The telegraph manual: a complete history and description of the semaphoric, electric and magnetic telegraphs of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, ancient and modern.
Shaffner, Taliaferro Preston, 1818-1881.

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Page  [unnumbered] T H E THE TELEGRAP MAFNUAL: A COMPLETE HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF THE lmnaipotki, flctridt an0i agildet Cdegrap s OF EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, AND AMERICA, ANCIENT AND MODERN. WITH SIX HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS, Et non " eripuit caclofulmen," Fulguri mentemnfudit, et orbem lumzie cinxit.-PIRTLE. BY TALE. P. SHAFFNER, OF KENTUCKY. NEW-YORK: PUDNEY & RUSSELL, PUBLISHERS, 79 JOHN-STREET, LONDON: EDWARD STANFORD, No. 6 CHARING CROSS. BERLIN: JULIUS SPRINGER, 3 PLACE BIONTBIJOU. PARIS: LACROIX & BAUDRY, 15 QUAI MIALAQUAIS. 1859.

Page  [unnumbered] Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, BY TALIAFERRO P. SHAFFNER, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the District of Kentucky. PUDNEY & RUSSELL, PRINTERS, 79 John-Street, New- York.

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Page  [unnumbered] PREFACE. IN the preparation of this volume, the author has not advanced theories, other than those which are founded upon demonstrated philosophy. It is to be understood, however, that many of the views expressed concerning questions in the sciences may, from time to time, be modified by new developments. In every instance, the opinions given are based upon the known sciences as manifested through the medium of the arts, and more particularly the electric telegraph. I have reviewed the early semaphore telegraphs, and explained their respective modes of operation. These visual systems have, however, ceased to be employed by civilized nations, except for the marine service. As preliminary to the consideration of the electric telegraph, I have introduced a few chapters explanatory of the sciences immediately blended in that art; such, for example, as static and voltaic electricities, magnetism, and electro-magnetism. These questions of philosophy the telegrapher should most carefully study. The data given are from the most reliable authorities. In the collection of materials for this work I have spared neither labor nor expense. For nearly fifteen years I have made the subject-matter of this volume my most careful study. For the greater part of that time, practical telegraphing has been my sole vocation. I have instituted thousands of experiments, and have travelled over most of the civilized world " in search of light" upon this, the most important of all arts. The information herein imparted has cost me years of toil and

Page  4 4 PREFACE. a heavy expenditure of money. Still, I cannot regret my devotion, either past or present, to the cause. In its study I have found new truths, serving to increase my admiration of that mysterious Providence who knoweth all things. I have not written this book for gain. It has been to me a work of love. For several years I have been urged by friends to prepare a work on practical telegraphing, and I have in the present volume complied with that wish. I have not confined the work to the telegraph of any particular locality, but, on the contrary, I have grouped together the various systems of both hemispheres. Nearly every combination herein described I have witnessed in operation and most carefully studied. I may have failed to comprehend the full merits of each, and my descriptions of them, respectively, may be imperfect, though I have tried to make them clear and concise. I have not attempted to arrange the various systems with regard to priority of invention, nor as to their relative efficiency. I have given dates wherever it was possible, and have refrained from exhibiting any preferences. I indulge the hope that the many inventors who have distinguished the age by the production of their respective contrivances, will not accuse me of an undue partiality. I have tried to be fair in the consideration of the merits of each discovery and each invention. If I have failed in accomplishing this desideratum, the fault lies, not with the heart, but with the judgment. Notwithstanding that this volume has been greatly extended, I have been compelled to omit several important chapters; such, for example, as the organizations for generating magnetoelectricity, the aurora-borealis, the fire-alarm and railway telegraphs, repeating apparatuses, &c. These will be duly considered in some subsequent edition, together with such emendations and additions to the present work as shall be found necessary. To M. Blavier and his publishers in Paris, to the publishers of Noad's " Electricity," the " Illustrated London News," and others who have given me full permission to copy from their respective works, I am especially indebted. On the other

Page  5 PREFACE. 5 hand, some authors and publishers have refused me that permission; and although I could have copied whatever I might have wanted from any foreign work without legal liability, yet I have not done so, knowingly, in a single case where the privilege was refused me. I cannot conclude this review of my labors, without expressing my most profound thanks to my very able and accomplished friend George Jaques, of Worcester, Massachusetts, for his aid in translating from the various languages of the Old World, and in searching for new light and authorities. For the services thus rendered, I cannot but feel the highest appreciation, and a sincere desire that his future life may be blessed with that which will enable him to fill the measure of his creation, and that his fireside may be surrounded with those jewels which are more brilliant than the pearls and gems that sparkle from and adorn the imperial crown. In. preparing this work I have made copious extracts from various publications, among which may be particularly mentioned, Noad's Manual of Electricity' Highton's History of the Electric Telegraph, Dr. O'Shaughnessy's Electric Telegraph, Bakewell's Manual of Electricity, Moigno's Traite de Telegraphie Electrique, Blavier's Cours Theorique et Pratique de Telegraphie Electrique, Davis's Manual of Magnetisrt, Walker's Electric Telegraph Manipulatioli, Shaffner's Telegraph Com-i panion, Dr. Schellen's Electro-l-magnetische Telegraph,; Vail's Electric Telegraph, Dr. Trumbull's Electric Telegraplt, Shaffner's Telegraph Tariff Scale; Smithsonian Reports, American and European Patent Reports, &c., &c. I have not, in all cases, particularly marked. the extracts taken, because, in many of them, I have blended new matter, and, to a greater or less extent, expressed their ideas in different language. In justice, however, to the respective authorities I make this general acknowledgment. To the respective governments of Europe I feel deeply grateful, especially to the French, Belgian, Prussian, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Russian. For the facilities given, and the vast amount of material placed at my command on

Page  6 6 PREFACE. my visits to them respectively, and for the documents from time to time transmitted, I have been placed under lasting obligations. To M. Chauvin, director-general of the Royal Prussian Telegraphs, I have to express my sincere thanks for recent valuable documents; though their reception was too late for the present edition, they will serve a good end in the future. It is my purpose to continue this work by subsequent editions, and embrace the improvements continually making in the art of telegraphing. Should the reader find any errors in this volume of either omission or commission, he will serve a good end by informing me of the fact. It is very desirable to promulgate truths well sustained by practical demonstrations; and if there be anything in this volume otherwise, it is for the weal of the enterprise that the false doctrines should be at the earliest moment suppressed. In conclusion, 1 would add, that I have been compelled to write this volume piecemeal, on the steamboat, on the railway, at various hotels, and at places thousands of miles apart. All this I have had to do within the past six months. And while, in obedience to other duties, it has not been possible for me to give that personal attention to its passage through the press I should have wished, the novel and technical character of its contents rendered more difficult the labors of the correctors of the press, to whose care it was necessarily left. With these explanations, I submit the " Telegraph Manual" to the generous and impartial consideration of the telegraphers throughout the world. TAL. P. SHAFFNER. NEW-YORK, July, 1859.

Page  7 CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. THE TELEGRAPH. The meaning of the term Telegraph-Divine Telegraph-Telegraphs mentioned in the Classics and Ancient History-The Telegraph invented by Polybius-Agamemnon's Telegraph, B. C. 1084-North American Aboriginal Telegraph-The American Revolutionary Army Signals....................................... PAGE 17 CHAPTER II. THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. Origin of the Semaphore Telegraph-Its Adoption by the French Government-Its Extension over Europe-A German Telegraph Station-Russian Telegraph.... 27 C HAPTER III. THE CHAPPE TELEGRAPH, ETC. Description of the Chapp6 Telegraph-Organization of the Signal Alphabet-Process of Manipulation-Its Celerity in Sending Dispatches......................... 32 CHAPTER IV. OTHER SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPHS. The Prussian Semaphore Telegraph-The English Semaphore-The Gonon, Chappe, Guyot, and Treutler's ImDrovements on the Chappe Telegraph................ 46 CHAPTER V, STATIC ELECTRICITY. Static Electricity Explained-Conductors and Non-Conductors-Vitreous and Resinous Electricity-Discovery of the Leyden Jar —Franklin's Electrical Theories-Coulomb's Theories of Electro-Statics -Franklin's Reasons for believing that Lightning and Electricity were Identical-Identity of Lightning and Electricity DemonstratedThe Franklin Kite Experiment-Distribution of Electricity-Phenomena of Resistance to Induction-Phenomena of Attraction and Repulsion-Igniting Gas with the Finger-The Leyden JarExperiments..................................... 61

Page  8 8 CONTENTS. CHAPTE VI. VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. Electrical Phenomena Discovered by Galvani-Origin of the Voltaic Pile -Science of the Voltaic.Battery-Onm's Mathematical Formulae-Chemical and Electrical Action of the Battery-The Daniell, the Smee, the Bunson, the Grove, and the Chester Voltaic Batteries-Comparative Intensity and Quantity of the Grove, Daniell, and Smee Batteries.......................................................... 7 CHAPTER VII. MAGNETISM. Native Magnetism of the Load-Stone-Attractive and Repulsive Forces of Permanent Magnets-Componentparts of the Magnet-Induced Magnetism............... 105 CHAPTER VIII. ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. Discovery of Electio-Magnetism by (Ersted-Discoveries of Schweigger, Arago, and Ampere-Discoveries of Sturgeon and Henry-Recapitulation of the Discoveries on Electro-Magnetism-English Telegraph Electrometers-Magnetometers-The De La Rive Ring and other Experiments................................ 114 CHAPTER IX. EARLY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. Suggestions of Science-The Telegraph of Lomond-Reizen's and Dr. Salva's Electric Spark Telegraph-Baron Schilling's, Gauss and Weber's, and Alexander's Telegraphs..................................................... 132 CHAPTER X. SOEMMERING S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. Soemmering's Electric Telegraph of 1809-The Apparatus and Manipulation Described -Signal Keys for opening and closing the Circuits........................... 142 CHAPTER XI. RONALD S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Invention of Ronald's Electric Telegraph-Experiments and Description of the Apparatus-Description of an Electrograph..................................... 147 CHAPTER XII. STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Experiments and Discovery of the Earth Circuit-The Electric Telegraph as Invented -The Electric Conducting Wires-Conductibility of the Earth Circuit-Apparatus for Generating the Electric Current-The Indicating Apparatus-Construction of the Apparatus-Application of the Apparatus to Telegraphing-The Alphabet and Numerals-The Discovery and Invention of Steinheil......................... 157

Page  9 CONTENTS. 9 CHAPTER XIII. HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. William Fothergill Cooke and the Telegraph-Moncke's Electrometer ExperimentsThe English Electric Telegraph invented-Invention of the Alarum-The Mechanical Telegraph-The Escapement Apparatus-Mr. Cooke's Efforts to put his Telegraph in Operation-The Second Mechanical Telegraph-Wheatstone's Permutating KeyBoard-Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone become associated-The Secondary Circuit invented-Mr. Cooke improves his Original Telegraph-All the Improvements combined-Description of the Apparatuses-Improvements patented in 1838-Wheatstone's Mechanical Telegraph-Further Improvements by Mr. Cooke........... 179 CHAPTER XIV. THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. English Telegraph, and Description of its Electrometer-The Single-Needle Apparatus -Formation of the Alphabet-Single-Needle Instrlment and Voltaic Circuit-The Double-Needle Instrument, Alphabet, and Manipulation-The Alarum ApparatusCombining and Arranging of Circuits........................................ 216 CHAPTER XV. INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. Interior Arrangements of a Station-Rate of Signalling-The Strand Telegraph Station -The Public Receiving Department-Blank Fornis of the English Telegraphs. 233 CHAPTER XVI. DAVY S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. Nature of the Invention described-The Transmitting Apparatus-The Receiver-The Instruments combined-The Manipulation-The Signal Alphabet.............. 255 CHAPTER XVII. BAIN S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. Description of the Printing Telegraph Apparatus.............................. 269 CHAPTER XVIII. THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. Brett's Printing Telegraph-Description of the Composing Apparatus-The Printing Apparatus and Manipulation-The Compositor or Commutator described-Mr. Brett's Last Im provem ent..................................................... 273 CHAPTER XIX. THE MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Application of Magneto-Electricity to Telegraphing-Its Advantages-Description of Henley's Apparatus-The Bright's Apparatus-Its Comparative Celerity........ 286

Page  10 .10 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XX. HIGHTON S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. High Tension Electric Telegraph-Gold Leaf Instruments-Single and Double Pointer Needle Apparatus-Revolving Pointer-Improvements in Batteries andInsulation 295 CHAPTER XXI. BAKEWELL'S ELECTRIC COPYING TELEGRAPH. Manipulation of the Electric Copying Telegraph of F. C. Bakewell of England-The Apparatus Described-Secrecy of Correspondence, its Advantages and Disadvantages........................................... 304 CHAPTER XXII. NOTT'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Description of the Apparatus........................................... 310 CHAPTER XXIII. SEIMENS AND HALSKIE S GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. Description of the Telegraph Apparatus-The Alarum Bell-Electric Circuits and Manipulation-The Transmitter and its Application....................... 313 CHAPTER XXIV. FRENCH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. The Nature and Origin of the System-The Receiving Apparatus-The Manipulating Apparatus-The Process of Sending Signals-The Formation of the Alphabet.. 325 CHAPTER XXV. THE FRENCH RAILWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Principles of the French Railway Telegraph-Description of the Receiving Instrument -The Manipulating Apparatus-Process of Manipulation between Stations-Portable Apparatus for Railway Service-Breguet's Improvement...................... 334 CHAPTER XXVI. ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH BELL APPARATUS. The French Telegraph Bell Instruments-Vibratory Bell Apparatuses-Use of Bells in Telegraph Offices........................................................ 346 CHAPTER XXVII. THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. Bain's Electro-Chemical Telegraph-Apparatus and Manipulation-Smith and Bain's Patented Invention-Bain's Description and Claims-Morse's Electro-Chemical Telegraph-Westbrook and Rogers' Electro-Chemical Telegraph................ 354

Page  11 CONTENTS. 11 CHAPTER XXVIII. FROMENT S ALPHABETICAL AND WRITING TELEGRAPHS. Alphabetical Apparatus and Manipulation-The Writing Apparatus............. 373 CHAPTER XXIX. VAIL'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. Description of the Telegraph Apparatus-Manipulation and Celerity of Communicating -Arrangement of the Alphabet.......................................... 382 CHAPTER XXX. THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. Early History of the House Telegraph-The Composing and Printing Apparatuses-The Axial Magnet-The Air Valve and Piston-The Manipulation-The Patented Claim................................................................. 391 CHAPTER XXXI. HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH. Invention of the Telegraph-The First Model of the Apparatus-Specimen of the Telegraph Writing-The Combined Circuits Invented-Favorable Report of the Committee on Commerce in. Congress-Construction of the Experimental Line-Invention of the Local Circuit-Improvements of the Apparatus-Administration of the Patents, by Hon. F. J. Smith, and Hon. Amos Kendalt-Extension of Lines in America.,. 402 CHAPTER XXXII. THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. The Early Telegraph Instruments-Modern Lever Key-The Early Circuit ChangerModern Circuit Closers-Nottebohn's Circuit Changer-Binding Connections-The Electro-Magnet of 1844-The Modern Relay Magnet-The Receiving Register-The Sounder.............................................................. 422 CHAPTER XXXIII. INTERIOR OF AN AMERICAN TELEGRAPH STATION. Receiving Department of a Telegraph Station-The Operating or Manipulating Department-Receiving Dispatches by Sound-Incidents of the Station-Execution of an Indian Respited by Telegraph.....................,.............. 458 CHAPTER XXXIV. THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET. Composition of the American Morse Alphabet-The Alphabet, Numerals, and Punctuation-The Austro-Germanic Alphabet of 1854-European Morse Alphabet of 1859...................................................... 469

Page  12 12 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XXXV. TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. Electric Circuits on European Lines-Circuit of the Main Line described-Adjustment of the Line Batteries-Early Experimental Circuits —The Stager Compound Circuits -Combining of Electric Circuits....................................... 480 CHAPTER XXXVI. ELECTRIC CURRENTS. Electric Currents Explained-Electric Circuits-Quantity and Intensity CurrentsPhenomena of the Return Current-Retardation of the Current Illustrated-Estimated Velocity of the Current-Working of the Mediterranean Telegraphs-Scale of the Velocity of the Current on Subaqueous Conductors....................... 496 CHAPTER XXX II. ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. Composition of Telegraph Circuits-Conductibility of Metals and Fluids-Conducting Power of different sizes of Copper Wire-Conducting Power of Telegraph WiresAdvantage of Zinc-Coated Wires-Conductors composing a Voltaic Circuit-Strength of Telegraph Wires-Scale and Weight of Telegraph Wires.............. 513 CHAPTER XXXVIII. GUTTA-PERCHA INSULATION. Application of Gutta-Percha as an Insulation-Discovery of Gutta-Percha, its Nature, Qualities, and Chemical Properties.........2......................... 524 CHAPTER XXXIX. TELEGRAPH INSULATION. English Telegraph Insulators-The American, the French, the Sardinian, the Bavarian the Holland, the Baden, the Austrian, the Seimens and Halskie's, and the Hindostan Insulators-Tightening the Wires in Asia, England, and on the Continent...... 529 CHAPTER XL. PARATONNERRE, OR LIGHTNING ARRESTER. Lightning on the Telegraph-Highton's Paratonnerre-Reid's American ParatonnerreVarious Apparatuses on American Lines-Attachment of Paratonnerres at River Crossings-Incidents of Lightning'striking the Line-Steinheil's, Fardley's, Meisner's, Nottebohn's, Breguet's, the French, and Walker's Paratonnerres.............. 564 CHAPTER XLI. SUBTERRANEAN TELEGRAPHS. Subterranean Lines in America, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, and France-Lines in Great Britain-Underground Lines in Hindostan-Mode of Testing-Subterranean Telegraphs Repairing the Insulated Wires............................... 587

Page  13 CONTENTS. 13 CHAPTER XLII. AMERICAN SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHS. Disasters to Mast Crossings over Rivers-Adoption of Submarine Cables-Submarine Cables Perfected-Submerging of the Cable-Bishop's Submarine Cables-Chester's Cable MIanufactory-Leaden-Covered Telegraph Wires....................... 599 CHAPTER XLIII. EUROPEAN SUBMARINE TELEGRAPHS. The English and French Cables-Mode of Shipping and Submerging Cables-Holyhead and Howth Telegraph-The Irish Channel Cable of 1852-The English and Belgian Submarine Telegraph-Donaghadee and Port Patrick Submarine Line-English and Holland Submarine Cable-Prince Edward's Island Cable-Danish Baltic Sea Telegraph-The Gulf of St. Lawrence Telegraph-The Balize, Hudson, and Zuyder Zee Cabes —The Black Sea Telegraphs-The Mediterranean Submarine Telegraph Lines........................................................... 607 C HAPTER XLIV. ATLANTIC OCEAN TELEGRAPHY. The Atlantic Telegraph Company Organized-Principles of Philosophy Presumed by the Company-The Expedition for Laying the Cable in 1857-The First Expedition of 1858-The Second Expedition of 1858-Working of the Telegraph Cable-Cause of the Failure of the Cable to operate...................................... 622 CHAPTER XLV. OCEAN TELEGRAPHY. The Depths ot the Ocean-Description of the Brooks Lead-The Elements of the Ocean-Maury's View of a Deep Sea Cable-Atlantic Telegraphs Projected.... 649 CHAPTER XLVI. TELEGRAPH CROSSINGS OVER RIVERS. Telegraph Crossings in Europe-The Great Crossing over the River Elbe-Wide Spans of Wire on the Continent-River Crossings in America-Description of the Great Mast on the Ohio River-Suspension of the Wire over the Masts-A Western Frontier Telegraph Crossing.......................................... 657 CHAPTER XLVII. CONSTRUCTION OF TIIE AMERICAN LINES. Organization for Digging the Holes-Erection of the Poles-Suspension of the WireInsulating the Poles...................................................... 668

Page  14 14 CONTENTS. CHAPTER XLVIII. THE TIMBER AND PREPARATION OF TELEGRAPH POLES. The Size, Preparation, and Durability of Telegraph Poles, including the Red-Cedar, White-Cedar, Walnut, Poplar, White-Oak, Black-Oak, Post-Oak, Chestnut, HoneyLocust, Cotton-Wood, Sycamore, and other Timbers......................... 681 CHAPTER XLIX. POLES ON THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH LINES. Preparation of Poles on the French Lines-Injection with Sulphate of Copper-Size Cost, and Durability of different Kinds of Wood........................... 688 CHAPTER L. POLES ON THE ENGLISH AND OTHER EUROPEAN LINES. Baltic Squared Timber-Saplings of Larch, Pine, Spruce, &c.-Poles on the Hindostan Line-Bamboo, Iron-Wood, Teak, Saul, and other Timbers-Their Preparation and Durability.............................................................. 696 CHAPTER LI. REPAIRING OF TELEGRAPH LINES. Qualification and Duties of Repairers-Continuous and Uniform Metallic ConductorsThe Joining of Telegraph Wire-Repairing a Break of the Line Wire-The Interruption of the Line by the Falling of Trees-The Great Sleet of 1849, and the Telegraph Lines-Destruction of the Telegraph Lines by Lightning-A Silk Cord Splice found in the Line-Novel Cases of Repairing the Line-Removal from the Line of all Foreign Conductors-To preserve the Insulation of Wire-To Secure the Permanency of the Structure of the Line........................................... 701 CHAPTER LII. IMPROVEMENTS IN TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. Kirchhof's, Farmer's, Hughes', Partridge's, Baker's, Coleman's, Channing's, Smith's, Clay's Woodman's, Humaston's, and Wesson's, Patented Improvements in Telegraphing.................................................................. 718 CHAPTER LIII. ELECTRIC TIMIE-BALL. Utility of Electric Time-Balls for Correction of Chronometers-Nelson's Monument and Time-Ball......................................................... 741 CHAPTER LIV. ORGANIZATION AND ADMAINISTRATION OF AMERICAN TELEGRAPHS. Organization of Telegraph Lines-Organization of Companies-Charter-By-LawsOffice Regulations-Rules for Sending and Receiving Messages-Lines in British Provinces-Patent and Parliamentary Monopolies......................... 745

Page  15 CONTENTS. 15 CHAPTER LV. ADMINISTRATION O' AMERICAN TELEGRAPHS. Tariff on Dispatches in America-Words Chargeable and Free-Arrangement of Local Tariffs-Qualifications of Employds-Protection of the Telegraph-Secrecy of Dispatches-Penalty for Refusing to Transmit Despatches-Patent Franchise Inviolable - The Right of W ay for Telegraphs....................................... 758 CHAPTER LVI. ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF EUROPEAN TELEGRAPHS. The Telegraph in France-Decrees permitting the Public to Telegraph-Regulations on receiving and transmitting Dispatches-Conditions of Admission of Supernumeraries -Programme of Preparatory Education required of Candidates............... 768 CHAPTER L VII. ADMINISTRATION OF RUSSIAN TELEGRAPHIS. Russian Government Telegraph-Categorical Arrangement of Dispatches-Regulation for Receiving and Sending Dispatches-Classification and Tariff of Charges-Regu lation of the Clocks.................................... 777 CHAPTER LVIII. EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL TARIFFSo European International Tariff-English International Tariff-Rules and RegulationsThe French Range.......................................... 784 CHAPTER LIX ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ASIATIC TELEGRAPHS. History of the Telegraph in Hindostan-Rules and Regulations on the Bengal Lines -Classification and Qualification of Employes............................ 799 APPENDIX. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF EMINENT TELEGRAPHERS, WITH PORTRAITS ON STEEL. SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, OF NEW-YORK................................ 8O., 03 AMOS KENDALL, oF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA.................................. s808 FRANCIS O. J. SMITH, OF MAINE.......................... 811 WILLIAM MI. SWAIN, OF PENNSYLVANIA................................... 822 WILLIAM TANNER, OF ALABAMA............................................. 825 JOHN J. SPEED, JR., OF MICHIGAN........................................... 829 JEPTHA H. WADE, OIoF 01......................................,..... 831 LEVI L. SADLER, OF MASSACHUSETTS............................................ 833 ANSON STAGER, or OHIO....................................................... 837 TALIAFERRO P. SHAFFNER, OF KENTUCKY................................... 840

Page  16 TELEGRAPH CHESS-BOARD 57 15 7 59 552 i 53 2 l Wll::I/ 51 9119lillI 41 1\li008dll 4S13 W1 ll, 45 7lil ll _ 25 21 ij a M i51 9o,~l~tll ~ I tI i 3 I jiell 5 7Bf^^

Page  17 THE TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER I. The meaning of the term Telegraph-Divine Telegraph-Telegraphs mentioned in the Classics and Ancient History-The Telegraph invented by PolybiusAgamemnon's Telegraph, B. C. 1084-North American Aboriginal Telegraph-The American Revolutionary Army Signals. THE MEANING OF THE TERM TELEGRAPH. TELEGRAPH-Greek, T-I~e. at a distance, and ypdcm, to write. The original meaning of the word, as taken from the Greek, is to perform the act of writing at a distance. In its modern application it means the art of "communicating at a distance." For example, the semaphore telegraph, composed of angles, communicated intelligence by certain mechanical contrivances, which had to be seen and understood by the operator miles distant. Also the needle systems of the electric telegraphs of Europe: they do not write, yet they communicate to points far distant. The term has been applied to any and all systems of transmitting information by signs or sounds to another beyond the reach of speech. The art of conveying intelligence by the aid of signals has been practised for centuries, and for aught we know since Adam and Eve commenced their pioneer career in the Garden of Eden. I have searched the Bible in vain for some tangible mode of signaling among the early nations. The most definite reference to communicating by signals mentioned in the Old Testament is to be found in chapter vi., verse 1, of the prophet Jeremiah, viz.: "0, ye children of Benjamin, gather yourselves to flee out of the midst of Jerusalem, and blow the trumpet in Tekoa, and set up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem; for evil appeareth out of the north, and great destruction!" The writings of Jeremiah date 588 years before Christ, and the above reference to communicating intelligence to others by the "sign of fire," or by any means of signaling is the carliest on reliable record. 2

Page  18 18 THE TELEGRAPH. DIVINE TELEGRAPH. In the New Testament there is nothing more potent and more sublime than the signat placed in the heavens to indicate that the Son of God was born. The humble shepherds in the open fields of Judea, while guarding their flocks, beheld in the vaulted firmament a STAR, the brilliancy of which had no twin. It was a signal-a Divine signal-communicating to man the glad tidings of the birth of the Prince of Peace. iA~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~;~~;-~~i-=-= —==~==

Page  19 ANCIENT TELEGRAPHS. 19 The Gospel of St. Matthew teaches that the signal light suspended in the heavens by the hand of the Creator was seen by the wise men of the east: "Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, " Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him." TELEGRAPHS MENTIONED IN THE CLASSICS AND ANCIENT HISTORY. In profane history and the classics, various methods of communicating by signals are mentioned. Homer is the first who mentions the telegraphic art. He compares the lambent flame which shone round the head of Achilles, and spread its lustre all round, to the signals made in besieged cities by clouds of smoke in the daytime, and by bright fires at night, as certain signals calling on the neighboring states for assistance, or to enable them to repel the powerful efforts of the enemy. Julius Africanus minutely details a mode of spelling words by a telegraph. It appears that fires of various substances were the means made use of. He says the Roman generals had recourse to such media of distant communication. In Livy, in Vegetius, and in the life of Sertorius, by Plutarch, it is mentioned that these generals frequently communicated by telegraphs. In book iv., page 238, of Brumoi's account of the Theatres of the Greeks, it is stated that fire signals were used to communicate the events of wars, and likewise to direct the commencement of battles. This description of signals was anterior to the use of trumpets. A priest, crowned with laurels, preceded the army, and held a lighted torch in his hand. He was respected and spared by the enemy, even in the heat of battle. Hence the old proverbial expression for a complete defeat, that even the very torch-bearer had not been spared. Hence, also, it is highly probable that the usage arose of rep- senting discord with inflamed torches. The Chinese, like the ancient Scythians, communicated intelligence by lighting fires or raising a cloud of smoke at different stations. Polybius gives the general appellation of Pyrsia to the telegraphic modes then practised; indicating that fires were the principal means made use of. An ingenious though limited species of telegraph was invented by 2Eneas, who lived in the time of Aristotle, and who wrote on the duties of a general. Two oblong boards had various sentences written on

Page  20 20 THE TELEGRAPH. their surfaces, as, " The enemy have entered the country," " The invasion has been repelled," " The enemy are in motion," &c., &c. These boards were fixed perpendicularly in pieces of cork which fitted very nearly the mouth of two similar circular vessels filled with water, and having a cock adapted to each vessel. One of the vessels was stationed where the intelligence originated, and the second at the place to which it was to be conveyed. A person, as at present, was always on the lookout; and when he perceived one or more torches raised up at the primary station, he understood that intelligence was about to be communicated. On observing a second torch raised, he instantly answered the signal and opened or turned the cock of the vessel he was in charge of; the cock of the vessel at the primary station having been turned immediately on raising up the second torch at that station and on observing this signal answered. As the cocks were opened simultaneously at both stations, the circular corks with the board standing perpendicular to their respective centres, would descend in the vessels equally, as the water subsided. At the instant when the sentence to be communicated descended or sunk to the level of the edge of the vessel at the primary station, the person in charge there raised a torch. The person at the second station, on observing this, instantly answered this signal, and turned the cock of his vessel, and thus stopped the flowing of the water, reading at the same time the sentence then level with the edge of the vessel, such sentence, on account of the equal flow of the water, corresponding to the one, similarly situated at the original station. TELEGRAPH INVENTED BY POLYBIUS-PUNIC WAR, B. C. 264. Polybius writes, in his history of the Punic wars, that he improved a mode of communicating ideas by the letters of the alphabet applied to a telegraph invented by Cleoxenus, or according to some authors, byDemoclitus. The letters of the Greek alphabet were divided into five parts, and those in each division were inscribed on a board fixed perpendicularly to an upright post for each of those divisions of the alphabet. These posts stood in an opening between two walls about ten feet by six, and situated on each side of the posts. Two long tubes (a dioptical instrument) were fixed in one position or direction. The telegraph workers could readily perceive through these tubes, which excluded all lateral rays, the right or left of the station viewed, and what number of torches might be raised above the top of the wall, either on the right or left of the station looked to. Things being thus prepared at the primary

Page  21 AGAMEMNON S TELEGRAPH. 21 and second station, the person in charge at the primary station would raise. up two torches as a commencing signal that intelligence was about to be conveyed. The looker-out at the other station would, on perceiving this, hold up a couple of torches, thus indicating that he was prepared. The ideas to be communicated were reduced previously to as few words as possible. The posts on which the letters were, being numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, one or more torches raised up above the left-hand wall, would indicate to the person at the second station, on what post was situated the first letter of the sentence to be communicated. The person at the second station, on observing through one of his tubes the torch or torches held up, would immediately raise torch or torches corresponding to the display exhibited. The person at the primary station, seeing his signal taken up, would lower his torch or torches, which would at once disappear on sinking under the level of the top of the wall. The column on which the letter was, being thus ascertained, the person at the primary station would hold up from behind the right-hand wall, a torch or torches, indicating the position of the letter on the post already pointed out. For instance, if it was the first letter at the top of the column, he would hold up one torch, and if the second, two torches, and so on to the fifth letter on the column. The person at the second station would exhibit a corresponding number, to make it appear that he understood the signal. Every letter in each word would be communicated in this manner; and we are to suppose that an agreed-on signal would be made to indicate the termination of a word and of a sentence. It is further evident that information could be conveyed along any number of stations, on the principle of the modern telegraph of keeping up every signal until taken up at the succeeding station. But in this case two parallel walls would be requisite on each side of the posts, in order that the torches, when depressed, might disappear to the two contiguous stations at the same instant. This was a night telegraph; but it could obviously and readily have been converted into a day telegraph by substituting flags in lieu of torches. AGAMEMNON'S TELEGRAPH, B. C. 1084. iEschylus, who was born five hundred and twenty-five years before Christ, wrote a tragedy in which he gave an account of the fall of Troy, which occurred 1084 years before the Christian era. For ten years the city had been besieged by Agamemnon. The news of the memorable event was signaled to his queen, Clytsemnestra. The following is from fEschylus:

Page  22 22 THE TELEGRAPH. "WATCHMAN. I pray the gods a deliverance from these toils, a remedy for my year-long watch, in which, couching on my elbows on the roofs of the Atreidse, like a dog, I have contem-lated the host of the nightly stars, and the bright potentates at bear winter and summer to mortals, conspicuous in the Firmament. And now 1 am watching for the signal of the beacon, the blaze of fire that brings a voice from Troy, and tidings of its capture; for thus strong in hope is the woman's heart, of manly counsel. Meanwhile I have a night-bewildered and dew-drenched couch, not visited by dreams, for fear, in place of sleep, stands at my side, so that I cannot. firmly close my eyelids in slumber. And when I think to sing or whistle, preparing this the counter-charm of song against sleep, then do I mourn, sighing over the sad condition of this house, that is not, as of yore, most excellently administered. But now, may there be a happy release from my toils as the fire of joyous tidings appears through the gloom. Oh hail! thou lamp of night, thou that displayest a light as like the day, and the marshalling of many dances in Argos on account of this event. Ho! ho! I will give a signal distinctly to the wife of Agamemnon, that she, having arisen with all speed from her couch, may raise aloud a joyous shout in welcome to this beacon, if indeed the city of Ilion is taken, as the beacon light stands forth announcing; and I myself will dance a prelude. For I will count the throws of my lord that have fallen well; mine own, since this kindling of the beacon light, has cast me thrice six. May it then befall me to grasp with this hand of mine the friendly hand of the sovereign of this palace on his arrival. CHORus. But thou, daughter of Tyndarus, Queen Clytoemnestra, what means this? What new event? What is it that thou hast heard? and on the faith of what tidings art thou burning incense sent around? And the altars of all our cityguarding gods, of those above and those below, gods of heaven and gods of the forum, are blazing with offerings; and in different directions different flames are springing upward, high as heaven, drugged with the mild, unadulterated cordials of pure ungent, with the royal cake, brought from the inmost cells. Concerning these things, tell one both what is possible and lawful for thee to say, and become thou the healer of this distracting anxiety, which now, one while, is full of evil thought, but at another time, because of the sacrifices, hope blandly fawning upon me repels the insatiate care, the rankling sorrow that is preying upon my heart. X * * I have come revering thy majesty, Clytemnestra; for right

Page  23 AGAMEMNON S TELEGRAPH. 23 it is to honor the consort of a chieftain hero, when the monarch's throne has been left empty. And gladly shall I hear whether thou, having learned aught that is good or not, art doing sacrifice with hopes that herald gladness-yet not if thou continuest silent will there be offence. CLYThEMNESTRA. Let morning become, as the adage runs, aherald of gladness from its mother night; and learn thou a joy greater than thy hope to hear, for the Argives have taken the city of Prian. CH. How sayest thou? thy word escaped me from its incredulity. CLYT. I say that Troy is in the power of the Argivesspeak I clearly? CH. Joy is stealing over me, that calls forth a tear. CLYT. Ay, for thy countenance proves thy loyalty. CH. Why, what sure proof hast thou of these things? CLYT. I have a proof-why not?-unless the deity hath deluded me. CH. Art thou then reverencing the vision of dreams that win easy credence? CLYT. I would not take the opinion of my soul when sunk in slumber. CH. But did some wingless rumor gladden thy mind? CLYT. Thou sharply mockest my sense as that of a young girl. CH. And at what time hath the city been sacked CLYT. I say in the night that hath now brought forth this day. CH. And what messenger could come with such speed? CLYT. Vulcan, sending forth a brilliant gleam from Ida; and beacon dispatched beacon of courier-fire hitherward. Ida, first, to the Hermsean promontory of Lemnos, and third in order Athos, mount of Jove, received the great torch from the isle, and passing o'er so as to ridge the sea, the might of the lamp as it joyously travelled, the pine-torch transmitting its goldgleaming splendor, like a sun, to the watch towers of Macistus. And the watchman omitted not his share of the messenger's duty, either by any delay, or by being carelessly overcome by sleep; but the light of the beacon coming from afar to the streams of the Euripus gives signal to the watchmen of Mlessapius, and they lighted a flame in turn and sent the tidings onward, having kindled with fire a pile of withered heath. And the lamp in its strength not yet at all bedimmed, bounding over the plain of the Asopus, like the bright moon to the crag of Cithheron, aroused another relay of the courier fire. And

Page  24 24 THE TELEGRAPH. the watch refused not the light that was sent from afar, lighting a larger pile than those above mentioned; but it darted across the lake Gorgopis, and having reached mount ZEgiplanctus, stirred it up that the rule of fire. might not be stint, and lighting it up in unscanting strength, they send on a mighty beard of flame, so that it passed glaring beyond the headland that looks down upon the Saronic frith, then it darted down until it reached the Arachnaean height, the neighboring post of observation, and thereupon to this roof of the Atreide here darts this light, no new descendant of the fire of Ida. Such, in truth, were my regulations for the bearers of the torch fulfilled by succession from one to another; and the first and the last in the course surpass the rest. Such proof and signal do I tell thee of my husband having sent me tidings from Troy. CH. To the gods, my queen! I will make prayer hereafter, but I could wish to hear and to admire once more, at length, those tidings as thou tellest them. CLYT. On this very day the Greeks are in possession of Troy. I think that a discordant clamor is loud in the city. If you pour into the same vessel both vinegar and oil, you will pronounce that they are foemen, and not friends. So you may hear the voices of the captured and the conquerors distinct because of a double result; for the one party having fallen about, the corpses of men, both those of brothers, and children those of their aged parents, are bewailing, from a throat that is no longer free, the death of those that were dearest to them. But the other party, on the contrary, is hungry, fatigued from roaming all the night after the battle, arranging at meals of such things as the city furnishes, by no fixed law in the distribution, but as each hath drawn the lot of fortune. Already are they dwelling in the captured houses of the Trojans, freed from the frost beneath the sky, and from the dews, thus will they, poor wretches, sleep the whole night through without sentries." NORTH AMERICAN ABORIGINAL TELEGRAPH. The most remarkable signaling records are to be found on various parts of the North American continent. The aborigines, or a race of people centuries since extinct, had their signal stations or mounds. Upon the loftiest summits beacon fires were built, and the rising smoke by day and the red flame by night communicated intelligence to others far distant. These mounds, these beacon remains, are still to be seen in different parts of America. An eminent author upon this subject says, that the most commanding positions on the hills bordering the

Page  25 NORTH AMERICAN ABORIGINAL TELEGRAPH. 25 valleys of the west, are often crowned with mounds, generally intermediate but sometimes of large size; suggesting at once the purposes to which some of the cairns or hill-mounds of the Celts were applied, namely, that of signal or alarm posts. Ranges of these mounds may be observed extending along the valleys for many miles. Between Chillicothe and Columbus, on the eastern border of the Scioto valley, not far apart, some twenty may be selected, so placed in respect to each other, that it is believed, if the country was cleared of the forest, signals of fire might be transmitted in a few minutes along the whole line. On a hill opposite Chillicothe, nearly six hundred feet in height, the loftiest in the entire region, one of these mounds is placed. A fire built upon it would be distinctly visible for fifteen or twenty miles up, and an equal distance down the valley. In the Miami valley similar works are found. Upon a hill three hundred feet in height, overlooking the Colerain work, and commanding an extensive view of the valley, are placed two mounds, which exhibit marks of fire on and around them. Similar mounds occur at intervals along the Wabash and Illinois, as also on the Upper Mississippi, the Ohio, the Miamis, and Scioto. On the high hills, overlooking Portsmouth and Marietta, mounds of stone are situated; those of the former place exhibit evident marks of fire. These mounds, or beacon hills, are to be found in different parts of the continent. The remains of these beacon fires are silent records left by a people, long since gone. Above the cinders have grown stately oaks, and upon the surface of the earth nothing but the new soil is to be seen. On removing the

Page  26 26 THE TELEGRAPH. earth some few feet, the charcoal and ash beds are found. How many centuries they have been there no human being can divine. It remains a sealed history to the world. The savage Indians, that rove in the wild regions of America, have their means of communicating by beacons and other modes of signaling. When Lieut. Fremont penetrated into the fastnesses of Upper California, his appearance created an alarm among the Indians. He there observed the primitive telegraph communicating his presence to tribes far distant. In his report, he says: " Columns of smoke rose over the country at scattered intervals-signals, by which the Indians, here, as elsewhere, communicate to each other, that enemies are in the country. It is a signal of ancient and very universal application among barbarians." AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY ARMY SIGNALS. During the American Revolutionary war, the people had their modes of signaling to each other the movements of the enemy, and especially when they were approaching. Among the different plans of communicating between the divisions of the army, was the next representation, of a barrel at the head of a mast, a flag below it, and the basket hanging to a cross-beam. This mast was moveable. The parts were moveable, and any arranged system of signaling could be carried out by this simple contrivance. For example, suppose the enemy was approaching, the pole might be left bare, so that there would be no reason for the enemy to suspect the objects of its use. The basket or either of the others, alone or combined, or any transposition, could be made to communicate a variety of information. di /,ff~

Page  27 THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER II. Origin of the Semaphore Telegraph-Its Adoption by the French Government -Its Extension over Europe-A German Telegraph Station-Russian Telegraph. ORIGIN OF THE SEMAPHORE OR AERIAL TELEGRAPH. THE visual telegraph system, of late in universal use over Europe and a part of Asia, has been superseded by the electric system. Notwithstanding it has passed away, yet a description of its beautiful mechanism must ever be of interest to the telegrapher. The most perfect aerial telegraph was that invented by the Messrs. Chappe, and first adopted in France. There were three brothers Chappe, nephews of the celebrated traveler, Chappe d'Auteroche, who were students —one at the Seminary d'Angers, and the other two were at a private school about a half league from the town. Claude Chappe, the pupil of the seminary, wishing to alleviate the separation with his brothers, contrived the following means by which they might correspond one with the other. He placed at the two ends of a bar of wood two wing pieces of wood, to be moved at pleasure, by means of which he was enabled to produce 192 signals, which were distinctly visible by means of a spy-glass. He conceived the idea of making words of these signals, and he communicated the same to his two brothers. This took place a few years before the French revolution in 1793. His invention was first tried in 1791, but, like all inventors, Chappe met with great opposition and discouragement. The people were opposed to the use of the telegraph at all, and his first telegraphs and the stations were destroyed by the populace. His second telegraph shared the same fate, and was burnt to the ground, and poor Chappe narrowly escaped with his life; the people threatened to burn him with his telegraph. Not daunted by these misfortunes he renewed his efforts for government aid, with increased zeal, until sucess crowned his efforts. 27

Page  28 28 SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH-ITS EXTENSION. ADOPTION OF THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH IN FRANCE. Continuing his efforts with the zeal common to great inventors, he finally succeeded in getting the government to favor his project, and a commissioner was appointed to examine into it. The commissioner reported favorably, and his system was adopted, and Chappe was honored with the appointment of telegraphic engineer to the French government, Fortunately, before the presentation of the invention to the government, the Chappe brothers perfected the system entire, and in the preparation of the signals they had the aid of Leon D elaunay, who had formerly been consul, and who was well acquainted with the cipher language of diplomacy. In this perfect state it was presented to the convention, adopted and subsequently executed. Circumstances favored these inventors remarkably; for their telegraph, after it had been once adopted by the government, it was fortunately inaugurated by the announcement of a victory. The following was the first dispatch, having been transmitted by the telegraph from the frontier of France to Paris, viz.: " CONDE IS TAKEN FROM THE AUSTRI ^NS.;' To which the convention, then in session, responded as follows, viz.:' THE ARMY OF THE NORTH DESERVES THE GRATITUDE OF THE COUNTRY." These two dispatches ran like an electric shock through the convention, and soon thereafter throughout Paris. The Chappe telegraph was then the pride of the nation! The telegraph and the victory were rejoiced over as twin-sisters in French glory. From this time the telegraph spread with wonderful rapidity to all parts of France, and thence to the other governments of Europe. The line from Paris to Lille was constructed in 1794, and two minutes only were occupied in the transmission of a dispatch In the perfection of the beautiful mechanism for the production of the signals, Chappe had the invaluable assistance of that most ingenious mechanic, M. Breguet, whose fame as a watchmaker had spread throughout Europe EXTENSION OF THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH OVER EUROPE. After the perfection of the semaphore telegraph in France, its usefulness was observed by the other governments of Europe. In 1802, a modified system was adopted in Denmark. About the same time it was adopted in Belgium. About 1795, it was

Page  29 SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH-ITS GENERAL ADOPTION. 29 adopted in Sweden, with some improvements over the Chapp6 system of that time. Soon after the establishment of the lines in France, the telegraph was erected in some parts of Germany. But the mechanism of the stations of that day was not so perfect as it has since been made by the brothers Chappe, and as will be described hereafter. In 1823, the visual telegraph was established between Calcutta and the fortress of Chunore, in Asia. A year later it was erected between Alexandria and Cairo, in Egypt, by Mohammed All. In some form or other it has spread mostly over the inhabited globe. Fig. 1. C C _B T H K X: _ d t __~-_ --- B D 71 F l 9iG A tatA io 178 German Telegraph Station, 1798.

Page  30 30 GERMAN AND RUSSIAN SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPHS. THE GERMAN TELEGRAPH STATION. While at Frankfort on the Main, Germany, in 1854, I found a drawing of the ancient semaphore telegraph, used in that country more than a half century ago. The house or station was a plain hut, and the mechanism for manipulation very simple, as will be seen in figure 1. The ropes were drawn by the hand, moving the regulator B B, and the indicators B c, as desired. The position of the regulator and the indicators, in the figure above, forms the letter A. Suppose the indicators A c were let down so as to hang below B B, the position then would form the letter E. The different angles assumed by the regulator and the indicators form letters, as illustrated by the alphabet given in figure 1. A A is an upright post made permanent in the earth or to the house. The descending cords move B B and B c separately. The organization of the mechanism, and the mode of manipulation, will be more particularly described in the next chapter, in reference to the Chappe telegraph. THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH IN RUSSIA. It was not until the reign of the great Emperor Nicholas I., that Russia organized a complete telegraphic system, which was executed in the most gigantic style in the principal directions required by the government. From Warsaw to St. Petersburg, to Moscow, and on other routes, the towers and houses were constructed for permanency and beauty. They were neatly painted, and the grounds were beautifully ornamented with trees and flowers. I have seen these stations, situated on eminences along the routes mentioned, every five or six miles, and the towers were in height according to the face of the country, and sufficiently high to overlook the tall pine so common in Russia. The system employed was, like those of all the other governments of Europe, the Chappe telegraph. The erection of these towers cost several millions of dollars, and the expense of maintaining them was very great. The line from the Austrian or Prussian frontier, through Warsaw to St. Petersburg, required about 220 stations, and at each of these stations were some six employes, making an aggregate of 1,320 men. Besides these, there were managing men at different localities having charge of the general administration. That great Emperor Nicholas I.-ever watchful and progressive-at an early day inaugurated the semaphore telegraph in a manner commensurate with the vastness of his government and its wants; and, notwithstanding the immense cost that it had been to the government, as soon as he saw a superior tele

Page  31 RUSSIAN SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. 31 graph he adopted it, and bade farewell to the visual signals which had served him so faithfully for a quarter of a century. It was a noble example to the fixedness of the bureau departments of other governments. These stations are now silent. No movements of the indicators are to be seen. They are still upon their high positions, fast yielding to the wasting hand of time. The electric wire, though less grand in its appearance, traverses the empire, and with burning flames inscribes in the distance the will of the emperor to sixty-six millions of human beings scattered over his wide-spread dominions. Fig. 2. Russian Telegraph Station, 1858.

Page  32 CHAPTER III. Description of the Chappe Telegraph-Organization of the Signal AlphabetProcess of Manipulation-Its Celerity in Sending Dispatches. DESCRIPTION OF THE CHAPPE SEMIAPHORE TELEGRAPH. I WILL nOW proceed to describe the Chappe sempahore telegraph according to the modern mode of operating it. The description is from the best authorities, and I presume it will be sufficiently clear, to enable any one to understand the system in its most complete sense. The Chappe telegraph is composed of three pieces: one is large and called a regulator, and two small ones, which are called indicators. The regulator A B, fig. 1, is a long rectangular piece, 18 inches wide and 14 feet long, and from 11 to 2 inches thick. At its centre, and in the direction of its centre, it is traversed by an axis, which traverses also a mast or vertical post D D at its upper extremity. The regulator, thus situated and elevated little over 14 feet above the roof T T, can turn freely on its axis, and describe a circle of which the plane is vertical. It can therefore give as many signals as it can represent distinguishable diameters of a circle; but to avoid all confusion Chappe wisely reduced its telegraphic positions to four, and it can never take any other but the four, namely, the vertical, horizontal, right oblique, and left oblique; the oblique Fig. 4. forming an angle of 45 degrees. It would be impossible to find four positions better defined and more distinct. They are represented in figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5. The two indicators A c and B c, fig. 1, are also two rectangular pieces, six feet long, one foot wide, and of a thickness a little less than that of the regulator. They are attached to the two ends of the regulator as the figure represents.. Each indicaFig. 5 tor has at its extremity A and B an axis which traverses the regulator at the same point. The extremity c c is free and moveable, each indicator can therefore describe a circle, of which the plane is parallel to the plane of the circle, which the regulator may describe; thus, in this manner, all the signals are made in the same way, vertical and perpendicular to theline of vision. 32

Page  33 THE CHAPPE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH..3 yi;.i 3 v^..3 iT T

Page  34 34 CHAPPE SIGNAL ALPHABET. The regulator having its axis of rotation at its centre of form and gravity, remains indifferently in whatever position it is put; but the indicator, revolving on an axis placed at one of the ends, are free, and are disposed to fall toward the earth. To counteract this tendency, the visible branches of the indicators B c and A c are counterbalanced by a weight placed on a branch invisible at distance A K and B K. This branch at first formed of two rods of iron ~ of an inch in diameter, fixed at the extremities B and A of the indicators, was soon changed into a single rod, by forming with the two an acute angle. Toward its extremity the branch has a counterpoise K of lead, which keeps the indicator in equilibrium in all its various positions around its axis. It is understood thatthe two indicators should be of the same weight, and that their axis should be at equal distances from the axis of the regulator. The distance from the centre of rotation of the regulator to the centre of rotation of the indicators is 6~ feet, that from the centre of rotation of the indicators to their movable extremities is 5- feet; when, therefore, the two indicators are turned inwardly, their moveable ends are two feet apart. The regulators and the indicators are made like a window shutter with alternate slot or bar, and aperture, one half of the bars setting to the right and the other half to the left, to divide the force of the wind, and to produce light and shade. The assemblage of these three pieces forms a complete whole, elevated in space, and sustained by a single point of support, namely, the rotating axis of the regulator, which axis turns with a hug sufficiently tight to stand at any given point, at the upper extremity of the post through which the said axis traverses horizontally. The mast, or post sustaining the telegraph, ought to be very solid and strong. It may be double, but whether single or double, the surface which is presented to the eye ought always to be much less than the width of the regulator and indicator, to avoid confusion. The line presented by this elongated surface is nevertheless useful as the datum line, since it always indicates the direction of the vertical line. This post is furnished with iron pins on each side to serve as a ladder by which to ascend. ORGANIZATION OF THE CHAPPE SIGNAL ALPHABET. The regulator should only occupy four positions: the vertical, fig. 2; the horizontal, fig. 3; the right oblique, fig. 4; and the left oblique, fig. 5; each separated from the other by an angle of 45 degrees.

Page  35 CHAPPE SIGNAL ALPHABET. 35 Let us now suppose the regulator Fig.. placed in a horizontal position, and hav- n ing a single indicator B E, describe a L circle around its axis B, and by stopping it at every 45 degrees we thus give to it Al -------- 8 different positions in regard to the regulator B A. Of these 8 positions, 6 are r angular B L, B M, B N, B F, B E, and B D. Two are parallel B c and B o. This last position has been abandoned, because as it is merely a prolongation of the regulator, it is not seen distinctly. The 7 relative positions of the indicator and of the regulator thus give 7 distinct indexes, all combining to form the desired signals. For whatever be the position of the regulator, the indicator is always placed in a horizontal, or vertical, or right oblique, or left oblique position, respectively. Of these seven signals, one, c B, confounds itself with the regulator, and is called zero. Two, B L and B D, form with the regulator an angle of 90 degrees, and two, B N and B r, an angle of 135 degrees. It is necessary, therefore, to find simple means of distinguishing them. In the method adopted for the formation of signals, the indicator in the positions B L, B hr, and B N, has always its free extremity turned toward the sky, and its other extremity toward the earth, in the positions B F, B E, and B D. In designating angles, the words sky and earth will be used to avoid prolixity. On the other hand, it would be tedious to say 45 degrees sky, 90 degrees sky, 135 degrees sky or earth. These different terms have been adopted to economize in the language. The terms used are zero, 5 sky, 10 sky, 15 sky, 15 earth, 10 eaearth arth, and they are written as indicated in fig. 7. The regulator being fixed in any Fig.7 - 7 - -j - -, -7 of the four positions which it can take, a single indicator produ- " s_ _ _ ces with it 7 distinct and separate signals. It is evident that the indicator placed at the left 9 - -, — of it, will produce the same number, and these are called the same, except they are described as at the left of the indicator as seen in fig. 8. Now, if we consider the signals which may result from the combination of the seven signals of one indicator with the seven signals of the other indicator, we shall see that if one of the indicators is placed at zero, and the other is passed through its seven positions, we shall obtain, in the first place, the double

Page  36 36 CHAPPE SIGNAL TELEGRAPII. horizontal, or rather the horizontal closed line, then, zero 5 sky, zero 10 sky, zero 15 sky, zero 15 earth, zero 10 earth, and zero 5 earth, as seen in fig. 8. Elevating and keeping at " 5 sky" one of the indicators, we shall have 5 sky zero, two 5 sky, 5 and 10 sky, 5 and 15 sky, 5 sky and 15 earth, 5 sky and 10 earth, 5 sky and 15 earth, which makes 7 other signals, as seen in fig. 9. Elevating and keeping at " 10 sky" one of the indicators, we will obtain seven more signals, and so on, until the seven signals of one indicator have been combined with each of the seven signals of the other, giving in all 49 signals, without changing the position of the regulator; but the regulator takes four different positions, giving four different values to the 49 signals, and raising the whole number of possible signals to 196, furnished by the Chappe semaphore telegraph. These signals are clear, simple, and easy to name and to write. It is impossible to commit an error, on a clear day, in seeing, designaing, or writing them. One grave difficulty, however, presented itself in communicating, that is, how to designate to the neighboring station that the signals formed were correct, and how to indicate the time to repeat them. The brothers Chappe decided that no signals should be formed, with the regulator in a horizontal or perpendicular position; that all signals should be formed on the right oblique or left oblique. They also decided that no signal should have value until the regulator should be returned to a vertical or horizontal position. In this way the operator who sees a signal formed on the right or left oblique, notices, and prepares himself to repeat it back to the station; but he does not record it. As soon as he sees it carried to the horizontal or vertical position, he knows it to be correct, and he immediately writes it down, and then repeats it to the same station. This manceuvre is called "' verifying the signal." From that time each signal formed on each oblique takes a double value. Since it may be carried to the horizontal or vertical line, 49 signals, there can be received 98 significations in passing from the right oblique to the horizontal or vertical line; and the same for the left oblique, in all 196 signals. Nevertheless, the signals of the two obliques would not be intelligible if the signals of the right oblique were not different from those of the left oblique; for both being brought to the horizontal or vertical line, they being in all respects similar, would really represent only 98 signals, unless we noticed the direction in which they are moved to a horizontal or vertical position.

Page  37 THE CHAPPE SIGNAL ALPHABET. 37 As the necessity of the telegraph requires a great portion of the signals for the purposes of regulation and police of the line, the rest of the signals being devoted exclusively to the transmission of dispatches, these two classes of signals, being perfectly distinct, cannot be placed in the same journal of business. The signals formed on one. oblique are, therefore, devoted to the administration of the line, and those on the other oblique are devoted to the correspondence. There are thus 98 regulation signals, and 98 dispatch signals, which are all written on horizontal and vertical lines, but written separately in the journal book, marked out for the registration of the respective services. The signals take their names Fig'. 10. when they are formed on the obliques, ig as seen in fig. 10, and it is important \ \ to remark that the designation of a x x > signal must commence always from < the upper extremity of the regu- lator. The signals are never written \ X. > as in the table, fig. 10, but always \ > N, on the horizontal lines, as in fig. 11, \ or in the vertical line, as in table, fig. \ N 12. The station master writes them " N \ as he sees them, but never until he is sure they are correctly understood. It now remains to be explained Fig. 11. how the mechanism which produces these signals is operated. To one not fa- miliar with signaling, Ithe / 7 process may seem surrounded with complications, and ~-~ 1 -' "-' v-7 tardiness of action. Such, v -, however, is not the case; and _ a knowledge of the more Fig. 12. modern electric needle system of telegraphing would 1] [ r I a J [ I prove the error. But as to N T r the rapidity in transmission, I i [ J _ j 1 the facts hereafter stated l CI rf 1 will more fully demonstrate that the Chappe telegraph S J'L $1] ) ( is not a slow process of communicating intelligence, but that it has subserved well the purposes contemplated by its patriotic and enthusiastic founder.

Page  38 38 MANIPULATION OF THE CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. THE PROCESS OF MANIPULATING THE CHAPPE TELE GRAPH. The axis a a' a", fig 13, which comR mands the regulator, is turned by a pulley, p, fixed at its extremity, a, opposite to that,,,:, of a"/, which carries the regulator; this pulley, from 16 to 18 inches in diameter, contains two deep grooves, and under this pulley in the interior of the post about three feet from the ground is another simFI^ F.o 15 ilar one, q, which also has two grooves. The second pulley, q, is also fixed at the x extremity b, of an axis b b' b", which tra0 0 _ f l | verses horizontally the interior prolongas1 j1 1i I == _ l |tion of the post D D', figures 1 and 13. H. |l In order to receive upon a square b", a double lever I 1, which serves to place it zi nli i in rotation, as well as the pulley fixed at its other extremity. This lever, or double c"right-hand crank, is about three-and-ahalf feet long, and is terminated by two wooden handles situated at right angles from each other, tn tn. Let us suppose now that the lever which represents a diameter, and describes a circle, the plane of which parallel is to that of the circle described by the regulator; let us suppose, I say, that this lever is fixed, in the first' Iel' place, parallel with the regulator, and at the moment we transmit to the pulley p the rotatory movement, which it will give to the pulley q by means of two tightlystrained bright wire cords, of which one passes to the right of the two pulleys in one of their two grooves, and the other to the left in the other groove. Suppose now z ni l, that the free extremities of these two cords are fastened at tlhe bottom of their respect/||p!t i ive grooves, after having surrounded the J/I[fl ||7u upper and lower pulleys by at least half l?t ^ l tile circumferences, it is evident that the A |1 r f movement described by the lever 1 1 will a t Ii Wrs be transmitted by the axis b b' b" to the pulley q, which will transmit it exactly ID D, by means of the two cords c c' c" to the pulley p; and that this latter will trans

Page  39 MANIPULATION OF THE CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. 39 mit by the axis a a' a" to the regulator R R, and to all the parts which it carries, and that the regulator will also follow the movement of the lever I 1, and remain perfectly parallel with it. It is also evident that the lever and the regulator may describe at least a circle, because the cords are wound upon each pulley for each half of a circumference at each extremity. As a substitute for the cords, and to give them easily the proper tension which the movement causes them to lose, the middle portion of them, which is never required to pass over the pulley, are iron rods with screws, by which they may be lengthened or shortened at pleasure. These rods are terminated above and below by hooks which hold the cords by a single ring in the end of the cord. The extremity of the cords which answer to the pulleys, traverses the bottom of the groove, through a hole made for that purpose, and is attached to a spoke of the pulley which is shortened or lengthened by means of a screw. By this very simple system a station-master may change very rapidly the cords or the rods, and lengthen or shorten them at pleasure. The rods or cords pass through the roof of the house, through holes, in such a way as to avoid friction as much as possible. To communicate movement to the indicators, the mechanism is the same as above described, only a little more complicated or extended, because there must be two return cords, one from the extremities, the lever 1 1 at its axis b" and the other from the axis of the regulator a" to its extremities R i. In the second place the rotary movement must be transmitted to two different and independent circles. Let us consider in the first place, the transmission of the movement to a single indicator. The indicator is governed by an axis i' i", which also governs the pulley with two grooves zm; this pulley is fastened to the pulley o' by two metallic cords, which renders all their movements dependent and identical; the pulley o' forms a single piece with the pulley o; these two pulleys are united by a hollow axis traversed by the axis of the regulator a a' a", around which it turns freely. The pulley o, and consequently the pulley o' receives all its movements from the pulley u', which receives them from the pulley u, to which it is connected by a hollow axis, which turns upon the axis b b' b" of the lever; the pulley u receives its movement from the pulley r; this last pulley is controlled by an axis which traverses the lever I 1, in which it turns; the extremity 1" of this axis is fixed to one lever forming the ray 1" u"; this lever, or handle or hand, in describing a circle, causes the pulley r to describe a circle in the same

Page  40 40 MANIPULATION OF THE CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. direction, which causes the same result to the pulley u, which in its rotation draws the pulley u', and this rotation is transmitted to the pulley o, which communicates it to the pulley o', and this latter causes the pulley m to turn, which causes the regulator I I to describe a complete circle in the same direction as the hand l/ n"' has done. By causing this hand to describe a circle, in an oppesite direction, it is easily seen that the indicator will do the same thing. Let us now follow the transmission of the movement to the second indicator. By causing the hand l' n'to turn, the pulley r' is made to turn, which causes the pulley u/'/ to turn. This pulley forms a single piece with its neighboring pulley u", and both turn by means of one common hollow axis; around the common hollow axis of the two pulleys u u', the pulley iu", transmits the movement to the pulley o', united by a hollow axis to its neighbor o"'/. This hollow axis turns, also, around the hollow axis common to the pulleys o' and o. The pulley o"' puts in rotation the pulley m', which makes the indicator i' i' describes identically the same movement which the hand 1' n had made. If we observe, now, that the large lever 1 1 makes the regulator describe movements similar to its own, and that it draws by these movements the rays 1' n' 1" n'/, without changing the relations established between them and itself, and that the indicators cannot change their relative positions with the regulators, but by change of relation with the said rays of the grand lever, without changing the relation of the said rays to the grand lever, we shall easily understand. 1st. That the rays 1 in'' l n", making any angle with the diameter 1 1, the indicators I I I/ I' will make precisely the same angles with the regulator R R. 2d. Whatever be the horizontal, vertical, right oblique, or left oblique, in which we put the lever I 1, the regulator will take the same position; and, as this same movement affects no change in the value of the angles formed by 1' rn' 1" n" with 1 1, the indicators will also remain invariably in their angles with the regulator. Thus the interior mechanism gives a constant and exact image of the exterior mechanism, and the signals are always reproduced with precision before the eyes of the operator. In order that the angles of the indicators and of the regulators should be invariably fixed, the hands 1/ n' n" n" are furnished with a spring and a tooth. This spring is designed to make the tooth t enter into the notches of the steel dividing circle d. These divisions are seven in number, of 45 degrees

Page  41 MANIPULATION OF THE CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. 41 each. The axis of the large lever also carries a divisor of 8 notches; but while the divisors of the two hands are fixed in relation to the axis which traverses them, said divisor of the large lever is fixed upon the axis and turns with it. When we wish to hold the regulator on account of high wind, or for other cause, we place a kind of bolt fixed in the post to enter one of these notches, and this bolt stops all movements of the regulator. As the indicator ought always to remain motionless, when the regulator is moved after a signal is made, the spring above mentioned always holds the tooth of the hand fixed in the notch of the divisor when said hand has been placed in such a way that the operator is obliged, when he wishes to change the position of an indicator, to draw the hand toward himself in order to disengage the tooth, and to let go of the hand when the tooth has arrived opposite the new notch in which the tooth is to be fixed. From these facts it will be seen that the mechanism of the Chappe telegraph is a model of simplicity and precision. It fulfills the conditions of rapidity, clearness, and variety in execution. Let us suppose that the telegraph is at rest in the position represented in fig. 13, which position is called the vertical closed, and that the operator enters his office in the morning; he commences by applying his eye alternately to first one, and then the other of his neighboring telegraph stations, to see if either of them are giving a signal, and, in the meantime, he arranges on his desk, pen, ink, and record-book. As soon as he sees one of the two stations move, he draws the bolt which holds the large axis at rest, and puts one hand upon the upper handle of the great crank, and then looks at the signal which has been formed. If the regulator is to be carried to the right oblique, or left oblique, which is indispensable, he pushes the upper extremity of the handle to the right or left, aiding the movement at the same time by pushing the lower extremity with his leg, at the same time he puts his other hand upon the small lower crank 1' n in order to commence moving the indicator; the regulator being once set in motion, he lets go the upper handle in order to take hold of the handle l' n.", and move the second indicator, thus the signal being formed, he stops it on the oblique which belongs to it. He thus looks through his telescope to the station whence the signal came, to see if said signal has been carried to the horizontal or to the vertical. If it has been carried, he knows it to be correct, and accordingly records it as he sees it horizontal or vertical in the square

Page  42 42 CELERITY OF DISPATCH BY CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. of signals of correspondence; if it has been formed on the other oblique, he records the hour and minute at which the labor commences; and lastly, he makes his own signal, and watches to see if the station to which he communicates the dispatch repeats and carries it correctly. If he is sure that the signal has been well understood and properly reproduced, he turns to the first telescope, repeats the signal which he sees on the oblique, waits till it is carried to the horizontal or vertical, in order to record it, repeats it in his turn, watches if it is correctly taken by the other station, and the operation thus continues indefinitely. CELERITY OF DISPATCHING BY THE CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. The greatest speed which can be attained in the passage of signals without producing confusion, is three signals a minute, whence it follows that 20 seconds is necessary to execute all the steps of a signal, to record it, and to verify it. All the signals, however, do not require this period of time, as there are half signals. These half signals are four in number-the double zero or vertical closed, the closed or double horizontal zero, the right oblique closed and left oblique closed. These are all made in their place, and it is only necessary to fold in the two indicators. These demi-signals are very useful, because they serve to distinguish groups of signals; and, because, being frequently necessary, they waste less time than a signal execution, of which requires several steps and movements. The movements of the regulator are so easy, when the machine is in good order, and there is no wind, that generally the operator can, by using the two hands to develop the indicators, at the same time bring the regulator to the position which it is to occupy. The complete operation of a signal is as follows 1st. Observe the signal which is formed on the oblique. 2d. Form it. 3d. Observe if it is carried to the horizontal or to the vertical. 4th. Carry it in a corresponding manner. 5th. Record it. 6th. See if the next station reproduces it exactly. These six steps ought to be equal in duration of time; if it were otherwise a signal would be badly observed by the two stations corresponding. We also remedy inequalities of strength and of agility, in the operators, by directing that there must never be a change of a signal carried, before the station to which it is communicated has also carried it. Suppose a passage of 3 signals a minute, the different steps ought to be thus divided:for observing, 4 seconds; forming on the oblique, 4 seconds; observing the carrying, and carrying,

Page  43 CELERITY OF DISPATCH BY CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. 43 4 seconds; recording, 4 seconds; and verifying with the next station, 4 seconds: total, 20 seconds. This rapidity of three signals a minute is far from being constant. It can only be depended upon when the weather is fine, when the operators are well disposed, experienced, and faithful. Chappe said, that when the weather was fine, and the fogs and haziness of the atmosphere are not a hindrance to vision, the first signal of a communication ought not to occupy more than 10 or 12 minutes in passing from Toulon to Paris, cities situated 215 leagues or 475 miles apart, and connected by a telegraph line of 120 stations; but Chappe added, that if we suppose a continuous correspondence between Paris and Toulon, there would ordinarily arrive at Toulon but one signal a minute. To recapitulate, the Chappe telegraph gives 98 primitive signals for the correspondence, and 98 primitive regulating and indicating signals. These two classes of signals, although alike, must not be confounded, because they are formed one on the left oblique, and the other on the right oblique; and because they are recorded one in the regulation column, and the other in the column of correspondence. This record I have arranged in the following form, viz.: REGULATIONS AND OFFICE SIGNALS. SIGNALS OF CORRESPONDENCE. o Right Oblique. Left Oblique. Right Oblique. Left Oblique. Hw Carried. How Carried. How Carried. How Carried. _ ______ These signals may succeed each other with the rapidity of 3 per minute. They form figures easy to observe, easy to record, and without an effort of the mind; the machine is solid, light, and elegant. A man of moderate intelligence is entirely competent to manage the correspondence. To show the immense superiority of the Chappe telegraph over all other aerial telegraphs which have been devised or temporarily established, either before or since his time, it would be sufficient to describe them and notice their resources; and

Page  44 44 CELERITY OF DISPATCH BY CHAPPE TELEGRAPHI. we shall see that none of them, if we except the Swedish telegraph invented by Edelcrantz, can be said to have subserved the purposes of science or telegraphic art. In France, where the most perfect model has been before their eyes, all efforts made previous to the time of Chappe were but rude approaches to the Chappe system, and but one of those efforts still in existence. The system of Chappe produced, as a first and inevitable result, a diminution of just one third in rapidity of the signals. By analyzing its movements it is easy to anticipate such a result; but it is more easy to be convinced of it by taking such a position as to have a view of the towers of St. Sulpice. Upon one of these towers is the Chappe telegraph, and upon the other, the telegraph devised by Mr. Flocon, the third administrator of the telegraph. By watching these two telegraphs for an hour, and counting exactly the number of the signals, it will be seen that the Chappe telegraph gives exactly three signals, while the other gives two. A second objection to Mr. Flocon's telegraph is, that it requires a greater degree of intelligence to operate it; consequently it is more liable to fault in transmitting correspondence and in recording them. The regulator is placed upon a vertical mast or post, and the indicators are attached to the extremities of a fixed horizontal bar; all the signals are therefore given horizontally. We must observe the regulator separately, in order to know if we understand whether the signals belong to the right oblique or to the left oblique, and we must record them vertically or horizontally. If they are to be recorded vertically, we must then make an abstract of what we have seen, and after arranging the figure in the head, then make a draft of it. The telegraph, modified by Mr. Flocon, nevertheless offers one advantage, that of being less difficult to operate when the wind is light; but, it is said that it is not by means of new machines, or retrenchments, or additions to them, as perfected by Chapp6, that the aerial telegraphing can be improved. The true and only way of progress in semaphore telegraphing is to find the means of multiplying the number of primitive signals; to combine these signals in such a way as to express, with the least motion and in the shortest time possible, the greatest quantity of numbers; to represent by these numbers as many ideas as possible, and to double the period of correspondence by continuing it through the night. The greatest effort and the most active inventive talent have been thwarted in every effort to make an aerial telegraph effective at night, and even Chappe admitted its impracticability after the most arduous labors to consummate the object. Like

Page  45 CELERITY OF DISPATCI BY CHAPPE TELEGRAPH. 45 result has followed the labors of others down to the present time. " We may at present," says Mr. Jules Guyot, from whom much of this description has been copied, " without changing anything in the exactitude of the signals, and without changing anything in the mechanism that produces them, double their number. We may raise them to 82,944 words; parts of, or the whole of phrases, by two signals expressed by 4, 5 and 6 movements; and we may devise plans to establish the Chappe telegraph by night as it is by day. Thus the resources of the telegraphic art are far from being exhausted, and to accomplish these ends the inventive mind can be directed."

Page  46 CHAPTER IV. The Prussian Semaphore Telegraph-The English Semaphore —The Gonon, Chappe, Guyot, and Treutler's Improvements on the Chappe Telegraph. THE PRUSSIAN SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. Fig. 1. THE Prussian telegraph, represented by fig. 1, was introduced into Prussia in X0/ Ethe year 1832, when the government appropriated 170,000 thalers for the establishment of a line of stations between m { \TI I Berlin and Treves, passing through Potsdam, Magdeburg, Cologne, and Coblcntz. a.___ The mechanism of the apparatus differs 0r essentally from that of the Chappe. A vertical post traverses the platform of the ji| —r-r~'n'r''|'. _station, and rises to the height of 20 feet. The post bears three pairs or couples of wings moveable around their extremities. The wings are 4 feet long, and. 1~ feet wide. Each wing is fixed to a pulley, over which passes a cord. This cord, in the room of the station-master, passes around a second pulley, to which a handle is attached. The rotation of the handle causes each wing to describe a semi-circle; but only four of these positions are used, those which the wing forms with the vertical angles 0~, 45~, 90~, and 1350. While one of the upper wings remains in the same position, the second wing may take four different positions, so that each pair of wings furnishes 16 signals. One of these signals being given, the second or middle pair of wings may, in their turn, take 16 relatively different positions, and consequently the first two wings give together 16 x 16=256 signals. This product multiplied by the sixteen signals of the third pair, gives a total of 4.096. Such is the number of signals at command by the Prussian telegraph. The Prussian telegraph was perfected and extended over the kingdom with a degree of enterprise highly commendable to the nation. Experts were called into the service, and nowhere could be found a system more admirably conducted. Wherever improvements could be made, they were promptly adopted, and, at an early day after the establishment of the semaphore in Prussia, it was materially simplified. 46

Page  47 SEMIAPHORE TELEGRAPH IN ElNGLAND. 47 THE ENGLISH SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. Fig. 2. The English telegraph is Fig. 8. sists of a quadrangular f |j _ f * =, ll _1Ii l~fri~~~Enamelish Telegrap h Station. The English telegraph is Fig. 3. representecd in fig. 2. It colHi _ sists of a quadrangular frarne, in which six octag- ____ onal plates or panels turn'' around a horizontal axis,. |These six panels are divi- I l ~' ded into two groups, eachi formed of three plates, placed | vertically above each other. A simple mechanism of pulleys and cranks enables the // \' operator to exhibit each pan.

Page  48 48 IMPROVEMENTS OF SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. nel either its face or edge, and as each panel takes two different positions the whole will give 64 very distinct signals. This telegraph was introduced into England in 1795, and has performed much valuable service for the government and commerce. In searching for facts upon this subject in the British Museum in London, some years since, I found the above drawings. They represent their erection close to the earth, as was the case some half a century ago. High hills were then chosen, and upon them a rude structure was placed, as seen in fig. 2. THE GONON IMPROVEMENT OF THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. This improvement is composed of two columns, one of which is 33 feet, and the other 28 feet high. To each of these two columns are fitted two moveable arrows. Between these four arrows the distance is nine feet, which space is filled with six windows or openings, arranged so as to be opened and closed at pleasure. There are four dial plates with a crank corresponding to the four arrows, and six keys corresponding to the six sashes or openings. With this simple mechanism the operator can from his room move the arrows, shut and open the sashes, and form 40,960 signals, which Mr. Gonon found was all that would be wanted for a general correspondence. By adding two fixed lights to each of the sashes, and two moveable lights to each of the arrows, Mr. Gonon said he could, after some little preparation, operate his machine as a night telegraph, the signals being exactly the same. ABRAHAM CHAPPE'S IMPROVEMENT ON THE ORIGINAL SEMAPHORE. More recently Mr. Abraham Chappe proposed an improvement on the system first erected, which he described in substance, as follows: Fig. 4. Fig. 5. "In my new system of numeration and com-—'f ~ — ~ --- - - 7 bination of signals, all the official signals are given on the horizontal line as represented in fig. 4. During the entire dispatch the indicator alone Fig. G. moves. Each indicator, in describing its -^ ~ \ v-^- icircle, stops as here)r.1 V _J, _-, x - i tofore described at the -_ —, -,- -- v —, - six positions, marked e- ~- -7 -7 - r- -T 7 in fig. 4, that is, 5, 10, and 1.5 sky; 5,

Page  49 GUYOT'S IMPROVEMENT OF SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. 49 10, and 15 earth. Each angle of fig. 5, of an indicator, signifies a single number, and each corresponding angle of the opposite indicator represents the same number. The closed alone represent nothing. "Inclosing the left indicator and opening successively the right indicator under its six angles, I shall have in the same order the number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, by the signals represented in fig. 5. In developing both indicators at once, I shall obtain 36 combinations of two figures each, as seen in fig. 6. The numbers given by these 36 combinations are 216 series, and combining signals sufficient to represent 58,190 more than was used by the older system." GUYOT'S IMPROVEMENT OF THE SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. Mr. Jules Guyot proposed an im- Fig. 7. provement which is thus described. At distances of two to three miles a post was fixed about 30 feet high, strongly fastened at the foot. The upper extremities were stayed by guys of four iron cords. A stationhouse, some eight feet square at the foot, was erected for manipulating. The posts were fitted with ladder pins, by which they could be ascended at o pleasure. Each pole, or mast, bore near its upper end a fixed axis parallel to the line, upon which a needle or indicator turned in a vertical plane. Fifteen feet lower was a second and a similar axis and indicator, and between these two axes was a moveable piece or regulator which could raise as high as the upper axis, or descend to the lower one. They were about nine feet long, and about three feet wide at the smaller end, and about four feet at the widest end. They were constructed with slats as the window blind, painted a heavy black through the centre, and white on the lateral bands. This ingenious contrivance of Mr. Guyot's was never practically established, but it unquestionably possessed very great merit. The night telegraph, proposed by Mr. Guyot, was constructed with two liquid hydrogen lanterns, suspended at the 4

Page  50 50 TREUTLER IMPROVEMENT OF SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPH. Fig. 8. lower indicator of the (lay telegraph, so as to give a light in both directions. He also pro/ 8N \ posed to use lanterns on the Chappe telegraph, by placing A /o / A two white lights at each extremity of the regulator, and two bright green lights at the extremity of the indicators. By means of an arrangement of these lights the Chappe telegraph was made to serve for the night. Fig. 8 represents the signals on the right oblique indicating signals 10 earth, and 10 sky, and in. which all the lanterns are outside of the mechanism, illustrating the day telegraph transformed into the night. Fig 9. THE TREUTLER IMPROVEMENT IN SEMAPHORE TELEGRAPHING. \ /, Mr. Treutler, of Ber- Fig. 10. —. lin, constructed a sema- phore telegraph to be e f used principally in the <.:.I railway service. Fig. _~ 1 ~"9 represents the whole ----- _ mechanism invented by -. —-'/ him. It was a mast........... with a single pair of'........ wings. These movea-......... -—...ble wings were furnished with two series of mirrors as represented in fig. 10, designed to reflect the parallel to the line, and in two opposite directions.

Page  51 STATIC ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER V. Static Electricity Explained-Conductors and Non-Conductors-Vitreous and Resinous Electricity-Discovery of the Leyden Jar-Franklin's Electrical Theories-Coulomb's Theories of Electro-Statics-Franklin's Reasons for believing that Lightning and Electricity were Identical-Identity of Lightning and Electricity Demonstrated-The Franklin Kite Experiment-Distribution of Electricity-Phenomena of Resistance to Induction-Phenomena of Attraction and Repulsion-Igniting Gas with the Finger-The Leyden Jar Experiments. STATIC ELECTRICITY EXPLAINED. THE name, electricity, is derived from the Greek word ~sxeK-rov, which signifies amber, the first substance upon which, electrical properties were seen. Since the discovery of this mysterious phenomenon in nature, the whole world has been startled from time to time, by its extraordinary developments. It was unknown to the ancients, and as a science, it dates with the eighteenth century. I do not propose to discuss the intricacies of this science, except in general terms, and to a very limited extent. The facts herein mentioned, are from many standard works. Static electricity is more commonly called frictional electricity. The term " static" is applied, to distinguish the action of the force excited by friction, from that excited by chemical action. Frictional, or static electricity, exhibits itself in a state of equilibrium, and remains comparatively at rest, except during the instant of discharge; while voltaic, or chemical electricity, appears to be constantly in motion, from one pole of the voltaic battery to the other, and has hence been called current electricity. Static electricity is sometimes called " electricity at rest," and voltaic, or current, is called " electricity in motion." The subject-matter, considered in this chapter, will be " static

Page  52 52 STATIC ELECTRICITY electricity,'" and in another chapter will be explained the different elements organized, to generate voltaic or " electricity in motion," as applied for telegraphic purposes. It is supposed. that electricity, in some form or other, exists in all nature, nevertheless, some substances manifest a greater degree of its presence than others. CONDUCTORS AND NON-CONDUCTORS. The metals were found to rank highest in this property. It has been subsequently discovered that all bodies are conductors of electricity more or less. No substance is at present known which is an absolutely perfect non-conductor. With all bodies, the passage through them of a definite amount of electricity is but a question of time. The great object to be maintained in the construction of an electric telegraph is, to.give the greatest possible facility for the passage of the power to a particular distant station, and to throw every possible obstacle in the way of the escape of any portion of the power in any other direction than the one desired. For such purpose, the most perfect conductors are used for the conveyance of the power, and the most perfect insulators made to surround such conductors. The following table exhibits the conducting power of several bodies with respect to electricity. It begins with the most perfect conductors, and ends with those which are the least perfect conductors. The properties, therefore, of these latter bodies, approximate most closely to that of non-conductors or insulators. The exact order, however, is by no means fully substantiated as yet, and the table must therefore only be taken as a general guide. All the metals, viz.: Silver, Metallic ores, Moist earths and stones, Copper, Animal fluids. Powdered glass, Gold, Sea-water, Flour of sulphur, Brass, Spring-water, Dry metallic oxydes, Zinc, Rain-water, Oils-heaviest the best, Tin, Ice above 13~ Fahr. Ashes, vegetable bodies, Platinum, Snow, Ashes of animal bodies, Palladium, Living vegetables, Many transparent crysIron and Living animals, tals, dry, Lead, Flame, Ice below 13~ Fahr., Well-burnt Charcoal, Smoke, Phosphorus, Plumbago, Steam, Lime, Concentrated acids, Salts soluble in water, Dry chalk, Powdered charcoal, Rarefied air, Native carbonate of baDilute acids, Vapor of alcohol, rytes, Saline solutions, Vapor of ether, Lycopodium,

Page  53 DISCOVERY OF THE LEYDEN JAR..53 Gum elastic, Parchment, Mica, Camphor, Dry paper, All vitrifications, Some silicious and argil- Feathers, Glass, laceous stones, Hair, Jet, Dry marble, Wool, Wax, Porcelain, Dyed silk, Sulphur, Dry vegetable bodies, Bleached silk, Resins, Baked wood, Raw silk, Amber, Dry gases and air, Transparent gems, Shellac. Leather, Diamond, Gutta-percha, has recently been discovered, and it is found in practical service to be a better non-conductor than glass. and possibly than shellac. It has proved of wonderful utility in the art of telegraphing. VITREOUS AND RESINOUS ELECTRICITY. The celebrated philosopher, Dufaye, discovered that there were two distinct kinds of electricity, one of which he called vitreous, or that of glass, rock-crystal, precious stones, hair of animals, wool, and many other bodies: and the other resinouzs, that of amber, copal, gum-lac, silk-thread, paper, and a vast number of other substances. He showed that bodies having the same kind of electricity repel each other, but attract bodies charged with electricity of the other kind; and he proposed that test of the state of the electricity of any given substance which has ever since his time been adhered to, viz.: to charge a suspended light substance with a known species of electricity, and then to bring near it the body to be examined. If the suspended substance was repelled, the electricity of both bodies was the same; if attracted, it was different. DISCOVERY OF THE LEYDEN JAR. It was in the year 1746, that those celebrated experiments, which drew for many succeeding years the almost exclusive attention of men of science to the new subject, and which led the way to the introduction of the Leyden vial-were made by Muschenbroek, Cuneus, and Kleist. Professor Musehenbroek and his associates, having observed, that electrified bodies, exposed to the atmosphere, speedily lost their electric virtue, conceived the idea of surrounding them with an insulating substance, by which they thought that their electric power might be preserved for a longer time. Water contained in a glass bottle was accordingly electrified, but no remarkable results were obtained, till one of the party, who was holding the bottle, attempted to disengage the wire communicating with the prime conductor of a powerful machine; the conse

Page  54 54 STATIC ELECTRICITY. quence was, that he received a shock, which, though slight, compared with such as are now frequently taken for amusement from the Leyden vial, his fright magnified and exaggerated in an amusing manner. In describing the effect produced on himself, by taking the shook from a thin glass bowl, Muschenbroek stated in a letter to Reaumer, that "he felt himself struck in his arms, shoulders, and breast, so that he lost his breath, and was two days before he recovered from the effects of the blow and the terror," adding, "he would not take a second shock for the kingdom of France." M. Allamand, on taking a shock, declared, " that he lost the use of his breath for some minutes, and then felt so intense a pain along his right arm, that he feared permanent injury from it." Winkler stated, that the first time he underwent the experiment, " he suffered great convulsions through his body; that it put his blood into agitation; that he feared an ardent fever, and was obliged to have recourse to cooling medicines!" The lady of this professor took the shock twice, and was rendered so weak by it, that she could hardly walk. The third time it gave her bleeding at the nose. Such was the alarm with which these early electricians were struck, by a sensation which thousands have since experienced in a much more powerful manner, without the slightest inconvenience. It serves to show how cautious we should be in receiving the first accounts of extraordinary discoveries, where the imagination is likely to be affected. After the first feelings of astonishment were somewhat abated, the circumstances which influenced the force of the shock were examined. Muschenbroek observed that the success of the experiment was impaired if the glass was wet on the outer surface. Dr. Watson showed, that the shock might be transmitted through the bodies of several men touching each other, and that the force of the charge depended on the extent of the external surface of the glass in contact with the hand of the operator. Dr. Bevis proved that tin-foil might be substituted successfully for the hand outside, and for the water inside the jar; he coated panes of glass in this way, and found that they would receive and retain a charge; and lastly, Dr. Watson coated large jars inside and outside with tin-foil, and thus constructed what is now known as the Leyden vial. FRANKLIN'S ELECTRICAL THEORIES. It was in the year 1747, that, in consequence of a communication from Mr. Peter Collinson, a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, to the Literary Society of Philadelphia, Franklin first directed his attention to electricity; and from that period,

Page  55 FRANKLIN S ELECTRICAL THEORIES. 55 till 1754, his experiments and observations were embodied in a series of letters, which were afterward collected and published. " Nothing," says Priestley, " was ever written upon the subject of electricity, which was more generally read and admired in all parts of Europe, than these letters. It is not easy to say, whether we are most pleased with the simplicity and perspicuity with which they are written, the modesty with which the author proposes every hypothesis of his own, or the noble frankness with which he relates his mistakes when they were corrected by subsequent experiments." The opinion adopted by Franklin with respect to the nature of electricity differed from that previously submitted by Dufaye. His hypothesis was as follows: " All bodies in their natural state are charged with a certain quantity of electricity, in each body this quantity being of definite amount. This quantity of electricity is maintained in equilibrium upon the body by an attraction which the particles of the body have for it, and does not therefore exert any attraction for other bodies. But a body may be invested with more or less electricity than satisfies its attraction. If it possesses more, it is ready to give up the surplus to any body which has less, or to share it with any body in its natural state; if it have less, it is ready to take from any body in its natural state a part of its electricity, so that each will have less than its natural amount. A body having more than its natural quantity is electrified positively or plus, and one which has less is electrified negatively or minus. One electric fluid is thus supposed to exist, and all electrical phenomena are referable either to its accumulation in bodies in quantities more than their natural share, or to its being withdrawn from them, so as to leave them minas their proper portion. Electrical excess then represents the vitreous, and electrical deficiency the resinous electricities of Dufaye: and hence the terms positive and negative, for vitreous and resinous." The application of this theory to the explanation of the Leyden vial will appear in its proper place. Besides this theory, we are indebted to Franklin for the discovery of the identity of lightning and electricity, for the invention of paratonnerres, and for the discovery of induction, which latter principle was immediately taken up, and pursued through its consequences by Wilke and CEpinus, and soon led to the invention of an instrument, which in the hands of Volta, became the condenser, now so useful in electroscopical investigations. Franklin's hypothesis was investigated mathematically by CEpinus and Mr. Cavendish, between the years 1759 and 1771.

Page  56 56 STATIC ELECTRICITY. About the same time the electrophorus was constructed by Volta; Watson and Canton fused metals by electricity, and Beccaria decomposed water, although at the time he had no idea he had done so, supposing it to be a simple elementary substance. COULOMB S THEORIES OF ELECTRO-STATICS. In the year 1785, the foundation of electro-statics was laid by Coulomb, a most profound philosopher, who reduced electricity, the most subtile of all physical agents, to the rigorous sway of mathematics, and caused it to become a branch of mathematical physics. By means of his torsion electrical balance, he made three valuable additions to the science; establishing-ist, That electrical forces, viz., attraction and repulsion, vary inversely as the square of their distances, following, it will be observed, the same law as gravitation;-2d, That excited bodies, when insulated, gradually lose their electricity free from two causes; from the surrounding atmosphere being never free from conducting particles, and from the incapacity of the best insulators to retain the whole quantity of electricity with which any body may be charged, there being no substance known altogether impervious to electricity-Coulomb determined the effect of both these causes;-3d, That when electricity is accumulated in any body, the whole of it is deposited on the surface, and none penetrates to the interior. A thin hollow sphere may contain precisely as much electricity as a solid of the same size. Hence, accumulation is not a consequence of attraction for mass of matter, but on the contrary, is solely due to its repulsive action. These observations of Coulomb on the distribution of the electric fluid on the surfaces of conductors, illustrated satisfactorily the doctrine of points which formed so prominent a part of Franklin's researches. FRANKLIN S REASONS FOR BELIEVING THAT LIGHTNING AND ELECTRICITY WERE IDENTICAL. It was in the year 1749, that the celebrated American philosopher, Franklin, in a letter to Mr. Collinson, stated fully his reasons for considering the cause of electricity and lightning to be the same physical agent, differing in nothing, save the intensity of its action. When," says he, "a gun-barrel, in electrical experiments, has but little electrical fire in it, you must approach it very near with your knuckle before you can draw a spark; give it more fire and it will give a spark at a greater distance. Two gun-barrels united, and as highly electrified, will give a spark at a still greater distance. But if two gun-barrels electrified will strike at two inches distance, and

Page  57 IDENTITY OF LIGHTNING AND ELECTRICITY. 57 make a loud snap, to what a great distance may ten thousand acres of electrified cloud strike, and give its fire, and how loud must be that crack?" He next states the analogies which afford presumptive evidence of the identity of lightning and electricity. The electrical spark is zig-zag, and not straight; so is lightning. Pointed bodies attract electricity; lightning strikes mountains, trees, spires, masts, and chimneys. When different paths are offered to the escape of electricity, it chooses the best conductor; so does lightning. Electricity fires combustibles: so does lightning. Electricity fuses metals: so does lightning. Lightning rends bad conductors when it strikes them; so does electricity when rendered sufficiently strong. Lightning reverses the poles of a magnet; Electricity has the same effect. A stroke of lightning when it does not kill, often produces blindness. Lightning destroys animal life, and so do electrical shocks. In his memorandum-book of November 7th, 1749, Franklin wrote the following reasons, which induced him to believe, that the lightning and electricity were identical: "Electric fluid agrees with lightning in these particulars: 1, giving light; 2, color of the light; 3, crooked direction; 4, swift motion; 5, being conducted by metals; 10, melting metals; 11, firing inflammable substances; 12, sulphurous smell. The electric fluid is attracted by points. We do not know whether this property is in lightning, but since they agree in all the particulars in which we can already compare them, is it not probable they agree likewise in this? Let the experiment be made." From the effect of points on electrified bodies, Franklin inferred that lightning might also be drawn silently and safely from the clouds, by a metallic point fixed at a great elevation, and he waited with considerable anxiety the completion of a spire at Philadelphia, to enable him to try the experiment. In the meantime, he published his discoveries, and suggested to others to make the necessary experiment. He published to the world the following plan: " To determine this question, whether the clouds that contain lightning be electrified or not, I would propose an experiment to be tried, where it may be done conveniently. On the top of some high tower or steeple, place a kind of sentry-box, big enough to contain a man and an electrical stand. From the middle of the stand let an iron rod rise, and pass, bending out of the door, and then upright twenty or thirty feet, pointed very sharp at the end. If the electrical stand be kept clear and dry, a man standing on it, when such clouds are passing low, might be electrified, and afford sparks, the rod drawing

Page  58 58 STATIC ELECTRICITY. fire to him from a cloud. If any danger to the man be apprehended, let him stand on the floor of his box, and now and then bring near to the rod the loop of a wire that has one end fastened to the leads, he holding it by a wax handle; so the sparks, if the rod is electrified, will strike from the rod to the wire, and not affect him." IDENTITY OF LIGHTNING AND ELEOTRICITY DEMONSTRATED. In accordance with the above suggestions, two Frenchmen, M. Dalibard and M. Delor, each erected an apparatus for the purpose of drawing from the clouds the lightning. M. Delibard coastructed his at Marly-la-ville, about six leagues from Paris, and M. Delor had his on a high part of Paris. M. Dalibard's apparatus consisted of an iron pointed rod, forty feet long, the lower end of which was inserted in a sentrybox, protected from rain, and on the outside it was fastened to three wooden posts by silk cords, also defended from the rain. It was this rod that first attracted electricity from the clouds. M. Dalibard was absent from Marly at the time, and had left the apparatus in charge of an old soldier, named Coiffier, who was at the time engaged as a carpenter. On the 10th of May, 1752, between two and three o'clock in the afternoon, a sudden clap of thunder made Coiffier hurry to his post, and, according to the instructions given him, he presented a vial furnished with a brass wire to the rod, and immediately saw a bright spark, accompanied by a loud snapping noise. After having taken another spark stronger than the first, he called in the neighbors, and sent for the cure. The latter ran to the spot with all speed, and his parishioners seeing him running, followed at his heels, expecting that Coiffier had been killed by lightninog; nor were they prevented from hastening to the spot, notwithstanding a violent hail-storm. The cure was equally successful in drawing sparks from the iron rod, and instantly dispatched an account of the important event to M. Dalibard. The cure stated that the sparks were of a blue color, an inch and a half long, and smelt strongly of sulphur. He drew sparks at least six times in about four minutes, and in the course of these experiments he received a shock in the arm, extending above the elbow, which he said left a mark, such as might have been made by a blow with the wire on the naked skin. Eight days after this experiment, the rod erected by M. Delor, which was ninety-nine feet high, yielded electric sparks; and the same phenomenon was afterward exhibited to the French king, and to members of the nobility.

Page  59 IDENTITY OF LIGHTNING AND ELECTRICITY, 59 Fig, 1, - - - JIo., / / __ ~ -ri, G- _I ~,~~t ~ ~i(~i ~ ONODALLASMKHWJ i~~~~~~\ii ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ii,f~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Zk ~-~-~-~-~-= —~-~-X, -- l! -IM~ ~~I~ I~~ —-~~ME~;~~~,= —~.-~~= —-~

Page  60 60 STATIC ELECTRICITY. THE FRANKLIN KITE EXPERIMENT. The experiment made by Franklin was in June, 1752; the description of which will be found in the following: Fig. 2. "He prepared his kite by making a small cross of two light strips of cedar, the arms of sufficient length to extend to the four corners of a large silk handkerchief stretched upon them; to the extremities of the arms of the cross he tied the corners of the handkerchief. This being properly supplied with a tail, loop, and string, could be raised in the air like a common paper kite; and being made of silk, was more capable of bearing rain and wind. To the upright arm of the cross was attached an iron point, the lower end of which was in contact with the string by which the kite was raised, which was a hempen cord. At the lower extremity of this cord, near the observer, a key was fastened: and in order to intercept the electricity in its descent, and prevent it from reaching the person who held the kite, a silk ribbon was tied to the ring of the key, and continued to the hand by which the kite was held. Furnished with this apparatus, on the approach of a storm, he went out upon the commons near Philadelphia, accompanied by his son, to whom alone he communicated his intentions, well knowing the ridicule which would have attended the report of such an attempt should it prove to be unsuccessful. Having raised the kite, he placed himself under a shed, that the ribbon by which it was held might be kept dry, as it would

Page  61 THE FRANKLIN KITE EXPERIMENT. 61 become a conductor of electricity when wetted by rain, and so fail to afford that protection for which it was provided. A cloud, apparently charged with thunder, soon passed directly over the kite. He observed the hempen cord; but no bristling of its fibres was apparent, such, as was wont to take place when it was electrified. He presented his knuckle to the key, but not the smallest spark was perceptible.. The agony of his expectation and suspense can be adequately felt by those only who have entered into the spirit of such experimental researches. After the lapse of some time, he saw that the fibres of the cord near the key bristled, and stood on end. He presented his knuckle to the key and received a strong bright spark. It was lightning. The discovery was complete, and Franklin felt that he was immortal. A shower now fell, and wetting the cord of the kite improved its conducting power. Sparks in rapid succession were drawn from the key; a Leyden jar was charged by it, and a shock given: and, in fine, all the experiments which were wont to be made by electricity were reproduced, identical in all their concomitant circumstances." Franklin afterward raised an insulated metallic rod from one end of his house, and attached to it a chime of bells, which, by ringing, gave notice of the electrical state of the apparatus. These interesting experiments were eagerly repeated in almost every civilized country, with variable success. In France, a grand result was obtained by M. de Romas: he constructed a kite seven feet high, which he raised to the height of 550 feet by a string, having a fine wire interwoven through its whole length. On the 26th of August, 1756, flashes of fire, ten feet long, and an inch in diameter, were given off from the conductor. In the year 1753, a fatal catastrophe from incautious experiments upon atmospheric electricity, occurred to Professor Richmann, of St. Petersburg; he had erected an apparatus in the air, making a metallic communication between it and his study, where he provided means for repeating Franklin's experiments: while engaged in describing to his engraver, Sokoloff, the nature of the apparatus, a thunder-clap was heard, louder and more violent than any which had been remembered at St. Petersburg. Richmann stooped toward the electrometer to observe the force of the electricity, and " as he stood in that posture, a great white and bluish fire appeared between the rod of the electrometer and his head. At the same time a sort of steam or vapor arose, which entirely benumbed the engraver,

Page  62 62 STATIC ELECTRICITY. and made him sink on the ground." Several parts of the apparatus were broken in pieces and scattered about: the doors of the room were torn from their hinges, and the house shaken in every part. The wife of the professor, alarmed by the shock, ran to the room, and found her husband sitting on a chest, which happened to be behind him when he was struck, and leaning against the wall. He appeared to have been instantly struck dead; a red spot was found on his forehead, his shoe was burst open, and a part of his waistcoat singedl; Sokoloff was at the same time struck senseless. This dreadful accident was occasioned by the neglect on the part of Richmann to provide an arrangement by which the apparatus, when too strongly electrified, might discharge itself into the earth. DI.SCRIPTION OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES. I have, now, sufficiently explained to the reader the wonderful experiments of Franklin, and those in France, made in the month of May, 1752, in accordance with the plans published by him. I will proceed to notice the means of manifesting Fig. 3. / 0, ~ ~ ~ ~ I I II lllllllllllllllllllzline lllllll llIIII line'IIIIII III ii1i Iiii..".,",i,', " iPW P T'I;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~IL

Page  63 DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES. 63 frictional electricity, commonly known as static, in contradistinction to that generated by chemical action. Static electricity, as I have already stated, is sometimes called " electricity at rest," and a voltaic current, is called " electricity in motion." The former remains comparatively at rest, excepting during the instant of discharge. The following are descriptions of electrical machines, viz.: There are two kinds of electrical machines in general usethe cylindrical, and the plate machine. The former is shown in fig. 3. It consists of a hollow cylinder of glass, supported on brass bearings, which revolve in upright pieces of wood attached to a rectangular base; a cushion of leather stuffed with horse-hair, and fixed to a pillar of glass, furnished with a screw to regulate the degree of pressure on the cylinder; a cylinder of metal or wood covered with tin-foil, mounted on a glass stand, and terminated on one side by a series of points to draw the electricity from the glass, and on the other side by a brass ball. A flap of oiled silk is attached to the rubber to prevent the dissipation of the electricity from the surface of the cylinder before it reaches the points. On turning the cylinder, the friction of the cushion occasions the evolution of electricity, but the production is not sufficiently rapid or abundant without the aid of a more effective exciter, which experience has shown to be a metallic substance. The surface of the leather cushion is therefore smeared by certain amalgams of metals, which thus become the real rubber. The amalgam employed by Canton, consisted of two parts of mercury, and one of tin, with the addition of a little chalk. Singer proposed a compound of two parts by weight of zinc, and one of tin, with which in a fluid state six parts by weight of mercury are mixed, and the whole shaken in an iron, or thick wooden box, until it cools. It is then reduced to a fine powder in a mortar, and mixed with lard in sufficient quantity to reduce it to the consistency of paste. This preparation should be spread cleanly over the surface of the cushion, up to the line formed by the junction of the silk flap with the cushion; but care should be taken that the amalgam should not be extended to the silk flap. It is necessary occasionally to wipe the cushion, flap, and cylinder, to cleanse them from the dust which the electricity evolved upon the cylinder always attracts in a greater or less quantity. It is found that from this cause, a very rapid accumulation of dirt takes place on the cylinder, which appears in black spots and lines upon its surface. As this obstructs the action of the machine, it should be constantly removed,

Page  64 64 STATIC ELECTRICITY. which may be done by applying to the cylinder, as it revolves, a rag wetted with spirits of wine. The production of electricity is greatly promoted by applying, with the hand to the cylinder, a piece of soft leather, five or six inches square, covered with amalgam. This is, in fact, equivalent to giving a temporary enlargement to the cushion. The use of the oiled silk flap is to prevent the dissipation of the electricity evolved on the glass by contact with the air; it is thus retained on the cylinder till it encounters the points of the prime conductor, by which it is rapidly drawn off. It is usual to cover with a varnish of gum lac, those parts of the glass beyond the ends of the rubber, with a view of preventing the escape of the electricity through the metallic caps at the extremities of the cylinder, and the inside of the flap is also sometimes coated with a resinous cement, consisting of four parts of Venice turpentine, one part of resin, and one of bees' wax, boiled together for about two hours in an earthen pipkin over a slow fire. Fig. 4. When the cylindrical machine is arranged for the development of either positive or negative electricity, the conductor is placed with its length parallel to the cylinder, and the points

Page  65 DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY. 65 project from its side, as in the machine shown in the figure. The negative conductor supports the rubber, and receives from it the negative electricity, not by induction, as is the case with the positive conductor, but by communication. If it be required to accumulate positive electricity, a chain must be carried from the negative conductor (which of course is insulated) to the ground. If on the other hand, negative electricity be required, then the conductor must be put in communication with the earth, and the rubber insulated. The plate electrical machine is shown in fig. 4. It consists of a circular plate of thick glass, revolving vertically by means of a winch between two uprights: two pairs of rubbers, formed of slips of elastic wood, covered with leather, and furnished with silk flaps, are placed at two equi-distant portions of the plate, on which their pressure may be increased or diminished by means of brass screws. The prime conductor consists of hollow brass, supported horizontally from one of the uprights; its arms, where they approach the plate, being furnished with points. With respect to the merits of these two forms of the electrical machine, it is difficult to decide to which to give the preference. For an equal surface of glass, the plate appears to be the most powerful; it is not, however, so easily arranged for negative electricity, in consequence of the uninsulated state of the rubbers, though several ingenious methods of obviating this inconvenience have been lately devised. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY. When a substance be- Fig. 5. comes charged with electricity, it is extremely probable, in the opinion of philosophers, that the fluid is confined to its surface, or, at any rate, that it does not penetrate into the mass to any extent. This is a question difficult to demonstrate, and my observations have induced me to believe, that in the case of voltaic currents the electricity moves upon or at the surface, but that the interior of the metallic conductor is under the influence of the fluid, though in a state of rest. Experiments have been made with static or frictional electricity by Biot, and the following facts were arrived at A ball 5

Page  66 66 STATIC ELECTRICITY. formed of any kind of material, will be equally electrified whether it be solid or hollow, and if it be hollow, the charge which it receives will be the same whether the shell of matter of which it is formed be thick or thin. A sphere of conducting matter, A, is insulated by a silk thread, and two thin hollow hemispheres, B B, made of metallic foil or gilt paper, and provided with glass handles, corresponding with the shape and magnitude of the conductor. The sphere A, is electrified, and the covers are then applied, being held by the glass handles. After withdrawing them from A, they are found to be charged with the same kind of electricity as was communicated to A, and the ball will be found to have lost the whole of its charge, proving that the electricity resided on the surface only. Fig 6. To further demonstrate that the electricity holds its position on the surface, fig. 6 is to illustrate. At the ends of the cylinder, are attached an electroscope, composed of two elderpith balls, suspended to linen threads. The whole is to be electrified, and the pith-balls, c a, will diverge as seen in the figure. In this state take hold of the silken thread at b, and then unroll the metallic ribbon b. When it is unrolled, the pith-balls will come into or near a contact. Replace the ribbon, and the balls diverge again. When the metallic ribbon is taken off, it carries from the cylinder the whole of the electric charge. The outer layer of the metallic ribbon, when around the cylinder, is charged plus, as compared with the inner layer, but as soon as the ribbon has been taken from its circular position, the electricity immediately distributes itself equally throughout the ribbon's surface. Restore the ribbon around the cylinder, and the plus will be found on the exterior surface.

Page  67 ATTRACTION AND REPULSION. 67 Figure 7 is another illustration of the diffusion Fil. 7. of electricity on the outside of vessels. This is a cylinder made of wire-gauze. Let the insulated B be lowered into a wire-gauze cylinder, A, fig. 7, when electrified and mounted on an insulating stand. It may touch every part of the interior without receiving any portion of the electricity, with which the exterior surface is charged, though the slightest touch on the other side of the open wire mesh communicates electricity to the ball. I am fully sensible of the fact, that this important principle in philosophy has not been clearly demonstrated in the foregoing, but the room allowed in this work renders further explanations impossible, and the reader must refer to the standard works on electricity for fuller information in the premises. PHENOMENA OF RESISTANCE TO INDUCTION. Fig. 8. Figure 8 represents the resistance to induction and discharge offered by any given media, such as atmospheric air, &c. The glass tube, a b, two feet long, is furnished at either end with a brass ball projecting into its interior, and carefully exhausted of its air by means of an air-pump; on connecting the end a, with the prime conductor, and the end b, with the earth, when the machine is turned, a becomes positive, and induces the contrary state on the ball b; induction taking place with facility, in consequence of the atmospheric pressure being removedand is followed by a discharge of the two electricities in the form of a beautiful blue flame filling the whole tube, and closely resembling the aurora borealis. Fig. 9. PHENOMENA OF ATTRACTION AND RE- PULSION. The phenomena of attraction and repulsion are well illustrated by the apparatus known as the electric bells, fig. 9. They are suspended from the prime conductor by means of the hook; the two outer bells are suspended by brass chains, while the central, and the two clappers, hang from silken strings; the

Page  68 638 STATIC ELECTRICITY. middle bell is connected with the earth by a wire or chain; on turning the cylinder, the two outside bells, become positively electrified, and by induction the central one becomes negative, a luminous discharge taking place between them, if the electricity be in too high a state of tension. But if the cylinder be slowly revolved, the little brass clappers will become alternately attracted and repelled by the outermost and inner bells, producing a constant ringing as long as the machine is worked. Fig. 10. Another experiment is often given /\\ t~\, with the toy-head. When attached to the prime conductor of the machine, the hairs stand erect, presenting an exaggerated representation of fright, as seen by fig. 10. Figure 11 represents an experiment with the dancing toys. A brass plate is suspended from the prime conductor, _'|l 0and under it is placed a sliding stand, on which is laid a little bran or sand, or little figures made of pith: on turning the machine, the bran, or sand, or figure is attracted and repelled by the upper plate with such rapidity, that the motion is almost imperceptible, and appears like a white cloud between the plates, and the little figures appear to be animated, dance, and exhibit very singular motions, dependent on inductive action. Fi., 11. Figure 12, represents an inverted tumbler, wiped thoroughly dry, warmed, and the inside charged by holding it in such a direction that a wire proceeding from the prime conductor of a machine in action, shall touch it nearly in every part; im M.... then invert it over a, number of pith-balls; they will be attracted and repelled backward and forward, and effect the discharge of the electricity which induces from the interior toward the plate. They will then remain at rest; but, if the electricity which has been disengaged on the outside, toward surrounding objects be removed by a touch of the hand, a fresh portion will be set free on the

Page  69 IGNITING GAS NVITI THE FINGER. 69 interior, and the attraction and repulsion of the balls will again take place, and thus for many times suc- Fig. 12. cessively the action will be renewed until the glass returns to its natural state. IGNITING GAS WITH THE FINGER. A very interesting experiment is repre- sented by figure 13, showing the lighting of gas with an electric spark fiom the finger. In my apartments, it has been the mischievous practice of my son, to pass several times around a room, rubbing or sliding his shoes on the carpet, charging his body with electricity, in the same manner as produced by the machine. The body being fully electrified in Fig. 13. Til^ i this manner, he would point his finger within a few inches of the nose of some one present; the spark would pass with a noise from the finger to the nose, giving the recipient a sensible shock, unpleasant to the nose, but amusing to others present.

Page  70 70 STATIC ELECTRICITY. In this manner he frequently lighted the gas. It is a very simple amusement, and any one can, in like manner, at their own homes perform the experiment. The room must be warm, the carpet must have a nap, and the shoes must be perfectly dry. THE LEYDEN JAR EXPERIMENTS. The principles of the Leyden jar have become more or less interesting to the telegrapher, particularly with reference to submarine and subterranean lines. The following, from Bakewell, contains a concise description of the principles of this important apparatus. It is called a Leyden jar because it was first constructed by Muschenbroek and his friends, at Leyden, Holland, in the year 1746. "The power of accumulating electricity by means of the Leyden jar has placed in the hands of electriFig. 14. cians a force of almost unlimited extent. In our sketch of the history of electric science, we have already adverted to the nature of the apparatus. As at present constructed, it con<^Bl h sists of a thin glass jar A, fig. 14, coated within and without with tin-foil, which reaches to about three inches from the top. A wooden cover, B serves as a support to a straight thick brass a Sl- vl wire, c, that passes through the centre of the cover, and has a metallic connection by a chain or wire with the interior coating. This wire rises a few inches above the cover, and is surmounted by a hollow brass ball, which is screwed on to the top of the wire to prevent the dispersion of the electricity from the end. The sizes of the jars vary from half a pint to ten gallons. One holding about a pint will give a shock as strong as most persons like to receive. To charge a jar with positive electricity, connect its small brass ball with the prilme conductor of the machine, and make a connection between the outside coating and the ground. When fully charged it will give indications of its electrical condition by a muttering sound; and in the dark, rays of light. will be seen issuing from the edges of the tin-foil and from the ball. The notion of VMuschenbroek, which led to the discovery of the Leyden jar, was to collect electricity within a phial to prevent its dispersion, and thereby to store up an increased quantity of the electric fluid; but it is now ascertained that a jar when highly charged does not contain more electricity than it did before it was applied to the conductor. The effect pro

Page  71 THE LEYDEN JAR EXPERIMENTS. 71 duced by charging is not to increase the quantity, but only to disturb the natural electricity previously present in a latent state on the inside and outside of the glass. There is injected into the inside, by connection with the electrical machine, an amount of positive electricity, while an equal amount of negative electricity is driven from the outside "by the force of electrical induction; and unless the electricity on the outer surface of the glass can be thus driven off by affording it a connection with the ground, the inside cannot receive a charge. Let a Leyden jar be insulated from the earth by placing it on a glass stand, and it will receive scarcely any electricity from the conductor; not more than equal to the quantity which can escape from the outside to the surrounding air. If the knob of another insulated jar be connected with the ground, and the outside coatings of the two jars be brought near together, sparks will then pass rapidly from the prime conductor F 15. to the knob of the first, and they will also pass as rapidly between the outside coatings of the two jars. In this manner both the Leyden jars become charged, and it will be found that they are charged equally, but with electricity of opposite kinds. The first (B one, that derived its electricity directly from the prime conductor, will be charged positively; the second, that derived its charge from the electricity escaping from the knob to the ground, will be negative. Place the two jars on the table, and suspend between them a pith ball, B, or other light substance, and it will be attracted alternately from one to the other in rapid vibrations, clearly showing that the electricity in the 1,wo jars is of opposite kinds. The phenomena that occur during the charge of a Leyden jar have been adduced as evidence in support of the Franklinian theory of a single electric fluid, the outside being supposed to be in a minus state after parting with its natural quantity to the other jar. But the phenomena are explicable also on the hypothesis of two fluids, it being assumed that they are separated from their neutral state by the coercing force of the free electricity communicated to the inside of the jar.

Page  72 72 STATIC ELECTRICITY. Franklin attempted to apply practically the charging of one jar from the escaping electricity of another. He inferred, that, if a series of insulated jars were arranged with the outside coatings and knobs alternately touching, the coating of the last one being connected with the ground, by this arrangement the positive electricity expelled from the outside of the first jar would charge the second; that the electricity from the outside of the second would charge the third positively, and so on to any number; and that an immense electric force might be thus accumulated from the same quantity of electricity that is required to charge a single jar. Let AB C represent a series of three jars, A and B being mounted on insulating Fig. 16. glass stands, fig. 16. ~ B A On making connection from the prime conductor of an electrical {itri machine to the knob of A, that jar will be charged positively, and an equal amount of sd a e e iity electricity will be expelled from the outside oIII effect || fa tinto B, which will also be positively charged. t /1he negative e c tThe third jar, c, will bi,1e d Now if a| t c o ein like manner be charged from the outside of B, and the electricity which was expelled from A, on arriving at the outside of the last jar of the series, will be conducted to the earth. To effect the discharge of a jar, it is requisite that a connection be made between the positive electricity within and the negative electricity without, so that the equilibrium may be restored. Now if a metallic connection be imade from the knob of to the knob of A, there will be a discharge of the first jar only; for though the connection is made with the knob of B, none of the positive electricity within can be discharged, for it is restrained by the coercing force of the opposite electricity on the outside If metallic connection be made between the outside of B and the knob of A, both those jars will be discharged, and the third will remain charged; but by bringing a wire from the outside of c to the knob of A, the three jars will be at once discharged. The phenomena exhibited in charging the Leyden jar has

Page  73 THE LEYDEN JAR EXPERIMENTS. 73 been explained; the cause of its accumulating electricity, and discharging tho force instantaneously, will be next considered. We have stated that the cause depends on inductive action operating through the substance of the non-conducting glass. Exemplifications of this action through glass have been previously given. A pane of glass when excited by friction on one side has negative electricity induced on the other, and a glass tumbler may be charged with electricity by exposing the inside to the influence of an electrified point, while the outside is grasped by the hand. The electricity thus collected on the surfaces of the pane of glass and the tumbler is sluggish in its action, and is dissipated by slow degrees, on account of the non-conducting property of the glass surfaces; but if metal plates be applied on each side of the pane of glass, the electricity is instantly concentrated at any point, and on connecting the two surfaces with a wire, a discharge takes place, exactly as in the Leyden jar. The charged tumbler might also be converted into a Leyden jar by the application of interior and exterior casings of metal foil, to serve as conductors, to concentrate at any point the electricity distributed over the surface of the glass. To prove most conclusively that the charge of a Leyden jar is retained on the surface of the glass, and not in the metallic coatings., Leyden jars are made with tin inside and outside casings, so contrived that they may be easily removed. A jar of this kind, when charged and placed on an insulating stand, may have the metal casings removed and others substituted for them; yet after this change the jar will be found to retain its charge. The metal serves only to conduct the electricity simultaneously from all parts of the glass. A plate of glass affords the most convenient mode of illustrating that the electrical charge is retained by the glass and not by the metal. Let a pane of glass, about one foot square, be covered on one side with tin-foil, and laid horizontally on the table. To the other side apply the insulated metal disk of an electrophorus; connect the disk with the prime conductor. and a few turns of the machine will charge the glass. Remove the disk by the insulating handle, and it will manifest scarcely any trace of electricity. Let the same or another disk be again applied to the surface of the glass, and on making connection between the metals on the opposite sides a strong discharge will take place. A moveable metal disk might be applied to each surface of the glass with similar results; but the arrangement indicated is more convenient. When a more powerful charge of electricity is required than

Page  74 74 STATIC ELECTRICITY. a single jar will retain, several are combined to form an electrical battery. For convenience, the jars are placed in a box with divisions, the bottom being lined with tin-foil, to make connection with all the exterior coatings. The knobs of the jars are connected together by wires, as represented in fig. 16; and there is a metal hook projecting from the side of the box connected with the tin-foil lining. Thus all the interior Fig. 17. and all the outside coatings of the jars are connected; and when communication is made between the prime conductor and any of the knobs of the jars, the whole are simultaneously charged. They are also discharged simultaneously by making connection between the projecting hook and any one of the knobs. The combination of several small jars is found better than having a smaller number of large ones, because the thickness of the glass necessary in jars of large size obstructs induction through it. By an arrangement of many jars, an amount of electric force may be accumulated that would almost equal the destructive power of lightning. The battery used by Faraday in his experiments consisted of fifteen equal jars, coated eight inches upward from the bottom, and twenty-three inches in circumference; so that each contained one hundred and eightyfour square inches of glass coated on both sides, independently of the bottoms of the jars, which were of thicker glass, and contained each about fifty square inches. The total coated surface of the battery consequently comprised three thousand five hundred square inches of coated surface. The electrical battery at the Polytechnic Institution exposes a coated surface of nearly eighty square feet. To receive the full charge of such a battery would be instant death. A battery of nine

Page  75 THE LEYDEN JAR EXPERIMENTS. 75 quart jars is sufficient to exhibit the deflagrating effects of electricity on a small scale; nor would it be safe to receive a shock from a battery of that size. It is a fact deserving consideration that the accumulation ot quantity diminishes the intensity of electricity. For instance, an electrical machine when in good action will emit sparks four inches long. When a Leyden jar is charged with twelve. such sparks, the accumulated electricity will not force its passage through more than a quarter of an inch; and if the same quantity be distributed among the jars of an electrical battery, the discharge will not take place through the eighth of an inch. The quantity of electricity is in each case the same, but the state of intensity diminishes in proportion to the surface over which it is diffused. The difference between quantity and intensity is still more remarkably manifested in the different conditions of frictional and voltaic electricity, as will be subsequently noticed. One of the peculiar phenomena of the electrical battery is the residual charge. When communication is made between the inside and outside coatings of a battery consisting of several jars, the whole of the electricity is not immediately discharged. On again making connection between the inside and outside coatings, after a short interval, a second discharge will occur, which, though comparatively feeble, might occasion a disagreeable shock. The cause of this residual charge is partly attributable to the accumulation of electricity on those parts of the jar just above the metallic coating; which portions, not being in direct contact with the metal, are not conducted with equal rapidity. Part of the charge also enters into the pores of the glass, and is thus removed from immediate contact with the metal. The simplest kind of instrument employed for discharging a Leyden jar or an electrical battery is a thick curved piece of brass wire, fitted with a small ball at each end. One of these balls is applied to the outside coating, and when the other is brought near to the knob of the jar the electricity instantly passes through the wire with a smart snap or report, connection being thus made between the two charged surfaces of the jar. When, however, a discharger of this kind is employed for an electrical battery a slight shock is felt, owing to what is termed the lateral discharge; therefore, to avoid the inconvenience and the danger that might arise from holding the wire in the hand, an insulated wire is generally employed. Its form is represented in fig. 18, as applied in discharging a Leyden jar. Two thick brass wires, a a, of equal lengths, and terminated

Page  76 76 STATIC ELECTRICITY. with brass balls, are jointed together at c for the convenience of adjustment, and are cemented to a glass handle, b, which serves to insulate the wires from the hand, and prevents the Fig. 18. liability of any perceptible portion of the charge being erlG E received by the operator. There has been much discussion among electrilateral discharges, in reference more particularly to a^^ lS B the safety of lightningconductors; we shall therefore notice in this place the cause of the phenomenon. It is the case with electricity, even to a greater extent than with all fluid bodies, that it will discharge itself into every channel that is open to it. Thus, as in a mountain torrent some portion of the water will deviate from the straight and broad course into circuitous and narrow crevices, so will the highly tensive electric fluid force its passage through every conducting medium. Thus when a Leyden jar is discharged with an insulated wire, a small part of the charge passes through the circuitous and comparatively obstructive course offered by the body of the operator, by the floor, and by the table whereon the jar is placed. In the case of a single jar, the quantity of electricity that passes in that direction is imperceptibly small; but when several jars are combined, the lateral discharge may become unpleasantly strong, especially if the wire of the discharging-rod be not very thick. Even when an insulated discharging-rod is employed, it may be inferred that some portion of electricity will force its way along the glass; but it is so infinitesimally small as to be inappreciable. Applying the experience and inferences deducible from experiments with the electrical battery to the more powerful effects of lightning, we are led to consider that every flash of lightning must be accompanied by lateral discharge, and that the quantity thus diverted from the direct and easiest path between the clouids and the earth will depend on the amount of resistance which that direct course offers. Therefore, though lateral discharge must, to some extent always occur, it may be rendered entirely innocuous by a sufficiently thick and unbroken lightning conductor.

Page  77 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. CHAPTER VI. Electrical Phenomena Discovered by Galvani-Origin of the Voltaic Pile-Science of the Voltaic Battery-Ohm's Mathematical Formnle -Chemical and Electrical Action of the Battery-The Daniell, the Smee, the Bunson, the Grove and the Chester Voltaic Batteries-Comparative Intensity and Quantity of the Grove, Daniell, and Smee Batteries. ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA DISCOVERED BY GALVANI. THAT remarkable form of electricity, known by the name of Galvanism or Voltaism, owes it origin to an accidental circumstance connected with some experiments on animal irritability, which were being carried on by Galvani, a professor of anatomy at Bologna, in the year 1790. It happened that the wife of the professor, being consumptive, was advised to take as a nutritive article of food, some soup, made of the flesh of frogs: several of these animals, recently killed and skinned, were lying on a table in the laboratory, close to an electrical machine, with which a pupil of the professor was making experiments. While the machine was in action, he chanced to touch the bare nerve of the leg of one of the frogs with the blade of a knife that he held in his hand, when, suddenly, the whole limb was thrown into violent convulsions. Galvani was not himself present when this occurred; but received the account from his wife, and being struck with the singularity of the phenomenon, he lost no time in repeating the experiment, and investigating the cause: he found that it was only when a spark was drawn from the prime conductor, and when the knife or any other good conductor was in contact with the nerve, that the contractions took place; and pursuing the investigation with unwearied industry, he at length discovered that the effect was independent of the electrical machine, and might be equally

Page  78 78 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. well produced by making a metallic communication between the outside muscle and crural nerve. He did not for one moment suppose that the manifestation of electricity was the result of the chemical action upon the metals. Galvani had previously entertained notions respecting the agency of electricity, in producing muscular action: these new experiments, therefore, as they seemed to favor his views, had with him more than ordinary interest. He immediately ascribed the convulsive movement in the limb to electrical agency, and explained them by comparing the muscle of an animal to a Leyden vial, charged by the accumulation of electricity on its surface, while he imagined that the nerve belonging to it performed the function of a wire, communicating with the interior of the vial, which would, of course, be charged negatively. In this state of things, if a communication by a good conductor were made between the muscle and nerve, a restoration of the electric equilibrium, and a contraction of the fibres, would ensue. It is curious to notice how frequently the progress of discovery in the sciences is influenced by fortuitous circumstances, and in no case is it more striking than in the present. Had G-alvani been as good an electrician as he was anatomist, it is probable that the convulsions of the frog would have occasioned him no surprise; he would immediately have seen that the animal formed part of a system of bodies under induction, and he would have considered the movements of the limbs of the frog, as evidence of nothing more than a high electroscopic sensibility in its nerves. To perform the experinent with the frog's legs successfully, the legs of the frog are to be left attached to the spine by the crural nerves alone, and then a copper and a zinc wire being either twisted or soldered together at one end, the nerves are to be touched with one wire, while the other is to be applied to the muscles of the leg. Figure 1 shows the arrangement. There are several ways of varying this experiment. If a piece of copper, as a penny, be laid on a sheet of zinc, and if a common garden snail be put to crawl on the latter, he will be observed to shrink in his horns and contract his body whenever he comes into contact with the penny: indeed, after one or two contacts he will be observed to avoid the copper in his journey over the zinc. The experiments of Galvani excited much attention among the men of science of that period: they were repeated and varied in almost every country in Europe, and ascribed to various causes. Some imagined them the effect of a new and

Page  79 ORIGIN OF THE VOLTAIC PILE. 79 unknown agent: others adopted the views of the discoverer, and recognized them as peculiar modifications of electricity. The hypothetical agent which passed under the name of the Fig. 1. "nervous fluid," now gave way to electricity, which, for a time, reigned as the vital principle, by which " the decrees of the understanding, and the dictates of the will, were conveyed from the organs of the brain to the obedient member of the body;" and this theory for a time so fascinated physiologists, that it was with difficulty that the explanations of Volta, viz. that the electric excitement is due to the mutual contact of two dissimilar metals-that by the contact the natural electricity was decomposed, the positive fluid passing to one metal, and the negative one to the other-and that the muscle of the frog merely played the part of a conductor-obtained assent. ORIGIN OF THE VOLTAIC PILE. It is to Professor Volta, of Pavia, that we are indebted for the first galvanic or voltaic instrument, viz. the voltaic pile; it was described by him in the Philosophical Transactions of 1800, and to him, therefore, the merit of laying the foundation of this highly interesting branch of science is due. The main difference between common and voltaic electricity (which are modifications of the same force) will be found to be this: the first produces its effects by a comparatively small quantity of electricity, insulated, in a high state of tension, having remarkable attractive and repulsive energies, and power to force its way through obstructing media: the latter is more intimately associated with other bodies, is in enormous quantity, but rarely attains a high state of tension, and exhibits its effects while flowing in a continuous stream along conducting bodies.

Page  80 80 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. Galvani was an anatomist and not an electrician. He was firmly impressed with the idea that the convulsion of the frog's limb was owing to muscular action caused by animal electricity. He advocated this theory with the utmost zeal, and his whole efforts were directed toward maintaining this error. Electricians doubted the correctness of Galvani's philosophy, and on the other hand physiologists gave countenance to his notions, and throughout the continent they contended that the convulsions were produced by animal electricity. The extraordinary zeal that was displayed by Galvani and his friends to maintain their physiological theory, caused electricians to investigate its correctness, and among them was Volta, of Pavia. In this state of the question Galvani died, at the close of the year 1798. Two years after the death of Galvani, Volta produced his " pile" which demonstrated the correctness of his theory, as mainly advocated by him for several years previous. The electricians rejoiced over the practical illustration exhibited by the voltaic pile. It dispelled all faith in the erroneous reasoninogs of Galvani and his friends, that the motion of the frog was by animal electricity. Volta's triumphant success in demonstrating that the convulsions were produced by chemical action of the metals, was received with great joy by the electricians. It was a contest between anatomists and electricians, and the latter were the victors. The most strange part of the history was, that the achievement of Volta, was called Galvanism instead of Voltaism, as more modernly termed. The original instrument of Volta is shown in fig. 2. It conFig. 2. sists of a series of silver and zinc plates, arranged one above the other, 1_' _~I I 1 p with moistened flannel or pasteboard I z...between each pair. A series of thirty or forty alternations of plates, I_____ 1 four inches square, will cause the gold leaf electroscope to diverge; the zinc end with the positive, and the silver with the negative elec- ____ tricity; a shock will also be felt on I___ __touching the extreme plates with the "__ c finger, when moistened. with water. *A - __ M This latter effect is much increased ^__ DIm- r,_ when the flannel, or pasteboard, is moistened with salt and water; in this case a small spark will be decomposed; from.this we learn that the increase of chemical action, by the addition of

Page  81 SCIENCE OF THE VOLTAIC BATTERY. 81 the salt, materially increases the quantity of electricity set in motion; but the pile will not in any sensible manner increase the divergence of the gold leaves,-its intensity, therefore, is not materially augmented. The pile, represented by fig. 2, is connected at each end with a wire; A B C is the frame to hold. the plates; s s are the silver plates, and z z are zinc plates; i are the moistened flannels, and i i the top and bottom end boards; p, the positive pole, is connected with the wire at the top, and at the bottom N, the negative, to the wire. This was the voltaic pile as originally introduced by that distinguished philosopher Volta, of Pavia, in the year 1800. In order to increase the intensity of the voltaic or electric current, it is necessary to increase the number of the plates; and to develop the greater quantity current, it is attained by the increase of the size of the plates. The centre of the battery or column is neutral, but the ends are in opposite electrical states; the zinc extremity negative, and the gold, silver, platinum or other metallic applications, positive. TIIE SCIENCE OF THE VOLTAIC BATTERY. The action of the voltaic pile gradually diminishes from the time it is first put together, until at length the effect appears to cease. This diminution of power is more rapid in proportion to the energy given to the pile in the first instance by the larger quantity of acid mixed with the water. To restore the original energy, it is necessary to decompose the pile, to clean the zinc and copper disks, and to moisten the cloths again. Such an apparatus is therefore attended with much trouble. To obviate it, Volta contrived another arrangement, which he called d couronne de tasses. He connected a piece of zinc to a piece of copper by soldering to them a short length of bent copper wire. Having procured a number of such connected plates, he put them into a row of glasses containing acidulated water, taking care so to dispose them that the zinc and the copper connected together should be in separate glasses, in the manner represented in figure 3. To the copper plate in glass 1, a wire is attached to serve as a conductor for forming connection. In the same glass there is a zinc plate connected with the copper immersed in glass 2. In this manner each glass contains a zinc and copper plate connected by a wire, which are kept apart in the fluid, and the series may be continued to any extent. By bringing the wire attached to the first plate in connection with a similar wire 6

Page  82 82 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. soldered to the zinc plate in the last glass of the series, the action immediately commences, and it is more or less intense according to the number of plates. This arrangement is, in Fig. 3. many respects, very superior to the pile. A much larger quantity of fluid can be brought to act on each plate, consequently the effect does not so rapidly diminish; the plates can be readily removed when the apparatus is not wanted, and the acidulated water may remain ready for the immersion of the plates when experiments are renewed. The arrangement d couronne de tasses, as invented by Volta, continues, with some modifications for convenience in use, to form the voltaic battery that is most generally employed. A series of this kind, consisting of one hundred plates of copper and zinc four inches square, will generate electricity in sufficient quantity to exhibit in a powerful manner most of the phenomena of frictional electricity. The metals that excite electricity by their mutual actions are ranged in the following order; those placed first acting in reference to those beneath as copper does to zinc. Platinum. Mercury. Tin. Gold. Copper. Iron. Silver. Lead. Zinc. Any two of the foregoing series will constitute what is termed a voltaic circuit. Thus zinc will excite voltaic action in combination with iron; iron will take the place of zinc when combined with tin; and tin will take the place of iron when combined with copper. The energies of these combinations increase as the metals are more distant from each other in the scale, the most powerful practical combination being zinc and platinum, the most incorrodible of all metals. Though two plates are necessary in such an arrangement, only one of them is active in Ihe excitement of electricity, the other plate serving merely as a conductor to collect the force generated. A metal plate is generally used for that purpose,

Page  83 SCIENCE OF THE VOLTAIC BATTERY. 83 because metals conduct electricity much better than other substances exposing an equal surface to the fluids in which they are immersed; but other conductors may be used, and when a proportionately larger surface is exposed to compensate for inferior conducting power, they answer as well, and in some instances even better than metal plates. The chemical action that gives rise to the excitement of electricity, takes place during the decomposition of the liquid in which the plates are immersed. It is essential, therefore, to the formation of an active voltaic arrangement, that the liquid employed should be capable of being decomposed. Water is most conveniently applicable for the purpose. Its elements, oxygen and hydrogen, are separated by the superior affinity of the oxygen for the zinc; especially when that affinity is heightened by the connection of the zinc with an incorrodible metal, to which the hydrogen gas of the decomposed molecules of water is attracted. Whether the electricity evolved be the cause or merely the effect of chemical action is at present unknown. In whichever way the phenomenon be regarded, the electricity appears to be excited at the surface of the active plate, thence to be transferred to the conducting plate, and back again through the connecting wire to the zinc, forming what is termed an electric current. The terms " electric fluid and " electric current," which are frequently employed in describing electrical phenomena, are calculated to mislead the student into the supposition that electricity is known to be a fluid, and that it flows in a rapid stream along the wires. Such terms, it should be understood, are founded merely on an assumed analogy of the electric force to fluid bodies. The nature of that force is unknown, and whether its transmission be in the form of a current, or by vibrations, or by any other means, is undetermined. At the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Swansea, a discussion arose on the nature of electricity, and Dr. Faraday was called on to give his opinion. He then said,' There was a time when I thought I knew something about the matter: but the longer I live, and the more carefully I study the subject, the more convinced I am of my total ignorance of the nature of electricity.' After such an avowal from the most eminent electrician of the age, it is almost useless to say that any terms which seem to designate the form of electricity are merely to be considered as convenient conventional expressions. Water being a very imperfect conductor, it offers so much resistance to the passage of the electric current that a very small quantity of voltaic electricity can be excited when water

Page  84 84 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY, alone is employed; especially when the plates are at a considerable distance apart. By the addition of an acid or a neutral salt to the water, the conducting power is greatly increased, and the excitement is augmented in a corresponding degree. It is a disputed point whether the increased action from the addition of acids arises from the improved conducting power alone, or whether it is to be attributed also to the increased affinity of the oxygen to the zinc. The effect is most probably owing to the joint effort of the two forces. In the opinion of Faraday, the conduction of electricity through liquids is accompanied by, if it be not owing to, the successive decomposition of the intervening particles. When a. copper and zinc plate, for example, are connected together and immersed in diluted acid, the oxygen in the particle of liquid contiguous to the plate enters into combination with the metal, and its equivalent quantity of hydrogen is disengaged. The hydrogen is not immediately liberated, but is transferred from particle to particle of the liquid in a continuous chain till it reaches the conducting plate, where, not meeting with any more liquid particles to which it can be transferred, it is liberated in the gaseous form. The intervening particles are supposed to undergo temporary decomposition during this transfer firom plate to plate, and to assume a polar condition, the oxygen and hydrogen occupying opposing places in each particle of liquid. The annexed diagram, fig. 4, shows, in an exaggerated form, Fig. 4. the chain of particles of water through which the decompop ot ^ ="^ siCng, influence is supposed to be transmitted. Voltaic ac||. fA X tion having been established - _through water in the vessel A <j~ \p~ E~ tfrom the zinc plate z to the copper plate at c, the particles between the two metals are:~^^^^^^^^^ - j^'J thrown into a polar state; the oxygen of each being directed toward z, and the hydrogen toward c. The zinc plate absorbs the oxygen of the particle nearest to it, and the liberated hydrogen combines with the oxygen of the next adjoining particle, and in this manner a continuous interchange takes place. According to this view of the conducting power of fluids, no fluid can conduct electricity unless it be capable of being decomposedl; the conduction being necessarily accompanied by a train of successively decomposed particles.

Page  85 OHM0-IS MATHEMATICAL FORMiUL. 85 OHM'TS MATHEMATICAL FORMULaE. The causes that obstruct the development of electricity in a current, have been minutely investigated by Professor Ohmn of Nuremburg, who has reduced them to mathematical formula. The free development of electricity is opposed, in the first place, by the affinity of the elements of the exciting liquid for each other, tending to resist decomposition; secondly, by the imperfect conduction of the fluid itself; and in the third place, by the resistance of the conducting wires. As the formula deduced by Professor Ohm from these investigations have received general acceptance among electricians, it is desirable to insert them: "E = electromotive force, equivalent to the affinity of the exciting liquid for the generating metal, and corresponding to the amount of electricity which would appear in current if all opposing causes were removed. _R = resistance opposed to E by the contents of the cell, arising for the most part from the affinity of the elements of the exciting liquid for each other. " r = external resistance, arising chiefly from the imperfectly conducting nature of the wires used to convey the current. " = active force, or the amount of electricity which really reaches the end of the conducting wire. E R+r " The theoretical value of E is diminished materially in practice by the affinity of the conducting plate for the ingredient of the exciting fluid, which tends to combine with the generating plate; this affinity, however weak, is still seldom absolutely null. The mutual affinity of the separated elements of the fluid evolved at the surfaces of the plates also lessens the intensity of E. " The internal resistance,, varies directly with the distance, D, between the two plates, and is inversely as the area of the section, s, of the exciting liquid. Thus the real resistance is equal to the former divided by the latter, or D S' r, or the external resistance, so far as it is dependent on

Page  86 86 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. the conducting wire, varies inversely as the square of the diameter of the wire, S, and directly as its length 1, or S From these formula are deduced the following general laws: 1st. The electro-motive force of a voltaic circuit varies with the number of the elements, and with the nature of the metals and liquids which constitute each element; but it is in no degree dependent on the dimensions of any of their parts. 2d. The resistance of each element is directly proportional to the distances of the plates from each other in the liquid, and to the specific resistance of the liquid; and it is also inversely proportional to the surface of the plates in contact with the liquids. 3d. The resistance of the connecting wire of the circuit is directly proportional to its section. It must be remarked that the foregoing estimate of electrical force and resistance does not take into account the actual loss of electricity by the want of proper direction. The chemical action that converts any given quantity of zinc into a metallic salt, develops, with the best arrangement, a given quantity of electricity. Let it be assumed that one ounce of zinc will generate an amount of electricity equivalent to 1000; that quantity will not be diminished by the resistances considered by Professor Ohm. Those resistances relate exclusively to the time in which a given amount of electricity can be generated, and have no relation to actual loss of electric force. Thus, in a well-constructed voltaic apparatus no more electricity is generated than can flow in a current through the conducting wire. If the resistance to the current be increased by diminishing the thickness of the wire or by adding to its length, the action of the generating-plate is diminished in a corresponding degree, so that if only half the electricity is developed, only half the quantity of zinc is consumed; and to whatever extent the resistances are increased the ounce of zinc will, theoretically at least, produce its equivalent of electricity, though in a longer tPime. CHEMICAL AND ELECTRICAL ACTION OF THE BATTERY. In practice, however, an actual loss of electricity does generally occur, arising principally from what is called "local action"' in the generating-plate. If a plate of zinc were per

Page  87 ACTION OF THE BATTERY. 87 feotly pure and homogeneous, no chemical action would ensue when it was immersed in diluted acid. But zinc, as it is commonly procured, contains copper, iron, and other impurities, which serve to set up voltaic action over its whole surface when exposed to diluted acids, which cause a rapid decomposition of the liquid. The positive and negative electricities thus generated immediately combine, and are neutralized imperceptibly, and thus so much electric force is absolutely lost. This local action is in a great measure, though not entirely, prevented by amalgamating the zinc plates with mercury: this is readily done by first dipping them in diluted sulphuric acid, and then sprinkling a few drops of mercury on the surface and rubbing them over with a cork. The effect of amalgamation is to produce a homogeneous surface, and to protect the zinc from the action of the diluted acid until the affinity of the liquid for the metal is increased by the agency of the conducting plate. The electricity generated by a single pair of plates possesses a very low degree of intensity. The quantity is only limited by the size of the plates, but no increase of size alone will add to the intensity of the force. Thus, though a pair of large zinc and copper plates, excited by diluted sulphuric acid, will fuse any of the metals, they cannot decompose a drop of water; because in the latter case the force is not sufficiently energetic to overcome the resistance of the fluid. In tracing the course of the electric current thus established, no notice has been taken of the action of the second zinc plate. If that be considered as inactive, except as a conductor, the quantity of electricity transmitted would be very small, owing to the resistance of the imperfectly conducting liquid. But the zinc plate in th' second cell is acted on by the diluted acid equally with that in the first; and the effect is to nearly double the energy of the electric current excited by the action of the acid on the first zinc plate. According to this view of the action of a voltaic battery consisting of two pairs of plates, the electricity excited by the first zinc is transferred to the second, where its force is doubled by the excitement of an equal quantity, and both united traverse the wire of the return circuit. On arriving at the first zinc, half the quantity is parted with; but an equal quantity of fresh electricity is excited, and is carried on to the second zinc, where the same process is repeated; and thus the electrical equilibrium is continually disturbed and restored after traversing the wires that connect the plates at the ends. When greater numbers of zinc and copper plates are united in a series, a

Page  88 88 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. similar transference of electricity from place to place takes place with a progressively increasing quantity and intensity of force, the action being continued as long as the series remains unbroken, or until the fluid becomes saturated with sulphate of zinc, and further chemical action is prevented. It is necessary to state that the preceding explanation of the action of the voltaic battery differs from the view taken of it by Dr. Faraday, and after him by most other writers on the subject. In the opinion of Dr. Faraday, addition to the number of plates in a series occasions no addition to the quantity of electricity generated by the first pair of plates, but merely serves to give increased intensity to that quantity. Thus the most powerful effects produced by a voltaic battery consisting of 1000 pairs of plates are assumed to be caused by the same quantity of electricity that is excited by a single pair only of the series; the exalted action in the former case being attributed to an increase of intensity without any addition to quantity. This view of the nature of the action of the voltaic battery is supported by numerous ingeniously-contrived and apposite experiments; but though fully disposed to pay the highest possible respect to so great an authority as Dr. Faraday, an opinion is entertained that he has failed to establish the position that increased intensity is not accompanied by addition to quantity. THE CRUIKSHANK VOLTAIC BATTERY. There are many arrangements of voltaic batteries for the development of accumulated electric force in different modes, but they all depend on the same principle. The most'compact is Cruikshank's modification of the voltaic pile, fig. 5. Fig. 5. Zinc and copper plates of equal size are soldered together, and then cemented into a wooden trough. Each pair of plates is fixed less than half an inch from each other, care being taken that all the zinc and copper surfaces are turned the same way. The compartments between the plates form water-tight cells, into which diluted acid, or other exciting liquid, is poured. A piece of wire is introduced at each end to complete the circuit through any substances to be subjected to the voltaic action.

Page  89 THE CRUIKSHIANK VOLTAIC BATTERY. 89 A series of fifty small double plates may be cemented into a trough two and a half feet long; and two such batteries, with plates two inches square, will give a rapid succession of smart shocks, and will exhibit most of the phenomena of voltaic electricity. The disadvantages of a battery of this kind are, that the exciting liquid cannot be emptied at the end of each experiment without much trouble, and there is some difficulty in cleaning the plates when they become corroded. By emptying the cells as soon as uossible and washing them with water, a battery of this Fig. 6. construction may, however, be kept in order for a con-' siderable time; and when voltaic electricity of high intensity and small quantity is required, a Cruikshank battery with plates about two inches square, is very con- ig venient. Figs. 6 and 7 represent the full battery. Fig. 7 is the trough divided into cells in- sulated each from the other. Fig. 6 is a wooden board having attached to it copper and zinc plates, the white are copper and the dark, zinc. These plates fit into the cells, and may or may not rest upon the bottom The original form of the trough has been recently very extensively used for the electric telegraph, though made of other materials than earthenware. Most of the batteries of the Electric Telegraph Company, until very recently, were constructed in wooden troughs, with partitions of slate made watertight by means of marine glue. These, again, are being supplanted by troughs made of gutta-percha, which are very much lighter, and the cells can be more effectually prevented from leaking. The plates of these batteries are connected by strips of copper, which are bent into arches, so as to admit of each unattached pair of plates being inserted into separate cells. The zinc plates are well amalgamated, and are allowed to remain in the cells day and night, the local action being in a great measure prevented by filling each cell with fine sand, and by using sulphuric acid diluted with about twelve parts of water. A voltaic battery, with sand and diluted sulphuric acid, will continue in good action, with occasional additions of acid, for two months before the zinc plates require to be cleaned or re-amalgamated.

Page  90 90 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. Batteries in which graphite is substituted for plates of copper, have been introduced by Mr. C. V. Walker in working the electric telegraphs of the Southeastern Railway Company, and with very good results. One of these batteries of twelve pairs, of which a record was taken, was kept in daily action for ninety-seven weeks without having been washed or having the sand changed. It was supplied with about a dessert-spoonful of acid-water twenty-one times during the period it was in action, and six times with merely warm water. In one instance it did duty for seventy-seven days without having been touched. Dr. Wollaston contrived the arrangement shown in fig' 8 for obtaining the greatest Fig. 8. amount of power from a given - ~I ^ _ _ -surface of zinc. The copper t::-=1 ~ plates c c c are doubled, so as to expose a conducting surface to both sides of the zinc plates, p B Br Theplates are also brought as close I ~ ~ Miis together as possible without actual contact. They are ~liable t[secured to a bar of wood, and acn of are kept apart by pieces of cork. With a battery of this kind, consisting of a few pairs of large plates, prodigious heating power is produced, though the intensity of the electricity is too feeble to communicate a shock. THE DANIELL VOLTAIC BATTERY. The battery invented by Professor Daniell, is constructed on a different principle. It is found in the voltaic arrangements, that the zinc and copper plates immersed in the same cell are liable to hav e their ac ttion imp eded, and ultmately altogether arrested, by the transfer of zinc to the copper surface. The action of the conducting plate is also greatly retarded by the accumulation of hydrogen gas; so much so, indeed, that very frequently, after the first minute the battery has been put in action, not more than one tenth of the original power is obtained. In Professor Daniell's battery the zinc and copper plates are kept apart by means of porous earthenware cells, or by pieces of animal membrane, which, though sufficient to prevent the passage of metallic particles, do not materially interrupt the voltaic action.

Page  91 THE DANIELL VOLTAIC BATTERY. 91 Fig. 9 shows an arrangement of a single cell of this kind: c is a copper cylindrical vessel, with a binding screw B, soldered to one edge for the purpose of holding a connecting wire. Into this copper cylinder a porous tube D, closed at the bottom, is introduced; and into the tube is placed a rod of amalgamated zinc z, with a bending screw at the top. A solution Fig. 9. of muriate of soda (common salt) is poured into z the porous tube, and the outer copper vessel is Q nearly filled with a saturated solution of sul-. j 3 phate of copper to which a little sulphuric acid j has been added. When metallic connection is made between c the rod of zinc and the copper cylinder, ac- stive excitement of voltaic electricity occurs. The oxygen of the acid combines with the zinc, and the liberated hydrogen passes through the porous cell to the copper. It does -, not, however, escape in the form of gas, but it enters into combination with the oxygen of the sulphate of copper, and the metal being thus deprived of its oxygen, becomes " revived," and is deposited in a metallic form on the inner surface of the cylinder. By the continued absorption of hydrogen by the sulphate, and the deposition of copper, a bright conducting surface is maintained; and this constant renewal of the conducting surface not only increases the intensity of the action, but maintains it with a steadiness that cannot be attained by any of the batteries previously described. Fig. 10 represents a vertical Fig. 10. section of the Daniell battery, used on some of the American telegraph lines, in the local circuits. It consists of a double i cylinder of copper c c, with a bottom of the same metal, which answers the purpose both of a voltaic plate and of a vessel to contain the solution. The space between the two copper cylinders receives the solution. There is a moveable cylinder of zinc, marked z, in the sectional view, which is let down into the solution whenever the battery is to be put in action. It hangs suspended in the solution, and presents its two opposite surfaces to the action of the liquid, and to the inner and outer cylinders respectively. The binding screw N is connected with the zinc, and the screw p with the copper cylinder.

Page  92 92 VOLTAIC EL,ECTRICITY. Fig. 1. Fig. 11 is a perspective view of the ----- same battery. The liquid employed iQ f^^^^^^^^ 9 to put tlhis battery in action, is a sor 1, g lution of sulphate of copper, or comK1^ l P mon blue vitriol, in water. To propare it, a saturated solution of the salt is first made, and to this solution i s then addted as much more water. A pint of water is capable of dissolving one fourth of a pound of blue vitrol, so that the half-saturated solution employed, will contain about two ounces of the salt to the pint. A small portion is sometimes added to increase the permanence of its action. Fig. 12. I II!E iI Fig. 12 represents the union of the cells of this battery, as in common use on some of the telegraph lines. Fig. 13 is a section of it, being the zinc and the porous cylinder. Fig. 14 is a covered cell and is called a protective battery. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. The Daniell battery, having thus been described in its especial arrangement, I will add a few explanations relative to

Page  93 'THE SAIEE VOLTAIC BATTERY. 93 its peculiar advantages. It is called a " constant'" or " sustaining " battery, from the regularity and duration of its action. Mr. Simee denies the correctness of this name. FHe says, " It is often thought to signify long-continued action, whereas these properties are really different; for a battery may be constant, but only remain in action for a a short period; and, again, a battery might remain in action for years, and not be constant in its action." Among practical electricians, however, the Daniell battery is recognized as a "constant battery," and as such it has been used in the local circuits of many telegraph lines, with much economy and satisfaction. THE SMIEE VOLTAIC BATTERY. The voltaic arrangement contrived by Mr. Smee deserves special notice from its general utility. The principal differences between it and a battery of Dr. Babing- Fig. 15. ton's arrangement consist in the material of the conducting plate and in the mode | of placing it. The conducting plate is made of silver-foil platinized; that is, a thin coat of platinum is deposited on the silver by the electrotype process. The minutely-divided particles of platinum that thus cover and adhere to the silver, present a greatly-enlarged surface to liquid in which it is immersed, by which means a smaller-sized plate answers equally with a much larger one of smooth metal. Platinum also being a metal less readily oxydized than copper, the effect of i the voltaic arrangement is heightened by the greater dissimilarity of the two metals. The platinized silver-foil is fixed in the centrr sf a wooden frame s, and two zinc plates, z z, well amalgamatecr, are attached to the upper rim of the fiame by a brass clamp, which has a binding screw connected with it. By this arrangement the zinc plates can be very readily removed and cleaned. In this respect a Smee's battery is more convenient than any other; its action also approaches a Daniell's battery in constancy. These are important advantages, which render this form of voltaic battery the best that can be used for general purposes. The substitution of graphite for the platinizocd silver plates

Page  94 94 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. promises to be a still further improvement. With graphite conducting plates there is no occasion for the wooden frame. A single zinc plate, with a binding-screw soldered to it, occupies the central place, instead of the platinized foil, and two flat pieces of graphite may be clamped on each side; care being taken to insulate the zinc from the graphite by small strips of varnished wood. It will be observed that in this disposition of the apparatus with the graphite, the position of the exciting zinc in reference to the conducting surfaces is transposed, as well as the proportions of each to the other being reversed; a single plate of zinc being placed between two conducting surfaces instead of the conducting surface being in the centre, with a zinc plate on each side. Fig. 16 is another form of the Smee cell as practically applied by Mr. Hall of Boston, with great success as to its effiFig. 16. Fig. 17. ciency and long service. The zinc plates are large, and the platinized sheet very thin. Fig. 17 is composed of three cells united by the wires, one connecting with the copper and the other with the zinc, the two poles of the battery. The object in every case is to obtain from a given quantity of the exciting* metal the greatest possible amount of current electricity, without allowing the power to be wasted in other ways. The consumption of a given weight of zinc cannot, by any possible combination, excite more electricity than will decompose a quantity of water equivalent to that which is decomposed by the chemical affinity of the metal for oxygen. Thus, supposing two grains of water to be decomposed in the generating cell, and eight grains of zinc to be oxydized, the electricity generated during the process cannot be more than

Page  95 THE BUNSEN VOLTAIC BATTERY. 95 sufficient to decompose another two grains of water. The power obtained, even by the best arrangements hitherto contrived, seldom amounts to so much. By increasing the. chemical action of the liquid on the generating plates, the energy of the battery is increased, but most frequently not in proportion to the consumption of zinc. By bringing the plates in the generating cells nearer together, the energy of the battery is also increased, by diminishing the intervening fluid resistance; but this may be attended with waste of power if the plates be brought too close. THE BUNSEN VOLTAIC BATTERY. Professor Bunsen has substituted carbon for platinum, in nitric acid batteries, with good effect. To overcome the difficulty of shaping graphite into the required form, he made a composition of coke and coal in fine powder, which were heated together in iron moulds, and thus formed a solid mass of carbon of the required form. To give further solidity to the mass, it is plunged into a syrup of sugar, afterward dried, and then subjected to intense heat in covered vessels. The form which Professor Bunsen prefers for his carbon conducting surfaces is cylindrical, and the shape of his battery resembles that of Daniell's. To make a good connection between the carbon and the connecting wire, a ring of copper is fixed round the top of the carbon cylinder to which the wire is soldered. The accompanying diagram shows the several parts of one of the cells of a Bunsen's battery, A being the carbon cylinder, with its copper ring and attached wire, B the porous cell into which it is introduced, c the cylinder of amalgamated zinc that surrounds the porous cell, D is the external earthenware jar, and E represents the arrangements of the whole completed. Fig. 18. ij I~li E D C B A Bunsen's battery is extensively used on the Continent, and

Page  96 96 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY, it is represented to be, when in good action, nearly equal to Grove's in power, and superior to it in constancy. I noticed this battery on the German lines. Telegraphers expressed themselves highly in favor of it. Its intensity was highly commensurate with the wants of the telegraph. Nitric acid, mixed with its own bulk of water, is poured into the vessel in contact with the carbon. A mixture of sulphuric acid 1 part, water 25 parts, by measure, is poured into the porous cup in contact with the zinc. This arrangement may be varied by using a solid cylinder of carbon in the porous earthen vessel in the centre, and a zinc cylinder outside next to the glass. This latter method, I noticed in the central office in Paris, fiom which place a battery of 40 such couples worked all the lines from Paris. The batteries are renewed every week. A current of great intensity is generated by this combination. In Denmark, Prussia, Austria and other German states, I noticed the carbon batteries in very extensive use, but no nitric acid was employed; weak sulphuric acid, 3 of acid to 20 of water, by measure, is placed in contact with the zinc, which is well amalgamated, and acid of 1 part sulphuric, to 9 parts water, is used in contact with the carbon plate. All telegraphers with whom I discussed the relative merits of the carbon, with that of the platina, were of the opinion that for telegraphic service the former was the best, and that without the use of the nitric acid, a current of sufficient intensity could be generated. THE GROVE VOLTAIC BATTERY. The most powerful voltaic battery that has yet been brought before the public, is that of Professor Grove, invented about 1839. The intensity of its action depends on associating two metals the most dissimilar in their chemical characters, and exposing one of them separately to the strongest exciting acid. This can only be done by using a porous cell, which keeps the zinc from the distinctive action of the powerful acids employed, and to which platinum is exposed in a separate compartment. This battery has been in use on nearly all the telegraph lines in America until some five years since, when many of them adopted a modification of the Smee battery, invented by Mr. C. T. Chester. The following is a description of the Grove battery as used on the American telegraphs. Figure 19 represents the zinc cylinder about four inches high, and three pounds in weight. Fig. 20 is a cylinder with the platina strip soldered to the arm Bat c. Between A A is D, an opening, to give free action to the chemicals. The porous cup, fig. 21, is made of the same materials as stone-ware, and baked without being glazed. A represents

Page  97 THE GROVE VOLTAIC BATTERY. 97 the rim surrounding the top. From the under side of the rim to the bottom, it is three inches long, and one and one quarter Fig. 19. Fig. 20. C:B H{ Fig. 21. Fi'.. 22. B in diameter. The rim projects one quarter of an inch, and the shell of the cup is one eighth of an inch thick. These several parts are placed together thus: The porous cup is set in the hollow of the zinc cylinder, represented by n, with the rim of the cup resting upon the top of the zinc at I. The zinc cylinder is then placed in the glass tumbler. The whole is represented in fig. 22. D represents the porous cup, F the zinc cylinder, G the glass tumbler, A the projecting arm of the zinc, c the platinum plate, and B the overlapping of the platinum plate upon the zinc arm, where it is soldered to it. It is now in a condition to receive the acids, which are two: first, pure nitric acid, and second, sulphuric acid, diluted in the proportion of one part of sulphuric acid to twelve of water. First fill the porous cup with the nitric acid, to within one quarter of an inch of the top; then fill the glass with the dilu7

Page  98 98 VOLTAIC EECTRICITY. ted sulphuric acid, till it reaches to a level with the nitric acid in the porous cup. One cell of the battery is now ready for use; and as all the other lmembers of the battery are similarly constructed, and are to be prepared and filled with their appropriate acids in the same manner, the above description will suffice. There remains, however, some further explanation in regard to the extremities of the series of glasses, that is, the mode of connecting the zinc of the first glass with the wire leading from it, and also the mode of connecting the platinum of the last glass with the wire leading from that end of the series of glasses. Figure 23 represents their arrangement. Fig. 23. 3 D, nr i I0 ~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I F-' The glasses being all separately supplied with their acids, and otherwise prepared, they are. put together upon a table. A A, perfectly dry, and made of hard wood. The first member of the series has soldered to its zinc arm a strip of copper, c, which, extending downward, has its end, previously brightened and amalgamated, immersed in a cup of mercury at N, the cup being permanently secured to the table. Then the second glass is taken, and the platinum, B, at the end of the zinc arm, is gently let fall into the porous cup, so that it shall be in the centre of the cup, and reaching down as far as its length, when the glass rests upon the table. The third glass is then taken and placed in the same manner, and so on to the last. The last glass has, in its porous cup, the platinum plate, D, soldered to a stripper, E,, which is so constructed as to turn at the top, and admit of the easy introduction of the platinum into the porous cup, while the other end is fastened to the metallic connection with the line wire. The line wire is, also, connected with the mercury cup N. Sometimes the line wires are fasten. ed with binding screws to the batteries as represented by fig. 24. When a large battery is required, the cells are placed in regular order as represented by fig. 25 excepting it is not uni

Page  99 THE GROVE VOLTAIC BATTERY. 99 versal to place the batteries in boxes. There are Fig. 24. many contrivances having in view the insulation of the battery, to prevent local action, and cross currents from one cell to the other, generating various circuits of quantity electricity. I haveseen the batteries, set upon tables covered with a sheet of gutta-percha, at other times I have seen the cells placed on the flat surface of glass, or on the edges of strips, cut an inch wide, and fastened in saw grooves. The glass strips were placed an inch apart. This Fig. 25. was quite an effective insulation. The best arrangement for insulating the cells, one fiom the other, has been gotten up by Mr. J. H. Wade, of the Western Union lines. The Wade insulator is squared flat at the top, and it is set on wooden pins, coated with gum lac, and fixed in the table. With this application there can be no cross currents, and the full voltaic force of intensity can be thrown over the lines for the uses of telegraphing. Fig. 26. A rL^-__ B Fig. 26 represents a sectional view of the Grove battery, as practically employed on many lines, A is the platinum or positive pole of the battery, and B the zinc or negative pole. The chemicals act upon the zinc, and the platinum leads the electrical force generated in the cell, to the next in course and thence on. The current is indicated by the arrow, running from the platina end to the zinc or negative pole of the battery;

Page  100 100 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. the circuit is thus completed. While the action proceeds, the zinc end is charged with negative, the copper with positive electricity. The current moves from the zinc to the copper or platina in the fluid, and from the latter by the intermediate wire to the zinc. Thus the wire attached to the copper or platina is positive, and that to the zinc is negative. If the circuit be several hundred miles the philosophy will be the same. On the telegraph lines, one end of the battery is connected with the earth, and the other with the line wire, thence to the terminal station, where that end of the wire is, also, connected with the earth. The opinion is entertained by some, and disputed by others, that the current flows over the line and returns through the earth. I have entertained the belief that the current does return to the source of its generation. It is a question, however, that no one is able to determine by the present known state of the science. The Grove battery has proved its superiority for the greatest intensity. In getting this intensity-the power to overcome long distances-the telegraph incurs a very great expense. The zincs of a main line battery have to be renewed about every three months, and the consumption of nitric acid is very great. Before using a zinc it should be well amalgamated with mercury, which penetrates the zinc if they are first immersed in water diluted with muriatic acid. It was my practice to use but 3- part sulphuric acid in the water for the battery service, and every night the porous cups were emptied into a vessel and kept closed until morning. The zincs were removed from the tumblers and placed inverted in a trough of water acidulated with sulphuric acid. In the morning, the zincs were rubbed with a brush and the mercury caused to be diffused over the zinc. To every ten cups of nitric acid used in the battery, one additional cup of pure acid was mixed. By this process of mixing, fresh acid every morning, the battery produced a steady and an even current on the line. The water, diluted with sulphuric acid, should be removed from the tumblers twice each week. Great care should be observed not to injure the connection between the zinc and the platina. On soldering platina to the zinc, the greater the surface of the platina applied to the zinc, the greater will be the power of the battery. The conductibility of the metals and fluids employed, should be commensurate, one with the other, in order to have the chemical and electrical action of the different elements uniform. It is advisable for the telegrapher to make every connection of the different metals full, with the greatest amount of surface

Page  101 THE GROVE VOLTAIC BATTERY. 101 contact possible. The strength and efficiency of a battery of intensity, or of quantity, can always be determined by the fixed laws concerning the conductibility of the respective elements employed in the voltaic organization. In the construction of the battery, care should be taken to insulate each cup or cell from the other. I have frequently seen a battery set upon a wet table, and the tumblers wet with moisture. When thus arranged, the chemical action of the battery will be more than ordinary, and several local circuits will be in electrical action. To prevent such hinderances to the efficiency of the battery, and to concentrate the greatest amount of electrical intensity, for purposes of the line, Mr. William lM. Swain, the President of the MBagnetic Telegraph Company, had constructed tumblers with feet, as represented by figs. 27 and 29. Fig. 27. Fig. 28. Fig. 29. Fig. 27 is a sectional view of a tumbler. Beneath it is concave as seen by fig. 3, with the rim 1. The feet 2, project from the hollow below the rim 1. If moisture collects upon the glass it falls from the rim 1, or it remains upon the glass in globules. The arrangement is simple but of great importance to the efficiency of the voltaic organization, and no battery should be constructed without tumblers thus manufactured. The ordinary tumbler, fig. 29, sets upon the battery table, and the moisture gathered upon the glass soon forms a watery connection from one glass to the other, producing local action on many local circuits. The plan adopted by Mr. Swain economises the use of the battery, and attains a battery of intensity, so indispensable in the working of the line, and prevents the action of innumerable local circuits in the generation of quantity electricity. The local battery, generally composed of two or three cells, is more active, generating a quantity current for the working of the register. The circuit is confined to the station, the wire is larger in the register coils than in the relay, and the battery is more consuming than the main line series. The acids are

Page  102 102 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. renewed, sometimes every day, but generally whenever the register magnet requires an increased effi3iency for the magnetization of the soft iron in the register spools. THE CHESTER VOLTAIC BATTERY. The next organization requiring especial notice is that generally known as the Chester battery, and extensively used on the American lines, both on the local and mnain circuits. The advantages in its use are, economy in the use of material, labor in taking care of it, and its uniform efficiency in generating a voltaic current suitable for practical telegraphing. Fig. 30 is a representation of the Chester main battery, A A are insulated wooden bars, B B are brass clarps with the bindFig. 80. C!== K- ~d,1 -c — -t~I _ _

Page  103 THE CHESTER VOLTAIC BATTERY. 103 ing screw attached, z z are the zinc plates fastened by the clamp on the one side of the wooden bar; p P are platinized plates fastened by the clamps on the opposite side of the w-ooden bar from the zinc plates, T T are the elongated tumblers. In battery 1 the wooden bars rest upon the glasses, and in battery 2 they rest upon iron brackets fastened to supports. The wooden bar is covered with lac to prevent it from being destroyed by the acid. Gutta-percha and hard rubber bars have been used on some of the batteries, and they have served well. In the bottom of the tumblers are set small glass cups, in which are placed about two tablespoonfuls of mercury. This battery has been widely extended over the American continent, to South America, Australia, and the Islands. Its cheapness, freedom from poisonous fumes, and long use without renewal, has gained for it many friends. The battery is very cleanly, and can be placed on shelves or ornamented casings on the side of the wall in the operating room. Each zinc plate being supplied with a cup of mercury, the amalgamation continues, undisturbed by destroying acids. The zincs thus arranged continue in service about one year. The platinized plate with care in handling will not decay. The battery requires to be renewed or rebuilt about four times a year. The following relative computations have been made in regard to the Grove, the Daniell, and the Chester batteries: The Grove battery consumes 1 pounds of nitric acid, 14 pounds of zinc, 1 pound of sulphuric acid. The Daniell battery consumes 4 pounds of sulphate of copper, 12 pounds of zinc, 1 pound of sulphuric acid. The Chester battery consumes 1~ pounds of zinc, 3 pounds of sulphuric acid. The only acid used in the Chester battery is sulphuric, in pure water and in very small quantities. In a telegraph main-battery, the great object to be attained is the greatest degree of intensity, or energy of action or motion, to overcome distance; this intensity is obtained by increasing the number of the cells. In a telegraph local battery, a quantity current is necessary. The circuit is short, and intensity current is not necessary. A quantity current depends upon the surface of the plates; and, to increase the quantity force, it is necessary to increase the size of the plates employed. These are the indispensable considerations to be regarded in the organization of any battery for telegraphic service. Fig. 31 represents the Chester local battery, as practically empoyed on many of the American lines. z is the zinc cylin

Page  104 104 VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. ders; p c the porous cup; c is the perforated copper chamber, attached, and G is the glass tumbler. It is arranged upon the Fig. 31. principles of the Daniellbattery. A quantity current is generated by this combination ftlly equal to the requirements of the local circuit. The peculiar form of the metallic parts, present to the acidulated chemicals surface sufficient to produce the desired results. This form of battery has been very extensively used, and with advantages worthy of appreciation. INTENSITY AND QUANTITY OF THE GROVE, DANIELL, AND S.MEE BATTERIES. The following facts have been determined relative to the comparative intensity and quantity powers of the Grove, Daniell and Sinee batteries: Intensity. Quantity. Grove................... 87 Grove.....................4-4 Danie Daniell....................12 Smee, No. 1, open. 2........27 Smee, No. 1, open..........42 Smee, approximated plates...32 Smee, approximated plates..49 Thus, it appears, that nearly equal quantities of electricity are excited by equal surfaces of Grove's and Smee's batteries, but that the intensity of the nitric acid battery, is rather more than three times that of Smee's. Daniell's arrangement holds an intermediate position with regard to intensity, but is deficient in quantity.

Page  105 M AG NET I SL. CHAPTER VII. Native Magnetism of the Load-Stone-Attractive and Repulsive Forces of Permanent Magnets-Component parts of the Magnet-Induced Magnetism. NATIVE MIAGNETISM OF THE LOAD-STONE. As a preliminary to the consideration of electro-magnetism, it is necessary to explain the mysterious existence of the attractive and repulsive nature of matter commonly known as permanent magnetism. This is the more necessary as some of the telegraph systems have, as parts thereof, the conjunctive force of permanent and electro-magnetism. Fig. 1 represents the native Fig. 1. load-stone, found in the earth in different parts of the world. In "A,. the figure, the polarity of the % __ stone is shown and its attractive force, by nails suspended by it. It is an ore of iron, compounded of iron and oxygen. Recently, I saw large quantities of this ore near St. Louis, Missouri. It was in a mountain of iron, The discovery of the load-stone has been attributed to a shepherd, named Magnes, who observed its attraction to his iron crook, when tending his flock on Mount Ida, and from whomn it is supposed the name of magnet is derived; though, accord- ing to other accounts, the load-stone first came from Heraclea, in Magnesia, and one of its ancient names was lapis

Page  106 106 MAGNETISM. Heeracleus. Plato. and Euripides called it the'Herculean stone, because it commanded iron, the strongest of all metals. VARIATION OF THE NEEDLE DISCOVERED BY COLUMBUS. To what extent the earth is filled with the load-stone no one can form any idea. In connection with this, may be considered the magnetic polarity of the earth, and the magnetic or mariners' needle. The needle has been used for several centuries, but the variation of the compass needle, in different latitudes, was first noticed by the discoverer of America. Irving's Columbus says, viz.: " On the 13th of September, 1492, he perceived about nightfall that the needle, instead of pointing to the north star, varied but half a point, or between five and six degrees, to the northwest, and still more on the following morning. Struck with this circumstance, he observed it attentively for three days, and found that the variation increased as he advanced. He at first made no mention of this phenomenon, knowing how ready his people were to take alarm; but it soon attracted the attention of the pilots, and filled them with consternation. It seemed as if the laws of nature were changing as they advanced, and that they were entering into another world, subject to unknown influences. They apprehended that the compass was about to lose its mysterious virtues; and without this guide, what was to become of them in a vast and trackless ocean? Columbus tasked his science and ingenuity for reasons in which to allay their terrors. He told them that the direction of the needle was not to the polar star, but to some fixed invisible point. The variation was not caused by any failing in the compass, which, like the other heavenly bodies, had its changes and revolutions, and every day described a circle around the pole. The high opinion that the pilots entertained of Columbus as a profound astronomer, gave weight to his theory, and their alarm subsided." THE FORCES OF PERMANENT MAGNETS. Fig. 2. Place the ends of a magnet un-.II,;,,,'t,,i/': \ der a piece of paper on which are'\\'i''\''\'i','//' \',\' I scattered some iron filings; in a'\, I,..iI,',,,.\\'"','" moment the filings will be seen to i' r..__ arrange themselves in curves, as ~-' _ i^|;^^ represented in figure 2; the,//////,,, ^ C" greater part of the filings being,//,',,.'' -;",'"",' collected over each end of the' \ \\\...': "..' magnet, and spreading out in curvilinear directions toward the two ends. Very few of the

Page  107 FORCES OF PERMANENT MAGNETS. 107 filings will collect on the spot over the centre of tne magnet. When thus arranged, each one of the filings is magnetic, with distinct polarity, with attractive and repulsive powers, as the magnet beneath the paper. The magnetism in the particles, as to quantity, depends upon their respective proximities to the magnet poles. The farther they are from it, the less is their power. The curves formed are owing to the more distant attractive influence affecting them. A straight perma- Fig. 3. aent magnet is rep- resented by figure 3. _ This form is called a,ompound permanent,nagnet, because it is made of more than one bar, and it retains magnetism. By this uniting of several magnets, the power is increased. The similar poles of each must be placed together. Fig 4 is a horseshoe or U-magnet. It is the bar Fig. 4. magnet bent in the form represented in the figure, for the purpose of getting the attractive force of the j two ends of the magnet to act at the same time upon the same matter. Figure 5 is the same as figure 4, compounded. The two poles of the magnet are exer- cised in the attraction of the piece of iron A, which is called the keeper. It is called thus, because it aids to keep the magnetism in the bars. The moment that A comes in contact with the poles N and s, it be- comes magnetic, with distinct polarities. The south pole of it, is next to the N, or north pole of the, 5 magnet. The terms north and south, to indicate i the polarity of the magnet, was given to the needle about the year 1600, conformably to the views entertained of terrestrial magnetism. The end of the needle that pointed toward the north was call- | l l ed the south pole, and that toward the south was ll called the north pole. The poles of the earth were supposed to be magnetic, and that the needle was affected by them, upon the principles of the pres- s ent known laws, concerning the attractive and repulsive nature of magnets. Like poles repel, and opposite poles attract. The north pole of one magnet attracts the south pole of the other. In examining the distribution of electricity, in a circular plane, it was found that the thickness of the electric stratum was almost constant from the centre, to within a very small distance of the circumference, when it increased all on a sud

Page  108 108 MAGNETISM. den with great rapidity. It has been believed that a similar distribution of magnetism took place in the transverse section of a magnetic bar; and by a series of magnetic experiments, results have induced some philosophers to believe that the magnetic power resides on the surface of iron bodies, and is entirely independent of their mass. On the other hand some are of the opinion that the magnetic force commences as a focus at the centre of the mass, and fully culminates at the surface. COMPONENT PARTS OF THIE MAGNET. A magnet is considered as composed of minute invisible particles or filaments of iron, each of which has individually the properties of a separate magnet. It is assumed that there are two distinct fluids-the austral and boreal; and under the influence of either in a free state, the bar of iron or other metal will point to the north or south poles of the earth, according to circumstances. It is within these small particles or metallic elements that the displacement or separation of the two attractive powers take place; and the particles may be the ultimate atoms of iron. A magnetic bar may, there- Fig. 6. fore, as represented in figure 6, be composed of minute portions, the right hand extremities of each of which possess n pc one speces of magnetism, and the left hand extremities the A other species; the shaded ends being sup- Pill posed to possess boreal, and the light end austral magnetism. The ends of the bar, when either straight or U shaped, are charged T ~ 1 with boreal or austral magnetism, and the ends are called by those respective terms. BT 3 More commonly the ends of the magnet are - i called the "north" and "south" poles, for g 2 the reasons before mentioned. These fluids exist in a combined state, and in certain proportions they are united to each molecule or atom of the metal, from which they can never be disunited except by their decomposition into separate fluids, one of which in a permanent magnet is always collected on one, and the other on the opposite side of each molecule. INDUCED MAGNETISM. In order to communicate magnetism from a natural or artificial magnet, to unmagnetized iron or steel, it is not necessary that the two bodies should be in contact. The communica

Page  109 INDUCED IMAGNETISM. 109 tion is effected as perfectly, though more feebly, when the bodies are separated by space. ig. 7 Figure 7 represents a bar, - magnet MI, and an iron rod B, near together. By the influence of the magnet 1i upon the principles of induction, the rod B partakes of the magnetism of iI, the end N becoming boreal and the end s azustral. If the rod B be brought in contact with the bar ri, the induction will be much stronger. If to the north pole (fig. i. 8 M Fig. S. 8) of an artificial steel mag- A B C I, net A, is placed a soft iron bar, <:, n, the end s of B will instantly acquire the properties of a south pole, and the opposite end N, those of the north pole. The opposite poles would have been produced at N and s, if the south pole s of the magnet; A, had been placeec near the iron B. In like manner, the piece of soft iron B, though only temporarily magnetic, will render another piece of iron, c, and this again another piece, D, temporarily magnetic, north and south poles being produced at the ends. This represents compound induction. It is important for the reader to observe the pointed analogy between the phenomena of magnetic attraction and repulsion, and those of electricity. In both there exists the same character of double agencies of opposite kind, capable, when separate, of acting with great energy, and being, when combined together, perfectly neutralized, and exhibiting no signs of activity. As there are two electrical, so there are also two magnetic powers; and both sets of phenomena are governed by the same characteristic laws. So also in the last experiment, the magnetism inherent in B, Cg D, is said to be ijndtced by the presence of the real magnet; and the phenomena are exactly analogo'us to the communication of electricity to unelectrified bodies by induction, the positive state inducing the negative, and the negative the positive, in the parts of a conductor placed in a state of insulation, near an electrified body. Where two or more wires are suspended on the same set of poles, the voltaic current transmitted on one wire will escape to the other wire by induction, though not to a very great extent. If the wires are placed near together, more or less of the electric influence will pass from one to the other, Figure 9 is another representation of the inductive principle. Plunge a U-magnet into a cask of nails and on withdrawing it the nails will adhere to the magnet and to each other as represented in the figure. If the magnet be placed in connection with iron filings, they will collect on the poles as seen in figure 10.

Page  110 110 IAGNETISM. If the north pole of a bar magnet, figure 11, be placed on the centre of a circular plate of iron, a south polarity is given Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. " 1 I SI Fig. 12. Fig.13. IN - to tlhe metal or plate touching the bar, and the under part becomes north, and from it will be suspended iron filings when they are brought in contact with the plate. If the plate is cut in the form of a star, as represented by figure 12, each point becomes a stronger north pole. The part of the plate in con

Page  111 INDUCED MAGNETISM. 11 tact with the bar is south, and the line of induction extends to the points. If nails be suspended from the points the polarity of the respective pieces will be as represented in the figure. If the north pole be placed on the middle of the bar of iron, as seen in figure 13, the part of the horizontal bar becomes a south pole, and the respective ends become north. The bar N N becomes magnetically two pieces of iron, each with its south pole terminating at the bar s N. If pieces of iron wire of equal lengths be suspended from a magnetic pole, they will not hang parallel. The lower ends will diverge from each other in consequence of their having the same polarity, as seen by figure 13. If a bar magnet be broken into two pieces the polarity of each piece will at once be. Fig. 14. formed as seen by figure 14. These halves may be is.../ broken with the same result, each section having a full charge of the magnetic influence. The magnetic needle is a very slender magnet mounted on a pivot, as seen in figure 15, or it may be otherwise suspended. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. Fig. 17. |j~~~~~~~~~~ NN|i.g_,,__,.,,i5^-~is~-^

Page  112 112 MAGNETISM. One end. of the needle is north and the other end is south. Figure 16 represents a bar magnet, and the three needles or arrows, indicate the direction of the magnetic force. The arrow-heads are of north polarity, and the two to the right are influenced by the south polarity of the magnet bar N s. The south pole of the bar and the north poles of the needles attract each other. The needle over the centre of the bar magnet is equally influenced by the polarity of the bar N s, and it cannot deviate from a parallel. Figure 17 represents the different positions necessary to place magnets to make them harmonize in their respective influences or forces one with the other. If the various small pieces were arrows, their polarities would be as represented in figure 17, conjunctively with the larger magnet in the centre. An unmagnetized bar, suspended in the direction of north and south, formed as figure 15, will assume temporary rnagnetism inductively from the earth. The end of the suspended rod directed toward the north pole, becomes south, and the end toward the south will receive north polarity. Figure 18 represents a bar of iron, A B, placed in a horizontal position to the Fig. 18. -:. _ - - — __ // north pole of a magnetic needle, N s. The pole as thus placed is attracted by the bar. Keeping the end B in the same place, raise the end A so as to bring the bar into the position c D. As the bar is raised, the north pole recedes from c, as indicated by the dotted. lines in the figure. The strongest action is exerted when the bar is in the line of the dip, or in this latitude, nearly vertically over the needle. Change the positions of the bar, and the needle will be changed. By this experiment the reader will find that the bar of iron has become polarized with magnetism.

Page  113 INDUCED MAGNETISM. 113 Figure 19 represents the charging of a bar of iron by percussion. Hold the bar in the line of the dip, and its lower end brought near to the north pole of Fig. 19. a magnetic needle. In consequence of the polarity of the iron, received from the earth, the needle will slightly swing from its normal position. Strike the end of the iron rod with a hammer, and immediately the magnetic force in the bar becomes greatly increased, and the needle swings to the bar as seen in the figure, the south pole of the needle to the north pole of the bar. Take a piece of iron wire, place it in a vertical position, and twist it powerfully. The twist will be seen to sustain iron filings as seen by figure 20. This is very often seen by the telegrapher when.. making joints in the wire. Balance the twist on a pivot, and it: will at once assume polarity. The end which was downward becomes the north pole. The telegrapher will observe, when filing the wire to make the joints, filings Fig. 20. adhere to the ends of the wire. This magnetism is produced upon the principles of percussion. I have thus briefly presented a few explanations of the magnetic force imparted to metals, and for further and more detailed information the reader can refer to the standard works on electrical and magnetic phenomena. 8

Page  114 ELECTRO - MAGNETISM. CHAPTER VIII. Discovery of Electro-MIagnetism by (Ersted-Discoveries of Schweigger, Arago, and Ampere-Discoveries of Sturgeon and IHenry-Recapitulation of the Discoveries on Electro-Maignetism-English Telegraph ElectrometersMIagnetometers-The De La Rive Ring, and other Experiments. DISCOVERY OF ELECTRO-MAGNETISM BY CERSTED. THE art of tne electric telegraph is based upon the science of electro-magnetism. The brilliant discovery of this science was made in the year 1819, by Professor Christian Crsted, of Copenhagen. In the year 1854, I visited Copenhagen, and the first object of my curiosity was to see the laboratory of mErsted. Through the generous attention of M. Faber, the director-general of the telegraphs of Denmark, my desire was gratified. I saw the room in which electro-magnetism was discovered, and the small compass that developed it. Professor (Ersted was engaged in arranging some wires connected with the voltaic battery, preparatory to making some electrical experiments which he had in view. While thus adjusting the wire conductor, he had in his hand a small compass, some two and a half inches in diameter. Sometimes his hand, with the compass, was above the wires, and at other times below them. He observed the needle of the compass to move, and his attention being once directed to the development, the discovery followed as a sequence. That discovery, at the time, was made known in the following language, viz.: "When a magnetic needle is properly poised on its pivot at rest in the magnotic meridian, and a wire arranged over and parallel to the needle, in the same vertical plane, and the ends of the wire made to communicate, respectively, with the poles of a voltaic battery, the needle will be deflected."

Page  115 DISCOVERY OF SCHWEIGGER. 115 This was the simple announcement, giving the whole of the discovery. It was enough to immortalize CErsted. Fig. 1 represents the discovery made by Ersted, excepting the needle s N is poised upon an exposed pivot, instead of being enclosed in a brass compass case. If the wire charged with an electric current is placed hori- Fig.. zontally over the compass needle, A the pole of the needle which is A nearest to the negative end of the'"- - battery always moves westward: - - if it be placed under, the same ^ pole moves to the east. If the U A j wire be parallel with the needle, that is, brought into the same horizontal plane in which the needle is moving, then no motion of the needle in that plane takes place, but a tendency is exhibited in it to move in a vertical circle, the pole nearest the negative side of the battery being depressed when the wire is to the west of it, and elevated when placed on the eastern side. In the example given by the figure, the current is flowing on the wire north and south, from A to B. The needle s N deflects from the parallel line, and the north pole of the needle will turn to the west, and if it be. below the Wire, it will turn to the east to the extent, respectively, as represented by the dotted lines a b and c d in the figure. The force exerted by the electric current on the magnetized needle diminishes in intensity in proportion as the distance between the current and the needle increases. It has been determined, as a law, that when the current is rectilinear, and the length of the wire considerable, so that in relation to that of the needle, it may be regarded as infinite, the intensity of the electro-magnetic force is in inverse ratio to the simple distance of the thing magnetized from the current. DISCOVERIES OF SCHWEIGGER, ARAGO, AND AMPERE. Immediately after the discovery of Ersted, which was made in 1819, and published in 1820, M. Schweigger discovered that the surrounding of a needle with many coils of wire increased the deflecting power of the voltaic current. This improvement was announced in the German "Literary Gazette," November, 1820, No. 296. Since that time the arrangement of circling the wire around a magnetized needle has been called

Page  116 116 ELECTRO-IAGNETISM. " Schweigger's multiplier," because it multiplied the power of the deflection. Take a small compass, about two and a half inches in diameter, and then wind around it-in the course or direction of the needle, north and south-fine insulated wire. The turns may be two or a hundred, and the principle will be the same. Transmit through the wire thus wound round the compass, and the needle will rapidly leave its north and south positions, and, if the current be strong enough, it will assume the east and west directions. Reverse the current through the wire, and the needle will immediately change its position and point in the opposite direction to that first assumed. Remove the current from the wire, and the needle will immediately take its normal, or north and south position. In the year 1820, M. Arago, of France, found that if the wire which connects the two extremities of a voltaic battery be Fig. 2. plunged into fine iron filings, a considerable portion of a — _. them will be attracted, and _ _____ ~will remain attached to the wire as long as the current continues to circulate through it; on breaking the circuit, the filings will immediately drop off. If small steel needles be laid across the wire, they will be attracted, and on removing them they will be found to be permanently magnetized. In the year 1820, Ampere, of France, made some important experiments, and he found that two wires, through which voltaic currents were passing in the same direction, attracted, and in the opposite direction repelled, each other. Upon the theories of Ampere, Arago adopted the method of magnetizing needles. He placed in a glass tube a needle, and wound around the tube a wire composing a part of the voltaic circuit; the needle was magnetized. He also found that the polarity of the needle, as a magnet, depended upon the direction of the current around the glass tube. If a right-handed spiral, the Fig. 3. boreal pole would be formed at the end at which the current entered, that is, the positive end; if a left-handed helix, the bar acquired an austral polarity. The wire was wound around the glass tube, so that its spirals would not touch. In the glass tube was laid an ordinary sewing needle.

Page  117 DISCOVERIES OF STURGEON AND HENRY. 117 DISCOVERIES OF STURGEON AND HENRY. The next grand step taken in the science of electro-magnetism was by Sturgeon in 1825. He bent a piece of iron wire in the form of a horse-shoe. He then insulated the iron wire, bent Fig. 4. as a horse-shoe, by covering it with varnish; and having thus covered the iron to be magnetized, he wound around it a copper wire, s and placed the spirals so that they would not touch, in order to prevent the current from passing from one spiral to the other with- |lUil i out circulating around the iron. The result was a complete success. The ends of the bent iron wire were found to be magnetic when the current was on the spiral wire; and when off, it was not magnetic. This experiment was an advance of Arago and Ampere. Fig. 4 represents the plan adopted by Sturgeon. It is an exact copy of the original drawing published in the "Annals of Philosophy," 1826. Upon the theory advanced by Ampere, Arago coiled wire around the glass tube to magnetize the needles; Sturgeon, instead of using the glass tube to insulate the electric copper wire from the iron core to be magnetized, used varnish as an insulator. It was a non-conductor, and separated the electric wire from the iron. Besides the improvement in the idea of the insulation, he bent the wire in the form of a u, which was a very important progress from the straight bar or needle. Professor Joseph Henry, of America, in his philosophical researches, in 182S, continued in 1829 and 1830, was led to Fig. 5. Fig. 6. make farther advances, and he perfected the construction of the electro-magnet as now known in the science. He con

Page  118 118 ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. ceived the idea of covering or insulating the wire, instead of covering or insulating the iron to be magnetized, as had been done by others. He effected this by insulating a long wire with silk thread, and winding this around the rod of iron in close coils, as is seen in fig. 5, from one end to the other. The same principle was extended by employing a still longer insulated wire, and winding several strata of this over the first, care being taken to insure the insulation between each stratum by a covering of silk ribbon. By this arrangement the rod was surrounded by a compound helix, formed of many coils, instead of a single helix of a fev coils. In the peculiar arrangement of the coils, Professor Henry advanced new ideas. Arago and Sturgeon wound their wires not precisely at right angles to the axis of the rod, as they should have been, to produce the effect required by the theory of Ampere, but they were placed obliquely around the rod to be magnetized; therefore, each turn tended to develop a separate magnetism not coincident with the axis of the bar. In winding the wire over itself, as done by Henry, the obliquity of the several turns compensated each other, and the resultant action was at right angles to the bar. The ends attained by Henry were of the greatest importance. The multiplied turns of the wire, and their peculiar conjunctive action in the generation of magnetic force in the iron rod, were complete in success. He found that, after a certain length of wire had been coiled upon the iron, the power diminished with a further increase of the number of turns. This was due to the increased resistance which the longer wire offered to the conduction of electricity. As an improvement, he increased the number of independent coils around the u shaped rod, as represented by fig. 6. Another was to increase the number of cells of the battery to obtain a current of greater intensity, for the purpose of overcoming the increased length of the wire, so as to produce or develop the maximum power of the iron. Fig. 6 represents the manner of coiling around the iron bar the insulated wire in several independent sections. Each of these sections was united with a Cruikshank voltaic battery. The experiment proved, that, in order to produce the greatest amount of magnetism from a battery of a single cup, a number of helices is required; but when a compound battery is used, then one long wire must be employed, making many turns around the iron core. The magnetic force generated, will be commensurate with the projectile power of the battery. In describing the results of these experiments, Professor Henry has used the terms intensity and quantity magnets.

Page  119 DISCOVERIES OF STURGEON AND HENRY. 119 By the former is meant, that when a piece of soft iron, so surrounded with wire that its magnetic power could be called into operation by an intensity battery, the magnet was called an " intensity magnet;" when it was acted upon by a quantity battery through a number of separate coils, so that its magnetism could be fully developed, it was.alled a "quantity magnet." The terms are technical, and very appropriate. Fig. 7 represents the Sturgeon magnet, A, and the Henry magnet, B. Around the Fig. 7. former (.) are wound the spirals apart from each other-the iron core being insulated, and the copper wire not insulated. Around the latter, B, the - wire is insulated with silk thread, and the coils are multiplied. This vwas the magnet invented by Henry, and which at the time astonished the scientific world. With the same battery, at least a hundred times more magnetism was produced by Henry's magnet than could have been obtained by Sturgeon's magnet. The developments were considered at the time of much importance in a scientific point of view,, and they subsequently furnished the means by which magneto-electricity, the phenomena of dia-magnetism, and the magnetic effects on polarized light, were discovered. They gave rise to the various forms of electro-magnetic machines which have since distinguished the age. Upon Henry's electromagnet are based the various electro-magnetic telegraphs. The following may be considered as laws relative to electromagnetism: 1st. The magnetic force developed in the iron is in proportion to the quantity and intensity of the current. 2d. The force, if the current be equal, is independent of the thickness of the wire or shape of the iron. 3d. Within certain limits, in a continuous coil wound in layers, like a spool or bobbin of silk, the external turns ar( as efficacious as those close to the iron. 4th. The total action of the spiral is equal to the sum of the actions of each turn. Thus, by increasing the force of the battery so that it; intensity is augmented twofold, threefold, fourfold, the forc( of the electro-magnet increases in the same degree. Of course this force will find its maximum in the conductibility of thi metal employed in the voltaic circuit.

Page  120 120 ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. RECAPITULATION OF THE DISCOVERIES OF ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. The discoveries of Henry were published to the world in 1831, and were the subject of discussion among scientific men on both continents. Since then there has not been any advance in the principles pertaining to the organization of the electromagnet. Mechanically, it has been brought to a smaller size and made more convenient for the purposes of its use. From the preceding it will be seen that the following are the facts relative to the progress of electro-magnetism: 1st. In the year 1819, (Ersted discovered that a magnetic needle would be deflected when situated near a wire charged with a current of voltaic electricity. 2d. In the year 1820, Schweigger discovered that the power of deflecting the needle would be increased by surrounding it with the electric wire. 3d. In the year 1820, Arago and Ampere coiled around a glass tube, and magnetized sewing needles placed in the tube. 4th. In the year 1826, Sturgeon insulated an iron wire bent like a horse-shoe, and then wound around it a copper wire. When a current of electricity was sent through the copper wire the insulated iron wire was magnetized. 5th. In the years 1828,'29, and'30, Henry wound an insulated copper wire around an uninsulated iron rod, shaped like a horse-shoe. He passed a current of electricity through the copper wire, and the bent iron rod was magnetized. 6th. In the same years Henry increased the convolutions of the insulated copper wire, and on passing a current of electricity through the copper wire, the magnetic power of the bent iron rod was greatly increased. The above presents the true state of the science of electromagnetism before the invention of the electro-magnetic telegraph, of either continent, as none. of them can date earlier than 1532. Without the discoveries above described, made by Sturgeon and Henry, the electro-magnetic telegraph would still be in the womb of time, awaiting the allotted hour for its birth-distinguishing, for aught we know, a generation yet unborn, instead of, as it has done with singular grandeur, " the age in which we live." Fig. 8 represents the magnet as applied in the telegraph. The wire is insulated with silk, and wound around the iron bar. Fig. 9 is another form adopted in the making of the magnet. The insulated silk wire is wound around hard rubber spools, and the U-shaped iron is moveable. One of the advantages in the use of the moveable cores consists in the

Page  121 ARRANGEMENT OF THE WIRE. 121 facility of demagnetizing them when charged with permanent magnetism. The attention of the student of telegraphing should be Fig. 8. directed to the proper arrangement of the wire around the cores. The wire should be well insulated, wound as regular as possible, and in the direction indicated by the preceding Fig. 9figures. I once knew the working of a station to be hindered by the operator re-winding his wire, so that the magnetism could not be imparted to the iron. The arms should be wound, as represented by fig. 7.

Page  122 122 ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. ENGLISH TELEGRAPH ELECTROMETERS. The English electric telegraphs are organized upon the principle of Schweigger's multiplier, and so true is this, that Mr. Cooke in the invention of the first needle telegraph adopted the multiplier. Arago used ordinary needles in his glass tubes, and they were magnetized by the coiling of the wire around the tubes, but the principle in the use of the needles in the English telegraph is precisely the original CErsted discovery, as extended by Schweigger. The latter multiplied the coils around a magnetic needle, which was caused to move, as seen by Crsted, whenever the wire composing the coils was charged with electricity. Figure 10 represents a Schweigger multiplier improved by mechanism; i k are two coils, through the interior of which Fig. 10. swing a magnetized needle. When the current traverses the coils, the needle changes its position from a perpendicular to a horizontal, or to the extent influenced by the current. The

Page  123 ENGLISH TELEGRAPH ELECTROMETERS. 123 exterior needle h may be magnetic, or it may not be. It is Fig. 11. 113:13 ~ IB]( Fig. 12. often made of light material, so as to easily swing upon the same axle with the interior needle. This instrument is called an L" Electrometer." Another view of the electrometer is represented by fig. 11, showing ( N ~ [ls lthe coils A A and the needle suspended between them. L L are 30 S binding screws fastened to the frame B B. The line wires are fastened to L L. c is a brace band to hold the coils of fine wire A A. The arrows indicate the route of the voltaic I & / current. Fig. 12 represents a side s 4. view of the same instrument. To N the right is seen the needle and its polarity s N; in the interior is seen _- ~i /[ the other magnetic needle and its....^-.. ^ polarity N s; the arrows indicate the route of the voltaic current.

Page  124 124 ELECTRO-MAGNETISIM. Fig. 13 represents the face of the electrometer used in nearly all the European telegraph stations. This is a small box about five inches square, with a glass cover. The index finger acts co-operative with the needle suspended between the coils, and its movement to the right or to the left indicates the quantity of the current and its polarity, whether negative or positive. It would be a useful instrument on the American lines. At this time, there is, perhaps, not one in use on any of the lines, nor has there been since the experimental line of 1844. Fig, 13. ELECTROMETERS GENERALLY. Fig. 14 represents another form of an electrometer. The wire is wound around a frame not given in the figure. The needle N s rests upon a pivot on the stand c D. The battery wires are fastened at the binding posts A B, which connect with wires near c D respectively. The wire is wound upon the same principle as in the making of the magnets hereinbefore mentioned. When the electricity passes around the coil, the needle moves to the right or to the left, according to the course of the current. Fig. 15 represents an upright electrometer. The principle

Page  125 MAGNETOMETERS. 125 of this instrument is precisely the same as the one above Fig. 14. S t D Fig. 15. described. It is nearer the simple multiplier devised by Schweigger. <TA\ y.Fig. 16 represents the compass form electrometer. The coil of wire is made to ~\| IIsurround an ordinary pocket compass, and the strength of the electric current is measured by the deflection of the needle. The circle is divided into divisions as minute as may be required for the purposes of its use. It is a very convenient instrument, and will be useful in the practice of telegraphing. Fig. 17 represents the most delicate form of electrometer. It is capable of being influenced by the slightest presence of electricity. On the base are placed two coils of wire, as represented by fig. 10, between which is suspended a delicate magnetic needle, with its mate or index needle above a dial plate. The needle is suspended by a cocoon thread from the top. Over the whole is placed a glass cover. If there is any electricity in the coils, the index needle will exhibit it and the quantity. MA GNETOMETERS. Various contrivances have been made to measure the magnetic force of electro-magnets. Fig. 18 is one gotten up by

Page  126 126 ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. Mr. Charles T. Chester, of New-York, as an attachment to the electro-magnet used on the Morse telegraph. The ends of the coils are seen below; the measurement scale is seen above. The armature of the magnet is connected with the index finger, and the slightest magnetic influence will be exhibited. Fig. 19 represents Hearder's magnetometer. A B is a strong base of wood, about four feet long and one foot wide, to which are attached four levelling screws; D D are two strong iron uprights, firmly screwed into the base and connected at the top by a stout iron cross piece, E, having a hole in the centre, through which passes the screw, F, of the strong double sus. Fig. 16. pension hook G. Two iron nuts, H H, serve to fix the suspension hook at any height. i i is a light and delicate, but strong steel yard, being graduated on one side to correspond with the distance between the knife-edge K and M; these are respectively one and two inches apart. Different weights may be employed; on the arm N is a rest to support the long arm of the lever, and it is capable of being adjusted to any height by a tightening screw in the hollow socket o. The different parts of the scale are marked by letters, each of which will be readily understood by the reader. The magnet, u u, is wound with

Page  127 MAGNETOMETERS. 127 the conducting or electric wire; this arrangement will give the strength of the magnetic force. It can be made upon any Fig. 17. Fig. 18.

Page  128 128 ELECTRO-MIAGNETISM. required scale, and its application in testing the strength of the magnets for telegraphic purposes might subserve a good end. Fig. 19.! v Before concluding this chapter, I desire to notice a few experiments, having in view the further illustration of the relative forces, electricity and magnetism DE-LA-RIVE RING AND OTHER EXPERIMENTS. Fig. 20 represents the De-la-Rive ring. s N is a permanent

Page  129 THE DE-LA-RIVE RING. 129 magnet; c is a coil of wire fastened to zinc and copper pieces, which are placed in a vessel of acid. An electric current is generated, and traverses the coil c, as indicated by the arrow. The vessel D, with the coil c, floats in a bowl of water. When the magnet M is placed near the bowl, the ring c will be repelled or attracted, according to the polarity of the magnet directed toward the ring-the electric coil moves from or to the more powerful permanent magnet. Fig. 21 represents a spiral wire suspended. The lower end is connected with a mercury cup. A current of electricity is made to traverse the spiral. In fig. 22 a permanent magnet is placed in the spiral. The moment the magnet is thus placed, Fig. 22. Fig. 21. the spiral wire will move up and down, opening and closing the circuit in the mercury cup. If the battery is strong, a blue flame will be made when the wires come in contact with the mercury. Fig. 23 represents the mode of communicating permanent magnetism to a steel bar by an electro-magnet. N s is a steel bar, which is drawn from the bend to the extremities across the poles of the electro-magnet in such a way, that both halves of the bar may pass at the same time over the poles to which they are applied. Fig. 24 represents the principle of axial magnetism, invented 9

Page  130 130 ELECTRO-IMAGNETISM. by Professor Charles G. Page, of America. For the purpose of explaining the principle, the following will suffice. The coil consists of a number of layers of wire, and has a small central opening. An iron bar passed within it becomes strongly magnetic. When the coil is in a vertical position, the iron bar is sustained within it in consequence of the force with which it is Fig. 23. drawn toward the middle of the coil. With a large battery, a considerable weight may be suspended from the bar without any visible support The action of the coil is the same, except in the amount, as that of a single circular turn of wire. At any two points of the circle, diametrically opposite, the direcFig. 24. tions of the current are also opposite. The resultant of the forces exerted by all the points, tends to bring the centre of the magnetized bar within the circle. The action of all the circles ot which the helix is composed draws the bar into it, until its middle lies within the middle of the helix, in which position only can the forces neutralize each other. This is termed an " axial magnet." The axial magnet performs an important part in the House telegraph, the particular construction of which I have fully described elsewhere in this work. The American apparatus is the only telegraph employing this species of magnetic action.

Page  131 THE AXIAL MAGNET. 131 It has subserved the purposes of its introduction, and acts in beautiful harmony with other parts of that most wonderful and beautiful combination of mechanism. It is due to the memory of the lamented Alfred Vail, to acknowledge that he rendered great service in the discovery of the phenomena of axial magnetism. He instituted a series of experiments, and promulgated many of them to the world.

Page  132 EARLY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. CHAPTER IX. Suggestions of Science-The Telegraph of Lomond-Reizen's and Dr. Salva's Electric Spark Telegraph-Baron Schilling's, Gauss and Weber's, and Alexander's Telegraphs. SUGGESTIONS OF SCIENCE. THE various discoveries in the sciences, made from time to time, developed the idea of an electric telegraph. With many of the discoverers, nothing more was done by them toward the production of a practical telegraph, than suggesting to others the application of the sciences to the arts, which, in their opinion, would accomplish the great achievement. Philosophers dislike to vend to the world, commercially, their discoveries. They remove the coverings from the long-closed vaults containing the hidden treasures of a mysterious providence; and as soon as they catch a single gleam from the brilliancy of the gem, the world is informed of it. The myriads of discoveries of the present age compose a galaxy more brilliant in glory than those of any other century. Among those who aided by developing science, suggestive. of the telegraph, may be mentioned Prof. Henry, of America, who, in 1830, wrote an article, which was published in Silliman's Journal, in 1831, in which he stated " the fact, that the magnetic action of a current from a trough is, at least, not sensibly diminished by passing through a long wire, is directly applicable to Mr. Barlow's project of forming an ElectroMagnetic Telegraph, and also of material consequence in the construction of the galvanic coil." Ampere, Jacobi, Faraday, Sturgeon, and others, have also aided by their discoveries the perfection of the art of telegraphing, as now practically employed throughout the civilized world. LOMOND1 S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. It is stated in Young's Travels in France (1787, 4th ed., vol. i. p. 79), that a Mr. Lomond had invented a mode by which,

Page  133 REIZEN S ELECTRIC SPARK TELEGRAPH. 133 from his own room, he held communication with a person in a neighboring chamber, by means of electricity. He employed the common electrical machine placed at one station, and at the other an electrometer constructed with pith balls. These instruments were connected by means of two wires stretched from one apartment to the other, so that, at each discharge of the Leyden vial, the pith-balls would recede from each other, until they came in contact with the return wire. His system of telegraphic correspondence is not related. We must suppose from the character of his invention, having but one movement, that of the divergence of the balls, and using an apparatus extremely delicate, that his means of communication could not have been otherwise than limited, and required a great amount of time. The only mode in which it appears possible for him to have transmitted intelligence, seems to be this: a single divergence of the pith balls, succeeded by an interval of two or three seconds, may have represented A. Two divergences in quick succession, with an interval following, may have represented B; three divergences, in like manner, indicated the letter C and so on for the remainder of the alphabet. Instead of these movements of the pith balls representing letters, they may have indicated the numerals 1, 2, 3, &c., so that with a vocabulary of words, numbered, conducted his correspondence. This appears to be the first electrical telegraph of which we have any account; but does not appear to have been used upon extended lines. REIZEN'S ELECTRIC SPARK TELEGRAPH. In 1794, according to Voigt's Magazine, vol. ix., p. 1, Reizen made use of the electric spark for telegraphic purposes. His plan was based upon the phenomenon which is observed when the electric fluid of a common machine is interrupted in its circuit by breakers in the wire, exhibiting at the interrupted portions of the circuit a bright spark. The spark thus rendered visible in its passage, he appears to have employed in this manner. Fig. I is a representation of the table upon which were arranged the letters of the alphabet, twenty-six in number. Each letter is represented by strips of tin foil, passing from left to right, and right to left, alternately, over a space of an inch square upon a glass table. Such parts of the tin foil are cut out, as will represent a particular letter. Thus, it will be seen that the letter A is represented by those portions of the tin foil which have been taken out, and the remaining portions answer as the conductor. P and N represent the positive and negative

Page  134 134 EARLY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. ends of the strips, as they pass througl the table and reappear, one on each side of the small dot at A. Those two lines which have a dot between, are the ends of the negative and positive wires belonging to one of the letters. Now, if a spark from a charged receiver is sent through the wires belonging to letter A, that letter will present a bright and luminous appearance of the form of the letter A. "As the passage of the electric fluid through a perfect conductor is unattended with light, and as the light or spark appears only where imperfect conductors are thrown in its way, hence the appearance of the light at those Fig. 1. L _ _ L. L.L L_ I ~ I, ~ _ — r n [ ] -=- = —n: = c - L- - --- --- L _ - I,- L_,, L_, L-_, L. I —— L-,-..-.. --.- - - I,-, L l L _ i -- _ __ _,__ -_ ___I- _ _ -L- - -- ----- --- r - r - -— _ __. _r 1 r - C- - [=-.=- =L —,^ cr:^ =1, =1, ——' -—'7'! C=L=:=-^ _ _ E -E j _ dz-==; r== * =' E~r —J c-^-j r —-_-' l — - r — i_ _[_ _ 1 1 1- 1_ _ 1! ABCDEFGIIIJKLMNOPQRSTUYWXYZ 1234567890 interrupted points of the tin foil, the glass upon which the conductors are pasted being an imperfect conductor. The instant __ I. L. _ [___ the discharge is made through the wire, the spark is seen sirultaneously at each of the interruptions or breaks of the t_ in-foil, I L__ _ I ___ _ I_____ -- _ - C L _ __ _I - -- -— / -I' I..... AB CDEFGI-IIJICLNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890

Page  135 SALVA'S AND SCHILLING' ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. 135. constituting the letter, and the whole letter is rendered visible at once." This table is placed at any one station, and the electrical machine at the other, with seventy-two wires enclosed in a glass tube connecting the two stations. He could have operated with equal efficiency by using thirty-seven wires, having one wire for a common communicating wire, or with thirty-six wires, by substituting the ground for his common wire. It does not appear that it was ever operated to any considerable extent. DR. SALVA'S ELECTRIC SPARK TELEGRAPH. In 1798, Dr. Salva, in Madrid, constructed a similar telegraph as that suggested by Reizen, as will be found on reference to Vorgt's lMagazine, vol..xi., p. 4. The " Prince of Peace" witnessed his experiments with much satisfaction, and the Infant Don Antonio engaged with Dr. Salva in improving his instrument. It is stated that his experiments extended through many miles of wire. No description of his plans were given to the public. BARON SCHILLING'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. The following, in relation to Schilling's telegraph, is taken from the Polytechnic Central Journal, Nos. 31, 32, 1838: " Baron Schilling, of Cronstadt, a Russian counsellor of state, likewise occupied himself with telegraphs by electricity (see Allgem Bauztg, 1837, No. 52, p. 440), and had the merit of having presented a much simpler contrivance, and of removing some of the difficulties of the earlier plans. He reckoned many variations to the right or left, following in a certain order for a telegraphic sign, as, indeed, in this manner, the needle was strongly varied, and only came to rest gradually after many repeated vibrations; he introduced a small rod of platinum, with a scoop, which dipped into a vessel of quicksilver, placed beneath the needle, and, by the check given, changed the xvibration of the needle into sudden jerks. In order to apprise the attendant of a telegraphic dispatch, he loosed an alarm. How much of this contrivance was Schilling's own, or whether a portion of it was not an imitation of Gauss and Weber, the author cannot decide; but that Schilling had already experimented, probably with a more imperfect apparatus, before the Emperor Alexander, and still later before the Emperor Nicholas, is affirmed by the documents quoted."

Page  136 136 EARLY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS, There may be a mistake in the supposition, that the telegraph of Baron Schilling had been exhibited to Alexander, as that Emperor died in 1825, and there is no evidence to show that the telegraph had been devised by Baron Schilling thus early. From the report of the "Academy of Industry," Paris, February, 1839, I make the following extract, in relation to the same subject: " At the end of the year 1832, and in the beginning of 1833, M. Le Baron de Schilling constructed, at St. Petersburg, an electric telegraph, which consisted in a certain number of platinum wires, insulated and united in a cord of silk, which put in action, by the aid of a species of key, thirty-six magnetic needles, each of which was placed vertically in the centre of a multiplier. M. de Schilling was the first who adapted to this kind of apparatus, an ingenious mechanism, suitable for sounding an alarm, which, when the needle turned at the beginning of the correspondence, was set in play by the fall of a little ball of lead, which the magnetic needle caused to fall. This telegraph of M. de Schilling was received with approbation by the Emperor, who desired it established on a larger scale, but the death of the inventor postponed the enterprise indefinitely." Dr. Steinheil, in his article " upon telegraphic communication," published in the London Annals of Electricity, states, that " the experiments instituted by Schilling, by the deflection of a single needle, seems much better contrived than the arrangement Davy has proposed, in which illuminated letters are shown by the removal of screens placed in front of them." It would appear that the French report is either incorrect, or that M. de Schilling had two plans in contemplation. His plan as intimated in the first and third extracts, is that of using a single needle in the form of a galvanometer, by means of which he made his signals; for instance, one deflection to the right might denote e, two i, three b; one deflection to the left t, two s, three v. His code of signals would then be devised in the manner shown on the following page. If, however, his plan was that ascribed to him, by the Academy of Industry, of using thirty-six needles and seventytwo wires, it was exceedingly complicated and expensive, and was similar to that invented by lr. Alexander, with the exception that Schilling used twice the number of wires. During my recent residence in St Petersburgh, I endeavored to obtain some further information in regard to this telegraph, but it was not possible to discover more than is embraced above

Page  137 GAUSS AND WEBER S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 137 BARON SCHILLING'S CODE OF SIGNALS. rl A rrrl K 11r U rrr B lrrr L 1ll V r11 C lrI M rlrl W rrl D 1r N lrlr X r E rlr 0 rllr Y rrrr F 11 rr P rlrr Z 1111 G lllr Q( rrlr & rlll H lrr R I rr goon rr I 11 S irll stop rrll J 1 T llrl finish r lrr 1 Irlrl 6 rlr r r 2 r rrllr 7 rlllr 3 rllrr 8 1 rrli 4 1rll 9 Irrll 5 11rrl 0 GAUSS AND WEBER S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. This telegraph seems, by the best authorities, to have been invented in 1833, by Counsellor Gauss and Professor Weber, at Gottingen. The deflection of the magnetic bar, by means of the multiplier, through the agency of the galvanic fluid, excited by the magneto-electric machine, is the basis of their plan. Fig. 2 represents a side view of the apparatus, used at the receiving station; a a is a side view of the multiplier, composed of 30,000 feet of wire (almost five and a half miles), upon a table B; n s is the magnetic bar, weighing thirty pounds, from which rises a vertical stem, o, upon which is a rod at right angles, supporting a mirror H, on one end, and at the other a metallic ball i, as a counteracting weight to that of the mirror. The magnetic bar is suspended by a small wire, fastened to the vertical stem, and at the top is wound round the spiral of the screw i, which turns in the standard h' and h/, upon the platform A, and which is secured to the ceiling. In the standards Ah, there is cut a female screw, of the same gradation as that upon which the wire is wound. By this means, the magnetic bar may be raised or let down, by turning the screw, without taking the bar from its central position in the multiplier; g is a screw for fastening the spiral shaft, when properly adjusted. P and N are the two ends of the wire of the multiplier. G is a stand for supporting the spy-glass D, and also the case E, into which slides the scale F. The mirror HI is at right angles with

Page  138 138 EARLY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. the magnetic bar, and presents its face to the spy-glass D, as also to the scale at E. It is so adjusted, that the reflection of the scale at E from the mirror, may be distinctly seen from the spy-glass. If the magnetic bar turns either to the right or left, the mirror must move with it, and if a person is observing it through the spy-glass, the scale will appear to move at the same time, thereby presenting to the eye of the observer another part of the scale than that seen when the bar is not deflected. The figures on the scale will show in what direction the bar has Fig. 2. [' ///,///i / i///////////A/////' L 13 13,2 1 X turned, and thus render it distinct to the observer, the only apparent object of the mirror, spy-glass, and scale. For the purpose of generating the galvanic fluid, they use the magneto-electric machine. There is also required for the purpose of making the desired deflections of the magnetic bar, a eommunicator or pole-changer. Fig. 2 represents that portion of the apparatus at the receiving station. The magneto-electric machine, and the pole-changer, properly connected, are the instruments of the transmitting station. Two wires, or one wire and the ground, form the circuit between these two stations. The machine is put in operation by turning the crank, and the person sending the intelligence is stationed at the com

Page  139 ALEXANDER'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 139 mutator, and directs the current through the extended wires to the multiplier of the receiving station, so as to deflect the bar to the right or left, in any succession he may choose, or suspend its action for any length of time. But in the apparatus for observation, the observer looks into the spy-glass, and writes up the kind and results of the variations of the magnetic needle. In order to have a control of the recorder, let there be a good number of spy-glasses directed toward the same mirror, in which observers may watch independently of each other. Suppose that five variations of the magnetic needle signifies a letter, L denotes a variation to the left, and R to the right. Then might r r r r r denote A, r r r r 1 denote B, r r r 1r, r r r r 1 r r denote D, and so on. In the whole, we obtain by the different arrangements of the five, which are made with the two letters R and L, thirty-two different telegraphic signs, which may answer for letters and numbers, and of which we ean select those where the most changes are introduced between r and 1, as the most common letters, in order, in the best possible manner, to notice the constant variations of the magnetic needle. The following would be the alphabetical and numerical signs, as arranged from the above directions: A rrrrr I or Y ll~1 l 1R r rll B rrrr 1 K 1 rrr r S orZ rr lr C rrrlr L rlrrr T llrlr D rrlrr Ir rr lll U rlll r E rlrlr N 11111 V lrrll F lrrrr 0 lrlll W l111lr G or J lrlrr P 1 rl r 1 H rlrrl Q llrrr.... 1 rllll: 6 rllrr 2 rrllr 7 lllrl 3 rlrl l 8 11rrl 4 rllrl 9 lrrlr 5 ll rr 0 Irllr ALEXANDER'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. A model to illustrate the nature and powers of this machine was exhibited at the Society of Arts in Edinburgh, Scotland, November, 1837. The model consists of a wooden chest, about five feet long, three feet wide, three feet deep at the one end, and one foot at the other. The width and depth in this model

Page  140 140 EARLY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. are those which would probably be found suitable in a working machine; but it will be understood that the length in the machine may be a hundred or a thousand miles, and is limited to five feet in the model, merely for convenience. Thirty copper wires extend from end to end of the chest, and are kept apart from each other. At one end (which, for distinction's sake, we shall call the south end) they are fastened to a horizontal line of wooden keys, precisely similar to those of a pianoforte; at the other, or north end, they terminate close to thirty small apertures, equally distributed in six rows of five each, over a screen of three feet square, which forms the end of the chest. Under these apertures on the outside, are painted, in black paint, upon a white ground, the twenty-six letters of the alphabet, with the necessary points, the colon, semicolon, and full point, and an asterisk, to denote the termination of a word. The letters occupy spaces about an inch square. The wooden keys, at the other end, have also the letters of the alphabet, Fig. 3. _?? F? 5] L IV/ i I' I /\\\\\/\ rifl 11, / I I I I l1ll \ I \ aiMr_ ii ii i ~ \ I~T~TL ~i III Iil1II lilil 11\18 il llilil III lllillili S RIIIII 81 I1 Iil)i I II LI' MlillIII 1111I WI1~~~-~~~~s o8

Page  141 ALEXANDERrS ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 141 painted on them in the usual order. The wires serve merely for communication, and we shall now describe the apparatus by which they work. This consists, at the south end, of a pair of plates, zinc and copper, forming a galvanic trough, placed under the keys; and at the north end, of thirty steel magnets, about four inches long, placed close behind the letters painted on the screen. The magnets move horizontally on axes, and are poised within a flat ring of copper wire, formed of the ends of the communicating wires. On their north ends they carry small square bits of black paper, which project in front of the screen, and serve as opercula, or covers, to conceal the letters. When any wire is put in communication with the trough at the south end, the galvanic influence is instantly transmitted to the north end; and in accordance with the well-known law, discovered by CErsted, the magnet at the end of that wire instantly turns round to the right or left, bearing with it the operculum ot black paper, and unveiling a letter. When the key, A, for instance, is pressed down with the finger at the south end, the wire attached to it is immediately put in communication with the trough; and at the same instant, letter A, at the north end is unveiled, by the magnet turning to the right, and withdrawing the operculum. When the finger is removed from the key, it springs back to its place; the communication with the trough ceases;. the magnet resumes its position, and the letter is again covered. Thus by pressing down with the finger, in succession, the keys corresponding to any word or name, we have the letters forming that word, or name, exhibited at the other end; the name VICTORIA, for instance, which was the maiden effort of the telegraph, on the exhibition before the Society of Arts, above referred to. The above description is all that I have been able to obtain in relation to this plan of an electric telegraph; and here introduce, fig. 3, to illustrate it. The thirty needles are represented on the screen, each carrying a shade, which conceals the letter when the needle is vertical. The needle belonging to the letter F, is, however, deflected, and the letter is exposed. The screen is supposed to be at the receiving station. To the left hand of the screen, thirty wires, e e, are seen joined to one, a; the other thirty wires, d d, are seen below the screen.

Page  142 SOEMMERING'S ELECTRO-CHE3MICAL TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER X. Soemmering's Electric Telegraph of 1809-The Apparatus and Manipulation Described-Signal Keys for opening and closing the Circuits. SOEMMERING'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH OF 1809. THE telegraph invented, in 1809, by Mr. Samuel Thomas Soemmering, was an electro-chemical telegraph. He was the first to use the voltaic pile as a generator of the electric current for telegraphic purposes. Fig. 1. From the description, hereinafter given, it will be seen that Mr. Soemmering contemplated the use of twenty-six or more wires, or, in other words, a wire for each letter, figure, or special signal. The wires were to be insulated with silk, and arranged as seen in fig. 1, between stations A A and B B. The mechanical arrangement for putting the battery on to any given wire was very perfect, and any two of the wires could be readily connected, so as to have a return of the current to the other end of the pile, as then deemed necessary in the formation of electric currents. When the current was thus sent, the

Page  143 SOEMMIERING^S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 143 gold points connected with the two wires at the distant station gave off bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen gases, and the two letters corresponding therewith were thus denoted. In order to have a call, he proposed to liberate a wound-up alarm, by means of the evolution of gas, but to what extent it was found practicable no evidence is to be found. From the experiments of Mr. Soemmering, as reported to the Academy of Science at Munich, Germany, the instantaneous appearance of the gas, when the battery was thrown into the circuit, seemed to be conclusive, and he concluded that the passage of the galvanic force was instantaneous. He also found that the addition of 2,000 feet of wire in the length of his circuit, produced little or no sensible additional resistance, and that for nearly 3,000 feet of wire, the decomposition of the water, and the appearance of the gas at the distant station, commenced simultaneously with the sending of the current. By a careful study of the process of telegraphing devised by Soemmering, the reader will readily see that there was as much in the invention as was possible with the then known science, and even to this day there has been but little advance in electric telegraphing, without the aid of CErsted's discovery of electromagnetism, in 1819. The chemical telegraphs of Bain, Morse, and others, are but a step beyond Soemmering. Without further remark, I will now give a description of this early invention in the language of Mr. Soemmering. THE APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION DESCRIBED. " The fact that the decomposition of water may be produced with certainty and instantaneously, not only at short, but at great distances from the voltaic pile, and that the decomposition may be sustained for a considerable time, suggested to me the idea, that it might be made subservient for the purposes of transmitting intelligence in a manner superior to the plan in common use, and would supersede them. My engagements are such that I have only been able to test the practicability of my plan upon a small scale, and herewith submit, for the academy's publication, an account of the experiment. " My telegraph was constructed and used in the following manner: In the bottom of a glass reservoir, of which A A, in figs. 1 and 2, is a sectional view, are 35 golden points, or pins, passing up through the bottom of the glass reservoir, marked A, B, C, &c., 25 of which are marked with the 25 letters of the German alphabet, and the ten numerals. The 35 points are each connected with an extended copper wire, soldered to them, and extending through the tube, E, to the distant station, B B, fig.

Page  144 144 SOEMMERING S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 2, are there soldered to the 35 brass plates, upon the wooden bar, Ir 1K Through the front end of each of the plates, there is Fig. 2. w c c ch of the 3 a arg u a supor points at t r a a l accord /X // \ \ a small hole, I, for the reception of two brass pins, B and c; one of which is on the end of the d o wire connecting the positive pole, and the other the negative pole of the voltaic column, o, fig. 1, and as seen attached to the voltaic pile, fig. 2, by the wires c c. Each of the 35 plates are arranged upon a support of wood, K K, to correspond with the arrangement of the 35 points at the reservoir, and ae letted a eraccordingly. When thus arranged, the two pins froml the column are held, one in each hand, and the two plates being selected, the pins are then put into their holes and the communication is established. Gas is evolved at the two distant corresponding points in an instant: for example, K and T. The peg on the hydrogen pole, evolves hydrogen gas, and that on the oxygen pole, oxygen gas. " In this way every letter and numeral may be indicated at the pleasure of the operator. Should the following rules be ob

Page  145 SOEMMIERING S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 145 served, it will enable the operator to communicate as much, if not more, than n can be done by the common teleg'raph. "First Rule. As the hydrogen gas evolved is greater in quantity than the oxygen, therefore, those letters which the former gas represents, are more easily distinguished than those of the latter, and must be so noted. For example, in the words ale, ad, em, ie, we indicate the letters a, a, e, i, by the hydrogen; k, d, ni, e, on the other hand, by the oxygen poles. "Second Rule. To telegraph two letters of the same name, we must use a unit, unless they are separated by the syllable. For example, the name anna, may be telegraphed without the unit, as the syllable an, is first indicated and then na. The name nanni, on the contrary, cannot be telegraphed without the use of the unit, because na is first telegraphed, and then comes nn, which cannot be indicated in the same vessel. It would, however, be possible to telegraph even three or more letters at the same time by increasing the number of wires from 25 to 50, which would very much augment the cost of construction and the care of attendance. " Third PRtle. To indicate the conclusion of a word, the unit 1 must be used. Therefore, it is used with the last single letter of a word, being made to follow the ending letter. It must also be prefixed to the letter commencing a word, when that letter follows a word of two letters only. For example: Sie lebt must be represented Si, el, le, bt, that is the unit 1, must be placed after the first e. Er, lebt, on the contrary, must be represented, Er, 11, eb, tl; that is, the unit 1 is placed before the 1. Instead of using the unit, another signal may be introduced, the cross, t, to indicate the separation of syllables. a Suppose now the decomposing table is situated in one city, and the pin arrangement in another, connected with each other by 3.5 continuous wires, extended from city to city. Then the operator, with his voltaic column and pin arrangement at one station, may communicate intelligence to the observer of the gas at the decomposing table of the other station. "The metallic plates with which the extended wires are connected have conical shaped holes in their ends; and the pins attached to the two wires of the voltaic column are likewise of a conical shape, so that when they are put in the holes, there may be a close fit, prevent oxydation, and produce a certain connection. It is well known that slight oxydation of the parts in contact will interrupt the communication. The pin arrangement might be so contrived as to use permanent keys, which for the 35 plates or rods would require 70 pins. The 10

Page  146 146 SOEMMERING S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHI. first key might be for hydrogen A; the third key for hydrogen B; the fourth key for oxygen B, and so on. " The preparation and management of the voltaic column is so well known, that little need be said except that it should be of that durability as to last more than a month. It should not be of very broad surfaces, as I have proved that six of my usual plates (each one consisting of a Brabant dollar, felt, and a disk of zinc, weighing 52 grains) weuld evolve more gas than five plates of the great battery of our Academy. As to the cost of construction, this model which I have had the honor to exhibit to the Royal Academy, cost 30 florins. One line consisting of 35 wires, laid in glass or earthen pipes, each wire insulated with silk, making each wire 22,827 Parisian feet, or a (_erman mile, or a single wire of 788,885 feet in length, might be made for less than 2,000 florins, as appears from the cost of my short one." SIGNAL KEYS FOR OPENING AND CLOSING THE CIRCUITS. Before concluding this chapter, I will add a few explanations in regard to the figures 1 and 2 relatively. Fig. 1 is a perspective view, embracing the two offices. A A is one station and B the other, c c is the voltaic pile at B. The wires from A to B are united into a cord and lashed together, but each wire insulated one from the other. Fig 2 is a different view of the sending station B and of the receiving station, A. o is the voltaic pile as seen in fig, 1, represented by c c. The signal keys, B c, fig. 2, close the circuit by being placed in the holes, i, of the frame, Ia Ia. To each of these metallic holes is connected one of the line wires. The metallic points at the other station, A, each of which represents a given letter or figure, the same as at the station, K K. The signal keys may be applied in the form mentioned, but they may be connected with a key-board like a piano, as Soemmering indicated, so that the pressure upon any key will form the metallic contact, and transmit the electric current on the wire representing the letter touched, as practically operated in the telegraphs of the present day. The forms given in the figures are thus presented, to enable the reader to understand the organization of the ingenious arrangement devised by Soemnering for telegraphic purposes. Amidst the many inventors of the different contrivances of telegraph apparatuses, the name of Soemmering is entitled to stand in bold and golden letters, for certainly, his combination was a. rapid stride toward the consummation of a practical electric telegraph, the most transcendant star in the inventive galaxy of the present century.

Page  147 RONALD'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH, CHAPTER XI. Invention of Ronald's Electric Telegraph-Experiments and Description of the Apparatus-Description of an Electrograph. INVENTION OF RONALD S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. THE Ronald Electric Telegraph was invented in 1816, at Hammersmith, London, England, by Mr. Francis Ronald, and a description of it was published by him in 1823. He erected eight miles of insulated wire on his lawn, and besides, he buried in the earth five hundred and twenty-five feet, in a trench dug for that purpose, four feet deep. The wire through the air was insulated with silk strings suspended from trees and poles. The subterranean wire was placed through thick glass tubes, and these were placed in troughs made of dry wood, two inches square. The troughs were filled with pitch. He employed the ordinary electric machine, generating high-tension electricity, and the pith-ball electrometer, in the following manner. He placed two clocks at two stations; these clocks had upon the second-hand arbor a dial with twenty letters on it; a screen was placed in front of each of these dials, and an orifice was cut in each screen, so that one letter only at a time could be seen on the revolving dial. These clocks were made to go isoehronously, and, as the dial moved round, the same letter always appeared through the orifices of each of these screens. The pith-ball electrometers were hung in front of the dials. It is evident, therefore, that, if these pith-balls could be made to move at the same instant of time, a person at the transmitting station, by causing such motion in both those electrometers, would be able to inform the attendant at the distant

Page  148 148 RONALDIS ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. or receiving station what letters to note down as they appeared before him in succession on the dial of the clock. Fig. 1 G 6 D t~ i\ I This was accomplished in the following manner: The transmitter caused a current of electricity to be constantly operating upon the electrometers, so as to separate the balls of those electrometers, except only when it was required to denote a letter, and then he discharged the electricity from the wire, and instantly both balls collapsed. The distant observer was thereby informed to note down the letter then visible. In this way letter after letter could be denoted, words spelled, and intelligence of any kind transmitted. All that was absolutely required for this form of telegraph was, that the clocks should go isochronously during the timte that the intelligence was being transmitted; for it was easy enough, by a preconcerted arrangement between the parties, and upon a given signal, for each party to start their clocks at the same letter, and thus, if the clocks went together during the transmission of the intelligence, the proper letters would appear simultaneously, until the commu

Page  149 RONALD S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 149 nication was finished. The attention of the distant observer was called by the explosion of gas by means of electricity from a Leyden jar. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. EXPERIMENTS AND DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS. Mr. Ronald has given the following additional explanations of his invention in his work, entitled a " Description of an Electric Telegraph, and some other Electrical Apparatus:" In fig. 1, D is an electrical machine; B, the pith-ball electrometer; A, the screen hiding the letters on the dial behind it; F, the gas alarum; E, the tube conveying the wires. Fig. 2 shows the moveable dial hidden by the screen in filg. Fig. 3 is an enlarged drawing of the screen, with orifice and pith-ball electrometer. Mr. Ronald entered on the subject of the comparative merits of wires suspended in the air and wires buried in the earth, and arrived at the conclusion that subterranean wires were much to be preferred, although many persons were found to object to that plan. He says: " The liability of the subterranean part of the apparatus to be injured by an enemy or by mischievously disposed persons has been vehemently objected to-more vehemently than rationally, I presume to hope (as is not unfrequently the case on these as on many other sorts of occasions). If an enemy had occupation of all the roads which covered the wires, he could undoubtedly disconcert my electric signs without difficulty; but would those now in use escape? And this case relates only to invasions and civil war; therefore let us have smokers enough to prevent invasions, and kings that love their subjects enough to prevent civil wars. "To protect the apparatus from mischievously disposed per

Page  150 150 RONALD'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. sons, let the tubes be buried six feet below the surface of the middle of the high roads, and let each tube take a different route to arrive at the same place. Could any number of rogues then open trenches six feet deep, in two or more different public high roads or streets, and get through two or more strong castiron troughs, in less space of time than forty minutes? for we shall presently see that they would be detected before the expiration of that time. If they could, render their difficulties greater by cutting the trench deeper, and should they still succeed in breaking the communication by these means, hang them if you catch them, damn them if you cannot, and mlend it immediately in both cases." In further explanation Mr. Roland states, that the circular brass plate, fig. 2, was divided into 20 equal parts, and it was fixed upon the seconds' arbor of a clock which beat dead seconds. Each division was marked by a figure, a letter and a preparatory sign. The figures were divided into two series, from 1 to 10, the letters were arranged alphabetically, leaving out J, Q, u, w, x, z. The preparatory signs are indicated by the position of the rays indicated by A, B, c, D, E, F, G, Hn I, K, and represent as follows, viz., A, prepare; B, ready; c, repeat sentence; D, repeat word1; E, finish; F, annul sentence; c, annul word; H, note figures; i, note letters; K, dictionary. Before and over the disk, fig. 2, was fixed a brass plate, fig. 3, capable of being occasionally moved by the hand round its centre, and which had an aperture of such dimensions, that while the disk was carried round by the motion of the clock, only one of the letters, figures, and preparatory signs upon it could be seen through the aperture at the same time; for instance, the figure 9, the letter v, and the sign " Ready," are now visible through the aperture in fig. 3. In front of this pair of plates, A, fig. 1 and 4, was suspended an electrometer of Canton's pith balls, from a wire E, which was insulated, and communicated with a cylindric electrical machine of only 6 inches in diameter, and with the wire c 525 feet long, which was insulated in glass tubes, surrounded by the wooden trough filled with pitch, and buried in a trench cut 4 feet deep in the ground.'Another similar electrometer was suspended in the same manner before another clock, similarly furnished with the same kind of plates and electrical machine. This second clock and machine were situated at the other end of the buried wire, and it was adjusted to go as nearly as possible synchronously with the first. Hence, it is evident, that when the wire was charged by the machine at either end, the electrometers at both ends

Page  151 RONALD'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 151 diverged; when it was discharged suddenly at either station, they both collapsed at the same instant; and when it was discharged at the moment that a given letter, figure, and sign, on the lower plate of one clock appeared in view through the aperture, the same figure, letter, and sign appeared also in view at the other clock; and that, by such discharges of the wire at one station, and by noting down the letters, figures, or signs in view, at the other, any required words could be spelled, and Fig. 4.!......1 /. ^I.. —.i \ I ~ k I/I ary, a word, or even a whole sentence, could be conveyed by only 3 discharges, which could be effected in the shortest time in 9 seconds, and in the longest, in 90 seconds, making a mean of 54 seconds. This dictionary consisted of 10 leaves cut in the manner of a common-place book, or ledger; each leaf was also divided into 10 columns, and each column numbered on the top of the page. The columns were intersected by 10 horizontal lines, each numbered on the left side. Tthe space produced by the intersections was occupied by w-ords or sentences. It was necessary to distinguish the preparatory signs from those intended to spell or refer to the dictionary, by giving the wire a rather higher charge than usual, and thus causing the

Page  152 152 RONALD S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. pith balls to diverge more; and it was always understood that the first sign, viz., " Prepare," was made when that word, the letter A, and figure 1, were in view at the communicator's clock; so that should the communicant's clock not exhibit the same sign (in consequence of its having gained or lost more than the communicator's), he noted how many seconds it had lost or gained, and moved his upper plate on its centre through just so many seconds to the right or left as occasion required, and the communicator continually repeated his sign "' Prepare," until the communicant had adjusted his clock, and had discharged the wire at the moment when the word " Ready," appeared in view. A second preparatory sign was now made by the communicator, provided that the word or sentence was not contained in the dictionary, or that the figures were to be noted, not as referring to the dictionary, but in composition; and this was done by discharging the wire at the moment when the term "Note Letters," or " Note Figures," came into view. The gas pistol, F, in figs. 1 and 4, which passed through the side of the clock-cast, G, was furnished with an apparatus, H, by means of which a spark might pass through it when the communicator made the sign " Prepare," in order that the explosion might excite the attention of the communicant, anci the handle I, enabled him to break the connection of it with the wire when necessary. The explosion of the gas pistol served as an alarm, but to what extent it was used to communicate by sound, I have not been able to ascertain. At half the distance between the two ends of the wire was placed the apparatus, K, by which its continuity could be broken at pleasure, for the purpose of ascertaining (in case any accident had happened to injure the insulation of the buried wire) which half had sustained the injury, or if both had. It is seen that the two portions of the wire and tube rose out of the earth, and terminated in two clasps, or forks, L and M\, and the wire, N carrying a pair of pith balls resting on these forks, connected them. Now, by detaching this connecting wire from the fork L, while it still remained in contact with the fork m, or vice versa, it could be seen which portion of the wire did not allow the balls of the electrometer to diverge, and consequently which had lost its insulation, or if both had. Mr. Ronald submitted his telegraph to the Admiralty, for adoption by the government, but he was informed that " telegraphs of any kind were then wholly unnecessary," and that "no other than the one then in use would be adopted." There the mat. ter ended.

Page  153 RONALD'S ELECTROGRAPH. 153 DESCRIPTION OF RONALD'S ELECTROGRAPH. Besiaes the efforts of Mr. Ronald to establish his electric telegraph in 1816, and in subsequent years, he invented an apparatus called an "electrograph."' This instrument has been construed to be a step in the march of telegraphic invention, and in substantiation of which, it was placed in the pleadings of a contesting party in one of his telegraph suits in America. Fig. 5 represents the new electrograph, a description of which was published by Mr. Ronald in London, in 1823. He said: Whoever has been possessed of a sufficient; share of curiosity and patience to examine the extraordinary and amusing series of phenomena which atmospheric electricity exhibits, as observed by Signior Beccaria's exploring wire, or Mr. Bennett's, Mr. Cavallo's, and Mr. Read's apparatus, &c., must have regretted the impossibility of noting down sometimes the very rapid changes in tension, as well as in kind of electricity, which occur in a thunder-storm, or hard shower of rain, hail, snow, &c., in such manner as to convey a correct idea of the different very short intervals of time in which they occur, as well as of the extraordinary phenomena themselves. Hence, perhaps, arose the idea of employing an electrograph, a far more necessairy instrument than the barometrograph, &c., &c. The phenomena displayed by the electricity of serene weather, and of dew, are not, however, less interesting, or less deserving attention, and they equally require an instrument to note them, but for the opposite reason, viz., their tediousness. Fig. 5 is an electrograph, which may be applied to either purpose. A A is a box, containing a strong timepiece, placed in a horizontal position, and receiving motion from the weight B.; c is a circular plate of baked mahogany wood, eight inches in diameter, having a perforation, D, of two inches and a half diameter. The circumference of this plate, and that also of the perforation, are provided with edges, or rims, and the outer broad rim is divided off, and marked with hours and minutes, in the manner of a common clock. The space between the two edges is nearly filled with cement, composed of resin, bees' wax, and lamp-black, and this part of the apparatus can be detached at will from the box. E F is a glass tube, furnished with brass caps (and covered both inside and out with hard cement), the lower end of which screws upon the dial-plate of the timepiece, and the upper end carries a small cylinder or sheave, g'. Within this tube, E F, a stem of glass is nfxed by its lower end on the

Page  154 154 RONALD S ELECTROGRAPH. Fig. 5. jA A I; 3 -i~vT }t& ^J'r- ^ ^^ ^.Z- <iss e~7~ 11 N j ~ ~ ___ ^ - -^. ______ ^.^ ___

Page  155 RONALD'S ELECTROGRAPH. 155 minute arbor of the timepiece, and a pivot, attached to its up. per end, passes through the cap F and the cylinder g. This pivot carries the iron ball and cup, h, into which is screwed a steel wire, i, and this carries the piece, k, which may slide with a little friction upon it. The wire 1, fixed into the piece k, terminates at its lower end in a hook, and another short wire, in, is furnished with a ring at one end, by which it is attached to the hook, and with a small gold bead at the other, which rests upon the resinous plate. Lastly, a fine thread, n, is also attached by one end to the piece k-, and by the other to the cylinder g. When the clock is in motion, and the apparatus disposed as is represented in the figure, it carries round the arm k, and of course carries the thread n, to coil itself round the stationary cylinder, g, the piece k to advance toward the ball h, and the gold bead, which trails upon the resinous plate, to describe a spiral thereon. And when a communication is established between the little iron cup above h (which contains a globule of mercury, in order to secure perfect contact) and a wire connected with any species of atmospheric apparatus, the gold bead acts upon the resinous plate like Mr. Bennett's electric pen, i. e., it electrifies it in such a manner, that when the plate is removed from the clock, and powdered with pounded resin, or even common dry hair powder, the line of the spiral exhibits configurations, which vary in form and in breadth according to the kind and intensity of electricity which the bead has communicated to it; and, by reference to the divisions on the circumference of the resinous plate, it is easy to discover the exact periods at which these occurrences took place. In short, a comparative picture of all the phenomena of atmospheric electricity, during the absence of the observer, is thus procured. If the instrument be used for noting the phenomena of serene weather, dew, &c., the hour arbor is generally preferable; if for those of a thunder-storm, hard shower of rain, or hail, or snow, the minute arbor; but I have sometimes found, that a more rapid motion is required than either, which may, of course, be obtained by the addition of a third arbor, &c.; and the glass tube, E F, with all its appurtenances, can accordingly be easily transferred from any one arbor to another, and the plate adjusted to a new centre. It is also necessary sometimes to employ a cylinder, either larger or smaller than g'. In the first case, when the more violent and more transient phenomena are to be noted; and, in the second, when a delineation of a longer period is required to be executed by the instrument;

Page  156 156 RONALD'S ELECTROGRAPH. for it is evident that, in proportion to the diameter of the cylinder g, will be the proportions of the volute upon the resinous plate; and that the comparatively short duration of a storm, or shower, &c., which draws a larger figure, must require a space of greater breadth, as well as length, than the other, in order to avoid confusion; the cylinder g can therefore be removed, and others substituted in its place. One advantage, which I have derived from this contrivance over a cylindric electrograph, is, the power of conveniently bringing the resin into a fit state to receive the electrical drawing, the only certain method of doing which is to pass a heated plate of iron over it, at two or three inches distance, in order to melt it partially (so perfectly does it retain the figure, and so difficult is it to destroy that figure without communicating a new one by the ordinary methods); which process of heating it is almost impossible to perform upon any other surface than a plane, so as to preserve a fine even surface. But the principal advantage over both the cylindric and plane electrograph, proposed by Magellan, is that derived from a comparative and comprehensive view of the daily periodical returns of the phenomena: those, for instance, of the morning and evening electricity, which Beccaria found to bear a striking relation with the periods of sunrise and sunset, and which he accounted for by the sun's action upon the vapors which were exhaled from the earth. Magellan's plate electrograph would be very cumbersome and inconvenient for such observations. Would not the above be also a proper instrument for observations on that most extraordinary tendency which thunderstorms have to reappear, many days successively, about the same hour; and, what is more, at the precise spot where they had appeared at first. " It is necessary to inhabit," says Sig. Volta, the learned and sagacious discoverer of this new phenomenon, " a mountainous country, and particularly the neighborhood of lakes, such as Como, the precincts of Lario, Verbano, Verese, Lugano, Lecco, and the whole mountain of Bianza, Bergamo, &c., in order to be convinced of such periods and fixations (so to speak) of thunder-storms at this or that valley, or opening of a mountain, which last until some wind, or remarkable change in the atmosphere, shall occur to destroy them." Sig. Volta refers the cause of the phenomenon to a modification in the ambient air, produced by the thunder-storm of the preceding day.

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Page  157 STEINHIEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CHAPTER XII. Experiments and Discovery of the Earth Circuit-The Electric Telegraph as Invented-The Electric Conducting Wires-Conductibility of the Earth Circuit-Apparatus for Generating the Voltaic Current-The Indicating Apparatus-Construction of the Apparatus-Application of the Apparatus to Telegraphing-The Alphabet and Numerals-The Discovery and Invention of Steinheil. EXPERIMENTS AND DISCOVERY OF THE EARTH CIRCUIT. IN the years 1836-'37, Prof. C. A. Steinheii, of Munich, Germany, devised an electric telegraph; and in the latter year, he constructed a line of wire from the Academy at Munich to the observatory at Bogenhausen. He had constructed two other lines, making three circuits of wires, but the whole were arranged to be united into one common chain, to form an electric circuit. The first published notice made of this important invention will be found in the third volume of'the Magazine of Popular Sciences, in a letter from Munich, under date of December 23, 1836. This telegraph was announced in the Comptes Rendu, in September, 1838. In 1838, Prof. Steinheil made the important discovery of the practicability of using the earth as one half or the returning section of an electric circuit. The three lines, constructed as hereinafter described, had double wires, so as to form a complete metallic circuit from and to Munich. Subsequent to the erection of these experimental lines, the earth was discovered to be a conducting medium in the formation of an electric circuit, in conjunction with the wire stretched upon poles. This was the grandest discovery ever made in practical telegraphy. The discoveries of Volta, CErsted, and Steinheil, are to be considered as pre-eminent, in the consummation of the electric telegraph. The first discovered the generating power,

Page  158 158 STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. the second gave life and strength to that power, when it had become so feeble, that it seemed as though it was struggling in the arms of death; and the latter economized the commercial application of those elements for the uses of man. All telegraphs are formed upon these three discoveries. Let, then, the names of Volta, CErsted, and Steinheil, be inscribed in golden capitals upon the bright escutcheon of telegraphic achievements, as the equals in renown, and subservers of man's weal, and the glory of the age. Dr. Steinheil made an experiment in 1838, on the railroad. He insulated the chairs sustaining the rails with tarred felt; but this was a very imperfect insulation, and the circuit could not be extended beyond some five hundred feet. To test the matter more thoroughly, he had some new rails made, but the points of contact with other but inferior conductors were so numerous, that the experiment was for the time abandoned. This experiment produced an effect which convinced Steinheil that it was not necessary to bring a metallic conductor back to the voltaic source. The non-insulation of the rails gave off the electric current, and this fact was observed in. the movement of the electrometer. Thus, when the current was transmitted over the rails, a speedy return was seen, even when the two lines of rails were not connected. Suppose the wires of the apparatus were connected to the rails on each side of the road, the rails insulated by resting upon the tarred felt, at a distance of 500 feet from the apparatus, the rails to be connected by a oopper wire. The route of the current would be over the rails on one side of the road to the copper wire, and through it to the rails on the other side of the road, and thence back by the rails to the indicator. When the copper wire was disconnected, the circuit was supposed to have been broken; but it was not the case, as the current escaped from the rails, and returned with unmistakable indications at the apparatus. Prof. Steinheil extended his discoveries still farther, and reduced them to mathematical precision as to cause and effect. He pursued this important question to its fullest extent, and gave to the world the results attained by his patient and laborious researches. I will now proceed to explain to the reader the telegraphic apparatus invented by Prof. Steinheil, and in doing which, to a considerable extent, will use the language of the inventor. I have taken great pains to obtain the most reliable information concerning his labors in the invention of his telegraph, and his discoveries in the sciences pertaining thereto, and I hope the facts herewith presented will be found strictly correct.

Page  159 THE ELECTRIC CONDUCTING WIRES. 159 THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH AS INVENTED. This telegraph is composed of three principal parts: 1st. A metallic conductor betu een the stations; 2d. The apparatus for generating the voltaic current; and 3d. The indicator or receiving apparatus. "In explanation of the organizacion of this telegraph," says Prof. Steinheil, " I will explain the above divisions; and firstTHE ELECTRIC CONDUCTING WIRES. " The wire which connects two or more stations, forming a part of a voltaic circuit, is called the connecting wire, and may be extended to a very great length. This wire, however, must be considered relatively to the voltaic battery. With equal thickness of the same metal, the resistance offered to the passage of the electric current, will be proportional to the thickness of the wire. With equal lengths of the same metal, however. the resistance diminishes in an inverse proportion to the sectional surface. The conductibility of metals differs. According to Fechner's measurements, copper, for example, conducts six times better than iron, four times better than brass. The conductibility of lead is still more inferior, so that the only metal most suitable, and that can best subserve the purposes in this technical application, are copper and iron wires. Iron wire is six times less in cost than copper wire, nevertheless, it is necessary that the iron conductor should be six times greater than the gauge of the copper wire, in order to equalize the conducting powers of the respective metals. The expense of the two wires is the same. The iron, however, is the strongest and heaviest. The preference will be given to copper wire, as this metal is less liable to oxydation'from exposure to the atmosphere. This latter difficulty may be surmounted by simple means, namely, by galvanizing it. It is believed that the mere transmission of the voltaic current through the wire, when the telegraph is in operation, will be sufficient to preserve the iron wire from rust, as has been observed to be the case with the iron wire used for the telegraph line in the city of Munich, for more than a year past, and which, too, has been exposed to all weathers. If the voltaic current is to traverse the entire metallic circuit of the wire, from station to station, without any diminution as to its intensity or force, the wire must in its whole course not be allowed to come into contact with any foreign conductors, but, on the contrary, should be perfectly insulated at every place of contact. If the wire be permitted to touch semi-conductors the electric power or current will return to the generating source by the most direct and shortest route. According

Page  160 160 STEINHEIIS ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. to this philosophy the extreme station from the voltaic source will be deprived of the influence of the greater part of the electric current generated by the battery. " Numerous trials to insulate wires, and to conduct them below the surface of the ground, have led me to the conviction that such attempts can never answer successfully at great distances, inasmuch as the most perfect insulators are at best but bad or inferior conductors. And since, in a wire of very great length, the surface in contact with the so-called insulator is uncommonly large, when compared with a section of the metallic conductor, there will necessarily arise a gradual diminution of the voltaic force, inasmuch as the wires to and from the station do communicate at intermediate points. This cross current may be very small; nevertheless it will occur. It would be wrong to suppose that this difficulty can be remedied by placing the to and from wires very far apart; the distance between them is, as we shall see in the sequel, almost a matter of indifference. As it is not probable that lines laid under the ground can ever be insulated sufficiently for telegraphic purposes, because the earth is always damp, and therefore a conductor, there is but one other course open to us, and that is to lead the wire through the air. Upon this plan, it is true the conducting wire must be supported at given places; it will be liable to be injured by evil-disposed persons; it will be liable to be interrupted by storms, and from ice which will form upon it from time to time. These are the difficulties to be expected, in stretching the wire through the air, and as there is no other method that can be made available, we must endeavor to make suitable arrangements to get the better of them, although they are of no ordinary consideration." The conducting chain or medium of the telegraph constructed in Munich consisted of three parts: 1st. The line from the Royal Academy in Munich to the Royal Observatory at Bogenhausen; 2d. From the Royal Academy to the residence of Prof. Steinheil; and 3d. From the Royal Academy to the mechanical department attached to the cabinet of natural philosophy. "As to the first," says Prof. Steinheil, "the wire was run from Munich to Bogenhausen and back, making a total length of wire 32,500 feet. The weight of the copper wire employed amounted to 260 pounds. Both of the wires, that is, to and from, are stretched across the steeples of the city at distances from three to ten feet apart. The greatest distance from one support to another was 1,200 feet; this distance is un

Page  161 THE ELECTRIC CONDUCTING WIRES. 161 doubtedly far too great for a single wire, inasmuch as during winter the ice will form upon the wire, and materially increase its weight, and augment its diameter, so that it becomes liable to be torn asunder and broken by the weight or by the storms. Over those places where there are now high buildings, the conducting wire is supported by tall poles, sunk into the ground five feet, and are from forty to fifty feet high. At the top of these poles, the wires are fastened to a cross bar. At the point where the metallic conductor rests, there is a piece of felt laid, and over which the wire is twisted around the wooden bar. The distances from pole to pole range between 600 and S00 feet; but these distances are far too great, for experience has shown that the wires become stretched, caused by high winds, and they have had to be re-stretched on the poles several times. These evils may be overcome by making the conductor of three strands of wire, twisting them so as to make a cord, which will be better than a single wire. It should be supported by poles about 300 feet apart, giving the wire a tension not exceeding one third of what it will bear, without giving way. This, however, can not be made on the experimental telegraph of this city for reasons that can not be explained here.' The conducting wire thus mounted is by no means perfectly insulated. When, for example, the circuit is broken at Bogenhausen, the electric generator at Munich ought not to produce any current upon the remainder of the wire, not connected as a circuit. But even when the circuit was thus broken at Bogenhausen, an electrometer, as devised by Gauss, being connected with the wire, a current manifested itself by the action upon the electrometer. Measurement goes to show further, that the current goes on increasing as the point, at which the interruption of the stream is made, recedes from the inductor. The amount of this current is not always the same. Generally it is greater in damp weather. When there are heavy showers of rain, it may be fairly said to be five times as strong as when the weather is dry. At small distances of a few miles, the loss of electric power is of but little importance, as by the peculiar construction of the inductor, we can generate an electric force of any strength desired. When the distance amounts to, perhaps, some 280 miles, the continual loss of the electric current will, beyond doubt, be so great, that there can be no effect produced at the distance mentioned. In such cases, much greater precaution must be taken in regard to the insulation at the points of support. "When thunderstorms occur, atmospheric electricity collects on the semi-insulated conductors, in the same way that it does 11

Page  162 162 STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. upon lightning-rods. But this does not prevent the flow of the voltaic current. " Reference may be made here to an incident, that may be well to remember, as a warning for the future. During a severe thunder-storm, on the 7th of July, 1838, a very strong electric spark darted at the same instant through the entire conducting wire, and on entering the apparatus in my room, a sound like the cracking of a whip was produced. At the same time the deep-sounding bell of the manipulator was made to sound. So violent was the presence of the lightning in the deviation of the needle, the revolving points of the magnetic bar were damaged. The same phenomenon was also observed at one of the other stations. As the deflecting power of frictional electricity is very inconsiderable, with respect to magnets, the above occurrence indicates the presence of a vast quantity of electricity. This phenomenon could only have arisen from the electricity of the earth having at that moment made its way to that collected in the wire. Whether this was brought about through the lightning conductors in the neighborhood, or the imperfect insulation of the points of support, cannot be well determined." CONDUCTIBILITY OF THE EARTH CIRCUIT.' Quite recently I have made the discovery, that the ground may be employed as one half of the conducting chain, forming the circuit with the line wire. As in the case of frictional electricity, water or the ground may, with the voltaic current, form a portion of the connecting wire. Owing to the low conducting power of these bodies, compared with metals, it is necessary that at the two places where the metal conductor is in connection with the semi-conductor, the former should present very large surfaces of contact. Taking water, for example, which conducts two million times worse than copper, a surface of water proportional to this must be brought in contact with the copper, to enable the voltaic current to meet with equal resistance, in equal distances of water and of metal; thus, if the section of a copper wire is 0.5 of a square line, it will require a copper plate of sixty-one square feet surface, in order to conduct the voltaic current through the grounds, as the wire in question would conduct it. But as the thickness of the metal is quite immaterial in this case,' it will always be within our reach to get the requisite surfaces of contact at no great expense. Not only do we by this means save half the conducting wire, but we can even reduce the resistance of the ground below what

Page  163 VOLTAIC CIRCUIT GENERATING APPARATUS. 3 that of the wire would be, as has been fully established by experiments made here with the experimental telegraph. " The second portion of the conducting chain leads from the Royal Academy to my house and observatory in Lark-street. This conductor is of iron wire, and both the to and from wires are 6,000 feet long, and are stretched over steeples and other high buildings, as has already been described. " The third portion of the chain or conducting wires runs through the interior of the buildings, connected with the Royal Academy, and thence to the mechanical workshop attached to the cabinet of natural philosophy. This is a fine copper wire, and 1,000 feet long. It is let in the joinings of the floor, and in part imbedded in the walls.' The foregoing three different ranges or lines of wire, the first of copper, the second of iron, and the third of fine copper, in the aggregate near seven and a half miles of wire, run from and return to the same place, and to which, in whole or singly, may be attached the apparatus for generating the electric current, and for indicating the communication transmitted." APPARATUS FOR GENERATING THE VOLTAIC CURRENT; Hydro-eleefricity, or that current which is generated by the voltaic pile, is by no means fitted for traversing very long conducting wires, because the resistance in the voltaic pile, even when many hundred pairs of plates are employed, would be always inconsiderable, compared with the resistance offered by the wire itself. The principal disadvantage, however, attendant on the use of the pile or trough apparatus, is the fluctuation of the current, joined to the circumstance of its becoming very soon quite powerless, and requiring to be t taken to pieces and put together again. The extremely ingenious arrangement of Morse is likewise subject to this inconvenience. All this, however, is got over, when one, to generate the current, has recourse to Faraday's important discovery of induction,' that is to say, by moving magnets placed in the neighborhood or close to the conducting wires. The better way, however, is not to move the magnets, as Pixii does, in his electro-magnetic apparatus, but rather to give motion to the multipliers placed close to a fixed magnet. The arrangement that Clarke has given to the multiplier, is the one which, with some modifications, has been adopted. Assuming, on the part of the'reader, a general knowledge of the principles of the apparatus, these explanations

Page  164 164 STEINHEIL S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. will be confined to its adaptation to the purposes of telegraphic communication. Fig. 1. The magnet is composed of seventeen horseshoe bars of hardened steel. With its iron armature, its weight is about sixty pounds, and it is capable of supporting about 300 pounds. Between the arms of the magnet there is fastened a piece of Fig. 2. metal, supporting in its centre a cup, provided with adjusting screws, and Lwhich serves as a support for the axis of the coils

Page  165 VOLTAIC CIRCUIT GENERATING APPARATUS. 165 of the multiplier. The coils of the multiplier have, in all, 15,000 turns of wire; forty inches of this wire weighs fifteen and a half grains, and it is twice bespun with silk. Its two ends, which are insulated, are passed up through the interior of the vertical axis of the multiplier, and then terminate in two hook-shaped pieces, as may be seen by figs. 2 and 3. In order to insure perfect insulation, the vertical axis, fig. 2, was bored out hollow. In this hole, there are let in from above two semi-circular rods of copper, which are prevehted from touching by a strip of taffeta fastened between them with glue; and these again are kept from touching the metallic axis by winding taffeta round them. In each of these little strips of metal there is, above and below, a female screw cut. In the lower holes, small metal pins are screwed in, to which the ends of the multiplier are securely soldered. While in the upper holes, as may be seen distinctly in figs. 3 and 4, there are iron hooks screwed in. These hooks, therefore, form the Figs 3 & 4. terminations of the multiplier wires of the coils of the inductor. They here turn down, fig. 5, into two semi-circular cups of quicksilver, that are separated! by a wooden petition. From these cups of quicksilver there proceed connections, I i, figs. 2 and 6, toward the wires, and they, therefore, may be con- sidered as forming part of the conducting wires or l chain. The quicksilver, owing to its capillarity, stands at a higher level in these semi-circular cups than are the partitions, so that the terminal hooks of the wires of the multiplier pass over these partitions. without touching them, when the multiplier is made to turn on its axis. One sees that the hooks are thus brought in to other cups of quicksilver, at every half turn of the multiFig 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7.:I plier, in consequence of which, the voltaic current preserves its sign as long as the multiplier is turned in one direction, but it

Page  166 166 STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. changes its sign on the motion being reversed. This commutation, which, it may be remarked, may be established without the use of mercury, by the contact of the strips of copper that act like springs, is found to answer completely. There are, besides, two other arrangements, which we must not allow to pass unnoticed. The voltaic current, as we shall see in the sequel, when treating of the indicator, should only be permitted to be in action during as short a period as possible, but during the interval should have the greatest intensity, that can be commanded. The terminal hooks of the wires dip into the quicksilver, only at the place where it forms pools that advance toward each other at the centre, and where the current is at its greatest intensity, as seen by figs. 5, 6, and 7. Fig. 5 shows the position that the inductor has, when the terminal hooks first dip into the cups. In all other positions of the inductor, it should, however, form no part of the chain or wires, otherwise the signals made at the other stations will be repeated by its own multiplying wire; and this becomes of the more moment the greater the resistance in the conductor. In order, therefore, to cut off the inductor, when in any other position than shown in fig. 5, there is a wooden ring adapted to the axis of rotation of the inductor, as seen in figs. 8 and 9. This ring is encircled with a copper hoop, and into this latter two iron hooks are screwed. These hooks Figs. 8 & 9. dip down into the semi-circular cups of quicksilver, as shown in fig. 7. At the moment, however, that they are passing across the wooden partition, the hooks of the inductor, which are at right angles to them, dip into the cups. When [1 HI ~ the hooks of the multiplier are in contact with the quicksilver, the connection with the hooks for diverting the current is broken. In every other position, the connection through the hooks of the multiplier is interrupted, while it is established through the others; whence it naturally follows that the current, on being transmitted from any other station, passes directly through the latter hooks, or, in other words, crosses directly from one quicksilver cup to the other, and is not forced to traverse the wire of the inductor for that purpose. In order to put the inductor in motion without trouble, there is a fly-bar terminating in two metal balls, fastened horizontally on to its vertical axis, as seen in figs. 1 and 10. To prevent the quicksilver from being scattered about, owing to the motion of the hooks as they dip into it, when the multiplier is turning rapidly, a glass cylinder is fitted on to this part

Page  167 VOLTAIC CURCUIT GENERATING APPARATUS. 167 of the apparatus, fig. 11. At every half turn is seen the passage of the spark, as the hooks of the multiplier leave their cups of quicksilver. Fig. 10. N / 2-_.. ~.~..\ - -—; —--- If we choose to give up the phenomena of these sparks-a thing nowise necessary to the employment of the instrument as a telegraph-the inductor will admit of a far more simple construction. It will then merely be necessary to place the Fig 11. I commutator directly above the anchor, and to let the axis of rotation pass farther up in the neck, in the direction of the flybar. It then beeomes necessary to bore the axis out, but the ends of the multiplier are at once fastened by twisting on to two plates of copper, and these copper plates are let into a wooden ring, directly opposite to each other. The wooden ring is placed upon the vertical axis, and made fast to it by clamps. Externally this ring is, in addition to the above-mentioned plates, provided with an are of copper let into it, which

Page  168 168 STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. acts as a contact-breaker, and two ends of the chain that the current has to traverse, have the form of permanent springs, that keep pressing against the wooden rings directly opposite each other. By this means, with this arrangement also, the ends of the inductor are in metallic communication with the chain only during a small portion of each revolution, while during the rest of the time the connecting are brings the ends of the chain into direct contact. This construction, in which quicksilver is entirely dispensed with, is, on account of its greater simplicity and durability, preferable to the arrangement first described. The apparatus of the stations at Bogenhausen and in Lark-street are thus constructed. THE INDICATING APPARATUS. Hereinbefore has been shown, that; our aim is so to employ the current developed by the inductor, and led through the conducting chain, that when passed across magnetic bars that are delicately suspended, it may cause them to be deflected, as was discovered by (Ersted. These deflections, if we wish to give the signals in quick succession, must follow each other with the greatest rapidity, and should therefore be powerful. This points out to us the size we should give the magnetic bars we wish to deflect. They must not, however, be made too small, as in that case the mechanical force arising from their deflection, is not strong enough to be directly applied to striking upon bells, or any other similar purpose. The deflections are, as is well known, taking the force of the current to be the same, the stronger, the greater the number of turns in the multiplier, or, in other words, the oftener the wire is led along the magnetic bar. The size of the diameter of the separate turns, as we know, only exerts an influence, inasmuch as it adds to the entire length of the connecting wire. The indicator, therefore, is a multiplier, whose two ends connect with the conducting chain, and within which the bar to be deflected is placed. It must be borne in mind, that the thinner the wire of the multiplier is, the larger its coils are, and the more turns they make, the greater is the resistance to the current throughout the entire chain. Figs. 12 and 13 represent the vertical and horizontal sections of an indicator containing two magnets, moveable on their vertical axis, and which, from their construction, are applicable both to striking bells, and also for writing characters in the form of dots or points. These figures will be more particularly explained hereinafter, reference to their application being suf

Page  169 THE INDICATING APPARATUS. 169 ficient for the present. Into the frames of the multiplier, which are made of soldered sheet brass, fig. 11, there are soldered two smaller cases for the reception of the magnets, and which allow of the reel motion of their axes. Above and below I s i;ZI~ II WEII act 1, il -,ll l 1 1 )I l I they he t s ut in them, for the reept they have threads cut in them, for the reception of four screws in holes, on the ends of which the pivots of the axes turn. By means of these screws, the position of the bars may be so reg.

Page  170 170 STEINHEIL S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. ulated. that their motion is perfectly free and easy. In the frames of the multiplier there are 600 turns of the same insulated copper wire as was employed for the inductor. The commencement and the end of this wire are shown at M M, fig. 12. The magnetic bars are, as the figures show, so situated in the frame of the multiplier, that the north pole of the one is presented to the south pole of the other. To the ends which are thus presented to each other, but which, owing to the influence they mutually exert, cannot well be brought nearer, there are screwed on two slight brass arms, supporting little cups, figs. 13 and 14. These little cups, which are meant to Fig. 14. be filled with printing ink, or black oil color, are provided with extremely fine perforated becks, that are rounded off in front. When printing-ink is put into these cups, it insinuates itself through the bore of these becks, in consequence of the capillary attraction, and without running out, forms on the openings of the becks a projection of a semi-globular shape. The slightest contact suffices, therefore, for writing down a black point or dot. When the voltaic influence is translmitted through the multiplying wire of this indicator, both magnetic bars make an effort to turn in a similar direction upon their vertical axis. One of the cups of ink would, therefore, advance from within the frame of the multiplier, while the other would retire within it. To prevent this, two plates are fastened at the opposite ends of the free space that is allowed for the play of the bars, and against whicl the other ends of these bars press. Only the end of one bar can, therefore, start out from within the multiplier at a time, the other being retained in its place. In order to bring the magnetic bars back to their original position as soon as the deflection is completed, recourse is had to small moveable magnets, whose distance and position are to be varied, until they produce the desired effect. This position must be determined by experiment, inasmuch as it depends upon the intensity of the current called into execution. If this apparatus be employed for producing two sounds easily distinguishable to the ear by striking on bells, it will be right to select clock-bells or bells of glass, both of which easily emit a sound, and whose notes differ about a sixth. This in-/ terval is by no means a matter of indifference. The sixth is more easily distinguished than any other interval; fifths and

Page  171 CONSTRUCTION OF THE APPARATUS. 171 octaves would be frequently confounded by those not versed in such matters. The bells are to be supported on little pillars with feet, and their position with respect to the bars, and likewise their distance from them, is to be determined by experiment. The knobs let into the bar that strike on thebells must give the blow at the place which most easily emits a sound. These hammers, however, are not to be too close to the bells, as in that case a repetition of the signal can easily ensue. A few trials will soon get over this difficulty. If the indicator is to write down the signal, a flat surface of paper must be kept moving with a uniform velocity in front of the little beaks before mentioned. The best way of doing this is to employ very long strips of the so-called endless paper which is to be wound round a cylinder of wood, and then cut upon the lathe into bands of suitable widths. One of these strips of paper must be made.to unwind itself from a cylinder, pass close in front of the cups, run along a certain distance in a horizontal position, so that the dots noted down may be read off, and lastly, wind itself up again on to a second cylinder. The second cylinder is put in motion by clock-work, the regularity of whose action is insured by a centrifugal fly-wheel. A longitudinal section of the entire arrangement is shown by fig. 1. Fig. 10 represents it as seen from above. At the corners of the frame over which the ribbon of paper is led, there are placed two moveable rollers, to diminish the friction. The frame moreover admits of being advanced toward the cups or withdrawn from them, so that the most proper position to give it can be ascertained by experiment. It is evident that the same magnetic bars cannot be at once employed for striking bells and for writing, the little power they exert being already exhausted by either of these operations. But to combine them both, all we have to do is to introduce a second indicator into the chain. By thus increasing the number of the indicators, the loudness of the sounds of the bells can be augmented at pleasure: this can, however, only be done at the expense of an increased resistance in the chain. In order that this may be increased by the indicator as little as possible, it would in future be better that its coils should be made of very thick copper wire, or of strips of copper plate. CONSTRUCTION OF THE APPARATUS. The longitudinal section of a pyramidal table, standing on the floor of the room, and containing the whole apparatus is represented by fig. 1. Fig. 10 shows the same as seen from above. The wires from Bogenhausen, those from the Larkl

Page  172 172 STEINHEIL S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. street, the ends of the indicator, and the wires from the quicksilver cups of the inductor, or, in other words, the two ends of the multiplier, all meet together at the centre of the table, as seen in fig. 10. They are here brought into connection with eight holes filled with quicksilver, made in a disk of wood as shown by fig. 15. The course that the Fig. 15. suppose them to be connected together by four pieces of bent copper wire, as shown at fig. 15, the current would pass through the whole apparats, and also, the entire chain. Establishing, however, the connection as shown by fig. 16 Fig. 16. would cut off the Bogenhausen station, and Do - - would at once transmit the current direct from the inductor, through the multiplier of the indicator and through the Lark street station. Supposing this figure turned around 180 degrees, we should have the Lark street station cut off, and the current would pass through Bogenhausen. A third system of connections is shown by the copper wires represented in figs. 17 and 18. In this position of the sketch, the inductor and the multiplier would be in direct communication, while the two stations at Bogenhausen and in the Lark street would be cut off. But by turn

Page  173 CONSTRUCTION OF THE APPARATUS. 173 Fig. 17. Fig. 18. ing this figure 90~, we should connect these two stations, while we broke off the station in the Academy. Copper wires serving to establish these three systems of the connections and the combinations, are laid. down upon the under surface of the wooden cover of the commutator, as seen at fig. 19, Fig. 19. so that there must be sixteen other holes made in the lower disk of wood, for the reception of the wires not in use, and having no quicksilver poured into h t h. It is thus in our power to direct the course of the current as we choose, and the systems concerned are indicated upon the upper surface of the cover of the commutator by engraved letters, as seen by fig. 20; this cover containing the different modifications of the systems of connection, as shown at fig. 19. Changing the position of this cover round the central pin springing from the table, enables us to vary the direction of the current in any manner we like. The use of the quicksilver cups in the commutator may of course be replaced by conically turned copper pins. This has indeed been done at the Lark-street and the Bogenhausen stations.

Page  174 [74 STE1NHEIL S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Fig. 20.'' i APPLICATION OF THE APPARATUS TO TELEGRAPHING. From what has already been stated, it will be seen that at every half turn of the fly bar from iight to left, one of the bars is deflected. The terminations of the wires are so connected that every time this movement is repeated the high-toned bell should be struck at all the stations. Standing at the side B B, and turned toward the indicator, one immediately perceives the beck imprint a dot upon the ribbon paper as it moves along. The intervals of time between the successive repetitions of this sign, are represented by the respective distances between the dots that follow in a line upon the paper. On turning the fly-bar from left to right toward the operator, the deep-toned bells ring, and the second ink cup marks down a dot upon the paper as before, not, however, upon the same line with the former dots, but upon a lower one. High tones are therefore represented by the upper dots, and the low tones by the dots on the lower line, as in writing music. As long as the intervals between the separate signs remain equal, they are to be taken together as a connected group, whether they be pauses between the tones, or intervals between the dots marked down. A longer pause separates these groups distinctly from each other. We are thus enabled by appropriately selected groups thus combined, to form systems representing the letters of the alphabet or stenographic characters, and thereby to repeat and render permanent at all parts of the chain, where an apparatus like that above described is inserted, any information that we transmit. The

Page  175 APPLICATION OF THE APPARATUS. 175 alphabet which is chosen represents the letters that occur the oftenest in German by the simplest signs. By the similarity of shape between these signs and that of the Roman letters, they become impressed-upon the memory without difficulty. The distribution of the letters and numbers into groups consisting of not more than four dots, is shown in the alphabet, figs. 23 and 24. In order to explain more definitely figs. 12 and 13, the following figs. 21 and 22, with their sectionals more particularly described, are inserted. Fig. 21. / —......_,,__,_, Q) ) Cbi) IL I ~_____________; In fig. 21, A A represents a vertical section, through the centre of the coil of copper wire; c is the interior brass frame, round which the wire is wound; B B are the sides of the frame; I 1 I I are four brass tubes, soldered to the interior brass frame, and passing through the centre of the coil o its exterior, with a screw cut in the end of each; D and D are two permanent magnets movable on their axis a and b. These spindles, a and b, on each side of the magnets, pass up the hollow of the tubes, and having their ends pointed, enter the centre cavity of the four thumb screws, J j j j, by which they are supported, and delicately adjusted, so as to move easily and freely; L and L are the ends of the wire leaving the coil; H and K are two inkholders, attached to the magnets, which will be explained hereafter. Fig. 22 represents a horizontal section of the coil, and magnets D/ and D', as above described, together with the other arrangements of the instrument for receiving intelligence. The magnetic bars are so situated in the frame of the multiplier, that the

Page  176 176 STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. Fig. 22. A; i -- I!"'i'' I I i "... 711-111111 rp' I-PI north pole, N', of the one, is presented to the south pole, s', of the other. To the ends which are thus presented to each other, but which, owing to the influence they mutually exert, cannot well be brought nearer, there are screwed on two slight brass arms, supporting little cups, H and i. These little cups, which are meant to be filled with printing ink, are provided with extremely fine perforated becks, that are rounded off in front. When printing ink is put into them, it insinuates itself into the tube of their becks, owing to capillary attraction; and, without running out, forms at their apertures a projection of a semi-globular shape. These little cups are seen at Ho and iK, and in fig. 21 at H and K. The horizontal section shows, also, the position of the magnets in the instrument, with the becks of the pens near the continuous band, or ribbon of paper, E, which is brought in front of the pens vertically from below, over a small roller, F. The paper is supplied from a large roll on a wooden cylinder, upon which is a cog-wheel, and connected with a train of wheels and a vane, to regulate the rate of supply. The paper is drawn along before the pen by being wound upon ja cylinder, T, concealed by the paper, and on the same shaft with the barrel, ir, upon which is wound a cord supporting a weight, N, below. The shaft is supported in the standards, o and o, which are fastened to a plate of brass, p and P, also secured to the

Page  177 THE ALPHABET AND NUMERALS. 177 platform of the instrument. The barrel revolves in the direction of the arrow upon it. When the electricity is transmitted through the coil of the indicator, both magnetic bars, D' and D/ make an eflfrt to turn in a similar direction upon their vertical axes, a and b. One of the cups of the ink, therefore, advances toward the paper, while the other recedes. To limit this action, two plates, v and v', are fastened at the opposite ends of the free space allowed for the play of the bars, and against which the other ends of the bars press. Only the end of one bar can, therefore, start out from within the multiplier at a time, the other being retained in its place. In order to bring the magnetic bars back to their original position, as soon as the deflection is complete, recourse is had to two small moveable magnets, a portion of which is seen at N and s, whose distance and position are to be varied till they produce the desired effect. The fluid is made to pass in the direction of the arrows, shown at p and M. Then the N pole of the left-hand magnet advances with its pen K', to the paper E, and a dot is made, and the s pole of the right-hand magnet recedes with its pen H from the paper, until the other end of the magnet strikes the stop v'. Now, if the letter to be formed requires two dots in succession from the same pen, the circuit is broken, and the fixed magnets, N and s, bring back the deflecting magnets, D and D' to their former position, when the pole-changer is again thrown to.the left, and the magnets are deflected in the same manner, as at first. Thus, two dots are marked upon the paper, on the right hand line. When the current is reversed, the N pole of the left-hand magnet, with its pen K, recedes from the paper, until it strikes the stop v, and the s pole of the right-hand magnet, with its pen H/, advances to the paper, and makes its dot upon it on the left-hand line. THE ALPHABET AND NUMERALS. The alphabet was formed, as has been already described, by the making of dots upon a ribbon paper, from small becks holding ink in globular forms at their ends. The alphabet thus written is arranged by some authors as follows: Fig. 23. AB DFGS HC SCHIKL MNOP. I S S TVW Z A X%\. r i *" A f ~ v /r' V i - Prof. Steinheil has furnished me with the alphabet and nu12

Page  178 178 STEINHEIL'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. merals arranged as the following, which must be regarded as their true and proper organization. Fig. 24. iC' 3n "DE zE % d 7 CH SCE T X X: 2M c 0 T T- T- -w 2 a Ist. a i a h i a tangible and practical writing a s 5 6 6 7 8 g THE DISCOVERY AND INVENTIONS OF STEINHEIL. From the foregoing, in regard to the discovery and inventions of Prof. Steinheil, it will be observed that he produced the following facts, viz.: 1st. That he invented a tangible and practical writing electric telegraph, demonstrated by the most complete experiments; 2d. That he invented an electric telegraph, which actually communicated intelligence by sound, methodically arranged, suitable for commercial purposes; 3d. That he discovered the earth circuit, as practically ap. plied in the electric telegraphic art, with all systems throughout the world 4th. That he first organized the system of poles and insulators, for the suspension of metallic conductors in the air for electric telegraphing; 5th. And that he established the fact, by actual experiment, that a current of electricity, generated by a magnetic organiza. tion, can be practically applied for telegraphing.

Page  179 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CHAPTER XIII. William Fothergill Cooke and the Telegraph-Moncke's Electrometer Experiments-The English Electric Telegraph invented-Invention of the Alarum-The Mechanical Telegraph-The Escapement Apparatus-Mr. Cooke's Efforts to put his Telegraph in Operation-The Second Mechanical Telegraph-Wheatstone's Permutating Key-Board —Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone become associated-The Secondary Circuit invented-Mr. Cooke improves his Original Telegraph-All the Improvements combined-Description of the Apparatuses-Improvements patented in 1838-Wheatstone's Mechanical Telegraph-Further Improvements by Mr. Cooke. WILLIAM FOTHERGILL COOKE AND THE TELEGRAPH. THE English Electric Telegraph, invented by William Fothergill Cooke, will be the subject of consideration in the present chapter. It is not nmy purpose to discuss the questionable claims of others, in regard to their participation as auxiliaries in the perfection of the above-mentioned telegraph. It is my purpose to give the facts with but little comment. The reader can exercise his own judgment in the premises. In the month of March, 1836, Mr. Cooke was engaged at Heidelberg in the study of anatomy, in connection with the interesting, and. by no means unprofitable profession of anatomical modelling; a self-taught pursuit, to which he had been devoting himself with incessant and unabated ardor. On the 6th of March, 1836, he witnessed an electro-telegraphic experiment, exhibited by Professor [Moncke of Heidelberg, who had, perhaps, taken his idea from Gaiiss. Mr. Cooke was so much struck with the wonderful power of electricity, and so strongly was he impressed with its applicability to the practical transmission of telegraphic intelligence, that, on that very day, he entirely abandoned his former pursuits, and devoted himself

Page  180 180 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. henceforth with great ardor, to the practical realization of the electric telegraph. Professor Mlincke's experiment was the only one, at that time, upon the subject of telegraphing, that Mr. Cooke had seen. To him the subject was new and surprisingly novel. The experiment which he saw showed that the electric currents, being conveyed by wires to a distance, could be there caused to deflect magnetic needles, and thereby to give signals. It did not provide any means, however, to practically effect telegraphic purposes. It was but a demonstration of science without a devised appliance in the arts. MONCKE'S ELECTROMETER EXPERIMENTS. Fig. 1. A. - I The apparatus exhibited by Professor M6ncke, consisted of two instruments for giving signals by a single needle, placed in different rooms, with a battery belonging to each, copper wires being used as the conductor. Fig. 1 represents the apparatus used by Professor Mloncke. Numeral 1 is the near and 2 the distant electrometer; 3 is the battery; 4, the conducting or circuit wire; 5, the signal; 6, 6, the electrometers, with magnetic needles, and at 7, 7, are steadying pieces, dipping in a steadying cup of mercury, to support the needle and check oscillation. The signals given, 5, 5, were a cross and a straight line, marked on the opposite sides of a disk of card, fixed on a straw; at the end of which, a magnetic needle was suspended horizontally in an electrometer coil, by a silk thread. The effect of this arrangement w-as, that if a current was transmitted from either battery when the opposite ends of the wires were in connection with the distant telegraphic apparatus, either the cross would be there exhibited by the motion of the needle one way, or the line by its motion the other way, according to the direction of the current. The apparatus was worked by moving the ends of the wires backward and forward between the battery and the coils.

Page  181 THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH INVENTED. 181 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH INVENTED. After Mr. Cooke had witnessed the experiment upon the above described arrangement, he devoted himself to the perfection of a contrivance to effect practically the ends of telegraphing, and within three weeks thereafter, he had, partly at Heidelberg and partly at Frankfort, completed a device for telegraphing, based upon the electrometer form, which, in principle, was the same as the English needle telegraph that has been for many years practically operated in Great Britain. Six wires were used, forming three metallic circuits, and influencing three needles, by which an alphabet of 26 signals was devised. The mechanical and scientific combinations produced a perfect reciprocal telegraphic system, by which a mutual communication could be practically and conveniently carried on between two distant places; the requisite connections and disconnections being formed by pressing the. fingers upon the keys, and the signals were exhibited to the person sending them, as well as the person receiving the communication. This important end was effected, by placing a system of keys permanently at each extreme end of the metallic circuit, and by providing each circuit with a cross-piece of metal for completing the continuity of the wires when signals were being received from the opposite terminus. The two signal apparatuses being thus thrown into the course of the electric circuit, every signal was given at both ends concurrently; and the cross-piece was made to rest3re the circuit for a reply, on the first communication being completed. The system of keys and signal-levers were joined together in the one instrument, so that the pressure upon the key at either station, produced the signal intended at the receiving and sending stations. Fig. 2. -^ > III) S B ____ Vffg-'^^"^~d~

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. The apparatus devised by Mr. Cooke to consummate the system of reciprocal telegraphing was simple, and will be understood by studying figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. The whole are parts of the same combination, and the same letters and numerals represents the like parts in the different and respective figures, thus 5 B, represents the same device in fig. 2 that they do in fig. 6. The apparatuses represented by these figures constituted Mr. Cooke's " reciprocal electrometer communicator." Figure 2 is the near Fig. 3. station of the reciprocal telegraph, and fig. 1~ 6 the distant station. The battery is represented at the base of fig. 2, and upon a larger scale by fig. 7; 3b, 3bb, are commu8r~ ~B_ __0 h a ^1tating battery pole BBe < \ c —^-bars, for connecting Z; 1-the battery with the conducting or line'W40 8 iwires on the pressure of the keys-3b is the copper, and 3bb the zinc poles of the battery 4, 41, are the telegraph wires, called by Mr. Cooke, the electrometer or reciprocal telegraph wires, because they were Fig. 4 attached to electro- -- meters at each end. 5B is a complete /'i 4B set of 26 simple and i — compound signals. 7b are iron screws 1 B /' 4~l for steadying the ____t( needles; 8B are B communicator keys for uniting the ends AKp n- - of the conducting ir - I ) wires with the poles of the battery, so as ______ to make the current. pass in either direction through the conducting wires. The battery seen in fig. 2 is represented in larger scale by fig. 7; and, in fig. 8, a top

Page  183 THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH INVENTED. 188 view of it is given. The key 8B, fig. 8, is given on a larger scale with all its parts; the zinc and the copper bars. 9B, 9b, represents the current commutator for reversing the direction of the electric current; 9B, is the zinc, and 9b, the copper. The line wires and the electrometer as connected with the battery are fully represented in fig. 8. The key represented in fig. 8, is an axle with lever arms, SB. If the finger presses upon SB.the axle Fig. 5. turns, and the con_- _ ___:7_ ____ nections with the upper cups, fig. 8,.=-_ I _ - are made by' the wires attached to the zinc and the copper bars. If the lever on the other 0 @ t ^ ----- side of the axle be pressed, the lower ^ B Wbattery, fig. 8, is put into the cir-,4 / Af "~ _ Wncuit. If the readJ —~^^C~~~~~ e-^ —er will refer to the 4t ~r-*___ keys of the present instruments of the English telegraphs, the same principles will be seen in their organization as represented by fig. 8. In figures 4 and 5, 1OB represent fixed stops, or pins, designed to prevent the needles from oscillating too far. 11B is a moveable cross piece, and lib its handle. Fig. 6. o o The manipulhaton of the apparatus waas very simple and easy. In order that the operation may the better be undcler

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. stood by the reader, I will trece the route of the current and show its action, resulting in the perfect transmission of telegraphic communication. Figures 4 and 5 are two end stations, 100 miles apart, at each of which are the instruments represented in the figures. The line wires are seen to the right of Fig. 7. /\ O X fig. 4, and to the left of fig. 5, marked 4, 4. If the key 81, fig. 4, is pressed, making the battery current flow over the line, the needle suspended in the coils 10B, will be deflected to the position as seen in the figure, being at right angles to the normal position of the needle, as seen by the middle needle in the same figure. The needle in the terminal station coils, fig. 5, will assume the same position indicated in fig. 4. The electrometer was made in the usual form, and the needle being magnetic, it would move to the right or to the left according to the nature of the current transmitted through the coils, determined by the pressure upon the key, whether upon the righthand side or upon the left-hand side. The needles of the centre coils are in their normal state. The upper needles are deflected, reverse to those in the lower coils. The position occupied by one may be A, and that by the other B. Two motions, either direction of the needles, another letter and so on, completing the whole combination forming the alphabet. Besides the arrangement above described, Mr. Cooke invented an apparatus, styled by him a " detector," for discovering any injury done to the conducting wires by water, fracture, or contact. The arrangement was an application of a gauged electrometer. The foregoing is a fair description of the first electrometer telegraph, invented by Mr. Cooke, between the 9th and 15th

Page  185 THE MECHANICAT TELEGRAPH INVENTED. 185 Fig. 8. M c ad s ssl ws M. C of larch, 1836. So energetic and successful was Mr. Cooke in the perfection of his telegraph, that within three weeks after he saw the experiment of Moncke, he had the model of his reciprocating telegraphic system in operation. INVENTION OF THE ALARUM APPARATUS. Before the end of March, 1836, Mr. Cooke invented the apparatus known as the alarum, which is still extant, in his first mechanical telegraph. The arrangement was of ordinary combination, worked by clock-work mechanism, on the removal of a detent. The invention consisted in placing an electro-magnet in such proximity to an armature of soft iron forming the tail end of a lever detent, that when an electric current passed round the electro-magnet, the magnetism which was, for the moment, excited in it, attracted the tail end of the lever, and by so doing, drew its detent end out of the clock-work; but, on the temporary magnetism ceasing with the cessation of the current, the attraction of the tail-end of the lever ceased also, and the detent-end of it was then replaced in the clock-work by a re-acting spring or balance weight. The principle of removing a detent, by' magnetic attraction, and replacing it by mechanical re-action, was not, however, confined to the alarum, but, on the contrary, it was the basis of Mr. Cooke's mechanical telegraphic system, hereinafter described. THE MECHANICAL TELEGRAPHI INVENTED. in the invention of the mechanical telegraph, Mr. Cooke applied the idea to a musical snuff:box, and in less than six weeks from the time he saw the experiment of Professor

Page  186 186 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. Fig. 9. Fg 8B Fig. 10. 2B /. /Ad~

Page  187 MECHANICAL TELEGRAPH INVENTED. 187 Mbncke, he had invented his mechanical system. Mr. Cooke considered that the striking advantage held out by the mechanical, in comparison with the electrometer form was, that, whereas the mode of giving signals by combination of magnetic needles, each acted upon directly and separately by an electric current, involved the necessity of using several circuits, and consequently the expense of several wires; on the other hand, if the electric agency could be confined to the office of causing suitable interruptions or divisions in any kind of motion derived from an independent source, the necessity of a plurality of circuits would be avoided, for the diversity of signals would then depend upon the mechanism. Figures 9 and 10 represent the mechanical telegraph; as devised upon the principles of the musical snuff-box. The electro-magnets, 14c, of the respective stations, are seen in the figures; 3, the battery; 14c, are the armatures of the magnets to which are attached the detent levers; 4 and 4B are the line wires, and the arrows indicate the course of the current. The circuit, as arranged in figs. 9 and 10, is opened and closed by the action of the apparatus of fig. 9. Pressure upon the keys completed the electric circuit; which magnetized the cores of the electro-magnets, the armatures were then attracted, which drew down one end of the detent lever, and elevated the other end, drawing it out of the train of wheels, and allowing the mechanism to move on by its own maintaining power, till the intervention of an appropriate pin, 18c, fig. 10, upon the cylinder or barrel, struck up the key, 8ce, the circuit was then broken. When broken the magnetism ceased to exist in the cores of the spools, therefore, an end was put to the attraction of the armature end of the detent lever, and the re-acting spring drew the lever, so as to place the detent in its normal position, which put a stop to the mechanism, at the time when the revolving dial was presenting before an opening in the frame of the apparatus at each terminus, the requisite letter, figure, or symbol. The signal to be made was determined by the proportion of a revolution which the barrel was allowed to make without interruption; therefore, although some latitude was allowed for a variation in the speed of the different apparatuses, the successful transmission of intelligence depended, to a certain extent, upon a similarity of timing; any great variation of time would introduce confusion into the signals, and in proportion to every increase in the speed at which the signals were given, the latitude allowed for variations would become actually less, though remaining relatively the same; consequently, in proportion to the increased

Page  188 188 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. rapidity of a succession of signals, greater accuracy of mechanism would be required. If the signals could be given by divisions of the mechanical motion similar to the divisions made by the escapement of a clock, the necessity of accurate timing would be altogether avoided, for it would then be only necessary that every intervention of the attractive force of the magnet, should occasion or allow a motion of the armature or Fig. 11. pallet of each escapement, without its being necessary. (\,that a motion of the pallet....>I I ~,0 i should occupy, in each in> strument, precisely the same of" A z \ period of time. Fig. 11 is an extension of the telegraph, based upon 1! the plan of the musical lo6 t' snuff-box. The engraving ^(1111111 I is an outline view of the mechanism. The parts in fig. 11 are indicated by dif_ v____ ferent letters from those used in figs. 9 and 10. In the for15m ~ mer A A are the cylinders or barrels containing the I f; \ / keys; M is the alarum bell; tt ss|*,/ go T L the magnets; B,, D, a A, ^',1 and E, are the ends of vari\.'[L- ~ 1. ( \ \ |ous cylinders.,Yi u', - A; I do not deem it necesd<-^ ^ J l sary to give a detailed de-:> ]<5< 1js scription of the mechanical arrangement of the apparatus, believing that 4 f).'8 s~sufficient has been shown I^'^~~'t to enable the reader to un-- ^'';.cderstand the general plan. 7, %y\ ] It is the first mechanical ) 9' telegraph invented by Mr. \,'0,/ (Cooke, in March, 1836. THE ESCAPEMENT APPARATUS. In July, 1836, Mr. Cooke produced his experimental escapement instrument, represented by figures 12 and 13, based upon the principle of the vibrating pendulum, alternately retained by one of two magnets, on the same conducting wire,

Page  189 THE ESCAPEMENT APPARATUS. 189 actuated by an escapement wheel, the signal being given by an index hand. A A are two electro-magnets, alternately detaining the detent, to which are attached the armatures of the magnets; to the right and left of the letter c, is the alternating detent in the form Fig. 12. of an anchor escapement, stopping the clock-work by catching the teeth of the scape wheel, B. c is the detent-lever attached to the armatures; F is the revolving hand pointing to the sigFig. 13 nals. Figure 13 is an end view of figure 12, in which are seen the magnets at the left, the scape wheel, B, in the centre, and the index hand is on the right.

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. MR. COOKE'S EFFORTS TO PUT HIS TELEGRAPH IN OPERATION. Having thus perfected his various plans of the electric telegraph, Mr. Cooke, in the latter part of 1836, directed his attention toward the application of his invention on the Liverpool and Manchester railway. To this end, he issued a pamphlet, presenting the advantages of his telegraph, its plan of operation and construction, and its utility for the railway service; and particularly having in view the practical adoption of his telegraph in tunnels, for which some mode of conveying signals was required. The directors of the railway company, thought his instrument, which was calculated to give 60 signals, of too complex a nature for the purpose of conveying a few signals along a tunnel, and therefore they proposed to Mr. Cooke, that he should arrange one adapted for their purposes. With the object of accommodating the wants of the railway service, Mr. Cooke proceeded to devise a system of telegraphing, calculated to give fewer signals and much less complicated. This, however, was done, but upon the principles of the first mechanical telegraphic apparatus. THE SECOND MECHANICAL TELEGRAPH. Figures 14 and 15 represent the second mechanical telegraphic apparatus, on which was employed only two wires. It was invented by Mr. Cooke, 10th of February, 1837; two of which he had working together in the following April. The figures represent two different stations; A c are the electromagnets; 4, the line wire; 3c, the batteries; 4c, the armatures of the electro-magnets, to which are attached the detent levers; 10E, are fan wheels by which the detent arrests the mechanism; 16e, is the detent to catch the fan wheels. The action of the different parts of this apparatus is the same as the like parts of figures 9, 10, and 11. This apparatus was perfectly qualified to perform the intended service at the railway tunnels, but in the meantime a pneumatic apparatus was laid down, which superseded the electric appliance; the former was supposed, by the directors, to be better than any system operated by electricity. It was at a time when there were none of the arts operated through the agency of voltaic force, and the railway company were not disposed to experiment upon that which to them seemed, as the vision of a dream. Mr. Cooke, however, was not to be crushed by this failure, and he proceeded to perfect his knowledge in the science of electro-magnetism, endeavoring to ascertain at what distance an electric current would excite the temporary mag

Page  191 THE SECOND MECHANICAL TELEGRAPH. 191 netism required for moving the detent of the mechanism. His experiments were not, to him, satisfactory, and he sought the advice of Prof. Faraday, and then Dr. Roget. This latter gentleman referred him to Professor Wheatstone, of King's College. Mr. Cooke lost no time in making the acquaintance of Prof. Wheatstone, which took place on the 27th day of February, 1837. The two gentlemen discussed the subject of telegraphing, freely, and Prof. Wheatstone exhibited to Mr. Cooke Fig. 14. Fig 15..4% I \'i 9~\ // S \^ pH^ \ \ -,,,,' / n a w h bn uig in his e i s an apparatus which he had been using in his experiments on the effects of electric currents in deflecting magnetic needles. To open and close a circuit, Prof. Wheatstone had arranged two very ingenious contrivances, which he called " permutating key boards."

Page  192 )-Jl Fig. 16.-Permutating IKey-Board invented by Prof. Wheatstone. nf fI- r, -3XM/ 97 ___S___________ ------- __ L I This ingenious contrivance was used by Prof Wheatstone in the latter part of the year 1836, in his room at King's College. About the same time he publicly expressed an opinion that an electric telegraph was possible.

Page  193 PERMUTrATING KEY-BOARD. 193 WHEATSTONE S PERMUTATING KEY-BOARD. This contrivance was used by Prof. Wheatstone, in his electrical experiments, transmitting different currents over long wires. It was arranged to send a current over any one of the four wires, represented in figure 16. 4r, is the near keyboard; 4B, are wires attached to the keys, and extending through the electrometer, 6f, and uniting beyond at 11f; 6if, were electrometers designed to be applied; 3F, is the battery designed to be applied to the several circuits as circumstances required; 3f, 3ff, are fixed pole bars. The section below, gives an end view of the key-board. At that time, this contrivance was one step toward a telegraph, though in its invention, Prof. Wheatstone, it seems, did not contemplate the invention of a telegraphic apparatus. His mind and experiments were directed toward the advancement of the sciences, leaving to others the application of his discoveries to the useful arts. The principle contemplated, was to give a complete set of signals at a distance, by the motion of two or more horizontal magnetic needles, with permutating keys and commutating pole bars; giving the maximum number of signals by the minimum number of wires required for the electrometer telegraph; thus, the closing of the circuit at the key-board, transmitted a current of electricity, fiom the voltaic battery, over the wire, and caused the needle of the electrometer to move. It seems, however, that he had not had in view any arrangement for detecting injuries to the wires, of attracting attention at the commencement of the communication, of sending signals alternately backward and forward by the same apparatus, and of exhibiting signals to the operator, as well as to the recipient. But this deficiency in the plans of Prof. Wheatstone, was not surprising. He was in the pursuits of science, expecting no other reward on account of his discoveries, than the consciousness of having advanced science, and the pleasure realized in the discovery of new truths, and the scientific reputation. Such were the sentiments entertained by the philosopher of whom I am now writing. Mr. Cooke was not so imbued. He was not a discoverer, but an inventor. MESSRS. COOKE AND WTHEATSTONE BECOME ASSOCIATED. In the short acquaintance which Mr. Cooke had with Professor Wheatstone, he found cause to admire his great learning, and particularly his knowledge of electricity and electromagnetism, and he urged Prof. Wheatstone to co-operate with 13

Page  194 1 94 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. him in the advancement of his invented telegraph, confidently believing, that if he had the influence of the scientific recognition of Prof. Wheatstone, his telegraph would command favor. The world at that time was ignorant of the wonderful powers of the electric and magnetic forces for telegraphing. The new art needed the aid of scientific encouragement, and Mr. Cooke believed, that in getting associated with him Prof. Wheatstone, and the influence of his scientific friends, the telegraph would not only be a success in the opinions of scientific gentlemen, but also as a commercial enterprise. Like all high-toned scientific gentlemen, Prof. Wheatstone refused the association, because, as he said, in substance, he preferred to publish the results of his experiments, and then to allow any person to carry them into practical effect, and that, in the position he stood, to associate his name with that of any other person, would diminish the credit which he would obtain by publishing separately the results of his own researches. But, as Mr. Cooke was not seeking scientific reputation, he assured Prof. Wheatstone, that there would be no interference in that respect. In substantiation of the correctness of these statements, reference may be made to the award given by Messrs. Brunel and Daniell, and which award was approved by Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone; it emphatically says, " Mr. Cooke is entitled to stand alone, as the gentleman to whom this country is indebted, for having practically introduced, and carried out, the electric telegraph as a useful undertaking, promising to be a work of national importance; and Prof. Wheatstone is acknowledged as the scientific mana, whose profound and successful researches have already prepared the plublic to receive it as a project capable of practical application." In regard to the rapid progress of the telegraph, it was the award of the above-named gentlemen, that to the united labors of the two gentlemen the credit was due. Mr. Cooke had brought his inventions to England, and to effect success, he needed the scientific assistance of some gentleman, who could inspire the public with confidence in the telegraph, and he never ceased, until he had secured the invaluable co-operation of Prof. Wheatstone, and the two gentlemen embarked in the enterprise, upon agreed terms as to interest and duties, early in May, 1837. TIlE SECONDARY CIRCUIT INVENTED. During the month of April, 1837, Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone united their labors, to perfect new improvements for the telegraph, and the first achievement was the discharger and

Page  195 THE SECONDARY CIRCUIT INVENTED. 195 Fig. 17. Fig. 18. If as A - - -| p i e l s-, secondary circuit, represented by figs. 17 and 18; to be applied to Mr. Cooke's original alarum, which was subsequently superseded in practice by Mr. Cooke's alarum, described in the second English specification. The principle of this new improvement was the motion imparted to an electrometer needle by a distant battery, being made to complete the circuit of a second battery, which second battery, excited temporary magnetism in an electro-magnet, and by its attraction removed the detent of clock-work mechanism. The part 2G is of the distant electrometer instrument forming the discharger; 3G is the secondary battery operating with the second circuit; 3b is the battery or circuit wire, terminating in the stop 10g, and the wire 4c, in the cross-piece 11G; so that, when the magnetic needle was moved by an

Page  196 19 ( HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. electric current, the cross-piece 11G was brought into connection with stop 10g; and completed the circuit of the secondary battery, 3; GG is the electrometer needle, carrying the cross-piece, 11G; 7g is a connecting and steadying platinum-piece immersed in 7gg, which is a mercury cup; 10og is a fixed stop, being the termination of battery wire 3b; 11G is the moveable cross-piece, here fixed on an axis of a magnetic needle. Fig. 17 is the side view of the apparatus, and fig. 18 is the top view, showing the movement of the needle. IMR COOKE IMPROVES HIS ORIGINAL TELEGRAPH. Fig. 19, In the month of April, 1837, Mr. Cooke, while preparing his application for a patent, made some improvements on his electroB meter telegraph of -4 7,`\\ 18 U 1836. This new com~-~'~- "8 9 8 bination included the,~.q^^u'~ ~'~ j| entire alarum attach-,>^, ~I \ \eo,\ ment, as practically operated at the present time. It contained the old signal apparatus, slightly varied, and the original cross-piece. It resembled, very much, his original invention, except in the addition of the alarum, which Fig. 20. B'' - i - j 1:- llml' _ 11

Page  197 MR COOKE'S TELEGRAPH IMPROVED. 197 had been adopted in the mechanical instrument, in conjunction with the secondary circuit; this was an important improvement, and it was suggested by the permutating keys and the second mechanical telegraph. The principles of the two were adopted in the use of one common blank wire, which was in ct Ic c; \- \ ^ v - - - r e^ ^. 0 Q 0- Q -'

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPI. permanent connection with both terminal batteries. By this combination the movements of single needles were effected, and a distinct class of signals was made, which, subsequently, was found to be highly valuable in practice. Figures 19, 20, and 21, give different views of this later improvement. It is founded upon the principle of the commutation of several electrometer wires with one blank or return wire. Signals given by the motion of one or more needles, were the same as those given in the original invention of 1836. Figure 19 represents a side viewA, showing the application of the key. to the battery. When the key at 8B is pressed, the arc rod 3f is carried into the mercury cup or other contact arrangement closing the voltaic circuit. Fi 20 is a front view of the same apparatus, the keys being shown by the dotted lines. Fig. 21 is the top view of figs. 19 and 20 having also the alarum attachment, herein before described. The whole of the mechanical appliances, embraced in this telegraphic organization, have now been described sufficiently to enable the reader to understand the success attained by AMr. Cooke in the invention. ALL THE IMPROVEMENTS COMBINED. I have now arrived at the most important invention, that is, the whole combination of improvements, made by Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone, and for which a patent was obtained, dated June 12th, 1837. The fundamental principle of this telegraph was the same upon which was founded Mr. Cooke's original invention, with the addition of the vertical electrometers aad astatic needles, and the invention of the converging vertical diagram, upon which the needles exhibited their relative positions in. the formation of signals. This arrangement contemplated the use of five wires of principal and secondary circuits. The second circuit was designed for alarum purposes. Before proceeding in the further explanation of the principal circuit-which has already been done sufficient to give the reader an idea of its connection with the second circuit-I will describe the secondary circuit (fig. 22): G is the electrometer, the coils of which are in the main or principal circuit; the to and from wires of which are seen upon the left of the figure; 3b and 4n, are conductors, having at tops mercury cups, into which the fork on the end of the needle descends, whenever a current passes through the electrometer. The connection made between the mercury cups by the fork at the end of the needles, closes the second circuit, in which is placed the voltaic battery 3G; 14c is the electro-magnet, around which the local or

Page  199 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS. 199 Fig. 22. A / ~f G 22 secondary circuit traverses, and magnetizes the soft iron cores or horse-shoe; 14- is the armature and detent rod attached, which catches upon the teeth of the wheel at 16c. When the armature is attracted, the wheel is let revolve, which causes a hammer to strike upon th.e bell 15c, producing an alarum of any required sound. In this manner, was practically operated a second circuit for the making of intelligible sounds, effected by the aid of a main and a local circuit, the latter being subservient to the wvill of the operator in the manipulation of the principal or main circuit. The signal dials were vertical and diamond shaped. The dial was an improvement devised a short time before the application for the first pa/tent. I have, in the foregoinrg, described all the parts of the telegraph invented and patented by Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone, respectively, and jointly. With a view to give the reader a better understanding of the system, I herewith present a description, taken from a publication issued in London in 1839, as follows, viz.: DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUSES. This arrangement requires the service of five electrometers, in every respect constructed similarly to those hereinbefore described. Figure 23 is a representation of the dial, which is also a covering to the case containining, in the interior, the

Page  200 200 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. five electrometers and their wires (shown at the opening in the dial board), and numbered, 1, 1; 2, 2; 3, 3; 4, 4, and 5, 5. The coils of the multipliers are secured with their needles to the case, having each exterior needle projecting beyond the dial, so as to be exposed to view. Of the wires from the coils, five are represented as passing out of the side of the case, on the left hand, and are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The other five wires pass out onthe right hand, and are numbered in the same manner. The wires of the same number as the electrometer, are those which belong to it, and are continuous. Thus the wire 1, on the left hand, proceeds to the first coil of electrometer 1, then to the second coil, an d then coming off, Fig 23. /A // \B \D f E. I, I jJ _1.. l, K, 6

Page  201 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS. 201 passes out of the case, and is numbered 1, on the right hand. So of the other wires, thus numbered. The dial has permanently marked upon it at proper distances and angles, twenty of the letters of the alphabet, viz. A, B, D, E, F, G H, I, K, L, N, N, 0, P, R, s, T, v,,. Y. On the margin of the lower half of the dial are marked the numerals, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,, 7, 8, 9 and 0. The letters, c, J, Q, u, x, z, are not represented on the dial, unless some six of those already there are made to sustain two characters each, of which the specification is silent. Each needle has two motions; one to the right, and the other to the left. For the designation of any of the letters, the deflection of two needles are required, but for the numverals, one needle only. The letter intended to be noted by the observer, is designated, in the operation of the telegraph, by the joint deflection of two needles, pointing by their convergence to the letter. For example, the needles, 1 and 4, cut each other, by the lines of their joint deflection, at the letter v, on the dial, which is the letter intended to be observed at the receiving station. In the same manner any other letter upon the dial may be selected for observation. Suppose the first needle to be vertical, as the needles 2, 3, and 5, then needle 4 being only deflected, points to the numeral 4, as the number designed. I will now proceed to describe the arrangement of the springs and buttons upon the platform, c c, figure 24 (representing a Fig. 24. =0 / I~ f0 1 < 6'I 2 3 4- 5 i _i Li Li Li.. -- —' ^^^(^~B /^4

Page  202 202 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. top view), by the operation of which, any two needles may be deflected to designate a letter, or one needle to designate a numeral. The numbers, 6, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, represent keys of thin brass, and elastic, and are each fastened to a wooden support, D, D, by means of two screws. These keys are continued under and project beyond, the brass bar, L and i, which is supported by two standards, R and R. Whenever these keys are not pressed upon, they are each in metallic contact with the bar^ R and R. The numbers 7, 8, 9, 10, &c., represent ivory buttons with a metallic stem beneath them, passing through a hole in the spring, or key, and on the lower side of the spring the stem is enlarged, so as to form a kind of hammer, designed to make a metallic contact with the two brass bars, beneath the springs, and represented as supported by the standards N and N, and P and P. Each of the buttons has a small wire spiral spring, to which it is fastened, and the small spring is itself fastened to the larger spring. o represents the voltaic battery, with its poles in connection with the two metallic bars, N and P. Figure 25 represents a side view of the key arrangement; F is'the platform; E the wooden support of the six keys; H is the larger spring, or key, secured to the support by screws, h; the spring is observed to project beyond the metallic cross bar, I, after passing beneath it; R is the support of the cross bar I,; N and o are two of the ivory buttons, upon their spiral springs, a and c. Below the button, o, is a shoulder, formed at i, upon the stem which passes through the spring, HI, and another shoulder is formed by the hammer, u, below the spring. It will be observed, that two buttons of the same key are never used at the same time. If the button, o, is to be Fig. 25 pressed down, the weaker spring, c, will permit it to descend until the upper shoulder comes in contact with the larger spring, Hi, when more pressure is applied, and that spring is

Page  203 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS. 203 brought down, breaking its contact with the metallic cross-bar, L, until the hammer, u, comes in contact with the metallic plate, n, upon the support, I, and as the plate, n, is connected with the N pole of the battery, the connection is formed with it. It will, however, be noticed that the button, N, not being pressed upon, will not (though it descends with the larger spring) be brought in contact with the other plate upon the support, J, and connected with the positive pole of the battery. To the end of each spring, a wire, s, is soldered, the purpose of which will be shown hereafter. Fig. 26. CL b c /G e C A W V I-l Figure 26 represents an end view of the key arrangement: a, b, c, d, e, f, are the buttons; i and M the metallic cross-bar, beneath which are seen the ends of the six larger springs, 6, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; R and R are the supports of the bar, M and Mr; G is the platform; w is the support of the metallic plates, with which the hammers of the little keys, or buttons, come in contact; s the wire leading to the battery. Having shown the several parts, I will proceed to describe the arrangements of two termini, as prepared for transmitting intelligence. Figure 27 represents the arrangement of one station, which we may suppose to be PADDINGTON. Figure 28 represents the plan of the other station, which we will suppose to be SLOUGH. The distance between these two places is eighteen miles. In figure 27, it will be seen, that a wire is soldered to the end of each of the springs 6, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and respectively connected with the five wires of the dial, and the common communicating wire nunmber 6, which does not pass through the dial, nor is connected with any of the electrometers. On the right hand side of the dial, the wires are extended until they are shown as broken. From this point to the opposite one, figure 28, where the wires appear also as interrupted, we may suppose 18 miles to intervene. The wires here proceed to the dial of the Slough station, making their proper connections

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. PADDINGTON. Fig. 27. //: 7 - \\\ /^"^ ^ <.. /E F \ C C =, = =k~B_= S Q 6'\', Vi XK i JJ D I \ 0 | _ —;-__'; L._ ) _.

Page  205 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS. 205 Fig. 28. // _ SLOUGH. /,B 1 \ _ _ II X _ _ \''AnL0' 6 1 2 3 Z1- 5 Cr C 0 ^^el L-G 0LI K... L e~ ~p2~~~,1 - \\~~~~~~~~T \\ \\ \\\\ \\ LJ LI

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF THE ENGLIS-I TELEGRAPH. with their respective, electrometers, and thence they are continued and soldered to their springs of the key arrangement, with the exception of wire number 6, which passes direct to the key 6, without going through the dial case. In both figures, is represented the battery, o, consisting of six cups The wire from one pole of the battery is connected with the N metallic plate, the other wire with the P metallic plate. While none of the buttons are pressed down, the battery is not in action, and it will also be observed, that the circuits are all coilmplete. The action of the keys, then, is this, by a single operation to break the circuit formed with the cross-bar, L L, and, at the same time, bring into the circuit, the battery, o. The following numbers, representing the buttons, are those neessary to be pressed down, in order to signal the letters and numerals on the dial: Letters. For A, buttons 10 and 17. For M, buttons 9 and 12. " B, " 10' 15. " N, " 11 " 14. " D, " 12 " 17. " 0 " 13 " 16.. E, " 10 " 13. " P, " 15 " 18. " F, " 12 " 15. " R, " 9 " 14. " G, 4S 11 " 16. " H,' 10 " 11. " T " 13 " 18. " I, " 12 " 13. " T, " 9" 16. " K, 14 " 15. W" ", " 11' 18. " L, " 16 6 17. (Y, " 9 9" 18. tNumerals. For 1, buttons 7 and 10. For 6, buttons S and 9. " 2, " 7 " 12. " 79, 7 " 8 11. 3,' 7 " 14. 8, 8 13. i 4, "* 7 16. 9, " " 15. 66 5, 7 " 18. " 0, " 8 " 17. The direction of the current, when the letter v is to be signalled, is this: pressing down the buttons, 9 and 16, at the Paddington station, the fluid leaves the battery, o, along the wire to the cross bar,; then to the hammer of the button, 16; then to the spring, 4; then along wire 4, to the electrometer, 4, and through it, deflecting the lower half of the needle to the left; then along the extended wire, 4, to the dial, and electrometer, 4, of the Slough station, deflecting the lower half of that needle to the left; then to wire, 4, leaving the dial, to key, 4; then to the cross-bar, L and L; and along the cross

Page  207 IMPROVEMENTS PATENTED IN 1838. 207 bar to key, 1; then to wire, 1; then to electrometer,; and through it, deflecting the lower half of the needle to the right; thence it proceeds along the extended wire, 1, to the Paddington station; entering the dial to the electrometer, 1, deflecting the lower half of the needle to the right; then along wire, 1, to the key, 1; then to button 9; then to the cross-bar, N, beneath; and then to the negative pole of the battery, o. It will be observed, that the needles of both stations, thus deflected, point to the same letter v. If a numeral is be signaled, it is obvious, that but one electrometer is needed. We will, therefore, suppose that the needle, 1, is vertical. Let the buttons, 7 and 16, be pressed down, at the Paddington station. The current then leaves the positive pole of the battery, o, to the cross-bar, p; then to the key, 4; then along wire, 4, to electrometer, 4, deflecting the lower half of the needle to the left; thence to the Slough station to electrometer, 4, deflecting the lower half of the needle to the left; then to wire, 4; then to key, 4; then to the cross-bar, I, and I., and along it to key, 6; then to wire, 6, and along the extended wire to the Paddington station, to key, 6; then to the cross-bar beneath the button, 7; then to the negative pole of the battery, o. The needles, 4 and 4, of both stations, are simultaneously deflected, so as to point to the figure, 4, on the margin of the dial. In this manner the circuits required for each letter and numeral may be traced out. Now, suppose the message to be sent from the Paddington station to the Slough station, is this, 6; WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY AND THEY ARE OURS." The operator at Paddington presses down the buttons, 11 and 18, for signalizing upon the dial of the Slough station, the letter w. The operator there, and who is supposed to be constantly on the watch, observes the two needles pointing at w. FHe writes it down, or calls it out aloud, to another, who records it, taking, according to a calculation given in a recent account, two seconds at least, for each signal. Then the buttons, 10 and 13, are pressed down, and the needles are observed to point at E; and so for the remaining letters of the sentence, u excepted, which has no letter on the dial. IMPROVEMENTS PATENTED IN 1838. The second English patent was sealed 18th of April, 1838, for an improvement, with the power of communicating from intermediate points in either direction; but when not working, the alarum belonging to it could be sounded from either termi

Page  208 208 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. nus to demand attention. The patent embraced mile-post arrangements for the connection of portable telegraph, and for proving the wires. Spare wires were arranged, by means of which, faulty wires could be restored at several places without I ^ I 4) _( I 4 C)) Co o!...........,i.... U, - - -1 I disturbing the general line. Iron tubing and fittings were specified, for the protection of the conducting wires, and admitting of their being carried under ground. Besides these, there were other valuable improvements invented by M. Cooke, having in view the perfection of his telegraphic system, not only in regard to the manipulating instruments of the station, but also relative t tthe mode of constructing the lines, and for maintaining a continuous means of electric communication. At the date of this patent, but little was known in regard

Page  209 WHEATSTONE'S MECHANICAL TELEGRAPH. 209 to the difficulties to be encountered, and to avoid all kinds of hindrances, the telegrapher had to devise many ingenious contrivances. WHEATSTONE'S MECHANICAL TELEGRAPH. o|| tr -%W A;'xI ( k q. I i E/x _ The next important improvement was the mechanical telegraph, invented by Prof. Wheatstone, in the autumn of 1839. It was an escapement apparatus, with one magnet and two wires, founded upon the principle of giving signals by a revolving dial fixed on the arbor of an escapement wheel, which was moved by a maintaining power on the removing of an alternating escapement detent, by the alternate attractive force of a magnet, and the reaction of a spring. Also, moved by the alternate attractive force of a magnet and reaction of a spring, without maintaining power, adapted for domestic use. Also, 14

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. a capstan communicator, effecting by a revolving motion, the breaking and renewal of the current, corresponding with the alternating movement of the escapement. Also, an alarum detent, removed by the blow of a hammer transmitted to detent, when required, by a magnetic needle interposed by an electric current between the hammer and detent; and, also, the substitution of the magneto-electrie machine for the voltaic battery. Such were the principles embraced in this patent. Fig. 30 is a skeleton view of the apparatus. Figures 31, 32, and 33, are more detailed representations of the ingenious device, and with a little study, the reader will fully comprehend the mechanism, and the application of the science to the art in the premises. Fig. 31. 3s f Figure 31, represents a side elevation of the dial and clockl work of the r'eceivinog station. A represents an edge view of the electro magnet, fiom which proceed the two wires, v and i..r and J is the brass frame containing the wheel work, c and E; the pin wheel, D; the dial plate, I; and the barrel B, which is driven by a weight and cord. In the side of the wheel D, are pins projecting from the rim, parallel with the axis, and are equal in number to the divisions, or letters, upon the dial, I. They are, however, placed alternately on each side of the rim. F is the armature of the magnet, fastened upon a horizontal rod, sliding freely through the stan lards 1 andc 2. G represents a spring, fastened to the frame, j, and which carries back the armature, F9, when the magnet has ceased to attract it. From the armature there extends downward an arm, Ir, which, as it

Page  211 WIHEATSTONE)S MECHANICAL TELEGRAPH. 211 approaches the pin wheel, D, presents two arms, or pallets, one on each side of the wheel. These pallets are so arranged with regard to the pins, that if one pallet releases a pin on one side of the wheel, the same movement will cause the other pallet. on the other side, to arrest the motion of the wheel by its striking against the next alternate pin. I and i is an edge view of the circular dial, enclosed in a case, with a single opening at o, so that only one letter at a time can be seen. Figure 32, represents the two instruments: o the transmitting instrument, and the right hand figure the receiving instrument. The wires, v and i, are respectively connected with p and n. It will be observed, that the armature, F, is not attracted, and that the right hand pallet is checking the pin wheel, so that the dial is stationary. If, however, the disk, t, is turned so that the circuit is completed, by the contact of the spring, c, with one of the ribs, instantly the armature isatFig. 32. //77 / X /!'... X;XM420 *S~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~iiiii/

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. tr acted by theo electro-magnet, which will carry the right-hand pallet away tlom the pil wheel, and which will then move by the action of the weight upon the barrel B, until it is checked by the left-hand pallet, which had advanced to the wheel at the same time the other receded. This single operation has moved the disk one division, and the armature is still attracted. Now let the disk, o, be turned until the spring, e, has been passed by the rib, and is in contact with the ivory only, instantly the current ceases; the armature, F, recedes from the magnet by the action of the spring, o; this has taken the left-hand pallet from the pin wheel, which is permitted to move until the next pin strikes against the right-hand pallet. This has now Fig. 33. I / -o{"V <j j ~17~:lll i\'iiil'" is;inii

Page  213 FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS BY MIR. COOKE. 213 brought another letter in front of the aperture Vt i-I. Thus it will be seen, that the design of this instrument is to bring' into view, at the aperture such letters as are required in transmitting a message. Suppose letter A is at the point, b, of the disk; and letter A of the dial is opposite the opening; the instrument is now ready to transmit, and let the letter i, be the first of the message. The operator gently turns the disk round in the direction of the arrow, so that each time the circuit is broken, a new letter appears at the dial, and each time it is closed by the operation of the pallets, in checking and releasing the pin wheel. This is the operation until the letter I, has reached the point, b, when a short pause is made. Figure 33 represents the instrument in its case, and also as exposed. The permanent and electro-magnets are seen in the left-hand figure. When the disk was revolved, a current of electricity was generated, and the effect was produced at the distant station as herein before described. FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS BY MR. COOKE. The next and last improvement, was that invented by Mr. Cooke, in the month of November, 1839. Figures 34, 35, and 36, represent the escapement telegraph, with three wires,,. D /D as invented by Mr. Cooke. DG.. The three figures are of the /.,.,. same arrangement, and the / \ wires 4 B ii each figuer are' intended to unite. The principles on which \ ch / this invention was founded \ < were, viz.: a 1st. Givinog signals on a 3 3C fixed dial by a revolving =index-hand, fixed on the arbor of an escapement-wheel, moved by a maintaining power, on being stopped by the retentive attraction of one of the two electro-magnets, acting upon the alternating escapement detent. 2d. Portable telegraph, requiring no battery to be carried with it, and adapted for working in both directions at the same -time.

Page  214 214 HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH. Fig. 85. iS /:, i / 23 11 3d. The application of a constant current of electricity for telegraphing. 4th. Self-acting telegraph, the hand being fixed to the arbor of the escapement; adapted for tunnels, crossings, and approaches to stations: enabling a train to give notice of its own approach in any direction; also, adapted to give more signals when required, by a hand fixed on a second wheel. Fig. 86..... —, 2B /D /'Ci I/C A 13 5th. Air pressure apparatus, for keeping the inner surface of the tube under constant pressure, and, by adapting the degree of pressure to circumstances, enabling the tube to be carried safely under water. A barometrical detector will indicate, even during dry weather, any unsoundness of the tubing, which hitherto has been indicated only by the interruption of the signals caused by the admission of wet. A portable detector can be applied, at each providing box. The air pressure apparatus may, also, be used for forcingo dry air through the tube, to remove any dampness that might exist.

Page  215 FURTHER IMPROVEMENTS BY MR. COOKE. 215 In figures 34, B M, and 36, SM, are the connecting wheels of the communicator, by which the telegraph wires are brought into connection with the pole bar 3; the batteries are 3c; lic are self-acting cross-pieces, and the same pieces of retal, as B M; and 8,r; 18n, in fig. 34, is a revolving communicator, concentric with the signals, and fulfilling all the conditions, whether applied to terminal, intermediate, or portable telegraphs, and capable of working the portable without a distinct battery; 14D, are the electro-magnets; 10D, 13D, 3D, are the index hands, and 41, the conducting wires between the respective stations. The different telegraphs, and parts thereof, were, from time to time improved, and to this day, the ingenious mechanic is devoting his mind toward the perfection of the general combination. Notwithstanding the instruments have undergone some change in their peculiar construction, yet, in principle, they remain the same, and perhaps ever will. Mr. Cooke can enter the operating room, and there- find his Heidelberg apparatus, though dressed in fine rosewood or mahogany. The plain and simple mantle he placed upon it has been laid aside, and the mechanic has ornamented it with beautiful tesselated work. The original electrometer telegraph will be found within its decorated casing, and perhaps will for all time, conferring honor and well-earned fame upon the inventor. The annals of England are studded with the names of men who have performed deeds great upon the battle-field, of those who have, by their pen, given to the world light and knowledge, to illumine the pathway of men through life; but the crowning glory is due to William Fothergill Cooke, who has, by the invention of the English telegraph, added to his nation's renown increased lustre, and to the galaxy of her illustrious men, the most brilliant star.

Page  216 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CHAPTER XIV. English Telegraph, and Description of its Electrometer-The Single-Needle Apparatus-Formation of the Alphabet-Single-Needle Instrument and Voltaic Circuit-The Double-Needle Instrument, Alphabet, and Manipulation-The Alarum Apparatus-Combining and Arranging of Circuits. ENGLISH TELEGRAPH AND DESCRIPTION OF ITS ELECTROMETER. IN preceding parts of this work, I have, with much detail, described the early history of the English Needle Telegraphs, and the principles of philosophy upon which they were respectively founded. I now propose to explain to the reader the organization of the instruments, and the mode of manipulating them as practically operated at the present time. In America, there has not been a just appreciation of the needle telegraph, nor even a moderate idea of the facility and certainty of its operation. In a minority opinion rendered in the Supreme Court of the United States of America, in 1854, it was said that the needle telegraph was an "I inefficient contrivance." At that time, I cordially concurred in the opinion of the able jurist; but since then, I have witnessed the operation of the different systems of Europe, and my impressions have undergone some change. In the needle telegraph, the needle vibrates to the right or to the left, and the beats thus made have to be seen, in order to understand the message transmitted. The American telegraph produces a sound. In many of the offices, the recording apparatus has been abandoned. It is a question yet to be determined in practical telegraphing, which is the most reliable, the sense of seeing or that of hearling. In order that the reader may the better understand the subject matter herein considered, I will re-explain the structure of the electrometer, which is the vital part of the telegraph. The coils i k of the electrometer, fig. 1, are composed of fine copper wire, insulated with sil. The wire is the same as

Page  217 ENGLISH TELEGRAPH AND ELECTROMETER. 217 ordinarily used on the relay magnets of the American telegraphs. h is the exterior needle, made as the ordinary compass needle. The interior needle in the figure is the same, and their positions of rest are perpendicular, fastened to a common axis. The needles are brought to a vertical position, by placing on the lower end of the interior needle a weight, or the lower end is made the heaviest. When the voltaic current traverses the coils i kI, the needles move from a perpendicular to the angle seen in Fi. 1 fig. 1. Two coils are adopted for conveni- enoe in the suspension of the axis bear- l ing the needles. By the transmission oft to a voltaic current throuehr the c oils, the e eeom et, unic ation is m.ad,e k nown by the adeflection of the neleg aph inst-lumels. M 7 dies. Suppose the cur- rent is sent throughm- the coil i, from the f t s t ^ top to the bottom, or, in other words, from i j downward, and in the other coil upward %:> to k, the needlehI will be deflected to the right, as seen in fig. Ifthe current be of great intensity, the needle will advance to a horizontal. When the current is sent upward to i, and downward from k, the needle will be deflected the reverse of the position given in fig. 1. The process Fig. 2. of reversing the current is in the act of sending, as will be presently described. The electrometer needles, represented by fig. 1, are not of the ordinary form adopted for the telegraph instrumenis. Fig. 2 shows the construction of the interior needle arrangement as sometimes employed. The exterior arrow needle has been thus placed in the figure to show the

Page  218 218 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. north and south ends, the arrow head being the former. The interior needle is made larger, so as to retain a greater amount of magnetic force, and to be more sensitive when the electric influence pervades the coils. The exterior needle is sometimes made of wood, or of some light substance; its movement being caused by the deflection of the interior magnetized needle, it has been found most effective, when made of some light material. Fig. 3. is-r Tel9 _ _ ~ A ____ K evT~~~~

Page  219 THE SINGLE-NEEDLE APPARATUS. 219 DESCRIPTION OF THE SINGLE-NEEDLE APPARATUS. Having described the electrometer, I now propose to explain its application and its operation in its subserviency to mechanism for telegraphing. The electrometer a b, in fig. 3, is a rear view, as will be seen on comparing it with the angular view of fig,. 1, and the front view in fig. 2. The cross-bar between a and b is attached to the frame work. To this crossbar, made of wood or metal, is attached the moveable axis, to Fig. 4. / / / _<~~~~;

Page  220 220 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. which is fastened the magnetic-needle in the middle of the coils, and the index needle in front of the coils. Between the coils and the index needle is the index face of the instrument. This face hides the mechanism, as seen by fig. 4. Fig. 3 is an open back view of a single needle instrument, and fig. 4 is the front view of the same, with the index needle a b in front of the face, through which traverses the axis upon which the needles are fastened. The instruments vary in size from 10 inches to 20 inches high, and from 6 to 12 inches wide, shaped as the old mantel clock. I will now describe the manipulation of the single needle instrument, figs. 3 and 4. The cylinder is divided into three parts, of which two, c and D, are copper, the third, o, is ivory, and this ivory section insulates c from D. Two copper points, M N, are fixed upon the cylinder, M, to the copper division, D, and N, to the copper, c; the former above and the latter below on the cylinder. These points communicate with the two poles of the battery by means of the springs Q p and G z, which press, one upon the cylinder, and the other upon the gudgeon and the two metallic strips, Q Q and G s. On each side of the cylinder are four springs, connected two and two by the strips x E at, and F J F. Two of these springs placed in front of N, in the ordinary condition, are generally pressing upon the two metallic points, x y, fixed at the extremity of a little horizontal copper cylinder, x. The two other springs are in front of N. They are shorter than the preceding strips, and one of them only, K L, is visible in the figure. The earth wire is attached at R, and connects with the two springs, K L and E i. The line wire is attached at T, and communicates, by means of the electrometer, A B, and the strip, F J F, with the two other springs. In the receiving position the exterior handle, mn n, is vertical, as seen in fig. 4. The two points, M N, are also vertical, and do not touch the springs. The current coming from the line at T, after having traversed the electrometer, A B, passes over the spring, F H, and arrives at R by the two points, x y, and the two springs, E I. The needle, a b, fig. 4, deviates, and by the number and direction of its oscillations indicates the signals transmitted by the corresponding station. In order to send the current by the zinc pole of the battery, the upper part of the handle, m n, is turned toward the left. The point, M, presses against the spring, F H, and separates it from x, and the point, N, presses against the spring, K L. The

Page  221 FORMATION OF THE ALPHABET. 221 copper pole is then in connection with the earth by means of the springs, K, and q p, the metallic piece c, the cylinder and the strip, R K, and Q q. The zinc pole, which connects with the point, N, connects with the line by the spring, H F, the strip F F v, the wire of the electrometer and the strip. w T. Turning the handle in the opposite direction, the point, Mr, separates the spring, E I, from y, the point, N, presses the spring, the foot of which is at J; the zinc pole is then in connection with the earth and the copper pole with the line. When the current traverses the electrometer, the inclination of the needle is always the same as that of the handle. Sometimes an electro-magnet is substituted for the electrometer, as represented in the description of the magnetic telegraph apparatus. In order to prevent the needle from swinging too far to the right or to the left, small pegs are placed on the face of the instrument, as seen in fig. 4, e and f, on the sides of the needle. FORAATION OF THE ALPHABET. The alphabet is formed of a combination of beats to the right and to the left. I have already mentioned that the deflection of the needle is changed from the right to the left, and vice versa, by transmitting the current from the respective poles of the battery. When it is desired to make the letter A, Fig. 5. + A B C M N O P \' \\\ \\ \ / // /// //// D E F R S T v \, \\~, / / / /// 0 H I V W \ ~. \ / </./ Q K L X Y Z' > w ~ /Y J/' the needle is deflected to the left twice, the letter c four times, and for the letter p, four times to the right. For the letter D, first to the right and then to the left; for the letter R, first to the left and then to the right. The second beat is represented by the long arm of the angle, because if they were equal, the first beat could not be distinguished from the second. When the beat is seen they are of the same force, and the long and short arms are adopted for the book or for writing. In making the'letters Q and z, the short arms are also indicated first. Each

Page  222 222 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. of these letters are composed of two deflections each way, thus, v A, for Q and A v, for z. These are the only letters requiring such a combination, and when they are formed, the rule determines which arms are to be short and which long. When figures are to be made, they are preceded by an arbitrary sign. Besides these signals there are compound signals, indicating wait, g'o on, I understand, I clo not understand, ^'epeat, &c., &c, Fig. 6. THE SINGLE-NEEDLE INSTRUMENT AND VOLTAIC CIRCUIT. Fig. 6 is a representation of the single-needle instrument, as now employed in the offices in England. The alphabet upon its face, however, is not on the common instruments, except a few for students. It is the same as fig, 3, except a little more ornamental. Fig. 7 is a representation of the interior of fig. 6, and the same as represented by fig. 3, and hereinbefore described, with the addition, however, of a voltaic battery and the course of the electric current. I have preferred to describe fig. 3, first, separate fiom the battery, to pre vent confusion; and now that

Page  223 SINGLE-NEEDLE INSTRUMENT AND VOLTAIC CURCUIT. 223 the mechanism of the instrument has been considered, I will repeat, in part, and extend that description to the operation in connection with the voltaic battery. The bobbins or coils A, are made Fig. 7. of very fine insulated copper wire, in size about T-1 — of an inch in di- ameter, or about No. 36, American gauge. These coils are from two to three inches lono' | i,' \ in the form as seen by the differ- | ent figures. The interior needle Vl' is in the rhomboid form, one and, an eighth inch long and seven d eighths of an inch broad. Some- | ) i tinmes several magnetized short needles are substituted for the \ ) one, all firmly secured on either or both sides of a thin ivory disk. The index or exterior needle, seen in fig. 6, is about thrce ei inches long. The frame of the " - " I coils x is made of copper, wood, ivory, or of any other material. This frame is screwed to a plate of copper, on the sides of the telegraph instrument. The wires surrounding the right hand bobbin or coil is fastened to the screw G, as seen in fig. 7, which, by means of a metallic strap, is connected with the c on the right of the figure, secured on the base of the apparatus. The other end of the wire, on the left hand bobbin or coil, is in contact with another screw, Dsupported by a strip of brass, which is fixed to the base; from this brass plate there rises an upright stiff steel spring d, which presses strongly against a point attached to an insulated brass rod r, screwed against the side of the case; on the opposite side of this rod is another point, against which a second steel spring d presses, and this spring is attached to a brass plate E, terminated by the binding-screw E'; this binding-screw E' is the terminal of the wire from the left hand coil. If c on the right, and E/ on the left, be connected by a wire, w, the current will flow from c, on the right of the figure, through G, into the right-hand coil, out from the left-hand coil to D, thence through d r d to E, and to the terminal screw E/, and around the wire circuit vw w, back to c on the right of the figure. The battery contact is broken, and the direction of the current reversed, by the action of the spring d cl, in the following manner

Page  224 224 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. In fig. 7, B is a box-drum, moveable by a handle H, seen at the base of fig. 6; around either end of this drum are fixed the brass strips, as described in fig. 3. The lettering in figs. 6 and 7 are not the same for the identical parts of the like figures, but the parts in each are fully lettered, so that they may be respectively traced by the reader. In order that the mechanism may be better understood, I have described that of fig. 3, which will serve for the same parts of fig. 7. On moving the drum, by turning the handle I, fig. 4, or in fig. 6, the steel spring d, on the right, in fig. 7, will be raised from its connecting point, r, the circuit will thus be broken; but by continuing the motion, c, on the left of the figure, will come in contact with the spring below it, and thus there will be a battery-pole at either end of the drum, and signals will thus be made on the dial, and on all the instruments connected with it. The connections are made in such a manner, that when the handle is turned to the right, the needle moves to the right. The exterior or index needle is always placed with its north pole downward, so that, in accordance with the law established by (Ersted, of Copenhagen, looking at the face of the instrument, if the upper part of the needle is seen to be moving toward the right, the spectator may be sure that the current is ascending in that half of the wire which is nearest to him. DOUBLE-NEEDLE INSTRUMENT-ITS ALPHABET AND MANIPULATION. I have now with sufficient detail explained the action of the single-needle telegraph. I will next proceed to describe the double-needle instrument, which is, in fact, a union of two single-needle instruments, with some modification of the mechanism, as will be seen in fi.. 8, which is a rear view of the apparatus. Fig. 9 is a front view of the same instrument. Fig. 10 is also a front view of a double-needle apparatus, but without the bell attachment. Fig. 8 embraces the voltaic battery, the interior of the indicating apparatus, and the alarum attachment. Fig. 9, B, is the front view of the instrument, and A the alarum. This instrument is in use on nearly all the railway lines in Great Britain, and in the service of the Electric Telegraph Company. Fig. 10 is the front view of a double-needle case, and the dotted lines of the left handle and the left index needle show the extent of the relative motions, in reversed order. The alarum at A, fig. 9, is worked by the crank at B. The handles, H H', are the manipulating keys that operate the needles, and s is the silent apparatus. In forming the letters of

Page  225 THE DOUBLE-NEEDLE INSTRUMENT. 225 the double needle apparatus, they are ranged from left to right, as in the ordinary mode of writing, in several lines above and below the points of the needles, the first series, from A to P Fig. 8. 15

Page  226 226 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. being above, and the second series, from R to Y, below. Each letter is made by one, two, or three movements, in the following order, viz.; Fig. 9. A. Two movements toward the left by the left needle. B. Three movements toward the left by the left needle. c, and the fig. 1. Two movements of the left, the first to the left, and the second to the right. D, and the fig. 2. Two movements of the left needle, the first to the right, and the second to the left. E, and the fig. 3. One movement of the left noedle to the right. F. Two movements of the left needle to the right. G. Three movements of the left needle to the right. H, and the fig. 4. One movement to the left by the right hand needle.

Page  227 THE ALPHABET AND MANIPULATION. 227 I. Two movements to the left by the right needle. J. Is omitted, and replaced by G. K. Three movements of the right needle to the left. Fig. 10. 0 Q'- = _. - __ ~ -'i - L, and the fig. 5. Two movements of the right-hand needle, the first to the right, the second to the left. M, and the fig. 6. Two movements of the right needle, the first to the left, the second to the right. N, and the fig. 7. One movement of the right needle toward the right. o. Two movements of the right needle to the right. P. Three movements of the right needle to the right. Q. Is omitted, and K substituted for it,

Page  228 228 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. R, and the fig. 8. A single movement of both needles toward the left. s. Two movements of both needles toward the right. T. Three movements of both needles toward the left. u, and the fig. 9. Two movements of both needles, the first to the right, the second to the left. v, and o. Two movements of both needles, the first to the left, the second to the right. w. One movement of both needles toward the right. x. Two movements of both needles toward the right. Y. Three movements of both needles toward the right. z. Is omitted and replaced by s. The above alphabet is only one of the different combinations in the English telegraph. The sign of the cross, t, indicates the termination of a word, and is designated by a single movement of the left needle toward the left; the same signal is given when the receiving operator does not understand his correspondent's message. The letter E is the signal for "yes " and " understand." The signal E, however, is repeated twice, that is, two movements of the left needle toward the right. The words "wait," " go on," seen on the right and left side of the bottom of the dial face, are of much importance in the transmission of messages. Suppose London wishes to correspond with Dover. The operator sends signal indicating Dover as the office desired. If the operator at Dover is engaged, and cannot receive the message from London, he sends the letters R R, which means " wait." When he is ready to receive the dispatch from London, he sends the letters w w, which indicate the arbitrary term, " go on." The correspondence then proceeds. Suppose London wishes to send a message to Tonbridge, Ryegate, Ashford, or any other office. The arbitrary signal indicating each station, is made; thus, for London the letter R is the signal, for Tonbridge, the letter E, for Dover, w, and so on. London signals Tonbridge, and the alarum attachment being in circuit, the bell is sounded, which calls the attention of the operator, who immediately repairs to his instruments, and reads the signal calls being made by London, the operator at Tonbridge responds by sending the signals R and E, which means that he is present, and the signal, "go on," is also sent if he is ready to receive the message. London then proceeds, first by ringing the bell, and then in the sending of the words by signaling each letter. If Tonbridge does not understand he sends the signal of the cross, t, and if he understands, he sends the signal E. When the message

Page  229 THE ALARUM APPARATUS. 229 is finished, London deflects his left hand needle twice to the left. Tunbridge returns the signal as a finish. The numerals are indicated by the formation of the letters, preceded by the signals H and the cross, t. These signals mean that figures are to be sent, and not letters. These figures are given by the deflections representing tie letters c, D, E, H, L, M, N, R, U and v. The w is used as a space mark between the figures, thus, for $123 00 is sent c D E w v v. The dollar, sterling, franc, shilling, penny, and other terms, have arbitrary signals. DESCRIPTION OF THE ALARUM APPARATUS. The mechanism of the alarum Fig. 11. apparatus is arranged at the upper part of the instrument. They are a all based upon the same principles in science and art, but some differ immaterially from others in mech-.;..:;............ anism. Fig. 11 represents the mechan- X ism of the alarum. Ais the electro magnet. B is the armature of soft iron, susceptible of attraction whenever the electric currenttraverses the coils or bobbins A. The arma- 57 ture is prevented from coming in = contact with the electro-magnets by stop pins of copper, insulated,l.,i wr l with ivory, inserted in its face. vI l The armature is mounted on the I l lever arm, c, which carries at its lower end a short projecting piece, e, which, catching in a stop on the circumference of the wheel, d, prevents it from moving. When the current ceases to traverse the helices or coils, the armature is drawn back to its normal position by the small spring, f. The principal pieces of the clock-work are shown in the figure, namely the cog-wheel, b, is connected by a pinion with the cog-wheel, a, which works i, and this again gives motion to d, which carries the stop. The anchor escapement, g, works on the wheel, i, and on the axis of the same wheel is placed the double-headed hammer, h. On completing the battery circuit, the armature, B, is attracted by the electro magnet, the long arm of the lever, c, moves to the left, and the wheel, d, being then set at liberty, the mainspring in the barrel, or the weight suspended therefrom, which is kept constantly wound up, sets it in motion, and

Page  230 230 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. the hammer is instantly put into rapid vibration, striking alternately the opposite sides of the bell, D; the ringing is kept up as long as the circuit is closed, but the moment it is broken, the armature is detached by the spring, f, and the catch is again pressed into its place on the wheel, d. It is not the voltaic current that rings the bell, but the mainspring in the barrel, or the weight thereto attached. All that the electric current does is to disengage the catch. Any size bell can be rung by an arrangement of this kind. This is verified by the ringing of the church bells in Boston, to give the alarm of fire. A central station transmits the electric current through a wire extending to the bells of some dozen churches. An electro magnet at or near each bell, disengages a catch, and the mechanism is put in motion, and the bell is rung a given time, and the hammer strikes the bell a given number of times to indicate the section of the city in which the fire is located. The bell arrangement herein described is common to all electric telegraphs. I have described it, because I deemed it necessary to enable the reader to understand its application to the needle telegraph. From the description of the English needle telegraph, the reader will see that it is not an " inefficient contrivance," but really an ingenious piece of mechanism, blending principles of science and art peculiarly simple, and at the same time wonderfully utilitarian. It is a perfect system, and has proved to be eminently practicable. A month's study and practice renders an operator capable of managing an instrument. Expertness follows practice and close application in the perfection of manipulation. An operator can send some 150 letters per minute, but the rapidity of the signals would be difficult to be under-stood. An expert can receive at the rate of 100 letters per minute. The usual rate is as fast as the receiver can conveniently write them. COMBINING AND ARRANGING OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. The arrangement of the wires on the English telegraph lines are apparently complicated, but in reality their connections are under the most perfect organization. To enable the reader to understand something more of the details of the English system, I have selected a few examples to illustrate the respective points referred to. The North Kent Line, from London to Rochester, has a through group of five chief stations on one pair of wires; and two shorter groups, of six and seven stations respectively, on a second pair. They are all double-needle instruments, with

Page  231 ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. 231 alarums on one of the needle wires. The branches to Tunbridge Wells, to Maidstone, to Ramsgate, to Deal, and to Margate have each a pair of wires for double-needle instruments at their stations, and a third wire for the alarum. At Tunbridge, the switchmen have single-needle instruments and alarums on one and the same wire. All stations are furnished with an earth-wire, and all groups must terminate in the earth. The silent apparatus is an application of the earth-wire, as at Tunbridge, Ashford, and Folkestone, on the main line; and at Lewisham, Woolwich, and Gravesend, on the North Kent line. Take Tunbridge, for an example: wires 1 and 2 pursue an uninterrupted course from London to Dover, and include the Tunbridge instrument in their course; hence, if London makes a signal for Dover, or Dover for London, it must, of course, be visible at Tunbridge; and if Tunbridge makes a signal for London, it must be seen at Dover; because the circuit begins with the London earth-plate, and is continued by the unbroken wire to the Dover earth-plate; and, although not required at Dover, the current in this case must go there to get to the earth and complete the circuit. But if provided with a means of getting to the earth at Tunbridge, the long and unnecessary journey will be saved, and it will at once enter the earth at the nearest spot: if, therefore, when talking from Tunbridge with London, two small wires are carried from Tunbridge earth to the linewires on the Dover side of the Tunbridge instrument, the line is cut short, and the signals are compelled to go only in the direction required, namely, up toward London: by putting the earth-wire on the other side of the Tunbridge instrument, signals are passed down the line only. The little arrangement, called the silent apparatus, is provided for performing this operation readily. Its face is seen at the lower part of the instrument, fig. 9, with an index, showing its position for either operation. Four springs, two from the wires on the London side of the instrument, and two from those on the Dover side, are resting on a boxwood cylinder ready for use. A. slip of brass, in connection with the earth-wire, is inlaid in the wood; and by turning the cylinder in one direction, the slip of brass is brought into contact with the springs on the London side, and by turning it in the other, with those on the Dover side; thus connecting the up or the down wires respectively with the earth. This operation possesses a double advantage: by reducing the distance one half, it enables the station to work with less battery power; and by confining the signals to one half of the wires, it leaves the other half at liberty to other stations, and so on, while Tunbridge talks to London, Ashford may

Page  232 232 THE ENGLISH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. talk on the continuation of the same wires to Dover. The name of this apparatus is derived from another adjustment with which it is provided: by pointing the index to the word " silent." is moved a brass slip into metal connection with the springs from either side of one of the electrometers, and another brass slip with those of the other electrometer; a short circuit is then made, and causes the sending station signals to appear on its own instrument only, and allow signals to pass on between other stations without entering its instrument; in fact, just as if the wires did not enter the Tunbridge station at all. The silent apparatus on the North Kent line is the same in principle, but different in construction. By the above arrangement, all the line is provided with instruments, and no part is overcrowded; and an examination of the plan will show that when a station is not in direct communioation with a group, it can hand its message on to a station that is; for instance, London gets a message to Penshurst by forwarding it via either Ryegate or Tunbridge. Turn-plates.-Under common circumstances, the branch lines of telegraphs terminate at the junction stations-as the Deal branch at Minster, the Ramsgate at Ashford, the Maidstone at Tunbridge, the North Kent at London. But there are contrivances for turning on the branch wires at pleasure to the wires of the main line, somewhat as trains are turned by switches from one line of rails to another. The turn-plate is a cylinder of boxwood, inlaid with certain slips of brass, and mounted for protection withinside a small mahogany box; several steel springs press on either side of the cylinder, and are connected with terminals on the outside of the box; the wires are connected to these terminals. The slips of brass are so arranged that in one position of the cylinder the springs are connected into one set of pairs of springs, and by giving it a quarter of a revolution, they become connected into another set of pairs. In one case the two springs from the branch wires are connected respectively with springs from the earth-wire at the junction station, while the main line is open through from end to end.; in the other ease, the two springs from the branch wires become connected respectively with the two wires that lead up the line, while the two wires from down the line become connected with the earth at the junction station.

Page  233 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELE, GRAPH STATIONS. CHAPTER XV. Interior Arrangements of a Station-Rate of Signalling-The Strand Telegraph Station-The Public Receiving Department-Blank Forms of the English Telegraphs. INTERIOR ARRANGEMENTS OF A STATION. IT is my purpose, in the present chapter, to describe the in. terior of an English telegraph station, embracing the operating Fig 1.

Page  234 234 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. and the business departments. It will be impossible, however, for me to give a full account of the immense business details common to the larger stations, such, for example, as the Lothbury, in London. I will make my remarks general; but on such things as will be sufficient to enable the foreign telegrapher to comprehend the peculiar routine. In presenting these explanations, I will avail myself of the views expressed by Mr. Charles V. Walker, a distinguished telegraphic engineer, and to whom the world is much indebted for many valuable and important improvements in the art of electric telegraphing. For the purpose of illustrating the organization of the interior of an office, I will first explain the wire connections, which will be seen illustrated in fig. 2, as arranged upon the interior wall of the station at Tunbridge. This station is just midway beFig. 2. T'................t?' r —_ I Ii) tween London and Dover. It is a commanding position upon the line, and it has charge of branch lines centring there; and, besides the supervision of the affairs on that range of liles, it is the first station from London, holding a position on the through wires, and from it the branch lines to Tunbridge Wells and to

Page  235 ARRANGEMENTS OF A STATION. 235 Maidstone diverge. In regard to the station, Mr. Walker graphically writes, viz.: "It is midway between the capital and the coast, and in a central position, in regard to the rest of the district. Here the conduct and management of the telegraph department is carried on: we have here our staff for maintaining the integrity of the line work, for cleaning and repairing the apparatus, and for keeping all stations supplied with battery power: and here we keep our stores. We befriend and assist all stations, and are their prime resource in time of distress and difficulty, helping on their messages when their own powers are crippled, and, under all circumstances, securing the successful working of the line. Fig, 3. "Fig. 3 is an accurate sketch of the interior of the Tunbridge office, just as it now appears. The telegraph table supports four instruments, and there is a fifth on a bracket on the wall. The

Page  236 236 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. wires, which are cotton-covered copper, enter the room above the window, and passing on, are led in coils down the wainscot to their respective destinations. Some of the batteries are in the closet beneath the table, and others are in a battery-room across the station yard. The screen to the left is the Rubicon, beyond which, by the necessary rules of the telegraph service, the public are not allowed to pass. " Fig. 2, which is drawn to scale, is a plan of the wires and instruments, shown in their places in fig. 3. The wires are numbered on their right to correspond. Nos. 7, 8, and 9, are the Tunbridge Wells wires; the letter u is put on the right side of the up wires, and the letter D on the down wires. An up wire is one that comes from the London side, a down wire from the Dover side. The last wire, marked E, is the earth wire, and is connected with the gas pipes. "4 A is a mahogany tablet, carrying the old form of lightning conductors, one for each line-wire. A brass elbow, carrying points and a small ball, is attached to each wire, and a similar elbow is placed opposite to each, with the points and ball as near as possible to the other, without being in actual contact. This second set of elbows are screwed upon a slip of brass that leads from the earth-wire E, as shown at the upper part of the system. The principle is, that atmospheric charges, collected by the line-wires, shall discharge by the points or balls to the earth; and true enough, in thunder-storms, very vivid and loud discharges occur between these balls; but enough often remains to damage the instruments, so that these conductors are now rejected. The table next below A carries a set of lightning conductors on a new principle. " B is a tablet carrying three brass rods. The upper one, E, is seen to be in connection with the earth-wire E, so that it is virtually a continuation of the earth-wire brought for convenience sake into near proximity to the back of the instruments. The others, marked c and z, are connected respectively with the copper and zinc ends of the battery. They extend along the tablet, and thus bring battery power close at hand to the instruments. I have drawn only a portion of them to prevent confusion. " The table and its four instruments, shown in perspective in fig. 3, are here given in plan. The instrument next the window, at which the officer on duty is seated, is the through instrument, communicating with London and Dover. 2 is the single-needle instrument. It is the termination of a group, of which Ryegate is the commencement. 3 is one of two instruments, its companion being at Tunbridge Wells. 4 is the ter

Page  237 ARRANGEMENTS OF A STATION. 237 minal instrument of the Maidstone group; the other termination is at Maidstone. 5 is one of two instruments, its fellow'being at my residence. To include it in this plan, I have moved it a little from its true position. The dotted lines are the outlines of the instruments themselves. The relation of these five instruments with those at other stations, may be readily gathered from the plan. On one instrument only, No. 2, have I shown how the terminals, c and z, are connected with the battery wires: brass wires are led down to them from the table B. I have shown the terminals c and z on the rest, but have omitted the wires to avoid crowding. I have given outlines of galvanometers and electro-magnets on all the instruments, that the connections may be traced. From the earthwire E, a wire goes to all-to Nos. 1, 2, and 3, it passes direct, to 4 and 5 it arrives by a circuitous course, by the intervention of the turn-plates a b c. The wires that go from the lefthand side of the galvanometer all lead up the line, or toward London. Those from the right-hand side lead down the line, or from London. This may be seen by tracing the wires on the plan. When the wires cross in the plan, it must be understood that they do not touch each other. We can easily enough trace the wires that go uninterruptedly upward to the table A; but it requires some further description to understand what happens to those whose course is through a turn-plate. "' The turn-plate c is for putting the Maidstone branch in communication with London; the double action turn-plate a is for putting the superintendent's instrument into connecting with either London or Dover; the turn-plate b is for connecting both wires, either up or down the line, with the same needle coil, in the cases of connection between the line wires. I have not been able to give here a section of their cylinders, as the plan is on too small a scale. We will, however, show their application by tracing wire 1; first, while the through communication between London and Dover is open; and, secondly, when communication is established between London and Maidstone. " Our first example will be the course of a signal passing from London to Dover. I have marked out this course by small arrow-heads. It enters the station by wire 1 up, the first wire to the left; it is led to the left side of the turn-plate a, which it enters by the second terminal; it passes throzugh the box and the cylinder, and out on the other side by the terminal immediately opposite: the cylinder in this position has a bit of brass for this wire inlaid on either side, and connected by a brass bolt running through the cylinder. The current now passes in a direct line to the turn-plate b, entering it by the second ter

Page  238 238 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. minal on the left-hand side, and passing in the direction of the contiguous arrow-head, leaving it by the first or upper terminal on the same side. In this drum, when thus arranged, there is inlaid a slip of brass, of sufficient length to allow the springs of both these terminals to press upon it. The current now goes on to turn-plate c, which it enters by the first or upper terminal on the left, and comes out by the second on the same side, the connection being exactly similar to that last described. It now pursues its course without interruption, to the telegraph instrument, which it enters on the left-hand side of the left-hand coil: it circulates around the coil; and, on leaving it, circulates round the coil of the electro-magnet belonging to the alarum. Its course is then to the upper terminal on the right-hand side of turn-plate b, coming out by the second terminal on the same side, and so leaving the station to continue its course to Dover by down wire No. 1, u. " We will now trace the course of the same up-wire 1, when the turn-plate c is so turned that London is put in communication with Maidstone. The current pursues the same course as before, until it arrives at the turn-plate c: it now enters it by the upper terminal on the left side, and passing through the box and drum, leaves it by the upper terminal on the right side; it then descends to the left-hand side of the lefthand coil of the Mlaidstone instrument, No. 4; passes round the coil, and continues its course to Maidstone by wire 3 down, which becomes the No. 1 of the Mlaidstone branch at Paddock Wood, as shown in the previous plan. But the turn-plates are so constructed, that while they make a particular connection for one part of the line, they provide perfectly for the part not so immediately concerned, by putting the wires that lead to that part in connection with the earth, and so the circuit is complete, as far as it goes. In the present instance, the same operation that turns 1 and 2 up-wires to Maidstone, connects the earth with the up side of the through instrument, and the communication is thus kept perfect between Dover and Tunbridge on the through instrument. By following with the eye, and in the reverse direction to the arrows, the wire that comes from the left coil of the through instrument, it is traced to the second terminal of the turn-plate c; the connection there is such, that the circuit is continued through the box and cylinder to the second terminal on the opposite side: this is in connection with the lower terminal on the same side, whence a wire descends to the comlmon earth-wire. What has here been said of wire 1, equally holds good in respect to wire 2. " T'urn-plate a has allowed the circuit of wire 1 up to enter

Page  239 ARRANGEMENTS OF A STATION. 239 one side and pass over to the other; but another position of the cylinder will close this circuit, and guide the current out by the terminal next above the one at which it enters. The wire from this terminal leads to the left side of the left coil of the instrumeat, No. 5; it passes out on the right side of the coil by the wire that passes upward, and which leads along part of the Tunbridge Wells branch line, and under the Hastings road to the companion-instrument in the superintendent's study. " The action of this turn-plate may be better understood, by showing how it operates in its three positions upon the two wires that lead to it from the No. 5 instrument. When this circuit terminates at Tunbridge station the course of the current is directl/ throug/h the box where there are three terminals, each connected with the earth by a common wire. When it is to be turned on and to terminate at London, the course is out of the box on the same side it enters; and when it is to terminate in Dover the course is through the drum, but so contrived as to come out by the pair of wires that pass between the two boxes, the arrangements being such that the earth is in each case connected with the circuit not then in use. " It would occupy too much time to describe the course of the whole series of wires; but, from what has been said, the careful reader will have no difficulty in studing the disposition of each, as they are all faithfully traced and correctly numbered. And, by comparing this plan with the general plan of the line, there can be no great difficulty in connecting the special arrangements of this office wzith the general disposition of the line. 6 The mode by which both wires, either tp or cdown, are connected wvith the left needle, by turn-plate b, can be soon explained. When all is well the drurn is so presented to the springs that strips of brass connect, them in pairs, two pairs [bein?' on each side of the box.'T'hy were so connected when. we traced( the course of wile 1 just now. Suppose the wires downz the line are connected, and it is desirable to join them both on the left needle-coil inside'unbridge station: from the right-hand side of the box the top wire leads to the left needle, and the two middle wires are the down wires, we merely turn the cylinder and a long slip of brass presents itself, andl presses on the three spricns, connecting at once both wires with one needle, and leaving, the other needle out of circuit.'he same is done for the up wire by turning' the handle ini the reverse direction, and presenting the brass slip on the other side. " T'he character of the bell circuit may be further illustrated from this plan. Wire 1 from London, in its course, after pass

Page  240 240 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. ing the left needle coil of No. 1 instrument has been seen to pass the bell-coil or electro-magnet, before it left the station on its way to Dover. The magnet would act and the bell ring; but if the bell-handle were turned, the current would mostly pass across at * by the stouter wires. These wires are continued round the room, and there is another bell-handle within reach of the clerk, who can make the short circuit at 4 without leaving his desk. " The Maidstone branch bell, No. 4, is on a third wire, distinct from the needle-coil. Wire 5, D, descends to the electro-magnet; it is continued from the magnet to the ringing key; it is thence led upward, and joined to the earth-wire E', on the tablet B. The Tunbridge Wells bell-wire 9 pursues a similar course; coming, however, first to the ringing key, and then to the electro-magnet, and away thence to the earth-wire. Wire 4, u, which comes from Ryegate, performs a similar office. I have given the outline of the bell-case, and the bracket on which it stands, to which latter the ringing-key is attached. As thus described, these three bells are always in circuit, and they are so arranged at all stations that have them; but here we have supplementary apparatus by which the short circuit can be made, when the noise of the bell, ringing for other stations, would interrupt business here. " Fittings such as we have now described exist in all stations, limited in each according to the requirements of the station. But from this hasty sketch the most careless reader will have seen what great facilities may be gained by well-arranged means of intercommunication between the instruments. I might have enlarged upon the capabilities of this station, and have shown how we can take one part of a dispatch from Dover by the telegraph at one end of the table, at the same time we are sending another part on to London by that at the other; how we can cut off the line and test its character; how we can watch the variations in insulation or the augmentation of resistance, and feel out the weaker points and provide remedies; and how the eye of the chief officer of the department can command the whole line by night from his home, as well as by day from his office, and quick as thought can transmit instructions in all emergencies, in season and out of season; but I must pass on." RATE OF SIGNALLING. The rate at which newspaper dispatches are transmitted from Dover to London, is a good illustration of the perfect state

Page  241 RATE OF SIGNALLING. 241 to which the needle telegraph has attained, and of the apt manipulation of the officers in charge. The mail, which leaves Paris about mid-day, conveys to England dispatches containing the latest news, which are intended to appear in the whole impression of the morning paper. To this end, it is necessary that a copy be delivered to the editor in London about three o'clock, A. M. The dispatches are given to the telegrapher at Dover soon after the arrival of the boat, which, of course, depends on the wind and the weather. The officer on duty at Dover, having first hastily glanced through the manuscript, to see that all is clear to him and legible, calls London, and commences the transmission. The nature of these dispatches may be daily seen by reference to the Times. The miscellaneous character of the intelligence therein contained, and the continual fresh names of persons and places, make them a fair sample for illustrating the capabilities of the electric telegraph as it now is. The clerk, who is all alone, placing the paper before him in a good light, and seated at the instrument, delivers the dispatch, letter by letter, and word by word, to his correspondent in London; and, although the eye is transferred rapidly from the manuscript copy to the telegraph instrument, and both hands are occupied at the latter, he very rarely has cause to pause in his progress, and as rarely also does he commit an error. And, on account of the extremely limited time within which the whole operation must be compressed, he is not able, like the printer, to correct his copy. At London, there are two clerks on duty, one to read the signals as they come, and the other to write. They have previously arranged their books and papers; and, as soon as the signal for preparation is given, the writer sits before his manifold book, and the reader gives him distinctly word for word as it arrives: meanwhile, a messenger has been dispatched for a cab, which now waits in readiness. When the dispatch is completed, the clerk who has received it, reads through the manuscript of the other, in order to see that he has not misunderstood him in any word. The hours and minutes of commencing and ending are noted, and the copy being signed, is sent under official seal to its destination, the manifold facsimile being retained as the office copy, to authenticate verbatim what has been delivered. This copy and the original meet together at the chief telegraph office at Tunbridge, early in the day, and are compared. When the work is over, and the dispatches have reached their destination, the clerks count over the number of words and the number of minutes, and find the rate per minute. From twelve to fifteen words per minute has become 16

Page  242 242 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. a very ordinary rate; seventeen or eighteen words per minute is of very common occurrence, and even twenty words. Indeed, when all is well, and the insulation is good, seventeen or eighteen words is likely to be the average. In 1849, Mr. Walker selected eleven messages, the minimum of which was 73 words, and the maximum was 364 words. The aggregate number of words was 2,638. The total time occupied in the transmission of these eleven messages was 162 minutes, making an average of 16- words per minute. In 1854, while I was in London, Mr. Foudrinier, the secretary of the Electric Telegraph Company, instituted an inquiry in regard to the celerity of the signalling then in practice. He selected eleven messages, containing in the aggregate 244 words, and the time required to transmit them was 689 seconds, or at the rate of 21A words per minute. This trial was made on the English double-needle telegraph. At this experiment, the minimum celerity was 164 words per minute, and the maximum was 24- words per minute. While visiting the office of the Magnetic Telegraph Company, in Liverpool, in 1854, I was informed by the brothers Bright, that, with their apparatus, the average celerity attained at a trial was 27} words per minute; the maximum was 37- words per minute. The apparatus used by the Magnetic Company is described elsewhere in this work, as employing magneto-electricity. An opinion is entertained by the friends of this improvement, that the increased celerity in the last experiments cited, was owing to the use of this species of electricity. THE STRAND TELEGRAPH STATION. I have explained to the reader the arrangement of the wires in a station, and there is but little left for me to say in regard to the operating department. Fig. 1 is a view of the operating room of the telegraph office on the Strand, Charing Cross, London. I have visited this office frequently, and I recognize the drawing as very correct. In this office, I saw several young ladies employed in the service of the company. To the right, in the figure, are two ladies seated, one of them is watching the signals, and repeating the words thus formed to the other, who is engaged in writing the message as thus given. At the centre apparatus is a male operator transmitting; and to the left is a female operator, also transmitting. In the middle, sitting by a table, is employed a clerk, preparing the messages for delivery. In front and to the left, are two male operators engaged in sending by the Bain chemical telegraph instru

Page  243 THE PUBLIC RECEIVING DEPARTMENT. 243 ments. This room is on the second floor. On the first floor is the public reception-room. Figs. 2 and 3 have been already described. THE PUBLIC RECEIVING DEPARTMENT. Fig. 4. I -_-'" _' /iU ljllf[! / The public business room of the station is separate from the operating department. Fig. 4 represents the receiving room of the great Lothbury station, London. In this room will be found IMII ii -- The public business room of the station is sepaiate from the, operating depaitment. Fig. 4 repiesents the receivang ioom of the great Lothbury station, London. In this room will be found

Page  244 244 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. one or more clerks for the reception of dispatches from the public. Arrangements are made to give the public an opportunity to prepare their messages in private; no one can overlook and see what another is writing. Great regard has been given to this subject. Blanks are furnished, and upon these blanks are written the message desired to be sent, and all dispatches offered must be signed by the sender. If messages are brought into an office on plain paper, the person bringing such is requested to copy the communication upon the printed forms provided by the company. If it is not copied or written on the company's forms, it is refused. If the customer cannot write, one of the company's clerks copies the message, reads it to the customer, keeps the original, and obtains the signature or mark of the person, at the foot of the company's paper. The message is then sent, the company being free from liability. Printed forms have been used by the telegraph companies in England from the first established lines. The difference of cost between ordinary paper and the printed forms is very small, and the printed headings facilitate the registration; and the defined position of the address from and to, and of the body of the message, materially aids the instrument clerk in forwarding the communication. To all good customers small books of forms are issued. Larger books lie at the places of general resort (such as the exchanges, reading rooms, &c., &c.); while casual customers find forms ready at the company's offices upon counters of a height suited for writing, when standing, and subdivided into spaces, with fluted glass screens between each, to prevent, as before stated, any person seeing another's message. As a commercial affair the companies regard the use of the blank forms as indispensably necessary, so that the stipulations thereon printed shall become the conditions upon which the company agrees to send the message, and upon which the sender presents the same for transmission, all duly signed by him. When the message is thus presented, every condition contained on the blank forms a contract. Being legally signed by the sender completes it upon his part. The reception of the money for its transmission by the company, completes the contract by both parties. They are from that moment bound and responsible according to the stipulations therein set forth, and from which neither party can recede without the consent of the other. The company's cashier quickly counts the words in the body of the message (the address not being included, but passing

Page  245 THE PUBLIC RECEIVING DEPARTMENT. 245 free), endorses the message, and writes a receipt of the amount; the customer is handed the receipt, upon the money being paid. Parties sending messages are advised to write them distinctly; and the cashier reads the message, in order to see that the writing is legible, before handing it through to the instrument room. The cashier enters upon a list, opposite to the consecutive number of the message, the amount received; and, onbeing passed through to the instrument rooml, the lad receiving the message marks the number upon a similar list, and sends the message to the instrument for which it is intended. The clerk at the instrument then dispatches it to or toward its destination, receiving an affirmative or negative signal after each word; if the latter, the word is repeated, not having been rightly understood by the receiving clerk at the distant station. So commencing the message, the sending clerk signals the number of words the message contains (previously inscribed on the paper by the cashier), and, as soon as completed, the receiving clerk's writer counts the number of words received, to see that the message is correct as to length; and, as will have been seen, the "understand" or "not understand" signals after each word, check the words themselves-admitting, when the system is carefully carried out, of little possibility of mistake. In the foregoing I have embodied the routine observed in the chief stations. In small stations, where there is no great influx of messages, the checking is not carried out to such an extent. As soon as the message has been sent, it is returned to the checking lad, who files it, and draws his pen through its consecutive number, to intimate that, as far as the due forwarding is concerned, the company have performed their duty, and it is his business to see that the signal clerk has endorsed upon the document the time at which he sent it, the station to which he signalled it, and his initials. By such an arrangement all chance of a message being mislaid is avoided; as, if the communication is not returned in a quarter of an hour to have its number marked off the list, it is the duty of the checking clerk to inquire after it, and to ascertain why it has not been dispatched. Very little time is lost in such an arrangement, and the chance of error of any nature greatly diminished.

Page  246 246 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. BUSINESS FORMS OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPHS. I annex a series of blank forms used by the respective telegraph companies in Great Britain. They are herein presented in their adopted form, and about the same size, as those in use by the lines in England. I also give the blank receipts and account forms. Document A is a blank form, which is used by the public in the presentation of a message, to be transmitted by the telegraph company. The two pages represent the face of the blank form in which the message is written, and the heading is to be filled by the company's clerk. The. patron signs the message. Documents B and C are printed on the back of the sheet on which the message is written, represented by document A. These forms present the tariff of insurance and assumed responsibility. Document D is the head or caption of a message as sent to the public. The face of the sheet is about the size of the usual letter paper, only half of the blank being represented by document D. Document E is a blank used by the companies for messages received from a distant office, and which is to be transmitted further by another line. The size of this blank is the same as document A, only half of the sheet being represented. The forms at the bottom of the page are to be filled, and then sent to the next line. In order to prevent confusion, the blanks are printed in different colored inks. Document F is the form of an account sent out with the messenger, accompanying a message for collection. Document G is the form of a receipt given the customer, on the reception of his message for transmission, at the counter of the comDany by the cashier.

Page  247 rH~~~~~~ ~s Doe. R. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY. CONDITIONS A'S TO UNINSURED MESSAGES. The Public are informed that, in order to provide against Mistakes in the transmission of MESSAGES by the ELECTRIC a TELEGRAPH, every Message of consequence ought to be REPEATED by being sent back from the Station at which it is to be re- ceived, to the Station from which it is originally sent. Half the usual price for transmission will be charged for repeating the Message. > The Company will not be responsible for Mistakes in the transmission of unrepeated Messages, from whatever cause they may arise. r Nor will the Company be responsible for Mistakes in the transmission of a repeated Message, nor for delay in the transmission or de- H livery, nor for non-transmission or non-delivery of any Message, whether repeated or unrepeated, to any extent above ~5, unless it be 0Z insured. Correctness in the transmission of Messages can be Insured at the following rates in addition to the usual charge for repetition - ~ s. d. ~s. d. s. d. For any Sum up to ~100.......... 1 0 0 Above ~400 to ~500.5.00... Above ~700 to ~ 800.......... 800 Above ~100 to ~200..........200 ~500 to ~600............. 600 ~800 to ~ 900..... 900 0 ~200 to ~300.0........ 0 600 to ~700............. 7 0 0 900 to 1000.......... 10 0 0 ~300 to ~400........400 and 20s. for every ~100, or fraction of ~100 above that sum; and the Company will not be responsible for any amount beyond the sum for which the Message is insured and the rates paid.-The Company will not be responsible in any case for delays arising from interruptions in the working of their Telegraphs. J. L. RICARDO, Chairman.

Page  248 ,0 Dec. P. 1. THIE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY. STATION Prefix —- --- Code Time -- -- - No.-... Message..... " 3 Rcie - 1 Date ___ —185 —-5 - -- --- —.__ 18 Repeating...... 0 Received - -__ —.. ——.7m Reply........... Fini-f Sent to. —-.. -_.. ----—.-....___-. —-. Station, t Finished Snt to.Statioz. Porterage.......' rg^-.. — I by me - ------- - -- Clerk. To be paid out.,. (All numbers must be written at length in words.) Total....' PLEASE TO SEND THE FOLLOWING UNINSURED MESSAGE ACCORDING TO THE CONDITIONS ENDORSED HEREON. PF1OMA TO "' Ia m 0 Name and f Name and ____ _-dress of the --------------- Address of Person to J the Sender P whom the of the iles- ____ —- -Mess.age is. -------- ------------------------- sage. to be deliv- - — ered. ------.- --------------------------------------------- _...................................... o ________________ _______________..__________.... ___________ ___________

Page  249 0 ^- ---------------------------------------- -------— " ------ ----------- __ ------- ----------—. - ~- ~ — --- ------- 0 ]3> efore Signing, please to see that the S i'gnature amount to be chaged for the Message is and ---------- ------------------------------- fo correctly entered above, and on the receipt, (Address of i~ > and read the endorsed Conditions. ) Sender. ( -__. ~___~____ ~_________, _~____... ~ ~ __. J~ ~~~~~~The Company will not be answerable for Errors caused by indistinet writing. bso PI:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~^ ---------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------- - ~ —------------------------------------- ---- ---- ---- --- ---- ---- ---- --- ---- ---- ---- --- D3~ efore Signing~, please to see that the a r am ount to be charged for the PM essage is ------------------------ --------------------- coirrectly entered above, and on the receiptl, Address of and read t~he endorsjed Conditions. Sender - --------------------------------------------- The CompaLny will not be answerable for Eirrors caused by indistinct writing. N ~~~~~~~~D P~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Q

Page  250 8Doe. C. 2 NOTICE.-Messages to be sent to any places beyond the extent of the Company's Lines or Stations, will be delivered by the Company's officers at their C terminal Station mentioned in the subjoined request, to such parties as may have charge of the further means of conveyance; but it is expressly provided that the Company are in no case to be held responsible for the transmission or delivery of the Message beyond the terminal Station in such request mentioned. 0 KS|p~~~~~~ ~(REQUEST.) z I request that this Mlessage may be forwardedfront the Company's Office at —--- ------------------------- ----- (being the Terminal Station of the Company) by — __ —______-_____-_____________________ 55 ______ ___- -_- __ to the address mentioned therein, subject to the above conditions, and have deposited —-______________________________________.__to be appliedfor that purpose. ~~~Signed_____-.-.-,,_,,,_,,,__ —0___ Signed ------------------------— z —------

Page  251 ^Sg ~~~~~~Daoc. D. THIE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY. Code) No. of) C (g __e LONDON STATION. __Time___ Words) _______ g Received g the following At h_ -- m the ___ day of _ 185 ~ ^ Message Signed _______________Clerk. m From To Namc_ — Name —------------------------------------------------------- zAddress - ------------ ddress __ VV1 No inquiry respecting this Message can be attended to without the production of this paper,

Page  252 252 INTERIOR OF THE ENGLISH TELEGRAPH STATIONS. *I M 44 F 0 I S I I~~ I tQ( Eq~~~~I It1 cry~~~~~~r I 1 Pd~~~~~~~~~~~r 0~~ ~~ ___! fx'~~~~~~~~~0 ~ ~ F 41 X 8 C3 I*4 0i ^ < 0w ~ oa~ rJ E~~~~~0~~~~4~ 0 0 ^~ ~ g Ie i 0 0 0 I l Q _ _ _ Coj 1s'^- r I 0 ^I.!.~ I 64~& ~ 00 ^) 00 0~~~~ a 0 0 H g I " s

Page  253 Doc. F. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY. No. - 185 5' 5. g ~ Q M \^j^g ~~~~~~~~~o 3n (1 Messengers Name- ---— __. _______________________ -— __________ Sent out.... - --.-_.-_~M. - - - z Received atFor --- — _____ —- - — M. ftHr0c. " - Returned at__M. I. / |' {>p, 5' p Signature of Receiver__________ Charges to Pay. Clerk's Initials. c_ —-- 3 —-.-^-_ - — _ -. C;

Page  254 Doc. G. P S ^THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH COMPANY LONDON STATION. Date — 185 Time No. of) No. _____________- received, -_________ - Words. -..-.. g |Ro~~~~~~~~~ Message c c Porterage "' Paid out " t" - ------- __ -------- - -- - T | — - - - - -- - - - - - --- - - -Total " a ^>S 0 —------------------------------------------------- S - -- — To _-_- Signed-_.Cle rk

Page  255 AVY'S ELECTRO CHEMI CAL TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XVI. Nature of the Invention described-The Transmitting Apparatus-The Receiver -The Instruments combined-The Manipulation-The Signal Alphabet. NATURE OF THE INVENTION DESCRIBED. ON the 4th of July, 1838, was sealed a patent to Mr. Edward Davy, of England, for an electric telegraph, which combined the fundamental elements of subsequent chemical systerms. The patent was very extensive, and embraced many valuable improvements in the art. It was bought by the Electric Telegraph Company of England, but never used. The following outline description of the invention will serve to give an idea of its combinations: Three wires were to be used, and points of metal wire were to be caused to press, by means of the motion of magnetic needles, upon chemically prepared fabric at the distant or receiving station. The fabric to be employed was calico or paper, and it was to be moistened with a solution of hydriodate of potash and muriate of lime. The motion of a needle to the right caused a mark to be made on one part of the fabric, and the motion of the same needle to the left, caused a mark to be made on another part of the fabric; and the same for each needle attached to the respective wires. Thus the single or combined marks were made to express letters or other desired symbols. THE TRANSMITTING APPARATUS. Fig. 1 represents a top view of the arrangement of the wires, mercury cups, and batteries of the transmitting station. The close parallel lines represent the wires, of which D A B and 255

Page  256 256 DAVY'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. c are those which proceed to the receiving station. 1' 2' and 3' are the three batteries, of which P and N are their respective Fig. 1. D,..D 7. - _ 0 K 3==-=A30 2- Ni 40 ^__ ^ ~5 0 50 - &-6 U7 60 < poles. The small circles formed at the termination of the wires, and marked 7, 1, 10, 2, 20, &c., are mercury cups, in which the terminating wires are immersed. The wires 1 and 20, and 2 and 10, &c., which cross each other, are no in contact, but perfectly insulated. The wires shown in this figure are all Fig 2. C 1 8 9secured permanent, with teir m y cs to oe secured permanently, with their mercurey cups to one common base-board. The letters H J K M o and u represent the places of the six finger-keys used in transmitting signals. There is

Page  257 TIHE TRANSMITTING APPARATUS. 257 also another key at 7, for uniting the wire D and D. In this figure, however, the keys themselves are omitted, in order to render more clear the arrangement of wires under and around them. Another figure, 2, is here introduced to illustrate the plan of one set of wires and their two keys. In fig. 2 is represented, in a top view, the two wooden keys, A and B, and their axes, at E and P. G is the battery, of which 9 is the positive pole, and 10 the negative pole. The small circles, marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, represent the mercury cups. c and c', and also D, are the extended wires. The keys, A and B, have each two wires, passing at right angles through the wooden lever. The wires of the key A are marked 1 and 2, and 5 and 6, and those of the key B are marked 3 and 4, and 7 and 8. These wires, directly over the mercury cups, are bent down a convenient length, so as to become immersed in the cups, when the lever is depressed, and rise out of them, when the lever is elevated. Now, if the key A is depressed, the cup 1 is brought in connection with cup 2; and 5 is connected with 6 by the wires, supported by the lever, being immersed in the mercury; and the key B not being depressed, there is no connection of the cup 3 with 4, or 7 with 8. At x and x, under the lever, are springs, which keep the lever elevated, and, consequently, the wires out of the cups, when the keys are not pressed down. Fig. 3. Cl CC Fig. 3 represents a side view of the lever or key A, and its axis at E. R is the platform supporting the standard of the axis, the stationary wires, the battery G, and the mercury cups, ac and 10. x is the spiral spring, for the purpose of carrying back the lever, after the finger is taken off, and sustaining it in its elevated position. Through the centre of the spiral passes a rod, with a head upon it at the top of the lever, to limit its upward motion. At its lower end, the rod is secured in the platform R. 4 and 8 are the two wires supported by the lever A, and are seen to project down directly over the mercury cups, a and a, so that by depressing the key, they both enter the cups 17

Page  258 25)8 DAVY'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. and form a metallic connection. The key B, fig. 2, has the same fixtures, and is similarly arranged as the key A, fig. 3. THE RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. Fig. 4 represents a top view of the arrangement of multipliers at the receiving station. R/ R' R/ and R R R are six magnetic needles or bars, each of which move freely on a vertical axis passing through their centres. The lower point of their axes is immersed in cups of mercury, in which also terminate the wires i i I and L, LI L. The wires D' A' B' and c' are Fig. 4. t-j7 -- ---- ]' i- those coming from the transmitting' station. A' B/ and c' each enter the needle arrangement, and first passing from left to right over the magnetic bars i' R' and R', in the direction of their length, then down and under and round, making many turns, leave these three needles and pass under the needles R R and R, and in like manner from right to left round them, making a number of turns, then pass off and unite together in the wire 9, which is a continuation of D". This wire is called the common communicating wire, and the wires A/ B' and c/ are called signal wires, though they too are occasionally common communicating wires. At right angles, there projects from each magnetic bar a metallic tapered arm, which rests aoainst the studs v v v v v v, when the needle is undisturbed. But when the needles are made to move in the direction to carry the arms

Page  259 TIE INSTRUMENTS COMBINED. 259 to the left, they are brought in contact with the metallic stops s s s and T T T. To each of these stops, it will be observed, a wire is soldered, and continued respectively from s s s to 1 3 5, and from T T T to 2 4 6. It will also be observed, that, from each of the mercury cups below the- magnet bars, the wires I and L and I and L, and I and L proceed and unite in pairs at I, L L; these three united wires are then continued, and the whole are joined in one at 8. The wires 1 2 3 4 5 6 are continued, in a manner hereafter to be described, and are connected with one pole of a battery. The wire 8 is also continued and connected with the other pole. So that if any one of the needles should be made to move its arm to the left, thereby coming in contact with its metallic stop, the circuit would be complete, and the current would pass along the wire l, for example, to the metallie stop, then to the arm, and to the magnetic bar, then to the axis, then to the mercury, then to the wire I, and thence to the wire 8. In the same manner the current wTould pass, if any other arm was brought against its metallic stop. THE INSTRUMENTS COMBINED. In order to understand the combined operation of the keys and needles, fig. 5 is here introduced. The right-hand figure is the same as fig. 4, and the left hand the same as fig. 1. Fig. 5. Transmitting Station. Part of Receiving Station. D — - V- -' x"ru___.'I u'"N / 2 J 20 - i — 2 -0 - M 40 ^ ^S T _U-6'U 60' -

Page  260 260(} DAVY S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPI. The wires D" A' B' and c' are detached. from their corresponding wires of the transmitting station, and it may be imagined that many miles of wire intervene and connect the two. In the left-hand figure, those mercury cups above and below 1 and 10, are joined by two wires passing through a moving lever, in the same manner as has been described in fig. 2. We will. therefore, call the key carrying these two connecting wires H. In like manner the key for the cups above and below the numbers 2 and 20, is called J; for 3 and 30, is K; for 4 and 40, is Ai; for 5 a.nd 50, is o; for 6 and 60 is u. The key which connects the two mercury cups on the right and left of number 7, of the wire "', is called 7. There are 7 keys, two for each battery, 1' 2' and 3', and each wire A/ B/ c', and one for the common wire D'. It will now appear, that if the key u and 7 are depressed, the cups above and below numbers 6 and 60, and the cups on each side of number 7, will be connected together, so that the current leaving p, or the positive pole of the battery 3', goes to the lower cup 50; then by the stationary cross-wire to upper cup 6; then passes to lower cup 6, by the wire supported by the lever u, which is now pressed down, and its ends immersed in the two cups; then along the wire D, to the left-hand cup 7; then to the right-hand cup 7, by the wire supported by the lever 7, and which is immersed in the two cups; then through the extended wire to D, of the receiving' station; then through 9, t the two multiplying coils of the wire c', deflecting the arm of the needle R to the right, against the stop v, and the arm of the needle R/ to the left, against the metallic stop s, as indicated by the arrow at s; then along the extended wire, back to the lower cup 60, of the transmitting station; then to upper cup 60, through the wire supported by the lever u; then to N, the negative pole of the battery 3'. It will be observed of the two needles, R and R', in the circuit of the same wire c', that if R is deflected to the right against the stop v, then R/ will be deflected to the left against the metallic stop s. The current, to produce these deflections, is through the wire c', in the contrary direction to that indicated by the arrow of wire c'. But if R is deflected to the left against the metallic stop T, then R' will be deflected to the right against the stop v. The current to produce these deflections will then be through the wire c', in the direction of the arrow of that wire. The same effect is produced upon the two other pairs of needles of the wires A', and also B'. These contrary movements of the two needles, when a current is passing, are produced by the coils being so wound (as described with fig. 4), that the wire passes round one needle in a contrary direction to what it does round the other.

Page  261 PROCESS OF MANIPULATION. 261 THE MANIPULATION DESCRIBED. If the keys o and 7 be depressed, the cups above and below, 5 and 50, and on each side of number 7, will be connected. The fluid will then pass from P, or positive pole of the battery 3', to the lower cup 50; then through the key wire to upper cup 50; then along the extended wire c" to the receiving station; then through the coils of the multipliers, deflecting the arm of the needle R to the left against the metallic stop T; and the arm of the needle R' to the right against the stop v, as indicated by the arrow at v; then to wire 9 and D"'; then along the extended wire back to the transmnitting station, to the right hand cup 7; then by the key wire to the left-hand cup 7; then to wire D; then to upper cup 5, and through the key wire to lower cup 5; then by the cross wire to upper cup 60, and then to N, or negative pole of the battery. It has now been shown the route of the current, when the keys u and 7, and the keys o and 7 were depressed. It will be observed, that when the keys u and 7 were used, the current through the wire D'/ was from left to r^ight; and when the keys o and 7 were used, the current was from right to left. Thus, by means of the six keys, the current of each battery may be made to pass in either direction through the commnon communicating wire D". By the keys u M J, with 7, the current is made to pass from left to right along the wire D". By the keys o K H, with 7, the current is made to pass from right to left along the wire D"'. By these six keys all those various deflections of the six needles are produced, which are necessary to close the circuit of such of the wires 1 2 3 4 5 6, with the wire 8, as are required for making the signals desired, on an instrument now to be described. Fig. 6 represents a top view of that part of the instrument at the receiving station, by which the signals are recorded. The seven wires on the left of the figure are a continuation of these wires, marked 1 2 O 4 5 6 and 8, in fig. 5. The first six pass through a wooden support, b b, and terminate on the edge of the platinum rings a a a a a and a, formling a metallic contact. The six platinum rings surround a wooden insulating cylinder t, which revolves upon axes in the standards h and i. The rings are broad where they come in contact with the wooden roller, and are bevelled to an edge where they come in contact with the six wires. Y represents a compound battery, with one pole of which wire 8, from the needle arangement, fig. 5, is connected, and from the other pole the wire proceeds to the electro-magnet z z; it then passes on, and is brought in connec

Page  262 262 DAVY S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. tion w-ith the metallic cylinder d, at the point g. The cylinder d revolves upo n an axis, and is supported in the standards k and 1. To the cylinder is attached a ri'. G. Irbarrel n, upon which is wound a cord, supporting the weight e, by which the cylinder is made _- — ~>z~ to revolve. c' c' represents a, prepared fabric, such as calico, ~ W- 7 1 ~impregnated with hydriodate? ~ - -J of potash and muriate of lime, -(- ( =,and is placed between the pla~ = - - - ) tinumn ringsa a a a a a, and the * _ - metallic cylinder d; o is a cog- _; T I it wheel upon the end of the axis __ =H - l 1 - of the cylinder d, and is connect-': - 1-~l -1 1 1 1ed with other machinery, omitted here, but shown in fig. 7, b - EL- g Ill -l I, which is a side elevation of part b2 I- -I' -7k o of fig. 6; o is the cog-wheel, -"I ~'Y fig. 7, on the arbor of the cylin=f "IN r der d. B and n3 are the two _~j e^"\s^ ^^^-A_ = sides of the frame containing the clock work, and is secured to the platforim n; d is part only of the metallic cylinder, upon which is seen a portion of the prepared fabric I. The cog-wheel o drives the pinion A, and the shaft of the fly-vane G. ri is an Fig. 7. S,rr i G ii __l lL end view of the electro-magnet, represented by z z, in fig. 6, of which N and p are the two ends of the wire composing the helix.

Page  263 PROCESS OF MANIPULATION. 2 6 D is its armature, constructed so as to move upon an axis represented by two small circles. To the armature are connected, and capable of moving with it, two arms, E and i, which project, so as to come in contact with the pallet a of the fly G. F is a spiral spring, one end of which is fastened to the armature D, and the other passes through a vertical hole in the screw s, in the bar T, by which the armature is held up in the position now seen, when not attracted by the electro-magnet. Now, if the wires N and P connected with battery Y, fig. 6, have their circuit closed, the current passing through the helix of the magnet M, brings down the armature D in the direction of the arrow, which raises the arm I, against which the pallet a of the fly-vane is resting, and releases the fly. It then makes a half revolution, and is again arreste e by the pallet against the lower arm E, and the cylinder D, with its fabric, has advanced a half division. If the circuit is now broken, the armature D is carried up by the spring r, at the same time the arm E releases the pallet a, and the fly makes another half revclution, and is again stopped by the arm I. The cylinder now advances another half division, making a whole division the fabric has advanced. The purposes for which this is designed will now be described. Fig. 8.. in S: -V- L 2! / <._ C' - / \ -=. - IL IE' lLI I II <II IiIl II I Fig. 8 represents a top view of the whole apparatus of the receiving station. The fabric, c'', is marked in equal divisions across it, and in six equal divisions in the direction of its

Page  264 264 DAVYYS ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. length, thus marking it into squares. Each platinum ring, a a a, &c., when the instrument is not in operation, is in contact with the fabric at the middle of the squares across the fabric. It will be observed, that the wires 1 2 3 4 5 6 are in connection with the battery Y and the circuit complete, except at the arms of the needles. Suppose, for example, the arm of the needle R' of the wire c', is brought up against the stop of the wire 5, at s, the circuit is then closed, and the current leaves the battery, and passes to the electro-magnet, causing the cylinder and fabric to move half a division, then to the metallic cylinder d; then through the fabric c' c', resting upon the cylinder, where it is in contact with the platinum ring a, of the wire 5, then to the platinum ring, then to wire 5, then to the metallic stop s, then to the arm of the needle R', along its axis to the mercury, then to the wire i, then to the wire 8, and to the other pole of the battery Y. Thus the current is passed through the prepared fabric, and a mark produced thereon in the middle of its square. If the circuit is now broken, the cylinder moves another half division, which will bring the rings to the centre of the squares, ready for the next signal. But one battery, Y, is used for all the six circuits, formed with the wire 8, so that, when three of the circuits are closed at the same instant, as will be shown hereafter, the current passes through the three wires of their respective circuits, making each their appropriate mark upon the fabric. I will now proceed to describe the manner of operating with the two instruments, at their respective stations: and, first, I will here designate each needle by its own peculiar mark of reference. Let the two needles upon the wire A' be denoted by A s and A T; those of the wire B' by B s and T; and those of the wire c', by c s and c T. It will appear obvious, from the foregoing description, that but one needle of each uir e, A' B' c', can be made to close its circuit at the same instant. However, two needles, or three needles of different wzuies, may close their circuits at the same instant, but no higher number than three. The various combinations of one mark, two marks, and three marks, upon the same row of six cross divisions of the fabric, constitute the characters representing letters. Fig. 9 represents the transmzitting station, which may be supposed to be London, and fig. 10 the 9receiving' station, which may be at Bilrminngham2, with four wires extending from station to station, or three only, if the grozund be substituted for the wire D". Now, if the keys be depressed, the following deflections of the two needles of each key will be produced:

Page  265 Fig. 9. Fig. 10. LONDON- Transmitting Station. BIRTMING-IAM-Receiving Station. 7o -1 ~Ii 1?? D^ T^ IID -=~2 J - -o~ ^ ---- ~-~ s ~ on3_ ~o ^^-p s II Ho A0 = 2==o6-U~~~~~~~ Os-o-O~~ 2O 3- - 9.__ O 83 LB i-I' i " U==O~ t M 1 1

Page  266 266 DAVY S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. THE SIGNAL ALPHABET. The keys, H 7, move the arm, A S, to the right, A T, to the left. J7, "7 AS, " left, AT, " right. " K 7, B S, " right, B T, " left. M 7, B S, " left, B T, " right. 0" 7, " C S, " right, C T,' left. " U7, " C GS, " left, C T,' right. These are all the various deflections which it is possible to give the six needles. Those, however, which deflect to the right, not closing the circuit, produce no effect, and are of no account. I will, therefore, omit them, and simply give the table, thus: The keys, H 7, move the arm A T, to the left. No. 1. " JJ 7, A S, " 2. (" K 7, " B T, " " 3. " M 7, " B, " " 4. L" 07, " CT, " " 5. " UU 7, " C S, 6" 6. Telegrcaphic Letters. 1, e e e e.... 3 e #e o I e e 1 1 4 o o A B C D E F G H I J K L Ml N 0 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The above represents the telegraphic characters marked upon the prepared fabric. The spaces are numbered from the top. The first six of the telegraphic letters require each a signal wire, and the common wire D, with one battery. The next six require each two signal wires, with two batteries, whose joint currents pass in the same direction on the common wires D. The next six require each two signal wires only, with two batteries joined together, so as to form a compound battery; the negative pole of one connected with the positive pole of the other. The next two require each three signal wires, with three batteries, whose joint currents pass in the same direction along the common wire D. The next six require each three signal wires only, with three

Page  267 THE SIGNAL ALPHABET. 267 batteries. One of the signal wires, with its battery, is used as a common wire for the other two. Hence the current of the two batteries of the two signal wires unite in one, and are connected with the battery of the common wire as a compound battery. In the following table, the first column represents the keys, which, when depressed, produce a deflection of the needles, represented in the second, third, and fourth columns, by means of their batteries, and thus closing the circuit of the wires, 12 3 4 5 and 6, by which the fluid is made to pass through the prepared fabric, and mark upon its space, or spaces, numbered 1 2 3 4 5 and 6, in the fifth column. In the sixth column are the letters which the marks upon the fabric are intended to represent. Keys. Needles. Needles. Needles. Spaces on Fabric. Letters, H 7, AT, - - 1, A J 7, A S, - 2, B K 7, B T, - - 3, C 7, B S, - - 4, D 0 7, T - - 5, E U 7, C, - - 6, F H K 7, AT B T, - 13, GJ M 7, A S, B, - 24, H K 0 7, B T, C T, - 35, MU 7, B S, C, - 46, J H 0 7, A T, C T, - 15, K J U 7, A S, C S, - 26, L H M, AT, B S, 1 4, A J K, A S, B T, 2 3, N K U, B T, C S, - 3 6, M O B S, C T, - 45, P H U, A T, C S, - 16, Q J O, A S, C T - 25, R H K 0 7, A T, B T, C T, 3 5, S J M U 7, AS, B' S, C S, 246, T H KU, AT, BT, CS, 136, U J M 0, AS, B S, C T 2 4 5, V H I U, AT, B S, S, 14 6, W J K U, AS, B T, CS, 236, X H O, AT, B S, CT, 4 5, Y J KO, AS, BT, CT, 234, Z The patent of Mr. Davy embraces the following claims, which will be found to be very important, in regard to the

Page  268 268 DAVY'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. combination of electric circuits. The claims are as fol. lows, viz.: First. The mode of obtaining suitable metallic circuits for transmitting communications or signals by electric currents, by means of two or more wires, which I have called signal wires, communicating with a common communicating wire, and each of the signal wires having a separate battery, and, if desired, additional batteries, for giving a preponderance of electric currents through the common communicating wire, as above described. Secondly. I claim the employment of suitably prepared fabrics for receiving marks by the action of electric currents for recording telegraphic signals, signs, or comunications, whether the same be used with the apparatus above described, or otherwise. Thirdly. I claim the mode of receiving signs or marks in rows across and lengthwise of the fabric, as herein described. Fourthly. I claim the mode of making telegraphic signals or communications froml one distant place to another, by the employment of relays of metallic circuits, brought into operation by electric currents. Fifttly. The adapting and arranging of metallic circuits in making telegraphic communications or signals, by electric currents, in such manner, that the person making the communication shall, by electric currents and suitable apparatus, regulate or determine the place to which the signals or comlmunications shall be conveyed. Sixthly. I claim the mode of constructing the apparatus which I have called the escapement, whether it be applied in the manner shown, or for other purposes, where electric currents are used for communicating from one place to another. Seventhlly. I claim the mode of constructing the galvanometer herein described. And, lastly, I claim such parts as I have herein pointed out, as being useful for other purposes, as above described.

Page  269 BAIN'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XVII. DESCRIPTION OF THE PRINTING TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. ON an examination of English authorities for the preparation of this work, I have been very often surprised to find the many ingenious contrivances invented by lMr. Alexander Bain. He was not a commercial man, but his inventive powers were most wonderful. He has given to the world some invaluable inventions in various departments of the sciences and arts. As early as 1840, [Mr. Bain was active in the production of a printing telegraph, of which full accounts are to be found in the various publications. I present the following as a description of his printing apparatus: The figure overleaf exhibits the arrangements of M1r. Bain's telegraph. Imagine two figures the same, one representing the Portsmouth, and the other the London station. The same letters will refer to either instrument: d, i and h represent the signal dials, insulated from the machine. x is a hand or pointer. The small dots represent twelve holes in the dial, corresponding with the twelve signals, and two blanks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. u is a similar hole over the starting point of the hand, x. R is a coil of wire, freely suspended on centres. K K is a compound permanent magnget placed within the coil, and immovably fixed upon the frame of the machine. J and J are sections of similar permanent magnets. s is a spiral spring (and there is another on the opposite side) which conveys the electric current to the wire coil, and at the same time leaves the coil free to move in obedience to the magnetic influence. So long as the electricity is passing, the wire coil continues to be deflected, but the instant the electric current is broken, the springs, s, bring back the coil to its naturCal position. L is an arm fixed to and carried by the wire coil, R and R, to stop the rotation of the machinery. B is a main spring barrel, acting on the train of wheels, G, n and I, which communicate motion to the governor, iv, and the hand, x. 2;69

Page  270 270 3AIN'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. On the arbor of the wheel, 11, is fixed a type wheel, c, at a little distance from the paper cylinder, A, on which the messages are to be imprinted. P is a second main spring barrel, with its train of wheels, MI, o. is a fly, or vane. On the arbor of the wheel, o, there is a crank, v, and the two pallets, a and b, which prevent the train of wheels fiom rotating, by ~L _ _ -j ~_iB,_, iI: _ (I' 0d~~~~~~~~~~ 10~~~~~~~J' 11gY - -- --- 1 1 - coming in contact v with the lever, z. When the telegraph is not at work, a current of electricity is constantly passing from the Portsmouth plate, buried in the ground, through the moisture of the earth, to the plate in the ground at the London station. From the copper plate of that station the electric current passes up through the freely suspended mnultipying coils, R and R (which it deflects to the horizontal position), [~~~~~~~ H] ~~~l~~~~~pj,O ~~~~~~~~~~\i) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ K~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Page  271 DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS. 271 into the machinery, and thence to the dial, by means of a metal pin inserted in the hole, v; from the dial it passes by a single insulated conducting wire, 1, suspended in the air, back to the first machine; traversing which, it passes through the freely suspended multiplied coil, R and R, which it deflects, also, to the horizontal position to the plate from which it started, and thus completes the circuit. When a communication is to be transmitted from either end of the line (one station only being able to transmit at a time), the operator draws out the metal pin from the hole, u, in the dial of his machine; the electric circuit is then broken, and the ends of the multiplying coils, R and R, at both stations, are carried upward, in the direction of the arrow, by the force of the spiral springs. The arms, L, attached to the two coils) moving to the right, release the lever, Y, which leaves the machinery free to rotate, and as the moving and regulating powers are the same at both places, the machines go accurately together; that is, the hands of both machines pass over similar signals at the same instant of time, and similar types are continually brought opposite to the printing cylinders at the same moment. An inspection of the wheel-work will show that this movement will have caused the governor, w, to make several revolutions, and the divergence of the balls, in obedience to centrifugal force, will have raised one end of the lever, z, and depressed the other, which allows the pallet, a, to escape; but the rotation of the arbor is still opposed by contact with the second pallet, b. The operator having inserted the metal pin in the hole, under the signal which he wishes to communicate, the moment the hand of the dial comes in contact with it, the circuit is again completed, and both machines are stopped instantly. The governor balls, collapsing, depress the left hand end of the lever, z, clear the pallet, b, and this allows the crank spindle, v, to make one revolution. The motion of the crank by means of the crank rod, T, acting on the lever, E, presses the type against the paper cylinder, A, and leaves an impress upon the paper; at the same time, a spring, e, attached to an arm of the lever, E, takes into a tooth of the small ratchet wheel, D, on the spindle of the long pinion, F, which takes into and drives the cylinder wheel; so that the crank apparatus, going back to its former position, after impressing a letter, moves the signal cylinder forward, and presents a fresh surface to the action of the next type. As the cylinder moves round, it has also a spiral motion upward, which causes the message to be printed in a, continuous spiral line until the cylinder is filled. In order to mark, in a distinct

Page  272 272 BAIN S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. and legible manner, the letters printed by the apparatus, two thicknesses of riband, saturated with printing ink and dyed, are supported by two rollers so as to interpose between the type wheel and the cylinder (the rollers are not shown in the figure, to prevent confusion). If a second copy of the message, thus simultaneously printed at two distinct places, is desired at either, a slip of white paper is placed between the ribands to receive the imprint at the same time as the cylinder. Fig. 2. XX/// ///////////~/////////////~ ~// X -/ ~~I'd~~~~~~ Ict -' Figure 2 represents a top view of the coil and magnets of Mr. Bain's machine. B is the compound permanent magnet, with six bars. N is the north pole, and s the south pole. A A are the sides of the brass frame containing the coils; c c are the spiral springs on each side: a a is the axis of the coil: o o is a part of the frame containing the clock-work (not shown in this figure), supporting one centre of the coil, and I, a support for the other centre. N and P are the wires, one of which is in connection with the ground, and the other with the extended wire. When the circoit is closed, and the current from p pole of the battery is in the direction of the arrow above, and then through the coil to the other pole, N, in the direction of the arrow below, the end, D, of the coil will be depressed, and the end, u, will rise; reverse the current and the effect is the elevation of the end, D, of the coil, and the depression of the end, u.

Page  273 THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XVIII. Brett's Printing Telegraph-Description of the Composing Apparatus-The Printing Apparatus and Manipulation-The Compositor or Commutator described-Mr. Brett's Last Improvement. BRETT'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. THE printing telegraph system, patented by Mr. Jacob Brett, in Great Britain, is founded upon the House system, of America, and patented by Mr. Brett, in the first place, as a communication. These gentlemen, Messrs. Royal E. House, of America, and Jacob Brett, of England, some years since, co-operated together in this printing telegraph. The former patented the same or a similar apparatus, in the United States of America. After the issuing of the first English and American patents, Mr. House continued his energies in the perfection of his mechanism until he produced the beautiful and effective printing telegraph, since used on many lines in the United States. Like results attended the labors of Mr. Brett, except that the system perfected by him has not been permanently used on the lines in Europe. The following description of the machinery will serve to explain the instrument patented by Mr. Brett, and known in Europe as his printing telegraph. The apparatus comprises two essential mechanisms, the "Transmitter", or "Compositor," and the "Receiver" or "Printer." I will first describe the former. DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPOSING APPARATUS. The compositor is a key-board, having some 28 keys, and 30 or 40 may be used, if desired, arranged as in figs. 1 and 2. Above these keys is an axis, A A/, which is called the axis of the keys, bearing at its extremity a wheel R, called a circuitwheel. This wheel receives a movement from a weight p, fig. 273

Page  274 274 THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. 2, attached to a cord c, which is rolled around the drum B, having a toothed wheel R', which connects with a pinion p, placed upon the same axis as the wheel R2. This wheel RE connects Fig. 1. L| 2 3 \2[.5 i7 [I [i I l in its turn with the pinion P2. The pinion P2 is fixed upon the same axis as the wheel R3, and moves wheel R3 with its own movement; this wheel R3, in its turn, connects with a pinion P4, fixed to the vertical axis A, which turns with the fly-wheel v. The axis of keys A A"/ being fastened to the wheel R3 by a Fig. 2. QA At. Rs.In~m~n OR. i-i h h t1-.h | D A TMl1iFDA!5-l stem of lra g te m t ad system of two wheels transmitting the movement R4 and Rm at right angles, turns itself under the influence of the weight p. There are fixed upon the axis of the keys 28, 30, or 40 metallic points-analogous to the pins of a music-box, or a crank organ-about a quarter of an inch high, which represent a helix on the surface of an axis, which correspond to the letters of the alphabet, figures, and other telegraphic signals. This same axis of keys, therefore, bears at its other extremity the said wheel of the circuit R, furnished with 14, 15, or 20 teeth, and which has for its object to open and shut alternately

Page  275 TIE PRINTING APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 275 the voltaic current, consequently to interrupt and to establish the current. One of the wires fl, communicates through the printing apparatus, with the conducting wire of the line; the other wire, f, communicates with one pole of the battery. Two springs, r, r,, are in metallic contact, as well as the wires f' f~, with the two pressure screws nl n2. The first of these springs presses upon the teeth of the wheel R, the second spring presses upon the drum of the same wheel. The fly-wheel v has for its object the regulation of the whole system of the composer, in order that the axis, after having been stopped by the lowering of one of the rods under the keys, may continue its revolution until the finger ceases to press the key. The teeth correspond exactly to the rods placed in the axis, so that when the rod of a key stops the axis, by touching against the little pins of the axis; the spring, r, touches the point of one of the teeth, and the circuit is closed. Fig. 3.;.,,,/'Fig. 4. Fis. 3 and 4 epresent the printing instrument resting upon a supports. E a rep the tno electromagnets, the bar Ai A is THE aPRNTING APPARATUS AND TXNIPUEATION. Figs. 3 and 4 represent the printing instrument, resting upon a support s. E u, are the two electro-magnets, the bar A1 Al is

Page  276 276 THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. the armature; the extremities of the wire surrounding them, are fixed to the two pressure screws inserted at the base. One of these screws receives the wire coming from the composer, and the other receives the line wire. The armatures turn on a hinge around the north pole of the electro-magnet, to which they are respectively attached, and they are united by a rectangular bar B B, which bears on its middle a lever-rod or arm, T T, which the armatures draw, when they are attracted by the electromagnets. A sprin'g r, borne by one of the arms of the lever L L,, tends to elevate the rod, and to detach the armatures, when the current does not pass. The two arms of the lever L L1 form a right angled escapement-anchor, letting pass and stopping alternately the wheel R, of about three inches in diameter, and about one tenth of an inch thick, and furnished with 28, 30, or 40 teeth. Each of these teeth bears in relief a letter or point; one tooth alone remains blank to form spaces. These letters, the point, and the blank space, correspond to the letters, &c. of the cylinder of the composer. This wheel R is called a type-wheel; its anterior limb bears 14 little metallic points, about one tenth of an inch long. The prolonged arms of the escapement act upon these points. When one of the arms takes hold of a point, the other lets go another point, and this effect is reproduced at each oscillation of the armature. A weight attached to the cord c tends to turn the type-wheel constantly. When the circuit closes, the axis of the keys, as well as the type-wheel, tends constantly to turn under the action of the weight. The alternate breaking and closing of the circuit, produced by the keys, causes the armature to oscillate, and the oscillations of the armature, resisted by the action of the spring r, will give to the rod T a to-and-fro movement, which will change into an oscillatory movement the escapement anchor, and into a movement of periodical revolution of the type-wheel. The type-wheel will ordinarily make 160 revolutions in a minute, and it will stop when the rotation of the axis of the keys is stopped by the pressure of the finger upon one of the keys. The letters are printed thus: Wheel B is connected to a cylinder, upon which cylinder is enrolled a band of narrow Fig. 5. paper, the said cylinder turning around with its axis a a, resting upon two supports, s s', two pendulums or cranks b b, *iB |Jr*i~ T terminating in two eccentrics placed upon an axis, a a, perpendicular to the plane of the table, turn with the axis of the paper cylinder. By the movement of these eccentrics, fig. 5, the rotary movement of the axis

Page  277 THE PRINTING APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 277 a a becomes for these cranks a to-and-fro movement, which brings the cylinder of paper near to the type-wheel, and removes it therefrom, thus bringing it in contact with and separating it from said type-wheel alternately. It is also necessary that the cylinder of the paper should turn upon its axis, in order to present at each approach a new blank part of the paper to the type-wheel. This rotation goes on by means of the reverse escapement anchor, e1 e; the branch e1 is fastened to the frame by a point p, around which it turns as around an axis; the branch e is fixed to the rod 1, which is fastened to the axis ca of the cylinder of the paper, and is, consequently, displaced with that cylinder. Two springs press the two branches of the anchor against the teeth of a wheel attached to the cylinder of the paper; when the cylinder withdraws fiom the type-wheel, the extremity e,, pressing against the nearest tooth, causes the cylinder to turn, and the extremity e, acting as a stop, prevents the cylinder from turning backward. At the axis, around which this rotatory movement of the cylinder takes place, is a screw, fig. 5, entering into a hollow screw placed upon the support. The cylinder is displaced in the direction of its axis, so that the printed letters form upon its surface a continuous helix, so that no two letters can produce confusion, by being placed one upon the other. The most suitable substance for making a good impression is plumbago, reduced to a powder; it is placed in a groove or slot, cut upon the circumference of the roller'r, and is covered with linen. A sufficient quantity of the powder passes through the pores of the linen to ink the type. I have not yet indicated how the axis a a, with its eccentrics, is made to turn; it receives its rotation fiom a clock movement produced by a weight p2. It turns incessantly, so long as nothing stops it, and each of its revolutions brings near to and removes away alternately from the type-wheel the cylinder of the paper. It is important that it should turn only when it is desirable to print, at which time the type of the letter which we wish to fix upon the paper is in contact with the cylinder. The result is obtained thus: L1 LI is a lever fixed at its strongest extremity L2, upon an axis borne upon the frame of the apparatus, and around which it turns; the other extremity Li being bent back, presses against the posterior limb of the type-wheel, which limb is furnished with 28 points, similar to those of the anterior limb, and corresponding to the 28 letters or signs on the circumference; the bent extremity of the arm of the lever Li connects with the points, and rests upon them, rises with the point which bears it, leaves this point,

Page  278 278 THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. and falls back upon the succeeding points, &c. A metallic rod t,, fixed near the extremity La of the lever, communicates with an hydraulic apparatus, called a g'overnor, the mechanism of which I will presently describe. The object of the " governor" is to regulate the movement of the lever L1 L2, so that it rises rapidly and descends slowly with a graduated velocity. The arm of the lever Li Li bears a point or horizontal rod, p', which glides over the eccentric E, placed on the axis a, and turning with that axis. The portion of the circumference of the eccentric E, the farthest removed from the axis, is thicker, and has two notches about a quarter of an inch apart, which notches catch one after another of the points as p', so that the eccentric stops in its rotation. Now, let the point p' rest upon the portion of the eccentric nearest to the axis, the eccentric which presents to it by turns the various points of the surface, brings to it the first notch into which it falls, stopping the movement of the eccentric. The point p' cannot get out, and will not permit the eccentric to turn, except said point p' has been raised with the lever L1 L2, by one of the points of the type-wheel. After the raising of the point p, the eccentric has turned again, and bringing to the point the second stop, the movement stops a second time, and can only recommence when the point following is disengaged from the stop, at the moment when the extremity Li of the arm of the lever shall leave that of the points of the type-wheel which has raised it. The point pl will then be upon the part of the eccentric nearest to the axis. It is seen by this movement that the axis a is forced to turn, when the type-wheel stops, and then by means of the cranks brings the paper into contact with the letter or sign, covered with the plumbago, which prints this letter or sign upon the paper. The hydraulic regulator or governor is formed, first, of a glass vase v, fig. 6, filled with water, or some other liquid; second, of an internal vase, v, pierced with holes, through which the liquid may pass, and terminating by -Va - p la flange, upon which the upper part of the apparatus is screwed. s is a pointed metallic valve, rising from within outd 7'f id sward, p is a hollow piston, raised and lowered by the rod t t moving in the chanm| be I ber c c' of the interior valve v', leaving l o| V only a small circular space, through which;. the water ca.n pass. When the piston is raised by the lever Li L25 fig. 3, to which the rod t is attached,

Page  279 THE PRINTING APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 279 a vacuum is made in the chamber c c', and the water comes suddenly and fills it; when, on the contrary, the piston descends, the water can only with difficulty escape from the chamber d' d, its passage consequently becomes very slow, and the movement is thus retarded, as it is required, in order that the telegraph may work perfectly. Everything being arranged as I have just said, and the electric communication being established, if the operator of the sending station presses one of the keys with his finger, the key A, for example, the type-wheel will stop, when the same letter A arrives in front of the paper; then the lever L Li, fig. 3, will turn, bring the cylinder in contact with the wheel, and press the letter against the paper, which will receive the impression of that letter. As it withdraws, the cylinder will turn upon its axis, and will present-on being brought back by the movement of the axis and of the cranks-a new white space to the new letter to be printed. The mechanism for sounding the bell is very simple. AI, fig. 3, is a bell, N is the clapper, borne upon a rod or spring fixed to the frame by an axis, around which it turns, and of which the lower part is a small lever-arm, resting upon a pin about one fifth of an inch long, when the eccentric turns, raises the little lever-arm of the spring, and causes the clapper to descend and strike the bell. I have said nothing yet of the other portion of fig. 3. This portion represents another manner of employing the Fig. 7 voltaic action. The rod or lever-arm T is now hori- zontal; it is fastened on the one part to one of the arms of the escapement, by means of a pin, upon which it works, on the other part to an eccentric placed upon a horizontal axis b', represented with the eccentric in fig. 7. This same axis b bears a lever, e', represented in fig. 8, and furnished with points g and g', designed to stop the crooked parts to the right and left of b, in fig. 7. B B B B B, fig. 3, Fi are hollow bobbins or spools, magnets which attract when the current traverses them;, these little vertical magnets a a, are attached i to the armature A A, of B, B, B, B,, another I but a similar system of magnets; A, A, is the i armature, E, E, are the extremities of the wire' 0 of the second system. When the first circuit is closed by the armature A A, the extremity E, is then in contact with E1 and the second circuit is closed in its turn. The two circuits are also opened at the same time.

Page  280 280 THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. Nothing, however, prevents placing the second electro-magnet system with a local battery or electro-magnetic machine. The second system is in reality only a relay. The lever E' descends and rises with the armature, according as the circuit is closed or opened. The axis b, in its eccentric rotation, moves away and approaches near the points g and g', which are, by turns, in contact with the points crooked to the right and left of b, fig. 7. If the armature is attracted, the point g' is lowered, and leaves the crooked point to the left of b, fig. 7. The axis and the eccentric make a demi-revolution, and the rod T is drawn toward the left, but at the same time the point g rises, presses against the point to the right of b, and the movement is stopped; it recommences if the armature, in raising itself, lowers the point g, and disengages said point from the crooked point to the right of b, fig. 7; the axis and the eccentric will make a new half turn, and the rod T will be carried forward. The axis and the eccentric are set in motion by the weight p, by means of the system of cog-wheels represented in the drawings. When the current ceases, the armature is raised by the spring placed at K. The alternate movement of the rod T acts also upon the lever Li L2, precisely in the same manner as in the case when that rod is vertical. Mr. Brett has greatly improved this apparatus, and has rendered the correspondence much more sure, so that by a combination of wheels, called by him " stop-wheels," the type-wheel, and the needle accompanying it, return to zero, or to the point of departure after each impression of a letter. The new compositor is represented by figs. 9 and 10: A, fig. 10, is the axis of the pins in communication with the keys and circuit wheel, N; I is a friction wheel or moveable cylinder fastened to the lever arm, J. The axis of this lever has its centre of rotation on the axis of the tooth wheel, H, and of the pinion, P. The wheel, u, transmits its movement to the wheel, F, having the same number of teeth, so that when the part p q A, of the frame fig. 9, is depressed by the pressure on one Fig. 9. -- f --- -----------— 1 —-------- - --—' —--- ---—' —-- L|i I _____~f s /_____________f//^[v }^^?^|T(1^/[Y^ __ _ __ _

Page  281 THE PRINTING APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 281 of the keys, the rod, T, disengages the friction wheel, a, at the same time the tooth wheel, H, causes the wheel, F, to move. The two friction wheels, i i, turn, moving the axis of the keys A, together with the circuit wheel, M, and the catch wheel, o. The pinion, G, bears a fly wheel, i i, which regulates the velocity of the machinery. A weight attached to a cord which is enrolled upon the cylinder, B, communicates the movement to the wheels, E and F, to the pinion, G, and to the wheel, c, together with the catch wheel, D. Another weight, p, attached to a cord, rolled around the pulley, L, brings the axis, A, borne by the gudgeons, t t, to its first position, when it has turned, after the friction wheels are disengaged. The number of teeth of the circuit wheel, N, is equal to half the number of the letters or signals. It turns upon the same hollow axis, with the stop wheel, o. A point projecting from the circuit wheel acts upon a second stop wheel, M, which latter wheel has its centre Fig. 10. upon the axis of the keys, A. When this axis turns with the friction wheels, I K, it moves the wheel N; but when the friction wheels are disengaged, and the axis, A, turns upon itself, moving the friction wheel, M, the circuit wheel, N, together with the wheel, o, is stopped by the click, v, fig. 9, so that this circuit wheel turns in one direction only, notwithstanding the to-and-fro movement of the axis, A. If, therefore, we lower one of the keys, and with it the bars p q, fig. 9, by the means of the lever arm, these bars, in lowering, raise the upper part of the fiame and the axis, T, turns a rod attached to one of the extremities of T, raises the lever, J, and with it H and i, the friction wheel, K, is set at liberty; the axis, A, turns until it is stopped by the pin of the key cylinder, corresponding to the key which has been lowered. If you cease to press, the lower part of the frame rises, the pin ceases to stop the key cylinder, the action of the weight, p, makes itself felt, the cylinder returns to its primitive position, but the click, v, still acting, the stop wheel, o, keeps the type wheel, N, in the posi

Page  282 282- THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH. tion to which it has arrived. The type wheel will make a new movement forward if you lower another key. THE COMPOSITOR OR COMMUTATOR DESCRIBED. Figs. 11 and 12 represent the compositor or commutator, finally adopted by Mr. Brett. The axis, A, bears a circuit wheel, c, fig. 12, the number of teeth of which equals half the number of letters or signals of the telegraph. Two catch Fig, 11. Fig. 12.'I 4 or stop wheels, B and D, turn upon the same axis; the number of their teeth being double that of the circuit wheel. They are made of one single piece; and the wheel, B, is fixed to the circuit wheel; a click, e, pressed by a spring, R, which prevents it from turning backward, and permits it to turn only in one direction. The axis, A, fig. 11, also bears a lever arm or crank, G H I, with an indicator, K, which points upon the dial to the letter which we wish to transmit or print. A click, F, also pressed by a spring, catches into a stop wheel, D, and serves to make it turn toward the right at the same time with the crank, the stop wheel, c, and the circuit wheel, D; but when the crank is noved to the left, in order to bring the index, a, upon a letter, the click slides over the teeth of the wheel, D, which remains at rest; thus the click, e, fig. 12, prevents the wheel B, and the circuit wheel from turning. Two copper bands or springs,,, press, one upon the exterior part of the circuit wheel, and the other upon the teeth of the circumference of the same wheel, and communicate by means of two pssressure sews with the two poles of the battery of the conducting wires of the circuit. The roller, I, fixed at the extremity of the crank, H, serves for the better guiding and maintaining it in its rotary movement. A stop pin, J, renders it fixed when the indicator, arrives arre t the desired letter. The

Page  283 MR. BRETT'S LAST IMPROVEMENT. 283 movement of the apparatus is as follows: Turning the crank to left, brings the indicator, K, upon the letter to be printed at a distance; then turning the crank to the right in order to come back to the fixed starting point, the circuit wheel is caused to turn, which establishes and breaks the circuit as many times as is necessary, in order that the type wheel may present to the paper the particular letter marked by the indicator. MR. BRETT S LAST IMPROVEMENT. Fig. 13 represents the new form given by Mr. Brett to his printing telegraph. The weights are replaced by a spring, Fig, 13. /< ll I'if, two systems of common wheels gives motion to the type-wheel, and communicates the movement to the paper. The type wheel, R, is moved by the pinion, A, and the arbor, i, and its rotation is regulated by the electric escapement represented in fig 14. The pinion, A, communicates with a toothed wheel, B, furnished with a second pinion, c, placed upon the same arbor as the escapement wheel, D. This escapement wheel is by turns stopped and released by an escapement anchor, a, of which the axis bears a permanent magnet, p, serving as an armature to the electro magnet, a a'. According as the electric current traverses in one direction or another the wire of the electromagnet, the armature is attracted or repelled; this alternative movement is transmitted, first to the anchor, then to the escape

Page  284 284 THE BRETT PRINTING TELEGRAPH, ment wheel, then to the arbor of the pinion, A, and finally to the type-wheel, which moves regularly step by step. The type-wheel, R, is fixed upon a hollow axis, A, and this axis bears on one side a little toothed wheel, applied against the face of the type-wheel; on the other side a fixed pulley, L, upon which is coiled a cord bearing a weight, the action of which constantly brings back the type-wheel to the starting point, or zero. A new toothed wheel is fixed to this pulley, and a circular metallic disk is fixed to the arbor, I, bearing a click which engages with the teeth of a little toothed wheel, and prevents it from turning back. A toothed wheel, R, of larger Fig. 14. e diameter, is also fixed upon the same axis, T, so that it may turn for a certain time, and then turn backward, in order to lower the prolongation of the disk, D, bearing a point which engages in a little opening made on the circumference of the toothed wheel, r, very near its rim; this toothed wheel is set in motion by the action of the extremity of a lever operating by means of an eccentric, as has been explained in the description of the first machine or apparatus. Now if one of the letters, or one of the characters of the type-wheel, has been brought before the paper, a lever similar to L L, fig. 3, engages in the opening made in the stop wheel that presses against the type wheel. This lever causes the said stop wheel to turn, and with

Page  285 MR. BRETT'S LAST IMPROVEMENT. 285 it the eccentric already described, which puts in motion the whole train of wheels of the printing machinery, and in its turn, during its revolution, presses a piston against the paper, and the letter is printed. While the paper advances after the printing of the letter, sufficient to make room for the next letter, another lever presses again upon the teeth of the wheel, r, giving it a rotary movement, sufficient to disengage the click of the disk, D. The type wheel being set at liberty, returns to zero, and resumes its first position upon the arbor, i. You may now proceed to print another letter. The arbor of the lever, has a second arm fastened by means of a rod, to an hydraulic and pneumatic piston, similar to that which has been represented in the figure, and which serves to render the impression of the character perfect, regular, and neat. Mr. Brett calls attention to the disposition given by him to the letters upon the disk of the type wheel, this disposition being. very necessary to abridge the labor in the transmission of dispatches; in fact, the letter E, for example, in the English language, and still more so in the German, occurs three thousand times, while the letter z appears but once. I hope the foregoing description will enable the reader to understand the intricate mechanism of this apparatus. The drawings and the lettering are not as perfect as I had hoped to attain. The letters mentioned in the description are not all to be found in the drawings, and in this imperfect state I present the apparatus with its novelty.

Page  286 THEE MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XIX. Application of Magneto-Electricity to Telegraphing-Its Advantages-Description of Henley's Apparatus-The Brights' Apparatus-Its Comparative Celerity. APPLICATION OF MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY TO TELEGRAPHING. THE magneto-electric telegraph is a needle system. It is practically employed on the lines of the Magnetic Company in Great Britain. The Messrs. Bright having tried magnetoelectricity, most faithfully, on the lines of their company for several years past, commend it as of superior utility. They informed me, that a pair of magnets, costing at Sheffield 30s., and perhaps 40s. to 45s. according to finish, will send a strong current on a well-insulated pole line for 200 miles, and on an underground wire above 100 miles. Weak signals had been received on 250 miles underground wires, while on the same lines, a battery of six twelve-cells, was necessary to perform the work, at a cost of ~7, 10s., besides the cost of renewals. A magnet, if the keepers are put on when the instrument is not in use, will retain its magnetism for an indefinite time. They had worked magnets two and three years without remagnetizing them. The experiments made with magneto-electricity by these gentlemen, establish the practicability of its application to telegraphing; in this, however, there is a difference of opinion among scientific telegraphers. Mr. Bakewell, in his late work on electricity, asserts, that electricity generated in this manner is small in quantity, and of comparatively great intensity, therefore more liable to be diverted from this circuit by imperfect insulation; and as another objection to this form of telegraph, he states, that the needle sends signals in one direction only. Two communicating wires are consequently required to obtain the same combination of deflections that can be given with a single wire, when a voltaic current is 286

Page  287 THE MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 287 transmitted. The great advantage, however, of this system is, that it dispenses with the use of voltaic batteries, which are troublesome and expensive; but it remains a question to be determined by practical experience, whether this advantage is sufficient to counterbalance the objections attending the use of magneto-electricity. The Magnetic Company have several thousand miles of wires, on all of which this system is used, and the brothers Bright, who have been engaged in that company's service for some six years, concur in the opinion of its superiority over the voltaic telegraphs. It would be unjust, not to fairly consider the opinions of such experts as have expressed their admiration or approval of magneto-electricity for telegraphic purposes. In America, but few trials have been made on the telegraph lines to use this species of electricity, but of these trials reference will be found elsewhere in this book. On the continent of Europe, there are no lines employing it. In Great Britain, it has only been successfully used on the Magnetic Company's lines, as hereinbefore stated. Without further comment, I will give Fig. 1.

Page  288 288 THE MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. its advantages, and a description of the apparatus as furnished me by Mr. Henley, one of the inventors. Fig. 1 is a representation of Mr. Henley's instrument, as used in the office for telegraphic service. Before giving a description of this very simple apparatus, I will present the advantages claimed for it by the inventor, which are as follows: ADVANTAGES OF MAGNETIC OVER VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. 1st. Capability of working without expense, except first cost. 2d. Being always ready for instant use, however long it may have remained inactive. 3d. From its simple construction (being entirely free from all clockwork or complicated movements, and also from all apparatus found in other telegraphs for cutting off or reversing the electric current), it cannot get out of order. 4th. The magnetic needle used for the indications being freely suspended on a vertical axis, without springs or weight of any kind to keep it in the neutral position, and being subjected to the energetic action of an electro-magnet instead of wire coils, moves with a much less electric force than any other telegraph whatever; it, therefore, follows, from the well-known fact of the great diminution of the power of the current in passing through long conductors, that this telegraph will work at a greater distance, or through a greater resistance, than any other, the distance at which any telegraph will work through a given sized wire being in an exact ratio with the electric force required to work such telegraph. There have been many ingenious contrivances made which would work beautifully in a room, but are totally useless when practically tried between distant stations. Another severe test of the capability of a telegraph is a damp state of the atmosphere, especially when the earth is used (as it always is now) as part of the circuit. Every supporting post, when its earthenware insulators become covered with moisture, conveys a great part of the current to the earth, but from experiments tried on the South Devon railway (known to be the worst insulated line in the kingdom), and in the most unfavorable weather, the magnetoelectric current from this machine was found to pass the whole distance of the line, and also through a great length of fine wire at each station, without any loss whatever; this arises, not from the electricity being of a different kind, but from its quantity and intensity being so adjusted that the wet posts should offer more resistance than the whole length of the metallic wire. In addition to this apparatus never requiring renewal, a very important fact is the small space re

Page  289 DESCRIPTION OF HENLEY^S APPARATUS. 289 quired; the magneto-electric telegraph, 1S inches long by 4 inches wide, will transmit a current much farther than twelve 24-cell batteries, occupying a space of 192 square feet. Fig. 2. DESCRIPTION OF HENLEY'S APPARATUS. Each instrument has two parts, one for producing the current and transmitting it in the required direction, and the other for receiving it from a distant station. The first consists of two compound permanent bar magnets A A, about 10 inches long, placed in a horizontal position parallel with each other, about an inch apart; at each end is suspended, on separate axles, a soft iron armature, on the cylinders of which are wound long coils of fine copper wire covered with cotton, B B. Each pair of coils forming one armature, is connected by one end of the wire of each coil-the other end of each is carried through the axle (but insulated from it) to the base in two spirals. The wires pass under the base, one end of each goes to the electromagnet of its own dial, and thence to the line and through the distant instrument until it communicates with the earth; the other is led direct to the earth, connections being made by the terminals at the back of the instrument. The other armature and its connections are just the same, and answer the same purpose with the other side of the dial. The armatures are moved by levers, c c, the ends of which pass through the outer case for the convenience of working; their motion is limited by India-rubber stops fixed on the brass casting on which the magnets are placed and the axles suspended. The ends of the magnets are covered with soft iron caps projecting inward so as to bring the poles within about half an inch of each other; these soft iron poles increase the power of the magnets greatly, besides which they will condense the whole power of the magnet at any particular point. The second or receivingpart of the instrument consists of a dial mounted on four 19

Page  290 290 THE MAGNETO-ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. pillars in an inclined position, this being thelo lct for reading the indications, besides reducing the fricticn c(f i lh needle pivots to one twentieth part. Undcler the dial two eleetromagnets, D u are fixed, one for each needle. It may be mentioned, that electro-magnets have been attempted to be used before for deflecting the needle, by placing one end of the needle between the poles of the magnet, but never succeeded, owing to the residual magnetism left after the battery current had ceased. This was always sufficient to keep the needle deflected, except they made it very heavy at the bottom, or used a strong spring to keep it in the upright position; it then reFig 3. quired a strong current to overcome that resistance, and the spring or weight required adjusting according to the strength of the battery, or the state of the weather. In the magneto-electric telegraph two pieces of soft iron are placed on the poles of the electro-magnet of a semicircular shape, which thus forms four poles. (See fig. 3.) Within these is suspended a magnetic needle, the axis of which is prolonged through the dial, carrying an index or pointer. This, as well as the magnetic needle, is limited in its motion by stops on the dial. Fig. 4 Figs. 4 and 5 represent the magnetic needle, and the horns of the magnet. On /pressing down the lever, the ends of the armature change place with respect to the poles O /0 ~of the magnet. This produces a current of 0 1, electrieityin the armature, and through the circuit, which, passing round the wire on the elecN'\s' / tro-magnet, causes it to become magnetic. As shown in the diagram, fig. 4, there are then Fig, 5. four distinct forces acting on the needle to deflect it in the 1'-s uln\^ position shown; the two south poles of the electro magnet l ^ \% attracting one end of the needle, and repelling the other, U1" li k!?~,,iil' and the two north poles the!~ / same with the other end., While the handle is kept down, although no electricity is passing, the needle is kept deflected by the residual magnetism in the horns. On allowing the lever to return by the force of the spring on the base, the ends of the armatures and l'- ma.inet again change places,

Page  291 .DESCRIPTION OF HENLEY'S APPARATUS. 291 and a current of electricity is produced in the opposite direction, which entirely neutralizes the residual magnetism, and Athen reverses the poles of the electro-magnet, bringing the needie to the opposite side; but in the single-needle telegraph, the armature takes a midway position between the poles, which has the effect of neutralizing the residual magnetism only. Fig. 5 represents the electro-magnets, with the horns attached. In the ordinary needle telegraph, a diamond-shaped Fig 6. needle is suspended within coils of wire. (See fig. 6.)'M On the passing of an electric current the needle has a l|i tendency to move at right angles to the wire. When a flash i(j i of lightning strikes the wires, the needle cannot move quickly enough, but the poles move, that is to say, the polarity of the needle is placed at right angles to its former position; consequently, on the passing of ths battery current, it has a tendency to remain stationary; in this way 200 or 300 miles of telegraph are rendered inoperative in a single night. On inspecting the magneto-electric telegraph, it will be obvious this cannot occur-the lightning in passing through the instrument will not act primarily on the needle, but secondarily by the electro-magnet; this becoming magnetic will deflect the needle if the current is passed in one direction, and if in the other will have a tendency to retain it in its ordinary position; and if any change occurs, it would be by the needle becoming stronger. Should the telegraph remain a long time out of action, the horns of the electro-magnet form keepers to the needle, and maintain its power; and, likewise, by the arrangement of armatures and permanent bar magnets, the latter will always retain their power; the poles are brought so near together, that the armature before leaving one magnet is on the other. This arrangement gives three advantages: the magnets always have the protection of a soft iron keeper, and the two currents produced by leaving one magnet and approaching the other, are combined in. one, doubling the strength and duration of the current; and it is evident, if the magnets were farther apart, when the armature was quite free of both poles, it would alter the magnetic character of the other armature, and thus produce a current in it, and move the wrong needle. The signals are indicated on the dial by the separate or combined motions of the two needles, for instance, A, B, and c, are separately indicated by one, two, and three motions of the left needle; D, E, and F, by similar motions of the right needle; G, one left and one right; H, one left and two right; I, K, by the reversed motions of the needles; for the remainder of the letters, the simultaneous motions of both needles are used

Page  292 292 DESCRIPTION OF THE BRIGHTS' APPARATUS. in addition to one or more of either needle; marks are placed on the dial near eaeh letter, to indicate what motions are required for it; two marks meeting at the bottom like the letter v, signifies the simultaneous motion of both needles. DESCRIPTION OF THE BRIGHTS' APPARATUS. The Magnetic Telegraph Company, under the able administration of the distinguished telegraph electricians, the brothers Bright, have on its lines an instrument operated by magnetoelectricity, invented by those gentlemen. In principle it is the needle telegraph, worked by the inductive influence exercised by magnets upon electro-magnetic coils, when placed in propinquity to the poles of the permanent magnets. Fig. 7 represents this apparatus. Fig. 7.'_ (1/ /// I 1 This instrument is placed upon an ordinary table, before which the operator sits; letters a a represent the compound horseshoe magnets, formed of steel, and screwed to g. Those which I have frequently seen in England and Scotland, in the offices of this company, have magnets about 15 inches from the poles to the back or bend, about 5 inches in height, made of 12 plates, and in breadth about 1~ inches; b b and bl b' are induction coils attached to the axles moved by the handles c c. The operator placing his hands on c c, by depressing and elevating them, a current of electricity is generated. One of the wires terminating each pair of the inductive coils, is connected to an insulated c:am; the other end of each pair of coils is con.

Page  293 CELERITY COMIPARED WITI OTHER NEEDLE SYSTEMS. 293 ducted directly to the earth: c c, the metallic cams, are insulated from the axles to which they are attached by ivory plates. jf are two springs connected with the line wires, and resting against the screws of the bearings g g, which are bridge pieces, in connection with the indicating portion of the instrument: h A is the outside of the dial plate, and i i are the indicating needles moved by the magnetic needles inside on the same axles; x x are thumb screws, by which the regulators are adjusted; z z z z are adjusting pins between. which the needles beat. The internal arrangement is much the same as given in the description of Mr. Henley's machine, and, in fact, fig. 5 is a drawing of an electro-magnet given me by the brothers Bright, on one of my visits to Liverpool. The spring f, when at rest, is in contact with the bridge piece g, and the line wire is in direct communication with the indicating dial face. The electric or magnetic current from other stations of the line pass from the line wire through the indicating coils, and thence to the earth, which on passing through the coils produces the desired indication, or movement of the needles. When the handle is depressed, then the metallic "cam" attached to the axle presses upon the spring, and moves it away from the bearing g, at which time the current of magneto-electricity produced in the induction coils, by the changing of their position, as regards the pole of the permanent magnet, passes to the line wire, and this movement deflects the needle from " zero" at other stations. When the depressing motion of the handle ceases, and it begins to ascend, a different current is induced, which also flows through the line wire, bringing the needles of the other stations back to zero, from which they had been taken as just above described; but at the same time the apparatus of the operating station is not changed, because the connection between the spring f and the bearing g, remain incomplete. When the spring f is brought into contact with the bridge piece g, on the cam c, which sets it at liberty, the line wire, in which a portion of the lost current has been fixed, as in trasmission, seeks to gain its equilibrium, and the recoil current passes through the indicating part of the apparatus, and holds the needle at zero, in the proper position to be actuated by currents from the other stations. ITS CELERITY COMIPARED WITH OTHER NEEDLE SYSTEMS. In the arrangement of the dial of this apparatus, the brothers Bright have improved its operation by placing the adjust

Page  294 294 TIlE BR1GHTS' APPARATUS. ing pins z z, between which the needles vibrate. In other needle systems, the needles move to the right or to the left with unequal force, and on their restoration to zero, they swing beyond as a pendulum, causing error or delay in transmission by the waiting for the needle to rest at zero. These pins not only aid in celerity of communication, but they produce a sound. The needles beat against the pins, and a sound is produced sufficiently distinct to be read by the operator. In practical telegraphing, therefore, these pins prove very great auxiliaries in communicating dispatches. The operator need not depend upon the eye to see the movement of the needles. The pins may be made to produce different sounds, and those sounds can be as distinct as the beats or movements of other systems producing intelligible sounds. The brothers Bright informed me that they found in practice the apparatus as arranged by them much more reliable than the needle system not having the stop pins. The movement of the needles, and their dead beat, that is, the absence of all vibration and oscillation, tended to prevent mistakes. In the ordinary galvanic needle systems, which have not the stop pins, the needles sway to and fro, after each beat, occasioning more or less confusion between letters, which are formed by the combination of " beats." Such are the advantages claimed for the magneto-electric telegrapls.

Page  295 HIGHTONS' ELECTRIC TELEGRAPHS. CHAPTER XX. High Tension Electric Telegraph-Gold Leaf Instruments-Single and Double Pointer Needle Apparatus-Revolving Pointer-Improvements in Batteries and Insulation. HIGH TENSION ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. THE telegraphs invented and patented in Great Britain by the Rev. H. Highton and Mr. Edward Highton, though not in practical use as a whole at the present time, were evidently decided improvements on their introduction. Mr. Edward Highton had been for many years a telegraph engineer, and he had given evidences of a thorough knowledge of the intricacies of this mysterious science and art. In giving those improvements, I will present the descriptions made by Mr. Edward Highton, and also his opinion as to their advantages over other telegraphs of that day. The first patent was taken out in 1844 by the Rev. H. Highton. In this telegraph electricity of high tension was employed, viz., that produced either from the ordinary electric machine, or from the hydro-electric machine: one wire only was used. A piece of paper, which was moved uniformly by clock-work mechanism, was conducted at the receiving station between two points of metal in connection with the line-wire, the points being placed one above the other, and on opposite sides of the paper. On sending currents of electricity, the paper was pierced by the electricity, every shock making a little hole through it. If the electricity transmitted were positive, a hole was pierced at one of those points, and if negative, a hole was made at the other point. By the combination of these perforations letters and symbols were denoted. By an arrangement of these dots or holes, under the ordinary mathematical law, from 30 successive currents of electricity, occupying, say, 15 seconds of time, no less than 1,073,741,824 different signals could be made. 295

Page  296 296 GOLD-LEAF TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. Ten miles of wire were erected on the London and North Western Railway for the purpose of testing the practicability of the plan, and of obtaining certain fundamental laws as to the transmission of electric currents. The signals were found to be given with great certainty, and the paper, moistened with dilute acid, was pierced even when a Leyden jar, filled only with water, and in size not greater than one's little finger, was employed. The plan was submitted to the government, and an offer was made to connect Liverpool with London by means of this telegraph, and that at the sole risk of the Messrs. Highton, provided that the government would obtain for them, for such purpose, liberty to use the lines of the London and Birmingham, Grand Junction, and Liverpool and Manchester railways. The government, however, found that at that time they possessed no compulsory power to grant such license, even for a telegraph for their own use; and hence, in a bill passing through Parliament at the time with reference to railways, clauses were added, giving this power to government for telegraphs for their own purposes. This, it is believed, was done at the instigation of the late Sir Robert Peel. The paper, when marked, would appear thus: | * ~ ~ * e ~ ~ I Highton's system of marks for high-tension electricity. The above, on one plan, would correspond with the number 12,413,411, and would, in sending, occupy only some 5 or 6 seconds. GOLD-LEAF TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. The next patent was taken out by the Rev. H. Highton, M. A., in 1846. The telegraph included in this patent is known as the Gold-leaf telegraph. A small strip of gold-leaf, inserted in a glass tube, was made to form part of the electric circuit of the line-wire. A permanent magnet was placed in close proximity thereto. When a current of electricity was passed along the line-wire, the strip of gold leaf was instantly moved to the right or left, according to the direction of the current. This is a very delicate instrument and is worthy of the reader's attention. In order that it may be properly understood, I have copied the following from the patent.

Page  297 GOLD-LEAF TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 297 Extract from the Specification of the Patcent granted to Henry Highton, for Improvemcnts in Electric Telegraphs. Sealed February- 3, 1846. "In the electric telegraphs now commonly used on English railways, signals are given by the motions of magnetic needles, which are caused to move to either side by the action of electric currents "passed in either direction through coils n (@ o~of wire surrounding magnetic needles. b__ —-- -_-_-_ And I have discovered that signals can ai L be exhibited in electric telegraphs by motions produced by electric currents in strips of metallic leaf, suitably 115 placed, in a very cheap form of signal B i A apparatus, resembling a gold-leaf galvanometer. " The drawing hereunto annexed represents a signal apparatus, consistj! ing of a glass tube, A, fitted in brass c' ^U z caps, a,, a, at top and bottom, and having a strip of metallic leaf, B (gold leaf being the kind of mes_ _ __,a_ -tallio leaf which I usually employ), passing through its centre,'loosely hung, in metallic contact with the said caps; the upper extremity of the metallic leaf being fixed at right angles to its lower end, so that the metallic leaf, from whatever direction seen, will present at some part its flat surface to the eye. The caps, a a, (which are moveable, in order that the lmetallic leaf may be replaced, if broken,) are placed in a circuit suitable for electro-telegraphic communication.'" Near to the metallic leaf (as on the outside of the glass) is placed either of the poles of a magnet c. And the etfects of this arrangement is, that when a current of voltaic electricity is caused to pass through the circuit, and, therefore, also through the metallic leaf, B, included in it, the metallic leaf is deflected to one side or the other, according to the direction of the current. And the distinct motions so obtained may be repeated and combined. and used for the purpose of designating letters or figures, or other conventional signals. " One of the above-mentioned signal apparatuses is placed at each terminus of telegraphic communication, and others may b3 placed at intermediate points. " Each terminus, and also each intermediate station, is provided with a voltaic battery, and with one of the ley-boards in use in single magnetic-needle electric telegraphs. The person in charge of the telegraph at either terminus, or at any inter

Page  298 298 GOLD-LEAF TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. mediate station, produces the requisite connections for causing an electric current to pass in either direction through the circuit, and, therefore, through the metallic leaf of the signal apFig. 2. Do Not Understand Understand A- 33 1 -E B- 1131 3 -T C. 311 11 -0 D.1133 13 -N E l F1? 381 -I F. 313 33 -A. G- 1133 1 11 -S H- 113 113.X I- 31 \ 131 U J- 3 133 133.D K. 1331 311 -0 Lto 3 1. 33 3 1 313 -F M.1113 3. 3331 *L N-13 I Is 333.0- 11 i I 1111 -P P 1111 1113.-1 Q- 1313 1131 -B R. 333. 31133.-G S-. 11l l r 1311.V T. 3 1313 -Q J U- 131 1331 -K V. 1311 1333-W 3W.1333 3111 -Y X- 311:5 3113 -X Y 3111 3131 -Z Z. 3131 3133.J to Numbers 3311 3311 to Numbers to Priv S 31 t r. Si gs. 3313 3313 to ri. Repeat......3331 3331......Repeat Wait........3333 3333........Wait Code....... long 1 tong....... Code Letters.....3" 3"......Letters Gold-leaf Telegraph for one line-wire, with code-table shown on dial. paratus of each terminal or intermediate station, and thus cause the metallic leaf of all the signal apparatuses to move simultaneously to either side, so as to give the required signal or signals. "The key-board of each terminal or intermediate station has a handle, by moving which, the person in charge of the tele. graph at any station can cause an electric current to pass through a circuit, in connection with a system of alarums at the terminal and intermediate stations, similar to those in use ir magnetic-needle electric telegraphs."

Page  299 GOLD-LEAF TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 299 The next patent was taken out in January, 1848, by Messrs. H. and E. Highton. At this time Mr. Edward Highton was acting as telegraphic engineer to the London and Northwestern Railway Company, and was pressed by that company to invent a set of electric telegraphs free from the objections and defects inherent to most telegraphs then in use, and free also from any of the then existing patents. Every telegraph proposed or executed at that time, was minutely investigated, and their defects studied with the greatest care. Neither time nor money was spared to accomplish the objects desired. The result was a series of inventions of great variety and extent. For these inventions, the patentees received from the hands of His Royal Highness Prince Albert, as President of the Society of Arts, the greatest honor the society had the power to bestow, viz., their Large Gold Medal. Several of the plans were immediately adopted on the London and Northwestern Railway, in preference to those of the old Electric Telegraph Company, who then possessed a great number of patents. The telegraphs gave the greatest, satisfaction, and have been in constant daily use ever since. The principal feature of the inventions in this patent were, viz.: The horseshoe magnet was suited to coils, and was thought to be much superior to the old straight magnetic needle and coil of Cooke and Wheatstone. In step-by-step motion telegraphs, a means was provided for causing the pointer or disk at once to progress by one bound to zero on the starting point. The maximum work capable of being produced by any number of lines was taken advantage of, and -thus three wires were made to produce 26 primary signals, and so to show instantly any desired letter of the alphabet. Under Ampere's plan, 26 wires must have been used, and under Cooke and Wheatstone's patent, 6 wires. Suitable keys were devised for sending currents of electricity over three wires in the 26 orders of variation. Direct-action printing telegraphs were devised, so that a single touch of one out of 26 keys caused instantly any desired one out of 26 letters or symbols to be printed. The insulation of wires was improved, and many other improvements relating to electric telegraphs effected. The advantage of the horseshoe magnet over the straight magnet or magnetic needle of Professor Wheatstone was thus stated by Mr. Highton: When a coil surrounds a straight magnetic needle, as used by Messrs. Cooke and Wheatstone, each convolution of the wire has to pass tzice over the central or dead part: of the magnet; whereas, if the horse-shoe magnet

Page  300 300 SINGLE POINTER TELEGRAPH. be employed, there is wire only where there is magnetism in the magnet to be acted on. This latter arrangement, therefore, enables all superfluous resistance in the circuit to be dispensed wRith; and hence the same amount of electric power is enabled to produce a far greater effect on the distant telegraphic instruments, or less power to produce an equal effect. Currents of electricity from secondary batteries were to be employed where great mechanical effects were desired at the distant station. An instrument was devised for this purpose, called a " perenode." The next patent was taken out by Mr. Edward Higihtbn on the 7th February, 1850. Fig. 3. Do Not Understand Understand A- 33 1 E B. 1131 3 -T C- 311 11.0 D.133 13 -N E. 1 31 -I F- 313 3 33.A -. 1133 111.S H11 113 113.H I-31 131.U J- 3133 133.D K- 1331 311 -C L. 331 313.F M. 1113 CD 331 -L N, 13 333 3 0- 11 1111.P P- 1111 1113.3 Q- 1313 1131.B 1. 333 1133 G. S- 111 1311 V T. 3 1313 -Q U- 131 1331 -K V. ~-lL 1:'303-3W'" 1333 3111 -Y X- 3113 3113 -X Y.3111 3131 -Z Z-. 3131 3133.J to Numbers 3311 3311 to Numbers to Pri. Sigs. 33 13 33 to Priv. Sigs. Repeat......3331 3331......Repeat Wait.......3333 3333........Wait Code.......1 ong og.....Code Letters.....3 o 3*.....3Letters, Single-pointer telegraph for one line-wire, with code shown on dial. The pointer is moved to the right or left by the horseshoe magnet and coil.

Page  301 DOUBLE-POINTER TELEGRAPH. 301 SINGLE, DOUBLE, AND REVOLVING POINTER TELEGRAPHS. The patent contains a great many improvements in different classes of telegraphs. A few only of the principal features will be alluded to here. The first part refers to modes of arranging electric circuits. Means of employing electricity of different degrees of tension, Fig. 4. A2 2 A B 121 3 04 40 D 12 6 T E 3 8 3 F 41 1 2 EndofWordlgl 3 6 11 I Gill Understand Ig 3 12 D H 21 Not ".' 6 21 IT I 11 Repeat..... " 2 22 N J 212 Up Train.. "88 33 O K 363 Down Train "12 36 L L 36 Code...... 4 44 P M 8 TTo Numbers" 81-4 1 48 Z N 23' T[To Letters "48i 63 R 1) 3 Priv. Sigs. "222a 60 P 222 Wait...... " 8 83 U Q44 IlgEnd of Word I11 G R 6: 2 lZ.....Repeat 121 13 S 66 3' Understand 212 J T 6 4 "....Code 2122 P U 88 6 "NotUnder'd' 1133Y V 6 6 8 "......Wait 363K W666 12 "DownTrain 414 Q X 888 8 " To Numbers 636 V Y 333 88 "..Up Train 636VW Z 48 222" Priv. Sigs. 888 X 484" To Letters Double-pointer Telegraph for two line-wires, with code-table. and of different periods of duration, are also shown, so that two kinds of electric apparatus may be connected to one line-wire, and one only worked, as desired. By this means one of the wires usually employed was rendered unnecessary. Other improvements relating to the dials are also made A new mode of causing motion in soft iron. by temporarily

Page  302 302 REVOLVING-POINTER TELEGRAPH. magnetizing it by the contiguity of a powerful magnet, is described, which promises to be of great value in electric telegraphs, as by the employment of this apparatus any demagnetization of the magnets in thunder-storms is entirely obviated, and the coils of wire are made to give out more power. Fig. 5. Revolving-Pointer Telegraph, with double action escapement, for either one or two line-wires, the pointer being able to progress from letter to letter, or to pass by one bound from any letter the whole distance up to zero. The lieters in the rays are substituted for the following, viz.: a-Numbers; b-Private Signals; c-Code; d-Letters; c-End of Message: end of the word; f-Repeat; g-TUnderstand; h —Wait; i-Not understand; k-Go on. Pendulous, or vibrating bodies, in step-by-step motion telegraphs, are introduced in order that a definite period of time may elapse between each successive current of electricity; and these same bodies are caused to make and break the circuit, so that no second current can be transmitted till all the instruments in a series have completed the word due to the prior current. In this way, all overrunning or lagging behind of one instrument, as before described, is entirely obviated. Besides these improvements, Messrs. Highton made many others, in batteries, construction of lines, and in the administra

Page  303 IMPROVEMENT IN BATTERIES AND INSULATION. 303 tion of telegraph affairs. They invented a revolving disk telegraph, with a new double-action escapement for either one or two line-wires; also, a direct letter-showing telegraph for three line-wires, in which the instrument produced the desired letters instantly into view in the centre of the dial by means of three movable screws; and, also, a printing telegraph, suited for either one, two, or three line wires, according to the rapidity of transmission desired. In this telegraph the letters were printed by one touch of a key, when three wires were used. IMPROVEMENT IN BATTERIES AND INSULATION. Their improvement in batteries, which requires not the slightest attention for months together, many of which were employed in doing the most severe work on the London and Northwestern Railway, were not touched for periods of three, four, and even twelve months at a time, and yet they gave out, whenever required, a constant and equable flow of the electric power. This was accomplished by the substitution of a solution of the sulphates of the earths instead of sulphuric acid. These gentlemen invented an improvement, relating to the manner of protecting and using insulated submarine or subterranean telegraphic wires. It consisted in surrounding the insulated wires or strands of wire, by putting them in the middle of a wire-rope, so that the insulated wires may be surrounded with a flexible covering of iron, or galvanized iron or brass, or other hard wire, or small rods of such materials. This patent was dated September 21, 1850.

Page  304 BAKEWELL'S ELECTRIC COPYING TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXI. Manipulation of the Electric Copying Telegraph of F. C. Bakewell of EnglandThe Apparatus Described-Secrecy of Correspondence, its Advantages and Disadvantages. MANIPULATION OF THE COPYING TELEGRAPH. THERE have been many plans proposed for transmitting intelligence by electricity, and producing, at a given destination, a fac-simile of the writing presented at the sending station. The following seems to be the most practicable yet devised, and the inventor, Mr. F. C. Bakewell, of England, is confident that it will accomplish the great desideratum on lines of any length. The copying telegraph transmits copies of the handwriting of correspondents. The advantages of this mode of transmission are, that the communications may be authenticated by the recognized signatures of the parties by whom they are sent. and as the writing received is traced from the original message, there can be no errors of transmission; for every letter and mark made with the pen is transferred exactly to the other instrument, however distant. The electro-chemical mode of marking the paper, invented by Mr. Davy, is adopted in the copying process. The writing is copied on paper soaked in a solution of prussiate of potash and muriatic acid, a piece of steel wire serving for the pen. The paper is placed round a cylinder about six inches in diameter, and a steel wire, connected with the copper end of the voltaic battery, presses upon it, and is carried slowly along by a screw as the cylinder revolves. By this arrangement, when the voltaic current passes uninterruptedly from the wire through the paper to the cylinder which is connected with the zinc end of the battery, lines are drawn upon it at the same distance apart as the threads of the screw that carry the point. These 304

Page  305 MANIPULATION OF THE COPYING TELEGRAPH. 805 lines are in fact but one continuous spiral line, commencing at one end of the cylinder and ending at the other. The communication to be transmitted is written on tin-foil, with a pen dipped in varnish. Thin sealing-wax varnish, made by dissolving sealing-wax in spirits of wine, answers the purpose best, as it dries very quickly. The letters thus written form on the conducting metal surface a number of non-conducting marks, sufficient to interrupt the electric current, though the deposit of resinous matter is so slight as not to be perceptible by the touch. The message on tin-foil is fixed round a cylinder at the transmitting instrument, which instrument is a counterpart in its mechanical arrangements of the receiving one, and either of them may be used to transmit and receive messages. A metal style in connection with the voltaic battery presses on the tinfoil, and it is carried along by an endless screw as the cylinder revolves, exactly in the same manner as the steel wire that draws lines on the paper on the receiving instrument. The varnish writing, when it interposes between the style and the tin-foil, stops the electric current; consequently, at every part where the electric current is stopped by the varnish at one instrument, the steel wire ceases to make marks on the paper at the other station. Both instruments are so regulated that the cylinders rotate exactly together, therefore the successive breaks of the electric current by the varnish-letters cause corresponding gaps to be made in the lines on the paper; and the succession of these lines, with their successive gaps where the letters occur, produces on the paper of the receiving instrument the exact forms of the letters. The letters appear of a white or pale color on a ground of blue lines, there being about nine or ten lines drawn by the wire to make one line of writing. In the diagram, A shows the writing on tin-foil, from which the copy is made in the form shown at B. Fig. 1. A 20 ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,

Page  306 306 BAKEWELL9S ELECTRIC COPYING TELEGRAPH. It is essential to the correct working of the instruments that the cylinders should rotate exactly together. This synchronous movement of the two instruments is effected by means of regulating electro-magnets, aided by a " guide-line" on the transmitting cylinder. The moving power of each instrument is gravity, accelerated motion being prevented by a rapidly revolving fan, which produces a very steady movement of the cylinder. The speed may thus be very easily varied by adding or by taking off weight. The " guide-line" consists simply of a strip of paper pasted across the tin-foil at a right angle, as shown at c. That strip of paper effectually stops the electric current, and leaves a gap of equal breadth in each line drawn on the prepared paper of the receiving instrument. If the receiving instrument be moving at exactly the same speed as the transmitting one, these gaps in each line will be in the same relative positions, and will fall under each other on the receiving cylinder, making a broad white stripe corresponding with the strip of paper on the transmitting cylinder. But if the receiving cylinder be moving faster than the other, the gaps in the lines will not fall under one another, but every one will be farther toward the right hand. By noticing the position of these gaps on the paper, it may be seen exactly how much faster one instrument is going than the other, and weight may be taken off the receiving instrument until the gaps form a continuous stripe. In this manner the two instruments may be regulated to move together. It is immaterial at what distance apart they are; for if they be in the same room, or two hundred miles from each other, the same plan of adjustment must be adopted. Supposing the mechanism of the instruments to be very good, and that there were no irregularities on the surfaces of the cyl. inders, the plan of regulating by means of the guide-line alone would be sufficient for the copying process. Legible writing may, indeed, be obtained in that manner, but not with sufficient accuracy and certainty to be depended on in ordinary working operations. To secure the requisite degree of accuracy and certainty, an electro-magnetic regulator is used. This may be brought into action by means of a second communicating wire, or by local action altogether; in the latter case a single wire only is required to work the copying telegraph. When two wires are employed, one of them is used for the electromagnet that regulates the instruments, the other for transmitting the current that marks the paper by electro-chemical decomposition. The diagram will assist in explaining the mode

Page  307 THE APPARATUS DESCRIBED. 307 of regulating the instruments when a separate wire is used for that purpose. THE APPARATUS DESCRIBED. Fig. 2..B IB AA A J " \ A side view only of the two instruments is given, without their stands or other mechanism than that which appears on the outside of each; the trains of wheels propelled by the weights being contained within the cheeks A A and B B, and the cylinders being on the opposite sides. The wheel D is fixed to the projecting arbor of a fast-moving wheel next to the fan, and it makes twelve revolutions to one of the cylinder. Two springs e e, insulated from the instruments by being mounted on wood, are connected by wires c z to the voltaic battery, and to the electro-magnet M on the other instrument. The other end of the coil of wire round the electro-magnet is fixed to the voltaic battery, so that when the two springs e e touch, the circuit of the battery is completed, and the electro-magnet is instantly brought into action. This occurs once every revolution of the wheel D, by the projecting part g pressing the two springs to, gether. The wheel E on the instrument A is fixed on to the arbor of a wheel corresponding with that of D, and likewise makes twelve revolutions to one revolution of the cylinder. The keeper K of the electro-magnet has an arm or lever L added to it, which reaches to the circumference of the wheel E, and, when the keeper is attracted by the magnet, rubs against a projecting part of the circumference o, and thus operates as a break to cheek the motion of the instrument. In regulating the instruments to rotate synchronously by these means, a heavier weight is put on A than on B, to cause it to rotate considerably faster than the other when the break is not applied. But when both instruments are set in motion, the lever being pulled down each time that the springs are pressed together by

Page  308 308 BAKEWELL S ELECTRIC COPYING TELEGRAPH. the wheel D, the break is thus put in operation just sufficiently to make the movements of the two instruments correspond. By this arrangement, it will be observed that one instrument regulates the other; and it has it under such complete control that if the speed of B be diminished, the movement of A will be retarded by the longer continued action of the bre ak, and be made to rotate equally slowly, and even to stop by stopping the motion of B. When the instruments are worked at a distance from each other, the electro-magnet Ai is put into action by a local battery, and the contact is made and broken by an intermediate small electro-magnet, as in Mr. Morse's telegraph. In that manner the copying telegraph has transmitted messages with perfect accuracy from Brighton to London. When a single conmmunicating wire only is used, the instruments are regulated independently of each other by means of pendulums. Clock-movements, with pendulums that beat four times in a second, are employed at each instrument. These pendulums at every vibration strike against springs, at each contact with which the electro-magnets which regulate the instruments are brought into action. The arrangement of the mode of making and breaking contact by the pendulum will be easily understood by the diagram. Fig. 3. the coil of the electro-magnet It will be evident, therefore, that when the rod of the pendulum vibrates against s s, the voltaic circuit is completed through the magnet, which is $I O~~~~~~~~~

Page  309 SECRECY OF CORRESPONDENCE. 309 brought into action in regulating the instruments as rapidly as the pendulum beats. The guide-line serves to indicate with the greatest accuracy whether the pendulums at two corresponding stations are beating together; for if one be vibrating faster than the other, the guide-line on the paper will be slanting instead of perpendicular; and by means of an adjusting screw to raise or lower the pendulum-bob, the two may be readily adjusted to beat together. In this manner a variation of even the thousandth part of a second may be observed and corrected. It may probably be supposed, because the metal style has to pass over each line of writing nine or ten times to complete it, that the copying process must be necessarily slow; but it is, on the contrary, very rapid. A cylinder six inches in diameter will hold a length of paper on which one hundred letters of the alphabet may be written in a line. The cylinder revolves thirty times in a minute; and allowing ten revolutions to complete each line of writing, the rate of transmission is three hundred letters in a minute. Much greater speed than that has been obtained. SECRECY OF CORRESPONDENCE. One of the advantages which the copying process also possesses is the means it affords of maintaining the secrecy of correspondence. It is now customary for those who wish their communications not to be known to transmit messages in cipher, by which certain letters or figures have significations given to them which are only intelligible to the parties corresponding. This plan has the disadvantage of being liable to error, as the clerks are ignorant of the meaning of the symbols they transmit. By the copying telegraph the symbols made on the tin-foil are transmitted as accurately as if written in full, for no manipulation whatever is required, the effect being produced altogether by mechanism. There is also a special mode of maintaining secrecy by transmitting the messages impressed on the paper invisibly. If the paper be moistened with diluted acid alone, the iron is deposited on the paper, but no mark whatever is visible, and the paper remains blank until it is brushed over with a solution of prussiate of potash, which instantly renders it legible. In this manner messages written with colorless varnish may be transmitted without any one seeing the contents; that part containing the name and address being alone rendered legible till the message is delivered to the person for whom it is intended.

Page  310 NOTT'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXI. ELECTRIC DIAL TELEGRAPH. ON the 20th of January, 1846, Mr. John Nott, of England, took out a patent for a particular description of an electric telegraph. Fig. 1. t,,' 78. p0 /1 a 7 10y

Page  311 ELECTRIC DIAL APPARATUS. 311 In this instrument, an electro-magnet causes an armature to catch into the teeth of a wheel, so as to force it forward one tooth on the sending of each current of electricity. By the sending of currents of electricity at small intervals of time, the wheel, and pointer attached to it, may thus be worked to any desired points on the dial. Letters were engraved on the dial as seen in fig. 1. There are duplicate sets of the alphabet, to produce the greater celerity. Any letter might be pointed out by the hand being allowed to rest at such letter for a short period of time. INTERIOR MECHANISM OF THE APPARATUS. Fig. 2 ~Lj The interior view of the telegraph will be seen in fig. 2 Letters A and B are electro-magnets, with armatures c and D working on centres J K; E is a ratchet-wheel in which armatures F and F work. In this ratchet-wheel the hand shown on the dial in fig. 1 is attached. As the armatures c and D are

Page  312 312 NOTT'S ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. attracted to the electro-mnagnet A and B, the wheel E moves forward one tooth, and the hand progresses from one letter to the next. A similar movement occurs when the current ceases, the armatures being forced back by the springs s and s. In this way the hand may be brought successively opposite to any desired letter. x is an electro-magnet for sounding the alarm before a communication is made. Mr. Highton states that this telegraph was bought by the Electric Telegraph Company and never employed except to a limited extent. I have presented this apparatus to the consideration of the reader, because it embraces combinations similar to a more recent invention proposed in America, and for the purpose of giving information on every improvement calculated to prorl-io: the art of telegraphing. Fig. 3. - *: — -~5

Page  313 SEIMENS AND HALSKIE'S GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXIII. Description of the Telegraph Apparatus-The Alarum Bell-Electric Circuits and Manipulation-The Transmitter and its Application. DESCRIPTION OF THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. THIS apparatus is organized upon the principles of the dialp. ate system, and is universally admitted to be the most perfect in the European telegraphic service. The following description, though very defective, will give the reader a knowledge of its mechanism and manipulation. I have seen this apparatus on the German railways; it was really a model of beauty, and to me very simple. It serves the purposes of rapid communication; it is easy to keep in order, and it is susceptible of manipulation by the ordinary employes of the railway service. In the organization and finish of the apparatus, and in the perfection of the system, Messrs. Seimens and Halskie have exhibited rare powers, fully sustaining the distinguished and enviable reputation enjoyed by those gentlemen in Europe, as telegraphers. In fig. 1, E E are the poles of an electro-magnet, perpendicular to the upper side of the box, or' the plane of the drawing, flat on one side and round on the other. A Al is the armature, something like a reversed m2, moveable around a vertical axis, which axis is supported by two gudgeons fixed on the support c; a lever-arm is fixed to the middle of the armature, and the spring RI draws it continually upward toward the left, tending to separate the armature from the electro-magnet, so that it will not be in contact with it, except when under the influence of the attraction produced by the passage of the current, and so that the armature will separate therefrom, under the traction of the spring, when the current is interrupted. The fig. 313

Page  314 314 SEIMENS AND HALSKIE'S GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. ure shows how, by means of the screw v, and of its adjustment, the spring R1 can be stretched more or less, and increase or diminish the facility with which the armature detaches Fig. 1 a|^p\a -Jr W'( / itself from the electro-magnet. A long lever branch, L Li is also fixed to the armature, and turns with it on the same axis, and shares with it in the movement. This lever bears at its

Page  315 THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 315 extremity L1, a rod with a hook tl, which engages in the teeth of a little steel-toothed wheel r; the ratchet in descending makes this wheel turn one tooth; when rising, on the contrary, it slides upon the inclined plane of the succeeding tooth, and engages itself above it, in order to make it descend in its turn. A second hook, t,, borne by the plate pi, prevents the toothed wheel from turning back during the ascending movement of the rod t1; a steel needle or indicator o, fig. 1, and o i, fig. 3, borne by the axis of the toothed wheel r,, turns with it upon the circular dial of the keys, fig. 3, and passes successively before the telegraphic letters or signals written or printed on the keys of fig. 2. It will be seen, therefore, that whenever the current is interrupted, the lever I detaches the armature, and makes it descend; the hook-rod L1 t lowers a tooth, makes the indicator advance one step, and brings it from one letter to a succeeding letter. The most essential part of this instrument has been called, by Messrs. Seimens and Halskie, the Fig. 2. Fig. 3. " shuttle," because it is similar in effect to a weaver's shuttle, moving continually from right to left, and from left to right, closing and opening the circuit, and giving also to the armature a continuous movement. The shuttle n nl, scarcely perceptible in the drawing, is thus composed; upon the support s3, is raised a little brass column, bearing on its upper part the little, elongated, rectangle n n, of copper, furnished with two right-angled appendages, with sockets a al, and very easily moved; this is the " shuttle." At each of the extremities of the appendages a a,, and perpendicular to the surface of the shuttle, is fixed a little piece of copper, pointed upward, and represented by the dotted lines on the faces n n,. Underneath the extremity nl, is a little foot, which has a to-and-fro movement, with the shuttle around the centre n,, and rests at the bottom upon a little projecting metallic band. The shuttle, consequently, oscillates horizon

Page  316 316 SEIMENS AND HALSKIE S GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. tally exactly at the middle of the lever-arm L L1; its foot at n, rubs, in the least degree possible, upon the band which supports it; and, in order that the shuttle may be completely insulated from the metallic plate Pi, this foot is covered at its lower extremity with an agate stone. The movement of the shuttle, always quite circumscribed, is limited by the screws e el, and these screws are borne by two uprights, fixed to the plates Pi p, and, their heads being rounded, they fit into the cavities of the metallic appendages a a,; by means of these screws, the movement of the shuttle n n1 can be regulated. When the appendage a, touches the screw e,, the appendage a is at a, small distance from the screw e, and reciprocally; a wire spring, slightly stretched at fi, fixed to the shuttle itself, and which is shown by the dotted lines in the figure, tends to keep the appendage a1 constantly in contact with el, and prevents the little jars and oscillations of the shuttle from ever occasioning a momentary separation of a, and el. It is then the appendage a1 and the screw e1, which establishes the metallic contact necessary for the closing of the circuit. The only function of a and e is to circumscribe the movement of the shuttle. The nut m is connected in the movement of the lever L L,, and presses, alternately, sometimes upon a. and sometimes upon a,; but as it is a trifle shorter than the distance between a and a1, it cannot move between a and a, without taking the shuttle with it in its movement. In the figure, m presses against a, if the lever-arm moves from the side of a1, the shuttle will, at first, remain immoveable, but a moment before the hook tj engages above the following tooth, the nut m presses against a, and at that instant it displaces the shuttle; there is then no longer communication between a1 and el; a is then in non-metallic contact with e1. The shuttle remains in this position until the armature, dropping down, makes the nut m press against 1a, and re-establishes the metallic contact between a, and el, by separating a from e; it will be seen that the extent of the movement of the lever-arm L L1 is much greater than that of the shuttle, and that it is only at the moment that the lever has arrived at its maximum, right or left point of separation, that the shuttle makes a very small movement, first to the one side and then to the other. One of the ends b1 of the wire of the electro magnet connects with a pressure screw, the other end of the wire traverses the hole T1, and connects at b, with the support s1 of the shuttle; another wire is screwed to the plate p1, and has metallic communication with el, which also traverses the hole T1, and is fixed to a pressure screw. If, then, bi and a'2 are united to

Page  317 THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 317 the two poles of the battery, the circuit through the apparatus will be closed as long as a1 touches e, and will be opened when a touches e. In the position represented by the figure, the current coming from the positive pole of the battery to b1, traverses the wire of the electro-magnet, comes to b., passes.from b2 into the shuttle, comes from the shuttle at a to a/, and goes to the negative pole through a'2. The armature is attracted, the hook t1 is placed above the next tooth, but at the same time the nut mi presses a, and makes the shuttle advance toward el, the contact no londer exists between al and e, the circuit is broken, the current is interrupted, the armature separates from the electro-magnet, the hook ti descends, taking with it a tooth, and making the indicator advance a step upon the dial; at the moment when this return movement attains its limit, the nut m presses against al, and al against el, the current is again closed, and everything recommences. In order to prevent the shock of the lever-arm against e from causing two teeth to pass, instead of one, or causing the hook not to pass over a single tooth, there is fixed: 1st. Upon each of the teeth of the wheel rl a steel feather, ratchet, or bevel edge, as indicated in the figure by the white rays. 2d. Upon the lever-arm L Li is a little vertical steel rod, indicated by t3 at its extremity, and it is bent toward the bottom every time that t1 engages in the space between the two succeeding teeth, and stops the wheel r, the bent extremity t3 abandons the ratchet teeth, which are directed downward; but every time the lever-arm redescends, and sets the wheel r1 in motion, t, places itself between two consecutive ratchets, makes the left ratchet pass, opposing the passage of the right-hand ratchet; in this manner, a movement of the lever-arm L L1 toward e1 can never let two teeth pass, and the needle.of the indicator must always pass freely from the centre of one signal to the centre of the following signal. One of the principal characteristics of this telegraph is, that as long as the battery is in the circuit, the mechanism operates, and the needle of the indicator passes constantly over the dial without intervention of any clockwork. I will now notice the means by which the movement is stopped to indicate any letter. A circular key-board: fig. 2, forms a sort of a gallery around the apparatus, each key bears a letter, or signal, and is prolonged with a steel point, which, when pressed by the finger on the key, is caused to penetrate into the apparatus. The axis of the wheel r, which bears the indicator, carries with it a second needle A1, situated under

Page  318 318 SEIMENS AN-D HALSM1E S:GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. the plate P1. Each key pressed down, becomes an insurmounltable obstacle to the rotation of the needle, the wheel stops, and with it the indicator of the dial, as well as the leverarm L Li. It will be seen, by the preceding, that, at the moment when the letter indicator attains the middle of a space, the lever-arm L T. goes toward el, the hook t, places itself in the interval of the two succeeding teeth. If, then, the indicator is to be placed before a letter, the lever-arm L L1 must be stopped in its return toward e, before the nut m arrives in contact with a', and also before the indicator has reached the middle of the space at which it ought to stop. For that purpose, the needle A1 is prolonged and inclined, so that it presses against the rod, sunk by the lowering of the key, before the nut m touches a,, and before the indicator on the dial has reached the signal at which it ought to stop. If the finger is taken off the key, the rod rises, the needle A2 is no longer stopped, the spring detaches the armature, the nut m presses against a,, a, arrives in contact with e, the current circulates again, and the armature recommences its oscillations. THE ALARUM BELL APPARATUS. The alarum bell is represented, in part, by fig. 4. It is comiposed of a new electro-magnet, as seen in fig. 1, E' E',, having also its armature in the form of an nm reversed.A' a'1, moveable around an axis; this axis bears the lever-arm La' which Fig, 4, partakes of the to-and-fro movement of the armature. A metallic plate, P3, serves as a support to a little foot, upon which a shuttle n' n' rests, its form being different from that of

Page  319 THE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND MANIPULATION. 319 the telegraph apparatus. It has a prong or a fork, moving within very narrow limits, between the two screw heads e' e'. Each interior jaw of the shuttle bears, near its middle, two little insulating bone or ivory buttons, against which the lever arm L/ strikes in its oscillations, making the shuttle n' n'l move in its turn, sometimes toward e' and sometimes toward e',; the jaw n'1 bears a very elastic spring, with an insulating piece, and which, by its pressure, prevents the oscillations of the shuttle from ever separating a'1 from e'l. A spiral spring Fl, which can be stretched or loosened at pleasure, and which draws upon the lever-arm 1'l fixed to the axis of the armature, tends to detach the armature from the electro-magnet, and even to detach it after the current has ceased to pass. This same axis bears a long, round-headed bar, which strikes upon the bell T as often as the armature is attracted. The screw-poles e' e' (of which the first is insulated from the support s', while el is in constant metallic contact with the opposite) must be adjusted'and regulated for the intensity of the current and the tension of the spring. It will be seen that the bell apparatus is analogous to the telegraph apparatus. The entire mechanism is contained in a round brass box, fig. 3, some twelve inches in diameter, and upon the top of which is the circular key-board, the letter-dial, and the indicator. Two square screw heads are seen to project on the sides, which enables the operator to regulate, by means of a key, and without opening the box, the springs of E1 E',; another screw-button, B1, serves to act directly on the escapement, and to bring the indicator upon such letter or signal as we desire. The letters s e and n are written twice over, on account of their very frequent occurrence in the German language. Above and below are two vacant spaces, upon which the indicator is brought at the end of each word. THE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND MANIPULATION. Fig. 5 represents the circuits of the two apparatuses of two stations, united by the line wire and the earth wires. This figure is simple, and explains itself. p P/ are the two batteries, of which c c' are their copper poles, and z z' their zinc poles, united by wires to the pressure screws, indicated by the same letters in station 2. T T' F F/ are the pressure screws, destined to receive the wires which go to the earth, and the conducting wires of the telegraph line. c c' are two commutators, which communicate metallically sometimes with the pressure screws M M', when it is desirable to transmit dispatches, sometimes with the pressure screws R R/, when the telegraphs are to re

Page  320 320 SEIMENS AND HALSKIE S GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. main at rest; E E E' E' are the electro-magnets of the indicators, and of the bell apparatus, and G G' are two electrometers, placed in the circuit in the drawing. The station 2, at Fig. 5. the left, speaks and transmits signals to the station 1, at the right. The course followed by the current is indicated by the line wires and the station connections. To place the commutators in contact with T M', it is sufficient to press the button b, fig. 5. The needles of the two indicators move constantly over the dials; and to transmit signals, it is only necessary to stop ~~~-~~~~c ~ ~ 7 ~447 i" QW thelet, peksandtrnsitsPinal t te satoni, t;t4 ri~~ht.~ /h'7refloe ytecrrn sidctdb ~~ dials; and to transmit signaals, it is only necessary to stop

Page  321 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS AND MANIPULATION. 321 simultaneously the two needles upon the same letter. It has sufficed for this, to prevent the circuit from being closed in the apparatus at the first station, 1, producing the same results in effect. The circuit also rests open in the apparatus of the second station, 2; and neither of the two armatures will be attracted until the mechanism of apparatus 1 is permitted to close the circuit. When the key of the first apparatus is pressed upon, the escapement wheel is stopped precisely in the middle of the movement which it was about to make, under the action of the spring, and the circuit cannot be again closed, until the operator has removed the obstacle by the withdrawal of the finger. During this time, nothing prevents the escapement of the apparatus of station 2, by its mechanism, from closing the circuit; but, inasmuch as the circuit is open at station 1, the armature will not be again attracted, and the indicator of the apparatus, at station 2, will stop over the desired letter, after the key is pressed corresponding to the same letter upon the apparatus at station 1. In time of repose, when it is not desired to correspond, the circuit between the two stations, 1 and 2, is formed merely by the conducting wire, the earth, and the two spools or coils of the alarum bell. When the operator of station 1 wishes to communicate with the operator of station 2, he withdraws his bell apparatus from the circuit, and replaces it by a battery and his apparatus for telegraphing. Immediately, the bell of the station 2 gives the alarum, but the telegraph apparatus of that same station remains motionless. It may appear somewhat surprising, that two similar apparatuses, the telegraph and that of the bell, can be in the same circuit, the one operating and the other not operating. This effect is obtained by the unequal tension of the springs. Suppose, indeed, two apparatuses to be placed in the same circuit, the recoil spring of the one A is much stronger, or more tightly stretched than the apparatus n, thus, when the armature of B shall have been attracted, the electro-magnet A will not have acquired the force necessary to counterbalance the action of the spring. This result is owing to the difference as to tension in the recoil springs, the one being more susceptible and elastic than the other. The armature of A will remain firm and motionless, and the circuit constantly closed on that side. The apparatus B will alone move. It will be understood, then, that, from what actually takes place, the springs of the bell alarums are feebler than those of the telegraph. The bells will be sounded at each station, by the action of the battery of the other station, while the telegraphs will 21

Page  322 322 SEIMENS AND HALSKIE S GERMANIC TELEGRAPH. continue to remain motionless. To completely establish the correspondence, the operator of station 2, being notified by the alarum, withdraws his bell apparatus from the circuit, and puts in its place the telegraph and the battery. The telegraph apparatuses then immediately work together. This simultaneousness of movement will not take place if the operator of station 1, in giving the alarum, has not first introduced his telegraph into the circuit, and if his telegraph has not rested motionless while the bell of the other station is sounded. If the operator of the second station wishes, in his turn, to correspond, or express some doubt, or ask some explanation, he places his finger upon a key, the needle of station 1 stops upon the signal corresponding to that key, and the sender of the dispatch is thereby notified that the operator of the other station wishes to speak. The interview then takes place, the explanations are exchanged, and the transmission of the signals is then resumed. The normal movement of this telegraph is that whenever the needle passes over a demi-circumference of the dial. By this system, fifteen signals can be transmitted in a second. This rapidity is ordinarily attained. A Daniel battery, of five pairs, is sufficient to work a line of from one to two hundred miles. A battery of twenty-five pairs, with subterranean wires, makes the apparatus work very well over two hundred and fifty miles. THE TRANSMITTER AND ITS APPLICATION. To avoid increasing the number of pairs, an apparatus has been added to the Germanic telegraph, by the inventors, called a " transmitter," which is a peculiar relay magnet. When the circuit is closed, the current from the batteries of the stations do not enter at first into the two spools of the electro-magnets of the two stations. It passes first into the spools or coils of the transmitter, opposite the poles of which the armature turns, similar to those of the telegraph and of the bell apparatus. As soon as the armatures are attracted, they close an aperture which existed between the conducting stopper and the lever fixed to the armature, and when the armature is detached, the interruption is made to re-exist. The establishment and rupture of the contact is the only work performed by the transmnitter. There can be given to their springs much less strength than that of the springs of the bells, and a very feeble current will suffice to give action to the transmitter. When the transmitter has established the contact as above

Page  323 THE TRANSMITTER AND ITS APPLICATION. 3 3 described, the current of the battery has opened before it a derivating circuit, much shorter and of less resistance, being composed of equal batteries and relay coils at each station. These spools will then be traversed by a current much less intense, than if they had not had the transmitter. The armature of the telegraphs are attracted, and during their course, nothing is changed; but as soon as they have answered at the end of that course, the armatures interrupt the contact in the telegraphs. The current which animated the electro-magnets of the transmitters ceases, and the armatures of these magnets are detached by the springs. The auxiliary current, which rendered active the electro-magnets of the telegraph, ceases in its turn. The armatures of the telegraph are drawn back by their springs, and the indicators advance one step upon the dials, &c. The manceuvre for giving the alarum call is the same thing either with or without the transmitter. Fig. 4 will give an idea of the play of the transmitter or electro-rnagnet. It serves here to make a bell ring. E E1 are the two poles of the large electro-magnet, the extremities of the wire which cover it go by the wires F F1 to the two poles of a local battery. The wires of the transmitting electro-magnet terminate, one with the earth, and the other with the wires of the line. A is the armature of the small electro-magnet; it turns around a vertical axis, and bears the lever 1, terminated by a hammer B, which strikes upon the bell at each attraction of the armature. The wire F goes directly to one of the poles of the local battery. The wire F1 is at first attached to a metallic piece AI; to this same piece, but insulated from it, is attached the platina wire, vhich makes the very feeble spring r, of which the extremity is very near to tohe little platina prolongation of Ar, so that a very slight movement of the spring r serves to bring it in contact with 1. The wire Fe unites the spring r with the second pole of the battery. The prolongation of the lever 1, or the second arm b, seen below the armature A, bears at its extremity two little pins, between which is engaged a rod, fixed to the armature of the electro-magnet e e1; this rod is terminated by a little bead or button, which presses whenever the armature is not attracted against another similar button, borne by a second platina wire spring r,. The armature A and the armature e have their spiral springs R R1, which tend to separate them from the electro-magnets, when they are no longer attracted. This being so, if the telegraphic circuit is strong enough, the electro-magnet e cl attracts its armature e, and this armature makes the spring r press against the metallie piece M, thereby the circuit of the local battery is closed.

Page  324 324 SIEMENS AND HALSKIE'S GERAIANIC TELEGRAPH. The current circulates, and renders active the apparatus of the bell. The hammer strikes one blow, but at the same time its prolongation 1 detaches from the electro-magnet e c,, the armature of the relay. The spring r abandons the metallic piece Ai, and the circuit of the local battery is again opened. I have said, in the beginning of this chapter, that this description of the ingenious telegraph apparatus was defective. It is the best that I have been able to get. The system is worthy of a more extended notice. I have frequently visited the telegraph manufacturing establishment of Messrs. Seimens and Halskie, in Berlin, Prussia, and I found it to be the most complete and extensive in the world

Page  325 FRENCH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXIV. The Nature and Origin of the System-The Receiving Apparatus-The Manipulating Apparatus-The Process of Sending Signals-The Formation of the Alphabet. THE NATURE AND ORIGIN OF TIIE FRENCH TELEGRAPH. THE French electric signal telegraph is of the needle order, but differs from that system in its index. It is fashioned after the semaphore of Chapp; the signals, however, are produced at the sending and destination stations, instead of at the sending station only, as in the semaphore. It will be remembered that, in the visual system, the receiving station observed the signals made at the sending station some miles distant therefrom. Those same signals are produced at the receiving station on an electric instrument by the operator at the sending station, any number of miles distant. A description of this apparatus I will embrace in this chapter. It has generally been believed that this electric signal system for telegraphing has been preserved by the French administration, only because it reproduced the same character signals as the Chappe semaphore telegraph, and because it was not desirable to make modifications or changes of any kind in the vocabularies, or in the operative department of the telegraph. I notice that some of the French writers, among which Mr. Blavier may be named, deny the correctness of this impression. In 1854, when, by authority of His Majesty the Emperor, I made a careful and minute examination of the electric telegraphs of France, I certainly understood that the object of adopting the French electric system was to avoid the change which would be necessary in case of the organization of any other telegraph. This, however, is not a point of any consequence, nor does it lessen the merits of the French system. The apparatus was simple and beautiful. Hour after hour I have witnessed its operations with admiration, and I 325

Page  326 326 FREINCI IELECTRIC SIGNAI, TELEGRAPH. can readily appreciate tih regret experiencel ly the French in the abandonment of their national telegraph for the adoption of the Morse system. For some years circumstances have wonderfully changed things in Europe, and in fact throughout the world; but in nothing has there been a greater change than in the means of communication. " The same principle which justified and demanded the transference of the mail on many chief routes through the countries of the different nations, from tho horse-drawn coach on common highways to steam-impelled vehicles on land and water, was equally potent in warranting the adoption of the electric telegraph-that last and most wondrous birth of this wonder-teeming age." Although the French electric signal system has been superseded and put aside for the recording apparatus, nevertheless it will remain in the history of the telegraph as one of the most ingenious, and as that which, at its commencement and during its continuance, rendered the most important services. Such is the impression of the Frenchman Blavier, with whom I cordially concur in the well-merited encomium expressed in his commendations. The following is a description of the French clectric signal telegraph. It will be seen that it does not differ from the dialplate apparatus, except in the number of teeth in the cscapcment-wheel, which number insteadof being 13 is only 4. The needle in turning, instead of stopping 26 times, stops only 3 times, and as the angles themselves suffice to determine the signals, it is useless to mark them on the dial plate. Fig. 1.

Page  327 FRENCH TELEGRAPH-RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. 327 THE RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. This apparatus comprises almost always two similar systems, so as to be able to operate with two needles. D G E, D/ C/ E, fig. 1, are the two indicating needles, made of mica, blackened on the side which marks the signal. They are fixed by simple friction on the axis c and c'. G and G' are squares which correspond to the little barrel, and serve to wind up the clockwork. F and F' the axis of the pulleys, which are turned by means of little keys II and I', to tighten the recoil spring. A and B, B/ and A/, are the knobs to which are attached the wires by which the current enters and passes off. The internal arrangement of this instrument will be seen by figure 2. Fig. 2. -4'IT 01 L The electro-magnet I, instead of being at the upper part, as in a dial-plate apparatus, rests on the bottom of the case, and is held by two vertical rods, and a horizontal bar of copper. The soft iron of the electro-magnet may be advanced or drawn back by means of the screw K. The armature Q M,

Page  328 328 FRENCH TELEGRAPH-RECEIVING APPARATUS. is movable around two screws, one of which is visible at Ar. The rod of the armature N P, is terminated at the upper part by a horizontal point, engaged in a fork. The axis bearing this fork, and the escapement anchor, are retained by the screw a-the disposition analogous to fig, 3. Fig. 3. The clock-work is contained between two copper plates. The axis of the last wheel m c, bears the exterior needle D. c E, and the escapement-wheel furnished with 4 teeth, concealed in the figure by a rod of the armature. The two screws x and y limit the extent of the motion of the rod of the pallet. The recoil spring is fixed at u to the rod N P, it is terminated by a wire passing in the hooks v and s, and is wound upon the little pulley T, the axis of which is prolonged as far as F. L, figures 1 and 2, is a rod bent at L/", which serves to give direct motion to the armature. The wires of the electro-magnets terminate at two little buttons, which, by means of metallic strips, communicate with the exterior of knobs A and B. The movement of the apparatus is the same as the dial-plate apparatus. When the current traverses the wire of the electro-magnet, the armature is attracted, the rods set in motion the little fork and escapement anchor, which suffers a single tooth of the wheel to pass, and during the movement the needle turns through an angle 450. When the current ceases to pass, the armature returns to its first position, and the needle turns again 45~. The needle, therefore, produces a series of angles of 450; from 00 up to 360~.

Page  329 FRENCH TELEGRAPH —MANIPULATING APPARATUS. 329 THE MANIPULATING APPARATUS. Fig. 4. E This instrument is formed of a vertical copper column, fig. 4, A B, terminated by a horizontal cylinder, c D. In the interior of this cylin- i7 1 der an axis turns, which is fastened _ on one side to the crank E F, and I on the other side to the quadrangu- F lar grooved wheel G In, of which 2 A the angles are rounded. i K is a L disk or divisor, having 8 notches, into which the crank enters, being pressed by an internal spring. An elbow lever, L M N, enters into the groove at N. At its other extremity Z is fixed to the rod L p, at the upper \^ X I part of which is a little spring ham- Y -PT mer which strikes alternately against two points of contact, x v. For the position of the crank marked 0, 2, 4,. and 6, the hammer is upon x. For the other four positions, the hammer is on Y. The two metallic pieces forming these points of contact, are insulated by means of an ivory plate, and they have little holes into which the wires which correspond enter, to the receiver for x, and to the battery for Y. The wire of the line is attached at z to the base of the column. When the crank is in one of the four positions, 0, 2, 4, and 6, the current coming from line at z passes into the column and over the rod L P, and over the spring hammer, over the point of contact x, and goes to the receiver, through' which it passes in order to arrive at the earth. In the other four positions the pole of the battery is in communication, by means of the point of contact Y, with the spring hammer, the rod, and the column. THE PROCESS OF SENDING SIGNALS. The crank of the manipulator of one of the posts A, and the needle of the receiver of the other post B, have the same horizontal position. Let us suppose that we lower the crank and place it in front of the notch which bears number 1. At the same moment the current traverses the receiver of B, the needle turns through an angle of 450, and remains in this position as long as the crank A does not change. If we place the crank upon the notch number 2, the current ceases to pass over Ihe line, and the needle of B again advances 45~.

Page  330 330 FRENCH TELEGRAPH-MANIPULATING APPARATUS. The same rotary movement takes place if we continue to turn the crank, and the angle which the needle forms with its primitive position is always the same as that of the crank. In a state of rest, the receiver of the two corresponding posts ought to have their needles horizontal, the indicators concealing the bars traced on the dials. The cranks have the same position. When we wish to send a signal to one of these, we turn the crank rapidly, passing first the upper part over the divisor, and we stop the crank at the notch corresponding to the angle which we wish to transmit. The needle of the other post immediately indicates the same angle. To produce a second signal, we continue to turn the crank in the same direction, as far as to the notch which represents the new angles. There would, evidently, be discord between the signals transmitted and those received, if we did not turn the crank in the same direction. All the explanations, or descriptions of the dial-plate apparatus, apply also to the signal apparatus; thus, in order to regulate the apparatus, we tighten the screws x and y, so as to give a suitable play to the rod of the armature. We regulate the apparatus by causing to turn rapidly the crank of the corresponding post, and by tightening or loosening the recoil spring, until the movement of the needle shall become sufficiently rapid. The electro-magnet can be advanced or drawn back when the current is too weak or too strong; but it is preferable to keep it at a very small distance from the armature. The French apparatus operates ordinarily by means of two distinct wires. Fig. 4 shows the most simple disposition of a station. The two column manipulators are fixed upon the table by strong screws, to correspond to the two wires of the line, and to the two sides of the receiver. The wires of the battery arrive at a communicator, which admits of the increasing or diminishing of the numbers of elements employed. A single wire extends from the communicator to the two manipulators. Although a single battery serves to transmit the current, either upon a single wire or upon the two, simultaneously, the intensity is so constant there is no perturbation in the transmission. A single battery current has been found sufficient to operate this instrument on lines diverging in five or six directions. The manipulation is performed by both hands. If we turn the cranks in order to stop at any two notches of the divisors,

Page  331 FORMATION OF THE ALPHABET. 331 the two positions which they take are reproduced identically by the needles of the receiver at the end of the line. Small tables and special commu- Fig 5. tators are made for the apparatus. One of the commutators is represented by fig. 5. The two wires of the (/L line arrive at the binding screws L I\ _ _ and L'. The current traverses a --- copper plate, furnished with points in front of the plate T, which com- ) municates with the earth. r and:1 R\ T \T C l: P/ are lightning rods; R and'R are ~ 1 the commutators which connect the J t two wires of the line with any one of the wires attached at c 3 A, and c' B' A'. At A and A', for example, we place the wires which correspond with the two manipulators at B and B', wires of direct communication; at c and c' are the bellwires. THE FORMATION OF THE ALPHABET. The combination of the angles formed by the two needles furnishes 84 signals, which may represent the 24 letters, the numerals, the principal syllables, and several regulation signals. When the indicator conceals the horizontal number of the apparatus, we do not indicate it in the drafting of the signal. When, on the contrary, it is on the prolonged line of the horizontal, we mark it with the index o. The regulation position is that of the closed. The call is made by the return of the crank, to which the correspondent answers in the same manner. Every transmission of a dispatch commences with the " open." "Activity" precedes all private dispatches, and "urgency" precedes every official dispatch; but of this full explanations are given in another part of this book. The end of the word is indicated by closing the indicators. When the signals are unintelligible, the receiving operator interrupts his correspondent or the sending operator, by turning the crank, and he passes the last word understood. On both sides the normal position of the cranks and indicators is reestablished, and the correspondence goes on again, commencing with the last word understood, as common to all modes of manipulation. By having a key, or a pre-determined signal preceding the signals, 64 new combinations are obtained, by means of which we form tables of conventional phrases. The transmission takes placo with wonderful rapidity. The

Page  332 332 FRENCH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH-THE ALPHABET. reading is also rapid, for the signals are drawn by the angles which they make without the necessity, as in the dial-plate apparatus, of following the needle through the 26 positions which it may occupy, or of mentally counting the movements as in the English system. A very skillful operator can pass as high as 230 letters a minute, but in ordinary circumstances we cannot count upon more than 120 or 130 letters. By combining the signals 2 and 2, vocabularies are formed containing an indefinite number of words or phrases, and so complicated that it is impossible to find a key to them. As these signals have no intelligible signification, the signals are passed by ten at a time, and each ten of the closed are caused to follow in such a way that when the crank and the indicator do not agree, it is readily seen. In such a case the ten seen to be erroneous are repeated. The vocabularies can be taken, either by signals themselves, which are easily written, or by the letters and figures which they represent, according to the alphabet formed by the angles on the receiver. In the manipulation frequently the signals are named directly, using abstractly the letters or figures which they represent. Instead of designating them by their absolute value, the angles formed by the needles, or applying to them the simple numbers represented in the alphabet and numeral code, use is made of the ancient system of Chappe. Zero is called the position of the needle at rest. Five, corresponding to an angle of 45~; ten, corresponding to an angle of 900; fifteen, corresponding to an angle of 135~. To which is added the word " sky," to words formed above the normal or horizontal position, and the word " earth" to angles formed below it. Finally, when the needle is on the prolongation of the line of the centres, it is indicated by the term "' great zero." In the denomination of a signal, commencement is always on the left side. In the formation of angles by the two needles, a single expression is made. The signals formed are analogous to the aerial telegraph. Therefore the old vocabularies have been preserved for secret dispatches. The aerial telegraph can exhibit all the combinations of this system, except those which correspond to the case when the needle is on the prolongation of the dial; but the Chappe telegraph can furnish the same signals carried vertically. In order to indicate the horizontal or vertical position of the signals, before the signal to be carried vertically, is placed the index o. In many instances the transmission takes place by means of

Page  333 FRENCH ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH —THE ALPHABET. 333 a single wire, whether use is made of a special apparatus having a single indicator, or whether an apparatus is employed of two indicators of which only one operates. This must necessarily take place when the lines have but a single wire, or when the different wires of a line are separated in order to correspond with several stations. In this case, the same alphabet is used as on the instruments constructed for two wires; but the signals are divided into two parts, and are made by a single indicator. First, form the angle of the left, and then make the angle of the right. This change, which at first seems to render the manipulation complicated, is attended with no difficulty in practice, and a few days are sufficient to accustom the operator to its use. The transmission by a single wire is slower than by two wires; but the signals thus passed are not reduced to one half. From 80 to 90 letters per minute, instead of 130, can be sent with facility. The rapidity of transmission is claimed to be greater than that obtained by a dial-plate apparatus, although it requires two stoppages for each letter. The reason is explained thus: for two turns of the crank, that is to say, for eight emissions of the current, are produced 64 combinations-while only 26 are obtained with the dial-plate apparatus, in the French instrument, and the current passes 130 times. When two lines, each of one wire, terminate in the same station, and the operator is required to transmit in the two directions, these two wires are generally placed at the two sides of the same apparatus, thus occupying a middle or betwixt position. Attempts have been made to use repeaters in connection with the French system, but all the efforts have proved unsuccessful. For ordinary purposes, however, it will be sufficient to insulate the two screws x and y, fig. 2, by means of strips of ivory, and to make them, as well as the pallet, communicate with the exterior binding screws, which will establish the following communication: 1st. The screw x, with another similar receiver. 2d. The pallet with one of the lines which terminate at the post; and 3d. The screw y with the battery.

Page  334 THE FRENCH RAILWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXV. Principles of the French Railway Telegraph-Description of the Receiving Instrument-The Manipulating Apparatus-Process of Manipulation between Stations-Portable Apparatus for Railway Service-Breguet's Improvement. PRINCIPLES OF THEI FRENCH RAILWAY TELEGRAPI. Tins apparatus is founded upon the principle of the movement of a clockwork, which turns an exterior needle, fixed to the same axis with an escapement wheel, the rotation of Fig. 1. 334

Page  335 DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. 335 which is stopped by an anchor. A soft iron armature, moveable in front of an electro-magnet, communicates an oscillatory movement to that anchor, which, at every movement, lets a tooth of the wheel pass. The exterior dial bears letters, signs, or figures, and the needle may stop before any one of them. The whole is contained in a case, in which the dial alone is exposed to view. The model of the apparatus illustrated and explained in this chapter, is the same as that used in the telegraphic bureaux of France. The same system, a little modified, I noticed on the Belgian railways. It has proved to be of the greatest utility in the service, and every railway has in perfect organization this system of telegraph, having an office or bureau at every station. DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. The receiver of this telegraph will be seen in fig. 1; it is inclosed within its cover. The dial has 26 divisions; the upper is a cross, and the other divisions are the alphabet. The first 25 numbers are placed on the interior of the dial-plate. The needle, I in', is made of mica or steel, nicely balanced, and fixed frictionally on the axis of an escapement wheel. At the upper part, on the right hand, is a little dial, of which the axis a acts with the recoil spring of the armature. The two screws or binding posts, A A', serve to fix the wires by which the current enters and leaves. At the place of the letter At in the alphabet is a square, b, by means of which the clock-work is wound up. When the current is not passing, the needle may be advanced, by pressing on the button or thumb-key d, situated at the upper part of the case. In fig. 2 is represented a side view of the vertical projection of the apparatus. Fig. 3 is a horizontal projection, and fig. 4 is a perspective view of the armature, the anchor, and the escapement wheel. In all the figures, the same objects are represented by the same letters. The clock-work movement is comprised between two copper plates, B c and D E. The little barrel, Mr, contains a large spring, and its axis corresponds to the exterior square represented at b, in fig. 1. The axis of the upper wheel, F G I-, bears an index needle, H H', and the escapement wheel, concealed in fig. 2 by the armature-rod, but visible at iL, in fig. 4. The electro magnet N, figs. 2 and 3, is placed above the clock movement, on a copper plate, D D'. It is held by two vertical posts, and a copper strip, w w'. The two soft iron rods of the electro magnet, held together by a third rod, K, are independent of the spools, and can be moved by means of the screw-adjuster L L'. In order

Page  336 336 THE FRENCH RAILWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. to move forward or draw back the electro magnet, it is sufficient to turn the screw for the purposes respectively. The exFig. 2. tremities of the covered wire spools terminate. uw at two screws, or bindIL caw-d- ing-posts, Q Q', which, T;i.e.......l M by means of two metal M' III te -, strips, communicate with the exterior bind-.,.:1 _-! inmg-screws, A A'. The armature R e, o? a' \|~ ~placed in front of the electro magnet, is M.<,_ =g | \ ol moveable around the - _ |two screws, R and R'. I ^ l,1 =. 4. The rod T T', fig. 4, _ = C - - / suspended from the middle, carries at its ____ t^1 | - lower part a little horizontal point T v, x. _^ _ Ed j tengaged in a little -?_l~ -. -.- rk-.ii.* fork which is attached ~ -M — to the axis x Y; finally in the middle of this rod, at z, is formed two little slips, m and m', situated in planes differing from each other, and below the escapement wheel L, which has 13 teeth. Fig. 3. (- a [iut

Page  337 DESCRIPTION OF THE RECEIVING INSTRUMENT. 337 By means of the clockwork, the escapement wheel is caused to turn in the direction indicated by the arrow, but cne of its teeth is stopped by the point m. When the current passes, the armature is attracted by the electro- Fig. 4. magnet. The rod causes the axis x Y to turn a little. The slip m withdraws, and permits the tooth to pass, which strikes against the strip m'. It rests thus, until the (' moment when the current ceases to pass, when the armature re- turns to its first position. The'" strip m', being withdrawn, permits a tooth of the wheel to pass, and another tooth is stopped by the strip m. I. The exterior needle, fixed to the same axis, turns then with each i vJiL ztm' complete oscillation of the armature n through -s of the dial, and for each I V half oscillation through -I- of the dial. Thus, when the current traverses the wire of the electro-magnet, the needle advances through one division; if it is over the cross, it comes opposite letter A. When the current is interrupted, the needle advances again, and places itself in front of the letter B, and so on. In order that it may make a complete circuit, 13 emissions of the current are necessary. The two little screws, n and n', being fixed to a copper piece, which unites the plate D E, limits the play of the rod T T'. The recoil spring is a little spiral spring attached at q to the rod of the armature; it is terminated by a wire, r r' a', which is coiled upon a little pulley at a', the axis of which is prolonged to the exterior of the box or case as far as to a'. At the upper part of the dial is a little rod t t', which, when pressed down, turns around an axis, and gives motion to the bent strip t' 1", and this strip then presses the armature against the electro magnet, and. proluces an effect similar to the passage of the current. It is by lowering the exterior thumbbutton d, fig. 1, that this movement is produced. The apparatus is put in an operating state by means of two little screws, n and n/, which should be so tightened as to give to the rod of the armature the least possible play, allowing it, nevertheless, sufficient play to permit one of the teeth of the escapement-wheel to pass at each movement. It then remains 22

Page  338 338 THE FRENCH RAILWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. to regulate the motion of the needle, according to the intensity of the current. The electro magnet may be advanced or withdrawn, and the recoil-spring may be tightened from the exterior by means of the little key f, fig. 1. The apparatus is known to be regulated, when the needle turns regularly under the action of a series of rapid interruptions of the current. Sometimes the strips m and m', fig. 4, are a little too far apart, and at a single movement of the armature, several teeth of the escapement wheel pass; in such cases, the two strips must be brought nearer together, or the screws n and n' must be put farther apart. When the play of the armature is too much, it may happen that the strips m and'f may both be, at a given moment, on the same side of the escapement wheel; the clock movement being no longer held, the wheels turn with great rapidity, until the spring has exhausted its action. When this part of the apparatus is touched, the little barrel M should be held by the hand, to prevent a rupture of the great spring and of the needle. THE MANIPULATING APPARATUS. The mlanipulator, fig. 5, is formed of a square plate, upon which rests a brass dial, bearing on its circumference, in front, notches, the same as the letters on the receiving apparatus, and disposed in the same order. A crank, A B, pointed at the centre of the plate, gives motion to a spirally grooved wheel, which is partly shown in fig. 5. The regular sinuosities of this wheel are equal to the number of characters on the dial. The rotation of this wheel produces a to-and-fro movement of the. lever I o F, which is moveable around the point o, and of which the extremity F is terminated by a little spring F D, which touches alternately the two screws P, and P', which are fastened to c, the little copper pieces, as shown in fig. 5. Whenever the crank is over an even number, the lever presses on the binding screw P'; when the crank is over an odd number, the lever presses on the binding screw P. During a complete revolution of the crank, the lever touches the binding screw p 13 times and p' 13 times. N v and N/ V/ are two springs moveable around N and N/, and can be made to press upon any of the strips, L K H and L' K' H'. Metallic communications are established beneath the plate between the different binding screws, which are seen on the manipulator: p communicates with c; p' with E and E/; z with T G G/ H and I'; L and L/ with the axis o of the lever: c is made to communicate with the copper pole of the battery, z with the zinc pole, and T with the earth. The two wires of the re

Page  339 THE MANIPULATING APPARATUS. 339 ceiving apparatus are attached at G and E, or at G' and E, and the line wire is attached at N and N. At H K and H/ K/ are fastened the bell wires. The two commutators N V and N/ V/ enable the operator to employ a single manipulator in two different directions. When it is desired to correspond, the spring N v is placed in contact with L. In the position of fig. 5, the current coming from the line x, follows the route N L L / o F' v E, traverses the receiving apparatus, and returns to E, when it goes to the earth ty the wire G T. In order to transmit, the crank, A B, is turned, and by placing it Ao the ktter A, the spring! o D, comes into contact with the binding screw, P, the current leaves the copper pole of the battery, follows the route c p F o L/ L N, and passes to the corresponding station in the direction of x. It produces an attraction of the armature and the needle of the receiving apparatus, and advances over the letter A. On placing the crank over B, the lever, o B, resumes its position, the current is inFig. 5. K' /\ o C oTnr un4c a eCt P COPPE P,, 11 / G)' i I /i COPPER POL.- IN OPOLE

Page  340 ^40 THE FRENCH RAILVWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. terrupted, and the needle at the station in communication advances through a new division and places itself above B. If the needle of the receiving apparatus and the crank of the manipulator are upon the cross, and if the crank be then turned rapidly and stops it at any letter desired, the needle of the receiving apparatus at the extremity of the line, will indicate the same letter. When, instead of turning the crank according to alphabetical order of the letters, it is turned backward, the indicating needle of the station in communication continues to turn in the same direction, and the letters received do not agree with those sent. To re-establish an agreement between them it is necessary to bring thie crank back to the cross on the one hand, and to make the needle advance by means of the thumb button, d1, until it is over the cross. Fig. G. [., 8' /,/ j I.. In a state of rest the spring, N, ought to press upon the contact, K, so that if the current comes over the line it may traverse the bell apparatus, and thence to the earth by the wire ii G T. The line is put in direct communication with the earth by placing the spring, N v, upon the contact, H, a precaution taken in stormy weather. If two lines terminate at N and N', the two neighboring stations are put in direct communication by placing the two commutators N v and. N' V upon the strip marked commurnication direct in fig. 5. PROCESS OF MANIPULATION BETWEEN STATIONS. A single manipulator and a single receiving apparatus will suffice for corresponding successively with two different stations, provided there are two bell apparatuses, in communication with the buttons I1 and K, H' and i'. Fig. 6 shows the position of two stations in communication with each other, x

Page  341 THE PROCESS OF MANIPULATION. 341 and x', of which x is the first station, in communication with x', the second station, and x' with the third station x", P p' are the batteries; M MI/ the manipulators; R R' the receivers; S S' S" the bell apparatuses, to be described hereafter; B B/ BE are the galvanometers, which are constantly in the circuit and indicate the passage of the current. In the normal position, the commutators or circuit connectors are placed on the contacts which communicate with the bell apparatus; the needles of the receivers, and the cranks of the manipulators, are upon the cross. When an operator of a station wishes to send a dispatch, he places the commutator attached to the wire by which he wishes to transmit, upon the contact points I. and L/, fig. 5, and sends the current by turning the crank. The operator of the station in communication, having been warned by the movement of his bell, places his commutator in the same way, and indicates, by a turn of the crank, that he is ready to receive. The operator of the other station sends his dispatch, letter by letter, turning the crank regularly, and stopping for a moment upon each letter he wishes to send. If he happens to pass a letter which he ought to have sent, he must be careful not to turn backward, but continue turning until he arrives at the letter by passing the cross. To avoid confusion, he ought to stop at the cross after each word. When the transmission is completed he turns the crank and stops it at the letter z, and then brings it back to the cross. The signal z is called the final. The operator of the receiving station, if he has understood the dispatch, responds immediately by giving the two letters c o. At both stations the operators then place their commutators back upon the bell apparatus. It is said that an expert operator can easily send from 60 to 70 letters per minute. If the dispatch contains numbers expressed in figures, indication thereof is given by stopping the crank twice over the cross, indicating that the following signals are to be taken from the figures. When in the course of the transmission, the signals become unintelligible, the receiving operator makes a turn of the crank, to inform the transmitting station of the fact, and he stops a moment to make the needle of his receiver come back to the cross, an operation which takes place at the same time at the sending station. He then passes the two letters R z, meaning " Repeat," which letters are placed immediately succeeding the last word understood. He then comes back to the cross and waits for the continuation of the dispatch, by the sending operator. The needle of the apparatus sometimes does not turn regu

Page  342 342 THE FRENCH RAILWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. larly; the transmission is then imperfect, and the apparatus must be properly adjusted. In such a case, one of the operators requests the other to turn his crank, when he tightens or loosens the recoil-spring, by means of the little key used for that purpose, until the needle moves regularly; this process completes the adjustment. The other operator then corrects his instrument by the same process, the adjusted station sending a current to the other, by the turning of the crank. In order to transmit to a more distant station, call is made for the " communication direct," which is effected by turning the crank, following it by the name of the station wanted, and the number of minutes desired for the business is also mentioned. The station notified of this wish, answers E o, and immediately places the two commutators or circuit connectors upon the metallic strip, if "' communication direct." The next succeeding station is notified in the same manner, which also makes the connection direct. In the same manner the successive stations are notified. An operator ought always to answer to the call which is made, immediately. If occupied in another direction he passes the two letters A z, which means " wait." When he is ready he should notify the other station. To simplify the transmission, conventional tables of signals have been made combining figures 2 by 2, indicating certain phrases, as 5.17, " the train is starting." Notice is sent beforehand that these signals will be sent. The manipulator may have several commutators similar to N v and N/ v' and may serve to communicate in more directions than two, provided there is a special bell apparatus for each line. Nevertheless, it has been found injurious to multiply the commutators, for the reason that they are not readily understood by the employes of the railway, who take part in the telegraphic service as a secondary affair. The dial plate apparatus leaves no record, no traces of what has been sent, consequently the reading of the signals requires the closest attention. Its movements are quiet, and the eye must be devoted to the signals and nothing else. The manipulation is so simple, that a person inexperienced in telegraphing may, at once, comprehend the system, at least be able to send dispatches. This apparatus will always be very useful for railways, and also where the telegraph is a mere auxiliary. PORTABLE APPARATUS FOR THE RAILWAY SERVICE. Fig. 7, represents the portable apparatus constructed by M. Breguet for the French railway service. It is very small, as

Page  343 PORTABLE APPARATUS FOR RAILWAY SERVICE. 343 will be seen by the dimensions marked upon the figure. This instrument is designed to be carried in one of the cars of a train, and it is so arranged that it can be readily attached to the line wires. The dial, IR, is the same as represented by fig. 1. The dial, M, is the key-board and crank represented by fig. 5. The upper part, c c, is fastened with hinges, and can be let down so as to cover the apparatus MI and R, forming a square box, and in size some 8 by 10 inches. Fig. 7. I do not consider it necessary to explain the manner of operating this apparatus, as the same explanations given of the precedino figures apply to this instrument. It is smaller than the

Page  344 344 THE FRENCH RAILWAY ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. ordinary office apparatus, but in its construction it is the same. In case its use becomes necessary, by a train, the line wire is cut and connected through the instrument, and thus, means of communication is speedily formed with an office to the right or to the left, as the case may be. The arrangement is simple and easy to be operated. The contrivance exhibits much ingenuity, particularly in the simplicity of its manipulation. BREGUET S IMPROVEMENT. In regard to the clockwork indicated by fig. 4, Mr. Breguet has made a very valuable improvement, as will be seen by fig. 8. Fig. 8. In the description given of fig. 1, ai ^^ it was stated that by pressing the button d, the respective instruments would be brought in unison /f ^ - I ~^of action by making some 13 revorri ir u lutions and stops. Mr. Breguet's plan economizes time, and more speedily accomplishes the end desired. l, v la By pressing lightly on the Lutton d, the needle is made to move one 1,/T\~.\ single notch, by pressing it strongly it passes instantly to the cross, or zero, of the index plate. The butmY =tton, placed at the top of the ap-; nm' ~ paratus, instead of moving a little r Z strip pressing on the armature, as in fig. 4, it is placed at the extremity of a long vertical rod, as seen in fig. 8. The spiral spring h holds up the axis, x Y bears, together with the escapement anchor z, a little horizontal strip b c, which presses against the extremity of the rod d a b. When the button d is pressed upon lightly, the strip c b, as they make the axis x Y, and the escapement anchor z to turn at each pressure, a tooth of the wheel L escapes, and the indicating needle advances one division. If, on the contrary, the strip c d is pressed forcibly, it is lowered, and lets the tooth m' pass beyond the escapementwheel L, the wheel then being entirely disengaged, rapidly turns, bearing with it the needle. The rotation stops promptly, because the axis L bears a point v, which hits against a projection a of the rod d b. At the moment when the rod d b is raised a little, the pro

Page  345 BREGUET S INPROVEMENT. 345 jection a disengages the stop v, but the slip m' of the escapement anchor engages again with the teeth of the wheel L, and, finally, when the rod rises entirely, the tooth m' comes in its turn to stop the movement, and the receiver is in its normal state. The stop of the wheel L always takes place in the same position as occupied by the needle, and if it corresponds exactly, when the needle is in front of z, it is clear that, by lowering the rod forcibly, and letting it spring back quickly, the needle is brought from any position whatever to the cross. The needle will pass over the z during the very short time that the strip mn' requires to come back in front of the wheel L'. Experts are of the opinion that the rod of the armature might be a little modified, so that the little fork and the rod may incline with the anchor. It is terminated by a spring, which does not prevent it from causing the anchor x Y to oscillate. It is the action of the spring which brings back the anchor z to its ordinary position, when the rod d a b ceases to press upon the strip c b.

Page  346 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH BELL APPARATUS. CHAPTER XXVI. The French Telegraph Bell Instruments-Vibratory Bell Apparatuses-Use of Bells in Telegraph Offices. THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH BELL INSTRUMENTS. THE greater part of the telegraphic stations are furnished with bells, which enable the different offices to call each other when the operator desired is not at the station, or to awake him in the night. They are indispensable at the railway stations, as the employes are not experts in telegraphing, having their services divided with the railway and the telegraph. The bells are formed with a clockwork movement, by which a wheel, stopped by the armature of the electro-magnet, is disengaged at the moment when the current is sent by the operating or sending station. The rotation takes place for a longer or shorter time, and causes a hammer to oscillate, which strikes upon the bell. The apparatus which is employed in the state telegraph office in France, is arranged in a case traversed by the hammer and the bell-rod. Figs. 1, 2, and 3, gives three vertical projections, as seen in three different directions. The clock movement is comprised between two vertical copper plates, A B and c D, fig. 3. The barrel F contains the large spring, which is wound up from the outside, by turning the axis f with a key. This barrel causes the two axes, G and h, in fig 5, to turn, of which the first connects in front of the plate A B, fig. 1, to the eccentric G, fig. 1, formed of a circle, cut by two parallels, and the second connects to a circle h, fig. 1, which gives motion to the lever-arm H i, and also a to-and-fro movement to the lower part I of a hammer, I K L, moveable 346

Page  347 THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH BELL INSTRUMENTS. 347 around K. Behind the other plate, c D, as seen in fig. 2, is the electromagnet E E, of which the wire is attached to two binding-posts, in connection with two exterior screw or binding posts. Fig. 1.,4Y,''-i 1^1- I1%!? ~]''''1 I One of the screw posts connects with the line, by which the current is to arrive, and the other with the earth. The armature, Ai Ai', is moveable around AI'. Its rod, M' n' m, moves between two screws, limiting its course. The recoil-spring is tightened by means of the screw n. A little strip, Pi o' rn, drawn down by the spring o o', presses upon the upper part of the armature-rod, and descends when the armature is attracted by the electro-magnet.' The axis p,, which traverses the two plates, is invariably fixed to the rod P o' in, and to the quoin Pi, fig. 1. It turns when the rod p1 o' m, fig. 2, descends. One of the sides of the quoin n i

Page  348 348 THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH BELL INSTRUMENTS. P'. in a state of rest, is vertical, and presses against the spring Q, q' q. The circle h, fig. 1, which turns with the eccentric H, bears a little rod, which it moves on turning in the direction indicated by the arrow, and which hits against the portions q' q of the spring Q q q' which is wider at q' q than Q q'. Fig. 2. - In the position of the figures, the rod r being stopped, the rotation of the axis h and G, in fig. 3, cannot take place. When a current arrives from one of the exterior screw or binding-posts, in traversing the wire of the electro-magnet, the armature Wi' A, fig. 2, is attracted, and M' n' m withdraws a little, and the strip P, o/ m, descending under the action of the spring o' o, fig. 2, causes the axis P, fig. 3, to turn a little. The quoin pr, fig. 1, inclines toward the left, and draws back the spring q q' Q. The rod r is not stopped, and the wheel h, fig. 1, turns as well as the eccentric G, fig. 1, of which the bent part engages with the spring 0 0 O 0~~,swihth prn

Page  349 THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH BELL INSTRUMENTS. 349 Q q' q, and keeps it drawn back during all the time required to make a half revolution. During the rotation, the eccentric H puts in motion the lever-arm H I, and the hammer, which strikes on the bell. As the quoin comes back to its vertical position, the spring, after it has ceased to be passed by the curvilinear part of G, stops the rod r again, and interrupts the movement of the hammer. Fig. 3.. - _ It remains now to be shown how the quoin comes back to the vertical position. Its axis, P, bears a rod which is seen in fig. 3, between the copper plate c D, and the large wheel, the axis of which is G. At the extremities of one diameter of the wheel are fixed two points, and when the wheel turns, these points press upon the rod and turn the axis, r, which raises the strip, pi o' nz, fig. 2, and the quoin, rP, fig. 1. If the current has ceased to pass, the armature is brought back o its position; the strip, PI rn, presses again on the upper

Page  350 350 THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH BELL INSTRUMENTS. part of the armature M' n' mn, fig. 2, and the movement is stopped. If, on the contrary, the current passes, the rod is lowered again, and the play of the bell apparatus continues. Thus, when a single emission of current is produced, the bell apparatus continues to go while the wheel, G, is making a half revolution. There are frequently several bell apparatuses in the stations, as the employ6s are not always present when required, and it is important that there should be some indication by which the station making the call could be known to the operator when he returns to the service. To this end, a disk is fixed, upon which is written the word answer. The part of the disk which bears this word, is inclined, and when the bell rings, it raises itself quickly and places itself in front of a little window cut in the case. This arrangement is thus described: This disk is fixed on an axis, v, fig. 1, to the middle of which a spiral spring, v y, is attached. The spring, v y, tends to make the disk turn and raise up the writing on it. The movement of this axis is stopped by a point, u, which the bent spring x x, fig. 2, holds. The axis h is formed with a little arm h" t, fig. 2. AWhen that wheel moves, the arm draws back the spring x x, which releases the point u and the disk rises rapidly. It is lowered on the outside by means of a little key. VIBRATOI1Y BELL APPARATUS. The preceding bell apparatus is expensive and quite complicated. It must be wound up whenever the spring has executed its action, which is quite an inconvenience when it is to be intrusted to the care of inferior agents in the service of the railway companies, such as the guards, workmen, &c. I will now give a description of a new bell system, which offers great advantages on account of its simplicity. Let there be an electro magnet, A B, fig. 4, and an armature, c D, with its lever arm, D o, moveable on the point, o. The rod, o D, touches alternately two screws, mn and n. The rod, o D, is in communication with the wire, o P; the point, m, with the wire of the electro-magnet, of which the other extremity reaches to q. When the two extremities, p and Q, are placed in an electric circuit, the current traverses the wire of the electro-magnet and the armature, c D, is attracted. The rod at the same instant is withdrawn from the screw, m., and breaks the circuit. The horseshoe core of the electro-magnet ceases to be a magnet, and the armature c D, yielding to the action of the recoil spring, I H, returns to its normal position. The

Page  351 VIBRATORY BELL APPARATUS. 351 circuit is again closed, and the movement taking place again, a series of vibrations are produced. Fig. 4. 0 i aaa in n i i al a JJ This apparatus, in the French service, is called a trembler. The width of the vibration is extremely small, when the current passes quickly on and off the electro-magnet; but if there be added to the screw m a small spring, which may press slightly upon the armature, at the moment when it withdraws from the rod, the movement becomes much stronger. The bell apparatus, fig. 5, is contained in a box, the outside casing of which is seen. The bell T is placed over the box; the armature L N is terminated at the upper part by a little hammer M; it is moveable around the point K by means of a spring, which draws it from the electro-magnet A A, and serves in the place of a recoil-spring. Another spring, i D, presses upon the rod for a moment, when the armature is attracted by the electro-magnet. The fixed point I of the spring i D is connected to the exterior screw-post B and the point K, by means of the wire of the electro-magnet to the screw-post c. The movement of the bell apparatus is produced as has been above shown. All the time the current is coming over the line, the hammer strikes a continuous series of blows upon the bell; it produces a sort of rolling sound, which lasts as long as the screw-post B is in connection with

Page  352 352 THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH BELL INSTRUMENTS. the battery. Mr. Blavier thinks this bell apparatus a useful appendage to the Morse Telegraph, the sound of which can Fig. 5. ~I I be distinguished, when given in adjusted time, to indicate the dots and dashes of the alphabet. The force upon the bell depends upon the power of the el the attraction of the armature. USE OF BELLS IN TELEGRAPH OFFII In telegraph stations, where many lines centre, a special bell apparatus for each line is very common in Europe, in order that the operator may recognize the call of the respective stations on his line. A single bell apparatus suffices, if there is placed upon the circuit of each wire a relay, similar to that of the Morse apparatus. All these relays being furnished with an appendage, indicating the one which has been traversed by the current, closes the circuit of a local battery, and sets in motion the bell apparatus. This relay, fig. 6, comprises an electromagnet A, and an armature, which, in a state of rest, touches the scrow N, and when it is attracted, it touches the screw TM. This screw M connects with one pole of the local battery, and the armature connects with the other pole, by means of the electromagnet. nJlcnf

Page  353 USE OF BELL IN TELEGRAPH OFFICES. 353 When the current is coming over the line, and traversing the electro-magnet A, the armature being attracted, makes the current of the local battery pass into the bell apparatus, and at the same instant disengages the rod a b, which rises under the action of the spring d. Fig. 6. All the relays may be arranged in a single box, in order to save room. A single local battery being necessary, all the screws, such as Mr, communicate together, as well as all the armatures. Above each of them is written the name of the station with which it is in connection. For these bell apparatuses, relays must be employed, because they require a very considerable development of magnetic force, in order to produce a sufficient sound to be distinguishable. In America, bells are wholly unnecessary on the Morse Electro-Magnetic Telegraph lines. They are serviceable on the House, Hughes, Barnes, and other printing apparatuses. On electro-chemical telegraph lines, bells are indispensably necessary. The ordinary relay magnet produces a sound, which, to the expert, is intelligible. On the German lines, sometimes bells are employed. 23

Page  354 THE ELECTROCHIIEMICAL TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXVII. Bain's Electro-Chemical Telegraph-Apparatus and Manipulation-Smith and Bain's Patented Invention-Bain's Description and Claims-Morse's ElectroChemical Telegraph-Westbrook and Rogers' Electro-Chemical Telegraph. BA[N'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. TEE most prominent chemical telegraph is that of Mr. Alexander Bain, of England. There are none others in practical operation at the present time. In England, this telegraph is worked by the old Electric Telegraph Company to a limited extent. In the United States, through the wonderful energy of Mr. Henry O'Reilly, the chemical telegraph invented by Mr. Bain was used on an extensive range of lines about 1850. The Morse companies instituted suits, and obtained injunctions against the chemical telegraph lines, which produced a very great change in the use of that apparatus in America. The Federal Court for the District of Pennsylvania held a very thorough hearing on an application for an injunction, and a decree was awarded, declaring the patent which had been granted to Mr. Bain an infringement upon the original patent of 1840, granted to Mr. Morse. After this injunction, the other chemical telegraph lines consolidated with the Morse companies. At the present time, there is but one electro-chemical telegraph line in America, and that one extends from Boston to Montreal, with branches; the whole making about 800 miles, and works in co-operation with the Morse lines. THE APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. Having thus briefly referred to the present state of the chemical telegraDh lines on both continents, I will, in the next 354

Page  355 TIHE APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 355 place, give a few explanations in regard to th3 practical manipulation of the apparatus. Fig. 1 represents the apparatus placed upon a table ready for operation. The table is about four feet high and six feet long. The line wire enters the station upon the right, traverses Fig. 1. a small relay magnet, sitting on the right of the table; it then passes through the key, and thence to the stylus, which rests upon the disk; from beneath the disk, the wire is conducted to the earth. The relay magnet upon the right has attached to it a circular piece of glass, which serves as a bell, when struck by a rod attached to the armature. With this, the call is made and the operator is thus notified when and by whom wanted. The clockwork on the centre of the table is to put in motion the disk, as seen upon the left. Upon the disk is laid the chemically prepared paper, which is kept damp. It lies on, or connects with the metallic disk. The stylus lies upon the moist paper,

Page  356 356 THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. and the revolving of the disk, when communication is being made, conducts the paper from under the stylus, so as to leave a clear space for the marks produced by the current of electricity. The line of dots on the disk illustrates the peculiar action of the marking by the stylus. This form of apparatus was not universal. The clocl;work seen in the table is about eighteen inches high, and is quite weighty. Some of the instruments are constructed as small as the Morse apparatus, using a ribbon paper, passing over rollers plated with a metal that will not be acted upon by the acids used to moisten the paper. The ribbon paper was drawn between two sponge rollers, which moistened it with the chemical solution, and thence it was drawn under the stylus. The operator was compelled to handle the paper, and in doing so, it was liable to break, the paper being very wet. To avoid this, the disk form was adopted. A dozen layers or sheets of paper are laid upon the disk, and kept moistened. The stylus is graduated to move from the exterior to the interior, so that the whole of the sheet lying upon the disk can be written upon before it has to be removed, and then it is merely torn off, leaving the next sheet clean and clear, ready for the Fig. 2. stylus m o form t3 connection arac the s as before. The mark produced by the electric current does not extend farther than on the top sheet. The current passes through the other sheets leaving no mark. The coloring is confined to the place of contact between the stylus and the paper.

Page  357 BAIN'S APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 357 In order that the beauty and simplicity of this apparatus may be the better understood, I present a diagram of the electric current, which will be seen in fig. 2. A B are the respective stations. At station B, I introduce only the sending apparatus, and at station A, I leave off the sending mechanism, and insert only the receiving apparatus, reduced to the most simple and comprehensive form. I will first describe the sending station B. P i is the earth plate of zinc or copper, to which is attached a wire leading to the battery z; the wire k connects with the anvil b of the key a b c; to c is attached the lever a; c is a non-conductor, and insulates the brass pieces a from b; to a is attached the line wire L, which connects with the stylus s; w is a metallic roller, over which runs the chemically moistened ribbon paper from the reel R; from w the wire extends to the earth plate P I (station B).'The clockwork, as seen in fig. 1, is attached to the roller w, which puts in motion the paper, and causes it to move forward under the point of the stylus s. In order to communicate, it is only necessary to press upon the lever a, which forms a contact with the anvil b. This then will complete the circuit from the earth plate of station B to the earth plate of station A, and the earth completes the circuit between the two plates. When the circuit is thus closed at a b, the electric current flows over the line wire, as indicated by the arrows, descends with the stylus, traverses the chemically moistened paper, passes through the roller w, and thence to the earth. In the passage of the electric current through the moistened paper, a beautiful dark color is left upon it, either in the form of a dot or a dash, as may be determined by the length of time that a b may be in contact. The manipulation with the key is the same as with the Morse system. The color produced upon the moistened paper remains for an indefinite time. I have a strip of the paper that I got in London five years ago, and on reference to it on the present occasion, I find that the marks ari as clear as they were when I Ygot it. It will be seen that, according to the arrangement of the circuit in fig. 2, there is no electric current on the line, unless a station is communicating, or, in other words, every station transmits a message with a current generated by the battery at that station. There will be, of necessity, a battery at every station. This arrangement, however, is not indispensable; for there might be a continuous current on the line, if desired. With a sounder at each station, there can be no impropriety

Page  358 358 THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. in the continuation of the voltaic current on the wire, as is the practice with the Morse apparatus in America. Some of the Bain chemical telegraph lines did not use the sounder for fear of an infringement on the Morse patents. Each station had an allotted time, and the batteries were so organized, that each station brought into service the battery of that station, communicating with that and none other. With these explanations, I will now proceed to give Mr. Bain's descriptions and claims, in relation to his electro-chemical telegraph. SMITH AND BAIN'S PATENTED INVENTION. In the patent granted, in the United States of America, to Messrs. Robert Smith and Alexander Bain of England, under date of October 30, 1849, the inventors declare that their improvement in electro-chemical telegraphing consists of the following, viz.: 1st. In the present mode of arranging the several parts herein described of our marking instruments of Electro-Chemical Telegraphs. 2d. In a mode of constructing a style or point-holder, so as to afford a ready and convenient mode of regulating the pressure of the style or point on the surface of the chemically prepared paper, or other suitable fabric. 3d. In a mode of applying a weight for regulating the pressure of an upper on a lower revolving wheel, or roller, in motion, so as to grasp the strip of chemically prepared paper or other suitable fabric, and insure it being drawn continually forward. 4th. In a mode of arranging the marking instruments, keys, wires, and batteries, in a single circuit, and in branch circuits connected therewith, so that a copy of a message sent from any station may be marked upon the chemically prepared paper or other fabric, at any desired number of stations in communication therewith, and also, if required, at the transmitting station. I would here state, that the paper, linen, or other suitable fabric, may be prepared by being equally and thoroughly moistened by the following chemical compound, viz.: Ten parts, by measure, of a saturated solution of prussiate of potash, which will be best made in distilled water, and we prefer to use the yellow prussiate for this purpose; two parts by measure of nitric acid, of the strength of about forty by Baume's scale; two parts by measure of muriatic acid, of the strength of about twenty by Baume's scale.

Page  359 SMITH AND BAIN S PATENTED INVENTION. 359 To keep the paper or other fabric in a sufficiently moist state, favorable for the action of an electric current, we add about one part by measure of chloride of lime; this mixture is to be kept stirred about with a glass rod, until the chloride of lime is in complete solution. In connection with this compound, it is proper to observe that we have found that prussiate of potash, combined with almost any acids, will give mark under the decomposing action of an electric current, but no other mixtures act so quickly, or give such permanent marks with feeble currents of electricity, as that herein described. The principal use of the chloride of lime is, that it absorbs moisture fron the atmosphere, and thereby keeps the prepared fabric in a proper state to be acted upon by an electric current in all states of the weather. After describing the apparatus for telegraphing, the following are given as the claims of the inventors: 1st. The modes of arranging the several parts of our marking instruments for electro-chemical telegraphs, substantially, as hereinbefore described. 2d. We claim the mode of adjusting a style or point-holder, as hereinbefore described and shown, so as to afford a ready and convenient mode of regulating the pressure of the style or point upon the surface of the chemically prepared fabric. 3d. We claim the mode of applying the weight q, for the purpose of regulating the pressure, as herein described and shown. 4th. We claim the mode of arranging the marking and transmitting instruments, wires, and batteries, in a single circuit, and in branch circuits connected therewith, so that a copy of a message sent from any one station may be marked upon chemically prepared paper, or other fabric, at one or any desired number of stations in communication therewith, and also, if required, at the transmitting station, without requiring the use of any secondary current. In the application for a patent in the United States, Mr. Bain was opposed by Prof. Morse. The Commissioner of Patents sustained the claims of the latter gentleman. Mr. Bain appealed to the Federal Court for the District of Columbia. On the 13th of March, 1849, the honorable judge reversed the decision of the Commissioner of Patents, and issued the following order, viz.: "And I do further decide and adjudge, that the said Samuel F. B. Morse is entitled, under the 7th section of the Act of 1836, to a patent for the combination which he has invented, claimed, and described in his specification, drawings, and model; and

Page  360 360 THE ELECTRO-CUIE[MICAL TELEGRAPH. that the said Alexander Bain is entitled, under the same section, to a patent for the combination which he has invented, claimed, and described in his specification, drawings, and model; provided the said Morse and Bain shall have respectively complied with all the requisites of the law to entitle themn to their respective patents." The following extracts were embraced in the application of Mr. Bain, which will be sufficient to explain the details of his telegraph. BAINXS DESCRIPTION AND CLAIMS OF HIS INVENTION. Know ye, that I, Alexander Bain, formerly of Edinburgh, now of the city of London, at present in the city of New-York, electric telegraph engineer, a subject of the Queen of Great Britain, have invented and made, and applied to use, certain new and useful improvements in the construction of electric telegraphs, for which original invention a patent was granted to me, by the government of Great Britain and Ireland, dated, in London, the 12th of December, 1846, for which said original invention, including other original and important improvements thereon, I now seek letters patent of the United States: That the said improvements differ with all other precedent modes employed in electric telegraphs; first, by using electricity in a manner independent of any magnetic action; secondly, in composing a message or communication by perforations through paper, in sets of characters, each of which represents a letter of the alphabet, or numeral figure, or other needful sign; which arrangement of perforated signs being arbitrary, may be changed at pleasure, so as to transmit secret or other important communications, by signs not understood by those not having the key or index of the secret arrangement; thirdly, by an arrangement of mechanical means, through which the nonconducting substance of the paper passing through the electrically excited parts of the machinery interrupts the circuit, except when the perforated parts forming the signs pass between the electrically excited parts of the machinery, and place these in contact in a manner that completes the circuit, transmitting a corresponding electric pulsation to the receiving apparatus at the distant station; fourthly, in recording the pulsation so given, by the intermittently passed electric fluid, on chemically prepared paper in such a manner as permanently to record on the chemically prepared substance a succession of signs corresponding to the perforations in the paper used at the transmitting station; and, fifthly, in the arrangement of mechanical means, by which a communication, when composed, can be

Page  361 BAIN'S DESCRIPTION AND CLAI.IS OF HIS INVENTION. 361 simultaneously transmitted through one machine to any plurality of distant stations, at, or nearly at, the same instant of time; and, as will be shown hereafter, with a rapidity unknown in electro-telegraphic apparatus wherein magnetic influences are admitted. Before describing the'means of making the perforations to form the signs, it may be proper to describe the signs hitherto found most available. By referring to description, it will be seen that the letter A is formed by one small dot and a line, thus, - -; the letter B by a dot, a line and a dot, thus, --—; and so on of the rest; but it will be seen that all the letters to N, inclusive, are begun with a dot or dots to the left of the line; L being formed by four dots, I by two dots. and E by one; all following are begun with a line to the left of the dot or dots used; the Y and z with the abbreviation & being represented by lines only. The numeral signs to 5, inclusive, also commence with a dot or dots, and from 6 to 0, inclusive, these numerals begin with lines; the fractional line is represented by - - - - —, and is to be preceded by the numerator, and followed by the denominator of the given fraction, thus -- - - - - - - - - -, will represent -, and so on of all the other signs. It has been before noticed, that these signs are arbitrary and changeable; but as will be seen hereafter, the means of composing, transmitting, and recording signs are equally effective for any other system of signs that may hereafter be found either better in arrangement, or more especially applicable for any particular object. The entire alphabet, as adopted by Mr. Bain, and used on the American lines, was the following: ALPHABET AND NUMERALS. A — N —B- - O - B —- 0 C1- --- PO D — Q - E- R --- F S - G -. T - -- H- U- - - - L - - X K —- - M.- -Z - & _.~

Page  362 362 THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. NUMERALS. 4 —-- 9 —-- 3 ----- The process of rapid communication contemplated the previous preparation of the ribbon paper, by perforating the alphabet. This arrangement was as follows: The punch is cylindrical, having a flat end and a sharp edge, and the whole of the parts very accurately fitted and adjusted together, without any lateral shake in the punch, so that it enters the die properly. When so completed, the compositor passes a strip of paper of any required length from beneath through the right-hand slot, and under the guide-block, out and downward through the left-hand slot, when the compositor strikes the head with a small ball of wood, covered with leather or India-rubber, in his right hand, which forces the punch point through the paper into the die, cutting out a small disk that falls through the die and holes below; the expansive spring throws the punch up, while the compositor, by his left finger and thumb, draws the paper on, to strike successively again on the punch head at the required distance, which, for a second or next successive single perforation, should be equal to the diameter of one dot, the space between a dot and the commencement of a line the same; to form a line, the compositor draws the paper on a little less than the diameter of a dot, successively, until he has struck the punch as many times as will form a line equal to three diameters of one dot, leaving a space between the ends and the commencements of lines, in the same manner equal to the diameter of one dot; the space between each two letters, equal to four dots; and the space between each two successive words equal to the diameters of eight dots. This process forms groups of perforations in a continuous line, each of which groups complete a sign, representing a letter or numeral, and the larger spaces show the ends and commencements of words, that so placed are formed and read from left to right along the centre of the paper, in the same manner as common writing or printing. In this manner, a competent compositor, with a thorough knowledge of the signs, will compose a communication nearly as fast as it can be set up in type, and as fast as the same quantity of matter can be marked upon paper, by magnetism operating through mechanical means. When all the perforations are made, the paper strip is to be wound on a

Page  363 BAIN S DESCRIPTION AND CLAIMS OF HIS INVENTION. 363 roller, which fits into the transmitting machine, so that the communication is ready to be passed through that machine. In regard to the preparation of this paper for the application of the apparatus, the following will serve as explanatory: To receive a communication, the wire brush is to be turned back to the right by means of the pointer, to be out of contact with the transmitting roller; then take a piece of fine, good smooth paper, the width of which should be equal to the length of the cylinder, and long enough to go round the cylinder, with the ends lapping over each other a quarter of an inch; this paper is to be previously prepared as follows: It is to be laid on any clean surface that acids will not act on, the paper is then to be covered on the upper surface with oil, by a very clean sponge; for this good salad oil will answer, but other oils will answer, if they do not evaporate too quickly, because the use of the oil is to lessen the evaporation of the chemicals next noticed, by retaining their moisture; the paper is then to be turned over, and washed with a clean sponge containing a solution of nitric acid, prussiate of potash, and liquid ammonia, in the following proportions-the ammonia is merely added to prevent the other ingredients from rotting the paper: Two parts, by measure, of pure nitric acid, twenty parts, by measure, of a saturated solution of prussiate of potash, in distilled water, and two parts of pure liquid ammonia, mixed together. The paper so prepared is to be laid, with the oiled surface upward, on and around the cylinder, and the lapping edges fastened with a little gum water; the cylinder is then to be put in place, and the steel slide is to be turned on to the paper; the apparatus is then ready to receive a transmitted communication. The machinery is then to be worked by a man at the wheel, at the rate of one revolution of the wheel per minute, the same as in transmitting a communication, and as before stated. The operator at any one distant station transmits the electric current in pulsations, regulated by the perforations in the paper he is using, as already explained, and these pulsations are received by the wire, as before mentioned, they pass by the screw and standards, axle, thence to the stem, and through that to the style, and through the chemically prepared paper to the cylinder, leaving a dark mark on the paper, which, though less in size, will be in number and position an exact transcript of the perforations in the paper used at the transmitting station. It is proper to notice, that steel styles leave a dark mark approaching black or blue black on the paper, but copper styles will leave a brown mark on the paper. It is not intended to discuss the theory of the causes that produce

Page  364 364 THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. these effects and facts; nor is it intended to claim the use of any particular chemical solution, either separate or conjoined; because the paper saturated with a solution of nitric acid only will receive a communication that will not become visible, until the paper is washed with a solution of prussiate of potash; therefore any chemical solutions rnav be used that will produce the best effects; and I have stated the solutions of nitric acid and prussiate of potash as those that I have hitherto found most effective in practical use. It is believed to be sufficiently plain, without much explanation, that as the perforations composed in the paper successively pass under each comb, the electric circuit will be completed, by the points of the comb coming in contact with the roller through such perforation, and that a corresponding period of rapid electric pulsations will be thus communicated simultaneously to the marking style at each distant station. It is proper to remark, that the battery in connection with each transmitting roller, must be of proportionate strength to the dis tance the current has to travel; and these arrangements admit of so graduating the strength of each battery, because each separate circuit is totally and entirely independent of any other circuit; and each circuit is completed at the receiving station, independent of any other station, and the communication transmitted is received and recorded at each receiving station, in the same manner, and with the same effect, as if made with the single acting machine first described. All other electric telegraphs hitherto used are dependent on the motive power of electro-magnetism for their action, and many mechanical means have been sought or tried, whereby to adapt this power for use, the main principle remaining the same in all; the machines are, consequently, all designated " Electro-Magnetic Telegraphs." But electricity travels with a velocity capable of giving several thousand signals per minute of time; and any apparatus composed more or less of ponderous bodies, having also to give motion to other and similar bodies, cannot act with more than a fraction of the velocity with which electricity travels; and another and greater hinderance is, that, however skilful an operator may be, he can only open and close the electric circuit, in a manner which again reduces the numerical velocity of its pulsations, and no other mode has yet effected the correct transmission of the same communication to a plurality of distant receiving stations. I have, therefore, in my hereinbefore described invention, re. jected magnetism altogether; and caused the pulsations of the

Page  365 BAIN'S DESCRIPTION AND CLAIMS OF HIS INVENTION. 365 electric current to be transmitted through groups of perforations, forming signs which are recorded at the receiving station by the pulsations of the electric current, acting on chemically prepared paper, in the manner described and shown; so that the circuit is completed and interrupted by the operation of the composed communication itself, without the electric current having to produce any mechanical motion, and without any manipulation of the operator, in forming the intermittent pulsations of the electric current, thereby effecting the transmission of a communication to one or a plurality of distant receiving stations, with far greater rapidity than by any other known mode. It is not deemed requisite to describe or refer to the voltaic, or other source' of electricity, nor is it intended to claim the application of that or any other electric source to these purposes; nor is it intended to claim any of the parts employed herein, irrespective of the uses to which they are severally put, as herein described. But I do claim as new, and of my own invention, and desire to secure by letters patent of the United States: 1st. The composing of electro-telegraphic communications, by making groups of perforations through paper, corresponding with or representing the signs to be transmitted, irrespective of the general arrangement of the collective or individual signs, and irrespective of the mechanical means employed to make the perforations. 2d. The application of paper so perforated to open and close an electric current, or several successive currents, thereby transmitting the electric current or currents in successive pulsations, that correspond with the perforations in the paper, substantially in the manner described and shown; but including any merely practical or convenient variations of the mechanical means, or materials, or fabrics employed, that are analogous or equivalent in their operations and effects. 3d. The application of any suitable chemically prepared paper, without regard to the chemical ingredients used for such a purpose, to receive and record signs forming communications, such signs being made by the pulsations of the electric current or currents transmitted from a distant station, said current operating directly, and without the intervention of any secondary current or mechanical contrivance, through a suitable metal marking style, that is in continuous contact with the receiving paper, thereby making marks thereon, which marks correspond with the groups of perforations in the paper, composing the transmitted communication, or may be given by the pulsations from the spring and block, so that, in either

Page  366 366 THE ELECTRO-CIIEMICAL TELEGRAPH. case, these form the received communications, substantially, in the manner and with the effects described and shown, including any merely practical variations in the means employed and the effects produced thereby. MORSE'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. In order that the chemical telegraph invented by Prof. Morse may be understood, I have taken the following extracts from his patent. This chemical telegraph has never been put into operation. The right is held by the companies owning the other Morse patents, and, whether better or worse, there is a disinclination to change the systems. Whetreas, among any earliest conceptions of the telegraph, in Octob3r of the year 1832, on board the packet-ship, Sully, on her voyage from France to New-York, I conceived the idea of marking the telegraphic signs I had invented (being dots and spaces to signify numerals), by electrical decomposition of certain salts and chemical compounds; and whereas, the application of the proper means for producing a successful result of this thought was soon after superseded in my mind by another method, at the same time conceived, of marking the said signs, to wit, by magnetism, produced by electricity, which is the successful method now in use, and having recently recurred to my original thought of applying decomposition by electricity through a single circuit of conductors, and discovered a means of successfully applying the same, as then conceived, to the rnarking of the aforesaid signs for numerals and letters, and of any desired characters, I will here describe the nature of my invention, and the method by which I obtain my results. The nature of my invention consists: 1st. In the application of the decomposing effects of electricity produced from any known generator of electricity, to the marking of the signs for numerals or letters, or words, or sentences, invented and arranged by me, and secured by patent, bearing date June 20th, 1840, reissued January 15th, 1846, and again reissued June 13th, 1848, or their equivalents, through a single circuit of electrical conductors. 2d. In the mode of applying this decomposition, and the machinery for that purpose. 3d. In the application of the bleaching qualities of electricity to the printing of any desired characters. In applying the decomposing effects of electricity upon any known salts that leave a mark, as the result of the said decomposition, I use

Page  367 MORSE'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. 367 Class A.-A class of salts that produce a colored mark upon cloth, paper, thread, or other material, under the action of electricity. 1st. Iodide of tin in solution. 2d. Extract of nutgalls, and sulphate of iron, in solution, making an ink which colors white cambric cloth of a uniform gray. 3d. Acetate of lead, and nitrate of potash in solution. 4th. Iodide of potassium in solution. Into either of these I dip a strip of cloth or thread, which is klept properly moistened. All these give a black mark upon the cloth, thread, or other material under the action of electricity. Class B.-A class of salts which color the cloth, paper, thread, or other material, and are bleached by the action of electricity. 1st. Iodide of tin in solution. 2d. Iodine dissolved in alcohol. Into either of these I dip a strip of cloth, paper, thread, or other material; and if in solution second, I also dip them into a solution of sulphate of soda, the cloth or other material, in these cases, becomes of a purple color more or less dark. The electricity in these cases, when a metallic point or type is pressed upon, or comes in contact with the moist cloth or other material, bleaches it, and leaves the point or the type impressed in white characters upon the material. Class C.-A class of salts that produce a mark upon metal, through the intervening cloth or other material, and not upon the material, under the action of electricity. 1st. Sulphate of copper in solution. 2d. Chloride of zinc diluted with water. 3d. Sulphate of iron in solution. Into either of these solutions I dip the cloth, thread, or other material, and if into the third, I afterward dip it into muriate of lime in solution. The electricity in these cases causes a dark mark upon a bright metal plate beneath the moistened material, but not on the material itself. The mode of applying this decomposition by electricity, is by the use of so much of my machinery previously described in the schedule referred to in the letters patent, granted to me, and bearing date June 13, 1848, being the re-issue of the original patent of April 12th, 1846, as is employed in regulating the motion of the paper, substituting, however, for the common paper therein used, the cloth, thread, metal, or other material, chemically prepared, and which machinery is therein

Page  368 368 TIlE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. described in the words following, to wit: " The register con. sists of a series of wheels and pinions, and its object is to regulate the movement of paper, or other material upon which to imprint telegraphic characters. A, A, &c., sheet I., II., figs. 1 and 3, the platform of wood or other convenient material upon which the machinery is erected. B B, &c., the standards for the reel of paper, and c the reel of paper upon which is to be printed the telegraphic characters. D one form of the arrangement of the wheels and pinions of the register; a e rollers for drawing the paper in contact with the pen or marking roller 2, seen also on sheet III., fig. 10. * * * * The frame D contains the train of wheels, whose motion is caused by the weight a, or its equivalent. * * X* * * The paper roller d e, and 2, fig. 10, sheet III., are so connected with the train of wheels, that the paper drawn from the reels by passing between a and e, is made to be in contact with the cylinder, fig. 2. The roller e is kept in contact with a, by the forked spring in fig. 10, bearing upon the ends of the journals, and regulated in its strength by the thumb-screws 8 and 9. The bearings or sockets for the ends of the shafts of e, are not circular, but are slots to allow of a slight movement in a direction with and against the force of the spring, so that the spring shall act with proper power, tending to keep the cylinder e in contact with d." Instead of a magnet, however, and lever and pen, I dispense altogether with both the receiving magnet and the register magnet, of my former patents, and substitute therefor the following arrangement, as exhibited in the accompanying drawing and description: Description.-In the accompanying drawing, R is so much of the register of my original patent just quoted, as is used in drawing and regulating the motion of the paper, and is similarly used for drawing and regulating the chemically prepared material for marking by electricity. s s is the wooden platform for mounting the machinery. a is a metallic cylinder or drum, or piece of metal mounted upon a metal standard d, screwed into the platform. b is the cloth or prepared material to be marked. c is a thin-edged wheel, the periphery of which is platinum, held by a metal spring e, also mounted on a metal stand and f, screwed into the platform. K is the metal key of my previously patented telegraph machinery. One form of it consists of a short lever of metal, having its fulcrum at or near one end. At the other end is a finger-knob, the better to press it down. Between the fulcrum and the knob may be a protuberance or hammer, as at i, above

Page  369 MORSE'S ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. 3C9 a small anvil, as at h, from which the hammer is separated, when not pressed down, by a spring. P is the battery. From the standard d, a conductor proceeds to one pole of the battery. From the standard f, a conductor proceeds connecting with the back of the key at ga, which is screwed into the platform. h is the metallic anvil, also screwed into the platform, and insulated from the rest of the key. i is the hammer attached to the upper part of the key. From the anvil proceeds a conductor to the other pole of the battery. Operation.-While the hammer i is separated from the anvil Ih, no current can proceed from the battery. But the moment i and h are in contact, the current of electricity takes the direction of the arrows, and passes through the chemically prepared material at a, decomposing the salt with which it is prepared, and making a mark. Thus the characters of my conventional alphabet, and other characters, are at pleasure made upon the prepared material. I consider the discoloring process better than the bleaching process: and for the discoloring process, I consider the iodide of potassium in solution, as the best of the substances I have mentioned for the preparation of the cloth, paper, or other material. I wish it to be understood, that I do not confine myself to the use of the substances I have mentioned, but mean to comprehend the use of any known substance already proved to be easily decomposed by the electric current. Claims.-What I claim as of my own invention and improvement, and desire to secure by letters patent: 1st. The use of the single circuit of conductors for the marking of my telegraphic signs already patented, for numerals, letters, words, or sentences, by means of the decomposing, coloring, or bleaching effects of electricity, acting upon any known salts that leave a mark as the result of the said decomposition, upon paper, cloth, metal, or other convenient and known marlable material. 2d. I also claim the combination of machinery as herein substantially described, by which any two metallic points or other known conducting substances, broken parts of an electric or galvanic circuit, having the chemically prepared material in contact with and between them, may be used for the purpose of marking my telegraphic characters already patented in letters patent, dated the 20th June, 1840; in the first issue 25th January, 1846; and second re-issue, 13th June, 1848. 24

Page  370 370 THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGI;APII. WESTBROOK AND ROGERS' ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. Messrs. Charles Westbrook and Henry J. Rogers, of the city of Baltimore, were extensively engaged in the chemical telegraph lines, and in their daily labors, they invented a very important improvement. The stylus, made of asbestus or other substances, is brought into contact with the brass disk, as seen in fig. 1. On passing the current through the stylus, a clear and distinct mark is made upon the brass plate. This mark can be removed by rubbing the face of the disk. They also devised the plan of using a fountain pen and other modes, to avoid the use of the chemically moistened paper. As a practical telegraph, there can be no doubt but what the invention of Messrs. Westbrook and Rogers would prove eminently useful) and subserve completely the purposes intended. The dot and dash alphabet was employed. In order that the reader may have. a fuller description of this important improvement in telegraphing, I extract the following from the letters patent granted by the government of the United States to Messrs. Westbrook and Rogers: The nature of our invention consists in recording telegraphic signs on a metallic surface, connected with the earth by a wire conductor at one end, and to a galvanic battery and the earth at the other end of the circuit, by the use of the acidulated water or other fluid interposed between the point of the usual wire conductor, leading from the operating apparatus, connected with a galvanic battery of the ordinary construction and the metallic surface, by which the use of paper is dispensed with; time also being saved in not having to moisten the chemically prepared paper, when it becomes too dry for use, and in having the telegraphic signs more clear and distinct on the metallic surface than on the paper, and in avoiding the inconvenience arising from the fumes from the chemicals employed in preparing the paper, and evils arising fiom the corrosion of instruments, and annoyance to the operators in preparing and using chemical paper, and other inconveniences. The metallic recording surface, after being filled and transferred, is simply cleaned, by the application of a sponge, or other soft substance, saturated with acidulated water. Description.-A is the pen, made tubular, of some non-conducting substance, such as glass or ivory, open at both ends, and made tapering at its lower end, for containing a piece of sponge or other porous substance, through which the acidulated water, or other fluid passes to the metallic surface, on which the telegraphic signs are to be made-the bore of the pen being

Page  371 WESTBROOK AND ROGERS TELEGRAPH. 371 sufficiently large to contain the requisite quantity of acidulated fluid. By reducing the outlet at the tapered end of the pen, the sponge or porous valve maybe dispensed with. A very small barrel valve might be used to regulate the flow of the fluid, instead of the porous substance. b is a short conducting wire, connected with the metallic stand c, or pen-holder d, and leading into the barrel of the pen a, and brought into immediate contact with the acidulated fluid in the pen —thus continuing the conducting line to the surface of the metallic cylinder or plate, so that the current from the galvanic battery can be made to pass from the metallic conductor through the acidulated fluid or saline solution, to the metallic surface of the plate or cylinder upon which the signs or marks are to be made. e is the binding screw for securing the main wire; f is the main wire connecting the receiving and transmitting stations; g is the fulcrum of the manipulator; h is the manipulator; i is the anvil of the manipulator; —k platina pole of a galvanic battery; —1 is the zinc pole of the battery, connected by a wire with the ground plate m at the transmitting station;-n is also a ground plate, connected with the binding screw e, at the receiving station. g is a horizontal stationary screw-shaft, upon which the cylinder moves to the right, by means of a chaser (s), fixed to the end of the cylinder, and revolving with the cylinder in contact with the spiral thread of said screw. The cylinder may be made to move to the right and to the left, over the shaft, simultaneously with its rotary motion, by forming a female screw through its centre, corresponding with the screw shaft. The rotary motion of the cylinder may be produced by ordinary clock machinery, or by a coiled spring, pulley, cord, and weight, or by any convenient means. The cylinder having the combined rotary and longitudinal movement, as aforesaid, will cause the telegraphic signs to be recorded on the surface of the cylinder or plate, in a continuous spiral line, in the same manner that we have practised for some time past. Operation.-Bear down the long arm of the key, lever, or manipulator h, so that the point comes in contact with the anvil i, the current will instantly pass from the platina pole k of the battery, through the conducting wire and acidulated solution contained in the pen, to the surface of the cylinder (c) or plate (p), thence to the ground plates m and n, the earth being part of the circuit, and by the wire to 1, the zinc pole of the battery, leaving a black mark or stain on the cylinder or plate, according to the length of time the circuit is closed,

Page  372 372 THE ELECTRO-CHEMICAL TELEGRAPH. indicating the sign, mark, word, or sentence required to be recorded. Having thus..... described the nature of our invention and improvement in telegraphs, What we claim and desire to have secured to us by letters patent is, recording telegraphic signs on the surface of a revolving metallic cylinder plate, or other equivalent surface, by means of an acidulated liquid, or saline solution, of water held between the point of the wire conductor and the metallic recording surface, by means of a non-conducting porous substance contained in a glass, or other non-conducting reservoir, in which the recording fluid is contained, to which the electric current from a battery is applied, by means of any of the known forms of manipulators, and anvils used for making and breaking the circuit-the recording fluid being applied to the metallic recording surface, substantially in the manner herein fully set forth, by which the use of every description of paper is dispensed with, thereby saving great expense in telegraphing.

Page  373 FROMENT'S ALPHABETICAL AND WRITING TELEGRAPHS, CHAPTER XXVIII. Alphabetical Apparatus and Manipulation.-The Writing Apparatus. THE ALPHABETICAL APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. THE alphabetical telegraph devised by M. Froment is dis. tinguished for simplicity and peculiar construction of its transmitter or manipulating combination. Fig. 1. 373 3731

Page  374 374 *,'ROMENT'S ALPHABETICAL AND WRITING TELEGRAPH. Figure 1 represents the instrument as seen in the station ready for telegraphing. It is an elegant piece of apparatus. In external form it resembles a small pianoforte without the black keys. There are twenty-eight keys: twenty-six of tham representing letters, the twenty-seventh a cross, and the twenty-eighth an arrow; by pressing down any key its correspontling letter is shown on the dial, and at the same time on the dial of a similar apparatus at the distant station. Suppose, for example, the apparatus figured in the text to be at Paris, the current from the battery enters the apparatus at b and leaves it at b'; it proceeds thence to the distant station-say Rouen-where it traverses and works a precisely similar apparatus. The mechanism of the internal part of the apparatus will be understood from a slight consideration of figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. / M Fig. 2 is the manipulator, or the instrument for giving signals; fig. 3 is the receiver. The current from the battery enters through A, fig. 2, passes up the brass spring N, which is in contact with the wheel R, and from this through the second notched spring ar, out by the wire B, and on along the line wire td the telegraph at the distant station. There the current traverses the coils of an electro-magnet, not seen in fig. 2, but exhibited separately in fig. 4. This electro-magnet is fixed horizontally at one extremity, the other being left free to operate on the soft iron armature a, which forms part of a bent lever, moveable round the pin c; the lever is restored to a vertical position when the electro-magnet is no longer active by the action of the spring r. The moment the electric current traverses the coils of the electro-magnet, the lever at c is attracted, and the motion is

Page  375 ALPIIABETICAL APPARATUS AND MANIPULA'ION. 375 imparted to a second lever d, through the Fir. 4. -hank i. This second lever is fixed on a horizontal axis, and is united to the fork r. When the current is interrupted the ~( spring pulls back the lever, and thus a stop by step movement is given to the e=fork, which it transmits to the wheel G carrying the index.i The manner in which the battery current is interrupted and renewed will r[! l fT be understood by referring to fig. 2. The wheel R carries twenty-six teeth; on turning it by the button P while the plate N is, from its curved form, in constant contact with the teeth, the plate M, being crooked, has its contacts broken and renewed every time it passes over a tooth and at the same time the battery current is thrown off and on. Suppose the pointar F is advanced four letters, then the current between N and MI will be four times made and four times broken, and the armature of the electro-magnet at the distant station will be four times attracted and four times pulled back by its spring; but these four attractions will give four movements to the wheel G, and the pointer will pass over the same number of letters in the dial of fig. 3, the receiver, as in that of fig. 2, the manipulator. At the top of tho case of the instrument is the alarum c, which is worked by a special electro-magnet. Referring now to fig 1, will be seen in front of the apparatus a series of twenty-eight ivory keys, the first marked with a cross, the last with an arrow; and the intermediate twenty-six with the letters of the alphabet, the first ten letters carrying also the ten numerals. Immediately in front of the keys, on a horizontal platform of mahogany, is the dial B and two small metal pieces, m n, which are moveable, and which by means of a handle may be brought into contact, in with s or r, and n with q or p. The dial B is the verifier; its index must always point to the sanm letter as that last signalled; if it does not, it shows that the apparatus is not in proper working order. When m is in contact with s, the apparatus is in a condition to send signals from Paris to Rouen. When in contact with r, it is in a condition to receive a signal from Rouen to Paris. In like manner when n is in contact with q, the alarum may be sounded at Rouen; when in contact with p, the machinery is in a state to receive a notice forwarded from Rouen. As this apparatus i; regarded of much importance, I will be more specific in its description than can be found elsewhere.

Page  376 376 FROMENT'S ALPHABETICAL AND WRITING TELEGRAPH. If the reader will carefully study the following descriptions and diagrams, he will not fail to comprehend the construction and manipulation of this beautiful system of telegraphing. Fig. 5. Fig. 5 represents an outline view of the front of the apparatus, as more fully shown by fig. 1. The key-board is indicated by T T. Fig. 6. - -T —- - 1, 7 wou9-A Fig. 6 shows a full view of the key-board T T, with the letters and numerals marked on the keys respectively. The keyboards, represented by figs. 5 and 6, ar3 arranged different from the key-board of fig. 1. Th3 two styles of instruments are used. Fig. 1 is more modern; but the arrangement shown in figs. 5 and 6 are also in operation. Operators exercise their own convenience in the use of the one or the other.

Page  377 ALPHABETICAL APPARATUS AND MANIPULATION. 377 Fig. 7. Fig. 8. T Fig. 7 represents an end view of fig. 1, and fig. 8 represents a section of the key-board T T, and the arrangement for the action of the keys. B is an elongated bar, and R is a wheel with a ratchet. Fig. 9 represents a section of the key-board, as seen from above. T T are the keys; B a bar Fig. 9 traversing beneath the keys, as seen by the dotted lines, disengages the - - ---- ratchet from the wheel R, and the releasement permits the arbor A to turn, until the pin answering to the key pressed. z z z are pins upon A -- the arbor A, as seen in the figure. 1 z c c is a centre, around which moves the keys, which bear at their middle T T a stop pallet s, the use of which will - be hereafter explained. Fig. 10 is an end view of fig. 9, and shows the pallet s, the keys T T, the centre c, the pins z z, the bar B, and the arbor A. Fig. 11 is another end view of fig. 9, having thereon the wheel R, and the ratchet attached to the arbor A. The arbor A, which is a horizontal bar, capable of being moved downward parallel to itself, is stopped in its movement by the ratchet, which engages in the wheel R. Whenever a key is touched, the bar A is lowered, and it rises when the finger is withdrawn. It is made to turn by means of a clock movement. Another key may be pressed down, and there will be produced a similar effect, and the arbor A is permitted to turn

Page  378 378 FROMENT'S ALPHABETICAL AND WRITING TELEGRAPH. Fig. 10. ri",nM through an angle proportional to the length of the helix comprised between the two keys, which have successively stopped the movement. Fig. 11. < a A In this way, if the arbor A bears an electric interrupter, or circuit-breaker, which opens and closes the circuit every time that a tooth of the ratchet-wheel passes, the effect produced by this mechanism upon an electrical current, will be identical to that produced by the rotation of a telegraphic dial, having as many signals as there are keys in this apparatus, but with very perceptible advantages. The rotations of the arbor A being uniform, are regulated according to the greatest velocity that the receiving apparatus is capable of executing. When a uniformity is once established, between the transmitting and the receiving apparatus, it will continue indefinitely to exist, independent of any irregularity in touching the keys; provided, of course, that the needle is allowed time to pass over the divisions of the dial, and this time

Page  379 WRITING TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 379 is extremely short, as the uniformity of movement permits of regularity for the greatest mean velocity of the receiving apparatus. From these facts, it will be seen that any one knowiing how to read, can transmit at first sight with this instrument a dispatch without an error resulting from the apparatus. The clockwork of this instrument is wound up from time to time in the usual manner; but in addition to the care necessary to be observed in winding, the following mechanism has been attached. A fine-toothed ratchet wheel, fitted to the clock movement, and moved by a ratchet set in motion every time that the bar B is lowered, gradually winds up the spring of the clockwork, at a rate which has been found to be a little more rapid than the unwinding process of the clock movement. When the spring is wound up entirely, the ratchet ceases to act, because it is turned aside by a lever arranged for that purpose. WRITING TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. Mr. Froment also devised a printing telegraph, not employing the ordinary Roman letter, but signal letters. These letters were made by means of a pencil adjusted in mechanism, so that Fig. 12. I n as the apparatus was put in motion by a clockwork, the pencil was sharpened and pressed upon the paper band, so as to make a clear and distinct mark. It was arranged at the end of the rod, fastened to the armature, as seen in figs. 12 and 13. In the three figures, 12, 13, and 14, the same letters indicate the same parts of the apparatus, ani the reader may refer to eaclh and to all for an understanding of the description herein given.

Page  380 380 FROMENT'S ALPHABETICAL AND WRITING TELEGRAPH. E E is an electro-magnet, and L is a rod attached to the armature, elongated to sustain the pencil c. F is the armature of Fig. 13. soft iron. Immediately under the extremities of the armature ___r_ F are the cores or the electro| >l-[^^IB; < magnets surrounded by the 1 I t'l] [k: i coils E E. c is the pencil writlB inB LN g on the ribbon paper B; R is - J)ljisjltil ll cFli a ratchet-wheel, which turns the pencil on its axis; c' is the cyl__1 anl inder upon which the ribbon paper B is rolled, and c"/ c"' are cylinders regulating the movement of the ribbon paper B. I [ The apparatus is made to ___________move by ciockwork. __-I - _J -r~ - - The practical operation of this apparatus is as follows: When the current is on the line, the electro-magnet attracts the armature, which causes the pencil to make a mark across the ribbon paper B; and as the paper Fig. 14. C"' ^ is in motion, the mark will be made at an angle in proportion to the speed of the paper passing over the cylinder c'. When the circuit is broken, the pencil will make a mark back to its normal position, regulated by a spring. A movement forward and another backward will make the letter V. If the manipulation is continued, by opening and closing the electric circuit, or by transmission or non-transmission of the voltaic current. the writing executed by the pencil will be as follows, viz.:

Page  381 WRITING TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 381 2 1 5 3 6 2 5 8 These points may indicate letters or numerals to be conmpounded and explained by a vocabulary. Thus, 215-36-2 -58, may mean, 2135 6 2 58. Froment's Practical Printing Telegraph. The writing thus produced is clear, and easily to be read. The apparatus is simple, and not liable to get out of order. Fig. 15 gives a perspective view of the same. A is the frame upon which the parts are fastened; B is the bell apparatus and Fig. 1.5. c is the bell; h is the clockwork, a b is the armature and pen lever, and c is the roller, upon which is fixed the paper. The current passes through the electro-magnet, attracts the armature, and thus motion is given to the pen point, which, being on the paper, the marks are produced.

Page  382 VAIL'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXIX. Description of the Telegraph Apparatus-Manipulation and Celerity of Comr municating-Arrangement of the Alphabet. DESCRIPTION OF THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. IN September, 1837, Mr. Alfred Vail, of the United States, invented a printing telegraph. The following is his description of the apparatus: Fig. 1 represents a front and side view of the instrument; fig. 4 is a top view; fig. 5 is a back view. The same parts are represented by the same letters in the three views. In fig. 1, Q Q is the platform upon which the whole instrument is placed. M and Mi are wooden blocks supporting parts of the instrument. K is the helix, the soft iron bar H passing through its centre, and there is another coil and bar directly behind this; the two making the electro-magnet. G is its armature fastened to the lever F F, which has its axis at i, seen in fig. 4, at x x. R is a brass standard for supporting the lever F upon its axis, by means of two pivot-screws; a and a are two screws passing vertically through the standard a, for limiting the motion of the lever F F. J is a spiral spring, at its upper end, fastened to the lever F, and at its lower end passes through the screw L, by which it is adjusted so as to draw the armature from the magnet, after it has ceased to attract, and for other purposes, hereafter to be explained. N o is a brass frame, containing the type-wheel B/ and the pulley E U. p andp represent the edge of a narrow strip of paper, passing between the type-weel and pulley E. D is the printer, which, at the bottom, forms a joint with the end of the lever F and r. B represents twenty-four metallic pins, or springs, projecting at right angles from the side of the type-wheel; each pin corresponding in its distance from the centre of the type-wheel to its respective hole, represented by dots upon the index c; so that, if the pin is put in any one of the holes, the 382

Page  383 THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 383 type-wheel, in its revolution, will bring its corresponding pin in contact with it. There are 24 holes, corresponding to the following letters of the alphabet: A B D E F G I KL MN o P Q n s T V W X, and Fig. 1. _ -s' \ ad A the types are lettered accordingly. The cog-wheels, T and s, are a part of the train of the clock. The lever F F has two motions, one up and another down, and both are employed by an attachment at the end of the lever r, and in the following manner: figs. 2 and 3 represent a front and end view of the roller E and printer D, enlarged. D is the printer, fig. 2, of the form shown by D, fig. 3. E is the roller over which the paper

Page  384 384 VAIL S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. P is carried. A is the front of the type, having ears, h h, projecting from each side. Through the sides of the printer D D, a rod, u, passes, in order to give more firmness to the frame. The rod projects a little on each side of the frame at J J. These projections slide in a long groove in the frames N and o, fig. 1, by which the printer is kept in its position, and allowed freely to move up and down. It will be observed that the upper parts of the frame D D extends over the top of the roller E, and nearly touch each other, but are so far separated, as to let the type A, Fig. 2. Fig. 3. k AL__ J IllllllllulL II}I IIIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII!I|Hlllllfl J i s J'~ I I1ll illl lt illli llillll lltllllll ill ll Id of the type-wheel, in its revolution, freely pass between them; df' d are the sides of the joint, which are connected with the lever F, fig. 1. From the construction of this part, it will appear that, if the printer D is brought down by the action of the magnet upon the lever, the two projections, k k, will come in contact with the ears h h, and bring the type in contact with the paper upon the roller E, and produce an impression. In fig. 3 is shown a ratchet-wheel i, on the end of the roller E, a catch e, and spring c', adapted to the rachet. Upon the release of the lever F, fig. 1, the spring J will carry down the lever on that side of its axis, and up at r, which will cause the roller E to turn, and consequently the paper p to advance so much by the action of the catch e upon the ratchet-wheel, as will be sufficient for printing the next letter. Fig. 4 represents a top view of the machine: s is the barrel upon which is wound a cord, sustaining a weight which drives the clock-train, and upon the same shaft with it is a cog-wheel driving the pinion m on the shaft T; and on the same shaft T is another cog-wheel, driving the pinion n of the type-wheel shaft I'. K and K are the helices of the large magnet, of which II and I are the soft iron arms. M I AIM M are the blocks which support the instrument. r F is the lever, a and a its ad

Page  385 THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS 385 justing screws; x' and x' its axis; k and k are the two upper coils of the two electro-lnagnets at the back part of the instrument for purposes hereafter to be described; x is the wire soldered to the plate buried in the ground; p is the wire proceeding to the battery; c is the connecting wire of the two Fig. 4. LIl I —-------— 1I /0z~~- [.\liuII\iI (II:IIII \WM1 0X\\X\\,01 K____^^i^ ~ lll/mItllmIl _____ I__ Li II~ __11/l/Jiiiiiiiillll/'ltfl111 11 1 1 11_i. _ _ _ - ) (I:- ls -^ = d:P t!I ~x I electro-magnets, k k; w is the support of the pendulum; v is the escapement-wheel; A is the type-wheel; D D is the printer, and B the roller over which the paper p is carried. Fig. 5 represents a back view of the instrument; k k and ck k are the coils of two electro-magnets, surrounding the soft iron bars d d and d d; b and b are the flat bars through which d d and d d pass, and are fastened together by the screw nuts c c and c c. The right hand electro-maguet is fastened to the blocks 25

Page  386 386 VAIL'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. M and MI, by the support f and f, from which proceeds a bolt passing between the coils k and k, and the block h, with a thumbnut upon it, by which the whole is permanently secured. In the same manner the left-hand magnet is secured to the block Fig. 5. _ 0e ll^illltTll\lllllllTllllll^ J I ili jllilllili ^ J1Slilil lElllljill iii/ [ I [ T i,: I..........i.... _ M. R/ is the outside portion of the brass frame containing the clockwork. w is a standard fastened to n', for supporting the pendulum Y. x Y and 1 are parts common to a chronometer for measuring the time, viz., the escapement and pendulum. The escapement-wheel has 24 teeth, corresponding in number with the type on the wheel, and such is the arrangement of the parts, that when the pendulum is upon the point of return,

Page  387 THE TELEGRAPH APPARATUS. 387 either on the right or left hand, a type is directly over the paper, and the armature g is near the face of one or the other of the magnets; so that, if an impression is to be made with the type thus brought to the paper, the pendulum v is ready to be held by the magnet at the same time from making another swing, until the type has performed its office, which will be hereafter explained. A shows the type as they are arranged on the wheel. The types are square, and move freely in a groove cut out of the brass type-wheel. At 1 and 2 are seen flat; brass rings, which are screwed to the wheel, and over the types, confining them to their proper places. z is a spiral spring, of which there is one to each type, by means of which the type is brought back to its former position, after it is released by the printer. Through each type there is a pin, against which the inner end of the spiral spring rests. The outer end of the spring rests against the circular plate. w represents the wire from the upper helix, soldered to the metallic frame R'. The two helices of the left-hand magnet are joined togelher, and from the bottom helix the wire proceeds to the lower coil of the right-hand imnignet. These two helices are likewise connected, and the wire leaves the upper coil at x. Thus the wire is continuous from w to x. From x the wire is continued to a copper plate buried in the earth. The frame R', being brass, the arbor of the typewheel and the wheel itself, and each being in metallic contact, they answer as a continuous conductor with the wire w, for the galvanic fluid. The index c, fig. 1, is insulated from the frame N, being made of ivory. There is inserted in the ivory a metal plate, containing the holes, to which is soldered a wire q, connected with the back coil K. The two helices being connected, the wire of the front helix comes off at p, and thence is connected with one pole of the battery; from the other pole it is extended to the distant station, and is there connected with a similar instrument. It will be observed that the circuit is continuous, except between the type-wheel and the metal plate in the ivory. When neither station is at work, the batteries of both are thrown out, and their circuits, retaining in them the magnets of both stations, are closed. For this purpose, there is an instrument at each station, resembling in some respects a polechanger. If one of the stations wish to transmit by reversing his circuit instruments, the battery is instantly brought into the circuit. Through the agency of the clock-work and weight, and the pendulum, both instruments are vibrating together, and their type-wheels are so adjusted, that when a type of one sta

Page  388 388 VAIL S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. tion is vertical, the A type of the other station is also vertical. Now, suppose one station wishes to transmit to the other, the word Boston, for example; he first brings his battery in the circuit, then places a metallic pin in the hole of his index, c, marked for the letter B. When the type-wheel shall have brought round the pin corresponding to the type B on the wheel, its pin will come in contact with the inserted pin of the index, and instantly the circuit is established. The fluid, passing through the coils of the magnets, on each side of the pendulum, will hold it, and also passing through the coils K, will bring down the lever F F, and with it the printer D, which, as heretofore described in figs. 2 and 3, will bring the type with considerable force against the paper. The instant the two pins have come in contact with the moving-pin, it is taken out and put in the hole o, when the same operation is performed, and in like manner for the remaining letters of the word. The pin can be so arranged, as to be thrown out the instant a complete contact is made. MANIPULATION AND CELERITY OF COMMUNICATING. The rapidity of this printing process would be as follows: Suppose the pendulum makes two vibrations in a second, that is, it goes from right to left in half a second, and returns in half a second. Since, then, a single letter is brought to the vertical position, ready to be used if needed, at the end of each vibration, it is clear that the two letters are brought to the vertical position every second, or 120 every minute. This is not, however, the actual rate of printing; for, in the word Boston, the type-wheel, after B is printed upon the paper, must make so much of a revolution as will bring the letter o to the paper. This will require 12 vibrations of the pendulum; s will require 4; T 1, o 18, and N 22; equal to 57, to which add 6, the time required to print each letter, will make it 63. This, divided by 2, gives 311 seconds, the time necessary to print 6 letters. If we now take an ordinary sentence, and estimate in the same manner the time required to print it at the distant station, we shall be able to find what number of letters it can print per minute. As an example, viz.: " There will be a declaration of war in a few days, by this government, against the United States. Orders have just been received to have all the public archives removed to Jalapa, which is 60 miles in the interior, for safekeeping." Here are 184 letters, and would require 2,266 vibrations, to which add 184, the number of letters, would give 2,450 half seconds, equal to 1,225 seconds, the time required for printing

Page  389 ARRANGEMENT OF THE ALPHABET. 389 the message; or over 20 minutes; the rate being six and two thirds seconds for each letter. If, however, a vocabulary is used, with the words numbered, and instead of using the 26 letters of the alphabet on the typewheel, we substitute the 10 numerals, in their place, we reduce the time required for a revolution of the wheel, and it is clear that this same message may be transmitted in much less time. The following numbers represent the words of the same message, in the numbered vocabulary: 48687, 54717, 4165, 1, 12185, 34162, 54078, 25393, 1, 18952, 11934, 6177, 48766, 21950, 1106, 48652, 51779, 46532, 34475, 22991, 28536, 4321, 40254, 49085, 22991, 1391,48652, 39087, 3845, 41278, 49085, 28536, 54536, 28668, 45008, 31634, 25393, 48652, 27326, 19865, 42813, 28592. Here are 42 numbers and 196 figures. To 196 add 42, the spaces required, and we have 238 impressions to make, to write the sentence thus represented. By calculation, we find there is required, in order to bring each numeral and space in its proper succession to the vertical position, 1627 vibrations of the pendulum, which, at the rate of two to the second, gives the time required to transmit the message at 812 seconds, or nearly 13 minutes, being at the rate of 18letters per minute. If, however, the vibrations of the pendulum are increased at the rate of 4 in a second, then the time required for the transmission of the message would be almost 7 minutes, and at the rate of 36&- letters per minute. If it be increased to 6 vibrations per second, then the time would be 4.i minutes, and at the rate of 55 impressions per minute. ARRANGEMENT OF THE ALPHABET. The modes of using the English letter for recording telegraphic messages are various. Among them are those using 26 types, one for each of the letters of the alphabet, and 13 extended wires, from station to station, with more or less battery. These types are arranged in a row, directly over the paper which receives the impression, and consequently require a strip of paper some 4 or 5 inches broad. Each type is furnish with an electromagnet and lever, answering as a hammer to bring down the types upon the paper. As the types are arranged in a straight line, they present the order given on the next page. In this example, we have the style of this kind of printing. By spelling the letters on the first line, then on the second, and so on, the words " Printing Telegraph" will be made out. Those letters which follow each other in the word, and also follow each other

Page  390 390 VAIL'S PRINTING TELEGRAPH. in the alphabet, are placed upon the same line, but when a letter occurs preceding the last, a new line must be taken, otherwise the word cannot be read. It will appear that in this mode, sometimes two, or three or four letters, may be printed at one and the same instant, when they succeed each other in alphabetical order. This plan is extremely rapid for one instrhument, but extremely slow for thirteen wires. ABCDEFGH IJKLMNOPQ PSTUVWXYZ - --- - - P R - I - N - - T - - -I - N - - - - - G- - - T - E - - L - E G- - R A - P H Let it be assumed, in order to make equal comparison throughout, that the number of successive motions of the type-lever, in these various plans about to be given, are 4 to a second. But as this instrument may make, with two or more of its levers, two or more impressions per minute, let it be 8 instead of 4 per second. It will then be capable of transmitting 480 letters per minute. With all this there are many disadvantages, which will be developed as we proceed. Under the same class there is another plan, using the 26 types upon the ends of as many levers, each lever employing the electro-magnet, and the line consisting of 13 wires. In this arrangement the types are made to strike in any succession required by the message, at the same point upon the paper, falling back and resuming their first position, after having printed their letter, in order to allow the next type to occupy the same point previously occupied by the other. The printing of this plan will appear on paper as ordinary printing. Thus, PRINTING TELEGRAPH. If we suppose that 4 hammers, carrying type, can strike the same point in a second, and each resume its original position in succession, thus passing each other without collision, it may print at the rate of 240 letters per minute. The instrument would be a complicated one, and sub. ject to derangement.

Page  391 THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXX. Early History of the House Telegraph-The Composing and Printing Apparatuses-The Axial Magnet-The Air Valve and Piston-The Manipulation -The Patented Claim. EARLY HISTORY OF THE HOUSE TELEGRAPH. THE printing telegraph invented and patented by Royal E. House is one of the most remarkable blendings of the arts and sciences accomplished by the genius of man. In the perfection and introduction of his telegraph, Mr. House had to contend with the most extraordinary difficulties. Before him were the earlier patented systems, and it required wonderful powers to devise mechanical contrivances to act conjunctive with the known discoveries in the sciences. He obtained a patent from the United States government in 1848, dated from April 18th, 1846. This patent, however, was defective in the protection of a complete system. Early in 1847, Mr. Henry O'Reilly, the indomitable pioneer in telegraphing, became interested in the House Printing Telegraph, and he rendered invaluable aid in the perfection of the apparatus. This energetic and sterling telegrapher furnished the necessary means for new instruments, and had them applied to his line between Cincinnati and Louisville, in the fall of 1847. The first dispatch ever transmitted over a telegraph line with a printing system was by Mr. O'Reilly, from Cincinnati to Jeffersonville, opposite Louisville, 150 miles. For a long time the friends of the House telegraph struggled against competing interests. Finally, in March, 1849, the first line using the House system was put in operation, from Philadelphia to New York. Under the able and enterprising administration of Messrs. Hiram Sibly, Francis A. Morris, R. W. Russell, and others, the House telegraph was rapidly and successfully extended to different parts of the country. The mechanism of the apparatus operated with the most 391

Page  392 392 THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. perfect accuracy, and many of the instruments have operated foi years with but little repair. [ have recently seen one of them that had been used to so great an extent, that the fingers of the operator had worn away the ivory on the keys. The main constituents of his telegraph are, the composing machine, the printing machine, a compound axial magnet, a manual power which sets the two machines in motion, and a letter-wheel or tell-tale, from which messages can be read, should the printing machine get out of order. THE COMPOSING AND PRINTING APPARATUS. A composing and printing machine are both required at every station; the printing apparatus is entirely distinct from the circuit, but all the composing machines are included in and form part of it: the circuit commences in the voltaic Fig. 1. battery of one station, passes along the conductor to another station, through the coil of the axial magnet to an insulated iron frame of the composing machine, thence to a circuit wheel revolving in this frame; it then enters a spring that rubs on the edge of this circuit wheel, and has a connection

Page  393 THE COMPOSING AND PRINTING APPARATUS 393 with the return wire, along which the electricity goes through another battery back to the station from which it started, to pursue the same course through the composing machine and magnet there, and all others upon the line; thus the circuit is confined to the composing machines, axial magnets, conducting wires, and batteries. The composing machine, fig. 1, is arranged within a mahogany frame H, three feet in length, two in width, and six or ten inches deep; the various parts of the printing machine are seen on the top of the same case; both are propelled by the same manual power, which is distinct from the electric current; it is simply Fig. 2. a crank, with a pulley carrying a band to drive the machine, and a balance-wheel to give stable motion; one of the spokes of the balancewheel has fixed to it an axis for the end of a vertical shaft to revolve on, that moves the piston of an air condenser G, a A fastened to the floor; the air is compressed in the chamber I, fourteen inches long, and iI six in diameter, lying beneath the mahogany case H; it is furnished with a safety-valve, to permit the escape of redundant air not needed in the economy of the machine. The composing system has an insulated iron frame, A, fig. 3, placed immediately below the keys, parallel with the long diameter of the case; this has within it a revolving shaft Fig. 3. ci the shaft is enclod fr te g r pt its length b c; the shaft is enclosed for the greater part of its length by the iron cylinder B; it is made to revolve by a band playing over the pulley D, fixed to the left extremity of it. The cylinder B, fig. 3, is detached from the shaft, but made to

Page  394 394 THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. revolve with it by a friction contrivance, consisting of a brass flange fastened permanently to the revolving shaft; the face of the flange and the inner face of the circuit wheel are in contact with a piece of cloth or leather interposed, moistened with oil; the friction is regulated by a spring pressing against the end of the revolving shaft c. The object of this friction apparatus is to allow the shaft to revolve while the cylinder can be arrested. On the right end of the cylinder is fixed the brass wheel E, fig. 3, four or five inches in diameter, called the circuit wheel, or break; the outer edge of it is divided into 28 equal spaces, each alternate space being cut away to the depth of one fourth of an inch, leaving fourteen teeth or segments, and fourteen spaces, Fig. 3, E; the revolving shaft and cylinder form part of the electric circuit; one point of the connection being where the shaft rests on the frame, the other through a spring F, having connection with the other end of the circuit, pressing on the periphery of the break-wheel E, fig. 3; G, the other part of the circuit, coming from the axial magnet to the frame A; when the shaft, cylinder, and circuit wheel revolve, the spring will alternately strike a tooth and pass into an open space; in the former case, the circuit is closed, in the latter it is broken. For the purpose of arresting the motion of the circuit wheel and cylinder, the latter has two spiral lines of teeth n, fig. 3, extending along its opposite sides, having fourteen in each line, making 28, one for each tooth, and one for each space on the circuit wheel; the cylinder extends the whole width of the key-board above it; the latter is like that of a pianoforte, containing twenty-eight keys that correspond with the twentyeight projections on the cylinder, and have marked on them in order, the alphabet, a dot, and dash, fig. 1; they are kept in a horizontal position by springs; there is a cam or stop fixed to the under surface of each key; directly over one of the projections on the cylinder; these stops do not meet the teeth unless the key is pressed down, which being done the motion of the cylinder is stopped by their contact; by making the circuit wheel revolve, the circuit is rapidly broken and closed, which continues until a key is depressed; that key being released, the revolution continues until the depression of another key, and so on; the depression of a key either keeps the circuit broken or closed; as it may happen to be at the time, so that the operator does not break and close the circuit, but merely keeps it stationary for a moment; from one to twenty-eight openings and closings of the circuit take place

Page  395 THE AXIAL MAGNET. 395 between the depression of two different keys or the repetition of the depression of the same one; the object of the composing machine is to rapidly break and close the circuit as many times as there are spaces from any given letter to the next one which it is desired to transmit, counting in alphabetical order. THE AXIAL MAGNET. The rapid electrical pulsations are transmitted by the circuit of conductors to the magnet and printing machine at another station, through the wire J, fig. 1. The helix of this magnet is an intensity coil contained in the steel cylinder A, fig. 1, on the upper surface of the mahogany case; its axis is vertical. A, fig. 4, is a brass tube, eight or ten inches long, placed within the helix, and fastened at the bottom Fig. 4. by the screw D. To the inner surface of this tube are soldered six or eight Isoft iron tubes, separated from each other at regu-, lar intervals. Above the iron cylinder is an ellip- 22 I tical ring F, through the J 0 ~ B M axis of which is ex- - = tended an elastic wire, G; two screws are attached to the wire, by which it is made lax or tense, to suit the intensity of the electric current. From e__ I E this is suspended the brass rod c, that passes down within the small iron tubes before mentioned, and has strung on it six or eight small iron tubes L; these are fastened at equal intervals, and have their lower extremity expanded into N a bell-like flanch; the surrounding fixed ones have their upper ends D

Page  396 396 THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. enlarged inwardly in the same manner. The tubes L, and the wire to which they are fastened, are movable, so as to come in contact with the small exterior iron tubes K, fig. 4, but are kept separate by the elastic spring above. At E, is the brass covering. On the transmission of an electric current threugh the helix, the tubes become magnetic. Such is the arrangement of their polarities, that they act by attraction and repulsion, overcome the elasticity of the spring, and bring the movable magnets down to the fixed ones-the current being broken, the spring separates them. The two flanches do not come in direct contact, though the movable one acts responsive to magnetic influence. Most of the magnetism exists at the flanches, and the order is such that the lower end of the inner tube has south polarity, the surrounding one above, the same, which repels it, while the top of the surrounding one below has north polarity, and attracts it; this movement Is through a space of only one sixty-fourth part of an inch. THE AIR VALVE AND PISTON. On the same rod, above the movable magnets, is fixed a hollow cylindrical valve, having on its outer circumference the grooves 1, 2, 3, fig. 4. The plate represents a longitudinal half section of the valve, magnets, and helix. The valve slides in an air chamber H, which has two grooves, I, 2, on its inner surface. Air is admitted through the orifice 1, by means of a pipe from the air chamber beneath the case into the middle groove of the valve. The grooves of the chamber open into the side passages J and Ar, which connect at right angles with a second chamber, in which a piston moves. The movement of the magnets changes the apposition of the grooves in the first chamber, by which air enters from the supply pipe, through one of the side passages, into the second chamber, at the same time that air on the other side of the piston in the second chamber escapes back into the grooves 1 and 2 of the valve, through the other side passage, and from them into the atmosphere. This causes the piston to slide backward and forward with every upward and downward motion of the valve. This piston moves horizontally, and is connected with the lever 8, fig. 5, of an escapement, the pallets of which alternately rest on the teeth of an escapement wheel of the printing machine A, fig. 5. This part of the apparatus is arranged on a circular iron plate, twelve or fourteen inches in diameter, supported by standards on th mahogany frame H, fig. 1. The escapement wheel revolves on a vertical shaft that passes

Page  397 THE AIR-VALVE AND PISTON. 397 through the iron plate, and has fixed on it there a hollow pulley. This pulley contains within it a friction apparatus, Fig. 5. R LL consisting of an ordinary spiral clock spring-the inner end of which is fastened to the shaft, and the outer pressing against the inner side of the case. Thus the spring is always about the same strength, and Fig. 6. acts upon the escapement wheel, causing it to revolve uniformly when released by the escapement. The pulley revolves constantly, while the shaft and escapement wheel may be stopped. The escapement wheel has fourteen teeth, each one of which causes two motions of the escapement, which will make twenty-eight for a single revolution of the wheel, which is shown in fig. 7. When in operation, the piston to which the escapement arm 8, fig. 5, is attached, is subjected, on one side or the other, to a pressure of condensed air; therefore the piston and escapement will only be Fig. 7. moved by the escapement wheel when the air is removed from one side or the other of the piston. The position of the valve, fig. 4, attached to the magnet,, A regulates the pressure of air on either side of the piston, by opening one or the other of the side passages into the second chamber. By breaking and closing the circuit, therefore, the piston and escapement move backward and forward; thus a single revolution of the circuit wheel at one station opens and closes the circuit twenty-eight times, causing an equal number of movements of the magnets in another station; they carry the valve which alternately changes the air on either side of the piston. This permits the

Page  398 398 THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. escapement wheel to move the escapement and piston twentyeight times, and allows one revolution of the escapement wheel for one of the circuit wheel at the transmitting station. A steel type wheel, fig. 5, A, B, c, D, two inches in diameter, is fixed above and revolves on the same shaft with the escapement wheel; it has on its circumference twentyeight equi-distant projections, on which are engraved in order the alphabet, a dot, and a dash. The fourteen notches of the escapement wheel cause twenty-eight vibrations of the escapement in a revolution, that correspond to the characters on the type wheel. Every vibration of the escapement, therefore, makes the type wheel advance one letter; these letters correspond to those on the keys of the composing machine. If any desired letter on the type wheel is placed in a certain position, and a corresponding key in the composing machine is depressed, by raising that key, and again depressing it, the circuit wheel at one station, and the escapement and type wheels at the other station, all make a single revolution, which brings that letter to its former position. Any other letter is brought to this position by pressing down its key in the composing machine, the circuit being broken and closed as many times as there are letters from the last one taken to the letter desired. THE MANIPULATION. To form the letters into words, it is necessary that the printing and composing machines should correspond, and for this purpose a small break and thumb screw, 9 and 10, fig. 5, can be made to stop the type wheel at any letter. In sending messages, they usually commence at the dash or space; if, by accident, the type wheel ceases to coincide with the distant composing machine, the printing becomes confused, the operator stops the type wheel, sets it at the dash, and the printing goes on as before. Above the type wheel, on the same shaft, is the letter wheel E, fig. 5, on the circumference of which the letters are painted in the same order with those on the type wheel below. It is incased in a steel hood, having an aperture in it directly over where the letters are printed, so that when the type wheel stops to print a letter, the same letter is made stationary for a moment at the aperture, and is readily distinguished; hence messages can be read, thus making it a visual telegraph. The type wheel has twenty-eight teeth arranged on the outer edge of its upper surface; near it, on the opposite side from where the printing is done, is the shaft T, fig. 5,

Page  399 THE MANIPULATION. 399 Lying in an opposite direction. A steel cap x, fig. 5, two inches in diameter, is so attached to the top of this shaft that friction carries it along with it, but it can be moved in the opposite direction; it has a small steel arm, three fourths of an inch long, projecting from its side, and playing against the teeth on the type wheel; while the latter is revolving, its teeth strike this arm, and give the cap a contrary motion to its shaft. There is a pulley on this shaft, below the plate, connected by a band to M, fig. 1; its speed is less than that of the type wheel. When the type wheel comes to rest, the arm falls between the teeth, but it has not time to do so when they are in motion. On the opposite side of the cap to where the arm is attached are two raised edges, called detent pins, against which the detent arm u, fig. 5, alternately rests, as the position of the cap is altered by the small arm that plays on the teeth of the type wheel. Between the type wheel and cap is a small lever and thumbscrew, 9, fig. 5, which acts as a break on the cap; its motion can be stopped by it, while the type wheel revolves; it is used merely to arrest the printing, though the message may be read from the letter wheel. The detent arm revolves in a horizontal direction about the vertical shaft, which is also driven by a pulley beneath the steel plate; when the type wheel is at rest, the detent arm rests on one of the detent pins, but when it moves, the teeth on its upper surface give the arm and cap a reverse direction to its shaft, which alters the position of the detent points, so that the detent arm is liberated from this first pin, and falls upon the second, where it remains until the escapement and type wheels again come to rest; when this happens, the arm falls between two of the teeth, the cap resumes its first position, the detent is let loose, makes a revolution, and stops again on the first pin. The shaft that carries the detent arm has an eccentric wheel, K, fig. 5, on it, above the arm; an eccentric wheel is one that has its axis of motion nearer one side than the other, and, while revolving, operates like a crank; from this eccentric is a connecting rod, s, which draws a toothed wheel against the type; this toothed wheel is supported in an elastic steel arm (shut out of view by the coloring band), on the opposite side of the type wheel from that of the eccentric, and revolves in a vertical direction; the band E, fig. 1, carrying the coloring matter to print with, passes between this and the type; the dots seen represent small teeth that catch the paper and draw it along, as the wheel revolves, between itself and a steel clasp,

Page  400 400 THE HOUSE PRINTING TELEGRAPH. operated by a spring that presses the paper against the teeth and keeps it smooth; the clasp is perforated in such a manner that the type print through it; there are two rows of teeth, one above, the other below the orifice. The vertical wheel, fig. 5, is embraced in a ring by the connecting shaft s, and a rotary motion is imparted to it by a ratchet fixed to its lower surface, moving with it, and catching against two poles fastened to the steel plate below it; the poles are pressed against the ratchet by springs, as shown in Fig. 8. fig. 8; the wheel is octagonal, and every revolution of the eccentric turns it through one eighth of a revolution, and therefore presents a firm, flat surface to push the paper against the type, and advances sufficient for every letter, one being printed each time the detent arm revolves. When the type wheel stops, the detent arm revolves, that carries with it the eccentric, which, through the connecting rod, draws the toothed wheel having the paper and coloring band before it against the type, and an impression is made on the paper; a letter is printed if the circuit remains broken or closed longer than one tenth of a second; three hundred letters, in the form of Roman capitals, can be accurately printed per minute; the roll of paper L, fig. 5, is supported on a loose revolving wire framework; on the same standard is a small pulley w, around which one end of the coloring band runs. In transmitting a message, the machine is set in motion, a signal is given (which is simply the movement of the magnet), and then with the communication before him, the operator commences to play like a pianist on his key-board, touching, in rapid succession, those keys which are marked with the consecutive letters of the information to be transmitted; on hearing the signal, the operator at the receiving station sets his machine in motion; then setting his type at the dash, sends back signal that he is ready, and the communication is transmitted; he can leave his machine, and it will print in his absence; when the printing is finished, he tears off the strip which contains it, folds it in an envelope ready to send to any place desired. The function of the electric current in this machine, together with the condensed air, is to preserve equal time in the printing and composing machine, that the letters in one may correspond with the other. The electrical pulsations determine the number of spaces or letters which the type wheel is per

Page  401 THE PATENTED CLAIM. 401 mitted to advance; they must be at least twenty-five per second to prevent the printing machine from acting; the intervals of time the electric currents are allowed to flow unbroken are equal, and the number of magnetic pulsations necessary to indicate a different succession of letters are exceedingly unequal; from A to B will require one twentyeighth of a revolution of the type wheel, and one magnetic pulsation; from A to A will require an entire revolution of the type wheel and twenty-eight magnetic pulsations. THE PATENTED CLAIM. On the 28th December, 1852, Royal E. House obtained the following patent for various improvements on the original machine: " I claim, First. The employment of electromagnetic force, in combination with the force of a current of air, or other fluid, so that the action of the former governs or controls the action of the latter, for the purpose described. Second. I claim the construction of the electro-magnet, as described; that is to say, a series of fixed magnets, in combination with a series of moveable magnets, arranged upon a central axis, which axis plays between or through the line of fixed magnets, so as to effect a vibratory movement of said axis by a force multiplied by the number of magnets of both kinds. Third. I claim the combination of the electro-magnet with the valve, for regulating and directing the force of a current of air, or other fluid, acting as a motive power upon the piston, or other analogous device for producing a vibratory motion, as described. Fourth. I claim the endless band, in combination with the cylinder, as an inking machine, for conveying and applying the coloring matter to the paper, at the moment of receiving the impression from the types, as described. Fifth. I claim the combination of the regulating bar with the type wheel, for the purpose of regulating the proper position said wheel should have, in connection with a given position of the key shaft, at the moment of printing any letters or characters." 26

Page  402 HISTORY OF TIE AMERICAN ELECTRO, MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH. CHAPTER XXXI. Invention of the Telegraph-The first Model of the Apparatus-Specimen of the Telegraph Writing-The Combined Circuits invented-Favorable Report of the Committee on Commerce in Congress-Construction of the Experimental Line-Invention of the Local Circuit-Improvements of the Apparatus-Administration of the Patents by HIon. F. O. J. Smith and Hon. Amos Kendall-Extensions of the Lines in America. INVENTION OF THE TELEGRAPH. THE patented American electro-magnetic telegraph was invented by Samuel Findley Breese Morse. It is not my purpose to discuss the questionable claims of others, in regard to their participation as auxiliaries in the perfection of the telegraph bearing the above name. It is my purpose to give the facts with but little comment. The reader can exercise his own judgment in the premises. Mr. Morse was an historical painter, and much of his early life was spent in Europe in the perfection of his profession. In reference to the invention of the telegraph, Mr. Morse has deposed, in a case before the Supreme Court of the United States, as follows, viz.: " Shortly after the commencement of my return voyage from Europe, in the autumn of 1832, before referred to, the then recent experiments and discoveries in relation to electro-magnetism, and the affinity of electricity to magnetism, or their probable identity, became the subject of conversation. The special subject of conversation was the obtaining the electric spark from the magnet. In the course of the discussion, it occurred to me that by means of electricity, signs representing figures, letters, or words, might be legibly written clown at any distance.

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Page  403 INVENTION OF THE TELEGRAPH. 403 At this time the idea of telegraphing in any way by electricity was new to me, and so far as I could judge, to every one on board the ship. So far as my knowledge then extended, I was ignorant that any one had previously entertained even the idea of an electric telegraph. Subsequent investigation has, however, shown me that the first idea of telegraphing by electricity does not belong to me, and I therefore disclaim it; but in the modes proposed by me I do claim to have invented an entirely novel and useful mode and art of telegraphing. All previously known modes of telegraphing were by evanescent signs. Had my invention rested merely in the idea, it would have been comparatively valueless; but at the same time I conceived a practical mode of carrying into effect my original idea. I claim then to have invented a new art: tile art of imprinting characters at a distance for telegraphing purposes, and the mode and means of performing the same are set forth in my several letters patent. And I also claim the use of sounds for telegraphing as are set forth in my letters patent. The idea thus conceived of an electric telegraph took full possession of my mind, and during the residue of the voyage, I occupied myself, in a great measure, by devising means of giving it practical effect. Before I landed in the United States, I had conceived and drawn out in my sketch book the form of an instrument for an electro-magnetic telegraph, and had arranged and noted down a system of signs, composed of a combination of dots and spaces, which were to represent figures or numerals, and these were to indicate words, to which they were to be prefixed in a telegraphic dictionary, where each word was to have its own number. I had also conceived and drawn out a mode of applying the electric or galvanic current, so as to make these signs by its chemical effects in the decomposition of salts; and so also to make sounds for telegraphing. Immediately after my landing in the United States, I communicated my invention to a number of my friends, and employed myself in preparations to prove its practicability and value by actual experiments. To that end, before the commencement of the year 1833, being at the house of my brother, in New-York, I made a mould and cast a set of type representing dots and spaces, intended to be used for the purpose of closing and breaking the circuit in my contemplated experiments." The type referred to in the above were precisely as those represented in fig. 1. The application of the type will be explained hereinafter. Their value is indicated by the top, thus, A is a dot and a dash, B a dash and three dots, &c.

Page  404 404 IIISTORY OF TIIE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. Fig. 1. A B C D E F G H 1 J K L'I <1 A hV HI11li0 M N 0 P Q R S T U I! l U/ID1E~~ife A Hl V W X Y Z & t 2 4 5 7 8 9 0 111/h llliillll,1111tll/l/ll l/l 1 THE FIRST MODEL OF THE APPARATUS. Morse's first instrument was made of an old picture fiamce, F A C F, fastened to a small table, as in fig. 2. The wheels of an old clock D were arranged to carry the paper forward, by the endless band connecting D with the cylinder axle c. The

Page  405 FIRST MODEL OF THE APPARATUS. 405 weight E put in motion the clock-work. A is a cylinder on which rolls the ribbon paper, and B is an auxiliary drum in the movement of the paper. The paper unrolls from c, passes over the drum B, and winds around A. The movement of A is regulated by the weight attached to it. The pen lever is susFig. 2. kLo l L =Fpended from F. It is composed of two diverging rods connected by two cross pieces at o, and at n is a steel bar to serve as an armature to the electromagnet at H, the ends of which face the armature represented by the dotted bar. The wire runs from the battery cup I to the magnet coils, thence to K, and from i //l pcnded from F. It is composed of two diverging rods connected by two cross pieces at o, and at n is a steel bar to serve as an armature to the electro-magnet at H, the ends of which face the armature represented by the dotted bar. The wire runs from the battery cup i to the magnet coils, thence to K, and from J

Page  406 406 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. back to the battery. When the battery is in electrical action, the magnet H attracts the armature, which draws the pen lever F tI G. When the circuit is opened, a spring draws the pen lever from the magnet. The dotted lines from G, run to the pencil adjusted in the base of the lever. When the magnets attract the lever, the pencil makes a mark on the paper, and if the paper is in motion the mark will be oblique across, form' ing the half of the letter v. When the current is no longer in the magnet spools, the spring draws the lever back again, which forms the other half of the letter v. Mr. Morse formed his alphabet by a combination of the angles, as will be presently shown. I have in the above explained this primitive apparatus-the clock-work, magnet, paper rollers, pen lever, pencil, and the wire circuit. I will now describe the manner of opening and closing the voltaic circuit, which is consumated at J K by a simple mechanical arrangement. L L are the two cylinders or drums upon which is an endless band, moveable by a crank as seen to the right in the figure. o o is the circuit lever, N is its fulcrum and P a small weight to bear down that end of the lever so as to elevate the fork seen at the other end. J K are two small cups filled with mercury, into which is immersed at intervals the line wire. When the fork is made to descend into the mercury cup it closes the metallic circuit, and the electricity flows through the wires, the magnet spools, and then to the battery. M is a port-rule or a grooved piece of wood or metal. It is filled with the type represented in fig. 1. These type are moveable, but they fit solid in the port rule. When the crank is turned, the projection of the type presses under the subtending piece seen attached to the lever o o, which raises the lever at that end and depresses the other end, so that the forked ends enter the mercury in the cups J K. After the first type has passed the hanging projection o, the lever is elevated from the mercury cups. The crank then carries on the port-rule and another type passes, elevating the lever, closing the circuit at J x, which magnetizes the cores of the magnet H, attracting the armature of the pen lever F H G, and then the pencil makes its mark upon the paper. In order that the port-rule may be the better understood, I will present the following as given by Mr. Alfred Vail: "These type were set up in a cavity, made by putting two pieces of long rules of brass plate together, side by side, with a strip of half their width between them; so as to make the cavity sufficiently large to receive the type. This was denominated the port rule, and is represented in fig. 3 by A. Parts of the type are seen rising above the edge of the rule, and

Page  407 FIRST MODEL OF THE APPARATUS. 407 below it are seen the cogs, by which with the wheel v, the pinion L, and the crank o, the port rule, with its type, were carried along at a uniform rate, in a groove of the frame, K R, under the short lever c, which has a tooth or cam at its extremity. J is a support, one on each side of the frame, for the axis of the lever B and c, at its axis I; a and i are two brass Fig. 3. A A _ L __ <D < -^ ~ ____ -r c er mercury c f t t fra e cr copper mercury cups, fastened to the frame. Those cups have the negative and positive wires soldered to them, N and p. D and II are the ends of one copper wire, bent at right angles at that portion of it fastened to the lever B. The ends of the copper wire were amalgamated, and so adjusted that when the lever is raised at c, by the action of its cam passing over the teeth of the type, the lever B is depressed, and the wires D and H dip into the mercury cups, and thus complete the connection. This plan worked well, but was too inconvenient and unwieldy. The second method was upon the same principle, with a more compact arrangement. The type being put into a hopper and carried one by one upon the periphery of a wheel, the teeth acting upon a lever in the same manner as in the figure preceding. The wheel being horizontal. The third plan differed only in one respect, instead of the types moving in a circle they were made to move in a straight line. Fig. 4 represents that instrument. The type were all made with small holes through their sides, so as to correspond with the teeth of the wheel A driven by the clock-work and weight. K is the side of the frame containing the clock-work. B is the hopper containing the types, with their teeth outward. The hopper is inclined at an angle, so that the type may slide down as fast as one is carried through the cavity a and b. c is a brass block to keep the type upright, and sliding down with them. E and F are two small rollers, with springs (not shown) to sustain the type after the wheel A has carried them beyond its reach. G is a lever for the same purpose as c in fig. 3. D

Page  408 408 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. its support, through which its axis passes. At i is the long lever o of the right-side figure, to the end of which is the bent wire in the mercury cups H and s, and to which are soldered the wires P and N. T is the spring to carry back the lever o. F/ is one of the small rollers, and G/ the short lever. At R may be seen a part of one of the type passing, the tooth having the short lever upon its point, thereby connecting the circuit at the mercury cups H and s, by the depression of the long lever o. The hopper B may be of considerable length, and at a less angle. when a communication is to be sent, it is set up in type and put in the hopper. The clock work is then put in motion, and the wheel A will carry them down one by one. \1| I Jj =1 ^r'3^ j;; - \JL

Page  409 SPECIMEN OF TELEGRAPHIC WRITING. 409 SPECIMEN OF THE TELEGRAPH WRITING. The writing upon the paper with the pencil or fountain pen was rapid and intelligible and practically effective, though far less so than the more modern organizations of the alphabet. The following are specimens of the writing done by this plain and simple arrangement, at a public exhibition in the NewYork City University, at a distance of one third of a mile. Successful experiment with telegraph. 215 36 2 58 21 5 3 6 2 5 8 November 4th 1835. 112 04 01835. V WV-JWfVv\iWMAWV V 1 12 0 4 01 8 3 5 The words in the diagram were the intelligence transmitted. The numbers (in this instance arbitrary) are the number of the words in a telegraphic dictionary. The points are the markings of the register, each point being marked every time the electric fluid passes. The register marks but one kind of mark, to wit, (V). This can be varied two ways. By intervals, thus, (V VV VVV,) signifying one, two, three, &c., and by reversing, thus, (A). Examples of both these varieties are seen in the diagram. The single numbers are separated by short and the whole numbers by long intervals. To illustrate by the diagram: the word "successful " is first found in the dictionary, and its telegraphic number, 215, is set up in a species of type prepared for the purpose, and so of the other words. The type then operate upon the machinery, and serve to regulate the times and intervals of the passage of electricity. Each passage of the fluid causes a pencil at the extremity of the wire to mark the points as in the diagram. To read the marks, count the points at the bottom of each line. It will be perceived that two points come first, separated by a short interval from the next point. Set 2 beneath it. Then comes one point, likewise separated by a short interval. Set one beneath it. Then comes five points. Set 5 beneath

Page  410 410 IISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. them But the interval in this case is a long interval; consequently the three numbers comprise the whole number, 215. So proceed with the rest until the numbers are all set down. Then, by referring to the telegraphic dictionary, the words corresponding to the numbers are found, and the communication read. Thus it will be seen that, by means of the changes upon ten characters, all words can be transmitted, But there are two points reversed in the lower line. These are the eleventh character, placed before a number to signify that it is to be read as a number, and not as the representative of a word. The telegraph apparatus above described was worked by Professor Morse, November, 1835, in the New-York City University, in the presence of Leonard D. Gale, D. Huntington, O. Loomis, Robert Rankin, and others. The facts are fully substantiated by the evidence given in various telegraph suits, and particularly in the case, Morse vs. O'Rielly, adjudicated upon by the Supreme Court of the United States. The apparatus above described is precisely in accordance with the idea held by Morse on the ship Sully in 1832. In substantiation of this fact, Captain Pell, the master of the ship, and others have testified, as will be found in the records of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the Federal Courts of Kentucky, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Captain Pell deposed as follows:' His plan of communicating intelligence at a distance was by imprinting signs at a distance. While on board the ship, he described his use of a galvanic trough, the circuit from which was to be broken and closed by means of a lever, acted upon by the tooth types, which were to be moved by a crank. At the other extremity of the circuit was an artificial horseshoe magnet, with a moveable armature, holding a pencil or pen, and carrying it by the movement communicated by the closing and breaking of the circuit, over a papered cylinder, on which it traced a succession of toothed marks. This was in the month of October, 1832. On that passage, Prof. Morse also showed me a sketch-book, in which were contained drawings of some of said telegraphic apparatus. The said sketch-book was shown to me last spring, and I recognized it as the same sketch book shown to me in the possession of said Morse during said voyage of 1832. When it was so shown to me last spring, I wrote my name upon it and the date of my said signature. I distinctly recollect that the said sketch-book, at the time that I saw it on board the packet-ship Sully, had in it certain drawings which I recognized when I wrote my name upon

Page  411 COMBINED CIRCUITS INVENTED. 411 said leaf, as before stated; and also on another page, other drawings of the part of the apparatus and machines described by Professor Morse for his telegraph, which I also recollected having seen in said book during the voyage aforesaid, and I recognized them when so shown to me last spring, and then wrote my name upon the page containing them. When said Morse showed me an apparatus and machine in operation at the University, in the city of New-York, I recognized the instrument the moment I saw it as being constructed upon the same general principles of the telegraphic instrument described by Professor Morse on board the ship Sully, on his passage from Havre, in 1832." Such was the telegraphic apparatus devised by Morse on the ship Sully in 1832, and exhibited to his friends in 1835. In the year 1836 he had the same telegraph on public exhibition in the city of New-York. THE COMBINED CIRCUITS INVENTED. The combination above described satisfied every one of its practicability on short voltaic circuits, and it became a question how far the current could be transmitted over a wire to produce magnetism in a piece of soft iron. The following extracts are taken from the deposition of Prof. Morse, filed in the Supreme Court of the United States: " Early in 1836, I procured forty feet of wire, and putting it in the circuit I found that my battery of one cup was not sufficient to work my instrument. This result suggested to me the probability that the magnetism to be obtained from the electric current would diminish in proportion as the circuit was lengthened, so as to be insufficient for any practical purposes at great distances; and to remove that probable obstacle to my success, I conceived the idea of combining two or more circuits together in the manner described in my first patent, each with an independent battery, making use of the magnetism of the current on the first to close and break the second; the second, the third; and so on." Fig. 5. N3;^ 0 N 20 MILES B 20MILat es I 2 This arrangement is repres-nited by fig. 5, in which three electro magnets, B, are show ". oals I and 2 are two

Page  412 412 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. stations twenty miles apart. At station 1 are two mercury cups, N o, into which the forked wire at c descends and closes the circuit. The battery current of station 1 follows the wire to N, through the forked wire c to o, thence to the magnet a, and after passing around the soft iron, it returns to the battery at 1. When the current passes around B, the magnet attracts the armature of the right angle lever D, which causes the forked wire to descend into the mercury cups of the station 2, which puts in action the battery of 2. The second twenty-mile circuit is then charged and the magnet at E attracts the armature, and thus another circuit is put in motion. The three equilateral triangular pieces attached to the right-angled levers are weights to draw from the mercury cups the forked wires when the magnets cease to attract the subtending part of the armature lever. The levers D are fixed to pivots as fulcrums at their angles. This arrangement was termed the "combined circuits," and was publicly exhibited at the University in March, 1837. The plan represented could telegraph only in one direction. To communicate back another combination of circuits would have to be organized upon the reverse order. At that time there was no evidence on record demonstrating that a circuit as great as twenty miles could be operated. The apparatus, therefore, was based upon theory, but that problem has long since been solved by the practical extension of the circuit several hundred miles for telegraphic purposes. Prof. Morse further deposed that, "In 1836 and the early part of 1837, I directed my experiments mainly to modifications of the marking apparatus, contrivances for using fountain pens, marking with a hard point through pentagraphic or blackened paper, varying in the modes of using and moving the paper; at one time on a revolving disk spirally from the centre, at another on a cylinder, by which means a large ordinary sheet of paper might be so written upon that it could be read as a commonplace book, and bound for reference in volumes, and devising modes of marking upon chemically prepared paper. As my means and the duties of my profession would admit, the spring and autumn of 1837 were employed in improving the instrument, varying the mode of writing, experimenting with plumbago and various kinds of ink or coloring matter, substituting a pen for a pencil, and devising a mode of writing on a whole sheet of paper instead of upon a strip or ribbon; and in the latter part of August or the beginning of September of that year, the instrument was shown in the cabinet of the University to numerous visitors, operating through a circuit of one thousand seven hundred feet of wire running back and forth in that room."

Page  413 REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF CONGRESS. 413 In the perfection of the apparatus and the scientific appliances, Prof. Morse had the invaluable aid of Prof. Leonard D. Gale and Messrs. George and Alfied Vail. These gentlemen became interested in the patents subsequently obtained. In September, 1837, the government of the United States issued a circular, in conformity to a resolution that passed Congress in February, 1837, seeking propositions upon the subject of telegraphs. A correspondence followed with Prof. Morse, but nothing was effected. In October, 1837, Morse filed his caveat in the United States Patent Office. Later in the year 1837, a model instrument was completed and operated before the Franklin Institute at Philadelphia on a circuit of ten miles. Thence the apparatus was removed to Washington, where it was exhibited in successful operation to a multitude of persons, among whom were the President, members of the Cabinet, Senators and Representatives in Congress. It was placed in the room of the Committee on Commerce in the Capitol. FAVORABLE REPORT OF TIE COMMITTEE ON COMMIERCE IN CONGRESS. At that session Prof. Morse had an application pending before Congress, for an appropriation to aid in the construction of an experimental line between Washington and Baltimore. The subject had been referred to the Committee on Commerce, the chairman of which was the distinguished representative, Mr. Francis 0. J. Smith. That gentleman was at once struck with the practicability of the invention, and he exerted his great powers in its behalf. The invention was novel, and it was difficult to get members of Congress to believe in the possibility of success. The Honorable Mr. Smith, however, never ceased his efforts in behalf of Morse, fully believing his telegraph to be, as he declared, "the most wondrous birth of this wonderteeming ace." He succeeded in getting the entire committee to sign the following report: Mr. Smith, from the Committee on Commerce, made the following report, April 6th, 1838:' The Committee on Commerce, to whom the subject was referred, have had the same under consideration and report: On the 3d of February, 1837, the House of Representatives passed a resolution requesting the Secretary of the Treasury to report to the House, at its present session, upon the propriety of establishing a system of telegraphs for the United States. In pursuance of this request, the Secretary of the Treasury, at an early day after the passage of said resolution, addressed a circular of inquiry to numerous scientific and practical indi

Page  414 414 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. viduals in different parts of the Union; and on the 6th of December last, reported the result of this proceeding to the House. This report of the Secretary embodies many useful suggestions on the necessity and practicability of a system of telegraphic despatches, both for public and individual purposes; and the committee cannot doubt that the American public is fully prepared, and even desirous that every requisite effort be made on the part of Congress to consummate an object of so deep interest to the purposes of government in peace and in war, and to the enterprise of the age. Amid the suggestions thus elicited from various sources, and embodied in the before mentioned report of the Secretary of the Treasury, a plan for an electro-magnetic telegraph is communicated by Professor Morse, of the University of the City of New York, pre-eminently interesting, and even wonderful. This invention consists in the application, by mechanism, of galvanic electricity to telegraphic purposes, and is claimed by Professor Morse and his associates as original with them; and being so, in fact, as the committee believe, letters patent have been secured, under the authority of the United States, for the invention. It has, moreover, been subjected to the test of experiment, upon a scale of ten miles' distance, by a select committee of the Franklin Institute of the city of Philadelphia, and reported upon by that eminently high tribunal in the most favorable and confident terms. In additional confirmation of the merits of his proposed system of telegraphs, Professor Morse has exhibited it in operation (by a coil of metallic wire measuring about ten miles in length, rendering the action equal to a telegraph of half that distance) to the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives, to the President of the United States, and the several heads of departments, to members of Congress generally, who have taken interest in the examination, and to a vast number of scientific and practical individuals from various parts of the Union; and all concur, it is believed, and without a dissenting doubt, in admiration of the ingenious and scientific character of the invention, and in the opinion that it is successfully adapted to the purposes of telegraphic dispatches, and in a conviction of its great and incalculable practical importance and usefulness to the country, and ultimately to the whole world. But it would be presumptuous in any one (and the inventor himself is most sensible of this) to attempt, at this stage of the invention, to calculate in anticipation, or to hold out

Page  415 REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF CONGRESS. 415 promises of what its whole extent of capacity for usefulness may be, in either a political, commercial or social point of view, if the electrical power upon which it depends for successful action shall prove to be efficient, as is now supposed it will, to carry intelligence through any of the distances of fifty, one hundred, five hundred or more miles now contemplated. No such attempt, therefore, will be indulged in this report. It is obvious, however, that the influence of this invention over the political, commercial, and social relations of the people of this widely-extended country, looking to nothing beyond, will, in the event of success, of itself amount to a revolution unsurpassed in moral grandeur by any discovery that has been made in the arts and sciences, from the most distant period to which authentic history extends to the present day. With the means of almost instantaneous communication of intelligence between the most distant points of the country, and simultaneously between any given number of intermediate points, which this invention contemplates, space will be, to all practical purposes of information, completely annihilated between the States of the Union, as also between the individual citizens thereof. The citizen will be invested with, and reduce to daily and familiar use, an approach to the HIGH ATTRIBUTE OF UBIQUITY, in a degree that the human mind, until recently, had hardly dared to contemplate seriously as belonging to human agency, from an instinctive feeling of religious reverence and reserve on a power of such awful grandeur. Referring to the annexed report of the Franklin Institute, already adverted to, and also to the letters of Professor Morse, marked 2, 8, and 9, for other details of the superiority of this system of telegraphs over all other methods heretofore reduced to practice by any individual or government, the committee agree unanimously, that it is worthy to engross the attention and means of the Federal Government, to the full extent that may be necessary to put the invention to the most decisive test that can be desirable. The power of the invention. if successful, is so extensive for good or for evil, that the Government alone should possess the right to control and regulate it. The mode of proceeding to test it, as suggested, as also the relations which the inventor and his associates are willing to recognize with the Government on the subject of the future ownership, use, and control of the invention, are succinctly set forth in the annexed letters of Professor Morse, marked 8 and 9. The probable outlay of an experiment upon a scale equal to fifty miles of telegraph, and equal to a circuit of double that distance, is estimated at $30,000. Two thirds of this expen.

Page  416 416 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. diture will be for material, which, whether the experiment shall succeed or fail, will remain uninjured, and of very little diminished value below the price that will be paid for it. The estimates of Professor Morse, as will be seen by his letter, marked 9, amount to $26,000; but, to meet any contingency not now anticipated, and to guard against any want of requisite funds in an enterprise of such moment to the Government, to the people, and to the scientific world, the committee recommend an appropriation of $30,000, to be exFended under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury; and to this end submit herewith a bill. It is believed by the committee that the subject is one of such universal interest and importance, that an early action upon it will be deemed desirable by Congress, to enable the inventor to complete his trial of the invention upon the extended scale contemplated, in season to furnish Congress with a full report of the result during its present session, if that shall be practicable. All which is respectfully submitted. FRANCIS O. J. SMITH, JAS. M. MASON, S. C. PHILLIPS, JOHN T. H. WORTHINGTON, SAMUEL CUSHMAN, WAM. H. HUNTER, JOHN I. DE GRAFF, GEORGE W. TOLAND, EDWARD CURTIS, Committee on Commerce, U. S. H. R." Nothing further was effected at that session of Congress, and but little hope was entertained that Congress would ever grant the desired appropriation. Mr. F. O. J. Smith was so well convinced of the practicability of the system of telegraph, that he abandoned his seat in Congress, and purchased one quarter interest in the invention for Europe and America, under date of March, 1838. In May, 1838, Professor Morse and Mr. Smith visited Europe to obtain patents and to make sales of the invention. In England a patent was refused, because a brief description of the invention had been published. In France a patent was granted, but by order of the government he was forbidden to put it in operation, and at the end of two years the patent expired. The various efforts in Europe proved of no avail. In June, 1840, Professor Morse obtained his patent in the United States, based on the specification filed by him in April, 1838. In December, 1842, he petitioned Congress again for aid to test the practicability of his invention, and on the 30th of December the Committee on Commerce reported a bill in

Page  417 CONSTRUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL LINE. 417 favor of appropriating $30,000 for that purpose. The bill passed the House of Representatives, and in the last hour of the last night of the last session of that Congress, March 3d, 1843, the bill passed the Senate, was signed by the President, and became a law. CONSTRUCTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL LINE. The experimental line between Washington and Baltimore was placed under course of construction in 1843. It was attempted to make it subterranean. Two copper wires, covered with cotton and gum-lac, were drawn through a leaden tube. From Baltimore to the Relay House, nine miles, were thus laid in the earth. On testing it an earth circuit was found; not even a mile of it could be worked. The plan proved a failure. Professor Morse then, after consultation with his friends, determined to put the wires on poles. The same copper wire that had been drawn through the leaden tubes for much of the distance between Baltimore and Washington were taken from the tubing and stretched on poles. In May, 1844, the line was completed between those cities, and on the 27th day of May the first dispatch was transmitted over the line from Washington to Baltimore. It fell to the lot of Miss Annie Ellsworth to send that dispatch, which was, "WHAT IIATH GOD WROUGHT?" As manipulating assistants, Professor Morse had Mr. Alfred Vail and Mr. L. F. Zantzinger, the former is no more, and the latter still remains attached to the profession of practical telegraphing, and is the oldest now in the service. The apparatuses used were large and weighty. The electromagnet weighed one hundred and eighty-five pounds, and its bulky construction made it necessary for two men to handle it whenever it had to be moved. It was placed in a large box. Fig. 4 represents, in part, the receiving magnet as then used. Fig. 4. A A: B:erc the coils of wire, three and one half inches long and eighteen inches in diameter. The soft iron bars are A A. The copper wire surrounding the spools was No. 16 copper wire covered with cotton thread. It was then supposed, by Professor Morse, as indispensably necessary that the wire surrounding the magnets should be the same size as, that stretched 27

Page  418 418 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. upon the poles of the line. This monster form. of magnet was continued for a short time, and replaced by another less in size, devised by Professor Charles G. Page. These latter remained in the service until substituted by some of the size now in use, which had been purchased by Professor Morse in France in the year 1S45. INVENTION OF THE LOCAL CIRCUIT. In regard to the invention of the local circuit, Professor Morse deposed, viz.: "I further state, that the combination of machinery in constructing my telegraph as put in operation in 1844, was different from that originally contemplated and described in my first patent in the following respects, viz.: The combined circuits of my first patent, were the combination of two or more circuits as links in a main line for the purpose of renewing the power and propelling forward, indefinitely, the electric current, in such volume as to render the power more available at the distant point, and to charge an electro-magnet with sufficient magnetic force to work a register or move the lever of a relay magnet, suggested by the probability indicated by my own experiments and the experiments of scientific men, that sufficient magnetic power could not be obtained from the electric current through a very long circuit to make a mark of any sort. This difficulty the undersigned proposed to obviate by means of two or more circuits, each with a battery, coupled together and broken and closed by means of the same principles as the receiving magnet now used; these links of one main line are to be made so short as to secure the necessary magnetic power. The register was to be placed, not in a short circuit, as now arranged, but on a link in the main line. But this arrangement wvas liable to the practical inconvenience that it would always require two lines of wire, both always in order; because the receiving magnet would work only in one direction. While preparing to build the line from Washington to Baltimore, I ascertained, by experiment upon one hundred and sixty miles of insulated wire, and, sometime previously, upon thirty-three miles of wire, that magnetic power sufficient to move a metallic lever could be obtained from the electric current of a circuit of indefinite length, and that there was no necessity for combining two or more circuits togetherfor the purpose of renewing the power at short intervals on the main line. I then devised the present combination, which enables me to work the sanme wire both ways, dispensing with one of''"'~~~~~

Page  419 IMPROVEMENT OF MARKING APPARATUS. 419 the two wires originally supposed to be necessary under all circumstances. This combination consists of one main circuit, connected by the receiving magnet with as many short officecircuits as may be desired, upon which respectively are the requisite registers, and not upon the lines of the main line, as originally contemplated. Any of these office-circuits may be separated from the main line without affecting its efficiency whereas the breaking of a link in the chain of circuits originally contemplated would interrupt all communication. In that combination the battery at each station was to perform the double purpose of working the register and breaking and closing the next circuit in the main line. In the present combination, the purpose of the battery on the main line is to close and break the short independent officecircuit, which works the register. This new combination of parts was a most valuable improvement upon my first plan. A part of this improvement was used on the experimental line between Washington and Baltimore, for the first time, in May, 1844, and the whole of the improvements in the year 1846. The combination of circuits mentioned in my French patent of October, 1838, is the same as that mentioned in my American patent of 1840, and not that described in my American patent of April 11th, 1846." IMPROVEMENT OF TIE, APPARATUS. The original mode of manipulating the apparatus for marking on paper, and the mode of making those marks, were changed before the patent of 1840. The crank and port-rule were patented, but a better equivalent was found in the lever key, as in the chapter descriptive of the Morse telegraph apparatus. The pen lever was changed in its position, so that instead of making the v lines it made a dot or a dash. The mechanism 0f fig. 2 can be easily changed to make the dot and dash. It is only necessary to place the paper cylinders in a perpendicular position. The face of the paper will be in front of the reader. Change the pencil G to a horizontal position in the lever, so that the marking end will rest opposite to the surface of the ribbon paper. When the paper and the pencil are thus arranged the following will be the result. The paper is moved forward, the current causes the magnets to attract the lever, which brings the pencil point against the paper. The mark on the paper will be in length proportional to the time the lever is held by the magnet. If but a moment, a dot will be made; if longer, a dash. The v marks will, therefore, not be made, but in their stead, dots and dashes.

Page  420 420 HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN TELEGRAPH. The first key was very plain and simple, as well as the other parts of the mechanism. Attached to the marking lever were fountain pens, gotten up by Mr. Alfred Vail. To each lever were fastened four pens, which dropped the ink upon the paper. After that improvement the metallic points were adopted. There were at first four pens, then three, then two, and finally one pen. The marking process was soon abandoned, and the indenting of the paper substituted. The object of having more than one pen was to secure the mark, if one failed to drop the ink or to indent the paper the others might not. Many were the improvements made to the different parts of the mechanism. At that time, and since then, the ingenious telegraphers throughout the world have, from time to time, devised important modifications to the different parts, having in view the perfection of the mechanism. The most remarkable change has been made in the receiving magnet; at first it weighed one hundred and eighty-five pounds, and now it is practically used in weight less than a pound, and so constructed that it can be carried, connected with the key, in the pocket. ADMINISTRATION OF THE PATENTS. After the completion of the experimental line between Washington and Baltimore, the commercial advantages resulting from the extension of the telegraph over the country began to be appreciated. It soon became a commercial affair, requiring peculiar powers to manage it, and to this end the Honorable Amos Kendall was made the attorney for Messrs. Morse, Vails, and Gale, the proprietors of three fourths of the patent. Mr. Kendall had been Postmaster-General of the United States, and had managed its affairs with distinguished ability. It was such ability that Professor Morse brought to the management of his telegraph. Mr. Kendall entered into the affairs with great zeal, and in a short time the lines were being spread throughout the country. Mr. Kendall devoted his special attention to the South and Southwest, and Mr. Smith to the East and Northwest. These gentlemen thus combining their remarkable powers, extended the telegraph to all the principal towns and cities in the United States, amounting in the aggregate to some forty-five or fifty thousand miles of telegraph wires, all of which are operated upon commercial principles, beneficial to the affairs of the people and of the government of the nation. I have now followed the progress of the Morse telegraph from its beginning until its full development by its extension over the widespread territories of the American Union.

Page  421 RECAPITULATION. 421 From the foregoing it will be seen that Morse devised a system of telegraphing in 1832, and that he made some type for the model; that in 1835-'36, he exhibited it in operation to his friends in New-York; in 1837 he devised his system of combined circuits; in 1844 he applied the local circuit, witho.ut the combination of circuits on the main line, and on the 27th day of May, 1844, he worked successfully the line, forty miles long, from Baltimore to Washington; and that the first dispatch, benign in its source and conception, was, "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT?": ligiamM^~~~~~~~gf

Page  422 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. CHAPTER XXXII. The Early Telegraph Instruments-Modern Lever Key-The Early Circuit Changer-Modern Circuit Closers-Nottebohn's Circuit Changer-Binding Connections-The Electro-Magnet of 1844-The Modern Relay Magnet — The Receiving Register-The Sounder. THE EARLY TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. THE present chapter will be devoted to the description of the various parts of the Morse telegraph apparatuses, which have been and are in use for practical telegraphy. The original patented instruments were soon superseded by mechanism more convenient for the peculiar service. On the experimental line constructed between Baltimore and Washington, the register was similar to that represented by fig. 1, having three pen points to indent the letter into the paper. The perspective view shows the whole instrument. The electro-magnet n H, the pen-lever L, and the armature F, will be better seen on reference to fig. 3, which represents a part of fig. 1. Numerals 1, 1, 1, of fig. 1, represents the reel of paper, with its axle at Y, fitted into the brass standard u at 12; 2, 2, is the paper coming from the reel, passing between the rollers E F, as seen in fig. 2; 11 is a metallic trough; and 3 is the paper after it has been marked by the pen points R; 4 is the weight that puts in motion the clockwork revolving wheel B, fig. 2, to which is fastened the pulley R', with an endless band 10, which puts in motion the wheel q. Fig. 3 represents the rear part of fig. 1, showing the electro-magnet. The letters a b, in figs. 1 and 3, are the line wires, one running to the battery, and the other to the telegraph poles. When the current passes through the coils, H I, the armature F is attracted, and the lever w attached is elevated in the direction of the arrow, causing the small steel points R to puncture the paper passing

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Page  424 424 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. between them and the roller T T. In fig. 1 will be seen the key 6, 7, 8, and 9, shown on a large scale by fig. 4. v v is the platform; S is a metallic anvil, with its smaller end appearing below, to which is fastened the copper wire c; 7 is the metallic hammer attached to the brass spring 9, which is secured to the block 6, and the whole to the platform. The copper wire d is fastened to the brass spring 9, and the other end to the line wire; c to b, and a runs to the voltaic battery. In order to close the circuit between 7 and 8, fig. 4, it was the custom to place between them a metallic wedge. Suppose the distant station is communicating to fig. 1, the current Fig. 2. would traverse the line, enter by the copper wire d, pass through the key lever 9, thence through 7 and the wedge between 7 and 8, thence with the copper wire c united to b, thence through the magnet coils, thence to a and to the battery. Such were the original instruments used on the first line of telegraph constructed in America. For a long time the mode of making the mark on the paper was the subject of much study, and it finally resulted in the abandonment of all inks, and the adoption of the steel point to indent the paper. The next question of equal solicitude was the mode of opening and closing the voltaic circuit. The original port rule system was not satisfactory, and the later

Page  425 THE EARLY TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 425 mode-the use of the key and wedge, represented in figs. 1 and 4-was objectionable, as it did not firmly close the circuit. Fig. 3. It was proposed to use a key-board, represented by figs. 5, 6, and 7. Figs. 5 and 6 exhibit views of the keyed correspondent, with its clockwork. A' represents a top view of it, and B is a side Fig. 4. rT; --- or front view. 1 1 1 1, of both views, represent the long cylinders of sheet brass, covered with wood or some insulating substance, except at the black lines, which represent the form of the letters, made of brass, appearing at the surface of the cylinder and extending down and soldered to the interior brass cylinder. A cross section of the cylinder is seen at nD, of which

Page  426 426 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. the blank rilln is thoe brass cylinder, and the blank openings to the outer circl3 the metallic forms of the letter j, and the shaded portion of the circle represents the insulating substance, covering the whole surface of the cylinder, except where the letter-forms project from the interior. Every letter and parts of each letter are in metallic connection with the brass cylinder. At each end of the cylinder is a brass head, with its metallic journal, and the journal or arbor turns upon its centre in a brass standard, 17, secured to the vertical frame. To this standard is soldered the copper wire N, connected with the negative pole of the battery. There are together thirty-seven letters and numerals upon the cylinder. and made to correspond Fig. 5. Li3 j 1'~-:.i/- l ^ = 6l _ - Fig CE. -' FigJ 6. Fig 6.

Page  427 THE EARLY TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 427 to the letters of the telegraphic alphabet. To each of these there is a separate key, directly over the letter cylinder. Each key has its button, with its letter A, B, C, D, &c., marked upon it, and beneath the button in a frame of brass is a little friction roller. The key is a slip of thin brass, so as to give it the elasticity of a spring, and is secured at the thicker end by two screws to a brass plate, extending the whole length of the cylinder, so as to embrace the whole number of keys. This plate is also fastened to the vertical mahogany frame. At the right-hand end of the brass plate is soldered a copper wire, leading to the positive pole of the battery, after having made its required circuit through the coils of the magnet, &e. It is Fig. 5. 11 ^ ^ ^ ^ 11 r T ^; 11 1 T [i r I I ^ I i ~ I I I I _I ___ ~m_= = --— i — 2 —- -1- M ril Ik L I f EEDon - _- lS - I i:i —---— i -- _ I _F. g. _*7/~~~~ 7Fi. 6.= Fig. 0.

Page  428 428 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. clear that if any one of the keys is pressed down upon any portion of a metallic letter, that the circuit is completed: the voltaic fluid will pass to the brass plate to which, r, wire is soldered; thence along the plate to the spring or key; then to the small friction roller beneath the button; then to that portion of any letter with which it is in contact; then to the interior brass cylinder, to the arbor; then to the brass standard, and along the negative wire, soldered to it, to the battery. I have now to explain in what manner the cylinder is made to revolve at the instant any particular key is pressed, so that the metallic form of the letter may pass at a uniform rate under the roller of the key; breaking and connecting the circuit so as to write at the register, with mechanical accuracy, the letter intended. 4 4 is the platform upon which the parts of the instrument are fastened. 3 3 is the vertical wooden back, or support, for the keys and brass standard, 17. 2 is the barrel of the clockwork contained within the frames, 5 5. With the clockwork a fly is connected for regulating its motion, and a stop, a, for holding the fly, when the instrument is not in use; 6 is a very fine-tooth wheel, on the end of the letter cylinder; 7 is also a fine-tooth wheel, on a shaft driven by the clock train. In the front view is seen, at 9, another fine-tooth wheel, suspended upon a lever, the end of which lever is seen at 8, fig. 5, A'. 18 is a stop in the standard, 17, to limit the return motion of the cylinder, which also has a pin at 18, at right angles with the former. 16 is a small weight, attached to a cord, and at its other end is fastened to the cylinder at b. The relative position of the three fine-tooth wheels, and the lever 8, are better seen in a section of the instrument, fig. 7. The same figures represent the same wheels as in the other views, A/ and B/. 7 is the wheel driven by the weight and train; 6 the wheel, on the end of the cylinder, to which motion is to be communicated; and 9 is the wheel, suspended upon the end of the lever 8, of which 10 is its centre. 1 1 is the brass-lettered cylinder. 11 and 13 the buttons of the two keys, one a little in advance of the other. 14 is the spring, and the two friction rollers of the key may be seen directly under the buttons. 15 is the stop pin. 16 the small weight and cord attached to the cylinder, to bring it back after each operation. 4 4 is the end view of the mahogany platform. The arrows show the direction which the wheels take when the lever is pressed with the thumb of the left-hand at 8, so as to bring wheel 9 up against 7 and 6, connecting the two, as shown by the dotted lines. Wheel 7, communicating its motion to 9, and 9 to 6,

Page  429 THE EARLY TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 429 which causes the metallic letters to pass under the rollers in the direction of the arrow. Now, in order to use the instrument, let it be supposed a letter is to be sent. The stop a, fig. 5, A", is removed from the fly, and the clockwork is set in motion by the large weight. Then the thumb of the left hand presses upon the lever 8, at the same time key R is pressed down by the finger of the right hand, so that the small roller comes in contact with the cylinder. At the instant the roller touches the cylinder, the letter begins to move under the small roller, making and creaking the circuit with mechanical accuracy. When the letter has passed under the small roller, the Fig. 7. 13 11 i1 16 50- 0 thumb is taken off the lever 8, and the finger from the key R. The cylinder is then detached from its geer wheel 9, and the weight, 16, instantly carries it back to its former position, in readiness for the next letter. Then the lever 8, and the key E are pressed down at the same instant for the next letter, and it is carried under the small roller in the same manner as the first, which, when finished, the wheel 9 is suffered to fall, and the cylinder returns to its natural position again. The same manipulation is repeated for the remaining letters of the word. In fig. 8 is represented the flat correspondent. It somewhat

Page  430 430 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. resembles the keyed correspondent, but without keys or clockwork. A represents the arrangement of the letters, presenting a flat surface. Those portions in the figure marked by black lines and dots represent the letters which are made of brass. That portion which is blank represents ivory or some hard insulating substance surrounding the metal of the letters. As in the keyed correspondent, each letter and parts of each letter extend below the ivory, and are soldered to a brass plate, the size of the whole figure A. A sectional view of this is seen at 1 1, which is ivory, and 2 2, the brass plate below. The whole is fastened to a table, B. 5' and 5' is a brass plate, called the guide plate, with long openings, represented by the blanks, so Fig. 12. _mmm ] I' I'71\ /i//777,777.,,,/./..'./ *///7//7/////,/7////-/ X _\,7,///////,77%X//Y//, \ //k2 | 77L7-7/77 7/X7177/ 1|1 1 * | lll, j, ///////////://I/~ ////;:/~ 11 - 1 _ 1 * *N. *m _:_ eM []* E m ~ ~ /,// ///*//////,/ I K _: 777777771777777/ L,.: 7 7o/7 *, - - I

Page  431 THE EARLY TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 431 that when the guide plate, 5' 5', is put over the form, A, each opening is directly over its appropriate letter, and is a little longer than the length of the letter. 4' and 4' is the wooden frame, to which the guide plate is secured. The ends of this frame are seen in the sectional figure at 4 4, and the guide plate at 5 5; the dark portions of which represent the partitions, and the blanks the openings. It will be observed here that the plate 5 5, resting upon the wooden frame 4 4, is completely insulated from the brass letter plate 1 1 and 2 2; the blank space between them showing the separation. It is, however, necessary that the guide plate should be connected with one pole of the battery, and the letter plate with the other pole. For this purpose a brass screw, F, passes up through the table B, and through 4 into the guide plate 5 5. The head of the screw has a small hole through it, for passing in the end of the copper wire G from the battery, and a tightening screw below, by which a perfect connection is made. At D is another screw, passing through the table and into the letter plate 2 2. To the head of this screw is also connected another copper wire, E, extending to one of the poles of the battery. This instrument, when used, occupies the place of the key or correspondent, in the description heretofore given of the register. The circuit is now supposed to be complete, except between the guide plate 5 5, and the letter plate 2 2. Now, if a metallic rod or pencil, c, be taken, and the small end passed through one of the openings in the shield above the letter, its point will rest upon the ivory; and if it be gently pressed laterally against the side of the opening of the guide plate, at the same time a gentle pressure is given to it upon the ivory, and then drawn in the direction of the arrow 4', it is obvious that when the metallic current reaches, for instance, the short line of letter B, the circuit will be closed; and the fluid will pass from the battery along the wire to the screw F, then to the guide plate, along the plate to the rod, thence to the metallic short line of letter B, thence to the letter plate below, thence to the screw, from the screw to the wire, and thence to the battery. When the point has passed over the short metallic line, it reaches the ivory, and the circuit is broken. The next and most important improvement was the manipulating key, represented by fig. 9, which has been in universal use since the first year of the establishment of the experimental line in 1814. This was called the " lever key." A A is the block or table to which the parts are secured; E represents the anvil block; the anvil, screwed into the block, both of brass; B is another block, for the stop anvil K, and the

Page  432 432 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. standard for the axis of the lever c; L is the hammer, and is screwed into the lever, projecting downward at v, almost in contact with the anvil J; R is another screw of the same kind, but in contact with the anvil K, when the lever c is not pressed upon. Under the head of each of these two screws are tightening screws, which permanently secure the two hammers to any adjusted position required for the easy manipulation of the lever c; D is a spring which sustains the arm of the key up, preventing the hammer L from making contact with the anvil J when not in use; G is a screw connecting with the brass block B, and F a screw connecting with the block E. To these screws the two wires, i and H, of the battery are connected. Now, in order to put it in operation, it is necessary to bring the hammer v in contact with the anvil J for so long a time, Fig. 9. and at such regular intervals as are required by the particular letters of the communication. When the key is pressed down, the fluid passes from the battery to the wire H, then to the screw G, then to the block u, then to the lever c, at the axis s, then to its metallic anvil J, then to its screw F, then to the wire T, and so to the battery. In order to give some idea of the rapidity with which the circuit may be closed and broken, and answered by the motion of the lever, fig. 10 is here introduced to explain its construction and arrangement. The platform is shown at T, and the upright at s, to which the coils of the electro-magnet A are secured by a bolt with its thumb nut E; D a projecting prong of the soft iron, and c the armature attached to the metallic lever B, which has its axis or centre of motion at K, in the same manner as the electro-magnet of the register, R being the standard through which the screws pass; o is the steel spring secured to R, by a plate u upon it, and the screw N; L and M

Page  433 THE EARLY TELEGRAPH INSTRUMENTS. 433 are adjusting screws, for the purpose of confining the motion of the lever B within a certain limit. p is a wire with an eye at the top, through which the end of the steel spring passes, with a hook at the other end passing through the lever. The wire Q from one of the coils is connected with the plate u, at the top of the standard R. As the standard R is of brass, the plate u, the axis of the lever of steel, and the lever B of brass, all of them being metals and conductors of the voltaic fluid, they are made in this arrangement to serve as conductors. I is the wire proceeding from the other coil, and is extended to one pole of the battery. The wire i, coming from the other pole, is soldered to the metallic spring J, which is secured to the upFig. 10. r1 J- _ a n I right s by means of the adjusting thumb screws F and G. This spring is extended to J, where it is in contact with the lever B. We have now a complete circuit. Commencing at i, which is connected with one pole of the battery, thence it goes to the first coil; then to the second; then by Q to u, the plate; then to the standard R; then to the steel screw K; then to the steel axis; and then to the lever to the point J, where it takes the spring to H, the wire running to the mercury cup of the other pole of the battery. The battery being now in action, the fluid flies its circuit; D becomes a powerful magnet, attracting c to it, which draws the lever down in the direction of the arrow x. But since B 28

Page  434 434 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. and J are a part of the circuit at v, and since, by the downward motion at x, and the upward motion at v, the circuit is broken at j, the consequence is, that the current must cease to pass, and D can no longer be a magnet; the lever at v returns to J, and the current again flows. Such were the original instruments and plans of the early telegraph in America. I will now present illustrations of some of the more modern apparatuses, with such descriptions of them as may be necessary to enable the reader to understand their respective parts. MODERN LEVER KEYS. The lever key, represented by fig. 9, is in principle still in practical use on all the Morse telegraphs on both continents. Fig. 11 represents a key in much use. A c is the brass frame. The lever is suspended between the combination screws H ii, passing through the upright pieces, G G, of A c. The axle of the lever D is steel, and it fits into the sockets of the screws H H. To make the key move easy upon its bearings, many operators improperly use oil. At E is an ivory cylinder, which passes through the brass frame A; in the interior of E is a brass piece, upon the top of which is a projecting platina head. This part of the key is called the anvil, and the su',-+nding or hanging nipple to the lever D is called the hammei. The knob B is made of ivory, so as to insulate the finger of the operator. The heaviest part of the lever is behind; its normal nosition is, as seen in the figure, open at E. The circuit wires are connected under the table on which the key is fastened, so that the Fig. 11. A~ ~~~ —~;S=-====;

Page  435 MODERN LEVER KEY. 435 current will pass through the brass frame A c G, the screw H II, the axle of the lever at F, with the lever to the hammer and anvil at E, and then with the wire attached beneath. When the operator presses upon B, the lever descends and closes the circuit at E, the weight of the back part of the key elevates the front. This key requires an apparatus known as a " circuit closer," which will shortly be described. Fig. 12 represents a key with the "circuit closer" attached. Fig. 12. -, A is a small lever, with an ivory knob on its end. In the present position of the lever A the circuit is closed, but to move it to the left at right angles with the key lever the circuit will Fig. 13.

Page  436 436 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. be opened. In swinging the arm to a position at right angles, a brass spring is brought firmly against a pin of steel attached to the anvil. Fig. 13 is a closed lever key. The front part is heavy, and closes the circuit at the anvil by its own weight. When manipulated, the operator lifts the lever instead of pressing upon it, as with the other forms of keys. In order to make it an " open lever," a spiral spring is placed around the high screw behind; the spiral spring will force down the back part and elevate the front, as seen in the figure. Fig. 14 represents another form of key, having in front an insulated elevating spring, to raise the lever from a contact at Fig. 14. the anvil unless pressed by the finger. The spring projects from the frame and holds up the lever, as seen in the figure. The spring of course is insulated, so as not to form a part oi the circuit. THE EARLY CIRCUIT CHANGERS. Having explained the lever key, it becomes necessary to describe the different arrangements for opening and closing the circuit, and the plans adopted for the transference of the polarity of the circuits. In the early history of the telegraph, it was common to have an arrangement of mercury cups, with bent wires connecting one with the other, according to the necessities of the occasion. These mercury cups were often augar-holes bored into the table or a piece of plank, and the matallic connectors used were the ordinary copper wires. I introduce here a description of an instrument used for reversing the direction of the voltaic current, and which is applied in the operation of several kinds of electric telegraphs. The following figures, 15, 16, and 17, are three views of the instrument as it appears when looking down upon it in its three changes. First, that in which the current is broken and

Page  437 THE EARLY CIRCUIT CHANGERS. 437 the needle vertical; second, in which the circuit is. closed and the needle deflected to the right; third, in which the circuit is closed and the needle deflected to the left. Each figure has, in connection with the pole changer, the battery, or any other generator of the electric fluid, represented by N and r, and the electrometer represented by G. In each of the figures, the circles numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8, represent cups filled with mercury let into the wood of the platform, and made permanent. The small parallel lines terminating in these cups represent copper wires or conductors. A, fig. 15, represents a horizontal lever of wood, or some insulating substance, with its axis supported by two standards, B and c, by which it can easily vibrate. D represents an ivory ball, mounted upon a rod, inserted in the lever, and extending a few inches above it. It serves as a handle, by which to direct the elevation or depression of either end of the lever. Both ends of the lever branch out, presenting two arms each. Through each arm passes a copper wire, insulated from each other. The left-hand branches support the wires which connect the mercury cups 1 and 4, and 2 and 3 together; the right-hand branches support the wires which connect the cups 5 and 7, and 6 and 8, together. The ends of these wires directly over the mercury cups are bent down, so that they may freely enter their respective vessels when required; the other wires are permanently secured to the platform. The Fig. 15. position of the lever is now horizontal, and the bent ends of the wires, which it carries, are so adjusted, that none of them touch the mercury; consequently, there is no connection formed between the battery and electrometer, and the needle is vertical. The ivory ball, it will be observed, is directly over the centre of the axis, and in that position required to break the circuit. Thus, the wires 2 and 3, 1 and 4, 5 and 7, 6 and 8, are each out of the mercury, and the circuit being broken the fluid cannot pass.

Page  438 438 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. Fig. 16 represents those connections which are formed when the left-hand side of the lever is depressed, immersing in the mercury those wires supported by it. The ball and lever are omitted for the better inspection of the wires. Now the circuit is closed, and the current is passing from p of the battery, to the mercury cup, 1; then along the cross wire to 4; to 8; to the coils of the multiplier, deflecting the needle to the right: then to 7; to 3; then along the cross wire (which is not in contact with wire 1 and 4) to 2; to the N pole of the battery. The arrows also show the direction of the current. It will be observed that the cups 5 and 7, and 6 and 8 are not now in Fig. 16. 2 6I- 6 connection, and consequently the current cannot pass along the wires 1 and 5, and 2 and 6. Now, if the ball D is carried to the right, a new set of wires, fig. 17, are immersed, and those represented in fig. 16, as in connection, are taken out of their cups. The fluid now passes from P of the battery, to the mercury cup 1; to 5; to 7; to the coils of the multiplier, deflecting the needle to the left; then it passes to cup 8; to 6; to 2; and then to the N pole of the battery; the arrows representing the direction of the current. It will now be found that the cups, 2 and 3, and 1 and 4, are not in connection; and consequently, the current cannot pass along the wires, 3 and 7, and 4 and 8. Thus, it will appear, that by carrying the ball D to the left, Fig. 17. 3

Page  439 MODERN CIRCUIT CLOSERS. 439 the needle is deflected to the right; then, by carrying the ball to the right, the needle is deflected to the left; and when the ball is brought to the vertical position, the needle is vertical. These three changes enter into the plans of several electric telegraphs, which are to be hereafter described. MODERN CIRCUIT CLOSERS. In later years, the mercury cups have been abandoned, and metallic connectors are used in their stead. Fig. 18 represents a circuit closer, that accompanies the keys represented by fig. 11. The base A is made of wood; between A and c is a brass pin Fig. 18. serving as a stop to the lever B. a The lever moves around a fulcrum at the centre; c c are the top A S- B ends of the elongated screws, D D, the lower ends of which are attached to the circuit wires; these screws pass through the table board. The line wires enter the holes as seen in the larger ends of the screws, and the binding screws E hold the wires with a good metallic con- D tact; F is a spring which causes the lever to press upon the upper ends of D D. This is the normal position of the circuit closer. The key is open and the current passes from the wire into the | long screw D at E, thence through the lever from c to c, thence down to the line wire. If the operator E E desires to manipulate with his key, it is necessary to move the lever B from c, to the pin by which the circuit is broken, and then upon pressing the lever of the key, the circuit is again closed. Whenever the operator has finished manipulating, it is necessary to close the circuit by placing the lever arm of fig. 18 in its present position. Figs. 19, 20, 21, and 22, are circuit closers of different forms, but constructed upon the same principle as fig. 18. Like arrangements are used for the transference of circuits from one apparatus to another. There are a variety of arrangements for effecting this end. Figs. 23 and 24 are in common

Page  440 440 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSESuse in America. On the Western Union lines, Mlir. Anson Stager has applied a very ingenious circuit changer, having metallic straps across a board, and a hinge lever to transfer Fig. 19. Fig. 20. Fig. 22. Fig. o 1.,,3 z

Page  441 NOTTEBOHN S CIRCUIT CHANGER. 441 the current from one place to another. It is a compound "L switch board," and is fastened upon the wall, so that any operator in Fig. 23. Fig. 21. the room can see from his place the arranged circuits. Fig. 23 is a single, and fig. 24 is a double switch. NOTTEBOHN S CIRCUIT CHANGER. An ingenious contrivance was gotten up by Mr. Nottebohn, Fig. 25. A ce I ~~z~~ ~~~~~~ mL1' _ —

Page  442 442 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. director-general of the Prussian telegraphs, for the purpose of changing the circuits. Fig. 25 represents the circuit changer used on the Prussian lines. It consists of six brass pieces, or plates, insulated by means of ivory, and situated upon a square piece of plank. Between the plates are seven holes, numbered from 1 to 7. By means of the metallic plug, fig. Fig. 25a., 25a, placed in one of the holes, between two plates, a metallic connection is established. For example, if the metallic plug is placed in hole number 3, a connection is made between the upper plate and the plate 4, 6, L. The holes 8 and 9 in the plank are merely to contain the plugs when not in use. By means of the bolt L the line wire coming from one side is fastened-for example, from Berlin through L to the side going to Minden-and at E the wire leading to the earth is fastened. Letters G1 and G2 are vertical electrometers; R o is connected with the apparatus by means of numeral 2; and R u by means of numeral 1; and by means of bolt 3 with L. The copper end of the battery K is connected with the earth, and the zinc end with the instrument. In the writing apparatus, the wire of the local battery proceeds from bolts iii and Iv. E E are the earth plates. The board containing these circuit connections is fastened to the wall at some convenient place, and thence run the wires to the different apparatuses. BINDING CONNECTIONS. The wires in the stations are often changed and disconnected from the apparatus, battery, or other parts. To faciliFig 26. Fig. 27. ate the handli of the es sc -standards, such as fig. ate and 2lin of tthe wito es screwstandards, such as fig.enters 26 and 26a, are attached to the instruments. The wire enters

Page  443 ELECTRO-MAGNET OF 1844. 443 a hole, and the screw A, to the right, binds the wire fast. Figs. 27 and 28 are for uniting two ends of the wire together. Fig. 26a. Fig. 28. Figs. 29 and 30 are for making the connection between the wires and the arms of the battery. Fig. 30. Fig. 29. THE ELECTRO-MAGNET OF 1844. The next telegraphic apparatus which I propose to describe is the electro-magnet of 1844. It is one of the most important parts of the system, and one that every operator should well understand. There are two kinds, the register magnet and the relay magnet. The name of the latter is not strictly proper, but in its understood sense it means an electro-magnet

Page  444 444 TIE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. that is placed in the main circuit for the purpose of putting into action another, a local or secondary circuit. In the understood sense, as a telegraphic technicality, I use the term relay magnet. The magnet first used on the American telegraph in 1844 was as represented by figs. 31 and 32, and was thus described by Mr. Vail: " The electro-magnet is the basis upon which the whole invention rests in its present construction; without it, it would entirely fail. As it is of so much importance, a detailed account will be given of the construction of the electro-magnet, as used for telegraphic purposes. A bar of soft iron, of the purest and best quality, is taken and made into the form presented in fig. 31, which consists of four parts-viz., A F and A F are the two legs or prongs of the magnet, of a rounded form, and bent at the top, approaching each other toward the centre, where the ends of each prong, without touching, turn up and Fig. 31. _~~~~~~~~'15.w di ARt"C.... i IrIT17-7,,., kw ^l I I;Fi,. 382. A 3 C present flat, smooth, and clean surfaces, level with each other, at F F. The other end of these prongs or legs is turned smaller than the body, on the end of which is a screw and nut, c c. These ends pass through a plate of iron, B, of the same quality, at i and i, until they rest upon the plate at the shoulder produced by turning them smaller. They are then both permanently secured to the plate B by the nuts c c, and the whole becomes as one piece. This arrangement is made for the purpose of putting on the coils or taking them off with facility. The form most common for electro-magnets is that of the horseshoe; and is simply a bar of iron bent in that form. E represents a small flat plate of soft iron, sufficiently large to cover the faces of the two prongs F and F, presenting on its under VIIV LCVVN V-IILI VIV J~~n

Page  445 ELECTRO-MAGNET OF 1844. 445 side a surface clean and smooth, and parallel with the faces, F and F. The coils or helices of wire which surround the prongs A A, necessary to complete the electro-magnet, consist of many turns of wire, first running side by side, covering the form upon which the spiral is made, until the desired length of the coil is obtained; the wire is then turned back, and wound upon the first spiral, covering it, until the other end of the coil is reached, where the winding began; then again mounting upon the second spiral, covers it, and in the same manner it is wound back and forth, until the required size of the coil is attained. The coil is wound upon a form of the size (or a little larger) of the legs of the magnet, and when the coil is completed, the form is taken out, leaving an opening in the centre, B, into which the prongs may freely pass. Fig. 32 represents a coil constructed in the manner described. A and A are the two ends of wire which are brought out from the coils. The one proceeds from the centre of the coil, and the other from the outside. c and c are circular wooden heads, on each end of the coil, and fastened to it by binding wire, running from one head to the other around the coil. The wire used in constructing it, as heretofore mentioned, is covered in the same manner as bonnet wire, and saturated or varnished with gum shellac. This preparation is considered necessary, in order to prevent a metallic contact of the wires with each other. Such a contact of some of the wires with others encircling the iron prong would either weaken or altogether destroy the effect intended by their many turns. If the wires were bare instead of being covered, the electric fluid, when applied to the two ends, A and A, instead of passing through the whole length of the wire in the coil as its conductor, would pass laterally through it as a mass of copper, in the shortest direction it could take. For this reason they require a careful and more perfect insulation. Two coils are thus prepared for each magnet, one for each prong A and A, fig. 31." Such was the construction of the magnets in 1844. The wire was large, and one pair of coils weighed 185 pounds. Since then the ingenious spirit of the age has reduced the size and weight; the usual weight does not exceed from one to two pounds; the wire is very fine, and well covered or insulated with silk. The mechanism has very much changed; so much so, in fact, that the telegrapher unacquainted with the facts in the case, would not suppose the magnets above described ever belonged to the telegraph.

Page  446 446 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. TIE MODERN RELAY MAGNET. The modern relay magnets are of many forms of construction. I will describe one of them in detail. Fig. 33 represents the magnet as it sets upon the table, with its wooden base, having at each corner binding posts. The line wire enters the hole in the post A, and is bound by the screw in its top. To the post A is soldered the copper wire leading to the spools or coils of the magnet. One end of the insulated wire that surrounds the coils is joined to the wire that leads to the post A; the other end of the spool wire is in the same manner connected with the post M. The current from the line wire enters the station and follows the conductor to the post A, thence through the magnet coils, thence to post Mi, and thence to the battery. The local circuit is united to the posts B and c; the lower Fig. 33. end of post B is connected by a wire beneath the base to the metallic frame G; the other local post, c, is connected by a wire underneath to the metallic standard ii; the armature D is attached to a brass upright lever, on the side of which, near E, is fixed a piece of platina; K is an adjusting screw, with an insulating point, F, made of ivory; L is another adjusting screw, with a platina point E. The upright lever attached to the armature D does not touch the brass arm H. Suppose a current is transmitted over the line wire; it traverses the coils and produces magnetism in the cores of the spools. The armature D is then attracted toward the magnet, and the upright lever is brought into contact with the platina point E, which closes the local circuit. The current from the local battery will then flow with the copper wire conductor to the post B,

Page  447 THE MIODERN RELAY MAGNET. 447 thence to the metallic axle frame G, thence up the lever of the armature, thence with the screw E, thence with the brass work H, thence underneath the board to post c, and from there through the register magnets to the other end of the battery. This completes the local voltaic circuit. If the circuit be broken at E, the local battery fails to act. Every time the current is transmitted over the line by the contact of a key at a distant station, the current flows through the relay magnet t the local circuit is then closed, and the local battery curren! PI X J _ig ~ l iilli! i l'l'' illili i! "U 01~~~~~~~~~~~~~miii; Aiiii~irliir1I lii I

Page  448 448 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. passes through the register magnets, which causes the pen lever to mark upon the paper. If the magnetism in the cores be too strong, the armature D is drawn farther from their ends by the adjusting screw o, to the end of which is attached a silk thread or cord. This cord is tied to one end of a spiral spring, N, the other end being fastened to the armature lever. These explanations are, I presume, sufficient to enable the reader to understand the application of the relay magnet in the telegraph apparatus.

Page  449 THE MODERN RELAY MAGNET. 449 Fig. 34 represents a relay magnet with adjustable coils. By turning the screw at the left of the engraving, the spools or helices can be drawn from the armature or placed closer to it, as circumstances require. It is best for the armature lever to be poised on its axle, and when the adjusting screws are all arranged, it is easier to remove the coils backward or forward by the one screw, than to readjust the armature lever by the three screws L K and o, as seen in fig. 33. This valuable improvement was invented by Mr. Thomas Hall, of Boston, who has been engaged in the manufacture of telegraphic apparatuses since the commencement of the enterprise. By his ingenious mechanical skill many very valuable improvements have been made, and the telegrapher has realized many advantages in the service by the application of Mr. Hall's contrivances in the different departments of the art. Fig. 35 is another form of a relay magnet, manufactured by the same gentleman. The line wire is connected to the various parts beneath the base board. Fig. 36 is another improved relay magnet, gotten up by Fig. 86. t 1';.... _ I! those energetic telegraphers, Messrs. Chester and Brothers. The coils of this magnet are covered with a glass case, set in a brass frame with hinged top. The coils are moveable by an adjusting screw outside of the glass. At one end of the board is attached a paratonnerre, with the earth wire connected to the centre post. The line wire is fastened to the posts at each end of the paratonnerre. If the lightning enters the station, it passes from the inner to the outer brass plate between the two posts in preference to traversing the coils. If the wire from one end of the brass plate is not connected with the earth, 29

Page  450 450 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. and both ends lead on to other stations on each side, the plus lightning will pass over to the exterior or right-hand brass plate and follow the earth wire from the centre post, seen in the figure. This excellent combination is worthy of the highest appreciation. Fig. 37 is a pocket relay magnet; it is small, and weighs about one pound. The coils are fitted in a little case, and all the arrangements for wire connections are perfect. On the side is attached a small key, so that an operator can manipulate Fig. 37. with it as perfectly as with the larger keys of the station. The binding posts at the right hand end receive the line wires. The current traverses the coils, and the armature lever makes the telegraphic sound, and the expert operator is thus enabled to transmit and receive information with the same perfection, common at the stations. Repairers find this miniature magnet of great value. Fig. 38 represents what has been commonly known in America as the Bain sounder. It is the ordinary relay magnet, with one or more glass disks attached to it as seen in the figure. It was used as a call magnet on the lines not having the patented authority to work the Morse system. The Bain

Page  451 THE RECEIVING REGISTER. 451 lines applied this magnet, so that the stations could hear the "call" when wanted by a distant station. The armature Fig. >8. striking upon the glass disk, a distinct and intelligible sound was made. THE RECEIVING REGISTER. The next apparatus to be described is the register, an instrument of simple construction, and perfectly effective in the recording of the dispatch. The register herein before described was a complete success. Subsequent improvements have added to the exactness of the mechanism, and rendered it as reliable and durable in its service as possible to be attained in the art. Fig. 39 represents an improved register, exhibiting the clockwork and magnets. The pen-lever is seen in the figure with the steel point projecting upward; the magnets are fastened to the upright standard. The wire from the local battery connects with the front standard, and it is then carried, as seen in the figure, to the front coil; after surrounding it and the rear spool, it is united with the rear standard. The wire surrounding these magnets is not so fine as the wire used for the relay magnets. The local battery circuit commences with the platina end of the battery, and runs to the relay magnet, and passes through the connections at that instrument as before described; thence it comes to the register, and through the coils; it then runs to the zinc end of the battery, which completes the local circuit. Whenever the relay magnet, fig. 34, attracts the armature, the local circuit is closed at E, and

Page  452 452 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. the local current traverses the coils of the register magnet, fig. 39, which generates magnetism in the cores, the armature is then attracted down, which elevates the other end of the lever, and the pen point is thus caused to puncture the ribbon paper, Fig. 39. as seen in fig. 40. The clockwork being in motion, the paper is drawn through by the grooved rollers, and thus a clear piece of paper is continually presented for indentation by the pen point. The clockwork is wound up by the key, seen in the figure, and it is set in motion or stopped by the stop slide, the handle of which is seen at the centre and under the mechanism. Fig. 40. 1fill

Page  453 THE RECEIVING REGISTER. 453 Fig. 41 represents an improved register, manufactured by the Messrs. Chester. It is one of beautiful finish and perfection of mechanism. The base is of pure Italian marlble, highly Fig. 41 hiI B

Page  454 454 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES Fig. 42. v,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~/

Page  455 THE TELEGRAPHIC SOUNDER. 455 polished. It is encased in glass, with an opening at the top with a hinge. The arrangement for winding up this register is on the outside of the glass case, which can be done while the clockwork is running. The pen-lever is also arranged to open and close another main circuit serving the purposes of a " repeater." The wire connections are made outside with the binding posts. as seen in the figure. Fig. 42 is a closed register, manufactured by Mr. Thomas Hall. The clock-work is enclosed in a brass or iron case. In front is a hinged opening, which, when open, occupies the position indicated by the dotted lines to the left. This register has been extensively used on railway telegraph lines, and it has given universal satisfaction. The clock-work once put in order remains so for a very long time, and the wheels are thus enabled to move with the desired celerity. It has all the necessary and improved appliances for adjusting and regulating the different parts, and the whole embraces everything necessary to render it useful and economical. THE TELEGRAPHIC SOUNDER. Fig. 43 represents a sounder, as now successfully used in many of the American telegraph stations. The register, with all its clock-work, marking on paper, and accompaniments, has been laid aside at the leading stations, and this simple apparatus has taken its place. The coils are the same as those Fig 43. used in the register; the lever is made substantial, and the local current causes the magnet cores to attract the armature with great strength, and thus a good clear sound is made, by which the operator in any part of the room can hear and understand what is communicated by any other station on the whole line.

Page  456 456 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH APPARATUSES. Fig. 44 is another form of the sounder; the lever is adjusted at the end by the spiral spring, seen in the figure. Some operators prefer one mode of construction, and others choose a different kind; some prefer a heavy sound, others can hear more distinctly a lighter tone. The sense of hearing is not the same with all operators, and it is but natural that there should be a difference in choice as to the sounder. Of all the mysterious agencies of the electric telegraph, there is nothing else so marvellous as the receiving intelligence by sound. T'he apparatus speaks a language, a telegraphic language, as distinct in tone and articulation as belong to any

Page  457 THE TELEGRAPHIC SOUNDER. 457 tongue. The sound that makes the letter, is as defined in the one as it is in the other. An operator sits in his room, perhaps some ten feet from his apparatus, and he hears a conversation held between two others, hundreds of miles distant, and perhaps the parties conversing are equally as far apart. He hears every word; he laughs with them in their merriment, or perhaps sympathizes with them in their bereavements. The lightning speaks, and holds converse with man! What can be more sublime! --- ~ —-- ~~3 —~~-~-~~=-_~~ _ ~~ ~;~;L::~I-;-~- j Z: _

Page  458 INTERIOR OF AN AMERICAN TELEGRAPH STATION. CHAPTER XXXIII. Receiving Department of a Telegraph Station-The Operating or Manipulating Department-Receiving Dispatches by Sound-Incidents of the StationExecution of an Tndian Respited by Telegraph. RECEIVING DEPARTMENT OF A TELEGRAPH STATION. IN the present chapter I will explain the routine of the interior of a telegraph station on the American lines. The public reception rooms are sometimes on the lower floor, so that entrance may be direct from the street. At many of the offices, it is in the second story. Figure 1 represents the public reception room. in the Cincinnati Station. Behind the counter are seen the receiving clerks; in front is the public department. At convenient places are arranged tables or stands on which are placed pencils and blanks to be used in writing dispatches to be transmitted. A copy of these blanks will be found at the end of this chapter, marked A. It is not necessary to write the dispatch with ink, and in fact it is the universal practice to use the ordinary lead pencil; the paper used, is generally soft and receives the lead so that the writing can be easily read. When the dispatch is handed to the receiver at the counter, the words are counted and endorsed on its margin. No regard is given to the signature, and the receiver may know it to be fictitious, yet he promptly receives the dispatch and the money for its transmission. The blank form A has been adopted recently on several of the American lines, but it is not compulsory to use them. In short, messages are received and sent from any one offering, whether upon the company's blanks or upon any other kind of paper.

Page  459 THE RECEIVING DEPARTMENT. 439 Fig. 1. _______;?ll i ____ i~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::II ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~iitit~ ____ ___________ 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~1 \\~\\\ \\ - I ____________________ I

Page  460 460 INTERIOR OF AMERICAN TELEGRAPH STATION. The general reception room represented in the figure, was arranged by Mr. Charles Davenport, who, for many years, has been energetically engaged in that most difficult department, discharging his trust with more than ordinary skill. There is no part of the telegraph service more tedious and perplexing than the administration of the reception department. Thousands of people send their dispatches hundreds of miles, and know not but what they go and their answers come the same instant. Far in the West, I have known persons to offer dispatches for the extreme East, some twelve or fifteen hundred miles distant, passing over the lines of some half a dozen companies, and expect the answer while they are waiting at the counter. It becomes the duty to explain to the anxi lus and uninformed public the cause of the delay of a dispatch. The answer is generally anxiously expected, because it may refer to some speculation, the death of a friend or relative, or of something of great import to the parties. The mysterious workings of the telegraph are but little known to the public, and the most respectful tone has to be observed, by the receiver, in his explanations. The service of the receiver is an art, and one that requires more than ordinary powers, manners and amiability of disposition to discharge. I have not deemed it necessary to embrace in this work the fiscal details of the telegraph, nor is it easy for the European reader to comprehend the celerity and economy practically observed on the American lines. In the city of New York I kave estimated the number of dispatches transmitted daily at 2,430, or for the year about 739,000. But this is in the great metropolis. At Cincinnati, a city in the far West, where a little more than a half century in the past, there were but a few log huts to be seen, now the telegraph largely enters into the commercial affairs of the public, and through that station an average of about 950 dispatches pass daily, or about 385,000 per mnnum. To execute this great amount of business there are mployed 12 operators, 2 book-keepers, 2 receiving clerks, and 14 messengers. To the left of the public room, in fig. 1, is the messenger:r delivery department. To the left of the receiving space is the cashier's room. Such is the arrangement of the reception Iepartment of the Cincinnati office, of the great Western Union Range of telegraph lines. THE OPERATING DEPARTMENT. The operating department is in the story above the receiving room. A representationwill be seen in fig. 2. In this station

Page  461 TH'E OPERATING DEPARTMENT. 4616 Fig. 2. L —-------- L f ~ ~ =~= —~-~- j~_~ / / IINN 11111ill~ ~ ~~~jll)I I;I AI~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ii t 71 ~Jh-3 ~IIi~~

Page  462 462 INTERIOR OF AMERICAN TELEGRAPH STATION. the sounding apparatuses are wholly used. No recording mechanism is there employed. The register, and the moving ribbon paper are no more to be seen in that station. The engraving gives a very correct idea of the interior of the manipulating department. The operator sits at a small table, on which is the manipulating key, the magnet, and the sounder. These three pieces of mechanism constitute the whole of the telegraphic apparatus. The operator transmits by the key and receives by the sounder. As fast as the dispatches are received from the public, they are sent to the operating room by a pulley, and then distributed to the proper files of the routes over which they are to be sent. The operator takes them from the files, and, in turn, transmits them to their respective destinations. RECEIVING DISPATCHES BY SOUND. The process of receiving by the operator is as follows, viz.: He has before him on the table the blanks represented by the form B, at the end of this chapter. He fills the blank with the date, address, and the message as it arrives. He receives it by sound, and writes it in ink upon the blank. When thus received it is sent to the delivery department by a pulley, and there it is registered, placed in an envelope, entered into the messenger's book, and then immediately delivered. This is the whole formality, and the time occupied does not necessarily exceed five minutes, if the party for whom the dispatch is intended lives within a square of the station. If the dispatch thus delivered requires an answer, the messenger returns with it, and it is immediately forwarded. INCIDENTS OF THE STATION. After the dispatches received from the public at the station have been sent, they are registered, that is, the names to and from, the date, and the amount. The originals are then filed The wire from the line enters the office at the window, and is connected, first with the paratonnerre, and then with the "circuit changer" on the side of the wall, and thence it is conducted to the magnet and thence to the battery wires. The foregoing description of the interior department of the telegraph, embraces the whole routine therein executed. The whole formality is based upon celerity and the most complete promptness. Practically, an expert operator can send or receive by sound, two thousand words per hour, and serve ten hours per day, making 20,000 words per day, and the twelve operators,

Page  463 INCIDENTS OF THE STATION. 463 represented in fig. 2, can send and receive 240,000 words per day. According to this data, it will be seen that the capacity of the line for transmission of intelligence is equal to the most expert manipulation. It is in contemplation, by some lines, to apply mechanism by which the general news may be sent with more rapidity than by hand. Contrivances have been made by which twenty thousand words per hour may be successfully transmitted. The day is not far distant when this will be a daily achievement. Ten years ago, each line in the station had the most complete set of apparatuses. The register for receiving was manufactured with the greatest care, so that the clock-work would move with perfection, the paper had to be adjusted on cylinders, and the various appliances had to be arranged in a particular form. The operator put the machinery in motion, and he read from the paper the dispatch as it was slowly received. He read aloud, and the copyist, near by, wrote it down with a pencil; and when thus finished, it was handed to the copying clerk, whose duty it was to copy it on the forms as represented by B. It was then enveloped and handed to the messenger for delivery. Expert telegraphers soon dispensed with the copyists, then followed the dismissal of the copying clerks, and soon thereafter, the recording instruments were laid aside. The first operator to practically receive by sound was Mr. Edward F. Barnes, of New York, and at that day it was regarded as a feat most extraordinary. But now it is the daily practice in all the leading telegraph stations in America-only the local or interior stations have in use the recording apparatuses. If a telegrapher cannot receive, perfectly, by sound, he is not regarded as an expert, and the ambitious young man ceases not until he has fully attained that degree of perfection. Some years ago, as president of a telegraph line, I adopted a rule forbidding the receiving of messages by sound. Since then the rule has been reversed, and the operator is required to receive by sound or he cannot get employment in first class stations. At the Cincinnati stations, for example, there is not a recording apparatus, and, of course, if an operator cannot read the language uttered by the mysterious messenger, as transmitted over the wires, he cannot have employment there. No mistakes are made, and, in fact, many experts have informed me that the ear proves to be more reliable than the mechanism. It is quite common for the operator to take with him, when he proceeds upon the line to repair it, a small pocket magnet, and when he arrives at the place of difficulty, to communicate back to his office. Some operators care not for even this small

Page  464 464 INTERIOR OF AMERICAN TELEGRAPH STATION. mechanism, preferring to manipulate by striking the wires together, and then receive with the tongue, by placing one wire above and the other wire below it. The voltaic pulsations will be felt on the tongue, and the dots and dashes are thus recognized as to time by the sense of feeling. In latter days practice has gone farther, and a second party has received intelligence from a distant office by noticing the quivering of the nerves of the tongue of another, who had the wires attached as above described. These latter modes of receiving, of course can never be used for practical telegraphing, but they are common in the repairing service, and have been for several years. EXECUTION OF AN INDIAN RESPITED BY TELEGRAPH. In 1850, a mail carrier, by the name of Colburn, was murdered on the plains some three hundred miles from the white settlements, on the Santa Fe trail. The mail bag was found near the dead body, open, and its contents scattered on the ground. Among the papers were found several drafts for money, which fact alone was sufficient to demonstrate that the murder had been committed by the Indians. Search was made by the whites, and different articles were found in the possession of an old Indian, who was supposed to be the murderer. He was arrested, and so was his whole family. They were brought to Jefferson City, in the State of Missouri, that being the place of the nearest court of jurisdiction. At the first term thereafter the Indian was put on trial, and a son of the old man was called as a witness. He denied that his father had anything to do with the murder, or that he had been accessory either before or after the fact. He confessed to the murder, and declared that he alone had committed the horrid deei! The father was released, and so were the whole family, except the son. He was placed on trial. He again confessed to the murder, which was satisfactorily proved by some circumstantial evidence. He was convicted of the murder, and sentenced to be hung on the 14th of March, 1851. The old Indian and his family were then conducted back, by the Government, to their home in the wilds of the West, leaving the youthful, but brave son behind, never again to be seen by them. But, a few days before the time fixed by the law for the execution of the young Indian, whose name was See-see-sahma, it was discovered that he was not the murderer of the mail carrier, and that he had confessed to the crime, in order to save his father from dying, other than by the hands of the Great

Page  465 EXECUTION RESPITED BY TELEGRAPH. 465 Spirit. He wanted him to die brave in battle, or calmly in the midst of his own family. The fact of this self-sacrifice for an aged parent, was satisfactorily substantiated to the citizens of Jefferson City, too late to save his life by the ordinary means of communication with the United States Government. The documents were prepared as speedily as possible, praying the President to respite the execution, having in view a consideration of the recently-discovered evidence. On the 13th of March, the day before the fatal hour, the papers had not been forwarded, and there was no hope for the poor doomed Indian, except through the telegraph. All the facts in the case were transmitted to me at St. Louis, with the request for me to aid in getting a respite. In the evening of that day, about eight o'clock, I sent to the President the following dispatch, viz.: To His Excellency, MILLARD FILLMORE, PRESIDENT OF THIE UNITED STATES. I am requested to petition your excellency for a respite of the execution of the Indian, See-see-sah-ma, to take place tomorrow at Jefferson City, for the term of thirty days. Documents substantiating his innocence are being prepared, and will be forwarded to Washington. TAI.. P. SHAFFNER. The above dispatch reached the President that night, but too late to be answered before the closing of the telegraph lines. On the morning of the 14th, the day of execution, at half-past nine o'clock, the President sent to the office his answer, viz.: WASHINGTON, March 14, 1851. To Tal. P. Shaffner, St. Louis: The Marshal of the District of Missouri, is hereby directed to postpone the execution of the Indian, See-see-sah-ma, until Friday, the 18th of April. MILLARD FILLMORE. One copy of this message was sent via Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louisville, to St. Louis, a distance of some 1100 miles, reaching its destination at ten minutes before ten o'clock, A. M. Another copy was sent via New York, Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago to St. Louis, a distance of about two thousand miles, reaching the latter city at five minutes after ten o'clock, A. M. Another copy was sent via Baltimore, Wheeling, Louisville, Nashville, Cairo to St. Louis, a distance of some sixteen hundred miles, reaching St. Louis at eight minutes after ten o'clock, A. ir. Each of these copies was transmitted over the wires of four different companies, and on the latter route was ferried over the Ohio river in an ordinary skiff. 30

Page  466 466 INTERIOR OF AMERICAN TELEGRAPH STATION. The execution of the Indian was to take place at noon. Thousands of people had assembled around the gallows to see the poor red man of the forest launched into eternity in atonement for the awful crimes, supposed to have been committed by him, namely, the murdering of a fellow-being and robbing the great mail of the United States. There was no time for delay, and I hastened to search for the Marshal, who resided in the city of St. Louis. I found him in his office, some half mile distant from the telegraph station. He wrote the following dispatch to his deputy at Jefferson City: To Mr. W. D. Kerr, Deputy Marshal: You are hereby directed to postpone the execution of the Indian prisoner, See-see-sah-ma, till Friday, the 18th of April. JOHN W. TWITCHELL, United States Miarshal, District of Missouri. The above order, accompanied with the President's, was sent to Jefferson City twenty minutes after ten A. M. The Indian, who was already on his way to the place of execution, was returned to his cell in the prison, his coffin stored away, and the multitude dispersed. The President received the evidence, and the Indian, Seesee-sah-ma, was spared the ignominy of a public execution upon the gallows.

Page  467 A. -WVESTEISRT T-lSTIOIST TELEG3 E'E: 0 O TL Ys. Wo. 2.] TERMS AND CONDITIONS ON WHICH MESSAGES ARE RECEIVED BY THIS COMPANY FOR TRANSMISSION. The public are notified, that, in order to guard against mistakes in the transmission of messages, every message of importance ought to be repeated by being sent back from the station at which it is to be received to the st ition from which it is originally cent. Half tho usual price for transmission will be charged for repeating the message. This Company will not be responsible for nistakes or delays in the transmission or delivery of unrepeated messages, from whatever cause they may arise; nor will it be responsible for damages arising f oin mist ekes and delays in the transmission or delivery of a repeated message, beyond an amount exceed- d ing two Hundred times the amount paid for sending the mes-a-e-; nor Nviil it be responsible for delays arising from interruptions in the working of its Telegraphs, nor for any mistake or omission of any other Company over whoee lines the message is to be sent to reach its place of destination. All messages will hereafter be received by this Company for transmission, subject to the above conditions. SEND THE FOLLOWING MESSAGE SUBJECT TO THE ABOVE CONDITIONS: / — - ---- —: —-------- f-5 — --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - --- ------------------------ ---------------------------------------— 02 ——. —----------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _. — - - -. _ — - - - - - - - - - -_ — - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. - - - - - - - - - - -----------— ~-_ —-— ~ —------------------ - ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - - - - - - _- _- _ _ _- - _ _ _- _ _- _ - -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ -_ _ _ _ -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- - - - - - - --- --- ----- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -~ — - - - - - -_. — - - - - - - - - -

Page  468 Bo D 0 W ESTEBIDT UNCION TELEGUAPIH ConMPN. CONSOLIDATED LINES. TERMS AND CONDITIONS ON WHICIL MESSAGES ARE RECEIVED BY TIIIS COMPANY FOR TRANSMISSION. The public are notified, that, in order to guard against mistakes in the transmission of messages, every message of importance ought to be repeated by being. sent back from the station at which it is to be received to the station from which it is originally sent. Half the usual price for transmission will be charged for re- x peatingthe message, and while this Company will, as heretofore, us'3 every precaution to insure correctness, it will not be responsitle for mistakes rr delays in the 0 transmission or delivery of repeated messages, beyond an amnount exceeding tive hundred times the amount paid for sending the message; nor will it be responsible for x3 mistakes or delays in the transmission of unrepeated messages from whatever cause they may arise, nor for delays arising from interruptions in the working of its Telegraphs, nor for any mistake or omission of any other Company, over whose lines a message is to be sent to reach the place of destination. All messages will hereafter be received by this Company for transmission, subject to the above conditions. A. STAGER, Gen. Sup't, Cleveland, 0. I. R. ELWOOD, Sec'y, Rochester, N. Y. _ _ —------------------------— 0-_-, 2 -- -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- -- - -- - -- — e — -- - -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - -- -- - -- - -- -- - - -- - -- - -- 5- M- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Q _- _- - _- _ _- _ _- _ - -_ - -_ - _ _- _ _- _ - -_ - -_ -_ _ -_ _ -_ - -_-_ _ -_ _ -_ - -_ - -_-_ _ -_ _ -_ - -_ - -_-_ _ -_ _ -_ - -_-_ _ -_ _ -_ - -_ - -_-_ _ _ _ -_ - _ _ -_ _ -_ _ -_ - -_-_ _ -_ _ -_- -_- -_-_ _-_ _-_- -_- -_-_ _-_ _-_- -_-_ _-_ _-_ — - - - _- _ _-_ _-_- _- -_-_ _-_ _-_- -_-_ _-_ _-_- - _- - _- _ _- _ _-_- - _- - _- _ _- _ _- _- - _- _ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------— _-__-_ —_-__-__-_ —_-__-_ —_ —_-__-_ —_ —_-__-_ —_ —_-__-_ —_-__-__-_- -_ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ _-_ —_ —_-__- __- __-_ — _ _- __- __- __-_ — _ — _ — _- __- __-_ — _ — _ — _- __- __-_ —- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - - - - - - - --- -- - - - - - -------- - _ —---- -------- - -- --- - ---- -- - --- _ _- - - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - ------ ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _~~ ~ ~~~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _-_ _-,.-_ _-_ _-_ _-..-_ _- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - — __-_ _-_ _-*_-_ _- -_- -_- -_- -_- -_- -_- -_ _-_ _-_ _-_ _-_ _-_ _-_ _- -_- -_- -_- -_- -_- -_- -_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. _ _.. _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Page  469 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET. CHAPTER XXXIV. Composition of the American Morse Alphabet-The Alphabet, Numerals, and Punctuation-The Austro-Germanic Alphabet of 1854-European Morse Alphabet of 1859. COMPOSITION OF THE AMERICAN MORSE ALPHABET. THE alphabet of the American Morse telegraph is composed of dots, dashes, and spaces, arranged upon mathematical scale. A student of the profession should at the beginning of his studies arrange a scale of measurement of his writing or sound by the telegraph pen. The length of the mark or of the space upon the ribbon paper will be precisely the same as the length of the contact made with the key. If the student will first arrange a scale, determining the style of writing he desires, and place it before him as he manipulates with the keyobserving the letter made upon ribbon paper of the register before him-he can in a short time perfect the measurement of his manipulation to the scale adopted. Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 1 234 5 6 78 9 1011 Fig. 1 represents a coarse hand-writing, and fig. 2 a fine hand. Whether the dots, spaces, and dashes be long or short, they should be uniform; and unless they are thus methodically made, the writing cannot be perfect. In the use of the

Page  470 470 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET foregoing scale, to make an a, one of the spaces is used for the dot, one for the space, and two for the dash. For the letter b, the first dash occupies two spaces, then follows one for the space, then one for a dot, the next for a space, the next for the dot, the next for a space, and the next for a dot, making -... b. For the letter c, the first space for.the dot, the next for a space, the next for a dot, the two next for the space, and the next for the dot. The letter r is the reverse of the letter c. The letter t is composed of a dash occupying two spaces, as the dash of the letter a; the letter 1 is a double t, or a dash occupying four consecutive spaces; the figure 6 occupies alternate spaces, being six dots and five spaces; the figure 5 is composed of three t dashes, each separated by a space; the cipher 0 is composed of three t dashes, joined, or six divisions of the scale. AMERICAN MORSE ALPHABET. A - J.... S *" B - K -- T - C " L U - D - M -- V.. E * N - W - - F - 0 * X 0 G -I P..... Y H **** Q, -- Z I ** R *.. &.... NUMERALS. 1 * — 6...... 2.... 7 3...-. 8 4...- 9 PUNCTUATION. Period.. —.. Exclamation! - -. Comma,.-.- Apostrophe'.-.-.Colon:.-.-. Paragraph ~IT -- Interrogation? ---- Italics -. -

Page  471 PRACTICAL EXAMPLES. 471 In learning to make the alphabet, the student should first make the dots, such as i, s, h, p, &c. The spaced letters c, o, r, y, and z, require much care to make them correctly. In making the c, as with the other spaced letters, it is important not to occupy more than two spaces between the last two dqts. Between words the space should be equal to three lines, or one third greater than the space used in the spaced letters. If the space in the formation of the letter c be too long, it will be received as the separation between two words, and it will be taken as i e. In ordinary language the error would at once be detected by the receiving operator, but in the use of cipher terms it would not be. On the other hand, the space must not be too short, or the letter s will be received. There was a case of serious importance resulting from an error of this kind. A merchant telegraphed from New-Orleans to his correspondent in New-York, to protect a certain bill of exchange about maturing. In the word " protect," the c was received as an s, and the word was changed to " protest," and the consequence was very serious to the parties interested. After the student has succeeded in making the dot and spaced letters, he should proceed in the next place to make single dashes, then the compound dashes, such as 1, &c. After he is perfect in making the latter, then to unite the dots, spaces and dashes for the formation of letters; it will then be easy to write words and sentences. The following are practical examples: AMERICAN ALPHABET EXAMPLES. IN H O C S I G N 0 V I N C ES EN G L AN D E X P ECT S E VE R Y M A N T O D O H I S D U T Y H O N O R T H Y F A T H ER A ND TH Y MOTH ER. _...,..-..e........, _ _..,.-_.... ~...... ~.,,,.""""-"

Page  472 472 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET. T HE U N I O N N 0 W A N D F OR EVER THE AUSTRO-GERMANIC MORSE ALPHABET. The Austro-Germanic alphabet adopted for the Morse system of telegraphing is, with some amendments, in the service of nearly all the governments of Europe, and, in fact, wherever the German or Latin letter is used. It is the same language in all Germany, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, France, the Italian States, Sardinia, Spain, Malta, Corfu, North Africa, &c. This alphabet differs from the combination of the dots and spaced letters of the American telegraphic alphabet. In the European there are no spaced letters, and there is less liability of error than in the American, though it requires more time to transmit by the former than by the latter. The Austro-Germanic Alphabet of 1854, herewith presented, has been engraved much larger than the usual letter made in the ordinary telegraphic manipulation in Germany. I have copied the alphabet, as officially published by Prussia, Denmark, and the other German states, as used in 1854. Since then the alphabet has been amended, so as to accommodate special letters, common to other languages on the continent. I have added the new combination, as now used all over Europe under the name of the European Morse Alphabet. AUSTRO-GERMANIC MORSE ALPHABET OF 1854. IB o L *-o C memo M E ~ 0 m m F o. 0 m m G ImV P e me I *0 R *m

Page  473 THE AUSTRO-GERMANIC ALPHABET. 473 T X mee U,0mm Z mmos V *,m Ch mmm NUIMERALS. e 0 E omom e0 0 m mie 9nm PUNCTUATION. = 000300 0. Seceec * m. mm? e ~ o m

Page  474 474 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET. EUROPEAN MORSE ALPHABET OF 1859. A'- J. —- T - X * — K -- U.B -. L... U -. C —. M -- V *.D - N - W' -- E 0* --- X -.F -. P -- Z -. G — q.... Ch. —H *.... R - I *. S *'" NUMERALS. 1' —-- 6... 2 -... 7.. 3.. — 8 4 9. 3 0 PUNCTUATION. Period....... Hyphen - -....Semicolon; -.-.-. Apostrophe. —-- Comma, --- Dash - ---- Colon: -—... Parentheses ( ) ---- Interrogation? —.. Paragraph ~ -. - Quotation "...... Italics..-..Exclamation! -.. —

Page  475 PRACTICAL EXAMPLES. 475 EUROPEAN ALPHABET EXAMPLES. I N H 0 C SI G N 0 V I N C E S. S U U C U 1 Q UE. J e d e s i r e q u e rn es c en d r es re p o se n t s u r 1 es b o r d s de 1 a Se i n e, a u m i e u d e c e p e u p le F r an c a i s q u e j ai t a n t ai m e. N a p o 1 e o n W a h r e W is sen s c h a f t d u r e h W i s se n s c h a f f t. S tein h ei 1

Page  476 476 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET. THE RUSSIAN MORSE ALPHABET. The Russian language, composed of thirty-six letters, has been reduced to a telegraphic alphabet of thirty, as represented by the following engraving. The numerals and punctuation marks are the same as those used on the European Morse telegraph lines. The Morse system of telegraphing is used on all the imperial lines, and dispatches in English, German, and French languages can be transmitted over them. The dots and dashes have been arranged to economize their use in the formation of letters. For example, the A *-, which is the equivalent of the English broad A; the B -., equivalent to the English v and the German w, a letter much used; the H -, equivalent to the English N; the c -**, equivalent to the English s. the p.-, equivalent to the English R, &c. A 0 m F mo m [ e E i m0 m ~0 * O *

Page  477 MANIPULATING CODE —SIGNALS. 477 MANIPULATING CODE. Having become familiar with the alphabet, numerals, and arbitrary signals, the next step for the student is the transmission and reception of dispatches. There is no uniform rule governing these formalities; the circumstances pertaining to this part of the service are not the same with all lines. Experts, between themselves, seldom pay regard to the lesser forms. Day by day, accustomed to each other's manipulation, they have their own peculiar rules. On lines where there are employed operators of moderate ability, some forms are observed. In these matters, great changes have taken place on the American lines. In earlier days there were some hundreds of arbitrary signals, but they have become mostly obsolete. The following are a part of the uniform signals used in America: SIGNALS. II I am ready. S F P Stop for paper. 0 K All correct. 1 Wait a moment. G A Go ahead. 2 Get answer immeSSS Finish Signal. diately. R R Repeat. 13 Do you understand? G M Good morning. 23 A Message for all. G N Good night. 31 Don't understand. Ahr Another. 33 Answer paid here. Col Collect. 44 Answer immediately Pd Paid. by telegraph. W Words. 77 Are you ready to reD H Free. ceive my message? S F D Stop for dinner. 92 Was message 000 reS F T Stop for tea. ceived and delivered? Besides the foregoing, different lines have arbitrary signals of their own. Those given above are generally understood throughout America. On examination at the stations in New York, I find different formalities observed in the transmission and reception of dispatches. I present the following instructions, as the nearest to the practised code. Suppose, for example, the line extends from Europe to America. Each station has an independent signal. Europe may have the letter E, though, as that letter is composed of but one dot, it would not make an acceptable signal, and therefore another letter would be better. For the illustrations herein, I

Page  478 478 THE MORSE TELEGRAPH ALPHABET. will use the letter E as the signal for Europe, and the lettei A as the signal for America; AMl for Marly-la-ville, L for London, N for New York, and P for Philadelphia. Europe wants America. The former adjusts its magnet carefully, and, finding the line free, calls America, thus, AAAAA E (........ *. *) Having thus called Europe, it pauses for a response. If no answer, it repeats the call four or five times, pausing a reasonable time between calls for America to answer. This process should be repeated from time to time until the answer is received. The operator at the American station may be temporarily beyond the hearing of his call, and hence it is well to repeat it every few minutes. When America hears the call, it promptly responds I I A (......). Europe may give signals to America, meaning I IT have a message for you,"; Are you ready?" &c., and in response America may send the signals G A, meaning " Go ahead." These forms are sometimes used, but in general practice they are obsolete. Having gotten the response from America, Europe proceeds as follows: EXAMPLE I. M to P May 10 1752 for Dr Franklin Philadelphia Experimenting upon your suggestions I have drawn the lightning from the heavens Sig Dalibard 12 W pd 1200 SSS E In the above example the tariff is put at one dollar per word. No punctuation is given, because the language expresses the points. Thus as preceding the sig. the receiving operator knows there is a full stop; the SSS is the finish signal. Sometimes the office signal is given at the end, and at other times the operator's initial is given. The following example illustrates the sending of a message from Philadelphia to London, viz.: EXAMPLE II. P to L June 1 1752 for Mr Collinson London By the aid of a kite I have demonstrated that lightning and electricity are identical Sig Benjamin Franklin 15 W pd 1500 Ahr A Example 2 illustrates the affixing of the signals, indicating that another (Ahr) message is to follow. America, without receiving any response from Europe, proceeds at once to send another dispatch, and so on until there are no more. When

Page  479 TRANSMITTING MESSAGE S —EXAMPLES. 479 all are sent, the signals SSS are given, and in response Europe says I I 0 K E, which means that the whole are understood; and that all had been received correct. The following example gives the last words of the late illustrious Emperor of Russia. The news was telegraphed from St. Petersburg to the Kremlin City. EXAMPLE IIm. S to M March 5 1855 for the People of Moscow The Emperor bids farewell to Moscow Sig Nicholas 6 W D H SSS S The foregoing examples represent the mode of transmitting messages where no punctuation is given. When a message contains two or more independent subjects, or broken into paragraphs, it is represented by the proper signals. Other points of punctuation are seldom used on the American lines. In Europe more attention is given to them.

Page  480 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. CHAPTER XXXV. Electric Circuits on European Lines-Circuit of the Main Line described-Adjustment of the Line Batteries-Early Experimental Circuits-The Stager Compound Circuits-Combining of Electric Circuits. ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ON EUROPEAN TELEGRAPHS. IN the present chapter it is my purpose to explain the simple and compound electric circuits as applied to the working of the telegraph, with special reference to the Morse system. As a preliminary, it is important for the reader to be informed, that Fig. 1. B A on the European lines the current of electricity is transmitted over the wires by the manipulating station. In its normal or rest state, the line wire is free from the voltaic current. The reverse of the above is the practice on the American lines. Their normal state is electrical. They are continuously charged

Page  481 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS ON EUROPEAN TELEGRAPHS. 481 with the voltaic force, and the manipulation for the transmission of information breaks the flow of the current. In further explanation of the above, I would refer the reader to fig. 1, which represents the European line, when being operated. The two stations are A and B, and the former is transmitting to the latter. In the normal state of the line, the key s at station A would be closed in the rear and open in front, exactly as represented by the key s' of station B. As the key is closed at A, the battery force of A charges the line. If the key of A was connected with the line, as the key of B, there would be no current on the line, because there would be no metallic circuit formed with the respective batteries. The base of the keys shown in the figure does not give a metallic circuit. The front is not metallically connected with the back part. The battery b' of station B is in its normal condition, that is, inactive. The course of the current generated by the battery b, of station A, follows the route indicated by the arrows, thus: through the anvil of the key, the key lever s, over the line wire to the lever s' of station B; thence from the rear of the key through the magnet ml to the earth plate i'; %hene thugah + tkx t to tkh plate P; from the plate P the current ascends with the earth wire of station A, and traverses the magnet m, and thence to the zinc end of the battery b. Thus the circuit is made complete. If the lever s of station A is elevated from the contact shown in the figure, there will be no current on the line. The moment the battery is placed in the circuit, the current flows over the whole route. The station B is receiving, and in case the operator at B wishes to respond to A, or to interrupt the transmission, he presses the lever s' upon the anvil several times, and the effect upon the magnet rm at A is at once seen, and the operator at A stops to ascertain the cause of the interruption. The operator at B then makes his explanations, during which process, the key lever s at A is elevated by a spring in front, so that the rear end is in contact with the metallic projection of the base; and the battery b' of station B is active, and the battery b of station A is inactive. The above explanations pertain wholly to the single or main circuit. The route of the current and the mode of interrupting it, by the opening and closing of the circuit, have been described. It is necessary, however, for the reader to remember, that the wires connecting the rear ends of the respective keys with the wires between the batteries and the magnets, are not used on the American lines; erase them from the figure, and the circuit will be composed as practically operated in America, excepting the key s' of station B should be closed as represented at station A. Hav31

Page  482 482 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. Fig.?. raf2. ) 1 lu drw

Page  483 CIRCUIT OF THE MAIN LINE. 483 ing fully explained the main circuit, I will now proceed to describe its functions telegraphically applied. THE CIRCUIT OF THE MAIN LINE DESCRIBED. Figure 2 represents two stations, for example, New-York and Washington, distance 250 miles. The normal state of the line is shown, the current flowing continuously as indicated by the arrows. The right hand station A, is New-York, and the left hand, B, is Washington. The numerals at the two stations indicate the same parts at each respectively: 1, 1, are the electro or relay magnets; 2, 2, the base frames of the keys; 8, 8, are the key levers; 3, 3, are the register frames; 4,4, the register or local magnets; 6, the line; and 7, 7, the pen lever; p, P, are the. platina or positive poles of the batteries, and z, z, are the zinc or negative poles of the batteries. The zinc end of the battery at Washington is connected with the earth, and the platina end is joined to the line wire. At New-York, the platina end of the battery is joined to the earth wire. In figure 1, the battery is placed between the magnets and the keys; in figure 2, it is placed between the magnet and the earth. The proper place for the battery is as represented in fig. 2, that is, next to the earth. In fig. 2, the current generated at Washington, follows the wire to and traverses the magnet 1, thence to the key 8 over the line 6, to New-York, thence into the office to the key 8, thence to and through the coils of the magnet 1, thence to the zinc pole of the battery, and after traversing the different cells it proceeds from the pole p to the earth. The reader will observe that the batteries are always constructed, so that the poles will be in the same direction. If the poles p and p were united, the battery would be ineffective. The special function of this circuit is to generate magnetism in the soft iron cores of the magnet 1 and 1. When the current flows through the coils, the iron cores become magnetized, and when it ceases to flow they are demagnetized. The passage of the voltaic current over the wire and through the spools or bobbins, instantaneously produces magnetism in the iron cores. When the line and the iron cores are thus charged, the armatures of the magnets are immediately attracted, which action closes other independent circuits. The dotted lines indicate the latter, or local circuits, which run from the armatures of the magnets 1, 1, to the batteries L, L; thence to and traverses the spools of the magnets 4, 4, of the registers, and thence to the armatures of the magnets. The opening and closing of these local currents attract or let go, the armatures 7, 7, of the

Page  484 484 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. Fig 3. t!_'_______ -* ___ -— H-1 n D (X (S(

Page  485 CIRCUIT OF THE MAIN LINE. 485 registers. The special and only function, therefore, of the main circuit is to open and close the local circuits in each office on the line, and the local circuit gives motion to the writing or imprinting pen levers, 7, 7, in each register. Having described the arrangements of the two end stations of a telegraph line, I will now explain the organization of a line having on it one or more local stations. The terms main and local apply to the special arrangement of the batteries; for example, New-York, being the end of the line, the main battery is located at that station, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and other places, do not require batteries other than on their local circuits. Practically, however, the above places have main batteries for general application, on one or more of the many wires connecting those cities with others. The batteries at the two ends are fully sufficient to work the whole line, except under circumstances of bad insulation. The localization of the main batteries give those places the name of " main stations," and the use only of local batteries and the fact of their intermediate positions give to the other stations the name, " local stations." If an intermediate office has a main battery, it is called a " main station;" as, for example, the arrangement represented by fig. 3: A, is a'" main station," and the other, B, is a " local station," the former, A, representing Philadelphia, and the latter, B, Baltimore. The Baltimore station, it will be observed, has no main battery, and the current from the Washington line wire enters the station, passes through the key, 2, 8, to the magnet coil 1, and thence to the main auxiliary battery at Philadelphia, where the current proceeds from the platina end of the battery through the magnet coils, thence to the key, and thence to New-York. The local batteries are marked 6, 6, one of which has two cells, and the other has three. It is usual to use but two; occasionally, however, when it is not sufficiently effective, owing to its decay, or from some other reason, the number is increased to three or more. Figure 2 represents the two termini stations with their main and local batteries; and figure 3, two intermediate places, one a " local" and the other a " main" station. A line of telegraph 300 miles long, can be successfully operated when properly insulated, in one circuit. In many cases, lines have worked a longer distance, but as a practical circuit on the American lines, 300 miles is a fair average. When the length of a line exceeds the power of the end batteries to charge it effectually with the voltaic current, it is the practice to place a main battery at an intermediate station, as

Page  486 486 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. represented by fig. 3. Suppose, for example, the line is 300 miles, and the stations are thus arranged. A d e f g B h i k 1 C 300 miles. Stations A, B, and c, have main batteries and stations; d c f g h i k and 1 are local. The current traverses the whole line from A to c, passing through the coils or spools of the electromagnets throughout the whole line. If A transmits a message to B, or c, all the other stations can receive the same. Every magnet attracts and lets go its armature, every local circuit is opened and closed, and every pen lever is put in motion. If A wishes to send a message to all the stations, he transmits a signal, which indicates that fact, and in proper time every operator puts in motion the clock-work of his apparatus, and the dispatch is indented upon the ribbon paper. If the line be 600 miles long, and the battery arrangements fail to charge it sufficient for telegraphing, it is the practice to operate it by " compound circuits," and the application of an apparatus called a repeater. To thus arrange a line, it is necessary to sever the circuit at the half-way station B, as represented by the following diagram. The line is divided at B. The section between A and B is 300 A d e f g B h i- k 1 C 0oo 300 miles. ooo ooo 300 miles. ooo miles long, and at A and B are earth wires and main batteries. The section between B and c is the same as the former. At B, there are two batteries and an apparatus that opens and closes the next circuit in succession, from the station manipulating. Thus, when A transmits to c, the circuit between A and B is opened and closed by the operator at A, which, by the aid of magnets, opens and closes the circuit between B and c. If c wishes to respond, he opens his circuit and manipulates with his key, which action is immediately perceived by the operator at A. In the same manner d and 1, or any other of the stations, can communicate one with the other. In general practice, it is the custom for the lesser intermediate stations to transmit their dispatches for places on other circuits, to the end station of the section on which the local or intermediate station is situated.

Page  487 THE LINE BATTERIES. 487 ADJUSTMENT OF THE LINE BATTERIES. As to the amount of battery necessary to charge a line of 300 miles there is no fixed rule. It is a question depending upon the climate, the quality and size of the wire, and the insulation of the line wire. Ordinarily, in good dry weather, a Grove battery of 60 cells will be sufficient to effect successful operation. If the weather is damp, or the insulation at fault,'the circumstances of the case must determine the amount required. It very often occurs on the American lines, that the station at one end of the line can receive well, and the other end can not receive anything intelligible. For example, on line A B, 300 miles long, B cannot understand the faint signals received from A, but at the same time A receives perfectly from B. This diffiA a B oooooo 300 miles ooo culty is occasioned, sometimes by atmospheric electricity, but more generally by faults of the line insulation. The metallic conductor is imperfect near B. The battery at B becomes active as a quantity battery. Its quantitative development is plus, and does not harmonize with the intensity stream coming from A. One of the remedies in such cases, is the reduction of the number of cells at B, and the increasing of the battery at A. I have sometimes found benefit in the polarization of the batteries to meet the emergency; thus, by placing the platina or positive pole of the battery at A, directed toward B, and the zinc pole to the earth. The battery at B should also be reversed. Some experts are of the opinion, that the direction of the poles have no particular value in the working of a line; in my experience, I have found the fact to be otherwise, and entitled to consideration. If there be an earth connection at a near Bn, the quantitative development at B will be plus, and in practical service I have found that it had a retarding or hindering influence of the intensity current from A. The reduction, therefore, of the battery at B lessens that hinderance, and the current from A becomes more effective. The earth connection at a will carry off a part of the electric force from A, but if the conductor from a to the earth be insufficient to lead off the whole, enough will pass on to the station B, to effect the ends of telegraphing. Suppose that seventy-five per cent. is carried off to the earth at a, and the remaining twenty-five per cent. continues on to B, that, or even a less amount, will be sufficient. Station B, under such a state of the electrical force, can communicate with A. The

Page  488 488 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. magnet at A can not be wholly demagnetized, but the strength of the magnet force will be minus and plus, according to the manipulation of B. The armature of A wili have to be removed farther from the cores of the spools, so that the breaking of the circuit at B, will be effective in the attraction of the armature of the magnet at A. When the circuit at B is broken, the seventy-five per cent. current that passes off at a, creates in the soft iron cores at A, seventy-five per cent. of attractive force. The adjustable spring of the armature may draw it beyond that power, but the moment B closes the circuit, the magnetic force of the cores at A, becomes increased twenty-five per cent., and the spring no longer holds the armature, and it is attracted so that the armature-lever closes the local circuit, and thus the apparatus at A becomes subservient to the will of the operator at B. The difficulties hereinbefore described are not always chargeable to the causes given. Sometimes the fault will be found in the connections of the wire, and many times I have found it to be with the earth wire. The earth must be moist where the connection with the telegraphic conductor is made. The metal surface in the earth should be large. In my experience, for an iron wire line, I have found it best to have an earth wire of copper, number 12, Birmingham gauge, well soldered to a copper plate, at least two feet square, or its equivalent surface, and buried in the wet earth. If the earth be not wet, the working of the whole line will be less effective. Dry earth is considered a non-conductor; therefore, in order to consummate a perfect circuit, it is necessary for the metallic surface, in contact with the water of the earth, to be commensurate with the conductibility of the line wire. If the earth connection be inferior, the electrical action of the battery will be minus in the same proportion. It is better to have the conductor uniform, equalling the generative powers of the battery, so that the voltaic streams can be sufficient for the consummation of the most certain and effective telegraphic manipulation. EARLY EXPERIMENTAL CIRCUITS. In July, 1747, Dr. Watson, Bishop of Llandaff, together with several other electricians, ascertained the passage of electricity through the water, by sending shocks across the Thames, and in August, 1747, they transmitted shocks through two miles of wire and two miles of earth at Shooter's Hill. On the experimental line, erected by Professor Steinheil from Munich to Bogenhausen, in 1836, two lines of wire were

Page  489 EARLY EXPERIMENTAL CIRCUITS. 489 erected to complete the electric circuit. It was not then known that the earth would serve as one half of the conducting circuit. Soon thereafter, he discovered that the earth would answer, and that only one wire was sufficient for telegraphic purposes. When Morse constructed the experimental line from Baltimore to Washington, he did not know that the earth would answer for the half circuit, and therefore he erected two wires, and the voltaic current was sent over one wire and it returned over the other, as represented by fig. 4: B is Baltimore, and w is Washington. One of the wires is east and the other west. The Fig. 4. F ast zwire Ii W' est wire current starts from P, the positive pole of the battery, passes through the key, k, and the relay magnet m, at the Baltimore station, thence over the east wire to Washington, where it passes through the key k', the relay magnet m', and thence over the west wire to Baltimore, wheie it enters the negative pole of the voltaic battery. After the line had been in operation for some six months, the earth was made a part of the circuit, according to the following diagram. Fig. 5. CJS ~ ~ BEast wirea B | C e- ground _'- C' The route of the current is precisely the same as the diagram before described, except that the earth is made a part of the circuit. The current arriving at copper plate c' passes through the earth as indicated by the arrows, to copper plate c, which is also buried in the moist earth, and thence to the N. pole

Page  490 490 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. of the battery. The plates used by Professor Morse were five feet long, and two and a half feet broad; at Baltimore, it was buried in the water at the bottom of the dock, near Pratt street; at Washington it was placed in the earth under the Capitol. A subsequent experiment demonstrated the practicability of working the two wires, arranged as represented in the follow-. ing diagram. Fig. 6. -'-'- >. Eeast Wi-e > 8- A_~~~~~~~~~~ ~~A B -'- -- C b —-- a.. o —-.. C''\ >: ^ V N, O TT6est im. By this arrangement the keys were not required to be closed. Each station had its wire, independent of the other. At that time it was a discovery of great import, and to Mr. Alfred Vail the credit is due. They were called independent circuits. It will be seen that the west wire was used for transmitting from Baltimore to Washington, and the east wire from w to B. The battery at B was used in common for both circuits. When B transmitted to w, the current proceeded from P of the battery to k, then over the west wire, then to m' at w, thence to c', thence through the earth to c at B, and thence to the N, or negative pole of the battery as shown by the arrows. When w transmitted to Baltimore, the current proceeded from the P of the battery to rn, then over the east wire, then to k', at w, thence to c', thence through the earth to c at B, thence to the N, or negative pole of the battery, as shown by the arrows. In the above arrangement Mr. Vail used but one battery, and the same earth-plates common to both lines. The circuits were called;" open circuits," because the keys at each station were always open, unless when used for transmitting intelligence. In 1844, Mr. Vail experimented on the line between Baltimore and Washington, with the two telegraph wires then erected. There were none others in America. When he ascertained that the two wires could be practically worked, as described hereinbefore, he advanced the opinion, that several circuits could be operated with one battery, or by a series of batteries. In the following fig. 7, let the right-hand side represent Washington, and the left Baltimore. The lines 1, 2, 3, 4,

Page  491 EARLY EXPERIMENTAL CIRCUITS. 491 5, and 6, between m and k, respectively, represent the six wires connecting (for example) Washington with Baltimore; vm 1, mo 3, and m 5, represent the three magnets, or registers, and k 2, k 4, and k 6, the three keys, or correspondents, at Baltimore; k 1, k 3, and k 5, are the three keys or correspondents, and rm 2, mn 4, and m 6, the three magnets or registers, at Washington. Fig. 7. The battery is representeci by four black dots, marked N, B, P. The course of the fluid in this case is from p to c, the copper plate on the left side; then through the ground to c, the copper plate on the right; then through the single wire to any of the six wires, which may be required, then to the single wire on the left side to N, of the battery. It is obvious that in this arrangement there is a division of the power of the battery, depending upon the number of circuits that may be closed at one instant. For example' if circuit 1 is alone being used, then it is worked with the whole force of the battery. If 1 and 2 are used at the same instant; each of them employ one half the force of the battery. If 1, 2, and 3, are used, then each use oae third its power. If 1, 2, 3, and 4, then each circuit has one fourth the power; if 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, are used at the same moment, then one fifth is only appropriated to each circuit, and if 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, then each employ a sixth part of the voltaic fluid genorcerated by the battery.

Page  492 492 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. THE STAGER COMPOUND CIRCUITS. On the extension of the lines, their continual use becoming necessary for commercial purposes, the working of the lines with open circuits, according to the plan adopted by Mr. Vail, was found impracticable for successful telegraphing. The plan was then adopted, to keep the circuits always closed, and the battery current continuously on the line wires. This occasioned the necessity of placing upon each wire a battery, each independent of the other. It was maintained at a very great expense, but there seemed to be no law known by which it could be avoided. For several years the lines throughout America thus worked. Various plans were tried to economize in the battery organization, but without success. The most skilled experts had their attention directed to the subject, and it fell to the lot of Mr. Anson Stager, of the Cincinnati station, to devise a plan by which might be successfully operated any number of lines from the same battery. This discovery made by Mr. Stager, in December, 1850, gave additional evidence of the very superior skill which had before and since characterized his telegraphic career. Mr. Stager thus explains his plan of operating a series of lines by the same battery. Fig. 8.. -V- -- -V The improvement consists in working a " multiplicity of main circuits with a single main battery, instead of a battery to each circuit, as was practised previous to this discovery." It is described as follows: B, is a main battery, w, w~, large wires leading from the poles of the battery; E, the earth-plate;., L, L, L, four main lines branching from the large wire of the battery at w', and extending to the several terminal stations, each finally connect

Page  493 THE STAGER COMPOUND CIRCUITS. 493 ing with a ground plate. In their course each of the main lines may include at any point, or points, where stations are required, receiving magnets, represented byR, R R &c., connected in each instance with registers and the usual telegraphic apparatuses. Mode of Operation.-The single battery, B, being in action, any one or all of the apparatuses in the several main circuits, may be used and operated in the same manner as though each main circuit was a separate and independent circuit, supplied with a separate and independent battery; and, herein consists the novelty and utility of the improvement, viz.: A multiplicity of circuits at even twenty or more, each extending several hundreds of miles, can thus, be worked by means of a single battery, instead of one to each circuit, as was practised previous to this improvement. In this use of a single battery, according to the above described plan, there is no interference of circuits, one with another; each performing its functions, precisely as it would do if it were a complete and independent circuit. Nor does the single battery, thus used to supply many main lines, seem to be consumed faster than the single battery of a single circuit as formerly used. In case one or more of the main circuits be short, for example, 5 and 6, they need but a small voltaic force, and they may be supplied by branches, starting out at intermediate points of the battery, as at a and b. The voltaic force, thus taken from a section of the battery, will not diminish perceptibly the current on the other main circuits. It is a condition necessary to the success of this mode of working, that each main circuit include a receiving magnet, or a resisting wire equal to that of a relay magnet. There must be no " cut off," or earth conductor, between the main battery and a contiguous receiving magnet. If a circuit be thus made, the battery force will be withdrawn from the other circuits, and they may cease to operate effectively. If the earth connection be made beyond the receiving magnet, as at L, thus compelling the electricity to traverse the fine wire of magnet R, before reaching the earth, and returning to the prime ground plate E, there will be no interference with the other main circuits, though they may be of great lengths, and the other circuit very short. This affords to the operator the advantage of working one or more registers within the same station with the battery, independently of all other registers, and without any interference with them. In the plan as heretofore practised, of having a battery in each circuit, the quantity of electricity generated, was more

Page  494 494 TELEGRAPH ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. than sufficient for supplying the single circuit; and the plus was retarded by the resisting coils of the magnets. It has been practically demonstrated, that when there are several main circuits connected with one main battery, each with its receiving magnet or coils of resistance, prevents the electricity from taking one circuit exclusively, and the voltaic force will be diffused over all the circuits sufficiently for telegraphic service. The surplus electricity which was on the single circuit system wasted or returned, by return shocks through the battery, is, by this improvement, brought into actual service. Another valuable advantage resulting from this arrangement is, that an operator, having a key in the main common circuit between E and w, can work all of *the registers on all the main circuits, and can thus multiply and diffuse identically duplicate copies of important documents, or newspaper reports, to all points at the same moment. COMBINING ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. As soon as the telegraph lines were extended over long ranges, it was found to be impracticable to operate them in long circuits. Various experiments were then made to remedy the difficulty. Mr. Ezra Cornell, arranged the apparatus of one station to open and close the next succeeding circuit. This Fig. 9. 0C goV ~, C' JL* y~~~~ ~BI H

Page  495 COMBINING ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. 495 was called the " Cornell switch." By this arrangement, the second circuit could not respond without a transfer of the switch instrument at the central station, done by the operator. When B answered A, the operator at the central station, with a spring, changed the register magnets, or the local circuit, from the relay magnets of the circuit of A, to the circuit of B. The next arrangement operated, was one proposed by Col. John J. Speed, Jr., and is represented by fig. 8. The instruments in the figure are supposed to be at Cleveland. On the right, the wires run to Detroit, and on the left, to Buffalo. A A/ are relay magnets, constructed with a platina point to close the connecting circuit, through the action of a spring, when the main circuit is broken; B B' are the connector magnets; c c' are local batteries, to operate the connector magnets; D D' are closing points, to each of which is attached one main wire and one of the connectors; E E/ are the closing points to which the connecting circuits are attached. The manner of operating this instrument, commonly called a " repeater," is as follows, viz.: When Buffalo breaks the circuit, the armature of the relay magnet A, at Cleveland, will be drawn back by means of the spring, against the closing point E. This will put in action the battery c, and the magnet B will break the connection at ), thus breaking the circuit of the Detroit line at D, and also breaking the connecting circuit, from the battery c' at the point D. The breaking of the battery current c', prevents the magnet B' from breaking the Buffalo line at the point D'. When Buffalo closes the circuit, the relay magnet A, will break the connecting circuit, from the battery c, at E. The armature of the connector magnet B will be drawn back, by means of a spring, against the point D, and close the Detroit circuit at the point D, at which time the connecting circuit c', is also closed on the same point, and at the same instant. The main battery on the Detroit circuit having the greater number of cells, will break the connecting circuit c', at the point E' before the small battery c' will operate the magnet B, and break the Buffalo circuit at D'. The law being, that the battery of the greatest intensity will make its magnet first, or, in other words, the velocity of a current of electricity is in proportion to its intensity. This arrangement is now obsolete.

Page  496 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. CHAPTER XXXVI. Electric Currents explained-Electric Circuits-Quantity and Intensity Currents-Phenomena of the Return Current-Retardation of the Current illustrated-Estimated Velocity of the Electric Current on Subaqueous Conductors. ELECTRIC CURRENTS EXPLAINED. IN the consideration of electric currents I shall have especial reference to their application to purposes of practical telegraphing-of the science to the art. It is possible that some of the views entertained by me, and which are founded upon observations during several years of telegraphing, may not be consistent with theoretical laws advanced from time to time by philosophers. In my experience I have found many problems in electrical science unsolved, and which to this day remain hidden mysteries, known to Him alone who rules the storms and directs the movements of worlds. A current of electricity is the passing of an invisible and an imponderable fluid over certain matter acting as conductor, starting from its generating source, traversing the circuit, and ending at the point of starting. The source from which the current flows is known as the voltaic battery; one end of which is positive and the other end negative. It is composed of two metals and chemical compounds. The media through which the stream of electricity lows from one end of the battery to the other are called electric.onductors, and they are usually of iron or copper metal. The whole chain of metals and chemicals through which the elecbric current or stream flows is called a circuit. A contact behween the parts must be complete or there can be no electricity; because there can be no electricity if the two poles of the voltaic organization are not connected with one continuous and Lnbroken circuit.

Page  497 ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. 497 The electric influence is sometimes called a "pulse," a "wave," a "stream," a "current," a "fluid," &c. These terms can mean but one thing, and that is, the presence of electricity. ELECTRIC CIRCUITS. Overground wires, suspended on poles, extend in circuits of indefinite lengths, usually, as a maximum, three hundred miles. The electric circuit will be as a maximum six hundred miles; that is, three hundred miles of wire and three hundred miles of earth. The tendency of the current, when it leaves the positive pole of the battery, is to reach the negative pole as soon as it can. Static or frictional electricity will leap from one conductor to another to reach its opposite; but dynamic electricity, generated by a voltaic series, requires one continuous conductor in order to have life or existence. In the use of the term or technicality, "dynamic," I mean electricity that has a continuous movement over the conductor, from one pole of the battery to the other, effecting an uninterrupted neutralization or a continual re-union of the two electricities-the negative and the positive. If "dynamic electricity " is transmitted over very fine metal wire, and of short length, the metal becomes heated and may melt. If the conductor be water, when the "dynamic current" is transmitted, the water is in part decomposed, and its two constituent gases, the oxygen and hydrogen, are seen to be set free. On a line of some three hundred miles it is certain that there will be many media through which the fluid can, in part, escape to the earth and return again to its original source. From each of these escaping places on the route, branch off lesser circuits; and in the three hundred miles there may be three hundred places where small portions of the current "leak" from the wire and pass off in small streams to the earth. If these conductors were equal to the wire the whole of the current would pass to the earth and return to its original source, and not traverse the line circuit. These media through which the current passes off from the line wire, are some of the many conductors mentioned elsewhere in this work, and to which may be added fog and heat. Fig. 1 represents a line passing through the air on poles. A is a sectional view of the wire; B is fog or heat, and c is the earth. The voltaic current is represented by the arrows. In working a telegraph line through a heavy fog, much difficulty is experienced, and it frequently becomes necessary to increase the number of the 32

Page  498 498 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. Fig. 1. l c-,S * lI_ <-~ -c-.<- __. O-s I- ( - C- cells to obtain intensity of current sufficient to overcome the losses occasioned by the fog. The current escapes through the does not exactly represent the case, but it is sufficiently correct to enable the reader to form an idea as to the "leaking" of the current from the wire through the fog to the earth. Heat has frequently produced the same result as mentioned above. On some lines in America, during very hot days, in the afternoon, when everything was dry and all surface moisture absorbed by the rays of the sun, I have known it to be impossible to work on a well-insulated line as far as two hundred miles. The result may not have been the heat, but there is no other way to account for it. The metallic circuit was good, because at times when it was dry and cool, or when it rained, and during the morning hours, there was no difficulty in workFig. 2.,u.E. —- I- -~-. — -----------.moisture. If it was not the heat, I know of no means of accounting for the strange phenomena which so often and for so many weeks manifested itself.

Page  499 QUANTITY AND INTENSITY CURRENTS. 499 QUANTITY AND INTENSITY CURRENTS. I have frequently in this work used the terms quantity and intensity currents, and I have, on as many occasions as possible, explained the element of each. On a line of three hundred miles a quantity current would be of no value. Connect a line of that length to a large quantity battery, and the wire would be burned long before the intensity nature of the current would reach the farther end. It can be so great that it would partake of the nature of frictional electricity, and pass beyond the management of art. The telegraphic service requires a current of intensity and not of quantity. The strict technical definitions of these terms have been given by the great philosopher, Prof. Faraday, whose name stands in golden capitals upon many pages of the annals of progressive science. He says: "The character of the phenomena described in this report induces me to refer to the terms intensity and quantity as applied to electricity; terms which I have had such frequent occasion to employ. These terms, or equivalents for them, cannot be dispensed with by those who study both the static and the dynamic relations of electricity. Every current, where there is resistance, has the static element and induction involved in it, while every case of insulation has more or less of the dynamic element and conduction; and we have seen that, with the same voltaic source, the same current in the same length of the same wire gives a different result as the intensity is made to vary with variations of the induction around the wire. The idea of intensity, or the power of overcoming resistance, is as necessary' to that of electricity, either static or current, as the idea of pressure is to steam in a boiler, or to air passing through apertures or tubes, and we must have language competent to express these conditions and these ideas." The quantity of electricity developed by a given voltaic battery depends practically upon the size of the plates used. The intensity is the force with which the quantity is brought to bear upon anything to produce a given result; its energy in overcoming obstacles or impediments to the free passage of the electric current. This intensity is generally acquired by increasing the number of cells, and it is proportioned to that numerical increase. A quantity current can be so great as to be unmanageable for telegraphic service. It becomes as restless as static or lightning electricity, and will leave the wire in part, if near a better conductor. An intensity current is necessary for overcoming distance. In reference to this subject, that distinguished philosopher, Dr. Lardner, said, viz.:

Page  500 500 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. "To produce the effects, whatever these may be, by which the telegraphic messages are expressed, it is necessary that the electric current shall have a certain intensity. Now, the intensity of the current transmitted by a given voltaic battery along a given line of wire will decrease, other things being the same, in the same proportion as the length of the wire increases. Thus, if the wire be continued for ten miles, the current will have twice the intensity which it would have if the wire had been extended to a distance of twenty miles. It is evident, therefore, that the wire may be continued to such a length that the current will no long er have sufficient intensity to produce at the station to which the despatch is transmitted those effects by which the language of the despatch is signified. The intensity of the current transmitted by a given voltaic battery upon a wire of given length will be increased in the same proportion as the area of the section of the wire is augmented. Thus, if the diameter of the wire be doubled, the area of its section being increased in a four-fold proportion, the intensity of the current transmitted along the wire will be increased in the same ratio. In fine, the intensity of the current may also be augmented by increasing the number of pairs of generating plates or cylinders composing the voltaic battery. Since it has been found. most convenient generally to use iron as the material for the conducting wires, it is of no practical importance to take into account the influence which the quality of the metal may produce upon the intensity of the current. It may be useful, nevertheless, to state that, other things being the same, the intensity of the current will be in proportion to the conducting power of the metal of which the wire is formed, and that copper is the best conductor of the metals. 3M. Pouillet found, by well-conducted experiments, that the current supplied by a voltaic battery of ten pairs of plates, transmitted upon a copper wire having a diameter of four onethousandths of an inch, and a length of six tenths of a mile, was sufficiently intense for all the common telegraphic purposes. Now, if we suppose that the wire, instead of being four one-thousandths of an inch in diameter, has a diameter of a quarter of an inch, its diameter being greater in the ratio of sixtytwo and one half to one, its section will be greater in the ratio of nearly four thousand to one, and it will, consequently, carry a current of equal intensity over a length of wire four thousand times greater-that is, over two thousand four hundred miles of wire."

Page  501 THE RETURN CURRENT. 501 Pig. 2 is intended to represent the intensity current moving in a voltaic conductor. Commencing upon the right and runing to the left, the farther from the place of starting the feebler becomes the force. The intensity or the energy of the current lessens in its force, as indicated by the lessening of the arrows in the given section of the conductor. In the preparation of the diagram, and the others in this chapter, I have waived the question as to localization of the motion and existence of electricitv in the metallic conductor. It is my opinion, however, that the electricity on or near the surface might be properly called " electricity in motion," and that within "electricity at rest." I have no doubt but what the presence of electricity pervades the whole wire, but that the intensity, principally, has its motion at or near the surface. I am led to believe this from the result of some experiments which I have instituted. It is a question of much importance to the telegraphic enterprise, and it is to be hoped that others will give it a careful consideration. In regard to the distribution of electricity Fig. 3. on a circular plane, it has been found that ^. the extent or thickness of the electric stratumn was almost constant from the centre, to within a very small distance of the eircumference, when it increased all on a sudden with great rapidity. The end section of a wire may represent the plane, and the philosophy established would prove that the inner or centre part was but slightly charged with electricity, and that it increased as to volume or amount from the centre to the surface; but that at or near the surface it was very considerably increased. My experiments have confirmed the truth of the foregoing' law. It may be possible that the intensity of the current moves at or near the surface of the conductor, and that its quantitative element pervades the whole metal. The foregoing remarks may be applied to all kinds of telegraph conductors, whether in air or in the earth. PHENOMAENA OF THE RETURN CURRENT. I will, in the next place, notice the difference between practical working of subterranean, submarine and air lines. On air lines we have to contend against atmospheric elec. tricity, induced currents and cross currents, or the escape of the electricity by heat, fog, &c. On subterranean and submarine lines a new phenomenon has been manifested, which materially

Page  502 502 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. interferes with the successful working of the telegraph. Whether in the earth or in the water, the philosophy is the same, except as the water exists in greater quantities nearer the submarine cable than to the subterranean, the influence is greater on the latter than on the former. The discovery of this new phenomenon was announced by Professor Faraday in 1854; and notwithstanding electricians have expended much labor and money to discover a remedy for the difficulty, there has been nothing accomplished to ameliorate, in the slightest degree, the effects of the remarkable phenomenon in subaqueous telegraphing, described by Professor Faraday to the Royal Institute of Great Britain. The substance of the report will be found in the following extracts, viz.: "In consequence of the perfection of the workmanship, a Leyden arrangement is produced upon a large scale; the copper wire becomes charged statically with that electricity which the pole of the battery connected with it can supply; it acts by induction through the gutta-percha (without which induction it could not itself become charged, Exp. Res. 1177). prcducing the opposite state on the surface of the water touching the gutta-percha, which forms the outer coating of this curious arrangement. The gutta-percha, across which the induction occurs, is only 0.1 of an inch thick, and the extent of the coating is enormous. The surface of the copper wire is nearly eight thousand three hundred square feet, and the surface of the outer coating of water is four times that amount, or thirtythree thousand square feet. Hence the striking character of the results. The intensity of the static charge acquired is only equal to the intensity at the pole of the battery whence it is derived; but its quantity is enormous, because of the immense extent of the Leyden arrangement; and hence, when the wire is separated from the battery and the charge employed, it has all the powers of a considerable voltaic current, and gives results which the best ordinary electric machines and Leyden arrangements cannot as yet approach. Mr. Clarke arranged a Bain's printing telegraph, with three pens, so that it gave beautiful illustrations and records of facts like those stated; the pens are iron wires, under which a band of paper, imbued with ferro-prussiate of potassa, passes at a regular rate by clock-work; and thus regular lines of prussian blue are produced whenever a current is transmitted, and the time of the current is recorded. In the case to be described the three lines were side by side, and about 0.1 of an inch apart. The pen m belonged to a circuit of only a few feet of wire, and a separate battery; it told whenever the contact key was

Page  503 VELOCII'Y OF THE CURRENTS. 503 put down by the finger; the pen n was at the Fig. 4. earth end of the long air wire, and the pen o at the earth end of the long subterraneous wire; and, by arrangement, the key could be made to throw the electricity of the chief battery into either of these wires simultaneously with the passage of the short circuit current through pen m. When pens m and n were in action, the m record was a regular line of equal thickness, showing by its length the actual w time during which the electricity flowed into \ the wires; and the n record was an equally s regular line, parallel to and of equal length / with the former, but the least degree behind it; / thus indicating that the long' air wire conveyed /c its electric current almost instantaneously to the further endBut when pens m and o were in action, the o line did not begin until some time after the m line, and it continued after the m line had ceased-i. e., after the o battery was cut off. Furthermore, it was faint at first, grew up to a maximum of intensity, continued at that as long as battery contact was continued, and then gradually diminished to nothing. Thus the record o showed that the wave of power took time in the water wire to reach the further extremity; by its first faintness, it showed that power was consumed in the exertion of lateral static induction along the wire; by the attainment of a maximum and the after equality, it showed when this induction had become proportionate to the intensity of the battery current; by its beginning to diminish, it showed when the battery current was cut off; and its prolongation and gradual diminution, showed the time of the outflow of the static electricity laid up in the wire, and the consequent regular falling of the induetion which had been as regularly raised. When an air wire of equal extent is experimented with, in like manner, no such effects as these are perceived; or if, guided by principle, the arrangements are such as to be searching, they are perceived only in a very slight degree, and disappear in comparison with the former gross results," MR. BRIGHT S EXPERIMENTS ON THIE VELOCITY OF THE CURRENT. In reference to this subject, Mr. Edward B. Bright, the very able secretary of the English and Irish Telegraph Company, in association with the late Atlantic telegraph, has written a very clear paper, viz.: "On extending this system [underground lines] throughout

Page  504 504 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. the United Kingdom, where circuits of several hundred miles were brought into operation, it was found upon communicating a current to such wires, that, after the withdrawal of the excitation (whether galvanic or magnetic electricity was employed), an electric recoil immediately took place at the end of the wire to which the current had been previously communicated. This recoil was apparently analogous in all respects to the discharge of electricity from a Leyden jar, except that the current flowingy from the wire partook of a quantitative rather than an intense nature; thus, however, finishing the remaining link of comparison, and establishing the identity as regards primary characteristics of all species of electricity. Although this phenomena, as analyzed by Dr. Faraday, has proved highly gratifying in a philosophical point of view, its existence interfered materially with the working of all the previous existing telegraphic apparatus, not having been at all contemplated or provided for; and, up to this time, I am not aware that, as regards the galvanic system, any adequate remedy has been applied. The nature of the interference will be easily understood, when I mention that, with a letter printing telegraph, the surplus current has the tendency to carry the machinery on further, and to make other letters than those intended. With the chemical and other recording telegraphs, the surplus flow of electricity will continue nearly a minute, entirely confounding the marks representing one letter with the next. And, lastly, with Cooke and Wheatstone's and other needle telegraphs, a beat more is made by the back current than intended with every letter formed. Another remarkable feature to be noticed in connection with the underground system is the small comparative velocity with which the electric impulse is communicated through each conductor in long circuits. In experiments conducted by my brother and myself upon a circuit of four hundred and eighty miles of the underground wires, a marked difference between the communication of the electric impulse, and its arrival at the other end, has been observed; the interval required for the passage of the sensation amountingo to rather more than a third part of a se ond. The rate of transmission of the voltaic or magnetic fluids, through such conductors, is therefore only about one thousand miles per second. Professor Wheatstone's experiments, showing the passage of frictional electricity through a short length of wire in a room, to take place at a speed approaching three hundred thousand miles per second, are well known and incontestable.

Page  505 VELOCITY OF THE CURRENTS. 50.5 A subsequent experiment, conducted by Professor Walker, on some of the overground wires comprised in the American system, gives the velocity of the voltaic current, through twohundred-and-fifty mile circuits, at about sixteen thousand miles per second. The underground wires, however, as just mentioned, give a far lower result; and hence it appears evident that the velocity of frictional electricity far exceeds the voltaic or magnetic current, owing, doubtless, to the far greater intensity and comparatively small quantitative development of the former. The retardation experienced in underground wires, as regards the propagation of the electric impulse, is not, however, due to any resistance of the conducting medium; for, as it is found, in the instance of the Leyden jar, that the frictional electricity communicated is temporarily absorbed by the metal in the interior of the jar, so the galvanic or magnetic currents, during their passage through the underground wires, are partly absorbed, until the mass of copper constituting the wire is saturated with electricity; and it would also appear that a definite time is occupied in the absorption of the electricity by the successive portions of the wire, such as is found to occur in charging a Leyden jar; and until this process of impregnation has been completed, the sensation cannot be communicated to the other end of the conductor. The retardation will, therefore, result, not from resistance, but froin the first portion of the charge communicated being absorbed for the time by the conductor through which it passes; for, in addition to the foregoing, copper wire conducts far more freely than the iron wire made use of in the overground wires. Consequently the speed with which an electric impulse is communicated varies with the energy or intensity of the current employed, and the nature or conditions of the conductor interposed." In relation to this subject, the following question among others, was propounded to Mr. Charles T. Bright, the engineer of the late Atlantic Telegraph Company, and his answer to the same is herewith given, viz.: " 43. What do you consider return currents? and to what extent do you find the existence of the same on both overground and underground lines? Please state all the points fully. Answer 43d. On overground lines they are very trifling, indeed, compared with underground; the conditions on which the wires are suspended and insulated, passing also through a medium, capable, to a certain extent, of absorbing any electricity developed in surplus, prevents the occurrence of any effects appreciable by ordinary needle telegraphic instruments.

Page  506 506 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. I look upon an underground wire as being exactly similar, on a large scale, to a Leyden jar, and I am borne out in this by the experiments of my brother and myself, and by those instituted by Faraday on the underground wires more recently laid by the Electric Telegraph Company. The magneto-electricity, as well as the voltaic (or chemical) electricity, evinces these phenomena, hitherto supposed to belong to properties appertaining peculiarly to frictional electricity. The copper may be compared to the inner metallic coatings of a Leyden battery, the gutta-percha to the glass, and the earth and moisture surrounding to the outer covering. I was much interested, in one of our experiments, to observe that the larger the size of the wire experimented upon, with the same battery power, the greater the amount of return current: a strong support of our opinion, as, had it arisen from an elastic return, owing to the wire being unable to receive as much electricity as was forced into it, as some supposed, of course a smaller wire (with the same power as that employed with the larger size) should have given out a greater amount of return current. If you experimentalize on No. 18 and No. 16, you will see this very clearly." RETARDATION OF THE CURRENT ILLUSTRATED. Fig. 5.!ii / / J 7 Fig. 5 represents a sectional view of a sub-marine cable: A is the copper conducting wire; c c the gutta-percha covering, serving as an insulation; B B is the water. The arrows represent the voltaic currents starting from A, full of energy. It presses forward in the completion of its circuit until overcome by the influence of'the negative electricity of the earth. The wire is, in principle, the same as the inner coating of a Leyden jar, fully charged.

Page  507 VELOCITY OF THE CURRENTS. 507 In charging the inner coating, nature furnishes simultaneously an opposite electricity on the exterior covering of the jar. The glass intervenes in the use of the jar, and the gutta-percha intervenes in the case of sub-marine cables. At the end c c, the positive current is seen at rest, brought to the position by the influence of the electricity of the earth, existing in the water. This phenomenon is called the retardation of the current. If at A a negative current be applied, the positive in the cable becomes neutralized. If the battery be disengaged from the cable, and the end of the wire be allowed to hang in the air for an hour, the electricity will be held in the cable in sufficient quantity to discharge a cannon, on renewing the earth circuit. The current thus coming back is called the " return current." The electricity of the earth encircling the cable is negative, when it is charged with a positive current. If the current transmitted through the cable was negative, then the earth electricity would be positive, and the effect would be the same. These imponderable elements seem to exist only in the effort to unite one with the other. It is this retardation of the electric current that renders the succss of ocean telegraphy so exceedingly questionable. I have, time and again, expressed a want of faith in the practicability of operating long subaqueous conductors for telegraphic purposes, at least, until some new developments in science dispels the difficulties hereinbefore mentioned. The working of the subterranean telegraph lines in England, Denmark, Prussia, Russia, and other states of Europe, and of the various submarine lines, in different parts of the world, prove that long circuits through the water, or through the earth, can not be successfully operated, and that the maximum circuit that can be practically operated for telegraphic purposes, must be less than one thousand miles. ESTIMATED VELOCITY OF THE CURRENT. The operating of the line from Sardinia through the Mediterranean Sea to Malta, and thence to Corfu, demonstrates the impracticability of working long submarine telegraphs. The time required for the transmission of the electric current is irregular and unreliable. Such are the facts as known at the present time. The nearest estimate as to the time required for the transmission of the electric current, can be reliably based upon some experiments instituted by the brothers Bright, of England. The following was communicated to me by Mr. Bright: " Answer 44th. In the course of a long series of experiments carried on last year by my brother and myself, inquiries were

Page  508 508 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. instituted with reference to the speed with which the galvanic or magnetic sensation is communicated through underground wires. The result of the inquiry shows decidedly that the communication of the electric impulse through a length of 500 miles of underground gutta-percha covered copper wire (1-6 gauge) does not exceed 900 to 1,000 miles per second-a speed far below that usually assigned. Reasoning upon the issue of these experiments, and those previously tried in America, I have no doubt that the speed of any description of electricity varies greatly with the peculiar conditions and nature of the conductor used, and also with the length of the conductor interposed; and that a wire suspended in the open air, especially if insulated only at points of its support, (such as in a pole line) would offer far less resistance (cwteris paribus) than a wire underground. Submarine cables are similar, as regards electrical conditions, to subterranean lines, and the speed with which the electric impulse is communicated would be the same." On the laying of the Atlantic cable in 1857, Professor Morse communicated the following important fact, viz.: " We got an electric current through until the moment of parting [of the cable], so that the electric connection was perfect; and yet the further we paid out, the feebler was the current." The highest speed of receiving intelligible and unintelligible signals over the late Atlantic cable, was about one wave, or pulsation, for each 8-} seconds. The value of the wave depends upon their combination in the formation of the alphabet. WORKING OF TIHE MEDITERRANEAN TELEGRAPHS. So true is the philosophy set forth in the preceding, that no practical telegrapher can question it; but, on the contrary, every experiment instituted on submarine or subterranean telegraph lines, adds evidence to its confirmation. Besides the proofs given, reference may be made to the following concise report of Signor Bonelli, the able director general of Sardinian telegraphs, viz.: "Among the delays observed in the transmission of dispatches which cross Sardinia, I was at first surprised at the long intervals that were noticed between time when the dispatches were presented at Malta, and their reception at the Cagliari stationprincipally when these dispatches were of considerable length. Unwilling to suspect habitual negligence on the part of the employes at the Cagliari junction, I inquired as to the causes of the delay. I was told that the difficulty was in the me.thod used

Page  509 MEDITERRANEAN TELEGRA PHS. 509 in this line, in consequence of the well-known inconveniences of submarine cables, which are the greater here, as the lines from Cagliari to Malta, and from Malta to Corfu, are each nearly 600 kilometres (about 375 miles), much longer than any previously existing. I, therefore, deem it useful to exhibit, in some detail, the effects which have been observed, the consequences which result therefrom for the service, and the importance of discovering a remedy. The submarine cable between Cagliari and Malta is composed of a very fine copper wire, around which are twisted six similar wires of equal fineness, all in free contact with one another, so that if one or more of them should break, the transmission would not be interrupted. The seven wires together form a cord of about two millimetres (1-16 inch) in diameter, covered with a gutta-percha case of two millimetres, and a second envelope of tarred hemp. Eighteen iron wires, two millimetres in diameter, twisted in an extended spiral, enclose the whole, and form the outer covering of the cable, the total diameter of which is thus carried to 14 millimetres (about 2 inch), and weight 547 kilogrammes per kilometre (about 2,000 pounds per mile). The two extremities of the cable, both at Malta and Cagliari, are fastened to two pieces of wire on the land, each 5 kilometres (about 3 miles) long. After the experiments made in England, and elsewhere, to diminish the difficulties which were foreseen, it was decided to employ for transmission induced electrical currents, with piles of a large surface, and a special apparatus to change the direction of the current alternately. In spite of all these precautions, the following effects have been experienced: If the transmission is made too rapidly, the signals are so uncertain as to become unintelligible; it is better, therefore, to be very slow in making them. But several inconveniences result from this. Such a degree of special skill is required in the operator, that among the employes at Malta, for instance, only one was able to transmit the signals satisfactorily. Pauses of nearly a second must be made, so that scarcely 75 signals can be transmitted in a minute-that is to say, but two or three words-while on the land lines the average transmission in the same time is 280 signals, or perhaps ten words. Besides-principally to avoid the difficulty of a current generated in the opposite direction, called return current-the apparatus is so arranged, that during the transmission from one side, nothing can be received from the other, nor can the current be interrupted. The operator to whom the message is

Page  510 510 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. transmitted, cannot, therefore, give notice if a word has escaped him; hence the necessity of suspending the transmission about every ten words, and reversing the apparatus, to ascertain if everything is understood, and if the words must be repeated before going further. This is one cause of an immense loss of time. And if the operator is not able to calculate the interval of the pauses precisely, the confusion of the signals makes frequent repetitions necessary, which almost indefinitely prolongs the duration of a dispatch. Finally, it is impossible to obtain simple points from the instrument, for, in working rapidly, we either get no signal at all, or a line; hence, Morse's alphabet, instead of giving points and lines, is reduced to merely long and short lines. This is enough to show the danger of confusion and mistake. To give an idea of the delay thus produced, it is only necessary to cite an example: A dispatch, consisting of 58 words, and containing news from India, took more than five hours in passing from Malta to Cagliari. The causes of this have already been explained by Mr. Faraday, and proceed from the conditions of every cable, which performs the function of a Leyden jar; the copper wire forming the internal armor, the gutta-percha and hemp make the insulation, the iron wire and water serving as the external armor, in communication with the earth. The extreme length of the cable gives it an immense surface, in spite of the fineness of the copper wire, and the interruption of the electric equilibrium which takes place on every passage, or on every discontinuance of the current by the reciprocal influence of the two armors and the insulating substances, occasions the delays as well as the apparent anomalies of which I have spoken in the action of the current on the telegraphic apparatus. Another phenomenon quite important to notice-for it may perhaps suggest the remedy for the defects inherent in submarine cables-is that the confusion of the signals and the transformation of the points into lines were incomparably more numerous, when the telegraphic apparatus was attached directly to the end of the cable, than since the operation has been performed at stations with the interposition of five kilometres of wire on the land. If the effects, of which I have stated the simple history, considerably obstruct the service of the Malta and Corfu lines, they also show how far the fears are justified with regard to the mischief they may produce on the far longer Atlantic cable, and the necessity of profiting by the lines already existing for the application of science to the correction of the difficulties.

Page  511 MEDITERRANEAN TELEGRAPHS. 511 It is true that Faraday and Whitehouse have made experiments touching the phenomena in question, but these experiments have been made only on cables prepared for immersion and coiled up in storehouses, or on submarine cables by uniting different wires, in order to multiply the length, or by combining them with long extensions of land lines. Now, in each of these cases, the effect took place of an inverse current on the cables or adjacent wires, whence resulted phenomena in the transmission entirely different from those which are manifested with a single current over a single wire of great length. Besides, if we have seen the great effect of the simple connection of five kilometres of land wire on a submarine cable of 600 kilometres, how can we estimate the influence of the land wires of so much greater length employed by the English experiments? It seems to me that their reasons alone are sufficient to throw great doubt on the certainty of the result obtained by those experiments; but the convincing proof of their insufficiency is derived from a comparison of these results with those presented by the Malta line, although in both cases, the apparatus was the same and similarly arranged. While, in fact, we see an operator of the first order obtain a maximum of 75 signals in a minute, between Cagliari and Malta, on 600 kilometres, in the English experiments of October, 1854, from 210 to 270 signals in a minute (that is 6 or 8 words) were obtained, with currents on a circuit of more than 8,000 kilometres, over the subterranean and submarine wires between London, Dumfries, and Dublin. The rapid increase of difficulties from the Cagliari and Bona line, which is only 260 kilometres, to that of Cagliari and Malta, which is 600, leads to the conclusion that the same difficulties must be much more considerable on a line of 3,000. The reflections which naturally arise from the examination of the facts in the case, show to how great a degree it is necessary to study profoundly these questions of vital importance to the utility of great submarine lines. BONELL1." The following table contains the proximate velocity of an electric current on subaqueous conductors, based upon reliable experiments, instituted on submarine and subterranean telegraphs.

Page  512 512 ELECTRIC CURRENTS. VELOCITY OF THE ELECTRIC CURRENT ON SUBAQUEOUS CONDUCTORS No. 16, copper wire. Calculations based upon five pulsations per letter and sever letters per word. Miles. Time of Pulsation. Time per letter. Time per word. Min. Sec. Min. Sec. Min. Sec. 500.............. 00 0331 00 1 00 16olT 1000..............00 1 00 5 00 35 1100.............. 00 1-4 00 6 o 00 43 4% 1200......00.1.T. 00 7 T 00 54 # 1300.............. 00 1 -7 00 9_-6 1 07 -_ 14oo00.............. 00 2 0012- 1 24 -37 1500...3 00 3 00 15 1 45 1600. 00 3 10 0 18 65 2 10 5 1700.............. 00 4 -% 00 23 5 2 425 1800.............. 00 5o i 00 28 3 22 15 1900.............00 7 - 00 36 11 4 12 42 2000.............. 00 9 00 45 5 15 21000.............. 0 11 _o 0056 o: 6 52 105 2200.............. 00 13 109 $ 8 081 2 2300.............. 0017 - 1 27 10 09 2400.............. 00 21 148 12 39 2500.............. 0027 2 15 15 45

Page  513 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. CHAPTER XXXVII. Composition of Telegraph Circuits-Conductibility of Metals and Fluids-Conducting Power of different sizes of Copper Wire-Conducting Powers of Telegraph Wires-Advantages of Zinc-Coated Wires-Conductors composing a Voltaic Circuit-Strength of Telegraph Wires-Scale and Weight of Telegraph Wire. COMPOSITION OF TELEGRAPH CIRCUITS. IN the present chapter will be considered electric telegraph conductors. There are but two questions necessary to be discussed; first, the conductibility of the metals and other materials composing the voltaic circuits; and, second, the strength and durability of the metallic substances employed as component parts of the circuit. Atelegraphic circuit is composed of iron wire, copper wire, mercury, brass, tin, platina, zinc, acidulated water, and nitric acid. This arrangement contemplates the use of the Grove battery. The Smee, Daniell, Bunson, and other batteries, are sufficiently near the same organization, as to conducting elements, to be considered as equivalents. In regard to the conductibility of metals there seems to be some difference of opinion. Different experiments have produced different results. CONDUCTIBILITY OF METALS AND FLUIDS. Some experiments instituted by M. Becquerel produced the results indicated in the following table. The conductibility of each metal is given respectively. Copper wire............. 100 Platinum wire.......... 16.4 Gold "............. 93.6 Iron..........15.5 Silver............ 73.6 Lead ".......... 8.3 Zinc "............. 28.5 33

Page  514 514 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. The following is the result of some experiments mentioned in the German works. Silver........... 136 Platinum.................. 22 Gold....113 Iron..............17 Copper...................103 Mercury............ 2.6 Zinc..................... 28 This table is to be understood thus: a copper wire 100 feet in length, offers as great a resistance in the transmission of an electric current, as silver wire, of equal thickness, 136 feet long; of gold 113 feet long; of iron 17 feet long, and so on with the other metals. Mr. Moses G. Farmer, of Boston, instituted thorough experiments, and the following were found to be the relative conductibility of the respective metals and fluids. The specific resistance to the transmission of electric currents, compared with chemically pure copper at ordinary temperatures, was, of Copper wire............. 1.00 Tin wire............... 6.80 Silver "..............98 Zinc "............. 3.70 Gold "............ 1.13 Brass".. 3.88 Iron "............ 5.63 German Silver wire......11.30 Lead ".............10.76 Nickel "...... 7.70 Mercury..................50.00 Cadmium ".. 2.61 Palladium wire......... 5.50 Aluminum "...... 1.75 Platinum ".......... 6.78 His experiments with fluids produced the following results: Pure rain water,.......... 40,653,723.00 Water twelve parts and Sulphuric Acid one........ 1,305,467.00 Sulphate Copper one pound per gallon,............18,450,000.00 Saturated Solution of Common Salt,.............. 3,173,000.00 Saturated Solution of Sulphate of Zinc......... 17,330,000.00 Nitric Acid 30~ B.,............... 1,606,000.00 CONDUCTING POWVER OF DIFFERENT SIZES OF COPPER WIRE. Experiments showing the relative resistance of Nos. 18 and 16 copper wire, insulated by double covering of gutta-percha, and submerged in the Regent's Canal, London. No 18 gauge copper wire, covered with gutta-percha to gauge No. 7. No. 16 gauge copper wire, covered with gutta-percha to gauge No. 4. An ordinary single needle instrument was employed-connected to earth, as usual in practice. 100 miles. No. 18. No. 16. With 3 pairs of plates......29.......... 39~ deflection of needle " 6'........50~........59~ " The same instrument employed, but the needle slightly weighted: Battery of 72 pairs plates. No. 18. No. 16. 100 l miles.......................23~................... 30~ 90 "........25~................. 80 "..............26~.......... 70...................28~.... 65 ".............30~..................

Page  515 CONDUCTING POWER OF TELEGRAPH WIRES. 515 Battery of 144 pairs plates: No. 18. No. 16. 100 miles.....................5~.............. 41~ 90......................37...................... 80...................... 38~.................... 70 "......................40~.................. 65............41............... Battery of plates: No. 18. No. 16. 100 miles 72 pr. plates..........23~......................30~ 100 " 84..........26~...................... 100 " 96..........281..................... 100 " 102......... 0~...................... According to the above experiments a wire, No. 18, has capacity to conduct a given voltaic current 65 miles, and No. 16, 100 miles. Suppose the conductibility of iron wire, Nos. 8 and 10, have equal powers as Nos. 16 and 18 of copper, respectively; on a line of 300 miles No. 8, iron wire, can be worked successfully, but the No. 10 could be worked but 195 miles; or, if No. 10 wire can work maximum 300 miles, No. 8 could be worked 461 miles. These facts clearly prove a very great advantage in the use of the larger size wire for telegraphic purposes. This is an important matter, and it is worthy of being very gravely considered by companies having lines on long routes, where long circuits are required. For example, suppose a line to be 900 miles long, using No. 10 wire, a size common on American lines, the practical circuits would be about 300 miles each. If the wire be No. 8, a circuit of 461 miles can be as effectually operated, with a battery of a little more intensity than that employed for the 300 miles circuit, and, therefore, the line of 900 miles can be operated in two circuits of 450 miles each. In the use of the larger wire there will be economy, resulting from its increased strength. There will also be a saving of expenses in three years, by the lessening of repeating stations, sufficient to pay for the additional cost of No. 8 wire for the 900 miles of line. CONDUCTING POWER OF TELEGRAPH WIRES. Considering the above-mentioned facts, and others observed in my experience, I am convinced that the larger conductor is the best for telegraphic purposes, pecuniarily and electrically considered. On the Bengal lines, No. 1 iron rods are used for conductors, and those lines are successfully worked in long circuits. The philosophy establishing the surface as the part, on or through which the current moves, adds further proof in favor of the larger wire. In practical telegraphing we have had many proofs establishing the advantage of full metallic surface. In Pittsburg, and many other cities, where great quantities of coal are daily burned, the sulphurous vapors arising from such fuel, in a very short time, corrodes the iron wire, leaving but

Page  516 516 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. very small metallic substance to serve as a conductor. These corroded wires have frequently been replaced by new ones, and the increased facility in telegraphing at once realized. To remedy their rapid decay, zinc coated wires have been adopted, and their durability is greatly extended; nevertheless, in time, they too yield to the devouring elements; the sulphurous vapors, passing over the oxyde of zinc covering, convert it into sulphate of zinc, which-being soluble in water, is immediately dissolved by the rain and drops off. The wire being thus deprived of its insoluble armor, rapidly corrodes. ADVANTAGES OF ZINC-COATED WIRES. Many of the American lines have in use zinc-coated wirescommonly but improperly called " galvanized "-and their use has given great satisfaction. The advantages realized from the use of the zinc-coated wires, in the perfection of the joints, are sufficient to compensate for their general adoption. The economy to any company resulting from this one point of consideration is more than can be estimated by comparative values. Besides this, the wire for the whole line is preserved in its full metallic surface, and its conductibility is made even and continuous. On a line of 300 miles, if one mile of the line wire be reduced in size from that of the other 299 miles, the one mile of faulty wire will be a continual retardation to the flow of the current on the 299 miles of good wire. The trials given zinccoated wire have established, beyond doubt, very great advantages in favor of its use for telegraphic purposes. Objections have been made to the use of zinc-coated wire, in the Southwest, especially across prairies, where there are no trees to serve as auxiliaries in conducting the atmospheric electricity to the earth. A. telegraph wire traversing forests can not be disturbed by atmospheric electricity, while on the other hand, when it traverses open fields, or prairies, it is very liable to serious interruption from that source. The use of the zinc coated wire, across these open plains, affords a greater metallic surface, for the atmospheric electricity. If tire iron wire was of equal size without the zinc, the result would be in proportion to the conductibility of iron and zinc. It is not the zinc that induces the. atmospheric electricity to localize upon the line wire. The conductibility of zinc is 3-1 and that of iron is 5_-, The zinc, it is true, has a great surface or circumference, but that additional surface does not give it an equal power with the iron. It cannot be maintained, therefore, that the zinc is at fault in the premises. If the wire was copper, the interference would be much greater than with the iron

Page  517 CONDUCTORS COMPOSING A VOLTAIC CIRCUIT, 517 and zinc. From these facts it may be said, that the better the conductor, the greater the interruption. Such a conclusion may be very true, but the cause and effect must be considered philosophically. In Sardinia, the lines have been constructed to meet the case. To each pole is attached a paratonnerre or lightning rod, which conducts to the earth the atmospheric electricity, and they have no interruption to retard the successful working of the lines. It is reasonable to believe, that if earth-wires were run from the tops of the poles into the moist earth, the working of the line wires would not be disturbed by atmospheric electricity. Such an arrangement throughout the line would be expensive, and most likely never will be tried in America, although it would be strictly conformable to established philosophy. From the facts above cited, it will be seen that the use of zinc-coated wires is promotive of the durability and working of the lines, and in no case injurious to successful telegraphing. Some telegraphers may insist upon the truth of the questionable theory that the brightness of the zinc tends to attract atmospheric electricity. The use of a cheap paint would remedy that objection, and at the same time add to the protection and preservation of the wire. On making the joints, however, care should be taken to remove the paint so as to cause a perfect metallic contact. I am not prepared to believe, however, that the paint would be of any advantage. Dry paint serves as a non-conductor, and when the wire is covered with a film, the whole becomes a Leyden jar. The wire inside is charged and the dry paint acts as the glass of the Leyden jar, and on the exterior is collected the negative electricity from the atmosphere. The presence of this negative influence retards the interior or positive current, and thus the telegraph is disturbed to the extent of the retardation. On ordinary wires, covered with dry oxyde, the same philosophy must be considered. These philosophical considerations are worthy of attention, though, perhaps, their importance may not seem appreciable in practical telegraphing. CONDUCTORS COMPOSING A VOLTAIC CIRCUIT. The conductors common to a telegraphic circuit may be considered as 1st, iron; 2d, copper; 3d, brass; 4th, zinc; 5th, tin; 6th, platina; 7th, nitric acid; 8th, water, pure and acidulated; and, 9th, the earth. 1. The principal conductor used by the telegraph is iron. The size of this conductor should be commensurate with the length of the circuits desired.

Page  518 518 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. 2. The copper wire used, is confined to the interior of the station, and they should be fully equal in size to the relative conductibility of the iron wire; thus, a copper wire may be 5-T653 less in circumference than the line iron-wire. 3. The brass connections should be full, so as to form a contact with the copper wire sufficient to secure an equal conducting capacity with the iron. Usually the connections with the apparatuses through the brass binding screws or posts are greatly at fault, not having as much metallic contact as necessary. 4. The zinc metal in the circuit is confined to the battery, and that part of the circuit is seldom at fault. 5. Tin is used for solder, and though a better conductor than iron, yet the amount of contact is very often inferior, and far more at fault than any other part of the circuit. By studying the table given by Mr. Farmer, the telegrapher can readily determine to what extent he should make the metallic contact with the solder, especially in the battery. 6. The platina strips used in the battery, and in the key, should be sufficiently large to give its full ratio of conductibility in the circuit; and, also, to present surface sufficient to afford contact with the acid, so as to meet the lesser conductibility of the nitric acid held in the porous cup. 7. The nitric acid is placed in porous cells, through which it penetrates. It is necessary to form a contact with the platina, sufficient to give conducting medium equal to the other component parts of the circuit. It will be observed that the conducting power of nitric acid is about 260,000 times less than iron, and the metallic contact with the fluid should be commensurate with that law. 8. The water employed in the battery cells should be acidulated. I have known some operators to collect pure rain-water and use it unacidulated. Of course, as soon as the nitric acid passed through the porous cups, its conducting power was increased. Some telegraphers have supposed that the pure distilled water was the best for conducting purposes and for generating electricity. Many such errors have been practised to the detriment of the working of the telegraph. The acidulated water, in which the zinc is immersed, has about 216,000 times less conducting power than iron, and its contact with the zinc should be equal to the line wire. 9. The earth serves as a half of the circuit. The connection between the earth and the line should be equal to the conducting power of the wire. The earth wire should be attached to copper plates, or sheets, to afford the required surface. Iron

Page  519 STRENGTH OF TELEGRAPH WIRES. 519 plates would answer if it did not so quickly decay. Sheet iron electro-plated with zinc or copper would answer fully the purpose required. The earth plate, of whatever metal it may be, should be buried in moist earth, and the greater the moisture the better will be the circuit. The iron wire next to and in the earth, ought to be coated with tin or zinc to prevent its decay. I have, in the foregoing, briefly considered the component parts of the electric circuit; and the practical telegrapher can readily see that he cannot too well understand the philosophy of the media, composing the conductors of the voltaic circuit. A uniformity of the conducting powers will always prove of the greatest value in the attainment of telegraphic success. STRENGTH OF TELEGRAPH WIRES. During the winter of 1858-'9 I instituted a series of experiments testing the strength of various sizes and qualities of iron wires. In these I was most liberally aided by Messrs. Ichabod Washburn & Co., wire manufacturers at Worcester, Massachu. setts. This old established firm provided the various qualities of wire and the necessary appliances and help to enable me to effect the most thorough investigation. The average results of Fig. 1. D B C

Page  520 520 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. the trials, as to the strength of the wires, are given in the accompanying tables. To test the wire, an ordinary steelyard was employed, as represented by fig. 1: A is a suspended timber, to which was swung the steelyard; B is the wire undergoing the test; c is an upright timber; D is an iron rod fastened to the joist. At the lower end of the rod D is an opening through which the beam is passed. This opening is scaled to limit the movement of the beam within a foot. Whenever the wire stretches and lets the beam descend to the lower end of the opening, the screws at c can re-adjust the scale so as to allow the weight to again bring down the lever beam to its limit. The wire frequently broke within the clamps, and could not be counted. Only the breaks that occurred at B were recorded. The averages of these trials are given in the table. Table 6 shows some tests of wire not as strong as the wire of the other trials. The wire of each kind, viz.: Swedish and American, was from the same qualities and the same lot of iron. The difference in the strength, is owing to the manner of drawing. Messrs. Washburn & Co. have attained this superiority of strength by many years of careful experiment. Most of the telegraph wire used in America is manufactured by these gentlemen, and the peculiar wants of the enterprise have been carefully studied and accommodated by special arrangements. It is important for telegraphers to consider the peculiar wants of their line, and to have the wire manufactured to meet every contingency. Mr. P. L. Moen, of the above-named firm, informs me that the toughness of the wire depends as much upon the drawing, as upon the quality of the metal. I have frequently visited their establishment, and have been highly gratified to see the great care exercised t!) attain the greatest degree of perfection in the manufacture of the wire to meet the especial wants of the telegraph. The telegraphic enterprise has reason to rejoice that these gentlemen have done so much and are continuing their attentions, regardless of expense, toward the accomplishment of every consideration, having in view the perfection of the art of telegraphing, so far as can be attained in their specialty. The QalJLJrQQ QtQal aUJ Q Wtrmtd wiqiaL M wire. No builder would use un-annealed wire, nor would an) company have any other kind employed. It was required t( be well annealed, and the more pliable it was, the more accept. able. The experiments given in Table 4 show how great wam the folly of the earlier ideas relative to the use of annealec wire. It cannot be denied, however, but what the wire shoulk be slightly annealed, so that the joints can be made with rea

Page  521 STRENGTH OF TELEGRAPH WIRES. 521 sonable facility. The coating of the wire with zinc accomplishes this desideratum, and slightly anneals it. The difference in the strength, between the annealed plain wire, as table 4, as practically required some twelve years ago, and the zinc coated annealed wire, given in the other tables, will be seen to be very considerable. The trials, given in the following tables, were made with much care, all under my own direction and observation. They are worthy of the telegrapher's careful study: Table 1. SWEDISH IRON WIRE. Plain Iron Zinc-Coated Plain Iron Zinc-Coated No. broke at broke at No. broke at broke at 6...............2,490........2,300 10............1,430........1,270 7...............2,370........2,176 11............... 1,185........1,030 8...............2,925... 1,993 12.............1,020........ 921 9.......... 1,748...1,495 13..... 770........ 665 Table 2. ENGLISH IRON WIRE. PlainIron Zinc-Coated Plain Iron Zinc-Coated No. broke at broke at No. broke at broke at 6...............2,050........1,945 10.............. 960........ 935 7...............1,670........1,500 11........... 740........ 725 8.........1,.. 1,365 12.............. 635........ 670 9.........1,270... 1,055 13........... 550........ 445 Table 3. AMERICAN IRON WIRE. Plain Iron Zinc-Coated Plain Iron Zinc-Coated Yo. broke at broke at No. broke at broke at 6...........2,390........2,300 10..............1,385... 1,270 7............ 2,210........2,010 11...............1,155........1,043 8..............1,985........1,820 12............... 992........ 832 9........1,665........1,520 13............... 885........ 641 Table 4. The following table shows the result of the trials of the strength of some annealed wire, taken from the lot of the English wire: No. 7 broke at...........1,173 No. 11 broke at......... 618 " 8 "...........1,030 " 12 "...........410 "9 "........... 815 Table 5. In 1853 I instituted some experiments at the same establishment, and the following were the average results:

Page  522 522 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CONDUCTORS. No. 10, zinc coated, broke at................ 925 lbs. "." annealed "............... 875 " Plain ".................1,050 " " " not annealed "............... 1,300 " Table 6. In January, 1859, I tested, at the same establishment, some wire manufactured for commercial purposes from the same quality of bars, from which were drawn the samples tested in the experiments of January and February, 1859. It will be found to be of much less strength than the wire manufactured for telegraphic purposes. American. Swedish. No. 6...................1,940....................2,020 7..........1,675..................... 1,640 8............ 1,550............1,430 SCALE AND WEIGHT OF TELEGRAPH WIRE. The mode of measuring wire has not been uniform or based upon any fixed standard. The two leading rules are the Birmingham gauge of England, and the Washburn gauge of America. The former measures the wire by passing it through a fixed opening, between parallel lines; the latter, by passing the wire between steel bars, fixed at an acute angle resembling a very elongated v. The wire descends the opening until its diameter rests against the sides forming the isosceles triangle, and the points marked upon the sides, gives exactly the size of the wire. This gauge is a great improvement over all other forms, because the fractionals can be given. If the wire is 10~ or 10l or 10-, the Washburn measure can indicate it exactly. This novel improvement in measuring the diameter of any sized wire is the recognized gauge of America, and is known as the " Washburn gauge." The weight of the wire according to this scale is given in the following table: Table 7. WEIGHT OF IRON WIRE PER TWENTY FEET, BY WASHBURN GAUGE. No. 1 weight.......4 lb. 2 oz. No. 8 weight......1 lb. 7 oz. 2 ".......3 8 " 9 "......1 " 2 " 3 ".......2" 15 " 10 "......... 14 " 4 ".......2" 8 " 11 "......... 10 " 5 ".......2" 5 " 12 "......... 9 " 6',.......1 14 " 13 "......... 6 " 7 ".......1 " 10 " No. 7 weight of iron wire per mile,................430 lbs. 8 " _...........................375 9 " "............... 320 10 ", ".....................250 12 weight of copper wire per mile................... 176 1 1",................... 63 18 "................ 38

Page  523 STRENGTH OF TELEGRAPH WIRES. 523 Table 8. WEIGHT AND MEASUREMENT OF ENGLISH WIRE. No. of feet per lb. Birmingham Yards per cwt. Ft. in. Gauge. about No. 1........... 4 3................. 140 galvanized. 2........... 5...................... 170 " 3........... 6....................... 210 4....7.... 15 240 " 4...... 7........... 7........... 240. 5................. 8'............ 275 44 6... 9 6........ J9 320 "l 7...........12...................... 400 " 8...........13 6...........,. 450 " ~9....1~6 6......o.550.. 9...........21 6,............ 730 4 11...........28....................... 950 10...........33.21..................... 730 11...........41......................1,420'9 14........33.............. 115900 c 15...........66........... 1........... 2 300 16...........90........... 3...........3100 17...........17 7..........................4,000 " 18...........16 2......................... 5,200 " 19...........22 2......................... 7,000 20...........33 1.........................10,500 "

Page  524 GUTTA-PERCIIA INSULATION. CHAPTER XXXVIII. Application of Gutta-Percha as an Insulation-Discovery of Gutta-Percha, its Nature, Qualities, and Chemical Properties. APPLICATION OF GUTTA-PERCHA AS AN INSULATION. ALL efforts to insulate telegraph wires for submarine and subterranean lines proved ineffective until the introduction of guttapercha, a substance of peculiar growth as hereinafter described. I do not propose to determine when it was first applied to telegraphing. In the year 1847 a manufactory of gutta-percha for the insulation of telegraph wires was established in Brooklyn, New-York, by Mr. Samuel T. Armstrong, who had ascertained that the substance was a non-conductor of electricity. Immediately following this scientific fact, machinery was made for the application of gutta-percha to telegraph wires, and a trial of the same was made across the Hudson river in 1848. It was eminently successful, and at the time Mr. Armstrong was so sanguine of the perfection of the insulation, that he published, in the New-York Journal of Commerce in 1848, a proposition to insulate and lay a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean for the sum of $3,500,000. Since that time sub-aqueous conductors have been very greatly improved, and minds of great power are still at w'ork for the perfection of submarine telegraphy. The manufacture of gutta-percha as an insulation was commenced in England about the same time as it was in America, and the establishment in London, under the direction of Messrs. Statham & Co., has done wonders in the progress of the art. They have from the beginning exhibited a degree of enterprise not surpassed by any others in the art of telegraphing. To London and New-York manufactories the telegraphic world is greatly indebted for the degree of perfection now enjoyed in the use of gutta-percha. 524

Page  525 MANUFACTORIES OF GUUTTA-PERCIIA. 525 Other establishments for the manufacture of gutta percha have been conducted at Berlin, Prussia, and at St. Petersburg, Russia, but the two most prominent are those of Messrs. Statham & Co., in London, and Mr. Samuel C. Bishop of NewYork. It is peculiarly fortunate that the telegraph enterprise has as promoters gentlemen of such sterling worth. LLeaf and Fruit of the Gutta-Perclha Tree.j

Page  526 526 GUTTA-PERCHA INSULATION. GUTTA-PERCIIA, ITS DISCOVERY, QUALITIES, CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. Gutta-percha-the Malayan term given to a concrete juice taken from the Isonandra gutta tree-is indigenous to all the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and especially to the Malayan peninsula, Borneo, Ceylon, and their neighborhoods, where are found immense forests of the tree, yielding this product in great abundance. Its fruit contains a concrete edible oil, which is used by the natives with their food. The gutta (or juice) circulates between the bark and the wood of the tree, in veins whose course is distinctly marked by black longitudinal lines. The natives were originally in the habit of felling the tree when they required a supply, but have been taught by experience that the juice can be obtained by cutting notches at intervals in the trunk, and save the life of the tree for future tappings, as our maples for successive years yield their sap to the sugar manufacturers. The juice consolidates in a few minutes after it is collected, when it is formed by hand into compact oblong masses of from seven to twelve or eighteen inches in length by four to six inches in thickness, and these, when properly dried, are what is known as the guttapercha of commerce. It is but a few years since the knowledge of the existence of this ductile secretion dawned upon the world. Dr. Montgomerie, an assistant surgeon at Singapore, observed in the possession of a native the handle of a wood-chopper of such singular material that it awakened his attention, and on inquiry and examination he found it to have been made of the juice of this strange tree-becoming plastic when dipped in hot water, and when cold regaining its original stiffness and rigidity. Within this brief period the exudations of these dense forests have assumed, in America and England, innumerable forms. It is singular indeed that there should circulate in the veins of the primeval forests of Malacca and the neighboring isles, a sap or juice so long a stranger to the civilized world, possessing such extraordinary virtues, and, in so short a period of time, entering so largely and variously into the service of man, and destined to become his servant in a greater variety of forms than any other material yet discovered. The gutta-percha of commerce is of a light brown color, exhibiting a fibrous appearance, much like the inner coating of white oak bark, and is without elasticity. When purified of its woody and earthy substance, it becomes hard like horn, and is extremely tenacious, indeed its tenacity is wonderful. Mr. Burstall, of Birmingham, referring to some experiments testing the strength of tubes composed of this material, says:

Page  527 PROPERTIES OF GUTTA-PERCHA. 527 "The tubes were three fourths inch bore, the material one eighth thick. They were tested by the Water Company's proving pump, with its regular load of 250 pounds to the square inch; afterward we added weight up to 337 pounds, and I wished to have gone to 500 but the lever of the valve would bear no more weight; we were unable to burst the pipe." Another gentleman, Mr. Andrew Robertson, of Stirling, says: " I am of opinion that no other material is so well fitted for the above purposes" (extinguishing fires and watering the streets in dry weather) " as gutta-percha; for, although our pressure is perhaps the greatest in the kingdom, being upward of 450 feet, not the slightest effect could be discovered on the tube or joints, while the same pressure on our leather hose sends the rivets in all directions." The application of heat to this crude material makes it soft and plastic, and in a temperature of about 200 degrees it becomes quite ductile, when it is capable of being moulded into any desired shape, which it will retain when cool. It can be dissolved by sulphurct of carbon, or chloroform, or if immersed for a time in spirits of turpentine. It is repellant of and completely unaffected by cold water, but is softened and made adhesive by warm water. It is a a non-conductor of heat and electricity; is proof against alkalies and acids, being only affected by the sulphuric or nitric in a highly concentrated state; while the most powerful acetic, hydrofluoric or muriatic acids or chlorine have no perceptible effect upon its structure or capabilities. This gum has qualities entirely differing from the India-rubber. It cannot be worn out. It can be melted and remelted, and repeatedly remoulded without changing its properties for manufacture or losing its virtue. It is lighter than rubber, of finer grain, and possesses certailmarepellant properties unknown to that material, and is extremely tough. It disregards frost and displays remarkable acoustic qualities. In its crude state gutta-percha has no resemblance whatever to India-rubber in appearance, nor are its chemical or mechanical properties the same, nor does the tree from which it is taken belong to the same botanical family, or grow in the same latitudes or soil; yet, from the fact that it could be dissolved and wrought into water-proof wares, many have inclined to the belief that the two materials are identically or nearly the same. Gutta-percha when immersed in boiling water, contracts in bulk. India-rubber when immersed in boiling water, expands and increases in bulk.

Page  528 528 GUTTA-PERCHA INSULATION. Gutta-percha juice is of a dark brown color, and consolidates in a few minutes after exuding from the tree, when it becomes about as hard as wood. India-rubber sap is perfectly white, and of about the consistency of thick cream; when it coagulates it gives from four to six parts water out of ten; it may be kept like milk, and is frequently drank by the natives. Gutta-percha first treated with water, alcohol and ether, and then dissolved in spirits of turpentine and precipitated, yields a substance consistent with the common properties of gutta-percha. India-rubber similarly treated results in a substance resembling in appearance gum-arabic. Gutta-percha by distillation yields fifty-seven and two thirds per cent. of volatile matter. India-rubber by the same process yields eighty-five and three fourths per cent. Gutta-percha in its crude state, or in combination with other materials, may be heated and reheated to the consistency of thin paste, without injury to its future manufacture. India-rubber, if but once treated in the same manner, will be destroyed and unfit for future use. Gutta-percha is not decompo