whaley, Henry Clausen, David Amos, James Whaley, Chas. H. Johnson, Thomas Whaley, A. Huff, D. Hochreuter, Joseph Fay NICASIO GRANGE, No. 155. NICASIO, MARIN COUNTY. Organized December 22,1873, by Joh H.L HIegeler, Deputy. H. F. Taft, Master, J. W. Noble, Secretary, Frank Nasen, George Boreham, John Shaub, Frank Rogers, B. F. Partee, Wm. F. Farley, P. K. Austin, R. B. Noble, MAYFIELD GRANGE, No. 156. MAYFIELD, SANTA CLARA COUNTY. Organized January 31, 1874, by George W. Henning, Deputy. F. W. Wieshaer, Master, R. L. Bonlware, Jno. Bradbury, James M. Pitman, Sec'y, Wm. Paul, James A. Boulware, A. J. Pitman, Permelia Boulware, Josephine E. Bowles, Nathan Dawson, G. D. Gleason, W. W. Brown, Thos. Williams, P. Dowd, John Green. Sarah H. Gras, J. D. Dixon, 17 257 'Wm. Vanderbilt, Master, R. H. Prince, Secretary, S. C. Percival, A. Doyle, 0. Hubbell, Stanford Duncan, Ed. Ladner, John Buchanan, A. S. Marshall, Wm. Vanderbilt,' Conrad Stump, Joseph Huntley, D. B, Burbank, Thos. M. Johnston, Isaac Parker, John ('ulinelli, Mrs. J. ParlKer, Mrs. F. A. Plank, Mrs. 0. Hubbell, Mrs. J. Huntley. A. N. Cleland, A. H. Stenson,.. A. K. Keyser, N. Shafter, R. E. Jobnson, R. A. Upton, Mrs. Peck, Mrs. A. Huff, Mrs. A. N. Cleland, Mrs. Henry Clausen. M. McNamara, Wm. Reeding, C. J. Magee, 'vVm. Dixon, Henry Fluis, Mrs. Frank Nasen, Mrs. H. F. Taft, Mrs. Wm. Reeding, Mrs. McNamara, Mrs. John Sbaub. Thos. B. Roy,,, Thos. Campbell, Mrs. H. Fluis, Mrs. C. W. Bull, Mrs. C. J. Magee, Mrs. J. W. Noble, Mrs. B. F. Partee, Richard Magee, C. L. Estey, Thos. H. Estey,

Page  258 THE GRANiGE RECORD. OCEAN VIEW GRANGE, No. 157. COLMA (SCHOOL-HOUSE STATION), SAN MATEO COUNTY. Organized February 20, 1874, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. G. Knowles, Master, 1B. Houbrick, Mrs. J. Smith Edward Robson, Sec'y. Robt. Ashburner, Mrs. Knowles, A. J. Vanwinkle, Mrs. Ashburner, W. H. Kuine, H. A. Knight, Mrs. Knight, Mrs. M. J. Charlton, Edward Chariton, Wm. Hall, Ai. Willard, J. V. White, D. Hutchinson, C. W. Taber, Mrs. Vanwinkle, H. Jones, Mrs. L. Taber, Mrs. Kuine, J. Smith, HI. Schwerin, John Charlton, E. Robson, I. Moran. F. E. Pierce, J. Wright, MONTEZUMA GRANGE, No. 158. COLLINSVILLE, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized January 23, 1874, by Robert C. Haile, Deputy. Thos. F. Hooper, Master, H. R. Barker, Wm. Donell; C. Knox Marshall, Sec'y, E. P. Sanborn, W. D. Hanson, C. H. Rice, Mrs. Delia Rice, Jas. Galbraith, Wm. Jubb, Mrs. S. E. Jubb, Mrs. Augusta M. Hooper, F. Unger, Mrs. S. C. Shedd, Mrs. S. A. Daniels, C. M. Ish, F. J. Taylor, Miss Addie Daniels, E. J. Upham, Wvim. Quick, Mrs. Mary Taylor, M. Nelson, D. Cushman, Mrs. MIira Barker. RIO VISTA GRANGE, No 159. RIO VISTA, SOLANO COUNTY. Organized January 24, 1874, by Robert C. Haile, Deputy. A. B. Alsip, Master, A. W. Ellitt, John Johnson, J. H. Gardner, Secretary, Miss Alice Williams, Daniel Stewart, R. Thrush, Mrs. L. L.:Alsip, Charles Howard, Wm. Ewing, Miss E. M. Thrush, J. H. Hamilton, E. Wilson, Mirs. L. M. Thrush, I. M. Johnson, Wm. Glenn, Mrs. J. W. Connolly, Mrs. C. Cameron, J. W. Connolly, J. W. Camneron, Miss S. A. Bicknell, I. T. Broady, John McCrary, Miss J. J. Glenn, Chas. Peterson Wmn. Williams, Miss Margart t Menzies, Alex. Curry, Thos. Menzies, OAKDALE GRANGE, No. 160. OAKDALE, STANISLAUS COUNTY. Organized February 21, 1874, by J. D. Spencer, Deputy. A. S. Emery, Master, C. R. Callender, W. H. Recker, C. B. Ingalls, Secretary, Mrs. Wm. Martin, S. La Clerk, Theron Parker, Mrs. Mary Crow, J. C. Henderson, James Booth, Mrs. Mary Murphy, T. G. Murphy, R. Rutherford, Wm. Rutherford, Mrs. S. B. Ingalls, F. G. Whitby, S. B. Callender, Mrs. A. S. Emery, G. F. La Clerk, D. Monroe, Mrs. R. Lovell. Wm. Lett, Wm. Clavey, 258

Page  259 THE GRANGE RECORD. ROSEVILLE GRANGE, No. 161. ROSEVILLE, PLACER COUNTY. Organized March 6, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. A. D. Neher, Master, John MIcClurg, W. H. Murray, J. N. Neher, Secretary, I. F. Cross, H. F. Davis, George R. Grant, Sarah J. Cross, D. L. Allen, Mary H. Grant, L. L. Crocker, H. Porter, I. G. Gould, Julia A. Crocker, Amelia Porter, Catherine S. Gould, S. De Kay, Margaret Mertes, D. W. Lewis, Mary L. Neher, George K. Kirby, G. W. Cavitt, S. P. Neher, Daniel Stephenson, Rebecca Cavitt, Nicholas Mertes, Elizabeth Stephenson. SAN PEDRO GRANGE, No. 162. HUENEME (SAN BUENAVENTURA), VENTURA COUNTY. Organized February 28, 1874, by Milton Wasson, Deputy. I. Y. Saviers, Master, Newton Bagley, W. M. Neece, D. D. De Nare, Sec'y, Mrs. S. D. Pinkard, Thos. H. WVilliams, S. D. Pinkard, Miss Minnie Alexander, Louis Pfeiler, Thos. Alexander, Miss Nettie J. Hill, Joseph S. Cook, William Alexander, Mrs. Mary Borchard, Mrs. Flora De Nure Jacob Maulhardt, Mrs. Cassandra Woolley, Mrs. N. W. Conrad, John Borchard, John H. Conrad, MIrs. Mary E. Glowner, John G. Hill, 1. E. Borchard, Mrs. Sophia Maulhliardt, I. F. Woolley, Godfrid Maulhardt, Airs. Martha K. Saviers. Walter HI. Cook, G. G. Glowner, SUNOL GRANGE, No. 163. SUNOL, ALAMEDA COUNTY. Organized March 7, 1874, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. Elijah M!. Carr, Master, James Bennett, Chas. Hadsell, S. W. Millard, Sec'y, Jos. F. Black, Michael Rogan, B. F. Cooper, MIary E. Cooper, P. McLachlan, D. W. Baker, Eliza A. Vanderwort, George Gregory, Charles Duerr, Abbie M. Blake, John Arnett, L. Austraumer, Dena Baker, Tjeon E. Jones, G. J. Vanderwort, James Trimingham, Naomi J. Baker, W. S. Alexander, C. P. Blake, Sarah Carr, Maria Carr, Peter Canavan, Augusta Trimingham, T. N. Sunol, S. W. Millard, Anna M. Hadsell. Elizabeth A. Canavan, SESPI GRANGE, No. 164. SATICOY TowNSHIP (SAN BUENAVENTURA), VENTURA COUNTY. Organized March 13, 1874, by Milton Wasson, Deputy. S. A. Guiberson, Master, C. H. Dickel, I. A. Canaway, Thomas Marpels, Sec'y, Mrs. M. E. Guiberson, T. J. Casner, T. A. Sprague, Mrs. Lizzie Canaway, Wmi. Horton, James Heaney, Mrs. E. Mi. Dickel, Mrs. E. C. Sprague, M[rs T. Caswel, C. w. Edwards, Mrs. M. J. Edwards. 4 I. II 259 ,I i t., - 1 I I I iII I I III iII i I I i i i

Page  260 THE GRANGE RECORD. OJAI GRANGE, No. 165. VENTURA (SAN BUENAVENTURA), VENTURA COUNTY. Organized March 19, 1874, by Milton Wasson, Deputy. C. E. Soule, Mlaster, John Pinkerton, W. S. McKee, Jos. Hobart, Secretary, Mrs. Georgie Jones, J. N. Jones, L. D. Roberts, Mrs. Adeine T. Grow, J. M. Charles, F. M. White, Mrs. Sarah E. McLean, Rober Ayres, G. T. Grow, Mrs. H. E. McKee, Mrs. M. A. Roberts, George L. Watters, Mrs. Margaret Dennison, Mrs. Adeline Soule, H. J. Dennison, William Pine, Mrs. M. E. Watters, Joseph Hobart, John Reeth, MIrs. M. E. Jones, Theodore Todd, John Larmner, Mrs. Lucinda Grey, S. C. Gray, N. N. McLean, . RUTHERFORD GRANGE, No. 166. RUTHERFORD (YOUNTVILLE), NAPA-COUNTY Organized March 14, 1874, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. C. S. Burrage, Master, R. H. Garner, Mary A. Smith, H. W. Crabb, Secretary, Elizabeth Ritchie, Reuben Long, T. B. Edington, Amanda Garner, Wm. T. Ross, C. W. Smith, Milla Crabb, M. G. Ritchie, IV. H. Sanders, Cordelia Long, Frederick Willoughby, Adda Crabb, Elizabeth Crabb, Sarah A. Saunders, T. Chopen, Candace Ross, Mattie Willoughby, John Bateman, Malvina Edington, C. Bateman. FARMINGTON GRANGE, NO. 167. FARMINGTON (TEHAMA), TEHAMA COUNTY. Organized March 19, 1874, by C.-W. Colby, Deputy. Addison J. Loomis, Mast., Mary L. Best, S.S. Stinchaum, S. H. Loomis, Secretary, Catherine Specks, 0. A. Loomis, Arthur J. Chittenden, M. C. Loomis, N. Garvoutt, James M. Rodgers, R. Johnson, Mary Rice, James Specks, C. C. Chittenden, J. Mullen, S. P. Garvoutt, William McDane, Martha J.'Mullen, Wmin. Jewett, C. P. Rice, Chas. C. White, C. F. Foster, Z. Best, J. Boland. Vina E. Jewett, GILROY GRANGE, No. 168. GILROY, SANTA CLARA COUNTY, Organized March 26, 1874, by G. W.-Henning, Deputy. W. Z. Augney, Master, Miss Corrinne Jones, Miss -. Fine, H. Coffin, Secratary, Frank M. Dunning, J. F. Freeman, E. Seaverly, H. Coffin, Mrs. J. F. Freeman, Mrs. E. Seaverly, D. B. Lillard, J. Begg, Hugh L. Jones, W. Frank Oldham, 0. P. Reeve. trs. H. L. Jones, Ledyard Fine, 4t

Page  261 .HE GRANGE RECORD PLAINSBURG GRANGE, No. 169. PLAINSBtuRG, MERCED COUNTY, Organized April 3, 1874, by H. B. Jolley, Deputy. P. Y. Welch, Master, Mrs. Dewey, E. Mason, T. J. E. Wilcox, Sec'y, Mrs. Fish, Mrs. Mason, H. N. Fish, MissJeannette Spangleburg S. C. Johnson, R. Earl, S. Peak, W. Johnson, R. M. Burchell, sirs. C. Applegarth, P. Y. Welch, 'Vm. Wynn, H. E. McCure, Eli Furman, Mrs. Wynn, N. S. Drew, F. Furman, Ed Russell, J. A. Barker, Miss C. Anderson, J. C. C. Russell, Alex. Taylor, Mrs. Stonewood, Mrs. Russell, A. Hassell, Miss Lula Peck. H. Dewey, BEN LOMOND GRANGE, No. 170. BEN LomoxD (SANTA CnUZ), SANTA CRUZ COUNTY. Organized April 4, 1874, by Geo. W. Henning, Deputy. H. H. Buckles, Master, James Jones, Mrs. Susan M. Craghill, Charles Craghill, Sec'y, Fritz Quistorff, John Burns, Sr., Robert Canham, Lewis Bregenza, John Burns, Jr., D. D. Tompkins, Mrs. C. Buckles, James Butrns, B. P. Wright, Levi P. Sprague, Miss Maggie Burns, Alex. Leacht, Charles Craghill, Minerva Canham, John Gray, Mrs. Chas. Craghill, Aivira Tompkins. Mrs. E. F. Gray, CENTRE GRANGE, No. 171. CENTRAL DISTRICT (COLUSA),-COLUSA COUNTY. Organized November 20, 1873, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. J. B. Kimbull, Master, Louis Ganthier, W. G. Saunders, W. G. Saunders, Secretary, H. C. Simmons, John Duncan, James Dowson, Mrs. Anna Husted, I. C. Smith, E. Stewart, Miss Lucy A. Gilman, Frank Becker, D. Bebe, Mrs. Carrie Webley, ~Irs. J. C. Smith, J. K. Duncan, Miss Sarah Becker, Mrs. W. G. Saunders, Elias B. Duncan, H. B. Gay, Miss R. Murphy, Henry Husted, C. W. Marsh, Miss Lucy Duncan, P. H. Williams, J. M. Grove, Mrs. Mary Zumwalt, AMERICAN RIVER GRANGE, No. 172. BRIGHTON (PATTERSON), SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized March 23, 1874, by William S. Manlove, Deputy. E.G. Morton, Sr., Master, Thomas Cox, Claus Jorgenson, Cyrus Wilson, Secretary, N. Kane, George Hanlon, William Deterding, Christina Deterding, George Saulsburg, James W. Kilgore, Elizabeth M. Criswel, Claus Jorgenson, George M. Kilgore, Metta Bryan, Joha Studerous, J. A. Evans, Carrie Brison, Emeline E. Kilgore, David W. Taylor, Amanda Kane, Adaline D. Morton, A. W. Bryan, M. L. Smith, Addle Morton, T. G. Saulsburg, D. L. Williamson, Nellie Williamson, Carl Halversen, Edmund G. Morton, Jr., Laura J. M. Saulsburg. W. W. Brison, 'k i, I I. 1 261 i I I I i i i i i I

Page  262 THE GRANGE RECORD, MOUNTAIN GRANGE, No. 173. SAN BENITO, SAN BENITO CoTY Organized April 9, 1874, by J. D. Fowler, Deputy. S. Kennedy, Master, Miss Mary Jane Kennedy, B. Smith, J. W. Matthews, Secretary, Mrs. R. K. Blosser, G. M. Butterfield, C. P. Bryant, W. H. Blosser, Mrs. E. J. Pruett, D. M. Sellick, John D. Justice, Miss S. M. Bryant, J. Mantes, W. McCool, Mrs. C. S. Bittey, F. R. Meyer, J. F. Taylor, Ella Justice. Mrs. C. C. Butterfield, BINGHAMPTON GRANGE, No. 174. BINGHAMPTON, SOLANO COUNTY, Organized April 11, 1874, by Richard C. Haile. Albert Bennett, Master, S. M. Callton, C. E. Plummer, Edgar A. Beardsley, Sec'y, Mrs. E. L. McCray, J. F. Brown, J. A. C. Thompson, Mrs. M. E. Rychard, George C. Mack, E. A. Beardsley, Mrs. F. E. Gay, J. Tuck, C. S. Cushing, Mrs. Helen Bell, F. B. Dodge, G. C. McCray, Mrs. Susan A. Mack, Miss Ida Jameson, C. E. Irwin, J. B. Jameson, Mrs. R. V. L. Bennett, Wm. Johnson. Sherman Brown, Mrs. Lucy Plummer, H. C. Gay E. R. Miles, Mrs. Etta Tuck, I. M. Bell, H. HI. McKinstry, Mrs. Ellen Cushing. SAN MATEO GRANGE, No. 175. SAN MATEO, SAN MATEO COUNTY. Organized April 11, 1874, by B. N. Weeks, Deputy. A. F. Green, Master, W. M. Newhall, John Spaulding, W. H. Laurence,Secretary, -Mrs. J. E. Butler, Orin Brown, David S. McClellan, Mrs. Orin Brown, Mrs. W. Y. Price, W. Y. Price, James Byrnes, Mary P. McClellan, Levi Flagg, J. E. Butler, COSUMNES GRANGE, No. 176. LEE (SHELDON), SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized April 13, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. James A. Elder, Master, T. D. French, Emma J. Richardson, J. H. Atkins, Secretary, Caroline L. French, John W. Witt, W. H. Lindsey, Jr., W. D. Hass, Mary Jane Witt, Owen Ingersoll, C. W. Pierce, Seth Macy, Gilles Doty, Alice Elder, Mary J. Hass. RISING STAR GRANGE, No. 177. PANOCHE, FRESNO COUNTY. Organized April 18, 1874, by J. D. Fowler, Deputy. Calvin Valpey, Master, Mrs. A. M. Keith, I. W. Ramsey, J. W. Craycroft, Secretary, Rhodes Gardner, Mrs. E. Ramsey, Mrs. L. S. Valpey, Mrs. E. Gardner, W. H. Thornburg, A. D. Smith, Mrs. M. A. Craycroft, Mrs. O. S. Thornburg, Mrs. Fannie Snith, Frank Enos, A. W. Hager, Wesley Shaw, Daniel Van Chief, F. Bennett, E. S. Keith, George Hinckley, 262

Page  263 THE GRANGE RECORD. EL DORADO GRANGE, No. 178. EL DORADO, EL DOrPADO-COUNTY. Organized April 27, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. C. G. Carpenter, MIaster, Mary E. Brooks, F. C. Carpenter, J. M. B Wetherwax, Sec'y, M. S. Robinson, John Bryan, Philip Kramp, J. M. B. Wetherwax, C. T. Foster, W. H. Kramp, D. E. Norton, Charlotte Foster, Katherine Kramp, Betsey A. Norton. Thomas Burns, Jacob Knizeley, Sarah H. Carpenter, Cleora C. Burns, Fanny C. Knizeley, C. G. Carpenter, N. Gilmore. C. D. Brooke, SUTTER MILL GRANGE, Nov 179. COLO*A, EL DORADO COUNTY. Organized April 29, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy, A. J. Christie, Master, Aggie Mahler, Andrew White, Henry Mahler, Secretary, W. H. Valentine, H. B. Newell, J. G. O'Brien, Mary Stearns, A. P. Christie, Henrietta A. O'Brien, Edith Vandershefter, Rosa IMeCay, Ornst Martensen, Anna A. Delory, Robert Chalmers, Louisa Martensen. G. Basse, G. H. Bowser, W. D. Othietz, E. M. Smith, Abe Chalmers, E. Delory, Eliza J. Dobson, R. C. McKay, A. J. Peterson, Rebecca A. Poteel, Mary E. Delory, W. Stearns, S. J. Poteel, Francis Vercamp. Wm. H. Hooper, GALT GRANGE, No. 18 GALT, SACRAMENTO COUNTY Organized May 2, 1874. E. Ray, Angie Fifield, E. M. Slater, Rachel A. Wiser, J. H. Sawyer, LHiram Wiser, J. aC. Sawyer. Mater, J L. Fifield, Secretary, John McFarland, B. F. Gates, A. B. Bryant, L. C. Young, James H. Ferris, NEWVILLE GRANGE, No. 181. NEwVVILLE, COLUSA COUNTY. Organized April 25, 1874, by J. J. Hicok, Deputy. B. N. Scribner, Master. Mrs. Rachel Tarleton, Mrs. Elizabeth Luce, Sullivan Osborne, Sec'y, B. F. Foreman, John A. Price, George O. Cobb, Mrs. Arty Foreman, Mrs. Arde'l Price, Mrs. T. J. Cobb, Charles Neale, Mark Bailey, John R. Cobb, Mrs. Joanna Osborne, Mrs. L. W. Bailey. James Tarleton, Alonzo Luce, I I I j II i i t. I i i I B. F. Slater, W. H. Young, Hiram Chase, Delia Wiser, Fannie 'd. Bryant, Augusta R. Sawyer.

Page  264 THE GRANGE RECORD. CALAVERAS GRANGE, No. 182. JENNY LIND, CALAVERAS COUNTY. Organized May 1, 1874, by John H. Hegeler, Deputy. M. F. Gregory, Master, John Baldwin, W. Carson, A. Miles, Secretary, Mrs. P. J. Hightower, Christian Myers, Mrs. A. M. Gregory, Louisa V. Baldwin, Robert Thompson, John W. Kirk, Charles Morrill, Charles Topper, Mrs. E. Kirk, Miss Louisa Hightower, Mrs. Rose Topper, Chas. L. Williams, Wm. H. Harper,. Clinton Gall, Mrs. G. A. Williams, Mrs. N. E. Harper, Mrs. A. Gall. Z. Taylor Vance, John S. Kirk, ELLIOTT GRANGE, No. 183. ELLIOTT, SAN JOAQUIN (OUNTY. Organized March 18, 1874, by E. B. Stiles, Deputy. H. H. West, Master, Mrs. Armena Greene, E. C. Greene, A. S. Misener, Secretary, Miss Mary Greene, M. Bovard, J. B. Greene, Mrs. Martha A. West, L. W. Pounds, D. W. Mooney, Mrs. Caroline E. Misener, J. F. Duntlin, Alex. Thompson, Mrs. J. H. Dillon, Mrs. Jennie A. Ritter, M. E. Scott, B. M. Greene, Miss Mlartha Scott, F. Ritter, M. Peter, Miss Sarahette Thompson, I. Wiltsie, W.L. Campbell, Mrs. Catherine Peter. A. G. Dillon, a COLLEGEVILLE GRANGE, No. 184. COLLEGEVILLE, SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY. Organized March 19, 1874, by E. B. Stiles, Deputy. Alex. Mayberry, Master, J. F. Mullen, B. McCabe, J. C. McIntosh, Secretary, Mrs. Josie M. Merwin, D. C. McIntosh, T. Minahan, Mrs. Sarah Haun, D. Pollock, S. K. Camp, Mrs. M. L. McIntosh, R. H. Walrad, W. S. Camp, Mrs. P. Camp, Franklin Faris, W. T. Anglin, Mrs. E. Mayberry, Mrs. S. A. Connor, W. N. Moss, George A. Beach, Mrs. J. McKamy, George F. Shackford, H. W. Moss, Miss Minerva McKamy, Daniel Thomas, D. M. Walrad, Mrs. Pollock, James M. White. P. P. Ward. Mrs. Belinda Thomas FARMINGTON GRANGE, No. 185. FARMINGTON, SAN JoAQUIN COUNTY. Organized March 20, 1874, by E. B. Stiles, Deputy. I. M. Groves, Master, Jos. Manchester, H. J. Bonham, E. O. Long, Secretary, Mrs. E. M. Groves, S. Shackford, C. H. Patterson, Mrs. E. Patterson, W. H. Derick, J. E. Groves, Mrs. H. Long, J. J. Cross, T. J. Drais, Mrs. C. Henry, W. St. Rodgers, M. J. Drais, Mrs. S. N. Manchester, Miss M. Kingsby, S. H. Anthony, J. R. Henry, Mrs. C. E. Schroeder, G. W. Andrews, N. S. Harrold, Mrs. C. Drais, C. L. Rodgers, J. W. Smith, Mrs. M. H. Andrews, J. R. Owens, J. G. Schroeder, Airs. E. Harrold. 264

Page  265 THE GRANGE RECORD. VINELAND GRANGE, No. 186. TUSTIN CITY, Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized April 30, 1874, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. A. B. Hayward, Master, Mrs. S. J. Moore, G. W. Freeman, R. L. Freeman, Secretary, Mrs. M. Cates, L. H. Stine, Wm. Nettleton, Mrs. S. A. Ritchie, T. B. Hulse, W. K. Robinson, Mrs. B. J. Martin, T. Jacobs, N. L. Harris, Miss Jennie E. Hayward, E. V. Stine, C. A. Moore,, C. Tustin, Mrs. S. A. Stine, B. Wright, M. Osborn, Mrs. M. Tustin, J. Buck, W. W. Martin, Miss H. C. Freeman, lMIrs. C. A. Harris, L. S. Robinson, Miss A. Keim. LINCOLN GRANGE, No. 187. LINCOLN, PLACER COUNTY. Organized May 15, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. M. Waldron, Master, Jas. A. Nickerson, Richard Fuller, J. S. Mariner, Secretary, Octavia Nickerson, A. J. Boyden, W. H. Tierner, Hans Anderson, Peter Saling, J. R. Nickerson, Alex. Cox, Lucinda S. Saling, Melvina Nickerson, A. J. Soule, a Chriss Crook, Anna Fuller, Sarah Carter, Ellen M. Crook James M. Tindall, Jacob Wilty, H. Newton, Tennessee B. Tindall, Owen Clark, Martha A. Newton. MORNING STAR GRANGE, No. 188. CASTROVILLE, MONTEREY COUNTY. Organized May 15, 1874, by J. D. Fowler, Deputy. C. E. Williams, Master, J. Ball, H. B. Scott,' F. Blackie, Secretary, Fred. Brown, Mrs. M. G. Scott, Mrs. V. A. Williams, Miss Tillie Brown, C. R. Drumon, W. A. Evans, lMrs. F. Armstrong, A. Raine, Mrs. H. Evans, H. C. Bryan, Mrs. M. Raine, J. Withort, Mrs. H. C. Bryan, J. P. Armstrong, J. Manteuffel, J. H. Ashley, T. McDonald. R. Veuver, VENTURA GRANGE, No. 189. VENTURA (SAo BUENAVENTURA), VENTURA COUNTY. Organized May 7, 1874, by Milton-Wasson, Deputy. J. Willett, Master, Mrs. M. L. Barrow, J. F. Hubbard, Charles S. Preble, Sec'y, L. D. Chilson, Robert Calles, Francis Barrow, Mrs. M. E. Chilson, J. C. Barrow, Charles S. Preble. Miss L. J. Merry, Mrs. Phebe W. Barrow, Owen Merry, Mrs. Mary Willett, IMrs. Orpha Woods, Irwin Barnard, Miss Emily Barrow, Mrs. Clara Bagley, Geo. D. Barrow. Henry Shaw, Miss Hattie J. Barrow, J. M. Egbert, J. Willett, Mrs. M. Hubbard I I 265

Page  266 THE GRANGE RECORD. COTTONWOOD GRANGE, No. 190. COTTONWOOD, SHASTA COUTY. Organized May 25, 1874, by G. W. Colby, Deputy. G. G. Kimball, Master, Mrs. M. E. Patterson, James N. Patterson, John Barry, Secretary, Annie Nickols, W. J. Eagleston, J. W. Span, Elizabeth Span, H. Bosanki, Wm. Ludwig, C. F. Glass, Thomas Grey, Richard Owens, Hattie Abel, Calvin Owens, Joseph Glass, P. R. Richardson, Wm. Wilcox, F. P. Glass, B. H. Pickett, Ann L. Smith, J. Patterson, Wm. Lean, Mrs. E. Lean, M. W. Smith, C. P. Dunham, N.M. Glass, S. B. Sheldon, E. Nickols, Grace Ann Patterson. C. A. Howard, WALNUT GROVE GRANGE, No. 191. WALNUT GROVE (COURTLAND), SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized May 21. 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. Sol. Runyon, Master, Adeline Runyon, P. B. Green, J. V. Prather, Secretary, Cynthia L. Green, A. J. Peck, S. A. Scearce, Nancy J. Wise, John Crofton, F. M. Limbaugh, Levi Painter# Lizzie Dye, E. W. Odell, L. Wenser, Ephraim Dann, John W. Sharp, Dwight Holster, Sperry Dye. Joseph Wise, SHERMAN ISLAND GRANGE, No. 192. EMMATON (SHERMAN ISLAND), SACRAMENTO COUNTY. Organized May 22, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. J. M. Upham, Master, L. M. Upham, A. J. Bige]ow, W. M. Robins, Secretary, W. G. Lemmond, M. M. Robins, W. H. Bilings, John Ferall, P. K. Bigelow, John E. Baker, Martha J. Bigelow, J. Palmer, H. W. Baker, Jr., D. S. Perry, Emma O. Upham, John McCall, M. W. Blaboce, Emily P. Robins, Thomas Cathers, O. A. Linidsey, Catherine A. Baker. J. D. Sarles, James Cathers, SPADRA GRANGE, No. 193. SPADRA, Los ANGELES COUNTY. Organized May 23, 1874, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. A. T. Currier, Master, William Jeffries, WV. S. Cook, Jno. Wright, Secretary, Mrs. Rachel Eads, W. L. Marshall, T. D. Holladay, Mrs. Lizzie Caldwell, Wilson Beach, A. H. Taft. Miss Francis Fryer, Jere. Fryer, T. A. Caldwell, Mrs. Julia Holladay, Miss E. Lilly, D. R. Lilly, Miss Mary Shrewsbury, Mrs. MI. A. Lilly, J. H. Egan, A. M. Humphreys, Miss Louisa Fryer Richard Eads, A. P. Monroe, Mrs. Minnie Caldwell, Joseph Malott, Henry Fryer, Mrs. A. J. Monroe. 266

Page  267 THE GRANGE RECORD. EVENING STAR GRANGE, No. 194. HAMILTON (NELSON STATION), BUTTE COUNTY. Organized May 23, 1874, by Wm. M, Thorp, Deputy. E. W. S. Woods, Master, C. F. Butler, Secretary, Jessie L. Warfield, Wm. Downing, Rufus Downing, Edwin Pearson, T. C. Pearson, George Saunders, A. M. Woodruff, G. C. Nelson, REDDING GRANGE, No. 195. Jos. F. Dinsmore, Master, J. J. Bell, Sam. J. R. Gilbert, Sec'y, H. C. Ferrel, H. C. Woodman, Mrs. N. B. McLaughlin, W. H. Wilson, Mrs. Josephine Wilson, Wim. Hawse, Mrs. Sarah George, E. A. Reid, A. Wood, D. C. Johnson, I. W. Dinsmore, R. M. Johnson, D. R. McLaughlin, Daniel Robinson, Geo. McFarland, James McMullen, H. H. Loomis, NEW SALEM GRANGE, No. 196. PASEENTA, TEHAMA COUNTY. Organized May 28, 1874, by W. M. Thorp, Deputy. Oliver Harris, Master, Catharine A. Whitlock, John Thompson, J. R. Whitlock, Sec'y, Julia A. Botkin, I. W. Harris, James Wilder, Grace Haag, Caroline Wilder, Stephen F. Harris, Lucy Burt, Mary Harris, John Fassen, Margaret Harris, Susan Mi. Harris, W. T. Harris, W. F. Grey, Emaeline Blakely, M. Burt, W. W. Botkin, iary Ann Harris. Cortland Ianrris, Elias Haag, POPE VALLEY GRANGE, No.197. POPE VALLEY, NAPA COUNTY Organized May 30, 1874, by J. M. Hai J. A. Van Arsdale, Mlaster, Mrs. J. A. Van Arsdale, C. A. Booth, Secretary, Mrs. G. P. Ink, R. S. Hardin, Mrs. G. P. Wailace, T. A. Varm, Mrs. Jessie Bernet, John A. Hanna, Miss Emma Booth, Henry Cole, Miss Ella Wallace, A. J. Dollarhide, John E. Williams, G. P. Wallace, Patrick Marrion, T. H. Ink, Ed. Kean, R. J. Davenport, John Rose, George Swartz, II 267 John Williams, Virginia M. Warfield, Lydia Woods, May Dowiaing, I Mrs. Howard, . Milton Mowry, Chas. Howard, Thos. Barnes, Stephen Jones, A. J. Conklin, W. H. Moran, 1. W. Downing, C. F. Butler, Martha P. Warfield, 'Emma Pierson, Sallie Saunders, Missouri Woodruff, Ellen Bowles, Mary Bradford, horp, Deputy. Jno. G. Wilson, John George, E. Anderson, Rebecca Hawse, Mrs. E. J. Woods, Mrs. Anna Woodman, Mrs. Anna Johnson, Mrs. E. Anderson, Miss Ju-Ii,- Johnson. J. R. Booth, C. A. Booth, I. Booth, Jesse Barnet, J. J. Walters, B. F. Wa4lace, Mrs. John Haniia, Mrs. R. J. Davenport, Mrs. A. J. DoUarhide, .Miss Jennie Varm.

Page  268 THE GRANGE RECORD. TULARE GRANGE, No. 198. TULARE, TULARE COUNTY. Organized May 28, 1874, by H. B. Jolley, Deputy. D. E. Wilson, Master, Agnes Roach, William Small, Victoria Wright, Sec'y, Inza Roach, Vickie Wright, I. N. Wright, I. A. Goodwin, Eli Williams, W. W. Wright, D. E. Wilson, Isabella Williams, Cynthia Wright, Mrs. F. Cartmill, W. W. Wright, Jr., Lizzie Wilson, Sophia Cartmill, J. H. Hart. John Roach, WOODVILLE GRANGE, No. 199 WOODVILLE, TULARE COUNTY. Organized May 29, 1874, by H. B. Jolley, Deputy. I. A. Stover, Master, R. J. King, J. McFine, J. Stewart, Secretary, Mrs. F. E. Bensey, I. P. Hensley, I. Chrisman. Mrs. Mary Roach, Thomas Lewis, J. Houston, Mrs. Rachel Hensley, Frederick Hensley, T. B. Fuguey, Mrs. M. A. Lewis, Miss Jane Roach T. J. Ruy, Mrs. E. J. Hensley, Mrs. Virginia Ramny, W. Spense, W. Monroe, Mrs. J. M. Slover, C. S. Lynch, C. C. Beebe, Mrs. Rebecca Beebe, J. H. Grimsley, R. McKee, Mrs. M. A. Grimsley. SHERIDAN GRANGE, No. 200. SHERIDAN, PLACER COUNTY. d May 29, 1874, by W. S. Manlove, Deputy. Emmett Botkin, Thos. S. Barker, Louisa Greetman, W. H. Beatty, N. H. Kaschner, Mary Kaschner, CE,mily A. Beatty, H. S. Kempton, David H. Long, S. R. Wilson, J. T. Brock, Mary Stout. S. J. Lewis, D. H. Long, Master, S. J. Lewis, Secretary, J. W. Clark, Charles Greetman, John Storrs, Miron Luce, Lola C. Wheeler, MATTOLE GRANGE, No. 201. PETROLIA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized May 26,1874, by Thos. H. Merry, Deputy. Stephen Goff, Master, David L. Marshall, D. J. Johnson, Secretary, N. Crouch, Mrs. Mary D. Goff, Sarah E. Marshall, M. J. Conklin, Jotham Bull, Margaret Conklin, James H. Goff, Thos. Clark, A. McNett, Jacob Miner, Mrs. Rosa Johnson, Mrs. C. A. Miner, Morgan Rudolph, J. W. Jamison, Mrs. R. A. Rudolph, John A. Coon, J. Wright, 268 Lucy A. Wriht, S. W. Gillett, Mrs. H. A. Gillett, Yost Benton, Mrs. A. H. Benton, David Simmons, Mrs. M. A. Simmons, Charles S. Cook, Wm. Roberts, Walker Hunter.

Page  269 THE GRANGE RECORD. CAHTO GRANGE, No. 202. CAHTO, MENDOCINO COUNTY. Organized June 1, 1874, by Thos. H. Merry, Deputy. R. M. Wilson, Master, Eliza Burns, G. N. Guibb, J. P. Simpson, Secretary, S. M. Wilson, I. I. Thomas, J. H. Braden, Maggie Farly, Dorsinda Harelson, Mrs. Frances Braden, M. Vasser, 0. R. Burnett, S. G. Williams, B. M. Wayman, I. F. Lammeth, Martha A. Williams, J. G. Burns, J. D. Wyman, Mrs. A. J. Grubb, W. B. Burns, S. P. Beattie, William Henry, R. White, Mrs. E. A. Wilson, Elizabeth Henry, Johnathan Thomas, Mrs. Mary F. Thomas, Benj. S. Burns, John M. Wilson, G. W. Thomas. PASO ROBLES GRANGE, No. 203. PASO ROBLES, SAN LuIs OBISPO CouNTY. Organized June 3, 1874, by A. J. Mothersead, Deputy. H. W. Rhyne, Master, D. F. Stockdale, J. P. Moody, J. P. Moody, Secretary, Gilbert Middaughs, B. Matthew, I. M. Cummins, Minna Cummins, Annla Cunningham, D. W. Gilbert, H. S. F. Rhyne, Martha Moody. Mary Middaughs, Nancy Gilbert, G. W. Parrish, J. M. Cunningham, A. Frick, Wm. Holden, D. E. Cummins, Nancy Tuley, Rebecca Stockdale, T. E. A. Rhyne, P. Kipple, Rosetta Rhyne. Esner Matthew, SANEL GRANGE, No. 204. SANEL, MENDOCINO COUNTY. June 5, 1874, by Thos. H. Merry, Deputy. Sarah Bickle, H. Willard, E. Dooley, T. J. Gallamore, Mary Daw, O. Howell, Lucy E. Dooley, Mrs. H. Stanley, Samue) Duncan, Mrs. J. W. Daw, Isaac Bickle, Miss M. J. Edsoll, Wmi. E. Parsons, Mrs. L. F. Howell, T. S. Parsons. John McGlashen. O. R. Myers, Or ganized Alex. Marshall, Master, Tos. A. Knox, Secretary, Mrs. A. Marshall, Mrs. M. A. Edsoll, E. H. I)uncan, Mrs. E. M. Duncan, R. 5I. Parsons, J. NV. Danw, Mrs. J. W. Daw, SYCAMORE GRANGE, No. 205. SYCAMOIE, FRESNO COUNTY. Organized June 6, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. A. C. Bradford, Master. James Allen,, Mrs. R. Bass, Wm. A. Allen, Sec'y, J. R. McComb, Mrs. N. Parker, ALex. Kennedy, \W. H. Parker, Mrs. Mary Kennedy, Joel Bass, Wm. A. Allen, Mrs. L. W. Bradford, John House, John West, John Lamotte. I,"' I 1 269

Page  270 THE GRANGE RECORD. BENEYESSA GRANGE, No. 206. MONTICELLO, NAPA COUNTY. Organized-June 12, 1874, by W. H. Baxter, Deputy. J. W. SmittIe, Master, A. J. Wester, Peter Laflish, 0. Schetter, Secretary, Chas. Combs, J. Carrol Owen, C. Gos]in, Isaac Swietzer, Chas. Seawell, M-. C. Ish, Emma V. Schwitzer, Nellie Gillespie, I. T. Ish, May Stafford, Sallie Gillespie, R. D. Kincaid, Mollie Stafford, Angeline M. Gillespie, Cornelius Swietzerr Asa M. Jackson, Fannie Ish, L. H. Swietzer, D. W. Carriger, Lucy J. Jackson, J. C. Cunningham, A. Stafford, Elvira Combs. SOUTH SUTTER GRANGE, No. 207. PLEASANT GROVE, SUTTEr- COUNTY. Organized June 13, 1874, by A. D. Neher, Deputy. Thomas Boyd, Master, S. F. McClellan, W.. W. Monroe, Alex. Donaldson, Sec'y, F. Saukey, Geo. Richardson, James Jones, W. A. Goode, Charles Richardson. Geo. T. Boyd, Mrs. Susan Boyd, M. T. Laros, John W. Jones, Candace Richardson, A. T. Jackson, Terry Ballow, Alex. Donaldson, Wm. E. Roberts, Cyrus Briggs, Hlomer Saukey, Daniel Carray, R. H. McClellan, C. E. Hull, Susan C. Boyd, M. T. McClellan, Rebecca Jones, MIary J. Richardson. J. R. McClellan, John Morrison, SONORA GRANGE, No. 208. SONORA, TUOLUMNE COUNTY. Organized June 13, 1874, by J. D: Spencer, Deputy. S. S. Turner, Master, R. Gilkey, M. W. Brooks, Robt. F. Williams, Sec'y, Mrs. E. J. Gilkey, Mrs. E. Brooks, E. M. Hampton, James B. Latimer, Mrs. J. Marks, :r,_:: Hapton. M. E. JHyde, Mrs. S. A. E. Marks, J. F. Ralph, E. N. Twist, E. F. Hammers, Mrs. E. A. Ralph, S. Allen, Mrs. E. A. Hammers, John Pereira, W. H. Dickenson, I. Fergusson, J. Leguarel, Mrs. E. Dickenson, J. Blackburn, George Soulsbys, R. M. Chenoweth, Mrs. M. Blackburn. Mrs. E. Soulsbys, Mrs. Mary Williams, LINN VALLEY GRANGE, No. 209 GLENVILLE, KERN COUNTY, Organized June 18, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. A. B. Du Brutz, Master, J. M. Glenn, James Prewett, Snlf S. E. Reed, Secretary, E. Vaughn, N. S. Dauner, J. F. Lewis, M. P. Blake, Ed. Mahurin, L. W. Woody, Miss M. Early, John Wicker, I. Pascoe, Mrs. M. A. Vaughn, J. R. Towery, J. Vanderen, Mrs. Sarah Glenn, Henry Pascoe, Joseph Morrison, Mrs. P. A. Morrison, James Caruthers, D. Laver, Mrs. Mary C. Wright, Miss C. Harvey, T. E. Wilks, Mrs. E. J. Towery, Mrs. Mary Allen, David Scott, Mrs. N. A. Pascoe, Mrs. E. Pascoe, i I' 270

Page  271 THE GRANGE RECORD. INDEPENDENCE GRANGE, No. 210. INDEPENDENCE, INTO COUNTY. Organized June 20, 1874, by J. W. A Wright, Deputy. Josiah Earl, Master, J. B. White, Secretary, John Shephard, J. W. Symmes, D. D. Gunnison, M. Garretson, A. Wayland, J. Vogt, John Martin, Owen Murphy, BISHOP CREEK GRANGE, No. 211. BISHOP CREEK, INto COUNTY. Organized June 22, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. T. J. Furbees, Master, W. T. Wiswall, Secretary, J. L. Garrettson, B. H. Roberts, John Clark, Joseph Inman, Andrew Dell, E. D. Powers, J. W. Wiswall, O. D. Watson, C. Munson, LONE PINE GRANGE, No. 212. LONE PINE, INYO COUNTY. Organized June 23, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. C. L. Jackson, Master, J. G. Dodge, Mrs. D. Johnson, R. A. Loomis, Secretary, C. W. Johnson, Mrs. A. B. Ritgers, J. J. McCall, R. Vandyke, J. A. Ritgers, Joseph Seely, John Dodge, Julius Roeper, A. H. Johnson, Mrs. M. Dodge, F. Albis, R. P. Ritgers, Mrs. M. McCall, Mrs. C. Vincentalli. G. W. Betty, WELDON GRANGE, No. 213. WELDON, KERN COUNT, Organized J'ane 25, 1874, by J. W. A Wright, Deputy C. S. Collins, Mrs. E.G. Stambler, Mrs. A. L. Collins, C. L. Brown, A. A. Bermudez, H. D. Strambler, Joseph E. Miller, H. T. Miller, P. K. Brown, R. T. Melvin, Maste r, J. T. H. Grey, bec'y, W. J. Grant, John F. Pyle, G. F. Melvin, Mrs. S. E. Gray, I. L. Mack, John Waterworth, Thos. J. Elliott, { 2 i'l J. Malone, John Baxter, S. A. Dinsmore, Mrs. M. Shepherd, Mrs, S. A. White, . Mrs. L. Wayland, Mrs. H. Vogt, Mrs. A. S. Earl, Mrs. K. Gunnison, Mrs. S. C. Martin, B. Aiguerre, C. A Walters, F. Schanible, E. Chagiiette, Louis McClure, Chas. Kennedy, W. M. Boyd, Mrs. A. Chagnette, Mrs. L. Walters Mrs. R. Schambie. y' I W. G. Watson, Wm. McLarren, Mrs. A.- Cromwell, Mrs. C. Moats, Mrs. E. MeCrs'ky, Mrs. M. A. Clark, Mrs. A. Bowers, Mrs. R. A. McLarren, Mrs. M. Inman, Jacob Powers, 0. Cromwell, G. M. Clark, George Collins, I-I. Wamafield, Wm. Bulbit, Win. Powers, W. G. McCrosli:y' Mrs. U. G. Monson, Mrs. E. Roberts, Mrs. S. A. Chamberlain. v. .f, Mrs. E. Bermudez, Miss M. E. Ellio4tt, Mrs. M. J. Grant, Mrs. F. J. Melvin. Mrs. S. J. Miller, Mrs. A. T. Riley, J. B. Batz, 1. T. H. Gray.

Page  272 THE GRANGE RECORD. TEHAICHIPA GRANGE, No. 214. TEHAICHIPA, KERN COUNTY. OrganizedJune 29, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. John Norboe, Master, George Recq, J. E. Williams, Jas. Prewett, Jr., Sec'y. L. Gibson, Paul M. Norboe, E. McVicker, J. B. Malin, A. H. Butts, W. B. S. Brink, Mrs. H. Williams, L. D. Green, W. S. Fastwood, Mrs. H. Whitlock, T. M. Wiggins, H. F. Wiggins, Mrs. M. J. Green, A. J. Degman, Thos. H. Goodwin, Mrs. L. Wiggins, A. Murphy, WV. C. Wiggins, Mrs. J. Taylor, Miss Martha Wiggins, Robert Taylor, Miss L. E. Butts, Mrs. E. Wiggins, W. A. Taylor, Mrs. M. McVicker, Mrs. E. A. Butts. CUJMMING'S VALLEY GRANGE, No. 215. CUMMING'S VALLEY (TEHAICHIPA), KERN COUNTY. Organized June 29, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Geo. M. Thompson, Mast'r,I. N. Ellis, John Freeman, T. M. Yates, Sec'y, Clint. Cudderback, N.J. McKaig, J. M. Brite, J. L. Hosack, George Cummings, P. P. Martin, Mrs. E. Brite, Lewis Smith, M. S. Freeman, MIrs. R. Davenport, Daniel Davenport, O. B. Wilson, irs. M. E. Cudderback J. B. Chamberlain, J. D. Chappell, rs. M. E. Martin, Joseph Wagerer, Jesse Davenport, Mrs. S. Cummings, Mrs. M. McKaig, H. L. Todd, Mrs. S. Chappell, Mrs. S. A. Ellis, Moses Hart, Mrs. M. J. Freeman, Mrs. J. Todd, POMO GRANGE, No. 216. PoMO, MENDOCINO-COUNTY. Organized July 4, 1874, by T. H. Mxry, Deputy. JTohn Mewhinney, Master, Life Farmer, W. L. Jones, G. B. Nichols, Secretary, Wm. D. Jones, L. P. Grover, Daniel Mewhinney, Pamuel Mewhinney, Mrs. Jane Miller, T. W. Dashiels, - J. Wattenburger, Lewis Hall, Jennie Deselms, John P. Bevans, R. E. Madden, B. Pemberton, II. T. Cox, Emma Madden, G. W. Pickle, H. Cox, L. J. Hall, Isaac W. Grover, Martha Hughes, Martha Sellers, Lavinia Grover, David Wolvener, Mrs. C. H. I. Nichols, B. B.'Brown, Mrs. C. Farmer, Stoddard Neil. ROUND VALLEY GRANGE, No. 217. ROUND VALLEY (COVELO), MENDOCINO COUNTY. Organized July 7, 1874, by T. H. Merry, Deputy. Philo Handy, Master, I. A. Foster, Martha R. Moore, J. A. Crawford, Secretary, Joel Eveland, W. P. Melendy, Nelson Brush, J. Green Short, Mary M. Melendy, Mrs. A. M. Brush, Chas. H. Bourne, A. J. Shrum, Patrick K. Faulds, F.M. Hughes, Wm. Pullen, S. H]onbrook, C. H. Eberle, D. C. Dorman, M. E. Honbrook, L. C. Long, P. K. O'Farrell, 1. A. Crawford, E. R. Potter, Mrs. Esther O'Farrell, A. E. McCombs, W. F. Moore, S. Foster. Sarah HI. McCombs, * 272

Page  273 THE GRANGE RECORD. MOUNT BOLIVAR GRANGE, No. 218. CALLAHANS, SISKIYOIU COUNTY. Organized July 31, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. R. M. Hayden, Master, Mrs. S. A. Denny, G. A. Eddy, J. A. Cole, Secretary, Mrs. J. E. Eddy, Jno. M. Messner, Wm. F. Chapman, Mrs. A. A. Guild, Stephen Farrington, 3. F. Forbes, Mrs. Clara Chapman, Miss M. A. Sweet, J. Comstock, Miss M. G. Eddy, Mrs. Mary Blevius, A. W. Wolford, C. Schuler, Mrs. M. A. Knauft, C. B. Sweet, F. Knauft, Mrs. M. Farrington, ETNA GRANGE, No. 219. AETNA, SISKtIYOU COUNTY. Organized August 1, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Charles F. McConaughy, Cord Sackman, Geo. E. Davidson, Mrs. S. E. Hovenden, Mrs. S. ~I. Moxley, ,. M. Wolford, Mrs. M. J. Shelley, Mrs. A. A. Green, lMrs. M. M. Wilson, Mrs. MI. E. Walker, J. W. MHcBride, M MIaster, J. 2,I. Conaughy, Sec'y, Jno. T. Moxley, H. C. Cory, L. S. Wilson, E. F. Smith, O. V. Green, G. Wagoner, Charles Hovenden, Lewis Hughes, FORT JONES GRANGE, No. 220. FORIT JONES, SISIYOU COUNTY. Organized August 1, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. J. S. Matthews, Master, J. W. Tuttle, Secretary, B. A. Godfrey, J. A. Davidson, J. R. Kinyon, A. W. Evans, D. B. Kingery, J. Hamilton, I. C. Wood, A. S. Rantz, MILLVILLE GRANGE, No. 221. MILLVILLE, SHASTA COUNTY. Organized August 5, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. E. Wagoner, Master, C. Reineke, John Ellis, Geo. W. Welch, Secretary, T. J. Martin, S. Hufford, J. L. Nichols, J. J. Kern, Wmin. Tulloch, J. W. Winsell, Mrs. N. Hufford, W. Grant, A. Chatham, Mrs. S. A. Grant, G. F. Schuler, T. D. Gault, Mrs. S. A. Martin, N. Harrington, L. T. Benton, Mrs. J. Gault, P. B. Langlois, Jno. P. Webb, Mrs. E. R. Winsell, Mrs. H. Ellis, G. Fender, Mrs. M. A. Keeney, Mrs. L. A. Dunham, J. Dunham, Mrs. M. F. Nichols, Mirs. H. D. Fenlder. 18 j 4 i. I I 273 W. D. Shelley, J. H. Walker, J. McWalker, Thos. Qui,ley, P. A. Hartstrand, Mrs. E. E. Smith, Irs. C. Hughes, I\"Irs. M. Quigley, $. M. Conaughy. I I I i.. iI I I. I,. J. Williams, Jeremiah Davids Thos. Patten, SI- J. Luttrell, Isaac Evans, S. D. V,,i.rnum, lklcrrill Evans, Mrs. 2,1. A. Davidson, 1VIrs. Ellen Tuttle, Mrs. M. Evans. M. Malayan, Thos. Weddess, George Bleything, Mrs. H. R. Godfrey, Miss Alice Davidson, Mrs. C. M. Kingery, Mrs. A. E. Matthews, Mrs. P. E. Evaias, Miss A. B. Godfrey, Mrs. L. A. Kinyon, I i i I

Page  274 I; THE GRANGE RECORD. LA HONDA GRANGE, No. 222. LA HONDA, SAN MATEO COUNTY, Organized July 17, 1874, by B. V. Weeks, Deputy. M1. Wooduams, Master, Richard T. Ray, Augustus A. Haskins, W. A. Saunders, Secretary, Joseph W. Haskins, VWm. H. Monroe, Charles C. Rodgers, Delia C. Johns, MIartha Ray, Charles B. Sears, Ella W. Weeks, Ettie E. Sears, Henry Wilber, Wmn. H. Monroe, Emma L. Johns. Henry Steiubarg, Isaac M. Baker, CRESCENT GRANGE, No. 223. SPANMisii TowN (HALF MOON BAY), SAN MATEO COUNTY. Organized August 8, 1874, by B. V. Weeks, Deputy. H. M. Jewell, Master, J. B. Gilchrist, John Johnston, James Comptou, Sec'y, Mrs. M. Jewell, W. A. Hammond, Robert Campbell, Mrs. S. M. Hammond, John Holmes, John B. Lock, Mrs. Mary Johnston, Mrs. J. Compton. Alonzo De Haro, J. P. Johnston, MILTON GRANGE, No. 224. IGGS STATION, BUTTE COUNTY. gust 10, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Anson Brown, M1rs. M. Lassell, D. W. Card, John Robinson, Silas Card, C. A. Robinson, Wmn. Cross, C. M. Harrison, August MeKillican, John Clusky, Mrs. F. B. Card, i. H. Rutledge, V niss H. L. Card, Mrs. N. M. Randall, WMrs. C. Harrison, MIrs. R. W. Randall, Mrs. M. E. Stone, Mrs. J. H. Rutledge, Mrs. E. M. Runnels, Mrs. D. Hurlburt. NORTH BUTTE GRANGE, No. 225. NORTH BUTTE (YUBA CITY), SUTTERi COUNTY. Organized August 11, 1874, by J. W. A. Wnright, Deputy. B. R. Spilman, Master, Thos. S. Clyma, J. N. Lindsey, J. D. Dow, Secretary, A. H. Lamma, J. Stafford, Otis Clark, Henry S. Graves, C. Williams, Wm. McMurtry, Mrs. M. Spilman, Wm. T. Spilman, Thos. S. Kersey, Mrs. M. Lindsey, Frank M. Clyma, W. T. Lamb, Mrs. E. Boyd, J. S. Boyd, Wm. Powell, Jr, Mrs. R. A. Clymna, Jno. D. Spilman, Aaron Pugh, Mrs. N. T. Myers, Mrs. S. C. McMurtry, J. H. Myers, Mrs. J. Kersey, Mrs. E. Spilman, Robt. Boyd, Mrs. L. A. Clark, Mrs. F. Larnma. SUMMIT GRANGE, No. 226. SUMMIT SCHOOI-HOUSE (PASO ROBLES), SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY. Organized July 25, 1874, by A. J. Mothersead, Deputy. J. N. Young, Master, Mrs. Almira Young, A. T. Foster, A. J. Foster, Secretary, Mrs. M. E. Smith, James M. Jackson, Anderson Smith, Mrs. Lottie M. Foster. Wm. Jackson, S. P. Litton, Mrs. Minerva Litton, Mrs. Sarah Harris, John Wilkinson, Miss Lucy Young, Mrs. L. Wilkinson, Andrew Harris, F. G. Young, Mrs. Sarah Mesenheimer, Peter Gillis, G. W. Richardson, Mrs. R. A. Klink, David Pate, L. D. Brians, Miss Hattie Mesenheimer. 274 l Org,,inized Au F[. L. Lassell, Master, lkl. A. Randall, Secretary, Daniel Streeter, Darius Hurlburt, Thomas Boulware, W. l. Harrison, V. S. Runnels, W. IV. Stone, Virgil Randall, H. C. Wilbur,

Page  275 THE GRANGE RECORD. RINCON GRANGE, No. 227. RINcoN, SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY. Organized August 15, 1874, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. F. M. Slaughter, Master, J. M. Halloway, Mrs. M. M. Hatheway, John Taylor, Secretary, S. B. Matthews, Mrs. S. J. Rivas, T. B. Walkinshaw, Miss Flora Wood, Mrs. S. M. Harris, J. C. Harris, R. W. Rivas, Mrs. M. E. Wood, George Lord, Bartlett Vines, Mrs. Margaret Taylor. F. M. Wood, WASHINGTON GRANGE, No. 228. ELIOTT (COMANCHE), SAN JOAQUIN CoUNTY. Organized August 28, 1874, by Andrew Wolf, Deputy. W. B. Stamper, Master, A. A. Vansant, Mrs. R. Sollars, M. L. Cook, Secretary, Ozias Peter, Mrs. E. Leeman, D. R. McIntire. I. C. Blyther, L. C. Leeman, S. W. Sollars, Mrs. Elizabeth Peter, R. Lucas, MI. L. Cook, Mrs. Martha Sollars, J. C. Deboldt, Wm. McIntire, Miss L. L. Little, John Hill, C. HI. Sittle, Mrs. A. E. Blyther, John Harris, S. O. Soilars, Mrs. L. L. Harris, Mrs. R. Lucas. SAN JACINTO GRANGE, No. 229. SAN JACINTO, SAN DIEGO COUNTY. Organized August 29, 1874, by Thos. A. Garey, Deputy. l'. D. Henry, Master, Allen Bane,'Mrs. Martha Collins, - Mrs. Martha Collins, Sec'y,Sydney Van Suven, Mrs. Rosaline Fowler, G. A. Collins, Mrs. J. E. Benson, Miss Mary Worthington I. M. Benson, Mrs. Sarah Kennedy, Miss Jennie Marine, John Wakefield, H. A. Hammer, Mrs. Mary Worthington, Joseph Carroll, F.M. Fowler, Mrs. J. A. Hammer. John Flanegan, Mrs. Mary Kennedy, MT. WHITNEY GRANGE, N MT. WHITNEY, TUiLARE COUN Organized September 12, 1874, by M. S. G. W. Duncan, Master, Mrs. M. E. Lawless, A. F. Thompson, Sec'y, Miss B. Murray, Charles Lawless, Mrs. M. Duncan, O. P. H. Duncan, Miss M. Catlin, R. Doran, Mrs. A. Catlin, T. J. Snyder, B. M. Hotchkiss, O. W. Catlin, L. H. Moore, O. G. Foot, A. Fletcher, J. W. Moore, Geo. Vincent, ALHAMBRA GRANGE, No. 231. MARTINEZ, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. Organized September 12, 1874, by R. G. Dean, Deputy. John Strentzel, Master, Mrs. Ann McHarry, Mrs. J. A. Holliday, Wm. A. Frazer, Sec'y, James Stewart, Miss Mary A. J. Holliday, Henry Roap, Alexander Boss, William Dick, Elam Barber, Johnson Young, Mrs. Sarah A. Dick, Lawrence M. Smith, Mrs. Anln Young, James Kelley, Beverly R. Holliday, Mrs. Elitha Boss, Mrs. Margaret Kelley, James C. McHarry, Mrs. Lena Roap, M. R. Barber, James McHarry, Miss L. W. Strentzel, Orpha Barber. I I i 275 I II i I James Brown, L. IV. Gregg, Heni:y W'Itt, Wm. St,irgeon, - Mrs. A. Foot, Mrs. C. J. Doran, Mrs. A. M. Hotchkiss, Mrs. M.,Moore, 3irs. L. A. Duncan. i i

Page  276 THE GRANGE RECORD. PLYMOUTH GRANGE, No. 232. PLYMOUTH, AMADOR COUNTY. Organized October 2, 1874, by Wmin. S. Manlove, Deputy. H. Vanderpool, Master, Jonathan Sallie, Sarah Vanderpool, S. C. Wheeler, Secretary, Wm. K. McKenzie, Maria Ford, Jas. F. Gregg, A. T. Cleaves, Sarah E. Bell, S. B. Rhoads, Wm. J. Matthews, Sarah L. Horton, James Wheeler, E. S. Potter, Anna Hammack, R. Ml. Ford, C. C. Forbes, Sarah J. Sallie, C. Hammack, G. W..Humphreys, Melinda E. Williams, H. H. Bell, Juliatha Wheeler, Mary A. McKenzie. H. H. Horton, HONCUT GRANGE, No. 233. MOORE'S STATION, BUTTE COUNTY. Organized October 3, 1874, by Wm. M. Thorp, Deputy. John C. Moore, Master, G. W. Underwood, A. L. Burdick, D. F. Newbert, Secretary, W. L. Moore, Mrs. Eliza Underwood, W. Lealey, --- John Keith, MIrs. Mary Lealy, A. J. Opdike, John S. Devoe, Mrs. Mary Robinson, L. C. Goodell, Mrs. B. A. Moore, Hiram Folsom, R. W. Goodell, John L. Devoe, MIrs. Harriett Folsom, M. Savage, D. P. Newbert, Thomas Smuck. J. Robinson, S. P. Dunville, JACKSON VALLEY GRANGE, No. 234. IONE CITY, AMADOR COUNTY. Organized November 18, 1874, by Harding Vanderpool, Deputy. Jesse D. Hamrick, Master, Henry Dillion, Mrs. Lavinia J. Dillion, Lansing J. Dooley. Sec'y, Robert K. James, Mrs. Sarah L. Black, AVWm. H. Prouty, William C. Thomnpson, Mrs. Mary H. Prouty, Charles S. Black, James Ritchie, Mrs. C. C. McMurrey, James W. Parkinson, Christopher C. Prouty, Mrs. Anna M. James, James W. Violette, Mrs. Nancy H. Prouty, Mirs. Australia R. Prouty, James P. Martin, Mrs. Elizabeth Hamrick, Christian Linlegar. Francis A. McMurray, NATIONAL RANCH GRANGE, No. 235. NATIONAL CITY, SAN DIEGO COUNTY. Organized November 24, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Frank A. Kimball, Master, R. D. Perry, Mrs. F. M. Kimball, E. T. Blackmer, Sec'y, N. P. Rouland, L. Roberts, G. L. Kimball, Mrs. S. C. Kimball, R. S. Pardee, MI. B. Hammond, Mrs. A. Hammer, L. L. Roberts, D. W. Bryant, Miss S. J. Perry, John T. Farley, J. M. Asher, Mrs. J. A. Walker, Mrs. Mary Farley, T. Walker, Mrs. L. B. Roberts, MIrs. S. A. Bryant, W. C. Kimball, Mrs. L. B. Kimball, Miss Susie Farley. 276

Page  277 THE GRANGE RECORD. POWAY GRANGE, No. 236. POWAY, SAN DIEGO COUNTY. Organized November 25, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. J. F. Chapin, Mllaster, C. Paine, Mrs. M. S. Babb, E. D. French, Sec'y, Wm. McKerren, Mrs. T. M. Paine, C. C. Watson, A. H. Le Claise, Miss Adeline Feeler, J. H. Hicks, Geo. R. Hoffman, Miss Katie Kerren, Wmn. Burroughs,. Fisher Allen, Mrs. M. E. Abell, Fred. Reetzke, Charles Thompson, Mrs. C. Watson, A. L. Feeler, Miss E. Hand, Wallace W. Walden, S. G. Hand, Mrs. M. E. Walden, I. L. Cole, A. Mitchell, Mis. L. Kerren, T. J. Cambron, A. J. Babb, Mrs. C. S. French, S. P. Abell. BALLENA GRANGE, No. 237. BALLENA, SAN DIEGO -COUNTY. Org,,anizedNovember 27, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. W. C. Billingsby, Master, S. Stone, Mrs. M. E. Billingsby, J. J. Sanderson, Sec'y, Joseph Swycaffer, Samuel Warnock, C. O. Tucker, M. Cassner, George Bradley, C. W. Stone, Mrs. S. J. Stone, Robert Bradley, A. W. Luclkett, Mrs. Maria Warnock, Mrs. Martha Swycaffer, WV. WI. Littlepage, Mrs. L. J. Putuam, Mrs. H. MI. Tucker, M. V. Castner, Mrs. M. J. Cassner, Miss Pauline Swycaffer. M.D. Putnam, Miss M. Stone, BEAR VALLEYGRANGE, No. 238. BEAR VALLEY, SAN DIEGO COUrNTY. Organized November 28, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. W.H.H.Dinwiddie,Master, J. Q. Adams, Joseph Fleshman, C. H. Moseley, Secretary, Albert Striplin, N. Jones, J. C. Hedden, J. S. Shelby, Jas. M. Lovett, A. MI. Striplin, S. Van Piper, M. Price, James A. Cook, Mrs. J. M. McMullen, Ambrose Welch, D. E. Bowman, Mrs. C. W. Jones, Mrs. Nancy Hedden, J. H. Antes, Mrs. P. J. Striplin, Mrs. A. Lovett, Samuel Striplin, Mrs. L. J. Hedden, Mrs. A. Price, E. L. Jones, Mrs. H. M. Dinwiddie, Mrs. Maria Antes, I. T. Adams, George Hedden, Miss Ida Antes. SAN BERNARDO GRANGE, No. 239. SAN BEiNAPDO, SAN DIEGO COUNTY. Organized November 28, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. Z. Sikes, Master, A. Montgomery, Mrs. Ida A. Duncan, T. Duncan, Secretary, Chas. McDougall, W. J. Whitney, Walter Sherman, Charles Ebb, J. P. Jones, L. J. Foster, Henry Beneke, J. Noble, F. E. Feeler, J. Watson, H. Case, W. F. Foster, Mrs. M. E. Sikes, Thos. Dunn, Wm. Ober, Mrs. M. T. Jones, Mrs. K. Sikes, B. E. Barker, Miss E. R. Sikes, Miss Angeline Feeler. iI 211-7 i I I I I

Page  278 THiE GRANGE RECORD. SAN LUIS REY GRANGE, No. 240. SAN Luis REY, SAN DIEGO COUNTY. Organized November 30, 1874, by J. W. A. Wright, Deputy. M. E. Ormsby, Master, Robert Ridge, Mrs. L. J. Kolb, L. J. Crombie, Secretary, S. E. Wright, W. Griffin, Jas. M. Griffin, Mrs. L. E. Crombie, A. R. Davis, John Griffin, Mrs. M. J. Welty, S. M. Harbolt, A. C. Kitching, Mrs. L. M. Combs, R. J. Welty, J. M. Kolb, Mrs. P. Freeman, Henry Combs, A. Freeman, Mrs. S. Griffin, Mrs. N. O. Ridge, A. J. Van Mater, Mrs. P. E. Kitching, Mrs. M. E. Ormsby. PLACERVILLE GRANGE, No. 241. PLACERVILLE, EL DORADO-COUNTY. Organized February 1, 1875, by A. J. Christie, Deputy. William Wiltse, Master, Mary J. Cook, H. G. Hulburd, Secretary, Frank Goyan, Wm. Lewis, Susie Goyan, I. S. Bamber, John P. Allen, R. Miles, Christie Ann Allen, Sarah Miles, Griffith L. Jones, George W. Ray, Joseph Lyon, Ethelinda Ray, Isaac Tribbin, A. S. Cook, Jacob Lyon, NEW CASTLE GRANGE, No.-242. NEW CASTLE, PLACER COUNTY. Organized January 9, 1875, by A. D. Neher, Deputy. John C. Boggs, Master, B. 1'. Tabor, Secretary, Mrs. L. C. Boggs, Miss I. A. Boggs, I. H. Mitchell, Mrs. G. A. Mitchell, Wm. H. Brainerd, Timothy Plant, Mrs. Catherine Plant, KEYSTONE GRANGE;No. 243. GRPANGEVILLE, TULARE COUNTY. Organized February 27, 1875, by M. S. Babcock, Deputy. Erastus Axtell, Master, Mrs. L. Bascomn, Jno. Rodgers, N. B. Golden, Secretary, Mrs. C. A. Dodge, Mrs. E. Rodgers E. Manning, Mrs. A. Manning, R. Dodge, J. M. Fuller, J. Coffey, Mrs C. Stewart, J. W. Griffes, Mrs. H. Axtell, A. Brown, R. Bascom, Mrs. M. E. Coffey, A. Childs, R. S. Dodge, Mrs. M. A. Hogle, D.V. Fuller, A. Hogle, Mrs. N. Snyder, E. Kelly. i 278 I'lliz,,tbetb Lyon, Rachael G. SimonF, Eli Herrell, John Kemp, Tbomas Ralph, ibiron H. Hurlburd, C. H. Burnham, Mary J. Groves. John H. Nixon, D. E. Plantz, Mrs. M. M. Plaiatz, Geo. Perkins, I Mrs. H. R. Perki3as, V. J. Prosser, Mrs. N. J. Prosser, Charles Brown, Wm. Puffer, 'Alrs. Clara Puffer, Wm. J. Lawrence, Owen Kii3g, Isaac Tabor, )B. P. Tabor. j. A. Griffith, G. W. Shrelkel, Wm. Smith, I.,,H. CampbelL

Page  279 THE GRANGE RECORD. MUSSEL SLOUGH GRANGE, No. 244. GRANGEVILLE, TULARE COUNTY. Organized February 26, 1875, by M. S. Babcock, Deputy. Wes. Underwood, Master, Mrs. A. Battenfeld, Mrs. M. E. Underwood, Wm. Land, Secretary, F. F. Wilson, Miss M. Lavery, T. Standard, Perry Mills, G. W. Battenfeld, J. P. Duncan, Mrs. S. Mills, Mrs. M. E. Battenfeld, J. Battenfeld, Jno. Mills, M. Dowdy, Wm. Battenfeld, W. H. Whitesides, A. F. Barnhill, S. R. Wilson, E. Greffee, Mrs. S. A. Lane. T. H. McNamee, Mrs. S. A. Duncan, J. T. Yount, J. Bigham, Mrs. M. J. Standard, Mrs. M. Yount. George H. Battenfeld, Mrs. T. McNamee, MODOC GRANGE, No. 245. WILLOW RANCH, MODOC COUNTY. Organized April 9, 1875, by D. S. K. Buick, Deputy. A. V. Coffer, Master, Mrs. E. D. Henderson, E. V. Coffer, M. Waid, Secretary, Mrs. S. E. Hamersley, W. H. Siet, L. E. Henderson, Mrs. L. Hamersley, Henry Williams, S. A. Hamersley. Mrs. M. Siet, O. P. Russell, F. Vincent, M. C. Siet, D. Wills, J. L. Sanborn, Mrs. M. J. Coffer, L. Crawford, WV. A. Henderson, Mrs. M. A. Glidden, M. Wills, J. T. Crawford, J. J. Kirk, Mrs. L. W. Henderson, A. Siets, J. A. Glidden, Miss Mary Hazelton, D. O. Bissell, E. J. Keeney, Mrs. M. Robinett, James Harver, R. Robinett, Mrs. M. E. Cloud. PLUMAS GRANGE, No. 246. SIERRA VALLEY (RENO, NEVADA,) PLUMAS COUNTY. Organized April 24, 1875, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. AX J. Spoon, Master, Wm. Arms, -Ienry Stiner, H. F. Lander, Sec'y, Mrs. M\. P. Arms, Jesse H. Stiner, Mrs. Josephine Spoon, Alexander Kirby, A. B. Huntley, Jacob Stiner, Mrs. A. Kirby, S. B. Hinds, O. McElroy. Alice Stiner, Thos. Black, Wm. A. Sperry. irs. M. E. Hinds, Mrs. W. C. Bingham, Joseph Hathaway, Richard Martin, Mrs. W. E. Sperry, Henry Lander, Miller Beach, Mrs. J. Langdon, Joel Langdon, D. C. Berry, Mrs. J. Hathaway, James E. Goble, W. C. Bingham, Allen Trimble. B. F. Bobo, INDIAN SPRINGS GRANGE, INDIAN SPRINGs, NEVADA COU. Organized April 29, 1875. TIM. P. Hatch, Stephen F. Ball, Mrs. Ball, WV. Emery, Mrs. C. Robinson, Mrs. E. M. Horton, Mrs. Margaret Gassaway, I I I i 279 i I I i I i 1, I i iI I i I I T. J. Robinson, L. Horton, P. L. Stull, J. 0. Marsh, C. D. Gassaway, John Perry, H. L. Hatch, Benj. Sanford, H. Hoffman, Mrs. E. W. Hatch, Mrs. J. Hatch, I Mary Stull, Jennie Stull.

Page  280 THE GRANGE RECORD. LAKESIDE GRANGE, No. 248. JANESVILLE, LASSEN COUNTY. Organized May 25, 1875, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. Geo H. Bingham, Master, John Theodore, Sec'y, D. D. Byers, W. S. Hamilton, L. Hicks, B. H. Laritt, B. D. Bass, Geo. W. Fry, W. M. McClelland, J. P. Sharp, H. H. McMurphy, NEVADA GRANGES. ALFALFA GRANGE, No. 1. RENO, WASIEOE COUNTY. Organized June 5, 1874, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. A. J. Hatch, Master, P. H. Kinney, Secretary, H. M. Frost, W. J. Marsh, Chris. Higgins, W. D. Masten, B. S. James, George DeRemet, JT. C. Smith, EAGLE VALLEY GRANGE, No. 2. CARSON, OIMSBY COUNTY. Organized June 9, 1874, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. G0. W. Chedig, Master, J. S. Neal, M. C. Gardner, O. A. F. Gilbert, Sec'y, Mrs. Eliza Nevers, Clark Simons, A. D. Tredway, Mrs. E. J. Dow, G. W. Chedig, I. A. Lovejoy, Mrs. L. M. Lovejoy, Mrs. H. M. Gardnr, 1. T. Griffiths, M. Y. Stewart. Mrs. M. Dow, S. A. Nevers, J. M. Gatewood, Mrs. V. B. Chedig. CARSON VALLEY GRANGE, No. 3. GENEVA, DOUGLASS COUNTY. Organized June 10, 1874, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. R. Y. Singleton, Master, W. H. Hill,'W. F. Bull, J. S. Childs, Secretary, A. P. Squiers, Robert Falk, A. P. Brockliss, Mrs. Margaret Cook, John Gardner, S. Singleton, Mrs. Amelia Harvey, Mrs. Rebecca Singleton, J. S. Bostor, Mrs. Rebecca Park, Mrs. Ann Carey, Peter W. Van Sickle, Richard C(ossor, Mrs. Isabella Livingston, Hugh Park, R. J. Livingston, Mrs. Mary McCue. 280 E. T. Slackford, Mrs. D. A. AlcM-Lirphy, S. A. McClelland, Miss F. E. MeMurphy, Miss J. M. McClelland, Mrs. M. L. Fry, Mrs. P. Parl,-s, S. H u frm. a n, Geo. H. Bangham, W. M. Cain, Wm. Lieth, Charles Barhanl, John Parks, E. C. Parks, John Thayer, Mrs. Margaret Caiii, Mrs. Mary F. Baugham, Mrs. P. A. Hamilton, Miss J. Bass, Miss 1-Iattie Parks. Mrs. F. l. Smith, 0. C. Ross, J. W. Lyle, Mrs. H. F. Hatch, Mrs. C. A. Norcross, .R. H. Kinney, Wm. Steele, Jos. Mayberry, . J. Hatch, A. M. Lamb, J. I-!. Stone, T. W. Norcross, Mrs. Jane La],-e, Ikl. C. Lake, Ilobt. Steele, Wm. Wright, G. W. Huffaker.'

Page  281 THE GRANGE RECORD. WASHOE VALLEY GRANGE, No. 4. Organized June 13, 1874, by J. M. Hamilton, W. M. Elias Owens, Master, Ross Lewers, E. Twaddle, George D. Winters, Sec'y, Miss Mary A. Smith, B. F. Small, Wm. Thompson, Mrs. Anna Crowder, G. W. Small, Hugh Montgomery, Miss Sarah Hughes, H. L. Perkins, E. B. Towl, Miss Ida Simons, A. Sauer, C. F. Wooten, J. M. Hope, C. Perkins, S. M. Place, H. B3. McCune, Miss Ella Simons, James'Twaddle, Lemuel Cook, Mrs. V. O. Towl. Joseph Frey, WELLINGTON GRANGE, No. 5. WELLINGTON, ESMERALDA COUNTY. Organized, September 19, 1874, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. A. H. Hawley, Master. J. P. Davis, W. R. Hutson, J. N. Mann, Secretary, Frank Rivers, Amos Burbank, S. A. Sawyer, Mrs. F. Rivers, Mrs. J. Davis, T. B. Rickey, Mrs. S. M. Burbank, Mrs. S. A. Hawley, D. C. Simpson, S. M. Burbank, Mrs. E. A. Simpson, J. N. Mann, S. M. Burbank, Miss Susie Hawley, S. Kent, John McVicker, Miss V. Lynds, W. L. Hall, Cyrus Smith, Mrs. T. B. Rickey. MERRITT GRANGE, No. 6. MAsON VALLEY, ESMERALDA COUNTY. Organized September 20, 1874, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. Kimber Cleaver, Master, James Merritt, Dennis Wiggins, Clark Cleaver, Secretary, Mrs. R. A. Cleaver, John Lancaster, George Sayles, Mrs. L. Saunders, E. Green, W. B. Saunders, Mrs. M. Hernleven, H. Stickenbaugh, C. Hernleven, David Cooper, Mrs. F. Wheeler, Thos. Shedden, J. B. Kasner, Mrs. Alice Spragg, Chas. Osborne, G. B. Waldo, Mrs. L. Stickenbaugh. John Wheeler, W. H. Spragg, PARADISE GRANGE, No. 7. PARADISE VAMLLEY, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized August 29, 1874, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. B. F. Riley, Master, Thos. Mullinax, Mrs. E. J. Riley, C. A. Nichols, Secretary, John Ross, Mary Shirley, S. R. P. Pierce, John Byrnes, Susan A. Nichols, Thos. Shirley, M. Kree, Mary Fisher, B. Fisher. R. H. Swartz, Catherine Kemler, Chas. Kemler, Isabella Lemance, Chesley Lamance. A. S. Trousdale, WINNEMUCCA GRANGE, No. 8. WINNEMUCcA, HUMBOLDT COUNTY. Organized March 6, 1875, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. Wm. B. Haskell, Master, Robert Henderson, Wm. H. Lowell, Hez. Barns, Secretary, J. F. Henderson, L. L. Rickard, James Buckner, Julia E. Tierney, Eliza J. Shaw, H. Dalrymple, Delphine Dalrymple, Mary J. Henderson, E. P. Tiernay, Eliza Buckner, Minna Kesler, Wm. W. Cross, A. Kleinhaus, May F. Ford, Win. Wear, Jos. Thomas, Sarah O. Barns, Charles Kesler, A. J. Shepard, Lizzie Pocket, John Basco, E. Pocket, Phebe Dalrymple, J. F. Abel, Wm. Shaw, 281

Page  282 THE GRANGE RECORD. ELKO GRANGE, No. 9. ELEO, ELKO COUNTY. Organized March 22, 1875, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. Joseph A. Tinker, Master, Joseph L, Keyser, Sec'y, A. L. Sherman, J. P. Hough, John Hunter, E. Burner, G. W. Letton, G. B. Kittridge, H. Tuttle, LAMOILLE GRANGE, No. 10. LAMOILLE VALLEY, ELKO COUNTY. Organized March 23, 1875, by A. J. Hatch, Deputy. Edwin Odell, Master, Jacob Laddie, Henry M. Freeman, Sec'y, E. H. Byers, A. Wines, Marshall E. Stottler, J. H. Jewett, A. B. Marvel, Amelia T. Jewett, Mary J. Trueman, William McComb, Mary Wines, Catharine McComb. Wm. M. Biggs HALLECK GRANGE, No. 11. CAMP HALLECK STATION, ELKO COUNTY. Organized March 24, 1875, by A. J. Hatch, Deptuy. I. S. Fenn, Master, Roland Day, F. M. Harges, Maurice Geary, Sec'y, Mrs. Harriet Day, F. J. Greenberg, J. J. Campbell, John D. Ables, Mrs. A. Greenberg, Mrs. J. T. Campbell, Mrs. A. E. Fenn, H.J. Keith, Hamilton McCain, Mrs. M. A. Ables, Nathan Phillips. Luella Geary, MIiss Emma Ables, STAR VALLEY GRANGE, No. 12 STAR VALLEY (HUMBOLDT WELLS), ELKO COUNTY. Organized June 2, 1875, by Joseph A. Tinker, Deputy. D. E. Johnston, Master, John Crossen, Mrs. William Weathers, Chas. J. Whitney, Sec'y, Malcolm Hall, Mrs. Debbie Hall, W. W. Griswold, George Ackley, Mrs. W. W. Griswold, T. F. Breunan, Charles J. Whiting, Mrs. M. Crossen, James'lullen, John Deering, W. Weathers. CLOVER VALLEY GRANGE, CLOVER VALLEY (HUIIIMBOLDT WELLS), Organized June 6, 1875, by Joseph A. T F. Honeyman, Master, C. H. Brassey, W. B. Raymond Sec'y, F.M. Smith, J. Wiseman, W. T. Weeks, Daniel Gilanders, John Crocker, J. A. Steel, J. E. Chase, M. Duval, H. S. Tuttle, C. Stoner, Charles Lampman, W. A. Wilcox, Mrs. S. Honeyman, 282 E. L. Wetmore, George S - etz, H. A. You-ng, Mrs. H. Tuttle, Mrs. Jobn Hunter, E. S. Ybates, J. F. Burner, J. Hufford, II. Green, J. W. Parke, Thos. Hunter, Robert B. Hunter. Joseph Cox, Mrs. J. A. Tinker, Mrs. G. W. Letton, Miss Maggie Yeates, Mrs. E. L. Wetliiore, Mrs. Janet Adams. Anna Big,sl J. K. Sn-l'th, A. F. Bacon, Mrs. B. E. Byers, Henry Tboml)son, Patrick McDermott. Mrs. May Honeyman, Mrs. S. Duval, Mrs. A. Smith, .Mrs. S. Brassey, Mrs. F.'NViseman, Mrs. E. Chase, Mrs. J. E. Chase.

Page  282A

Page  282B /' j (;//"<i ~ D ANIEL CLARK, \. M. of State Grange of Ore-goi /i'; !. il Ij,/

Page  283 THE GRANGE RECORD. OREGON STATE GRANGE. OFFICERS: Master-DANIEL CLAnK, Marion county. Overseer-WILLIAM CYRUS, Linn county. Lecturer-E. L. SMITH, Olympia, Washington Territory. Steward-W. M. SHELTON, WaiHa Walla, Washington Territory, Assistant Steward-W. M. POWERS, Linn county. Chaplain-M. PETERSON, Jackson county. Treasurer-S. P. LEE, Clackamas county. Secretary-J. HENRY SMITH, Linn county. Gate Keeper-A. A. MATTHEWS, Douglas county. Ceres-MrS. JANE CYRUS, Linn county. Pomona-MaRS. M. POWERS, Linn county. Flora-L. C. REID, Yamhill county. Ladcly Assistant Steward-MRs. L. S. FOLSOM, Lane county. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: S. W. BROWN, Clarke county, Washington Territory. H. N. HILL, Lane county. C. E. MOORE, Benton county. ORLEY HULL, Walla Walla. E. FORBES, Clackamas county. M. FISK, Salem. ORGANIZING DEPUTIES FOR 1875. OREGON. County. Deputy., Baker................ Win. Brown........... Baker City. Benton.................. Chas. E. Moore........... Corvallis. Benton..................Jacob Modie...............Corvallis. Clatsop.................. R. W, Morrison........... Clackamas...............E Forbes................ Oregon City. Clackamas............... A. R. Shipley............. Oswego. Melntire's LtaIig, SanColumbia................J. M. McIntire........ ti...,, Sau l vie's Island. Coos.................... J. Henry Schroeder....... Ott. Douglass.................. M. R. Gurney............Ten Mile. Grant....................D. B. Rhinehart.......... Caion City. Jackson..................D. S. R. Buick...........Ashland. Lane....................H. N. Hill................Junction. Lane....................Geo. R. Hamersley........ Camp Creek. Linn.....................Win. Cyrus............... Scio. Linn...R.............R. A. I!vine..............Lebanon. Marion...................S. D. Hale...............Peoria. Marion...................B. A. Witzel..............Turner. Multnomah...............Jacob Johnson............East Portland. Multnomah.............. W. J. Campbell...........East Portland. Polk.....................James Tatome............. Dixie. Tillamook............... H. F. Holden............ Umatilla.............. John S. White............Weston. Wasco.................... Riayes............... The Dalles. Wasco...................J. H. Douthitt.......... Upper Ocheco. Washington........... T. D. Humphrev.........Hillsboro. WVashington..............Henry Buxton............Forest Grove. Yamhill................ vAAlex. Reid................McMinnville. Yamhill................. A. B. Henry............. La Fayette. I I 283 i i I

Page  284 THE GRANGE RECORD. WASHINGTON TERRITORY. County Deputy. Post-office. Clarke.....................H. M. Knapp............ Mlill Plain, or Vancouver. Clhehalis................ M. Z. Goodell............Elma. King.....................Julius Horton........... Seattle. Pierce...................John S. Bozarth........ Pekin. Pacific............... S. S. Markham.......... Chehalis Point. Thursto n.................E. L. Smith........... Olympia. Thurston.................Wm. Packwood...........Tenino. Walla Walla............. Wm. M. Shelton.......... Walla WValla. Walla Walla........... O. Hull................Walla Walla, IDAHIO TERRITORY. Ada....................... Russell..............Weeiser. Ada.................... L. F. Cartee..............Boise City. Nez Perce..............S. S. Howard.......... Paradise Valley. Nez Perce................. W. C. Pierson........... Mt. Idaho. OREGON SUBORDINATE GRANGES. ARRANGED BY COUNTIES. BAKER COUNTY. Name and Number. MBlaster. Secretary. P.O. of Secretary. Baker City, 152....C. M. Fo ter....... S. H. Small........Baker City. Eldorado, 153.......VWm. Morfit........J. T. Locey........El Dorado. Malheur, 170......E. W. Imbler.......W. E. Thompson... El Dorado. Wingville, 150......William Brown..... C. W. James....... Baker City. BENTON COUNTY. Alsea, 77...........Mulkey Vernon.....Silas Howell.......Alsea Valley. Kings Valley, 66....R. J. Grant......B... Cady..........Kings Valley. Laurel, 69. i........H. B. Nichols......A. C. Nichols...... Monroe. Locke, 15..........Charles E. Moor....O. V. MIotley...... Corvallis. Orleans, 50.........J. McCune......... William WVinning... Corvallis. Philomath, 13...... E. Hartless.........George Henkle.....Corvallis. Toledo, 168........ WVm. Brazelton.....Wm. Stitt..........Newport. Union (4), 151..... W L. Price.......IH. N. Bowman.....Summiit. Willamette, 52......S. W. B. Smith....George M. Porter... Corvallis. CLACKAMAS COUNTY. Beaver Creek, 115. M. O. Gard........C. F. Beatie........Oregon City. Canby, 135.....-S. A. Marks........ Wm. Knight.......Canby. Cascade, 120.......J. C. Branham.....Henry McGugin....Sandy. Damascus, 41.....James P. Chitwood.Norman Darling....Damascus. Eagle Creek, 2.....F. W. Foster.......E. Forbes..........Damascus. Harding, 122....... IV. L. Holcomb....T. E. Lacey.......Norton. Highland, 70.......A. Nicholas........W. J. Allison......Oregon City; HighlandGrove,136.Randolph Stricklin. Chas. T. Hickman.. Highland. Marshfield, 1.......T. J. Matlock......J. A. Mills.........Clackamas. Molalla, 40.........John H. Sm nithi.....J. A. WVright........ Molalla. Mountain View, 142.James W. Offield... A. Carmichael...... Canby. Mount Zion, 121...John Tate.........W. H. Livermore.. Zion. Needy, 81..........John Ring.........A. A. Arington.....Needy. Oswego, 175.......C. W. Bryant......A. R. Shipley..... Oswego. Spring Water, 108..Henry Rowley....A. A.A. Southworth.. Norton. Upper Molalla, 83.. FranklinW. Vaughn.Samuel Engle.......Needy. CLATSOP COUNTY. Clatsop, 156....... John A. Packard... Josiah West....... Skipanou. Young's River, 172.A, H. Sale......... John Davis....... Astoria. 2.84

Page  285 THE GRANGE RECORD. COLUMBIA COUNTY. Name and Number. Master. Secretary, P.O. of Secretary. Columbia City, 177.Geo. W. Maxwell.. S. L. Lovell......Columbia City. Klalskanine, 182....E. W. Congers.....Mrs. A. J. Congers.Kialskanine. North Union, 176...E. S. Bryant.......Z. S. Bryant.......Marshland. Scappoose, 144.....W. W. Mars........M. Pomeroy.......Gosa's Landing., COOS COUNTY. Coos River, 45...... Charles Higgins... Samuel Beavens... Coos River. Coguille City, 167,. Wm. Morris........James Aikens......Isthmus. Halls Prairie, 164...J. Henry Schroeder.E. S. Spurgeon.....Coquille City. Laurel, 180......S. L. Leneve....... R. H. Rosa......Randolph. Maple, 171........ Charles Wilkins....Henry Schroeder... Hermansville North Coquille, 173.J. H. Roach........ J. S. Cocke......... Dora. DOUGLAS COUNTY. Canyonville, 109... N. Cornutt........ Geo. W. Riddle....Canyonlville. Elkton, 149........James M. Stark....D. W. Stearns........Elkton. Mount Scott, 151...J. L. Thornton.....R. A. Roper........ Roseburg. Myrtl]e, 59........ W. J. Hayes.......F. M. Gabbert.....Myrtle Creek. Umpqua, 28........Plinn Cooper.......Nat Webb..........Roseburg. Union (2), 51......William Thornton.. James Byron.......Ten Mile. VWilbur, 114........James N. Dodge.... G W. Grubb.......Wilbur. Yoncalla, 78........Abraham Lamb....John H. McClure...Yoncalla, GRANT COUNTY. Canyon City, 161...D. B. Rhinehart...E. S. Penfield......... Canyon City. Daniel Clark, 162...J. G. Cozort......George Shearer.....Prairie City. Mount Vernon, 163.Robert E. Damon..Henry H. Davis... Canyon City. JACKSON COUNTY. Applegate, 138......Lyman Chappell...Wm. Ray............Jacksonville. Ashland, 87........A. D. Helman......J. D. Fountain.....Ashland. Central Point, 124.. Martin Peterson... George R. Hamrick.Jacksonville. Eagle Point, 123....H. J. Terrill.....Levi Yenkim...... Brownsburg. Harmony Point, 137.Thomas Wright... Lizzy B. Kincaid.. Jacksonville. Jacksonville, 88... F. M. Plymale....Isaac W. Berry.....Jacksonville. Oakland, 86........J. F. Rice..........William Thiel.......Oakland. Phoenix, 104.......J. S. Herron.......J. M. Hoxie....... Phoenix. Sam's Valley, 113..J. S. March........B. F. Wade........Sam's Valley. Washington, 181...Wm. W. Fidler.....Frank A. Knox.....Applegate. JOSEPEINE COUNTY. Kirbyville, 178.....J. B. Siffers.......D. Fiester.........Kirbyville Josephine, 179.....Joseph Pollock...T. F. Coxton....... Leland. LAKEE-COUNTY. Hot Springs........J. J. Charlton......R. H. Danlack..... Fort BidwelL LANE COUNTY. Cayota, 55.......S.S. Stephens..... C. D. W. Huffman-.. Spencer Creek. Charity, 76....... M. Wilkins...... F.MI. Wilkins.......Willamette Forks. Creswell, 64........ Roscoe Knox.......G. S. Gilfry.......Cresswell. Eugene City, 56....Jesse Cox.......... J. F. Smith........Eugene City. Fall Creek, 146..... M. L. Wilmot...... Wm. Eaton........Rattlesnake. Fir Butte, 118......W. P. Chesher.....Joseph H. Green.. Eugene City. Franklin, 155......W. G. Miller.......S. Lewis..........Franklin. Goshen, 101.......W. R.. Dillard......A. K. Patterson....Goshen. Grand Prairie, 26.. Allen Bond........J. C. Jennings.....Junction City. Junction City, 43... F. W. Folsom......J. E. Houston...... Juinction City. McKenzie, 107......Joseph McLane.... W. A. Walcott..... Camp Creek. MIohawk, 147.......Heniry Parsons.....Asahel Spencer.....Eugene City. i 280' I

Page  286 THE GRANGE RECORD. LANE coUNTY —Continved. Name and Number. Master. Secretary. P.O. of Secretary. Pleasant Grove, 139.A. J. Zumwalt......L. G. Be]knap...Eugene City. Pleasant Hill, 65....W. H. tH. McClure R. M. Mulholland..Pleasant Hill. Spencer Butte, 126.James F. Amis.... Joseph Bailey......Spencer Creek. Springfield, 12.....John Kelley.........John Stewart.......Eugene City. Union (1), 17......Hynson Smyth.....J. H. Furgeson.....Junction City. LINN- COUNTY. Banner, 165..........J. A. Riggs.........Robert Glass........ Crawfordsville. Beaver, 44.........W. C. Foren.......C. L. Morris..... Lebanon and Scio, Brownsville, 19... A. W. Stanard....G. C. Blakely......Brownsville. Center, 97.........W N. J. Philpott.....Z. B. Moss.........Sweet Home. Charity (2), 103....F. M. Kiser........P. H. Wigle........Harrisburg. Corinthian, 8.......W. F. Alexander...E. Haner.............Albany. Cottage Grove, 75..A. H. Spare........J. H. Shortridge....Cottage Grove. Grand Prairie, 10... Isaac Hayes........Daniel Ray........Albany. Happy Home, 46...J.R. South........G. B. McKinney... Scio and Lebanon. Harmony, 23.......S. A. Dawson.... H. Powell....... Albany. Harrisburg, 11..... Wm. McCulloch...J. P. A]ford.......Harrisburg. Hope, 24...........L. F. Smith........C. P. Davis........ Albany. Jordan Valley, 42...John Bryant.......A. T. McCally...... Scio,. Knox Butte, 22.....M. 1H. Wilds.......Milton Houston.... Albany. Lebanon, 21....... S. A. Nickerson... Frank Pike..........Lebanon. Oak Plain, 6.......J. H. Bramwell.....T. J. Black........Halsey. Peoria, 116.........S.D. Haley....... T. L. Porter.......Peoria, Santiam, 37......W. Cyrus..........N. Crabtree........Scio. Sandridge, 57......I. Scott.......... G. W. Cooper....... Albany. Scio, 36............Thos. McMunkers..J. F. Miller........Scio. Shedd, 9...........W. M. Powers....H. B. Sprenger.....Shedd. Siuselaw, 54....... D. B. Cartwright...F. M. Nighswander.Cartwright. Soap Creek, 14.....J acob Modie.......R. D. Murray......Albany. Sodaville, 85.......W. B. Gibson......C. C. Burgo........Lebanon. Syracuse, 53.......S. T. Jones........H. Johnson........Millers StationL Tangent, 7.........James W. Jordan...E. P. McClure.....Tangent. MARION- COUNTY. Abiqua, 133....... Willis Donegon.... W. F. Easthani...Monitor. Butte Creek, 82... Enoch Skirvin......J. R. White........Butte Creekt Butteville, 74......John W. Grimm....J. D. Crawford..... Butteville. C4hehulpan, 68.....Jesse Parish.......W. W. Steiner......Jefferson. Fairview (2), 141...H. E. Ankeny....T. C. Jorey...... Salem. Gervais, 140......W. H. Ringo....... M. A. Wade........Gervais.. Howell Prairie, 80..Wmn. Sappingfild. J.G. Moore........Silverton. Hubbards, 132.....R. A. Ross.........Jas. A. Cochran....Hubbard. Mount Vernon, 134. J. H. Haddley......N. Scott........... Silverton. Rock Point, 48.....J. Downing.......G. W. Hunt....... Sublimity. Bound Prairie, 106 Wm. Hubbard...... D. H. La Follett...Brooks. Salem, 17........MWI. Fisk......... John Minto....... Salem. Turner, 18.........B. A. Witzel...... W. M. Hilleary.....Turner. Woodburn, 79......G. W. Dimmick....Wm. Dart......W.Woodburn. MULTNOMAH COUNTY. Acme, 166......... W. Munger....... T. H. Prince......... Portlancd. Evening Star, 27....W. J. Campbell....H. T. Campbell....E. Portland. Fairview, 131......D. F. Buxton......James Brand....... E. Portland. Multnomah, 71.....John Moore..... J. S. Newell..... E. Portland. Powell Valley, 84...T. K. Williams.....S. B. Whithington.Powell Valley. Sauvies Island, 143.J. MI. McIntire...Marissa Bouser..-. Sauvie's Island. Western Star, 145... William Forrest-,... K. F. Kuetemeyer. Willamette Stonglh Willamette, 119.... William Bybee.....S. E. Paddock......Portland. I 286

Page  287 THE GRANGE RECORD. POLK COUNTY. Name and Number. Master. Secretary. P.O. of Secretary. Buena Vista, 4..... J. B. Stump....... M. Scrafford..... Buena Vista. Dallas, 61..........Robert Clw.......J. B. Riggs.......Dallas. Garretson, 60......A. G. Shurtleff.....H. Alexander.....Bethel. Mill Creek, 91.....B. B. Branson.....W. H. Kuykendall..Grand Round. Monmouth, 5.... Langdon Bentley.. Ira F.M. Butler. Monmouth. Mono, 25........Isaac Staats.......H. C. McTimonds..Lewisville. Oak Point, 3.......F. A. Patterson....J. G. Sears......Dixie. Perrydale, 30.......J. Stouffer.........P. C. Sears........Perrydale. Spring Valley, 62... W. A. Henry.......Thomas Pierce.....Eola. TILLAMOOK COUNTY. Fidelity, 174....... H. F. Holden...... W. T. Newcomb..... Tillamook. UMATILLA COUNTY. Alta, 96.......... L. P. Davidson.....E. Gilliam.........Pilot Rock. Butter Creek.......S. G. Lightfoot.....J. S. Vinson.....B..Btter Creek. Lone Star, 160.....W. D. Gilliam.....W. A. Booth.......Mitchell. Meadowville,9i....A. L. Gordon.....T. Benson............Umatilla City. Midway, 95........J. H. Chase........H. C. Meyers.... Iteppner. Miltou, 29......... iWm. M. Steen.... Thomas K. McCoy. Wa!,a Walla Citv. Pendleton, 93....Wm. H. Barnhart..J. H. Sharon.... Pendleton. Weston, 34.........Robert Jamieson... Hugh McArthur... Weston. Wild Horse, 35....... J. Kirk.........D. A. Richards.....Weston. UJNION COUNTY. Cove, 128.......N.B. ees.........Otho Eckersley... Cove. La Grande, 127....Abner W. Waters.. Daniel Chaplain.... La Grande. Powder River, 169..T. 0. Bryant.......H. D. Cassidy......Uniontown. Suumnerville, 130...W. B. Hamilton....W. H. Parreut.....Summerville. Union (3), 129..... Wm. Hutchinson...John Creighton....Union. WASCO COUNTY. Barlows Gate, 157.. John End..........Albert Savage......Tygh Valley. Dalles, 39..........Robert Mays.......E. P. Roberts......The Dalles. Ocheco, 159....... J. H. Douthitt...... Mrs. E. A. Free]and.Upper Ocheco. Prineville, 158.....E. Barnes......... S. R. Slayton......Prineville. Wasco, 38.........J. J. Griffin........G. H. Barnett.....The Dalles. WASHINGTON COUNITY. Beaverton, 100....Thos. Tucker.....R. B. Wilmot......Beaverton. Butte, 148........ J. A. Richardson... S. D. Powell.......Tualatin. Columbia, 89.......James Imbrie......Francis Kennedy... Glencoe. Cornelius, 63.......H. C. Raymond....G.A. Guild........Cornelius. Farmington, 110...J. S. Grey..........Alfred Davis.......Scholls Ferry. Forest Grove, 67... Henry Buxton.....H. T. Buxton......Forest Grove. Greenville, 49......Daniel Baker.......W. R. Barrett....,..Greenville. Hillsboro, 73.......T. D. Humphreys.J. i. Sewell...... Hillsboro. Wapatoo, 90....... S. W. Sappington. Isaac Chrisman...Gaston. Tualatin, 111.......John Krase........James Barstow.....Tualatin. Washington, 99.... Isaac Ball......... W. W. Gibbs.......Tualatin. West Union, 72... David Lennox......George Blish.......West Union. YAMHILL COUNTY. Amity, 102.......J. J. Henderson....J. R. Sawyer.......Amity. Chehalem, 92..... S. Brutseher...... J. J. Haynes.......Newberg. Excelsior, 16....... B. F. Lewis........I. E. Coovert.......Dayton. La Fayette, 32.....A. B. Henry.......C. F. Royal......La Fayette. McMinuville, 31.... Alex. Reed........ D. 0. Durham.....[cMinnville. North Yamhill, 33.. R. R. Lalghlin... J. W. Stewart......North Yamhill. Sheridan, 98....... Wmn. Savage.......Thos. E. Fristoe....Sheridan. UInity, 112....... S.S. Whitcomb... R. Pettyjohn..... La Fayette. West Chehalem,125.T. B. Nelson......George Noble......West Chehalem. Willamette (2), 105.William Crosier... Peter Barendregt.. Wheatland. 287

Page  288 THE GRANGE RECORD. WASHINGTON TERRITORY SUBORDINATE GRANGES. AlRANGED BY COUNTIES. CHEHALIS COUNTY. Name and Number. Master. Secretary. P.O. of Secretary. Central, 63......... Joseph Castro......Justin Chenowith.. Chehalis Station. Chehalis, 26.....W. Z. Goodell......W. A. Anderson... Elma. Montesano, 18.....J. E. Metcalf....... S. S. Markham.....Montesano. Oakville, 27.......George E. Smith. Mrs. D M. Newton.Oakville. Sharon, 51.........D. J. Gladdis...... J. A. Ridiugs......Sharon. CLARK COUNTY. Brush Prairie, 25... Isaac Diedtreich... Jesse Holbrook..... Brush Prairie. Central (2), 31.... Geo. W. Proebstel..Wmn. S. Douthitt...Vancouver. Fern Prairie, 30.... Chas. Zeek.........Jasper M. Blair....Vancouver. La Centre, 48......Thomas J. Carroll..D. A. McNalf......Lewis River. Maple Grove, 45....D. L. Russell......John H, Fletcher...Battle Ground. Mill Plain, 24.....G. W. Evans.......Hamilton Graham..Vancouver. Oriental, 57........J. S. Hathaway.....J. B. Hathaway.... Vancouver. Union Ridge, 46....David R. Fales..... Minnie Hathaway.. Union Ridge. Vaucover, 54.......S. W. Brown......J. C. Hileman...... Vaucouver. Washugul, 32......James A. Kerns.... Charles T. Stiles... Vaucouver. COWILITZ COUNTY. Freeport, 58.......George P. Gray... Jasper D. Stone....Pekin. Rising Sun, 58..... Nathan Davis......C. Calahan........Pekin. KING COUNTY. Alpha, 55........... -.........T. S. Sloane...... Squak. Duwamish, 11......John T. Jordon.....Wm. M. Myers..... Seattle. Maple, 60..........Henry Oliver.......Joseph Alexander.. Centerville. Skagit, 61..........W. H. Sartwell.....Daniel Gage.......Skagit. Snogualanie, 39... James Taylor......Cyrus Dorst...... Fall City. White River, 9....Charles W. LawtonT. McClellan...... White River. ]LICKITAT COUNTY. Kliclkitat, 49........R. W. Helm.......H. T. Lewis...... Klickitat City. Nanum, 53.........B. W. Frisbee...... A. B. Ford.........Eliensburg. LEWIS COUNTY. Boisford, 34........J. H. Miller....... Jay Stillman.......Boisfort. Ciaquato, 19.......F. M. Pearson....Brad W. Davis..... Claquato. Cowlitz, 35........H. H owe........ G. D. Laughlin.... Cowlitz. Grand Mound, 20..J. S. French........John F. Brewer....Centreville. Skookum Chuck, 33, John Tullis...... B. S. McElroy....Skookum Chuck. MASON COUNTY. Home, 56.......... T. W. McDonald.... F. H. Cook........ Olympia. PIERCE COUNTY. Puyallup, 41..... W. C. Kincaid.... Mary F. Meeker..Puyallup. STEILACOOM.w COUNTY. Muck, 40..........William Lyle.......M. F. Hawk.......Steilacoom. STEPHENS COUNTY. Pine Grove, 17..... F. A. Dashiel...... L. Blain........... Pine Grove. THURSTON COUNTY. Olympia, 10.....L. G. Abbott...... Albert A. Manning Olympia. Unity, 21..........M. N. E]isbergen... Oliver Shead....... Skookum Chulk Yelm, 28......... Longmire...... Wm. Martin........Yelm. 288

Page  289 THE GRANGE RECORD. WALLA WALLA COUNTY. Name and Number. Master. Secretary. P.O. of Secretary. Battle Creek, 8.... Wm. E. Ayres..... Thos. Throssel.......Dayton &Waitsburg. Blue Mountain, 3..William M. Shelton.John F. Brewer...Walla Walla City. Central, 22.........G. T. Welch.......Epps Hardy........Waitsburg. Dayton, 2........J. B. Shrum....... O. C. White.......Dayton. Dixie, 5...........W. S. Gilliam......W. J. P. McKern.. Walla Walla City. Harmony, 6........ VW. W. Sherry...... J. A. Starner......Dayton. Pataha, 13.........J. L. Rounds.......T. McBrierly.......Dayton. Spring Valley, 23... C. C. Cram........D. R. Harris.......Waitsburg. Union, 12......... George Geer.... M. Smith.......Pataha Prairie Waitsburg, 1.......J. W. Highland... Mrs. N.J. A.Simons.Waitsburg. Walla Walla, 4.....Frank Shelton.....James Simonton.... Walla Walla City. WVallula, 29...... G. D. Goodwin....Wmn. Martin.........Wallula. WAIMIACUM COUNTY. Skamakawa, 64... James W. Smith...Fred. E. Strong.....Skamakawa. WHATCOM COUNTY. Fidalgo, 38........H. C. Barkhouser.. C. N. White.........Fidalgo. Nooksachk, 37.....Wmn. Hampton.....James H. Reed.....Nooksachk. Swinomish, 50.....R. E. Whitney.....E. A. Sisson.......La Conner. Whatcom, 36......A. C. Marston......M. D. Smith.......Whatcom. WHITMAN COUNTY. Cour d'Alene, 16...W. A. Nickols..... Wi m. King......... Colfax. Excelsior, 14.......Philip 0. Cox......Marion Davis....... Colfax. Palause, 44........ H. S. Burlingame... E. M. Downing..... Colfax. Pioneer, 15........Lewis Ringer......W. J. Hamilton.... Colfax. WHITBY'S ISLAND. Oak Harbor, 63.... Thos. P. Hastie.... John W. Gillespie.. Cove Land. Whitby's Island, 42.B. F. Loveland.....E. B. Ebey........ Cowperville. YACKIMA COUNTY. Yackima, 52......G. S. Taylor....... W. W. Dickenson.. Selah & Stannum. IDAHO TERRITORY SUBORDINATE GRANGES. ALRRANGED BY COUNTIES. ADA COUNTY. Boise, 3........... L. F. Cartee.......George D. Ellis....Boise City. Dixie, 8.........T. B. Gess....... B. F. Young......Middleton. Dry Creek....... Henry L. Owings... I. W. Herald.......Boise City. Eureka, 9.......... Emmettsville, 12....... A. Bennett.......W. F. Cavanah.....Emmettsville. Horse Shoe Bend, 10. Lower Boise, 7..... Middleton, 6....... Payette, 11........ Sampson Reed..... I.E. Fouts........Falk's Store. Salubria, 14........John G. Curtis.....Alexander Allison..Salubria. Shelton, 4.........Joseph Wilson....David Heron...... Boise City. Star, 5....... D. W. Touch.......C. I. Simpson.....Boise City. Weiser, 13.........Nelsoe Haven......A. F. Helt........Weiser. NEZ PERCE COUNTY. Charity, 15......... W.C. Pearson.....J. H. Robinson... Mount Idaho. Nez Perce, 1....... W. C. Brittain.... D. J. Hayfield......Pine Creek. Paradise, 2........ John A. Emery.....Wm. Howard.....Paradise. Stepto, 43......... J. H. Cousins......F. Hanna..........Paradise. 19 i I I i, I . I i il i i 289 II II I i - I I II i i ,I,. ii i I i I II -

Page  290 PART FOURTH. MDS AND OBSTACLES TO AGRICULTURE ON THE PACIFIC COAST. CHAPTER XVIII. LAND MONOPOLY. "The source of public security and social permanence is the attachment of the freeholder to his home. The State should seek to promote an intensive rather than an extensive agriculture.-Preof. Thomnpson. MR. J. STUART MILL'S AXIOM-THE PUBLIC DOMAIN, AND ITS DISTRIBUTION-LANDS IN CALIFORNIA-PROSPERITY SHOWN BY THE PROPORTION OF FAItMS TO POPULA TION-DISPOSITION OF STATE LANDS-EFFECTS OF CONSOLIDATION OF LANDED INTEREST IN ENGLAND-SPANISH AND MEXICAN DOMINATION-MEXICAN GRANTS, AND A DISCREDITABLE CHAPTER OF HISTORY-BOUNTY OF THE FEDERAL GOVERN MENT-HOW THE STATE LANDS HAVE BEEN MANIPULATED-DISCREPANCY BE TWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE LAWS-EASTERN COLLEGE AND INDIAN SCRIP SWAMP AND TIDE LANDS-AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE GRANT-RAILROAD GRANTS CALIFORNIA PEERAGE, AND STATUS OF OUr, LANDLORDS-DISCoLIATION IN TAX ATION —REMEDIES. NOT one, but many questions of vital importance to the publie welfare, are involved in an intelligent opinion of the true relations of man and land. The interest which the whole people and successive generations have in its division and distribution, appears to justify peculiar legislation, inasmuch as it belongs to no other kind of property. Mr. J. Stuart Mill laid it down as a political axiom, that the "land, the gift of nature to all, cannot be considered property in the same absolute sense asthat in which no one has any interest but ourselves." A recent American writer, Prof. Robert Ellis Thompson, in a chapter on the national economy of land, says, that "the duty of the State extends to the improvement of the land and the

Page  291 ORIGIN OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. laborer upon it. It may justly be said that this is true of the duty of the State toward any form of industry; but from the peculiar relation of agriculture to the very existence of the nation, the State stands in a relation of far greater responsibility here. Many of those who most incline to exclude the State from all activity in the sphere of industrial interests, are quite ready to admit that where motives of public policy call for interference, the land-owner may fairly be treated as the trustee or steward of the national property; not in any absolute sense the owner." It will not be questioned that laws which prevent or retard cultivation, are prejudicial to the welfare of the State: the Englishman wvho turns men off from his land to create a wilderness for his game is as much an enemy to civilization as the savage who struggles to preserve his wilderness intact. As' the ancient doggerel lath it: "It is a sin for man or woman To steal a goose from off the common; But who shall plead that man's excuse, VWho steals the common from the goose." Coleridge long ago pointed out the evil influence of the commercial or trading spirit upon the rural economy of England, as leading men to Iegard the production and cheapening of commodities as the one great end of all activity, and taking away from the landlord a sense of duty to the land and its cultivators. The end of labor is not in the things produced, but in the elevation of the producer. Mr. William IR. Hooper, in an interesting article upon our public lands, in Harper's Magazine of January, 1871, gives us a brief history of the public domain, and the uses to which it has been applied: In the very infancy of our existence as a nation, before the adoption of the Constitution, the ownership and control of the public lands was the chief obstacle to union. The question was creditably and magnanimously adjusted, however, by the owning States giving their outlying lands to the general government. New York took the lead, in 1781; Virginia followed in 1784, with a cession of the great Northwestern territory; Massachusetts relinquished her claims in 1785; and Connecticut, Georgia, the Carolinas, and other States, gave up their rights within a year or two afterward. By the treaty of peace with Europe in 1783, our western boundary was fixed at the middle of the Mississippi, and the outlaying lands then belonging to the States, in severalty, and subsequently ceded to the general government as above stated, amounted to 226, 71 .I I 291 i I i I i i I I i i i i II t I i I I I I II iI I

Page  292 LAND MONOPOLY. 000,000 acres. By the treaty with France in 1803, the treaty with Spain in 1818, the treaties with Mexico in 1848 and 1853, and the treaty with Russia in 1867, we increased our public domain over seven fold, adding over 1,609,000,000 acres to the national territory. We thus became possessed of a total of 1,834,990,400 acres of land-a domain sufficiently extensive to make twenty-five countries each of the size of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales combined, and capable of supporting a population of 720,000,000 of people of the average density of Great Britain, or more than half the population now living on the globe. In the early days of the Republic, our public lands were chiefly valued as an anticipated source of public wealth; but under the pressure of progress, this idea has given way, and the lands are now chiefly used as a stimulus to immnigration, in aid of public improvements, and to supply a homestead to every one who will live on them. About 440,000,000 of acres, in all, have been disposed of by sale, pre-emption and homestead rights, and grants to schools, canals, railroads, etc. Some 70,000,000 acres more have been surveyed and are now in the market. And there are over 1,300,000,000 acres of wild lands yet unsurveyed. During the first eleven years of our constitutional existence, land was only taken up at the rate of 100,000 acres a year. In 1806, the sales realized $705,245. During the war of 1812, the sales largely' fell off; but with the return of peace, they gradually recuperated, until in 1819 they netted about $3,000,000. The sales for 1835, realized $14,000,000; and for 1836, they netted $21,000,000-the largest year's sales ever made. In 1842, the sales run down to nearly $1,000,000. From 1850 to 1855, they averagedl about $10,000,000 a year. In 1862-the rebellion being in progress-they amounted to only $125,048. Since the war, they have increased to an average of about $300,000 a year. The very wise and beneficent policy of setting apart a specific portion of the public lands for the establishment and support of common schools, is practiced by no other government but ours. The policy originated at a very early period of our history. In the first "Ordinance for ascertaining the mode of disposing of lands in the Western territory," Congress directed that every sixteenth section of every township, should be reserved for schools; and subsequently gave every thirty-sixth section to the same purpose. Over 78,000,000 acres have been set apart under these and similar acts, besides about 7,000,000 acres for agricultural colleges. The chief glory of our public land system, however, is the homestead policy, under the operation of which more of the people own the homes they occupy, than in any other nation in the world. The number of homestead entries in the last year alone, made twice the number of freeholders in the United States that England possesses, with her ten centuries of civilized existence. The policy of the National or State governments, in donating lands for public improvements, or for educational purposes, however meritorious in intention, may well be questioned, for it has been the most fruitful source of public corruption and I 292

Page  293 DISTRIBUTION OF PUBLIC LANDS. land monopoly, and has probably done more to retard the development of California, than any other single cause. The benefits have accrued mainly to speculators, while the evil effects extend throughout the whole social organism. Had the proceeds of the sale of lands granted by the United States for educational purposes, been kept in the treasury, and the interest thereon annually paid to the proper officers of States or institutions, according to the provisions of MIorrill's Congressional Bill for the further endowment of Agricultural Colleges, (1872,) millions would have been saved to the educational interest, and many of these evils obviated. The relations of all our industries, and our very existence as a republican government, are bound up in the freedom of land. Not an acre of our public domain should ever have been parted with, except for homestead purposes, for actual settlement and use, and for national parks, or conservatories of native animals and plants. The public-domain is distributed throughout the States of the interior, and especially those west of the Mississippi. Texas owns her own land; California contained 100,000,000 acres in 1870; the rest is to be found mainly in the territories, as follows: Territories. Total Acres. Acres Uiiappro. priated. Washington...........................44,796,160.00..........40 976,976.60 New Mexico,.................................77,568,640.00..........70,677,735.83 Utah....................................54,065,043.29..........48,659,916.27 Dakota...................................96,596,128.50..........90,567,020.47 Colorado.................................66,880,000.00......... 62,382,773.26 Montana..................................92,016,640.00......... 86,768,100.09 Arizona...................................72,906,240.00......... 68,855,730.00 Idaho.....................................55,228,160.00..........52,103,783.04 Wyoming..................................62,645,068.00......... 59,163,834.49 Indian..................................44,154,240.00.......... 44,154,240.00 The amount not disposed of on the 30th of June, 1870, was 1,387,732,209 acres. From this must be deducted, for water surface, at least 80,000,000 acres; Alaska, 369,000,000 acres; grants to railroad and other corporations, 200,000,000 acres. Senator Stewart puts the amount of the public domain which is fit for homestead purposes, at 332,000,000 of acres. Of the 447,000,000 of acres disposed of by the government, he says I I I I I 293 i I I -'I

Page  294 LAND MONOPOLY. not 100,000,000 has passed directly into the hands of cultivators. Our public domain, therefore, can by no means be considered limitless; the normal rate of increase of our population, (3'5 per cent.,) will give us a population, in 1920, of 171,771,610; from which the reader may infer that the land question is already one of the greatest concerns of American statesmanship. The report of the United States General Land Office, for the year 1871, gives the following information in regard to the lands in California on the 1st of June of that year. The area of the State is set down at 120,847,840 acres, of which but 33,900,633 have been surveyed up to 1871; leaving unsurveyed 87,047,207. Of the 33,900,633 acres surveyed, less-than eight millions have been confirmed to private claimants. The condition of the remainder is as follows: ACRES. Sold............................................................ 3,591,81 School......................................................5,569,990 Swamp Lands...................................................... 969,702 University......................................................... 46,080 Indian Scrip........................................................ 38,425 Agricultural Colleges................................................ 52,213 Railroad Grants.................................................... 694,684 Internal Improvements.............................................. 500,000 Homestead Act of 1862.............................................. 709,386 Scrip Locations..................................................... 935,335 Government Sections........................................... 6,400 Military Reservations............................................... 511,052 Floating Scrip...................................................... 80 Total...............................................................11,026,163 Total to private claimants........................................... 7,784,303 Surveyed lands still in possession of the Government................ 15,900,167 Total surveyed..........................................33,900,633 We will now look a little more closely at the relations between "God's Country," and "Landlords." The best land the sun shines upon; "Time's latest offspring and the last," should have given the American people a better chance and a fairer future than they had even yet known. The State fails in one of its highest obligations, unless it takes means to secure that the manner in which the land is held, the mode and degree of its division shall be the most favorable for drawing the greatest benefit from its productive resources. A comparison, which 294

Page  295 PROPORTION OF FARMS TO POPULATION. ean easily be made from the census report between the number of farms and the value of personal property thiereon, and the number of land owners, tells the story. For instance: Wisconsin, in 1870, had 102,904 farms, only thirty-two of which contains more than 1,000 acres. In California five hundred and sixteen men owned 8,685,439 acres, nearly double the area of MIassachusetts, and about one fifth of the arable land of the State. In Fresno County there are forty-eight land-holders, that own from five to seventy-nine thousand acres each. In Santa Barbara forty-four men own over a million acres. Sixteen men in California own over eighty-four square miles. At the present moment it is estimated that 40,000,000 acres in the State deserve to be considered tillable. 22,000,000 acres have been disposed of, including 8,000,000 acres covered by MIexican grants; 7,500,000 acres given for educational purposes; 4,000,000 sold; 600,000 given as homestead claims, and 800,000 granted to the State as swamp land. The railroad lands cover 30,000,000 of acres, but patents have been given for only a small portion of this amount. We all know what the concentration of land ownership into the hands of a few persons has done for England. At the time of the Norman conquest, the population was supposed to have been a million and a half, and there is in existence a written roll of over 45,000 land-owners. In 1861, with a population of 20,000,000, the number of land-owners is 30,000. Millions of acres are kept out of cultivation in parks and forests; and within the last twenty-five years two and a half millions of the population of Great Britain have emigrated; while every twentieth man of those that remain is a pauper. Two regions of the United States were ready for land monopoly to take refuge in, when driven from its European strongholds, viz., New Mexico and California. The foundation was laid in grants of large areas of the best agricultural and grazing lands therein, made by the Spanish and Mexican authorities to individuals. The indefinite character of Mexican grants, their boundaries being generally defined by some river or irregular mountain range, never surveyed or ascertained until they became the property of the United States, has led to endless litigation in both Federal and State courts. In 1835 the secularization of the Missions took place, their property being y :i i F: ill 295 i I I i i i I i - I i i

Page  296 LAND MONOPOLY. distributed among the few rancheros which had grown up under their shelter, or otherwise passing into the public treasury. The era of Spanish domination lafsted fifty-three years; that of Miexican rule and pastoral life twenty-four. During the latter period men were too scarce to give any value to land. To every citizen a town lot was given; and every man who wanted an extensive cattle range, got it without trouble from the Mexican government. Nominally, the grants were limited to eleven leagues (a Mexican league contains 4,438 acres,) but practically they were made to cover pretty much everything a man wanted, especially after they passed from the original claimants into American hands. "If the history of the MIexican grants is ever written, it will be a history of greed, perjury, spoliation and high handed robbery, for which it will be difficult to find a parallel. Indefiniteness of boundaries has given such an opportunity for these spoliations, that while they have proved a curse to California, their original owners have reaped no commensurate benefit; at a very early day they passed into other hands."* Not all the great landlords of California have obtained their possessions by fraudulent means; a good many of the Anglo Saxon settlers were grafted upon the Spanish families by marriage. Five Carillos of Santa Barbara, and three of Santa Rosa, thus endowed adventurous Americanios with their worldly goods of lands and cattle. The able and exhaustive pamphlet we have referred to will lead the curious reader through many of the devious windings of our land affairs. Between bogus claims, possessory rights, and the splendid opportunity thus given for the foundation of lawyers' fortunes, the government lands of California have cost more to the settler than any equal amount in the United States. The Mexican land policy is not responsible for the unnumbered wrongs which it has done to the future welfare of the State, any more than lawyers are responsible for sin; it has furnished the pretext under which the land-grabber could thrive, to the exclusion of the actual settler. GRANTS TO THE STATE. Under Section VI. of Act of Congress, passed March 3, 1853,t California received from the federal government, the sixteenth $" Our Land Policy," by Henry George. t Surveyor-General's Report for 1873. 296

Page  297 GRANTS TO THE STATE. and thirty-sixth sections in each township, or indemnity therefor in cases where the State cannot perfect her title on account of Spanish grants, or prior sales by the United States. This grant comprises one-eighteenth of the land in the State, or an aggregate of about six millions of acres. About one third, or two millions of acres of this land is located within the mineral belt. Under Section IV. of Act of September 28, 1850, the State is granted all the swamp and overflowed lands within her border. Under Section VIII. of Act of September 4, 1841, the State is granted five hundred thousand acres for the purposes of internal improvement. Under Section XII. of Act of March 3, 1853, the State is granted seventy-two sections, or 46,080-acres, for the use of a seminary of learning. Under Section XIII. of the same Act, ten sections for the purpose of the erection of public buildings. Under the Act of July 2, 1862, one hundred and fifty thousand acres for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts. By virtue of her sovereignty the State is owner of all the salt, marsh and tide-lands within her borders. Had the State of California, on the receipt of these magnificent gifts, protected the settler instead of the speculator, our newspapers would not be asking to-day, "What shall we do with the immigrants?" But she appears to have offered, through her land laws, a premium to speculation, which is unexamplecl in the history of States. The floating titles of her Mexican grants, the floating character of swamp lands, and the large floating grant of "lieu," or indemnity lands, which may be located on any unappropriated government land, have made the Golden State the paradise of lawyers. Capital was not needed where a combination between lawyers, legislators, and speculators would enrich all three at the expense of the settler and the great future of the State. The machinery was so well oiled that though a Governor could say in his message, "Our land system seems to be mainly framed to facilitate the acquisition of large bodies of land by capitalists or corporations, either as donations or at nominal prices," no effectual remedy has ever been applied. One illustration of the system must suffice: "To purchase land of the State, an application must be filed in the State Land Office, 297

Page  298 LAND MONOPOLY. describing the land by range, township, and section, and statiing under what grant the title is asked. This application m1ust be accompanied by a fee of five dollars. The Surveyor-General then issues a certificate to the applicant, and sends the appliecation to the United States Land Office, for certification that the land is free, before he approves the application, and demands payment. If there be in the United States Land Office no record of pre-emption, homestead, or other occupation, the United States Register marks the land off on his map, but he does not certify to the State Surveyor-General until he gets his fee. The payment of this fee, and return of the certificate, depend upon the applicant, whose interest it is not to get it until he wishes to pay for his land. Thus, by the payment of five dollars, a whole section of United States land can be shut up from the settler. There are 1,244,696 acres monopolized in this way, (which the immigrant can buy for from ten to twenty dollars per acre,) then the speculator goes to the United States Land Ofice, pays the Register's fee, gets his approved certificate, and pays the State $1 25 per acre!" The difference between what settlers have to pay and what they ought to pay, would have defrayed the expenses of their transportation twice over. The general laws of the United States provide, that until land is offered at public sale, there is no way of getting it, save by actual occupation of not over 160 acres to each individual. Until the land is surveyed, and the plats filed, there can be no title, and no record can be made of pre-emption. But by the State law of March 8th, 1868, which repealed all previous laws, all restrictions of amount, or use, except as to the sixteenth and thirty-sixth township sections first granted, were swept away. Even with respect to these, the applicant was not required to swear that he wanted the land for settlement, or wanted it for himself. Again, the actual settlers, upon the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections above referred to, under this law, could only be protected in their occupancy for six months after its passage, after which date the protection extended only sixty days. Many a settler, in hitherto undisputed possession, knew nothing of these enactments until they received notice that another party had a clear title to their farms. As if this were not enough, a special bill was passed legalizing all applications for State lands, even where the affidavits by 298

Page  299 LAND PATENTS. which they were supported did not conform to the requirements of the law, either ill form or substance.* Again, the best parts of the agricultural lands of the State were sold before there was any demand for them for agricult ural purposes. Eastern agricultural-scrip locations covered whole townships, up to the year 1867, and gave unlimited opportunity for the further monopolization of large tracts. The law is now amended, so as to limit the purchaser to three sections in any township. The speculator, formerly, had only to go east, buy up the scrip with greenbacks, when greenbacks weree low, locate his scrip under the most favorable conditions to himself, and become a landlord. One speculator has thus obtained 350,000 acres, which has been mostly rented to culti vators who furnished themselves, and pay him one fourth of the crop. Patents have been issued in a similar way for Indian scrip. A great deal of this college and Indian scrip has been so obtained that the lands have not cost their present owners more than fifty cents an acre, which they have been able to hold, not only keeping out settlers, but often robbing those who had already come of their improved farms. Few had money enough to defend themselves in the Courts, where defense would have been possible; but the settler upon unsurveyed lands had no defense. What is a land patent? A patent issued by the government of the United States, is legal and conclusive evidence of title to the land described therein. No equitable interest, however strong, to land described in such a patent, can provide at law against the patent. When two patents have been issued for the same landI the general rule is, that the elder patent shall prevail. When it is evident that a junior patent has been issued pursuant to legal authority, and the elder patent has not, the former will prevail. If a patent shall have been issued by mistake, and the person holding the same refuses to deliver it up for correction or can cellation, the President may direct another one to issue to the same, or to another person, reciting therein the errors in the first. As a general rule the government will not issue ffi ~ ~ fiffi w-ffio 7; C- 299

Page  300 LAND MONOPOLY. misrepresentation of facts, or such a mistake as affects the substantial rights of parties, it may be set aside, or a trust declared, and a conveyance decreed by a court of equity, to be made to the party entitled. Another fine opportunity for founding a permament landed aristocracy was given by the State in her management of swamp and overflowed lands. The speculator, having seen that the State proved a better nursing mother to his interests than the United States, was interested in getting the largest possible quantity of land under her jurisdiction. The Surveyor-General says: "The conflicting claims of the State and the United States for the past ten years, have rendered uncertain the title to a large amount of land sold by the State as swamp and overflowed. Surveys for a large amount of land which the State had previously sold, have been received- the re-survey having been made by the second party apparently on the hypothesis that the original sale was illegal. There are also many conflicts caused by two or more surveys having been made for the same tract. In such cases an appeal to the courts is necessary. A large area of land has also been surveyed and returned to this office as swamp and overflowed which is not shown to be such either by State segregations or United States maps." Lands are so held to-day, which cannot be cultivated without irrigation. * Under the possessory law of California, which allows both individuals and corporations to make some temporary enclosure or abode good for a possessory right, pre-emption settlers have been kept and driven away. Tracts of from two to twenty thousand acres of government land are thus held by State laws. Even the tide-lands have not been safe from the operations of the grabber. The Surveyor-General says: "In some cases long, narrow strips were surveyed by the owners of the adjacent high lands, to protect themselves; but often these surveys were made'in the interest of parties who did not own any land in the vicinity, evidently with the view of obtaining control of the water front." Afore than seven hundred and fifty thousand acres of Eastern Agricultural College Scrip has been located in California. Realizing too little from the munificent scheme of the national *The leader who desires to know:nore of this subj,ct is referred to the "Reports of the J,tint Coiimittees on Swamp and Overflowed Lands and Land Monopoly," presented at the Twentieth ~ession of the Legislature of California. 300

Page  301 OUR LAND PEERAGE. government, to keep such colleges above board, in many cases not over fifty cents an acre, the grant has been a questionable blessing; it may be considered as a tax put upon the settlers of the new States to support the colleges of the older and richer ones. The Agricultural College Scrip of Californiia was located under special privileges, and has been sold for five dollars an acre. Who were the holders of this scrip, or to whom some of the best timbered lands in Humboldt and other counties have been sold for five dollars an acre, the public have never been informed, the property of the University being administered as a private trust. The University has a special officer ill charge of these lands, given solely "for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." The grants made to railroads of California have been as fol lows: To the Western and Central Pacific of ten alternate sections, on each side, per.mile, (12,800 acres;) to the Southern Pacific, ditto, with ten miles on each side, from which to make up deficiencies; to the Stockton and Copperopolis of five alternate sections on each side, and twenty miles on each side, in which to make up deficiencies; to the Texas Pacific, and to the connecting branch of the Southern Pacific, ten alternate sections, with ten miles for deficiencies, made in the year 1871. The greater part of this land is unsurveyed, and the settler upon the government sections must take his chances whether he gets upon it or not. Settlers who have purchased of the railroad are few; the best farming lands having been sold to "Land Companies," who, it is asserted, stand in peculiar relations to the railroad. The railroads are in no haste to sell, foreseeing the inevitable rise in the value of their immense property. The effect of all these monopolies is to keep lands out of the hands of the army of industrialists who would flock to God's country by hundreds of thousands, could this pressure be removed. The following list, or "Blue Book," of our Land Peerage, is taken from Hittell's IResources of California, and other reliable sources. The reader is referred to the reports of the Board of Equalization for further details: Those who own from 100,000 to 500,000 acres (some of which is in scattered tracts): Wm. S. Chapman.................................................... 350,000 Miller & Lux, from 228.000 to........................................ 450,000 301

Page  302 LAND MONOPOLY. Gen. Houghton, Ex-State Surveyor, estimated from 200,000 to........... 300,000O Gen. Beale, Ex-United States Surveyor-General 200,000 to.............. 300,000 Charles McLaughlin........................................... 141,000 Isaac Friedlander............................................. 125,900 Bixby, Flint & Co............................................ 150,000 S. R. Throckmorto)n (Mendocinio).................................... 146,000 Thos. Fowler, Fresno, Tulare & Kern.............................. 200,000 G. W. Roberts (swamp).............................................. 120,000 Philadelphia Petroleum Company.................................... 160,000 Los Angeles Land Company..................................:..... 101,000 Dibblee & Hollister.................................................. 97,000 Irvine, Flint & Co.................................................... 77,000 A. P. Moore........................................................... 63, 000 Estate of Arques (Monterey county)................................... 71,000 Pioche & Bayerque.................................................. 69,000 Jesse P. Carr........................................................ 47,000 John Forster.................................................. 88,000 Miguel Pedroreno.................................................... 47,000 E. De Celis................................................... 56,000 Alfred Robinson (Trustee)............................................ 42,000 Beale & Baker..................................................... 53,000 W. C. Ralston........................................................ 41,000 C. Paige.............................................................. 60,000 James Lick.........................................................51, 000 Lloyd Tevis......................................................... 43,000 J. II. Redington....................................................... 45,000 J. W. Moore.......................................................... 48.000 E. Applegarth................................................ 49,000 J. W. Pedrie................................................. 47,000 E. St. John & Co.................................................... 42,000 J. W. Mitchell........................................................ 42,000 A. Weill.....................................................48,000 H. & W. Pierce............................................... 53,000 J. W. Moore................................................ 48,000 L. T. Barton............................................... 47,000 E. Conway................................................... 42,000 Hollister & C o o p e r................................................... 41,000 P. W. Murphy........................................................ 54,000 F. Steele........................................................... 44,000 Number of estates over 44,000 acres, forty-four; between 30,000 and 40,000, twenty-three; between 20,000 and 30,000, fiftyfive; between 10,000 and 20,000, one hundred and forty-eight; and between 5,000 and 10,000, two hundred and thirty-eight. The entire number of estates over 5,000 each in extent, is four hundred and fifty-three. Let us see how these large land-holders are assessed. An unjust discrimination appears to have been made in the assessments of taxes in the State between farming and grazing lands, even where these were.lying side by side. Great 302

Page  303 SALES AND ASSESSMENTS. bodies of unimproved lands have been put down at mere nominal rates, while the farmer who plows, sows and reaps his two or three hundred acres sees assessments raised upon his labors at the rate of three or four hundred per cent. Enormous quantities of lands owned by the monopolists are assessed at one half or even one fourth the value at which they are being sold. W. (C. Ralston's lands were assessed at $2 00 per acre in 1871; Miller & Lux's at from $1 00 to $1 50 per acre; Isaac Friedlander's land was assessed in 1871 at $2 00 per acre, while he sold the same year to Chapman & Montgomery 28,850 acres for $115,.145; $4 00 per acre. Experience has proved that the laws of competition and enlightened self-interest have not been a sufficient check upon the tendency towards railroad monopoly through concentration; and we shall find that our laws of inheritance and the natural fluctu. ations of property will not abate the evils, and prove a sufficient check upon land monopoly. A general feeling prevails that land investments are the safest as well as the most profitable, when obtained as so many of ours have been'with a trifling outlay of capital. Thie tendency to concentration is the natural one as the value of land increases; and it is especially dangerous where the processes of machine culture can be carried on as advantageously as in California. "We are not only putting large bodies of our lands into the hands of a few persons, but we are doing our best to keep them there. Our whole past policy is of a piece-tending with irresistible force to make us a nation of landlords and tenants, of great capitalists and poverty-stricken employes." The remedy is to be found in changing the mode of taxation, and in a revision and honest administration of our laws in the interest of the whole people. 303

Page  304 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. CHAPTER XIX. WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. CANAL AND WVATER COMPANIES, HOW AUTHORIZED-LEGISLATION FAVORABLE TO MONOPOLIES-LOS ANGELES CONVENTION-VOICE OF THE PEOPLE —GOv. Dow NEY S ADDRESS-MEMORIAL OF COLORADO TO CONGRESS —CONGRESS APPOINTS IRRIGATION COMMISSIONERS FOR CALIFORNIA-MR. BRERETON'S VIEWS OF AGRI CULTURE IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY-CONcLUSIONS ARRIVED AT BY THE COMMISSIONERS. UNDER "An Act to authorize the incorporation of companies for the construction of canals, for the transportation of passengers and freights, or for the purpose of irrigation or water power, or the conveyance of water for mining and manufacturing purposes, or for all such purposes," approved May 14, 1862, and another Act, bearing date April 2, 1870, nearly all the waters of California, now required for irrigation, are controlled by corporations or private individuals. An Act of Congress, approved July 26, 1866, provides: "That whenever, by priority of possession, rights to the use of the water for mining, agricultural, manufacturing, or other purposes, have vested and accrued, and the same are recognized and acknowledged by the local customs, laws and decisions of the Courts, the possessors and owners of such vested rights shall be maintained and protected in the same, and the right of way for the construction of ditches and canals for the purposes aforesaid, is hereby acknowledged and confirmed." Under these laws, a large amount of capital has already been invested. It is easy to see how a monopoly may spring up under their protection, and grow to such great proportions as seriously to retard the agricultural development of the State. The reader will remember that one of the most important questions which has come before the State Grange, is that of water monopoly and irrigation, and that the efforts of the Patrons to secure desired action of the Legislature of 1873, proved unavailing. In the autumn of that year, a convention had been held at Los Angeles, for the same object, and had adopted the following preamble and resolutions: Whereas, In our rivers and mountain lakes, there is a large amount of water not utilized, which if properly developed would irrigate a large area, and thus greatly enhance the taxable values of our agricultural lands; and, Whereas, Our mountains are pierced with numerous and convenient can6ns, 304

Page  305 LOS ANGELES CONVENTION. which it is believed may be dammed, and used for reservoirs, and the river streams which sink, may be saved by submerged dams, or stone-lined ditches made into river beds, and flowing thence into reservoirs, and from thence distributed over a large territory; and, Whereas, The agricultural riparian and common law and water rights have been, are, and continue to be, violently antagonistic and provocative of constant litigation, personal and neighborhood quarrels, all of which must be exaggerated and aggravated with an increased population; and, Whereas, The public are prevented from using a large proportion of their own water, by pretended claims of individuals, which is against public interest, the spirit of ourinstitutions, and not to be tolerated; and, Whereas, The iadii;idual policy has never been, nor can ever be equal to properly managing this great question, which is of State, if not of national interest; Therefore, It is resolved, by the delegates appointed at the mass convention held at Gallatin, October 9th, 1873, to meet at Los Angeles, 25th October, 1873, to consider means for developing and distributing the waters of Los Angeles county, for agricultural purposes, with the view of furnishing a basis For legislation during the coming winter, as follows: ARTICLE I.-Sec. 1. That it is the positive duty of the State of California, to possess and control all the waters in the State, which may be used for irrigating, (except springs rising on private lands,) without delay. Sec. 2. And, where ownership of water is exercised to the public detriment, except in the case of springs rising on private land, to provide for denouncing and paying an equitable value for the same. Sec, 3. To prohibit the acquirement of private rights to water which may be used for irrigating, except to springs rising on private property, and except as may be permitted under a general water law. Sec. 4. To declare all waters which may be used for irrigating, including waters from springs after they shall have passed the land owned by the party on which springs may have risen, to belong to the State, and to be for the use of the public. ARriCLE II.-Sec. 1. That it is the duty of the State to employ able engineers to make a thorough examination of our rivers, canons, etc., and report as to the feasibility of increasing the water supply, and of storing the same in reservoirs, etc., for future use. ARTICLE III.-Section 1. It is the duty of the State to create a new department of the government, to have cognizance of all matters pertaining to water development and irrigation. Said department to consist of 1. A State Superintendent, who shall be assisted by an advisory board of engineers and - civilians. 2. One Superintendent for each county where irrigating is practiced. 3. Three Commissioners for each water district. 4. The details necessary to complete the above, are most respectfully left with the Legislature. Sec. 2. Lands irrigable by one stream and its tributaries, to conztitute not more than two districts, and if possible not more than one. Sec. 3. Water to be sold in all cases; but irrigators privileged to buy in proportion to acres to be cultivated in that water year. Sec. 4. Irrigating head to be defined in inches. Sec. 5. Present water laws to be revised. Sec. 6. Properly existing water rights, in any contemplated change, should be respected. Sec. 7. That a system of taxation should be devised, by which lands to be brought under irrigation can pay the major part of the expense incident thereto, and that the additional taxation raised from such lands should be reimbursed to the extent of the cost of development. Resolved, That the advancement of the State of California in civilization and material prosperity, will greatly depend upon a proper system of water laws. Resolved, That a copy of the above be furnished his Excellency, the Governor, and the honorable members of the Assembly, and the honorable Senators, with the request that they will urge legislation as above desired. 20 305

Page  306 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. On motion, it was further resolved: I That his Excellency, the Governor, is especially called to urge upon the cornming Legislature the propriety of appointing a special commission, with power to visit all parts of the State, to examine into the above questions, and to report at the earliest practicable moment, in the coming session of the Legislature. 2. That Generals Volney E. Howard and John R. McConnel, and Geo. H. Smith, Esq., be requested to draw a suitable water bill for Los Angeles county, in conjunction with the above named committee, and with our Legislative delegation, and that it be done in time for the coming Legislature. An address was then given by ex-Governor Downey, which was extensively read and circulated, and is so replete with valuable suggestions as to require no apology for its introduction here. He said: I approach this subject, of so much importance to Los Angeles county and the people of the whole State, with a degree of fear that individual interests will clash with any system that may be proposed for the general good. First of all, the paucity of rainfall renders irrigation a necessity for the greater part of our lands. Secondly, as a fertilizer it perpetually renovates our fields, as the waters carry in solution nearly all the elements required for the organic composition of vegetable life. Thirdly, it enables the farmer to select his time of planting and harvesting; and, fourthly, it enables him to destroy the numerous pests that infest his soil, in the shape of squirrels, gophers, rats, etc. I do not propose to deprive any man of the use of water that he now has, nor do I think that any Legislature would attempt to legislate away any rights vested or acquired; but for the good of the whole State, I suggest that the Commonwealth assert its jurisdiction over every stream in the State, and enact such equitable laws as will extend their usefulness to their utmost capacity. The riparian rights, or proprietary rights, maintained in England and recognized in many of our States as the law governing rivers and streams, do not apply to California. The laws of Spain and Mexico retained these in their sovereign capacity, and the State of California falls heir to this precious inheritance for the benefit of its citizens. It will be seen by an examination of the eight hundred and odd grants made to citizens of this State by those governments that this right is expressly reserved to the nation as public servitudis. If, then, our Legislature assumes its proper jurisdiction it will be no stretch of power to prescribe the mode and manner of the distribution of this important element, and settle at once a subject that has given so much annoyance. The law of proprietary rights existing in England was once the law of France and the other continental communities, but Louis the Fourteenth had the wisdom to see that it was embarassing the welfare of the nation, and that wise monarch caused the nation to assume exclusive control of the arteries of the nation's wealth, and his example has been followed by others. The Republic of Chili has done likewise, and to this fact the beautiful system of irrigation of Chili and Lombardy is indebted. There is, without doubt, sufficient water passing annually through this valley, under proper management, to irrigate all the land be 306

Page  307 GOV. DOWNEY'S ADDRESS. tween the mountains and the-sea. Individual communities and settiers have neither the means nor sagacity to utilize it, and therefore the State should step in and say how it shall be done; whether the State can do it through its proper officers, or how companies, under proper restrictions as to charges, shall do it. There should be no water allowed to run down to the sea ill winter unutilized. It should be carried in a thousand conduits through the valley, and, rain or no rain, we should irrigate our lands in winter, thus destroying the v-ermin that honeycomb our subsoil, and that destroy and break capillary attraction. If we tlius throw into our land an additional number of inches of water and break the surface as soon as a team can walk over it after irrigation, we will, with any ordinary rainfall, secure an abundant small grain crop, and keep our lands forever renovated. Our streams must be sheet piled to the bed-rock at points where they emerge from the foot-hills, so as to bring their full flow to the surface, and then main ditches ramified from the dam in wood, cement pipe, or sheet iron or earthen pipes. The loss from evaporation and absorption is so great that our slovenly open ditch system will not serve our purpose. It is unnecessary to review the practice of Egypt, Babylon and Syria to show what irrigation did for those countries, nor to allude to the perpetual renovation of the valley of the Nile from natural and artificial irrigation. We have only to refer to the productiveness of comparative sand hills here in this country, that have produced the same crops for seventy years in succession without the aid of manure and owe this to the ever-restoring qualities of irrigation; we refer to England, Ireland and Scotland, that have a humid atmosphere and an average rainfall of twenty-seven inches per annum and that have called in the aid of irrigation as a restorative to their lands and made, their meadows yield ten tons of hay per acre when but one ton could be produced before. It must be borne in mind that our ditches should always keep full, that we should keep our dams always in repair, that tree planting and vine planting cannot be successfully carried out unless your ditch is ready to run behind you, and that it is no time to be called on to go to work on your ditches when you should be plowing, planting and seeding, and that if you neglect this you will all want water at the same time and cannot possibly procure it. All who have the good fortune to have artesian wells should have reservoirs; if not they are but little use, and are only a willful waste of a gift of Providence, to be swallowed in the next squirrel hole, or a nuisance to impede transit or devitalize some flat that would otherwise be productive. The Legislature should take bold ground on this subject and compel well-owners to put on taps or build reservoirs to be called upon at the proper time to perform their part in adding to the general wealth of the State. It is a rational conclusion to come to that if every man who bores a well and suffers the flow to be carried off by our trade winds, perhaps to the valley of the Mississippi, we are the losers, and the fountain of supply will be exhausted. This suggestion nmay look like interfering with the private rights of citizens, but the maxim that partial evil is universal good comes in, and that every civilized man must surrender a portion of his natural liberty I i I I I i I. i 307 i iI 11 I - I i i i i

Page  308 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. for the good of society is also a maxim well understood and happily appreciated in this Republic. There are but few localities in this country that water cannot be had in from eight to thirty feet from the surface. Surely, then, any man can contrive means to water ten acres in trees with a simple lift pump, windmill or horse-power, and those who can afford it could have an Ericsson engine which is the cheapest and simplest means in which the agency of heat is brought to bear as a power. It can be started in the morning with a basket of chips or corn cobs, the door closed on it and when the fuel goes out the engine stops its work, and there is neither danger or trouble attending it. We should all have tanks and reservoirs, for when we want to use our water we must have it in a greater body than a pump or even an artesian well can supply it. Wherever there is a natural depression on our lands or a ravine, we should throw an embankment across it and construct our ponds. They will be our greatest wealth, food for ducks and geese. You can raise your own fish, and these ponds will be found better than any manure pile, with the grand advantage that its own gravity will distribute it on our fields without the aid of cart or shovel, only requiring intelligent direction to guide it in its mission of good. Every owner of an artesian well has the power at hand to drive hydraulic rams; they are the cheapest motive power in existence and nearer perpetual motion than any contrivance yet invented. They are always in repair and can be used to raise the flow of your artesian wells to elevated tanks and reservoirs, which will enable the farmer to utilize his high or elevated slopes and supply the economy of his chambers, kitchen and barn yard. Some of the ideas advanced may seem bold and novel, but when I first advanced the idea in my annual message, 1861, to the Legislature that stock-raisers had a co-equal obligation to prevent trespass as the cultivator to defend it, it was looked upon as equally novel and bold; the result, however, shows that land never assumed value nor stock a price in this country until it was adapted, although some of my best friends denounced it as wild and visionary. I have given this subject of irrigation much thought: I have had much experience in the distribution of water; I have had friendly litigation as riparian proprietor, with my good friend ex-Governor Pico. Fourteen years ago he had a few straggling Sonorinfios cultivating perhaps in all 1,000 acres, and I could not obtain water below him to irrigate sixty acres; he declared there was not water enough for himself. There are now 12,000 acres in cultivation on what was then my farm, and with proper management we can irrigate to the sea with the same supply that then existed. The same example will apply to the Los Angeles and Santa Ana rivers. That it requires bold and comprehensive legislation will be apparent to all thinking men; that American citizens will submit to any equitable law, passed by the Legislature for the preservation and just distribution of the waters of our rivers and streams, their history in the past will warrant. That the time has arrived for legislative action to be taken is patent to all, and that it should be general and properly guarded is manifest from the general voice of the whole people. 308

Page  309 t Iy i-I MEMORIAL FROM COLORADO. About the time of the Los Angeles Convention, a similar meeting was held in Denver, Colorado, the results of which were embodied in an eminently practical memorial which was presented at the following session of Congress. This memorial prays for the enactment of a law embracing the following general provisions: 1. To grant to the several States and Territories named in the preamble to this memorial, one half of all the arid lands, not mineral, within their borders; said lands, or the proceeds thereof, to be devoted to the construction of irrigating canals and reservoirs for the reclamation of said arid and waste lands. 2. That tile construction and maintenance of irrigating canals and reservoirs shall be under the exclusive control and direction of the Territory or State, as sole owner thereof, under such laws, rules and regulations as the Legislature thereof shall from time to time provide. 3. That the Territorial and State Legislatures shall have power to make all needful rules and regulations, and take all needful steps for the proper construction and maintenance of such canals, and that such power shall include the power to provide by law for the issuing of the bonds of the Territory or State for the construction of such canals. 4. That the proceeds of said lands herein granted shall be kept as an exclusive fund by the Territory or State; first, for the payment of the principal and interest of all bonds so issued as aforesaid; second, that any balance remaining after the payment of the bonds issued as aforesaid shall be used in the maintenance of said canals, as the Legislature of said Territory or State shall from time to time by law direct. 5. That any lands within said Territory or State which shall be filed under the provisions of the pre-emption and homestead laws of the United States after the passage of this Act, shall be subject to the operation of this Act, if the said lands shall be brought under irrigation by the construction of said canals. 6. That the lands donated to the several States and Territories herein named, and the remainder of the public domain therein belonging to the General Government, shall be disposed of under revised and more strict pre-emption and homestead laws than are now in force, and that no title shall issue until the claimant shall be a bona fide, actual settler upon the land claimed. While the attention of the people at large was thus directed, an Act of Congress had been passed, March 3, 1873, authorizing a commission to examine and report a system of irrigation for the San Joaquin, Tulare and Sacramento valleys. By tho terms of the act, the President was to select for this duty, army engineers or officers of the Coast Survey then stationed on the Pacific, allowing such officers to associate with themselves in 309 i

Page  310 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. the work, the chief of the Geological Survey, and one other civilian distinguished for his knowledge of the subject. The board thus authorized, consisted of Col. B. S. Alexander, Major George H. Mendell, of the Army Corps, and Prof. George Davidson, of the Coast Survey, who were expected to carry out the provisions of the Act of Congress on the meagre appropriation of five thousand dollars. The United States Commissioners invited the co-operation of Mr. R. M. Brereton, who declined their proposal, but whose views upon agriculture in the San Joaquin valley are worthy of a careful reading in connection with the Commissioners' report. He says: Having carefully observed the climate of this valley during the past three years, and the results obtained from irrigation and deep plowing, I have found that neither irrigation nor deep plowing will secure the wheat that ripens between the middle of May and the middle of June from being shriveled by the north winds. These north winds blast even the young leaves of the willow, ash, sycamore, and orchard trees; and no amount of moisture in the soil, or vigorous growth of the plant, seems to prevent the grain, when in the dough or ripening period, from becoming shriveled by these desiccating winds. I find that the Sonora wheat, which ripened nearly a month sooner than the Chili and Australian, and before the north winds prevailed, yielded a fine, plump, white grain, while the others, which matured later and during the period of the north winds, yielded a shriveled and dark-colored grain, although the plant was of a more vigorous growth, yielding more straw, and having larger and longer heads than the Sonora. I am satisfied that to make wheat-cultivation a success on the west side of this valley, it must be made to ripen early before the north winds set in, or else it must be made a late or fall crop, to be harvested in October. To secure the first the land must be watered the end of September and beginning of October, in order to start the seed. This will enable the plant to make from three to five inches growth before the winter rains and cold weather set in, when it will harden and stool out. During December and January, in adobe or clayey soil, wheat grows very slowly, on account of the cold weather, and under the present system of cultivation the main growth of the plant is during the months of March, April, and May. By giving the plant two months' growth before the cold weather sets in, the roots will have had time to get down deep below the action of any degree of frost known in the valley, and being two months ahead of the growth of the plant raised by the winter rains, will necessarily mature much earlier. With regard to the second choice, there are no north winds after the beginning of July, and corn, cotton, and tobacco are never found blasted. The days are shorter in August, September, and October, and the nights are cooler than in April, May, and June; evapora 310 0

Page  311 B. M. BRERETON'S VIEWS. tion is much less and dew is deposited; consequently, grain, under the influence of irrigation, grows better, and will mature sooner than grain sown under present auspices. The great drawback to wheat cultivation on the west side of this valley, in addition to the loss from shriveling, is the cost of transportation. The river is only navigable for a few days during the winter freshets, and during May and June, when the snows are melting. If the grain were harvested in May, it could be shipped during the period of high water; and if it were harvested inl October and beginning of November, it could be shipped during the winter freshets, or on the first rise of the water in May. If my ideas are correct, the farmers of this valley can, with irrigation at their command, make agriculture a perfect success, and seedtime and harvest will follow the year throughout, without failure. It would be better, I think, to build at once the main canals right through to tide-water, for the sake of transportation and cheap communication with San Francisco. Irrigation from such canals will follow by a gradual process, as population flows in, and the fact of these main canals meandering for two hundred mniles through this immense valley, and offering facilities of transportation to the farmer at rates of two dollars a ton, where it now costs eight to ten dollars, will tend to encourage a more rapid settlement of the lands, notwithstanding the serious drawback which nlow exists in the fact of the large bulk of the best lands being in the hands of a few land speculators. The average yield of wheat from irrigation, where the grain has not been affected by north winds, has been over thirty bushels an acre, and where the north winds have affected it, sixteen bushels. In European countries I find from recent records that the average of wheat in bushels per acre in different countries is as follows: England and Scotland, 28 bushels; Ireland, 23; France, 14; Belgium, 21; IRussia, 17; Silesia, 10; Austria, 15. I am sure that the farmers in this valley do not pay sufficient attention to deep plowing and working the land to secure a good tilth. Where land has been much cultivated and tramped by stock, the soil lying immediately below the two or three inches of cultivated surface has a hard layer or pan, caused by the pressure of the jole of the plow, and by the treading of stock. It is difficult for grainroots to penetrate this hard layer, and therefore they have only this depth of soil to depend upon for moisture and nourishment. In loose, rich soil I have seen wheat-roots over three feet long. Below this hard layer the soil is more open, and contains moisture held there by capillary action. Farmers can see for themselves the practical workings of this capillary action in the soils by observing a flower-pot filled with dry soil, and placed in a saucer containing water. This action is precisely that of an oil-lamp fed by the wick. If the ground is not plowed deep, the rain falling on the surface will not penetrate this hard layer, but will either run off the surface or become evaporated. By plowing deep and surrounding the fields with levees, so as to cause the rain to be absorbed into the soil, far greater farming result can be obtained than at present, even without irrigation. fk f I i I 311 II I

Page  312 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. Each inch in depth of water on an acre is upward of one hundred tons in weight. A good crop of wheat, say twenty-eight to thirty bushels, with its straw, just before it is in the blossom, will weigh about ten tons, and contains about three fourths of one tenth of an inch of water, or about seventy-five per cent. It is found in England that wheat, barley, and clover exhale during five months' growth more than two hundred times their dry weight of water. To grow half a ton of wheat grain to the acre, with its straw, which will weigh about a ton, or one and one half tons of grain and straw together, requires three hundred tons, or a depth of three inches to the acre in England. The evaporation in this valley is probably double that of England, and therefore six hundred tons, or six inches depth of water would be necessary. Land that is hard, smooth, and free of vegetation, reflects the solar heat, whereas land that is broken up and porous absorbs it during the day, and radiates it during the night, and consequently causes a greater deposit of dew from the vapor in the atmosphere, caused by evaporation during the day. This thorough cultivation and the system of deep plowing, if carried out throughout this valley, must, I think, reduce the present summer temperature, as the solar heat, instead of being reflected and heating the air would be absorbed and radiated by the loosened surface, and the temperature being lowered, the winds would be reduced, and the evaporation would be lessened, and therefore both grain and grass crops would thrive better during the hot season. Liebig, in his letters on agriculture, says: "With the chemical properties of soils there is associated a physical quality not less remarkable in its nature and influence, viz: the power which they possess of attracting moisture from the air, and condensing it in their pores." "When in a hot summer the surface of the ground is dried, and there is no apparent moisture by capillary attraction from their lower strata, the powerful attraction of the soil for the vapors of water in the air provides the means for supporting vegetation." "The vapor of water which is thus condensed by the soil is derived from two sources: During the night the temperature of the air falls, the tension of its watery vapor becomes less, and then without the temperature of the air falling to the dew-point, there follows through the attraction of the soil, absorption of moisture (with ammonia and carbonic acid) accompanied by evolution of heat, which moderates the cooling of the ground from radiation. "A second source from which the dry soil derives its moisture by absorption is presented by the deeper-lying moist strata. From these a constant distillation of water is taking place toward the surface, accompanied by a corresponding evolution of heat in the upper strata on its absorption. "In the above facts we recognize one of the most remarkable natural laws. The outermost crust of the earth is destined for the development of organic life, and its broken particles m endowed, by the wisest arrangement, with the power of collecting all the elements of food which are essential for the purpose." The hot, dry winds in this valley and in theColorado desert, and the excessive hcat of these plains are simply local, and created by 312

Page  313 REPORT OF U. S. COMMISSIONERS. the hard, unbroken surface of the plains, reflecting instead of absorbing the solar heat. That which absorbs heat best, reflects heat worst, and that which radiates most, also absorbs most heat, and hence rough, loose, and porous soils, such as cultivated soils, freely radiate by night the heat which they absorb by day, in consequence of which they become cooled down, and condense the vapor of the air into dew. This immense valley, being to the east of the ocean, becomes first heated by the solar rays, and as the heated air ascends, the cooler air from the west rushes in through the Pacheco and other passes to supply its place, causing a prevailing wind, and this wind becomes hotter and hotter from the reflected heat as it passes along the hard and uncultivated surface of the valley. I do not believe that the Colorado desert is the cause of the hot winds in the San Joaquin valley, because heated air must ascend, and being lighter than cold, denser air must pass over and not displace it. Hot winds are therefore due to local causes; and it is not the hot air of the Colorado desert that creates the hot winds of this valley. By deep plowing and carefully pulverizing the soil of these immrense plains, the farmers and land-owners have it in their power to alter the climate of the valley, and to abate the force of the prevailing winds. By keeping the soil open and porous, they enable it to absorb the solar heat, instead of reflecting it; and also enable it to absorb carbonic acid, etc., which are food for plants, and thus render the air less unhealthy. The air being cooler, evaporation will be lessened, and more rain and dew will fall. I believe that the farmers would obtain better results if they would plow up or cultivate the land as soon as the grain crop is removed. An eminent agricultural chemist, has calculated that a well-made fallow insures a supply of nitrogen equal to two cwt. of Peruvian guano per acre-worth $4 per cwt. I am sure that canals built for transportation in the first instance, between Tulare lake and tide-water, will pay a fair interest on the capital invested therein. In time this would be supplemented by the receipts from sales of water for irrigation. With canals available for navigation and irrigation, and with a system of agriculture more in accordance with the present climate, I believe the San Joaquin valley can be made the most productive and reliable portion of the agricultural lands of the State. The report of the United StatesCommissioners covers ninety octavo pages, and is accompanied by a map which embraces the San Joaquin, Tulare and Sacramento valleys, showing the Sierra Nevada mountains on the east side of the valley, and the Coast Range on the west side to the summits; the "great valley of California," with all its lakes, rivers and creeks, with their catchment-areas, the overflowed and swamp lands (one million two hundred and twenty-five thousand acres), the division into counties, and the township lines of the United I I i 313 i I 0

Page  314 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. States surveys, the railroads and principal towns. On this map, which alone is worth the cost of the commission, the rail roads are laid down; the canals that have been projected and actually surveyed, and the hypothetical system of irrigating canals. Other valuable charts are added to the report, illus trating the irrigation systems in other countries. The conclusions arrived at by the Commissioners, are as fol lows: 1. That there are large bodies of fertile land in the great valley of California-extensive plains, in fact-that require ir rigation to make them productive, and that the natural features of these plains are favorable to artificial irrigation. 2. That there is an abundance of water for the irrigation of all land on the eastern side of the valley by canals from the rivers. 3. While there is a scarcity of water on the western side of the valley, at the necessary elevation, particularly on the western side of the San Joaquin and Tulare valleys, yet there is sufficient water attainable there, and at a sufficient elevation, to irrigate large areas of land on that side. 4. That irrigation is much needed, particularly in the San Joaquin and Tulare valleys. The productions of these valleys could be increased many fold by a comprehensive system of irrigation. The value of the irrigable land, and of the revenue derived from it, both by the State and by the people, will be increased in the same ratio. 5. The cost of a comprehensive system of irrigation for these valleys will be great, but as the different portions are not equally in want of irrigation, the complete system may be the work of time. 6. Irrigation is but little — uLnderstood in this country, eitier by our engineers, who must design, plan, lay out and execute the works for that purpose, or by the farmers, who are to use the water when it is brought alongside their farms. 7. That the experience of other countries appears to prove that no extensive system of irrigation can ever be devised or executed by the farmers themselves, in consequence of the impossibility of forming proper combinations or associations for that purpose. That, while small enterprises may be undertaken by the farmers in particular cases, it would not be in accordance with the experience of the world to expect of them 314

Page  315 NECESSITY OF SURVEYS. the means or inclination to that co-operation which would be necessary to construct irrigating-works involving large expenditures. That enterprises of this character, if built at all, must be built by the State or by private capital. 8. That it is the duty of the government, both State and national, to encourage irrigation; and the first step in that direction ought to be to make a complete instrumental reconnoissance of the country to be irrigated, embracing the sources from whence the irrigating-canals ought to commence, gauging the flow of the rivers and streams, and defining the boundaries of the natural districts of irrigation into which the country is divided. 9. Then, when it is proposed to irrigate any particular district, an accurate topographical survey of that district should be made, so that the canal and other necessary works for its irrigation may be designed on an intelligent and comprehensive system, and in harmony with the neighboring canals, and these works executed in the most economical manner. In this way, every farmer will be informed, before he will be called'upon to contribute to the works of irrigation, whether or not his land is irrigable; and, if it is, of the quantity of water he will obtain; the exact place or places where it will be delivered to him, and of its probable cost. 10. While these surveys are being made, we think it would be a step in the right direction if the government of the United States, as well as of the State of California, would inaugurate measures for obtaining from foreign countries all possible information relating to the more modern systems of irrigation in these countries, and for disseminating this information throughout this country. 11. After the necessary reconnoissance shall have been made, and a knowledge of the most improved systems of irrigation in other countries has been obtained, the general system of irrigation can be properly planned, and the outline of the principal works determined, the laws under which a proper system of irrigation for the great valley can then be decided upon intelligently, the country divided into those natural districts which its topographical features require, and all, or nearly all, the land-owners will then know what benefits they are to derive from irrigation. Light will be thrown on a subject which is now in comparative darkness; unnecessary clashing of private t I 315

Page  316 WATER MIONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. interests can be avoided or harmonized. The rights of water which have given so much trouble in other countries, where the laws regulating these rights have grown up with their system of irrigation, and, as history teaches us, have often been made for the benefit of private parties or particular districts of country, can be established beforehand, if not for all time, at least, on the principle of "the greatest good for the greatest number." 12. That, while the inrrigation of these plains would probably be effected in the cheapest and most thorough manner by a comprehensive system of canals, such as we have sketched, we by no means recommend that all irrigation should await the development of such a system. We are taught, by the experience of other countries, to expect such development to be the work of many years. In the mean time, ten or twenty or fifty farmers having lands so situated as to be irrigable from a neighboring stream, may desire to construct the works necessary for that purpose, to be operated for their benefit, or they may desire to enter into an agreement with other parties, who shall build the required works. In either case, if the proposed works do not conflict with the general system of irrigation, we believe that such an enterprise should be permitted and encouraged by the State. 13. As a matter of public policy, it is desirable that the land and water should be joined together, never to be cut asunder; that the farmers should enjoy in perpetuity the use of the water necessary for the irrigation of their respective lands; that when the land is sold, the right to water shall also be sold with it, and that neither should be sold separately. 14. That the parties chiefly benefited by irrigation are the farmers or land-owners. That there is every reason to believe that the value of land in the driest districts will be appreciated many told; that it results from this that the lands should, as far as possible, pay for the construction of the necessary works. 15. That the State and counties will be directly benefited by the appreciation of land, and by the increase of wealth in their revenues from taxation. That, consequently, it may be good policy for them to aid such enterprises. 16. That there is this difficulty in the way of the proposition that the lands shall pay for the canals, namely, that in many places the lands at present are not worth more than $5 316

Page  317 FARMERS SHOLLD OWN CANALS. per acre, if so much, and that the irrigation-works may cost $10 per acre. 17. That whatever aid is given by the State or county, should be extended in a cautious way. That in many parts of the country where irrigation will ultimately best repay expenditure, there are now no people; that the population must be imported, the houses, barns, and equipments of the farms, must be created before returns can follow the investment. That for these reasons, we must look for a comparatively slow development of the country. 18. That while we believe, as we have already stated, that the best policy is for farmers to build and own the canals, we also believe that where the farmers are unable to build, and where the State is unable or unwilling to build, it may be, and it probably will be, the best policy to invite the aid of private enterprise. We refer to numerous instances in Spain and Italy, where this system is now in successful operation, in support of our opinion. 19. That private companies undertaking such enterprises, should be subjected to certain conditions, some of which are as follows: That aftEr-a —stated period, the franchise —-shall lapse in favor of the State, or of the irrigators; or that, after a certain period, the State shall have the right to purchase, on certain previouslydefined conditions. That the price of water shall be fixed by agreement, each party in interest being represented by arbiters. That the State shall have the right to charter an association of irrigators to administer the works, the company merely selling the water, and having nothing to do with it after it leaves the channels, the association making all arrangements for its distribution, and for the collection of the water-rates. This latter provision has several advantages: It relieves the company from the odious duty of discriminating in times of scarcity, and from the endless disputes which attend the distribution of water, and puts the responsibility where it belongs on the irrigators. It favors each irrigator; for he becomes a member of a company, which is strong enough to stand up for its rights in any contest with the capitalists. For a successful system-of this kind, we refer to the "Association for irrigation in the Vercelles, Italy," given elsewhere in this report. That we see no reason why the rights of farm 317

Page  318 WATER MONOPOLY AND IRRIGATION. ers and the rights of capitalists may not be adjusted by some such plan, on the basis of justice and of mutual interest. We observe that the conditions just referred to place a company of capitalists in the light of temporary owners, and that they contemplate a period when the works shall be owned by the State, or by the farmers. 20. That there is no reason to suppose that, for a long time, capital will look upon this kind of investment with favor. The financial history of most irrigating enterprises in other countries, is not favorable, so far as the interests of the shareholders are concerned. It may be a question for the State to consider whether it is a good policy to offer any special inducements in aid of such enterprises. 21. That the relation of the United States to the irrigation of California, is for the most part indirect, but that, in the southern end of the valley, between Visalia and Bakersfield, and south of this town, it is believed that the United States own many thousand acres of lands which are capable of irrigation; that most of this land cannot be cultivated under existing circumstances; that it has no value, except for pasturage, during part of the year; t-hat, if irrigated, its value would be increased many fold; that under these circumstances, it may be a question whether the United States ought not, in some way, to encourage the irrigation of these lands. 22. That when any canals are built, the State should establish a system of inspection, by which a proper construction shall be assured; that the quantity of water to be taken from a river at its mean stage, for the irrigation of a definite quantity of land, should be fixed by a reasonable rule, so that those who come later shall not find all the water taken up, and so that proper drainage shall be secured. 23. That such supervision will probably be distasteful to the parties concerned; that, nevertheless, we believe it is essential to future prosperity, and that its neglect now will bring a fruitful crop of contentions in the future, will delay the development of the country, and that by making irrigation unhealthful, it may make it odious. 24. That the water-rights of the streams now taken up for mining purposes in the mountains, do not conflict with the irrigation of the plains, the water being returned to the natural channels above the points where it will be taken out for irrigation, at least for many years to come. 318

Page  319 QUANTITY OF WATER REQUIRED. CHAPTER XX. THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. "Irrigation commenced in necessity, and has been pursued ever since for profit. It is not an experiment resting u2on the future to prove its advantage or uselessness, but a success, tested by the most careful inquiry, made by the most civilized nations of the world."-Hon. M. M. Lstee. COST OF IRRIGATION-LOSS BY ABSORPTION-AMOUNT OF WATER REQUIRED PER ACRE -AMOUNT USED IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES-PRIMARY, SECONDARY, AND TERTI ARY DITCHES-BASES OF ESTIMATES-OWNERSHIP OF WATER-MR. ESTEE'S VIEWS CONCERNING LEGISLATION-ITALIAN AUTHORITIES QUOTED —DR. RYER'S HINTS TOWARD A SOLUTION OF THIE PROBLEM - IRRIGATION AND PUBLIC HEALTH. FROM the-annual address given before the State Agricultural Society in September, 1874, we have, with the author's consent, taken not only the heading of the following chapter, but much of its contents. Indeed, so little can be added to the report of the commissioners so liberally quoted, and to MIr. Estee's presentation of the subject, that we deem it for the interest of those most deeply concerned in the solution of this great problem, to content ourselves with the effort to extend their benefits. The Commissioners have thus counted the cost of irrigation: Before making an estimate of the cost of canals, it is necessary to inquire how much water is required to irrigate an acre of land. It will readily be understood that the quantity will depend upon a number of considerations, such as the character of the soil, whether sandy or clayey; upon the character of the substratum, whether pervious or impervious; and upon the depth of inclination of an impervious stratum. It will also depend upon the character of the cultivation. Rice and sugar fields, vegetable-gardens, orchards, and meadows require more water than cereals. The present staples of this country are cereals. There is some cotton and tobacco cultivation, which will probably be extended; and, with abundance of water, we shall doubtless have a good deal of alfalfa or lucerne grass. Every farmer will have a little orchard, and will raise the vegetables required for home consumption. The evaporation is high in the interior valleys of the State, quite equal to that in Madrid, where it is about thirteen inches in July. The amount of water lost by absorption in the bed and banks of the canal, is an unknown and variable quantity. In the absence of extra data upon these points, we may for the present adopt the rule laid down by engineers for other countries of similar climate, and estimate the loss of water from these causes at fifteen per cent. The rivers of California generally run full for about seven months. The rains of the winter increase their discharge, and the melting of the snows keeps it up, so that we may say that the streams from the Sierra Nevadas are well supplied with water from December to 319

Page  320 THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. August. The streams from the coast range have no snow reservoirs of much extent, and are generally dry in summer. Let us assume that the streams on the east side of the valley are well supplied with water for two hundred days in the year, and, to make up for the overestimate on this point, let us neglect their flow for the remainder of the year. How much land ought a cubic foot of water, supplied every second for two hundred days, to irrigate? We will make a further supposition that the -water is used for fourteen hours out of the twenty-four. Irrigation at night is practiced in other countries, and we may be assured that in seasons of scarcity it will be here, if it shall prove necessary to save the crops. One day's supply will put.twelve inches of water over an acre, or two inches of water over six acres, and in two hundred days a supply of a cubic foot per second, will cover two hundred acres with twelve inches of water. Wheat planted in October or November on summer-fallowed land, well watered when the rivers are high, will probably make a good crop without further watering, except what it gets from the winter rains, even when they prove scanty. Wheat planted in January or February will probably need one or two irrigations, or three inches each to make a crop. Wheat or barley planted later, and with irrigating facilities, (there seems to bo no reason why, in these hot valleys, the sowing-time may not be extended to April,) will probably ripen with twelve inches of water judiciously applied. We know that good crops of wheat are raised without irrigating, when there is a rain-fall of twelve inches, or even less, which comes at the required times. On the tule or reclaimed lands, barley sowed after wheat harvest has been gathered comes to maturity. The water required for cotton will probably not exceed that necessary for wheat. Rice cultivation is so unhealthful that its introduction into California will hardly be looked upon with favor. Alfalfa, if cut five times for hay, will require twelve inches of water or more, depending on the nature of the soil; this in addition to the usual rain-fall. There is another point to be considered. The whole of the land commanded by the canal will not be irrigated; some of it will be waste or unsuitable for cultivation; some will be fallow, and if we add the areas taken up by the roads, fences, buildings, farm-yards, etc., we ought, according to experience elsewhere, to deduct one fourth, at least, from the irrigable lands. This deduction, we assume, will make up for any kind of cultivation, such as gardens, orchards, etc., requiring larger supplies of water. Our opinion is, therefore, that a reasonable allowance for the land commanded by the canals is one cubic foot a second for each two hundred acres. In seasons when there is a great surplus of water, there can be no objection to a more liberal use of it, but it seems to us indispensable that the State should lay down a general rule. There ought to be an established allotment, which may vary in different districts. The cultivators who came first ought not to be allowed to appropriate 320

Page  321 1 4" 1 WATER DUTY IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. more water than they require, because, if they do, those who come after will not be able to procure a fair supply. There are probably exceptional places where the lower average of rain-fall and porosity of the soil may combine to require a larger allotment of water than we have assigned. Such places are about Tulare Lake, on the west side of the great valley. There is no cultivation in these portions, and before the occasion may arise to irrigate them, further information will probably be available to enable the proper conclusion to be reached. As the population of the irrigated districts increases there will be an increased demand for water, and it will probably result that the allowance which is sufficient in this generation, may prove entirely inadequate fifty years in the future. When the State makes the survey elsewhere recommended in this report, we will learn both how much water and how much land there is, and will be enabled to proportion the supply to be granted. It may then be a question, in seasons of scarcity, whether a smaller supply of water will be given to the whole land, or a larger supply to a portion of it. There is so much variety on this point, in the circumstances of climate, soil and cultivation, and so much difference in the statements of different authorities, that we cannot derive from the experience of other countries, any definite conclusions applicable to our own; but as a matter of interest it will not be amiss to mention the duty of water in other irrigating districts. In North India a cubic foot of water per second irrigates five acres per day. Taking the interval of irrigation at forty days, we have the duty of two hundred acres for one foot a second for cereals. In Granada a canal for the Genil irrigates, of wheat, barley and vines, two hundred and forty acres per cubic foot. In Valencia, where it is very hot, wheat is watered four or five times, giving about two hundred acres per foot. In Elche, where water is very scarce, a cubic foot goes as far as to irrigate one thousand acres. Wheat here, in some years, scarcely requires artificial watering. Rice-fields, in different parts of the world, vary from thirty to sixty, and even eighty acres, to the cubic foot. In the heavy monsoons of India, ninety acres per foot are irrigated. In some of the huertlas or gardens in Valencia, only from thirteen to twenty acres per foot are irrigated. Here, however, there are at least two crops a year, and a part is devoted to rice. The grants for six recent canals in Spain run from seventy acres per foot to two hundred and sixty acres per foot. Assuming, then, that a cubic foot per second will water two hundred acres of land, we proceed to give some considerations in regard to the probable cost of construction of the canals and their primary ditches. The secondary and tertiary ditches will, it is supposed, be made by the cultivators. They can be made by the farmer in seasons of leisure, and in the general case their cost will hardly be felt. The case will be somewhat different with the cultivator who farms on a large scale, and who is obliged to hire laborers. 321 II t I i I i I 1I 1 i i I i i I 21

Page  322 THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. It is plain, on the slightest consideration, that the cost of a canal will be so dependent on local and special circumstances that it is impossible to deduce a perfectly satisfactory conclusion from a given or hypothetical case. The dam, the character of the soil, the quantity of land to be irrigated, the manner in which it is disposed, the relative remoteness, and the resources and population along the line are all elements which vary from case to case, and either of which may effect the cost by a very considerable per centage. Still it seems essential to know within some limits the probable cost. If a canal is to cost $100 per acre irrigated, the subject may be dismissed without any further consideration. It is plain that we cannot afford to pay that price. If, on the other hand, canals may be built for five or twice five dollars per acre, it is equally plain that now or before many years we shall be able to afford them, and shall have a fair prospect of return from such investment. The value of the estimate which we proceed to give, will be understood from what proceeds. Let us take the most favorable case that can happen, namely, when the excavation equals the embankment. We assume a canal to carry 315 cubic feet of water per second, having the dimensions given in the figure. Deducting from this 15 per cent. for loss, the water available for irrigation is 268 cubic feet, which will irrigate 53,600 acres. If we suppose the irrigable land to lie on one side of the canal, in a strip five miles wide, and that the ground permits straight parallel primary ditches spaced one mile apart, it follows that for each mile of canal there must be five miles of primary ditches, and that the quantity of irrigable land for each mile of canal will be 3,200 acres. Deducting one fourth for land not actually watered, we shall have 2,400 acres of irrigable land for each mile of canal. Let us take a primary ditch of capacity to carry 50 feet of water per second. Allowing for loss, this size will be rather more than sufficient to cover the 2,400 acres with three inches of water in seven days and seven nights. The canal can fill at the same time six of the primary ditches, so that in seven days 14,400 acres can be covered with three inches of water, only six of the primary being full at the time. And in twenty-six days three inches of water may be put over the whole amount of the land, namely, 53,600 acres. If the water is used only for fourteen hours each day, the time necessary to go over all the land with three inches of water will be forty-five days. Under our hypothesis, in order to irrigate 2,400 acres, we must build one mile of main canal and five miles of primary ditches. Placing the excavation at 30 cents per cubic yard, we find the cost per acre to be about $5. The section of the main canal will diminish towards its lower end, but to be on the safe side, so far as cost is concerned, we keep it of uniform size. The price of excavation may be somewhat in excess of its actual cost in some places; but inasmuch as in it are included all incidental and contingent expenses, we believe it is not far from 9 322

Page  323 ESTIMATE OF COST. correct. We have omitted from this calculation all estimates for inequality of the ground, by reason of which the amount of excavation may be considerably increased; all expense due to the fact that generally one or several miles of canal have to be made at its head before the water is high enough relatively to the adjoining land to irrigate it, and we do not include the cost of a dam, which generally will be indispensable. Neither do we include the cost of head-works or of the bridges and sluices which will be required, or of the measures that may be necessary to pass the drainage of the country into, over, or under the canal. We do not estimate for these points, for the reason that no estimate can be made, the circumstances in no two cases being the same. Speaking generally, we are of the opinion that the omitted points will cost as much as the excavation, and hence, that the rate per acre just given should be double. This brings us to the conclusion that it will cost about $10 per acre to irrigate these valleys. It is, however, to be remarked, that large portions of the eastern side of the San Joaquin Valley are underlaid two or three feet from the surface by a hard stratum, which it will be necessary to blast, or, if not blasted, the canals must be very shallow. This fact leads us to believe that the cost per acre in these sections will be increased twenty-five to thirty-three per cent. above the estimate already given. The irrigation of the foot-hills will of course cost more. Here the problem will be more similar to that presented in other countries. So far as we are able to judge from descriptions given by writers, we are inclined to believe that the physical conditions in these valleys are unexceptionably favorable for irrigation. This fact accounts in a great measure for the smallness of our estimates, as compared with the actual cost of canals in Spain, for instance, where the price of labor is so much cheaper than it is in California. A further reason for this difference lies in the character of the constructions. The dams, head-works, and sluices of foreign works are made of masonry, and in the most thorough manner. In California all these constructions will for many years be of wood. It is cheaper, with the present rates of interest, to build of wood, and to rebuild when the works decay, than to construct once for all of masonry. The cheapest canal that we find in Spain is that from the Esla, which cost fifteen dollars per acre. The other modern canals in Spain have cost more than twice as much, There are no longer in these old countries any lands which admit of easy irrigation, and on all these lines there is a great deal of heavy work in excavating, tunneling, aqueducts, and in revetment-walls, which the valley works in California will not require. Having thus been furnished with approximate data for an estimate of the cost, the main element in the problem, we are prepared to consider the question of the ownership of the water. In most countries where irrigation has proved successful, the ownership of the water remains in the sovereignty, and the sovereignty either grants the right to its use in canal companies, or mak F f-" 5 i i I 1: 1 i I I II, 2 3 i I I i I iI I I I I I II iI I I I i -i I i

Page  324 THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. ing the canals, and rents water to those desiring to irrigate. Our American law of riparian ownership, and the recognized doctrine that each navigable stream is a highway, open alike to the use of the whole people, and especially the ease by which private parties acquire title to great water-courses, will necessarily cut a large figure in the disposition of this important question. If the State owned and controlled the fee to all our water-courses, so that no private enterprise or individual could acquire a legal right to any of the waters, any more than they could to a public highway, then terms could be imposed (the fee remaining in the State,) so that large inducements could be offered to private capital to invest in irrigating canals, while a reasonable and just protection against monopoly was assured to the people. There is still another view, which presents itself for consideration. The right to the use of a reasonable amount of water is incident to the ownership of the land adjacent to it, and neither the State, nor any individual or corporation in the State, ought to be permitted to divert and take from its natural channel, or from the valley through which it runs, the water of any of the streams of the State, if it be needed there; but the amount only that is needed should be retained for riparian owners. To say that the waters of the San Joaquin may be transferred from that great valley, and used for the purpose of irrigating lands located either all upon the one side of the river or remote from it, when it is required there, will be to admit that the people of one portion of the State may do an act which will deprive the people of another section of the means of subsistence. Yet the riparian ownership should be limited to the. amount of water that is actually needed. The man who owns the right to an article like water, in a climate like ours, without taking any steps towards a useful appropriation of it, is as great a monopolist as he who owns and uses it as a means of oppression. In a country like this, where a large portion of the year is rainless, a monopoly of the water is as dangerous to the prosperity of the country as a monopoly of the air we breathe; and yet, when we reflect that it requires the expenditure of a sum of money greater far than any estimate which has hitherto been made, to dig canals through.our valleys large enougli to answer the purposes of irrigation on a grand scale, we can realize how difficult it is to avoid a monopoly of this character; for every exclusive right necessarily amounts to a monopoly. What can be done, and ought to be done, is to regulate its use and its price by legislation; not to prohibit or limit its use. There is a labor side to this question that can be only protected by legislation. Labor is weak and unprotected. Capital is strong and united, and can protect itself. The people, at this time, would undoubtedcly object to the State, or the counties of the State, taking an interest in this enterprise. The subject is new to us; the profit not understood, or at least uncertain; the work vast and expensive; the interest local, as it could afford but a small advantage to the mining counties; therefore, private capital must be chiefly looked to for this purpose. Already, some of the most wealthy, shrewd and enterprising busi i'l, 324

Page  325 PRIVATE VS. PUBLIC INTEREST. ness men of the Coast have given this subject a start in the right direction. They have, with the usual forethought and care of large moneyed interests, examined every side of it here presented for consideration, and have thus early mapped off a system of irrigation for at least one of the great valleys of the State (the San Joaquin), of the most comprehensive character. This has been contemplated simply as an investment. Money is rarely public spirited or patriotic. It moves in the channels of good investments and large interests. It is a mistake of its possessor if it gets out of these channels. You may therefore rest assured that these capitalists knew the value of this enterprise before they embarked in it. As before stated, in Northern Italy, as in India, the government possesses the right of property in all running waters. In Lombardy, grants of the water in perpetuity have been made; but, says Captain Baird Smith, who is a standard authority on irrigation, "The grant of such material as water, the value of which must necessarily go on augmenting with the progress of agriculture, is an injustice toward the government and people. * * * * Hence I am distinctly of the opinion that for the government of India to follow the example of Lombardy in parting forever with its right of property in the waters of the country, on the receipt of sums which cannot possibly represent the real value of the article, would be unwise, not only as regards its own interests, but also those of the irrigating community. For there is no point better established by experience in Northern Italy, and particularly in Lombardy, than that the selfishness of the grantees of water in perpetuity has been one of the most serious obstacles to the development of irrigation." "Acting on the principle that they had the right to do what they liked with their own, they were in the habit of arbitrarily suspending the supplies of water to some, of increasing as they saw fit the prices to be paid by others, and in a word pushing to its utmost limits the right of absolute property purchased by them from the State." "But an agriculture," continues our authority, "founded under such an arbitrary system, cannot advance." MI. Giovanetti, a distinguished Italian lawyer and statesman, traces with a master hand the history of property in water in Italy; and after showing that the State claiineld no property as such, in the bed of the river or islands, he says: "Nor does the State claim the water as a patrimony for the community, but simply to place beyond the reach of private appropriation all that was naturally designed for the common good." As respects California irrigation, this in time will be another of the problems of doubtful solution. Here under our laws the ownership) of the water of the unnavigable streams of the State can be acquired by the first appropriator. No legislation at this time could change this rule, or afford an ample remedy, for much of the water is already in private hands. The only power, then, left in the State, and one which sooner or later it muist exercise, is to regulate the use and the price of water for irrigation, not with the view of making the property in water less valuable, but to avoid oppression and discrimination, and thus make it, like all public enterprises, of value to the whole people. -i i I I 325 i i i I

Page  326 THE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. It has recently been held, by the highest judicial tribunal in Italy, "that canals of irrigation are not to be regarded as works designed solely for the benefit of their original constructors, but that the general good of the community has to be considered, as well as the benefit of the individuals running them." No sensible man will countenance the lawless idea that what a man owns is not his to enjoy, be it much or little, but is the part of wisdom to profit by the experience of the past, and so far as possible protect by law those who cannot protect themselves, and thus guard with a jealous eye the best interests of the producers of the State. In this State-and in this climate, if we should give to any one set of individuals the fee of the waters of the State for irrigation, whether such persons live upon the banks of rivers or remote from them, and the State have no right to regulate their use, although it would be of small value and little importance now, in a few years it would be of immense value and of the greatest importance to the farming community. It would give to the men who controlled the water or owned the canals the power, should they choose to exercise it, of controlling every farmer who depended on irrigation for his crops, or upon a water ditch for his stock. It would soon have a relation to public affairs that no power but revolution could conquer or control. It would imperil the great future already marked out for us, and set us back on the scale of advancement a quarter of a century. The magnitude of the questions involved in the water supply of the San Joaquin Valley, and the probability that it will be one of the most prominent before future Legislatures, warrants a careful and critical examination of all sides of this subject. The Granges desire equity to all, and the good of all, and will be guided by these principles through the mazes of conflicting interests which harass the limitation of powers already in the hands of strong and skillful combinations. Dr. M. W. Ryer, (in the Piural Press of Ilay 1st, 1875,) has, it appears to us, come most nearly to a solution of the irrigation problem. He says: The question how to frame a law of association so that the ownership of the water and the land may go together, should be considered by every politician in the State, and no candidate for legislative office should be considered competent until he presents to his constituents the draft of a law covering land and water ownership. We have found that, by association, lands may be reclaimed from overflow. Why, by the application of similar laws, may not lands be irrigated? To the question, Why has not reclamation been more successful? the answer is, California engineers have tried to exclude water from lands by building levees of turf and spongy soil, upon land which floats on a bed of mud and water. The most insane engineer in ex 0026

Page  327 SOLUTION PROPOSED BY DR. RYER. istence will still retain sense enough to tell you that the first rule of leveeing, is to ditch through the turf, and then get solid earth from the bottom of the river by dredging machines, or earth containing no vegetation, from the nearest practical place, and to base the levee upon the hard pan or solid earth beneath; for levees, as buildings, require unyielding foundations. The law of 1868 sets forth that the owners of a majority of the land in any district, may associate, and then elect trustees. These trustees may appoint engineers to make plans and estimate the cost of the work necessary to reclamation. Upon these plans and estimates, the Board of Supervisors, if they approve them, direct three commissioners to jointly view the land, and assess upon each and every acre to be reclaimed or benefited thereby, a tax proportionate to the whole expense, and to the benefits which will result from such work; said tax to be collected and paid into the county treasury, and shall be paid out for works of reclamation, upon the order of the Board of Trustees, when approved by the Board of Supervisors. This tax is enforced by the District Attorney of the county, in a manner similar to the enforcement of the collection of State and county taxes. With a few amendments, the reclamation laws are sufficient to reclaim the lands, and keep the control and ownership of the levees within the hands of the owners of the land. Two incomplete and inefficient acts were passed upon irrigation at the last session of the Legislature. These acts may be so altered and amended as to render irrigation by association entirely practicable. The legislation needed should cover the following points: 1. The Surveyor-General of the State sl'ould lay off the land of the State with reference to irrigation, and set forth the proper water supply to each district, and the place and manner of taking it. 2. The owners of a majority of land susceptible of irrigation, should be enabled to form a district. 3. Trustees should be elected by the owners of the majority of the land in the district. 4. Trustees shall apply to the Surveyor-General of the State to designate the water supply proper to the district, and the land outside of the district necessary for canals or other work. As soon as the land and water is thus designated, the trustees shall imminediately take possession of the same and hold them as property of the district. The trustees shall employ an engineer to make plans, surveys, and estimates of the works, necessary to irrigation. 5. The Attorney-General of the State shall immediately seize, condemn and appropriate such water and land, as the SurveyorGeneral shall designate as necessary to the district, when the owners of such water-sources or land shall establish in Court the amount they have actually expended in works connected with such water supply or land, and the actual value at the time of seizure, without reference to any future or prospective values. Then the trustees of the district, approved by the Board of Supervisors, may order the amount paid out of funds belonging to the district. But no prospective damages to the owners of water or land shall be allowed by the Courts, or paid by order of the trustees. The t -,i 4 I 327 I I I i I

Page  328 TIIE IRRIGATION PROBLEM. appropriation of the water and land should be immediate and irrevocable; the litigation for damages may take place afterward. 6. To furnish the money necessary to works of irrigation, there should be commissioners appointed by the Board of Supervisors, or, when in two or more countries, by the joint action of the Supervisors of the counties; these commissioners to assess upon ehch and every acre a tax proportionate to the whole expense as estimated by the engineers employed by the trustees, and to the benefits, either directly or indirectly, which will result from such works. 7. These assessments to be collected by the District Attorney of the county in which the land lies, or by some State officer appointed for the purpose, and the amount collected to be immediately paid into the county treasury and there subject to the order of the trustees when appointed by the Supervisors. But no order to be paid except for work actually done or in compliance with the judgment and orders of a court. Warrants drawn by the trustees to draw interest at ten per cent. per annum until paid. 8. Assessment to the full amount necessary should he made by the commissioners upon the estimates formed by the engineers employed by the trustees of the district; but the trustees shall call in only installments of this tax large enough to cover the works which must be completed within six months from date of call. All assessments to be a lien upon the land and work its forfeiture unless paid. 9. All contracts to be let to the lowest bidder for cash, and all contracts to be let in small sections, after due advertisement. Thus giving the poor man an opportunity of paying his assessment by his own labor. 10. The district thus formed shall own the water forever, and no land not included in the district, and which has not paid for the works of irrigation at the time the works are constructed, shall have the use of this water, except on such terms as the officers of the district may dictate; for the land-owner who will not assist in the enterprise should have none of its privileges. If the State should actually own and build canals for irrigation, canal rings, as in New York, may be formed. And if it is proper to construct them in one place, why not in fifty places? The owners of gravel and placer claims will'not understand why the land speculator should have State bonds to assist him, when other great interests of the State require assistance. The tule land-owner will equally demand assistance, and thus, when the State begins to issue bonds, who can tell the stopping place? Few farmers on these plains count their acres by less than hundreds, and speculators count by thousands. If they form districts and prove to the world that they intend to irrigate, their lands will rapidly advance in value, and thus before they have to pay their first assessment they can sell one half their land for enough to pay for irrigating the other half. Now, as one acre irrigated is worth ten not irrigated, it seems a fair proposition that they should, if necessary, sell a portion to improve the other. State aid, except to assist in the formation of districts and the condemning to their use the waters of the rivers, should not be extended to the owners of the land 328

Page  329 IRRIGATION AND PUBLIC HEALTH. The entangling alliance of State with land sharps will be fruitful of no public good. As almost all have more land than they can properly wbrk after irrigation, let them sell a part to enhance the value of the remainder. Let it be understood by all who read this article that it is written for the purpose of urging men of legislative capacity to frame an effective law upon a most difficult subject, as the above is but a crude and unfinished sketch. How to wrest from the water-grabbers the waters of the State will puzzle many able men, and the legislator who can frame an act to do so should be well appreciated by his fellow-men. It may save much trouble in the Legislature, and enable our law makers to approach the subject with more intelligence if some of the legal minds of the State would publish in the journals of the day the outline or draft of a law applicable to the case, for no hasty legislation can properly encompass the great questions involved. Another relation of irrigation to the public welfare must not be overlooked in our attention to its vast material benefits. At a meeting of the California State Medical Society, Dr. Carr introduced the following resolution, which'was adopted: Whereas, The matter of irrigation is one of vital importance to the agricultural interests of California; and, Whereas, The same is more or less connected with the health of the whole community; therefore, Resolved, That each member of this society be earnestly requested to gather all the statistics and information in their several localities in regard to the effect of mining and irrigating ditches or canals upon the public health, and report the same to the Chairman of the Committee on Hygiene, at their earliest convenience. CHAPTER XXI. TRANSPORTATION. "Transportation is King." RESULTS OF RAILROAD INVESTIGATION BY CONGRESS-COMMITTEE, HOW FORMED EXHAUSTIVE IRESEARCHES-MAGNITUDE OF INTERESTS INVOLVED —INADEQUACY OF MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION —DEFECTS AND ABUSES —DISCRIMINATIONS AND EXTORTIONS-STOCK WATERING-CAPITALIZATION OF EARNINGS-CONSTRUCTION RINGS-UNJUST DISCRIMINATIONS-GENERAL EXTRAVAGANCE AND CORRUPTION OF RIAILWAY MANAGEMENT —COMBINATIONS AND CONSOLIDATIONS-NOMINAIL CAPITAL AND FICTITIOUS STOCK —EXCESS OF CAPITAL OVER ACTUAL STOCK-IL LUSTRATIONS —HOW EVILS MAY BE REMEDIED-SUMMIARY OF CONCLUSIONS AND 'RECOMMiENDATIONS-CONGRESS MAY REGULATE INTER-STATE TRANSPORTATION. THE greatest drawback to the development of agriculture in Calitornia is the'distance-of our markets, and the lack of stim 329 .,i

Page  330 TRANSPORTATION. ulus given by the rapid development of manufactures. The triple arms of industry mutually support each other with strength proportionate to their nearness. We have a personal interest in the consumer who is also our neighbor. In the farmers' war upon monopolies, it has not always been remembered that before the era of railroads it was estimated that the cost of carriage of a bushel of corn one hundred and sixty miles was equal to its value. Railroad carriage extended the distance point at which the value was consumed by transportation to fifteen hundred miles. Still another element in this question has been overlooked by the farmers. Protective duties are in a large measure responsible for the present high cost of railway construction and maintenance. Mr. Edward Atkinson, of Boston, in an address delivered four years ago, showed that the direct effect of the duty of fourteen dollars a ton of two thousand pounds on railroad iron in 1869, was to tax the industry and transportation interests ten million dollars; of which amount one fourth went into the national treasury, and three-fourths into the hands of the iron masters. This sum would build four hundred and fifty miles of railroad on the western prairies, where the consumption of iron is about ninety tons, and the actual cost does not exceed twenty-four thousand dollars. Believing that no greater service can be rendered to the Agricultural classes of the Pacific Coast than to place before them in a condensed form the conclusions which have been reached by National and State Committees upon the vast and complicated question of Railroad Transportation, I have, in the following. pages, summarized the more important documents which treat upon this subject. The railroad legislation in own State is so recent, and the means of obtaining full information concerning it so accessible, that I have chosen to give all the space allotted to this objective point of the great farmers' movement to Eastern authorities instead of our own. The report of the Select Congressional Committee on Transportation, appointed during the session of 1872-3, consisting of Roscoe Conkling, T. M. Norwood, N. G. Davis and John W. Johnston, fills nearly fifteen hundred octavo pages. They were authorized to sit at such places as they might designate during the recess; had every facility at their command; and being empowered to call for persons and papers, were able to 330

Page  331 PAST INDIFFERENCE OF GOVERNMENT. obtain and to collate an almost infinite number of details never before brought within the public reach. They say: Perhaps the most extraordinary feature of our governmental policy touching the vast internal trade of the nation is the apparent indifference and neglect with which it has been treated. While detailed information has been obtained by the Government, under customs and revenue laws, in relation to commerce with foreign countries, no means have been provided for collecting accurate statistics concerning the vastly more important interests of internal commerce. No officer of the Government has ever been charged with the duty of collecting information on this subject, and the legislator who desires to inform himself concerning the nature, extent, value, or necessities of our immense internal trade, or of its relations to foreign commerce, lmust patiently grope his way through the statistics furnished by boards of trade, chambers of commerce, and transportation companies. Even the census reports, which purport to contain an inventory of the property and business pursuits of the people, and which in some matters descend to the minutest details, are silent with regard to the billions of dollars represented by railways and other instruments of internal transportation, and to the much greater values of commodities annually moved by them. We have no means of measuring accurately the magnitude of this trade, but its colossal proportions may be inferred from two or three known facts. The value of commodities moved by the railroads in 1872 is estimated at over $10,000,000,000, and their gross receipts reached the emormous sum of $473,241,055. The commerce of the cities of the Ohio river alone has been'carefully estimated at over $1,600,000,000 per annum. The value of our internal commerce is many times greater than our trade with all foreign nations, and the amount annually paid for transportation is more than double the entire revenues of the Government. Concisely stated, the defects and abuses alleged against the existing systems of transportation are: insufficient facilities, unfair dis criminations, and extortionate charges. With reference to the matter of facilities, it is believed that the improvements of natural waterways and the construction of additional channels of water communication have been wholly inadequate to the growing demands of trade; and by reason of this neglect on the part of the Government, the commerce of the country has been compelled to accept the more expensive methods afforded by railroads; and that railway companies, having thus secured a substantial monopoly of the business of transportation, have failed to recognize their responsibilities to the public, or to meet the just demands of the rapidly increasing commerce between the interior and the seaboard. Disciminating and extortionate charges, however, constitute the chief grounds of complaint. The principal causes which are supposed to produce such charges, and which have aggravated and intensified the public discontent, may be summarized as follows: 1. "Stock-watering," a well known process by which the capital stock of a company is largely increased for purely speculative purposes, without any corresponding expenditure on the part of its recipients. v. .1 I 331

Page  332 TRANSPORTATION. 2. Capitalization of surplus earnings. By this process, the net profits, over and above the amount paid on interest and dividends, are supposed to be expended in permanent improvements, and charged up to capital account, for which additional stock is issued, and increased charges rendered necessary to meet the increased dividends required. It is insisted that this is a double form of taxation; first, in the exorbitant charges from which such surplus profits are derived; and, second, in the conversion of such surplus into capital-stock, thereby compelling the business of the country to pay increased charges on all future transactions, in order to provide dividends on capital thus unjustly obtained. It is argued with great force, that as all the legitimate claims of railroad companies are met by the public, when it has paid a fair and reasonable return for the capital invested and services rendered, any surplus earnings expended in improvements should inure to its benefit, instead of being made the basis of future exactions. In brief, the people believe that by this process they are first robbed, and then compelled to pay interest on their own money. 3. The introduction of intermediate agencies, such as car-conimpanies, fast freight lines, etc. 4. "Construction rings" and other means by which the managers are supposed to make large profits in the building of railways, which are charged up to the cost of the road. 5. Unfair adjustments of through and local rates, and unjust discriminations against certain localities, whereby one community is compelled to pay unreasonable charges in order that another more favored may pay less than the services are worth. 6. General extravagance and corruption in railway management, whereby favorites are enriched and the public impoverished. 7. Combinations and consolidations of railway companies, by which free competition is destroyed, and the producing and commercial interests of the country handed over to the control of rnonopolies, who are thereby enabled to enforce upon the public the exorbitant rates rendered necessary by the causes above named. 8. The system of operating fast and slow trains on'the same road, whereby the cost of freight movement is believed to be largely increased. This is perhaps the misfortune rather than the fault of railway companies. It is doubtless a necessity growing out of the conditions under which our railway system has been'developed. Of the defects and abuses above enumerated, perhaps none have contributed so much to the general discontent and indignation as the increase of railway capital by "stock-watering," and capitalization of surplus earnings. It is fully conceded that a fair and even liberal remuneration should be paid for capital actually invested, but that the industry of the country should be taxed for all time to meet dividends on paper-capital, is indignantly denied. To what extent the nominal railway capital of the country is represented by fictitious stock is not easy to determine. The manner in which railway accounts are usually kept, renders it very difficult for the managers themselves to state what proportion of the entire cost of a given road was paid by the stockholders, and what part from the surplus earnings. Replacements and improvements are 332

Page  333 EXCESS OF CAPITAL OVER COST. constantly being made, and paid for out of current receipts. It is quite impossible for the committee to obtain accurate information on this point, without going into a detailed investigation of the accounts of the several companies extending over a long series of years, and involving in many cases the cross-examination of reluctant witnesses, which would have consumed the entire time of the committee, to the exclusion of all other matters. Enough is known of the extent and vicious effects of stock manipulations to justify the adoption of prompt and efficient means for their prevention in the future. Assuming the estimates of three most important railways to be approximately correct, we have an excess of capital over actual cost, on these three lines, as follows: Present Capital Probable Excess of Cap. Name of Line. in Stock and Actual Cost. ital over Actual Bonds. Cost. Erie Line, New York to Dunkirk, 459miles ~ 108,807,QO0 $4,00,0C0,000 $68,807,000 New York Central Line to Chicago, 980 miles............................. 190,188,137 75,000,000 115,188,137 Pennsylvania Line, from Philadelphia to Chicago, 890 miles............... 78,290,374 67,000,000 11,290,374 Totals...................... $ 377,285,511 $182,000,000 $195,285,511 Making a total of over $195,000,000, on which to pay a dividend of ten per cent. per annum, the commerce between the west and the east must annually contribute over $19,000,000. In the presence of such facts as these, and with no assurance that the evils of stock inflation are to be restrained in the future, it is not surprising that the murmurs of discontent have swollen into a storm of popular indignation, which will only be appeased by a thorough and radical reform, or by opening up new channels of commerce which shall relieve the public from absolute dependence upon those, which by reason of stock speculations, are rendered incapable of performing the service required at reasonable rates. The following general summary of the conclusions and recommendations of the committee are respectfully submitted: 1. One of the most important problems demanding solution at the hands of the American statesman, is, by what means shall cheap and ample facilities be provided for the interchange of commodities between the different sections of our widely extended country. 2. In the selection of means for the accomplishment of this object, Congress may, in its discretion, and under its responsibility to the people, prescribe the rules and regulations by which the instruments, vehicles, and agencies employed in transporting persons and commodities from one State into and through another, shall be governed, whether such transportation be by land or by water. 3. The power "to regulate commerce" includes the power to aid and facilitate it by the employment of such means as may be appropriate and plainly adapted to that end; and hence Congress may, in its discretion improve or create channels of commerce on land, or by water. 333

Page  334 TRANSPORTATION. They therefore recommend for present action the following: 1. That all railway companies, freight lines, and other persons or organizations of common carriers, engaged in transporting passengers or freights from one State into or through another, be required, under proper penalties, to make publication at every point of shipment from one State to another, of their rates and fares, embracing all the particulars regarding distance, classifications, rates, special tariffs, drawbacks, etc., and that they be prohibited from increasing such rates above the limit named in the publication without reasonable notice to the public to be prescribed by law. 2. That combinations and consolidations with parallel or competing lines are evils of such magnitude as to demand prompt, vigorous measures for their prevention. 3. That all railway companies, freight lines, and other organizations of common carriers, employed in transporting grain from one State into or through another, should be required, under proper regulations and penalties to be provided by law, to receipt for quantity, and to deliver the same at its destination. 4. That all railway companies and freight organizations, receiving freights in one State to be delivered in another, and whose lines touch at any river or lake port, be prohibited from charging more to or from such port than for any greater distance on the same line. 5. Stock-inflations, generally known as "stock-waterings," are wholly indefensible, but the remedy for this evil seems to fall pecu.liarly within the province of the States who have created the corporations from which such practices proceed. The evil is believed to be of such magnitnde as to require prompt and efficient State action for its prevention, and to justify any measures that may be proper and within the range of national authority. 6. It is believed by the committee that great good would result from the passage of State laws prohibiting officers of railway companies from owning or holding, directly or indirectly, any interest in any "non-co-operative freightsline" or car company, operated upon the railroad with which they are connected in such official capacity. 7. For the purpose of procuring and laying before Congress and the country such complete and reliable information concerning the business of transportation and the wants of commerce as will enable Congress to legislate intelligently on this subject, it is recommended that a bureau of commerce, in one of the Executive Departments of the Government, be charged with the duty of collecting and reporting to Congress information concerning our internal trade and commerce and be clothed with the authority of law, under regulations to be prescribed by the head of such department, to require each and every railway and other transportation company engaged in interState transportation, to make a report, under oath of the proper officer of such company, at least once a year, which report shall embrace among other facts, the following, viz.: 1. The rates and fares charged on all points of shipment on its line in one State, to all points of destination in another State, including classifications and distances, and all drawbacks, deductions and discriminations. 2. A full and detailed statement of receipts and expenditures, in 334

Page  335 WATER ROUTES CHEAPEST. eluding the compensation paid to officers, agents, and employees of the company. 3. The amount of stock and bonds issued, the price at which they were sold, and the disposition made of the funds from said sale. 4. The amount and value of commodities transported during the year, as nearly as the same can be ascertained. 8. Though the existence of the Federal power to regulate com, merce to the extent maintained in this report, is believed to be essential to the maintenance of perfect equality among the States as to commercial rights; to the prevention of unjust and invidious dis tinctions which local jealousies or interests might be disposed to in troduce, to the proper restraints of consolidated corporate power, and to the correction of many of its existing evils, your committee are unanimously of the opinion that the problem of cheap transportation is to be solved through competition, as hereinafter stated, rather than by direct congressional regulation of existing lines. 9. Competition, which is to secure and maintain cheap transportation, must embrace two essential conditions: First-It must be controlled by a power with which combination will be impossible. Second-It must operate through cheaper and more ample channels of commerce than are now provided. 10. Railway competition, when regulated by its own laws, will not effect the object; because it exists only to a very limited extent in certain localities, it is always unreliable and inefficient, and it invariably ends in combination. Hence, additional railway lines, under the control of private corporations, will afford no substantial relief, because self-interest will inevitably lead them into combination with existing lines. 11. The only means of securing and maintaining reliable and effective competition between railways is through national or State ownership, or control of one or more lines, which, being unable to enter into combinations, will serve as regulators of other lines. 12. One or more double-track freight railways, honestly and thoroughly constructed, owned and controlled by the Government, and operated at a low rate of speed, would doubtless be able to carry at a much less cost than can be under the present system of operating fast and slow trains on the same road, and, being incapa-ble of entering into combinations, would, no doubt, serve -as a very valuable regulator of all existing railroads within the range of their influences. 13. The uniform testimony deduced from practical results in this country, and throughout the commercial world, is, that water routes, when properly located, not only afford the cheapest and best known means of transport for all heavy, bulky, and cheap commodities, but that they are also the natural competitors, and most effective regulators of railway transportation. 335 I i

Page  336 336 RAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION IN WISCONSIN. CHAPTER XXII, RAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION IN WISCONSIN. RAILROAD LEGISLATION IN WISCONSIN-ABSTRACT OF THE POTTER LAW —ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS-NATURE OF THE CONTROVERSY BETWEEN THE PEOPLE AND THE RAILROADS-SELF-INTEREST OF CORPORATIONS NOT A SUFFI CIENT GUARANTY AGAINST EXTORTIONS-COMPETITION TENDS TO CONSOLIDATION EVILS OF RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT-CAUSES OF UNDUE COST — CONSTRUCTION ON CREDIT —CORRUPT LETTING OF CONTRACTS-MISAPPROPRIA TION OF LAND GRANTS-ILLINOIS LAW-SUPERVISORY DUTY OF STATES HOLDING LAND GRANTS-ILLINOIS DECISION. ANOTHER source from which we have drawn largely, is the "First Annual Report of the Railroad Commissioners of the State of Wisconsin," lately published. The people of that State had been eager for railroads. To build the first road, they had mortgaged their farms to the amount of over $4,000,000, and had granted other charters in excess of the real demand, and through unbounded confidence had failed to secure their own interests by proper guaranties. They had been taught by signal experiences the power of railroad corporations over legislatures. So far from being inimical to railroads, the contrary was true. They had "suffered long and were kind," until unjust discrimination in the matter of freights roused their indignation, and hastened the favorable hearing of their complaints. The strength of the Grange made them masters of the situation; a Granger Governor, perfectly familiar with the history of the roads and with legislation, was in the executive chair. This turning of the tables resulted in the passa*ge of what is known as the "Potter Law," by the Legislature of 1873-4. This law classified the roads, determined a tariff for fares and freights according to such classification, and affixed severe penalties to its violation. The Supreme Court of the United States had held that the right of a company owning a road, to fix its rate or charges, was an "attribute of ownership." The railroad companies, therefore, declared the Potter law unconstitutional, and courteously informed the Governor, through their respective presidents, of their determination to resist it. The Governor as courteously, in a "proclamation," announced his intention to enforce it. By successive steps, the case finally reached the Supreme Court. The opinion of Chief Justice Ryan was rendered on the 15th of

Page  337 INTERESTS NOT ALWAYS IDENTICAL. September, 1874; an injunction was granted "including all the railroads of the State," and the Wisconsin Railroad war closed in the declaration, through the President of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad Company, that, "as law-abiding citizens, the railroads would at once conform to the decision of the Court, and endeavor to obey it, in good faith, until it should be reversed by a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, or until the law was repealed by the Legislature." These two reports are an education in railroading, and we commend their careful reading to every Patron who desires to secure the great ends of these exhaustive investigations. The fact that the conclusions arrived at by these two independent committees are so nearly identical, seems to give them such additional weight as to justify the large space given them in this work: To a considerable extent, the interests of the railroad corporations and the public are in harmony; thus it is clearly for the real interest of the corporations to build good and safe roads, and upon lines that will accommodate the largest number of people and the greatest amount of traffic; and yet, practically, they not unfrequently disregard both these elements: First, because the wisdom and foresight that should eminently characterize the management of railways are often wanting; and, Secondly, because the managers are not unfrequently in their places for the sole purpose of promoting their own personal ends. But again, there are cases in which the interest of railway corporations and the public are opposed. For example, it is the interest of the companies to prevent the building of competing roads; to hamper and embarrass rival lines already established; to force such traffic as they are able to command over as much of their own lines respectively as possible, though it be at the expense of time and other advantage on the part of the shipper. For all these reasons, and others that might-be named, the insufficiency of self-interest on the part of companies, as a protection to the public, has been long recognized Again, competition is an unequal reliance, though it is so invariably applicable as a restraint in all sorts of trades, professions, and ordinary commercial enterprises, that it is not surprising how long it has misled the public and legislative bodies. It always serves as a protection where it is full and permanently maintained, as well in matters of transportation as in the case of the trades and most individual enterprises. But therein lies the difficulty. Competition implies freedom of the operator, both as to material and forces. In case of the ordinary avocations, this freedom is practically quite complete; the materials and the labor to be used can be had in the open market, and fair purchase is protected by the active interest of those who have them to sell. With regard to competition between railroad companies, this nat 22 p I tI 337 i i ,I i i i i i

Page  338 33S RAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION IN WISCONSIN. ural law is not certainly operative. There is neither freedom of means nor of forces. A road once built cannot be placed in any market the company pleases and compete for freight, as the manufacturer can compete for his raw material, or the merchant vessel for a cargo. It can only offer its facilities and bide its time. Should no rival spring up to contest the field, it can command the produce of the section of country tributary to it, on its own terms, so that it leaves barely margin of profit enough to the producer and dealer to induce production andI delivery. And if, by-and-by, a rival line should be established, and the traffic should be less than equal to the carrying capacity of both, the two are almost sure, after fruitless efforts to drive each other from the field, to form a combination, agreeing either to demand equal rates, agreed upon, or to "pool" their earnings. This point having been reached, the public have no ground of hope, except in the possibility of a falling out of the companies, and a renewal of the competition which gave origin to the compact. l'or the companies themselves, there seems, in most cases, to be no safety but in a still closer union, under an act of consolidation fromnt which there is no breaking away. The controversy, then, is irrepressible, if the reliance is upon economical laws alone; being a conflict between the necessities of society on the one hand, and the natural selfishness of strong mnonopolies on the other. We will now consider other difficulties and evils of railway construction and management. To make the matter worse, the roads are often so constructed, and railway transportation so managed, as to almost compel heavy exactions on the part of the railway companies, and lead to dissatisfaction and condemnation on the part of the public. An overshadowing evil attendant upon railway construction and operation is the fact that all railway enterprise is the result of individual interest and purpose, subject to no harmonizing general control. To avoid inconvenience and losses, consequent upon discordant management, the companies themselves are impelled to consolidation by a constant law of self-interest, which the public have regarded with hostility and distrust. The result must and should be an appreciation of the fact that the true interest of the public, as well as of the corporations, lies in the direction of better organized and less discordant expenditure of energy and capital, and in the adoption of more comprehensive principles of legislation to that end. The facts ought to be realized not only that discriminations by exorbitant charges upon one locality at the expense of another, is an evil to be discouraged, but also that legislation discouraging investment by encouraging ruinous competition is equally to be deplored. Prominent among these evils is the primary one of unwarrantable cost. A road having been built as economically as possible, no one can reasonably make complaint of charges that yield only a moderate per cent. of profit on the investment. Indeed, the public are willing that they who put their money into railways should have a very liberal profit, since it is attended with more risk than is the investment of money in many other ways. But if a road has cost

Page  339 CAUSES OF UNDUE COST. thousands of dollars per mile more than it ought, owing to want of skill and judgment on the part of the company, or if there is reason to believe that the assumed cost is not the real cost-the difference having gone into the hands of the officers, or their friends acting ill the capacity of contractors or "promoters,"-then it is natural that there should be an unwillingness to allow even a moderate per cent. on the declared cost. Unfortunately, these mere hints of dishonest management find warrant in actual facts in all countries. If we inquire into the causes of undue cost of railways, they will be found with but little difficulty. Prominent among them are the following: 1. Slight pecuniary interest of the managers. 2. Construction on credit. It is not essential that every dollar necessary to build a road should be in bank before the work of construction begins; if it were, few roads in a region of country like ours, where there is but little spare capital, would be built. A reasonable amount of credit is legitimate, indeed often absolutely essential; but since the use of it adds greatly to the cost of building, it should in all cases be employed as sparingly as possible. 3. Injudicious location of lines. This particular cause of undue cost will be best appreciated by skillful engineers, who cannot have failed to note how very often lines of railway are made to cost much more than was necessary by careless surveys. But one need not be more than an ordinary engineer, or even a professional engineer at all, to detect expensive blunders of this sort on every hand-blunders which not only occasion a large increase in the cost of construction, but also a permanent-extra expense of working. 4. Corrupt letting of contracts. Probably the system of construction by "rings" formed inside to operate outside, for the private gain of individual officers and their friends, is, of all causes of excessive cost, the most prolific. Of course there are many railway officers too honorable to resort to measures for private advantage which involve the robbery of stockholders and creditors; but such practices are nevertheless so common as to make it somewhat doubtful whether they do not constitute the rule rather than the exception. Sometimes they are carried on by directors and officers openly, but oftener, of course, under cover. We would not be understood as branding every construction company, composed in whole or in part of officers and members of the company contracted with, as guilty of fraudulent dealings with stockholders. A construction company possesses some advantages for conducting the work of construction which a chartered railroad company does not possess-especially if many of the directors of the railway company are non-resident-and the undersigned have knowledge of some such who are believed to conduct the business of building in that way solely, because of these advantages, and wholly in the interest of the stockholders who compose the railway company. They are forced to believe, however, that the number of those who thus manage is comparatively small. 339

Page  340 340 RMAILROAD LEGISLATION AND INVESTIGATION IN WISCONSIN. It is impossible to estimate with any degree of accuracy'le amount of the burden upon the industry of this country by fraud ulent building contracts, but it is safely assumed to be enormous. 5. Fraudulent purchase of lines. Kindred to the corrupt letting of contracts is the wrong of pur chasing lines already owned, at prices far above their real value, the excess being divided secretly between the " ring" managers of the two companies. Transactions of this sort are usually managed with such adroitness that detection is difficult, if not impossible; but the cases are neither few nor far to seek in which the evidence is convinc ing that the terms conceded by purchasers must be accounted for either on the ground of dishonesty or lack of judgment. 6. Misappropriation of land grants. The American government is the only one that has adopted the policy of making donations of the public lands of the country to aid in the construction of internal improvements, looking at the in dustrial progress of the nation. In view of the newness of the country, the deficiency of cash capital for the construction of expensive works, and the extent and variety of its material resources, which must otherwise long remain undeveloped, this policy may have appeared at the time to be a wise one; indeed, it has promoted the industrial prosperity of the nation. In the case of the transcontinental railways, the Union and the Central, already in use, and the Northern and Southern, now in construction-there was still another motive that influenced the government to bestow the immense grants they have received. The rebellion had taught us the danger of disintegration. The Atlantic and Pacific States were so removed that there was danger of an early political falling apart; there was need, therefore, that these great divisions of our common country be brought into closer relax tions. This was the argument. Unhappily, experience has shown that there is another side to this question of government aid in the construction of railways-that land grants, how much soever needed for the encouragement of improvements in the interest of industry and commerce, have by no means been an unmixed good-that, in view of the corruptions engendered, and the public demoralization they have produced, it is quite doubtful whether they have not been a curse rather than a benefit. In the act of conferring lands upon the Illinois Central Railroad Company, the State of Illinois made an honorable exception to the general rule, requiring, as a condition of receiving a grant, that the company should annually pay into the public treasury seven per cent. of its gross earnings, a sum now amounting, we believe, to something over three quarters of a million of dollars. So far as we know, this act of a provident Legislature stands conspicuous as being the only instance in which the interests of the public, in grants made to the States to aid in the construction of railways, have been carefully protected. The lands granted to Iowa and Minnesota, as well as to Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska, have been given to the roads in those States, without other condition than the construction of the roads within a given date.

Page  341 NEGLECT OF SUPERVISORY DUTY. The result has been that the company managers have, in many cases, so planned the disposal of them as to promote their own per sonal, rather than public ends. In some instances, where it was possible to raise the funds for construction without making the lands the basis of securities, the roads have been built at a heavy sacrifice in the way of discounts, to be subsequently paid by the industry of the country, and the lands have been wholly or almost entirely appropriated to the private use of the builders. So far as we have learned, the lands granted to Iowa have only in a small degree lessened to the public the cost of the roads in aid of whose construction they were given. The people of Minnesota have hardly been more fortunate. Their land grants for the construction of railroads amounted to 9,965,500 acres. We do not find, either, that the State attempted to protect the rights of the people in reference to these lands, or that railroad companies upon whom they were conferred have so used them as to reduce the cost of the roads. By the report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office for 1873, the total quantity of land received from grants to aid railroads in Wisconsin, was 3,412,358 21-100 acres. The value placed by the United States upon the alternate even sections being $2 50 per acre, that is the minimum given at which these lands can be estimated, but it is believed that the actual value of these lands should not be placed at less than double that sum, or a total of $17,061,791 05, and it will probably very much exceed this amount. These grants of land were placed at tile disposal of the State, with a view to the reduction of the absolute cost of railroads to the people, and thus encourage their construction. Such being the case, it would seem that an essential condition on which the lands were donated would require the exercise of a supervisory care over the manner of their application, on the part of the State, in order to be certain that they were not diverted from the objects intended, and the interests of the people neglected. By a singular oversight, no such provision seems ever to have been adopted. The grants were handed over to the several companies on the simple condition that their respective roads should be constructed. In the case of the grant of 600,000 acres received by the Chicago and Northwestern Railway Company, to aid in the construction' of that part of its road extending from Fond du Lac to the Michigan State line, taking the appraisal of that company itself for the first two hundred and forty sections ($12 per acre), and estimating the value of the balance at only $5 per acre, we have a valuation sufficient to yield almost $35,000 per mile for the whole distance to which the grant applies. When we consider that this company applied for and received still further aid from municipal corporations on the line of the road, it would seem as though, at least, the ordinary precaution of seeing that this munificent grant had not been needlessly mismanaged would have been taken by the State, especially as section thirty of the act mahing the grant contains the admonitory provision, "that the said lands hereby granted to said State, shall be subject to the the disposal of the legislature thereof, for the purposes aforesaid, and no other." 341

Page  342 MANAGEMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION. This subject is of special interest at this time in view of the judicial dicision lately rendered in Illinois, in which it is laid down as a rule "that directors of railroad companies were not absolute in their-powers; that they were but trustees to manage the estate of stockholders, and could no more abuse their trust, or waste and squander the property of the stockholder than could any trustee or executor, or other person charged with a fiduciary duty." The lands are received by the State as a trust, and are confided to the company to carry it into operation. The State, therefore, is responsible to the people for the faithful application of the trust. The State provides, that while the lands are under its care, no part of the same shall be depredated upon, and that they shall be preserved intact for the purposes for which they were donated. It would seem still more necessary that the duty so assumed should be supplemented by a careful supervision of the same after the disposal of the grant, and until the final application of the proceeds therefrom is made, adequate security should be required for such faithful application. Indeed, in the spirit of the decision above referred to, if there should appear a reasonable apprehension that the lands donated had been diverted, wasted, or squandered, it may well be considered if it be not the further duty of the State to require such equitable adjustment thereof as a judicial investigation should determine. CHAPTER XXIII. MANAGEMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION. MANAGEIMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION-RAILROADS AS MERCHANTS-RINGS AMERICAN GENIUS DISPLAYED IN STOCK WATERING-UNSKILLFUL MANAGEMENT -EXCESSIVE CHARGES —RAILROAD SIDE OF THE QUESTION-BENEFITS CoN FERRED —PUBLIC CHARACTER OF RAILWAYS ESTABLISHED -NECESSITY OF CON TROL AND CONSEQUENT RIGHT OF SUPERVISION-INTERESTS OF CAPITAL RE QUIRE CONTROL —INSECURITY OF RAILROAD INVESTMENTS —How CONTROL MAY BE EXERCISED-FAULTY LEGISLATION-SUMMARY OF (ONCLUSIONS-OHIO COMMISSIONERS ON RAILROAD RATES. Two things have tended to confuse the ideas of farmers on the railroad question, viz., a lack of knowledge of the modes in which such vast business enterprises are conducted, and the crude and often conflicting treatment of the subject by the press. Politicians have found the agitation of this subject profitable for their own purposes, and, between the intemperate denunciations of "Grangers run wild," and the still more unfair treatment of the farmers' movement against monopolies, by a few Eastern journals, hundreds of readers have been trying to find the medial line of truth. To all such we especially 342

Page  343 STOCK WATERING AND INFLATION. commend the summing up of the Wisconsin Commissioners' re port: It were well did the evil of mismanagement confine itself fo the period of construction. On the contrary, however, it is well understood by all those who are familiar with the management of railroads that there are many ways in which officers can, if so inclined, accumulate fortunes without using capital of their own, and wholly at the cost of the stockholders. Among them is the use of company funds for the handling of grain and produce; paying therefor a price enough higher than unaided buyers can afford to pay, to give them the command of the market, and shipping the same over their own lines free of charge, or at nominal charges. Another is, to arrange with buyers privately to carry their shipments at a price next to nothing dividing the profits. Practices like these are believed to be common, and help to account for the rapidity with which railway officials sometimes grow rich on moderate salaries. They also suggest the reason why railroads are sometimes made to facilitate the commercial growth and prosperity of one town or village to the great disadvantage, perhaps total ruin, of another. If private speculations on the part of railway managers are not discovered in all such cases, it is more than likely, because pains have been taken to conceal them. The same sort of evils appear in another guise, and on a larger scale, where a private inside "ring" is formed for the purchase of lands, mines, docks, and harbors, and the sale of them for a large advance to the company the "ring" officially represents. The stockholders are duly advised of the great importance of the property to the future of the road, while congratulating them on the very favorable terms on which it was purchased, and there the matter ends. But the giant evil under the head of dishonest management is undue inflation of stock. A fraudulent contract, the building and buying in of roads to be foisted upon the company managed, as well as the building up and killing out of cities and villages, usually require time, skill in manceuvering, and careful concealment of the operator's hand. Not so with stock watering. Here the cardinal qualities are, daring and deafness to the protestation of justice. The law is silent, and up to a certain limit the public must have transportation, no matter what the cost. This practice is probably confined to no one country, but it is doubtful, perhaps, whether any other railway managers in the world have a genius for it equal to the American. For illustration of the magnificant scale on which it is sometimes conducted, we have but to look at a single through line from Chicago to New York the line formed by the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the New York Central and Hudson River Railways, whose total waterings within the past few years are alleged to exceed in amount $80,000,000. The interest on this sum at eight per cent is $6,400,000. And since the tariffs on these several roads gauged to yield that per cent. on nominal capital, it is manifest that this one through line of railways is annually laying this enormous tax of over $6,000 000 upon the earnings of those who support it, in order that the holders of the stock may reap an annual dividend of some sixteen per cent. on the real cost. 343 i I i i Ii i

Page  344 MANAGEM[ENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION. If this be the tribute paid by the west on one line of railway, with a mileage less than one-seventieth of that of the United States what must be the burden imposed by this cause upon the industry of the whole country? Not a little of the poverty of which some railway companies complain, and not a little of the ill-feeling here and there manifested towards them, is due to the want of skill and good judgment in conducting their practical affairs. In too many instances they appear to act on the theory that the railway company is alike superior to the will of the State, and independent of popular favor; and naturally enough, in such cases, this view of the matter enters into the understanding of all subordinate officers and employes. The subject of unjust discriminations has been already alluded to. Such discriminations are not always made, however, in the interest of managers, or the friends of managers. Sometimes they have origin in the false impression that they are essential to the business prosperity of the company. A prominent shipper is supposed to be able and fully disposed to advance the interest of the company in some manner, and is thought, on this account, to be entitled to special favors. Another evil of practical railway management, and a crying one in this country, is inefficiency. No one who has traveled extensively upon European railways, can have failed to note that a certain slackness is too common with us in every department of the service. The system of book-keeping is rarely such that the general agent, the chief-engineer, the superintendent, or the general manager can report, under three months time, the exact amount and kind of business done, the cost to the company of operating any one division of its road, or the average cost per passenger or ton of freight per mile, or the cost per train-mile. Scarcely anything is done with that scrupulous precision, efficiency, and thoroughness so much more common in Europe, and so very essential to economy, comfort, and security elsewhere. Unjust charges for transportation are commonly denounced, because just here is the point of universal and painful contrast between the public and the corporations And yet, in most cases, they are only the immediate result of the more primary evils already noticed. They are the symptoms in many cases, rather than the disease. Considered as an evil in themselves, they are hard to deal with, for the reason that, beyond the rather uncertain limit, it is quite impossible for any one not possessed of the data for a nice mathematical calculation to say whether this tariff or that is excessive. If, in the absence of such data, the attempt is made to determine the question by a comparison of the tariffs of different roads, such method is likely to be found unsatisfactory, owing to the great number of modifying circumstances that require to be taken into the account. But leaving out of view causes and particulars, it is unquestionable that the public in almost every State have had to pay more for transportation than should have been necessary; certainly more than was compatible with the welfare of the industrial classes. 34-1

Page  345 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS. THE RAILROAD SIDE OF THE QUESTION. Having thus dwelt at considerable length on the evils of railway mnanagement, it is essential to a just consideration of the measures to be employed for their correction, that we should recur for a moment to the very important part railroads have played in promoting the industrial, social and political progress of the world. To present in detail the beneficial results of railways is of course impossible. They are at once innumerable and immeasurable. Nor is it possible to make a summary that will convey an adequate general conception of the benefits they have conferred. Having mileage enough for a continuous track six times around the entire globe; moving annually a tonnage of some twenty thousand million dollaf in value, the passengers scarcely less in number than the population of the whole earth; stimulating the productive forces of industry everywhere; rendering easy many otherwise impossible exchanges of products between different countries; leading to commercial treaties which else had not been effected for generations to come; promoting social as well as business relations between widely separated communities; binding together as a homogeneous people, the inhabitants of remote and unlike divisions of a common country; encouraging friendly intercourse between the people of many lands; and so helping to establish a brotherhood of the nations, the railway is everywhere justly regarded as being foremost among civilizing agencies. For these reasons it is believed that there is but little danger that the $6,000,000,000 of capital said to be invested in railways will be sacrificed, or that the people of any country will knowingly cripple this immensely important interest. The problem to be solved simply stated, is this: how to devise a system of control in the interest of the public, that will, at the same time, be entirely just to the railway corporations? From the survey of the history of railroading in the United States, and in foreign countries, the Wisconsin Railroad Commissioners report the following general conclusions as unavoidable. 1. That the public character of railways is fully established. One form of argument in high quarters against the exercise of public supervision, is embraced in the proposition that corporations have transportation to sell, and the purchase of the article, or privilege so offered, like that of all other commodities in market, is at the option of the purchaser. But the conditions of sale in this case come under none of the ordinary conditions of human traffic. The original right to construct and operate a railway is an emanation of sovereignty, grounded on public considerations, and having explicit reference to public, as well as private use and profit. The question of power is already substantially and fortunately settled as to our own State. The subsidiary question of the necessity and propriety of judiciously exercising that power when possessed, is equally settled in the opinion of the civilized world. We know of no government in Europe which has not already exercised this power, not with reference to the special ends of arbitrary government, but with the purpose of defending the people from the encroachments of consolidated wealth, manifest in the form of corporate monopoly. 345

Page  346 MAANAGEMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION. 2. That the consequent right, and the necessity of control, are nowhere in doubt. It appears that the right of the State to exercise supervision over railway corporations, has been recognized wherever the subject has received material consideration-that it has been asserted by chambers and parliaments in all the countries of Europe, as well as by the legislatures of this country, and that it has been sustained and confirmed by the higher courts. Such conclusions are unavoidable, having their foundations in the common law, and in the very nature and relations of society. 3. That control is demanded by the public interests. This proposition is now so well established, that there can be none to dispute it. The people have rights which inhere in the very nature of the case, and are inalienable. No legislature conferred them, and none can take them away. Governments may define these rights, and throw around them the safeguards of law, and this much they are bound to do. They are also bound to do it wisely and justly. The facts which demand the intervention of public authority are enforced and multiplied by all experience and investigation. Not merely in the theory of law, but as a practical fact, railways have become public highways, and all classes of our people are as dependent upon their wholesome management, as upon the wholesome management of any other public property. The assumption on the part of the advocates of non-intervention, that the public has a choice between other methods of transportation and transportation by rail, is without actual truth. If the choice exists, that choice cannot be exercised, except upon such conditions as to render the privilege nugatory. As to large masses of freight, and a considerable portion of passenger travel, rapid transit by rail is the only available alternative presented. And were the fact otherwise, it is impossible to presume, under any known axiom of good government, that interests so vast and manifold as to involve the fundamental conditions of public progress and prosperity, should be surrendered to the undisputed determination of a personal discretion, based solely upon considerations of private or corporate profit. 4. That control is demanded in the interest of capital. 3lost assuredly, the relations of our people to capital are not to be ignored. We are not under any circumstances to overlook the grave fact that the material interests of our State are vitally dependent upon the safety and ample remuneration of future investment in railway construction. A consultation of the comparative statistics of this report will show that the industries of the State are far more dependent upon future investment than past expenditure in this direction; and we know of no consideration of material interest or public morals which can counsel indifference to the honorable claim of capital to ample consideration for all legitimate expenditure. Protection of capital from mismanagement. It will not be assumed, however, that the interests of capital itself can be best promoted by the mismanagement of railways, or by the imposition of extortionate rates, or unjust discriminations. And 346

Page  347 PUBLIC CONSEQUENCES. judicious legislation should prohibit nothing more. The world over, capital prefers moderate returns on reliable security, rather than excessive returns upon unreliable security. The price of railway stock and bonds in any market depends less upon the rate of interest promised than upon the character of the enterprises upon which they are based. Most of all, they depend upon the legitimate management of the property in which the purchase-money is invested. The history of all railway management furnishes an instructive lesson upon this topic. It is an almost unbroken history of broken faith and depreciated credit. Stocks originally sold under sanguine assurances of large returns, have become worthless paper. Bonds doubly assured on their face, and by every apparent source of security, in many cases, possess but a speculative and uncertain value. The insecurity of railway investments at the present time, is such, that popular confidence in railway stocks has practically departed. No farmer, no merchant, no retired capitalist seeks to invest his surplus funds or labor in any railway company in which he does not himself possess control. And this want of confidence and refusal to contribute to public enterprisse of this class, are in no manner measured by the real merits of the enterprise itself. On the contrary, they are the fruit of the common judgment, that railway capital is the sport of speculative management. Nor does this want of confidence extend to stock subscriptions alone. The bonded debts of railway companies are also rapidly becoming the object of suspicion. And this on precisely the same ground that originally deteriorated the market value of capital stock. The stock is no longer regarded as the representative of legitimate capital. Sold at a discount, inflated, unlimited by law, and often misappropriated, its actual amount and value ultimately become subject to the discretion of the managing board. The bonded debt, subject to the same conditions and influence, is liable to the same possible dilution and depreciation. Let us look at the public consequences of insecurity for capital. The tendency to financial demoralization, wholly prejudicial to regular investment, is of startling import in all its history and possible consequences. One of the immediate results is the factthat the public is held responsible for-the payment of interest on a vast capital, nominal and not actual, and rendered nominal, at least in great part, by means which no intelligent judgment can sanction or approve. 5. That the necessity for control is a growing one. That the demand for a judicious control is a growing one, is apparent from the rapid development of our country, and the consequent need of increased facilities, duly guaranteed and protected. It is especially apparent in the case of the northwestern States, whose resources are so incalculable, and whose growth in population has been so unprecedented during the recent years. Here are millions of an industrious, energetic, and progressible people, gathered from all parts of the new and old world, for the very purpose of availing themselves of the extraordinary opportunities afforded by our fertile soils, our forests-of timber, and our rich and varied mineral resources. They came as to the garden spot of the whole world, 317

Page  348 MANAGEMENT OF RAILROADS IN OPERATION. and they will make it a garden in fact, if their industry is properly encouraged. Transportation, easy, prompt, and cheap, is a condition of the growth of this new empire, which the economist cannot failto recognize, and, with legislatures, cannot ignore. Somehow it must be insured, or a nation's growth is retarded. The remaining questions are those of kind and degree. WVhat should be the form and nature of the control to be exercised, and to what extent is it proper to carry it? are in fact the questions which at this moment agitate the public mind in so many countries. They are doubtless in the way of settlement, but they are not settled. Indeed, as we have seen, scarcely any two States or countries fully agree as to either of them. One is trying full ownership by government, the State working the roads. Another prefers government ownership, the roads being leased to private corporations. Another, mixed ownership, the State owning and operating, or leasing, a part of the roads, and allowing companies to operate the rest. Another charters companies, assists them with money, and puts them under ministerial restraint, not only forbidding but preventing competition. Another creates companies, and leaves them to carry on the business of transportation pretty much as they like, but concentrates the best thought and the largest powers of the government deemed judicious, upon the matter of consolidations, with a view to prevent them. And yet others practice upon the theory of total non-interference. SUMMARY OF CONCLUSIONS. Having thus completed as full and careful a survey as possible of the whole field of inquiry, the commissioners present the following summary of the more important conclusions they have formed. The only form of railway control likely to prove successful under present conditions, is the legislative, supplemented by direct supervision; the legislature laying down general rules of action, but leaving the application and enforcement of those rules to a commission. A judicious application of this method requires: 1. A determination, by the commissioners, of the actual cash value of each railroad; such value not to be greater than the actual cost thereof, and the valuation subject to legislative revision. 2. An annual determination of the gross and net earnings of each company, from the reports of companies, by actual inspection of books and affairs, and by all other practicable methods. 3. A division of roads into two classes; the first class including all roads paying a reasonable compensation on valuation, and the second class including all other roads. 4. A maximum of rates of fare and freights for roads ascertained to belong to the first class; such maximum being subject to legislative revision. 5. No restriction of earnings upon roads of the second class, except by way of remedying unjust discriminations. 6. A prohibition of unjust discrimninations and unreasonable or excessive rates on all roads; any person complaining of discrimination or extortionate charges having the right to appeal to the board .348

Page  349 UNJUST DISCRIMINATION. of commissioners, under such rules as to evidence of facts as the commissioners may determine; the board determining the fact of discrimination on evidence and notice to both sides, and its conclusions to be prima facie evidence as to fact of discrimination, or of unreasonable charges. 7. Additional police regulations, especially as to running connections, and the passage of freight from one road to another. 8. Limited power of the commissioners to require repair of roads, improvement of roads or rolling stock, and increased accommodations for passenger travel. 9. Full and complete publicity of rates of fare and freight. 10. Publicity of all important contracts and agreements between railway companies, and of their business transactions generally. 11. Greater uniformity and completeness of accounts, as well as greater fullness and frequency of reports. 12. Adequate penalties for the falsification or concealment of earnings and expenditures, or other facts. 13. Efficient means for the prompt enforcement of all provisions of the law, at the expense of the State. The annual report of the Ohio Commissioner of Railroads discusses at length the question of legislative enactments fixing railroad rates. We give the following extract: For thirty years the British parliament and American legislatures have been making futile attempts to regulate this matter of rates by statutory enactments. The system of "equal mileage rates," so persistently urged by certain advocates of reform, and so often a subject of legislation, is evidently impracticable, and in contravention of the recognized rules of trade and the established principles upon which the business of the country is conducted. The advocates of equal mileage rates, however, object to the application of this business custom to rates upon railways, because, as is said, "they are built for the public use," and every citizen or customer is entitled equally to the benefits to be derived from them, regardless of his means or condition; and that an application of this rule would give the large shipper, or man who traveled most, advantages that he who shipped less or traveled little could not obtain. While we concede that the benefits and blessings of public improvements should be the equal inheritance of all, and dispensed to each upon the same conditions, a discrimination in rates upon account of quantity, distance, or like contingency does not impair the proposition; nor can it be considered an unnatural or unjust rule which extends them to all upon the same terms. A railway company makes more money, with less annoyance and cost, in doing the business of the large shipper, than that of the small one, though the rates per ton are less to the former. There is, however, a kind of discrimination not only unjust, but which should be discontinued and prohibited. When the business of shippers is similar in kind and quantity, and can be done by the company at about the same cost, but through personal interest, friendship, or for any other reason of this nature, a discrimination is made in favor of one which is not extended to others, the act is reprehensible, and violates the spirit and intent of the privileges granted by the State. The same is true of localities; no privileges 349

Page  350 RAILROADS IN CALIFORNIA. or concessions should be made in rates or facilities for transportation to one locality which are not granted to all similarly situated upon the same terms. The impropriety and impracticability of fixing unyielding and inflexible rates for transportation- by general laws, applicable to all roads, or by special acts applying to particular roads, or classes of roads, seems too apparent to need comment. The almost unlimited differences in the condition of our roads, affected by location, grades, curves, equipment, regularity of business, management, changes in earnings caused by construction of branches by developing new in dustries, opening new mines, or making new connections, and the innumerable and diverse matters which come in to affect or change their status for better or worse, but develop the folly of attempts to regulate rate of transportation by inflexible law. Such acts, or those intended to govern rates upon the basis of gross earnings or net income, can be of but temporary value. They demand such frequent changes, in order to be efficient or just, as to be of little service, and fail to accomplish the purpose desired. Laws which may be applicable and well adjusted to-day, may be quite the reverse a few months hence. General laws fixing rates which may rest lightly and not perceptibly affect the operation of roads well located, with light grades, and well managed, would be quite oppressive and burdensome to those less fortunate. A schedule which would make the lowest practicable rates under which some of our roads could do business and maintain an existence, would be far above rates now charged upon other lines more fortunately situated. Laws fixing maximum rates, and intended solely to prevent extortion or excess in charges, may be consistently enforced; but the adjustment of rates below this must necessarily be governed by the results of experience and the dictates of enlightened judgment. The Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners recently, in effect, complimented and indorsed the Granger movement in their admission that it has established three important principles, viz: The accountability of railroads to the public, as well as to their stockholders; the necessity anid advantage of dealing equitably with all men; and the existence of a broad distinction between a railroad corporation and a manufacturing company. CHAPTER XXIV. RAILROADS IN CALIFORNIA. CAI,IFORNIA RAILROADS: ROUTES, LENGTH AND GAUGE —SENATOR COLE ON THE PUB LIC INTEREST IN RAILROADS-MR. STANFORD'S REPORT ON THE FINANCIAL CON DITION OF THE CENTRAL PACIFIC-THE RAILWAYS OF THE WORLD-FUNDED D)EBT AND NET EARNINGS OF THE RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES. NO STATE has a greater interest in the harmonious adjustment 350

Page  351 UNLIMITED INCREASE OF RAILROADS. of the question of transportation than California. Within her borders there is neither present nor prospective competition. The establishment of a true and cordial reciprocity between the railroads and the people, is not only a great essential of prosperity, but is entirely practicable and probable. The principles est tblished in the searching investigations which we have summarized, are applicable here as elsewhere; but the practical working out of the problem is simplified here, by the fact that there are but two parties whose interests require to be harmonized. In a speech made in San Francisco, on the 23d of September, 1872, Senator Cole thus spoke of railroads in general, and of what had been contributed to those in California: The inspection of a railroad map of the United States shows the country netted all over with railroads Particularly is this the case in the northern Atlantic States. A more careful inquiry discloses the fact that 63,000 miles of road are now completed and in actual use If they were stretched across the continent they would make twenty-five entire railroads from ocean to ocean, and give us a Pacific Railway every fifty miles from the British Possessions quite to the frontier of lMexico. Or, if running north and south, they would span the country fifty times or every fifty miles from the Atlantic to the Pacific. There is a mile of railroad to every one hundred voters, and if these roads, as is alleged, have cost $40,000 a mile, there is an investment in such property equal to $400 to every man, or $60 to every man, woman and child in the land. These roads have all been constructed and many of them rebuilt several times within the past forty years. I can myself remember the beginning of railroads in the United States, but the end no man can see. For the last ten years they have increased much more rapidly, in proportion, than the population, and this will probably continue for many years to come, and until all parts of the country are abundantly accommodated with the iron rail. Nothing can limit their construction but the supply of material and capital, and these are without limit. Ties can be grown, should necessity require it, and the mountains of iron, already discovered, are absolutely inexhaustible. The question as to where railways shall be permanently established, is merely a question of time. Where they are not wanted they will not be built, or if built will not long be maintained; and where they are wanted, their construction is certain, notwithstanding arguments to the contrary, which may be drawn from slight delays and unimportant variations. Railroads, as a general rule, conform to the requirements of business; and it has rarely happened that the persons hlaving their construction in charge have had the temerity to disregard such demands. The Central and Western Pacific Railroad Companies, now one and the same concern, have received from the United States Government, in interest-bearing bonds, the sum of $27,855,680, and they are moreover authorized to issue their own first-mortgage bonds, to i I i i I I

Page  352 RAILROADS IN CALIFORNIA. take precedence of the Government bonds, as a security upon tihe road, to an equal extent; so that they have actually received aid from the United States Government, in the form of bonds and securities, to the enormous amount of $55,711,360; besides which the Government has paid interest for them amounting to $6,164,720 49. How much the Central Company has up to date realized out of 15,000,000 acres, more or less, of lands donated to them by the General Government, the books of the real estate department of that huge concern alone will show; but counting the sales and assets together, and the amounat in value cannot be less than $10,000,000. Numerous towns and cities have been laid out by the company along their lines, and these must all be counted under this head making the sum in all probability far in excess of $10,000,000 a year-her share of this annual gift from the Commonwealth of California to the thrifty firm known as the Central Pacific Railroad Company. Besides the million and a half thus guaranteed by the State, other millions have been donated directly by the people of the different cities and counties. I find that about forty special laws have been passed by our Legislature, authorizing gifts of money and bonds to railroad companies, to say nothing about other acts granting lands and privileges of one sort and another, and the five per cent. law, socalled, of the session of 1869. The amounts authorized to be given by the several counties and cities under these forty odd acts, at different times, range from $50,000 up to a million dollars each; and a partial list of them may be interesting for reference at the present time: Stanislaus county.......... $ 25,000 Alameda county........... 220,000 San Francisco county...... 1,000,000 Sacramento county........... 300,000 Calaveras county............ 50,000 Tuolumne county.......... 50,000 El Dorado county....... 100,000 Calaveras county...........50,000 Napa county............ 70,000 Stanislaus county............ 25.000 Yuba county............... 65,000 Yolo county............... 100,000 Los Angeles county.............150,000 Los Angeles city............. 75,0'0 Plumas county............ 230,000 Sutter county................ 50,000 San Joaquin county........ 200,000 Stockton city.............. 300,()00 San Francisco.............0a r s 1,000,000 Total, $6,360,000. It is not exactly known how much assistance has been actually rendered in pursuance of these statutes, but it amounts to a good number of millions. In addition to all these enumerated gifts and guarantees of money and lands and bonds from the Federal Government, the State andl several cities and counties have granted bonds and franchises of inestimable value; as at Vallejo, at Sacramento, at Marysville, at San Jose, at Stockton and other places, besides the enormous dorations of submerged and other lands in and adjoining Oakland and San Francisco, comprising a thousand or two acres in the former city, 352 Yuba county............. Sutter county............. - Solano county............ Yolo county............... San Mateo county. San Francisco coun Santa Clara county........ Placer county............. Santa Clara county........ San Mateo county.......... San Francisco county Los Angeles city .......... Los An,eles county........ San Joaquin county........ Placerville city............ San Joaquin county........ El Dorado county........... Placer county... Santa Clara counts 200,000 50,000 200,000 50,000. 100,000 600,000 200,000 1.00,000 200,000 100,000 300,000 50,000 100,000' 250,000 100,000 100,000 200,000 2,50,000 150,000

Page  353 REPORTS. and in the latter, including the right of way to her southern border, literally hundreds of acres more prospectively, and in the immediate future worth millions upon millions of dollars. Such a record of munificent donations to railroads can be found in no other State in the Union, nor, indeed, anything at all comparable to it. California, in this particular, stands entirely alone, peerless in her generosity. The force of the people is now so well organized for self-protection, through the Grange and other movements, that it rests