The life of Samuel F. B. Morse, LL. D., inventor of the electro-magnetic recording telegraph.
Prime, Samuel Irenæus, 1812-1885.

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Page  II ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1874, BY D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Page  III PRE F AE. IN his last will and testament Professor MORSE gave to his executors authority "to place his manuscripts in the hands of some suitable person for the purpose of examining and using the same in preparing a biographical or historical note," relating to himself. The family of the great inventor and the executors of his estate united in an urgent request that the author of this volume would take charge of the papers and "prepare and present to the public a biography of Professor Morse in such a style that it would be generally read." With great reluctance, and after repeated solicitations, I consented to attempt the service. My studies and pursuits had not qualified me for the task, and it would have been far more in harmony with my wishes and judgment, had the work been confided to other hands. But, having been associated with the brothers of the Professor more than thirty years, and during that time on terms of friendly and pleasing intercourse with him, having heard from his own lips again and again the story of his struggles and triumphs, I had some peculiar facilities to understand and interpret the man. But I would have decisively declined the honorable service assigned me, had I anticipated the difficulties and labors it involved. During his lifetime Professor Morse was often applied to for materials out of which his biography might be prepared. To one of the applications he replied by letter, "My time is so much absorbed in making

Page  IV iy PREFACE. my life, I have none to spare for writing it." And so literally true is this remark, that, in the huge mass of manuscripts left by him, there is not a page that appears to have been written with the expectation that it would be employed in his biography. If it were possible to compensate my lack of preparation, it would be supplied by the remarkable ability, extent, and value of the assistance which has been generously, and I may add nobly, rendered by others. Professor E. N. Horsford, at my request, cheerfully prepared the admirably lucid and condensed history of "Electro-Magnetic Science," and the measure of Morse's indebtedness to his predecessors. The Hon. F. O. J. Smith furnished the most important letters and memoranda of the early years of the Telegraph. Colonel T. P. Shaffner put at my service his vast telegraphic collections and illustrations. Hon. Ezra Cornell, with his own hand, wrote for me his recollections of the construction of the experimental line from Washington to Baltimore. To the Hon. William Orton and to George B. Prescott, Esq., I am indebted for those important facts which bring the history of telegraphy down to the present time. Robert G. Rankin, Esq., Benson J. Lossing, Esq., General T. S. Cummings, Daniel Huntington, Esq., General James Grant Wilson, Rev. Dr. Wheeler, and others, have contributed sketches with incidents and observations that enliven and enrich the volume. The life of Professor Morse is very naturally divided into three parts, to each of which has been assigned about one-third of the volume. The first includes his career as an artist, which was precisely one-half of his life. The second was employed in the construction and establishment of the Telegraph, a period of twelve years. The third and last presents the rewards that he received, and the benefits he conferred upon mankind. These portions of time have distinctive values and interest; combined, they form an epoch in the history of the human race. Freely and thoroughly as the history of Morse and his work

Page  V PREFACE. v has been sifted and searched by critics and courts, by friends and foes, it was left for his biographer to discover and present facts which explain with simplicity and ease the phenomenon that an artist suddenly grasped the profoundest secrets of science, and welded them into an invention to revolutionize the intercourse of the civilized world. We have learned that Samuel F. B. Morse was a born inventor, with a genius for mechanism; that he invented machinery and secured patents long before he made the Telegraph; that his education and habits of thought, his antecedents and associations, fitted him for the task; and, when the hour arrived, the instrument was ready and the work was done! This was at least the third of his mechanical and scientific contributions. Electrical science was his favorite study in college and afterward; evidence of this is here given unknown to himself as in existence. He propounded the idea of the Electric Telegraph to familiar friends before he seriously undertook to make it practical. He wrought out his invention and made it a mechanical, working instrument, doing all that it now does, before any man, scientist or artisan, gave him a particle of assistance. As the recording Telegraph is the sublimest of all human agencies, so the conception and construction of the instrument by a solitary, unaided man, mark it as one of the most extraordinary facts in human progress. Embarrassed by the wealth of material that would easily have filled many volumes as large as this, and being compelled by want of space to suppress hundreds of letters and documents that would honor the memory of Professor Morse, I have conscientiously executed a trust most reluctantly accepted. With all its imperfections, with which no one can be made better acquainted than the author is already, the volume, with unfeigned diffidence, but with confidence in its justice and truth, is committed to the public. S. I. P. NEW YORX, Ju4ly 8, 1874.

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Page  VII CONTENT S. CHAPTER I. MORSE. Genealogy-Characteristics of Ancestors-His Grandfather Rev. Dr. Samuel FinleyHis Father Rev. Dr. Jedediah Morse-His Brothers Sidney Edwards and Richard Cary Morse-Birth of Samuel F. B. Morse-Predictions... Pp. 1-12 CHAPTER II. 1791-1811. Early Education-His School-mistress-Drawing with a Pin-At Grammar-schoolYale College-President Dwight-Professors Day and Silliman-Studies in Electricity-Germs of the Telegraph-Portrait-painting-Recollections by Fellow-students........... 13-27 CHAPTER III. 1811-1816. Washington Allston-Morse goes to London under his Tuition-The Voyage-Longings for a Telegraph-Benjamin West-Morse's Letters to his Parents-To a Friend at Home-Impressions of West-Leslie the Painter-He and Morse become Room-mates-Samuel Taylor Coleridge-Triumphs of the Young ArtistMeets with William Wilberforce, Henry Thornton, Zachary Macaulay, Lord Glenelg, and Others-Visit at Mr. Thornton's-Intercourse with ColeridgeTravels to Oxford, and Incidents-First Portrait abroad-Leslie and MorseLetters to his Parents-Zerah Colburn-Dartmoor Prisoners-Attempts to serve them-Dunlap's Account of Morse-Dying Hercules-Judgment of Jupiter-Gold Medal-Mrs. Allston's Death-Scene at Mr. Wilberforce's-Return Home. 28-88 CHAPTER IV. 1815-1823. Return to America-Opens a Studio in Boston —No Success-Invents Improvement in Pump-Travels in Vermont and New Hampshire as Portrait-painter-Meets his Future Bride-Pursues his Invention-Goes to Charleston, South Carolina — Dr. Finley-Success-Allston's Encouragement-Returns North-Marriage

Page  VIII yiii CONTENTS. Charleston again-The Pump-W. Allston-Morse paints the Portrait of President Monroe-Third Winter in Charleston-New Haven-Painting " House of Representatives "-History of the Picture... Pp. 89-126 CHAPTER V. 1823-1828. Invents a Machine for cutting Marble-Goes to Albany-Little Success-Returns to New York —Portrait of Chancellor Kent-Ichabod Crane-Arrangements to go to Mexico as Attache to the Legation-Letter from Hon. Robert Y. HayneThe Scheme abandoned-In New Haven-Travels in New England-Settles in New York-Commissioned to paint Portrait of General Lafayette-Goes to Washington-Sudden Death of his Wife-Death of his Father-Founds the National Academy of Design-Sketch-Club-Letter from General T. S. Cummings-Lord Lyndhurst's Letter-Studies in Electro-magnetism-Professor Dana's Lectures-His Own Lectures-Escape from Death.. 127-171 CHAPTER VI. 1829-1832. Commissions to paint in Italy-Journey to Rome-Letter to his Cousin-EnglandParis-Avignon-Marseilles-Nice-The Cornice Road-Geneva-Pisa-Rome -The Vatican-Galleries of Art-Notes-Thorwaldsen-Portrait-James Fenimore Cooper-H. Greenough-Letters-Return to Paris-Friendship with Lafayette-Sympathy with Poland-Imprisonment of Dr. Howe-Fall of Warsaw -Letters to his Brother-Suggests Lightning-Telegraph-Humboldt-Presides at Fourth-of-July Dinner-Letters of Lafayette-Interior of the Louvre-Humboldt and Morse-Dunlap's Notices of Morse in Paris and London. 172-250 CHAPTER VII. 1832. Packet-ship Sully-Electro-magnetism-Dinner-table Conversation-Idea of the Telegraph-First Marks made-The Invention announced to Passengers-Drawings exhibited-Prediction to Captain Pell-Prof. E. N. Horsford's History of the Science-Stephen Grey-Leyden Jar-Franklin's Experiments-Charles Marshall-Le Sage-Lomond-Reusser-Cavallo-Wedgewood-Ronalds-DyarGalvanism, or Voltaism-Volta-Schweigger - Coxe - Magnetism - Electromagnetism-Ampere - Schilling- Cooke and Wheatstone-Oersted - Spiral Coil, 1821-Arago-Sturgeon-James Freeman Dana-Joseph Henry-Fechiner-Ohm's Law-Steinheil- Daniel-Soemmering-Samuel Finley Breese Morse-Invention and Discovery-Claims of Discoverers and Inventors-Successive Steps in Telegraphic Invention... 251-284 CHAPTER VIII. 1832-1838. Arrival in New York-The Brothers' Testimony-Mould and Type the First Things made for the Telegraph-Castings preserved-Struggles of the Inventor-Poverty and Distress-His Brothers' Sympathy and Aid-Making the Telegraphic

Page  IX CONTENTS. ix Instrument-At the Lathe-Faith in God and Himself-Rejected as One of the Painters of a Picture for the Capitol-Artists' Sympathy-Elected Professor in University of New York-Rooms in Building-Apparatus-Cooks his Own Food in his Room-Announcement of his Invention-French Idea of TelegraphProfessor Gale's Statement-Daniel Huntington-Hamilton Fish-Rev. Mr. Seelye-Commodore Starbuck-Robert G. Rankin-Rev. Dr. H. B. TappanAlfred Vail becomes a Partner-Letter to Secretary of Treasury-Secretary's Report to Congress-Professor Gale a Partner-The Instrument at SpeedwellThree Miles of Wire-Experiments-Exhibition in New York-Ten Miles of' Wire-First Dispatch preserved-Exhibited to the Franklin Institute-Report -The Instrument in Washington-Exhibited to the President and CabinetHon. F. O. J. Smith-Professor Morse's Letters to Mr. Smith-Report of Comn mittee of Commerce-Partnership with Mr. Smith-Letters to Vail-Prepara. tions for a Journey to Europe.... Pp. 285-346 CHAPTER IX. 1838-1839. Professor Morse goes to England-Application for Patent-Refusal-ReasonsFalse Statement of an Official-Goes to Paris-Letters to his Daughter-Dr. Kirk's Recollections-Arago-His Great Kindness-Exhibition before Academy of Sciences-Baron Humboldt's Congratulations-Report upon it-Letters to Friends-Hon. H. L. Ellsworth's Letters-Patent in France-Count Montalivet -Professor Morse's Letters to Mr. Smith-Lord Lincoln's and Lord Elgin's Interest in the Telegraph-Professor Morse goes to London-Exhibits the Telegraph at the House of Lord Lincoln.... 347-393 CHAPTER X. 1839-1843. Return to New York-Russian Contract-Disappointment at Inaction of CongressMr. Smith's Views of the State of Things-The Daguerreotype introducedExperiments-Success-Teaches Others- Sully and Allston -Russia failsDeep Depression-Letter to his Partners Mr. A. Vail and Hon. F. O. J. SmithConsultation with Professor Henry-Letters of Professor Henry-Struggles of Morse under Poverty-Letters to Mr. Vail-An Agent employed at Washing. ton-Failure-An Old Sorrow-Hon. W. W. Boardman, M. C.-Letter to Hon. F. O. J. Smith on Professor Henry's Encouragement-First Submarine Cable laid by Professor Morse-Report of American Institute-Hon. C. G. FerrisLetter to him-Professor Morse in Washington-Favorable Report in Con. gress-Debate-Passage of Bill in the House and the Senate appropriating Thirty Thousand Dollars for an Experimental Line of Telegraph-Death of Allston........... 394-472 CHAPTER XI. 1843-1844. Preparations to lay the First Line-Use of Tubes underground-Ezra CornellTubes abandoned-Wires put upon Poles-Experiments with 160 Miles of Wire-Professor Henry's Letter-Progress of the Work-National Whig Con

Page  X X CONTENTS. vention-Nomination of Henry Clay announced at Washington by TelegraphThe Line complete-The First Message-Triumph of the Inventor-His Letter to Bishop Stevens-National Democratic Convention-James K. Polk nominated- Conference with Silas Wright-Working of the Telegraph -Professor Morse's Report of the Completion of the Line- Enthusiasm of the Press and the Public-Telegraph offered to the Government-Determining the Longitude...... Pp. 4'73-509 CHAPTER XII 1845. Congress refuses Further Appropriations-Letter of Professor Morse to his Daughter -Hon. Amos Kendall engaged as Agent-Formation of the Magnetic Telegraph Company-Letters to Mr. Vail-Mr. Vail's Replies-Professor Morse goes abroad-In London-General Commercial Telegraph Company-Hon. Louis McLane-Professor Morse in Hamburg-Returns to London-Exhibitions of the Telegraph in Hamburg, St. Petersburg, Berlin, and Vienna-Mr. Fleischmann's Account of its Reception-Professor Morse in Paris-Arago-Exhibition before Chamber of Deputies-Return to America.... 510-538 CHAPTER XIII 1846-1847. Extension of Patent-The Inventor's Claim-New Lines established-Sidney E. Morse's Predictions-Report to the Postmaster-General-Artists' PetitionLine between Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York-French Chambers Debate-Letter to Arago-First Fruits-Smithsonian Institution-Professor Henry appointed Secretary-Printing-Telegraph-Letter to Daniel Lord-Piratical Invasions-Ocean-Telegraph..... 39-656 CHAPTER XIV. RIVAL CLAIMS AND LAWSUITS. Invasion of Patent-right-O'Rielly Contract-Injunction-Lawsuit in District Court of Kentucky-Decision-Morse Patent sustained-Incidents of the Trial-Distinguished Men engaged-Judge Pirtle's Epigram-The Case appealed-Supreme Court of the United States sustains the Morse Patent-Opinion-French and Rogers Case-Judge Kane's Opinion-Sustains Morse's Patent-House's and Bain's Instruments-Dr. Jackson's Pretensions-Improvements in the Telegraphic Instrument-Extent and Value of the Telegraph Business-Morse Instruments compared with Others-Western Union Telegraph CompanyWilliam Orton-George B. Prescott-The World's Verdict-Only One System, that of Morse........ 557-588 CHAPTER XV. 1847-1854.-REST AND REWARDS. A Home at last-Purchase of a Country-seat and Farm at Poughkeepsie-Marriage-Social and Domestic Life-Love of Nature-Birds-His Neighbors' Esteem-Letter to his Daughter-Rembrandt Peale visits Morse-Letter of Benson

Page  XI CONTENTS. xi J. Lossing —ouse in the City of New York-Letter to Arago-Adoption of the Morse System by the German Convention-Extension into Denmark, Sweden, Russia, and Australia - Honorary Distinctions and Testimonials - Scientific Bodies-Yale College-Foreign Governments... Pp. 589-613 CHAPTER XVI. 1854-1855. Submarine Telegraph-The First Experiment-Newfoundland Electric TelegraphCyrus W. Field-Lieutenant Maury's Opinion-Formation of a New Company -Morse to Faraday-Extension of Patent-Letters to Mr. Field and Mr. White -Dr. Steinheil's Letter-Hon. D. D. Barnard-Professor Morse's PredictionsExpedition to Newfoundland-Attempt to lay the Cable-Failure-Renewed Attempt, and Success..... 614-625 CHAPTER XVII. 1856. Professor Morse visits his Native Place-Goes to Europe-Consultations in London on the Atlantic Telegraph-Mr. Peabody's Dinner-Landseer and LeslieWhitebait Dinner-Letter to the Children-Goes to Paris and Hamburg-At. tentions shown to him there-Copenhagen-Visit to the King of DenmarkGoes to Russia-Reception-Presentation to the Emperor-Visit to BerlinReception by Humboldt-Return to London-Scientific Experiments-Letters to Mr. Field-Banquet to Morse-Legion of Honor-Tupper's Sonnet-London Times-Robert Owen..... 626-648 CHAPTER XVIII. 1857. Submarine Cables-Early Attempts-Construction of the Cables-Congressional Action-Professor Morse, the Electrician-Embarks on the Niagara-Letters to Mrs. Morse-Experiments with Dr. Whitehouse in London-Lord Mayor's Banquet-In Paris-Mr. Mason-Professor Morse's Claim-Return to London -Embarking-Narrow Escapes-Cable Festival-Cove of Cork-An Accident -Valentia-Sailing of the Expedition-Parting of the Cable-Attempt abandoned for the Season-Return to New York-Mr. Field's Efforts-The Secbnd Expedition-Failure-Third Expedition-The Cable laid-The Continents connected-First Message-Great Rejoicing-Celebration-The Cable silent Eight Years —Fourth Expedition-Great Eastern-Failure-Return-Fifth Expedition-Success at last.... 649-666 CHAPTER XIX. 1858-1859. Return to America-Winter in New York-Bridal Party and Festivities-Invited to Paris-Preparations for the Journey-Instruction to Farmer and CoachmanVoyage-Remarkable Prediction and Fulfillment-Paris-Banquet-Memorial to Foreign Powers-Hon. Lewis Cass-Hon. John Y. Mason-The French Government-Convention called-Governments represented-Count Walewski's

Page  XII xii CONTENTS. Letter to Professor Morse-Proceedings of the Convention-Amount of Award -Proportion of the Several Governments-Summary of Foreign Distinctions — Visit to the West Indies-Erection of a Telegraph-Southern Atlantic Telegraph-Correspondence-Letter from Professor Steinheil-Morse's Reply-Proposal to raise a Testimonial to Steinheil-Professor Morse's Return-Reception at Poughkeepsie. Pp. 667-694 CHAPTER XX. 1860-1870. At Home-Views on Secession and the War-Education of his Children-Letters to them-Applications for Aid-Last Visit to Europe-Diusseldorf and ArtistsParis-Attentions paid him-Reception at Court-The Great Exhibition-Habit of Life in Paris-Labors in the Committee on Telegraphs-Isle of WightDresden-Presentation at Court-Berlin and the Telegraph Corps-Return to America-Purchase of Allston's "Jeremiah" and Present to Yale CollegeAllston's Portrait by Leslie he presents to Academy of Design-Donation to Theological Department of Yale College —To New York Union Theological Seminary-Banquet in New York-Chief-Justice Chase's Remarks-Professor Morse's-Mr. Huntington's-Summer at Poughkeepsie-His Leg is brokenProstrate for Three Months-Statue of Humboldt-Statue of Morse-Erected by Telegraph-operators-Ceremonies in the Central Park-Academy of MusicAddress by Professor Morse..... 695-724 CHAPTER XXI. LITERARY AND RELIGIOUS LIFE. A Ready Writer-Studies in his Department-Authorship-Lucretia Maria David. son-The Serenade-Roman Catholic Controversy-Foreign Conspiracy-Confessions of a Priest-General Lafayette's Remark-Our Liberties defendedImminent Dangers-Defense of his Invention-Religious Life-Analysis of his Christian Character-Sketch by Rev. Dr. Wheeler-Anticipations of DeathDeath of his Brother Richard-The Three Brothers-The Tortoise and HareIn his Library-Asiatic Society-Evangelical Alliance-Literary and Benevolent Labors-Domestic Peace-The Evening of Life...'725-737 CHAPTER XXII. 1870-1872. An Old Painting-Letter to the Convention in Rome-Death of Sidney E. MorseLast Public Service-Unveiling the Statue of Franklin-Sickness-DeathFuneral-Memorial Services in Washington-Boston-Action of CongressLegislature of Massachusetts-Telegraphic Sympathy-Tributes of RespectSketch of Character..... 738-758 APPENDIX....... 4-776

Page  XIII ILLUSTRATIONS. MORSE, JET. 75.................................... Front8piece REV. DR. MORSE AND FAMILY................... Toface page 26 THORWALDSEN................................... " 205 MORSE, ET. 45.................................. ". 251 MORSE'S WORKSHOP............................. " 289 ARAGO, HUMBOLDT, AND MORSE................ " 865 MORSE, PEALE, AND LOSSING................... " 596 TURKISH DIPLOMA.............................. " 608 HUMBOLDT........................................ 641 MORSE IN HIS STUDY............................ " 726 Drawings illustrative of the invention will be found in their appropriate places in the text and the appendix.

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Page  1 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. OHAPTER I. M6RSE. GENEALOGY-CHARACTERISTICS OF ANCESTORS-HIS GRANDFATHER REV. DR. SAMUEL FINLEY-HIS FATHER REV. DR. JEDEDIAH MORSE-HIS BROTHERS SIDNEY EDWARDS AND RICHARD CARY MORSE-BIRTH OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE-PREDIOTIONS. T HE name of Morse is readily traced to the time of Edward III. of England. It is variously written Mors, Moss, Morss, and Morse. During the last five hundred years the family coatof-arms has borne the motto, "In Deo, non armis, fido:" IN GOD, NOT ARMS, I TRUST. Anthony Morse, who was born at Marlborough, in Wiltshire, England, May 9, 1606, came to New England in 1635. He settled in Newbury, Massachusetts, about half a mile south of the most ancient cemetery in the old town. The house in which he dwelt was on a slight eminence in a field that is known as the Morse field to this day. He was a man of courage, energy, enterprise, and great integrity of character, traits which have been transmitted through the successive generations of his family. His son Anthony succeeded to the paternal acres, lived upon them, and died February 25, 1677-'78. Peter Morse, grandson of the first Anthony, and son of the second, removed about the year 1698 to New Roxbury, Massachusetts, and died there November 2, 1721. John, the oldest son of Peter, resided in the same place, and 1

Page  2 2 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. was married to Sarah Peak, who lived within a month of a hundred years. She died March 15, 1801, having had ten children, seventy-two grandchildren, two hundred and nineteen greatgrandchildren, and fourteen great-great-grandchildren. Their tenth and last child was Jonathan, who (it is not strange to say) died at the age of three years and four months, having read the Bible through twice, committed many passages to niemory, and conducted family worship, for which he must have been eminently qualified! Dolly Morse died in West Woodstock, Connecticut, on the 29th of November, 1870, in the eighty-seventh year of her age, leaving one sister, in her eighty-fifth, and two brothers, one in his eighty-first and the other in his ninetieth year-all cousins of Professor Morse. The grandfather of these seven cousins died in the ninety-fourth, their grandfather's brother in the ninety-third, one of his sisters in the eighty-eighth, another in her seventy-eighth, his oldest son in the eighty-fifth, and his mother in the ninety-ninth year of their respective ages. The descendants of the great-grandmother, at the time of her death, numbered three hundred and nineteen, of whom thirty-one were of the fifth generation; and one or more of each of the last four generations resided under the same roof with the old lady when she died. If the great-grandmother, who was born in 1701, had at the time of her birth any living ancestor over eighty-one years old, three lives, viz., the lives of this ancestor, of the greatgrandmother, and one of her surviving great - grandchildren, would cover the whole period of American history from the landing on Plymouth Rock to the death of Professor Morse in 1872. Professor Morse compiled a table of longevity in his family, leaving a blank in it for his own age at the time of his death, which was eighty-one. In this table he records the age of his great-great-grandmother seventy-nine, great-great-grandfather eighty-one, great-great-grandmother ninety, great-grandmother ninety-nine years and eleven months, grandfather ninety-four, grandmother eighty-one, great uncle ninety-three, great aunt eighty-eight, cousins ninety-one, eighty-seven, eighty-seven, eighty-two. Jedediah was the oldest son of John and Sarah Morse. He was born July 8, 1726, in New Roxbury. In the year 1749 the

Page  3 JEDEDIAH MORSE. 3 town passed from the jurisdiction of Massachusetts to that of Connecticut, and was called Woodstock. Here Jedediah Morse, with seventy-three others, took the oath of allegiance to Connecticut at the first freemen's meeting. He was a strong man, in body and mind, an upright and able magistrate, for eighteen years one of the selectmen of the town, twenty-seven years town clerk and treasurer, fifteen.years a member of the Colonial and State Legislature, and a prominent, honored, and useful member and officer of the Church. He died December 29, 1819, at the age of ninety-four. Jedediah Morse, D.D., father of SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE, was the eighth child of Jedediah Morse, and was born in Woodstock, August 23, 1761. Dr. John Todd said of him, " Dr. Morse lived before his time, and was in advance of his generation." He was a projector, author, founder, inventor. His works were in the line of intellectual and moral progress, but to him the world owes large and lasting gratitude, as well as to his illustrious son. In early years he exhibited a fondness for books; and a delicacy of constitution unfitting him for the severe labors of the farm, his ardent desire for education was gratified by his judicious and intelligent father. In the spring of 1779, in the midst of the War of American Independence, he was admitted into Yale College. Before the term began.he was drafted as a soldier in the Connecticut Line of the army. His health was so frail, there was no probability of his being able to endure the hardships of the camp and field, and at the request of his father, the Governor of the State, Jonathan Trumbull, issued an order, as captain-general, to Colonel Samuel McClellan (grandfather of Major-General George B. McClellan), directing his discharge, if in the judgment of the colonel it was proper. He was accordingly excused from the service, prosecuted his studies, and graduated in the class of 1783. He studied theology under Rev. Dr. Jonathan Edwards, son of President Edwards, and Professor Samuel Wales. Before he was licensed to preach, and while teaching school in New Haven, he projected and began his "American Geography," which afterward was inseparably identified with his name. He was licensed to preach and began his ministry at Norwich, whence he was called back to be tutor in Yale. His health was inadequate to the work, and he went to

Page  4 4 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Georgia, and spent the winter preaching at Medway. On his journey he became acquainted with Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia, George Washington at Mount Vernon, and Dr. Ramsay, the historian, in Charleston, South Carolina, all of whom, and many others, including Drs. Rodgers, Green, Witherspoon, and Keith, made valuable contributions to the material with which he enriched his geography, and afterward his " Gazetteer of the United States." After returning from the South with improved health he spent a few months in the city of New York, and then was settled as pastor of the First Congregational Church in Charlestown, Massachusetts, April 30, 1789, the same day and hour when Washington was inaugurated, in New York, President of the United States. Here he became the champion of that system of religious doctrine which he professed, preaching with boldness and power, publishing pamphlets and essays, establishing a religious magazine, the Panoplist, and subsequently a religious newspaper, the Boston Recorder; with others laying the foundations of the Theological Seminary at Andover, the American Board of Foreign Missions, the American Bible Society, the American Tract Society, and other benevolent institutions which have marked the first half of the nineteenth century with moral grandeur unequaled since the morning of the Christian era. Dr. Eliot, speaking of Dr. Morse, said, " What an astonishing IMPETUS that man has,!" Judge Jonas Platt pronounced him "one of the most industrious men our country has produced." President Dwight said," He is as full of resources as an egg is of meat." Daniel Webster spoke of him as "always thinking, always writing, always talking, always acting." Having preached a sermon in 1799 on the " Duties of Citizens," he sent a copy of it when published to General Washington, which was acknowledged in the following letter, the original of which is preserved. "MOUNT VERNON, May 26, 1799. "REV. SIR: I thank you for your sermon'exhibiting the present dangers and consequent duties of the citizens of the United States of America,' which came to hand by the last post, and which I am persuaded I shall read with approbating pleasure, as

Page  5 DR. MORSE'S PREDICTIONS. soon as some matters in which I am engaged at present, are dispatched. "With esteem and regard, "I am, Rev. sir, "Your obedient and obliged "Humble servant, "The Rev. Mr. MORSE. G. WASHINGTON." He was a man of genius: not content with what had been and was; but originating, and with vast executive ability combining, the elements to produce great results. To him more than to any other one man may be attributed the impulses given in his day to religion and learning in the United States. A polished gentleman in his manners; the companion, correspondent, and friend of the most eminent men in Church and State; honored at the early age of thirty:four with the degree of Doctor of Divinity by the University of Edinburgh, Scotland; sought by scholars and statesmen from abroad as one of the foremost men of his country and time, such a man was the father of the inventor of the Telegraph. On the 10th of May, 1821, in the City Hotel of New York, at the anniversary of the American Bible Society, Dr. Morse delivered an address, in which he said, in substance: " This is one of the signs of the times; one of the grand prodigies of external Providence. But all we now see is less the end than the beginning. It will be prodigy on prodigy, wonder following wonder, greater as they go,.till wonders become the order of the day; wonders on wonders, the steady and established method of Providence. Besides, they will anticipate us, not we them. New resources will be opened. New truth will be learned-new only to us, though old itself as its Eternal Author! For God is our'king of old, working salvation in the midst of the earth.' Like himself always, ever original, as well as supreme, He will do his own pleasure, and illustrate his own word, as equally'wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working.' Such were the visions of future progress before the mind of Dr. Morse, and which he was wont to impress upon the minds of his children. The mothers of great men are deservedly held in honor.

Page  6 6 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. On the corner of Wall and Hanover Streets, in the city of New York, where is now standing the banking-house of Brown, Brothers & Co., the mother of Morse was born, September 29, 1766. Elizabeth Ann Breese was her maiden name. She was the daughter of Samuel Breese, Esq., of Shrewsbury, New Jersey, and his wife Rebecca, daughter of Samuel Finley, D. D., President of Princeton College. Dr. Finley was of Scotch parentage. He was born in Ireland, came to America when he was nineteen years old, became a distinguished preacher and divine, and, before he was called to the presidency of Nassau Hall, he had been the teacher of pupils whose names are familiar in American history. Among them were Benjamin Rush, Ebenezer Hazard, James Waddell, D. D., John Bayard, and many others. In 1743 he was invited to preach to the Second Society in New Haven, Connecticut, but; as that society was not recognized by the civil authority or the New Haven Association, it was an indictable offence to preach to it! As he was on his way to church, he was seized by a constable and imprisoned. A few days afterward he was indicted by the grand-jury, and judgment was given that he should be carried out of the colony as a VAGRANT. The sentence was executed. He petitioned the Colonial Assembly in the following month to review the case, but his prayer was denied! Twenty years from the time he was carried out of New Haven as a vagrant he was President of Nassau Hall, and the University of Glasgow conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity, being, it is believed, the first time the degree was conferred by a foreign university.upon any Presbyterian clergyman in America. Dr. Finley was a man of great ability and extensive learning, every branch of study that was taught in the college being familiar to him. He died in Philadelphia, and the trustees of the college caused a cenotaph to be placed to his memory, among the monuments of the illustrious presidents whose dust is in the Princeton graveyard. The wife of Dr. Finley was Sarah Hall, a lady of rare excellence; and their daughter, Rebecca Finley, became the wife of Samuel Breese, whose daughter Elizabeth Ann Breese was married, May 14, 1789, to the Rev. Jedediah Morse, of Charlestown, Massachusetts.

Page  7 WEDDING-PRESENTS. 7 They began house-keeping shortly afterward in a hired house on Main Street, just at the foot of Breed's Hill. Of the simplicity of the times and the circumstances that surrounded the childhood of our subject, something may be inferred from the gifts which the newly-married couple received from their admiring people. Mr. Morse writes to his father: "The people have been very kind in assisting us to furnish the house. We have had the following presents, viz.: "An iron bake-pan and tea-kettle; a japanned box for sugar; three iron pots, two iron skillets, a spider, loaf of sugar, mahogany tea-table, price nine dollars; five handsome glass decanters, twelve wine-glasses, two pint-tumblers, a soup-tureen, an elegant tea-set of china, price about ten dollars; two coffee-pots, four bowls, a beautiful lantern, japanned waiter, price five dollars. "These are quite a help to us at this time, and are manifestations of the affection of the people." Two persons more unlike in temperament, it is said, could not have been united in love and marriage than the parents of Morse. The husband was sanguine; impulsive, resolute, regardless of difficulties and danger. She was calm, judicious, cautious, and reflecting. And she, too, had a will of her own. One day she was expressing to one of the parish her intense displeasure with the treatment her husband had received, when Dr. Morse gently laid his hand upon her shoulder and said, "My dear, you know we must throw the mantle of charity over the imperfections of others." And she replied, with becoming spirit, " Mr. Morse, charity is not a fool." Miss Lucy Osgood, daughter of the Rev. Dr. Osgood, of Medford, Massachusetts, knew them well, and in one of her letters gives us this life-like portrait of both: "His tall, slender form, the head always slightly inclining forward, his extremely neat dress, mild manners, and persuasive tones, aided by the charm of that perfect good-breeding which inspires even the rudest with a sense of respect for the true gentleman, made him in all places a most acceptable guest; while his own house was always celebrated as the very home of hospitality. " Foreigners very extensively brought letters of introduction to Dr. Morse; and, though his kindness of heart sometimes exposed

Page  8 8 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. him to imposition, he often had the opportunity of yielding efficient service to estimable and meritorious characters. In his duties as a host, his admirable wife zealously cooperated, making her home attractive to visitors of every description by her cordial, dignified, and graceful manners, and her animated conversation. She was, indeed, distinguished for possessing, in an eminent degree, both the fascination and the virtues which most adorn a woman." One of her sons wrote of her: "Her pleasing manners and remarkable social powers amused and enlivened her husband's guests, while engaged in grave debate. When the Middlesex Canal, the earliest enterprise of the kind in our country, and projected by the Hon. James (afterward Governor) Sullivan, was in process of construction, it met with strong opposition. Dr. Morse, who believed it of great public utility, espoused the enterprise with his accustomed ardor, and at his house the able engineer, Colonel Loammi Baldwin, under whose superintendence the canal was built, repeatedly met the other directors sociably-to talk over their difficulties. "Mrs. Morse was present, not merelyas a listener, but occasionally spoke, and her words elicited from Baldwin, that'madam's conversation and cup of tea removed mountains in the way of making the canal.' She was a good reader, and delighted to gather around her listeners, to whom she would read aloud from Leighton or other favorite authors. The best portrait of her is an oil painting by her son, in my possession, which represents her reading by candle-light. She was unassuming in her manners, and her remark that she liked the Charlestown people, because ladies could wear calico dresses when making visits, increased her popularity among the good people of the parish. Of her influence in making her home happy, Dr. Todd says:' An orphan myself, and never having a home, I have gone away from Dr. Morse's house in tears, feeling that such a home must be more like heaven than any thing of which I could conceive.' To these parents eleven children were born, of whom only three survived their infancy. These'three were sons, who attained old age, and were distinguished for purity, integrity, and great usefulness. The youngest of these brothers died first, then the second, and finally the oldest.

Page  9 RICHARD C. MORSE. 9 Richard Cary Morse was born on the 18th of June, 1795. He entered Yale College in 1808, when he was in his fourteenth year, and graduated in 1812, the youngest member of his class. The year immediately following his graduation he spent in New Haven, being employed as the amanuensis of President Dwight; and living in his family. In 1814 he entered the Theological Seminary at Andover, and, having passed through the regular three years' course, was licensed to preach in 1817. The winter immediately succeeding his licensure he spent in South Carolina as supply of the Presbyterian Church on John's Island. On his return to New England, he was associated with his father for some time in a very successful geographical enterprise; and, in the spring of 1823, enlisted with his brother in another enterprise still more important-establishing the New York Observer, of which he was associate editor and proprietor for thirty-five years; and during this long period he contributed largely to its columns, especially by translations from the French and German. He became early impressed with the idea that he had not the requisite natural qualifications for the ministry, and therefore silently retired from it-though his whole life was a continued act of devotion to the objects which the ministry contemplates. He had great aptness for acquiring languages. Not only was he familiar with the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, but was also well versed in the French and German, and had become, in some degree, a proficient in several other modern languages. His mind was of a highly-inquisitive cast; and, though he moved about so quietly and noiselessly, he was always adding to the stores of his information. Rev. Dr. Sprague said of him: " If I were to designate any particular feature of his mind as more prominent than another, perhaps it would be his literary taste. The productions of his pen, though I believe they rarely if ever appeared before the world in connection with his name, were singularly faultless, and might well dhallenge the closest criticism." He died in Kissingen, Bavaria, September 23, 1868. His remains were brought home, and buried in Greenwood. Sidney E. Morse was born February 7, 1794; entered the

Page  10 10 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Freshman class at Yale in 1805, when but eleven years old, and was graduated in 1811. When Mr. Morse was only seventeen years old, he wrote a series of articles in the Boston Centinel, on the dangers from the undue multiplication of new States, thus early in life connecting himself with the newspaper press. He then studied theology at Andover, and law at Litchfield, Connecticut, in. the famous law-school there. His father and Mr. Evarts (father of Hon. William M. Evarts, of this city), and other clergymen and laymen in and near Boston, wishing to establish a religious newspaper, Mr. Sidney E. Morse, at their invitation, undertook it, wrote the prospectus, employed a printer, and, as sole editor and proprietor, issued the Boston Recorder, the prototype of that numerous class of journals now known as " religious newspapers." In 1823, in connection with his younger brother, Richard C. Morse, he established the New York Observer. Mr. Morse was the author of a school geography which has had a vast circulation, and his father before him was the pioneer in the same field. His genius was inventive. In 1817 he and his elder brother patented the flexible piston-pump. In 1839 he produced the new art of cerography, for printing maps on the common printing-press, illustrating his new geography with it, one hundred thousand copies being sold the first year. This art has not been patented, and the process has never been made public. -In his later years. he engaged with his son, Mr. G. Livingston Morse, in the invention of the bathometer, for rapid explorations of the depths of the sea. With a thorough theological and legal education, his mind trained to patient thought and cautious investigation, slow in his intellectual operations, and accurate in his statements, he had the highest possible qualifications for the great work of his life. When his mind was "made up," and his position taken, it was next to impossible to dislodge him. The tenacity with which he held his ground was justified by the caution with which it had been chosen; and it was held with conscientious sincerity and herculean ability. His cast of mind was eminently mathematical and statistical, finding for itself enjoyment in the most abstruse, perplexing,

Page  11 SIDNEY E. MORSE. 11 and extended calculations and computations, tracing the peculiarities of numbers and the results of combinations. His memory of figures was extraordinary, and for hours he would descant in general converse upon the results obtained, with the same accuracy as if the figures were before him. To discourse upon the discoveries in art and science, and still more upon the moral progress of the age, and the great agencies in the past that had brought on the present, was the recreation and enjoyment of his life. His physical health was remarkable, as he never was laid aside a day in his life by illness, until the final blow fell on him. Of large frame and of very sedentary habits, he yet retained so great muscular power that he could, and sometimes did perform, from choice, the severest manual labor for an entire day, without exhaustion. No one ever saw him unduly excited, or heard from his lips a severe and unkind expression; while kindness, gentleness, and grace, pervaded his spirit and life. With great intellectual force, and energy that suffered no weariness or relaxation, there was also this evenness of temperament and perfect self-control, that never suffered him to be betrayed into a rash, hasty, or ill-advised word or deed. He died in the city of New York, December 23, 1871, in the seventy-eighth year of his age, and was buried in Greenwood. SAMUEL FINL]Y BREESE MORSE, the oldest of these brothers, and the inventor of the Telegraph, was born at the foot of Breed's Hill, in Charlestown, Massachusetts, April 27, 1791. Dr. Belknap, of Boston, writing to Postmaster-General Hazard, in New York, says: " Congratulate the Monmouth Judge" (Mr. Breese, the grandfather) "on the birth of a grandson. Next Sunday he is to be loaded with names, not quite so many as the Spanish ambassador who signed the treaty of peace of 1783, but only four! As to the childI saw him asleep, so can say nothing of his eye, or his genius peeping through it. He may have the sagacity of a Jewish rabbi, or the profundity of a Calvin, or the sublimity of a Homer, for aught I know. But time will bring forth all things." This was a very curious prognostication on the birth of a clild who became as widely known to the world as Calvin or Homer. Dr. Witherspoon, the successor of Dr. Finley in the presi

Page  12 12 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. dency of Princeton College, visited Mr. Morse a few days after the birth of his son, and, many years afterward, the father, writing of Dr. Witherspoon, said: " With that great and good man I was well acquainted. When my eldest son was an infant of a few days old, the doctor paid us his last visit. It will never be forgotten; for, deeply affected with this interview with the granddaughter of his revered predecessor in office, he took her infant son into his arms, and, after the manner of the ancient patriarchs, with great solemnity gave him his blessing."

Page  13 CHAPTER II. 1791-1811. EARLY EDUCATION-HIS BSHOOL-MISTRESS-DRAWING WITH A PIN-AT GRAMMAR-SCHOOL-YALE COLLEGE-PRESIDENT DWIGHT-PROFESSORS DAY AND SILLIMAN-STUDIES IN ELECTRICITY-GERMS OF THE TELEGRAPH-PORTRAIT-PAINTING-RECOLLEOTIONS BY FELLOW-STUDENTS. ON the father's and the mother's side, from an early period in the history of the Morse family, we have discovered traits of character which were developed in a remarkable manner in the inventor of the Telegraph. His brothers and his ancestors were distinguished for intelligence, energy, original thinking, perseverance, and unbending integrity. The boy was trained in the school of the Puritans, by a father who was in advance of the age in which he lived. Parental discipline was not severe, but religious principles were inculcated as the source of the highest enjoyment, as well as the basis of right action. Although the son never broke away from the restraints of early instruction, he manifested in early childhood and in youth a beautiful playfulness, and fondness for amusements, that were never checked by his parents, however unlike the school in which he was trained they may now appear. The boy was sent, when he was four years of age, to an old lady's school within a few hundred yards of the parsonage. She was ani invalid, and unable to leave her chair. She was known as "Old Ma'am Rand." Her school was in a small building opposite the public-school house. She governed her unruly little flock with a long rattan, which reached across the small room in which they were gathered. One of her punishments was pin

Page  14 14 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. ning the young culprit to her own dress. The first essays at painting or rather drawing of the young artist were quite discouraging; for he, unfortunately, had selected the old lady's face as his model, a chest of drawers for his canvas, and a pin for his pencil. We do not know now successful he was in this his first attempt, but his reward was an attachment by a large pin to the old lady's dress. In his struggles to get free the dress parted, and was dragged to a distant part of the room, but not out of reach of the terrible rattan, which descended vigorously on his devoted head. At seven years of age he was sent to the preparatory school of Mr. Foster, at Andover, where he was fitted for entering Phillips Academy, in the same place, then under the direction of Mark Newman, the predecessor of John Adams. Here for several years he pursued the studies preparatory to entering Yale College. Among the letters addressed to him at this early period in his life by his father, is one that incidentally shows the style of boy, who was capable of appreciating such instructions before he was ten years old. From Rev. Dr. Morse to his Son Finley. " CHARLESTOWN, February 21, 1801. "MY DEAR SON: You do not write me as often as you ought. In your next, you must assign some reason for this neglect. Possibly I have not received all your letters. Nothing will improve you so much in epistolary writing as practice. Take great pains with your letters. Avoid vulgar phrases. Study to have your ideas pertinent and correct, and clothe them in an easy and grammatical dress. Pay attention to your spelling, pointing, the use of capitals, to your handwriting. After a little practice, these things will become natural, and you will thus acquire a habit of writing correctly and well. General Washington was a remarkable instance of what I have now recommended to you. His letters are a perfect model for epistolary writers. They are written with great uniformity in respect to the handwriting and disposition of the several parts of the letter. I will show you some of his letters when I have the pleasure of seeing you next vacation, and when I shall expect to find you much improved. "Your natural disposition, my dear son, renders it proper for me

Page  15 DR. MORSE'S LETTER. 15 earnestly to recommend to you to attend to one thing at a time; it is impossible that you can do two things well at the same time, and I would therefore never have you attempt it. Never undertake to do what ought not to be done, and then, whatever you undertake, endeavor to do it in the best manner. It is said of De Witt, a celebrated statesman in Holland, who was torn to pieces, in the year 1672, that he did the whole business of the republic, and yet had time left to go to assemblies in the evening, and sup in company. Being asked how he could possibly find time to go through so much business, and yet amuse himself in the evenings as he did, he answered: There was nothing so easy, for that it was only doing one thing at a time, and never putting off any thing till to-morrow, that could be done to-day.' This steady and undissipated attention to one object, is a sure mark of a superior genius; as hurry, bustle, and agitation, are the never-failing symptoms of a weak and frivolous mind. I expect you will read this letter over several times, that you may retain its contents in your memory. Give me your opinion on the advice I have given you. If you improve this well, I shall be encouraged to give you more, as you may need it. Your mamma is very well, as are your brothers Edward, Richard Cary, and James Russell; the last named you have never seen; your brothers, are very fond of him, as we all are, for he is a fine little boy. " We all unite in love to you and Mr. Brown, Tell Mr. Brown that I have a little pain in my breast, which renders writing hurtful to me, else I would write to him. "Your affectionate parent, " J. MORSE." The reply to this letter has not been preserved, but the judicious counsel of the father, repeated often, was not lost on his son. He studied, read, and wrote, at this early age, as if he were conscious that man's work was expected of him. Even at this period of life, before habits could have been formed, or character developed, he showed a tendency to turn away from the routine studies of the school, to think and act for himself. He roved among books, but books that were not in the course. He pored over Plutarch's " Lives Qf Illustrious Men," and his ambition was fired by the records of their deeds and fame. When he was only thirteen years of age, and at this preparatory school in Andover, he wrote a sketch of the " Life of Demosthenes," and sent it to his father, among whose papers

Page  16 16 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. it is preserved, as a mark of the genius, learning, and taste of the child I He dreamed while he was awake. He grew rapidly in stature. His attainments in general scholarship were remarkable, and in the regular studies of the school his proficiency, was such that, at the age of fourteen, he was thoroughly qualified to enter college, and was admitted to the Freshman class in Yale. Domestic reasons induced his father to detain him from college another year, and he joined the class in 1807. Timothy Dwight, D. D., was then the President of Yale College, and at his feet, and under the forming power of this great man, Finley Morse sat four years. Dr. Dwight was the warm personal friend, correspondent, and counselor of Dr. Morse, Finley's father, and at his expressed desire, as well as from the promptings of his own feelings of friendship, Dr. Dwight took the deepest personal interest in the young student confided to his special care. The president was a man of vast and varied learning, and of strong original powers of mind. He was a master of inductive philosophy. Few men have ever lived possessing such command of facts, having them arranged in such order, in his wonderful memory, as to be able to bring them always and instantly to his use. Professor Olmstead says: "He combined, in a remarkable degree, the dignity that commands respect, the accuracy that inspires confidence, the ardor that kindles animation, and. the kindness that wins affection. He urged upon his students the importance of observing and retaining facts; he explained the principles of association, and the various acts which would contribute to fix them in the mind, and also displayed, in the reasonings and illustrations, both the efficacy of his rules and the utility of the practice which he earnestly recommended. "In theology and ethics, in natural philosophy and geography, in history and statistics, in poetry and philosophy, in husbandry and domestic economy, his treasures seemed alike inexhaustible. Interesting narration, vivid,description, and sallies of humor; anecdotes of the just, the good, the generous, the brave, the eccentric-these all were blended in fine proportions to form the bright and varied tissues of his discourse. Alive to all the sympathies of friendship, faithful to its claims, and sedulous in per

Page  17 A METEORIC STONE. 17 forming its duties, he was beloved by many from early life with whom he entered on the stage, and whom, as Shakespeare says, he' grappled to his soul with hooks of steel.' "I think it may safely be said that those who gained the most intimate access to him, whether associates, or pupils, or amanuenses, admired, revered, and loved him most." Before Finley Morse finished his collegiate course his two brothers entered Yale; and, Dr. Dwight's eyesight having been impaired, these young men became his amanuenses. Thus, their relations to the president being intimate and confidential, they were in a situation to feel the full influence of his almost magical power. When Finley Morse was a sophomore in college he wrote in one of his letters to his parents, dated December 23, 1807: " A remarkable phenomenon appeared here a few days ago. A meteor passed some distance from the town and burst in Fairfield County; large pieces of stone were contained in it, and lay scattered round a number of miles. Mr. Silliman went with Mr. Kingsley to see a piece of this stone; he applied a magnet to it, and by its attraction found it to contain iron. The explosion was very loud; it was heard here in New Haven while the students were in at prayers; I heard it at the same time. I will try and obtain a piece of the stone of Mr. Silliman, and keep it to bring home for a curiosity." And in his next he gives a report of a scene which shows that boys in college were, two generations ago, about the,same as now. He was boarding in commons, and thus he writes: " December 28, 1807. " We had a new affair here a few days ago. The college cooks were arraigned before the tribunal of the students, consisting of a committee of four from each class in college; I was chosen as one of the committee from the Sophomore class. We sent for two of the worst cooks, and were all Saturday afternoon in trying them; found them guilty of several charges, such as being ifisolent to the students, not exerting themselves to cook clean for us, in concealing pies which belonged to the students, having suppers at midnight, and inviting all their neighbors and friends to sup with them at the expense of the students' and this not once in a while, but almost 2

Page  18 18 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. every night. We extorted this from one of them, that the reason they were so neglectful toward us was, because there had been no disturbance in college for seven years; that the students, and the authority, not taking much notice of their conduct, they meant to do as they please. The committee, after arranging the charges; in their proper order, presented them to the president; he has had the authorities together, and they are now considering the subject. This afternoon, Tuesday, December 29th, they have been together, and I, with many others, have been with them all the afternoon; there was no recitation at four o'clock, they were so busily engaged. I know not how this affair will end, but I expect in the expulsion of some, if not all, of the cooks. It is now three weeks since the students convened to appoint their committee, and since that we have lived extremely well; indeed, for my part, I think we have lived very well this term. The fault is not so much in the food as in the cooking, for our bill of fare has generally been in the following way: Chocolate, coffee, and hashed meat, every morning; at noon, various; roast-beef twice a week, pudding three times, and turkeys and geese upon an average once a fortnight; baked beans occasionally; Christmas, and other merry days, turkeys, pies, and puddings, many as we wish for; at night for supper we have, chocolate and tea in general, pies once a week; I ought to have added that in future we are to have beefsteaks and toast twice a week; before this the cooks were too lazy to cook them. I will inform you of the result'of this affair as soon as it is completed. "I have justmnow as much as I can do; my leisure moments are employed in composing, reviewing geometry, and. reading history; I am now reading Winterbottom's "China." I have read Cave's "Stranger in Ireland," and intend soon to read his " Northern Summer," I am very much pleased with him as an author. I began to read Robertson's " Charles V.," but, finding several leaves in the book missing, I have deferred it till another time." " January 25, 1808. "The result of the cooks' trial is: one has been dismissed, two remain on trial for good behavior, the rest are in their former standing." Jeremiah Day was at this time the Professor of Natural Philosophy in Yale College. Under his instructions Mr. Morse began the study of electricity, and received those impressions which were destined to produce so great an influence upon him

Page  19 PROFESSOR DAY'S EXPERIMENTS. 19 personally, and upon the business, the intercourse, and the happiness of the human race. Dr. Dwight was the man who prepared his naturally susceptible mind to receive, retain, and utilize those impressions. Professor Day was then young and ardent in his pursuit of science, kindling readily the enthusiasm of his students by the fire of his own. Afterward he became the president of the college, and his name is identified with its subsequent renown. Forty years after Morse had left the institution, Dr. Day, ex-president of the college, bore this testimony: "In my lectures on Natural Philosophy, the subject of electricity was specially illustrated and experimented upon. Enfield's work was the text-book. "The terms of the 21st Proposition of Book V. of'Enfield's Philosophy,' are these:' If the circuit be interrupted, the fluid will become visible, and when it passes it will leave an impression upon any intermediate body.' I lectured upon and illustrated the first two experiments propounded by the 21st Proposition, and I recollect the fact with.certainty, by memoranda now in my possession. The experiments referred to are in terms as follows: " Experiment 1st. Let the fluid pass through a chain, or through any metallic bodies, placed at small distances from each other, the fluid in a dark room will be visible between the links of the chain, or between the metallic bodies. "Experiment 2d. If the circuit be interrupted by several folds of paper, a perforation will be made through it, and each of the leaves will be protruded by the stroke from the middle to the outward leaves." This was the germ of the great invention that now daily and hourly astonishes the world, and has given immortality of fame to the student who, twenty-two years afterward, conceived the idea of making this experiment of practical value to mankind. Writing on the subject in 1867, Mr. Morse said: "The fact that the presence of electricity can be made visible in any desired part of the circuit was the crude seed which took root in my mind, and grew up into form, and ripened into the invention of the Telegraph." But there was at the same time, in the faculty of Yale Col

Page  20 20 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. lege, another illustrious man, to whom, more than to Dr. Dwight or Dr. Day, Mr. Morse was indebted for those impressions which resulted finally in his great invention. Benjamin Silliman long held front rank among men of science. His contributions made rich the journal that was known by his name, and his lectures, letters, and travels, rendered his name familiar throughout the bounds of civilization and learning. Silliman was Professor of Chemistry while Morse was a student in Yale, and was at once his teacher and friend. When his testimony was required, to show when and how the mind of Morse was first turned to the study of electricity, and in what stage of advancement the science was at the time of Morse's attention to it in college, Professor Silliman said: "S. F. B. Morse was an attendant on my lectures in the years 1808, 1809, and 1810. I delivered lectures on chemistry and galvanic electricity. The batteries then in use were the pile of Volta, the battery of CruikshanJs, and the Couronne des tasses, well known to the cultivators of that branch of science. I always exhibited these batteries to my classes; they were dissected before them, and their members and the arrangement of the parts, and the mode of exciting them, were always shown." And the professor went on to show that, when Mr. Morse came to reside in New Haven, ten years after his graduation, he resumed his inquiries in the same direction, with lively interest in the pursuit of electrical science. He says: "Mr. Morse-resided near me for several years, from 1821-'22 onward. The families were on terms of intimacy, and Mr. Morse was in the habit of frequent communication with me. About this time Dr.4 4are's splendid galvanic calorimeter, and his galvanic deflagrator, were invented, and were in my possession, and many interesting and beautiful results were exhibited by them, as, for iexample, the fusion of charcoal, and the combustion of metals. Mr. Morse was often present in my laboratory during mypreparatory arrangements and experiments, and was thus made acquainted with them." In the year 1809, while Mr. Morse was yet a student in Yale, a work was published, entitled an " Epitome of Electricity and Galvanism," by two gentlemen of Philadelphia. The work excited interest beyond the city where it was published, and

Page  21 STUDIES IN ELECTRICITY. 21 arrested the attention of the Rev. Dr. Morse, the father of Finley Morse, still residing in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Dr. Morse wrote to Dr. John McLean, Professor of Natural Philosophy in Princeton College, asking him to write a review of the work for the Panoplist, a magazine then published in Boston. The subject was at that time commanding marked attention, and the Morses, father and sons, were the men to be intelligently interested in the developments of the science. We shall find the son, Finley Morse, renewing his studies in the same direction with Professor Dana, of the University of New York, five years before the invention, and, at a still later date, with Professor Renwick, of Columbia College, becoming charged with all the principles and phenomena df the science, as if, even then, in his own mind, as in the recesses of providential design, the grand result was maturing. The testimony of Professors Day and Silliman was given in court, when it was important, in the defence of his claim to priority in the invention of the Telegraph, for Mr. Morse to be able to show that his mind was early interested in the study of chemistry and electricity. While he was collecting testimony from his instructors, at whose feet he sat while a boy in college, he was not aware that, among the letters and papers of his venerable father, long since deceased, there were quietly reposing some of the letters that the young student wrote to his parents while he was in college, and in which he refers to the studies that specially interested him, and made a lasting impression upon ls mind. These letters were found among the old papers of his father, Dr. Morse, after the death of the son, and it is quite probable they have never- been read from the year of their date to the present time, a term of sixty-five years. Certainly if Mr. Morse had known of their existence, he would have brought them from their hiding-place, and by their evidence proved what he was in the habit of asserting, that while in college these subjects engaged his special attention. Writing to his parents, and dating, Yale College, New Haven, January 1, 1809, he says: "I am very much pleased with chemistry. It is very amusing, as well as instructive. There are many very beautiful and surprising experiments performed, which are likewise very useful. I in

Page  22 22 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. tend, with your leave, getting me'a chemical trough' and small apparatus when I come home, Ward" (a classmate) " and I to bear the expense together. You will find our experiments very entertaining. There will be a number of articles which we shall want, which we shall be obliged to get here, on account of their being obtained here cheaper, such as gun-barrels, retorts, etc., the use of which I will explain to you hereafter." January 9, 1809, he writes again as to the manner in which he would pass an approaching vacation, when he was not going home on account of the expense of travel; he says: " Please to write often, as it will serve to heighten our spirits; they are a little depressed at the approach of a vacation, which we are not destined to enjoy. I find it a difficult task to do nothing. I shall be employed in the vacation in the'Philosophical Chamber' with Mr. Dwight, who is going to prepare a number of experiments in electricity." February 27, 1809, he writes: "My studies are, at present, optics in philosophy, dialing, Homer, besides attending lectures, etc., all of which I find very interesting, and especially Mr. Day's lectures, who is now lecturing on electricity." Still more explicit and emphatic are his words, in a letter of March 8, 1809: "My studies are quite easy to what they were last term. Homer is quite easy; optics in philosophy are in some degree hard, but interesting; and spherics, in the second volume of Webber, is very hard. Our disputes and compositions require a great deal of hard thinking and close application, which I hope they do not want from me. Our chemical lectures at present are not very interesting. Mr. Silliman is now lecturing on the earths, and this part has always been considered very dry. Mr. Day's lectures are very interesting, they are upon electricity; he has given us some very fine experiments, the whole class taking hold of hands, form the circuit of communication, and we all received the shock apparently at the same moment. I never took an electric shock before; it felt as if some person had struck me a slight blow across the arms. Mr. Day has given us two lectures on this subject, and I believe there are two more remaining; I will give you some account of them as soon as they are delivered, which will probably be in the course of this week."

Page  23 ENTHUSIASM IN CHEMISTRY. 23 These passages are taken from the very few of his college letters which have been found. Scores have been lost, and it is extraordinary that so many have survived the half of a century. The Rev. Dr. Barstow, of Keene, N. I., a great student and a distinguished divine, was in college'with Finley Morse, and his two brothers, who entered before Finley completed his course. Dr. Barstow writes of the three brothers: "All three were exceedingly reputable, studious, and conformed to the laws of the college, holding an honorable rank in the curriculum of branches pursued in their several classes. But, beyond all this, they accomplished much in pursuit of branches agreeable to their respective tastes, talents, and inclinations; exhibiting as wonderful a variety as we ever see in the members of the same household. Richard, with all the sedateness and gravity of a young theologue, studied and pondered the deep mysteries of theology, and the deeds and doctrines of the Reformers. Sidney E. pursued with avidity those branches of learning that prepared him so admirably to perform the important-duties of a religious journalist, to the great satisfaction and benefit of the Christian public; and the Professor, Samuel Finley Breese, inquired with enthusiasm into those physical sciences that prepared him for his distinguished career as an electrician, together with the aesthetics of a self-taught artist and painter. "( The lectures of Professor Silliman, upon chemistry and mineralogy, were then exciting great interest upon those subjects among the students; and in them Finley Morse exhibited ESPECIAL ENTHUSIASM. Finley was the most companionable and genial of the three; he was ever ready to welcome to his rooms those college friends that loved to associate with him; always gentlemanly; always having a kind word for others, and always ready to do kind offices to all. "On a certain occasion, the writer of this note was admiring his pictures, and the inquiry was made,'Why can you not paint my likeness?' The answer immediately was,'I will do it;' and the result was a most perfect likeness, though the coloring was not so perfect as Mr. Morse accomplished after attending upon the instruction of others. But he would receive no compensation for the portrait, delighting to do a favor to those he esteemed." Dr. John W. Sterling, of Port Richmond, Staten Island, in a letter dated January 10, 1872, about three months before the

Page  24 24 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. death of Professor Morse, incidentally gives some pleasant recollections of the college-life of the young Morses: "It so happened that, in the year 1809, when I was of the Freshman class of Yale College, Mr. S. F. B. Morse was a member of the Senior, Sidney E. Morse of the Junior, and Richard Morse of the Sophomore classes. Among the reminiscences of those early days, I recall to mind the portraits painted on the walls of his room by the celebrated S. F. B. Morse, and also an amusing sketch, by this gentleman, of'Freshmen climbing the Hill of Science,' representing these poor fellows scrambling upon their hands and knees in order to reach the pinnacle of eminence. But what remains most vividly in my memory is, the balloon which they constructed of letter-paper, purchased, I think, at the paper-mill at Humphreysville, styled Rock of Rimmon by its, poetic proprietor, Colonel Humphreys. " This balloon was eighteen feet in length, was suspended from the tower of the Lyceum of Yale College, inflated with rarefied air, and sent aloft with its blazing tail, rising most gloriously until it vanished in the distance. This balloon was recovered, and another effort was made to raise it. In rising, however, it lurched, driven by the wind against the middle college-building, took fire, ascended in a blaze, but was soon reduced to black ashes." When four years old, the boy began to scratch the portrait of his teacher with a pin upon a chest of drawers, and this early tendency manifested itself as he grew. In college it contributed to his support. Dr. Barstow recollects that he would not take pay for the picture made of him, but Morse was glad to get what he could in this way, to aid him in the payment of expenses, which were exceedingly heavy upon a clergyman having three sons in college at the same time. He tried his hand upon some of his classmates. The imperfect likenesses, and worse paintings, appeared marvelous, when produced by an untaught boy. The young men were willing to pay moderate prices for rude pictures of themselves, which were a surprise and delight to their friends at home. But he made no great attainments in the art while in college. As yet no master had given him a lesson. He was feeling his own way along, with dreams of future distinction, even at this early period.

Page  25 CHOICE OF A PROFESSION. 25 August 9, 1809, he writes to his parents: "I employ my leisure time in painting. I have a large number of persons engaged already to be drawn on ivory, no less than seven. They obtain the ivories for themselves. I have taken Professor Kingsley's profile for him. It is a good likeness, and he is pleased with it. I think I shall take his likeness on ivory, and present it to him at the end of the term." " June 25, 1810. "Mr. Nettleton is better, and is willing I shall take his likeness as part pay (for board). I shall take it on ivory. My price is five dollars for a miniature on ivory, and I have engaged three or four at that price. My price for profiles is one dollar, and everybody is ready to engage me at that price." His college course was drawing near its close. He had no profession in view, but to be an artist, a painter, was his ambition. Had not his father been a man of large views and generous feelings, he could not have yielded to his son's desires to turn away from the learned professions, for which he had given him a liberal education. But the bent of his genius was already clearly indicated. July 22, 1810, he writes to his par ents as to his future: "I am now released from college, and am attending to painting. As to my choice of a profession, I still think that I was made for a painter, and I would be obliged to you to make such arrangements with Mr. Allston, for my studying with him, as you shall think expedient. I should desire to study with him during the winter, and, as he expects to return to England in the spring, I should admire to be able to go with him, but of this we will talk when we meet at home." This was written in the Senior recess, before commencement, when he was to be graduated. His mother writes to him and gives directions as to the making of his coat in which to appear at commencement when he graduates, and his father gives his consent that he should be one of the managers of the commencement ball. The first group that he ever painted was executed while he was a student in college. It is a family scene, and is still preserved, having an interest far beyond that which attaches to the first

Page  26 26 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. effort of one who afterward reached the heights of fame. The painting represents Rev. Dr. Morse, the father, standing by the side of a globe, on which he is discoursing to his three sons, while the mother sits by. A copy of this-picture is here given. When Dr. Morse was in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1810, he was intrusted with the care of the son of a friend, and brought him to the North to enter Yale College. Having been admitted, he was confided to the special attention of Finley Morse, then in his senior year. The recollections of this Southern student, now the venerable Joseph M. Dulles, Esq., of Philadelphia, are fresh and vivid, and are given in his own words, from a letter written October 16, 1872: " I first became acquainted with him at New Haven, when about to graduate with the class of 1810, and had such association as a boy preparing for college might have with a senior who was just finishing his course. Having come to New Haven under the care of Rev. Jedediah Morse, the venerable father of the three Morses, all distinguished men, I was commended to the protection of Finley, as he was then commonly designated, and therefore saw him frequently during the brief period we were together. The father I regarded as the gravest man I ever knew. He was a fine exemplar of the gentler type of the Puritan, courteous in manner, but stern in conduct and in aspect. He was a man of conflict, and a leader in the theological contests in New England in the, early part of this century. Finley, on the contrary, bore the expression of gentleness entirely. In person rather above the ordinary height, well formed, graceful in demeanor, with a complexion, if I remember right, slightly ruddy, features duly proportioned, and often lightened with a genial and expressive smile. He was, altogether, a handsome young man, with manners unusually bland. It is needless to add that with intelligence, high culture, and general information, and with a strong bent to the fine arts, Mr. Morse was in 1810 an attractive young man. During the last year of his collegelife he occupied his leisure hours, with a view also to his self-sup port, in taking the likenesses of his fellow-students on ivory, and no doubt with success, as he obtained afterward a very respectable rank as a portrait-painter. Many pieces of his skill were. afterward executed in Charleston, South Carolina. I met him there, and in his genial manner he said to me:'I am so glad to see you. You remember that miniature; it was unfinished when I left New Haven.

Page  [unnumbered] i I Hi lllll ll1lll 1 a I,......,~. ~~.. l.l.., -............ - =- -A TEFMLOFR.DR M THE FAMILY OF REV. DR. MORSE.,

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  27 SYMPATHETIC INK. 27 I have carried it with me ever since, and over Europe, and thought a hundred times that I would wash it out and put the ivory to some other use. Come to my studio and I will be glad to give it to you.' This memorial of our former intimacy is still in my possession." His college course being terminated at commencement in the year 1810, he returned to his father's house in Charlestown, Massachusetts, with a settled purpose to pursue the art of painting. His mind was busy with something besides books. Writing to his brothers who were still in college, he uses " sympathetic" ink, invisible until exposed to heat, and in their reply they tell him they cannot read it; he answers, and announces his devotion to his chosen art: "BOSTON, December 8, 1810. "MY DEAR BROTHERS: You wanted to know how you should read what I had written with the sympathetic ink. It was written on the paper which covered the newspaper.. It appears to me, if you hold it to the fire so as to warm it till it is quite hot, the writing will appear. I can hardly believe that it should lose its effect in going between this and New Haven; what was written was not of much consequence, and now can be but entirely useless as it was new then, but now must be quite stale. There is nothing new here now; I have almost completed my landscape; it is' proper handsome' so they say, and they want to make me believe it is so, too, but I sha'n't yet a while. "I am going to begin, as soon as I have finished this, a piece, the subject of which will be' Marius on the Ruins of Carthage.' Mr. Allston is very kind and attentive to me, and tries every way to be serviceable to me. "I am attending a course of anatomical and surgical lectures in Boston, under Dr. Warren. He is an excellent lecturer, and knows anatomy as well as anyman, if not better, in the United States. The lectures, contrary to my expectations, are extremely interesting. One would suppose at first they would be rather disagreeable and disgusting on account of the dissections, but it is not at all so. They have just begun. They are delivered every day at one o'clock, and are in length about an hour."

Page  28 CHAPTER III. 1811-1815. WASHINGTON ALLSTON-MORSE GOES TO LONDON UNDER HIS TUITION-THE VOYAGE-LONGINGS FOR A TELEGRAPH-BENJAMIN WEST-MORSE'S LETTEES TO HIS PARENTS-TO A FRIEND AT HOME-IMPRESSIONS OF WESTLESLIE THE PAINTER-HE AND MORSE BECOME ROOM-MATES-SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE-TRIUMPHS OF THE YOUNG ARTIST-MEETS WITH WILLIAM WILBERFORCE, HENRY THORNTON, ZACHARY MACAULAY, LORD GLENELG, AND OTHERS-VISIT AT MR. THORNTON'S-INTERCOURSE WITH COLERIDGE- TRAVELS TO OXFORD, AND INCIDENTS -FIRST PORTRAIT ABROAD-LESLIE AND MORSE-LETTERS TO HIS PARENTS-ZERAH COLBURN-DARTMOOR PRISONERS-ATTEMPTS TO SERVE THEM-DUNLAP'S ACCOUNT OF MORSE-DYING HEROULES-JUDGMENT OF JUPITER-GOLD MEDAL-MRS. ALLSTON'S DEATH-SCENE AT MR. WILBERFOROE'S-RETURN HOME. Y,7T ASHINGTON ALLSTON returned from Europe in V 1809, and spent two years in Boston, where he was married to the sister of the Rev. Dr. Channing. Just from college, and burning with ambition to be a painter, young Morse sought the acquaintance of Allston, who was then the greatest artist in this country. Morse saw him and loved him. The affection grew into reverence, continued through life, and when the great master, Allston, died, more than thirty years after this first meeting, his favorite pupil, Morse, begged the brush, still fresh with paint, as it dropped from the dying artist's hand, and kept it as a sacred memorial of his teacher and friend. He deposited it in the New York Academy of Design, which he founded, and it is there preserved as a sacred memorial of Allston, and of the veneration of Morse for his first master in art.

Page  29 WASHINGTON ALLSTON. 29 If the youth would be a painter, his father was disposed to give him such advantages as were necessary to his success. Allston was about returning to Europe, and to his care Mr. Morse was committed. More than to any, or all other teachers, Morse was indebted to Allston for his rapid triumphs in art. Washington Allston was born in Charleston, South Carolina, November 5, 1779, and was graduated at Harvard College in the year 1800, having already developed a love for music, poetry, and painting. With tastes the most delicate and pure, ardent in his feelings, delighting in the heroic, romantic, and ideal, he was one of the most noble and beautiful characters of the age which he adorned. He went to London in 1801, and studied under Benjamin West, with whom he formed an intimate friendship. Then he studied in Paris. In Italy he spent four years. Here he found Samuel Taylor Coleridge, of whom he said, in one of his letters, " To no other man do I owe so much intellectually as to Mr. Coleridge, who has honored me with his friendship for more than five-and-twenty years." In England Mr. Allston was also the friend of Wordsworth, Southey, Lamb, Reynolds, and other brilliant and distinguished men. After a brief visit of two years in his own country, he returned to London, and divided his time between poetry and painting. He was a deeply religious man. A Christian by conviction, his whole nature was filled with adoration of Him whom not having seen he loved, an ever-present Being in whom he lived and moved. Having passed seven years abroad in this second visit, he came home to America, where his name was already illustrious as the greatest artist the country had produced. His works commanded the highest prices that had ever been paid in America for paintings. A rare impersonation of the virtues that adorn humanity, with fine intellectual powers, and a spirit attuned to the love of his fellow-men, such was the man to whom Finley Morse was confided at the outset of his career in the art of painting. Mr. Morse began to write a journal on the voyage from New York to Liverpool. He wrote daily till the voyage was ended, then ceased; resumed it again on the return-voyage, four years afterward; and, with the exception of a few notes during one of his journeys in Europe, no diary remains. We

Page  30 30 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. are therefore left to recollections of others, letters to and from him, and records of the public press, for the material of his biography. Happily these materials are so abundant as to enable us to follow him through every step of his life. Extracts from his Journal. "After being wind-bound in New York harbor for several days, I embarked on board the ship Lydia, Captain Waite, for Liverpool, on Saturday, July 13, 1811; went only as far as the quarantine ground on Staten Island, where we lay over Sunday. We have fourteen very agreeable passengers, collected from all quarters of the globe: Mr. Amberger, a Russian; Mr. Neupaner, a Prussian; Mr. Minshall, the famous dramatist, an Englishman; Mr. Gray and Mr. Parmer, Scotchmen; Captain Visscher and lady, Mr. Allston and lady, Mrs. Waite, the wife of the captain, and a woman-servant of Captain and Mrs. Visscher, Mr. Searl, and Mr. Lord, Americans." He beguiled the hours of the voyage -by making notes upon the passengers, the crew, the ship, and the sea, with pencilsketches, for he was young and buoyant, and every thing was fresh and new. The famous dramatist was the occasion of infinite amusement, for everybody laughed at him, while he imagined that his wit and humor were entertaining others. The journal says: "Mr. Minshall is the author of several plays, as he calls them, though no one can make head or tail of them; he will receive flattery of the grossest kind, and is so puffed up by it as to make himself a laughing-Stock to the whole ship's company. He has been repeating to us this evening an epilogue to one of his plays, with such out-of-the-way gestures as to make us almost burst our sides with laughing, he supposing all this time that we were laughing at the wit of the composition, and joining with us in our mirth with his whole soul." Nothing unusual occurred to make the passage memorable, and in twenty days from port the land beyond was in sight. In six days more they made the harbor'of Liverpool, where, says the journal: " We prepared to go ashore among hundreds-of people who had assembled on the wharf. Some had come to hear the news; some

Page  31 THREAT OF PRISON. 31 to receive letters from friends in America; some from mere curiosity. But by far the greater part of the crowd had hastened to see us dashed against the head of the wharf by the fury of the tide. About a quarter-past eleven o'clock I placed my foot upon terra firma, not a little rejoiced on the occasion, although in a land of strangers. My fellow-passengers with me walked up into town to find lodgings. We established ourselves at the Liverpool Arms Hotel, the same at which Professor Silliman staid when in this place a number of years since. " Friday, August 9th. I went to the mayor to get leave to go to London. He gave me ten days to get there, and told me if he found me in Liverpool after that time he should put me in prison, at which I could not help smiling. His nazne is Drinkwater, but, from the appearance of his face, I should judge it might be Drinkbrandy." Thus hurried out of town by the mayor, with a degree of severity only to be accounted for by the excitements of the day, which then indicated hostilities, between the United States and England, Mr. Morse set off in a post-chaise for London with Mr. and Mrs. Allston. The journey of two hundred miles was extended through a week, as the health of Mrs. Allston required slow stages and frequent rest. He found lodgings in London at No. 67 Great Titchfield Street, and immediately wrote to his parents announcing his arrival. In this jfrst letter he expresses a longing that seems prophetic of his great invention. He says, after mentioning his safety: "I only wish you had this letter now to relieve your minds from anxiety, for while I am writing I can imagine mother wishing that she could hear of my arrival, and thinking of thousands of accidents which may have befallen me. I wish that in an instant 1 could communicate the information: but three thousand miles are not passed over in an instant, and we must wait four long weeks before we can hear from each other." On( the outside of this letter, yellow with age, is written in his own hand with pencil, but at what date is not known, probably toward the end of his life, these words: " LONGING FOR A TELEGRAPH EVEN IN THIS LETTER."

Page  32 32 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. The letter continues: " I long to begin to paint. Mr. Allston has just returned from Mr. West, who will be very glad to see me to-morrow. His great picture " (Christ Healing the Sick) " is much talked of, and is pronounced by connoisseurs the best ever painted in England. Mr. West told Mr. Allston that its exhibition had produced to the Brit. ish Institution, for whose benefit it was exhibited, upward of nine thousand pounds, although it was open only a few weeks. "Not being well to-day, I sent my letter of introduction to Dr. Lettsom, with a request that he would call on me, which he did, and prescribed a medicine which cured me in an hour or two. Dr. Lettsom is a very singular man. He looks considerably like the print you have of him: he is a moderate Quaker, but not precise and stiff like the Quakers of Philadelphia. He is very pleasant and sociable, and withal very blunt in his address; he is a man of excellent information, and is considered among the greatest literary characters here. There is one peculiarity, however, which he has in conversation, that of using the verb in the third person singular with the pronoun in the first person, as, instead of I show, he says I shows, etc., upon which peculiarity the famous Mr. Sheridan made the following lines in ridicule of him:'If patients call, both one and,all, I bleeds'em, and I sweats'em; And if they die, why, what cares I? I Letts'om.'" On the following day Mr. Allston introduced the young student to the great master Mr. West. That was a memorable moment in the history of Finley Morse. The fame of Benjamin West was at that time as wide as the world of art; and his history was familiar to every American who aspired to eminence in that world. Mr. West was an American, and now at the head of the Royal Academy of England-his time and genius in the employ of the king. Morse, a young pilgrim from the United States, slender, fairhaired, modest, and gentle, with his foot not yet on the first round of the ladder of fame, stood before his illustrious countryman, and the distance between them appeared all but infinite. Yet the career of West was the guide and ~timulus to the youthful student. Benjamin West was born in Springfield, Pennsylvania,

Page  33 BENJAMIN WEST. 33 where his father kept a country store. The boy was only seven years old when he made with a pen and ink the likeness of his little sister in a cradle, and so life-like that the mother, who caught him at it, exclaimed, " I declare, he has made a likeness of our Sally I " A party of wild Indians taught him the use of their colors, and he made hair-brushes from the back and tail of a cat. A friend sent him a box of paints and brushes when he was eight years old. The reputation of the artist-boy reached Philadelphia. He was encouraged to study. His portrait of a beautiful woman in Lancaster made him famous in that region, and sitters thronged him. The provost of the University of the State invited him to Philadelphia, with a promise of patronage. The family were Quakers, and to the Society of Friends the question of the boy's future was referred. They very wisely decided that "a man-child has been born, to whom God has given some remarkable gifts, and we shall do God's will by giving him our sanction to use them." Very wise these good Quakers were in their decision. They said: Genius is given of God for some high purpose. What that purpose is; let us not inquire; it will be manifested in his own good time and way. He hath in this remote wilderness endowed with rich gifts this youth, who has now our consent to cultivate his talents for art." Then all the women came forward and kissed the handsome young artist, and the men laid their hands upon his head. Thus, with the kisses of women and the benedictions of men, the young Benjamin was consecrated to the work of his life. He painted in Philadelphia and then in New York, and, when his portraits and other pictures had brought him money enough to warrant the expense, he went to Italy in 1760. He was then only twenty-two years old. His career was upward, steadily and rapidly. He visited all the chief cities of Italy, copied the greatest works of the old masters, then went to Paris, and, arriving in London in 1763, was welcomed by Sir Joshua Reynolds, who encouraged him to exhibit his pictures there. They commanded recognition, and established his reputation at once. He determined to remain in London. Two years after his arrival the king sent for him, and gave him a commission, took him into his favor, afterward gave him a salary, and required his whole time to be devoted to his service. During the 3

Page  34 34 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. War of American Independence, West remaining true to his native country, enjoyed the continued confidence of the king, and was actually engaged upon his portrait when the Declaration of Independence was handed to him. Mr. Morse received the facts from the lips of Mr. West himself, and commtnicated them to me in these words: "I called upon Mr. West, at his house in Newman Street, one morning, and in conformity with the order given to his servant Robert, always to admit Mr. Leslie and myself, even if he was engaged in his private studies, I was shown into his studio. As I entered, a half-length portrait of George III. stood before me upon an easel, and Mr. West was sitting with his back toward me, copying from it upon canvas. My name having been mentioned to him, he did not turn, but, pointing with the pencil he had in his hand to the portrait from which he was copying, he said: "'Do you see that picture, Mr. Morse?' "'Yes, sir,' I said;'I perceive it is the portrait of the king.' "(Well,' said Mr. West,'the king was sitting to me for that portrait when the box containing the American Declaration of Independence was handed to him.'' Indeed,' I answered;' and what appeared to be the emotions of the king? what did he say?' "' Well, sir,' said Mr. West,'he made a reply characteristic of the goodness of his heart,' or words to that effect.'Well, if they can be happier under the government they have chosen, than under mine, I shall be happy."' As the king became superannuated, the work on which West was engaged for the royal chapel was suspended, and his salary discontinued. But his position as the great master of the age was secure. And as President of the Royal Academy, the painter of "Christ Healing the Sick," and of "Christ Rejected by the Jews," the presence of the venerable man, now seventythree years old, excited, in the mind of the student standing before him, emotions of admiration rising into reverential awe. West received young Morse as a father and a friend. The introduction by Allston would have been sufficient, and he had letters to Mr. West, which secured his attention and awakened his interest at once. In a very few days Mr. Morse was hard at work, and the

Page  35 INTRODUCTION TO WEST. 35 impressions made upon him by the great master, at whose feet he had come to sit, and the inspiration which had already taken possession of his soul, will appear in a letter written within a fortnight: To his Parents. "LONDON, August 24, 1811. "I have begun my studies, the first part of which is drawing; I am drawing from the head of Demosthenes at present, to get accustomed to handling black and white chalk; I shall then commence a drawing, for the purpose of trying to enter the Royal Academy. It is a much harder task to enter now than when Mr. Allston was here before, as they now require a pretty accurate knowledge of anatomy before they suffer one to enter, and I shall find the advantage of my anatomical lectures. I feel rather encouraged from this circumstance, since the harder it is to gain admittance the greater the honor it will be should I enter. I have likewise begun a large landscape, which at a bold push I intend for the exhibition, though I run the risk of being refused. I am admitted a student in the British Institution, an establishment having the same views with the Royal Academy, the improvement of artists; but it only requiring the introduction of some one of the directors, Mr. West was so good as to introduce me there. "I was introduced to Mr. West by Mr. Allston, and likewise gave him your letter. He was very glad to see me, and said he would render me every assistance in his power. At the British Institution I saw his famous piece of' Christ Healing the Sick.' He said to me,' This is the piece I intended for America, but the British would have it themselves; but I shall give America the better one.' He has begun a copy, which I likewise saw;. and there are several alterations for the better, if it is possible to be better. A sight of that piece is worth a voyage to England of itself. The encomiums which Mr. West has received on account of that piece has given him new life, and some say he is at least ten years younger. He is now likewise about another piece, which will probably be superior to the other; he favored me with a sight of the sketch, which he said he granted to me because I was an American. He had not shown it to anybody else. Mr. Allston was with me, and told me afterward that, however superior his last piece was, this would far exceed it. The subject is,'Christ before Pilate.' It will contain about fifty or sixty figures the size of life.

Page  36 36 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "Mr. West is in his seventy-fourth year (I think), but to see him you would suppose him only about five-and-forty. He is very active; a flight of steps at the British Gallery he ran up as nimbly as I could. He was particular in his inquiry respecting the arts in the United States, and appeared very zealous that they should flourish there. He expressed great attachment to his native country, and he told me, as a proof of it, he presented them with this large picture. I walked through his gallery of paintings of his own productions. There were upward of two hundred, consisting principally of the original sketches of his large pieces. He has painted in all upward of six hundred pictures, which is more than any artist ever did, with the exception of Rubens. Mr. West is so industrious now that it is hard to get access to him, and then only between the hours of nine and ten in the morning. He is working on eight or nine different pieces at present, and seems to be more enthusiastic than he ever was before. "I was surprised, on entering the Gallery of Paintings in the British Institution, at seeing eight or ten ladies, as well as gentlemen, with their easels and pallets, and oil-colors, employed in copying some of the pictures. You can see, from this circumstance; in what estimation the art is held here, since ladies of distinction, without hesitation or reserve, are willing to draw in public. "I have seen but little of London as yet, being more desirous of commencing my studies at present, than to gratify my curiosity. I, however, in going to and from dinner, generally make a little circuit to see what is to be seen. If you have a plan of London I will direct you where to find me. I am on the west side of Great or Upper Titchfield Street, near the corner of that street and Maryle-bone Street. The place where I dine is in Wardour Street, at the corner of that street and Knaves Acre. I pass down Titchfield Street, by Oxford Market into Oxford Street, and go a short distance eastward, and Wardour Street is on the south side. I have not felt any of those disagreeable feelings which I expected to experience on my first arrival here; on the contrary, I have been in very:good spirits, and felt more enthusiastic and determined than ever in the pursuit: of my profession. I rise at seven, and breakfast, and by half-past seven get to work; these two or three days past I have sat over my drawing from half-past seven until five o'clock in the afternoon; which is my dining-hour. After dinner I generally walk a little, and visit Mr. and Mrs. Allston, who live but about three minutes' walk from me, at 49 London Street. He is very

Page  37 ESTIMATE OF WEST. 37 sociable and pleasant with me, and visits me every day to talk and smoke his cigar with me... I am very anxious at present to get into the Royal Academy; I have begun a drawing for the purpose from the Gladiator statue, and will tell you the issue in my next." After he had studied a year with Mr. West, and was better able to judge of the man and the artist, Mr. Morse writes to an intimate personal friend in his own country: " Mr. West has been so long at the head of his profession, and is so well known to the world, that I could relate little of his history that would be new to you. As a painter he has as few faults as any artist of ancient or modern times. In his studies he has been indefatigable, and the result is a perfect knowledge of the philosophy of his art. There is not a line or a touch in his pictures which he cannot account for on philosophical principles; they are not the productions of accident, but of study. His forte is in composition, design, and elegant grouping; his faults are said to be a harsh and hard outline, and bad coloring. These faults he has in a great degree amended; his outline is softer, and his coloring, in some pictures in which he has attempted truth of color, is not surpassed by any artist now living, and some have even said that Titian himself did not surpass it. He has just completed an historical landscape which, for clearness of coloring, combined with grandeur of composition, has never been excelled. In his private character he is unimpeachable; a man of tender feelings; with a mind so noble that it soars above the slanders of his enemies, and he expresses pity rather than revenge toward those who through wantonness or malice plan to undermine him. No man, perhaps, ever passed through so much abuse, and I am confident no one ever bore up against its insolence with more nobleness of spirit. With a steady perseverance in the pursuit of the sublimest profession, he has traveled on, heedless of his enemies, till he is sure of immortality. "Excuse my fervor in the praise of this extraordinary man. He is not such a one as can be met with in every age. And I think there can be no stronger proof that human nature is the same always, than that men of genius in all ages have been compelled to undergo the same disappointments, and to pass through the same storms of calumny and abuse, doomed in their lifetime to endure the ridicule or neglect of the world, and to wait for justice till they were dead."

Page  38 38 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. The artist-life of Mr. Morse in London was brightened by the companionship of one who rose to great eminence in his profession, and whose memory is cherished with pride in our country as well as in England. Charles R. Leslie was born in London, in 1794, three years after the birth of his friend, room-mate, and fellow-student, Morse. His parents were Americans, residing temporarily in London at the time of his birth. When the boy was six years old his parents returned to the United States with him, and, giving him an ordinary school education, apprenticed him to a bookseller in Philadelphia. But the genius of painting was in him, and asserted itself early. He was sent to London to be a pupil of Benjamin West, and, thus being brought into immediate acquaintance with Mr. Morse, the two young men became warm personal friends, had their studios together, and were soon bound by an affection that continued unabated till they were separated by death. Leslie was the soul of humor. It brims over in his letters, and pictures, and conversation. He selected subjects for its display in the pages of Shakespeare, Cervantes, Moliere, and others. His success was great, and he was soon elected an associate and member of the Royal Academy. In the year 1833 he came to the United States to enter upon the professorship of Drawing in the United States Military Academy at West Point. He was not contented there, and in the course of a few months returned to England. In 1847 he became Professor of Painting in the Royal Academy, and his lectures in that chair have been published as a hand-book for young painters. His associations with men of genius were intimate and beautiful, making his Autobiography one of the most delightful volumes, bringing us into living converse with Coleridge and Charles Lamb, Rogers, Washington Irving, and scores of men whose names are part of the ideal life of every lover of art and letters. He speaks of his introduction to London and Morse: "For a few days I was at the London Coffee-House, on Ludgate Hill, with Mr. Inskip and other Americans. I delivered my letters to Mr. West, and was kindly received by him. I visited the gal

Page  39 LESLIE AND MORSE. 39 leries of artists, the theatres, and the other principal objects of attraction to strangers, and'Such sober certainty of waking bliss I never knew till now.' But these enjoyments were soon interrupted by a severe illness, which confined me to my room in the hotel. I was solitary, and began to find that even in London it was possible to be unhappy. I did not, however, feel this in its full force until I was settled in lodgings, consisting of two desolate-looking rooms up two pair of stairs in Warren Street, Fitzroy Square. My new acquaintances, Allston, King, and Morse, were very kind, but still they were new acquaintances. I thought of the happy circle round my mother's fireside, and there were moments in which, but for my obligations to Mr. Bradford and my other kind patrons, I could have been content to forfeit all the advantages I expected from my visit to England, and return immediately to America. The two years I was to remain in London seemed, in prospect, an age. " Mr. Morse, who was but a year or two older than myself, and who had been in London but six months when I arrived, felt very much as I did, and we agreed to take apartments together. For some time we painted in the same room, he at one window and I at the other. We drew at the Royal Academy in the evening, and worked at home in the day. Our mentors were Allston and King; nor could we have been better provided: Allston, a most amiable and polished gentleman, and a painter of the purest taste; and King, warm-hearted, sincere, sensible, prudent, and the strictest of economists. " When Allston was suffering extreme depression of spirits, ilnmediately after the loss of his wife, he was haunted during sleepless nights by horrid thoughts; and he told me that diabolical imprecations forced themselves into his mind. The distress of this to a man so sincerely religious as Allston, may be imagined. He wished to consult Coleridge, but could not summon resolution. He desired, therefore, that I should do it; and I went to Highgate, where Coleridge was at that time living with Mr. Gillman. I found him walking in the garden, his hat in his hand (as it generally was in the open air), for he told me that, having been one of the Bluecoat Boys, among whom it is the fashion to go bareheaded, he had acquired a dislike to any covering of the head. I explained the cause of my visit, and he said:'Allston should say to himself, " Nothing is me but my will. These thoughts, therefore, that force

Page  40 40 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. themselves on my mind are no part of me, and there can be no guilt in them." If he will make a strong effort to become indifferent to their recurrence, they will either cease, or cease to trouble him.' He said much more, but this was the substance, and after it was repeated to Allston I did not hear him again complain of the same kind of disturbance." Morse had made decided progress in his studies before Leslie joined him, but the companionship of such a man was a constant refreshment and stimulus. Before the first month of his residence in London was spent, he writes to his parents: "LONDON, September 3, 1811. "I have finished a drawing which I intended to offer at the Academy for admission. Mr. Allston told me it would undoubtedly admit me, as it was better than two-thirds of those generally offered, but advised me to draw another, and remedy some defects in handling the chalks (to which I am not at all accustomed), and he says I shall enter with some eclat. I showed it to Mr. West; he told me it was an extraordinary production, that I had talents, and only wanted knowledge of the art to make a great painter. Since giving him your last letter and Dr. Waterhouse's, he has been very friendly and liberal to me, and says, if in any way he can benefit me, he will do it with pleasure. For the first, to economize, he told me a way of preparing common paper to paint on, instead of canvas, which will be a great saving of expense to me." The scene that occurred on the presentation of this drawing Mr. Morse was fond of describing in after-years, and it furnishes an invaluable lesson. Anxious to appear in the most favorable light before West, he had occupied himself for two weeks in making a finished drawing from a small cast of the Farnese Hercules. Mr. West, after strict scrutiny for some minutes, and giving the young artist many commendations, handed it again to him, saying, "Very well, sir, very well; go on and finish it." "It is finished," replied Morse. " Oh, no," said Mr. West; " look here, and here, and here," pointing to many unfinished places which had escaped the untutored eye of the young student. No sooner were they pointed out, however, than they were felt, and a week longer was devoted to a more careful finishing of the drawing, until, full of

Page  41 WEST'S GREAT LESSON. 41 confidence, he again presented it to the critical eyes of' West. Still more encouraging and flattering expressions were lavished upon the drawing, but on returning it the advice was again given, " Very well, indeed, sir; go on and finish it." "Is it not finished? " asked Morse, almost discouraged. " Not yet," replied West; " see, you have not marked that muscle, nor the articulations of the finger-joints." Determined not to be answered by the constant " Go and finish it" of Mr. West, Morse again diligently spent three or four days retouching and renewing his drawing, resolved, if possible, to elicit from his severe critic an acknowledgment that it was at length finished. He was not, however, more successful than before; the drawing was acknowledged to be exceedingly good, "very clever, indeed; " but all its praises were closed by the repetition of the advice" Well, sir, go and finish it." " I cannot finish it," said Morse, almost in despair. "Well," answered West, "I have tried you long enough. Now, sir, you have learned more by this drawing than you would have accomplished in double the time by a dozen halffinished beginnings. It is not numerous drawings, but the character of one, which makes a thorough draughtsman. Finish one picture, sir, and you are a painter." When Mr. West was painting his " Christ Rejected," Morse calling on him, the old gentleman began a critical examination of his hands, and at length said, "Let me tie you with this cord, and take that place while I paint in the hands of our Saviour." Morse of course complied; West finished his work, and releasing him said, "You may say now, if you please, you had a hand in this picture." Allston was as severe a teacher and critic as West. In one of his early letters to his parents, Morse writes: "My room-mate is Leslie, the young man who is so much talked of in Philadelphia; we have lived together since December, and have not as yet had a falling out. I find his thoughts of the art agree perfectly with my own; he is enthusiastic, and so am I, and we have not time to think scarcely of any thing else. Every thing we do has a reference to the art, and all our plans are for our mutual advancement in it. We enjoy much of the company of Mr. Allston,

Page  42 42 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. and a few other gentlemen, consisting of three or four painters and poets. We meet by turns at each other's rooms. Mr. Allston is our most intimate friend and companion. I can't feel too grateful to him for his attentions to me; he calls every day, and superintends all we are doing. When I am at a stand and perplexed in some parts of the picture, he puts me right, and encourages me to proceed, by praising those parts which he thinks good; but he is faithful, and always tells me when any thing is bad. It is mortifying, sometimes, when I have been painting all day very hard, and begin to be pleased with what I have done, on showing it to Mr. Allston, with the expectation of praise, and not only of praise, but a score of'excellents, well-dones, and admirables'-I say, it is mortifying to hear him after a long silence say:' Very bad, sir; that is not flesh, it is mud, sir; it is painted with brick-dust and clay.' I have felt, sometimes, ready to dash my palette-knife through it, and to feel at the moment quite angry with him; but a little reflection restores me. I see that Mr. Allston is not a flatterer, but a friend, and that, really to improve, I must see my faults. What he says after this always puts me in good-humor again. He tells me to put a few flesh-tints here, a few gray ones there, and to clear up such and such a part, by such and such colors; and not only that, but takes the palette and brushes, and shows me how. In this way he assists me; I think it one of the greatest blessings that I am under his eyes. I don't know how many errors I might have fallen into if it had not been for his attentions." Speedily admitted to the Royal Academy, and pursuing his art with enthusiasm, Morse begins to be a critic in the first years of his pupilage. He writes to his parents: " LONDON, January 30, 1812. I called, a day or two since, on Sir William Beechy, an artist of great eminence, to see his paintings. They are beautiful beyond any thing I ever imagined; his principal excellence is in coloring, which to the many is the most attractive part of the art. Sir William is considered the best colorist now living. You may be apt to ask'If Sir William is so great, and even the best, what is Mr. West's great excellence?' Mr. West is a bad colorist in general, but he excels in the grandeur of his thought; Mr. West is to painting what Milton is to poetry, and Sir William Beechy to Mr. West, as Pope to Milton; so that by comparing with, or rather illustrating, the one art by the other, I can give you a better idea of the art of

Page  43 PERCEVAL'S ASSASSINATION. 43 painting, than in any other way; for, as some poets excel in the different species of poetry, and stand at the head of their different kinds, in the same manner do painters have their particular branch of their art: and as epic poetry excels all other kind of poetry, because it addresses itself to the sublimer feelings of our nature, so does historical painting stand preeminent in our art, because it calls forth the same feelings. For poets' and painters' minds are the same, and I infer that painting is superior to poetry, from this: that the painter possesses, with the poet, a vigorous imagination, where the poet stops; while the painter exceeds him in the mechanical and very difficult part of the art, that of handling the pencil." The years 1811-1815, which were passed by Mr. Morse in London, were eventful in the political world, including, as they did, the period of the war between Great Britain and the United States (1812-1814), and the war between France and the allied European powers, terminating in the battle of Waterloo and the Treaty of Paris in 1815. Mr. Morse was in constant correspondence with his friends at home, and intensely interested in the great events of the age. In the spring of 1812, within the first year of his life in London, he writes to his parents ofThe Assassination of the Prime-Minister. "LONDON, May 17, 1812. " I write in great haste, just to inform you of a dreadful event which happened here last evening, and rumors of which will probably reach you before this; it is no less than the assassination of Mri. Perceval, the Prime-Minister of Great Britain. As he was entering the Hlouse of Commons last evening, a little past five o'clock, he was shot directly through the heart, by a man from behind the door; he staggered forward and fell, and expired- in about ten minutes. The mention of this shocking affair is but to remove any doubts you might have of the fact; I heard of it last evening, about three hours after it was perpetrated, but could not believe it, until the particulars related in the morning papers and my own eyes confirmed it. I have just returned from the House of Commons; there was an immense crowd assembled, and very riotous: in the hall was written in large letters,'Peace, or the tHead of the Regent! This country is in a very alarming state, and there is no doubt but great quantities of blood will be spilled before it is restored to order; even

Page  44 44 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. while I am writing, a party of Life Guards are patrolling the streets. London must soon be the scene of dreadful events. Last night I had an opportunity of studying the public mind; it was at the theatre; the play was' Venice preserved, or the Plot discovered.' If you will take the trouble just to read the first act, you will see what relation it has to the present state of affairs. When Pierre says to Jaffier,' Canst thou kill a senator?' there were three cheers, and so through the whole; whenever any thing was said concerning conspiracy, and in favor of it, the audience applauded; and when any thing was said against it they hissed. When Pierre asked the conspirators if Brutus was not a good man, the audience were in a great uproar, applauding so as to prevent for some minutes the progress of the performance. This, I think, shows the public mind to be in great agitation. You must not feel anxious respecting me; I can take care of myself, for, although London will probably be the scene of much bloodshed, I hope I shall have prudence enough to keep clear from danger. If I follow my pursuits without meddling with the affairs of others, I shall remain unmolested; so don't feel anxious. This is written in haste. The papers will give you more particulars.... " May 17th.-The assassin, Bellingham, was immediately taken into custody. He was tried on Friday, and condemned to be executed to-morrow morning (Monday, 18th). I shall go to the place to see the concourse of people. I should not be surprised if an attempt were made to rescue him. " Monday Morning, 18th.-I went this morning to the execution; a very violent rain prevented so great a crowd as was expected. A few minutes before eight o'clock Bellingham ascended the scaffold. He was very genteelly dressed. He bowed to the crowd, who cried out,' God bless you!' repeatedly. I saw him draw the cap over his face and shake hands with the clergyman. I staid no longer; but immediately turned my back and was returning home. I had taken but a few steps before the clock struck eight, and on turning back I saw the crowd beginning to disperse. I have felt the effects of this sight all day, and shall probably not get over it for weeks. There were no accidents." In a postscript to one of his letters of the same date, he says: "Mr. West is very kind to me; I visit him occasionally of a morning to hear him converse on the art. He appears quite attached to me, as he is, indeed, to all young American artists; it seems to give him the greatest pleasure to think that one day the

Page  45 AMUSEMENTS IN LONDON. 45 arts will flourish in America. He says that Philadelphia will be the Athens of the world." In a playful letter to one of his brothers, Morse describesas he perhaps would not to his parentsHis Amusements. "LONDON, June 15, 1812. "I have only a few moments to write you, as to-day the gallery of the Marquis of Stafford is open to artists; and, as it is but one day in the week for two months in the year, I cannot well miss it. " The queen held a drawing-room a short time since, and I went to St. James's Palace to see those who attended. It was a singular sight to see the ladies and gentlemen in their court dresses; the gentlemen were dressed in buckram-skirted coats without capes, long waistcoats, cocked-hats, bag-wigs, swords, and large buckles in their shoes; the ladies in monstrous hoops, so that in getting into their carriages they were obliged to go edgewise. Their dresses were very rich. Some ladies, I suppose, had about them, to adorn them, twenty or thirty thousand pounds' worth of diamonds. I had a sight of the prince regent as he passed in his splendid state carriage, drawn by six horses; he is very corpulent; his pictures are good, but he is very red and considerably bloated. I likewise saw the Princess Charlotte of Wales-she is handsome-the Dukes of Kent, Cambridge, Clarence, and Cumberland, Admiral Duckworth, and many others. The prince held a levee a few days since, at which Mr. Van Rensselaer was presented. I went out to Epsom races with Mr. Van Rensselaer in his carriage a short time ago, rather for the.ride than to see the running. Epsom is about nine or ten miles from London. I saw a great many splendid equipages and a great deal of company; most of the neighboring nobility were there; there was very good racing. I was on a hill in the centre of the course, so that I could see nearly the whole course, which was a mile and a half in length. "I occasionally attend the theatres. At Covent Garden there is the best acting in the world. Mr. Kemble is the first tragic actor now in England; Cook was a rival, and excelled him in some characters. Mrs. Siddons is the best tragic actress perhaps that ever lived. She is now advanced in life, and is about to retire from the stage. On the 29th of this month she makes her last appearance. I must say I admire her acting very much. She is rather

Page  46 46 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. corpulent, but has a remarkably fine face; the Grecian character is portrayed in it. She excels in deep tragedy. In Mrs. Beverly, in the play of'The Gamesters,' a few nights ago, she so arrested the attention of the house, that you might hear your watch tick in your fob, and at the close of the play, when she utters an hysteric laugh for joy that her husband was not a murderer, there were three different ladies in the boxes who actually went into hysterics, and were obliged to be carried out of the theatre. Mrs. Siddons is a woman of irreproachable character, and moves in the first circles. The stage will never again see her equal. You mustn't think, because I praise the acting, that I am partial to theatres; I think in a certain degree they are harmless, but too much attended they dissipate the mind. There is no danger of my loving them too much. "Last night, as I was passing through Tottenham Court Road, I saw a large collection of people of the lower class making a most terrible noise by beating on something of the sounding genus. Upon going nearer and inquiring the cause, I found that a butcher had just been married, and that it is always the custom on such occasions for his brethren by trade to serenade the couple with' marrow-bones and cleavers.' Perhaps you have heard of the phrase'musical as marrow-bones and cleavers.' This is the origin of it. If you wish to experience the sound, let each one in the family take a pair of tongs and a shovel, and then standing all together let each one try to outdo the other in noise, and this will give you some idea of it. How this custom originated I don't know; I hope it is not symbolical of the harmony which is to exist between the parties married." In another letter'to his parents, in the beginning of his second year, he Dreams of Greatness. "LONDON, September 20, 1812. "I have removed from 82 Titchfield Street to No. 8 Buckingham Place; Fitzroy Square... " I have just finished a model in clay of a figure (' The Dying Hercules'), my first attempt at sculpture. Mr. Allston is extremely pleased with it; he says it is better than all the things I have done since I have been in England, put together, and says I must send a cast of it home to you, and that it will convince you that I shall make a painter. He says also he shall write to his friends in Boston, to call on you and see it when I send it. "Mr. West, also, was extremely delighted with it. He said it

Page  47 LOVE OF ART 47 was not merely an academical figure, but displayed thought. He could not have paid me a higher compliment. Mr. West would write you, but he has been disabled from painting or writing, for a long time, with the gout in his right hand. This is a great trial to him. I am anxious to send you something to show you that I have not been idle since I have been here. My passion for my art is so firmly rooted that I am confident no human power could destroy it. The more I study, the greater I think is its claim to the appellation of divine; and I never shall be able sufficiently to show my gratitude to my parents for enabling me to pursue that profession, without which I am sure I should be miserable. And if it is my destiny to become GREAT, and worthy of a biographical memoir, my biographer will never be able to charge upon my parents that bigoted attachment to any individual profession the exercise of which spirit by parents toward their children has been the ruin of some of the greatest geniuses; and the biography of men of genius has too often contained that reflection on their parents. If ever the contrary spirit was evident, it has certainly been shown by my parents toward me. Indeed, they have been almost too indulgent. They have watched every change of my capricious inclinations, and seem to have made it an object to study them with the greatest fondness; but I think they will say that, when my desire for change did cease, it always settled on painting. I hope that one day my success in my profession will reward you in some measure for the. trouble and inconvenience I have so long put you to. " I am now going to begin a picture of the death of Hercules, this figure to be as large as life. I shall send it to you as soon as practicable, and also one of the same to the Philadelphia Exhibition, if possible, in season for the next in May." Mr. Morse had brought with him from his distinguished father and his father's eminent friends, letters of introduction to some of the best men in England. Among them were William Wilberforce and Henry Thornton, both of them illustrious philanthropists, and at that time members of Parliament; Zachary Macaulay, editor of the Christian Observer, and father of the historian; the two Grants, one of whom was afterward Lord Glenelg; and many others. The young artist was warmly received by these distinguished and excellent men. He was, however, so absorbed in his studies, and so firmly resolved to permit nothing to interfere with his progress, that he declined to de

Page  48 48 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. liver these letters for several months. His father reproves him for his neglect, and he justifies himself by showing that social duties would occupy more time than.he could spare from.his work, and that mingling in society was inconsistent with devotion to study. But in the course of the year he ventured upon making himself known; and his letters frequently mention the delightful intercourse with public men which these letters secured. To his Parents. "LONDON, December 22, 1812. " Last Thursday week I received a very polite invitation from Henry Thornton, Esq, to dine with him, which I accepted. Hearing that your son was in the country, he found me out, and has shown me every attention; he is a very pleasant, sensible man; but his character is too well known to you to need any eulogium from me. At his table was a son of Mr. Stephen, who was the author of the odious Orders in Council. Mr. Thornton asked me at table, if I thought that' if the Orders in Council had been repealed a month or two sooner, it would have prevented the war.' I told him I thought it would, at which he was much pleased, and, turning to Mr. Stephen, he said':'Do you hear that, Mr. Stephen? I always told you so.' Last Wednesday I dined at Mr. Wilberforce's; I was extremely pleased with him; at his house I met Mr. Thornton and Mr. Grant, members of Parliament. In the course of conversation, they introduced America. Mr. Wilberforce regretted the war extremely; he said itvwas like two of the same family quarreling; that he thought it a judgment on this country for their wickedness, and that they had been justly punished for their arrogance and insolence at sea, as well as the Americans for their vaunting on land. As Mr. Thornton was going, he invited me to spend a day or two at his seat at Clapham, a few miles out of town. I accordingly went, and was very civilly treated; the reserve which I mentioned in a former letter was evident, however, here, and I felt a degree of embarrassment arising from it which I never felt in America. The second day I was a little more at my ease. At dinner were two sons of the Mr. Grant I mentioned above; they are, perhaps, the most promising young men in the country, and you may possibly one day hear of them as at the head of this nation. After dinner I got into conversation with them and Mr. Thornton. When America again became the topic of conversation, they asked me a great

Page  49 ORDERS IN COUNCIL. 49 many questions, which I answered to the best of my ability. They at length asked me if I did not think that the ruling party in America were very much under French influence. I replied no; that I believed, on the contrary, that nine-tenths of the American people were prepossessed strongly in favor of this country; as a proof, I urged the universal prevalence of English fashions in preference to French; English manners and customs; the universal rejoicings on the success of the English over the French; the marked attention shown to English travelers and visitors; the neglect with which they treated their own literary productions, on account of the strong prejudice in favor of English works; that every thing, in short, was enhanced in its value by having attached to it the name English. They were very much pleased with what I told them, and acknowledged that America, and American visitors generally, had been treated with too much contempt and neglect. In the course of the day I asked Mr. Thornton what were the objects that the English Government had in view when they laid the Orders in Council. He told me, in direct terms' The universal monopoly of commerce;' that they had long desired an excuse for such measures as the Orders in Council, and that the French decrees were exactly what they wished, and the opportunity was seized with avidity the moment it was offered; they knew that the Orders in Council bore hard upon the Americans, but they considered that as merely incidental. To this I replied, if such was the case as he represented it, what blame could be attached to the American Government for declaring war? He said that it was urged that America ought to have considered the circumstances of the case, and that Great Britain was fighting for the liberties of the world; that America was in a great degree interested in the decision of the contest, and that she ought to be content to suffer a little. I told him that England had no right whatsoever to infringe on the neutrality of America, or to expect, because she (England) supposed herself to have justice on her side in the contest with France, that of course the Americans should think the same. The moment America declared this opinion, her neutrality ceased.'Besides,' said I,'how can they have the face to make such a declaration, when you just now said that their object was'universal monopoly, and they longed for an excuse to adopt measures for that end?' I told him that'it showed that all the noise about England's fighting for the liberties of mankind proved to be but a thirst, a selfish desire for universal monopoly.' This, he said, seemed to be the case; he could not deny it. He was going on to 4

Page  50 50 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. observe something respecting the French decrees, when we were interrupted, and I have not been able again to resume the conversation, as I returned to town with him shortly after in his carriage, where, as there were strangers, I could not introduce it again. I shall take the opportunity some time to pursue the subject with him. The prince's declaration, vindicating the English Government from blame in the war with America,.has been published some time. It is a flimsy thing, and by the friends of the administration thought to be but a weak defence." Among the autographs which Mr. Morse preserved to the end of his life is the following note from Mr. Wilberforce, to whom he had neglected to deliver his letters of introduction, notwithstanding his father's urgency that he should make the acquaintance of that remarkable man: " KENSINGTON GORE, January 4, 1813. "SIR: I cannot help entertaining some apprehension of my not having received some letter or some card, which you may have done me the favor of leaving at my house. Be this, however, as it may, I gladly avail myself of the sanction of a letter from your father, for introducing myself to you; and as many calls are mere matters of form, instead ot knocking at your door, I take the liberty of begging the favor of your company at dinner on Wednesday next, at a quarter before five o'clock, at Kensington Gore (one mile from Hyde Park corner), and of thereby securing the pleasure of an acquaintance with you. The high respect which I have long entertained for your father, in addition to the many obliging marks of attention which I have received from him, render me desirous of becoming personally known to you, and enable me with truth to assure you I am, with good-will, sir, "Your faithful servant, W. WILBERFORCE. "MORSE, Esq." This was the beginning of an acquaintance which proved to be of great value to the young artist; the recollections of it and of the men with whom it brought him into contact being among the pleasantest of his life. Professor Morse was very fond of repeating to his friends his pleasant recollections of intercourse with Benjamin West, Allston, Coleridge, Rogers, and other celebrated men of the

Page  51 WEST'S PATRIOTISM. 51 day. Some of these reminiscences were preserved by Mr. James Wynne: West averred that the Revolutionary war was carried on and troops sent in direct opposition to the judgment and wishes of the king, who only yielded to the strong representations of his ministry, that he had no right to dismember so large and important a part of the British Empire. As an evidence of this, he cited the case of Lord Mansfield, who, on the occasion of a question as to the propriety of sending more troops to America, in the House of Peers, remarked that "it was now time for the government to throw off the mask." The king, who could be aroused on certain occasions, became exceedingly angry with Lord Mansfield for the manner in which he had procured his sanction to send troops, and directed him never to see his face again-an order which was never relaxed. It may be that West's partiality for the king induced him to overlook his own part in the American war, and disposed him to place on the shoulders of others the blame which should in part, at least, have been borne by him. Be this as it may, the friendship subsisting between them continued unabated, although occasions were not wanting in which those who were jealous of the influence of an American over the mind of their king strove to alienate their friendship. West was fully aware of this, and, while he seldom paid attention to these attempts, could not fail occasionally to be annoyed at them. As an illustration of this feeling he narrated to Morse the following: "' While,' remarked West,'the king was on a visit to me, news was brought of an important victory of his troops over the rebels. Not finding him at the palace, the messenger immediately traced him to my studio, and communicated the intelligence. After this was accomplished, turning to me, the messenger said: "'And are you not gratified at the success of his majesty's troops?' "'No,' I replied;'I can never rejoice in the misfortunes of my countrymen.' "'Right,' replied the king, rising and placing his hand approvingly on my shoulder. -'If you did, you would not long be a fit subject for any government.'" Among the members of the Royal Academy with whom Morse was in the habit of frequent association, was Fuseli, whose erratic

Page  52 62 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. genius is perpetuated in the remarkable productions of his pencil, which at that time had great currency. Fuseli, who was a profound thinker and an agreeable companion, was on one occasion debating the question of the immortality of the soul with a disbeliever. " I do not know that your soul is immortal," said Fuseli to his companion-" perhaps it is not; but I know that mine is." "Why so?"? demanded his companion, greatly astonished at the comparison. "Because," said Fuseli, "I can conceive more in one minute than I can execute in a lifetime." No stronger illustration than this can be given of the soul's immortality. Another of these was Northcote, who did not affect to conceal his jealousy of other artists. On one occasion Coleridge attempted to take him to task for this unfortunate trait in his character. " Nonsense!" replied Northcote. " You possess, all men of genius possess, the same quality. As a test, are you willing to admit that Southey is as great a poet as yourself?" " To be sure I am," replied Coleridge. "Will you confess," continued Northcote, "that if you saw Southey standing under that beam "-pointing to the one above his head-" you would not secretly wish it to fall on and crush him? " It must be admitted that Northcote's envy was inveterate and incurable. Coleridge, who was a visitor at the rooms of Leslie and Morse, frequently made his appearance under the influence of those fits of despondency to which he was subject. On these occasions, by a preconcerted plan, they often drew him from this state of despondency to one of brilliant imagination. "I was just wishing to see you," said Morse, on one of these occasions, when he entered with a hesitating step, and replied to their frank salutations with a gloomy aspect and deep-drawn sighs. "Leslie and myself have had a dispute about certain lines of beauty; which is right?" And then each argued with the other for a few moments, until Coleridge became interested, and, rousing from his fit of despondency, spoke with an eloquence and depth of metaphysical reasoning on the subject far beyond the comprehension of his auditors. Their point, however, was gained, and Coleridge was again the eloquent, the profound, the gifted being which his remarkable productions show him to be.

Page  53 COLERIDGE AND ALLSTON. 53 "On one occasion," says Morse, "I heard him improvise, for half an hour, in blank verse, what he stated to be a strange dream, which was full of those wonderful creations that glitter like diamonds in his poetical productions." "All of which," remarked I, "is undoubtedly lost to the world." "Not all," replied Mr. Morse, "for I recognize in the'Ancient Mariner' some of the thoughts of that evening; but doubtless the greater part, which would have made the reputation of any other man, perished with the moment of inspiration, never again to be recalled." When his tragedy Qf " Remorse," which had a run of twenty-one nights, was first brought out, Washington Allston, Charles King, Leslie, Lamb, Morse, and Coleridge, went together to witness its performance. They occupied a box near the stage, and each of the party was as much interested in its success as Coleridge himself. The effect of the frequent applauses upon Coleridge was very manifest; but when, at the end of the piece, he was called for by the audience, the intensity of his emotions was such as none but one gifted with the fine sensibilities of a poet could experience. Fortunately, the audience was satisfied with a mere presentation of himself. His emotions would have precluded the idea of his speaking on such an occasion. Allston, soon after this, became so much out of health that he thought a change of air, and a short residence in the country, might relieve him. He accordingly set out on this journey, accompanied by Leslie and Morse. When he reached Salt Hill, near Oxford, he became so ill as to be unable to proceed, and requested Morse to return to town for his medical attendant, Dr. Tuthill, and Coleridge, to whom he was ardently attached. Morse accordingly returned, and, procuring a post-chaise, immediately set out for Salt Hill, a distance of twenty-two miles, accompanied by Coleridge and Dr. Ththill. They arrived late in the evening, and were busied with Allston until midnight, when he became easier, and Morse and Coleridge left him for the night. Upon repairing to the sittingroom of the hotel, Morse opened Knickerbocker's " History of New York," which he had thrown into the carriage before leaving town. Coleridge asked him what work he had. "Oh," replied he," it is only an American book!" "Let me see it," said Coleridge. He accordingly handed it to him, and he was soon buried in its pages. Mr. Morse, overcome by the fatigues of the day, soon after retired to his chamber and fell

Page  54 54 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. asleep. On awakening the next morning, he repaired to the sitting-room,'when what his astonishment to find it still closed, with the lights burning, and Coleridge busy with the book he had lent him the previous night! " Why, Coleridge," said he, approaching him, "have you been reading the whole night?" " Why," remarked Coleridge, abstractedly, " it is not late." He replied by throwing open the blinds and permitting the broad daylight, for it was now ten o'clock, to stream in upon them. "Indeed," said Coleridge, "I had no conception of this; but the work has pleased me exceedingly. It is admirably written; pray, who is its author?" He was informed that it was the production of Washington Irving. It is needless to say that, during the long residence of Irving in London, they became warm friends. Among the literary acquaintances formed by Morse in London at this period was Rogers, the poet, whose breakfasts attained so wide a celebrity. At one of these, at which Leslie and Morse were the only guests, Rogers waggishly remarked to Morse that his friend Leslie was a very clever artist, but that it was a great pity that he did not throw more grace and beauty into his female figures. Now, if Leslie prided himself upon any thing, it was precisely upon the grace and symmetry of his female figures, in which he particularly excelled, and so Morse informed him. "You think so," said Rogers, quietly indulging in a pleasant laugh at his own waggery, and changed the conversation, without explanation, to another subject. It is well known that Rogers's house was literally made up of choice gems, and among these was a sketch of the "Miracle of the Slain" by Tintoretto, which Rogers informed Morse was executed by that great artist preparatory to the execution of the painting itself. Morse asked Rogers where the original now was, as he had an order to paint a copy of it, and supposed, as it had been captured by Napoleon I., it was in Paris. Rogers informed him that it had been returned to Venice, where Morse afterward found it in the Academy of Fine Arts, immediately opposite Titian's "Assumption of the Virgin." The copy he then made, and which upon the death of its owner fell again into his hands, was among his own pictures as long as he lived. Fuseli, who at the time of Mr.

Page  55 DR. ABERNETHY. 55 Morse's residence in London was at the zenith of his fame, considered the original the finest picture in the world. At this period Abernethy was in the full tide of his popularity as a surgeon, and Allston, who had for some little time had a grumbling pain in his thigh, proposed to Morse to accompany him to the house of the distinguished surgeon to consult him on the cause of the ailment. As Allston had his hand on the bell-pull, the door was opened and a visitor passed out,, immediately followed by a coarselooking person with a large, shaggy head of hair, whom Allston at once took for a domestic. He accordingly inquired if Mr. Abernethy was in. "What do you want of Mr. Abernethy?" demanded this uncouth-looking person, with the harshest possible Scotch accent. "I wished to see him," gently replied Allston, somewhat shocked by the coarseness of his reception; "Is he at home?" "Come in, come in, mon," said the same uncouth personage. "But he may be engaged," responded Allston; " perhaps I had better call another time." " Come in, mon, I say," replied the person addressed, and partly by persuasion and partly by force, Allston, followed by Morse, was induced to enter the hall, which they had no sooner done than the person who admitted them closed the street-door, and, placing his back against it, said, " Now tell me what is your business with Mr. Abernethy. I am Mr. Abernethy." " I have come to consult you," replied Allston, " about an affection-" " What the de'il hae I to do with your affections?" bluntly interposed Abernethy. " Perhaps, Mr. Abernethy," said Allston, by this time so completely overcome by the apparent rudeness of the eminent surgeon as to regret calling on him at all, " you are engaged at present, and I had better call again." "De'il the bit, de'il the bit, mon," said Abernethy. " Come in, come in," and he preceded them to his office, and examined his case, which proved to be a slight one, with such gentleness as almost to lead them to doubt whether Abernethy within his consulting-room, and Abernethy whom they had encountered in the passage, was really the same personage. The first portrait Mr. Morse painted in London was that of his friend Leslie, and Leslie at the same time made a portrait of

Page  56 i6 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Morse. His mother received a letter in the spring of 1812, from a lady in Philadelphia, in which these portraits are alluded to: " I have this moment received a letter from Miss Vaughan in London, dated February 20th, and knowing the passage below would be interesting to you, I transcribe it with pleasure, and add my very sincere wish that all your hopes may be realized: "' Dr. Morse's son is considered a young man of very promising talents by Mr. Allston and Mr. West, and by those who have seen his paintings. We have seen him, and think his modesty and apparent amiableness promise as much happiness to his friends as his talents may procure distinction for himself. He is peculiarly fortunate, not only in having Mr. Allston for his adviser and friend, but in his companion in painting, Mr. Leslie, a young man from Philadelphia, highly recommended, and whose extreme diffidence adds to the most promising talents, the patient industry, and desire of improvement, which are necessary to bring them to perfection. They have been drawing each other's pictures. Mr. Leslie is in the Spanish costume, and Mr. Morse in a Highland dress. They are in a very unfinished state, but striking likenesses.' This Highland lad, I hope, my dear friend, you will see, and in due time be again blessed with the original." Samuel F. B. Morse to his Parents. " LONDON, March 24, 1813. " With regard to my expenses, I got through the first year with two hundred pounds, and hope the same sum will carry me through the second. If you knew the manner in which we live, you would wonder how it was possible I could have made so great a change in my habits. I am obliged to screw and pinch myself in a thousand things in which I used to indulge myself at home. I am treated with no dainties, no fruit, no nice dinners (except once in an age, when invited to a party at an American table), no fine tea-parties, as at home. All is changed; I breakfast on simple bread-and-butter and two cups of coffee; I dine on either beef, mutton, or pork (veal being out of the question, as it is one shilling and sixpence per pound), baked with potatoes, warm perhaps twice a week, all the rest of the week cold. My drink is water, porter being too expensive. At tea, bread-and-butter, with two cups of tea. This is my daily round. I have had no new clothes for nearly a year; my best are threadbare, and my shoes out at the toes, my stockings all

Page  57 THE USE OF MONEY. 57 want to see my mother, and my hat is growing hoary with age. This is my picture in London, do you think you would know it?' But,' you will say,'what do you do with the money if you live thus sparingly?' Why, I will tell you the whole. When I first came to London, I was told, if I meant to support the character of a gentleman, I must take especial care of my personal appearance; so I thought it a matter of course that I must spare no expense in order to appear well. So, this being first in my mind, I (supposing very wisely that London folks had nothing else to do but to see how I was qressed) laid out a considerable part of my money on myself; meanwhile, picture-galleries and collections, with many other places which I ought constantly to have visited, and which cost some money, were neglected; and why? because I could not afford it! Well, in process of time, I found no very particular advantage to be gained by supporting the character of a gentleman, for these reasons: in the first place, nobody saw me; in the second place, if they had seen me, they would not have known me; and, thirdly, if they had known me, they would not have cared a fartbing about me. So I thought within myself what I came to England for, and I found that it was not to please English folks, but to study painting; and, as I found I must sacrifice painting to dress and visiting, or dress and visiting to painting, I determined on the latter, and ever since have lived accordingly, and now the tables are turned: I visit galleries and collections, purchase prints, etc., and, when I am asked why I don't pay more attention to my dress, I reply that I cannot afford it. Provision of every kind is excessively high here, and is increasingly so. A pair of fowls, such as we could get in America for about three shillings per pair, are eighteen shillings sterling; a turkey, from ten shillings sixpence to a guinea; beef is thirteen pence per pound; pork, fourteen pence; mutton, one shilling; and veal, as I said before, one shilling and sixpence; bread is one shilling and eightpence the quartern loaf, half of one of which we eat in a day. Every thing seems to be in proportion: shoes are from fifteen shillings to a guinea per pair, boots three pounds, and so on. By this you can form a slight estimate how much it costs to live in this country. It is known by the experience of two or three Americans, whom I know, that a pound goes no farther in England than a dollar in America. My greatest expense, next to living, is for canvas, frames, colors, etc., and visiting galleries. The frame of my large picture which I have just finished cost nearly twenty pounds, besides the canvas and colors, which cost nearly eight

Page  58 58 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. pounds more, and the frame was the cheapest I could possibly get. Mr. Allston's frame cost him sixty guineas. Frames are very expensive things, and on that account I shall not attempt another large picture foy some time, although Mr. West advises me to paint large as much as possible. The picture which I have finished is'The Death of Hercules;' the size is eight feet by six feet and six inches. This picture I showed to Mr. West a few weeks ago, and he was extremely pleased with it, and paid me many very high compliments; but, as praise comes better from another than from one's self, I shall send you a complimentary note which Mr. West has promised t6 send me on the occasion. I sent the picture to the Exhibition at Somerset Eouse, which opens on the 3d of May, and have the satisfaction, not only of having it received, but of having the praises of the council who decide on the admission of pictures. Six hundred pictures were refused admission this year, so you may suppose that a picture (of the size, too, of which mine was) must possess some merit to be received in preference to six hundred! A small picture may be received, even if it is not very good, because it will serve to fill up some little space which would otherwise be empty, but a large picture, from its excluding many small ones, must possess a great deal in its favor in order to be received. " If you recollect, I told you I had completed a model of a single figure of the same subject; this I sent to the Society of Arts at the Adelphi, to stand for the prize (which is offered every year for the best performance in painting, sculpture, and architecture), and is a gold medal; yesterday I received the note accompanying this, by which you will see that it is adjudged to me in sculpture this year; it will be delivered to me in public on the 13th of May or June, I don't know which, but I shall give you a particular account of the whole process as soon as I have received it. By knowing these facts, you will perceive that I have not been idle since my residence here. I wish I could send you some specimen of my painting, but captains and passengers absolutely refuse carrying any thing larger than a small package of letters; and indeed, if there were opportunities, I could at present send nothing very interesting to you, my works consisting merely of drawings of heads, hands, and feet, and now and then a portrait for improvement. I shall soon commence some of papa's friends; Dr. Lettsom I shall ask first, Mr. Wilberforce I shall also ask, but do not know whether he will have time to sit to me. Sir Joshua Banks is now very ill indeed, and I doubt whether he will recover, and, even if he

Page  59 EULOGY OF ALLSTON. 59 does, there is so much ceremony necessary, and it is considered so great a favor for a man of his rank to sit to an obscure artist, that I doubt very much whether I should be able to obtain his consent; he might consent, however, if I mentioned that it was my father's request; and, if he recovers, I shall at least ask him. "I cannot close this letter without telling you how much I arr indebted to that excellent man Mr. Allston; he is extremely partial to me, and has often told me that he is proud of calling me his pupil; he visits me every evening, and our conversation is generally upon the inexhaustible topic of our divine art, and upon home, which is next in our thoughts. I know not in what terms to speak of Mr Allston. I can truly say I do not know the slightest imperfection in him; he is amiable, affectionate, learned, possessed of the greatest powers of mind and genius, modest, unassuming, and, above all, a religious man. You may perhaps suppose that my partiality for him blinds me to his faults, but. no man could conceal, on so long an acquaintance, every little foible from one constantly in his company; and, during the whole of my acquaintance with Mr. Allston, I never heard him speak a peevish word, or utter a single inconsiderate sentence; he is a man in praise of whom I cannot speak sufficiently, and my love for him I can only compare to that love which ought to subsist between brothers. He is a man for whose genius I have the highest veneration, for whose principles I have the greatest respect, and for whose amiable qualities I have an increasing love. I could write a quire of paper in his praise, but all I could say of him would give you but a very imperfect idea of him. To learn all his excellences, you must be acquainted with him. Do not think this mere fulsome compliment; what I write I write sincerely; you know I am not in the habit of writing what I don't think. You must recollect, when you tell friends that I am studying in England, that I am a pupil of Mr. Allston, and not Mr. West; they will not long ask who Mr. Allston is; he will very soon astonish the world. He claims me as his pupil, and told me a day or two since, in a jocose manner, that he should have a battle with Mr. West unless he gave up all pretension to me. It is said, by the greatest connoisseurs in England, who have seen some of Mr. Allston's works, that he is destined to revive the art of painting in all its splendor, and that no age ever boasted of so great a genius. It might be deemed invidious (and therefore I should not wish it mentioned as coming from me), were I to make public another opinion of the first men in this country:

Page  60 60 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. it is, that Mr. Allston will almost as far surpass Mr. West as Mr. West has other artists, and this is saying a great deal, considering the very high standing which Mr. West holds at present." Samuel E B. _Morse to his Parents. "LONDON, May 2, 1814. "You will probably, before this reaches you, hear of the splendid entree of Louis XVIII. into London. I was a spectator of this scene. On the morning of the day, about ten o'clock, I went into Piccadilly, through which the procession was to pass; I did not find any great concourse of people at that hour, except before the Poultney Hotel, where the sister of the Emperor Alexander resides, on a visit to this country, the Grand-duchess of Oldenburg. I thought it probable that, as the procession would pass this place, there would be some uncommon occurrence taking place before it, so I took my situation directly opposite, determined at any rate to secure a good view of what happened. I waited four or five hours, during which time the people began to collect from all quarters; the carriages began to thicken, the windows and fronts of the houses began to be decorated with the white flag, white ribbons, and laurel. Temporary seats were fitted up on all sides, which began to be filled, and all seemed to be in preparation. About this time the king's splendid band of music made its appearance, consisting, I suppose, of more than fifty musicians, and to my great gratification placed themselves directly before the hotel; they began to play, and soon after the grand-duchess, attended by several Russian noblemen, made her appearance on the balcony, followed by the Queen of England, the Princess Charlotte of Wales, the Princess Mary, Princess Elizabeth, and all the female part of the royal family. From this fortunate circumstance, you will see that I had an excellent opportunity of observing their persons and countenances. The Duchess of Oldenburg is a common-sized woman, of about four or five-and-twenty; she has rather a pleasant countenance, blue eyes, pale complexion, regular features, her cheek-bones high but not disagreeably so. She resembles very much her brother the emperor, judging from his portrait. She has with her her little nephew, Prince Alexander, a boy of about three or four years old. He was a lively little fellow, playing about, and was the principal object of the attention of the royal family. The queen, if I was truly directed to her, is an old woman of very sallow complexion, and nothing agreeable either in her countenance or deportment; and, if she was

Page  61 THE KING OF FRANCE. 61 not called a queen, she might as well be any ugly old woman. The Princess Charlotte of Wales I thought pretty; she has small features, regular, pale complexion, great amiability of expression, and condescension of manners; the Princess Elizabeth is extremely corpulent, and from what I could see of her face was agreeable, though nothing remarkable. One of the others, I think it was the Princess Mary, appeared to have considerable vivacity in her manners; she was without any covering to her head; her hair was sandy, whicJ she wore cropped; her complexion was probably fair originally, but was rather red now; her features were agreeable. " It now began to grow late, the people were beginning to be tired, wanting their dinners, and the crowd to thicken, when a universal commotion, and murmur through the crowd and from the house-tops, indicated that the procession was at hand. This was followed by the thunder of artillery, and the huzzas of the people toward the head of the street, where the houses seemed to be alive with the twirling of hats and shaking of handkerchiefs. This seemed to mark the progress of the king; for, as he came opposite each house, these actions became most violent, with cries of'Vivent les Bourbons!''Vive le roi!''Vive Louis!' etc. I now grew several inches taller; I stretched my neck, and opened my eyes. One carriage appeared, drawn by six horses, decorated with ribbons, and containing some of the French noblesse; another, of the same description, with some of the French royal family. At length came a carriage drawn by eight beautiful Arabian cream-colored horses; in this were seated Louis XVIII., King of France, the Prince Regent of England, the Duchess d'Angouleme, daughter of Louis XVI., and the Prince of Cond6. They passed rather quickly, so that I had but a glance at them, though a distinct one. The prince regent I had often seen before; the King of France I had a better sight of afterward, as I will presently relate. The Duchess d'Angouleme had a fine expression of countenance, owing probably to the occasion, but a melancholy cast was also visible through it; ehe was palp. The Prince of Conde I have no recollection of. After this part of the procession had passed, the crowd became exceedingly oppressive, rushing down the street to keep pace with the king's carriage. As the king passed the royal family, he bowed, which they returned by kissing their hands to him and shaking their handkerchiefs with great enthusiasm. After they had gone by, the royal family left the balcony, where they had been between two and three hours. My only object now was to get clear of the

Page  62 62 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. crowd. I waited nearly three-quarters of an hour, and at length, by main strength, worked myself edgewise across the street, where I pushed down through stables and houses, and by-lanes, to get thoroughly clear, not caring where I went, as I knew I could easily find my way when I got into a street. This I at last gained, and, to my no small astonishment, found myself by mere chance directly opposite the hotel where Louis and his suite were. The prince regent had just left the place; and with his carriage went a great part of the mob, which left the space before the house comparatively clear. It soon filled again. I took advantage, however, and got directly before the windows of the hotel, as I expected the king would show himself, for the people were calling for him very clamorously. I was not disappointed; for, in less than half a minute, he came to the window, which was open, before which I was. I was so near him I could have touched him; he staid nearly ten minutes, during which time I observed him carefully. He is very corpulent-a round face, dark eyes, prominent features; the character of countenance much like portraits of the other Louises; a pleasant face, but, above all, such an expression of the moment as I shall never forget, and in vain attempt to describe. His eyes were suffused with tears, his mouth slightly open, with an unaffected smile full of gratitude, and seemed to say to every one,' Bless you!' His hands were a little extended sometimes, as if in adoration to heaven, at others as if blessing the people. I entered into his feelings. I saw a monarch, who for five-and-twenty years had been an exile from his country, deprived of his throne; and, until within a few months, not the shadow of a hope remaining of ever returning to it again. I saw him raised as if by magic from a private station in an instant to his throne, to reign over a nation which has made itself the most conspicuous of any nation. on the globe. I tried to think as he did, and, in the heat of my enthusiasm, I joined with heart and soul in the cries of' Vive le roil'' Vive Louis' which rent the air from the mouths of thousands. As soon as he left the window, I returned home much fatigued, but well satisfied that my labor had not been for naught. "Mr. Wilberforce is an excellent man; his whole soul is bent on doing good to his fellow-men. Not a moment of his time is lost. He is always planning some benevolent scheme or other; and not only planning but executing. He is made up altogether of affectionate feeling. What I saw of him in private gave me the most exalted opinion of him as a Christian. Oh, that such men as Mr. Wil

Page  63 THE WAR SPIRIT. 63 berforce were more common in this world. So much human blood would not then be shed to gratify the malice and revenge of a few wicked, interested men. "I hope Cousin Samuel Breese will distinguish himself under so gallant a commander as Captain Perry. I shall look with anxiety for the sailing of the Guerriere; there will be plenty of opportunities for him, for peace with us is deprecated by the people here, and it only remains for us to fight it out gallantly, as we are able to do, or submit slavishly to any terms which they please to offer us; a number of humane schemes are under contemplation, such as burning New London, for the sake of the frigates there, arming the blacks in the Southern States, burning all of our principal cities, and such like plans; which, from the supineness of the New-England people, may be easily carried into effect. But no, the humane, generous English cannot do such base things-I hope not; let the event show it. It is, perhaps, well I am here, for, with my present opinions, if I were at home, I should most certainly be in the army or navy: my mite is small, but when my country's honor demands it, it might help to sustain it. There can now be no French party. I wish to know very much what effect this series of good news will have at home. I congratulate you as well as all other good people on the providential events which have lately happened; they must produce great changes with us; I hope it will be for the best. "I am in excellent health, and am painting away; I am making studies for the large picture I contemplate for next year. It will be as large, I think, as Mr. Allston's famous one, which was ten feet by fourteen." Samuel FB. J. orse to a Friend. "LONDON, May 30, 1813. "You ask in your letter what books I read, and what I am painting. The little time that I can spare from painting, I employ in reading and studying the old poets-Spenser, Chaucer, Dante, Tasso, etc., etc.; these are necessary to a painter. As to painting, I have just finished a large picture, eight feet by six and a half, the Death of Hercules,' which is now in the Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House. I have been flattered by the newspapers, which seldom praise young artists, and they do me the honor to say that my picture, with the pictures of another young man by the name of Monroe, form a distinguished trait in this year's exhibition; and, in enumerating about fifty of the preeminent works of the ex

Page  64 64 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. hibition, they have placed mine in the list. There were exhibited this year nearly one thousand pictures; and about two thousand were offered, but the rest were rejected. This praise I consider much exaggerated. Mr. West, however, who saw it as soon as I had finished it, paid me many compliments, and told me that, were I to live to his age, I should never make a better composition-this I consider but a compliment, and as meant only to encourage me; as such I receive it. A few days since I had the honor of receiving the prize gold medal offered for the best piece of sculpture at the Adelphi Society of Arts tlis year, which was presented me by the Duke of Norfolk. I mention these circumstances merely to show that I am getting along as well as can be expected, and, if any credit attaches to me, I willingly resign it to my country, and feel happy that I can contribute a mite to her honor." Samuel F. B. M. orse to his Parents. "LONDON, June 13, 1813. "I send by this opportunity (Mr. Elisha Goddard) the little cast of the'Hercules' which obtained the prize this year at the Adelphi, and also the gold medal which was the premium presented to me before a large assembly of the nobility and gentry of the country, by the Duke of Norfolk, who also paid me a handsome compliment at the same time. There were present Lord Percy, the Margravine of Anspach, the Turkish, Sardinian, and Russian ambassadors, who were pointed out to me, and many noblemen whom I do not now recollect. My large picture also has not only been received at the Royal Academy, but has one of the finest places in the rooms. It has been spoken of in the papers. They not only praise me, but place my picture among the most attractive in the. exhibition. This I know will give you pleasure, and I write it with great pleasure. I also send a catalogue of the exhibition, with one of the papers which criticises my picture, that you may see for yourselves." The early triumphs of men are more highly valued than successes in after-life. Among the papers that Mr. Morse preserved to the day of his death is a copy of the British Press, May 4, 1813, in which his picture " The Dying Hercules" is placed among the nine best paintings in a gallery of nearly one thousand, and among them the works of Turner, Northcote, Lawrence, and Wilkie.

Page  65 TWENTY PRINCES IN LONDON. 65 Samuel F B. M.orse to his Parents. "LONDON, June 15, 1814. "I expected at this time to have been in Bristol, with Mr. and Mrs. Allston, who are now there, but the great fetes in honor of the peace, and the visit of the allied sovereigns, have kept me in London till all is over. There are now in London upward of twenty foreign princes, also the great Emperor Alexander, and the King of Prussia. A week ago yesterday they arrived in town, and, contrary to expectation, came in a very private manner. I went to see their entree, but was disappointed, with the rest of the people, for the Emperor Alexander, disliking all show and parade, came in a private carriage, and took an indirect route here. The next and following day I spent in endeavoring to get a sight of them. I have been very fortunate, having seen the Emperor Alexander no less than fourteen times, so that I am quite familiar with his face; the King of Prussia I have seen once; Marshal Blucher five or six times; Count Platoff three or four times; besides Generals de Yorck, Bulow, etc.-all whose names must be perfectly familiar to you, and the distinguished parts they have all acted in the great scenes just past. The Emperor Alexander I am quite in love with; he has every mark of a great mind. His countenance is an uncommonly fine one; he has a fair complexion, hair rather light, and a stout, well-made figure; he has a very cheerful, benevolent expression, and his conduct has everywhere evinced that his face is the index of his mind. When I first saw him he was dressed in a green uniform, with two epaulets and stars of different orders; he was conversing at the window of his hotel with his sister, the Duchess of Oldenburg; I saw him again soon after, in the superb coach of the prince regent, with the duchess his sister, going to the court of the queen. In a few hours after I saw him again, on the balcony of the Poultnev Hotel; he came forward and bowed to the people. He was then dressed in a red uniform, with a broad blue sash over the right shoulder; he appeared to great advantage. He staid about five minutes. I saw him again five or six times through the day, but got only indifferent views of him. The following day, however, I was determined to get a better and nearer view of him than before. I went down to his hotel about ten o'clock, the time when I supposed he would leave it; I saw one of the prince's carriages drawn up, which opened at the top, and was thrown back before and behind. In a few minutes the emperor with his sister made their appearance and got into it. As the carriage started, I pressed 5

Page  66 66 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. forward and got hold of the ring of the coach-door and kept pace with it for about a quarter of a mile. I was so near that I could have touched him; he was in a plain dress, a brown coat, and altogether like any other gentleman. His sister, the duchess, also was dressed in a very plain, unattractive manner, and, if it had not been for the crowd which followed, they would have been taken for any lady and gentleman taking an airing. In this unostentatious ipanner does he conduct himself, despising all pomp, and seems rather more intent upon inspecting the charitable, useful, and ornamental establishments of the country, with a view, probably, of benefiting his own dominions by his observations, than of displaying his rank by the splendor of dress and equipage. His condescension also is no less remarkable; an instance or two will exemplify it: On the morning after his arrival, he was up at six o'clock, and while the lazy inhabitants of this great city were fast asleep in their beds, he was walking with his sister the duchess in Kensington Gardens; as he came across Hyde Park, he observed a corporal drilling some recruits, upon which he went up to him and entered into familiar conversation with him, asking him a variety of questions, and, when he had seen the end of the exercise, shook him heartily by the hand and left him. As he was riding on horseback, he shook hands with all who came round him. " A few days ago, as he was coming out of the gate of the London Docks, on foot, after having inspected them, a great crowd was waiting to see him, among whom was an old woman of about seventy years of age, who seemed very anxious to get near him, but, the crowd pressing very much, she exclaimed'Oh, if I could but touch his clothes!' The emperor overheard her, and, turning round, advanced to her, and, pulling off his glove, gave her his hand, and, at the same time dropping a guinea into it, said to her,'Perhaps this will do as well.' The old woman was quite overcome, and cried'God bless your majesty!' till he was out of sight. " An old woman in her ninetieth year sent a couple of pair of warm woolen stockings to the emperor, and with them a letter stating that she had knit them with her own hands expressly for him, and, as she could not afford to send him silk, she thought that woolen would be much more acceptable, and would also be more useful in his climate. The emperor was very much pleased, and determined on giving her his miniature set in gold and diamonds, but, upon learning that her situation in life was such that money would be

Page  67 THE EMPEROR ALEXANDER. 67 more acceptable, he wrote her an answer, and, thanking her heartily for her present, inclosed her one hundred pounds. "These anecdotes speak more than volumes in praise of the Emperor Alexander. He is truly a great man. He is a great conqueror, for he has subdued the greatest country in the world, and overthrown the most alarming despotism that ever threatened mankind. He is great also because he is good; his whole time seems spent in distributing good to all around him; and wherever he goes he makes every heart rejoice. He is very active, and is all his time on the alert in viewing every thing that is worth seeing. The emperor is also extremely partial to the United States; every thing American pleases him, and he seems uncommonly interested in the welfare of our country. I was introduced to-day to Mr. Harris, our charge d'afaires to the court of Russia. He is a very intelligent, fine man, and is a great favorite with Alexander. From a conversation with him, I have a scheme in view which, when I have matured, I will submit to you for your approbation. " The King of Prussia I have seen but once, and then had but an imperfect view of him. He came to the window with the prince regent, and bowed to the people (at St. James's Palace). He is tall and thin, has an agreeable countenance, but rather dejected in consequence of the late loss of his queen, to whom he was very much attached. "General Blucher, now Prince Blucher, I have seen five or six times. I saw him on his entrance into London, all covered with dust, and in a very ordinary kind of vehicle. On the day after, I saw him several times in his carriage, drawn about wherever he wished by the mob. He is John's greatest favorite, and they have almost pulled the brave general and his companion, Count Platoff, to pieces, out of pure affection. Platoff had his coat actually torn off him, and divided into a thousand pieces as relics, by the good people-their kindness knows no bounds; and I think, in all the battles which they have fought, they never have run so much risk of losing their limbs as in encountering their friends in England. Blucher is a veteran-looking soldier; a very fine head, monstrous mustaches. His head is bald, like papa's; his hair gray, and he wears powder. Understanding that he was to be at Covent Garden Theatre, I went, as the best place to see him; and I was not disappointed. He was in the prince's box, and I had a good view of him during the whole entertainment, being directly before him for three or four hours. A few nights since I also went to the

Page  68 68 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. theatre to see Platof, the hetman (chief) of the Cossacks. He has also a very fine countenance, a high and broad forehead, dark complexion, and dark hair. He is tall and well made, as I think the Cossacks are generally; he was very much applauded by a very crowded house, the most part collected to see him." A very noted youth fell into the hands of Morse while in London, and is thus mentioned in a letter from a friend of his: "Morse and I intend going to Hampton Court as soon as we have sent our pictures to the exhibition, and, Allston having promised to accompany us, we shall have a very pleasant little jaunt.' Zerah Colburn, the little calculator, has called on us two or three times, as Morse is painting his portrait. He is a fine, lively little fellow, and the most inquisitive child I ever saw. He has excited much astonishment here, and, as they are very unwilling just at this time to allow any cleverness to the Americans, it was said in some of the papers that he was a Russian. There was some great arithmetical question, I do not exactly know what, which he solved almost as soon as it was put to him, though it for several years baffled the skill of some of the first professors. His father expects soon to return to America, and says he has collected money sufficient to educate his son there, and that he now has power to prove to the world how much he has been injured by the accusations of avarice and selfishness that have appeared against him in the public prints." The war between England and the United States (1812-'14) naturally imposed delicate and oftentimes responsible duties upon American residents in London. Their kind offices were constantly sought by parties whose misfortunes had brought them into trouble, or by those who did not wish to run the risk of being detained in a hostile country. Of such applications as are answered in this letter, Mr. Morse had many: "LONDON, March 15, 1814. "MY DEAR FRIEND: Your letter with Dr. Hayward's came to hand, some time ago, at Bristol. The moment I came to London I presented your letter to Mr. Cooper, and he very politely gave me a note to the Alien Office, which I presented. I have called since about a dozen times to inquire the result of Mr. Cooper's application, and to-day received for answer that' England would not become the medium of communication between France and the

Page  69 APPEAL TO MR. THORNTON. 69 United States.' Please inform Dr. Cushing that, by the request of Mr. Thornton, I made application to Mr. Cooper for him at the same time, and Mr. Cooper's application was for both of you." "Believe me sincerely yours, "S. F. B. MORSE." Samuel F. B. 3Morse to Hienry Thornton. "BRISTOL, December 30, 1813. "RESPECTED SIR: I take the liberty of addressing you in behalf of an American prisoner of war now in the Stapleton depot, and I address you, sir, under the conviction that a petition in the cause of humanity will not be considered by you as obtrusive. The prisoner I allude to is a gentleman of the name of Burritt, a native of New Haven, in the State of Connecticut; his connections are of the highest respectability in that city, which is notorious for its adherence to Federal principles. His friends and relations are among my father's friends, and although I was not, until now, personally acquainted with him, yet his face is familiar to me, and many of his relatives were my particular friends while I was receiving my education at Yale College, in New Haven. From that college he graduated in the year. A classmate of his was the Rev. Mr. Stuart, who is one of the professors of the Andover Theological Institution, and of whom I think my father has spoken in some of his letters to Mr. Wilberforce. Mr. Burritt, after he left college, applied himself to study, so much so as to injure his health, and, by the advice of his physicians, he took to the sea as the only remedy left for him. This had the desired effect, and he was restored to health in a considerable degree. Upon the breaking out of the war with this country, all the American coasting-trade being destroyed, he took a situation as second-mate in the schooner Revenge, bound to France, and was captured on the 10th of May, 1813. Since that time he has been a prisoner, and from the inclosed certificates you will ascertain what has been his conduct since. He is a man of excellent religious principles, and (I firmly believe) of the strictest integrity. So well assured am I of this, that, in case it should be required, Iwill hold myself bound to answer for him in my own person. His health is suffering by his confinement, and the unprincipled society which he is obliged to endure is peculiarly disagreeable to a man of his education. My object in stating these particulars to you, sir, is (if possible and consistent with the laws of the country), to obtain for him, through your influence, his

Page  70 70 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. liberty on his parole of honor. By so doing you will probably be the means of preserving the life of a good man, and will lay his friends, my father and myself, under the greatest obligations. " Trusting to your goodness to pardon this intrusion upon your time, I am, sir, with the highest consideration, your most obedient, humble servant, "SAMUEL F. B. MoRsE." Henry Thornton, Esq., to Samuel F. B. Morse. "DEAR SIR: You will perceive by the inclosed that there is, unhappily, no prospect of our effecting our wishes in respect to your poor friend at Bristol. I shall be glad to know whether you have had any success in obtaining a passport for Dr. Cushing. " I am, dear sir, yours, etc., "H. THORNTON. "BATAKIN, February 17, 1814." Lord Melville to Mr. Thornton. " ADMIRALTY, February 7, 1814. "SIR: Mr. Hay having communicated to me a letter which he received from you on the subject of.Benjamin Burritt, an American prisoner of war in the depot at Stapleton, I regret much that, after consulting on this case with Sir Rupert George, and ascertaining the usual course of proceeding in similar instances, I cannot discover any circumstances that would justify a departure from the rules observed toward other prisoners of the same description. There can be no question that his case is a hard one; but I am afraid that it is inseparable from a state of war. It is not only not a solitary instance among the French and American prisoners, but, unless we were prepared to adopt the system of releasing all others of the same description, we should find that the number who might justly complain of undue partiality to this man would be very considerable. "I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient and very humble servant, " MELVILLE." S. E. Tyler to Samuel F. B. Morse. "STAPLETON DEPOT, February 24, 1814. "MR. SAMUEL F. B. MORSE"DEAR SIR: Having some knowledge of your family and friends in Boston and-Charlestown, I have taken the liberty to

Page  71 DARTMOOR PRISON. 71 address this communication to you, hoping that my unhappy situation will be a sufficient apology for the liberty I have taken. I was captured in April, 1813, bound from Charleston, South Carolina, to Bordeaux, and have been confined as a prisoner of war ever since. During my confinement I have written several times to my friends in Boston (of which place I am a native), but as yet have been without advices from them, which I can attribute to nothing but the obstacles in the communication between the two nations. I was entirely ignorant of your having been at the prison until to-day, when I received the information from Mr. Burritt, and I regret exceedingly that it was not in my power to have had an interview with you. I am a son of Mr. William Tyler, who, before his decease, carried on the rope-making business in West Boston, near the almshouse. I also have a brother-in-law, Mr. John Andrews, who carries on the sail-making business at the head of India Wharf, who is my guardian, and agent for me, as it respects my father's estate. " For reasons above stated I have been induced to make an application to you for pecuniary assistance, which, if you should be disposed to grant, I will give you an order on my brother for the amount, or will request him to repay it immediately to your correspondent either in Boston or Charlestown. Let me assure you, sir, that I would not make this application to you unless strongly prompted by most poignant suffering. Should you comply with my request, you will have the satisfaction of relieving an unfortunate fellow-creature, and you will confer lasting obligations on me. "If you would be good enough to inform me if there is any prospect of peace, or the probability of the exchange of prisoners being resumed, you will greatly oblige me. In the hope of shortly hearing from you, " I remain respectfully your obedient servant, "SAMUEL E. TYLER." Mr. Morse had some warm friends and fellow-countrymen residing at Bristol, and they encouraged him to believe that he would find several willing to sit to him for their portraits if he would visit that city. He did so, and found friends with whom his time was pleasantly spent, but very little in the line of his profession to reward him for leaving his studies and seeking employment. A letter from Washington Allston, in London, gives us insight into the life of artists:

Page  72 72 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Allston to Morse. "LONDON, January 2, 1814. "MY DEAR SIR: In the first place, I wish you and all of Mr. Visscher's family a happy New-Year. Last week I wrote you a letter that must have been vastly entertaining-as how? because it was altogether about my own affairs. Now, for the sake of symmetry, I send you another of the same kind. " Since my return I have had the courage to examine the state of my finances at my banker's, and found the balance in my favor to have been reduced to so small a sum as makes me think'tis time to look about me; and to endeavor, as soon as possible, after the proper ways and means for increasing it. On considering the subject, I was naturally led to the landscape in Bristol, when it occurred to me that perhaps the price I had fixed for it (viz., six hundred guineas) might be too high for that market; and that I should stand a better chance of selling it by reducing it to five hundred. I would thank you to consult with Mr. Visscher on this point; for I depend so much on his judgment, that I should not hesitate a moment to put it at five hundred guineas, provided he should think that a more salable price. Will you write me immediately and let me know his opinion? "I gave the finishing touch to my picture yesterday, and shall send it to the gallery to-morrow. Leslie's picture will do him great honor; he has improved it very much since his return. As to my'own beautiful self,' Mrs. A. says I am a picture of health. At any rate I find my health every day improving, and promise myself the pleasure of sending Mr. King a very favorable bulletin. Pray be particular in letting us know how his two patients in Mr. Visscher's family bear this cold fog. We have had it so thick and brown here, that it might well have passed for Shakespeare's'blanket of the dark' that Macbeth speaks of. Mrs. A. unites with me in best regards to our friends in Portland Square, and yourself. "Sincerely yours, "' W. ALLSTON." In the autumn of the same year, while Allston was at Bristol with Morse, Leslie wrote: Leslie to Morse. "LONDON, November 29, 1814. "MOST POTENT, GRAVE, AND REVEREND DOCTOR: I take up my pencil to make ten thousand apologies to you for addressing

Page  73 LETTER FROM LESLIE. 73 you in humble black-lead. Deeply impressed as I am with the full conviction that you deserve the very best Japan ink, the only excuse I can make to you is the following: it is perhaps needless to remind you that the tools to which ink is applied to paper, in order to produce writing, are made from goose-quills, which quills I am goose enough not to keep a supply of; and, not having so much money at present in my breeches-pocket as will purchase one, I am forced to betake to my pencil, an instrument which, without paying myself any compliment, I am sure I can wield better than a pen. I am glad to hear that you are so industrious, and that Mr. A. is succeeding so well with portraits. I hope he will bring all he has painted to London. I am looking out for you every day. I think we form a kind of family here, and I feel, in an absence from Mr. and Mrs. A. and yourself, as I used to do when away from my mother and sisters. By-the-by, I have not had any letters from home for more than a month. It seems the Americans are all united, and we shall now have war in earnest. I am glad of it for many reasons. I think it will not only get us a more speedy and permanent peace, but may tend to crush the demon of partyspirit and strengthen our government. " I am done painting the gallery, and have finished my drawings for the prize: thank you for your good wishes. " I thought Mr. Allston knew how proud I am of being considered his student. Tell him, if he thinks it worth while to mention me at all in his letter to Delaplaine, I shall consider it a great honor to be called so. "Yours most truly, " C. B. L." Leslie to Morse. "Mr. Allston and I have sent our pictures to the gallery. He has made good interest to get his large one placed at the end of one of the rooms. As to mine, it is of small consequence where they put it. Mr. Allston, after finishing his'Diana,' showed it to Mr. West, who was (to speak even moderately) in raptures with it. He immediately called his son Raphael,'There,' says the old gentleman,'there, why there is nobody who does any thing like this.' Raphael exclaimed,'It looks like a bit of Titian.''Oh yes,' answered his father,'that's Titian's flesh, that's Titian's flesh.' After this shower of compliments, Mr. Allston said,'I am very highly gratified, sir, to find it meets your approbation.''Sir,' said Mr.

Page  74 74 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. West,'I cannot find words to express what I think of it.' He then proceeded to point out the beauties of the parts, and praised the composition, drawing, etc., as he had done the color. He seemed particularly pleased with the landscape. He told Mr. Allston to follow this up, adding,'Sir, you will find thousands of people who will give you two hundred guineas for a picture of this size, who have not room in their houses for larger ones.' He said he could have sold all the small sketches in his gallery many times over, but he chose to keep them himself. Several he has sold, and painted duplicates of them. Mr. Allston mentioned his subject of' Venus and Adonis,' and Mr. West advised him by all means to paint it, but not to have the figures the size of life. Mr. Allston is going to begin the old gentleman's portrait very soon. He promises himself much pleasure in the execution of it." " Mr. Morse has related to me," says Dunlap, " some particulars of a ramble he took in company with Earle, when they both were students of the Royal Academy in 1813. With their sketch-books and drawing apparatus, they visited the sea-shore and the towns adjacent, making pedestrian excursions into the country in search of scenery, and sometimes meeting an adventure. On one occasion, their aim after a day's ramble was to reach Deal, and there put up for the night; but they found, when about five miles from the town, that they had to cross a dreary moor, and the sun was about to withdraw his light from them. As they mounted a stile they were met by a farmer, who accosted them with: "' Gentlemen, are you going to cross the moor so late?' " Yes. We can't lose our way, can we?' No; but you may lose your lives.' "' How so? "'Why there be always a power of shipping at Deal, and the sailors be sad chaps; they come ashore and rob and murder on the moor, without your leave or by your leave.' "'Has any thing of the kind taken place lately? "'Why, yes, a young woman was murdered not long ago by two sailors. You will see the spot on your way, if you will go: there is a pile of stones where she was killed. The fellows were taken, and I saw them hanged.' "'So there is no danger from them, then.' "' About a' mile farther on you will see bushes on your left hand-there a man was murdered not long ago; but the worst

Page  75 MEETING A GHOST. 75 place is farther on. You will come to a narrow lane with a hedge on each side; it will be dark before you get there, and in that lane you will come to a stile, and just beyond you will see a white stone set up, and on it is written all' the circumstances of the murder of a young woman, a neighbor of mine, who was coming home from town all dressed in white, with a bundle in her hand, tied in a dark-red handkerchief. But, gentlemen, you had better turn back and stop the night at my house, and you shall be heartily welcome.' "They thanked him, but saying they were two, and a match for two, they full of confidence pursued their route. It soon became twilight. They found the heap of stones, and a slight shudder occurred when looking on the dreary scene, and the mark by which murder was designated. They passed on rather tired, and striving to keep up each other's courage until they came to the bushes. Here was another spot where foul murder had been committed. They quickened their pace as they found darkness increase; and now they came to the lane with the high hedge-row on each side, which rendered their way almost a path of utter darkness. They became silent, and with no pleasant feelings expected to see the stile, and, if not too dark, the stone erected to commemorate the murder of the young girl in white with the dark-red handkerchief. "'What's that?' said Earle, stopping. "'I see nothing,' said Morse-' yes-now, that I stoop down, I see the stile.' " Don't you see something white beyond the stile? " That, I suppose, is the white stone.' "'Stones do not move,' said Earle. "Morse stooped again, so as to bring the stile against the sky as a background, and whispered:'I see some one on the stilehush I' " A figure now approached, and, as they stood aside to give ample room for it to pass, they perceived a tall female dressed in white, with a dark-red bundle in her hand. On came the figure, and the lads gazed with a full recollection of the farmer's story of murder, and some feelings allied to awe. On she came, and without noticing them passed to go over the moor. "' It will not do to let it go without speaking to it,' thought Morse, and he called out,'Young woman! are you not afraid to pass over the moor so late?' "'Oh no, sir,' said the ghost, I live hard by, and when I've

Page  76 76 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. done work I am used to crossing the moor in the eve-good-night,' and on she tripped. " The young painters laughed at each other, and pursued their way without further thought of ghosts or murderers. They saw, indeed, the murder-marking monument, but it was too dark to read the tale, and they soon found themselves in comfortable quarters, after their long day's ramble, and forgot their fears and their fatigues together. "Eighteen years or more after, Mr. Morse inquired of Leslie for their old companion, Earle, and learned that he had been rambling far beyond Deal.' He had visited every part of the Mediterranean,' said Leslie,'roamed in Africa, rambled in the United States, sketched in South America, attempted to go to the Cape of Good Hope in a worn-out Margate hoy, and was shipwrecked on Tristan d'Acunha, where he passed six months with some old tars, who hutted there. At length a vessel touched the desolate place and released him. He then visited Van Diemen's Land, New South Wales, and New Zealand, where he drew from the naked figure, and saw the finest forms in the world addicted to cannibalism. "Returning to Sydney, he, by way of variety, proceeded to the Caroline Islands, stopped at the Ladrones, looked in upon Manila, and finally settled himself at Madras, and made money as a portraitpainter. Not content, he went to Pondicherry, and there embarked for France, but stopped at the Mauritius, and, after some few more calls at various places, found his way home. Here his sister had married a Mr. Murray, a relative of the Duke of Athol, and, being left a widow, he found a home as charge d'affaires for his grace, who, you know, is a harmless madman, thinks himself overwhelmed with business, and shuts himself up with books and papers, which he cannot understand, and then calls for his coach, and, riding out on some important errand, which forgotten, he returns again. " Earle wrote and published his travels, and attracted some attention. One day he came to me with delight painted on his face. " I am anchored for life; I have an offer of two hundred pounds a year, and every thing found me, only to reside under the roof of the Duke of Athol, and ride out with him when he takes it in his head to call his coach. I am settled at last!' " I congratulated him. "'You can write and draw at your leisure, and give us all your adventures?' "'Yes, nothing could be happier.'

Page  77 ALLSTON'S "DEAD MAN." 77 "A few weeks after Earle came again. "'Congratulate me, Leslie!' "' What has happened?' "'I have been offered a berth on a ship bound to the south pole! I have accepted it; it is just what I wish.' "And he is now in his element again; for rove he must as long as he lives." Mr. Dunlap gives other incidents in the life of Morse, while in London: "The first portraits painted in London both by Morse and Leslie were portraits of each other, in fancy costume. Morse was painted by Leslie in a Scotch costume, with black-plumed bonnet, and tartan plaid; and Leslie by Morse in a Spanish cavalier's dress, a Vandyck-ruff, black cloak, and slashed sleeves. Both these portraits are at the house of their ancient hostess, who retpains mementos of the like character-some product of the pencil of each of her American inmates. " It was about the year 1812 that Allston commenced his celebrated picture of the' Dead Man restored to Life by touching the Bones of Elisha,' which is now in the Pennsylvania Academy of Arts. In the study of this picture he made a model in clay of the head of the dead man, to assist him in painting the expression. This was the practice of the most eminent old masters. Morse had begun a large picture to come out before the British public at the Royal Academy exhibition. The subject was the' Dying Hercules,' and, in order to paint it with the more effect, he followed the example of Allston, and determined to model the figure in clay. It was his first attempt at modeling. His original intention was simply to complete such parts of the figure as were useful in the single view necessary for the purpose of painting; but, having done this, he was encouraged, by the approbation of Allston and other artists, to finish the entire figure. "After completing it, he had it cast in plaster of Paris, and carried it to show to West. West seemed more than pleased with it. After surveying it all round critically, with many exclamations of surprise, he sent his servant to call his son Raphael. As soon as Raphael made his appearance, he pointed to the figure, and said: "'Look there, sir; I have always told you ahy painter can make a sculptor.'

Page  78 78 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. " From this model, Morse painted his picture of the'Dying Hercules,' of colossal size, and sent it, in May, 1813, to the Royal Academy exhibition at Somerset House. "The picture was well received. A critic of one of the journals of that day, in speaking of the Royal Academy, thus notices Morse:'Of the academicians, two or three have distinguished themselves in a preeminent degree; besides, few have added much to their fame, perhaps they have hardly sustained it. But the great feature in this exhibition is, that it presents several works of very high merit by artists with whose performances, and even with whose names, we were hitherto unacquainted. At the head 6f this class are Messrs. Monro and Morse. The prize of History mav be contended for by Ir. Northcote and Mr. Stothard. We should award it to the former. After these gentlemen, Messrs. Hilton, Turner, Lane, Monro, and Morse, follow in the same class.'-(London Globe, May 14, 1813.) " In commemorating the'preeminent works of this exhibition,' out of nearly two thousand pictures, this critic places the'Dying Hercules' among the first twelve. This success of his first picture was highly encouraging to Morse, but it was not confined to the picture. Upon showing the plaster model to an artist of eminence, he was advised by him to send it to the Society of Arts to take its chance for the prize in sculpture, offered by that society, for an original cast of a single figure. Finding that the figure he had modeled came within the rules of the society, he sent it to their rooms, and was not a little astonished a few days after at receiving a notice to appear on the 13th of May, in the great room of the Adelphi, to receive in public the gold medal, which had been adjudged to his model of the'Hercules.' On that day there were assembled the principal nobility of Britain, the foreign ambassadors, and distinguished strangers; among them but two Americans. The Duke of Norfolk presided, and from his hands Morse received the gold medal, with many complimentary remarks. It is worthy of notice that at this period Great Britain and the United States were at war. We see in this another instance of the impartiality with which the English treated our artists. Allston and Leslie were treated in the same manner during this period of national hos. tility. Allston says England made no distinction between Americans and her own artists; yet Trumbull attributed his failure, at this time, to the enmity of the English. We are glad to bear tes. timony to the good feeling of the enlightened public of Great

Page  79 "THE JUDGMENT OF JUPITER." 79 Britain, which placed them above a mean jealousy or a barbaric warfare upon the arts. "Encouraged by this flattering reception of his first works in painting and in sculpture, the young artist redoubled his energies in his studies, and determined to contend for the highest premium in historical composition, offered by the Royal Academy at the'beginning of the year 1814. The subject was'The Judgment of Jupiter in the Case of Apollo, Marpessa, and Idas.' The premium offered was a gold medal and fifty guineas. The decision was to take place in December of 1815. The composition, containing four figures, required much study; but by the exercise of great diligence the picture was completed by the middle of July. Our young painter had now been in England four years, one year longer than the time allowed him by his parents, and he had to return immediately home; but he had finished his picture under the conviction, strengthened by the opinion of West, that it would be allowed to remain and compete with those of the other candidates. To his regret, the petition to the council of the Royal Academy for this favor, handed in to them by West, arid advocated strongly by him and Fuseli, was not granted. He was told that it was necessary, according to the rules of the Academy, that the artist should be present to receive the premium; it could not be received by proxy. Fuseli expressed himself in very indignant terms at the narrowness of this decision. "Thus disappointed, the artist had but one mode of consolation. He invited West to see his picture before he packed it up, at the same time requesting Mr. West to inform him, through Mr. Leslie, after the premiums should be adjudged in December, what chance he would have had if he had remained. Mr. West, after sitting before the picture for a long time, promised to comply with the request; but added,'You had better remain, sir.9" The'subsequent history of the plaster casts that were made of the " Dying Hercules " is interesting. One of them found its way into the basement of the Capitol of the United States, and was there discovered by Mr. Morse under very extraordinary circumstances, which will be stated hereafter. This cast he gave to a friend, Rev. E. G. Smith, who wrote to Mr. Morse in 1860, asking a brief statement of the circumstances of its execution and its successful competition for the gold medal. To this note Mr. Morse replied:

Page  80 80 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " You ask if the cast of the' Hercules' is the original cast or a copy. A mould was made from the original clay model, from which vere cast some five or six. I brought the mould with me from England, but, through ignorance of its character, a man, in cleaning house, supposed the parts to be broken plaster, and threw thefi into the street during my absence at the South, so that the original mould is destroyed. A copy, or rather one of the casts from the original mould, was in the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, but was destroyed in the fire which consumed the Academy building. A mutilated fragment of another is, or was, in the National Academy collection in New York. Yours is the only perfect (so far as it is perfect) cast I know, the others having passed out of my knowledge. A fresh mould was made from the cast in Philadelphia many years ago by some moulders there, from which some casts (how many I don't know) were made, and sold by them as antique! So old Paff, an eccentric picture-dealer of olden time once told me. But you want to know something of its early history; this I give you in brief: " In the year 1812 I had so far advanced in my studies as to attempt a large picture of a single figure. The subject I chose was'The Death of Hercules.' My friend and master at this time was Washington Allston, who was then painting his picture of the'Dead Man restored to Life by touching the Bones of Elisha.' He had modeled in clay the head of the' dead man,' for the purpose of aiding him in the painting, explaining to me that this was often the practice of the most celebrated old masters. From this example I determined to model the figure of the' Hercules' to aid me in my painting of the' Dying Hercules.' It was my first attempt at modeling, and as the model, so far as it was to be of use in my picture, required only correctness and finish in one view of it, to wit, the view chosen for the painting, I at first only completed it in that view. At this point Mr. Allston expressed himself so pleased with it, that he advised me to finish it in every view; in other words, to make a complete statue, alleging, among other reasons, that I should thus become familiar with the human figure more readily than in any other way. Hence, I completed the whole figure, and, on showing it to Mr. West, was much flattered by his praise of it. I was advised by friends that a premium of a gold medal was offered for just such an original model, and was recommended to send it to the Adelphi Society of Arts to compete for this prize. I accordingly sent it to the rooms of the society, and, to my surprise, a

Page  81 DEATH OF MRS. ALLSTON. 81 few days after, received the summons to appear on a certain day at the rooms of the society in full meeting, to receive the gold medal from the president, the Duke of Norfolk. This was during the war of 1812; and I have often spoken of it as a pleasing incicident, that, while a fierce strife was going on without between the two nations as nations, yet, in the Department of Fine Arts at least, there was a neutral peaceful ground on which artists and their encouragers could stand and be in perfect harmony with each other." Death of iMrs. Allston. On the 2d day of February, 1815, Mrs. Allston died suddenly in London. The blow was so fearful and unexpected, that for a time it threatened to be fatal to the reason, if not to the life, of the surviving husband. The next morning Mr. Morse writes to his father: "I write in great haste and much agitation. Mrs. Allston, the wife of our beloved friend, died last evening, and the event overwhelmed us all in the utmost sorrow. As for Mr. Allston, for several hours after the death of his wife he was almost bereft of his reason. Mr. Leslie and I are applying our whole attention to him, and we have so far succeeded as to see him more composed." Mr. Morse wrote also to Mr. Channing, and, sending the letter to Dr. Morse, requested him to communicate the distressing intelligence to Mr. Allston's friends. Mr. Leslie, in his autobiography, describes the scene of Mrs. Allston's death, and its terrible effect upon the mind of the sensitive and devoted artist and poet. The sympathy of Mr. Allston's friends, and their great grief with him in his sorrow, may be learned from this letter to Mr. Morse from a gentleman in England to whom the intelligence was sent: MrT. J. J. Morgan to Mr. Morse. "CALNE, WILTSHIRE, February, 1815. "MY DEAR SIR: I received your letter only yesterday; the news it conveyed has literally stupefied us with affliction. It was not possible for me to write yesterday, so completely was I terrorstricken. It is with difficulty, and doubtless with incoherence, that I now write. Mrs. Morgan and Miss Brent most bitterly lament that you did not send for one or both of them. To have seer their 6

Page  82 82 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. friend, their more than sister, though but for her last departing hour, would have been some consolation. Their distress is very great. The only thought which now promises the least comfort is, that so innocent, so excellent a woman is removed from this world of trial and trouble to that of perfect happiness, and to a union with her Creator. "But what is now to be done with Allston? Comfort it were a mockery to attempt offering. Religion, and the impression of time, are his only hope. But, pray, write to us, and say whether we (any of us) can now be of any service. Mrs. M., or Charlotte, or I, will come to town instantly, to be of the slightest service. For Heaven's sake, write us! Tell us every thing concerning Allston; tell us every thing concerning our excellent friend departed-the pain, during her illness; the burial, where; what comfort, what female friend or companion, had she? I fear and tremble while anticipating the particulars; yet we must know them.' Gracious God! unsearchable indeed are Thy ways! The insensible, the brutish, the wicked, are powerful; and everywhere, in every thing, successful-while Allston, who is every thing that is amiable, kind, and good, has been bruised, blow after blow; and now, indeed, his cup is full! "I am too unwell, too little recovered from the effect of your letter to write much. Coleridge intends Writing to-day. I hope he will. Allston may derive some little relief from knowing how much his friends partake of his grief. "Once more I entreat you to let us know if any of us can be of the slightest service. Perhaps our excellent Allston would be somewhat relieved by an excursion down here. With us he shall meet with every attention possible. I will come up and fetch him, upon your slightest hint of its usefulness. At any rate, I beg you to write soon, and say every thing for us all to Allston, every thing kind you can think of. You cannot say more than we feel." In the month following, Mr. Morse wrote to his parents a very full account of his temporary residence at Bristol, his struggles to support himself, and the disappointments to which he was subjected. In his letter dated March 10, 1815, he says: "My jaunt to Bristol, in quest of money, completely failed. When I was first there I expected, from the little connection I got into, I should be able to support myself. I was obliged to come to town on account of the exhibitions, and staid longer than I ex

Page  83 FAILURE IN BRISTOL. 83,pected, intending to return to Bristol. During this time I received two pressing letters from Mr. Visscher (which I will show you), inviting me to come down, saying that I should have plenty of business. I accordingly hurried off. A gentleman, for whom I had before painted two portraits, had promised, if I would let him have them for ten guineas apiece, twelve being my price, he would procure me five sitters. This I acceded to. I received twenty guineas, and have heard nothing from:the man since, though I particularly requested Mr. Yisscher to inquire, and remind him of his promise. Yet he never did any thing more on the subject. I was there three months, gaining nothing in my art, and without a single commission. Mr. Breed, of Liverpool, then came to Bristol. He took two landscapes, which I had been amusing myself with (for I can say nothing more of them), at ten guineas each. I painted two more landscapes, which are unsold. Mr. Visscher, a man worth about a hundred thousand pounds, and whose annual expenses, with a large family of seven: children, are not one thousand, had a little frame, for which he repeatedly desired me to paint a picture. I told him I would, as soon as I had finished one of my landscapes. I began it immediately, without his knowing it, and determined to surprise him with it. I also had two frames which fitted Mr. Breed's pictures, and which I was going to give to Mr. Breed, with his pictures. But Mr. Visscher was particularly pleased with the frames, as they were a pair, and told me not to send them to Mr. Breed, as he should like to have them himself, and wished I would paint him pictures to fit them (the two other landscapes before mentioned). I accordingly was employed three months longer in painting these three pictures. I finished them; he was very much pleased with them; all his family were very much pleased with them; all who saw them were pleased with them. But he declined taking them, without even asking my price, and said that he had more pictures than he knew what to do with. Mr. and Mrs. Allston heard him say twenty times he wished I would paint him a picture for the frame. Mr. A —n, who knew what I was about, told him, no doubt, I would do it for him, and, in a week after, I had completed it. I had told Mr. Visscher, also, that I was considerably in debt, and that, when he had paid me for these pictures, I should be something in pocket, and, by his not objecting to what I said, I took it for granted (and from his requesting me to paint the pictures) that the thing was certain. But thus it was, without giving any reason in the world, except that he had pictures

Page  84 84 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. enough, he declined taking them, making me spend three months longer in Bristol than I otherwise should have done, standing still in my art, if not actually going back, and run in debt for some necessary expenses of clothing in Bristol, and my passage from and back to London. During all this time not a single commission for a portrait, many of which were promised me, nor-a single call from any one to look at my pictures. Thus ended my jaunt in quest of money. Do not think that this. disappointment is in consequence of any misconduct of mine. Mr. Allston, who was with me, experienced the same treatment, and had it not been for his uncle, the American consul, he might have starved, for the Bristol people; his uncle was the only one who purchased any of his pictures. Since I have been in London, I have been endeavoring to regain what I lost in Bristol, and I hope I have so far succeeded:as to say, I have not gone back in my art. In order to retrench my expenses, I have taken a painting-room out of the house, at about half of the expense of my former room; though inconvenient in many respects, yet my cirdumstances require it, and I willingly put up with it. As for economy, do not be at any more pains in introducing that personage to me. We have long been friends and necessary companions. If you could look in on me and see me through a day, I think you would not tell me in every letter to economize more. It is impossible; I cannot economize more. I live on as plain food, and as little, as is for my health; less and plainer would make me ill, for I have given it a fair experiment. As for clothes, I have been decent, and that is all. If I visited a great deal, this would be a heavy expense; but, the less I go out, the less need I care for clothes, except for cleanliness. My only heavy expenses are colors, canvas, frames, etc., and these are heavy." On the back of the last page of the letter he adds, as a postscript: " The seal of my letter is worth noticing. It is a celebrated antique gem, set in Michael Angelo's ring, which he always used as a seal. I have the seal-an impression from the original." In a note to Mrs. Morse, his friend Leslie says: " I am very glad to see that Mr. Coleridge is writing again, and, of course, talking also. I hope he is near Mr. Allston." Mr. Morse speaks of Mr. Allston in one of his letters, after mentioning an attack of illness: ""I never felt so low-spirited as when he was ill. I often thought, if he should be taken away at

Page  85 MR. ALLSTON'S ADVICE. 85 this time, what an irreparable loss it would be, not only to me, but to America, and to the world. Oh! he is an angel on earth. I cannot love him too much. Excuse my warmth; I never can speak of Mr. Allston but in raptures." And Mr. Allston, writing to Mr. Morse, at Bristol, makes the following suggestions: "I write to thank you for the very agreeable intelligence contained in your letter to Leslie [the expected sale of one of Mr. A.'s paintings]; but, in a particular manner to request, or rather to advise, you not to take a share in the intended raffle. For this I can offer two reasons: 1. That the price of a share is too much for you to risk upon an uncertainty; 2. That I much fear, should you win, the world may suspect, on account of our connection, that I was in some way interested in it. I think, upon the whole, you had better not take one, but wait until you can paint a landscape equal to it yourself; which I make no doubt you will ere long be able to do, if you are industrious. I shall follow your advice in not being too sanguine respecting its success. But hope is pleasant, and I shall therefore indulge it until I hear from you again. I am quite satisfied that it should go at five hundred guineas, and, as soon as it is sold, I shall, according to my promise, bespeak an elegant frame for it. I have at last the satisfaction to inform you that my large picture is in the British Gallery, and, moreover, hung in the place where Mr. West's was." Mr. Morse, during the latter part of his residence in London, denied himself in great measure the pleasures of society, which were pressed upon him. In the second year of his life there, he had received the following note from Zachary Macaulay, which is copied here as an illustration of the mode of getting about in London sixty years ago: "Mr. Macaulay presents his compliments to Mr. Morse, and begs to express his regret at not having yet been so fortunate as to meet him. Mr. Macaulay will be particularly happy, if it should suit Mr. Morse to dine with him at his house at Clapham, on Saturday next at five o'clock. Mr. M.'s house is five doors beyond the Plough, at the entrance of Clapham Common. A coach goes daily to Clapham from the Ship at Charing Cross, at a quarter-past three, and several leave Grace-Church Street, in the City, every day at

Page  86 86 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. four. The distance from London Bridge to Mr. Macaulay's house is about four miles." "26 BIRCHIR LANE, June 23, 1812." But Mr. Morse assures his parents that visiting costs too much time. He writes to them: " James Russell, Esq., has been extremely attentive to me. He has a very fine family, consisting of four daughters, and, I think, a son, who is absent in the East Indies. The daughters are very beautiful, accomplished, and amiable, especially the youngest, Lucy. I came very near being at my old game of falling in love; but I find that love and painting are quarrelsome companions, and that the house of my heart was too small for both of them; so I have turned Mrs. Love out-of-doors.'Time enough,' thought I (with true old-bachelor complacency),'time enough for you these ten years to come.' Mr. Russell's portrait I have painted as a present to Miss Russell, and will send it to her as soon as I can get an opportunity. It is an excellent likeness of him. I should be very happy to send also the portraits of the rest of the family to her, but, as I am obliged to support myself now, every thing must be turned to account. "You wish me to keep up my acquaintance with Mr. Burder, Messrs. Macaulay, Taylor, and others. Mr. Burder has never shown me the slightest attention. I never have seen him, to speak to him, but once; and then, when I delivered my letter of introduction to him, he said he hoped he should have the pleasure of my company to dine soon, and he would let me know when it would be convenient. I have not heard from him from that time to this. There is no blame attached to him. He is a man full of business, like papa, and I suppose it has slipped his memory, and it is perhaps better for both of us, for I should only hinder him, and he me. It is utterly impossible for me to keep up an acquaintance in England, and I therefore do not attempt it. My studies absorb all my time, and I wish no other employment or pastime.'Tis not in London, as in Boston, or one of our cities, where you have your friends in a little circle round you. But a visit in London is a serious undertaking, probably a walk of two or three miles, if not five or six. Mr. Taylor lives two miles from me, Mr. Burder six, Mr. Macaulay seven, Mr. Thornton seven, Mr. Wilberforce five, Dr. Lettsom three; Mr. Allston two streets, Mr. West two streets. So you see by this who are most likely to be my intimates, and what time I must

Page  87 INVITATION FROM MR. WILBERFORCE. 87 spend just to step in and make a call; and, what makes the matter worse, I seem to live in the centre of a great circle, as it respects them." Mr. Wilberforce speaks, in one of his letters to Dr. Morse, of his deep interest in his son, and his desire that he would be more at home in his house. And, among the autographs which the son preserved to the end of his life, was a pleasant note from Mr. Wilberforce, dated "KENSINGTON GROVE, June 1, 1815. "MY DEAR SIR: Till I heard, three or four days ago, from Mr. Sanders the Black School-master, that you were in London, I had conceived, from the contents of a letter I received some little time, ago from your father, that you were on the Continent, and not likely to be in England again till the middle or end of July. It is long since I had the pleasure of seeing you, and I need not assure you that you are always an acceptable visitor; but I did not return to the neighborhood of London till Parliament reassembled, and during its sittings I am always so much occupied and engaged that I am forced to give up almost all social intercourse. The consequence is, that toward the end of the session, as just now, I have a large arrear of social debts to pay to my friends, and the few days I have at command are preengaged. But at breakfast, at about ten or half-past ten, I should be happy to see you any day, and let me beg you to come some fine morning, and say you are come to breakfast. I have a parcel of newspapers and pamphlets to send you. In haste, but with real regard, and taking, for your good father's sake, a real interest in your welfare, I remain, my dear sir, "Yours sincerely, " W. WILBERFORCE. "S. F. B. MORSE, Esq." This friendly note is dated June 1, 1815. On the 18th day of the same month the battle of Waterloo was fought, and on the 6th day of the month following the allied armies entered Paris. There was no electric Telegraph at that time to carry news across channels, continents, and oceans; but the future inventor of such an agent relates an interesting incident of the reception of these tidings in London. Mr. Morse says: " It was at one of my visits, in the year 1815, that an incident occurred which well illustrates the character of the great philan

Page  88 88 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. thropist. As I passed through Hyde Park on my way to Kensington Grove, I observed that great crowds had gathered, and rumors were rife that the allied armies had entered Paris, that Napoleon was a prisoner, and that the war was virtually at an end; and it was momentarily expected that the park guns would announce the good news to the people. On entering the drawing-room at Mr. Wilberforce's, I found the company, consisting of Mr. Thornton, Mr. Macaulay, Mr. Grant the father, and his two sons Robert and Charles, and Robert Owen, of Lanark, in quite excited conversation respecting the rumors that prevailed. Mr. Wilberforce expatiated largely on the prospects of a universal peace in consequence of the probable overthrow of Napoleon, whom naturally he considered the great disturber of the nations. At every period, however, he exclaimed,'It is too good to be true, it cannot be true.' He was altogether skeptical in regard to the rumors. The general subject, however, was the absorbing topic at the dinner-table; after dinner the company joined the ladies in the drawing-room. I sat near a window which looked out in the direction of the distant park. Presently a flash and a distant dull report of a gun attracted my attention, but was unnoticed by the rest of the company. Presently another flash and report assured me that the park guns were firing, and at once I called Mr. Wilberforce's attention to the fact. Running to the window, he threw it up in time to see the next flash and hear the next report. Clasping his hands in silence, with the tears rolling down his cheeks, he stood for a few moments perfectly absorbed in thought, and, before uttering a word, embraced his wife and daughter, and shook hands with every one in the room. The scene was one not to be forgotten." A few days after this scene Mr. Morse left England for his native land.

Page  89 CHAPTER IV. 1815-1823. RETURN TO AMERICA- OPENS A STUDIO IN BOSTON-NO SUCCESS-INVENTS IMPROVEMENT IN PUMP-TRAVELS IN VERMONT AND NEW HAMPSHIRE AS PORTRAIT-PAINTER-MEETS HIS FUTURE BRIDE-PURSUES HIS INVENTION-GOES TO CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA-DR. FINLEY-SUCCESS - ALLSTON'S ENCOURAGEMENT -RETURNS NORTH — MARRIAGE CHARLESTON AGAIN-THE PUMP-W. ALLSTON-MORSE PAINTS THE PORTRAIT OF PRESIDENT MONROE-THIRD WINTER IN CHARLESTON-NEW HAVEN-PAINTING "HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES "-HISTORY OF THE PICTURE. A FTER waiting fourteen days in Liverpool for a fair wind, Mr. Morse set sail August 21, 1815, in the ship Ceres, Captain Webber, for Boston. Two hundred vessels sailed in company. "We gradually lost sight of our companions," he writes, "as night approached, and at sunset they were dispersed all over the horizon." The passage was long and boisterous. His sea-diary is but a record of head-winds, rain, gales, tempests, sea-sickness, and every thing disagreeable. They sighted the signal of a ship in distress. The captain refused to go to the rescue, on the ground that he had enough to do to look out for his own. The passengers entreated him to have mercy, but he was obstinate. Mr. Morse then assured him that, as soon as they landed in Boston, he would expose his inhumanity by stating the facts in the public journals. This brought him to, and he bore down for the dismasted ship whose signal-guns and signs of distress called two other ships to its aid.

Page  90 90 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. One gale followed another. "Obliged," he says, "to keep our berths, cabin dark, dead lights on. Oh, who'would go to sea who can stay at home." A few days after this despairing groan, the sea is calm: "A serene and delightful night; the full moon rose in a cloudless sky. The sea is like a mirror, with not a ripple on its surface, and the ship is as still as if we were at anchor in the harbor: nothing is in sight but sky and water, and the color of the water is so like the sky that we seem to be suspended in the midst of space." He arrived in Boston on the 18th day of October, after a passage of fifty-eight days, and an absence from his country of more than four years. His profession he had pursued with ardor and great success; his ambition was stimulated, and he was buoyant with hope; and the impelling power of necessity was upon him, for his profession was to be his only source of support. The year 1816 was spent in Boston and in Charlestown, where he lodged at his father's house. His father had engaged a studio for him in the city. His great picture was opened for exhibition. The fame of the young artist had preceded him, and hundreds of people went to see a picture by the favorite pupil of Allston and West. He was constantly invited to the entertainments of the cultivated and wealthy families of the city of Boston. The "Judgment of Jupiter" was admired by the critics and the multitude. He set up his easel with the confident expectation that his fame and his work would bring him orders and money. But an entire year dragged itself along, without an offer for his picture, or an order for an historical work. His mind was too active and earnest for such a life as this. In the evenings at home he meditated an invention by which a great improvement would be made in the common pump and, one that could be adapted to the forcing-pump in the fire-engine. His brother, Sidney E. Morse, two years younger than he, entered into the project with him, and they completed the invention and secured a patent. In the autumn the following notice was published: "NEw INVENTIOXS.-A new-constructed patent pump is in operation on Gray's Wharf, in Charlestown, where any who feel de

Page  91 LETTER FROM LESLIE. 91 sirous of seeing it may see it on any day during ONE WEEK from this date, from half ebb to half flood-tide. Four men can w6rk it with ease and deliver three hundred and sixty gallons in one minute. The pump-bore is five inches in diameter; a wooden ball four and three-fourth inches, entered at the bottom of the log, will pass freely through and be delivered at the nose." His friends in London did not forget him. Leslie writes: "LONDON, November 17, 1815. "MY DEAR MORSE: I have just received your very-welcome letter announcing your arrival. Our sorrow for the length and unpleasantness of your voyage is entirely swallowed up in joy for your safety, about which we were extremely anxious, from accounts we have had of the hurricanes off Boston. "We continue pretty much as when you left us, excepting that our good old landlady, Mrs. Bridgen, has been very dangerously ill with a violent attack of the rheumatic gout. She is now, thank Heaven, nearly recovered, and I am sure your letter did her more good than any thing the doctor has given her for some time. When she was first taken ill, she refused to have a physician. I used every argument in my power to persuade her to it, but she would not consent, saying it would go off of itself. Knowing too well the fatal effects of this dread of the doctor, I went without her knowledge to an eminent one (Dr. Blackburn), and sent him to her, and I am by no means sure that he did not save her life. During her illness I had opportunities of discovering more of the real character of Mr. Bridgen than I had ever known before. He showed a most affectionate disposition, and I am sure it was merely his testy manner that had before obscured it. He was unceasingly assiduous in his attentions to her, and, though in bad health himself, sat up with her, and did every thing in his power to alleviate her sufferings in the kindest manner possible. He was describing to me one night how indefatigable he had formerly been in his occupation:'For' (said he with tearsein his eyes),'I loved my missus, sir, and thought I could never do enough for her.' He spoke in the highest terms of her excellent temper, at the same time reproaching himself for having tormented her so much by his bad one, of which he seemed perfectly sensible. "Soon after you left London, Mr. McMurtrie arrived from Philadelphia. He is one of our few men of taste. He was highly delighted with Allston's pictures, and persuaded him to send out his

Page  92 92 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE.'Dead Man' to Philadelphia for exhibition, which I suppose is there by this time. McMurtrie introduced us to the great General Scott, and his aide-de-camp Major Mercer, who were fellow-passengers with him. They are both most gentlemanly men. Scott is six feet four inches high, well made, and has a fine face. His eyes are remarkably expressive. I regretted exceedingly you were not here; you would have been so delighted with them. I painted a portrait of Mercer, and am making a copy of Mr. West's pictures (the Cupid with a lion, sea-horse, etc.) for the general, for which I am to have sixty guineas. They are now in France, and when they return I am to have the honor of painting a portrait of the general. Mr. Ogden, who commanded a regiment of volunteers in the battle of New Orleans, has lately been here. He brought a letter of introduction to me from Jarvis, the painter, and a portrait of Jackson, painted in the true Italian touch, by the immortal Wheeler, which he is having engraved here. General Jackson is by no means handsome, having very much the physiognomy of a dried shad, with the complexion of a pair of leather breeches; nevertheless, he was the man that did John's business for him. Ogden told me that the battle was gained principally by the volunteers, who were composed of the wealthiest citizens of New Orleans. "I have very little information to give you in the arts, excepting that Holland was not elected an associate, and that Jackson and Mulready were. Haydon gets on slowly with his picture. Collins has improved wonderfully, and made some of the most exquisite sketches from Nature I have ever seen. Kukup is likely to get the prize, I believe; he has but one antagonist (Williehass). Allston is more than half through his Peter,' and a glorious picture it will be. I am painting a half-length of a beautiful actress (Mrs. Mardyn) for exhibition. She has just appeared at Drury Lane in Mrs. Jordan's characters. Her beauty, however, is her greatest attraction. Collard, Lonsdale, Haydon, Hewling, desire their regards to you. " Your sincere friend, "LESLIE." The state of the arts in America at this juncture is shown in a letter from the Rev. Samuel F. Jarvis to S. F. B. Morse: "NEW YORK, January 29, 1816. You are now, I suppose, unremittingly engaged in the pursuits of your profession. It will gratify me much to hear what you are

Page  93 LETTER BY REV. S. J. JARVIS. 93 doing. Portrait-painting alone is profitable in this country-our rich men not having yet obtained that relish for the fine arts which would lead them to admire a painting for its own sake, or to patronize genius from the noble principles of love for excellence, and love for country. The Bostonians probably will patronize you, however, because you are their fellow -citizen, and, though the thought of being indebted to that motive cannot be a very pleasing. one to you, yet it may in time lead to juster views. You know, I presume, that Colonel Trumbull has seated himself down in this city, and his collection you are probably well acquainted with. Our Academy of Arts is at present in rather a languishing state; but I trust we shall soon be able to make it worth attention. The corporation of this city have given, or are about giving, a large lot near the new City Hall in Broadway, where it is proposed to erect a building to correspond with that noble edifice (not to vie with it, of course, but as a sort of appendage), which is to be devoted to our literary, scientific, and elegant institutions. We are to have in it the City Library, Scudder's Museum, the Academy of Fine Arts, a chemical laboratory, and apartments for the several learned societies-the New York Historical Society, the New York Literary and Philosophical Society, etc. I hope that we shall institute an Academy of Painting; and it would give me great pleasure to see you one of the professors of it. Why will you not let us have the pleasure of seeing you, when we can talk over these matters at our leisure? I am reserving the painting of my phiz for your pencil; and as they tell me I look best in the winter, because fattest, you see it is of great importance that I see you at this season. Have you attended at all to architecture? That is with me a favorite science, though I know but little about it. I hope some time or other to see a Gothic church erected here, and I must consult your taste concerning the plans. There has been a Gothic church erected at New Haven since you were there, and it is my intention to put up a monument in it to the memory of my father, the decorations of which I wish to have correspondent with the style of the building. As you have probably noticed the principal monuments in England, it may be in your power to furnish me with a design." His thoughts were much with those friends he had left. Allston he loved and revered. He pours out his heart to him in letters, some of which have been found among Mr. Allston's papers. The passage in the following letter, where the pupil

Page  94 94 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. implores his master's forgiveness for possible errors, beautifully illustrates the feeling that subsisted between them. "BOSTON, April 10, 1816. " MY DEAR SIR: I have but one moment to write you by a vessel which sails to-morrow morning: I wrote Leslie by New Packet some months since, and am hourly expecting an answer. I congratulate you, my dear sir, on the sale of your picture of the'Dead.Man.' I suppose you will have received notice before this reaches you, that the Philadelphia Academy of Arts have purchased it for the sum of thirty-five hundred dollars. Bravo for our country I am sincerely rejoiced for you, and for the disposition which it shows of future encouragement. I really think the time is not far distant when we shall all be able to settle in our native land with profit as well as pleasure.... I long to spend my evenings again with you and Leslie; I shall certainly visit Italy (should I live and no unforeseen event take place) in the course of a year or eighteen months. Could there not be some arrangement made to meet you and Leslie there? You will now be in funds, and perhaps would not dislike to visit again the scenes of your early studies. Do write me, if it is but a line, and say if it cannot be so arranged.... My conscience accuses, me, and hardly too, of many instances of pettishness and illhumor toward you, which make me almost hate myself, that I could offend a temper like yours; I need not ask you to forgive it, I know you cannot harbor anger a minute, and perhaps have forgotten the instances; but I cannot forget them. If you had failings of the. same kind, and I could recollect any instances where you had spoken pettishly or ill-natured to me, our accounts would then have been balanced, they would have called for mutual forgetfulness and forgiveness; but when on reflection I find nothing of the kind to charge you with, my conscience severely upbraids. me with ingratitude to you, to whom (under Heaven) I owe all the little knowledge of my art which I possess; but I hope still I shall prove grateful to you; at any rate, I feel my errors and must mend them. "I was at a large party at William Walter Channing's a few evenings since; I there saw your'(Catherine and Petruchio.' It reminded me of old times. "I have just completed a Kitcat landscape, a sea-piece on a common half-length upright, a ship in distress on the top of a small piece of a single wave which occupies the whole foreground; she

Page  95 MR. ALLSTON'S "DEAD MAN." 95 tomes out against a bright bank of clouds, such as you like, is scudding directly toward you under a close-reefed foresail. I bought a famous model of a seventy-four a week or two since, seven feet long and five feet high, completely rigged and perfect in every part; all the blocks traverse, so that I can brace or square the yards at pleasure, or place that in what state of dishabille I please. I gave twenty dollars for it, and it was sold a few weeks before for one hundred. I shall keep it to paint from always. Please write me soon and tell me all about yourself and Leslie. Remember me most particularly to Leslie, Collard, Lonsdale, Collins, Haydon, Mr. and Mrs. Hewlings, Cregan, Martin, Lane (if in London), and the Bridges. "Yours most sincerely, " SAMUEL F. B. MORS.E.." To this letter Mr. Allston replied in these words: "' MY DEAR SIR: I will not apologize for having so long delayed answering your kind letter, being, as you well know, privileged by my friends to be a lazy correspondent. I was sorry to find that you should have suffered the recollection of any hasty expressions you might have uttered to give you uneasiness. Be assured that they never were remembered by me a moment after; nor did they ever in the slightest degree diminish my regard or weaken my confidence in the sincerity of your friendship or the goodness of your heart. Besides, the consciousness of warmth in my own temper would have made me inexcusable had I suffered myself to dwell on an inadvertent word from another. I therefore beg you will no longer suffer any such unpleasant reflections to disturb your mind; but that you will rest assured of my unaltered and sincere esteem. "Your letter, and one I had about the same time from my sister Mary, brought the first intelligence of the sale of my picture, it being near three weeks later when I received the account from Philadelphia. When you recollect that I considered the'Dead Man' (from the untoward fate he had hitherto experienced) almost literally as a caput mortuum, you may easily believe that I was most agreeably surprised to hear of the sale. But, pleased as I was, on account of the very seasonable pecuniary supply it would soon afford me, I must say that I was still more gratified at the encouragement it seemed to hold out for my return to America-not that I expect as ready a sale for every large picture I might paint; but from the growing interest in the arts, which the present pur

Page  96 96 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. chase appears to indicate among our countrymen, I think I may reasonably reckon on a quantum sufficit of taste in them to calculate on at least a decent support from future exhibitions. The'St. Peter' has been long since finished, exhibited, and sent home to Sir G. I worked on it for three weeks after it came out of the Gallery; repainted the angel's head, and made other alterations. Sir G. and Lady Beaumont expressed themselves highly pleased with it. The Gil Blas was bought by Lieutenant Drayton, of South Carolina.'Tis now, I believe, at Philadelphia. In Somerset House I, exhibited a landscape. You saw the dead color of it last summer. I inclose a short notice of it from the.Examiner. I don't remember whether Leslie had begun his'Death of Rutland' before you left London. He has made a fine picture of it. The head of Rutland is very beautiful, and yet full of expression. Indeed, the whole picture is firmly and well painted. By-the-by, I have given up the subject of' Christ Healing the Sick,' and have made a sketch of another much finer, which I think by all odds my best composition; it is both picturesque and highly impassioned. When I have begun it in large (which will be as soon as I shall have found a good painting-room) I will tell you what it is, and more about it. You find I have not been sparing about my own concerns; so, if you don't tell me more about yourself and your pursuits in your next than you have done in your first letter, I shall become modest, and write more in future about matters and things in general....' Very truly yours, "W. ALLSTON." Two lively letters from Leslie, in London, cheered him during this year of discouragement and fear: "LONDON, January 30, 1816. "DEAR MORSE: I have as yet received but one letter from you, which was written the day after your arrival. I suppose by this time you have been duly and truly welcomed by all your friends; have had each of your arms shaken into a sort of demi-dislocation, and have had your health drunk till you are an insured man, wind and limb, these thousand years at least, to say nothing of the turkeys, geese, and all other good things, that have been eaten in honor of your arrival. I say, now that all these ceremonies are settled and passed, I hope and expect that you will allow the recollection of your friends on this side of the water to occupy some of your thoughts. Be assured that those friends think of you very often, and that your

Page  97 LESLIE'S LETTER. 97 image is deeply engraven on their hearts, associated with many past scenes of enjoyment. Since you left us we have been going on much in the old way,'living from hand to mouth' (as it is vulgarly expressed). Mr. Allston ias finished his'Peter,' of which he has made a glorious picture, and which will be seen by the public at the British Gallery in a few days. There is but one opinion of it among his friends. But what seems to please him most is the very high opinion Haydon has of it. Punishment seems at last likely to overtake the members of the British Institution for their various misdemeanors. They narrowly escaped this year having no exhibition at all, by reason of no pictures being sent. Allston intended his for Spring Gardens; but a very tempting offer being made to him by Young, that of allowing him to work on it for three weeks at the Gallery, induced him to send it there. Notwithstanding, however, that they had succeeded in getting his great picture, which fills the end of one of their great rooms, their ranks were so scanty that they were obliged to apply to Mr. West for assistance, who undertook to fill a whole side of a room with old works of his own. I understood they also applied to Hayter, who was finishing a large picture of three children (portraits), and have taken that in under the appellation of'The Garland.' The rest of the collection consists principally of the paltry sketches for which they were to give premiums, and the fragments and refuse of Somerset House. It is generally anticipated that this same British Institution will die a natural death one of these days. " I am going on with my' Clifford and Rutta,' and a copy from Mrs. West's picture of' Cupid commanding the Elements,' for General Scott, and now and then making the pot boil with a portrait or so. I am admitted to the life at the Academy, where I draw very regularly. They have instituted a painting school at the Academy, which they have begun to supply with pictures from the Dulwich collection, which formerly belonged to Sir Francis Bourgeois. The academicians are visitors by turns the same as in the life, and the school is in the inner room. I made a few sketches this year at the Gallery, and I shall attend the school at the Academy when Turner is visitor, as I am persuaded I can learn more from him than any one of the R. A.'s. I believe there is no doubt but that government will buy the Elgin Marbles, and it is said they will be removed to the British Museum next summer. The Academy are going to have a new set of casts in the spring, and England will present far more advantages to the students in arts, as 7

Page  98 98 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. indeed it does already, than any other part of the world. I hope you will be able to realize your plan of returning in a year. " There was no gold medal given the last year at Somerset House: Kukup and Williehass were the only candidates. Mr. West told me that he thought, had you been allowed to try, your picture would have stood a better chance than either of them. Mr. Allston has sold his'Gil Bias' (which is at the Gallery) to Colonel Drayton of the U. S. Army. I am very glad to see our heroes take an interest in the arts." "LONDON, September 6, 1816. " DEAR MORSE: I have just received your letter by Mr. Peyson. I am sorry to hear that the arts are advancing so slowly in America; but as to encouragment there is very little anywhere, I apprehend, just at present. There is a general stagnation of business in England, and the artists are as much affected by it as any other class of men. I hope, however, your prospects may not be really so dull in America' as you imagine. As you were before a little too sanguine of success, it is possible you may now be more depressed than there is really cause to be. I am glad to hear that you are going on a tour into Vermont and New Hampshire; it will be a pleasant relaxation to you, and I hope you will return well loaded with sketches. I sincerely hope that you will be able to revisit Europe; but, by all means, come to London, instead of Rome. I am convinced there are greater advantages here than anywhere. You will find a great deal that will be new to you, and the Elgin Marbles will be placed in a building erected for them at the Museum, where it is to be hoped we shall be able to study them in good lights. I never thought of preserving catalogues of the exhibition to send you, as I did not suppose the mere names of pictures would give you any pleasure. And as to critiques, they (you know) are so bad that it is impossible to form any idea of the pictures they describe. The Somerset House show was not so good as usual. Turner has two small pictures, by no means his best. Hilton's great picture of the'Raising of Lazarus' disappointed every ole. Lawrence had some fine portraits, among which was one of Canova, the Italian sculptor, a very intelligent and agreeable head. "Your humble servant exhibited a beautiful landscape of a sunrise, which, I believe, he had outlined before you went away. Mr. A. is at present painting a picture of'Rebecca at the Well,' for

Page  99 MODEL DIRECTORS. 99 Mr. Van Schaick. He has lately painted a head of Dante's Beatrice, which is extremely beautiful, and has a chastity and refinement of expression equal to Raphael. I am at present painting portraits of Mr. and Mrs. Adams, and studying at the Gallery. The exhibition of old masters was thefinest I have seen by far. They had two of the cartoons, the'Miraculous Draught of Fishes,' and the'Paul preaching at Athens.' The'Bacchus and Ariadne,' by Titian, and the most beautiful little Paul Veronese (of the'Adoration of the Shepherds') I ever saw, which I am now making a finished copy of. There were two large Paulos,'Wisdom and Strength,' and'The Painter between Virtue and Vice,' of which you may have seen prints. There was also a glorious portrait of Lorenzo de Medicis, by Sab. del Piombo, the most intellectual and grand head I ever saw for a portrait; and there was a beautiful little picture, by Raphael, of St. Catherine. The Catalogue Raisonne appeared according to promise, but is not near so good as the one last year. At the conclusion the author says that Mr. Paynb Knight told the directors it was the custom of the Greek nobility to strip and exhibit themselves naked to the artists in various attitudes, that they might have an opportunity of studying fine form. Accordingly, those public-spirited men, the directors, have determined to adopt the plan, and are all practising like mad to prepare themselves for the ensuing exhibition, when they are to be placed on pedestals. It is supposed that Sir G. Beaumont, Mr. Long, Mr. Knight, etc., will occupy the principal lights. The Marquis of Stafford, unfortunately, could not recollect the attitude of any one antique figure, but was found practising, having the head of the dying gladiator, the body of the Hercules, one leg of the Apollo, and the other of the dancing Faun, turned the wrong way. Lord Mulgrave, having a small head, thought of representing the Torso, but he did not know what to do with his legs, and was afraid that as Master of the Ordnance he could not dispense with his arms. In another part of the catalogue there is a quotation from one of Leigh Hunt's poems, where one angel says to another-'If your cloud holds two, I'll get up and ride with you.'" Disappointed in his expectations of encouragement in historical painting, Mr. Morse resolved to go into the country, and earn his bread by painting the portraits of the people. In the rural districts of New England he would find ready introduc

Page  100 100 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. tion to the most respectable families, as his father's name was a household word in every town. With letters to the pastors and others, he took his way into the world to seek his fortune; fame did not tempt him now. During the autumn of 1816, and the winter of 1816-'17, he visited several towns in New Hampshire and Vermont. He painted portraits in Walpole, Hanover, Windsor, Portsmouth, and Concord, meeting with moderate success, and receiving the modest sum of fifteen dollars for each portrait. At Concord, New Hampshire, the sun shone brightly upon him. He writes from this place to his parents: "I am still here (August 16th), and am passing my time very agreeably. I have painted five portraits at fifteen dollars each, and have two more engaged, and many more talked of. I think I shall get along well. I believe I could make an independent fortune in a few years if I devoted myself exclusively to portraits, so great is the desire for good portraits in the different country towns." He doubtless was candid when he wrote that he was "passing his time in Concord very agreeably." In his history of Concord, Dr. Bouton says: "At a party given by Mr. Sparhawk, in 1818, among the invited guests was Samuel F. B. Morse, now distinguished as the inventor of the electric Telegraph, who was that evening introduced to Miss Lucretia P. Walker, daughter of Charles Walker, who was accounted the most beautiful and accomplished young lady of the town, whom Mr. Morse subsequently married." She was a young lady of great personal loveliness and rare good sense. The eye of the artist was attracted by her beauty, her sweetness of temper, and high intellectual culture, which fitted her to be his companion. Her sound judgment and prudence made her a counselor and friend. All the letters that she wrote to him, before and after their marriage, he carefully preserved, and they are witnesses to her intelligence, education, tenderness of feeling, and admirable fitness to be the wife of such a man as Mr. Morse. Before an engagement of marriage was made, their correspondence was so frequent and voluminous that the artist must have been rapid with pen and brush to have been able to satisfy the demands of his patrons and his love. Early in the year

Page  101 DR. MORSE'S INVITATION. 101 1817 the engagement was concluded. He imparted a knowledge of the fact at once to his parents, having received the cordial approbation of the parents of Miss Walker. To them Rev. Dr. Morse addressed a letter inviting their daughter to visit Charlestown, that he and Mrs. Morse might form the acquaintance of one who was to stand to them in this new and near relation. The letter was in these stately but affectionate terms: Rev. Dr. Morse to 2r. and Mrs. Walker. " CHARLESTOWN, January 13, 1817. " DEAR SIR AND MADAM: The mutual attachment subsisting between our eldest son and your daughter, and the matrimonial engagement which in consequence has been entered into by them, with the consent of their parents, respectively, render it proper and desirable, in prospect of such a connection in our families, that an acquaintance should be formed between us. As this cannot now be done personally, with convenience, I take the liberty to commence it by letter. From this acquaintance, and future intercourse, Mrs. Morse and myself anticipate much pleasure and satisfaction. We are very anxious to become personally acquainted with your daughter, who is much endeared to us by the amiable dispositions and virtues which she is reported to possess, as well as from the consideration that she shares so largely in the affections of a beloved-son. And I accordingly write this for the purpose of requesting your permission that your daughter should make us a visit with our son, of such length as may suit her convenience. "We hope you will not deny us this request, a compliance with which will afford us much gratification. If it can be made convenient, we should be obliged particularly if they could be here in the course of the next week. It will, be assured, give us much pleasure to see you, or any of your family, at our house, whenever it may be convenient to you, or to them. "Mrs. Morse unites in kind regards to you both, with, dear sir, and madam, your affectionate and obedient servant, "JED. MORSE." The visit was made, to the delight of all parties. The young lady returned to her parents in Concord, and the artist continued his travels and painting. The congratulations of friends poured in upon him when his engagement became known. Leslie, the friend of his'youth, in London; his companion in

Page  102 102 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. study and in many a gay and festive hour-the humorist alike with pen and pencil, and in conversation more than with either -wrote to him when he heard of it: " So, you are over head and ears in love? Happy fellow! You have described her in such delicious terms that your pen should have flowed with honey instead of ink. Excuse my saying one serious word to you, my dear Morse, on this serious subject, though I have little doubt your own excellent judgment has already dictated it to you. Take care to ascertain, before the knot is tied, whether she has a deep sense of true religion. Do not, on any account, marry unless you are satisfied that she has, and be not contented with a mere outward profession; she must delight in it. Her religion must be practical, or she will not make the kind of wife I should wish a friend to have. You and I have seen how very greatly true Christianity conduces to domestic comfort in the instance of Mr. and Mrs. Allston." Such counsel from such a rare genius as Leslie reveals the inner life in a light at once unexpected and beautiful. Leslie proceeds in the next paragraph to describe the paintings in the annual exhibition then open in the British Gallery, among them some just finished, which are now famous, Wilkie's "Sheepshearing" and others; and, after cheering his friend with words of hope, he adds: " Believe that you are destined to do something great, and you will do it. I write this with the hope of rousing your spirits. You will be pleased to hear that Collins, who was a Deist, has become a sincere Christian. I find there are more artists religious than I was aware of; Wilkie and Haydon are, and so are Ward, and Jackson, and Linnell. Willes you knew was a Christian, and Starke and Severn are both Christians, and very amiable young men." As Morse pursued his wandering life among the cities and rural towns of Vermont and New Hampshire, the letters to and from him keep us acquainted with his progress, and with the peculiar bent of his mind, even in the midst of his labors, as a painter of portraits. We would not look among letters of love to find notices of useful inventions in the arts; yet, in the midst of these effusions of the heart, put away more than half a century ago, we discover the young lover, while making declarations of his affection, mingling his hopes

Page  103 THE PATENT PUMP. 103 and fears with calculations about the prospective profits of his "flexible piston-pump." He writes to Miss Walker, in June, 1817: "I am preparing for a journey to Washington, to take out our PATENTS FOR THREE MACHINES, which, in the opinion of judicious, philosophical, and practical men, will be of great value. I would not be too sanguine. It is best to be always prepared for disappointment." Finding that the business at Washington could be attended to by an agent, he did not go, and in the month of July writes to Miss Walker: "We are in daily expectation of hearing of the arrival of our models of machinery at Washington, and of receiving our letterspatent. We have just tried our fire-engine on a large scale, and it succeeds to our utmost expectation. We have shown it in operation to several friends, who have given it their entire approbation, and think that it will not only be profitable to us, but beneficial to the community. From its cheapness, it will be within the reach of every village. But good-by, dearest; I hope to talk over all these things shortly with you." His brother, Sidney E., was at work diligently upon improvements in the new engine, their joint production, and, in a letter to Finley, the brother writes, closing with a mock-heroic name which he had invented.: "Since you left us I have been employed in newly modifying and improving the pump-machine. I have got it now exactly to my mind. The valves will be on a new plan, far superior to any thing ever before thought of. The bag-piston, I find, is no new thing. The'Cyclopaedia' states that one Benjamin Martin, an Englishman, invented the same thing more than fifty years ago. His pump, they say, worked admirably, but was never introduced into common use, because the leathers, when dry, were continually cracking. I have invented a remedy for all difficulties, and have got a pump in every respect to my liking. Particulars when you return. I think of calling it'Morse's Patent Metallic DoubleHeaded OCEAN-DRINKER and DELUGE - SPOUTER VALVE PumpBoxes.' And Finley himself writes to his father, from Concord, in August, 18117: "When in Andover, I conversed with Mr. Farrar and others on

Page  104 104 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the subject of our engines. Mr. F. was highly delighted, and said he should certainly wait to know the result of our experiment, and would take ours, in preference to any others, for their college engine, and, instead of one, would probably want two. He said that the town, also, had long had an idea of procuring an engine; but, on account of the expense, had not yet obtained one. He said he believed they had subscribed about three hundred dollars, but it was not sufficient, and they had given up the idea at present; but he thought they would have one of ours, without doubt. "In Concord, also, all that I have conversed with seem highly pleased. Mr. Sparhawk, the Secretary of State (who is very much my friend), carried me to see the Concord engine, which is a miserable affair, and which cost four hundred and fifty dollars. He said it was always out of order, and they did not like it. He also said if ours succeeded, and cost only half or even two-thirds of the price, they would have two or three in Concord. " I wish much to know how Dearborn proceeds with the engine and bellows. I think the prospect brightens with respect to our inventions, if our smallest can be made so as to be afforded at one hundred and fifty dollars, and so that our patent-fee should be on it fifty dollars. I think we should make something handsome." The New Hampshire Patriot, of April 14, 1818, has this notice: "An additional fire-engine has been purchased by the inhabitants of this town. It is a new invention of Mr. Morse, the celebrated painter, and istprocured for about half the usual expensesay one hundred and fifty to two hundred dollars. It requires much less manual labor, and throws the water to as great a distance and in as large quantities. As yet we have seen only the operation of Mr. Morse's miniature model. Should his invention succeed equal to expectation and appearance, every village of any considerable extent will be a gainer to purchase one or more of these engines." To Miss Walker he writes from his father's house in Charlestown: " November 20, 1817. " Our inventions are in a prosperous way; it takes a deal of time and patience to attend to them, but I hope they will be a handsome property to us ere long. All is in God's hands; in his

Page  105 A MYSTERIOUS LOCK. 105 own time and his own way, all things shall work for good to us if we love Him." And in the same letter he mentions sending a curious gift to a young lady, and such a present as could have come only from a young man of an ingenious turn of mind. It illustrates the mechanical tendencies of his intellect at this period of his life. He writes: " I send by Mr. Ambrose with the book the lock which I once mentioned to you; it may amuse you. I think it will puzzle the ingenuity of Mr. J. to find it out. I will tell you how it opens by the annexed figure: the word that opens it must be spelt in a line between the two marks on the end-pieces, and when spelt the righthand end pulls out about a quarter of an inch, and the ketch can be lifted up. You must not tell Mr. J. the key-word; it is the name of some one you know. I must leave it for your ingenuity to find out whose it is." And, again, a week later: "Our inventions are slowly progressing. Surely an inventor earns his money hard. It appears to me I would not go through the vexations, and delays, and disappointments, I have gone through, for double what I expect to obtain from them. They, however, promise very well, and I hope to realize something handsome from them. Our engine has been proved. Tell Mr. Sparhawk (with my best respects to him and Mrs. Sparhawk) that we can order one made for Concord, if they please, for one hundred and fifty dollars, which shall throw three barrels eighty feet in five seconds, by the power of eight men. I wish the Concord people would give us an order for such a one, which shall be warranted, and thus encourage the new invention. An advertisement is preparing for the papers, which will be ready in a day or two." Little did the perplexed and anxious artist, then bewailing the vexatious delays and disappointments of the inventor, imagine that, within twenty short years from that time, his bride to whom he was then writing would be in her grave, their children homeless, he living in a solitary garret, carrying in the darkness to his comfortless chamber the simple food which he prepared with his own hands, while toiling to produce an invention that was to electrify the world! And in another letter, after

Page  106 106 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. filling three pages with details of his inventions, he says: " But good-by, Lucrece; I am bothering you with engines and machinations, and I am sure they can't be pleasant to you; so I will stop." The Allstons, of South Carolina, were frequently at the North, and among the friends of their relative, Washington Allston, Mr. Morse became acquainted with Hon. John A. Allston of Charleston, who assured him that a far more hopeful field for his professional labors would be found in the South than in the rural towns of New England. Rev. Dr. Morse had written to his son, while in Walpole, New Hampshire, saying: " Mr. Legare, cousin to the JLegares you know, a young man of genius and taste, says he prefers your prize picture to Mr. Allston's great picture. He returns to Carolina next month, and speaks favorably of your spending the winter there, and will do what he can to prepare the way for you, should you go. Mr. Gallaudet was here yesterday with a young Frenchman [Le Clerc] deaf and dumb, a most interesting character. I showed him, and Dr. Coggswell, of Hartford, with*Mr. G., your paintings. They were highly gratified. The remarks of the Frenchman were very sensible and shrewd. He understood the subjects perfectly, and appeared to have fine taste." Dr. Morse's large acquaintance in the South, where he had spent several months at different times, and where relatives of his were residing, encouraged his son Finley to contemplate with favor the suggestions of Mr. Allston and Mr. Legare. Dr. Finley, his uncle, was at this time a resident of Charleston, and. to him he wrote on the subject. The answer to his inquiries was a cordial invitation to come on and find a home in'his uncle's house. While making preparations to go to the South, he writes to his Lucretia: " I am over head and ears in business, so much so that I am at a loss which thing to commence first. Portraits and engines, and pumps and bellows, and various models of various things, letters to write, and visits to pay, and preparations for voyages by sea and land, all crowd upon me. Tell Mr. Sparhawk that the engine is commenced, and will be finished with all expedition. I hope the Pembroke people will wait until they see ours before they order their engine."'

Page  107 RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE PUMP. 107 His arrangements being completed, he went to New Haven, and there laid before the professors of the college, and others, the inventions which he and his brother had patented. From New York he writes to his parents: "CITY HOTEL, NEW YORE, January 10, 1818. "MY DEAR PARENTS: I arrived here safely last evening, from New Haven. Commodore Perry was a fellow-passenger. I was much pleased with him. I left the machine business in a prosperous way in New Haven. I showed the models to President Day, Professor Silliman, Mr. Whitney, Mr. Porter, and others; from Mr. Day and Mr. Whitney I obtained recommendations which I will transcribe; Mr. Silliman was so much pleased that he requested me to let him take the model of the engine to show it to the class, and wishes me to make a set of drawings, with an abstract of the specifications, for the first number of a periodical publication, devoted to the arts and sciences, he is about to commence, to be out in May next; he to be at the expense of engravings. The models I left with Mr. Porter, who is our agent at New Haven; with him I made the following agreement, viz.:' (I authorize John E. Porter, Esq., of New Haven, to contract with any mechanic that he may think proper, to construct and sell at his own expense any number of Morse's patent fire-engines, he paying or securing to be paid, to the satisfaction of said Porter the sum of thirty dollars for each one he shall so construct and sell, which sum said Porter is authorized to receive and hold for our benefit, and for his compensation we will allow him twelve and a half per cent. on the sum so secured and paid to us. "' SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " For SIDNEY E. MORSE, and SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "'NEW HAVEN, January 8, 1818.' "By this contract we make it for the interest of Mr. Porter to exert himself in behalf of the machines, and we are secured twentyfive dollars on each one. Mr. Day's recommendations run thus: "'Having seen an improved pump-piston, contrived by Mr. Morse for the purpose of playing without friction, and an application of it to the fire-engine and other instruments, I take the liberty of stating that it appears to me to be calculated to answer a useful purpose; as it unites simplicity in the construction, with effectual security against friction. "' JEREMIAH DAY. "'YALE COLLEGE, January 8, 1818.

Page  108 108 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " Mr. Whitney's runs thus: "'Having examined the model of a fire-engine; invented by Mr. Morse, with pistons of a new construction, I am of opinion that an engine may be made on that principle (being more simple and much less expensive), which would have a preference to those in common use. "'ELI WHITNEY. "'NEW HAVEN, January 8, 1818.' " I am unfortunate in not finding, in New York, either George Clinton or Mr. Moses Rogers. The former resides in Albany, the latter is in England. I called on Mr. Van Schaick, and on Monday we shall endeavor to find some one to arrange the business of the inventions with." With his mind quite as full of the pump as of painting, Mr. Morse sailed from New York in a packet, and arrived in Charleston, January 27, 1818. A cordial welcome greeted him at Dr. Finley's. He wrote to his parents the next day, expressing his resolution to put the pump aside, and devote himself'wholly to his chosen art. He says: I find myself in a new climate, the weather warm as our May. I have been introduced to a number of friends. I think my prospects are favorable. I did nothing about the machine in New York. The absence of Governor Clinton entirely deranged my plans. Rev. Dr. Spring advised me to leave it until my return to New York, after the subject had been noticed in Sillinan's Journal. He thought it would then be revived with better effect. The street commissioner, Mr. Macomb, was very much pleased with the model, and said it promised to be extensively useful. The machine business (between ourselves) I am heartily sick of. It yields much vexation, labor, and expense, and no profit. Yet I will not abandon it. I will do as well as I can with it, but I will make it subservient to my painting, as I am sure of a support, and even independence, if I pursue it diligently, and I am sure I am disposed to do it." Bright as his prospects appeared when he entered under the most favorable auspices the charmed circles of society in the hospitable city of Charleston, the weeks wore slowly away, and no sitters presented themselves at the door of his solitary studio. Weary with waiting, and drawn northward by a magnet more powerful than that which he afterward employed, he resolved to

Page  109 SUCCESS IN CHARLESTON. 109 return to his Lucretia, and portraits at fifteen dollars. These, and a pump that would throw three barrels of water in a minute, began to appear more likely to yield to the young people the income needed to render it prudent to marry, than the generous hospitalities of Charleston, with no orders for the artist's pencil. He implored his uncle, Dr. Finley, to sit to him for his portrait, that he might leave a memorial of his visit, and make some return for the kindness he had received. Then he would turn his back upon Charleston, and seek his native New England. This decision was evidently prompted by feeling rather than judgment, though it must be admitted there was nothing else for him to do. Dr. Finley consented to sit. The artist summoned to the work before him all the energies and resources of his youth and manhood. Never, in his anxious contests for prizes in the Royal Academy, had he made a more heroic effort than in this attempt to produce a perfect picture of his relative and friend. The studies of the past were invoked to aid him, and hopes of the future nerved him. If it were the last, as it was the first, work in the South, and far from the home of his childhood, it should be a memento of what the neglected and despairing artist could do. It was done, and to this day it is valued as one of the best productions of his master-hand. As he advanced in its execution, and intelligent critics were invited by Dr. Finley to see the coming portrait, three applications were filed by persons who now desired to be portrayed on canvas. The clouds began to break away. The wonderful skill of the artist became the talk of the town. In a few weeks his list of patrons to be painted amounted to one hundred and fifty. His price was sixty dollars a portrait! His success was assured. He toiled unceasingly, literally day and night, and even then he could not meet the demand for -his work. Drawings were made of many who would permit him to finish the painting at greater leisure in the ensuing summer. In the distance he saw, and not very far off, the vision of wife and home. He would go North in the early summer, and return in the autumn with his bride, and make a home in that genial clime, among friends to whom he had become strongly attached. Mr. John A. Allston, who had advised Mr. Morse to come to Charleston, continued to give him encouragement and

Page  110 110 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. material aid. Writing to him, on learning that Mr. Morse wished to paint a portrait of his daughter, Mr. Allston says: "GEORGETOWN, March 29, 1818. "SIR: I have lately received a letter from my brother Motte, in which he tells me you have authorized him to communicate your intention of shortly commencing the full-sized, half-portrait of my daughter. Upon your application to my brother, and to Mrs. Colcock, at whose boarding-school my daughter is, she will attend to you for that purpose. " I am unwilling that a painter of your reputation should pass me without gratifying myself completely, and therefore beg the favor of you to answer the following question, with the least possible delay: What is your price for a full-length portrait of my daughter executed nearly in miniature, say from twelve to twentyfour inches in length, with as superb a landscape as you are capable of designing and painting? It would be a convenient opportunity to make out this painting, while my daughter is attending you for her full-sized, half-portrait. I would be very glad to have a painting of her in the way described.. You need not take any steps toward it until you write and receive my answer. I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient and humble servant, "JOHN A. ALLSTON. "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, Esq." And the patron's idea of the art will be gathered from a subsequent letter written by Mr. Allston, on receiving Mr. Morse's reply to his inquiries. "GEORGETOWN, April 7, 1818. "SIR: I have just received your favor, of the 30th ultimo, and thank you very cordially for your goodness in consenting to take my daughter's full-length likeness in the manner I described, say, twenty-four inches in length. I will pay you most willingly the two hundred dollars you require for it, and will consider myself a gainer by the bargain. I shall expect you to decorate this picture with the most superb landscape you are capable of designing, and that you will produce a masterpiece of painting. I agree to your taking it with you to the northward to finish it. Be pleased to represent my daughter in the finest attitude you can conceive. I wish the drapery to be white, but if you think some light color would be handsomer, you can adopt it. I cannot refrain from as

Page  111 THE DAUGHTER'S PORTRAIT. 111 suring you that your letter has delighted me beyond measure, particularly that part of it which proposes your taking this picture with you to the North to finish, as I know from sad experience the difference between pictures executed at leisure and those done under a pressure of business. In the short space of twelve months I have paid much more than two thousand dollars for pictures of my family, not one of which can be said to be even a tolerable likeness, though two of them are certainly beautifully painted. As the season has far advanced, and my brother Motte writes me that you have already seventy portraits on your list to be finished in rotation, I must relinquish for the present my application to you for the several portraits I had intended, until your return to Charleston in November next. "The full-sized half-length portrait of my daughter I hope you will have time to do justice to, and to finish before you leave Charleston, as my brother informs me it is now at the head of your list. If, however, you would prefer to take this picture also with you to the northward to finish. I would have no objection, but I could never consent to it unless you will agree to receive payment for it immediately. If you think your time will permit you to finish this picture in your best style before your departure from Charleston, I would of course greatly prefer it, and only make use of the above observation in case you might prefer taking it with you. " I am, sir, with great respect, Your most obedient and humble servant, "JOHN A. ALLSTON. "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, Esq." Mr. Allston paid the artist handsomely for these pictures of his children, and Mr. Morse begged him afterward to accept as a present his great picture, "The Judgment of Jupiter." It was accepted in terms as honorable to the writer as to the artist who so handsomely had expressed his sense of obligation. Mr. Allston writes to Mr. Morse: "GEORGETOWN, April 18, 1820.'MY DEAR SIR: I thank you very sincerely for your kind letter of the 14th inst., which has just reached me. I am, unable to express to you sufficiently the sense of the obligation I entertain, for the very splendid present you have been pleased to make me. Much less am I able to convey to you the value I set upon the friendly sentiments you must have experienced and which have induced you

Page  112 112 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. to make me a present so highly flattering to me. The painting is of inestimable value, and, though I am delighted in being the owner of it, yet I cannot refrain from saying (however undeserving I am of it) that I value your regard even more than the picture. This present is an exhibition of exalted sentiments. It may be my lot to view it for a number of years. I shall never pass it but with mingled emotions of admiration for your talents, and of unfeigned homage to your superior feelings. I will direct Messrs. Kershaw and Lewis to forward it to me. " I wish you, my dear sir, a safe voyage to the North, and that we may live to meet again-and to accept the unfeigned assurance of the regard of your much obliged and most obedient servant, "JOHN A. ALLSTON. "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, Esq." The subsequent history of this picture is remarkable. While Mr. Allston lived, it was the most attractive picture in his gallery. At his death, his paintings were sold and scattered, and this one was lost to the knowledge of the artist and his friends. Many years after, an American collector of pictures bought it in England, and presented it to Mrs. Parmalee, a niece of Prof. Morse, without the slightest suspicion of his being the author. He recognized it instantly on seeing it, and it is now in the possession of the family. In May of 1818, having spent less than five months in Charleston, and having painted fifty-three portraits, and commenced nine, to be finished in the summer, Mr. Morse returned to Boston. Not many days after his arrival he received a letter from Dr. Finley, in Charleston, rallying him playfully on his having met his Lucretia; and then the uncle says: "Finley, I am afraid you will be too happy; you ought to meet a little rub or two, or you will be too much in the clouds, and forget that you are among mortals. Let us see if I cannot give you a friendly hoist downward. Your pictures; ay, suppose I should speak of them, and what is said of them during your absence. I will perform the office of him who was placed on the triumphal car of the conqueror to abuse him lest he should be elated. Well,'His pictures,' say people,'are undoubtedly good likenesses, but he paints carelessly, and in too much haste, and his draperies are not well done; he must be more attentive, or he will lose his repu

Page  113 MARRIAGE. 113 tation.''See,' say others,'how he flatters!''Oh,' says another,'he has not flattered me,' etc., etc. By-the-by, I saw old General C. C. Pinckney yesterday, and he told me in his laughing, humorous way, that he had requested you to draw his brother Thomas twenty years younger than he really was, so as to be a companion to his own when he was twenty years older than at this time, and to flatter him, as he had directed Stuart to do so to him. Here you have a nice little anecdote to amuse yourself and friends with." Resuming his labors at home, Mr. Morse spent the summer in completing the portraits he had brought with him in an unfinished state, and executing such orders as now came to his hand. On the 6th of October, 1818, the New Hamopshire Patriot had the following notice: "Married in this town, October 1st, by Rev. Dr. McFarland, Mr. Samuel F. B. Morse (the celebrated painter) to Miss Lucretia Walker, daughter of Charles Walker, Esq." His bridal tour, with horse and gig, after the fashion of the day, is portrayed in a letter to his parents: "CONCORD, N. H., October 6, 1818. " MY DEAR PARENTS: I was married, as I wrote you I should be, on Tuesday morning last. We set out. at nine o'clock, and reached Amherst, over bad roads, at night. The next day we continued our journey through Wilton to New Ipswich, eighteen miles, over one of the worst roads I ever traveled; all up hill and down, and very rocky, and no tavern on the road. We inquired at New Ipswich our best route to Northampton, where we intended to go to meet Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius; but we found, on inquiry, that there were nothing but cross-roads, and these very bad, and no tavern where we could be comfortably accommodated. Our horse was also tired; so we thought our best way would be to return. Accordingly, the next day we started for Concord, and arrived on Friday evening safe home again. Lucretia wishes to spend this week with her friends, so that I shall return (Providence permitting) on this day week, and reach home by Tuesday noon; probably'to dinner. We are both well, and send a great deal of love to you all. Mr. and Mrs. Walker wish me to present their best respects to you. "Your affectionate son, "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE." 8

Page  114 114 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. On the 12th of the next month, Mr. Morse, with his young wife, sailed in the schooner Tontine, Captain Fanning, from New York, for Charleston, S. C. They were welcomed with great hospitality by the many friends that Mr. Morse had made the previous winter, and their residence was rendered peculiarly pleasant by the many attentions they received. Mrs. Morse won general admiration and love. Several other artists had established themselves at Charleston, attracted, doubtless, by the fame of his great success, and with them he had to divide the business. One man, whom he had employed as a waiter in his studio, suddenly assumed the proportions of a painter of portraits, and announced himself in the papers as an artist. He did not fail altogether in finding patrons, who discovered rare merit in the painter. But Mr. Morse's old patrons returned with new friends, and he soon had as much work upon his hands as he could possibly accomplish. Yet he could not dismiss the inventions from his thoughts. He was experimenting upon improvements in,the engine. His letters to his brother are not preserved, but one, in reply to his suggestions, shows how pertinadiously his mind was at work: From Sidney E. 2Morse. " ANDOVER, January 17, 1819. " DEAR BROTHER: For various reasons, which it is not necessary to mention, I do not think your experiment a fair test of the principle. The friction of the potato plug against the sides of the tube might have been sufficient to destroy the whole force. In experiments on so small a scale, the friction is very great compared with the force exerted. I would not advise you to try the full experiment, as you propose, with oil and valves, etc., because there will be a great deal of perplexity and expense which you do not anticipate; and, in trying the experiment on so small a scale, there will be a great many little causes of failure not affecting the truth of the principle. Besides, the principle can be much more satisfactorily tested by a simple experiment than by a complicated one. I have thought of the following mejthod: "Procure a cylindrical vessel of tin, of any dimensions, according to the size of the boat you employ (the larger the better, if it is not inconveniently large). Let it be divided into two apartments by a perpendicular partition, as in the following diagram:

Page  115 AN IMPROVEMENT SUGGESTED. 115 "A B represents the cylinder, c d the partition running from the top nearly to the bottom; e is a little tube i of an inch in diameter or less, capable of being stopped per- e fectly tight with a plug (and therefore I Al L think should not be of tin). f is a tube /_ an inch in diameter, and capable also / of being completely closed with a plug, or with the hand. Take care that there is no leakage, especially in the parti- I tion between the two apartments. To B prepare for the experiment: First, let the tube e be carefully stopped. Then turn the cylinder over so that the line c d shall be parallel with the horizon, and then pour in water at the orifice, till you have filled the apartment h. Then let the cylinder assume its original position, and if every thing is tight the water will remain in the apartment h, while the apartment g is empty. The next step is to close the orifice f, either with your hand or a plug-while some one unstops the tube e, and pours in a dozen or twenty drops of ether, which will float on the top of the water in the apartment h. Then let the tube e be closed again. Let the cylinder now be placed in the boat with the orifice f toward the stern, and apply heat to the water in the apartment h in any convenient way. When the water becomes blood-warm the ether will be converted into vapor, and force the water from the apartment h into the apartment g, and, if my theory is correct, will propel the boat forward. If you can conveniently apply heat enough to make the water boil, you may simplify the apparatus still further, for then you might use the steam of the water, instead of the steam of ether, to force the water out of the apartment h, and so dispense with the tube e. Two or three days since, I saw the National Intelligencer, for Wednesday and Thursday, January 27th and 28th, and noticed an article headed'Antiquity of Steamboats.' I want you to get the paper, and read that article. You will find that they are now actually building a steamboat on the very principle of the experiment which we tried in the navy-yard. "I am much rejoiced to hear that you are,going on so prosperously in your business. Don't let the experiment take up your time or your thoughts, so as to interfere with your business. "Your affectionate brother, " SIDNEY E. MORSE."

Page  116 116 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. To Mr. Washington Allston, having now returned from London, and established himself in Boston, Mr. Morse wrote, proposing to exhibit and sell some of the pictures, in Charleston, of his distinguished friend. Mr. Allston's mother was living at that time in Charleston. To the letter of Morse, Mr. Allston replied as follows: From Washington Allston. "BOSTON, January 27, 1819. "MY DEAR SIR: Before this reaches you, you will probably receive the landscape, which you were so good as to undertake the disposal of in Charleston, or at least to give house-room to there; I mean the landscape I painted in Italy, and which has been for a year or two past in Mr. Sully's room, in Philadelphia. The price I have set on it is two hundred and fifty guineas; not a farthing less. If it is worth any thing, I think it worth three hundred; but I am content to get two hundred and fifty. At any rate, however, I beg you to observe that I would on no account sell it for more than three hundred, even if it should be offered. The price is two hundred and fifty; ask that, and with that I shall be content. I have directed the case containing the picture to be addressed to you, to the care of Mr. Hugh Paterson, who was formerly my agent; and I must beg the favor of you to pay the freight and other charges that may be incident to the landing of it, as I have no longer any account standing with Mr. Paterson, which I will repay you when we meet; or you may deduct the sum from the sale, if it should be so fortunate as to meet with a purchaser. I will make no apology for giving this trouble, since I know you would not consider it other than a pleasure to render me a service. "( Now the business part of my letter is over, I suppose you will expect something like news concerning the art. Sargent is going on with his second picture of the'Landing of our Forefathers,' and I think will make it better than that of the'Entrance into Jerusalem.' He is a worthy and liberal man, and I hope he may meet with that praise for it which his love of the art, under so many unexciting, not to say discouraging circumstances, may fairly entitle him to; and under which his perseverance is no small proof that he cultivates it solely for itself. Mr. Stuart has lately painted a fine head of Commodore Perry. Fisher left this for Charleston some time since, and I suppose is now there. Leslie, from whom I lately had a letter, does not contemplate returning to America be

Page  117 LETTER FROM ALLSTON. 117 fore the next autumn. John Payne has written a tragedy on the subject of'Junius Brutus,' which is now acting with great applause at the Drury Lane. Kean plays the principal part in it. This is all the news I have to tell about others. Now concerning myself: I yesterday received an official communication from Mr. Howard, the secretary of the Royal Academy, informing me that on the 2d of November last I was elected an associate of that body. I had received intelligence of it about three weeks ago, both from Leslie and Collins. I must own this is very pleasing to me, and I am sure it will be very gratifying to you; I am the more pleased too with the distinction, inasmuch as I never would nor did solicit a vote from any academician. And this is a proof that the report of candidates being expected to canvass, or in other words to beg votes, is without foundation. I wish you could see Collins's letter. I suppose you know he was made an associate before you left England. He says I must come back. But that I have no thoughts of -at least for many good years, if it should please God to grant me them. " Something like encouragement seems to appear in our horizon; and if we have any talents we owe something to our country when she is disposed to foster them. One of the gentlemen concerned told me two days ago that he was appointed one of a committee for engaging me to paint a picture for the hospital here. As yet I have had no formal notice of it;, but do not doubt that the communication will soon be made. This, however, is between ourselves. I expect, in your answer to this, a full and particular account of all that you are doing. You cannot be too minute. Remember me most cordially to your wife. And pray present my respects to Mrs. Heyward, Mrs. and Miss Rutledge, and Colonel Drayton and his lady. Remember me also to White, Racot, Frazer, and Cogdell. Believe me sincerely your friend, " WASHINGTON ALLSTON." This letter was post-marked January 29th, and, before it could have been received in Charleston, Mr. Morse writes to his friend and teacher: " CHARLESTON, S. C., February 4, 1819. " WASHINGTON ALLSTON, Esq. "My DEAR SIR: Excuse my neglect in not having written you before this, according to my promise before I left Boston. I can only plead an apology (what I know will gratify you), a multiplicity

Page  118 118 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. of business. I am painting from morning till night, and have continual applications; I have added to my list, this season only, to the amount of three thousand dollars; that is, since I left you. Among them are three full-lengths to be finished at the North, I hope in Boston, where I shall once more enjoy the advantages of your criticisms. I am exerting my utmost to improve; every picture I try to make my best; and in the evening I draw two hours from the antique, as I did in London, for I ought to inform you that I fortunately found a fine Venus de Miedicis without a blemish, imported from Paris some time since by a gentleman of this city, who wished. to dispose of it; also a young Apollo, which was so broken that he gave it to me, saying that it was useless. I have, however, after a great deal of trouble, put it together entirely, and these two figures, with some fragments, hands, feet, etc., make a very good academy. Mr. Fraser, Mr. Cogdell, Mr. Fisher, of Boston, and myself, meet here of an improve ourselves. I feel as much enthusiasm as ever in my art, and love it more than ever. A few years, at the rate I am now going on, will place me independent of public patronage; thus much for myself, for you told me in one of your letters from London that I must be more of an egotist, or you should be less of one in, your letters to me, which I should greatly regret. And now permit me, my dear sir, to congratulate you on your election to the Royal Academy. I know you will believe me when I say I jumped for joy when I heard it: though it cannot add to your merit, yet it will extend tie knowledge of it, especially in our own country, where we are still influenced by foreign opinion, and more justly perhaps in regard to taste in the fine arts than in any other thing. "I have been using a compound, or rather mixture, in flesh, on which I wish your opinion. Yellow-ochre has heretofore been the best yellow that I could use, but it always appeared to me to want brilliancy; chrome-yellow, on the contrary, is too bright, or eggy; but these two I have mixed half-and-half, and find it excellent flesh-yellow. I find this mixture also excellent in the shadows of white drapery, and in reflected lights, when properly tempered with blue and red. A very strong tint of this yellow, laid on boldly in a shadow, gives a clearness and liquidness to it which no other yellow that I have used can give; and gives a warmth and glow to the picture, without being hot. I should like to know the result of your experiment with it. " How does your great picture progress? I hope to see it, when

Page  119 PORTRAIT OF MONROE. 119 I return, entirely finished. Have you got a good room? How are your Boston friends disposed toward you now? Are they still desirous of keeping you with them, and of giving you something to paint for them? Do write me, dear sir, all about yourself, as you used to wish me to do of myself. I long to see you, and talk over every thing. Do write me, dear sir, soon. You know what a gratification it will be to one who is proud in calling himself your pupil. May God bless you, dear sir, and believe me your affectionate pupil, "S. F. B. MORSE." The Common Council of Charleston paid Mr. Morse the compliment of requesting him to paint the portrait of JAMES MONROE, then the President of the United States. And after spending the summer at the North, and leaving his wife and their infant daughter in Concord, with Mrs. Morse's parents for the winter, he returned South, taking Washington in his way, that he might execute the commission for the city. He was alarmed at the price of board, as he writes to his wife, finding it to be two dollars a day in New York City, and equally high in Washington. I began," he says, in a letter, " on Monday to paint the President, and have almost completed the head "-this was on Thursday-" I am thus far pleased with it, but I find it very perplexing, for he cannot sit more than ten or twenty minutes at a time; so that, the moment I feel engaged, he is called away again. I set my palette to-day at ten o'clock, and waited until four o'clock this afternoon before he came in. He then sat ten minutes, and we were called to dinner. Is not this trying to one's patience My room is at his house, next to his cabinet-room, for his convenience. When he has a moment's leisure he comes in to sit to me. He is very agreeable and affable, as are also his family. I drank tea with them on Saturday, and dined with them on Monday and to-day." When his work was completed, the family were so delighted with it that he was obliged to remain and make a copy for them. The portrait was considered, by all who saw it at the time, a great triumph of art. It remains in the City Hall of Charleston. Another winter was spent in Charleston, South Carolina. His brother Richard having become a preacher, came down, and was employed on John's Island, where the artist frequently vis

Page  120 120 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. ited him. Speaking of one of these visits in a letter to his wife, April 8, 1820, he says: "My visit to John's Island was a very agreeable one. I staid at Mr. James Legare's, and painted Mrs. Legare, at my leisure. In the intermediate time we went-I say we-there was Prof. Porter, of Andover, and brother Richard, and Mr. Wilson, and Thos. Legare, and his sons, and the sons of Mr. James Legare, and two or three others-we spent a week upon the island. On Monday, we all dined with Mr. Wilson, and in the afternoon I mounted a horse (the first time for ten years), and with a Mr. Hart, and Richard, and Mr. John Legare, set out with six hounds in search of a fox. We had not proceeded half a mile when the dogs opened their cry, and the chase commenced. Owing to my want of skill in riding, I was unable to keep up with the rest of the company, over ditches, and fences, and cotton-fields, and old logs, so that I did not enjoy the sport so much as the rest; but I was, fortunately, in at the death, as the huntsmen say; for, after a chase of about half an hour, the fox took to a cotton-field, and after doubling two or three times was caught by the dogs. As this field was near where I was left by the rest, I rode in, in time to see him caught. "On Tuesday was our great hunting-day. The Legares, Wilsons, Prof. Porter, Richard, and myself, with two or three others, set out at nine o'clock in the morning, on a deer-hunt, with eleven hounds, and a negro, to drive the woods. We were all well mounted and with guns. I have drawn a little figure below, to explain our proceedings. The triangular piece is a piece of woods; the negro, with the dogs, was put into the ~~~A Rwoods at A, while we galloped briskly along the road, and took our dif-/ \\~ ferent stands at B, B, etc. The dogs / - \\ soon opened, but, to our mortification, L~..1.\ the deer took the course C, and o7 ok.- * - ~\ @ avoided us. When we found the B B B B\ dogs had passed the road, we all galloped off again, and took stands at D 1D D D D \ D, in hopes of heading the deer, but _* - * * - he again'avoided us in the same way; so we lost the deer. The dogs soon, however, opened again, and we found they had scented a fox. We had a fine chase of an hour after him, in which time we saw him

Page  121 PORTRAITS IN CHARLESTON. 121 often, and I was enabled to keep up with the rest of the company all the time. We lost him, however, in the end; but I was very much amused at the sagacity of the fox and the hounds. I arrived at Mr. Legare's in the evening at eight o'clock, having been on horseback eleven hours, much fatigued, but very much benefited in my health by this fine exercise." A list of the names of all the persons whose portraits he painted in Charleston during the successive winters of his residence in that city he preserved with care to the end of his life. It includes Dr. Finley, the Allstons, Mrs. Porter, Dr. Mitchill, Mrs. Hitchborn, Dr. Baron, Mr. Perroneau, Judge Desausure, Mr. Simmons, Mrs. Stiles, Mrs. Heyward, Mrs. Bentham, Bishop Smith, Major Theus, Major-General Pinckney, Mrs. Smilie, Mr. John Axson, Dr. Poyas, Colonel Drayton, Judge and Mrs. Cheves, Mr. Legar6, Mrs. Dr. Grimkie, Mrs. Colcock, Lady Nesbit, Mr. and Mrs. Huger, and scores of others. Mr. Cogdell furnishes Mr. Dunlap with this record of one of Mr. Morse's last works in Charleston: "In January, 1821, my friend Morse had several conversations with me about the practicability of establishing an academy. We agreed to have a meeting; we solicited the main hall of the city. Mr. Morse moved that the Hon. Joel R. Poinsett take the chair; Mr. Jay that Mr. Cogdell act as secretary. Mr. Morse then submitted a resolution asking of the council a site in the public square for the building, and we adjourned. A number of artists and amateurs were requested to meet at my office, where the first organization was made of the Academy of Fine Arts. Gentlemen were named officers and directors; on my writing to them, they accepted. Thus was brought into existence the South Carolina Academy of Fine Arts. "JOEL R. POINSETT, President. Directors: Samuel F. B. Morse, Charles Frazer, Joshua Cantir, John S. Cogdell, John B. White, Wm. Jay, architect, Charles C. Wright, die-sinker, Wm. Shields, James Wood, engraver, Chs. Simmons, engraver. "The Legislature granted a charter, but, my good sir, as they possessed no powers under the constitution to confer taste or talent,

Page  122 122 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. and possessed none of those feelings which prompt to patronage, they gave none to the infant academy. We have had as splendid exhibitions as I have ever seen in any other city. On the presentation of my bust of Dr. J. E. Holbrook, I received from the directors, under the eleventh rule, the title of academician; but, cut bono? The institution was allowed, from apathy and opposition, to die, and the property has been sold recently to pay its debts; but Mr. Poinsett and myself, with a few others, have purchased, with a hope of reviving, the establishment." In the month of February, 1820, the Rev. Dr. Morse resigned his charge as pastor in Charlestown, Massachusetts, and removed to New Haven, Connecticut, with the,family of his son. Mr. Morse joined his family there in the spring, when he came from South Carolina, and passed the summer in that city. He had constant employment for his pencil in completing the paintings he had commenced in Charleston, and he found great delight in renewing his studies of electricity and galvanism in the laboratory of Yale College. To this spot he resorted while Prof. Silliman was preparing his experiments, and gratified his tastes for philosophical and chemical studies, in the midst of his profession as an artist. The painting of portraits was to him, as to all painters of original power, a weariness, and Mr. Morse resolved to attempt something in which it might be raised to the dignity of history. He conceived the idea of making a large picture of the "House of Representatives"' at Washington, presenting a view of the chamber, and portraits of individual members. For this purpose he went to Washington in November, 1821, and was kindly received by the President of the United States, who encouraged his grand undertaking, and gave him every facility for its execution. The architect of the House, Mr. Bullfinch, and all the officers of the House, entered cordially into the work, and encouraged him with their efficient aid. "The President," Mr. Morse writes to his wife, "asked me, in the course of conversation, whether he could obtain from New Haven some small elms for his estate in Virginia. He seemed desirous of having some. Now, I should like very much if father could procure a dozen at my expense (they will be but a trifle) and bring them on with him when he comes to

Page  123 AT THE PRESIDENT'S HOUSE. 123 Washington. They will not take up any room if the roots are wound round with mats, and the whole done up as apple or other trees are transplanted. I should like very much to make this little acknowledgment to the President for his civilities, and I think he would be pleased with the attention." Mr. Morse obtained the use of one of the lower rooms of the Capitol, and there established his studio, to make it convenient for the members to sit to him for their portraits; and while they were not with him he could work upon the interior of the chamber. He writes to Mrs. Morse: "I am up at daylight, have my breakfast and prayers over, and commence the labors of the day long before the workmen are called to work on the Capitol by the bell. This I continue unremittingly till one o'clock, when I dine in about fifteen minutes, and then pursue my labors until tea, which scarcely interrupts me, as I often have my cup of tea in one hand and pencil in the other. Between ten and eleven o'clock I retire to rest. This has been my course every day (Sundays, of course, excepted) since I have been here, making about fourteen hours' study out of the twenty-four. This, you will say, is too hard, and that I shall injure my health. I can say that I never enjoyed better health, and my body, by the simple fare I live on, is disciplined to this course. As it will not be necessary to continue long so assiduously, I shall not fear to pursue it till this work is done. "I receive every possible facility from all about the Capitol. The door-keeper, a venerable man, has offered to light the great chandelier expressly for me to take my sketches in the evening, for two hours together, for I shall have it a candle-light effect, when the room, already very splendid, will appear ten times more so." His absorption in the picture was so great that once he arose in the night mistaking the light of the moon for day, and went to his task, and at another time lost the reckoning of the days of the week, and attempted to enter the Hall on Sunday to pursue his work, and could hardly be persuaded to admit that he had lost a day. By the middle of December, he was working sixteen hours a day. "I never enjoyed better health; the moment I feel unwell I shall desist, but I am in the vein now, and must have my way. I have had a great deal of difficulty with the perspective of my picture. But I have conquered, and have

Page  124 124 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. accomplished my purpose. After having drawn in the greater part three times, I have as many times rubbed it all out again. I have been, several times, from daylight until eleven o'clock at night, solving a single problem." And then he turns away from his " vexations " and " disappointments" to his anxieties for his little family in New Haven, and says: " How I do long to see that dear little girl of mine, and to hear her sweet prattle! Instruct her early, my dear wife, in the most important of all concerns; teach her that there is a great Father above, her obligations to Him and to her Saviour. Kiss her often for papa, and tell her he will come back one of these days." The work required far more time than he anticipated. December was gone before the portraits of the members were begun. On the 2d of January, 1822, he writes: "I have commenced to-day taking the likenesses of the members. I find them not only willing to sit, but apparently esteeming it an honor. I shall take seventy of them, and perhaps more; all, if possible. I find the picture is becoming the subject of conversation, and every day gives me greater encouragement. I shall paint it on part of the great canvas when I return home. It will be eleven feet by seven and a half feet; that will divide the great canvas exactly into two equal parts, on one of which I paint the House of Representatives, and the other the Senate. It will take me until October next to complete it." He. painted eighty portraits on the great picture, and on the 10th of February left Washington. By steady travel in the stage he performed the journey from Washington to New Haven in six days, reaching his home and family on Saturday the 16th of the month. As a work of art this picture was admirable, but it failed to attract the attention of the public. The artist's expectations of deriving profit from its exhibition were disappointed. It proved a loss to him pecuniarily, and was at length sold to an English gentleman, who took it to his own country, where it remained for several years. The artist lost trace and knowledge of it. While abroad in after-years he made inquiries for it in vain. After the lapse of a quarter of a century he received the following letter from an artist friend:

Page  125 THE LOST PICTURE FOUND. 125 F. W: Edmonds, Esq., to Prof. Morse. "NEW YORK, December 7, 1847. MY DEAR SIR: I was applied to by a gentleman a few days since to call and see your picture of the'House of Representatives' which has been sent to this city from London by a house who had advanced a sum of money upon it while in England. I called upon Mr. Durand, and he accompanied me on visiting it. We found it at the store of Coates & Co., No. 54 Exchange Place, nailed against a board partition in the third story, almost invisible from the dirt and dust upon it. It has evidently been rolled up, and, having no strainer, its surface is as uneven as the waves of the sea. In one place where it has been rolled the paint has pealed off in a narrow but long seam, but this is above the heads of the figures, and I think can be easily repaired. Otherwise the picture seems in a good condition if washed, stretched, and varnished. They (Coates & Co.) hold it for sale, but in its present condition few, except those very familiar with pictures, would look at with a view of purchasing it. I suggested to them to wait till I could write to you before they showed it, as you would probably desire that it should be cleaned and varnished, and, if you were likely soon to be in the city, would perhaps prefer doing it yourself. I think it would not cost over ten dollars to put it in good order. Excuse me for troubling you in this matter, but, believing it to be one of the best works ever painted by you, and knowing it to be invaluable as containing portraits of many eminent statesmen of this country, I could not patiently be silent while in its present condition. "Respectfully and truly yours, SAMUEL F. B. MORSE, Esq." " F. W. EDMONDS. The picture was rescued from its confinement, and became the property of the distinguished artist Daniel Huntington, Esq., in whose private gallery it is preserved. In the winter of 1822, notwithstanding the great expenses to which Mr. Morse had been subjected in producing this picture, and before he had realized any thing from its exhibition, he made a donation of five hundred dollars to the library fund of Yale College, probably the largest donation, in proportion to the means of the giver, which that institution ever received. The corporation, by vote, presented the thanks of the board in the following letter:

Page  126 126 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "YALE COLLEGE, December 4, 1822. "DEAR SIR: I am directed, by the corporation of this college, to present to you the thanks of the board for your subscription of five hundred dollars for the enlargement of the library. Should this example of liberality be generally imitated by the friends of the institution, we should soon have a library creditable to the college, and invaluable to men of literary and philosophic research. "With respectful and grateful acknowledgments, "Your obedient servant, "JEREMIAH DAY. "Mr. SAMUEL F. B. MORSE."

Page  127 CHAPTER V. 1823-1828. INVENTS A MACHINE FOR CUTTING MARBLE-GOES TO ALBANY-LITTLE SUCCESS — RETURNS TO NEW YORK-PORTRAIT OF CHANCELLOR KENTICHABOD CRANE-ARRANGEMENTS TO GO TO MEXICO AS ATTACHk TO THE LEGATION-LETTER FROM HON. ROBERT Y. HAYNE-THE SCHEME ABANDONED-IN NEW HAVEN-TRAVELS IN NEW ENGLAND-SETTLES IN NEW YORK-COMMISSIONED TO PAINT PORTRAIT OF GENERAL LAFAYETTE -GOES TO WASHINGTON-SUDDEN DEATH OF HIS WIFE-DEATH OF HIS FATHER-FOUNDS THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN-SKETCH-CLUBLETTER FROM GENERAL T. S. CUMMINGS-LORD LYNDHURST'S LETTERSTUDIES IN ELECTRO - MAGNETISM-PROFESSOR DANA'S LECTURES-HIS OWN LECTURES-ESCAPE FROM DEATH. T HE inventive faculty, so characteristic of the family to which Mr. Morse belonged, we have already seen developed in him. While struggling in his profession, and having far less to do than he desired, he turned his attention to the invention of a machine for carving marble, and by which he hoped to be able to produce statues-perfect copies of any model. Others have attempted machines for similar purposes, and perhaps with no better success than crowned his efforts. On the 6th of August, 1823, while in New Haven, he sent to the Secretary of State at Washington a letter in the form of a caveat, in which he describes the machine he had invented, and his intention to secure a. patent for the same. Mr. Augur, an ingenious mechanic of New Haven, was employed to construct a working machine. Afterward he used it successfully in cutting statues from the solid marble. This machine is frequently alluded to in his correspondence, and he looked to it as a source of great pecuniary profit. Early in February of this same year

Page  128 128 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Mr. Morse went to Boston with his picture of the House of XRepresentatives, and placed it there upon exhibition. On the first day the receipts were forty dollars and fifty-five cents, which sum was sufficient to encourage him that it would be successful. Mr. Allston called to see it, and Mr. Morse, in a letter to his wife, remarks that " Mr. Allston says it is a magnificent picture. He has suggested some small improvements, which I can make in two days." But it failed to excite public attention; and, leaving it there on exhibition, he went, in the month of August, to the city of Albany, N. Y., where he had been encouraged to hope for patronage from the public men. He had formed a pleasant acquaintance with the Patroon, the Hon. Stephen Van Rensselaer, of Albany, who was a member of Congress while Mr. Morse was engaged in painting his picture of the House of Representatives. He immediately commenced the portrait of the Patroon, which he designed to exhibit in Albany as a specimen of his art. Day after day he waited patiently in hopes of winning, by the exhibition of the portrait, a few at least who might be tempted to employ him. He writes to his wife: "I have found lodgings-a large front room on the second story, twenty-five by eighteen feet, and twelve feet high-a fine room for painting, with a neat little bedroom, and every convenience, and board, all for six dollars a week, which I think is very reasonable. My landlord is an elderly Irish gentleman, with three daughters, once in independent circumstances, but now reduced. Every thing bears the appearance of old-fashioned gentility, which you know I always liked. Every thing is neat and clean and genteel. The family reside at No. 94 North Pearl Street. They are well acquainted with Bishop Brownell and his lady, and say that they always call when they come to Albany. Colonel Baldwin has been very kind and obliging to me. He is in high estimation in this city, and deservedly so. Elkanah Watson is not in town. I called on Rev. Dr. Chester, and heard him preach to-day. Bishop Hobart and a great many acquaintances were on board of the boat upon which I came up to this city. I can form no idea as yet of the prospect of success in my profession here. If I get enough to employ me, I shall go no farther; if not, I may visit some of the smaller towns in the interior of the State. I await with some anx

Page  129 PORTRAIT OF KENT. 129 iety the result of experiments with my machine. I hope the invention may enable me to remain at home." On the 16th of August he writes: "I have not as yet received any application for a portrait. Many tell me I have come at the wrong time-the same tune that has been rung in my ears so long! I hope the right time will come by-and-by. The winter, it is said, is the proper season; but, as it is better in the South in that season, and it will be more profitable to be there, I shall give Albany a thorough trial and do my best. If I should not find enough to employ me here, I think I shall return to New York and settle there. This I had rather not do at present, but it may be the best that I can do. Roaming becomes more and more irksome. Imperious necessity alone drives me to this course. Don't think by this I am faint-hearted. I shall persevere in this course, painful as is the separation from my family, until Providence clearly points out my duty to return." August 22d.-" I have something to do. I have one portrait in progress, and the promise of more. One hundred dollars will pay all my expenses here for three months, so that the two I am now painting will clear me in that respect, and all that comes after will be clear gain. I am, therefore, easier in my mind as to this. The portrait now painting is Judge Moss Kent, brother of the Chancellor. He says that I shall paint the Chancellor when he returns to Albany, and his niece also; and, from these particulars, you may infer that I shall be here for some little time longer, just so long as my good prospects continue; but, should they fail, I am determined to try New York City, and sit down there in my profession permanently. I believe I have now attained sufficient proficiency to venture there. My progress may be slow at first, but I believe it will be sure. I do not like going South, and I have given up the idea of New Orleans or any Southern city, at least for the present. Circumstances may vary this determination, but I think a settlement in New York is more feasible now than ever before. I shall be near you and home in cases of emergency, and in the summer and sickly season can visit you at New Haven, while you can do the same to me in New York, until we live again at New Haven altogether. I leave out of this calculation the machine for sculpture. If that should entirely succeed, my plans would be materially varied; but I speak of my present plan as if that had failed. I hope Mr. Augur will not be discouraged by the little minutiae of 9

Page  130 130 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the machine, but carry it through. I should like to have a letter from him on the subject, putting down a list of questions respecting marble and marble-cutting which he wishes me to ask of stone-cutters, as there are some here, and I can gain much from them. "With respect to young Longworth, I should have no objection to take him as a pupil, if I go to New York, on what terms I am hardly prepared now to say. I may find it to be an advantage to take a number of pupils." August 24th. —" I finished Mr. Kent's picture yesterday, and received the money for it. Mr. Kent is very polite to me, and has introduced me to a number of persons and families; among others to the Kanes-very wealthy people-to Governor Yates, etc. Mr. Clinton's son called on me and invited me to their house. I have been introduced to Sefor Rocafuerto, the Spaniard, who made so excellent a speech before the Bible Society last May. He is a very handsome man, very intelligent, full of wit and vivacity. He is a great favorite with the ladies, and is a man of wealth and a zealous patriot, studying our manners, customs, and improvements, with a view of benefiting his own countrymen in Peru." August 27th, he writes again to his wife: "My last two letters have held out to you some encouraging prospects of success here, but now they seem darkened again. I have had nothing to do this week thus far but to wait patiently. I have advertised in both of the city papers that I should remain one week to receive applications, but as yet it has produced no effect. Mr. Kent's niece has not arrived as expected, so that it is doubtful whether I shall paint her; but, as she lives in New York, and as it is to be for Mr. Kent, I can make arrangements to paint it for him there. Chancellor Kent is out of town, and will not be in until the end of next month. It is hardly worth while to stay solely for that; many have been talking of having their portraits painted, but there it has thus far ended. I find nothing in Albany which can profitably employ my leisure hours. If there were any pictures or statuary where I could sketch and draw, it would be different. I have visited several families who have been very kind to me, for which I am thankful. I shall leave Albany and return to New York a week from to-day, if there is no change in my prospects. The more I think of making a push at New York as a permanent place of residence in my profession, the more proper it seems that it should be at once. New York does not yet feel the influx of wealth

Page  131 HIS EASEL IN NEW YORK. 131 from the Western canals, but in a year or two she will feel it, and it will be advantageous to me to' be previously identified among her citizens as a painter. It requires some little time to become renowned in such a city." All his hopes of patronage in Albany were dissipated; and on the 3d of September he writes to his wife: " I have nothing to do, and shall pack up on the morrow for New York, unless appearances change again. I have not had full employment since I have been in Albany, and I feel miserable in doing nothing." After a brief visit with his family at New Haven, he went to New York, to carry out his purpose of making a permanent settlement in that city in the. pursuit of his profession as an artist. He made the passage from New Haven to New York by water; was driven in by a gale into Black Rock Harbor, and there detained, and the next day completed the journey to New York by land. Writing home the next day, he says: " I have obtained a place to board at friend Coolidge's, at two dollars and twenty-five cents a week, and have taken for my studio a fine room in Broadway, opposite Trinity Churchyard, for which I am to pay six dollars and fifty cents a week, being fifty cents less than I expected to pay. I shall go to work in a few days vigorously. It is a half-mile from my room to the place where I board, so that I am obliged to walk more than three miles every day. It is good exercise for me, and I feel better for it. I sleep in my room on the floor, and put my bed out of sight during the day, as at Washington. I feel in the spirit of'buckling down to it,' and am determined to paint and study with all my might this winter." The first portrait which he painted, after his coming to New York, was that of the distinguished Chancellor Kent. He says of the Chancellor: "He is not a good sitter; he scarcely presents the same view twice; he is very impatient, and you well know that I cannot paint an impatient person; I must have my mind at ease or I cannot paint. I have no more applications as yet, but it is not time to expect them. All the artists are complaining, and there are many of them, and they are all poor. The arts are as low as they can be.

Page  132 132 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. It is no better at the South, and all the accounts of the arts or artists are of the most discouraging nature." And in successive letters to his wife he says: "I waited many days in the hope of some application in my profession, but have been disappointed, until last evening I called and spent the evening with my friend Mr. Van Schaick, and told him I had thought of painting some little design from the'SketchBook,' so as not to be idle, and mentioned the subject of'Ichabod Crane discovering the headless horseman.' He said:' Paint it for me, and another picture of the same size, and I will take them of you.' So I am now employed. I shall want immediately the little plaster cast of the horse, which is at my painting-room. I have received Mr. Augur's letter. It is a very encouraging one. All the difficulties that he complains of are unconnected with the invention, and those which we apprehended have not been realized, so that here is fresh cause for gratitude. My secret scheme is not yet disclosable, but I shall let you know as soon as I hear any thing definite." "You will be anxious to know what I am doing. The answer is very simple-' Nothing.' I am waiting for applications, but none offer. The chancellor's picture and Mr. Dewey's have been finished about a week; and, as far as painting is concerned, I am completely idle, and of course a little low-spirited. I have been active in calling on my friends and inviting them to my room; they have promised to come, but as yet few have called. As far as human foresight can perceive, my prospects seem gloomy indeed. The only gleam of hope-and I cannot underrate it-is from confidence in God. When I look upward, it calms my apprehensions for the future, and I seem to hear a voice saying:'If I clothe the lilies of the field, shall I not also clothe you?' Here is my strong confidence, and I will wait patiently for the direction of Providence. I have seen many of the artists; they all agree that little is doing in the city of New York. It seems wholly given to commerce. Every man is driving at one object —the making of money-not the spending of it. "What -is Mr. Augur doing with the machine? Is he still sanguine? I should be glad to hear from him." " MyI secret scheme looks promising, but I am still in suspense; you shall know the moment it is decided one way or the other. I met with a singular accident to-day. You recollect I complained

Page  133 OUT OF FUNDS. 133 of a little bone being out of place in my left hand, which pained me when I touched it. To-day in coming out of the house I slipped down, and came with my whole weight upon my left hand. I felt something snap, and experienced a good deal of pain in it for a few moments; upon examining my hand, I found, to my surprise, that this bone had snapped into its place, and in about half an hour the pain left me, and my hand is as well as it ever was." The straits to which he was reduced, and his plans for the future, are developed in the following letter: " NEW YORK, December 21, 1823. "MY DEAR WIFE:... Last Saturday we had a meeting at a private house. Dr. Milnor was present, and made an address. While engaged there, a thief slipped into the entry where were our hats and coats, but, being discovered, he made a precipitate retreat, and carried with him my hat. The circumstance was not known to us till we were ready to go; no other gentleman lost any thing. Had they taken Edward's surtout, they would have deranged his whole business, as all his memoranda and accounts were in the pocket of it. The act was a very audacious one, and to me a serious loss, as I had to purchase immediately another hat, which cost four dollars, and obliged me to break the last five-dollar bill I have. "My cash is almost gone, and I begin to feel Some anxiety and perplexity to know what to do. I have advertised, and visited, and hinted, and pleaded, and even asked one man to sit, but all to no purpose. I have been stopped, too, in the pictures for Mr. Van S., by the delay of the packet having the little horse on board; the Paragon has not yet arrived. My expenses, with the most rigid economy too, are necessarily great; my rent to-morrow will amount to thirty-three dollars, and I have nothing to pay it with. What can I do? I have been here five weeks, and there is not the smallest prospect now of any difference as to business. I am willing to stay, and wish to stay, if there is any thing to do. The pictures that I am painting for Mr. V. S. will not pay my expenses if painted here; my rent and board would eat it all up. I have thought of various plans, but what to decide upon I am completely at a loss, nor can I decide, until I hear definitely from Washington in regard to my Mexico expedition. Since brother Sidney has hinted it to you, I will tell you the state of it. I wrote to General Van Rensselaer, Mr. Poinsett, and Colonel Hayne of the Senate, applying for some situation in the legation to Mexico soon to be sent thither. I stated my

Page  134 134 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. object in going, and my wish to go free of expense, and under government protection. I received a letter a few days ago from General Van Rensselaer, in which he says:'I immediately laid your request before the President, and seconded it with my warmest recommendations. It is impossible to predict the result at present. If our friend Mr. Poinsett is appointed minister, which his friends are pressing, he will no doubt be happy to have you in his suite.' "Thus the case rests at present: if Mr. Poinsett is appointed, I shall probably go to Mexico; if not, it will be more doubtful. I have placed it on this ground, that I am to be at no expense in getting there, and back again; so that, if I fail in the objects of my visit there, I am at no expense, and I am also under government protection, should the country be in a revolutionary state and unsafe for other strangers. If I go, I should take my picture of the House of Representatives, which, in the present state of favorable feeling toward our country, I should probably dispose of to advantage. All accounts that I hear from Mexico are in the highest degree favorable to my enterprise, and I hear much from various quarters." December 29th.-" I am waiting with some anxiety for news from Washington. There is no guessing when the President will make his appointment. It rests with him. My way, however, is plain: I see present duty, and that is as much as I ought to desire." In the midst of his discouragements he had determined to go if possible, to Mexico, and establish himself in his profession in the capital. Having met Mr. Poinsett, the former American minister to that country, and formed with him a pleasant acquaintance, he had learned much from him in relation to Mexico, and had been encouraged to believe that he might succeed in that comparatively untried field of professional labor. He submitted to Mr. Poinsett a series of written questions, and had received from him written answers, giving the most minute information in relation to the prospects of success in that country, and the preparation which it would be necessary for him to make for the journey. Through his friend General Stephen Van Rensselaer, of Albany, and others, he hoped, and with good reason, to be able to procure an appointment to Mexico on the legation about to be sent to that country. Strong hopes were entertained that Mr. Poinsett himself would be ap

Page  135 ROBERT Y. HAYNE. 135 pointed minister; but, after great delay, the mission was given to the Hon. Ninian Edwards, of Illinois. These negotiations in relation to the appointment occupied several months, during which time Mr. Morse was kept in a state of the greatest anxiety; and, not until the middle of March, was it finally settled that he should be attached to the legation. A note from the Hon. Robert Y; Hayne, the distinguished Senator from South Carolina, whose name is associated in history with that of Webster and the great debate on State rights in the Senate, informed Mr. Morse of his appointment. He says: "Governor Edwards's suite consists of Mr. Mason, of Georgetown, District of Columbia, secretary of the legation; Mr. Hodgson, of Virginia, private secretary, and yourself attache." Mr. Hayne addressed to Mr. Morse the following letter, which contains material of interest in connection with the politics of that day: Hon. R. Y. Hayne to S. F. B. Morse. "WASHINGTON, March 15, 1824. "DEAR SIR: Having a few moments at command, I hasten to answer yours of the 9th inst. The movement in Pennsylvania took place without the knowledge or concurrence of Mr. Calhoun or of his friends here. The first step was as unexpected to us as it could have been to you. It was a spontaneous movement of Mr. Calhoun's friends in Pennsylvania, founded on a conviction that they could not successfully oppose General Jackson, and believing that it was necessary to concentrate on him, in order to defeat Crawford. Pennsylvania was the foundation of.Mr. Calhoun's hopesand, that being taken away, it is the duty of Mr. Calhoun's friends to admit that his prospects of the presidency are destroyed; those who supported him, therefore, will have to decide for themselves what is next to be done. In South Carolina, Jackson is by far the most popular man, and will doubtless be supported. I think the great object ought to be to defeat Crawford. If Adams be the only man who can accomplish that in New England, he ought, I think, to be supported there. A friendly feeling should be cherished by the friends of all the anti-caucus candidates; the common cause must not be jeopardized by disputes among them. I will confess that I prefer Jackson to any candidate except Calhoun. I think you have a very mistaken impression of him in New England.

Page  136 136 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. I am satisfied that, in good sense, practical knowledge, and even in temper, he is decidedly superior to Adams or Crawford. The general's conduct and deportment here have secured him many friends, and when his conduct is examined in those respects in which it has been censured, I feel assured that it will be found that in many instances facts have been mistaken, and in others that he can be fully justified. I think he will be a safe President, surrounded by an able cabinet. I think his prospect for the presidency is at present decidedly the best. "I will with great pleasure see Mr. Edwards on the subject of your application, and will exert any influence I may possess in your behalf. Remember me to your venerable father and Mrs. Morse, and for yourself receive the assurance of the great respect and esteem of yours, " ROBERT Y. HAYNE." General Van Rensselaer, in Washington, wrote to him: "I congratulate you on your prospect of visiting Mexico, and I hope you will meet with success in your enterprise. The minister is absent on a visit to Philadelphia. I will endeavor to procure a letter from Colonel Gometz or Colonel Polilatie; Mr. Poinsett thinks it, however, unnecessary. If you could send me, without much trouble, a seed of the arbor de las manitas, or'hand-tree,' you would oblige me. I wish you a pleasant voyage and journey, and safe return." One of his relatives writes to him, in reference to his proposed expedition to Mexico: "I think the experiment worth making; there is every thing to gain and nothing to lose," which happily presents the desperate condition of his affairs. He continues the story: "I left home on the 5th of April, 1824, for Washington and Mexico, accompanied by my father, wife, and sister, as far as New York. On the 7th they returned to New Haven, and I proceeded on my way to Philadelphia, with my heart too full of the various saddening emotions which naturally occur to one who has parted with his dearest friends for a long and' uncertain period, to enjoy either the country through which I passed or the society of my fellow-passengers. A thousand affecting incidents of separation from my beloved family crowded upon my recollection. The un

Page  137 EXPEDITION ABANDONED. 137 conscious gayety of my dear children as they frolicked in all their wonted playfulness, too young to sympathize in the pangs that agitated their distressed parents; their artless request to bring home some trifling toy, the parting kiss, not understood as meaning more than usual; the tears and sad farewells of father, mother, wife, sister, family, friends; the desolateness of every room, as the parting glance is thrown on each familiar object, and farewell, farewell, seemed written on the very walls-all these things bear upon my memory; and I realize the declaration that'the places which now know us shall know us no more.' "' With these sorrowful reflections, Mr. Morse pursued his journey, only to find in Washington that political reasons, long since forgotten, prevented Mr. Edwards from going to Mexico, and the expedition was abandoned. Disappointment was thus far the rule rather than the exception of his life. He writes to his wife from Washington, April 22, 1824: "I hardly know what to say, or think, or do. I went to the House of Representatives this morning, to hear the report of the committee in the case of Mr. Edwards. They stated it was necessary to a full investigation, to have Mr. Edwards present, who'is now absent in Illinois. Mr. Randolph, one of the committee, informed the House that a warrant was already issued to detain him, and that a messenger was on the way to serve it. Thus am I placed in a most unpleasant state; one which no human foresight could predict or provide against. Some say that I shall be detained for more than a month, and advise me to go home and wait; others advise me to give up going; and others to go'on without the legation. Among the latter is Mr. Poinsett." The next day he writes: "I have seen the President and the Secretary of State, and had a conversation with them on the subject of the detention of the legation. The President told me explicitly that there would be a delay of five or six weeks at least, and perhaps of some months. It was intimated that it might be necessary to send the secretary of the legation without the minister for the present. In that case we should sail from New York." But it was finally determined that the legation should not be sent, and Mr. Morse returned to his family in New Haven. The summer was spent there, and in Concord, Portsmouth, and Portland, whither he went for the purpose of painting portraits

Page  138 138 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. of particular individuals, who applied to him to come for that purpose. In the autumn of that year he resumed his professional labors in the city of New York, and for a time had his family with him there. His studio was at number 96 Broadway. He lodged in his studio, and boarded at Mrs. Thompson's. He received as his pupils some young men, who afterward attained distinction in their professions, among them were Field and Agate. In December, he writes: " am going on prosperously, through the kindness of Providence in raising up many friends, who are exerting themselves in my favor. My storms are partly over, and a clear and pleasant day is dawning upon me. "Mr. Auger's bust of the' Apollo,' made with my machine, is very much admired; and, in the Statesman of this evening, there is a handsome nlotice of it by Mr. Carter, who called to see it. I hope I may be able to sell it for Mr. Auger. I have put the price at three hundred dollars; but I think, although it is worth that and more, that, in consequence of the defects in the marble, it cannot be sold for so much. This work does him the greatest credit." These expectations, so cheerfully expressed in this letter to his wife, were still further heightened by his receiving a commission from the corporation of the city of New York to paint a portrait of General Lafayette, who was at this time on a visit to the United States. Lafayette was in Washington, and thither Mr. Morse resorted, after having, by correspondence, arrangeu for the time which could be given to him by the General for the purpose of taking his portrait. Mr. Morse was received by him with great kindness, and the acquaintance then commenced was continued until the death of Lafayette. Mr. Morse's letters to Mrs. Morse furnish the best account of his struggles and success at this critical period in his history: "NEW YORK, January 4, 1825. " You will rejoice with me, I know, in my continued and increasing success. I have just learned in confidence from one of the members of the committee of the corporation appointed to procure a full-length portrait of Lafayette, that they have designated me as the painter of it, and that a sub-committee was appointed to wait on me with the information. They will probably call to-mor

Page  139 PORTRAIT OF LAFAYETTE. 139 row; but, until it is thus officially announced to me, I wish the thing kept secret, except to the family, until I write you more definitely on the subject, which I will do the moment the terms, etc., are settled with the committee. I shall probably be under the necessity of going to Washington to take it immediately (the corporation, of course, paying my expenses), but of this in my next. If I go on to Washington, I shall not probably be in New Haven till the 1st of February, but shall make a great effort to be there before. I shall write you fully of my determination and plans the moment they are formed. "NEW YORK, January 6, 1825. "I have been officially notified of my appointment to paint the full-length portrait of Lafayette, for the city of New York, so that you may make it as public as you please. The terms are not definitely settled; the committee are disposed to be very liberal. I shall have at least seven hundred dollars-probably one thousand. I have to wait until an answer can be received from Washington ftom Lafayette to know when he can see me; the answer will arrive, probably, on Wednesday morning; after that I can determine what to do about going on; the only thing I fear is, that it is going to deprive me of my dear Lucretia. Recollect the old lady's saying, often quoted by mother,'There is never a convenience but there ain't one.' I long to see you. "Mr. Auger's bust is exciting great attention and admiration, as will be seen by the New York papers. I cannot but hope I shall be able to dispose of it for him. Tell him I shall hold it at three hundred dollars, and he ought not to let it go for one cent less. " I have made an arrangement with Mr. Durand to have an engraving of Lafayette's portrait; I receive half the profits. Vanderlyn, Sully, Peale, Jarvis, Waldo, Inman, Ingham, and some others, were my competitors in the application for this picture." "NEW YORK, January 8, 1825. "Your letter of the 5th I have just received, and one from the committee of medical students, engaging me to paint Dr. Smith's portrait for them when I come to New Haven. They are to give me one hundred dollars. I have written them that I should be in New Haven by the 1st of February, or, at farthest, by the 6th. So that it is only prolonging for a little longer, my dear wife, the happy meeting which I anticipated by the 25th of this month. Events are not under our own control. When I consider how

Page  140 140 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. wonderfully things are working for the promotion of the great and long-desired event-that of being constantly with my dear familyall unpleasant feelings are absorbed in this joyful anticipation, and I look forward to the spring of the year with delightful prospects of seeing my dear family permanently settled with me in our own hired house here. There are more encouraging prospects than I can trust to paper at present, which must be left for your private ear, and which in magnitude are far more valuable than any encouragement yet made known to you. Let us look with thankful hearts to the Giver of all these blessings." " WASHINGTON, February 8, 1825. " I arrived safely in this city last evening. I find I have no time to lose, as the marquis will leave here the 23d. I have seen him, and am to breakfast with him to-morrow, and to commence his portrait. If he allows me time sufficient, I have no fear as to the result. He has a noble face. In this I am disappointed, for I had heard that his features were not good. On the contrary if there is any truth in expression or character, there never was a more perfect example of accordance between the face and the character. He has all that noble firmness and consistency, for which he has been so distinguished strongly indicated in his whole face. While he was reading my letters I could not but call to nrind the leading events of his truly eventful life.'This is the man now before me, the very man,' thought I,'who suffered in the dungeon of Olmutz; the very man who took the oaths of the new constitution for so many millions, while the eyes of thousands were fixed upon him (and which is so admirably described in the life which I read to you just before I left home); the very man who spent his youth, his fortune, and his time, to bring about (under Providence) our happy Revolution; the friend and companion of Washington, the terror of tyrants, the firm and consistent supporter of liberty; the man whose beloved name has rung from one end of this continent to the other, whom all flock to see, whom all delight to honor; this is the man, the very identical man!' My feelings were almost too powerful for me, as I shook him by the hand, and received the greeting of,' Sir, I am exceedingly happy in your acquaintance, and especially on such an occasion.' " I attended the debates to-day. The House was principally, if not wholly, occupied in discussing the measures for balloting for President. The next day after to-morrow will be the great day.

Page  141 PRESIDENTS LEVEE. 141 From all I can learn there is scarcely a doubt but the choice will fall on Mr. Adams." [No choice having been made by the people, the election went to the House of Representatives, and John Quincy Adams was elected.] " WASHINGTON, February 10, 1825. "I went last evening to the President's levee, the last which Mr. Monroe will hold as President of the United States. There was a great crowd, and a great number of distinguished characters, among whom were General Lafayette, the President-elect, J. Q. Adams, Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-President-elect, General Jackson, etc. I paid my respects to Mr. Adams, and congratulated him on his election. He seemed, in some degree, to shake off his habitual reserve, and, although he endeavored to suppress his feelings of gratification at his success, it was not difficult to perceive that he felt in high spirits on the occasion. General Jackson went up to him, and, shaking him by the hand, congratulated him cordially on his election. The general bears his defeat like a man, and has shown, I think, by this act, a nobleness of mind which will command the respect of those who have been most opposed to him. The excitement (if it may be called such) on this great question, in Washington,'is over, and every thing is moving on in its accustomed channel again. All seem to speak in the highest terms of the order and decorum preserved through the whole of this imposing ceremony, and the good feeling which seems to prevail, with but trivial exceptions, is thought to augur well in behalf of the new administration. "I went, last night, in a carriage with four others-Captain Chauncey, of the Navy; Mr. Cooper, the celebrated author of the popular American novels; Mr. Causici (pronounced Cau-see-chee), the sculptor; and Mr. Owen, of Lanark, the celebrated philanthropist. Mr. Cooper remarked that we had on board a more singularlyselected company, he believed, than any carriage at the door of the President's, viz.: a misanthropist (such he called Captain Chauncey, brother of the commodore), a philanthropist (Mr. Owen), a painter (myself), a sculptor (Mr. Causici), and an author (himself). "The Mr. Owen mentioned above is the very man I sometimes met at Mr. Wilberforce's in London, and who was present at the interesting scene I have often related that occurred at Mr. Wilberforce's. He recollected the circumstance, and recognized me, as I did him, instantly, although it is twelve years ago.

Page  142 142 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "I am making progress with the general, but am much perplexed for want of time; I mean his time. He is so harassed by visitors, and has so many letters to write, that I find it exceedingly difficult to do the subject justice. I give him the last sitting in Washington to-morrow, reserving another sitting or two when he visits New York in July next. I have gone on thus far to my satisfaction, and do not doubt but I shall succeed entirely, if I am allowed the requisite number of sittings. The general is very agreeable. He introduced me to his son, by saying:'This is Mr. Morse, the painter; the son of the geographer; he has come to Washington to take the topography of my face.' He thinks of visiting New Haven again, when he returns from Boston. He regretted not having seen more of it when he was there, as he was much pleased with the place. He remembers Prof. Silliman and others, with great affection. I have left but little room in this letter to express my affection for my dearly-loved wife and children; but, of that, I need not assure them. I long to hear from you; but direct your letters next to New York, as I shall probably be there by the end of next week, or the beginning of the succeeding one. Love to all the family, and friends and neighbors. Your affectionate husband, as ever." Alas, for all human hopes! One more sitting, and the proud artist was to return to his beloved wife. A letter from his father brings to him the overwhelming intelligence of her sudden death! Rev. Dr. Mlorse to his Son. t" NEW HAVEN, February 8, 1825. " MY AFFECTIONATELY-BELOVED SON: Mysterious are the ways of Providence. My heart is in pain and deeply sorrowful, while I announce to you the sudden and unexpected death of your dear and deservedly-loved wife. Her disease proved to be an affection of the heart-incurable, had it been known. Dr. Smith's letter, accompanying this, will explain all you will desire to know on this subject. I wrote you yesterday that she was convalescent. So she then appeared, and so the doctor pronounced. She was up about five o'clock yesterday afternoon, to have her bed made, as usual; was unusually cheerful and social; spoke of the pleasure of being with her dear husband in New York, ere long; stepped into bed herself; fell back, with a momentary struggle, on her pillow; her eyes were immediately fixed, the paleness of death over

Page  143 A FATHER'S LETTER. 143 spread her countenance, and in five minutes more, without the slightest motion, her mortal life terminated. It happened that, just at this moment I was entering her chamber-door with Charles in my arms, to pay her my usual visit, and to pray with her. The nurse met me afrighted, calling for help. Your mother, the family, and neighbors, full of the tenderest sympathy and kindness, and the doctors, thronged the house in a few minutes; every thing was done that could be done, to save her life. But her'appointed time' had come, and no earthly skill or power could stay the hand of death. It was the Lord who gave her to you, the chiefest of all your earthly blessings, and it is He that has taken her away; and may you be enabled, my son, from the heart to say,'Blessed be the name of the Lord!' Go directly to Him who alone can give you effectual help in time of need. Think of Jesus at the house of Martha and Mary, on the death of their brother-whom Jesus loved-how he pitied them, wept with them, and comforted them. This same Jesus, with the like feelings which he manifested on this occasion, still lives at the right hand of his Father, is touched with the feelings of his afflicted children, and pleads effectually with his Father in their behalf. When the disciples had buried John the Baptist,'they went and told Jesus.' Go, my afflicted son, and tell him your sorrow, of the loss you have sustained. He loves to have his disciples manifest this affectionate confidence in him, and to come and tell him all their troubles. He will direct and comfort you. Pursuing this course, you will surely find the most solid support, and in no other is it to be found. Our neighbors are full of sympathy for us, and manifest it in all ways best adapted to comfort us. For you they express the tenderest feelings, with many tears, and they cheerfully promise to remember you in their prayers. I have no doubt these prayers will be heard, and that you will have the comfort of them. The shock to the whole family is far beyond, in point of severity, that of any we have ever before felt; but we are becoming composed, we hope, on grounds which will prove solid and lasting. " I expect this will reach you on Saturday, the day after the one we have appointed for the funeral, when you will have been in Washington a week, and I hope will have made s6 much progress in your business as that you will soon be able to return. "All join in tenderest sympathy and love for you, with your afflicted and affectionate father, "JED. MORSE."'

Page  144 144 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. His brother Sidney also wrote to him: " NEW YORK, February 9, 1825. "MY DEAR BROTHER: Father has doubtless.informed you of the melancholy event which has filled all our hearts with unspeakable sorrow. May God support you under this most afflicting stroke of his providence I He has seen fit to deprive us of her, who was so eminently lovely, at a moment when our earthly prospects had put on their most smiling aspect, and when we were fondly looking forward to long years of enjoyment; and she was to have been a partaker in every pleasure; but God has taken her to himself, to that world where we must all soon follow, and where separation and sorrow are unknown. Let us bow before the will of him who does all things right." He was at Gadsby's Hotel, when this blow fell upon him. Unable to keep his appointment to proceed that day with his painting, and having sent a message to General Lafayette, explaining his absence, he received immediately from the General a few lines of generous sympathy: "I have feared to intrude upon you, my dear sir, but want to tell you how deeply I sympathize in your grief-a grief of which nobody can better than me appreciate the cruel feelings. You will hear from me, as soon as I find myself again near you, to finish the work you have so well begun. Accept my affectionate and mournful sentiment. "LAFAYETTE. "February 11, 1825." He left Washington the day after the news reached him, and stopped in Baltimore over Sunday, with a friend, from whose house he writes to his parents: " BALTIMORE, Sunday, February 13, 1825. "MY DEAR FATHER: The heart-rending tidings which you communicated reached me, in Washington, on Friday evening. I left yesterday morning, spend this day here at Mr. Cushing's, and set out on my return home, to-morrow. I shall reach Philadelphia on Monday night, New York on Tuesday night, and New Haven on Wednesday night. Oh, is it possible-is it possible? shall I never see my dear wife again? But, I canhot trust myself to write on the subject. I need your prayers, and those of Christian friends, to God for support. I fear I shall sink under it. "Oh, take good care of her dear children I "Your agonized son, FINEY."

Page  145 LETTER TO A FRIEND. 145 He did not reach New Haven, traveling by stage, until nearly a week after his wife had been consigned to the grave. A month after the death of his wife he writes to a friend: "NEW YORK, March 20, 1825. "MY DEAR MADAM: Though late in performing the promise I made you, of writing you when I arrived home, I hope you will attribute it to any thing but forgetfulness of that promise. The confusion and derangement consequent on such an afflicting bereavement as I have suffered, have rendered it necessary for me to devote the first moments of composure to looking about me, and to collecting and arranging the fragments of the ruin which has spread such desolation over all my earthly prospects. Oh, what a blow! I dare not yet give myself up to the full survey of its desolating effects; every day brings to my mind a thousand new and fond connections with dear Lucretia, all now ruptured. I feel a dreadful void, a heart-sickness, which time does not seem to heal, but rather to aggravate. You know the intensity of the attachment which existed between dear L. and me, never for a moment interrupted by the smallest cloud; an attachment founded, I trust, in the purest love, and daily strengthening by all the motives which the ties of nature, and more especially of religion, furnish. "I found in dear L. every thing I could wish. Such ardor of affection, so uniform, so unaffected, I never saw nor read of, but in her. My fear with regard to the measure of my affection toward her, was not that I might fail of' loving her as my own flesh,' but that I should put her in the place of him who has said,'Thou shalt have no other gods but me.' I felt this to be my greatest danger, and to be saved from this idolatry was often the subject of my earnest prayers. If I had desired any thing in my dear L. different from what she was, it would have been that she had been less lovely. My whole soul seemed wrapped up in her; with her was connected all that I expected of happiness on earth. Is it strange, then, that I now feel this void, this desolateness, this loneliness, this heart-sickness; that I should feel as if my very heart itself had been torn from me? To any one but those who knew dear L., what I have said might'seem to be but the extravagance of an excited imagination; but to you, who knew the dear object I lament, all that I have said must but feebly shadow her to your memory." The death of his Lucretia was the great calamity of Mr. Morse's early life. Her virtues, her charms of mind and of per10


Page  147 LAFAYETTE'S PORTRAIT. 147 respecting the portrait of General Lafayette, and, in the midst of his telegraphic success and fame, he returned the following reply: "POUGHKEEPSIE, June 11, 1858. "MY DEAR SIR: In answer to yours of the 8th instant, just received, I can only say it is so long since I have seen the portrait I painted of General Lafayette for the city of New York, that, strange to say, I find it difficult to recall even its general characteristics. That portrait has a melancholy interest for me, for it was just as I had commenced the second sitting of the General at Washington that I received the stunning intelligence of Mrs. Morse's death, and was compelled abruptly to suspend the work. I preserve, as a gratifying memorial, the letter of condolence and sympathy sent in to me at the moment by the General, and in which he speaks in flattering terms of the promise of the portrait as a likeness. I must be frank, however, in my judgment of my own works of that day. This portrait was begun under the sad auspices to which I have alluded, and, up to the close of the work, I had a series of constant interruptions of the same sad character. A picture painted under such circumstances can scarcely be expected to do the artist justice, and, as a work of art, I cannot praise it. Still, it is a good likeness, was very satisfactory to the General, and he several times alluded to it in my presence in after-years (when I was a frequent visitor to him in Paris) in terms of praise. "It is a full-length, standing figure, the size of life. He is represented as standing at the top of a flight of steps, which he has just ascended upon a terrace, the figure coming against a glowing sunset sky, indicative of the glory of his own evening of life. Upon his right, if I remember, are three pedestals, one of which is vacant, as if waiting for his bust, while the two others are surmounted by the busts of Washington and Franklin-the two associated eminent historical characters of his own time. In a vase, on the other side, is a flower-the heliotrope-with its face toward the sun, in allusion to the characteristic, stern, uncompromising consistency of Lafayette-a trait of character which I then considered and still consider the great prominent trait of that distinguished man." Heart-broken, Mr. Morse went on with his work in the city of New York. His position as an artist was established, and other men would have been content with the bright prospects which his profession opened before him. But he was constantly

Page  148 148 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. aiming at something higher and better for the advancement of the arts and the honor of his country. April 8, 1825, he writes to his parents from New York: "I have as much as I can do, but, after being fatigued at night, and having my thoughts turned to my irreparable loss, I am ready almost to give up. The thought of seeing my dear Lucretia, and returning home to her, served always to give me fresh courage and spirits whenever I felt worn down by the labors of the day, and now I hardly know what to substitute in her place. To my friends here I know I seem to be cheerful and happy, but a cheerful countenance with me covers an aching heart, and often have I feigned a more than ordinary cheerfulness to hide a more than ordinary anguish. "I am blessed with prosperity in my profession. I have just received another commission, from the corporation of the city, to paint a common-sized portrait of Rev. Mr. Stanford for them, to be placed in the almshouse." May 26, 1825.-" I have at length become comfortably settled, and begin to feel at home in my new establishment. All things at present go on smoothly. Brother Charles Walker and Mr. Agate join with me in breakfast and tea, and we find it best for convenience, economy, and time, to dine from home-it saves the perplexity of providing marketing and the care of stores, and, besides, we think it will be more economical, and the walk will be beneficial." The death of his wife was followed, with no great interval, by the death of his venerable father. No man who has attained distinguished position in life has been more indebted for early culture to his parents than Mr. Morse. A clergyman, With no means of support but such as he derived from his people and from his literary labors, Dr. Morse had given to his children the highest advantages of education which the country would afford; and, when this son had manifested a desire to pursue art as his profession, his father, at a great personal sacrifice, gave him the advantages of education under the best masters in the world inr a foreign country, sustaining him,there for successive'years, when it was necessary for him (the father) to exercise great self-denial in order to command the means to give such advantages to his son. These sacrifices were always appreciated and gratefully acknowledged in the letters which he so frequently

Page  149 ACADEMY OF DESIGN. 149 wrote to his parents; and now, when he was continuing his struggles in New York as an artist, his family were still, in a great measure, dependent upon his father for their support. His brothers, Sidney and Richard, established themselves in New York, in the year 1823. Having founded the New York Observer, they were now engaged in building it' up with great industry, perseverance, and ability, finally crowned with complete success. During its earlier years they were unable to do more than to sustain themselves and their paper; and Finley Morse, the artist, was obliged to look oftentimes to his father for assistance. Dr. Morse died June 9, 1826, in the city of New Haven. " There he had resided during the latter part of his life, in the midst of a highly-cultivated and Christian community, the leading members of which, men of world-wide literary and scientific fame, and of religious sentiments in harmony with his own, were his daily companions; while all, of all classes, loved and honored him for the services he had rendered to his country and to mankind." NATIONAL ACADEMY OF DESIGN. Colonel Trumbull, celebrated as one of the earliest and most successful of American painters, and whose works portray some of the most important scenes of the American Revolution, was at this time at the head of the American Academy of Arts, in the city of New York. His administration was not popular with the artists who had occasion to study their profession with the works collected and possessed by the Academy. The artists complained of being denied facilitieswhich they required for the successful prosecution of their studies; and especially that the hours when they could obtain access to the works which they desired to copy were not convenient for them; and that no attention was paid to their remonstrances. Mr. Dunlap reports that, on one occasion, Messrs. Cummings and Agate (both of whom afterward became distinguished in their profession) came to the door of the Academy, and, finding it closed, were turning away, when he, Mr. Dunlap, spoke to them, and advised them to make their complaint to the directors of the Academy. They replied that it would be useless; and Mr. Dunlap says: "At that moment one of the directors

Page  150 150 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. appeared, coming from Broadway toward them. I urged the young gentlemen to speak to him, but they declined, saying,'they had so often been disappointed, that they gave it up.' The director came and sat down by the writer, who mentioned the subject of the recent disappointment, pointing to the two young men who were still in sight. The conduct of the person whose duty it was to open the doors was promptly condemned by that. gentleman; and, while speaking, the president appeared, coming to his painting-room, which was one of the apartments of the Academy. It was unusually early for him, although near eight o'clock. Before he reached the door, the curator of the Academy opened it and remained. " On Mr. Trumbull's arrival, the director mentioned the disappointment of the students. The curator stoutly asserted that'he would open the doors when it suited him.' The president observed, in reply to the director:'When I commenced the study of painting, there were no casts in the country. I was obliged to do as well as I could.' These young gentlemen should remember that the gentlemen have gone to a great expense in importing casts, and that they' (the students)'have no property in them;' concluding with these memorable words, in the encouragement of the curator's conduct,'They must remember that BEGGARS are not to be CHooSERs.' Dunlap continues, " We may consider this the condemnatory sentence of the American Academy of Fine Arts." It was so, as it afterward appeared. When these facts came to be known, the indignation of the artists was general, and a strong desire was expressed that some measures might be taken to secure for the artists the privileges of the Academy; or, if that were not possible, that some new association should be formed to procure for them the advantages which they felt to be indispensable to their progress. Mr. Morse was called on to concentrate these efforts. He invited a few of the artists to his rooms, and there the propriety of further endeavors to conciliate the directors by petition was discussed. Mr. Morse suggested that an association might be formed "for the Promotion of the Arts, and the Assistance of Students "-simply a union for improvement in drawing. On the 8th of November, 1825, a meeting of the artists,

Page  151 DRAWING ASSOCIATION. 151 probably the first ever held in the city, took place in the rooms of the Historical Society (generously loaned them on that occasion), for the purpose of taking into consideration "the formation of a Society for Improvement in Drawing." Mr. Durand was called to the chair, and Mr. Morse was appointed secretary. The question of organization was put, and carried unanimously; and the so-associated artists were thenceforth to be known as the " New York Drawing Association." Samuel F. B. Morse was chosen to preside over its meetings. The members were: Samuel F. B. Morse, Henry Inman, A. B. Durand, Thomas S. S. Cummings, Ambrose Andrews, Frederick S. Agate, William G. Wall, William Dunlap, James Coyle, Charles C. Wright, Mosley J. Danforth, Robert Norris, Edward C. Potter, Albert Durand, John W. Paradise, Gerlando Marsiglia, Ithiel Town, Thomas Grinnell, George W. Hatch, John R. Murray, Jr., John Neilson, John L. Morton, Henry J. Morton, C. C. Ingham, Thomas Cole, Hugh Reinagle, Peter Maverick, D. W, Wilson, Alexander G. Davis, John Frazee. By its few and simple rules it was provided " that its members should meet in the evenings, three times a week, for drawing; that each member furnish his own drawing-materials; that the expense of light, fuel, etc., be paid by equal contributions; that new members should be admitted on a majority of votespaying five dollars entrance-fee; that the lamp should be lighted at six, and extinguished at nine o'clock, p. M." The lamp was a can, containing about half a gallon of oil, into which was inserted a wick of some four inches in diameter; it was set upon an upright post, about ten feet high. To give sufficient light, the wick was necessarily considerably out of the oil, and caused smoke. There was no chimney, and lamp-black was abundant; added to that, some forty draftsmen had an oil-lamp each. The reader may easily imagine the condition of the-room! At a meeting of the New York Drawing Association, held on the evening of the 14th of January, 1826, Mr. Morse, the president, stated that he had certain resolutions to offer the Association, which he would preface with the following remarks:

Page  152 152 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. " We have this evening assumed a new attitude in the community: our negotiations with the Academy are at an end; our union with it has been frustrated, after every proper effort on our part to accomplish it. The two who were elected as directors from our ticket have signified their non-acceptance of the office. We are, therefore, left to organize ourselves on a plan that shall meet the wishes of usall. A plan of an institution which shall be truly liberal, which shall be mutually beneficial, which shall really encourage our respective arts, cannot be devised in a moment; it ought to be the work of great caution and deliberation, and as simple as possible in its machinery. "Time will be required for the purpose. We must hear from distant countries to obtain their experience, and it must necessarily be perhaps many months before it can be matured. In the mean time, however, a preparatory simple organization can be made, and should be made as soon as possible, to prevent dismemberment, which may be attempted by out-door influence. On this subject let us all be on our guard; let us point to our public documents to any who ask what we have done, and why we have done it; while we go forward, minding only our own concerns, leaving the Academy of Fine Arts as much of our thoughts as they will permit us, and, bending our attention to our own affairs, act as if no such institution existed. " One of our dangers at present is division and anarchy, from a want of organization suited to the present exigency. We are now composed of artists in the four arts of design, viz., painting, sculpture, architecture, and engraving. Some of us are professional artists, others amateurs, others students. To the professed and practical artist belongs the management of all things relating to schools, premiums, and lectures, so that amateur and student may be most profited. The amateurs and students are those alone who can contend for the premiums, while the body of professional artists exclusively judge of their rights to premiums, and award them. How shall we first make the separation has been a question which is a little perplexing. There are none of us who can assume to be the body of artists without giving offense to others; and still every one must perceive that, to organize an, Academy, there must be the distinction between professional artists, amateurs who are students, and professional students. The first great division should be the body of professional artists from the amateurs and students constituting the body, who are to manage the entire concerns of the in

Page  153 THE NATIONAL ACADEMY. 153 stitution, who shall be its officers, etc. There is a method which strikes me as obviating the difficulty: place it on the broad principle of the formation of any society-universal suffrage. We are now a mixed body; it is necessary for the benefit of all that a separation into classes be made. Who shall make it? Why, obviously the body itself. Let every member of this association take home with him a list of all the members of it. Let each one select for himself from the whole list fifteen, whom he would call professional artists, to be the ticket which he will give in at the next meeting. These fifteen thus chosen shall elect not less than ten, nor more than fifteen, professional artists, in or out of the association, who shall (with the previously-elected fifteen) constitute the body to be called the National Academy of the Arts of Design. To these shall be delegated the power to regulate its entire concerns, choose its members, select its students, etc. Thus will the germ be formed to grow up into an institution, which we trust will be put on such principles as to encourage-not to depress-the arts. When this is done, our body will be no longer the Drawing Association, but the National Academy of the Arts of Design, still including all the present association, but in different capacities. " One word as to the name' National Academy of the Arts of Design.' Any less name than National would be taking one below the American Academy, and therefore is not desirable. If we were simply the Associated Artists, their name would swallow us up; therefore, National seems a proper one as to the arts of design: these are painting, sculpture, architecture, and engraving, while the fine arts include poetry, music, landscape gardening, and' the histrionic arts. Our name, therefore, expresses the entire charaction of our institution, and that only." This arrangement was unanimously adopted, and a list of the members of the association was immediately furnished to each'member, who, from it, was requested to select, by the next meeting, fifteen professional artists to form his ticket, the fifteen "having the highest number of votes to constitute a'Body of Artists,' who shall, before Wednesday evening next, elect not less than ten nor more than fifteen others, from professional artists resident in the city of New York, the whole body thus chosen to be called the' National Academy of the Arts of Design.'" And, by resolution, those remaining in the association after such election, and wishing to belong to the new institu

Page  154 154 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. tion, were to be declared students of the new institution, and a certificate of membership to be given to them. On the 15th of January, 1826, in conformity with the resolution, the association proceeded to ballot. Whereupon the following gentlemen were chosen: S. F. B. Morse, Henry Inman, A. B. Durand, John Frazee, William Wall, Charles C. Ingham, William Dunlap, Peter Maverick, Ithiel Town, Thomas S. Cummings, Edward Potter, Charles C. Wright, Mosley J. Danforth, Hugh Reinagle, Gerlando Marsiglia. And between the 15th and the 18th of the month the abovenamed artists assembled for the performance of their part of the task; for, on the 18th of January, 1826, the president stated that "the professional artists chosen at the last meeting of the association had balloted for ten professional artists on one ticket, and five subsequently on, separate tickets, and that the following gentlemen were those elected: Samuel Waldo, William Jewett, John W. Paradise, Frederick S. Agate, Rembrandt Peale, James Coyle, Nathaniel Rogers, J. Parisen, William Main, John Evers, Martin E. Thompson, Thomas Cole, John Vanderlyn (who declined), Alexander Anderson, D. W. Wilson. By this method was formed the National Academy of the Arts of Design. Samuel F. B. Morse and John L. Morton were chosen to act as president and secretary until the adoption of a constitution. The National Academy of Design, thus ushered into the world, was composed of members and professional artists, and thus divided in the four arts of design: In painting: Samuel F. B. Morse, Henry Inman, Thomas S. Cummings, William Dunlap, Rembrandt Peale, Charles C. Ingham, Thomas Cole, John Evers, Signor Marsiglia, Frederick S. Agate, Edward C. Potter, Hugh Reinagle, James Coyle, D. W. Wilson, J. Parisen, John W. Paradise, Nathaniel Rogers, William Wall. In sculpture: John Frazee. In architecture: Ithiel Town, Martin E. Thompson. In engraving: A. B. Durand, William Main, Mosley J. Danforth, Peter Maverick, Charles C. Wright. The following were students in the Antique School of the first grade: John L. Morton, amateur; Henry J. Morton, amateur; John J. Neilson, amateur; George W. Hatch, Thomas Grinnell, Ambrose Andrews, Robert Norris, Albert Durand, John W. Paradise, Alexander G. Davis, John R. Murray, Jr. Mr. Morse was requested to prepare a short address to the

Page  155 THE SKETCH CLUB. 155 public, setting forth the views and general intentions of the institution, from which the following is an extract: " An institution with this name has recently been organized by the artists of this city, founded on principles which, it is believed, will elevate the character and condition of the arts of design in our country. "The want of such an institution has long been felt by those interested in the advancement of the liberal arts, especially by artists themselves; and to its establishment, accordingly, almost the whole body of the profession in this city have concentrated their efforts. "The National Academy of the Arts of Design is founded on the common-sense principle that every profession in society knows best what measures are necessary for its own improvement. Its success is no more problematical than the success of many societies that might be named.where the members are exclusively of one profession. To others shall be left the discussion of the question whether the common method of raising funds for the support of institutions for the encouragement of literature and the arts, by connecting a large body of stockholders with them, be on the whole advisable or not. " It may be observed, however, that the little experience had on this subject does not seem favorable to such a mode of procedure. In the permanent formation of this institution a DIFFERENT COURSE WILL BE PURSUUED-a course sanctioned by the experience of academies of arts in Europe, especially the Royal Academy of London." Almost coeval with the National Academy, was founded the "Sketch Club "-'"' The Old' Sketch Club':" "The second exhibition of the National Academy was held in the room over Tylee's Baths, in Chambers Street. After the exhibition the room was fitted up with plaster casts and drawing-boards, and there the students of the Antique School met to receive instruction from the founders of the Academy. One night the teachers were as usual assembled. Previous to the opening of the school, seated in a corner, were Morse, Durand, Cummings, and Ingham. The subject of conversation was the recent breaking up of that most agreeable club, the'Lunch.''Mr. Ingham remarked that now there was an opportunity for the artists to establish a club. All agreed that such a thing was feasible. Mr. Ingham proposed that those present should consider themselves the nucleus of one, which,

Page  156 156 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. when established, should be called the Sketch Club-to consist of artists, authors, men of science, and lovers of art; and that Morse should be the first president. Mr. Morse highly approved of the idea, but declined being the president, saying that it was enough for him to be president of the Academy; that the person best entitled to the honor of being president of the proposed association was Mr. Ingham, who had originated the scheme. Mr. Cummings coincided, and, after some further conversation on the rules to be adopted, it was agreed to postpone the further consideration of the subject to Wednesday in the following week, and that a meeting should be called at Mr. Ingham's. A meeting of the principal artists was held there, and the rules of the proposed club discussed and adopted. "The plan had been for the members to meet at an hotel, to be entertained at the cost of the host of the evening. This arrangement was supposed to have caused a rivalry in expense, which led to the breaking up of the club. To avoid a like result, the artists determined to have their club as inexpensive as possible; and, to attain this end, it was agreed that the'Sketch Club' should meet at the houses of the members, in rotation, and that the entertainment should be confined to dried fruit, crackers, milk, and honey. Mr. Ingham was elected president, and Mr. John Inman secretary. " The first regular meeting took place at the rooms of Thomas Cole. It was a decided success. All the members exerted themselves to please, and every thing was agreeable-even the figs, milk, and honey. But on the day after the feast, came the pangs of repentance, and many a vow was made that the refreshments of the club should be changed... "It may be regretted that its early minutes, witticisms, essays, drawings, verses, papers, etc., have been neglected or destroyed. Not a vestige to be found of that, one of the oldest and most interesting of clubs. It was formed for the promotion of mutual intercourse and improvement in impromptu sketching. Drawing for one hour from a subject proposed by the host, whose property the drawings remained, was part of the programme positive; the poets and others frequently amusing themselves during that hour by passing round a subject, on which each, in turn, furnished four lines-no more, no less; and some truly amusing mongrels were the result. Its members comprised, in a high degree, the talent of the country. In its organization over-great care had been taken to guard against destruction by extravagance in its entertainments in eating, and

Page  157 BILL OF FARE. 157'milk and honey, raisins, apples, and crackers' were the limitation, the prescribed bill-of-fare. The medicinal qualities of the one were appreciated on the first dose, and the dryness of the other was not relished. "'The rule' was more observed in the breach than in the observance. The first great outbreak, however, occurred at Member J —s H-'s, at his then up-town residence, viz., east side Broadway, between Broome and Spring Streets. On that evening, at the appointed hour for refreshments, the drawing-room doors were thrown open, and an elegant supper appeared before the astonished guests. A general revolt took place. Protests were entered, remonstrances made; a compromise finally, or, it rather should be said, speedily ensued. It was decided that the supper should be eaten, but that it should be done'standing.' "' Sitting down to supper,' it was said, was prohibited by'the rules.' The distinction was a very nice one; so was the suppers "Members did not long'stand out;' chairs were in demand, and in less than fifteen minutes the whole were as comfortably seated as if no such prohibition had ever in the rules existed, and looked as innocently unconscious as if nothing had occurred contrary thereto. More ample justice could not have been done to a feast. Milk and honey never again appeared at the festive board. Many, very many happy meetings had that CLUB." In 1873, almost half a century from this date, a reunion of the old Sketch Club was held at the house of Jonathan Sturgis, Esq., and a splendid entertainment in defiance of all the " rules " was given by the liberal and hospitable host. Only two of the original members were present, Cummings and Durand. Morse, the founder and president, had been laid with the dead but a few months before. During the years from 1826 to 1829, Mr. Morse resided in the city of New York, pursuing, with great industry, his profession as a painter; but oftentimes discouraged to the very last degree, by a want of success commensurate with his ambition. Poverty, so often the lot of men of genius and of the highest desert, pressed him continually; preparing him, doubtless, for the still greater hardships which he was to pass through. Still struggling to accomplish the great work for which he was trained, he was now both a teacher and a pupil. A large part of his time was necessarily given to the Acad

Page  158 158 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. emy of Design, over which he was called to preside, by reelection, from year to year, from its origin down to the year 1845, and he would have been continued in the presidency during the whole of his protracted life, had he not considered it essential to the interests of the institution that he should retire from it after he became absorbed in the scientific pursuits which his invention of the Telegraph required. The industry with which he pursued his profession may be inferred from the catalogue of some of the principal paintings which were exhibited in the annual expositions of the Academy of Design. But, in addition to these, he painted a great number of portraits and other pictures which were never placed on public exhibition. This catalogue, prepared by General T. S. Cummings (whose history of the National Academy of Design has furnished the facts in regard to Mr. Morse's connection with that institution), is worthy of being preserved. Ichabod Crane discovers the Headless Horseman, S. H.. 1826 A family picture...1826 Portrait of the late Mayor W. Paulding... 1826 Portrait of Rev. Dr. Stanford. New York Corporation.. 1826 Portrait of De Witt Clinton, Governor State of New York. 1826 Full-length portrait of General Lafayette. New York Corporation 1827 Portrait of Judge Mitchell, Connecticut.. 1827 House of Representatives in the Capitol: 88 portraits.. 1827 Una and the Dwarf. Relating adventure of the Red Cross Knight. 1828 Portrait of Fitz-Greene Halleck..... 1828 Portrait of F. G. King, Professor of Anatomy, N. A. D., and his academician picture...... 1828 View of Cazenovia Lake...... 1828 View of Parapet Falls, at Trenton Falls.... 1828 Portrait of William Cullen Bryant..... 1829 Landscape Figures..... 1830 Review Exhibition (Rome)...1831 Portrait of the late Thomas Addis Emmet... 1831 Portrait of Thorwalsden...... 1832 Amalfi, from the Grotto of the Capuchin Convent.. 1833 The Wetterhorn and Falls of the Reichenbach... 1833 The Brigand alarmed...... 1833 Pifferari, or Calabrian Minstrels..... 1833 Full-length portrait of a lady..... 1834 The Gold:Fish, etc. A family group.... 1835 Portrait of Major-General Stark..... 1835 Portrait of Rev. Dr. Sprague, of Albany. 1835

Page  159 GENERAL CUMMINGS'S LETTER. 159 Portrait of Rev. Dr. Nott, of Connecticut... 1835 Portrait of Euchee Billy. A sketch of an Indian chief taken in 1820. (New York University).... 1836 Portrait of Dr. Augustus Smith.....1836 Landscape Composition. Helicon and Aganippe.. 1836 Sunset View of St. Peter's, Rome.....1836 Full-length portrait of a young lady. (New York University). 1837 Nothing exhibited..... 1838-1863 In the second winter exhibition was exhibited Mr. Morse's Interior of the House of Representatives. General Cummings, who has retired from the city (where he held high rank as an artist and teacher of art) to the repose of rural life, has kindly furnished the following sketch of Mr. Morse's professional life in New York, and an estimate of his ability: "MANSFIELD CENTRE, TOLLAND COUNTY, CONN., April 21, 1873. "My acquaintance with Mr. Morse commenced in the fall of 1824 or spring of 1825, and continued until his decease. It opened immediately on the meeting of the artists after the rudeness I had received at the American Academy of Fine Arts, as described by Dunlap and by myself in my'Records of the National Academy of Design.' In the controversy which followed, Mr. Morse took a very deep and leading interest, the full particulars of which are given in the Annals. Ultimately, and on the formation of the National Academy of Design, he became its president, and so continued for years, namely, from 1827 to 1845, and, at my especial invitation and request, to serve the interests of the institution, from 1861 to 1862, and, I may add, was beloved by all. " At the time of our first acquaintance Mr. Morse was in the enjoyment of lucrative and prosperous practice, as a portrait-painter, in the city. His studio was crowded with works in progress, and the demands on his pencil unceasing from the talent, wealth, and fashion of the city, daily refusing commissions, and sending the applicants to other artists for execution. As a portrait-painter Mr. Morse was very unequal; yet many of his works there are which will stand favorable competition with the best produced to the present day, and none more preeminently so that I can at present call to mind than the portrait of the Rev. Dr. Stanford-a halflength, now on the- possession of the Commissioners of Charities, in the public building in Third Avenue, in the neighborhood of Twentieth Street. Mr. Morse's connection with the Academy was

Page  160 160 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. doubtless unfavorable in a pecuniary point of view. His interest in it interfering with professional practice, and the time taken to enable him to prepare his course of lectures, materially contributed to favor a distribution of his labors in art to other hands, and it never fully returned to him. His' Discourse on Academies of Art,' delivered in the chapel of Columbia College, May, 1827, will long stand as a monument of his ability in the line of art-literature. As an historical painter Mr. Morse, after Allston, was probably the best-prepared and most fully-educated artist of his day, and should have received the attention of the Government, and a share of its distributions in art-commissions. There political influence was brought to bear against him; and, on the selection of the artists to fill the four panels in the Rotunda in the Capitol, Mr. Morse was found to be not one of the number. That was to him a source of great unhappiness and professional disappointment. The'Sigrring of the First Compact by the Pilgrims on board the May Flower' had always been his favorite subject, and he had spent years of thought on the then leading subject of his heart. Hence the reasons especially for the artists coming to his rescue, to employ him to paint an historical picture. That picture, it was hoped, might occupy one of the panels in the Rotunda; and, had it been painted, it probably would have done so. Certain it is, the artist contributors never intended to take it from Mr. Morse." A brilliant assembly was gathered in the chapel of Columbia College, May 3, 1827. The college was then in what is now the lower part of the city, in College Place, below the City Hall. The occasion that had called together the most cultivated and refined ladies and gentlemen, was the first anniversary of the National Academy of Design, and the president, Samuel F. B. Morse, delivered an address which was published in pamphlet form, at the request of the Academy, through a committee, consisting of Dunlap, Ingham, and Wright. The address is remarkable for the extent of learning it displays, and the ripe thought of the author. The Academy being in its infancy, and some eminent artists being hostile to its establishment and its plans, this address of Mr. Morse was honored by a severe review in the North American, which had then reached its fifty-eighth number, and had justly acquired a national reputation. It was contended by the

Page  161 LORD LYNDHURST'S LETTER. 161 reviewer that the new Academy was presumptuous in assuming the title of " National," as it had no claim to national recognition, or to the countenance of the artists of the whole country. To this attack Mr. Morse replied with great ability in a paper first published in the Journal of Commerce, and afterward in pamphlet form. The reply revealed the lofty spirit of independence and the high sense of the dignity of his profession, which then controIled the purposes of the president of the Academy. Mr. Morse sent a copy of his address to Lord Lyndhurst, son of the celebrated painter Copley, and to some inquiries in his letter received the following reply: "GEORGE STREET (LONDON), December 28, 1827. "DEAR SIR: I beg you will accept my best thanks for your discourse delivered before the National Academy at New York, which has been handed to me by Mr. Ward. The tenor of my father's life was so uniform. as to afford fine materials for the biographer. He was entirely devoted to his art, which he pursued with unremitting assiduity to the last hour of his life. The result is before the public, in his works, which must speak for themselves; and considering that he was entirely self-taught, and never saw a decent picture, with the exception of his own, until he was nearly thirty years of age, the circumstance is, I think, worthy of admiration, and affords a striking proof of what natural genius, aided by determined perseverance, can under almost any circumstances accomplish. "I remain, dear sir, your faithful servant, " LYNDHURST." STUDY OF ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. We now leave Mr. Morse's artistic pursuits for the present, and find him once more a student of science, and of that department which had particularly interested him while in college under Professors Day and Silliman. In the year 1827 Mr. Morse became interested in the study of electricity, and particularly in electro-magnetism. At that time he was intimately associated with James Freeman Dana, of Columbia College, who delivered a course of lectures on the subject, before the New York Athenaeum. Mr. Morse attended these lectures, and the lecturer was in the habit of frequently visiting him at his studio, where subjects of mutual interest 11

Page  162 162 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. were freely discussed. Professor Dana was an enthusiast in the science of electro-magnetism, and his wife relates that it so possessed his mind that she frequently heard him talk of it in his sleep. Subsequently, when it became important for Mr. Morse to establish by positive evidence the simple fact that he was taught by Professor Dana at this time, that promising scholar was dead. His wife survived him, and, on being applied to for her recollections, she testified as follows: Deposition of Matilda W. Dana, of Boston, in the State of Massachusetts, taken at the Office of George S. Hillard. " I am the widow of Professor James Freeman Dana; my husband and myself resided in the city of New York in the years 18261827; my husband died on the 15th day of April, 1827, in the city of New York. In the year 1827 he delivered a course of lectures upon the subject of electro-magnetism, and also upon the subject of electricity, before the New York Athenaeum, in the chapel of Columbia College. I attended several of these lectures; his mind was most intensely interested in the subject of electro-magnetism -so much so, indeed, that I frequently heard him talk of it in his sleep. I know that my husband, in the years 1826,-1827, and up to the time of his death, was on terms of intimacy with Professor Samuel F. B. Morse, and was in the habit of frequently visiting in Professor Morse's painting-room, which, at that time, was at the corner of Broadway and Pine Street, in the city of New York. I have a distinct recollection of visiting Professor Morse's room in 1827, in company with my husband, and of examining some of Professor Morse's paintings. My husband had a very keen perception of the beautiful, and was a great admirer of the fine arts, and took particular delight and interest in the art in which Professor Morse was at that time engaged. I have no doubt that this circumstance led him to cultivate an intimacy and friendship with Professor Morse, and I know that such intimacy and friendship did exist up to the time of my husband's death. I frequently heard my husband speak of his having been on visits to Professor Morse's rooms, and he frequently told me he had been on such visits. From what he said to' me, and from what I saw, I know that he must have spent much time at Professor Morse's rooms. I frequently heard him speak of Professor Morse's pictures; there was one I know, he much admired, that was the picture entitled'Una, the Dwarf, and

Page  163 MRS. DANA'S TESTIMONY. 163 Arthur,' from Spenser's' Faerie Queene.' My husband took me with him to Professor Morse's room, to see that picture, and I recollect seeing it at his room, and it was much admired both by me and by my husband; and my husband was so much interested at that time with electro-magnetism, that it was a favorite theme in his conversations with all his associates and friends. He was in the habit of dwelling much upon it, and of explaining to his friends the results of his experiments in that science. From the terms of intimacy existing between him and Professor Morse, I can scarcely conceive it possible that he and Professor Morse should not have had frequent and repeated conversations on the subject of electro-magnetism. I knew that my husband at that time was in the constant habit of stating to his friends and associates his views of that wonderful science, which then was regarded as, in a great measure, new in this country, and little understood. He was unusually frank and communicative in his social intercourse with his friends; that was a distinguishing trait in his character. He seemed anxious to induce, in the minds of others, an interest in the science of electromagnetism, as he entertained the idea that, ultimately, it would be an instrument of wonderful and highly-beneficial results to the world, when it should be more fully understood, its principles developed and applied to practical purposes. On the death of my husband I received from Professor Morse a very kind note of condolence, to which I have often recurred with grateful remembrance, as a token of kind regard from an intimate friend and associate of my deceased husband. I have often spoken of it, and shown it to my daughter, as coming from an intimate friend of her father. I cannot now state positively that I saw Professor Morse at these lectures before the Athenaeum; but from the intimacy that existed between them, and the professional relations to each other, I have no doubt that he did attend those lectures. I should have thought it very singular if he had not, and presume that his absence would have been a subject of remark if he were absent. I recollect Professor Morse at that time delivered lectures before the Athenaeum upon the fine arts, and that my husband and myself attended them. I am very sure that Professor Morse, in his letter of condolence, expressed the pleasure he had had in attending my husband's lectures. And I further depose and say that the two papers now produced and made an exhibit in this cause, and upon the first page of which I have written my name, and the date of taking of this deposition-one headed'1st, 2d. On Electro-Magnetism before

Page  164 164 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the New York Athenaeum;' the other headed'2d, 3d, 4th. On Electro-Magnetism, before the New York Athenaeum'-are the original lectures delivered by my husband James Freeman Dana, before the New York Athenaum, in the year 1827; that said original lectures and the drawings therein, as well as the heading to each, above quoted, are in the handwriting of my said husband, and the same have been in my possession since the death of my said husband; and that my husband, at the time of the delivery, exhibited to his audience various experiments with an electro-magnet, illustrative of the subject-matter of said lectures, and then had and exhibited to his audience an electro-magnet in a horseshoe form. After his death that identical magnet was sold to his successor, Professor John Torrey. Since the funeral of my husband I have not seen Mr. Morse, until the 19th of September, instant. He then, before seeing said lectures, or before I told him what they contained, stated to me several of the experiments which were exhibited by my husband at the time he delivered the same before the Athenaeum. (Signed) "MATLDA W. DANA. "Sworn to before me, the 24th day of September, A. D. 1849. " GEORGE S. HILLARD, " Commissioner, etc., etc., etc." The first words that fell from the lips of Professor Dana in his course of lectures, and which reached the ear of Mr. Morse, were these, and the last lines of the first paragraph have wonderful significance in connection with the results: "'The discovery of the voltaic pile by the illustrious philosopher whose name the instrument bears, is emphatically the most important discovery of the age. It will ever render memorable in the annals of science the first year of the present century. Its influence on the progress of philosophy has been viewed with astonishment, even by the most ardent and sanguine imaginations. It has multiplied discoveries with a rapidity and to an extent without parallel in the history of physics. It has given to us new powers over the material world, and has presented us with new substances possessing almost magical properties. The tide of discovery has rolled over us like a flood, and yet new results are daily offered, and new relations and connections of its influence are hourly developed. "The year 1819 witnessed the discovery, by means of the voltaic

Page  165 PROFESSOR DANA'S LECTURES. 165 apparatus, of a mysterious connection between the electric power and the magnetic influence, which has afforded phenomena of a most engaging and unexpected nature; has presented experiments and results which have been witnessed but with admiration, and laid the foundation upon which a new science, electro-magnetism, has been erected. "The principles of this new science have been subjected to a rigorous mathematical analysis, which place them on a basis no less firm than that of the theory of gravitation, and gives them a charm which renders the subject highly attractive from the perfect coincidence of geometrical deductions with physical facts; but, divesting them of mathematical considerations, I shall attempt, in a popular manner, to elucidate the laws of electro-magnetism, by experiments, in the lectures which I have the honor this season to offer to the Athenaeum." And he closed the lecture by saying: " Conductors of electricity receive and transmit the electric influence instantly to every part of their substance; metals, alloys, well-burnt charcoal: non-conductors receive the influence only at the point of contact, but do not transmit it; glass, resin, silk, etc. There are many bodies which hold an intermediate station between conductors and non-conductors; they are called imperfect conductors. "When a connection is made between the positive and negative poles of a voltaic apparatus by means of conductors, the battery is discharged; the electric tension is destroyed; that is, the instruments which indicate the presence of electricity cease to be affected. But the apparatus possesses within itself the power of renewing its first state of electric tension in imperceptible intervals of time, and consequently the connecting substance between the two' poles is continually performing the same office during its whole time of contact that it did at the first moment. While the connecting wire is performing this function, it is evident that it must be in a state different from that in which it exists when separated from the instrument. Now, since a small wire may be employed to discharge a powerful apparatus, it follows that the.principle which is active in it is condensed and concentrated into a very small space. A wire, while it is performing this function, we shall call the conjunctive wire. " In the hypothetical language of electricians, a current of elec

Page  166 166 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. tricity flows through the conjunctive wire, but whether a material substance be conceived to pass through the wire or not, it certainly suffers some peculiar changes, and acquires some peculiar properties which it retains while it is made the medium of communication between the poles of the voltaic instruments in a state of activity. If the wire be small, it is heated, and it produces effects on the magnetic needle which are constant and invariable." In his second lecture Professor Dana said: "The effect of the conjunctive wire in impressing the magnetic state is uniform and constant, and we can infer with absolute certainty the kind of magnetism which will be exhibited by either end of a needle, by reference to its position with regard to the wire. We are led to this by our previous knowledge of the positions assumed by a magnetic needle under the influence of the wire. Thus, if the electric current flow from the right hand to the left, and the needle to be magnetized be placed over the wire, the end pointing from us will acquire the austral magnetism, or a north polarity, etc. We have seen that the pole of the magnetic needle, over which the positive electricity enters, turns to the east, but the pole under which it enters, turns to the west. If, therefore, a needle be placed between two conjunctive wires situated in the same vertical plane, and transmitting the electric current in opposite directions, it is evident that both will conspire to produce the same effect, which will, consequently, be much more considerable than that produced by either of them alone; but a wire bent so as to have its ends connected with the opposite poles of the voltaic instrument, will evidently have the electric current passing in opposite directions in its upper and lower portions, and consequently it will produce on a needle between them an effect similar to that produced by the two wires. Wires thus situated produce a more prompt development of magnetism in steel than a single wire does, because both tend to turn the same kind of magnetism in the same direction, and the opposite magnetisms in opposite directions, and hence we have one method of measuring the action of a battery on steel bars. Again, two parallel wires, having the electric current moving through them, in the same'direction, will evidently produce a greater effect on a steel bar than either of them alone, for the effect of the whole must be greater than that of a part. "Where several conjunctive wires are placed together, side by side, the power is apparently diminished in the central wires, and

Page  167 THE HORSESHOE MAGNET. 167 concentrated in the extreme portion; the magnetic state of the latter seems to be augmented by induction or by position. "When such an assemblage of wires acts on the magnetism of a piece of steel, they decompose it, and each individual wire acts with most force on the magnetism nearest to it. Each conspires in its action to produce the same effect as the others; and hence, in addition to the effects of currents in opposite directions, we have another method of increasing the power of a battery in magnetizing needles. We shall probably render steel strongly magnetic, if we combine these two methods of increasing the effect. This is efected by forming the conjunctive wire into a spiral around the steel bar to be magnetized; for, at the opposite extremities of any diameter. of this spiral, it is evident that the electric current moves in opposite directions. Suppose the spiral to be placed horizontally, east and west, the current on its upper part to move from north to south, it will at its lower part move from south to north; and the spiral thus gives us the combined influence of currents in opposite directions. Moreover, the different coils of the spiral are nearly at right angles with the axis of the included bar; and they are parallel to each other. Hence, at any given portion of the bar the effect of many currents passing in the same direction is produced, and the included bar becomes strongly magnetic; and a spiral placed round a piece of soft iron bent into the form of a horseshoe magnet, renders it strongly and powerfully magnetic when the electric current is passing through it."... [And this, be it remembered, was said in. 1827.] "The opposite sides of a conjunctive wire exhibit the opposite magnetisms; and we have seen that, by placing the wires parallel' to each other, and connecting them with a battery so that they may transmit the current in the same direction, the magnetisms seem to be concentrated in the extreme wires, and that we can thus separate them in a degree from each other. Now, when we consider that the direction of the magnetic power is at right angles to the conjunctive wire it is evident that in a helix this direction must nearly coincide with that of the axis of the helix, and the one kind of magnetism be found concentrated at one extremity, and the other kind at the opposite end.... Iron filings adhering to dissimilarly electro-magnetic wires, repel each other; and to similarly electro-magnetic wires, attract each other. "In the course of our reasoning, by which we were led from step to step to the adoption of a spiral or helix in powerfully developing magnetism in bars, we inferred that two or more parallel

Page  168 168 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. and similarly electro-magnetic wires acted with greater energy than one, and that the magnetisms were accumulated in the extreme wires by a species of induction between them all. A ribbon of metal substituted for these wires exerts a stronger influence on the needle at its edges than at its sides, for a similar reason. So, also, if a series of concentric wires be used, and the electric current sent through them in the same direction, we infer that they will have the power of the corresponding sides of the different rings concentrated and accumulated in their common centre, and will, on the same side of their centre, act as parallel similarly electro-magnetic wires. A flat spiral or volute, having two ends connected with the opposite poles of a battery, will correctly represent concentric rings under the condition we have proposed; and the great quantity of iron filings which such a spiral or volute takes up, and the accumulation of them in the centre, fully evinces the concentration of power there, and the correctness of the reasoning by which we have been led to this modification of the conjunctive wire." This was the second step which Morse took toward the great invention. The first was in Yale College. The second was under a professor of Columbia College. He learned from Professor Dana, in 1827, the elementary facts that lie at the basis of the electro-magnet, to wit: The effect of a single straight conjunctive wire in producing magnetism. (Oersted's discovery.) The effect of a conjunctive wire, bent into theform of a ring, for the purpose of increasing the magnetism. (Schweigger's experiment.) The effect of a series of these conjunctive wire rings, forming a spiral, for the purpose of increasing still further the magnetism. (Arago's experiment, at the suggestion of Ampere.) The effect of a flat spiral or volute, the conjunctive wire superposed upon itself, for still further increasing the magnetism. Schweigger discovered the principle of this modification, and embodied it in his multiplier, while Dana applied it to the magnetizing of iron filings in demonstrating its magnetic power, and suggested it for the electro-magnet. He learned from Professor Dana, in 1827, the rationale of the electro-magnet, which latter was exhibited in action. He witnessed the effects of the conjunctive wire in the different

Page  169 TRIBUTE TO PROFESSOR DANA. 169 forms described by him in his lectures, and exhibited to his audience. The electro-magnet was put in action by an intensity battery; it was made to sustain the weight of its armature, when the conjunctive wire was connected with the poles of the battery or the circuit was closed; and it was made " to drop its load" upon opening the circuit. These, with many other principles of electro-magnetism, were all illustrated, experimentally, to his audience. Mr. Morse afterward, in writing on the subject, pays a noble tribute to his teacher, Professor Dana, of whom he said: " The volute modification of the helix, to show the concentration of magnetism at its centre, adapted to the electro-magnet, the modification since universally adopted in the construction of the electro-magnet, is justly due, I think, to the inventive mind of Professor James Freeman Dana. Death, in striking him down at the threshold of his fame, not only extinguished a brilliant light in science, one which gave the highest promise of future distinction, but, by the suddenness of the stroke, put to peril the just credit due to him for discoveries he had already made. Dana had not only mastered all of the science of electro-magnetism then given to the world-a science in which he was an enthusiast; but, standing on the confines that separate the known from the unknown, was, at the time of his decease, preparing for new explorations and new discoveries. I could not mention his name, in this connection, without at least rendering this slight but inadequate homage to one of the most liberal of men and amiable of friends, as well as promising philosophers of his age. Dana, in 1827, publicly exhibited the electro-magnet, with its spiral conjunctive wire. He also exhibited, at the same time, and directly in the same connection with the electro-magnet, the'flat spiral,' or volute modification of the conjunctive wire;' showing its increased power over the single spiral, demonstrating this effect with iron filings, and directly suggesting its application to the softiron horseshoe bar." The year following Mr. Morse devoted to his profession, in which he was now eminently successful. His sitters were so numerous that.he was unable to meet the demands of all who sought him, and his brother artists remember with gratitude his kindness in sending to them many persons whom he could not find time to paint. He employed his evenings in preparing a series of lectures

Page  170 170 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. on " The Fine Arts," which he delivered before the New York Athenaeum. This is said to have been the first series of lectures on the subject ever delivered in the United States. Writing to his mother, March 1st, he says: "My lectures at the Athenaeum closed on Thursday evening to a'most fashionable and crowded house' as the phrase is." Visiting his relatives at Utica, in the summer, he wrote to his brother: "In coming from Whitesboro', on Friday, I met with an accident, and a most narrow escape with my life: the horse which had been tackled into the wagon was a vicious horse, and had several times run away, to the danger of Mr. Dexter's life and others of the family. I was not aware of this, or I should not have consented to go with him, much less to drive him myself. I was alone in the wagon, with my baggage, and the horse went very well for about a mile; when he gradually quickened his pace, and then set out, in spite of all check, on the full run. I kept him in the road, determined to let him run himself tired, as the only safe alternative; but, just as I came in sight of a piece of the road which had been concealed by an angle, there was a heavy wagon, which I must meet so soon that, in order to avoid it, I must give it the whole road; this being very narrow, and the ditches and banks on each side very rough, I instantly made up my mind to a serious, accident. As well as the velocity of the horse would allow me, however, I kept him on the side, rough as it was, for about a quarter of a mile pretty steadily, expecting, however, to be upset every minute, when all at once I saw before me an abrupt, narrow, deep gully, into which the wheels on one side were just upon the point of going down, when it flashed across me in an instant that if I could throw the horse down into the ditch, the wheels of the wagon might perhaps rest equipoised on each side, and perhaps break the horse loose from the wagon. I pulled the rein and accomplished the object in part; the sudden plunge of the horse into the gully broke him loose from the wagon, but it at the same time turned one of the fore-wheels into the gully, which upset the wagon, and threw me forward at the moment when the horse threw up his neck, just taking off my hat, and leaving me in the bottom of the gully. I fell on my left shoulder, and, although muddied from head to foot, I escaped without any injury whatever; I was not even jarred painfully. I found my shoulder a little bruised, my wrist very slightly scratched, and yesterday was a little, and but very little, stiffened in my limbs, and to

Page  171 ESCAPE FROM DEATH. 171 day have not the slightest feeling of bruise about me, but think I feel better than I have for a long time. Indeed, my health is entirbly restored; the riding and country air have been the means of restoring me. I have great cause of thankfulness for so much mercy, and for such special preserving care." Returning to the city of New York, his children being scattered among his relatives in different parts of the country, Mr. Morse resumed his labors. Business increased. The most eminent citizens became his personal friends and gave him commissions. Success, however, served only to stimulate him to higher efforts; and he resolved that he would seek, by study in Italy, to perfect himself in the art to which he had now fully devoted his life.

Page  172 CHAPTER VI. 1829-1832. COMMISSIONS TO PAINT IN ITALY - JOURNEY TO ROME - LETTER TO HIS COUSIN - ENGLAND -PARIS -AVIGNON - MARSEILLES-NICE-THE OORNICE ROAD-GENEVA-PISA-ROME-THE VATICAN-GALLERIES OF ART -NOTES - THORWALDSEN -PORTRAIT-JAMES FENIMORE COOPER — H. GREENOUGH-LETTERS-RETURN TO PARIS-FRIENDSHIP WITH LAFAYETTE-SYMPATHY WITH POLAND-IMPRISONMENT OF DR. HOWE-FALL OF WARSAW-LETTERS TO HIS BROTHER-SUGGESTS LIGHTNING-TELEGRAPH-HUMBOLDT-PRESIDES AT FOURTH-OF-JULY DINNER —LETTERS OF LAFAYETTE-INTERIOR OF THE LOUVRE-HUMBOLDT A-ND MORSEDUNLAP'S NOTICES OF MORSE IN PARIS AND LONDON. PRESIDENT of the National Academy, and among the first in his profession in the United States, Mr. Morse had never been in Italy. He had a profound consciousness that whatever attainments in art he had already made, or could yet make, until he had studied under the old masters, who being dead yet speak, there was much to be learned, and he must sit as a learner in the presence of their works. Having received the following commissions for pictures, he resolved to go abroad again: " We, the subscribers, having learned that Samuel F. B. Morse is about to embark for Europe, for the purpose of study and practice in his profession, in Rome, Paris, and London, do commission said Morse to execute the orders severally placed against our names, and do agree to advance the money for the same, at such time and in such proportions as shall be specified in a written order from the said Morse, the holder of such order to be considered as duly authorized to receive the same, and the money to be paid to him, and his receipt taken in discharge of said subscription, or the several parts thereof. "NEW YORK, September 25, 1829.

Page  173 COMMISSIONS FOR PICTURES. 173 Philip Hone, $100-to be disposed of in such way as may be most agreeable to Mr. Morse. A picture not larger than Newton's or Leslie's-say twenty-five by thirty. M. Van Schaick, $200-paid for two cabinet pictures, copies or originals-twentyfour by eighteen. Either landscapes or heads. Chas. Carvill, $100. Like A. P. & Slender, belonging to Haggerty. DeWitt Bloodgood, $100 (copy or copies). Some small, high-finished picture; heads from Titian. Dr. David Hosack-two cabinet pictures, not over twenty-five by thirty inches, at $150 each-$300. Jona. Goodhue, $100-to be at the disposal of Mr. Morse. Wishes two pictures at $50 each. Benj. L. Swan, $100. To be one picture, as Mr. Morse may select, twenty-five by thirty inches, as a companion to one painting in Rome, by Mr. Peale. John B. Van Schaick, $50-d la discretion. R. V. DeWitt, $100. One or two pictures; if one, a landscape; if two, one landscape and one figure. Stephen Van Rensselaer, Albany. Two or more pictures. (See accompanying letter.) Robert Donaldson (15 State Street, New York)-school of Athens-$100; size, say thirty inches by thirty-eight or forty. Frederick Sheldon, $100. To be at the disposal of Mr. Morse; say a landscape of Claude or Poussin, twenty-five by thirty. G. G. Howland, $150-two landscapes-Mr. Morse's taste-good size, twenty-five by thirty inches, or thereabout, of Poussin or Claude. Moss Kent, $100-at my discretion. Charles Walker, $500:'Miracolo del Servo' of Tintoretto, or some picture of that class. Moses H. Grinnell, $100. His brother thinks of the picture by Carlo Dolce in the Borghese Palace. P. and C., a picture each, for $60 each. J. L. Morton, $30. Mr. Donaldson's subscription is only in part payment for the copy to be painted for him. S. Salisbury, a view of the Fountain of Egeria, with figures antique, for $200, twenty-five by thirty inches. Wm. H. Russell, Esq., of New York, copy of'The Fine Arts,' by Alessandro Turchi, in the Colonna Palace. Fifty-four by thirty-six inches, $250. Leaving his children in the care of his relatives, Mr. Morse sailed from New York November 8, 1829, and landed in Liverpool on the 4th day of December. He was lodged at the Liverpool Arms Hotel, where he put up eighteen years before, when he arrived as a student in England. He came on the same errand now, though he had long since become a teacher and master. The few days that he passed in England are recalled by a letter he wrote in Dover to a favorite cousin, on Christmas-day, 1829:

Page  174 174 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " When I left Liverpool, I took my seat upon the outside of the coach, in order to see as much as possible of the country through which I was to pass. Unfortunately, the fog and smoke were so dense that I could see objects but a few yards from the road. Occasionally, indeed, the fog would become less dense, and we could see the fine lawns of the seats of the nobility and gentry which were scattered on our route, and which still retained their verdure. Now and then the spire and towers of some ancient village church rose out of the leafless trees, beautifully simple in their forms, and sometimes clothed to the very tops with the evergreen ivy. It was severely cold; my eyebrows, hair, cap, and the fur of my cloak, were soon coated with frost, but I determined to keep my seat, though I suffered some from the cold. Their fine natural health, or the frosty weather, gave to the complexions of the peasantry, particularly the females and children, a beautiful rosy bloom. Through all the villages there was the appearance of great comfort and heatness-a neatness, however, very different from ours. Their nicelythatched cottages bore all the marks of great antiquity, covered with brilliant green moss like velvet, and round the doors and windows were trained some of the many kinds of evergreen vines which abound here. Most of them, also, had a trim court-yard before their doors, planted with laurel, and holly, and box, and sometimes a yew, cut into some fantastic shape. The streets of all the villages were uniformly clean. The whole appearance of the villages was neat and venerable, like some aged matron, who, with all her wrinkles, her stooping form, and gray locks, preserves the dignity of cleanliness in her ancient but becoming costume. At Trentham, we passed one of the seats of the Marquis of Stafford, Trentham Hall.' Here the marquis has a fine gallery of pictures, and among them Allston's famous picture of' Uriel in the Sun.' I slept the first night in Birmingham, which I had no time to see, on account of darkness, smoke, and fog, three most inveterate enemies to the seekers of the picturesque and of antiquities. In the morning, before daylight, I resumed my journey toward London. At' Stratford on Avon,' I breakfasted, but in such haste, as not to be able to visit again the house of Shakespeare's birth, or his tomb; this house, however, I visited when in England before. At Oxford, the city of so many classical recollections, I stopped but a few moments to dine. I was here, also, when before in England. It is a most splendid city; its spires, and domes, and towers, and pinnacles, rising from amid the trees, give it a magnificent appearance as

Page  175 VISIT WITH LESLIE. 175 you approach it. Before we reached Oxford, we passed through Woodstock and Blenheim, the seat of the Duke of Marlborough, whose splendid estates are at present suffering from the embarrassment of the present duke, who has ruined his fortunes by his fondness for play. Darkness came on after leaving Oxford. I saw nothing until arriving in the vicinity of the great metropolis, which has, for many miles before you enter it, the appearance of a continuous village. We saw the brilliant gas-lights of its streets, and our coach soon joined the throng of vehicles that rattled over its pavements. I could scarcely realize that I was once more in London, after fourteen years' absence. "My first visit was to my old friend and fellow-pupil Leslie, who seemed overjoyed to see me, and has been unremitting in his attentions during my stay in London. Leslie I found, as I expected, in high favor with the highest classes of England's noblemen and literary characters. His reputation is well deserved, and will not be ephemeral. I received an invitation to breakfast from Samuel Rogers, Esq., the celebrated poet, which I accepted with my friend Leslie. Mr. Rogers is the author of'Pleasures of Memory,' of'Italy,' and other poems. He has not the proverbial lot of the poet-that of being poor-for he is one of the wealthiest bankers, and lives in splendid style. His collection of pictures is very select, chosen by himself, with great taste. "I attended, a few evenings since, the lecture on anatomy at the Royal Academy, where I was introduced to some of the most distinguished artists; to Mr. Shee, the poet and author as well as painter; to Mr. Howard, the secretary of the Academy; to Mr. Hilton, the keeper; to Mr. Stothard, the librarian, and several others. I expected to have met and been introduced to Sir Thomas Lawrence, the president, but he was absent, and I have not had the pleasure of seeing him. I was invited to a seat with the academicians, as was also Mr. Cole, a member of our Academy in New York. I was gratified in seeing America so well represented in the painters Leslie and Newton. The lecturer also paid, in his lecture, a high compliment to Allston, by a deserved panegyric, and by several quotations from his poems, illustrative of principles which he advanced. "After the lecture I went home to tea with Newton, accompanied by Leslie, where I found our distinguished countryman, Washington Irving, our secretary of legation, and W. E. West, another American painter, whose portrait of Lord Byron gave him

Page  176 176 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. much celebrity. I passed a very pleasant evening, of course. The next day I visited the National Gallery of Pictures, as yet but small, but containing some of the finest paintings in England. Among them is the celebrated'Raising of Lazarus,' by Sebastian del Piombo, for which a nobleman of this country offered to the late proprietor sixteen thousand pounds sterling, which sum was refused. I visited also Mr. Turner, the best landscape-painter living, and was introduced to him. I went also, a few days since, to the British Museum, which has undergone many improvements since I was last in England, particularly in the addition of a splendid wing, nearly five hundred feet long, containing a noble addition of books-the late king's library of seventy thousand volumes. This museum now contains all the royal libraries, from Henry VIII. down to the present time. The whole number of volumes, I was told by the Rev. Mr. Hore, the librarian (who politely accompanied me through the rooms), was over three hundred thousand. I asked him whether it was accessible to any who wished to consult it, and I learned that the utmost liberality, consistent with the preservation of the books and manuscripts, is observed. He generously offered to procure me admission at all times, when I returned to reside for some time in London. In one part of the museum is the place for consulting books. Here perfect silence is preserved, not a whisper being allowed. If a book is wanted, the name is written on a piece of paper, and handed to one of the librarians or his assistants, of which there are a great many in attendance, who procures it. There were, perhaps, thirty individuals thus seated in the midst of books piled up around them, and, with their eyebrows knit intently searching for some desired information, they looked like so many school-boys hard at work at their lessons. The room containing the king's library is one of the most splendid I ever saw. The columns are of polished granite and marble, and the floors, inlaid with oak and mahogany, were kept as highly polished with wax and are as carefully rubbed as our mahogany furniture. In the room for antiquities are many brought from Egypt by Belzoni, sphinxes, sarcophagi, portions of obelisks, and many inscribed stones. Here also is the celebrated'Rosetta stone,' with the triple inscription on it, which was captured in Egypt by the English from the French, and is the source of the discovery of a key to the hieroglyphics of Egypt, which is now used to such advantage by Champollion. I did not see so much of London or its curiosities as I should have done at another season of the year. The greater

Page  177 CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL. 177 part of the time was night-literally night; for, besides being the shortest days of the year (it not being light until eight o'clock and dark again at four), the smoke and fog have been most of the time so dense that darkness has for many days occupied the hours of daylight. On one day in particular I was writing at the window at two o'clock in the day, and was obliged to desist, not being able to see, while in houses on the opposite side of the street candles were seen in various rooms. " On the 22d inst., Tuesday, I left London, after having obtained in due form my passports for the Continent, in company with J. Town, Esq., and N. Jocelyn, Esq. (American friends), intending to pass the night at Canterbury, thirty-six miles from London. The day was very unpleasant, very cold, and snowing most of the time. At Blackheath we saw the palace at which the late unfortunate queen of George IV. resided. On the heath, among the bushes, is a low furze, with which it is in part covered; there were encamped in their miserable blanket-huts a gang of gypsies; no wigwams of the Oneidas ever looked so comfortless. On the road we overtook a gypsy girl with a child in her arms, both having the stamp of that singular race strongly marked upon their features: black hair and sparkling black eyes, with a nut-brown complexion, and cheeks of russet red, and not without a shrewd intelligence in their expression. At night about nine o'clock we arrived at the Guildhall Tavern in the celebrated and ancient city of Canterbury. Early in the morning, as soon as we had breakfasted, we visited the superb cathedral. This stupendous pile is one of the most distinguished Gothic structures in the world; it is not only interesting from its imposing style of architecture, but from its numerous historical associations. The first glimpse we caught of it was through and over a rich decayed gate-way to the inclosure of the cathedralgrounds. After passing the gate, the vast pile-with its three great towers, and innumerable turrets, and pinnacles, and buttresses, and arches, and painted windows-rose in majesty before us; the grand centre tower, covered with a gray moss, seemed like an immense mass of the Palisades, struck out with all its regular irregularity, and placed above the surrounding masses of the same gray rocks. The bell of the great tower was tolling for morning service, and yet'so distant, from its height, that it was scarcely heard upon the pavement below; we entered the door of one of the towers and came immediately into the nave of the church. The effect of the long aisles and towering clustered pillars and richly-carved screens of a Gothic church upon 12

Page  178 178 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the imagination can scarely be described-the emotion is that of awe. A short procession was quickly passing up the steps of the choir, consisting of the beadle, or some such officer, with his wand of office, followed by ten boys in white surplices; behind these were the prebends and other officers of the church; the one thin and pale, the other portly and round, with powdered hair, and sleepy, dull, heavy expression of face, much like the face that Hogarth has chosen for the'Preacher to his Sleepy Congregation.' This personage we afterward heard was Lord Nelson, the brother of the celebrated Nelson, and the heir to his title. The service was read in a hurried and commonplace manner to about thirty individuals, most of whom seemed to be the necessary assistants at the ceremonies. " The effect of the voices in the responses, and the chanting of the boys, reverberating through the aisles and arches and recesses of the church, was peculiarly imposing, but, when the great organ struck in, the emotion of grandeur was carried to its height-I say nothing of devotion; I did not pretend on this occasion to join in it. I own that my thoughts as well as my eyes were roaming to other objects, and gathering around me the thousand recollections of scenes of splendor, and of terror, of bigotry and superstition, which were acted in sight of the very walls by which I was surrounded. Here the murder of Thomas a Becket was perpetrated, there was his miracleworking shrine, visited by pilgrims from all parts of Christendom, and enriched with the most costly jewels that the wealth of princes could purchase and lavish upon it; the very steps worn into deep cavities by the knees of the devotees, as they approached the shrine, were ascended by us. There stood the tomb of Henry IV. and his queen, and here was the tomb of Edward, the Black Prince, with a bronze figure of the prince richly embossed and enameled reclining upon the top, and over the canopy were suspended the surcoat and casque, the gloves of mail and shield with which he was accoutred when he fought the famous battle of Cressy; there also stood the marble chair in which the Saxon kings were crowned, and in which, with the natural desire that all seemed to have in such cases, I could not avoid seating myself; from this chair, placed at one end of the nave, is seen to the best advantage the length of the church, five hundred feet in extent. After the service I visited more at leisure the tombs and other curiosities of the church. The precise spot on which Archbishop Becket was murdered is shown, for the spot upon which his head fell on the pavement was

Page  179 DOVER CASTLE. 179 cut out as a relic and sent to Rome, and the placed filled in with a fresh piece of stone about four inches square. The cloisters of the church, in ruins, are very splendid in their architecture. The crypt, under the church, is a fine specimen of Saxon architecture, and contains the ruins of the Virgin Mary's chapel, which once was enriched with a silver image of the Virgin, constantly lighted with silver lamps suspended from the ceiling, which was profusely studded with jewels and enameled. "After leaving the cathedral we visited a part of the ancient walls (Roman remains) of the city; they are very high, with round and square towers at intervals of perhaps two hundred feet; they were coated with a cement filled with flints of all sizes, from the smallest to the bigness of a cocoa-nut. We next visited the remains of the monastery of St. Augustin; here stood till within a few years'Ethelbert's Tower,' a beautiful Saxon ruin, which fell by natural decay, and is entirely gone; the north gate of the monastery is an exquisite piece of Gothic architecture, fast going to decay; a large and annually widening crack in each of the towers gives ominous notice of a fall, and, unless some public spirit is manifested to preserve it, this beautiful gate will speedily share the fate of Ethelbert's Tower. But it is idle to talk of public spirit, as you will agree, when I tell you that the gate is now'Beer's Brewery,' the room over the gate-way a'cockpit,' over the door leading into the church is seen the sign of' Fives and Tennis Court'-the great courtyard is now a' bowling-green.' " In the afternoon we left Canterbury and proceeded to Dover, intending to embark the next morning (Thursday, December 24th) for Calais or Boulogne in the steamer. The weather, however, was very unpromising in the morning, being thick and foggy and apparently preparing for a storm; we therefore made up our minds to stay, hoping the next day would be more favorable-but Friday, Christmas-day came with a most violent northeast gale and snowstorm-Saturday the 26th, Sunday the 27th, and at this moment, Monday 28th, the storm is more violent than ever, the streets are clogged with snow, and we are thus embargoed-completely for we know not how long a time to come. " Notwithstanding the severity of the weather on Thursday, we all ventured out through.the wind and snow to visit Dover Castle, situated upon the bleak cliffs to the north of the town. After ascending the hill by numerous flights of steps, we crossed the moat which encircles the castle, upon a modern drawbridge. Here, we

Page  180 180 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. were accosted by the warder of the castle, a veteran soldier, who with great garrulousness offered his services to conduct us through the works, which cover more than thirty acres. We acccepted his offer and commenced the circuit.' Queen Elizabeth's Pocket-pistol' was the first object that was shown us-it is a beautiful piece of ordnance of brass, a present to that queen from Holland. It has erroneously been called'Queen Anne's Pocket-pistol,' and the following motto was said to be upon it: Keep me bright and rub me clean, I'll carry a ball to Calais Green.' This is not the motto; I copied the following true motto from it on the spot, which some of our Dutch friends must translate for you:'Breck scuret al muer ende wal. Bin ic geheten Doer berch en dal boert minen bal. Van mi gesmeten.' It is twenty-four feet. long, and has date of 1544 upon it; it has lately been mounted upon a splendid bronze carriage, by the order of the Duke of Wellington. The castle, with its various towers and walls, and outworks, has been the constant care of the government for ages. Here are the remains of every age, from the time of the Romans to the present. About the centre of the inclosure stand two ancient ruins-the one, a tower built by the Romans, thirty-six years after Christ; and the other, a rude church built by the Saxons in the sixth century. Other remains of towers and walls indicate the various kinds of defensive and offensive war in different ages, from the time when the round or square tower with its loopholes for the archers and cross-bowmen, and gates secured by heavy portcullis, were a substantial defense, down to the present time, when the bastion of regular sides advances from the glacis, mounted with modern ordnance, keeping at a greater distance the hostile besiegers. Through the glacis in various parts are sally-ports, from one of which, opening toward the road to Ramsgate, I well remember seeing a corporal's guard issue, about fifteen years ago, to take possession of me and my sketch-book, as I sat under a hedge at some distance to sketch the picturesque towers of this castle. Somewhat suspicious of their intentions, I left my retreat, and, by a circuitous route into the town, made my escape, not, however, without ascertaining from behind a distant hedge that I was actually the object of their expedition. They went to the spot where I had

Page  181 A CHANNEL STEAMER. 181 been sitting, made a short search, and then returned to the castle through the same sally-port. At that time (a time of war not only with France, but America also), the strictest watch was kept, and to have been caught making the slightest sketch of a fortification would have subjected me to much trouble. Times are now changed, and, had' Jack Frost' (the only commander of rigor now at the castle) permitted, I might have sketched any part of the interior or exterior. In the interior of the inclosure rises the donjon-keep, higher than any other part of the buildings or fortifications. it is now a magazine of powder. We did not go into any of the excavations underneath the castle, which are very extensive; they are now filled with military stores. After leaving the castle, we visited the shaft which is on the hill back of the tower, and is a passage for facilitating the forming of troops upon the top of the hill; it is a kind of well sunk upon the top of the heights, and met at the bottom by a horizontal tunnel on a level with the streets of the town. " BOULOGNE-SUR-MER, FRANCE, December 29, 1829. "This morning at ten o'clock, after our tedious detention, we embarked from Dover in a steamer for this place, instead of Calais. I mentioned the steamer; but, cousin, if you have formed any idea of elegance, or comfort, or speed, in connection with the name of steamer, from seeing our fine steamboats, and have imagined that English or French boats are superior to ours, you may as well be undeceived-I know of no description of packet-boats in our waters bad enough to convey tle idea. They are small, black, dirty, confined things, which would be suffered to rot at the wharves for want of the least custom from the lowest in our country. You may judge of the extent of the accommodations, when I tell you that there is in them but one cabin-six feet six inches high, fourteen feet long, eleven feet wide, containing eight berths. Our passage was fortunately short, and we arrived in the dominions of' His most Christian Majesty' Charles X., at five o'clock. The transition from a country where one's own language is spoken, to one where the accents are strange-from a country where the manners and habits are somewhat allied to our own, to one where every thing is different, even to the most trifling article of dress-is very striking on landing, after so short an interval from England to France. The pier-head at our landing was filled with human beings in strange costume, from the gray surtout and belt of the gendarmes, to the broad twilled and curiously plaited caps of the mas

Page  182 182 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. culine women, which latter beings, by-the-by, are the licensed porters of baggage to the custom-house. "PARIS, January 7, 1830. "Here have I been, in this great capital of the Continent, since the first day of the year. I shall remember my first visit to Paris from the circumstance that, at the dawn of day of the new year, we passed the'Porte St.-Denis' into the narrow and dirty streets of this great metropolis. "The Louvre was the first object we visited. Our passports obtained us ready admittance; and, although our fingers and feet were almost frozen, we yet lingered three hours in the grand' gallery of pictures.' Indeed, it is a long walk simply to pass up and down the long hall, the end of which, from the opposite end, is scarcely visible, but is lost in the mist of distance. On the walls are twelve hundred and fifty of some of the chefs-d'oeuvre of painting. Here I have marked out several which I shall copy on my return from Italy. I have my residence at present at the Hotel de Lille, which is situated very commodiously in the midst of all the most interesting objects of curiosity to a stranger in Paris-the palace of the Tuileries, the Palais Royal, the Bibliotheque Royale, or royal library, and numerous other places, all within a few paces of us. On New-Year's day the equipages of the nobility and foreign ambassadors, etc., who paid their respects to the king and the Duke of Orleans, made considerable display in the Place du Carrousel and in the court of the Tuileries. " At an exhibition of manufactures of porcelain, tapestry, etc., in the Louvre, where were some of the most superb specimens of art in the world in these articles, we also saw the Duchesse de Berri. She is the mother of the little Duc de Bordeaux, who, you know, is the heir-apparent to the crown of France. She was simply habited in a blue pelisse and blue bonnet, and would not be distinguished in her appearance from the crowd except by her attendants in livery. I cannot close, however, without telling you what a delightful evening I passed evening before last at General Lafayette's. He had a soiree on that night, at which there were a number of Americans. When I went in, he instantly recognized me, took me by both hands, said he was expecting to see me in France, having read in the American papers that I had embarked. He met me apparently with great cordiality, then introduced me to each of his family, to his daughters, to Madame Lasterie and her two daughters (very pretty girls), and to Madame Ramousal, and two daughters

Page  183 LYONS AND AVIGNON. 183 of his son, G. W. Lafayette, also very accomplished and beautiful girls. The General inquired how long I intended to stay in France, and pressed me to come and pass some time at La Grange, when I return from Italy. General Lafayette looks very well, and seems to have the respect of all the best men in France. At his soiree I saw the celebrated Benjamin Constant, one of the most distinguished of the liberal party in France. He is tall and thin, with a very fair, white complexion, and long white silken hair, moving with all the vigor of a young man." The three years that Mr. Morse passed in Europe at this time are reflected in such letters to his friends, and in fragments of diaries kept in tiny "scratch-books." These little books, which he made and could easily carry in his vest pocket, he filled with drawings of objects that met his eye-often pictures of peculiar people, and added brief notes with pencil. Before he left New York, he was offered pecuniary inducements to become the foreign correspondent of newspapers, but he made no positive engagements, and he says in an early letter: "I fear it will consume more of my time than the thing is worth; my time here is worth a guinea a minute in the way of my profession. I find my pen and pencil are enemies to each other. I must write less and paint more." Leaving Paris, on his journey to Italy, he rested a few days at Lyons, in the study of the antiquities and architecture of that interesting city. His note-book has a pencil-drawing of a " Sister of Charity" whom he met in a hospital, and whose face suggests to him a picture of Mercy. The gold-works and the silver-factories being explored, he continues his course southward, mentioning a "telegraph making signals" on a hill which he passed. The olive and orange trees soon tell him that he is in a warmer clime. He spent Sunday, January 24, 1830, in Avignon, the ancient city of the popes in the time of the exile, and worshiped in the cathedral-church of St.-Agricol, as there was not a Protestant place of worship in the city. Here, for the first time in his life, he saw a military pageant contribute to the effect of divine service. "A superb military band of music, followed by troops, entered the church; the nave was filled with people, principally women; drums were beating and fifes playing; the troops formed two lines from the altar to the

Page  184 184 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. great door, and their officers marched up through the lines and took seats within the railing of the altar. On each side of the altar fierce-looking soldiers stood, with long beards, and armed with battle-axes, their high, cylindrical, bear-skin caps giving them a height almost gigantic. The church seemed to be a military garrison. At the word of command drums and trumpets were sounded, and a little bell announced the priest, a venerable man, in a green, embroidered dress, who performed the service. The band of twenty-seven performers in the transept on the left commenced playing, and produced the most thrilling music." He did not enjoy the service, with the exception of the music, of which he heard more in the evening, and expressed himself "enchanted" with it. The beauty of the women draws from him this remark: "We have observed more beautiful faces among the women in a single day at Avignon, than we saw during two weeks at Paris." "< Monday, January 25th.-We ascended the hill of the Dons, upon which'the palace of the popes is built. The hill is terraced, and is ascended in many places by flights of rude stone steps. The staircase to the terrace of the palace is peculiarly grand. The interior of the chapel, which we entered, has been much abused, but had evidently been splendidly decorated. The paintings and statuary are not of a high order. The altars, of variously-colored marbles, are very rich. The votive offerings' were amusing-execrable paintings, representing scenes of deliverance: a man has a stone falling on his head, another jumping from a tower, waxen legs and armsa curious assemblage. From the top of the great tower we had a magnificent prospect-the mountains in the far distance, and the Rhone winding through an immense plain studded with hamlets, and dividing into two branches, uniting again. To the west rose the picturesque castle and towers of Villeneuve, having for a background the mountains toward Nismes. To the south a river is seen sparkling through the plain, and rushing to meet the Durance. From the hill I made several sketches. The museum, where are some fine pictures, was, unfortunately, closed. Our landlord told me that Napoleon I. often stopped with him, and his officers said that he was so much pleased with his fare, that he was accustomed to say, when his fare was bad in distant places,'This is not so comfortable as at Madame Pierrori's, in Avignon.' "

Page  185 INCIDENT AT TOULON. 185 " January 26th.-At six o'clock last evening left Avignon on the diligence. At precisely twelve o'clock to-day the Mediterranean opened, with its blue expanse, before us; the castellated islands in the harbor of Marseilles, and the lug-sailed boats, like birds, resting on the bosom of the waters; the high, fortified mountain beyond the harbor-made a scene of exceeding beauty as we approached the town. Halting to be searched for wine, we entered and found comfortable quarters at the H6tel Beauvan. One or two days in the city and he went to Toulon, the gates of which had to be opened before the diligence could enter; and then we passed through a row of sentinels and over a drawbridge, again through files of sentinels, and the arched passages of the walls into the streets of the city." Having explored this great naval station, and critically examined the vessels-of-war, and noticed the five hundred galleyslaves, with dresses to mark the degree of crime for which they were condemned to this service, Mr. Morse remarks: "The stone-houses for covering the ships while they are building, are substantial, having a Gothic arched roof, supported by stone arches, resting upon eight solid piers of stone, about twenty feet apart, and perhaps fifty feet high. In the model-room are models of vessels of all classes, methods of drawing up ships on railways, plans of dry-docks, and other marine machinery, exceedingly beautiful. The city is just now agitated by a most melancholy incident. A sergeant had formed the intention of killing his captain, in resentment for some supposed injury. The colonel of the regiment, universally popular with his troops and with the inhabitants of the city, ignorant altogether of the feelings of this man toward him, beckoned him to come to him after the parade. The sergeant, supposing that by some means the colonel had obtained knowledge of his intentions, leveled his gun and shot him dead upon the spot. The colonel is lying in his house, which I passed, and the wretched culprit I saw under guard marched to prison. He will be shot in a few days." Mr. Morse pursued his journey, by private carriage, with a pleasant party of friends, stopping at every place of interest on the road. Nice, at that time, was in the territory of Italy, and the King of Sardinia, Charles Felix, was making a royal visit in the city when Mr. Morse arrived:

Page  186 186 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "Entering the cathedral, we saw the king seated on a throne, under a splendid canopy of crimson and gold, on the right of the altar. Mass was celebrated, and the king then rose, bowed toward the altar, crossed himself, and retired." Mr. Morse delayed a day or two in this delightful city, which has become the great winter resort of invalids and pleasure-seekers, and then, by the famous Cornice road, went on to Genoa. The railway now carries the traveler through mountains that were then slowly traversed by coach and horses;- the romantic passes that were then the marvel and delight of passengers with steady nerves, are only matters of history. He says: " At eleven we had attained a height of at least two thousand feet, and the precipices became frightful, sweeping down into long ravines to the very edge of the sea, and then the road would wind at the very edge of the precipice two or three thousand feet deep. Such scenes pass so rapidly it is impossible to make note of them. From the heights on which La Turbia stands, with its dilapidated walls, we see the beautiful city of Monaco, on a tongue of land extending into the sea." Now the road began to descend along the most frightful precipices and ravines; the slopes of the mountains were terraced and covered with vines, where it would seem almost impossible to climb. Mr. Morse rested at Mentone, "a beautiful place for an artist," and then went to San Remo, where he spent the night. Porto Maurice and Oniglia, familiar names to travelers, he mentions, and he makes a sketch of the cupola of a little church in Oniglia, and of some ruins in the rear of the inn at which he dined. His path lay along rugged precipices, dizzy heights, lofty arches, and dangerous passes; he lodged at Albenza, and the next day passed over some of the most stupendous parts of the road, admiring the engineering skill that accomplished it, and the enterprise that attempted it. Having spent the next night at Savona, he reached Genoa on the 6th of February, and was permitted to enter, after being searched for "powder and tobacco." Its palaces and churches astonished and delighted him, and, after a few days of sight-seeing, he posted

Page  187 SETTLED IN ROME. 187 to Pisa, where he studied and sketched the Duomo, the Baptistry, the Leaning Tower, and the Campo Santo. He did not linger in Florence, as he would return to study the treasures of art in that city at his leisure. He arrived in Rome, February 20, 1830. Taking lodgings at No. 17 Via de Prefetti, he entered at once upon the work for which he had come. He writes, March 7th: "I have begun to copy the'School of Athens,' from Raffaelle, for Mr. R. Donaldson. The original is on the walls of one of the celebrated Camera of Raffaelle in the Vatican; it is in fresco, and occupies one entire side of the room. It is a difficult picture to copy, and will occupy five or six weeks, certainly. Every moment of my time, from early in the morning until late at night, when not in the Vatican, is occupied in seeing the exhaustless stores of curiosities in art and antiquities with which this wonderful city abounds. I find I can endure great fatigue, and my spirits are good, and I feel strong for the pleasant duties of my profession. I feel particularly anxious that every gentleman who has given me a commission shall be more than satisfied that he has received an equivalent for the sum generously advanced to me. But I find that to accomplish this, I shall need all my strength and time for more than a year to come, and that will be little enough to do myself and them justice. I am delighted with my situation, and more than ever convinced of the wisdom of my course in coming to Italy. "lllarch 17th.-Mr. Fenimore Cooper and family are here. I have. passed many pleasant hours with them, particularly one beautiful moonlight evening, visiting the Coliseum. After the Holy Week, I shall visit Naples, probably with Mr. Theodore Woolsey, who is now in Rome. " March 18th.-Ceremonies at the Consistory; delivery of the cardinals' hats; at nine o'clock went to the Vatican." (Here is a picture of what he saw.) "Two large fantails, with ostrichfeathers; ladies penned up; pope; cardinals kiss his hand in rotation; address in Latin, tinkling, like water gurgling from a bottle; the English cardinal first appeared, went up, and was embraced and kissed on each cheek by the pope; then followed the others in the same manner; then each new cardinal embraced in succession all the other cardinals; after this, beginning with the English cardinal, each went to the pope, and he, putting on their heads the cardinal's hat, blessed them in the name of the Trinity. They then

Page  188 188 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. kissed the ring on his hand, and his toe, and retired from the throne. The pope then' rose, blessed the assembly, by making the sign of the cross three times in the air, with his two fingers, and left the room. His dress was a plain mitre of gold tissue, a rich garment of gold and crimson, embroidered, a splendid clasp of gold, about six inches long by four wide, set with precious stones, upon his breast. He is very decrepit, limping or tottering along, has a defect in one eye, and his countenance has an expression of pain, especially as the new cardinals approached his toe. The cardinals followed the pope, two and two, with their train-bearers. After a few minutes the doors opened again, and a procession headed by singers entered, chanting as they went; the cardinals followed them with their train-bearers. They passed through the Consistory, and thus closed the ceremony of presenting the cardinals' hats. A multitude of attendants, in various costumes, surrounded the pontiff's throne, during the ceremony, among whom was Bishop Dubois, of New York." Mr. Morse's note-books are filled with mere mention of pictures in the several rooms of the various palaces and galleries that he explored, and of incidents that marked his daily life in Rome. A few days-in the abrupt and abbreviated terms of his diary-will show the habit of the man: " Thursday, March 18, 1830.-Colonna Palace; Earl Shrewsbury occupies it. First Roor.-' Death of Cleopatra,' by Muratori, pupil of Guido, well composed; head of Cleopatra, good.'Rebecca at the Well,' by the same; good parts, but much mannered. Second Room. -' The Colonna Family rising from the Tomb,' by Pietro da Cortona; sky, good. A beautiful piece of still-life, by Castiglione; spoils. Third Room.-'The Audience Chambers,' exceedingly splendid in tapestry, etc. Fourth Room. —'Calvin and Luther,' by Titian. Portrait of one of the Colonna family, called the'Green Picture,' by Paul Veronese, proves that harmony may be produced in one color; curtain in the background, hot green, middle tint; sleeves of the arms, cool; vest, which is in the mass of light, as well as the lights of the curtain, WARM; white collar, which is the highest light, cool!!!'Holy Family, etc., resting on their Flight to Egypt,' by Bonifacio, fine for color, supports my theory. Fifth Room.-A most splendid hall.'St. John preaching in the Wilderness,' by M. Angelo Battaglia; splendid for color, and light and shade; the dove over the head of John is full of light.

Page  189 PROCESSION OF CARDINALS. 189 It is a picture that bears examination; it has a fine depth of chiarooscuro. Four pictures by Orizonti, good, but mannered. Several good landscapes, in temper, by Gaspar Poussin. A strange picture by Nicolo Lunno, the master of Pietro Perugino,'The Devil seizing a Child,' the mother praying to the Madonna, who with a club is beating off the devil.'St. Sebastian,' by Guido; fine for chiarooscuro. A grand full-length of'Lucretia Colonna,' by Vandyck; shining like a diamond.'Holy Family,' etc., by Titian; splendid for color. ACADEMY OF ST. LUKE'S.' Raphael's Skull;' Harlow's picture of the making of a cardinal. Said to have been painted in twelve days. I don't believe it.'The Angels appearing to the Shepherds,' by Bassan; good for colormuch trash in the way of portraits. Lower rooms contain the pictures for the premiums; some good, all badly colored. Third _Room. -Bass-reliefs for the premiums. Fourth Room.-Smaller premium pictures; bad. Fifth 1Room.-Drawings; the oldest best, modern bad. " Church of St. Peter, interior of the prison, etc. St. Andrew's Church, too dark when we went in to see the famous frescos of Domenichino. " Friday, lMarch 19th.-We went to St. Peter's to see the procession of cardinals; singing in the capella. Cardinals walked two and two through St. Peter's, knelt on purple-velvet cushions before the capella in prayer, then successively kissed the toe of the bronze image of St. Peter, as they walked past it. This statue of St. Peter as a work of art is as execrable as possible; part of the toe and foot is worn away and polished, not by the kisses, but by the wiping of the foot after the kisses by the next comer, preparatory to kissing it, sometimes with the coat-sleeve by a beggar, with the corner of the cloak by the gentlemen, the shawl by the females, and with a nice cambric handkerchief by the attendant at the ceremony, who wiped the toe after each cardinal's performance. This ceremony is variously performed; some give it a single kiss and go away, others kiss the toe and then touch the forehead to it, others again kiss the toe, touch the forehead to it, and kiss the toe again, repeating the operation sometimes three times. This day is one of the numerous festivals of the Church; it is St. Joseph's day; the shops are shut, and before many of them, on the side pavement, are tables decorated with evergreens and flowers, on which are large pans of fried cakes, hot

Page  190 190 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. from the kettle of oil in which they are fried, and which is in the centre of a group of cooks busily engaged in preparing these cakes for their customers, who perform a meritorious act doubtless in eating them this day-St. Joseph being very fond of these doughnuts, as we should call them in New England. Women with enormous buckles. " Saturday, March 20th.- Giustiniani Palazzo.-Bass-reliefs in the yard, stucco; nothing good. Braschi Palace.-A most splendid staircase; the richest in Rome that I have seen in the palaces. An assortment of St. Sebastians by the dozen; two in the hall, one in the second room. Third Room.-A Titian,' Woman taken in Adultery;' fine for arrangement of color. A Murillo,' The Assumption of the Virgin.'' Angel Boys' Heads;' good.'Marriage of Cana,' by Garofalo; some of the costumes, fine. In the large hall is a very fine statue of'Antinous,' colossal in size and of the purest form. A sweet portrait in Lely's style of a female like N. R. " Palazzo Massino.-An exquisite statue of a Discobolus, and some good pictures. "Pcalczzo M[attei.-Fine bass-reliefs in the court-yard and exquisitely sculptured ornaments exposed to the weather. On the box, Scritture par la Sacra Rota.' Ancient seats in the stairway. View.from the top of the Campidoglio: to the east, Albano, Frascato, and, more toward the north, Preneste, and in the valley, at a great distance, Cercello; went to the very top and stood by the statue on the pinnacle. " Sunday, March 21st.- Chiesa d' Orsoline.-Nun taking the veil. Illustrissima Signori Anna Mazzetti, to assume the name of S. Maria Clementina di S. Camillo. Church small, altar rich; cardinal enters; nun enters splendidly dressed, lace over blue; kneels before the cardinal; a companion; dress of cardinal, a gold-tissue mitre, robes of white, fringed with gold lace; two attendants hold up the skirts of his robe while he addresses them; nun's hair much dressed with curls and silver and diamond ornaments of wheat-ears, necklace, and ear-rings; attendant of nun in rich blue, silk turban embroidered with gold; address long; music; cardinal puts on a splendid mitre and takes the rood or crozier. First act closes by a procession out of the church, headed by the cardinal and nun. Music as an interlude. Cardinal enters without nun for a few minutes, during which music plays rapid airs; nuns' voices in another room; kissing the other nuns. Could not see for a large pillar and bonnet. " Chiesa Nuova, at seven o'clock in the evening; a sacred opera

Page  191 IN THE VATICAN. 191 called' The Death of Aaror;' church dark, women not admitted; bell rings, and a priest before the altar chants a prayer, after which a boy about twelve years old apparently addresses the assembly from the pulpit; I know not the drift of his discourse, but his utterance was like the same gurgling process which I noticed in the orator who addressed the pope; it was precisely like the fitful tone of the Oneida interpreter. " Tuesday, March 23d.-At the Vatican all the morning. While preparing my palette, a monk, decently habited for a monk, who seemed to have come to the Vatican for the purpose of viewing the pictures, after a little time approached me, and, with a very polite bow, offered me a pinch of snuff, which of course I took, bowing in return, when he instantly asked me alms. I gave him a bajocco, for which he seemed very grateful. Truly this is a nation of beggars. " Wednesday, March 24th.-Vatican all the morning; saw in returning a great number of priests, with a white bag over the left shoulder, and begging of the persons they met. This is. another instance of begging and robbing confined to one class. " Thursday, March 25th.-Festa of the Annunciation, Vatican shut. Doors open at eight of the Chiesa di Minerva; obtained a good place for seeing the ceremony; at half-past nine the cardinals began to assemble; Cardinal Barberini officiated in robes, white, embroidered with gold; singing; taking off and putting on mitres, etc.; jumping up and bowing, kissing the ring on the finger of the cardinal; putting incense into censers; monotonous reading or rather whining of a few lines of prayer in Latin; flirting censers at each cardinal in succession; cardinals bowing to one another; many attendants at the altar; cardinals embrace one another. After mass a contribution among the cardinals in rich silver plate. Enter the virgins in white, with crowns, two and two, and candles; they kiss the hem of the garment of one of the cardinals; they are accompanied by three officers, and exit. Cardinals' dresses exquisitely plaited (sixty-two cardinals in attendance). " CAMPIDOGLIO EXPOSITION OF THE WORKS OF THE LIVING ARTISTS IN ROME. "First Room.-Portrait of female at the toilet, by Geddes, English; for effect, chiaro-oscuro, and coloring, good. Deluge by Schnelz, French; faults of the French school. Large picture of a sick child brought to the Virgin by her relative, by the same artist;

Page  192 192 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. parts full of feeling, particularly the bor himself, and the sister of the boy; parts well painted, but bad in general effect, and badly colored. A great picture of the assassination of Vitellius, by Quecy, a Roman artist; bad throughout. A sweet picture of Italian peasant at a fountain, by Weller of Mannheim; the costumes and indeed all beautifully painted. Two flower-pieces, by Senff, a Prussian; good. Statuary-a fine bass-relief of Christians about to be torn in pieces by a tiger, by Tenerrani, of Carrara. Statue, female playing on a guitar, by Scolari; good. "PALAZZO SINIBALDI.-At half-past eight, the company began to assemble in the splendid saloon of this palace, to which I was invited; the singers, about forty in number, were upon a stage erected at the end of the room; white drapery hung behind festoons with laurel-wreaths (the walls were painted in fresco); four female statues standing on globes upheld seven long wax-lights; the instrumental musicians, about forty, were arranged at the foot of these statues. Sala was lighted principally by six glass chandeliers. Much female beauty in the room, dresses very various. Signora Luigia Tardi sung with much judgment, and was received with great applause. -A little girl, apparently about twelve years old, played upon the harp in a most exquisite manner, and called forth bravas of the Italians, and of the foreigners bountifully. The manners of the audience were the same as those of fashionable society in our own country, and indeed in any other country. The display in dress, however, less tasteful than I have seen in New York; but, in truth, I haye not seen more beauty and taste in any country, combined with cultivation of mind and delicacy of manner, than in our own. At one o'clock in the morning, or halfpast six, Italian time, the concert was over. " Friday, March 26th.-I have observed almost every morning at the caffe beggars of some description, and different every morning. This morning, a tall priest with a tin box; a few mornings ago, friar with white mask, and his hat hung on his back. While waiting to enter the Sinibaldi Palace last evening, being too early, I walked with Mr. S. in a direction where we heard some chanting in the street. Proceeding down a back street or two, we came to the portico of a church illuminated by a multitude of wax-candles burning before the Virgin; a crowd filled the portico, and had assembled in great numbers about the railing. We stood at a little distance looking on. The officiating priest in the proper time held up the Host, at which all the people knelt, far and near.

Page  193 ART CRITICISMS. 193 "Saturday, March 27th. - SCIARRA PALACE, First Room.Copy'Transfiguration,' by Carlo Napolitano, not G. Romana, as erroneously said; two deep-toned pictures, by Valentin; an exquisite little picture,'Mother and Child,' by Titian; mother's dress, warm crimson, warm flesh, principal light; deep-blue ultra under the child and back of the mother; green curtain in background. "Second Room.-Two small Claudes-one'Lake of Bracino,' on silver-the other,' Flight into Egypt,' on copper; landscapes by Both, very good;'Castle Nuovo,' in Naples, by Canelletti. " Third Room.-Voucts's picture of the'Present, Past, and Future.' " Fourth Room.-' The Minstrels' of Titian; Raphael's portrait of himself; Leonardo da Vinci's'Modesty and Vanity;''The Three Card-Players,' by Caravaggio. EXPOSITION AT THE CAMPIDOGLIO (CONTINUED). Second Room.-Wyatt's statue of a female entering the bath, an exquisite work. " Third Room.-Gibson's statue of a female untying her sandal;'Judith and Holofernes,' by Cav. Vernet; finely conceived, especially the character and figure of Judith; the color is generally bad, but the lower part is well painted and well toned; there is a masterly precision throughout, every thing is firmly and correctly expressed; the head of Holofernes is French, too strongly charged, but well meant. Portrait of the Pope, by Vernet; very rich, and parts well painted, but is too much cut up.'Nun taking the Veil,' by Roger, French painter; good in parts, especially the background.'Greek Girl,' by Adkins, English, and a female portrait by the same artist; both rich for color.'Warrior preparing for Battle, taking Leave of his Mistress.' by Levern, English; sweet, rich-toned little picture'Albanese Female,' nearly full length, by Vernet; parts well expressed, but chalky in color.'Friar in the Catacombs, frightened to Death,' a story well told, but too brown, by Diofabi, a Russian. Portraits, full length, in St. Peter's, by Cavalleri, of Turin, well drawn in the architecture. A'Mountebank Exhibition,' by Weller, of Mannheim, contains great variety of character and costume, and is carefully and beautifully finished; the Amphitheatre Marcellus forms the greater part of the background. A landscape by Karezewski, a Pole; parts, good.'The Vintage,' by Levern, English; an exquisite picture, golden in tone, 13

Page  194 194 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. and well composed. -A good landscape, by Desoulavy, English. A fine landscape, well colored, and in fine keeping, by Wilson, a Scotch painter.'Interior of an Italian Kitchen,' by Bravo, a Dane. " Went to the Coliseum. Cross in the centre of the arena has upon it this inscription, on a little white board nailed on it:'Baciando la Santa Croce si acouistono due cente geomo d'indulgenza.' The rooks were chattering about the tops of the ruined arches, and the smaller birds were singing in the bushes that covered the dilapidated walls. Went to the baths of Titus, which are near the Coliseum. Here are the fine arabesques, from which it is said Raphael copied his'Logge.' It is a mistake; he may have taken some few detached parts, but his' Logge' are original. He has caught, indeed, the spirit of those arabesques, all which is perfectly fair. They are exquisitely beautiful, but going fast to decay. " Monday, 2arch 29th.-Early this morning was introduced to the cavalier Horace Vernet, Principal of the French Academy. Found him in the beautiful gardens of the Academy. He came in a n6glig6 dress-a cap, or rather turban, of various colors, a party-colored belt, and a cloak. He received me kindly; walked through the antique gallery of casts, a long room, and a splendid collection, selected with great judgment; the collection, also, of architectural casts was splendid. " Visited Mr. Gibson's studio, and Mr. Wyatt's. Mr. Gibson is a man of real genius. He is not far behind Thorwaldsen. His groups of the'Seizure of Hylas,' and of'Psyche borne by Zephyrs,' are quite antique in their character and feeling. Mr. Wyatt's are also excellent. His'Nymph entering the Bath' is as chaste in sentiment, and as beautiful for character, as I have ever seen of a nude figure. " Tuesday, March 30th.-Went to the Vatican in the morning. While recreating, took a lounge in the upper logge of the Vatican, which contain some curious maps of the world, and its various parts, painted in fresco on the walls. The first map has on it the Island of S. Brandani, mentioned by Irving in his'Columbus;' the second is New Spain, on which North America is represented, the whole northern part, from a parallel about Cape Hatteras, as'Terra sive Mare Incognitum;' the third is Japan; the fourth, America, or Peru; the fifth,'Tartarorum regiones;' sixth, India beyond the Ganges, or China; seventh, India this side the Ganges; eighth, Persia; ninth, Turkey beyond Europe; tenth, Africa; eleventh, Africa, eastern part; twelfth and thirteenth, the world, on the first of

Page  195 CHEVALIER VERNET. 195 which is America, Terra Labrador, and C. del Labrado; and from them to C. della Florida, nearly all the way high ridges of mountains are made to extend from the coast far into the interior. A little south of Labrador is'Terra de Baccalaos;' Canada is down, and but one of the lakes, which is not named; all beyond is'terra incognita;' fourteenth, is Greenland, and congelations, with houses and Indians on the ice, and reindeer; fifteenth, much injured, appears to be Russia; sixteenth, Moscovia; seventeenth, Finland, Lapland, etc.; eighteenth, Hungary, and Poland, etc.; nineteenth, Denmark, Holland, Germany; twentieth, India, Canaan, and Palestine, more beautifully executed than the rest, the Holy Land in gold; twenty-first, Asia Minor; twenty-second, Greece; twentythird, Italy; twenty-fourth, France; twenty-fifth, Spain; twentysixth, Great Britain. " Wednesday, MJarch 31st.-Early this morning was waked by the roar of cannon. Learned that it was the anniversary of the present pope's election. Went to the Vatican; the colonnade was filled with the carriages of the cardinals; that of the new English cardinal, Weld, was the most showy. "There is a corporal's guard of soldiers stationed before the Castle of St. Angelo, and another at the entrance of the colonnade to St. Peter's. Their principal duty seems to be to shoulder arms at a certain signal, and present arms when a cardinal's carriage passes. " Thursday Morning, April lst.-At the Vatican all day. Open to the public. Went with Mr. Cooper into the room of the mosaics, which I had never visited before. There are ten thousand three hundred and sixteen different tints in glass, each in separate boxes, occupying a hall of great length. The street leading to the Vatican is very narrow, and filled with the meanest shops. "Went in the evening to the soiree of the Chevalier Vernet, Director of the French Academy, He is a gentleman of elegant manners, and sees, at his soirees, the first society in Rome. His wife is highly accomplished, and his daughter is a beautiful girl, full of vivacity, and speaks English fluently. Books of plates were on the table, among them an interesting work by Williman, published in Paris, on costume, etc. During the evening th'ere was music. His daughter played on the piano, and others sang. There was chess, and, at a sideboard, a few played cards. The style was simple; every one at ease, like our soirees in America. Several noblemen and dignitaries of the Church were present.

Page  196 196 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " Friday, April 2d.-Vatican all day. In the evening went to the Church of the Trinita di Monte, and heard the exquisite singing of the nuns. After vespers witnessed a ceremony in which two boys, of eight and ten years of age, were brought to the altar before the officiating cardinal. They knelt before him while he read from a book held by an attendant. Assistants were on either side; some held lighted wax-candles, others held up the robes of the cardinal, and others prompted the boys in the parts they were to act. During the ceremony a white band was tied round the heads of each of the boys. In conclusion, the cardinal and attendants retired and the boys knelt on each side of a man at the altar, wtho appeared to be their parent. " Sunday, April 4th.-Palm Sunday. Sistine Chapel, half-past nine o'clock. Cardinals; rich dresses, purple and gold; Cardinal Weld's the most splendid. Pass through files of guards; ladies outside the bar; ambassadors' boxes; royal box; cardinal, attendants in white, gentlemen of the cardinal. Ten o'clock, commence. Cardinals put on mitre and received palms, which are of straw, with crosses, etc., upon them. They retire to their seats, give palms to attendants, who, at a signal, prostrate them on the floor, like ground arms. (Cardinal Barberini officiated instead of the pope.) In receiving the palm from the cardinal, each recipient kisses the two hands of the cardinal. Procession commences at half-past ten. A cross, with two candles on each side. Cardinals return during chanting from the choir. Cardinals divested of their finery, and appear as ordinary, in purple and ermine. Putting incense into censers. Prayer-book. Many attendants to assist in the ceremony of opening a book. Cardinal says three or four words in a drawling tone. One, in a drawling, school-boy tone, reads from a book in the middle of the room. Great work made in bringing back the book. Chanting; which, for the'most part, is a monotonous brawling. Some good singing, and then a long, tedious tone of recitation in Latin. History of the crucifixion from the Testament, of more than three-quarters of an hour. (Attendants of the cardinals have olivebranches instead of palms.) A pause, and all the cardinals kneel. One next' takes the book, shows it to cardinal, bows, turns round, bows each side, advances one side'of the altar, and kneels; advances to the altar, bows, and kneels again; lays the book on the altar, bows, and kneels again. It remains a few seconds, and is removed again in the same manner. A few words are again read from it; the cardinals stand, and all together appear talking in the most rapid

Page  197 ST. PETER'S. 197 manner to each other. They all sit, and chanting commences, which lasts a few minutes. Twenty-two cardinals present. Robing and disrobing officiating cardinals. Incense is now puffed four times before each cardinal; the attendant bows, puffs four times, and goes to the next, and so on. A little reading by the officiating cardinal at the altar. Count Ferroneye among the spectators, with the three highest orders in Europe on his breast-the Golden Fleece, the Holy Ghost, and the Grand Cross of St.-Louis. Cardinal Giulio Maria della Somaglia in state, on an elevated bed of cloth-of-gold and black, embroidered with gold; his head on a black-velvet cushion, embroided with gold; dressed in his robes as when alive. He officiated, I was told, on Ash Wednesday. Four wax-lights, two on each side of the bed; room, crimson and gold; three guards at the foot of the bed; great throng of people of all grades through the suite of apartments-the Cancellerie-in which he lived. They were very splendid, chiefly of crimson velvet, and damask, and gold. The cardinal has died unpopular, for he has left nothing to his servants by his will; he directed, however, that no expense should be spared in his funeral, wishing that it might be splendid; but, unfortunately for him, he has died precisely at that season of the year (the Holy Week) when alone it is impossible, according to the Church customs, to give him a -splendid burial.'" Monday, April 5th.-Visited the Sapienza; the museum is very creditable; the collection of butterflies very complete; the skeletons of horse, cow, ram, etc., beautifully prepared; also the birds; a lusus naturae, two children preserved in spirits, united somewhat similar to the Siamese boys. "Cabinets of mineralogy and chemistry very good; the professor exceedingly polite and attentive. Campidoglio; part of it a prison; prisoners, with little bags on the end of rod, like fishinglines from the windows. Palatine Hill. Gardens of the Villa Spada, which are built upon the ruins of the palace of the Caesars; the gardens are now neatly laid out in walks, arched over with trees and flowering shrubs. " Tuesday, April 6th.-I amused myself before going into the Vatican by a walk in St. Peter's; the various and strange actions and scenes that are here witnessed strike a stranger with wonder. In one of the chapels there is the monotonous chanting of the priests at their prayers; all kinds of costumes were seen in various parts of the church, kneeling in acts of devotion, or in conversation in groups; boys were carrying candlesticks larger than themselves

Page  198 198 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. to furnish some of the numerous altars; and at the confessionals were motley groups, some in the act of confession, others waiting their turn; there were ragged beggars and gentlemen, the simplydressed nun, with her white-muslin veil, and the gay-colored dames of the villages of the Sabine Hills. " Went to the Vatican, and learned that it is shut for ten days. Took my picture to my room. " Wednesday, April 7th.-This morning the beggar at the cafe was an old, gray-bearded man, with a brass box about as large as a pocket-lantern, and which might easily be mistaken for one; it was battered and bright, with the crucifix embossed in front. The old man sat on one of the seats of the cafe for a moment, opened his box and counted his receipts; the largest piece was a one-half biocchi, and these were few; he muttered a prayer over them as he put them back, and tottered out of the house. Went to the Piazza Navone, being market-day, in search of prints; the scene here is very amusing, from the variety of wares exposed, and the confusion of noises and tongues, and now and then a jackass swelling the chorus with his most exquisite tones. " At three o'clock went to St. Peter's to see ceremonies at the Sistine Chapel. Cardinal asleep; monotonous bawling, long and tedious; candles put out one by one, fourteen in number; no ceremonies at the altar; cardinals present, nineteen i seven yawns from the cardinals; tiresome and monotonous beyond description. After three hours of this most tiresome chant, all the candles having beenextinguished, the celebrated' Miserere' commenced. It is indeed sublime, but I think loses much of its effect from the fatigue of body, and mind, too, in which it is heard by the auditors; the' Miserere' is the composition of the celebrated Allegri, and, for giving the effect of wailing and lamentation, without injury to harmony, is one of the most perfect of compositions. The manner of sustaining a strain of concord by new voices, now swelling high, now gradually decaying away, now sliding imperceptibly into discord, and suddenly breaking into harmony, is admirable; the imagination is alive, and fancies thousands of people in the deepest contrition; it closed by the cardinals clapping their hands for the earthquake. " Thursday Morning, April 8th.-Holy Thursday; rose early, and at eight o'clock rode to St. Peter's and ascended the long flight of steps to the Vatican; placed ourselves in the crowd of ladies and gentlemen, ready to rush into the Sistine Chapel the moment it should open. The Swiss Guards were this day dressed in bright hel

Page  199 THE SISTINE CHAPEL. 199 mets of steel, with breastplates of the same material, and some of their officers with the ancient armor upon their shoulders and arms. After waiting some time, the door of the chapel was opened, and, after a few privileged persons were admitted, all were allowed to pass, that is to say, if they had on a black coat and white cravat and black pantaloons; a brown coat or a frock coat found very little favor; sometimes they passed, if it was accompanied with a German voice, that language being the language of the Swiss Guards. A few gentlemen were allowed to go into the strangers' box, within the grating, where, on former occasions, I fortunately got, but today was too late. I therefore, with Mr. C-, of Alexandria, and Mr. Salisbury, took my stand in that part of the chapel which is nearest the door; here, on the right where you enter, the ladies are permitted to see the ceremonies. We waited long, and at length ascertained there would be a tedious chant, after which there would be a procession of the Host into the Pauline Chapel to be buried. We left the crowded Sistine Chapel and took our places behind the line of guards extending through the hall between two doors-one of the Pauline Chapel, the other leading into apartments along the front of St. Peter's. Here, having waited a long time-it being after eleven o'clock-a bustle was made in the hall, and the head of a procession made its appearance from one of the doors of the great hall; a cross and candles were borne before, and, soon after, a rich crimson-damask sedan-chair, borne by bearers dressed in the same materials and colors, in which his Holiness the Pope was seated; he passed close to us, and as he passed moved his hand as usual in the act of blessing. Finding some who were near us had got between the guards into the procession of ambassadors, etc., and who were suffering no obstruction, Mr. Cooper and I successfully attempted the same manoeuvre and mounted the staircase directly after the pope, and as far as the crimson-and-velvet and gold-furnished cham ber, temporarily built for the ceremony of the benediction; here we were stopped by the guards, but were permitted to stand without the line, or be in the balcony with the ambassadors, etc., which was next to and on the left of that at which the pope was to appear. Having examined the splendid chair on which he was to be borne, and while he was robing in another apartment, we found that, although we might have a complete view of the pope and the ceremonies before and after the benediction, yet the principal effect was to be seen below.; we therefore left our place at the balcony, where we could see nothing but the crowd, and hastened below.

Page  200 200 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. On passing into the hall we were so fortunate as just to be in season for the procession from the Sistine Chapel to the Pauline; the cardinals walked in procession two and two, and one bore the Host, while eight bearers held over him a rich canopy of silver tissue embroidered with gold. Thence we hastened to the front of St. Peter's, where in the centre, upon the highest step, we had an excellent view of the balcony, and, turning rounli, could see the immense crowd which had assembled in the piazza, and the splendid square of troops which were drawn up before the steps of the church. Here I had scarcely time to make a hasty sketch, in the broiling sun, of the window and its decorations, before the precursors of the pope, the two large feather fans, made their appearance on each side of the balcony, which was decorated with crimson and gold; and immediately after the Pope, with his mitre of gold tissue and his splendid robes of gold and jewels, was borne forward, relieving finely from the deep crimson darkness behind him. He made the usual sign of blessing with his two fingers raised; a book was then held before him, in which he read, with much motion of his head, for a minute. He then rose, extending both his arms-this was the benedictionwhile at the same moment the soldiers and crowd all knelt, the cannon from the Castle of St. Angelo was discharged, and the bells in all the churches rung a simultaneous peal; the effect was exceedingly grand, the most imposing of all the ceremonies I have witnessed. The pope was then borne back again. Two papers were thrown from the balcony, for which there was a great scramble among the crowd. "From this ceremony we went into the chapel to witness the washing of feet of the pilgrims. Thirteen persons dressed in white, with white caps, some with long beards, were seated upon a high seat on one side of the chapel. After the usual pushing and squeezing for places I got near enough to see the ceremony. A chant commenced, during which the pope (or it might have been a cardinal, for his face being in profile I could not discern accurately) began by washing, or rather touching with water, the foot of the first pilgrim, wiping it with the towel which an attendant bore, and then, kissing the foot, presented a large bouquet of flowers to that pilgrim, and so on through the whole; it lasted but a few minutes. From this place, which was opposite the Sistine Chapel, we went into the Pauline Chapel to see the Holy Sepulchre; this was splendidly illuminated with hundreds of wax-candles disposed in a most effective manner. Thence we came down into St. Peter's, and

Page  201 FEET-WASHING. 201 upon the steps found a procession of pilgrims, male and female, of all ranks, and kinds, and countries, about to enter the church; we looked into the church; the great altar was dismantled, and all the lamps out before it; most if not all the candles of the other altars, being collected in one of the side chapels, were brilliantly illuminating a dark part of the church. "From these ceremonies we took some rest by walking through the splendid galleries of the Vatican, which are thrown open to the public throughout, into the garden of the Vatican, rich with flowers and orange-trees, and lemon-trees, and other tropical fruits; a large copper pineapple, upon a pedestal in front of a high, deep niche, makes a distinguished figure, and an ancient ship as a fountain is a large toy on the other side of the Vatican. " After dirnner went again to St. Peter's to hear the music; the Miserere' was exquisitely performed in the side-chapel, quite equal, I thought, to that in the Sistine Chapel the evening before. " We next went to the Convent of the Trinita di Pellegrini to see the pilgrims having their feet washed and eating their supper. A long hall, perhaps two hundred feet in length, was set out on each side with a row of tables, which were to be served by cardinals and nobles, who were to wait on the pilgrims. In another apartment, into which we were too late to enter, there were about three hundred pilgrims, who had their feet washed and were waiting for their supper. They were soon after ushered into the supper-room; they were a most strange company, ragged, and dirty, and unshaven; their food was plentifully and indeed I may say luxuriously prepared for them-a thick, apparently nice soup, fish and salad, wine, figs, apples, etc. Before eating they all rose, and a blessing appeared to be asked by some one of the cardinals, and while they were eating a man from a box at one side of the room, like an orchestra-box, read what seemed to be a sermon. Each end of the table was decorated with flowers. I asked one from one of the princely waiters, and he politely gave me two, which I preserved. "We went into the church; an altar was splendidly illuminated, and at a side-altar the crucifix was laid upon the ground on cushions. Before it hundreds knelt to kiss it, and there was a plate to receive money. In returning home, visited the Pantheon and the Church of St. Andrea de la Valle, where were similar ceremonies. Saw also the shops of the bacon and cheese venders illuminated; in one was a small fountain playing. The bacon was tastily arranged, the flitches looking like large leaves of books' and gilt. A recess, with looking

Page  202 202 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. glasses at the end, gave the appearance of an almost endless vista of lights. "In the Via. Portugese is a house which always has at night a lamp in the corner of the eves, from the following occurrence: A gentleman, who lived in the house some years ago, had an orangoutang, which one day got loose, and, finding the child of the gentleman, seized it and rushed to the top of the house with it before he was discovered; when first seen he was with the child on the corner of the house, and threatening every moment to throw the child into the street. He was, however, arrested in his intention, and the child was saved. In commemoration of the event he during his life kept a light burning on the corner, and left by his will a sufficient sum to maintain it after his decease. " Friday, April 9th.-All the morning was spent in endeavoring to find places where we had been informed were the most interesting ceremonies of the day, but we were disappointed. At one o'clock we went to the church of St. Sylvestro in Capite, to witness the service of the tre ore of agony. As its name indicates, it was three hours in length; the church was hung with black. A temporary pulpit was erected at one side, from which a fleshy friar harangued the people with much gesticulation; opposite him was the orchestra, which at intervals gave good music, but the harangue of the priest in the intermission was so long and monotonous, relieved by a priest in another pulpit, who read in a dull, school-boy tone, that I was glad to make my retreat-I had seen enough. The priest's eloquence was of the same kind I had before heard, his words coming forth like water from a narrow-necked flask. We went in search of the Greek church; finding no service, went to St. Peter's, passing a long procession of monks, in black hoods, with staves surmounted by death's heads, and a girdle of beads and a cross, also surmounted with death's heads; they had on the hood, or mask; having all the face covered but the eyes; they sang or rather croaked as they went,'with solemn step and slow.7 When we arrived at St. Peter's, the ceremonies were performing in the choir; the tiresome chant, which had been in continuation for nearly the three hours, rightly called the three hours of agony, was nearly drawing to a conclusion, three lights, of the fifteen, alone remaining unextinguished. These fifteen lights, by-the-by, represent the twelve Apostles and the three Marys (in brown wax-candles, to signify mourning); their extinguishment, the desertion of all, one after another, but Mary the Virgin; this is the centre candle, and,

Page  203 LYING IN STATE. 203 when all are extinguished but this, it is removed, still burning, behind the altar; the'Miserere' then commences. We heard the exquisite'Miserere,' and afterward went toward the high altar, with the crowd, to witness the showing of the sacred relics, from a balcony some sixty or seventy feet above the crowd. A priest with two attendants made his appearance; a row of seven or eight waxcandles was upon the balustrade, and presently he held up a glittering mass of something that looked like a jeweled cap or crown. This was the spear, the very spear which pierced the side of our Saviour; the priest walked backward and forward in the balcony with it, for a moment, and then retired; he then came forth with a small cross also jeweled, and paced up and down in the same manner; this was a piece of the genuine cross. Next he brought out a splendidly jeweled frame containing the portrait of a head; this was St. Veronica's handkerchief with which she wiped the Saviour's face in going to the cross, and which received the impression of his features upon it. The distance, from any one in the crowd, of these relics of course prevented any examination or inquiry. This being ended, we returned home, and, after dinner, went again to the Trinita di Pelligrini to see what I omitted seeing last evening-the washing of the pilgrims' feet. This was in a room near the supper-hall. We arrived in season, and found that this was a bona-fide washing of feet, tubs being provided for each pilgrim, and cardinals and others were literally performing the ceremony of washing their feet for them. On our way to St. Peter's I ought to have noticed our visit to a palace in which another cardinal (the third who has died within a few days) was lying in state-Cardinal Bertazzoli. The apartments of this cardinal seemed to be very bare of furniturewhether usually so, or stripped for the occasion, I know not. The room in which he lay was very splendid-of crimson and gold-as were also the other rooms; he was upon a high bed of cloth-of-gold tissue, under a rich' canopy of crimson velvet embroidered with flowers of gold, and with gold lace at the side; candles of wax were in high candlesticks, at his feet a crucifix, and basin of holy water with a little brush to sprinkle it. Priests were just about to engage in chanting a requiem when we left. Ever since the benediction, all the bells in the city have been silent, apd all the guards have their muskets reversed. In returning from the Trinita di Pellegrini, the shops of those that sell bacon, cheese, and lard, struck us with the splendor and ingenuity of their decorations; besides innumerable lamps, and candles, and tinsel and gilding of the bacon

Page  204 204 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. and hams, there was in the Piazza Pallarola a shop, which had in the window a group of sculpture, made entirely of lard, and of the size of life, representing a child riding upon a goat, while another child is pulling back the goat by the tail. The action of the whole was very spirited, and the figures, and animal, and all things considered, exceedingly well done, especially the struggling of the goat to go forward, and the determined effort of the child to prevent him. "Friday, April 16th.-At the Vatican all day. I went to the soiree of the sister Persianis in the evening. There I had the pleasure of meeting, for the first time, with THORWALDSEN, the great Danish sculptor, the first now living. He is an old man in appearance, having a profusion of gray hair, wildly hanging over his forehead and ears. His face has a strong northern character, his eyes are light gray, and his complexion sandy. He is a large man, of perfectly unassuming manners and of most amiable deportment. Daily receiving homage from all the potentates of Europe, he is still without the least appearance of ostentation. He readily assented to a request to sit for his portrait, which I hope soon to take. The soiree this evening had several other distinguished persons from various countries present. From Sweden, from England, from France, from Switzerland, and from America, there were representatives. The young ladies sang and played beautifully on the harp and piano; the older people of the party played cards, as stupidly as card-players in all other countries. " Monday, April 19th.-Went to the Vatican. In passing through the Via del' Orso, near the Ponte St. Angelo, I saw quite a romantic scene, if it had been at a more romantic hour. A young man with his guitar was sitting near a window playing, while a very pretty girl was with the greatest vivacity singing to him. The old people were listening, while they were employed in their domestic engagements, spinning and ironing. " Visited Thorwaldsen at his house, in the Via Sistina, on the Pincian Hill. He was at home, and showed me his private collection of pictures, some ancient, but mostly modern, and very fine, in landscape particularly, for I was unprepared to find so good landscape-painters among the moderns in Italy-they were not Italians, however. I was shown three rooms; the last was the private study of Thorwaldsen, where I found a bass-relief in progress in the clay. "Tuesday, April 27th.-My birthday. How time flies, and to how little purpose have I lived! Engaged at home in painting.

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Page  205 PORTRAIT OF THORWALSDEN. 205 In going to dinner, observed what I have often before seen, a group of men playing at moro, which consists in two persons striking down the hand together, with any number of the fingers extended, and each calling out in the same breath the number they suppose to make the whole number of fingers of both their hands added together; he that guesses right is the winner. " Friday, April 30th.-A funeral procession passed the house to-day. On the bier, exposed, as is customary here, was a beautiful young girl, apparently of fifteen, dressed in rich laces and satins, embroidered with gold, and silver, and flowers, tastefully arranged, and sprinkled also with real flowers, and at her head was placed a coronet of flowers. She had more the appearance of sleep than of death. No relative appeared near her; the whole seemed to be conducted by the priests and monks, and those hideous objects in white hoods, with faces covered, except two holes for the eyes. " Monday, September 20th.-Began the portrait of the celebrated sculptor, Thorwaldsen. He is a most amiable man, and is universally respected. He is the greatest sculptor of the age. I have studied his works; they are distinguished for simple dignity, just expression, and truth in character and design; the composition is also characterized by simplicity. These qualities combined endow them with that beauty which we so much admire in the-works of Greece, whether in literature or art. Thorwaldsen cannot be said to imitate the antique;.he rather seems to be one born in the best age of Grecian art, imbued with the spirit of that age, and producing from his own resources kindred works. One of his principal works is a bass-relief of'The Triumph of Alexander,' executed for a nobleman, who intended it for his splendid mansion on the Lago di Como. Before the work was completed, however, the marquis died, and his son, theq present marquis, not inheriting the taste or disposition of his father, has offered it for sale. " Thorwaldsen has just completed the monument of Pope Pius VII., which is now erecting in St. Peter's. It consists of a mausoleum in the Egyptian order, on the top of which is a colossal figure of the pope, seated in the papal chair, and with his right hand raised in the attitude of giving the benediction; on each side of the great door of the tomb is a colossal female 1igure, the one Fortitude and the other Wisdom. His studios are in the Palazzo Barberini; they are very extensive, and are literally filled with the works of this great man. He has executed many colossal works: a statue of Copernicus, of the Emperor Alexander of Russia, sev

Page  206 206 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. eral colossal horses. Next to his'Triumph of Alexander,' which is, perhaps, his most colossal work, his'St. John preaching,' which is a series of nine statues and groups, is the most beautiful. The dignity and earnest zeal of the preacher, the various listeners, admirably selected from nature, the group of children observing a dog, alone inattentive among the audience, are all well conceived, and make the series one of the most interesting pieces of sculpture in the world." This portrait of Thorwaldsen was completed by Morse, and sent by the painter to Philip Hone, Esq., of New York, who had commissioned him to paint him a picture for one hundred dollars. It remained in Mr. Hone's gallery until the sale of his pictures, after his death. Mr. Wright then became its owner, and, on the sale of his pictures, in 1868, John Taylor Johnston, Esq., President of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, bought it for four hundred dollars. When he learned that Mr. Morse was very desirous of possessing it again, that he might present it to the King of Denmark, Mr. Johnston with great cheerfulness and generosity begged Mr. Morse to accept it. Mr. Morse was exceedingly grateful, and immediately forwarded it to the Danish monarch, in whose gallery it now hangs. To Mr. Johnston, on hearing of his great generosity, Mr. Morse wrote the following letter: "DRESDEN, SAXONY, January 23, 1868. "MY DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 6th instant is this moment received, in which I have been startled by your most generous offer, presenting me with my portrait of the renowned Thorwaldsen, for which he sat to me in Rome in 1831. I know not in what terms, my dear sir, to express to you my thanks for this most acceptable gift. I made an excursion to Copenhagen in the summer of 1856, as a sort of devout pilgrimage to the tombs of two renowned Danes, whose labors in their respective departments-the one, Oersted, of Science, the other, Thorwaldsen, of Art-have so greatly enriched the world. The personal kindness of the late King Frederick VI., who courteously received me at his castle of Fredericksborg, through the special presentation of Colonel Rastoff, more recently the Danish minister at Washington; the hospitalities of many of the principal citizens of Copenhagen; the visits to the tomb and museum of the works of Thorwaldsen, and to the room

Page  207 GIFT TO THE KING. 207 in which the immortal Oersted made his brilliant electro-magnetic discovery; the casual and accidental introduction and interview with a daughter of Oersted-all created a train of reflections which prompted me to devise some suitable mode of showing to these hospitable people my appreciation of their friendly attentions, and I proposed to myself the presentation to his majesty the King of Denmark of this portrait of Thorwaldsen, for which he sat to me irn Rome, and with which I knew he was specially pleased. My desire to accomplish this purpose was further strengthened by the additional attention of the king, at a later period, in sending me the decoration of his order of the Danebrog. From the moment this purpose was formed, twelve years ago, I have been desirous of obtaining this portrait, and watching for the opportunity of possessing it again. "Its history, in brief, is this: Among the commissions given me on my professional visit of study to Europe, in 1829, prolonged to the autumn of 1832, was one from the then Mayor of the city of New York, the late liberal-minded Philip Hone. He put into my hands one hundred dollars, with the request to paint him a picture for his gallery, leaving to me the choice of the subject. In Rome, I became personally acquainted with Thorwaldsen, who not merely treated me with his usual kindness, but seemed to take unusual pains to show me little attentions, and specially to seek my companionship in. his evening walks for recreation on the Pincian Hill. I ventured to ask him to give me sittings for his portrait, a request which he promptly granted. The portrait in question is the result. It.was sent to Mr. Hone, and occupied a place in his gallery during his life. When the gallery, in consequence of his decease, was dispersed, I was absent from the city, and ignorant of the fact, and the time of sale, or I should then have competed for its possession. " For some time I was unable even to ascertain its new possessor. But at length, from my worthy friend and pupil, D. Huntington, Esq., I learned that it was in the collection of Mr. Wright, and that he valued it too highly for the indulgence of any hope that he would part with it. When, in March of last year, Mr. Wright's collection was brought to the hammer, I was here in Europe, but was apprised by my brother, after the sale, that the portrait of Thorwaldsen was sold for over four hundred dollars, but the name of the purchaser was not mentioned. In my reply to my brother, I find this passage:'I don't know whether to be glad or sorry that my portrait of Thorwaldsen brought so much, for I was watching an

Page  208 208 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. opportunity of possessing it for myself, and, although rejoiced to find my picture valued so highly, yet it would seem hard that a picture for which I received but one hundred dollars could not be possessed again by its author without paying more than three times the sum he received for it.' " This brief history will show you, my dear sir, what a boon you have conferred upon me. Indeed, it seems like a dream. And if my most cordial thanks, not merely for the gift, but for the graceful and generous manner in which it has been offered, is any compensation, you may be sure they are yours. These are no conventional words, but they come from a heart that can gratefully appreciate the noble sentiments which have prompted your generous act. I have written my brother Sidney E. Morse, and requested him to receive for me the portrait. Again thanking you, my dear sir, I am with gratitude and esteem your friend and servant, "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "To JOHN TAYLOR JOHNSTON, Esq." When Mr. Morse writes to his brothers from Italy, we find him occasionally breaking away from the charmed circle of art: "ROME, January 5, 1831. " MY DEAR BROTHERS: A short time ago, I asked an Italian friend of mine to get for me some cuttings of two kinds of grapes which are celebrated here, that I might send them to the United States. He has been so obliging as to present me with six vines, with their roots carefully packed in their natural earth (which, bythe-by is the Vale of Tempe, Adrian's Villa, Tivoli), and they are in such fine order, and the season so favorable to send them, that I have ventured to incur the expense of transmission as they are, to such of my horticultural friends as I know will take good care of them, and distribute cuttings (if they should be successful in cultivating them) to others, so that these two fine varieties of grapes may be introduced into the country. They are packed in one parcel, all their roots being in a tub with earth, moss, etc. But you will find, after unwinding the cloth which envelops them, the two kinds separated by being tied round, each three of a kind, with a separate band. One is the Pergolese grape, the other the Pizzutello. I know not which of each parcel is the Pergolese, or which is the Pizzutello, but, in separating them, take one from each bunch, making three pairs, and oblige me by delivering to each of the fol

Page  209 IN THE COLISEUM. 209 lowing persons one pair: one to Dr. Ives, of New Haven; one to Dr. Hosack; and one to R. V. De Witt, Esq., of Albany." "April 15, 1831. "We have recently heard of the disasters of the Poles. What noble people; how deserving of their freedom! I must tell you of an interesting circumstance that occurred to me in relation to Poland. It was in the latter part of June of last year, just as I was completing my arrangements for my journey to Naples, that I was tempted by one of those splendid moonlight evenings, so common in Italy, to visit once more the ruins of the Coliseum. I had frequently been to the Coliseum in company, but now I had the curiosity to go alone-I wished to enjoy, if possible, its solitude, and its solemn grandeur, unannoyed by the presence of any one. It was eleven o'clock when I left my lodgings, and no one was walking at that hour in the solitary streets of Rome. From the Corso to the Forum, all was as still as in a deserted city. The ruins of the Forum, the temples and pillars, the Arch of Titus, aVd the gigantic arcade of the Temple of Peace, seemed to sleep in the grave-like stillness of the air. The only sound that reached my ears was that of my own footsteps. I slowly proceeded, stopping occasionally and listening, and enjoying the profound repose, and the solemn, pure light, so suited to the ruined magnificence around me. As I approached the Coliseum, the shriek of an owl and the answering echo broke the silence for a moment, and all was still again. I reached the entrance, before which paced a lonely sentinel, his arms flashing in the moonbeams. He abruptly stopped me, and told me I could not enter. I asked him why. He replied that his orders were to let no one pass. I told him I knew better, that he had no such orders, that he was placed there to protect visitors, and not to prevent their entrance, and that I should pass. Finding me resolute (for I knew by experience his motive was merely to extort money), he softened in his tone, and wished me to wait until he could speak to the sergeant of the guard. To this I assented, and, while he was gone, a party of gentlemen approached also to the entrance. One of them, having heard the discourse between the sentinel and myself, addressed me. Perceiving that he was a foreigner, I asked him if he spoke English. He replied, with a slight accent,'Yes, a little; you are an Englishman, sir.''No,' I replied,'I am an American, from the United States.''Indeed' said he,'that is much better,' and, extending 14

Page  210 210 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. his hand, he shook me cordially by the hand, adding,'I have a great respect for your country, and I know many of your countrymen.' He then mentioned Dr. Jarvis, and Mr. Cooper, the novelist, the latter of whom he said was held in the greatest estimation in Europe, and nowhere more so than in his country, Poland, where his works were more sought after than those of Scott, and his mind was esteemed of an equal, if not of a superior cast. This casual introduction of literary topics furnished us with ample matter for conversation while we were not engaged in contemplating the sublime ruins over which, when the sentinel returned, we climbed. I asked him respecting the literature of Poland, and particularly if there were now any living poets of eminence. He observed,'Yes, sir, I am happily traveling in company with the most celebrated of our poets, Meinenvitch;' and who as I understood him was one of the party walking in another part of the ruins. Engaged in conversation, we left the Coliseum together, and slowly proceeded into the 6ity. I told him of the deep interest with which Poland was regarded in the United States, and that her heroes were spoken of with the same veneration as our own. As spme evidence of this estimation, I informed him of the monuments erected by the cadets of West Point, our Polytechnic School, to the memory of Kosciusko. With this intelligence he was evidently much affected; he took my hand, and exclaimed with great enthusiasm, and emphatically,'We, too, sir, shall be free; the time is coming; we too shall be free, my unhappy country will be free.' (This was before the revolution in France.) As I came to the street where we were to part, he took out his note-book, and, going under the lamp of a Madonna, near the Piazza Colonna, he wished me to write my name for him, among the other names of Americans which he had treasured in his book. I complied with his request. In bidding me adieu, he said,'It will be one of my happiest recollections of Rome, that the last night which I passed in this city was passed in the Coliseum, and with an American, a citizen of a free country. If you should ever visit Warsaw, pray inquire for Prince —; I shall be exceedingly glad to see you!' Thus I parted with this interesting Pole. That I should have forgotten a Polish name, pronounced but once, you will not think extraordinary. The sequel remains to be told. When the Polish'Revolution broke out, what was my surprise to find the poet Meinenvitch, and a prince whose name seemed like that which he pronounced to me, and to which was added,'just returned from Italy,' among the first members of the provisional

Page  211 RETURN TO PARIS. 211 government! When the first news of the revolution in Poland reached Rome, it was in the highest degree interesting to witness the strong feeling and enthusiasm which animated the Poles who were on a visit to Italy. When they met each other, they embraced, and the tears would flow down their cheeks, while they vowed to each other to return home immediately to fight for their country. Some English friends of mine called to see two Polish gentlemen, one an artist, who were both packing up to go home, full of nothing but zeal for the cause of their beloved country. In taking leave, the Englishmen expressed a hope that they should meet again.'No, no,' said they,'never on earth, we go to die for our country; we shall meet in heaven.'" The studies of Mr. Morse in public and private galleries, minutely described in his sketch-books, were continued with industry and zeal in several cities of Italy. His letters to his brothers, and to other relatives in the United States, contained detailed accounts of his work with the brush, and his studies among the old masters wherever he found them; denying himself society in which he would have indulged with the greatest enjoyment, had not time appeared to him too precious to spend on any thing but the acquisition of knowledge that should be useful in his art, he made himself thoroughly acquainted with every department of his profession. In the autumn of 1831 he went to Paris, and, having established himself in very modest quarters, No. 29 Rue de Turenne, near the Madeleine, he began to copy in the Louvre. His friends Greenough and Cooper often wrote to him, and their letters give glimpses of life abroad. From Florence, Mr. Greenough writes: "As for the commission from Government, I don't speak of it yet. After about a fortnight I shall be calm, I think. Morse, I have made up my mind on one score, viz., that this order shall not be fruitless to the greater men who are in our rear. They are sucking now and rocking in cradles, but I can hear the pung! pung! puffetty! of their hammers, and I am prophetic, too! We'll see if Yankeeland can't muster some ten or a dozen of them in the course of as many years! If you go home, you will be married; if you are married, you will stay there. Pray, advertise for me when you get there: FWanted.-A young woman of knowledge without being

Page  212 212 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. aware of it; very humble at finding herself proud; a blond, and inclining to the petite, not slothful in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord.-My love to Mr. Cooper, and my respectful regards to the family. Ever thine, HORATIO G-." " Accept my warmest thanks for your sympathy-the interest you express in my welfare fills no small portion of the void which my troubles may have made in my heart. As for my kind friends in the Rue St. Dominique, may the Disposer of events send them thousands of such sensations as I experienced when I read what you say of their regret at my difficulties! But I will hope that by exertion I may reach a point where to feel interest in me shall not be to suffer. You mention a certain plan, but you roll it under your tongue again in the most tantalizing way. Why won't you, in your next, sketch with your pen the plan of your picture, for I'm not sure I understand it; that is, if indeed you meant I should? I don't wish to beg a secret. "You were right, I had heard.of the resolution submitted to Congress, etc.; Mr. Cooper wrote me about it. I have not much faith in Congress, however. I will confess that, when the spectre Debt has leaned over my pillow of late, and, smiling ghastlily, has asked me if she and I were not intended as companions through life, I snap my fingers at her and tell her that Brother Jonathan talks of adopting me, and that he won't have her of his household.' Go to London, you hag,' says I,'where they say you're handsome and wholesome; don't grind your long teeth at me, or I'll read the Declaration of Independence to ye!' So you see I make uncertain hopes fight certain fear, and borrow from the generous, good-natured Future the motives for content which are denied me by the stinted Present. I still continue to think that another year will find me somewhere in Germany. I must cut through the snarl into which four years have wound my relations, and come smack on my feet. I'm afraid of a habit, and the habit of being assisted is ope of the most ruinous. " In the mean while I'm trying to mix a little with the world, and to learn how to behave myself. I have hitherto read my Dante, etc., and when thrown into contact with,folk have gotten through as quick as possible, with the idea that every word spared was so much clear gain; but I now find that a man needs a circle of acquaintance, and have already made several pleasant acquisitions in this way. "What shall I say in answer to your remarks on my opinions?

Page  213 BUNKER HILL MONUMENT. 213 Shall I go all over the ground again? It were useless. That my heart is wrong in a thousand ways I daily feel, but'tis my stubborn head which refuses to comprehend the creation as you comprehend it. That we should be grateful for all we have, I feel-for all we have is given us; nor do I think we have little; for my part I would be blessed in mere existence were I not goaded by a wish to make my one talent two; and we have Scripture for the rectitude of such a wish. I don't think the stubborn resistance of the tide of ill-fortune can be called rebellion against Providence.'Help yourself, and Heaven will help you,' says the proverb. When Leonidas stood with his three hundred in the gap against the tide of Persian tyranny, was his a rebellion against the decree that doomed his country to defeat? No, he stood there to see it done, and to decimate his conquerors according to the decree of the Disposer of all. I suppose you have Brisbane with you by this time with several new German syllogisms. If the truth were known, that fellow went to Berlin to refit after the battering his metaphysics had received at your hands. Hateful word that same metaphysics. Let's have reasoning till all's blue, but let's have hold of something. Let's have Poetry, too; for she raises our motives instead of poisoning them; she makes another world, instead of topsy-turvying this. "There hangs before me a print of the Bunker-Hill Monument. Pray, be judge between me and the building committee of that monument. (See illustration on page 214.) "There you observe that my model was founded solidly, and on each of its square plinths were trophies, or groups, or cannon, as might be thought fit. (No. 1.) Well, they have taken away the foundation, made the shaft start sheer from the dirt like a spear of asparagus, and, instead of an acute angle, by which I hoped to show the work was done, and lead off the eye, they have made an obtuse one, producing the broken-chimney-like effects, which your eye will not fail to condemn in No. 2. Then they have inclosed theirs with a light, elegant fence, d la Parigina, as though the austere forms of Egypt were compatible with the decorative flummery of the Boulevards. Let'em go for dunderheads, as they are! "I'm remodeling Washington; the old model was made too long since to repeat any more. Harry is painting, and is quite a favorite with his master. The boy grows fast; I have great hopes of himh. Gore is painting his mud portrait very well; he may be found at any time of the day with one of the mud-heavers of the Arno for a model; a' red-headed, long-bearded, fiery-faced, green

Page  214 214 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. eyed fellow, that has killed his man and cuts all his bread with a pointed knife two inches longer than the law directs. Gore has imagination; he feels character. I have the promise of certain drawings for the Academy; your bust and Cole's have both gone, directed to Mr. Morton. Cole is probably in Naples. My'Lafayette' is boxed without a stain. I congratulate you on your sound 1 2 BUNKER-HILL MONUMENT conscience with regard to the affair that you wot of. As for your remaining free, that's all very well to think during the interregnum; but a man without a true love is a ship without ballast, a one-tined fork, half a pair of scissors, an utter flash in the pan. Will you give my love to the Coopers, and say to Mr. C. that I have received his note, and am awaiting his letter, of which he speaks! "HORATIO GREENOUGH." 4 FLORENCE, July 19, 1882. "Yours of the 9th reached me yesterday and stopped my grumbling. I could find but one excuse for your silence, and that was too painful to be admitted, even as a conjecture, viz., that you had been drawn by the crowd into some tremendous row, and made a

Page  215 AMERICAN ARTISTS ABROAD. 215 revolutionary figure at the expense of all your friends. I don't doubt you will profit by your exhibition, and I have every hope of your receiving some handsome commission. I have written to the Government my terms; if they are accepted I shall have a proposition to make. We will have a knot of us here, which shall form an epoch, by the beard of Jupiter Flaminius I I see by the papers that some fellow has attacked me; says I'm an educated man, allied with literati, and possess every means of doing myself honor; it's a heavy charge, is it not? I suppose he hints I have not made use of these advantages; but he's too quick, let him wait a little. All this is as it should be; let'em spare my character, and they may call me dunce to doomsday, and I'll be half ready to say, amen! As to going home in October, I'd give my little finger to do so, but I don't think it possible. "If I can muster the cash I'll come to say good-by to ye as far as Paris; but I'll say beforehand that I shall be a blockhead, for I know I shall come moping back with a face as long as an ox-bow. So Cooper is gone to take another pull at Johannisberg; much good may it do him; God bless him I I begin to doubt if ever I shall leave Italy; they write me that artists stand as ignorantly with the public as ever. If I return it will be to marry and become citizen, and I won't do that unless I can stand on fair ground. I've just modeled a statue half the size of life. Here he is:'The Genius of America' holding out the bud of promise and pointing to posterity. I made such a mess with the head in small that I have done it larger, to give you a little notion of the expression. I must close this. Crank is in Venice, with W. and Alexander; W. is not a man after my heart; he is corrupt, depend on it; I have been obliged to haul off, for he assumed intimacy of the closest kind. Cole is painting away up-stairs; Gore is recovered. My love to Cooper, and my respectful salutation to the lilies of his household. Thine till the Dr. has had his wicked will of me. "HORATIO GREENOUGH." "FLORENCE, AugZst 20, 1832. "My eyes have been opened painfully, within a year, to the perception of the light in which artists are held, all the world over. In Italy they deserve it. You can speak of France and England better than myself; but, in America, they do not deserve it. They are quite equal in knowledge, and light, and character, to the mass of the most refined classes, and are totally above the rabble. You

Page  216 . \ TH OF rMisV it, ('y V \ THE HENIlTS OF AMERICA.

Page  217 GREENOUGH'S LETTER. 217 have had a proof, in your own experience, how completely the title of artist throws into the shade the qualities and the virtues which ought to have secured your pride from any wound. Your experience, then, will make you (as you are a man) safe in future. I know Congress too well to think much better of the prospects of art now than I did formerly.'Tis not the money we want,'tis the consideration and weight. The money comes then, of course, as it does to men of other respectable callings. Now, I choose to reside in old Europe, and live secluded, and try to respect myself, rather than be waiting at the doors of the rich, at home, for the vain, or patronizing, or pitying proofs of their superabundance. If I am disappointed of my statue, off I go to Germany. If I do not get the order, good-by to the drudgery of the trade. I will make one statue, and go about my business, i. e., provided the country remains as ignorant on this point as now. Let me beg of you to hang on to the conception of the departure and return of Columbus. You are perfectly qualified to do honor to the country in such works, and should never give up the plan. Hang on like Columbus himself. You could make the first a grand picture in character and effect of composition; you would embody in the second all your scheme of color and chiaro-oscuro. These subjects are yours, you are theirs; have faith, and fear not. Cole is driving through, to get ready to go home, next month, via Leghorn. He intended to have remained here another year, had commissions in abundance, and was under full sail, when he got news of sad domestic affliction, sickness, and (you know the other word), so, like the glorious fellow he is, he sent home his spare cash, and is getting ready to follow it, to struggle with all your difficulties, and mine, with a family on his shoulders. He has painted several things of high merit, and a'Campagna dio Roma,' which is a master-piece in the middle and back grounds. Cole knows as well the value and power of art as any man, and only wants the pou sto to be a great man in art. Will he ever get it? I hope so; but, if he does, Fortune will give it him, without raising her bandage from her eyes. "So you are going home, my dear Morse, and God knows if ever I shall see you'again. Pardon, I pray you, any thing of levity which you may have been offended at in me. Believe me, it arose from my so rarely finding one to whom I could be natural, and give loose, without fear of good faith or good-nature ever failing. Wherever I am, your approbation will be dearer to me than the hurrah of a world.

Page  218 218 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "I shall write to glorious Fenimore in a few days. My love to Allston and Dana. God bless you I H. GREENOUGH." A iV A 9 5-1 GREENOUGH'B WASHINGTON. "FLORENCE, November 18, 1832....." I have finished my design for the statue in clay, half size of life, and the drawing will in a few days be ready to send to

Page  219 JAMES FENIMORE COOPER. 219 Washington. I have had the greatest difficulty in finding a place big enough to do the work in. At one time I feared I should be obliged to go to Rome; however, I am at length suited, and shall have my man-mountain up by the close of February, if not sooner. I will give you a scratch to convey a general notion of the composition. I can't say I have fixed any thing, still it will require strong reasons to change the general action it has seemed to me characteristic of the man. I had and still have the notion of making him hold the sword, as (see p. 218) in the sketch on the other leaf, but I fear it will not be so distinct Us I made it in the first sketch; the arm would almost entirely hide it, you observe, as seen in front. We shall see how it pleases at headquarters. I suppose Mr. Cooper is with you before this: God bless him! Pray, ask him to write me, if it were only a few words; I should be so happy to see his hand once more.. H. G." James Fenimore Cooper, the American novelist, was at this time in Europe, with his family; and, between him and Mr. Morse a friendship was then formed, which was continued, without interruption, until the death of Mr. Cooper. We find a large number of letters from the novelist to Mr. Morse, rich in themselves, and the more interesting and entertaining, as they develop peculiar traits of character in Mr. Cooper, such as would not be inferred from his published works alone. Some of the brief notes, too trivial in themselves to be inserted, have a humor peculiarly beautiful in the intercourse of the men. James Fenimore Cooper to Mr. Mlorse. "July 31, 1832.'IMY DEAR MORSE: Here we are at Spa-the famous harddrinking, dissipated, gambling, intriguing Spa —where so much folly has been committed, so many fortunes squandered, and so many women ruined! How are the mighty fallen! We have just returned from a ramble in the environs, among deserted receptionhouses, and along silent roads. The country is not unlike Ballston, though less wooded, more cultivated, and perhaps a little more varied. The town is irregular, small, consisting almost entirely of lodging-houses (I mean for single families), and infinitely clean. The water is a tonic, and the air (we are at an elevation of twelve hundred feet) so light and bracing that I have determined to stay a week, on account of my wife-perhaps a fortnight. I have got a

Page  220 220 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. comfortable house, with every requisite, consisting of nine bedrooms, four parlors, stable, etc., for fifteen francs a day. The piano is strumming down-stairs, and I am writing up, just as if we were in the Rue St.-Dominique, and we only arrived last night. Our quarantine will be up to-night at twelve, and yet we are in no hurry to improve it. We lost three days at Liege (always in quarantine) that had much better been passed here. "I have had a great compliment paid me, Master Samuel, and, as it is nearly the only compliment I have received in traveling over Europe, I am the more proud of it. Here are the facts: You must know there is a great painter in Bruxelles of the name of Verboeck-oven (which, translated into the vernacular, means a bull and a book baked in an oven ), who is another Paul Potter. He outdoes all other men in drawing cattle, etc., with a suitable landscape. In his way, he is truly admirable. Well, sir, this artist did me the favor to call at Bruxelles with the request that I would let him sketch my face. He came after the horses were ordered, and, knowing the difficulty of the task, I thanked him, but was compelled to refuse. On our arrival at Li6ge, we were told that a messenger from the governor had been to inquire for us, and I began to bethink me of my sins. There was no great cause for fear, however, for it proved Mr. Bull-and-book-baked had placed himself in the diligence, come down to Liege (sixty-three miles), and got the governor to give him notice, by means of my passport, when we came. Of course I sat. I cannot say the likeness is good, for it has a vastly live-like look, and is like all the other pictures you have seen of my chameleon face. Let that be as it will, the compliment is none the less, and, provided the artist does not mean to serve me up as a specimen of American wild beasts, I shall thank him for it. To be followed twelve posts by a first-rate artist, who is in favor with the king, is so unusual, that I was curious to know how far our minds were in unison, and so I probed him a little. I found him well skilled in his art, of course, but ignorant on most subjects. As respects our general views of men and things, there was scarcely a point in common, for he has few salient qualities, though he is liberal; but. his gusto for natural subjects is strong, and his favorite among all my books is'The Prairie,' which you know is filled with wild beasts. Here the secret was out. That picture of animal nature had so caught his fancy, that he followed me sixty miles to paint a sketch. He sent me a beautiful pencilsketch of the Belgian hind, as a memorial of our achievement,

Page  221 MANNERS OF THE ENGLISH. 221 which I hope to show you at my return. Wappero is in high repute. Mr. Verboeckhoven spoke of him as one would speak of a master, and with sincere respect. Others did the same. " King Leopold was at Li6ge during our stay, as was his brother, the reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, with his two sons. It is said they all go off together to Campiegne to celebrate the approaching marriage. We had the town illuminated, and a salute that sounded fearfully like minute-guns. "August lst.-We have just made the tour of the springs, for there are four of them, in a circuit of about five miles, each having, it is said, a different property, and all tasting as much alike as if ithad been drawn from the two ends of the same barrel. Well, faith is a comfortable ingredient in a traveler's mind. For my part, I believe all I hear, which is much the least troublesome mood. As for the contradictions, I endeavor to forget them. " We have a delicious air, and rather pretty environs, but the place is dull as a desert. There are a few English, who pass you as if they were afraid some tailor had broke loose, and always look the other way until you are past, and then they are always staring after you to see if you are somebody. Our indifferent manner never fails to deceive them, for their quality always give a certain amount of trust and assume a certain genteel hauteur; none escape these two rocks in good-breeding but those who are at the top of the ladder, and these are commonly known by means of fame, which never fails to blow a trumpet beforehand.'Tis a thousand pities that people who have so many really good points, and so much good sense in general, should be such fools, in these points, as to make themselves uncomfortable, and everybody else who will submit to their dictation. "NONNENWERTH, August 16, 1882. "MY DEAR MORSE: Here we are, on an island of the Rhine, about half-way between Cologne and Coblentz, and in a deserted convent of Benedictine nuns. I am writing to you, you rogue, in the ancient refectory, which is now the sale d manger of half a dozen Fenimore Coopers, with the Rhine rippling beneath my windows, the Drachenfels in full view, by pale moonlight, a dozen feet sounding distant and hollow in the cloisters, and with a bottle of Liebfrauenmilch at my elbow. The old convent is degraded to the occupation of a tavern. Our island, if not as important and well defended as that of Barataria, has some hundred acres, and is altogether a willowish, serpentine, wildish place. Our candles are

Page  222 222 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. farthing rush-lights, and these, in rooms that need fifty bougies, leave a sombre and appropriate gloom, so that, with one exception, I do not remember a more romantic nightfall in all our pilgrimage, than this. Your friends the Hawkers told us of the place, though I believe they had never visited it, and we left the carriage on the main, this afternoon, to come over here for the night. We are quite alone, which adds to the pleasure, unless we could choose our companions. Mrs. C., the girls, Master Paul, and myself, each equipped with a candle, have just returned from a pilgrimage to the chapel, where we find most of the necessary ingredients for a funeral or a marriage, even at this hour; indeed, it is only ten years since the last nuns (eight in number) dispersed, so that every thing is quite fresh and ecclesiastical. To add to the satisfaction, the Benedictines were not a rigid order, and all is genteel and nice, as they say in London. I have this moment quitted the window, and there was a footstep beneath it. My sight was a little dimmed by rushlights, and fancy was left to supply the functions of observation. This might be the soul of the last lady abbess, who no doubt was fat, and had a solid step, or it might have been some truant nun scratching at the convent-walls, in a sort of habitual kicking against the pricks. Alas! it was only an old horse that appeared to range at free commons over the isle. Well for the horse, he is not more than half flesh at the best. " I am summoned to my cell. Mrs. Cooper has sent her maid to say I must quit the refectory, where I have tarried an indecent period already, and I obey. The cloister looks gloomy. A distant door opens, and a man issues into theirvaults. It is my Swiss, who looks twice, and takes off his traveling cap with academic air, and the maid skims along with the light. I follow. A door, half open, gives me a glimpse of four men. They may be banditti, though they are in the Prussian uniform. A grinning crone meets us on the flight of heavy steps. And here I am in a cell converted into a parlor, with a round table under my elbows, and a sofa under my seat. The adjoining room was formerly the parlor of the lady abbess, and indeed there is a suite of very respectable apartments, that show the good woman was well lodged. The voice of Master Paul is sounding through them irreverent and gay. The wind begins to murmur, casements to close, and we may have thunder next. This opinion has proved prophetic, there has arisen a sudden gust, with lightning. I take a candle and go through the corridors in quest of a sensation. A door communicating with the gallery of

Page  223 MR. COOPER'S LETTERS. 223 the chapel is open and I enter, shutting myself in. Here was what I wanted-images of saints, crucifixes, a dim light, rattling windows, and solitude. Every thing was so fresh that the stuffed velvet chair of the lady abbess was near the railing and a prie-dieu at its side. I took a seat. In few moments the door slowly opened, and a hag thrust her wrinkled face into the gallery. I groaned, whether it was with fear or fun I leave you to guess, and away the old woman went as if the - was after her. I withdrew like a well-bred ghost that has delivered his message.'But how came you in the convent?' you may be disposed to inquire. " We found that the water of Spa did so much good to Mrs. Cooper, that we remained until last Monday; we then came to Aix -next day to Cologne, and to-day here. We are on our way to Switzerland. If you want change of air, jump into the diligence, and come to Berne, where we will give you rooms for the last of the month. I do not expect to see Paris before this day month. "'Tis near midnight, Mr. Morse, all but Nature is asleep, and I have been walking in the long and empty corridors. Strange thoughts come uppermost in such a place, and at such a time, Master Samuel; the rustling of the wind seems as the murmuring of uneasy sisters, the pattering of the rain like floods of tears, and the thunder sounds as so many gemissements at the sins of man. I seek my pillow. "Thursday Morning.-Laus Deo/ a peaceable night, and a refreshing morn, birds singing beneath my window, the Rhine glittering between islands, the arch of Rolandseck tottering on a mountain near, and the tower of the Drachenfels on another. We dress and perambulate. I have been pacing the dimensions of our abode. The abbey pile extends six hundred feet in one direction, and about three hundred in another. The cloisters are about six hundred feet round. There are offices to a goodly extent, and cowyard and granaries; on the whole it is a capital thing, for one night, taking Drachenfels and Rhine into the count. The Liebfrauenmilch is but questionable, though the fruits are excellent for the latitude. "RUDESHEIM, IN THE DUCHY OF NASSAU, Friday, 17th.Here I am finishing this letter in a tower, actually built by the Goths, at least so says tradition. It is an appendage of the inn, and forms part of our apartment, giving two or three stories of very romantic-looking little round rooms. We left the convent on Thursday and went to Coblentz, and to-day we came to Bingen, and

Page  224 224 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. crossed the Rhine in boats to this tower. We are in the midst of good wine. Johannisberg is in plain view from my window, Steinberg a league or two off, Geisenheim and other notabilities, all within call. My landlord has given me a bottle of cordial that he tells me he has from his own vines. In short, this is the country for your lover of the true Rhenish, which you know means me. There is mention made, in the introduction of'Heidenmauer,' of a castle belonging to a Prince of. Well, we passed it today, and ascended the mountain. The prince had just gone to Cologne, and we had a clear field. Really the spot is bewitching; he has repaired an old baronial castle, and equipped it completely in baronial style. The buildings are several hundred feet above the river, and as irregular as heart could wish. One high tower has the beacon-light swung off, as in the middle ages, and there are balconies and outside staircases in them to turn the head of even a sailor. The furniture is either many hundred years old, or made to imitate articles of that age —chiefly the former; plenty of old armor, and the knights' hall is really a curiosity. The fireplace is as big as a Paris bedroom, and in one corner is a very ancient vessel to hold water, with a trough of stone to catch the drippings; most of the wood is oak. In short, the. whole thing is in keeping-stained glass, casements, and other niceties-I wish you had been with us. I have never seen any thing in its way to equal it. The prince had been passing several weeks in this aerie. You can look down perpendicularly, from various terraces, balconies, and towers, three or four hundred feet. " Yours truly, "J. FENIMORE COOPER. "Master MORSE." On the 18th of September, 1831, Mr. Morse wrote to his brothers from Paris: "I arrived safely in this city on Monday noon in excellent health and spirits; my last letter to you was from Venice, just as I was about to leave it, quite debilitated and unwell from application to my painting, but more, I believe, from the climate, from the perpetual sirocco which reigned uninterrupted for weeks. I have not time now to give you an account of my most interesting journey through Lombardy, Switzerland, part of Germany, and through the eastern part of France. I found, on my arrival here, my friend Mr. Greenough, the sculptor, who had come from Florence to model the

Page  225 FALL OF WARSAW. 225 bust of General Lafayette, and we are in excellent, convenient rooms together, within a few doors of the good general. " I called yesterday on General Lafayette early in the morning. The servant told me that he was obliged to meet the Polish committee at an early hour, and feared he could not see me. I sent in my card, however, and the servant returned immediately, saying that the General wished to see me in his chamber. I followed him through several rooms and entered the chamber. The General was in dishabille, but, with his characteristic kindness, he ran forward, and, seizing both my hands, expressed with great warmth how glad he was to see me safely returned from Italy, and appearing in such good health. He then told me to be seated, and without any ceremony began familiarly to question me about my travels, etc. The conversation, however, soon turned upon the absorbing topic of the day, the fate of Poland, the news of the fall of Warsaw having just been received by telegraphic dispatch. I asked him if there was now any hope for Poland. He replied,' Oh, yes! their cause is not yet desperate; their army is safe; but the conduct of France, and more especially of England, has been most pusillanimous and culpable. Had the English Government shown the least disposition to coalesce in vigorous measures with France for the assistance of the Poles, they would have achieved their independence.' The General looks better and younger than ever. There is a healthy freshness of complexion, like that of a young man in full vigor, and his frame and step (allowing for his lameness) are as firm and strong as when he was our nation's guest. I sat with him ten or fifteen minutes, and then took my leave, for I felt it a sin to consume any more of the time of a man engaged as he is in great plans of benevolence, and whose every moment is therefore invaluable. "The news of the fall of Warsaw is now agitating Paris to a degree not known since the trial of the ex-ministers. About three o'clock our servant told us that there was fighting at the Palais Royal, and we determined to go as far as we prudently could, to see the tumult, we proceeded down the Rue St.-Honor6. There was evident agitation in the multitudes that filled the sidewalks-an apprehension of something to be dreaded. There were groups at the corners; the windows were filled, persons looking out as if in expectation of a procession or of some fjte. The shops began to be shut, and every now and then the drum was heard beating to arms. The troops were assembling, and bodies of infantry and cavalry were moving through the various streets. During this time no 15

Page  226 226 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. noise was heard from the people-a mysterious silence was observed, but they were moved by the slightest breath. If one walked quicker than the rest, or suddenly stopped, thither the inquiring look and step were directed, and a group instantly assembled. At the Palais Royal a larger crowd had collected, and a greater body of troops were marching and countermarching in the Place du Palais Royal. The Palais Royal itself had the interior cleared and all the courts. Every thing in this place of perpetual gayety was now desolate; even the fountains had ceased to play, and the seared autumnal leaves of the trees, some already fallen, seemed congruous with the sentiment of the hour. Most of the shops were also shut and the stalls deserted. Still there was no outcry, and no disturbance. Passing through the Rue Vivienne, the same collections of crowds and of troops were seen; some were reading a police notice just posted on the walls, designed to prevent the riotous assembling of the people, and advising them to retire when the riot act should be read. The notice was read with murmurs and groans, and I had scarcely ascertained its contents before it was torn from the walls with acclamations. "As night approached we struck into the Boulevard de la Madeleine. At the corer of this Boulevard and the Rue des Capucines is the hotel of General Sebastiani. We found before the gates a great and increasing crowd. We took a position on the opposite corner, in'such a place as secured a safe retreat in case of need, but allowed us to observe all that passed. Here there was an evident intention in the crowd of doing some violence; nor was it at all doubtful what would be the object of their attack. They seemed to wait only for the darkness and for a leader. The sight of such a crowd is fearful, and its movements, as it was swayed by the incidents of the moment, were in the highest decree exciting. A body of troops of the line would pass: the crowd would silently open for their passage, and close immediately behind them. A body of the National Guard would succeed, and these would be received with loud cheers and gratulations. A soldier on guard would exercise a little more severity than was perhaps necessary for the occasion; yells and execrations and hisses would be his reward. Night had now set in. Heavy dark clouds, with a misty rain, had made the heavens above more dark and, gloomy. A man rushed forward toward the gate, hurling his hat in the air and followed by the crowd, which suddenly formed into long lines behind him. I now looked for something serious. A body of troops were in line before the gate. At

Page  227 PICTURE OF THE LOUVRE. 227 this moment two police-officers, on horseback, in citizen's dress, but with a tricolored belt around their bodies, rode through the crowd and up to the gate, and in a moment after I perceived the multitude from one of the streets rushing in wild confusion into the boulevard, and the current of the people setting back in all directions. While wondering at the cause of this sudden movement I heard the trampling of horses; and a large body of carabiniers, with their bright helmets glittering in the light of the lamps, dashed down the street and drew up before the gate. The police-officers put themselves at their head, and harangued the people. The address was received with groans. The carabiniers drew their swords, orders were given for the charge, and in an instant they dashed down the street, the people dispersing like the mist before the wind. The charge was made down the opposite sidewalk from that where we had placed ourselves, so I kept my station, and, when they returned up the middle of the street to charge on the other side, I crossed over behind them and avoided them." Mr. Morse soon began a great work which, after consultation with Mr. Cooper and other friends, he had determined to undertake. This was no less than painting the interior of the Louvre, including copies of the most celebrated pictures in the gallery. To this work he devoted himself with all the ardor of his nature, expending upon it months of labor. Writing to his brother, May 6, 1832, he says: " My anxiety to finish my picture and to return drives me, I fear, to too great application and too little exercise; and my health has, in consequence, been so deranged that I have been prevented from the speedy completion of my picture. From nine o'clock until four daily I paint uninterruptedly at the Louvre; and, with the closest application, I shall not be able to finish it before the close of the gallery, on the 10th of August, and the time each morning before going to the gallery is wholly employed in preparation for the day; and, after the gallery closes at four, dinner and exercise are necessary;'so, that I have no time for any thing else. The cholera is raging here, and I can compare the state of mind in each man of us only to that of soldiers in the heat of battle: all the usual securities of life seem to be gone. Apprehension and anxiety make the stoutest hearts quail. Any one feels, when he lays himself down at night, that he will, in all probability, be attacked before daybreak,

Page  228 228 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. for the disease is a pestilence that walketh in darkness, and seizes the greatest number of its victims at the most helpless hour of the night. Fifteen hundred were seized in a day, and fifteen thousand at least have already perished, although the official accounts will not give so great a number. " May 14th.-My picture makes progress, and I am sanguine of success if nothing interferes to prevent its completion I shall take no more commissions here, and shall only complete my large picture and a few unfinished works. "General Lafayette told me a few weeks ago, when I was returning with him in his carriage, that the financial condition of the United States was a subject of great importance, and he wished that I would write you and others, who were known as statistical men, and get your views on the subject. There never was a better time for demonstrating the principles of our free institutions by showing a result favorable to our country." The most of Mr. Morse's evenings were occupied with labor in behalf of the Poles, whose sufferings at that time excited the sympathy of the friends of liberty throughout the world. A committee was organized for the purpose of devising ways and means to alleviate their condition; General Lafayette was one of the members of this committee, and consequently Mr. Morse, who was also a member, was brought frequently into his society. In the month of March Mr. Morse writes to his brother: "Information has been received by Mr. Rives, our minister from Berlin, that Dr. S. G. Howe was seized and thrown into prison in that city by the Prussian Government, charged with a charitable mission from our committee. Dr. Howe had been intrusted with twenty thousand francs for the relief of the distressed Poles; and his intentions and motives were in no degree political, but in furtherance of the benevolent designs of the contributors in the United States. A letter from Berlin, written by A. Brisbane, Esq., and which Mr. Rives has just read to me, says that Dr. Howe is in close confinement, and no one is permitted to have communication with him. Mr. Brisbane waited on the Minister of Justice, and found him uncompromising, and manifesting great irritation on the subject. Mr. Cooper and myself have just been to Mr. Rives, who has promptly put measures in train for causing Dr. Howe to be set at liberty. We have put into the hands of Mr. Rives a record of our

Page  229 DR. HOWE'S LIBERATION. 229 proceedings in committee to lay before Baron Werther, the Prussian minister here; embracing a copy of Dr. Howe's commission, in order to show him that the doctor's mission was not political, and we are in hopes that such representations will be forwarded to Berlin without delay as will cause him to be at once released." "l March 17th.-Last night we held a special meeting of our committee to consider what could be done to release Dr. Howe. The Prussian authorities here, I am happy to say, have behaved courteously and acted promptly. A courier has been dispatched to Berlin, and from the representations of the mission here we hope for a speedy and happy termination and explanation of the affair." " April 6/h. —Dr. Howe, we learn, is liberated at Berlin, but is to be escorted by the police to the frontier of France. The proceedings against him have been outrageous, and that Government would not have dared to treat a citizen of any other country in so cavalier a manner." SUGGESTIONS OF A TELEGRAPH. Among the artist friends of Mr. Morse in Paris, at this time, was R. W. Habersham, of Augusta, Georgia, whose statements in relation to Mr. Morse's first suggestion of a Telegraph are confirmed by the recollections of Mr. Cooper. Mr. Morse, however, was never able to call to mind the conversations which are so minutely related in the following statement by Mr. Habersham: "In the year 1831 I went to Paris, to study art in the atelier of Baron Gros. In the autumn of that year, I became acquainted with the moralist Jouffroy, who was already famous as a thinker, but who seemed to feel a want that all his brill.nt speculations could not supply, and to be in pursuit of something which constantly eluded him. Soon after, I met Professor Morse, who was copying in the Louvre Rembrandt's famous picture of' Tobit and the Angel,' and soon formed so satisfactory an opinion of him that, in the spring of 1832, when the cholera broke out in Paris, and I found that he had resolved to remain, I determined to remain also. I lived near the Odeon, he near the Madeleine, No. 29 Rue de Surenne; so, not liking the thought of his being alone, with strangers, unfamiliar with the language, and liable to be stricken down in a moment, with no friend near, I proposed to find lodgings nearer him. Fortunately, he lived in a private house, in which two rooms could

Page  230 230 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. be hired. I took them, and, perceiving that his were low and confined, while mine were large and airy, I offered to give him my bedroom, and convert my parlor into a dormitory for myself, taking one of his as a sitting-room. He kindly acceded to this, and we soon found it convenient to have one room in common, and to take our meals together. It was then that I gradually brought before him the questions discussed with Jouffroy, without giving his name or authority, and in conversations carried on often through the open door of our sleeping-apartments, after we had retired, got an insight into the vast superiority of the Christian's faith, even as a working-power, over the philosophy of such men as Cousin and Jouffroy. "In 1832, the longest railroad in the world was between Charleston, South Carolina, and Augusta, Georgia, one hundred and thirty-five miles; the next, between Liverpool and Manchester, thirty miles; the third, from the Quincy granite-quarries to Boston, ten miles; and the mails were carried by coach, overland, in preference to the sailing-vessels, which were then solely used for marine navigation. In consequence of this, letters reached me from Savannah a month later than those of the same date from New York. Art students twenty years of age are not apt to be models of patience, and my forte did not lie in quiet submission to the irremediable; whence from me much discontent, made audible, and considerable imprecation on Uncle Sam's mails, smothered from respect to my mentor. But, on one occasion, the attempt at smothering failed, and I consigned the whole post-office department to a place so warm that the letters would have been, in those days of sealingwax and wafers, soon beyond assorting. This led to a conversation which showed that Morse's mind was already in the matter, and explained certain visits, at which I had not been'invited to assist.' It came out that he was inquiring into the French Semaphore Telegraph system, with a view to its introduction into America, although I believe he dismissed it, as being too slow for us, and inapplicable to our wants, in spite of our very clear atmosphere. It was then that he used this expression:'The French system would do better in our clear atmosphere than here; but it is too slow; lightning will scarcely be toofast.' There was, on onp occasion, another reference made to the conveyance of sound under water, and to the length of time taken to communicate the letting in of the water into the Erie Canal, by cannon shots, to New York, and other means, during which the suggestion of using keys and wires, like the piano, was rejected

Page  231 MR. COOPER'S TESTIMONY 231 as requiring too many wires, if other things were available. I recollect, also, that in our frequent visits to Mr. J. Fenimore Cooper's, in the Rue St.-Dominique, these subjects, so interesting to Americans, were often introduced, and that Morse seemed to harp on them, constantly referring to Franklin and Lord Bacon. Now I, while recognizing the intellectual grandeur of both these men, had contracted a small opinion of their moral strength; but Morse would uphold and excuse, or rather deny, the faults attributed; Lord Bacon, especially, he held to have sacrificed himself to serve the queen in her aberrations; while of Franklin, the'great American' recognized by the French, he was particularly proud." Mr. Cooper, in his novel entitled "The Sea Lions," on page 140, says: " We pretend to no knowledge on the subject of the dates of discoveries in the arts and sciences, but well do we remember the earnestness, and single-minded devotion to a laudable purpose, with which our worthy friend first communicated to us his ideas on the subject of. using the electric spark by way of a telegraph. It was in Paris, and during the winter of 1831-'32, and the succeeding spring, a time when we were daily together, and we have a satisfaction in recording this date, that others may prove better claims if they can." Mr. Morse's own recollection of the time of the first conception of the Telegraph dates only from October, 1832, on board the ship Sully, and in a letter to Mr. Cooper he suggested that he must be mistaken. In reply, however, under date of " May 18, 1849, Hall, Cooperstown," Mr. Cooper said: " For the time, I still stick to Paris, so does my wife, so does my eldest daughter: you did no more than to throw out the general idea, but I feel quite confident this occurred in Paris. I confess I thought the notion evidently chimerical, and as such spoke of it in my family; I always set you down as a sober-minded, common-sense sort of a fellow, and thought it a high flight for a painter to make, to go off on the wings of the lightning. We may be mistaken, but you will remember that the priority of the invention was a question early started, and my impressions were the same, much nearer to the time than it is to-day." These conversations, so accurately attested by independent

Page  232 232 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. witnesses, are of value, inasmuch as they show the familiarity of Mr. Morse with the powers of electricity, and the tendency of his mind toward original investigation and invention. To him these thoughts were so familiar that he soon forgot he had ever expressed them before others. That he did, we have the best reasons for believing. While at work upon his picture in the Louvre the great naturalist, already known throughout the civilized world, Baron Humboldt, became interested in Mr. Morse. They had met at the house of Baron Gerard, who was in the habit of drawing around him the artists and men of science, and whose salon was a favored resort of genius and taste. Humboldt conceived a great fondness for Morse, and, often coming to him in the gallery, would take him away from his immediate work, to stroll among the works of art, and converse upon topics congenial to their inquiring minds. This acquaintance was afterward revived in Paris, when Morse returned with his great invention, and again in Potsdam, where the humble artist, crowned with honors, visited his illustrious friend. The American residents in Paris celebrated the " Fourth of July," in the year 1832, with a banquet, at which Mr. Morse presided, with Mr. Cooper as vice-president. Among the guests on that occasion were General Lafayette, and Hon. William C. Rives, United States minister. After the blessing had been asked by Professor Hovey, of Amherst College, the president gave the toasts in their order, and, on offering one in honor of Lafayette, Mr. Morse said: " I cannot propose the next toast, gentlemen, so intimately connected with the last, without adverting to the distinguished honor and pleasure we this day enjoy. above the thousands, and I may say hundreds of thousands, of our countrymen who are at this m'oment celebrating this great national festival-the honor and pleasure of having at our board our venerable guest on my right hand, the hero whom two worlds claim as their own. Yes, gentlemen, he belongs to America as well as to Eurqpe. He is our fellow-citizen, and the universal voice of our country would cry out against us, did we not manifest our nation's interest in his person and his character. With the mazes of European politics we have nothing to do; to changing schemes, of good or bad government, we cannot

Page  233 MR. MORSE'S SPEECH. 233 make ourselves a party; with the success or defeat of this or that faction we can have no sympathy. But with the great principles of rational liberty, of civil and religious liberty, those principles for which our guest fought by the side of our fathers, and which he has steadily maintained for a long life'through good report, and evil report,' we do sympathize; we should not be Americans if we did not sympathize with them, nor can we compromise one of these principles, and preserve our self-respect as loyal American citizens. They are the principles of order and good government, of obedience to law, the principles which under Providence have made our country unparalleled in prosperity, principles which rest not in visionary theory, but are made palpable by the sure test of experiment and time.' But, gentlemen, we honor our guest as the stanch, undeviating defender of these principles, of our principles, of American principles. Has he ever deserted them? Has he ever been known to waver? Gentlemen, there are some men, some too who would wish to direct public opinion, who are like the buoys upon tidewater-they float up and down as the current sets this way or that. If you ask at an emergency where they are, we cannot tell you; we must first consult the almanac, we must know the quarter of the moon, the way of the wind, the time of the tide, and then we may guess where you will find them. But, gentlemen, our guest is not of this fickle class. He is a tower amid the waters, his foundation is upon a rock, he moves not with the ebb and flow of the stream; the storm may gather, the waters may rise and even dash above his head, or they may subside at his feet, still he stands unmoved. We know his site and his bearings, and with the fullest confidence we point to where he stood six-and-fifty years ago. He stands there now. The winds have swept by him, the waves have dashed around him, the snows of winter have lighted upon him, but still he is there. " I ask you therefore, gentlemen, to drink with me in honor of General Lafayette." Then followed a large number of volunteer toasts by G. W. Haven, of New Hampshire; John Biddle Chapman, of Pennsylvania; Major W. T. Poussin, W. P. Dwight, Mr. Cooper, Mr. Rives, Mr. Niles, and many others. From time to time Mr. Morse was in the receipt of friendly notes from General Lafayette; some of them are found among

Page  234 234 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. his papers, and many of them were given away, as autographs, to friends. We copy at this point all that are preserved, whether received in Paris or after his return to the United States: "PARIS, September 11, 1832. "MY DEAR SIR: I have seen the Poles who mean to go to the United States. They are twenty, and hope to find a ship which will carry them for three hundred francs each. They flatter themselves to get that sum, or the greatest part of it, from the French committee; but, should they go to New York, do you think that they will find means to be supported until they have found a place to form their colony upon? Do you think, also, that lands in the State of Ohio, or elsewhere, could be granted to them, or that they will find in the sympathy of the United States a little capital to form their settlement? We must have a strong hope of it before we encourage their emigration, which they have much at heart. "Most truly and affectionately, " Your friend,'" LAFAYETTE."' I would be very sorry, my dear friend, to let you depart before you have received my affectionate good wishes. You will find me to-morrow at nine. " Most truly, your friend, "Monday, September, 1832." " LAFAYETTE. "LA GRANGE, September 27, 1832. " M DEAR SIR: I am sorry to see you will not take Paris and La Grange in your way to Havre, unless you were to wait for the packet of the 10th, in company with General Cadwalader, Commodore Biddle, and those young, amiable Philadelphians who contemplate sailing on that day. But, if you persist to go by the next packet, I beg you here to receive my best wishes and those of my family for your happy voyage. Upon you, my dear sir, I much -depend to give our friends of the United States a proper explanation of the state of things in Europe. You have been very attentive to what has past since the Revolution of 1830. Much has been obtained here and other parts of Europe in this whirlwind of a week. Further consequences here and in otter countries-Great Britain and Ireland included-will be the certain result, though they have been mauled and betrayed, where they ought to have received encouragement. But it will not be so short and so cheap as we had a right to anticipate it might be. I think it useful, on both sides

Page  235 LAFAYETTE'S HOPES. 235 of the water, to dispel the cloud which ignorance or design may throw over the real state of European and French politics. In the mean while, I believe it to be the duty of every American returned home to let his fellow-citizens know what wretched handle is made of the violent collisions, threats of a separation, and reciprocal abuse, to injure the character and question the stability of republican institutions. I too much depend upon the patriotism and good sense of the several parties in the United States, to be afraid that those dissensions may terminate in a final dissolution of the Union; and should such an event be destined in future to take place, deprecated as it has been by the best wishes of the departed founders of the Revolution-Washington at their head-it ought at least in charity not to take place before the not remote period when every one of those who have fought and bled in the cause shall have joined their contemporaries. What is to be said of Poland, and the situation of her heroic, unhappy sons, you well know, having been a constant and zealous member of our committee. You know what sort of mental perturbation among the ignorant part of every European nation has accompanied the visit of the cholera in Russia, Germany, Hungary, and several parts of Great Britain and France-suspicions of poison, prejudices against the politicians, and so forth. I would like to know whether the population of the United States has been quite free of those aberrations, as it would be an additional argument in behalf of republican institutions and superior. civilization resulting from them. "Most truly and affectionately, "Your friend, " LAFAYETTE." "I have just now good news from —, dated 15th. My grandson says that five attacks from the Miguelists have been most gallantly repelled; it is to be hoped the infamous Miguels will ultimately be overthrown. I hope you are arrived in good health, my dear sir, and, referring you to the European papers, inclose two special little speeches of your friend, LAFAYETTE. "PARIS, December 8, 1832." "PARIS, February 28, 1833. "MY DEAR SIR: I am highly obliged to you for your kind letter, and for your publication of my observations on the present melancholy affairs in the United States. I see with pleasure that they have been repeated in all the American papers, namely, at

Page  236 236 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Charleston; so they have been in the papers of this country. Inclosed you will find some late observations of mine in the House; they will give you an account of political matters on this side of the Atlantic. Most truly and affectionately, "Your friend, " LAFAYETTE." "LA GRANGE, November 5, 1833. " MY DEAR SIR: The particular accounts I can give you of the family at La Grange are almost the only additicn to be made to your investigation of European papers. You well know the divisions in the public opinion, so that, by comparing together their several expressions, you may form a correct judgment of the actual situation and progress of affairs on this side of the Atlantic. You will not therefore suppose that the constitutionality of the Juste-Milieu and its royal chief is so far, as their followers pretend to be, from the principle and wishes of anti-liberal governments, nor will you think that the patriotism and republicanism of France is all confined within the formula marked out in the name of a society. Under the invocation of Robespierre, that society itself, chiefly composed of honest citizens and devoted patriots, has been unfortunately and designedly led into errors, to which the police agents have not been strangers. The best account that has been given of that publication is, agreeably to my opinion, to be found in the Comique FranVais of the 28th of October, and the inclosed. The eyes of Jules Lasteyrie are not yet recovered, and require a long management, but the sight of both of them will be preserved. Oscar Lafayette has been, by the scientific examination jury, admitted to the Polytechnic School. The greater part of the family are at La Grange, and request their best compliments to you. We shall leave here for the session of the House-that is to be opened for the 23d of December. I don't hear from our excellent friend Mr. Cooper and family. He must be in New York before this letter reaches you. I intend writing to him, namely, on the subject of one of his letters, by the next packet; in the mean while tell him that Chodiko, having been prevented to leave us and repair to Montauban, has anticipated his predictions by asking a passport to quit France for England. I don't know where he now is. I have several times spoken, and'lately written, to Dwernicki. What remains of the French debt to the American committee is not yet settled and paid.

Page  237 MR. MORSE'S LETTER. 237 Chodiko must be very forlorn. I shall know more in a few days, on a trip to town. My grandson is arrived from the south. He goes the day after to-morrow to Paris, with Mr. Gallatin's, Mr. Rives's, Mr. Cooper's, and your own long letter, and an introduction to Mr. Livingston, who has notes very similar, I think, to our notions, and will frame an article for the Revue des Deux Mondes. I shall send it as soon as it comes out. I will be much obliged to you, my dear sir, if you are pleased to call upon Mr. Prince, Long Island, and request him to send me grafts of the fine North River Spitzenberg red apple, of the bloody peach, the inside of which is red, and some mock-orange trees-they are tall, and handsomer than the European varieties; you would recommend them, with a bill of the costs, to the captain of a packet, so as to have time to place them. Pay my compliments to Mr. Prince, who has been so very kind in his invoices to me. "Most truly and affectionately, "Your old friend, "( LAFAYETTE." To this letter Mr. Morse replied as follows: To General Lafayette. "NEW YORK, January 6, 1834. "MY DEAR GENERAL: Your obliging letter of the 5th of November, just received, finds me confined to the house by temporary lameness. I owe you an apology, my dear General, for I am in your debt since your last interesting letter introducing to me the amiable, and, I am happy to add, popular Maroncelli. I thank you for making him known to me, although I feel that I am not so situated in my domestic establishment-being alone-as to show him all the attentions I could wish, or he deserves. Yet I have had the pleasure of introducing him to our club, who meet weekly, of which Mr. Gallatin, Mr. Jay, Chancellor Kent, the professors of Columbia College, etc., are members, and we have been highly gratified in his society. The ten years' imprisonment of Silvio Pellico has been published here, and has excited great interest for Mr. Maroncelli, so that I believe he finds himself very agreeably engaged. He is about publishing, he tells me, his own history of that imprisonment. "I am rejoiced to know that your grandson, Jules Lasteyrie, will not lose his sight, although I regret to learn that his recovery will be tedious; what a melancholy event would the loss of his eyes

Page  238 238 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. have been to him and to all your dear family! I am glad to learn, also, that your other grandson, Oscar Lafayette, has entered the Polytechnic School. I incerely pray that France and the world may see in the grandson the same enlarged benevolence, the same love of true liberty, the same persevering consistency, the same selfdevotion to the happiness of mankind, as have distinguished and immortalized the grandfather. Tell him, my dear General, that the world will have its eye on him; his name cannot be hid, he must sustain it in all its glory; and I pray that God's strength may be given him, that he may be able to sustain it unsullied. " You will have learned before this of the arrival of our excellent and distinguished friend Cooper and his charming family; they arrived on the very day of the date of your letter, the 5th of November, and are now well. I dined with them on New-Year's day. Mr. Cooper is about replying to the attacks made upon him while absent, and in his pamphlet will make an expose of the finance discussion in Paris, which will create a little disturbance probably in the minds of some Americans who were aiding and abetting the attacks on you, my dear General, and on their country's institutions, in that discussion. "I have this moment written a line to Mr. Prince, of Long Island, inclosing your request respecting the grafts and trees, and desiring him to have them prepared immediately. I hope you will receive them by the same packet which takes this letter. "As to political affairs in this country, my dear General, I am conscious there are others better informed than myself, who will keep you advised of their various changes. I have been too long absent from my country to retain any thing of mere party feeling; I cannot identify myself with any of the present parties. I read, as far as I have the time, the statements of all, till I have become quite familiar with the general character of party strife. I find the usual quantity of denunciations of the outs against the ins, and of charges of tyranny and usurpation, and the usual forebodings of anarchy and ruin from the measures of the existing Administration; and I can trace, or think I can trace, most of the asperity and bitter revilings which disfigure and disgrace our press, to the fears of office-holders, or the disappointments of office-seekers. Some of our orators declaim loudly on the danger to our institutions of certain measures, and others threaten a separation of the Union. Yet the solid, substantial, enterprising, active majority of the people are not moved by verbiage or rhetorical figures; they read and calmly digest those dashing arguments pro and con.; the

Page  239 LAFAYETTE'S ATTENTIONS. 239 wordy war rages in the halls of Congress, and the echoes of the strife ring through the land, but it is mere sound, until an evil truly presses upon the people, until they feel their freedom actually invaded, and their interests suffering in earnest from bad legislation, and then the voice of the people is heard in its might, and the strife of party is hushed; the troubles of the land are put into retirement by our bloodless weapon of revolution, the ballot-box, and the evil is remedied. This seems to be the natural operation, my dear General, of our beautiful institutions, nor can I be excited to alarm for their safety except in the supposable case of a general demoralization comprised in an absence of religious principle, and a prevalence of ignorance; and of such a state of things there is little prospect, while the benevolent are so active in their various societies for the diffusion of religious and scientific knowledge. No, my dear General; you have lived to see your favorite principles triumphant in one country, at least. They have withstood many a storm that has threatened them; they have been severely tried in the furnace, and are yet to be tried, but like gold they have hitherto come out, and, I am persuaded, will ever come out, purified; and you have the glorious anticipation that they must and will eventually triumph throughout the world, though all the tyrants of the earth league together to crush them." General Lafayette to Mr. Morse. "PuRIS, February 27, 1834. "MY DEAR SIR: Permit me to send you a letter for Mr. Maroncelli, relative to a little money transaction, which I much wish to be put into his own hands. You may have heard of an indisposition which still detains me in my room; and, as reports about it have been aggravated, I have the pleasure to assure you that I am much better, and shall soon have got rid of it. Remember me most affectionately to the Cooper family, and other friends, and believe me, "Your affectionate friend, "L LAFAYETTE." His last year in Paris had been made very pleasant to Mr. Morse by the kind attentions of General Lafayette, at whose house in the city, and at La Grange, the artist was a frequent and welcome guest. When the sad intelligence reached the United States of the death of Lafayette, in 1834, Mr. Morse addressed the following note to the son of his illustrious friend:

Page  240 240 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. To George Washington Lafayette, 2Member of Chamber of Deputies, etc. "I scarcely know in what language to express to you, and to all your family, the feelings of unfeigned sorrow with which the intelligence of the death of your great and good father, the illustrious General Lafayette, oppressed me. The announcement was the more sudden to me, as I had received a letter from him but a short time before this, in which he expressed a confidence of his speedy recovery. Allow me, my dear sir, to mingle my tears with yours for the irreparable loss you have suffered. In common with this whole country, now clad in mourning, with the lovers of true liberty and of exalted philanthropy throughout the world, I bemoan the departure from earth of your immortal parent; yet I may be permitted to indulge in additional feelings of more private sorrow at the loss of one who honored me with his friendship, and had not ceased, till within a few days of his death, to send to me occasional marks of his affectionate remembrance. Be assured, my dear sir, that the memory of your father will be especially endeared to me and mine. "Accept for yourself, my dear sir, and for all the bereaved family, the assurance of my heart-felt condolence, and believe me, with the sincerest respect and esteem, your obedient servant and friend, "S. F. B. MORSE." Having proceeded so far with his picture that he was able to finish it at home, Mr. Morse left Paris, and made a visit to London, for the purpose of renewing the associations of his earlier art-life. To his Brothers. "LONDON, September 21, 1824. "Here I am, once more, in England, and on the wing home. I shall probably sail from Havre in the packet of October 1st (the Sully), and I shall leave London for Southampton and Havre on the 26th inst., to be prepared for sailing. "I am visiting old friends, and renewing old associations in London. Twenty years make a vast difference, as well in the aspect of this great city as in the faces of old acquaintances. London may be said literally to have gone into the. country. Where I once was accustomed to walk in the fields, so far out of town as even to shoot at a target against the trees with impunity, now there are spacious streets, and splendid houses, and gardens. I

Page  241 MR. DUNLAP'S RECORDS. 241 spend a good deal of my spare time with Leslie. He is the same amiable, intelligent, unassuming gentleman that I left in 1815. He is painting a little picture,'Sterne recovering his Manuscripts from the Curls of his Hostess at Lyons.' I have been sitting to him for the head of Sterne, whom he thinks I resemble very strongly. At any rate, he has made no alteration in the character of the face from the one he had drawn from Sterne's portrait, and has simply attended to the expression. " When I left Paris, I was feeble in health, so much so, that I was fearful of the effects of the journey to London, especially as I passed through villages suffering severely from the cholera. But I proceeded moderately, lodged the first night at Boulogne-sur-Mer, crossed to Dover in a severe southwest gale, and passed the next night at Canterbury, and the next day came to London. I think the ride did me good, and I have been exercising a great deal, riding and walking since, and my genera] health is certainly improving. I am in hopes that the voyage will completely set me up again." Mr. Dunlap records some interesting incidents in the visit of Mr. Morse to London and Paris, both on his journey to Italy, and his return: "In 1829 Mr. Morse found himself in circumstances to visit, not only England again, but to reside for a sufficient time in Italy to study the works of art, copy many of the best pictures, and to improve in every branch of painting, to a degree which has surprised me, as much as it has given me pleasure. On his arrival from America, he found his friends Newton and Leslie in London, and with them attended two lectures at the Royal Academy, both remarkable for circumstances of very different natures. Leslie introduced Morse to the academicians, who received the president of the National Academy of Design with peculiar honor. The first of these lectures was remarkable, as being the last time Sir Thomas Lawrence was out of his house; the second, for a compliment paid by the lecturer to Washington Allston. " Martin Archer Shee, the successor of Lawrence, was, on this occasion, requested to take the presidential chair; Morse, Leslie, and Newton, sat at his right hand. Mr. Greene,.the lecturer, remarked, that he was glad Mr. Morse was present, as he had had occasion to mention an American gentleman who was an honor to the Royal Academy, Mr. Allston; and in the course of his lecture he quoted two of Allston's sonnets. 16

Page  242 242 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " Returning homeward he made a stop in Paris, and pursued his studies in the Louvre. He there made a picture of that celebrated gallery, copying in miniature the most valuable paintings as hanging on the walls. Of this splendid work my friend James Fenimore Cooper speaks thus, in a letter to me, dated Paris, March 16, 1832:'Morse is painting an exhibition picture that I feel certain must take. He copies admirably, and this is a drawing of the Louvre, with copies of some fifty of its best pictures.' The picture of the gallery of the Louvre was not finished until Morse returned to New York; but, when nearly finished and removed from the gallery, the Chevalier Alexandre Le Noir, conservateur of the Museum of France (a celebrated antiquary, who is now engaged in arranging the papers on the ruins of Palenque in Mexico), wished to see the painting, and made an appointment for the purpose. He sat long before it, and complimented the artist highly, who received the praise as the effusion of politeness; but the next day he had a proof of the learned critic's good opinion, for he received from him two folios and a quarto, published by him, containing several hundred plates, descriptive of the ancient monuments of France and their history. "On leaving Paris," continues Mr. Dunlap, "he returned to London, and had the satisfaction of renewing former recollections and acquaintances, and particularly of enjoying the society of his friend Leslie. His good old friend and master, West, was no more, and his younger friend and instructor, Allston, was in America; but he had recollections of the latter brought to his mind very unexpectedly. Morse had brought a letter to a gentleman from Italy, whose direction was No. 11 Tinny Street, London. After an absence of sixteen or seventeen years he had no remembrance of the street, or thought that it was connected with any transaction of interest to him. He sought the street, and, on entering it, he saw objects which appeared familiar to him, but which might only have reminded him of those dreamy sensations we experience through life, when, entering a strange place, we feel as if all the scene was merely a renewal of former impressions, made we know not how or when. He inquired for No. 11, of a gentleman passing, who exclaimed,'Surely I know you, sir.'' My name is Morse.''And have you forgotten that house?' pointing to it,'that is No. 11; my name is Collard, and there, with you and your friend Allston, and his friends Coleridge and Lonsdale, I have passed many hours in time past.' The reality now flashed upon Morse; he en

Page  243 THEORY OF COLORS. 243 tered the house, and found himself in the apartment where he had witnessed such poignant scenes of distress in former days-the chamber in which his dear friend and mentor's wife had expired. "Mr. Morse acquired a vast fund of knowledge in his European tour, having familiarized himself with the best models in the world; and he quitted England, in 1832, with every prospect of winning, in a few years, a splendid fame. "Mr. Morse has told me that he formed a theory for the distribution of colors in a picture many years since, when standing before a picture of Paul Veronese, which has been confirmed by all his subsequent studies of the works of the great masters. This picture is now in the National Gallery, London. He saw in it that the highest light was cold; the mass of light, warm; the middle tint, cool; the shadow, negative; and the reflections, hot. He says he has tried this theory by placing a white ball in a box, lined with white, and convinced himself that the system of Paul Veronese is the order of Nature. Balls of orange or of blue, so placed, give the same relative result. The high light of the ball is uniformly cold, in comparison with the local color of the ball. (I have observed in a picture by Rubens that it had a foxy tone, and on examination I found that the shadow (which according to my theory ought to be negative) was hot. Whenever I found this to be the case, I found the picture foxy.' On one occasion his friend Allston said to him, while standing before an unfinished painting,'I have painted that piece of drapery of every color, and it will not harmonize with the rest of the picture.' Morse found the drapery belonged to the mass of light, and said,'According to my theory, it must be warm; paint it flesh-color.''What do you mean by your theory?' Morse explained as above. Allston immediately said:'It is so; it is in nature;' and has since said,'Your theory has saved me many an hour's labor.'" General James Grant Wilson, of New York, has kindly furnished pleasant recollections of conversations with Morse and Leslie. "Professor Morse, some twenty years ago, as we were riding together in the cars, said to me:'Shall I tell you about some of the great painters living in London when I was studying and starving with Leslie in a London garret?' The answer was, of course,'Yes;' and he began a charming monologue concerning West, Allston, Haydon, Fuseli, and other great heirs of fame,

Page  244 244 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. fragments of which I jotted down the day following...'Among other artists with whom I was intimate was poor Haydon, who was so vain that he confessed he was uneasy at a funeral unless he was first in the procession. Going in company with a friend, in 1842, to call on him, my companion, on our entering the room, said: "Haydon, I have brought an old friend to see you. Do you remember him?" Looking at me intently for a few seconds he broke forth with, "Why, Morse; my friend Morse, how are you? Still painting and starving, eh?".. Tom Thumb killed Haydon!' Observing the surprised and inquiring looks of his listener, Morse continued:'At the time or soon after that Haydon opened an exhibition of his greatest works, including " Christ's Entry into Jerusalem," Tom Thumb made his appearance in London, when his (Haydon's) gallery was immediately deserted, while all London flocked to see the diminutive dwarf.'Twas too much for the poor painter; he became desperate at the failure of his exhibition, for which he had anticipated such great success, and put an end to his existence.' In answer to the inquiry as to Haydon's character and the causes that led to so distinguished an artist's being constantly in debt and harassed almost to death by creditors, the professor replied:'Haydon was a person of inordinate vanity; he thought the eyes of the whole earth were upon him. He was improvident and reckless in expenditures, incurring the most extravagant expenses for the furtherance of high art; i. e., any thing to assist him in his painting, such as the purchase of expensive works of art, employing living models, etc.' "'Another distinguished painter, with whom I was well acquainted, was Fuseli, a friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds, by whose advice he abandoned literature for art. Fuseli could speak with fluency nine languages, and enjoyed annoying certain of his literary companions with the display of antique lore. He on one occasion repeated half a dozen sonorous and well-sounding lines to Professor Porson, one of the best Greek scholars of his time, and said, With all your learning you cannot tell me who wrote them." The Cambridge professor was compelled to admit that he did not know the author. "I should think not," chuckled Fuseli; "I made them this moment!" He would sometimes, when in a passion, give vent to his fury by swearing in half a dozen languages. I once accompanied the Swiss painter to the house of a wealthy amateur artist, where we were invited to dine. He wished to obtain Fuseli's opinion of a large picture which he had just completed, and accordingly after

Page  245 FUSELI AND LESLIE. 245 dinner it was inspected by all the party. "Extraordinary! extraordinary! EXTRAORDINARY!" exclaimed Fuseli. "Do you admire my picture?" asked the delighted amateur. "Oh, extraordinary! " again exclaimed Fuseli. On our way home, accompanied by another artist named Lamb, he said, "Why, Mr. Fuseli, how could you possibly admire such a paltry picture-so out of drawing, and the coloring so wretched!" " Oh!" was the reply," I said extraordinary, but I meant extraordinary BAD! " That word has often since done duty for me under similar circumstances,' added Morse, with a merry laugh.'On another occasion an American artist, named B —, a great quack, who, by advertising, puffery, and toadyism, managed to obtain considerable business, took a fine residence in a fashionable quarter of London, and invited a large number of artists, authors, and fashionable people, to a house-warming. B, walking with Fuseli in one of the largest apartments, remarked, " I intend to have the walls whitewashed, and then paint on.them a series of magnificent historical pictures. What do you think of it?" " Better paint the pictures first, and then whitewash them!" was Fuseli's reply.' "My conversation with Leslie, which occurred some sixteen months later, was chiefly in regard to his early artist-life in London, when he and Morse shared a room together in Warren Street, and their most familiar friends were Washington Allston and a young American artist named King.'In those days,' he remarked,'the Allstons, Morse, and myself, spent our evenings together, and happy evenings they were, I can assure you. Of course, we often went to the theatre, and I remember one famous occasion when we saw Mrs. Siddons and her brothers, John and Charles, in " Henry VIII." The author of "Home, Sweet Home" was with us that night. About that time (1812 or 1813) we all spent a delightful day together at Hampton Court. Allston had a measureless admiration of Turner. He thought him the greatest painter since the days of Claude. It was reported that Turner had declared his intention of being buried in his " Carthage," which you have seen in the National Gallery. I was told that he said to Chantrey: " I have appointed you one of my executors; will you promise to see me rolled up in it?" "Yes," said the sculptor, "and I promise you also that as soon as you are buried I will have you taken up and unrolled!" This story was so generally circulated and credited that, when Dean Milman heard that Turner was to be buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, he said, "I will not read the service over him if he is wrapped up

Page  246 246 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. in that picture."'... Such was the sparkling commensalia of Leslie that much of its brilliancy and interest is lost in the attempt to transfer it to paper, and I cannot but regret that I did not at the time jot down more of his conversation concerning his gifted friends, particularly that portion of it referring to Sir Walter Scott, Irving, and Morse." As the career of Mr. Morse as a painter closed here, and the remainder of his life was devoted to the Telegraph, this is the appropriate place in which to present a critical notice prepared for this work by D. Huntington, Esq., the distinguished artist, and President of the National Academy of Design: " My acquaintance with Professor Morse began in the spring of 1835, when I was placed under his care by my father as a pupil. He then lived in Greenwich Lane (now Greenwich Avenue), and several young men were studying art under his instruction. He was actively engaged in painting, though he devoted a part of his time to experiments connected with his Telegraph. He gave a short time every day to each pupil, carefully pointing out our errors, and explaining the principles of art. After drawing for some time from casts, with the crayon, he allowed us to begin the use of the brush, and we practised painting our studies from the casts, using black, white, and raw umber. I believe this method was of great use in enabling us early to acquire a good habit of painting. I only regret that he did not insist on our sticking to this kind of study a longer time, and drill us more severely in it, but he indulged our hankering for color too soon; and, when once we had tasted the luxury of a full palette of colors, it was a dry business to go back to plain black and white. In the autumn of that year, 1835, he removed to spacious rooms in the New-York University, on Washington Square. "In the large studio in the north wing, he painted several fine portraits, among them the beautiful full length of his daughter, Mrs. Lind. He also lectured before the students, and a general audience, illustrating his subject by painted diagrams. "During this winter he was much occupied with the telegraphic experiments, and exhibited to his pupils one of the earliest, if not the first successful operation of the instrument. Though charmed with the success of the experiment, we had no faith in its practical results, and mourned over this sad infatuation (as we thought it).of our master, which consumed so much of the time which we thought

Page  247 MR. HUNTINGTON'S NOTICE. 247 he ought to devote to his art. Over his pupils he exercised a kind, paternal influence, and we held him in esteem and reverence. " His friends and brother artists were disappointed that he did not obtain one of the Government orders at that time, given for historical paintings, to fill the vacant panels of the Rotunda. To compensate him for this neglect, they made up a purse, and gave him a commission for an historical picture. He chose for his subject'The Compact of the Pilgrims on board the Mayflower,' which he considered as the germ of our free government. He made many studies for this proposed picture, and drew the outline of the composition on a canvas of a large cabinet size. I remember it as a well-arranged group, simple and dignified in its general lines, and promising to be a successful work. I inquired of him, a few years ago, what had become of this canvas. He told me it had been lost, with many other sketches, during one of his visits to Europe. The money which had been advanced he returned to the subscribers. " Professor Morse's love of scientific experiments was shown in his artist-life. He formed theories of color, tried experiments with various vehicles, oils, varnishes, and pigments. His studio was a kind of laboratory. " A beautiful picture of his wife and two children was painted, he told me, with colors ground in milk, and the effect was juicy, creamy, and pearly, to a remarkable degree. Another picture was commenced with colors mixed with beer, afterward solidly impasted and glazed with rich, transparent tints in varnish. His theory of color is fully explained in the account of his life in Dunlap's'Arts of Design.' He proved its truth by boxes and balls of various colors. He had an honest, solid, vigorous impasto, which he strongly insisted on in his instructions-a method which was like the great masters of the Venetian school. This method was modified in his practice by his studies under West, in England, and by his intimacy with Allston, for whose genius he had a great reverence, and by whose way of painting he was strongly influenced. He was a lover of simple, unaffected truth, and this trait is shown in his works as an artist; he had a passion for color, and rich, harmonious tints run through his pictures, which are glowing and mellow, and yet pearly and delicate. He had a true painter's eye, but he was hindered from reaching the fame his genius promised as a painter by various distractions; such as the early battles of the Academy of Design in its struggle for life, domestic afflictions, and, more than all, the engrossing cares of his invention. The'Hercules,' with its colossal

Page  248 248 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. proportions and daring attitude is evidence of the zeal and courage of his early studies. An interesting account of this work, and of the model in plaster, which he made for it, is given in'Dunlap,' vol. ii., p. 311. It is now placed for safe-keeping in the Academy of Design, and is worthy of being carefully preserved in a public gallery, not only as an instance of successful study in a young artist (Morse was in his twenty-first year), but as possessing high artistic merit, and a force and richness which plainly show that, if his energies had not been diverted, he might have achieved a name in art equal to the greatest of his contemporaries. "His'Gallery of the Louvre' I know only from the studies made for it; but they indicate a great mastery of perspective, of grouping, and coloring. His large picture of'The House of Representatives,' for many years owned in England, was brought to this country by an amateur, taken to San Francisco for exhibition, returned to New York, and is now in my studio. It has those traits of truthfulness, simplicity, and a subdued, mellow richness, which characterize many of his works, but which are preeminent in this. The architecture is well drawn, the accessories rendered with accuracy, the flesh-color is deep and luminous, and the general effect harmonious and agreeable. The rich, solid, impasted execution is like some great old Venetian painter, and the hue and texture remind one of the works of Tintoretto. "The following account of this picture is taken from the Daily Graphic, of May 26, 1873:'In the studio of D. Huntington is a most interesting historical painting by Professor Morse, which bears the date of 1822. The canvas is eight feet by eleven feet, and represents the old House of Representatives at the hour of lighting. In the centre hangs the great chandelier, and on a high step-ladder a negro is turning up the Argand burners, which are evidently of interest, as the group on the platform, among whom are Story and Marshall, are regarding the operation. Scattered among the seats and around the room, are the members talking together, and one with his back toward the light is endeavoring to read. In the half gloom of the gallery are several persons, one of whom is Morse, the geographer, and father of the professor, also Professor Silliman and an Indian princess. There is the greatest fidelity in the painting of the room, and what renders the picture still more valuable is the fact that the faces are all portraits. The key to the picture cannot be found, but the faces of a number have been recognized by the likenesses as those of Chief-Justices Marshall and Story; Stephen

Page  249 HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 249 Van Rensselaer; Governor Tomlinson, of Connecticut; Gales and Seaton, of the NXational Intelligencer, and several others. The studies for these heads were made by Professor Morse in Washington, and afterward were stolen, some of them finally finding their way into private collections, where they now are. The aim of the artist seems to have been to present a true picture of the House at that time, rather than to attempt any thing picturesque. The whole work has an honest air, which adds to its historical interest. The costumes are those of that time, when gentlemen wore ruffled shirts and white ties. There is but little attempt at composition. The groups are arranged in broken lines, but the effect of the whole is a little stiff. The low rich tones, the crimsons, and warm grays, are very agreeable. The perspective is good, and the painting, especially of the columns, is very solidly done. For its historical accuracy, its portraits, its representations of the costumes, and the appearance of the old House of Representatives; for its rendering of a phase of our national life now passed away, as well as from the fact that it is the work of one of the fathers of American art, and one of the most illustrious of Americans, it deserves a place in the national Capitol, and none could be more appropriate than that same room it pictures, which is now fitted for a public gallery.' " Professor Morse's world-wide fame rests, of course, on his invention of the Electric Telegraph; but it should be remembered that the qualities of mind which led to it, were developed in the progress of his art-studies, and if his paintings, in the various fields of history, portrait, and landscape, could be brought together, it would be found that he deserved an honored place among the foremost American artists." The picture of the Louvre, which Mr. Morse began in Paris, he finished after his return to New York, and it was purchased by George Clark, Esq., of Otsego, and removed to Hyde Hall, on Otsego Lake. We have now followed Mr. Morse through what may be called his art-life. After his return to the city of New York, he pursued his profession as a means of support; but, during the voyage across the ocean in the autumn of 1832, a vision broke upon him, which produced a revolution in his life, and on the commerce and intercourse of mankind. We have seen that his genius was inventive. From early youth he had displayed the inventive faculty-a distinctive feature of the family to

Page  250 250 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. which he belonged. He was stimulated by an ardent desire for usefulness and fame. The honor of his country was always very near his heart. His desire for distinction as a painter, as we gather from letters to his most intimate associates, had in it more of patriotism than selfishness. He longed to distinguish his country by his own distinction; and, in the future controversies in which his great invention involved him, the honor of America was uppermost in his mind. Encouraged and excited by the associations of the past three years in Europe, laden with the riches which he had amassed in the galleries of Italy, and flushed with the highest hopes of future success, he embarked at Havre on the 1st day of October, 1832, for the city of New York.

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Page  251 CHAPTER VII. 1832. PACKET-SHIP SULLY-ELEOTRO-MAGNETISM-DINNER-TABLE CONVERSATIONIDEA, OF THE TELEGRAPH-FIRST MARKS MADE-THE INVENTION ANNOUNCED TO PASSENGERS-DRAWINGS EXHIBITED-PREDICTION TO CAPTAIN PELL-PROF. E. N. HORSFORD'S HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE-STEPHEN GREY- LEYDEN JAR-FRANKLIN'S EXPERIMENTS-CHARLES MARSHALLLE SAGE-LOMOND-REUSSER-OAVALLO-WEDGEWOOD-RONALDS-DYAR -GALVANISM, OR VOLTAISM-VOLTA-SCHWEIGGER-COXE-MAGNETISMELECTRO-MAGNETISM-AMPERE-SCHILLING —OOOKE AND WHEATSTONEOERSTED- SPIRAL COIL, 1821 - ARAGO - STURGEON -JAMES FREEMAN DANA - JOSEPH HENRY-FEOHNER-OHM'S LAW-STEINHEIL-DANIELSOEMMERNG —SAMUEL FINLEY BREESE MORSE-INVENTION AND DISCOVERY-CLAIMS OF DISCOVERERS AND INVENTORS-SUCCESSIVE STEPS IN TELEGRAPHIC INVENTION. THE packet-ship Sully, Captain Pell, sailed from Havre on the 1st day of October, 1832, for New York. Among the cabin-passengers were the Hon. William C. Rives, of Virginia, returning with his family from Paris, where he had been as Minister of the United States; Mr. J. F. Fisher, of Philadelphia; Dr. Charles T. Jackson, of Boston; Mr. S. F. B. Morse, of New York; Mrs. T. Palmer, Miss E. Palmer, Mr. C. Palmer, Mr. F. Palmer, Mr. W. Palmer, Mr. J. Haslett, Charleston, S C.; Mr. Lewis Rogers, Virginia; Mr. W. Post, New York; Mr. Constable, New York; Mons. de la Cande, Mons. J. P. Chazel, Charleston; Mr. A. Scheidler, Frankfort, Germany; Mr. and Mrs. Burgy, and others. In the early part of the voyage conversation at the dinnertable turned upon recent discoveries in electro-magnetism, and the experiments of Ampere with the electro-magnet. Dr. Jack

Page  252 252 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. son spoke of the length of wire in the coil of a magnet, and the question was asked by some one of the company, "If the velocity of electricity was retarded by the length of the wire?" Dr. Jackson replied that electricity passes instantaneously over any known length of wire. He referred to experiments made by Dr. Franklin with several miles of wire in circuit, to ascertain the velocity of electricity; the result being that he could observe no difference of time between the touch at one extremity and the spark at the other. At this point Mr. Morse interposed the remark, " If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any part of the circuit, I see no reason why intelligence may not be transmitted instantaneously by electricity." The conversation went on. But the one new idea had taken complete possession of the mind of Mr. Morse. It was as sudden and pervading as if he had received at that moment an electric shock. All that he had learned in former years, the experiments he had seen in his boyhood, his studies with Prosessors Day and Silliman, the later and significant discourses of Professor Dana, and conversations with Professor Renwick, were revived, and began to form themselves into means and ways to the accomplishment of a grand result. He withdrew from the table and went upon deck. He was in mid-ocean, undique ceelum, undiquepontus. As the lightning cometh out of the east and shineth unto the west, so swift and far was the instrument to work that was taking shape in his creative mind. Lightning and electricity had long been known as one and the same. Signals had been made at a distance by electricity, and intelligence thus transmitted, as beacon-fires on hill-tops had from time immemorial flashed the knowledge of events across continents. But this was not the conception of that moment in the brain of Morse. His was a thought that, so far as he knew, had never entered the mind of man before! He would transmit intelligence and record it at a distance. That is a telegraph. Nothing else is a telegraph; an instrument to write at a distance. The purpose instantly formed absorbed his mind, and to its perfection his life from that moment was devoted. He was the man to do the work., His mind was eminently inventive and mechanical. In his early youth and riper manhood he had sought out many inventions. His name

Page  253 THE PROCESS OF THOUGHT 253 had long been enrolled among inventors in the Patent-Office of the United States. Patience, perseverance, and faith, were hereditary traits of his character. He was now forty-one years old. The mechanism by which the result would be reached was to be wrought out by slow and laborious thought and experiment, but the grandeur of that result broke upon him as clearly and fully as if it had been a vision from heaven. Difficulties afterward arose in his path, to be surmounted or removed by toilsome and painful processes; for it is the order of Nature that birth-throes should bear some proportion to the greatness of the birth. But in that first hour of conception, when his soul was all aglow with th6 discovery, he saw the end from the beginning. The current of electricity passes instantaneously to any distance along a wire; the current being interrupted, a spark appears. The spark shall be one sign; its absence another; the time of its absence another. Here are three signs to be combined into the representation of figures or letters. They can be made to form an alphabet. Words may thus be indicated. A telegraph, an instrument to record at a distance, will be the result. Continents shall be crossed. This great and wide sea shall be no barrier. 6" If it will go ten miles without stopping," he said, " I can make it go around the globe." Of all the great inventions that have made their authors immortal, and conferred enduring benefit upon mankind, no one was so completely grasped at its inception as this. His little note or scratch book was always at hand, in which he made sketches of objects that met his eye, or of images formed in his mind. Scores of these books are now in existence, in which his early and later pencilings are preserved. As he sat upon the deck after the conversation at dinner, he drew from his pocket one of these books, and began to make marks to represent letters and figures to be produced by the agency of electricity at a distance from the place of action. First, he arranged ten dots and lines so as to represent figures referring to words. Next, he drew the wires in tubes. Then came the magnets, and byand-by cog-rules, to be used in regulating the power. In the course of a few days his book presented several pages, which are here reproduced, showing the first marks ever made in the invention of the Telegraph:

Page  254 ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 1 2 3 4 5~ 6 7 8 9 0 I..1....'.........* * @...... ____ I.....1.......I Clay * Tubes. - - I|.. -.......... -.....* C l. Close Tubes. 215 56 15 5 War. Holland. Belgium. Alliance. 161 252 300 41 35 France. England. against Russia. Prussia. 25 4030 141 Austria. Wednesday. 6th Aug. Cuvier. 222 32 Naturalist, died. Magnet lifting sixty pounds.

Page  255 A single space separates each of the first five figures. Two spaces separate each of the last five. Three spaces separate each number completed. _/ _, 4. _. 1 *' - ~-.,., I 1 _ l 1 l 1. 2 6.2 0 4 5 6. 1 1 107 2.2 8 6 0 5....... I- * I * * * 26-203:456.1890.11 0~2...605 Weak Permanent Magnet. Electro-magnet Strong.

Page  256 256 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. He wrought incessantly that day, and sleep forsook him in his berth that night. His mind was on fire. In a few days he submitted these rough drafts to Mr. Rives, who suggested various difficultioe. But Mr. Morso was roady with a solution. MIlr. Fisher states that Mr. Morse illustrated to him his system of signs for letters, to be indicated by a quick succession of strokes or shocks of the galvanic current, to be carried along upon a single wire. After several sleepless nights, while his mind was in labor with the subject, he announced it at the breakfast-table, and explained the process by which he proposed to accomplish it. He then exhibited the drawing of the instrument, by which he would do the work, and so completely had he mastered all the details, that five years afterward, when a model of this instrument was constructed, it was instantly recognized as the one he had devised and drawn in his sketch-book, and exhibited to his fellow-passengers on the ship. J. Francis Fisher, Esq., counselorat-law of Philadelphia, stated, when his testimony was required: " In the fall of the year 1832 I returned from Europe as a passenger with Mr. Morse, in the ship Sully, Captain Pell, master; during the voyage the subject of an electric telegraph was one of frequent conversation; Mr. Morse was most constant in pursuing it, and alone the one who seemed disposed to reduce it to a practical test; and I recollect that for this purpose he devised a system of signs for letters, to be indicated and marked by a quick succession of strokes, or shocks of the galvanic current; and I am sure of the fact that it was deemed by Mr. Morse perfectly competent to effect the result stated; I did not suppose that any other person on board the ship claimed any merit in the invention, or was in fact interested to pursue it to maturity, as Mr. Morse then seemed to be; nor have I been able since that time to recall any fact or circumstance to justify the claim of any person other than Mr. Morse to the invention." And Captain Pell stated, under oath, that when he saw the instrument, September 27, 1837, he recognized in it the same mechanical principles and arrangements which he had heard Mr. Morse explain on board of the Sully in 1832. Captain Pell says: "Before the vessel was in port, Mr. Morse addressed me in these words:'Well, captain, should you hear of the telegraph, one

Page  257 ELECTRICITY. 257 of these days, as the wonder of the world, remember the discovery was made on board the good ship Sully."' Thus it appears from his own records, and the recollections of the captain and passengers, gentlemen of the highest respectability and intelligence, that on shipboard Mr. Morse had actually drawn out and recorded a system of signs, composed of a combination of dots and spaces, to indicate letters, figures, and words, and a mode of applying the electric or galvanic current so as to make these signs permanent upon paper, to be passed along in the instrument which he had invented. The INVENTION was accomplished and announced ere the inventor set foot on his native shore. While the Sully is pursuing her way across the sea, and the inventor is thinking out his great conception, we will review the progress of electrical science, and learn the material he had with which to make his idea real: The knowledge that certain substances, like amber, would, when rubbed with dry silk, or woolen, or fur, attract light bodies, like pith-balls, or feathers, and which is at the foundation of electricity, was known centuries before the Christian era. The knowledge that a certain iron-ore was endowed with the property of attracting pieces of iron, lay at the foundation of magnetism, and was also of very early origin. Galvanism, at the farthest, scarcely goes back beyond 1790, and, for application to the invention of the recording telegraph, not beyond the beginning of this century. ELECTRICITY.-The second step in electricity must have been the discovery that, under certain circumstances, instead of attracting light bodies, the amber repelled them; and the third step, that the peculiar quality or force was something that could be transmitted along what is called a conductor. As early as 1729 Stephen Grey employed as conductor packthread or twine, six hundred and fifty feet long, suspended by silk threads.' He also discovered that electricity could be conducted through metallic wires. The Leyden jar dates soon after 1745. This discovery, by which the electric force might be stored up, made it possible to 1 The history that occupies the remainder of the chapter was prepared expressly for this volume by Professor E. N. Horsford, of Cambridge, Massachusetts. i Lecture by Dr. B. W. Richardson, F. R. S., before the Brethren of the Charter House.-Illustrated London NXws, February 21, 1874. 17

Page  258 258 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. intensify its action. The accumulation of force in the interior, and its corresponding diminution on the outside, was restored by the interposition of a conductor, connecting the outside with the inside. This conductor might be of great length. The velocity of the current traversing the wire seemed instantaneous, and numerous attempts to determine it were made almost immediately after. Winkler,' of Leipsic, made an experiment July 28, 1746, including the river Pleisse in his circuit. Experiments were made in Paris, including the water of the basin of the Tuileries in the circuit.' Le Monnier made an experiment with a wire thirteen hundred and nineteen feet in length, which seemed to show that the velocity was instantaneous.8 Watson, of England, in 1747, made an experiment, employing two miles of wire in the air and two of earth in its circuit, with a like result.4 Dr. Franklin performed a similar experiment in 1748.' Franklin says: "Two iron rods about three feet long were planted just within the margin of the river, on opposite sides. A thick piece of wire with a small round knob at its end was fixed on the top of one of the rods, bending downward so as to deliver commodiously the spark upon the surface of the spirit. A small wire fastened by one end to a handle of the spoon containing the spirit was carried across the river, and supported in the air by the rope commonly used to hold by in drawing ferry-boats over. The other end of this wire was tied round the coating of the bottle, which being charged, the spark was delivered from the hook to the top -of the rod standing in the water on that side. At the same instant the rod on the other side delivered a spark into the spoon, and fired the spirit, the electric fire returning to the coating of the bottle, through the handle of the spoon and the supporting wire connected with them." POSSIBILITY oF AN ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.-The existence of a force that might be stored up and transmitted through great lengths of wire, and through circuits of great length, of which the earth formed a part, was demonstrated before the middle of the eighteenth century. As both Watson and Franklin fired gunpowder and spirits with the electric force through great lengths of wire and earth introduced into their circuits, it is interesting to note how long ago electricity was employed, using the earth as a part of the circuit, for the transmission of signals. 1 Priestley's "History of Electricity," p. 69. 2 "Encyclopaedia Britannica," edition of 1810, p. 736. 8 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Parton's "Life of Franklin."

Page  259 FIRST PROPOSED ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH. 259 Yet these brilliant results do not seem to have been followed by any immediate effort to produce a practical telegraph for the transmission of intelligence. FIRST PROPOSED ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.-The first person to propose the use of friction electricity as a medium for transmitting intelligence was a contributor to the Scots lMagazine, in 1753. The communication was signed " C. M.," and it is believed to have been written by Charles Marshall, of Paisley, who was at the time sojourning at Renfrew, from which place the letter was written:' " To the Editor of the Scots Magazine. RENFREW, February 1, 1753. " SIR: It is well known to all who are conversant in electrical experiments, that the electric power may be propagated along a small wire, from one place to another, without being sensibly abated by the length of its progress. Let, then, a set of wires, equal in number to the letters of the alphabet, be extended horizontally between two given places, parallel to one another, and each of them about an inch distant from that next to it. At every twenty yards' end let them be fixed in glass or jewelers' cement to some firm body, both to prevent them from touching the earth or any other non-electric, and from breaking by their own gravity. Let the electric gunbarrel be placed at right angles with the extremities of the wires, and about one inch below them; also let the wires be fixed in a solid piece of glass at six inches from the end, and let that part of them which reaches from the glass to the machine have sufficient spring and stiffness to recover its situation after having been brought in contact with the barrel. Close by the supporting glass let a ball be suspended from every wire; and about a sixth or an eighth of an inch below the balls place the letters of the alphabet, marked on bits of paper, or any other substance that may be light enough to rise to the electrified ball, and at the sqane time let it be so continued that each of them may reassume its proper place when dropped. All things constructed as above, and the minute previously fixed, I begin the conversation with my distant friend in this manner: Having set the electrical machine agoing, as in ordinary experiments, suppose I am to pronounce the word sir: with a piece of glass, or any other electric per se, I strike the wire s so as to bring it in contact with the barrel, then i, then r; 1ll in the same way; and my correspondent, almost in the same instant, observes these several characters rise in order to the electrified balls at his end of the wires. Thus I spell away as long as I think fit; and my correspondent, for the sake of memory, writes the characters as they 1 "Angewandten Electrikitats-Lehre." Kuhn, pp. 798, 822.

Page  260 260 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. rise, and may join and read them as often as he inclines. Upon a signal given, or from choice, I stop the machine, and, taking up the pen in my turn, I write down whatever my friend at the other end strikes out. If anybody should think this way tiresome, let him, instead of the balls, suspend a range of bells from the roof, equal in number to the letters of the alphabet, gradually decreasing in size from the bell A to Z; and from the horizontal wires let there be another set reaching to the several bells; one, viz., from the horizontal wire A to the bell A, another from the horizontal wire B to the bell B, etc. Then let him who begins the discourse bring the wires in contact with the barrel as before; and the electric spark, breaking on bells of different size, will inform his correspondent by the sound what wires have been touched, and thus, by some practice, thev may come to understand the language of the chimes in whole words, without being put to the trouble of noting down every letter. The same thing may be otherwise effected: Let the balls be suspended over the characters as before, but, instead of bringing the ends of the horizontal wires in contact with the barrel, let a second set reach from the electrified cable, so as to be in contact with the horizontal ones, and let it be so contrived, at the same time, that any of them may be removed from its corresponding horizontal by the slightest touch, and may bring itself again into contact when set at liberty. This may be done by the help of a small spring and slides, or twenty other methods, which the least ingenuity will disdover. In this way the characters will always adhere to the balls, excepting when any one of the secpndaries is removed from contact with its horizontal;'and then the letter at the other end of the horizontal will immediately drop from its ball. But I mention this only by way of variety. Some may, perhaps, think that, although the electric fire has not been observed to diminish sensibly in its progress through any length of wire that has been tried hitherto, yet, as that has never exceeded some thirty or forty yards, it may be reasonably supposed that in a far greater length it would be remarkably diminished, and probably would be entirely drained off in a few miles by the surrounding air. To prevent the objection, and save longer argument, lay over the wires from one end to the other with a thin coat of jeweler's cement. This may be done for a trifle of additional expense; and, as it is an electric per se, will effectually secure any part of the fire from mixing with the atmosphere. "I am, etc., C. M." The method proposed by Marshall seems to have contained the essential elements of telegraphy. Le Sage, at Geneva, in 1774, devised a plan of electric telegraphy and put it in operation. It was strikingly like that of Marshall, employing a wire for each letter, and producing repulsion between the pith-balls by an electric discharge for each wire.1 1 Moigno's "T6l6graphie blectrique," p. 59.

Page  261 SUCCESSIVE PLANS. 261 Lomond, in 1787, devised an instrument which, operated in one room, gave intelligent signals in an adjoining apartment.' Reusser, of Geneva, in 1794, employed the electric spark to transmit intelligence, using an arrangement of lines and spaces, with stripes of tin-foil so contrived that, when these spaces were illuminated by the sparks, the form of the letter or figure was exhibited. The illumination of each letter or figure required a direct and return wire, and, as his plan employed thirty-seven characters, there were required seventy-four wires between each two stations. Similar telegraphs were devised by Salva, and Betancourt, at Madrid, operating many miles in length, in 1797 and 1798 (Humboldt). Bockmann, in 1795, proposed the use of sparks, one, two, or more, to indicate the letters of the alphabet; and Cavallo, in 1797, successfully tested the project through a wire two hundred and fifty feet long. Lullin, about the same time, made a like suggestion.2 In " The Wedgwoods, being a Life of Josiah Wedgwood," by Llewellynn Jewett, London, 1865, is the following notice (p. 178) of a proposed telegraph: "This Thomas Wedgwood was, I believe, cousin to Josiah, being son of Aaron Wedgwood, etc., etc... He was a man of high scientific attainments, and has the reputation of being the first inventor of the electric telegraph (afterward so ably carried out by his son Ralph), and of many other valuable works." Page 180: " In 1806, Ralph Wedgwood established himself at Charing Cross, and soon afterward his whole attention began to be engrossed with his scheme of the electric telegraph, which in the then unsettled state of the kingdom-in the midst of war, it must be remembered-he considered would be of the utmost importance to the Government. In 1814, having perfected his scheme, he submitted his proposal to Lord Castlereagh, and most anxiously waited the result. His son Ralph, having waited on his worship 1 It is thus described by Arthur Young, in his "Travels in France," vol. i., p. 979, fourth edition, 1787: " M. Lomond has made a remarkable discovery in electricity. You write two or three words on a paper; he takes it into a room, and turns a machine inclosed in a cylindrical case, at the top of which is an electrometer, a small pine pith-ball; a wire connects with a similar cylinder and electrometer in a distant apartment; and his wife, by remarking the corresponding motions of the ball, writes down the words they indicate, from which it appears that he has formed an alphabet of motion. As the length of the wire makes no difference in the effect, a correspondence might be carried on at any distance, within or without a besieged town, for instance, or for objects much more worthy of attention, and a thousand times more harmless." 2 " Vollst. Abh. d. theor. und prak. Lehre v. d. Electr.," Leipzig, 1797, Bd. ii., pp. 337-388.

Page  262 262 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. for a decision, as to whether Government would accept the plan or not, was informed that'the war being at an end, the old system was sufficient for the country.' The plan therefore fell to the ground, until Professor Wheatstone, in happier and more enlightened times, again brought the subject forward with such eminent success. The plan thus brought forward by Ralph Wedgwood, in 1814, and of which, as I have stated, he received the first idea from his father, was thus described by him in a pamphlet, entitled,'An Address to the Public on the Advantages of a Proposed Introduction of the Stylographic Principle of Writing into General Use; and also of an Improved Species of Telegraphy, calculated for the Use of the Public, as well as for the Government."' The pamphlet is dated, May 29, 1815. Extractfrom the Pamphlet. "A modification of the stylographic principle, proposed for the adoption of Parliament, in lieu of telegraphs, viz.: "The Fulguric-Polygraph, which admits of writing in several distant places at one and the same time, by the agency of two persons only. "This invention is founded on the capacity of electricity to prqduce motion in the act of acquiring an equilibrium: " Which motion by the aid of machinery is made to distribute matter at the extremities of any given course. And the matter so distributed being variously modified in correspondence with the letters of the alphabet, and communicable in rapid succession at the will of the operator, it is obvious that writing at immense distances hereby becomes practicable; and further, as lines of communication can be multiplied from any given point, and those lines affected by one and the same application of the electric matter, it is evident from hence, also, that fac-similes of a dispatch, written as for instance in London, may with facility be written also in Plymouth, Dover, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, and Bristol, or any other place, by the same person, and by one and the same act." He goes on to speak of the advantages to the public, and says: " To the seat of her Government (England), therefore, it must be highly desirable to effect the most speedy and certain communication from every quarter of the world." All these employed friction electricity, as did Ronalds, of Enggland, in 1816, on a line eight miles in length, operating with pithballs on the faces of synchronous clocks, and Harrison Gray Dyar, on the Long-Island race-course,' near New York, in 1827, on a line of two miles, using the current to discolor prepared paper. 1 Dyar's (defendant's) testimony, "Bain's Case," pp. 13, 327.

Page  263 GALVANISM. 263 Up to this time the elements out of which to produce a successful telegraph had not been brought to light. The agent at command -friction electricity-was fitful, influenced by the weather, and, at a distance, liable at times to be feeble. GALVANISM, OR VOLTAISM.-The discovery of the voltaic pile, in 1800, opened up a new era for invention in telegraphy. It gave the advantage of the constant current of a battery over the intermitted shocks of the electrical apparatus. Sommering, in 1809-'11, employed the electric current developed by the voltaic pile to produce chemical decompositions with the evolution of visible gas; he employed thirty-five wires, each wire having the same letter or figure at either end, and an additional wire for producing an alarum, by causing an augmentation of gas in a manner to release a detent and set in motion clock-work to ring a bell. It would of course be possible to transmit words by producing gas-bubbles at the ends of the wires, bearing in their order of succession the letters of which the words were composed. Each of the thirty-five wires had its returnwire, making seventy in all. This was not, strictly speaking, a telegraph-a writing at a distance; it was a signal apparatus-a voltaic semaphore. But it was cumbrous, time-consuming, and interesting chiefly as illustrating how early the projectile force of the voltaic battery was applied to the production of visible chemical effects at a distance. Schweigger proposed to reduce the great number of wires in SSmmering's apparatus to two, and instead of a tube for the evolution of gas for each letter, a single tube only, and the letter to be indicated by the number of seconds through which the evolution of hydrogen should continue. This apparatus so simplified was to be used in connection with a signal-book. Dr. John Redman Coxe, of Philadelphia, in 1810-'11, proposed a plan similar to that of Sommering, which, however, was not carried out to practical testing.1 He communicated an account of it, which was published in "Thomson's Annals of Philosophy" (February, 1816). MAGNETISM.-The date of the discovery of the magnetic needle was in remote antiquity. The Chinese were familiar with its use before its introduction into Europe. This instrument, so indispensable to the navigation of the ocean and to numerous uses on land, consists of a slender bar of hardened iron or steel resting at its centre upon a sharply-pointed support. When this piece of iron was 1 Coxe's deposition, p. 63, defendant's testimony, Morse vs. Bain Telegraph Case.

Page  264 264 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. rubbed in a certain way with a natural loadstone, or an artificial magnet, it acquired the property when free to move on its support of pointing with one extremity to the north, and the other, of course, to the south. These extremities were respectively called the north and south poles. ELECTRO-MAGNETISM.-It was early known that the position of the needle might be changed by electric discharges in its neighborhood, but its susceptibility to the influence of the galvanic current was the discovery of Oersted, of Copenhagen, in 1819. He found that when the electric current passes in a direction, north or south, through a wire, it causes a free magnetic needle immediately above or below it to assume or tend to assume a position at right angles to the direction of the current, and that by reversing the direction of the current the movement of the needle may be alike reversed. This observation, usually ascribed to Oersted, seems to have been first made by Romagn6si, a physicist of Trent. In a work entitled " Manuel du Galvanisme," par Joseph Lyarn, Paris, 1864, under the heading, "Appareil pour reconnaitre Faction du galvanisme, sur la polarit6 d'une aiguille aimant6e," after explaining the. way to prepare the apparatus, which consists simply in putting a freely suspended magnetic needle parallel and close to a straight metallic conductor, through which a galvanic current is circulating, he described the effects in the following words: " D'apres les observations de Romagn6si, physicien de Trente, l'aiguille d6ja aimantee, et que l'on soumet ainsi au courant galvanique, 6prouve une declinaison; et d'apres celles de J. Mojon, savant chimiste de Genes, les aiguilles non aimant6es acquierent, par ce moyen, une sorte de polarit6 magn6tique." In the next year Schweigger, of Haile,' discovered that the deflection of the needle may be increased by coiling an insulated wire in a series of ovals or flat rings, compactly disposed, in a loop, and conducting the current around the needle from end to end; and produced the " galvanic multiplier," by which the deflection of the needle was much greater and more prompt. This discovery was the basis of the galvanometer, invented and first used by Professor Joseph Henry, of the United States. Ampere, following up the discovery of Schweigger, developed the theory of electro-magnetism, which has since been universally adopted. He proposed to the French Academy at its session, October 2, 1820 (" Comptes Rendus"), a plan for a telegraph, in which 1 Kuhn, "Ang. Elek.-Lehre," p. 514.

Page  265 AMPERE'S DISCOVERY. 265 there was to be a needle for each letter. Ampere ascribes the original suggestion to Laplace. Ritchie, in 1830, carried out this idea to a model by surrounding each needle with a coil of wire, so arranged as to disclose a letter in connection with the deflection of each needle. Mr. Alexander, of Edinburgh, made another modification in 1837. The telegraph of Baron Pawel Larrowitsch Schilling, of Cronstadt, was based on the suggestion of Ampere. He had been associated with Sommering as early as 1810 (Kuhn, p. 836). His plan seems to have been matured and set in practical operation, according to Amyot, in 1832-'33, but he was unable to secure such satisfactory demonstrations as would justify the support of the Russian Government until 1836, and in 1837 this persevering philosopher and inventor died. His instrument, however, exhibited by Moncke to William Fothergill Cooke in 1836, awoke his inventive genius, and he produced in the same year a needle telegraph, and in 1837 Cooke and Wheatstone a still more perfect needle telegraph. Before Oersted, and Ampere, and Schweigger, the needle telegraph was impossible. After their discoveries reciprocal motion, or alternate right-and-left deflection, needed only a constant battery to render signal telegraphy possible. But recording telegraphy required a greater amount of force at the receiving station than was needed to move the needle, and another system of device must be brought into service. The unequal action of the battery was a serious obstacle to progress in the direction of needle telegraphy, and, before research had overcome the difficulties ultimately surmounted by Daniel, the science of electro-magnetism had made great strides in a new direction. The first step in this direction was taken by Arago immediately after the discovery of Oersted, in the same year with the discovery of the multiplier by Schweigger. He magnetized a straight iron bar or needle by placing it in a long spiral of wire and transmitting the galvanic current through the coil. De la Rive sent a current through a close circuit of insulated copper wire, showing that the ring produced by the current acquired singular magnetic properties. Barlow, in describing the apparatus, in 1824, says: "A fine copper wire covered with silk thread is coiled five or six times, and tied together so as to form a ring about an inch in diameter, and the ends of the wire are con

Page  266 266 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. nected one with the zinc and the other with the copper slip above the cork. When the apparatus is placed in water, slightly acidulated with sulphuric or nitric acid, the ring becomes highly magnetic," etc. In this year Schweigger produced the flat spiral or volute coil. In 1824 Barlow gives a diagram of the volute in one plane, invented by Schweigger, and says, page 266: "The best form for the spiral, however, is that in which the wire lies all in one plane " (as in Fig. 24). (This figure exhibits a coil like the hair-spring of a watch.) "This being connected by its two extremities with the poles of the battery will take up an astonishing quantity of filings, which, by their reciprocal attraction toward each other, exhibit the most pleasing appearance." The discovery of the action of the spiral coil upon the magnetic needle seems to have been independently made by Ampere, in 1821: "I showed," he says "that the current which is in the pile acts on the magnetic needle by the conjunctive wire. I described the instrument, which I proposed to construct, and, among others, the galvanic spiral. I read a note upon the electro-chemical effects of a spiral of iron wire, subjected to the action of the earth, directing an electric current as well as a magnet. I announced the new fact of the attraction and repulsion of two electric currents, without the intermediation of any magnet, a fact which I had observed in spirals twisted spirally." Arago's discovery, that soft iron may be rendered a temporary magnet by placing it within a helix of wire, through which is circulating a galvanic current, dates 1821. He says: " A piece of soft iron, when surrounded by a helix of wire and a current of galvanic electricity passed through it, becomes a temporary magnet."' Sir Humphrey Davy arrived at the same discovery of electrical induction in soft iron in 1821. "Simultaneously with Arago's experiments, Davy arrived at the same facts."8 THE HORSESHOE ELECTRO-MWAGNET.-The next step was taken by Mr. William Sturgeon, of London, in 1825. He found that by coiling copper wire loosely around a varnished piece of insulated soft iron, bent into the form of a horseshoe, the successive coils out of contact with each other, he could qonvert the non-magnetic soft Yelloch's Journal of Science, vol. lvii. p. 47, 1821. 2 Yelloch's Journal of Science, vol. lvii., p. 42, 1821. Also, "Encyclopaedia Britannica," vol. viii., p. 662. " Encyclopedia Britannica," vol. viii., p. 662.

Page  267 HORSESHOE MAGNET. 267 iron into an electro-magnet. When the current was interrupted, the soft iron ceased to be magnetic; when the current was restored, the iron became again magnetic. This gave the possibility of producing reciprocal motion. The capacity, thus imparted to the iron to attract other iron, and to release it when the current was interrupted, was, in two particulars, not suited to be used in telegraphy. It employed a quantity battery, consisting of a single pair, and the length of wire connecting the battery with the magnet was inconsiderable. The researches of these philosophers reached America in due time. The first to discuss them in public lectures was Professor James Freeman Dana, brother of the late distinguished Dr. Samuel L. Dana, of Lowell. In a course of lectures before the New York Athenaeum, in the months of January and February, 1827, Professor Dana exhibited and experimented with Sturgeon's magnet, and used the following suggestive language, which is to be found in the manuscript copy of his lectures now in the Harvard University Library: "The effect of the conjunctive wire in impressing the magnetic state is uniform and constant, and we can infer with absolute certainty the kind of magnetism which will be exhibited by either end of the needle, by reference to its position with regard to the wire. We are led to this by our previous knowledge of. the positions assumed by a magnetic needle under the influence of the wire. Thus if the electric current flow from the right hand to the left, and the needle to be magnetized be placed over the wire, the end pointing from us will acquire the austral magnetism, or a north polarity, etc. We have seen that the pole of the magnetic needle, over which the positive electricity enters, turns to the east, but the pole under which it enters turns to the west. If, therefore, a needle be placed between two conjunctive wires situated in the same vertical plane, and transmitting the electric current in opposite directions, it is evident that both will conspire to, produce the same effect, which will consequently be much more considerable than that produced by either of them alone; but a wire bent in this N- \) P___________/ form, having its two ends connected with the opposite poles of'the voltaic instrument, will evidently have the electric current passing in opposite directions in its upper and lower portions, and consequently it will produce on a needle, between them, an effect similar to that produced by the two wires. Wires thus situated produce a more prompt development of magnetism in steel than a single wire

Page  268 268 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. does, because both tend to turn the same kind of magnetism in the same direction, and the opposite magnetisms in opposite directions, and hence we have one method of measuring the action of a battery on steel bars. Again, two parallel wires, having the electric current moving through them, in the same direction, will evidently produce a greater effect on a steel bar than either of them alone, for the effect of the whole must be greater than that of a part. "When several conjunctive wires are placed together, side by side, the force is apparently diminished in the central wires, and concentrated in the extreme portions; the magnetic state of the latter seems to be augmented by induction or by position. " When such an assemblage of wires act on the magnetism of a piece of steel, they decompose it, and each individual wire acts with more force on the magnetism nearest to it. Each conspires, in its action, to produce the same effect as the others; and hence, in addition to the effects of currents in opposite directions, we have another method of increasing the power of a battery in magnetizing needles. W'e shall probably render steel strongly magnetic, if we continue these two methods of increasing the effect. This is effected by forming the conjunctive wire into a spiral around the steel bar to be magnetized; for, at the opposite extremities of any diameter of this spiral, it is evident that the electric current moves in opposite directions. Suppose the spiral to be placed horizontally, east and west, the current in its upper part to move from north to south, it will, at its lower part move from south to north, and the spiral thus gives us the combined influence of currents in opposite directions. Moreover, the different coils of the spiral are nearly at right angles with the axis of the included bar, and they are parallel to each other. Hence, at any given portion of the bar, the effect of many currents passing in the same direction is produced, and the included bar becomes magnetic; and a spiral placed round a piece of soft iron bent into the form of a horseshoe magnet, renders it strongly and powerfully magnetic when the electric current is passing through it.... "The opposite sides of a conjunctive wire exhibit the opposite magnetisms; and we have seen that, by placing the wires parallel to each other and connecting them with a battery so that they may transmit the current in the same direction, the magnetisms seem to be concentrated in the extreme wires, and that we can thus separate them in a degree from each other. Now, when we consider that the direction of the magnetic power is at right angles to the conjunctive wire, it is evident that in a helix, this direction must nearly coincide with that of the axis of the helix, and the one kind of magnetism be found concentrated at one extremity, and the other kind at the opposite end.... " Iron filings adhering to dissimilarly electro-magnetic wires repel each other, and to similarly electro-magnetic wires, attract each other. "In the course of our reasoning, by which we were led from

Page  269 PROFESSOR JOSEPH HENRY. 269 step to step to the adoption of a spiral or helix in powerfully developing magnetism in bars, we inferred that two or more parallel and similarly electro-magnetic wires acted with greater energy than one, and that the magnetisms were accumulated in the extreme wires by a species of induction between them all. A ribbon of metal substituted for these wires exerts a stronger influence on the needle at its edge than at its sides, for a similar reason. So, also, if a series of concentric wires be used, and the electric current sent through them in the same direction, we infer that they will have the power of the corresponding sides of the different rings concentrated and accumulated in.their common centre, and will on the same side of their centre act as parallel similarly electro-magnetic wires. A flat spiral, or volute, having two ends connected with the opposite poles of the battery, will correctly represent concentric rings under the condition we have proposed; and the great quantity of iron filings which such a spiral or volute takes up, and the accumulation of them in the centre, fully evinces the concentration of power there, and the correctness of the reasoning by which we have been led to the modification of the conjunctive wire." The next step was taken by Professor Joseph Henry, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, then Professor of Physics in the Albany Academy.1 Reflecting on the increased magnetic effects observed in the compact coils of insulated wire of Schweigger, he first employed the insulated wire of many concentric coils to make an electro-magnet. By a covering of silk or cotton, successive coils of the wire were kept distinct and apart, so that it could be compactly wound in successive layers upon itself, and thus a current could be made to pass an indefinite number of times around an iron bar, and the power of the bar to attract other iron multiplied alike somewhat correspondingly, and this with the use of a comparatively small battery. He also, for the first time, in 1829, employed the battery of many pairs, to send from a distance a current through insulated wire, many times wound up on itself, around a horseshoeshaped soft-iron bar, and demonstrated the dependence of the projectile force of the current upon the number, instead of the size, of plates. The discovery may be thus stated: He found that a battery of a single pair, the zinc plate four by seven inches, at a distance of eight feet, operating through a coil of insulated wire, eight feet long, wound around a small horseshoe magnet, produced magnetism enough to lift four and one-half pounds. At a distance of one thousand and sixty feet, it lifted but half an ounce, only TX- as much. 1" Transactions of the Albany Institute," June, 1828.

Page  270 270 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. By now substituting a Cruikshank's battery, in which was exactly the same amount of zinc surface-but in twenty-five plates instead of one-the magnet, at a distance of one thousand and sixty feet, as before, lifted eight ounces. That is, by dividing the zinc plate into twenty-five plates, and putting each with its fellow of copper into a separate cell, the power to lift at a distance of one thousand and sixty feet was increased sixteen times.1 Had this discovery been preceded by the constant battery of Daniel (which was not invented until 1836), practical registering electro-magnetic telegraphy would have been possible in 1828. Barlow, of England, had observed, in 1825, that the power of the galvanic current he employed diminished witht the increase of the distance from the battery; but Henry's researches had shown that by employing a battery of many pairs-which he called an intensity battery-and by causing the wire to pass a great number of times concentrically around a bar of iron, it was possible to produce the physical result of motion, with a feeble current, at relatively great distances from its source. Barlow had employed a quantity battery-a battery of a single pair. Henry employed a battery of many pairs-an intensity battery. Professor Henry, in his paper in Silliman's Journal, January, 1831, after repeating the results of the paper of 1828, says: "The fact that the magnetic action of a current from a trough is, at least, not sensibly diminished by passing through a long wire, is directly applicable to Mr. Barlow's project of forming an electro-magnetic telegraph, and also of material consequence in the construction of the galvanic coil." The first suggestion contemplating a really practical distance came from Fechner, who says, in 1829 (Kuhn, p. 835): " There is no doubt that if twenty-four different multipliers-the number of the letters-were in Leipsic, for example, and the insulated wire conducted under ground to Dresden, we should have a medium, not very costly, perhaps, through which determined characters could be sent instantaneously from one to the other." He says further, in 1832, that, "by the employment of a very thinly-wound (insulated) copper wire, coated with silver, of which one foot in uncovered condition weighed 1.95 grain, a pile of one hundred and seven small platinum pairs would be adequate for telegraphic communications ten geographical miles. The length of wire for such a dis1 Silliman's Journal, January, 1881.

Page  271 OHM'S LAW. 271 tance, both ways, would require for each letter twenty miles of wire, which would involve no small outlay." Fechner also pointed out that the "telegraphic conduction does not depend on the great thickness of the pairs of plates, and the strength of the conducting fluid (quantity of electricity), but, on the contrary, on the number of the pairs of plates in the pile; and would increase in direct relation to the thickness of the wire." "Ohm's Law," of 1825, and " Schweigger's Multiplier," of 1820, were here first traced out to their practical end, of a galvanic semaphore. The conditions were expressed on cwhich the success of the needle invention depended-numerous pairs, a large conducting wire, multiplied convolutions of insulated wire. All were wrapped up in these few clear sentences of Fechner, before 1832. " Ohm's Formulae.-The amount of electric or chemical power developed in the voltaic circuit, or, in other words, the quantity of electricity which passes through a transverse section of the circuit in a unit of time, evidently depends upon two conditions, viz., the power or electro-motive force of the battery, and the resistance offered to the passage of the current by the conductors, liquid or solid, which it has to traverse. With a given amount of resistance, the power of the battery is proportional to the quantity of electricity developed in a given time; and by a double or treble resistance, we mean simply that which, with a given amount of exciting power in the battery, reduces the quantity of electricity developed, or work done, to one-half or one-third. If, then, the electro-motive force of the battery be denoted by E, and the resistance by B, we have, for the quantity of electricity passing through the circuit in a unit of time, the expression: =-.... (1). This is called Ohm's law, from the name of the distinguised mathematician who first announced it. " By means of the formula (1), we may estimate the effect produced on the strength of the current by increasing the number and size of the plates of the battery. The resistance R consists of two parts, viz., that which the current experiences in passing through the cells of the battery itself, and that which is offered by the external conductor which joins the poles; this conductor may consist either wholly of metal, or partly of metal and partly of electrolytic liquids. Let the resistance within the battery be r, and the external resistance r'; then, in the one-celled battery we have: = +, * *. (2). In this he was anticipated by Professor Henry, as above.

Page  272 272 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Now, suppose the battery to consist of n cells perfectly similar, then the electro-motive force becomes nI, the resistance within the battery nr; if, then, the external resistance remains the same, the strength of the current will be denoted by: nE E nr + r' +r' n If r' be small, this expression has nearly the same value as -E that is to say, if the circuit be closed by a good conductor, such as a short thick wire, the quantity of electricity developed by the compound battery of n cells is sensibly the same as that evolved by a single cell of the same dimensions. But if r' is of considerable amount, as when the circuit is closed by a long thin wire, or when an electrolyte is interposed, the strength of the current increases considerably with the number of plates. In fact the expression (3) is always greater than (2); fornE E (n - 1) r' nr + r' r + r' nr + r') (r + r') a quantity which is necessarily positive when n is greater than unity. " Suppose, in the next place, that the size of the plates is increased, while their' number remains the same, then, according to the chemical theory, an increase in the surface of metal acted upon must produce a proportionate increase in the quantity of electricity developed, provided the conducting power of the circuit is sufficient to give it passage. "According to the theory which attributes the development of the electricity to the contact of dissimilar metals, an increase in the size of the plates does not increase the electro-motive force, but it diminishes the resistance within the cells of the battery by offering a wider passage to the electricity. Hence, in the single cell, if the surface of the plates, and therefore the transverse section of the liquid be increased m times, the expression for the strength of the current becomes: E mE r r + tmr' m If r' be small, this expression is nearly the same as mE,; that is to say, the quantity of electricity in the current increases very nearly in the same ratio as the size of the plates; but when the external resistance is considerable, the advantage gained by increasing the size of the plates is much less. " We may conclude, then, that when the resistance in the circuit is small, as in electro-magnetic experiments, a small number of large plates is the most advantageous form of battery; but in over

Page  273 MAGNETIC ELECTRICITY. 273 coming great resistances, power is gained by increasing the number rather than the size of the plates."' MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY. —The phenomena of electro-dynamic induction, or of magneto-electricity, were first discovered by Faraday in 1831, and published in 1832. Professor Henry investigated the laws of these phenomena, and discovered induced currents of a second and third order, and so on through a series of five terms (Kuhn, p. 671). Upon these discoveries was based the magneto-electric induction apparatus (as distinguished from hydro-electric induction apparatus) of which Gauss and Weber availed themselves to produce a needle telegraph. "A circuit of wire 7,460 feet long was led across the houses and steeples of GSttingen, from the Observatory to the Cabinet of Natural Philosophy, requiring no especial insulation, which was a fact of great importance. The principle was thereby at once established of bringing the galvanic telegraph to the most convenient forfn... "All that was required in addition to this, was to render the signs audible; a task that apparently presented no very great difficulty, inasmuch as in the very scheme itself a mechanical motion, namely, the deflection of a magnetic bar, was given. "Should it be desired that the indicator should write, it is merely required to adapt to one end of the magnectic bar a small vessel filled with a black color, and terminating in a capillary tube. This tube, instead of striking a bell, thus makes a black spot upon some flat surface held in front of it. If these spots are to compose writing, the surface upon which they are printed must he kept moving in front of the indicator with a uniform velocity; and this is easily brought about, by means of an endless strip of paper, which is rolled off one cylinder on to another by clock-work."2 It will be seen that the idea of the acoustic as well as the recording telegraph, which was subsequently developed at the suggestion of Gauss and Weber, by Steinheil, is here foreshadowed. Steinheil's invention was produced in 1837, and published in 1838. The telegraph was in actual operation through a circuit of six miles-from 1838 to 1844-when Professor Steinheil became fully acquainted with the recording telegraph of Professor Morse, and recommended its adoption in place of his own and of all others, 1 Watt's "Dictionary of Chemistry," vol. ii., p. 459. 2 "Annals of Electricity," vol. iii., p. 448, No. 17, March, 1839, copied from the "Gottingen Gelehrte Anzeigen," p. 1,272, 1834. 18

Page  274 274 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. upon the whole system of telegraph-lines of which he was superintendent. Steinheil's apparatus, which elicited great admiration as a product of inventive genius, produced sounds on bells-an effect achieved ten years before as a result of electro-magnetism, by Professor Henry, at Albany, in 1828, and described in a letter by Professor James Hall1 as having been witnessed by himself in that year. Steinheil's apparatus also recorded messages in alphabetic characters of ink, consisting of combinations of dots and spaces in two rows.2 Steinheil discovered what had been remarked in regard to frictional electricity nearly a hundred years before, by Winckler, Le Monnier, Watson, and Franklin, that the galvanic current could be transmitted through the earth as a part of the circuit, and thus reduced the number of wires necessary for the operation of his telegraph to one. Wheatstone at a later period enriched this field of invention with his dial magneto-electric telegraph, of such great merit and extensive use. With the mention of the constant battery of Daniel, produced in 1836, and perhaps the amalgamation of the zinc plate by Sturgeon, the enumeration of the discoveries entering into the invention of the electric telegraph will be complete. We have glanced at the types of telegraphs resting on friction electricity, those resting on the deflection of the magnetic needle, by Schweigger's multiplier, and those resting on magneto-electricity. Sommering had produced a galvanic telegraph, producing signals, by the evolution of gas-bottles in a series of tubes, and employing the chemical powers of the battery. Schilling, Ritchie, Alexander, and Cook and Wheatstone, had employed the electromagnet to produce signals by deflecting needles. Gauss and Weber, and Steinheil, employed magneto-electric apparatus, without a battery, to deflect needles, or large, straight, permanent magnets. The former proposed, and the latteri nvented, a needle device which produced sounds on bells, and recorded messages in an alphabet of dots and spaces. Professor Henry, before 1832, had rung a bell by operating upon one end of a large needle, or a straight magnet, poised between the two poles of an electro-magnet, while the opposite end was made by the transmission of the current from a battery 1 " Smithsonian Report," p. 96, 1857. 2 H. Schellen, Braunschweig, p. 79, 1864.

Page  275 DISCOVERY AND INVENTION. 275 to strike a bell. To neither of these types did the recording electro-magnetic telegraph belong. Professor Morse's invention was a new departure. CLAIMS OF DISCOVERERS AND INVENTORS. It is natural and proper, when a great and useful art has been born to civilization, that all persons, and especially the friends of the persons who have had a share in the production and perfection of the art, should feel jealously alive to the just distribution of the honors which follow such an event. Such honors are sometimes, not infrequently, indeed, unfairly distributed. Adventitious circumstances may cause mistake. The memory is sometimes at fault. The claims of some may be exaggerated. The just claims of others may be' overlooked. It will serve to open up the subject, if we consider a little carefully the meaning of some of the words we use. A tele-graph is, literally, a writing at a distance. Strictly speaking, the earlier forms of signal apparatus were not telegraphs; they were semaphores-signal-bearers. The signal may be addressed to the eye or to the ear. If to the former, it would be a visual; to the latter, an acoustic semaphore. Franklin, Watson, De Luc, Cavallo, and others, employed friction electricity to flash powder and fire alcohol. These experiments heralded an electric visual semaphore. They also rang bells by electricity, and in so doing foreshadowed an acoustic semaphore. The plans of Le Sage, Lomond, Reusser, Boeckman, Salva, Betancourt, and Ronalds, were of the class of electric semaphores. That of Harrison Gray Dyar approached nearly to that of an electric telegraph. Voltaic semaphores belong necessarily to this century. They were only possible after the recognition of the fact that the current might be made effective at a distance by the use of the pile, or battery of many pairs. Stmmering's, in 1809-'11, was the first of the class, and established the fact that visible effects could be proluced at a distance of ten thousand feet.1 His device was a visual semaphore. Bain's so-called electro-chemical plan, of 1846, was a voltaic telegraph. He employed a battery, but not a magnet, and wrote and printed with Morse's alphabet. I Kuhn, 1866.

Page  276 276 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Electro-magnetic semaphores were possible only after the discovery of Oersted, in 1819, and the discovery of the multiplier, in 1820, by Schweigger. The first of these was projected by Ampere, but never carried out. It was a needle device. Visible signs were to be made by the deflection of a needle, the voltaic current being sent through a multiplier, or long link-shaped coil of insulated wire, within which a needle was freely suspended or supported. The next seems to have been Schilling's, made some time between 1820 and 1832, a rude copy of which, made by Professor Moncke, of Heidelberg, aroused at a later period (1836) the spirit of invention of Cooke. The magneto-electric visual semaphore of Gauss and Weber appeared in 1833. The development of this type by Steinheil to an acoustic semaphore and an actual recording telegraph was accomplished in 1837. Cooke's needle semaphore came in 1836, and Cooke and Wheatstone's in 1837. i These were not writing or printing instruments. They made evanescent signs, which could be observed, translated, and recorded. Electro-magnetic telegraphs were not practicable before an intensity battery had been employed in connection with a distant electro-magnet, surrounded with a multiplied insulated coil. This was first actually done through a distance of 1,060 feet, in 1828-'29, by Professor Henry. This experiment demonstrated that with increased power in the battery, with improvements in the magnet, and inventions of special mechanical devices, an electro-magnetic telegraph for registration at distances sufficiently great to meet the wants of the every-day world, might be devised. The invention, however, in its most elementary condition, was not made for four years thereafter, and then without a knowledge of these experiments, nor was it brought into working condition for three more, and then at first without employing either of these essential elements, to wit, the magnet of multiplied coils, the battery of multiplied pairs, and the long conductor; and more than two years additional passed before a caveat was lodged, and three more before a patent was granted, and still four years elapsed before the invention was in successful public service. This delay between the discovery of a scientific truth, and its application to the useful arts, is not unusual.

Page  277 POSSIBILITY OF THE INVENTION. 277 INTERVAL AFTER THE POSSIBILITY OF AN INVENTION BEFORE THE INVENTION WAS MADE. After Winkler's experiment with a long conducting wire at Leipsic, in 1744, and Watson's experiment in 1747-'48, with a circuit of two miles of wire and two of earth; and Franklin's experiments, from 1748 to 1754, exhibiting reciprocal motion, rotation of wheels, ringing of bells, firing of combustibles, etc., it was possible to produce electric signals conveying intelligence. The first that appeared was that of Le Sage, in 1774, after an interval of twenty years; then Lomond's in 1787, after thirtythree years; then Reusser's in 1794, after forty years; then Salva's with a conducting wire of many miles, in 1796, after about fortytwo years; then Betancourt's, of twenty-six miles, in 1797-'98, after forty-three years; then Ronald's, in 1816, after sixty-two years; and then Harrison G. Dyar's, in 1828, after seventy-four years. After the discovery of the pile of Volta, in 1800, it was possible to inventSOmmering's electro-chemical semaphore, which did not appear till 1809-'11, after eleven years. J. Redman Coxe's (of Philadelphia) suggestion dates 1816, after sixteen years. Bain's electrochemical recording telegraph, which did not appear till 1846, after forty-six years. After Oersted's discoveries of 1819 and 1820, and especially of Schweigger's multiplier, constructed with insulated wire immediately after it was possible to produce Ampere's suggestion (or invention), which appeared the same year, and of which he remarks that this result had been suggested by Laplace. Schilling's invention was in progress from 1820 to 1832, a period of twelve years. Cooke and Wheatstone's invention in 1836-'37, after sixteen years. After Sturgeon's electro-magnet, in 1826, when an electro-magnetic recording telegraph was possible for short distances, Morse's conception came in 1832, after six years. After ffenry's electro-magnet, wound with insulated wire in 1828, published in 1831, which made electro-magnetic telegraphy possible for increased distances, came Morse's receiving or relay battery and recording telegraph, invented in 1832, and in working condition in 1836, after an interval of five years. It was publicly

Page  278 278 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. exhibited in 1837, after six years; and operated between Baltimore and Washington in 1844, after thirteen years. After Faraday's and Henry's discoveries in magqneto-electricity, in 1831, came Gauss and Weber's needle telegraph, in 1833, two years later, and Steinheil's telegraph, in 1837, after six years. Steinheil had demonstrated the practicability of using the earth for a part of the electro-magnetic circuit in 1838. It was not used in this country until 1845. After the invention of Daniell's constant battery, in 1835, the successful electro-magnetic telegraph was practicable. As we have now fixed some of the more important dates and intervals, let us put on record two or three more that we need to bear in mind-recalling that, while SSmmering and Bain needed only the voltaic pile or a battery of many pairs, Schilling, Cooke, and Wheatstone needed in addition the galvanic multiplier; Morse the battery and electro-magnet; Gauss, Weber, and Steinheil a magneto-electric machine. SOmmering's voltaic semaphore preceded Schilling's needle semaphore by a dozen years and more. In point of time, Morse's invention on the Sully preceded Cooke's at Heidelberg by four years-1832-'36. In point of construction and actual working, Morse preceded Cooke by a year-1835-'36. In point of exhibition to the public, Cooke and Wheatstone were coincident with Morse-1837. In point of actual use by the public, Cooke and Wheatstone preceded Morse by six years-1838-'44. These relations of discovery to invention and practical application may be illustrated in tabular form: f Electro-chemical semaphores. Volta, 1800. Soemmering's, in 1809-'11. Constant bat- Bain's electro-chemical telegraph, in 1846. tery of DaniellU, e 885, without i Needle semaphores. 1 8 3 5, without Ampere's, in 1.820. which the elec- Oersted, 1819. S n 1820. tro -magn e tic Schweigger, 1820. Chg's, i1823. Cooke's, in 1836. not have would Cooke and Wheatstone's, in 1837. ceeded. ceeded. I Arago, in 1820. Sturgeon, in 1825. Recording telegraph of Morse, in 1882. Henry, in 1829. [ Magneto-electric telegraphs. Faraday, in 1881 Gauss and Weber's, in 1838-'84. F~araday, in l. - Steinheil's, in 1887. Wheatstone's later business alphabet-semaphore. Having thus before us the great facts in the history of the new

Page  279 CLAIMS TO ORIGINALITY. 279 art, we are in condition to examine more carefully into the claims to originality and priority of the discoverers and inventors. Let us have distinct ideas in our assignment of credit. The discovery of a law, or the invention of a device, may be strictly original to two or more persons. It may be made by one in ignorance that it had been made by another before him, or the two may have been coincident in time as well as result. It may have been made and never published or communicated to others. Volta was alone in the invention of the pile. Sommering was alone in observing that the current of the voltaic pile might be projected to great distances with as effective force to produce chemical decompositions as at moderate distances. Oersted was alone in originality1 and time in observing the deflection of the needle by the galvanic current. Schweigger was alone in originality and time in the multiplier of insulated wire. Arago was alone in magnetizing iron in the axis of a long oblique spiral. Sturgeon was alone in the electro-magnet with the loose oblique spiral; and later in amalgamating the zinc element of the battery. Moll and Henry were coincident in the quantity magnet with a single pair. Henry was alone in the insulated concentric coil and multiplied windings applied to a horseshoe-shaped bar of iron with a single pair and with many pairs. Henry was alone in the insulated concentric wire of many windings and battery of many pairs at a distance from the electromagnet. Now, all these discoveries, in so far as the attribute of originality is concerned, were in some degree suggested, somewhat in their order of succession, by the publication of the discoveries which preceded them. Oersted deflected a needle slowly with a single wire, Schweigger quickly with multiplied coils. Arago made straight hard iron (steel) magnetic by a single loose long coil. Sturgeon made a horseshoe of soft iron magnetic with a loose long coil of sixteen turns and lifted nine pounds in 1826-'26. Moll made a closer single coil of eighty-three turns and lifted seven1 It seems that, possibly, Oersted was anticipated by Romagnesi. (See p. 264.)

Page  280 280 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. ty-five pounds, and finally one hundred and thirty-five pounds, in 1828. Henry, with greatly multiplied concentric coils, lifted more than a ton in 1830. All these operated by a battery of a single pair of plates, and little interval between the battery and the magnet. Now, Henry started out, before the publication of Moll, with a new combination of many pairs, many concentric coils, and distance between the battery and the magnet, and found, as the experiment seemed to show, that the effect of the current in magnetizing soft iron at this distance was at least not appreciably less at a distance of one thousand and sixty feet than at points near the battery. WHAT THE INVENTOR OF THE ELECTRO-MAGNETIC RECORDING TELEGRAPH MUST HAVE KNOWN. What was needed to the original conception of the Morse recording telegraph? 1. A knowledge that soft iron, bent in the form of a horseshoe, could be magnetized by sending a galvanic current through a coil wound round the iron, and that it would lose its magnetism when the current was suspended. 2. A knowledge that such a magnet had been made to lift and drop masses of iron of considerable weight. 3. A knowledge, or a belief, that the galvanic current could be transmitted through wires of great length. These were all. Now comes the conception of devices for employing an agent which could produce reciprocal motion to effect registration, and the invention of an alphabet. In order to this invention, it must be seen how up and down-reciprocal-motion could be produced by the opening and closing of the circuit. Into this simple band of vertical tracery of paths in space must be thrown the shuttle of time and a ribbon of paper. It must be seen how a lever-pen, alternately dropping upon, and rising at defined intervals from, a fillet of paper, moved by independent clock-work, would produce the fabric of the alphabet and writing and printing. Was there any thing required to produce these results which was not known to Morse? Of the details of scientific research bearing on electro-magnetism, scattered through journals of various languages, Professor Morse knew comparatively little. He was a liberally educated

Page  281 WHAT MR. MORSE KNEW. 281 gentleman, devoted to the art of painting. He had somewhat unusual advantages. He had attended the courses of lectures of Professor Silliman and Professor Day, embracing the sciences of galvanism and electricity, when an under-graduate, in 1808-'10, at Yale College. He had been an assistant to Professor Silliman in his laboratory in 1822 and the years following. He had, at a later period, attended the lectures of Professor James Freeman Dana, before the Athenaeum in New York, and witnessed an original and brilliant course of experimental lectures, embracing all that was known in 1827 on electro-magnetism, with something of prophetic suggestion. He knew generally, when he stepped on board the Sully, in 1832, that a soft-iron horseshoe-shaped bar of iron could be rendered magnetic while a current of galvanic electricity was passing through a wire wound round it; and he knew that electricity had been transmitted, apparently instantaneously, through wires of great length, by Franklin and others. In the course of conversation on board that vessel, the topic of the velocity of the electric current arose. In the leisure of ship-life, the idea of a recording electric telegraph seized Professor Morse's mind, and he gave expression to his conviction that it was possible. As it was possible to dispatch and to arrest the current, he conceived that some device could be found for compelling it to manifest itself by this intermittent action, and produce a record. He knew, for he had witnessed it years before, that, by means of a battery and an electro-magnet, reciprocal motion could be produced. He knew that the force which produced it could be transmitted along a wire. He believed that the battery current could be made, through an electro-magnet, to produce physical effects at a distance. He saw in his mind's eye the existence of an agent and a medium by which reciprocal motion could be not only produced but controlled at a distance. The question that addressed itself to him at the outset was naturally this: " How can I make use of the simple up-and-down motion of opening and closing a circuit to write an intelligible message at one end of a wire and at the same time print it at the other?" If we pause a moment to consider that in our. ordinary writing with a pen upon paper we must employ at least a hundred differently shaped and proportioned lines, and produce them by many hundred combinations of nerve and muscular effort, and that in printing we must have not less than about thirty-six letters and

Page  282 282 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. figures, we shall appreciate the grandeur of Morse's conception, in which any message whatever could be written at one end of the wire and printed with perfect distinctness at the other, for permanent preservation, at the rate of twenty-five words a minute. Like many a kindred work of genius, it was in nothing more wonderful than in its simplicity. First, he caused a continuous ribbon or strip of paper to move under a pencil by clock-work, that could be wound up. The paper moved horizontally. The pencil moved only up and down; when resting on the paper it made a mark-if for an instant only, a dot; if for a longer time, a line. When lifted from the paper it left a blank. Here were three elements-dots, lines, and spaces-which, interwoven with intervals of time, could either of them be repeated, or they could be combined variously with each other to produce groups that should stand for letters. The grandeur of this wonderful alphabet of dots, lines, and spaces, has not been fully appreciated. It has been translated from one sense to another. In the Morse telegraph it may be used, and is used, by the sight, the touch, the taste, the hearing, and the sense of feeling.' Bain succeeded in using the current of electricity without an electro-magnet, but he had to borrow Morse's alphabet. Thompson's reflecting galvanometer, used by the Atlantic cable, although a visual semaphore, employs the Morse alphabet. Sir William Thompson has recently succeeded in converting his wonderfully sensitive apparatus into a recording telegraph, with the Morse alphabet. We are no longer surprised when we find that Steinheil, at the head of German telegraphy, advised the abandonment of his own most ingenious and elaborate apparatus, and the adoption of the Morse system and its alphabet. Nor do we wonder at its general adoption throughout the world. All concede the conception of the written and recorded alphabet and the mode of printing to Morse on board the Sully. This conception presupposes the use of the electrical current, the employ1 The taste is occasionally taken advantage of where accidents occur on the line of railroads and telegraphs, where a skillful operator happens to be present. He cuts the wire, establishes metallic communication with the earth, and signals by uniting and separating the end of the severed wire near the station, with the metallic conductor leading to the earth. He receives the message in answer by placing his tongue between the two metallic points, receiving the shocks and observing the intervals between them, which correspond with those produced by the key at the station.

Page  283 INDEBTEDNESS TO OTHERS. 283 ment of the alternate activity and repose of the current, and an apparatus for breaking and closing the circuit at determined intervals. THE NEED OF AN INVENTOR. The indebtedness of Professor Morse, as an inventor, to others may be regarded as of two kinds. There were the results of scientific research and discovery made by men who had gone before him, and with which he was, in general terms, familiar. Then there was the cooperation of assistants whom he took into his confidence and compensated for their services. He completed the plan of his alphabet, his mode of writing and printing, and committed them to paper, on board the Sully, in 1832, and exhibited a working model of his conception in action in 1835; and a model, but not in action, of the relay to various persons in 1835 and 1836. His alphabet, his new mode of writing and printing, were clear-cut, realized conceptions; but to perfect the apparatus involved resources which he had not. There were no shops at that time to which he might go for the ready purchase of electro-magnets, batteries, insulated wires, etc. A blacksmith must be employed to bend an iron rod to the form of a horseshoe, and the wire must be wound by hand. Nor were there at hand facilities for repairs, or professors accomplished and ready to advise in the science scarcely yet developed enough to meet the wants of the inventor. There was not a constant battery. There was, indeed, the battery of many pairs (Cruikshank's), and Sturgeon had produced his electro-magnet in 1825. But the new art required an inventor. The substitution by Henry of the concentric multiplier, in place of the loose, oblique coil of Sturgeon, reduced the strength of the battery necessarily required; and his employment of a battery of many pairs in place of a single pair having the same surface, which projected the current through greater length of wire, and so made possible the magnetizing of iron at a distance, revealed the direction in which development was to take place. This disclosed a principle on which the registering apparatus could be worked at a distance. But still there was needed an inventor. Not one of all the brilliant scientific men who have attached their names to the history of electro-magnetism had brought the means to produce the practical registering telegraph. Some of them had ascended the tower that looked out on the field of conquest. Some of them brought keener vision than others. Some of

Page  284 284 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. them stood higher than others. But the genius of invention had not recognized them. There was needed an inventor. Now, what sort of a want is this? There was required a rare combination of qualities and conditions. There must be ingenuity in the adaptation of available means to desired ends; there must be the genius to see through non-essentials to the fundamental principle on which success depends; there must be a kind of skill in manipulation; great patience and pertinacity; a certain measure of culture; and the inventor of a recording telegraph must be capable of being inspired by the grandeur of the thought of writing, figuratively speaking, with a pen a thousand miles long-with the thought of a postal system without the element of time. Moreover, theyperson who is to be the inventor must be free from the exactions of well-compensated, every-day absorbing duties-perhaps he must have had the final baptism of poverty. Now, the inventor of the registering telegraph did not rise from the perusal of any brilliant paper; he happened to be at leisure on shipboard, ready to contribute and share in the afterdinner conversation of a ship's cabin, when the occasion arose. Morse's electro-magnetic telegraph was mainly an invention employing power and agencies, through mechanical devices, to produce a given end. It involved the combination of the results of the labors of others with a succession of special contrivances and some discoveries of the inventor himself. There was an ideal whole almost at the outset, but involving great thought and labor and patience and invention to produce an art harmonious in its organization and action.


Page  286 286 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. fectly sanguine; that this invention was a means of communicating intelligence by electricity, so that a message could be written down in a permanent manner, by characters, at a distance from the writer. He took from his pocket and showed from his sketch-book, in which he had drawn them, the kind of characters he proposed to use. These characters were dots and spaces, representing the ten digits or numerals; and in the book were sketched other parts of his electro-magnetic machinery and apparatus, actually drawn out in his sketch-book." His brother Sidney says: " He was full of the subject of the Telegraph during the walk from the ship, and for some days afterward could scarcely speak about any thing else. He expressed himself anxious to make apparatus and try experiments, for which he had had no materials or facilities on shipboard. In the course of a few days after his arrival he made a kind of cogged or saw-toothed type, the object of which, I understood, was to regulate the interruptions of the electric current, so as to enable him to make dots, and regulate the length of marks or spaces on the paper upon which the information transmitted by his telegraph was to be recorded. He proposed at that time a single circuit of wire, and only a single circuit, and letters, words, and phrases, were to be indicated by numerals, and these numerals were to be indicated by dots and other marks and spaces on paper. It seemed to me that, as wire'was cheap, it would be better to have twenty-four wires, each wire representing a letter of the alphabet, but my brother always insisted upon the superior advantages of his single circuit." Without delay Mr. Morse proceeded to construct the instrument which was to test the practicability of his invention. He was now an inmate of his brother Richard's house, and there he resided several months. Mrs. Morse states that he was, immediately after his arrival, engaged in melting, lead and casting it into moulds, making forms which he called type. She saysand her memory was doubtless sharpened by the unlucky accident she mentions-that "he melted the lead, which he used, over the fire in the grate of my front parlor, and, in his operation of casting the type, he spilled some of the heated metal upon the drugget, or loose carpeting before the fireplace, and upon a flag-bottomed chair, upon which his mould was placed."

Page  287 FORLORN SITUATION. 287 This was the first step that Mr. Morse took in the actual construction of his electro-telegraphic instrument. Some of the first forms or type thus made by casting melted lead into a mould prepared for receiving them, he presented to the writer of this memoir, who deposited them with the New York Historical Society, to be preserved in the archives of that institution. From this hour began a struggle that lasted twelve years, more severe, heroic, and triumphant, than the annals of any other invention furnish for the warning and encouragement of genius. With his mind absorbed in this one idea of a recording telegraph, and wholly dependent upon his profession as an artist, it was impossible to pursue his art with the enthusiasm and industry essential to success. Nor would his invention have been perfected while he continued his devotion to his profession as an artist. His situation was forlorn in the extreme. The father of three little children, now motherless, his pecuniary means exhausted by his residence in Europe, unable to pursue his art without sacrificing his invention, he was at his wits' ends. He had visions of usefulness, by the invention of a Telegraph that should bring the ends of the earth into-instant intercourse. Thoughts of fame came to him by day and night, and a lawful ambition was kindled., He was poor, and knew that wealth, as well as usefulness and fame, was within his reach. He had long received assistance from his father and brothers, when his profession did not supply the needed means of support for himself and family, but it seemed like robbery to take the money of others to expend upon experiments, the success of which he could not expect them to believe in until he could give practical evidence that the instrument could do the work proposed. It was the old story repeated, and to be repeated, of genius contending with poverty. He knew what rapid progress was now made in science and art; the idea which he had started might spread like electricity itself, far and wide; the danger was great that some one else, with more time and means, would seize the thought, reduce it to practice, and present it to the world, while he was brooding over it in melancholy indecision and helplessness. His letters to friends in former years very frequently indicated a tendency

Page  288 288 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. to despondency. He was now sinking very low. The apprehension that he might not be able to go on with his work filled him at times with anguish. His brothers comforted, encouraged, and cheered him. In the house of his brother Richard he found a home, and the tender care that he required. Sidney, the other brother, lent him the resources of a powerful intellect. With them it was his habit to consult with the greatest freedom, telling them all the difficulties he encountered, and the steps that he must mount to reach the height of his great conception. Just before he left Europe to return home, he had written to his brothers, and these were his sad words: "I have frequently felt melancholy in thinking of my prospects for encouragement when I return, and your letter found me in one of those moments. You cannot, therefore, conceive with what feelings I read your offer of a room in your new house. Give me a resting-place, and I will yet move the country in favor of the arts. I return with some hopes, but many fears. Will my country employ me on works which may do it honor? I want a commission from Government to execute two pictures from the life of Columbus, and I want eight thousand dollars for each, and on these two I will stake my reputation as an artist." Two or three years were passed in this melancholy mood, his profession as an artist taking him from place to place, as he had commissions that required him to reside for a time here and there. Small opportunity was allowed him to pursue his vision of the Telegraph. " During this time," he says, " I never lost faith in the practicability of the invention, nor abandoned the intention of testing it as soon as I could command the means." On the corner of Nassau and Beekman Streets his brothers afterward erected a building in which were the offices of the newspaper of which they were the editors and proprietors. In the fifth story of this building a room was assigned to him, which for a long time was his study, studio, bedchamber, parlor, kitchen, drawing-room, and workshop. On one side of the room stood the little cot on which he slept, when sleep was kind enough to visit him, in the brief hours which he allowed himself for repose. On the other side of the room, by

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Page  [unnumbered] I i' t'' 1 I 1'N~ ~'' MORSE MAKING HIS OWN INSTRUMENT.

Page  289 HIS MANUAL LABOR. 289 the window, stood his lathe, with which he, his own mechanician and workman, as well as inventor, turned the brass apparatus necessary for him to use in the construction of his instrument. He had, with his own hands, first whittled the models; then with the models he made the moulds and the castings. In the lathe, with the graver's tool, he gave them polish and finish. Into this room were brought to him, from day to day, crackers and the simplest food, which, with tea, prepared by himself, sustained his life, while he toiled incessantly to give form and being to the idea that possessed him. To mingle with the world in the pursuit of his favorite art, or to enjoy the pleasures of social life, of which no man was more fond, would divert his mind from the work in which he was absorbed, while patiently and believingly he hoped to reach the grand result. He had faith in God, and strong confidence in his own ability eventually to make the instrument practically successful. He knew what he had done before. Nothing appeared to him wanting except the pecuniary means to sustain him to the hour of accomplishment. If he should die before it was done, his conception would perish with him. Stimulated by these anticipations and apprehensions, he studied the strictest economy in food and dress, dependent now almost exclusively upon his brothers for the scanty supply which he was willing to receive while engaged in a work which to all others seemed visionary. In the midst of this conflict, the Government was offering to American artists, to be selected by a committee of Congress, commissions to paint pictures for the panels in the Rotunda of the Capitol. Morse was anxious, as we have already seen, to be employed upon one or more of them. The artists of the country urged his selection. He was the President of the National Academy of Design, and there was an eminent fitness in calling him to this national work. No artist in the United States, except Allston, his teacher and friend, had so high and so wide a reputation as Morse, and Allston urged the appointment of Morse, declining to take one of the commissions that was offered to himself. John Quincy Adams, ex-President of the United States, and now a member of the House of Representatives, and on the committee to whom this subject was referred, submit19

Page  290 290 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. ted a resolution in the House that foreign artists be allowed to compete for these commissions, and in support of his resolution alleged that there were no American artists competent to execute the paintings. This allegation gave great and just offence to the artists and the public. A severe and masterly reply to the remarks of Mr. Adams appeared in the New York Evening Post. This reply was written by James Fenimore Cooper, but it was attributed to Mr. Morse, whose pen was well known to be as skillful as his pencil. So far from being its author, Mr. Morse did not know that Mr. Adams had made the offensive remarks until Mr. Cooper came and read to him the reply in the Post. But it was generally understood that Mr. Morse was regarded by Mr. Adams as the author, and that in consequence of that belief the name of Mr. Morse was rejected by the committee. He never recovered from the effects of that blow. Forty years afterward he could not speak of it without emotion. He had consecrated the previous years of his life to preparation for such a work. His brethren of the profession had accorded to him the highest position in their guild. His ambition had fastened upon this as the fitting opportunity to place before his countrymen, in the Capitol, the greatest achievement of his genius and skill. His teacher and friend, Washington Allston, wrote to him these sympathetic lines: " I have learned the disposition of the' pictures.' I had hoped to find your name among the commissioned artists; but I was grieved to find that all my efforts in your behalf have proved fruitless. I know what your disappointment must have been at this result, and most sincerely do I sympathize with you. That my efforts were both sincere and conscientious I hope will be some consolation to you. But let not this disappointment cast you down, my friend. You have it still in your power to let the world know what you can do. Dismiss it, then, from your mind, and determine to paint all the better for it. God bless you! " Your affectionate friend, "WASHINGTON ALLSTON."' But it was well for him, and his country, and the world, that the artist was disappointed: Morse the painter became Morse the inventor. He had indeed been for some years plodding on with his invention, earning his daily bread with his brush, and

Page  291 SYMPATHY OF ARTISTS. 291 by giving lessons in art, but never abandoning the idea that the Telegraph was yet to be accomplished. His brother'artists were grieved at the rejection of their President by the Government, and they made an expression of their chagrin and sympathy by such a testimonial as is doubtless without a parallel in the history of the arts. General Cummings, in his "Annals of the Academy," gives the facts in these words: "The writer called a meeting of artists at his house, March 17th -suggested and arranged an association for the purpose of raising funds, in fifty-dollar shares, for procuring Morse to paint an historical picture-the title,'A Joint-stock Association of Artists for procuring Morse to paint an Historical Picture.' Certificates were immediately prepared and subscribers solicited. In a few days the writer had the satisfaction of obtaining such to the amount of five hundred dollars. John L. Morton, by his exertions, added another five hundred. The efforts of others in a short time increased that amount to two thousand dollars. At that point a great addition was at once made to the fund. A gentleman well known, but who declined to have his name made public, subscribed one thousand-thus making a total of three thousand dollars; and Mr. -, of Brooklyn, generously offered to contribute, free of charge, canvas, and all material required in the execution of the work. Thus armed, the writer and John L. Morton waited on Morse, and communicated the result-the first knowledge he had of the undertaking. The effect was electrical -it aroused him from his depression, and he exclaimed,'that never had he read or known of such an act of professional generosity;' and that he was fully determined to paint the picture-his favorite subject,'The Signing of the First Compact on board the Mayflower'-not of small size, as requested, but of the size of the panels in the Rotunda. That was immediately assented to by the committee, thinking it possible that one or the other of the pictures so ordered might fail in execution-in which case it would afford favorable inducements to its substitution, and of course much to Mr. Morse's profit-as the artists from the first never contemplated taking possession of the picture so executed; it was to remain with Mr. Morse, and for his use and benefit. Two or three installments were collected and paid him, when his departure for Europe, in the furtherance of his Telegraph-the success of which has'won him world-renowned reputation'-caused a suspension of the painting, and delay was requested and acceded to by the subscribers."

Page  292 292 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. When Mr. Morse determined to go abroad, he wrote to Mr. Cummings as follows: "Circumstances relating to the Telegraph, invented by me in 1832, will require my attention for an indefinite time, and I am about to visit Europe, principally in reference to matters in connection with this invention. At the same time, indeed, I have in view some studies connected with the picture which the association have commissioned me to paint for them. Yet, I ought not to conceal from the gentlemen who have so generously formed the association, that circumstances may arise, in relation to the Telegraph, which may make it a paramount duty, to myself and my country, to suspend for a season the commission with which they have honored me." Finding that he could not execute the, painting, and wishing to relieve himself of the position in which he then stood, Mr. Morse returned to the stockholders the amount in full, with interest, and canceled the obligation. In the year 1835 Mr. Morse was appointed Professor of the Literature of the Arts of Design in the New York City University. Before the apartments were completly finished he removed from Greenwich Lane to the third floor, front rooms, in the north wing of the University building, looking out upon Washington Square. "There," he says, " I immediately commenced, with very limited means, to experiment upon my invention.1 My first instrument was made up of an old picture or canvas frame fastened to a table; the wheels of an old wooden clock, moved by a weight to carry the paper forward; three wooden drums, upon one of which the paper was wound and passed over the other two; a wooden pendulum suspended to the top piece of the picture or stretching frame, and vibrating across the paper as it passes over the centre wooden drum; a pencil at the lower end of the pendulum, in contact with the paper; an electro-magnet fastened to a shelf across the picture or stretchingframe, opposite to an armature made fast to the pendulum; a type rule and type for breaking the circuit, resting on an endless band, composed of carpet-binding, which passed'over two wooden rollers, moved by a wooden crank, and carried forward by points projecting 1 See appendix A for illustrated history of the invention.

Page  293 HIS FIRST APPARATUS. 293 from the bottom of the rule downward into the carpet-binding; a lever, with a small weight on the upper side, and a tooth projecting downward at one end, operated on by the type, and a metallic fork also projecting downward over two mercury-cups, and a short circuit of wire, embracing the helices of the electro-magnet connected with the positive and negative poles of the battery and terminating in the mercury-cups. When the instrument was at rest the circuit was broken at the mercury-cups; as soon as the first type in the type-rule (put in motion by turning the wooden crank) came in contact with the tooth on the lever, it raised that end of the lever and depressed the other, bringing the prongs of the fork down into the mercury, thus closing the circuit; the current passing through the helices of the electro-magnet caused the pendulum to move and-the pencil to make an oblique mark upon the paper, which, in the mean time, had been put in motion over the wooden drum. The tooth in the lever falling into the first two cogs of the types, the circuit was broken when the pendulum returned to its former position, the pencil making another mark as it returned across the paper. Thus, as the lever was alternately raised and depressed by the points of the type, the pencil passed to and fro across the slip of paper passing under it, making a mark resembling a succession of V's. The spaces between the types caused the pencil to mark horizontal lines, long or short, in proportion to the length of the spaces. With this apparatus, rude as it was, and completed before the first of the year 1836, I was enabled to and did mark down telegraphic intelligible signs, and to make and did make distinguishable sounds for telegraphing; and, having arrived at that point, I exhibited it to some of my friends early in that year, and among others to Professor Leonard D. Gale, who was a college professor in the university.1 I also experimented with the chemical power of the electric current in 1836, and succeeded in marking my telegraphic signs upon paper dipped in turmeric and a solution of the sulphate of soda (as well as other salts), by passing the current through it. I was soon satisfied, however, that the electro-magnetic power was more available for telegraphic purposes and possessed many advantages over any other, and I turned my thoughts in that direction. Early in 1836 I procured forty feet of wire, and putting it in the circuit I found that my battery of one cup was not sufficient to work my instrument. This result suggested to me the probability that the magnetism to be obtained from the electric current would diminish in proportion as the 1 See page 299.

Page  294 294 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. circuit was lengthened, so as to be insufficient for any practical purposes at great distances; and to remove that probable obstacle to my success I conceived the idea of combining two or more circuits together in the manner described in my first patent, each with an independent battery, making use of the magnetism of the current on the first to close and break the second; the second, the third, and so on. This contrivance was fully set forth in my patents. My chief concern, therefore, on my subsequent patents was to ascertain to what distance from the battery sufficient magnetism could be obtained to vibrate a piece of metal, knowing that, if I could obtain the least motion at the distance of eight or ten miles, the ultimate object was within my grasp. A practical mode of communicating the impulse of one circuit to another, such as that described in mS patent of 1840, was matured as early as the spring of 1837, and exhibited then to Professor Gale, my confidential friend. " Up to the autumn of 1837 my telegraphic apparatus existed in so rude a form that I felt a reluctance to have it seen. My means were very limited-so limited as to preclude the possibility of constructing an apparatus of such mechanical finish as to warrant my success in venturing upon its public exhibition. I had no wish to expose to ridicule the representative of so many hours of laborious thought. Prior to the summer of 1837, at which time Mr. Alfred Vail's attention became attracted to my Telegraph, I depended upon my pencil for subsistence. Indeed, so straitened were my circumstances that, in order to save time to carry out my invention and to economize my scanty means, I had for many months lodged and eaten in my studio, procuring my food in small quantities from some grocery, and preparing it myself. To conceal from my friends the stinted manner in which I lived, I was in the habit of bringing my food to my room in the evenings, and this was my mode of life for many years." In the year 1853, Professor Morse alluded to these days of trial in some remarks at a meeting of the Association of the Alumni of the University of New York City: "Yesternight, on once more entering your chapel, I saw the same marble staircase and marble floors I once so often trod, and so often with a heart and head overburdened with almost crushing anxieties. Separated from the chapel by but a thin partition was that room I occupied, now your Philomathean Hall, whose wallshad thoughts and mental struggles, with the alternations of joys

Page  295 INVENTION OF THE RELAY. 295 and sorrows, the power of being daguerreotyped upon themwould show a thickly-studded gallery of evidence that there the Briarean infant was born who has stretched forth his arms with the intent to encircle the world. Yes, that room of the University was the birthplace of the Recording Telegraph. Attempts, indeed, have been made to assign to it other parentage, and to its birthplace other localities. Personally, I have very little anxiety on this point, except that the truth should not suffer; for I have a consciousness which neither sophistry nor ignorance can shake, that that room is the place of its birth, and a confidence, too, that its cradle is in hands that will sustain its rightful claim." "In 1835," says Professor Horsford, " Morse made his discovery of the relay, the most brilliant of all the achievements to which his name must be forever attached. It was the discovery of a means by which the current, which through distance from its source had become feeble, could be reinforced or renewed. This discovery, according to the different objects for which it is employed, is variously known as the registering magnet, the local circuit, the marginal circuit, the repeater, etc. It made transmission from one point on a main line through indefinitely great distances, and through an indefinite number of branch lines, and to an indefinite number of way-stations, and registration at all, possible and practicable, from a single act of a single operator." Professor Morse also exhibited to Professor Horsford one of the instruments which illustrated his inventive genius. It resembled, in external appearance, a small melodeon, having a keyboard, on which were the letters, the figures, periods, commas, etc. These keys were levers. The ends of the levers, distant from the seat of the operator, were in connection with brass circular disks, upon the rims of which were prominences and depressions of unequal length, so arranged that the prominences would close and the depressions open the magnetic circuit, and thus magnetize and demagnetize a bar of soft iron. When magnetized, the bar of iron drew to itself one end of a lever, having an iron armature, to the other end of which a pencil or pen was attached, the point of which, by this action of the magnet, was pressed against a moving ribbon of paper; when the bar was demagnetized, the lever was restored to its original position by a spring, and the pencil lifted from the paper. It is easy to see that an arrangement of prominences and depressions, or conductors and non-conductors, on the brass circles might be so contrived that each key should produce its own partic

Page  296 296 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. ular set of lines, dots, and spaces. This was the first practical Registering Telegraph. Its invention dates October, 1832, on the Sully. Its first testing was made in 1835. The piano key-board of Morse, and its complex devices for interrupting and closing the circuit, gave place, as the result of practical experiment, before the issue of the patent, to the very simple device of the single key, with which we are all familiar. The pencil and pen gave place to a stylus-a simple, hard point, resting upon a ribbon of paper, moving at a uniform rate, immediately over a groove. His plan, from the outset, contemplated a single current and circuit. After the discovery of Steinheil, that the earth might be used for a part of the circuit, Morse adopted the arrangement of a single line of wire between the stations. "In 1836, and the early part of 1837," Professor Morse says, "I directed my experiments mainly to modifications of the marking apparatus, contrivances for using fountain-pens, marking with a hard point through pentagraphic or blackened paper, at one time on a revolving disk, spirally from the centre, at another on a cylinder, by which means'a large, ordinary sheet of paper might be so written upon that it could be read as a commonplace-book, and bound for reference in volumes, and devising modes of marking upon chemically-prepared paper. As my means and the duties of my profession would admit, the spring and autumn of 1837 were employed in improving the instrument, varying the modes of writing, experimenting with plumbago and various kinds of ink or coloring-matter, substituting a pen for a pencil, and devising a mode of writing, on a whole sheet of paper instead of on a strip of ribbon; and, in the latter part of August or the beginning of September of that\year, the instrument was shown in the cabinet of the University to numerous visitors, operating through a circuit of seventeen hundred feet of wire running back and forth in that room. "At this date (early in 1837) the public attention had been drawn to the subject of telegraphs by rather pompous announcements of marvelous improvements by two French gentlemen of the names of Gonon and Servell, improvements so ambiguously described and mystified, that I was deceived by them into the belief that their invention must be an electric telegraph. "NEWLY-INVENTED TELEGRAPH.-We take the following from a Washington letter in the Baltimore Patriot:'Mr. Gonon and his associate, Mr. Servell, have, after many years' application to the

Page  297 FIRST PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT. 297 subject, invented an important system of telegraphs, which casts into the shade every thing of the same kind that has yet been attempted. By their admirable plan, they can communicate every kind of information, word by word, and punctuate the same, without using more signals than words, and with as much rapidity as a person can write or even speak! They have received the most flattering encouragement from those literary and scientific gentlemen to whom they have explained the system, and not a doubt is entertained that it will accomplish the purposes of the inventors, and realize all that has been anticipated for it. Mr. Gonon assures me that he will be able to communicate a dispatch of one hundred words from New York to New Orleans in half an hour!-and those who are thoroughly acquainted with the system confirm his promises. How elementary does every other system appear, in comparison to that which can accomplish such an object! The imagination is overpowered in contemplating the consequences of such an achievement of human ingenuity. Distance is annihilated. Thousands of miles no longer divide us. We know on the instant, as it were, the actions, the wishes, the determinations of our fellowbeings of other States. Fortunate it is that we live in an age for whose intellectual progress nothing is too ripe.' "My brother, the editor of the New York Observer, copied the above announcement into his paper, and, in a few words, stated the fact of the existence of my invention, and showed how, in one mode, electricity might be made to answer the purpose of telegraphic communication-a mode of his own-not attempting to describe mine; and the following was the first public mention of the Morse Telegraph: C"We know nothing of the telegraph of Messrs. Gonon and Servell, except what is related in the above paragraph; but we do know that a gentleman of our acquaintance, several years since, suggested that intelligence might be communicated almost instantaneously, hundreds if not thousands of miles, by means of very fine wires, properly coated to protect them from moisture, and extending between places thus widely separated. It is well known that the electric fluid occupies no perceptible time in passing many miles on a wire, and, if it is possible by connecting one end of the wire with an electrical or galvanic battery to produce any sensible effect whatever at the other, it is obvious that, if there are twenty-four wires, each representing a letter of the alphabet, they may be connected with the battery successively, in any order, and, if so connected in the order of the letters of any word or sentence, that word or sentence could be read or written by a person standing at the other end of the wires. All the letters of a paragraph in a newspaper could thus be touched successively by a man in Philadelphia, and the contents, verbatim et literatim, be conveyed to New York as fast as a compositor could set up the

Page  298 298 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. type! It is not impossible that the time may be near when speeches in Congress, taken down by reporters, and conveyed by these " electric telegraphs " to New York or New Orleans, may be in type, printed, circulated, and read within a few hours after the voice of the speaker has ceased at Washington. The wires necessary for a distance of a hundred miles need not weigh many pounds, and if inclosed in an India-rubber tube, and supported on high poles erected along the route, at intervals of four or five hundred feet, could be extended through an immense distance at a trifling expense. The feasibility of the project depends entirely upon the practicability of producing any sensible effect at one end of a long wire, by connecting the other end with an electrical or galvanic battery.''The improvements of the French gentlemen, promising such miraculous results, proved, on inquiry, to be only some modification of the now almost universally-exploded aerial telegraph, improvements upon Chappe's semaphore, and having no relation to the Electric Telegraphs of modern days." Whatever it was, the plan of the Frenchmen commanded the attention of Congress; a bill was introduced to refund to its projectors the money they had expended in experiments, but it has passed out of sight, and the " impossible " mode of Professor Morse connects all quarters of the globe. The recollections of those who were witnesses of Professor Morse's experiments, or of their results, form the most valuable portion of this history, and, though necessarily repetitious, are here recorded. Professor L. D. Gale gives the minutest account of the birth of the invention. He says: " I was a colleague professor in the University of the City of New York, in January, 1836, with Professor Morse, who had rooms in the University building. During the month of January he invited me into his private room in the University, where I saw for the first time certain apparatus constituting his electro-magnetic telegraph. The invention at that time consisted of the following pieces of apparatus: " First. A train of clock-wheels, being part of a common wooden clock, adapted to regulate the motion of a strip of paper, or ribbon formed of strips of paper pasted together, end to end, about one and a half inch wide. "Second. Three cylinders or drums of wood, arranged as in the accompanying drawings of the apparatus, which drawings represent the apparatus essentially as then constructed, to wit: A, B, C, are

Page  299 PROFESSOR GALE'S ACCOUNT. 299 the cylinders; A is the paper cylinder from which the paper is unrolled, passing over cylinder B to cylinder C, which is connected with and moved by the clock machinery of D, which is the wooden FIG. I. e ctre of cyliner, B hving its pivt a hils p ulu i~l~lllliillil a~li fll!lill l!l i FIG.2. wooden pendulum, F of the shape delineated, was suspended over the centre of cylinder, B having its pivot ato. This pendulum had

Page  300 300 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. its motion at right angles or across the paper, when the paper was in motion. In the lower part of the pendulum, through two crosspieces, was fixed a pencil-case, in which a pencil moved easily up and down, and was kept in constant contact with the paper by a light weight, g. At h was a projecting shelf from the frame XX, upon which shelf was an electro-magnet fixed, while the armature to be attracted by the said magnet was fixed upon the pendulum. The wires or conductors from the helices of the magnet passed, one to one pole of a single-pair galvanic battery, I, while the other wire passed to a cup of mercury, k, at the portrule. The other pole of the battery was connected by a wire to the other cup of mercury, 1. " Third. The portrule, represented below the table. This portrule was a rude frame, containing two cylinders, LL, about two inches diameter and two inches long; one of them was turned by a crank, and they were connected by a band of green-worsted binding about one and a half inch in diameter; M was the rule or composingstick; it was made by two small thin rules about two feet long, side by side, but separated about the eighth of an inch from each other, forming a sort of trough in which were set up the type hereafter to be described, the cogs of which type are seen projecting on the top of the rule, M. At N two standards were raised from the sides of the long frame of the portrule and united at the top, in which standards was suspended a lever, 00. At one end of this lever was a fork of copper wire, to be plunged, when the lever was depressed, into the two cups of mercury, k and l; the other end of the lever bore a weight to keep that end down, and beneath the weight was a tooth like those upon the keys of a hand-organ. " Fourth. There was a series of pieces of thin type-metal, which Professor Morse called type, and which he showed me also in drawings in a sketch-book, which drawings he informed me he had made on board the ship. These are accurately represented in the subjoined drawing. They consisted of eleven pieces, having from one (1) to five (5) cogs each, except one, which was used as a space; the first five numbers consisted of cogs, from one to five respectively, with a short space after; the second five numbers consisted also of cogs from one to five respectively, with a long space after, a space double the length of the first. " The operation of the apparatus when used was this: Suppose that the numbers 456, 320, and 4, were to be the numbers desired to be sent, the type 4, 5, 6, were set up in the rule M; after which a space was put to separate the whole number from the next, and so

Page  301 PROFESSOR GALE'S ACCOUNT. 301 on. The rule, M, was then placed on the band of the portrule, and by turning the crank the rule was sent gradually forward; the cogs of the type operating the lever, O 0, to break and close the circuit of the battery, J. When the circuit was closed, the magnet, A, attracted the pendulum, F, causing a movement of the pencil, g, of about a fourth of an inch. The pencil being in contact with the paper, if the paper moved in the direction of the arrow, or vice versa, a continuous straight line was marked upon the paper, while the pendulum was stationary either at one end or the other limit of its motion, but when attracted by the magnet from one limit to the other, and suddenly released by the cessation of the magnetic force, it marked a V-shaped point, as in the' example of imprinting' in the drawing, and the successive breakings and closings of the circuit by the cogs of the type caused the points to be impressed or marked upon the moving paper in the manner there shown. By reading the extremities of the V-shaped point or points the figures intended were readily recognized. "During the year 1836, and beginning of 1837, the studies of Professor Morse on his telegraph I found much interrupted by his attention to his professional duties. I understood that want of pecuniary means prevented him from procuring to be made such mechanical improvements, and such substantial workmanship, as would make the operation of his invention more exact. In the months of March and April, 1837, the announcement of an extraordinary telegraph on the visual plan (as it afterward proved to be), the invention of two French gentlemen, of the names of Gonon and Servell, was going the rounds of the papers. The thought occurred to me, as well as to Professor Morse and some others of his friends, that the invention of his electro-magnetic telegraph had somehow become known, and was the origin of the new telegraph thus conspicuously announced. This announcement at once aroused Professor Morse to renewed exertions to bring the new invention creditably before the public, and to consent to a public announcement of the existence of his invention. From April to September, 1837, Professor Morse and myself were engaged together in the work of preparing magnets, winding wire, constructing batteries, etc., in the Uuniversity, for an experiment on a larger but still very limited scale, in the little leisure that each had to spare, and being at the same time much cramped for funds. The labors of Professor Morse at this period were mostly directed to modifications of his instruments for marking, contriving the best modes

Page  302 302 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. of marking, varying the pencil, the pen, using plumbago, and ink, and varying also the form of the paper, from a slip of paper to a sheet. The latter part of August, 1837, the operation of the instruments was shown to numerous visitors at the University. It was early a question between Professor Morse and myself, where was the limit of the magnetic power to move a lever. I expressed a doubt whether a lever could be moved by this power at a distance of twenty miles, and my settled conviction was that it could not be done with sufficient force to mark characters on paper at one hundred miles' distance. To this Professor Morse was accustomed to reply,'If Ican succeed in working a magnet ten miles, I can go round the globe.' The chief anxiety, at this stage of the invention, was to ascertain the utmost limits of distance at which Mr. Morse could work or move a lever by magnetic power. He often said to me,' It matters not how delicate the movement may be, if I can obtain it at all, it is all I want.' Professor Morse often referred to the number of stations which might be required, and which, he observed, would add to the complication and expense. He alb ways expressed his confidence of success in propagating magnetic power through any distance of electric conductors which circumstances might render desirable. This plan was thus often explained to me:' Suppose,' said Professor Morse,'that in experimenting on twenty miles of wire we should find that the power of magnetism is so feeble that it will but move a lever with certainty a hair's breadth; that would be insufficient, it may be, to write or print, yet it would be sufficient to close and break another or a second circuit twenty miles farther, and this second circuit could be made, in the same manner, to break and close a third circuit twenty miles farther; and so on around the globe.' "This general statement of the means to be resorted to, now embraced in what is called the receiving magnet (relays), to render practical writing or printing by telegraph, through long distances, was shown to me more in detail early in the spring of the year 1837. " The apparatus was arranged on a plan substantially as indicated in the drawings. One (1) is a battery at one terminus of a line of conductors representing twenty miles in length, from one pole of which the conductor proceeds to the helix of an electro-magnet at the other terminus (the helix forming part of the conductor); thence it returns to the battery end, terminating in a mercury-cup, o. From the contiguous mercury-cup, p, a wire proceeds to the other

Page  303 EXHIBITION OF THE TELEGRAPH. 303 pole of the battery; when the fork of the lever, c, unites the two cups of mercury the circuit is complete, and the magnet, b, is charged, and attracts the armature of the lever, d, which connects the circuit of battery 2 in the same manner, which again operates in turn the NC0 a 20 MILES 20MILES lever, e, twenty miles farther, and so on. This was the plan then and there revealed and shown to me by Professor Morse, and which, so far as I know, has constituted an essential part of his electromagnetic telegraph from that date to the present time. "On Saturday, the 2d day of September, 1837, Professor Daubeny, of the English Oxford University, being on a visit to this country, was invited with a few friends to see the operation of the telegraph, in its then rude form, in the cabinet of the New York University, where it then had been put up with a circuit of 1,700 feet of copper wire, stretched back and forth in that long room. Professor Daubeny, Professor Torrey, and Mr. Alfred Vail, were present, among others. This exhibition of the telegraph, although of very rude and imperfectly-constructed machinery, demonstrated to all present the practicability of the invention, and it resulted in enlisting the means, the skill, and the zeal of Mr. Alfred Vail, who, early the next week, called at the rooms and had a more perfect explanation from Professor Morse of the character of the invention. The doubt to be dispelled in Mr. Vail's mind was whether the power by magnetism could be propelled to such a distance as to be practically effective. This doubt was dissipated in a few moments' conversation with Professor Morse, and I have ever been under the full conviction that it was the means then disclosed by Professor Morse to Mr. Vail, to wit, the plan of repeating the power of magnetism at any distance required, that induced Mr. Alfred Vail, and his brother, Mr. George Vail, at once to interest themselves in the invention, and to furnish Professor Morsewith the means, material, and labor, for an experiment on a larger scale." The writer of this memoir having had an intimate acquaintance of more than thirty years with Robert G. Rankin, Esq., whose residence was formerly on Washington Square, on which

Page  304 304 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. also stands the University, and knowing his scientific attainments and early acquaintance with Professor Morse's experiments, addressed to Mr. Rankin a letter of inquiry, to which he sent the following reply: "NEWBURGH, N. Y., April 25, 1873. "Professor Morse was one of the purest and noblest men of any age. I believe I was among the earliest outside of his family circle to whom he communicated his design to encircle the globe with wire. I was some years since called upon as a witness in the great Louisville suit, but my testimony on that trial was made before a commission from the court, and was confined to technical answers (in the form of an affidavit) to written interrogations, and of course I was restricted in my testimony from testifying to much I might have said, and would have been pleased to say, and I rejoice in the opportunity of giving my recollections. Some time in the fall of 1835 I was passing along the easterly walk of Washington Parade-ground, leading from Waverly Place to Fourth Street, when I heard my name called. On turning round, I saw, over the picketfence, an outstretched arm, from a person standing in the middle or main entrance-door of the unfinished University building of New York, and immediately recognized the professor, who beckoned me toward him. On meeting and exchanging salutations-and you know how genial his were-he took me by the arm, and said: "'I wish you to go up into my sanctum and examine a piece of mechanism, which, if you may not believe in, you, at least, will not laugh at, as I fear some others will. I want you to give me your frank opinion, as a friend, for I know your interest in and love of the applied sciences.' " On entering the sanctum in the third story of the finished part of the building, the first thing my eye fell upon was an instrument not dissimilar in outward appearances to one of our modern melodeons, with a sort of key-board, like a movable series of wooden strips. Around the room were placed coils of wire, and many tools and articles generally used for mechanical purposes, besides jars, apparently of chemicals, and implements usuallyeassociated with galvanic experiments. My first exclamation was: "' Well, professor, what are you at now? magnetism, electricity, music' (for I supposed the latter machine was some musical instrument)? "His reply was

Page  305 THE NATURAL AND MORAL. 305 "'Well, now, let me do the talking, and you may ask questions after I am through. You see those coils? well, they contain a continuous uninterrupted line of wire of' (so many-I forget how many)' thousands of feet' (one or more miles in length).'You see that battery there?-this the positive pole, that the negative pole, all connected with that key-board, and those keys are to connect and interrupt the circuit, and in so doing produce the symbols of letters; although this instrument must be simplified, and is not yet what I want.' "He made many explanations respecting the process of conductivity and continuity. A long silence on the part of each ensued, which was at length broken by my exclamation"'Well, professor, you have a pretty play!-theoretically true, but practically useful only as a mantel ornament, or for a mistress in the parlor to direct the maid in the cellar! But, professor, cui bono? In imagination one can make a new earth, and improve all the land communications of our old one; but, my unfortunate practicality stands in the way of my comprehension as yet.' "We then had a long conversation on the subject of magnetism and its modifications, and, if I do not recollect the very words which clothed his thoughts, they were substantially as follows: He had been long impressed with the belief that God had created the great forces of Nature not only as manifestations of his own infinite power, but as expressions of good-will to man, to do him good, and that every one of God's great forces could yet be utilized for man's welfare; that modern science was constantly evolving from the hitherto hidden secrets of Nature some new development promotive of human welfare, and that at no distant day magnetism would do more for the advancement of human sociology than any of the material forces now known; that he would scarcely dare to compare spiritual with material forces, yet that analogically magnetism would do in the advancement of human welfare what the Spirit of God would do in the moral renovation of man's nature; that it would educate and enlarge the forces of the world. He'then went on to say that he believed he had discovered a practical way of using magnetism as a line or means of communication,,and interchange of thought in written language, upon every and all pursuits and subjects that engage the human mind, irrespective of distance and time save that required for manipulation, and that it would ultimately become a daily instrumentality in domestic as well as public life. He said he had felt as if he was doing a great work for 20

Page  306 306 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. God's glory as well as for man's welfare; that such had been his long-cherished thought. His whole soul and heart appeared filled with a glow of love and good-will, and his sensitive and impassioned nature seemed almost to transform him in my eyes into a prophet. "We gradually came back to the practicalities of the matter before us, and after a while I exclaimed: "'But now, professor, how about rivers, and oceans, and deserts, and bridges, and unpopulated regions, for you know there are a few of such left on this globe of ours?' He replied, substantially, that, if his discovery was founded on truth, that truth would find a means of passing under, over, and through all such obstacles. " We had a prolonged discussion, my own skepticism intensified, perhaps, by his earnestness, and then gradually flickering out like a painter's bow, with the receding sun's rays. Theoretically, I admitted his correctness; but doubts of its practicability had not yet yielded to full belief. Yet there gradually loomed up before my mind a vision, dim, it is true, yet outlined in some great future; a coming magnitude I could not fully comprehend; a sort of mighty handwriting on the surface-walls of this great globe of ours, prophesying the commingling and unification of nations; of the gospel, on some kind of heaven-spread wings, flitting to and fro over the earth, and ignorant and uncivilized humanity brought into subjection to our heaven-born Christianity. "I had frequent and earnest interviews with the professor for years after, and I need not add that I was a believer in'Morse's Telegraph.' I recollect well the discussions we had in regard to modes of transmission, in carrying the wires under or over the surface, crossing draw-bridges, and have vivid recollections of (suggested) lofty spars, like ships' masts, and he proposed crossing Hudson River by wires from Storm King to the east shore; and earnest talk and cipherings on the tensile strength and form of wires, or chains, of sundry self weight-bearing conductors. But the world knows the skepticism that enshrouded even the national wisdom in Congress, continued for years, and the almost heart and soul rending trials the professor passed through, and when he at length showed practically to the world'what hath God wrought' through him, and the many that endeavored to detract from his well-earned fame. It will take generations yet to come to commensurate their conditions with his inventions.

Page  307 REV. DR. TAPPAN'S TESTIMONY. 307 "It is among the most delightful of my'recollections' of the Professor-and I have very often related them to friends-that I scarce recollect a conversation on the great subject-the last at his own house, not long prior to his death-that he did not in some way suggest the thought of God's wondrous goodness in enduing the insensate matter of earth with such an energizing material force as magnetism, and permitting him to be an instrument of utilizing it for the welfare of man.' Si Deus nobiscum, quis contra nos?"' This conversation with Mr. Rankin occurred before the inventor had his instrument in working order. His colleague, Rev. Henry B. Tappan, D. D., LL. D., and subsequently President of the University of Michigan, an eminent philosophical Divine, having met Professor Morse in Berlin in the year 1868, referred, in conversation, to the fact that he was one of the early witnesses of the operation of the Telegraph. In reply to a note from Professor Morse, Dr. Tappan wrote: "The University was opened in the autumn of 1832. I was one of the first professors elected. In the same year you returned from Europe. Some time after your return, and when you yourself had been elected a Professor, you related to me, in a free, familiar, and extended conversation, how your mind had been occupied during your last voyage with the idea of transmitting and recording words through distance by means of an electro-magnetic arrangement. The idea, you said, had haunted you, whether you lay in your berth or walked the deck, and that you had, at length, arrived at a definite conception of the required arrangement. I cannot recall all the details of this explanation; I well recollect that it contained the germ of what you afterward so successfully accomplished. "In 1835 you had advanced so far that you were prepared to give, on a small scale, a practical demonstration of the possibility of transmitting and recording words through distance, by means of an electro-magnetic arrangement. I was one of the limited circle whom you invited to witness the first experiments. In a long room of the University you had wires extended from end to end where the magnetic apparatus was arranged. It is not necessary for me to describe particulars which have now become so familiar to every one. The fact which I now recall with the liveliest interest, and which I mentioned in conversation at Mr. Bancroft's as one of the choicest recollections of my life, was that of the first transmission and recording of a telegraphic dispatch. I suppose, of course, that

Page  308 308 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. you had already made these experiments before the company arrived whom you had invited. But I may claim to have witnessed the first transmission and recording of words by lightning ever made public. All who were present were invited to write and send off dispatches from one end of the room to be recorded at the other. I recollect full well my delight at hearing the words which I silently gave in at one end, accurately read off from the strip of paper at the other. The fact was established that words-that the thoughts, of course, expressed by words, could be communicated and recorded with lightning-speed from one place to another. It was one of those startling facts which open to us immeasurable consequences; and justify the imagination in its pictures of the future, and make our dreams but struggles to anticipate surpassing realities. "Permit me, also, to say that I most sincerely sympathized in the triumph you had won; and that to me it was a reflection full of satisfaction that you, a friend of the philosophic dreamer and poet Coleridge, and the early associate of Leslie and Allston, had, while wandering among the forms of ideal beauty, found a most stupendous practical fact; thus repeating what men are so slow to believe, and yet which so frequently appears, as in Michael Angelo, Milton, and Fulton, that he who pursues the Beautiful may also think the True, and accomplish the Good. The arrangement which you exhibited, on the above-mentioned occasion, as well as the mode of receiving the dispatches, were substantially the same as that which you now employ. I feel certain that you had then already grasped the whole invention, however you may have since perfected the details. I met you, afterward, when you were engaged in making a larger experiment by laying the wires underground between Washington and Baltimore-an experiment whose failure led to a most important result —that of putting into practice your early mode of the elevation of the wires upon poles in the open air; thus escaping the disturbing influences of the earth, and achieving the most economic and rapid execution of the work." Daniel Huntington, one of the great artists of our country, was at this. time a pupil of Mr. MQrse, and this is his testimony: "I studied my profession with Professor Morse, and was his pupil from the month of May, 1833, to the 1st of May, 1835, occupying rooms with him, first in Greenwich Lane, and afterward at the New York City University, where he removed, early in the au

Page  309 DANIEL HUNTINGTON. 309 tumn of 1835, into his newly-prepared rooms in that building, on Washington Square. At the time Professor Morse removed into his new rooms, which were in the third story front, of the north wing, that part of the building was not finished; the lower rooms particularly, and the stairway into the third story, were unfinished. While Professor Morse was in Greenwich Lane he seemed particularly impatient to get into his new rooms, in order to put into operation his plan for an electric telegraph, allusions to which he occasionally made. He had no sooner removed into the rooms in the University than he constructed an instrument which showed how he intended marking characters for letters at a distance; I distinctly remember the general appearance of the instrument and the kind of characters which it marked. The drawing1 calls to my nind, as a familiar acquaintance, the appearance of the instrument. I am quite sure that I saw the instrument in operation some months previous to the time of my leaving Professor Morse. On the 15th of November, 1835, I took a room at the University by myself, which I hired, and my recollection is, that I saw that instrument in operation at or about the time I took that room. I cannot state the precise date." This intelligent testimony of Mr. Huntington makes it as certain as human testimony can make any thing, that the instrument was in actual operation in the year 1835. Hon. Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, being present at a banquet tendered to Professbr Morse, in Paris, in 1858, gave his pleasant recollections: " It was in early boyhood, under my father's roof, that I made the acquaintance of our guest, then eminent in his profession as an artist, and at the head of the National Academy of Design. I soon learned to appreciate and admire his intelligence, his amiability, and his worth. To a friendly intercourse thus established, and much cherished on my part, I was indebted for an early explanation of his discovery, soon after his return from Europe, in 1832. Some time afterward, in the early part of 1836, in a room in the New York University, I witnessed the telegraph in operation, recording messages, transmitted through some mile Qr more of wire, suspended in successive turns around the walls; there was a small battery in one corner of the room, and a sort of clock-work machinery in another, and the mysterious little click, click, click, of 1 See the drawing in Dr. Gale's statement.

Page  310 310 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the former produced a simultaneous record on the other. Theory was reduced to practice, and the telegraph demonstrated its efficiency. During the winter of 1844-'45, Professor Morse was a frequent (as he was ever a welcome) visitor in my apartment, in Washington. The practicability of transmitting signs by submerged wires had been then demonstrated; but the distance to which they might be transmitted was of course still a problem. Mr. Morse, however, unhesitatingly predicted the direct communication between.Europe and America; he told me that I would probably live to witness it." Rev. Mr. Seeley, of the American chapel in Paris, said at the same dinner: "It seems but yesterday that I was a freshman in the New York City University, and our honored guest Professor of the Fine Arts in the institution, and President of the National Academy of Design in the same city; At that time the Professor was reported to be engaged in labors which pertained to science rather than to art; and there was many an ominous shake of the head, accompanied by expressions of apprehension that one of the best artists of our country was sacrificing his genius to a chimera. He persisted, however, and one afternoon in the spring, or early summer of 1836, I had the privilege of witnessing an experiment made by him in a large room of the University building. There was present the Professor, with one or two assistants, and several leading gentlemen of the city. A line of slender wire, one mile in length, was stretched around the room in a remarkable manner.... To one end of the wire was attached a pen or pencil, which was held over a strip of white paper..... The professor proposed to demonstrate the possibility of transmitting and recording messages, verbatim et literatim, over any length of wire. Some one whispered a sentence in his ear, and in a few seconds the white paper at the opposite end of the line was covered with broken lines. Time passed over, when one day in 1842 I entered one of the upper lofts of the building in which the New York Observer was published, and found our Professor of the Fine Arts superintending experiments in the manufacture of submarine cables..For he had already projected the extension of telegraphic lines under water." Commodore Shubrick, of the United States Navy, in a letter dated Washington, D. C., October 5, 1860, writes to Professor Morse:

Page  311 THE TELEGRAPH MADE. 311 "I have a distinct recollection that in the winter of 1835, being in the city of New York, I was walking with our lamented friend, the late Fenimore Cooper, when we met you, and you invited us to your room in the University, and that you then and there showed us the operation of your telegraphic instrument. The fact is impressed on my mind by the remarks made by Mr. Cooper on the wonderful effects which would grow out of the discovery, if successful (of which he seemed to have no doubt), on the intercommunication of the world. I have frequently seen Mr. Paul F. Cooper, son of our late friend, who recollects having seen the operation of your instrument during the same winter, though he was then a small boy." The Professor took possession of his rooms in the University'in the year 1835, where he set up his rude apparatus, and called in his friends to see its operation. There he wrought through the year 1836, probably the darkest and longest year of his life, giving lessons to pupils in the art of painting while his mind was in the throes of the great invention. He needed only the means to demonstrate, on a scale to command attention, that he had reached a result of incalculable interest and advantage to the human race. Professor Gale has told us of the struggles of Professor Morse during that year; of the necessary occupation of his mind with the instruction of students, and his utter inability, from the want of money, to bring his invention before the public. In 1835 Dr. Tappan and others had seen the apparatus at work and WRITING substantially in the same manner as it writes now. "The words which I silently gave at one end were accurately read off from the strip of paper at the other," says Dr. Tappan. Up to this hour no human aid had been rendered to the solitary inventor. The instrument was constructed. The alphabet was formed. The writing at a distance was done. The TELEGRAPH was made. It was susceptible of vast improvements; they have been in progress up to this time, and will be continued so long as art and science advance. But as the invention was ORIGINAL with Professor Morse, so the execution was his, and his only. This declaration deserves the more emphasis because every thing essential to the completeness of the Telegraph was afterward claimed by or for others! But we have seen, and proved by the most competent witnesses,

Page  312 312 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. that when the Telegraph was first exhibited by Professor Morse, and before he had called in the aid of any other hand or mind, it was a complete instrument, with a complete alphabet, doing the same work that is done with the Morse instrument to-day. Among the spectators of the successful operation of the instrument on the 2d day of September, 1837, was Alfred Vail. He was born in Morris County, New Jersey, in 1807, and was graduated at the University of the City of New York in 1836. When he first saw the experiments of the Telegraph in the rooms of Professor Morse he grasped the idea, and formed an instant resolution to pursue the subject. The only point on which he desired satisfaction, and at the same point all appeared to hesitate, was the possibility of no limit to the distance through which the current of electricity would flow. This was the link to connect experiment with success. If this link failed, the whole thing was a failure. It was plain enough that the Telegraph was a completed fact. Morse had made an instrument by which words were written at a distance, in characters intelligible to himself and easily learned by others. Such an instrument was now in operation. Men of science and men of business had seen it and wondered. Before their eyes had been stretched a wire 1,700 feet in length, and, with the instrument which Morse had constructed and was now using, words were silently but evidently written down at one extremity of the wire, when communicated at the other. The semaphores or signals of other electricians required watching, and the signals were slowly interpreted. Morse wrote and registered his messages. The work was done and recorded. It was a writing-at-a-distance machine; a Telegraph; the only Telegraph! But the grand question to be decided by experiment, as Morse had already demonstrated to his own satisfaction and that of others, was the possibility of indefinite propagation. Here came in his relay-a conception and production scarcely less important than the instrument itself. Mr. Vail would have this point clearly illustrated and settled, and he would then cheerfully adopt the professor's favorite remark, that, "if he could succeed in working it ten miles, he could make it go around the globe."

Page  313 THE VAILS OF SPEEDWELL. 313 "The relay," says Professor Horsford, "is a discovery as well as a device or a series of devices or inventions. It had its birth in the effort to answer the question, How can the current, which has become feeble through distance from the battery, be reenforced? There was need of some principle akin to that which supplies a locomotive and train with fuel; water, and oil, without stopping. The stopping consumes time. To be obliged to repeat the message every few miles would be to abandon it. It would be expensive as well as time-consuming. Now, the reinforcement of the current at a distance from the prime station, through the very instrumentality of the message sent, is an absolute new departure. It is a grand idea primarily, and secondarily it involves inventions of mechanical devices to effect several things. In the first place, there is wanted an electro-magnet at the second station, operated through the battery at the primary station. This magnet must draw its armature not to the face of the magnet, but only very near it, and in so doing close the circuit. This takes place with the closing of the first circuit. In opening the first circuit, the second circuit is opened at the same instant, and the magnet at the second station with the arrest of the current loses its magnetism. Now a selfacting, adjustable spring draws the armature away from the face of the magnet, through a space very narrow, but adequate to break the circuit at the second station. Here are the fewest elements of the relay. It involves the opening and closing of the circuit, by an act going out from the primary station. The relay of Professor Morse opens and closes in connection with a conductor of an intensity battery, operating through a long conductor upon a distant magnet." This was the invention of Professor Morse described by Professor Gale in his statement already recited in this chapter. Mr. Vail, having become thoroughly satisfied on this point, embarked in the enterprise. His father, Judge Stephen Vail, and his brother, George Vail, were proprietors of extensive iron and brass works at Speedwell, Morris County, New Jersey. The fact that the family were engaged in such manufactures, led the young man to entertain the idea of engaging in the construction of instruments to be used in the development of the Telegraph. Before going to the University he had taken deep interest in the business of his father and brother: the making of steam-engines and machinery that required the use of both iron and brass; he had been specially ergaged in the brass

Page  314 314 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. foundery, and had become noted for his skill in working in that metal. With mechanical genius and fondness also for study, with a taste alike for art and science, he was emphatically the man to be associated with the professor, himself an illustrious example of art and science combined. The young man, ardent, hopeful, and sincere, was not long in bringing both his father and brother to see with him the magnificent possibilities of the electric telegraph for usefulness in the commerce and intercourse of mankind. They not only approved and encouraged the resolution of their son and brother to identify himself with the Telegraph, and to devote his life to its service, but they, with enterprise and faith in its ultimate fruits, promised the necessary funds to make the experiments which were essential to insure confidence in the public mind. Many years afterward Professor Morse, in the height of his success, and crowned with the honors of his country and of distant nations, spoke of this young man in these words: "Alfred Vail, then a student in the University, and a young man of great ingenuity, having heard of my invention, came to my rooms and I explained it to him, and from that moment he has taken the deepest interest in the Telegraph. Finding that I was unable to command the means to bring my invention properly before the public, and believing that he could command those means through his father and brother, he expressed the belief to me, and I at once made such an arrangement with him as to procure the pecuniary means and the skill of these gentlemen. It is to their joint liberality, but especially to the attention, and skill, and faith in the final success of the enterprise maintained by Alfred Vail, that is due the success of my endeavors to bring the Telegraph at that time creditably before the public." With this young and ingenious student Professor Morse entered into partnership, assigning to him one-fourth interest in the patent-right to be secured for the invention. On the 10th of March, 1837, the Honorable Levi Woodbury, Secretary of the Treasury of the United States, in consequence of the reports that had reached the country of various schemes of telegraphing proposed in Europe, had issued the following:

Page  315 THE SECRETARY'S CIRCULAR. 315 "Circular to certain Collectors of the Customs, Commanders of Revenue Cutters, and other Persons. "TREASURY DEPARTMENT, March 10, 1837. " With the view of obtaining information in regard'to the propriety of establishing a system of telegraphs for the United States,' in compliance with the request contained in the annexed resolution of the House of Representatives, adopted at its last session, I will thank you to furnish the Department with your opinion upon the subject. If leisure permits, you would oblige me by pointing out the manner, and the various particulars, in which the system may be rendered most useful to the Government of the United States and the public generally. It would be desirable, if in your power, to present a detailed statement as to the proper points for the location, and distance of the stations from each other, with general rules for the regulation of the system, together with your sentiments as to the propriety of connecting it with any existing department of the Government, and some definite idea of the rapidity with which intelligence could ordinarily, and also in urgent cases, be communicated between distant places. I wish you to estimate the probable expense of establishing and supporting telegraphs, upon the most approved system, for any given distance, during any specified period. "It would add to the interest of the subject if you would offer views as to the practicability of uniting, with a system of telegraphs for communication in clear weather and in the daytime, another for communication in fogs, by cannon, or otherwise; and, in the night, by the same mode, or by rockets, fires, etc. "I should be gratified by receiving your reply by the 1st of October next. "LEVI WOODBURY, " Secretary of the Treasury." To this circular Professor Morse replied four days before his partnership was formed with Mr. Vail: S. F B. Ml.orse to the Secretary of the Treasury. "NEW YORK CITY UNIVERSITY, September 2'7 1837. " DEAR SIR: In reply to the inquiries which you have done me the honor to make, in asking my opinion'of the propriety of establishing a system of telegraphs for the United States,' I would say,

Page  316 316 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. in regard to the general question, that I believe there can scarcely be two opinions, in such a community as ours, in regard to the advantage which would result, both to the Government and the public generally, from the establishment of a system of communication by which the most speedy intercourse may be had between the most distant parts of the country. The mail system, it seems to me, is founded on the universally admitted principle that the greater the speed with which intelligence can be transmitted from point to point, the greater is the benefit derived to the whole community. The only question that remains, therefore, is, what system is best calculated, from its completenesss and cheapness, to effect this desirable end? " With regard to telegraphs constructed on the ordinary principles, however perfected within the limits in which they are necessarily confined, the most perfect of them are liable to one insurmountable objection-they are useless the greaterpart of the time. In foggy weather, and ordinarily during the night, no intelligence can be transmitted. Even when they can transmit, much time is consumed in communicating but little, and that little not always precise. "Having invented an entirely new mode of telegraphic communication, which, so far as experiments have yet been made with it, promises results of almost marvelous character, I beg leave to present to the Department a brief account of its chief characteristics. "About five years ago, on my voyage from Europe, the electrical experiment of Franklin, upon a wire some four miles in length, was casually recalled to my mind in conversation with one of the passengers, in which experiment it was ascertained that the electricity traveled through the whole circuit in a time not appreciable, but apparently instantaneous. It immediately occurred to me that, if the presence of electricity could be made VISIBLE in any desired part of this circuit, it would not be difficult to construct a SYSTEM OF SIGNS by which intelligence could be instantaneously transmitted. The thought, thus conceived, took strong hold of\ my mind in the leisure which the voyage afforded, and I planned a system of signs, and an apparatus to carry it into effect. I cast a species of type, which I had devised for this purpose, the first week after my arrival home; and, although the rest of,the machinery was planned, yet, from the pressure of unavoidable duties, I was compelled to postpone my experiments, and was not able to test the whole plan until within a few weeks. The result has realized my most sanguine expectations.

Page  317 PROFESSOR MORSE'S REPLY. 317 ( As I have contracted with Mr. Alfred Vail to have a complete apparatus made to demonstrate at Washington by the 1st of January, 1838, the practicability and superiority of my mode of telegraphic communication by means of electro-magnetism (an apparatus which I hope to have the pleasure of exhibiting to you), I will confine myself in this communication to a statement of its peculiar advantages. " First. The.fullest and most precise information can be almost instantaneously transmitted between any two or more points between which a wire conductor is laid: that is to say, no other time is consumed than is necessary to write the intelligence to be conveyed, and to convert the words into the telegraphic numbers. The numbers are then transmitted nearly instantaneously (or, if I have been rightly informed in regard to some recent experiments in the velocity of electricity, two hundred thousand miles in a second) to any distance, where the numbers are immediately recognized, and reconverted into the words of the intelligence. "Second. The same full intelligence can be communicated at any moment, irrespective of the time of day or night, or state of the weather. This single point establishes its superiority to all other modes of telegraphic communication now known. " Third. The whole apparatus will, occupy but little space (scarcely six cubic feet, probably not more than four);' and it may, therefore, be placed, without inconvenience, in any house. "Fourth. The record of intelligence is made in a permanent manner, and in such a form that it can be at once bound up in volumes, convenient for reference, if desired. "Fifth. Communications are secret to all but the persons for whom they are intended. " These are the chief advantages of the electro-magnetic telegraph over other kinds of telegraphs, and which must give it the preference, provided the expense and other circumstances are reasonably favorable. "The newness of the whole plan makes it'not so easy to estimate the expense, but an approach to a correct estimate can be made. "The principal expense will be the first cost of the wire or metallic conductors (consisting of four lengths), and the securing them against injury. The cost of a single copper wire one-sixteenth of an inch diameter (and it should not be of less dimensions), for four It now occupies a space ten inches long, eight inches high, and five wide.

Page  318 318 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. hundred miles, was recently estimated in Scotland to be about one thousand pounds sterling, including the solderings of the wire together; that is, about six dollars per mile for one wire, or twentyfour dollars per mile for the four wires. I have recently contracted for twenty miles of copper wire, No. 18, at forty cents per pound. Each pound, it is estimated, contains ninety-three feet, which gives a result coinciding witI the Scotch estimate, if one dollar and sixty cents per mile be added for solderings. "The preparation of the wire for being laid (if in the ground) comprehends the clothing of the wires with an insulating or nonconducting substance; the encasing them in wood, clay, stone, iron, or other metal; and the trenching of the earth to receive them. In this part of the business I have no experience to guide me, the whole being altogether new. I can, therefore, only make at present a rough estimate. Iron tubes inclosing the wires, and filled in with pitch and resin, would probably be the most eligible mode of securing the conductors from injury, while, at the same time, it would be the most costly. Iron tubes of one and one-half inch diameter, I learn, can be obtained, at Baltimore, at twenty-eight cents per foot. The trenching will not be more than three cents for two feet, or about seventy-five dollars per mileo This estimate is for a trench three feet deep and one and one-half wide. There is no grading; the trench may follow the track of-any road, over the highest hills or lowest valleys. Across rivers, with bridges, the circuit may easily be carried, inclosed beneath the bridge. Where the stream is wide, and no bridge, the circuit, inclosed in lead, may be sunk to the bottom. " If the circuit is laid through the air, the first cost would doubtless be much lessened. This plan of making the circuit has some advantages, but there are also some disadvantages; the chief of which latter is, that, being always in sight, the temptation to injure the circuit to mischievously disposed persons, is greater than if it were buried out of sight beneath their feet. As an offset, however, to this, an injury to the circuit is more easily detected. With regard to danger from wantonness, it may be sufficient to say that the same objection was originally made in the several cases, successively, of water-pipes, gas-pipes, and railroads; and yet we do not hear of wantonness injuring any of these. Stout spars of some thirty feet in height, well planted in the ground, and placed about three hundred and fifty feet apart, would, in this case, be required; along the tops of which the circuit might be stretched. Fifteen such

Page  319 ESTIMATED COST. 319 spars would be wanted to a mile. This mode would be as cheap, probably, as any other, unless the laying of the circuit in water should be found to be most eligible. A series of experiments to ascertain the practicability of this mode, I am about to commence with Professor Gale, of our University, a gentleman of great science, and to whose assistance, in many of my late experiments, I am greatly indebted. We are preparing a circuit of twenty miles. The result of our experiments I will have the honor of reporting to you. " The other machinery, consisting of the apparatus for transmitting and receiving the intelligence, can be made at a very trifling cost. The only parts of the apparatus that waste or consume materials, are the batteries, which consume acid and zinc, and the register, which consumes paper for recording, and pencils or ink for marking. "The cost of printing, in the first instance, of a telegraphic dictionary, should perhaps also be taken into the account, as each officer of the Government, as well as many others, would require a copy, should this mode of telegraphic communication go into effect. This dictionary would contain a vocabulary of all the words in common use in the English language, with the numbers regularly affixed to each word. "The stations in the case of this telegraph may be as numerous as are desired; the only additional expense for that purpose being the adding of the transmitting and receiving apparatus to each station. " The cost of supporting a system of telegraphs on this plan (when a circuit is once established) would, in my opinion, be much less than on the common plans; yet, for want of experience in this mode, I would not affirm it positively. "As to'the propriety of connecting the system of telegraphs with any existing department of Government,' it would seem most natural to connect a telegraphic system with the Post-Office Department; for, although it does not carry a mail, yet it is another mode of accomplishing the principal object for which the mail is established, to wit: the rapid and regular transmission of intelligence. If my system of telegraphs should be established, it is evident that the telegraph would have but little rest, day orjnight. The advantage of communicating intelligence instantaneously, in hundreds of instances of daily occurrence, would warrant such a rate of postage (if it may be so called) as would amply defray all expenses of the first cost of establishing the system, and of guarding it, and keeping it in repair.

Page  320 320 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " As every word is numbered, an obvious mode of rating might be, a charge of a certain amount on so many numbers. I presume that five words can certainly be transmitted in a minute; for, with the imperfect machinery I now use, I have recorded at that rate, at the distance of half a mile. "In conclusion, I would say, that if the perfecting of this new system of telegraphs (which may justly be called the American Telegraph, since I can establish my claims to priority in the invention) shall be thought of public utility, and worthy the attention of Government, I shall be ready to make any sacrifice of personal service and of time to aid in its accomplishment. "In the mean time I remain, sir, with sincere respect and high personal esteem, "Your most obedient, humble servant, "-SAM'L F. B. MORSE. "Hon. LEVI WOODBURY, " Secretary of the Treasury." Professor Morse then filed in the Patent-Office at Washington the following PETITION: That your petitioner has invented a new method of transmitting and recording intelligence by means of electro-magnetism, which he denominates the American Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, etc. Petition dated September 28, 1837. SPECIFICATION OF THE AMERICAN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TELEGRAPH. To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, Samuel F. B. Morse, of the city of New York, in the county and State of New York, have invented a new method of transmitting and recording intelligence by means of electro-magnetism, which I call the American Electro-tMagnetic Telegraph, and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description of said telegraph, so far as it is at present completed. The nature of my invention consists in laying an electric or galvanic circuit, or conductors, of any length, to any distance. These conductors may be made of any metal, such as copper or iron wire, or strips of copper or iron, or of cord, or twine, or other substances, gilt, silvered, or covered with any thin metal leaf, properly insulated, in the ground, or through or beneath the water, or through the air, and by causing the electric or galvanic current to pass through the circuit by means of any generator of electricity, to make use of the visible signs of the presence of electricity in any part of the said circuit to communicate any intelligence from one place to another. To make the said visible

Page  321 MORSE'S CAVEAT. 321 signs of electricity available for the purpose aforesaid, I have invented the following apparatus, namely: 1. A system of signs, by which numbers, and consequently words and sentences, are signified. 2. A set of type, adapted to regulate and communicate the signs, with cases, for convenient keeping of the type, and rules, in which to set up the type. 3. An apparatus called the portrule, for regulating the movement of the type-rules, which rules, by means of the type, in their turn regulate the times and intervals of the passage of electricity. 4. A register which records the signs permanently. 5. A dictionary or vocabulary of words, numbered and adapted to this system of telegraph. 6. Miodes of laying conductors to preserve them from injury. 1. The System of Signs. The signs are the representatives first of numerals, and are as follows: The single numerals are represented by ten marks, such as dots, lines, or punctures, varied thus: A single mark signifies the numeral one; two marks, two; three marks, three; four marks, four; five marks,five; six marks, six; seven marks, seven; eight marks, eight; nine marks, nine; and ten marks, ten, or cipher. The cipher is also signified by a single mark differently placed from the rest. The numerals are separated from each other by short intervals, so that they would be represented in the different ways, shown in Example 1, of the annexed drawing. The compound numbers are separated from each other by long intervals; for example, the compound number 324, compounded of 3, and 2, and 4, and the compound number 516, compounded of 5, and 1, and 6, would be represented as shown in Fig. 1, Example 2. The sign for cipher ( L A_/), or ( ), or ( — ), placed before a number, signifies that that number is to be read as a number, and not as the representative of a word, thus: "Send 56 copies," would be thus represented: Suppose the word " send " to be represented by the number 21, and the word "copies" by 34, then the sentence would be written as in Fig. 2, Example 2. Thus all numbers, and consequently all words, are easily represented. 2. The Type. A set of type, made of thin metal, such as type-metal, brass, iron, or other material, consists of twelve different pieces, of the figure and dimensions represented in Example 3 of the annexed drawing. The rest is for the lever (hereinafter described) to rest upon previous to beginning to communicate. Each type has a notch or indentation corresponding to its denomination, and the short space in addition. The number of each type is marked upon. that part occupied for the space, or interval; the cipher is either marked by 21

Page  322 322 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the type with ten notches, or with the type of a single tooth, between two sunken spaces. Two additional pieces, making fourteen in all, are, first, the space, or long interval, placed between separate and compound numbers; and, second, the stop, or long type, which throws up the lever upon a detent, until wanted again. The cases are of wood, or other suitable material, with small compartments of the exact length of each type, for the greater convenience in distributing them. The rules are of wood, metal, or other suitable material, and are formed about three feet long, and with a groove in which to place the type as represented in Example 4. The rule is furnished with cogs, for the purpose of being moved by a pinion-wheel. 3. The Portrule. The portrule is for the purpose of carrying the rule, when prepared with its type. It consists-1. Of a small lever, somewhat like the levers to the keys of a hand-organ, but with the power between the fulcrum and the weight. The lever is made to rise or fall by passing the rule with its type beneath the projection or single cog in the lever, which cog falls into each notch and rises on each tooth of the type. The lever is made a portion of the circuit by affixing a small portion of the conductor to it, with a joint at the hinge-end of the lever, moving in mercury, or otherwise connected, so that the circuit be not interrupted. The other end of the small portion of the circuit is at the end of the lever, which has the most motion, and, by the rise and fall of the lever, is made to break and close the circuit at the desired times. The movable point of the conductor closes the circuit either by a touch, either into mercury, which holds the other extremity of the circuit, or upon a plate of copper, silver, or other metal attached to the said extremity. The rule is made to pass with regularity, as to space and time, beneath the lever, by means of a pinion-wheel fitting into the cogs of the rule, which wheel is made to revolve either by a crank moved by the hand, or by other power, in any of the well-known and common mechanical methods. The rule is kept in its course by a channel, or ways, made for that purpose. The portrule sends the intelligence. 4. The Register. The register, at any distance from the portrule, receives and records the intelligence, and is thus constructed: 1. An electro-magnet, made in any of the usual modes of forming it, such as winding insulated copper wire, or strips of copper, or tin-foil, or other metal, around a bar of soft iron, either straight or bent into a circular form, has the two extremities of the coils connected with the circuit or conductors, so that the coils round the magnet make part of the circuit. The power of this magnet is applied-2. To a lever, or

Page  323 THE FIRST CAVEAT. 323 pendtium, by affixing to the said lever, or pendulum, the armature of the magnet, or short bar of iron, at such a distance that the electromagnet will readily attract it. A small weight, or spring, keeps the lever and armature from the magnet when the magnet is not in action. To the lever, or pendulum, is attached-3. A pencil, or fountain pen, or a small printing-wheel, or any other marking material. This pencil, or other marking material, is made to mark upon-4. A light cylinder of a size to hold a convenient sheet of paper, which is wrapped around it. The cylinder is made to revolve, as to time and place, slowly and regularly upon its arbor, or shaft, by means of clock-machinery, and to advance a short distance upon the staff every revolution by means of a screw and cog apparatus, so that a line formed by a stationary point above the cylinder describes upon it a spiral or screw line. The point of the pencil, or other marking material, is kept in contact with the surface of the paper upon the cylinder either by its own weight or by a small weight attached to it; or, when the printing-wheel is used, the wheel is brought into contact with the paper by the magnet, when required to mark. 5. A bascule, or method of changing the poles of the magnet, after every stroke of the lever, is affixed to the magnet, and regulated by the movement of the lever. 6. An alarm apparatus, to give notice that a communication is about to be made, is also affixed, and is made to strike or give notice at the first movement of the lever. To each register are attached duplicate cylinders, for the convenience of continued writing, so that when one cylinder is filled, the other cylinder, by a shifting apparatus, begins to receive the marks. The paper, when ready to be removed from the cylinder, forms a regular page, prepared for binding in a volume. 5. The Dictionary, or Vocabulary. The dictionary is a complete vocabulary of words alphabetically arranged and regularly numbered, beginning with the letters of the alphabet, so that each word in the language has its telegraphic number. The modes which I propose of laying the circuit, and of insulating the wires and conductors, are various. The wires may be insulated by winding each wire with silk, cotton, flax, or hemp, and then dipping them into a solution of caoutchouc, or into a solution of shellac, or into pitch or resin and caoutchouc. They may be laid through the air, inclosed above the ground, in the ground, or in the water. When through the air, they may be insulated by a covering that shall protect them from the weather, such as cotton, flax, or hemp, and dipped into any solution which is a non-conductor, and elevated upon pillars. When inclosed above the ground, they may be laid in tubes of iron or lead, and these again may be inclosed in wood, if desirable. When laid in the ground, they may be inclosed in iron, leaden, wooden, or earthen tubes, and buried beneath the surface. Across rivers the circuit may be carried beneath the bridges, or, where there are no bridges, inclosed in lead or iron

Page  324 324 LIFE OF SAMUEL'F. B. MORSE. and sunk at the bottom, or stretched across, where the banks are high, upon pillars elevated on each side of the river: What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by letterspatent, and to protect for one year, by a caveat, is, a method of recording permanently, by electrical signs, which, by means of metallic wires, or other good conductors of electricity, convey intelligence between two or moreplaces. In testimony whereof, I, the said S. F. B. Morse, hereto subscribe my name, in the presence of the witnesses whose names are hereunto subscribed, on the 3d day of October, A. D. 1837. SAML. F. B. MORSE. Signed in our presence: ALEX. J. DAVIS, E. 0. MARTIN. f Six days after the partnership with Mr. Vail was formed, Mr. Morse wrote to him: "I have only that which is agreeable to tell you. Since you were here, I have had a most satisfactory letter from Hon. W. C. Rives, and also from Captain Pell, who was the commander of the Sully on my passage home. They both have given me most unqualified testimony to the priority of my invention on board the ship. We have also had a visit from Dr. Jones, of the Patent-Office, one of the examiners ofpatents, for many years, at Washington.' He expressed great satisfaction at the Telegraph, and seemed highly gratified that I intended to exhibit it at Washington. "I have dispatched my letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, and have the papers and drawings nearly ready for the PatentOffice. They will be on their way, probably, on Monday, or, at farthest, on Tuesday. S113 "If you intend to do any thing in England or France, no time is to be lost. " I hold myself in readiness to execute the commission with respect to the portraits, any time after next week, and hope to find the machinery in a state of such advancement that we may have time before the winter session to become perfectly familiar with it, so as to strike conviction at once into the minds of the members of Congress, when we exhibit its powers before the powers that be. "Professor Gale's services will be invaluable to us, and I am glad he is disposed to enter into the'matter with zeal. The more I think of the whole matter, the more I am convinced that, if it is perseveringly pushed at the moment (so favorable on many accounts to its adoption by Government), the result will be all that we ought to wish for. We want the wire. We are ready for some

Page  325 SPECULATORS AND THE TELEGRAPH. 325 important experiments necessary to establish with certainty some points not yet established by experiment. The law of the magnetic influence at a distance is not yet discovered, and your twenty miles of wire may enable us to make this discovery and to keep ahead of our European rivals, as well as to proceed with certainty in our other arrangements." The preparation of a dictionary of the Telegraph was now a work to which the inventor gave much of his time. This was to contain a list of words to which reference could be made by figures and combinations of figures, so that a message might be transmitted with the least possible labor and in the shortest time, yet perfectly intelligible. Instantly upon the new Telegraph's becoming a subject of discussion, its importance in commerce suggested itself to the active mercantile mind. Before a wire had been stretched along a line of travel, and while Professor Morse was impatient with the manufacturers, who could not produce wire as fast as he wished, he was approached by speculative men, who would have a private line, which they could use for their own purposes. He alludes to their proposals in the first of the letters to Mr. Vail, which follow: " October 11, 1837.-I have been consulted (in confidence), that is (between us all), on the subject of a secret communication of some two hundred miles, the particulars of which I must leave till I see you. If our water experiment succeeds, I think we shall have immediately a commission of the kind in question. But be close on the subject, for it is essential to its success that it be secret. Verbum sat. I am not idle, I assure you. You can have little conception of the labor of the dictionary. I am up early and late, yet its progress is slow; but I shall not now leave it till it is complete. I have received the notice from the Patent-Office that the caveat is regularly filed, and all is right there...." "October 14, 1837.-The dictionary occupies now all my time. It is a most tedious, never-ending work. Yet I find that practice gives me facilities, and I hope soon to complete it. You will be pleased with my plan of the permanent dictionary, which I have drawn out ready to show you when I see you. I bring the whole within the consulting face of twenty-three by twenty-six inches." "October 24, 1837.-The reels have arrived safely, and we ad

Page  326 326 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. mire the workmanship of them exceedingly; they are exactly right. We have already wound nearly four miles upon one reel, which will hold five miles. The wire is all wound with cotton, and is all in our room. The wire proves to be not good; it is made of bad copper, and is brittle, and in short lengths; we have much trouble and consume much time in soldering it, etc. The spark passes freely as yet-three and a half miles-and magnetizes well at that distance, though evidently with diminished strength, which would seem to indicate that there is a limit somewhere. We have just heard that Professor Wheatstone has tried an experiment with his method-twenty miles-with success; we have therefore nothing to fear. We also learn that he has sent, to take out a patent, to this country. My caveat will be in his way. Professor Locke, of Cincinnati, who has just returned, tells us all this, and he knows Wheatstone and his whole plan, and says there are no less than six disputants for the priority of the invention in England. He also says that no one of the European plans pretends to record permanently; that mine is decidedly superior in that respect, and peculiar... "The dictionary is at last done. You cannot conceive how much labor there has been in it; but it is accomplished, and we can now talk or write any thing by numbers." Professor Morse went over to Morristown, and on his return wrote to Mr. Vail that Professor Gale was sending the current through TEN miles of wire: " November 13, 1837.-I arrived just in time to see the experiment Professor Gale was making with the entire ten miles, and you will be gratified and agreeably surprised when I inform you that the result now is, that with a little addition of wire to the coils of the small magnet, which I had all along used, the power was as great apparently through ten as through three miles. This result has surprised us all, yet there is no mistake, and I conceive settles the whole matter. The battery of large plates is, however, absolutely needed; for now the small plates burn the mercury, which must be remedied by using larger plates. If we had the remaining ten miles, it would doubtless be much more satisfactory to the committee of Congress. " With respect to an experiment at Speedwell, Dr. Gale thinks there will be no difficulty in transporting a couple of miles of wire, wound off on one of the other reels; with this we could perform all

Page  327 LETTER TO THE SECRETARY. 327 that is necessary to show the efficiency of the Telegraph, and the Doctor is willing to accompany me out, or to come out when all things are ready. So the new room may be prepared if you think best, and we will talk from your father's to your brother's house; I can bring out the dictionary when I come, or when you come in. " The plan of casting the zinc on the copper, the doctor says, is just the thing. The trough I have rudely drawn on the other leaf; its size must be regulated by the size and number of the plates. The troughs (there should be two for fifty plates each) ought to be of mahogany, and you will require some tar and rosin to put the plates and trough in order. The plates may be one-quarter of an inch from each other. I am going down-town to inquire about copper, zinc, etc. The connection at the portrule I shall make with mercury. Leave that part till I see you." In November Professor Morse wrote again to the Secretary of the Treasury: "NEW YORK, November 28, 1837. "MY DEAR SIR: In my letter to you in answer to the circular respecting telegraphs, which you did me the honor to send me, I promised to advise you of the result of some experiments about to be tried with my electro-magnetic telegraph. I informed you that I had succeeded in marking permanently and intelligibly at the distance of half a mile. "Professor Gale, of our University, and Mr. Alfred Vail, of the Speedwell Iron-Works, near Morristown, New Jersey, are now associated with me in the scientific and mechanical parts of the invention. We have procured several miles of wire, and I am happy to announce to you that our success has, thus far, been complete. At a distance of five miles, with a common Cruikshank's battery of eighty-seven plates (four by three and a half inches each plate), the marking was as perfect on the register as in the first instance of half a mile. We have recently addedfive miles more, making in all ten miles, with the same result; and we have now no doubt of its effecting a similar result at any distance. I also stated to you, sir, that machinery was in progress of making, with which, so soon as it should be completed, I intended to proceed to Washington, to exhibit the powers of the invention before you and other members of the Government. I had hoped to be in Washington before the session of Congress, but I find that the execution of new machinery is so uncertain in its time of completion that I shall be delayed,

Page  328 328 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. probably, until the beginning of the year. What I wish to learn from you, sir, is, How late in the session can I delay my visit, and yet be in season to meet the subject of telegraphs, when it shall be presented by your report to Congress? I am anxious, of course, to show as perfect an instrument as possible, and would wish as much time for the purpose of perfecting it as can be allowed without detriment to my interests as an applicant for the attention of Government to the best plan of a telegraph. I am, my dear sir, with the greatest respect and personal esteem, your most obedient servant, SAM'L F. B. MORSE. "Hon. LEVI WOODBURY, Secretary of the Treasury." THE FIRST COMMUNICATION TO CONGRESS. The Secretary of the Treasury, December 11, 1837, submitted the following report to the Speaker of the House of Representatives: "TREASURY DEPARTMENT, December 6, 1837.' SIR: I have the honor to present this report in compliance with the following resolution, which passed the House of Representatives on the 3d of February last, viz.:' Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury be requested to report to the House of Representatives, at its next session, upon the propriety of establishing a system of telegraphs for the United States.' Immediately after its passage I prepared a circular, with the view of procuring, from the most intelligent sources, such information as would enable Congress, as well as the Department, to decide upon the propriety of establishing a system of telegraphs. It seemed also important to unite with the inquiry the procurement of such facts as might show the expense attending different systems; the celerity of communication by each; and the useful objects to be accomplished by their adoption. A copy of the circular is annexed (1). "The replies have been numerous, and many of them are very full and interesting. Those deemed material are annexed, numbered two to eighteen, inclusive. From these communications, and such other investigations as the pressure of business has enabled me to make, I am satisfied that the establishment of a system of telegraphs for the United States would be useful to commerce as well as the Government. It might most properly be made appurtenant to the Post-Office Department, and, during war, would prove a most essential aid to the military operations of the country. The ex

Page  329 PROFESSOR GALE A PARTNER. 329 pense attending it is estimated carefully in some of the documents annexed; but it will depend much upon the kind of system adopted; upon the extent and location of the lines first established; and the charges made to individuals for communicating information through it which may not be of a public character. On these points, as the Department has not been requested to make a report, no opinion is expressed; but information concerning them was deemed useful as a guide in deciding on the propriety of establishing telegraphs, and was, therefore, requested in the circular before mentioned. Many useful suggestions in relation to the subject will be found in the correspondence annexed, and in the books there referred to. The Department would take this occasion to express, in respect to the numerous gentlemen whose views are now submitted to Congress, its high appreciation and sincere acknowledgments for the valuable contributions they have made on a subject of so much interest. I remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, "LEVI WOODBURY. " Secretary of the Treasury. Hon. J. K. POLK, ": Speaker of the House of Representatives." Professor L. D. Gale was now made a partner with Professor Morse and Mr. Vail, and a series of experiments was entered upon at the Speedwell Iron-Works, for the purpose of still further improving and testing the system and the machinery essential for success. While here, in the midst of the factories and engaged with Mr. Vail in the perfection of his instruments, the Professor's old love for his pencil is strong upon him, and he is employed in painting the portraits of the family. An extensive building, originally designed for a cotton-factory, furnished a convenient place for the extension of the wires. Young Alfred Vail, fired with the same enthusiasm that had sustained the inventor through so many years of discouragement and struggle, wrought night and day upon the instrument to bring it as nearly as possible to perfection. The instrument thus produced is still in existence, and was exhibited near the close of the life of Professor Morse, when, in the presence of applauding thousands, he sat on the platform in the Academy of Music, in the city of New York, on the evening of the day when his statue had been inaugurated in the Central Park. and with his own fingers sent

Page  330 330 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. telegraphic messages across the continent and the ocean to the ends of the earth. The instrument being completed with the aid of Judge Stephen Vail, Hon. George Vail, M. C., and Mr. Alfred Vail, the first experiment was made with three miles of coated copper wire, stretched around a room of the factory in Speedwell, on the 6th day of January, 1838. The XMorristown Journal made a report of the experiment in these words: "It is with some degree of pride, we confess, that it falls to our lot first to announce the complete success of this wonderful piece of mechanism, and that hundreds of our citizens were the first to witness its surprising results. No place could have been found more suitable to pursue the course of experiments necessary to perfecting the detail of machinery than the quiet retirement of the Speedwell works, replete as they are with every kind of convenience which capital and mechanical skill can supply. Professor Morse has quietly pursued the great object which for a considerable time has engaged his attention, and has finally succeeded in carrying it out into sucessful practice, aided by the ingenuity of Mr. Alfred Vail. Others may have suggested the possibility of conveying intelligence by electricity, but this is the first instance of its actual transmission and permanent record. "The Telegraph consists of four parts: "1. The Battery-A Cruikshank's galvanic trough of sixty pair of plates, seven by eight and a half inches each. "2. The Portrule-An instrument which regulates the motion of the rule. The rule answers to the stick of the printers, and in it the type representing the numbers to be transmitted are passed beneath the lever, which closes and breaks the circuit. "3. The Register-An instrument which receives and records the numbers sent by the portrule from any distant station. "4. A Dictionary-Containing a complete vocabulary of all the words in the English language, regularly numbered.',' The communication which we saw, made through a distance of two miles, was the following sentence:'Railroad cars just ar rived, 345 passengers.' " These words were put into numbers through the dictionary; the numbers were set up in the telegraph type in about the same time ordinarily occupied in setting up the same in a printing-office. They were then all passed, complete, by the portrule in about half a minute, each stroke of the lever of the portrule at one extremity marking on the register at,the other, a distance of two miles, instantaneously. We watched the spark at one end, and the mark of the pencil at the other, and they were as simultaneous as if the lever itself had struck the mark. The marks or numbers were easily legible, and by means of the dictionary were resolved again into words."

Page  331 THE FIRST MESSAGE PRESERVED. 331 The instrument was now ready to be submitted to the public. Professor Morse would show it first to a few intelligent and appreciating friends in New York. With this object in view, he issued invitations, of which the. following, to General Cummings, is a copy: " Professor Morse requests the honor of Thomas S. Cummings, Esq., and family's company in the Geological Cabinet of the University, Washington Square, to witness the operation of the electro-magnetic Telegraph, at a private exhibition of it to a few friends, previous to its leaving the city for Washington. "The apparatus will be prepared at precisely twelve o'clock, on Wednesday, 24th instant. The time being limited, punctuality is specially requested. "NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, January 22, 1838." A large and intelligent company, including many. of the most learned and influential citizens attended, in response to similar invitations. Some, who were present, have given their recollections of that eventful day; of the modest, quiet selfpossession of the inventor, now submitting to the scrutiny of skeptics and objectors the result of his patient years of toil. Gentlemen were requested to give brief dispatches, which were sent over the coil of wire, and read by one who had no knowledge of the words that had been given to the operator. Astonishment was the sensation of the hour. The work bordered upon the miraculous. " To see is to believe," but this result staggered the faith of spectators, General Cummings had recently been promoted to a military command, and, in allusion perhaps to that fact, one of his friends present wrote, and Professor Morse manipulated the instrument to transmit, a sentence, which was produced in telegraphic characters, and read: "ATTENTION, THE UNIVERSE! BY KINGDOMS, RIGHT WHEEL!" Letter by letter, word by word, the sentence was written with the four fingers of the telegraph, so teat it was produced four times, on the strip of paper that was moved by the clock-work to receive the impression. As this is the first sentence that was ever recorded by the Telegraph, and preserved, a fac-simile is here given of the

Page  332 332 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. original, now in the possession of General Cummings. It is upon one strip of paper just thirty-six inches in length.: a t t e n t i 0 n.... ~........ t h e u n i v e r s e b y k i * * ~ * * * ~ ~ ~* * * e ~ ~., ~.e g d o m s r...... * * ~ - i g h t w h e e The words were chosen, perhaps playfully, with no thought of their significance beyond the momentary impression, but the one who suggested them was undoubtedly under the influence of the feeling then pervading the minds of all present, that they were standing on the threshold of an event that would command the attention of the world. And they were not mistaken. The admiration of the company was unbounded. They cheered the inventor with their warm and loud congratulations. Doubt was dispelled. The triumph was complete. The Journal of Commerce of January 29, 1838, had the following notice of the exhibition:

Page  333 NOTICE OF THE EXHIBITION. 333 "THE TELEGRAPH.-We did not witness the operation of Professor Morse's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph on Wednesday last, but we learn that the numerous company of scientific persons who were present pronounced it entirely successful. Intelligence was instantaneously transmitted through a circuit of TEN MILES, and legibly written on a cylinder at the extremity of the circuit. The great advantages which must result to the public from this invention will warrant an outlay on the part of the Government sufficient to test its practicability, as a general means of transmitting intelligence. Professor Morse has recently improved on his mode of marking, by which he can dispense altogether with the telegraphic dictionary, using letters instead of numbers, and he can transmit ten words per minute, which is more than double the number which can be transmitted by means of the dictionary." The Xew York Observer copied the above, and remarked: " The primitive Telegraph was doubtless that mentioned by Homer-the lighting of a fire on a hill, to give notice of the arrival of a fleet, or of any other expected event, of which that had been made, by previous agreement, the signal. As an improvement upon this, one of the Greek writers recommends a square vessel, filled in part with water, with a large cork floating upon it. Upon the side of this cork should be written various sentences, conveying expected intelligence. At a given signal the water should be drawn from this vessel, till the sentence to be conveyed should be just visible at the top of the vessel, which should be announced by another signal. An observer on a distant hill, furnished with a similar apparatus, by drawing Svater from his vessel for the same length of time, would ascertain the sentence intended to be conveyed. This he could in the same manner transmit to another, and so on, as far as the time should extend. The great defect of the method is, that no intelligence could be conveyed by it, except such as is anticipated and provided for. To remedy this defect has been the great object of inventors of Telegraphs to this day. The most perfect system yet in operation consists of signals representing the nine digits with the cipher, by the use of which all numbers can be transmitted; a numbered dictionary of sentences, conveying all items of information that can be anticipated; a numbered dictionary of words; and finally, we believe, but are not sure, the designation of the letters of the alphabet by numbers. Much study has been expended and great ingenuity displayed in bringing this system to perfection.

Page  334 334 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Its great and obvious defect is, that it can be used only in fair weather. "Some two or three years since an officer in the British Navy announced the invention of a code of signals which should be intelligible to all nations. The details of his plan, we think, have never been made pubic. The object might be accomplished by a telegraphic or numbered dictionary, translated into all languages, so that in all languages the same number should stand against a word or sentence of the same meaning. These numbers would then resemble the Chinese characters, in which persons of different nations may correspond without understanding each other's spoken language. On this plan all idiomatic expressions must be avoided, and the various inflections of words, to express number, case, tense, etc., must be gathered from the connection; for, if all derived forms of words were inserted in the dictionary, it would make a book of monstrous and unmanageable dimensions. "The Electro-Magnetic Telegraph, it will be seen, possesses the following important advantages over any previously in use: "1. It is wholly independent of the weather. Clouds, fogs, or the darkness of midnight, are no impediment to its operation. It is often most necessary to announce the arrival, situation, and wants of ships, when, from the state of the weather, or the darkness of night, other telegraphs are wholly useless. Even in the best weather, by working at night as well as by day, twice as much can be done in the twenty-four hours. " 2. It conveys intelligence with greater rapidity. There is no reason to doubt, from - any facts or principles yet discovered, that intelligence may be conveyed from New York to Washington, or even to New Orleans, without any appreciable loss of time. It is not necessary to have an observatory every few miles, at which time is lost by observing the signals and repeating them, that they may be seen at the next observatory. Time is saved, too, by dispensing with the dictionary. "3. It conveys intelligence more perfectly. It can spell any word correctly. It can give us number and person, mood and tense. If thought best, it can give us the punctuation, and, in short, furnish the copy, ready for the hands of any printer who understands the telegraphic alphabet. "4. It conveys intelligence with greater certainty. It does not, like other telegraphs, merely hoist up signals, which may be seen, if any one is looking for them; but it records its message perma

Page  335 THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE. 335 nently on paper, where it will remain, and may be read at leisure. It will be seen at once that intelligence thus recorded will be much more sure to reach him to whom it is sent, and to be correctly interpreted. "Nothing but an actual trial, on an extensive scale, and for several years, can show with certainty the full advantages of this invention. We think it evident, however, from what has already been shown, that its value cannot fail to be great." The next step of the inventor was to bring the instrument to the notice of the Government of the United States. With boldness that speaks well for his candor as well as for his confidence in his invention, he went to Philadelphia and submitted it to the Franklin Institute of that city. This society was composed of men eminent in science, and deeply imbued with the philosophic spirit of inquiry of the illustrious man whose name it bears. There was great fitness in first submitting to a Franklin Institute the first invention which proposed to reduce lightning to the service of man. Robert M. Patterson, Esq., of Philadelphia, an active member of the Franklin Institute, having heard of the wonderful invention, wrote to Professor Morse, January 19, 1838, and said to him: " I am pleased to hear that you have brought your scheme for an electro-magnetic telegraph to such a degree of perfection that you are prepared to exhibit its action, and propose to show it at Washington. Will you permit me to ask you whether it would be convenient to you, and consistent with your views, to stop for a short time at Philadelphia on your way, and let it be seen by the Committee of Science and Arts of the Franklin Institute? This committee has taken an interest in the subject of telegraphs, and has reported upon it to the Secretary of the Treasury. They would be gratified to examine a scheme so eligible and plausible as that which you propose." The invitation was promptly accepted, and the exhibition was made by Professor Morse on the 8th of February, 1838. The committee reported their high gratification with Professor Morse's Telegraph, and their hope that the Government would give him the means to test it upon an extensive scale. The report was signed by gentlemen whose names and position justly

Page  336 336 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. commanded the respect of the public. The signers were: R. M. Patterson, chairman; Roswell Park, Sears C. Walker, Isaiah Lukens, Franklin Peale, and Joseph Saxton. Robert M; Patterson filled with eminent ability the professorships of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and Mathematics in the University of Pennsylvania; afterward the professorship of Natural Philosophy in the University of Virginia; and from 1835 to 1851 was Director of the Mint at Philadelphia. He was president of the American Philosophical Society, and a leading member and officer of the Franklin Institute. He was a strong believer in the future of science, and ever ready to welcome with enthusiasm the novelties of inventors. RoswellPark was Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Pennsylvania. He was a man of varied information, and wrote a work called "Pantology," a classification of the branches of human knowledge. Sears C. Walker was Actuary of the Pennsylvania Life Insurance Company; Professor of Mathematics in the Philadelphia High School, and eminent in that branch of science. Isaiah Lukens was a famous clock-maker of Philadelphia, the constructor of the present Independence-Hall (State-House) clock, and an extremely ingenious mechanician. He once, for amusement, constructed a'perpetual-motion' machine, the secret motive power of which was a mystery that for a time baffled the wise even. Franklin Peale was another master in mechanics. He was for over twenty-one years connected with the Philadelphia Mint, as melter and refiner and chief coiner, and devised and put into operation the greater part of the machinery still in successful use there. Joseph Saxton was also eminent as a mechanician. At the time of the Morse experiment he was at the head of the machinists of the mint, but was soon after transferred to Washington, where he was placed at the head of the Department of Weights and Measures, under the Superintendent of the Coast Survey. Professor Morse wrote with great enthusiasm to his brothers in New York, announcing his success in Philadelphia, and received a letter from Sidney, who said: " Your invention, measuring it by the power which it will give man to accomplish his plans, is not only the greatest invention of this age, but the greatest invention of any age. I see, as an almost

Page  337 BEFORE THE PRESIDENT AND CABINET. 337 immediate effect, that the surface of the earth will be net-worked with wire, and every wire will be a nerve, conveying to every part intelligence of what is doing in every other part. The earth will become a huge animal with ten million hands, and in every hand a pen to record whatever the directing soul may dictate. No limit can be assigned to the value of the invention." From Philadelphia Mr. Morse went to Washington, to challenge the attention of the Government. It was late in the session of Congress, and every day was precious. He obtained the use of the room of the Committee on Commerce, in the Capitol, and into it introduced the apparatus, clumsy and rude indeed, but amply adequate to demonstrate to all comers that it could write at a distance; that is, that he had a real Telegraph. To this room he invited members of Congress, foreign ministers, and men of science. They came and saw and wondered, but went away with little faith. Mr. Morse received the following note, on the day of its date, from the Secretary of the Navy: "M. Dickerson presents his respects to Dr. Morse, and informs him that the President and heads of department propose to witness the experiments upon the Galvano-Magnetic Telegraph, to-morrow at one o'clock, February 20, 1838." It was directed to " Dr. Morse, room of the Committee of Commerce, H. R." The next day, February 21st, Mr. Van Buren, President of the United States, and the entire Cabinet, including John Forsyth, Secretary of State, Levi Woodbury, Secretary of the Treasury, J. R. Poinsett, Secretary of War, and M. Dickerson, Secretary of the Navy, visited the room, and saw the experiments. The chairman of the Committee on Commerce, Hon. F. O. J. Smith, had apprehended the greatness of the coming event, and had encouraged Mr. Morse to hope for success. The inventor, nervously excited, as the eyes of the Government and country were now fixed upon him and his invention, rose to the grandeur of the occasion, and with steady hand, and modest but intelligent words, demonstrated to the President of the United States and the company, that a Telegraph was an accomplished fact. The huge coil of wire on the reels contained a circuit of ten miles, and, as sentence after sen22

Page  338 338 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. tence was spoken at one extremity and written down at the other, it was plain enough that it would work just as well on a straight line in the open air. Mr. Smith, the chairman of the Committee on Commerce, was in a position to forward the views of the inventor, and, happily for him, appreciated its vast capabilities, and lent his great energies to its advancement. Before the experiments were publicly made in Washington, Mr. Smith had brought Professor Morse before the committee, and inspired him with so much confidence, that he wrote the following letter: S. F. B. Morse to Hon. F.. OJ. Smith. "WASHINGTON, February 15, 1838. " DEAR SIR: In consequence of the conversation had with the committee on the subject of my Telegraph, I would state that I think it desirable that an experiment, on a somewhat extended scale, should first be made to test both the practicability and the facility of communicating intelligence for at least one hundred miles. The experiment may proceed, as to cost, with perfect safety to the Government: 1. The wire for this distance, consisting of four lengths, making a total of four hundred miles of wire, might be obtained, and receive its covering of cotton and other insulation. This length would amply suffice to ascertain the law of the propulsive power of voltaic electricity, and previous to any measures being taken for burying it in the earth. So that, if any unforeseen difficulty should occur fatal to its practicability, the wire is not consumed or lost. If the expected success is realized, then, 2. The preparation of the wire might be commenced for burying in the earth, and being found complete through the whole route, the several portrules, registers, batteries, etc., might be provided to put the Telegraph into complete action. This experiment of one hundred miles would furnish the data from whidh to make the estimates of a more general extension of theLsystem. If no insurmountable obstacles presept themselves in a distance of one hundred miles, none may be expected in one thousand or in ten thousand miles; and then will be presented for the consideration of the Government the propriety of completely organizing this new telegraphic system as a part of the Government, attaching it to some department already existing, or creating a new one, which may be called for by the accumulating duties of the present departments.

Page  339 IMMENSE POWER OF THE TELEGRAPH. 339 " It is obvious, at the slightest glance, that this mode of instantaneous communication must inevitably become an instrument of immense power, to be wielded for good or for evil, as it shall be properly or improperly directed. In the hands of a company of speculators, who should monopolize it for themselves, it might be the means of enriching the corporation at the expense of the bankruptcy of thousands; and even in the hands of Government alone, it might become a means of working vast mischief to the republic. In considering these prospective evils, I would respectfully suggest a remedy which offers itself to my mind. Let the sole right of using the Telegraph belong, in the first place, to the Government, who should grant, for a specified sum or bonus, to any individual or company of individuals who may apply for it, and under such restrictions and regulations as.the Government may think proper, the right to lay down a communication between any two points, for the purpose of transmitting intelligence; and thus would be promoted a general competition. The Government would have a Telegraph of its own, and have its modes of communicating with its own officers and agents independent of private permission, or interference with and interruption to the ordinary transmissions on the private telegraphs. Thus there would be a system of checks and preventives of abuse, operating to restrain the action of this otherwise dangerous power, within those bounds which will permit only the good and neutralize the evil. Should the Government thus take the Telegraph solely under its own control, the revenue derived from the bonuses alone, it must be plain, will be of vast amount. "From the enterprising character of our countrymen, shown in the manner in which they carry forward any new project which promises private or public advantage, it is not visionary to suppose that it would not be long ere the whole surface of this country would be channeled for those nerves which are to diffuse, with the speed of thought, a knowledge of all that is occurring throughout the land; making, in fact, one neighborhood of the whole country. "If the Government is disposed to test this mode of telegraphic communication by enabling me to give it a fair trial for one hundred miles, I will engage to enter into no arrangement to dispose of my rights, as the inventor and patentee for the United States, to any individual or company of individuals, previous to offering it to the Government for such a just and reasonable compensation as shall be

Page  340 340 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. mutually agreed upon. I remain, sir, respectfully, your most obedient servant, " SAMUEL F. B. MOESE. "To the Hon. F. O. J. SMITH, Chairman of the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives." And again he wrote: S. B B. 3Morse to Hon. XF 0. J: Smith. "WASHINeGTON, February 22, 1838. DEAR SIR I have endeavored to approach a proper estimate of the expense attendant on preparing a complete telegraphic communication for some distance; and, taking into consideration the possibility that the experiment may be conclusively tried before the close of the present session of Congress, I have thought that an appropriation for fifty miles of distance would test the practicability of the Telegraph quite as satisfactorily as one hundred, because'the obstacles necessary to be overcome would not be more proportionally in fifty than in one hundred; while at the same time the double circuit necessary in the fifty miles would give a single circuit of one hundred for the purpose of testing the. effect of distance upon the passage of electricity. Fifty miles would require a less amount of appropriation, and the experiment could also be sooner brought to a result: Two hundred miles of wire, or wire for two circuits for fifty miles of distance, including the covering of the wire with cotton, at g100 per mile.. $20,000 Other expenses of preparation of the wire, such as caoutchouc, wax, resin, tar, with reels for winding, soldering, etc., say $6 per mile. 1,200 Batteries and registers, with type, etc., for two stations, and materials for experimenting on the best modes of magnets at long distances. 800 Services of Professor Gale in the chemical department; services of Mr. Alfred Vail in the mechanical department; services of assistants in different departments; my own services in superintending and directing the whole-total....... 4,000 Total.. o... 1 $26,000 This estimate is exclusive of expense necessary to lay down the wire beneath the ground. This is unnecessary until the previous preparations are found satisfactory. I cannot say what time will be required for the completion of the circuits for fifty miles. This line could now be constructed for less than half the sum.

Page  341 FAVORABLE REPORT IN CONGRESS. 341 If the order could be immediately given for the wire, I think all the other matter connected with it might be completed so that every thing could be in readiness in three months. Much will depend on the punctuality with which contractors fulfill their engagements in furnishing the wire and other apparatus. I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "To the Hon. F. O. J. SMITH, Chairman of the Committee on Commerce." Professor Morse now submitted to Congress a respectful memorial, asking an appropriation to defray the expense of subjecting the Telegraph to actual experiment over a length sufficient to establish its feasibility, and demonstrate its value. This petition, its substance being embraced in the foregoing letters to the Hon F. O. J. Smith, was referred to the Committee on Commerce. On the 6th of April, 1838, Mr. Smith made the following REPORT. On the 3d of February, 1837, the House of Representatives passed a resolution requesting the Secretary of the Treasury to report to the House, at its present session, upon the propriety of establishing a system of telegraphs for the United States. In pursuance of this request, the Secretary of the Treasury, at an early day after the passage of said resolution, addressed a circular of inquiry to numerous scientific and practical individuals in different parts of the Union; and, on the 6th of December last, reported the result of this proceeding to the House. This report of the Secretary embodies many useful suggestions on the necessity and practicability of a system of telegraphic dispatches, both for public and individual purposes; and the committee cannot doubt that the American public is fully prepared, and even desirous, that every requisite effort be made on the part of Congress to consummate an object of so deep interest to the purposes of Government in peace and in war, and to the enterprise of the age. Amid the suggestions thus elicited from various sources, and embodied in the beforementioned report of the Secretary of the Treasury, a plan for an electro-magnetic telegraph is communicated by Professor Morse, of the University of the City of New York, preeminently interesting, and even wonderful. This invention consists in the application, by mechanism, of

Page  342 342 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. galvanic electricity to telegraphic purposes, and is claimed by Professor Morse and his associates as original with them; and being so, in fact, as the committee believe, letters-patent have been secured under the authority of the United States for the invention. It has, moreover, been subjected to the test of experiment, upon a scale of ten miles' distance, by a select committee of the Franklin Institute of the city of Philadelphia, and reported upon by that eminently high tribunal in the most favorable and confident terms. An extract from the report thus made is hereunto annexed. In additional confirmation of the merits of his proposed system of telegraphs, Professor Morse has exhibited it in operation (by a coil of metallic wire measuring about ten miles in length, rendering the action equal to a telegraph of half that distance) to the Committee on Commerce of the House of Representatives, to the President of the United States, and the several heads of departments, to members of Congress generally, who have taken interest in the examination, and to a vast number of scientific and practical individuals from various parts of the Union; and all concur, it is believed, and without a dissenting doubt, in admiration of the ingenious and scientific character of the invention, and in the opinion that it is successfully adapted to the purposes of telegraphic dispatches, and in a conviction of its great and incalculable practical importance and usefulness to the country, and ultimately to the whole world. But it would be presumptuous in any one (and the inventor himself is most sensible of this) to attempt, at this stage of the invention, to calculate in anticipation, or to hold out promises of what its whole extent of capacity for usefulness may be, in either a political, commercial, or social point of view, if the electrical power upon which it depends for successful action shall prove to be efficient, as is now supposed it will, to carry intelligence through any of the distances of fifty, one hundred, five hundred, or more miles, now contemplated. No such attempt, therefore, will be indulged in this report. It is obvious, however, that the influence of this invention over the political, commercial, and social relations of the people of this widely-extended country, looking to nothing beyond, will, in the event of success, of itself amount to a revolution unsurpassed in moral grandeur by any discovery that, has been made in the arts and sciences, from the most distant period to which authentic history extends to the present day. With the means of almost instantaneous communication of intelligence between the most distant points of the country, and simultaneously between any given number of

Page  343 GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE THE OWNER. 343 intermediate points which this invention contemplates, space will be, to all practical purposes of information, completely annihilated between the States of the Union, as also between the individual citizens thereof. The citizen will be invested with, and reduce to daily and familiar use, an approach to the HIGH ATTRIBUTE OF UBIQUITY, in a degree that the human mind, until recently, has hardly dared to contemplate seriously as belonging to human agency, from an instinctive feeling of religious reverence and reserve on a power -of such awful grandeur. Referring to the annexed report of the Franklin Institute, already adverted to, and also to the letters of Professor Morse, marked two, eight, and nine, for other details of the superiority of this system of telegraphs over all other methods heretofore reduced to practice by any individual or government, the committee agree, unanimously, that it is worthy to engross the attention and means of the Federal Government, to the full extent that may be necessary to put the invention to the most decisive test that can be desirable. The power of the invention, if successful, is so extensive for good and for evil, that the Government alone should possess the right to control and regulate it. The mode of proceeding to test it, as suggested, as also the relations which the inventor and his associates are willing to recognize with the Government on the subject of the future ownership, use, and control of the invention, are succinctly set forth in the annexed letters of Professor Morse, marked eight and nine. The probable outlay of an experiment upon a scale equal to fifty miles of telegraph, and equal to a circuit of double that distance, is estimated at thirty thousand dollars. Two-thirds of this expenditure will be for material which, whether the experiment shall succeed or fail, will remain uninjured, and of very little diminished value below the price that will be paid for it. The estimates of Professor Morse, as will be seen by his letter marked nine, amount to twenty-six thousand dollars; but, to meet any contingency not anticipated, and to guard against any want of requisite funds in an enterprise of such moment to the Government, to the people, and to the scientific world, the committee recommend an appropriation of thirty thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury; and to this end submit herewith a bill. It is believed by the committee that the subject is one of such universal interest and importance, that an early action upon it will be deemed desirable by Congress, to enable the inventor to com

Page  344 344 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. plete his trial of the invention upon the extended scale contemplated, in season to furnish Congress with a full report of the result during its present session, if that shall be practicable. All which is respectfully submitted: FRANCIS 0. J. SMITH, JAS. M. MASON, S. C. PHILLIPS, JOHN T. H. WORTHINGTON, SAMUEL CUSHMAN, WM. H. HUNTER, JOHN I. DE GRAFF, GEORGE W. TOLAND, EDWARD CURTIS, Committee on Commerce, U: S. f. R. At this stage of the work, Mr. Smith intimated to Mr. Morse his willingness to take a pecuniary interest and responsibility in the enterprise. With commendable delicacy, it was made a condition of such an arrangement that Mr. Smith should obtain leave of absence from Congress, for the remainder of his term then closing, and that he should not be a candidate for reelection. With this understanding, a partnership was formed between Professor Morse, Professor Gale, Mr. Alfred Vail, and Hon. F. 0. J. Smith, by the terms of which it was stipulated that Mr. Smith should go to Europe with Professor Morse and secure patents for the telegraph in such countries as it should be practicable for him to do so. The property in the invention was divided into sixteen shares, of which Mr. Morse held nine, Mr. Smith four, Mr. Vail two, and Professor Gale one. In the patents to be obtained in foreign countries the proportions were not the same: Professor Morse was to hold eight, Mr. Smith five, Mr. Vail two, and Professor Gale one. Professor Morse returned to New York, and made arrangements necessary for his journey to Europe. It was important to secure a patent for the great invention in foreign countries, and every day's delay increased the difficulties of success. Mr. Vail went to Speedwell to prepare an instrument which Professor Morse would take with him to Europe. He wrote to Mr. Vail, March 15th: Every thing looks encouraging, but I need not say to you that in this world a continued course of prosperity is not a rational expectation, We shall doubtless find troubles and difficulties in store for us, and it is the part of true wisdom to be prepared for whatever may await us. If our hearts are right, we shall not be taken

Page  345 MR. VAIL'S GRATITUDE. 345 by surprise. I see nothing now but an unclouded prospect, for which let us pay to Him who shows it us the homage of grateful and obedient hearts, with most earnest prayers for grace to use prosperity aright. " The wire, and battery, and dictionary, have safely arrived, and are now in the cabinet, where Professor Gale is preparing immediately to-institute some experiments important to the invention. As soon as Mr. S. returns from the eastward I shall proceed with him to Washington, arranging matters there in relation to the patent, and then I am ready for Europe." March 19th Mr. Vail replied: " I feel, Professor Morse, that if I am ever worth any thing, it will be wholly attributable to your kindness-I now should have no earthly prospect of happiness and domestic bliss had it not been for what you have done, for which I shall ever remember with the liveliest emotions of gratitude, whether it is eventually successful or not. I can appreciate your reasonable and appropriate remark that there is nothing certain in this life; that it is a world of care, anxiety, and trouble, and that our dependence must be placed upon a higher power than of earth.1 " I am, yours truly, ALFRED VAIL." From the city of Washington, March 31st, Professor Morse wrote to Mr. Vail: " I write you a hasty line to say, in the first place, that I have overcome all difficulties in regard to a portrule, and have invented one which will be perfect. It is very simple, and will not take much time or expense to make it. Mr. S. has incorporated it into the specification for the patent. Please, therefore, not to pro1 These expressions of gratitude by Mr. Vail to Mr. Morse were honorable to Mr. V., and Mr. Morse cherished to the day of his death a tender regard for his young friend. At a banquet given to Mr. Morse more than thirty years after this letter was written, Mr. Morse, then at the height of human glory, spoke of Mr. Vail in such terms of grateful recognition as to call out the following note from a son of Mr. Vail, who was not born when the letter above was written: "NEW YORK, JTune 13,1871. "RESPECTED SIR: Allow me, for myself, to thank you for the kind, generous manner in which you alluded to my father's share in your early labors and struggles, during the babyhood of the now giant Telegraph. I have always felt that you would freely recognize and acknowledge his assistance, and it was therefore exceedingly gratifying to me when, being absent when you spoke them, I read them in the published account of Saturday's evening meeting in your honor. Accept my many wishes for your continued health and honor, and believe me, "Yours, respectfully, J. CUMMINGS VAIL."

Page  346 346 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. ceed with the type or portrule as now constructed. I will see you on my return, and explain it in season for you to get one ready for us. I find it a most arduous and tedious process to adjust the specification; I have been engaged steadily for three days with Mr. S., and have not yet got half through, but there is one consolation, when done it will be well done. The drawings, I find on inquiry, would cost you from forty to fifty dollars, if procured from the draughtsman about the Patent-Office. I have therefore determined to do them myself, and save you that sum." During the few weeks spent in completing the instrument to be taken to Europe, and preparing for an expedition which promised the most important results, the fertile mind of Mr. Morse was constantly devising improvements, removing difficulties, and making assurance doubly sure.

Page  347 CHAPTER IX. 1838-1839. PROFESSOR MORSE GOES TO ENGLAND-APPLICATION FOR PATENT -REFUSAL — REASONS-FALSE STATEMENT OF AN OFFICIAL-GOES TO PARIS-LETTERS TO HIS DAUGHTER-DR. KIRKRS RECOLLECTIONS-ARAGO —HIS GREAT KINDNESS - EXHIBITION BEFORE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE -BARON HUMBOLDT S OONGRATULATIONS-REPORT UPON IT-LETTERS TO FRIENDSHON. H. L. ELLSWORTH'S LETTER-PATENT IN FRANCE-COUNT MONTALIVET-PROFESSOR MORSE'S LETTERS TO MR. SMITH-LORD LINCOLN'S AND LORD ELGIN'S INTEREST IN THE TELEGRAPH-PROFESSOR MORSE GOES TO LONDON-EXHIBITS THE TELEGRAPH AT THE HOUSE OF LORD LINCOLN. IROFESSOR MORSE left on record a minute account of his attempt and failure to procure a patent in England. " On May 16, 1838, I left the United States and arrived in London in June, for the purpose of obtaining letters-patent for my Electro-Magnetic Telegraph System. I learned before leaving the United States that Professor Wheatstone and Mr. (ooke, of London, had obtained letters-patent in England for a' Magnetic-Needle Telegraph,' based, as the name implies, on the deflection of the magnetic needle. Their telegraph at that time required six conductors between the two points of intercommunication for a single instrument at each of the two termini. Their mode of indicating signs for communicating intelligence was by deflectingfive magnetic needles in various directions in such a way as to point to the required letter upon a diamond-shaped dial-plate., It was necessary that the signal should be observed at the instant, or it was lost, and vanished forever. " I applied for letters-patent for my system of communicating intelligence at a distance by electricity, differing in all respects from

Page  348 348 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Messrs. Wheatstone and Cooke's system, invented five years before theirs, and having nothing in common in the whole system but the use of electricity on metallic conductors, for which use no one could obtain an exclusive privilege, since this much had been used for nearly one hundred years. My system is peculiar in the employment of electro-magnetism, or the motive power of electricity, to imprint permanent signs at a distance. I made no use of the deflections of the magnetic needle as signs. I required but one conductor between the two termini, or any number of intermediate points of intercommunication. I used paper moved by clock-work, upon which I caused a lever moved by magnetism to imprint the letters and words of any required dispatch, having also invented and adapted to telegraph writing a new and peculiar alphabetic character for that purpose; a conventional alphabet, easily acquired, and easily made, and used by the operator. It is obvious, at once, from a simple statement of these facts, that the system of Messrs. Wheatstone and Cooke, and my system, were wholly unlike each other. As I have just observed, there was nothing in common in the two systems but the use of electricity upon metallic conductors, for which no one could obtain an exclusive privilege. " The various steps required by the English law were taken by me to procure a patent for my mode, and the fees were paid at the Clerk's office, June 22d, and at the Home Department, June 25, 1838; also June 26th, caveats were entered at the Attorney and Solicitor General's-and I had reached that part of the process which required the sanction of the Attorney-General. At this point I met the opposition of Messrs. Wheatstone and Cooke, and also of Mr. Davy, and a hearing was ordered before the Attorney-General, Sir John Campbell, on July 12,1838. I attended at the AttorneyGeneral's residence on the morning of that day, carrying with me my telegraphic apparatus, for the purpose of explaining to him the total dissimilarity between my system and those of my opponents. But, contrary to my expectation, the similarity or dissimilarity of my mode from that of my opponents was not considered by the Attorney-General. He neither examined my instrument, which I had brought for that purpose, nor did he ask any questions bearing upon its resemblance to my opponents' system. I was met by the single declaration that my'invention had been published,' and in proof a copy of the London M2echanics' 2agazine, No. 757, for February 10, 1838, was produced, and I was told that'in consequence of said publication I could not proceed.'

Page  349 UNJUST DECISION. 349 "At this summary decision I was certainly surprised, being conscious that there had been no such publication of my method as the law required to invalidate a patent; and, even if there had been, I ventured to hint to the Attorney-General that, if I was rightly informed in regard to the British law, it was the province of a court and jury, and not of the Attorney-General, to try and to decide that point. I conceived that if I had merely offered a substantially different mode of doing the same thing, this, according to British law, was sufficient to entitle me to a patent for MY MODE; but if, after having obtained a patent, my opponents could prove before a court and jury that my mode had been previously published, then it was for that court and jury to declare my patent void. I therefore considered myself unjustly dealt with by the Attorney-General, who, it appeared to me, had stepped out of the sphere of his proper duties, assuming the power of a court and jury, to forbid me to proceed. " Unwilling to yield to such manifest injustice, without attempting to correct what might possibly have arisen from some misapprehension, I, immediately on my return to my lodgings, with the assistance of a legal friend, F. O. J. Smith, Esq., drew up and sent a letter to the Attorney-General, in which I requested a review of his decision, stating the essential differences between my system and that of my opponents, and concluding in these terms: "' I forbear to advert to other differences, now clear to my own mind, through fear of too far intruding upon your valuable time and patience. I will at once proceed to obviate the grand objection which I understand to have been regarded as in my way, viz.: "'While it is conceded that all my claim rightly attaches to myself by priority of invention, the publicity that has been given it (it is contended) divests me of the legal right to an exclusive property in it. Here, will the Hon. Attorney-General indulge me in the inquiry"' 1. What is the nature of the publication that can operate thus to deprive an inventor of his right to a patent? "'2. What is the nature of the publication in the present case that stands in the way? "'May I not presume the English law to be what the American law is, and what the French law is, in principle, upon the subject of publication? A publication of results-even a minute published description of mere results produced by an invention-cannot invalidate a posterior patent in either of those countries, if the means,

Page  350 350 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the modus operandi producing those results, are not described in the publication to an extent that a clever workman would be enabled to make the same means and to produce the same results. "'Suppose it were published that I had invented a gun that would shoot accurately at right angles, beyond any given point.; surely, this would not prejudice my claim to a patent subsequently. Suppose I exhibited in the market-place the gun actually made, and yet no one, from such exhibition, could understand its structure, it is respectfully submitted that even such a publication both of means and results could not invalidate my patent subsequently obtained, because the publication did not convey information up to the point that could enable any person to make use of my invention. Such I would with great deference presume to be the rationale of the law of England. And, if in the foregoing construction T am correct, the question recurs, What is the nature of the publication in my case? "' I send you all that has come within my knowledge as published in this country, all that has been presented to the Hon. AttorneyGeneral as published (see Mechanic's iMagazine, page 332). Will the Hon. Attorney-General be good enough to analyze this document with me, and compare it even with all the information the opposing claimants in my case possess relative to my invention up to this date? "' The magazine article describes: "' 1. The fact that my invention is reduced " to the use of one wire," one circuit only. "' I believe it will not be contended in any quarter that I am not the first inventor of this reduction of an Electric Telegraph to a single circuit. But this is only publishing a result, not the mode in which it is produced. It furnishes no description of the mechanism which I employ, and which enables me successfully to dispense with all wires except one. It would not suggest any mode as my mode of accomplishing this, to any mind. And yet, it might suggest to many minds many modes of doing it, and some one of them might or might not resemble mine; and the several inventors would each be entitled to a patent for their respective modes. "' 2. The publication discloses the fact that my invention contains a register which permanently records, and in characters easily legible, the fullest communication, etc. But this is only a statement of a result. It is no description of the means of recording, or the manner in which my means of recording operate in produc

Page  351 NO SUFFICIENT PUBLICATION. 351 ing the result. It is as indefinite a description of means as it would be to say, " A has invented a gun which will shoot accurately at right angles." "'3. The publication discloses a specimen of the writing produced by my invention, and an explanation of what the characters thus produced indicate by aid of a dictionary. But the how-by what description of mechanism, or by what sort of type or pen, pencil, or marking instruments, this specimen of characters wasproduced, is not described, nor published, nor explained. No reader learns this from the publication here exhibited. He learns from it how to read the characters-what they mean-how they connect themselves with a dictionary-but he is no wiser from it as to the mode producing these characters; and with this ends all the description of either means or results which the publication contains. I"' I respectfully submit to the Attorney-General, whether such a publication of results is to be construed into a description of means, or can bring my invention within the meaning of the principle of law heretofore adverted to, invalidating in the slightest degree my claim to a patent. " But, further: If it were even admitted that such publicity has been given to portions of my invention as to preclude me from a valid patent for those portions, it will not surely be contended that I am thereby precluded from a patent for the undisclosed and unpublishedportions, which I take at my risk. For such portions I desire a patient. " In conclusion, allow me to remark that I am quite persuaded that no configuration of the type I use, or of the mechanism by which I bring them into use, has ever to this day come to the knowledge of my opposing claimants: and that they cannot describe any of these particulars of my invention to the Hon. Attorney-General, upon his request, nor even inform him whether I do or do not employ the magnetic needle in the invention, nor how the type make their impression on the paper. And if, with all the assumed publicity of my invention before them, they cannot do this much with accuracy and promptness, I feel confident the Hon. Attorney-General will dismiss all doubt as to the injustice that would be done to me, and to my representatives and estate, by withholding from me the patent for which I have petitioned. "' I have written at more length than I intended, but I wish my case to be clearly understood, and in a shape not to be misunderstood. If I have presumed too much in this, I hope to find an

Page  352 352 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. apology in the importance, to myself and others associated with me, of the result of much anxious labor, and much expense incurred in years of devotedness to this invention. "'With high consideration, I have the honor to be your obedient servant, (Signed) "'LONDON, 14 BEDFORD PLACE, t S. F. B. MORSE. July 12, 1838.' "In consequence of my request in this letter, I was allowed a second hearing. I attended accordingly; but, to my chagrin, the Attorney-General remarked that he had not had time to examine the letter. He carelessly took it up, and turned over the leaves without reading it, and then asked me if I had not taken measures for a patent in my own country. And, upon my reply in the affirmative, he remarked that'America was a large country, and I ought to be satisfied with a patent there.' I replied that, with all due deference, I did not consider that as a point submitted for the Attorney-General's decision; that the question submitted was, whether there was any legal obstacle in the way of my obtaining letters-patent for my Telegraph in England. He observed that he considered my invention as having been published, and that he must therefore forbid me to proceed. " Thus forbidden to proceed by an authority from which there was no appeal, as I afterward learned, but to Parliament, and this at great cost of time and money, I immediately left England for France, where I found no difficulty in securing a patent. My invention there not only attracted the regards of the distinguished savants of Paris, but in a marked degree the admiration of many of the English nobility and gentry at that time in the French capital. To several of these, while explaining the operation of my telegraphic system, I related the history of my treatment by the English Attorney-General. The celebrated Earl of Elgin took a deep interest in the matter, and was intent on my obtaining a special act of Parliament to secure to me my just rights as the inventor of the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph. He repeatedly visited me, bringing with him many of his distinguished friends, and among them on one occasion the noble Earl of Lincoln, since one of her Majesty's Privy Council. The Hon. Henry Drummond also interested himself for me, and, through his kindness and Lord Elgin's, 1 received letters of introduction to Lord Brougham and to the Marquis of Northamptom, the President of the Royal Society, and several

Page  353 RUSSIAN NEGOTIATIONS. 353 other distinguished persons in England. The Earl of Lincoln showed me special kindness; in taking leave of me in Paris, he gave me his card, and, requesting me to bring my telegraphic instruments with me to London, pressed me to give him the earliest notice of my arrival in London. " I must here say that for weeks in Paris I had been engaged in negotiation with the Russian Counselor of State, the Baron Alexander de Meyendorff, arranging measures for putting the telegraph in operation in Russia. The terms of a contract had been mutually agreed upon, and all was concluded but the signature of the emperor to legalize it. In order to take advantage of the ensuing summer season for my operations in Russia, I determined to proceed immediately to the United States to make some necessary preparations for the enterprise, without waiting for the formal completion of the contract papers, being led to believe that the signature of the emperor was sure, a matter of mere form. Under these circumstances, I left Paris on the 13th of March, 1839, and arrived in London on the 15th of the same month. The next day, I sent my card to the Earl of Lincoln and my letter and card to the Marquis of Northampton, and in two or three hours received a visit from both. By Earl Lincoln, I was at once invited to send my Telegraph to his house in Park Lane, and on the 19th of March I exhibited its operation to members of both Houses of Parliament, of the Royal Society, and the Lords of the Admiralty, invited to meet me by the Earl of Lincoln. From the circumstances mentioned, my time in London was necessarily short, my passage having been secured in the Great Western, to sail on the 23d of March. Although solicited to remain a while in London, both by the Earl of Lincoln and the Hon. Henry Drummond, with a view to obtaining a special act of Parliament for a patent, I was compelled by the circumstances of the case to defer, till some more favorable opportunity, on my expected return to England, any attempt of the kind. The Emperor of Russia, however, refused to ratify the contract made with me by his Counselor of State, and my design of returning to Europe was frustrated; and I have not to this hour had the means to prosecute this enterprise to a result in England. All my exertions were needed to establish my telegraphic system in my own country. "Time has shown conclusively the essential difference of my telegraphic system from those of my opponents; time has also shown that my system was not published in England, as alleged by 23

Page  354 354 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. the Attorney-General; for, to this day, no work in England has published any thing that does not show that, as yet, it is perfectly misunderstood. Professor Wheatstone has even pronounced lately (within three years), in Paris, my'system USELESS and IMPRACTICABLE, or words to that effect, as I learn from the highest authority. Surely, after the results before the world of the practical operation of my system for so long a time, and over hundreds of miles of country (in 1846), furnishing daily to the press, in cities five or six hundred miles apart, whole columns of news simultaneously, Professor Wheatstone could not have understood my system, and thus risk his reputation as a man of science by such a hasty opinion. If my system had been published in England, Professor Wheatstone's sagacity would certainly have comprehended its superior simplicity and efficiency, and he never would have hazarded such a remark. I consider this fact conclusive on the point of publication. But, as this was the ground, the sole ground, of not allowing me to proceed in taking out letters patent, I will not leave the settlement of the question to inference; I will show that there was not even the shadow of apublication, in the legal sense of the term. The sole document upon which my opponents rested to prove a publication, is that referred to in the Mechanic's Magazine, page 332.1 Let any one read that paper, and see whether my invention is there anywhere describe. It is there stated that' five years before' (in 1832),'I had invented an Electric Telegraph;' that'the distinguishing features of my telegraph' are a register which permanently records in characters easily legible the fullest communication, and the use of but one wire as a conductor; it speaks of points or marks' to be read, and of' a pencil' that marks. It will scarcely be believed, and yet it is true, that this is all the description or publication of my invention at that time made in EEngland, or shown by my opponents; and yet, on such a pretended publication as this, was I forbidden to proceed to obtain letters patent. " At that time, I had with me drawings of an instrument called the receiving magnet, constructed and put in operation in the spring of 1837, connected with a relay or local battery, a provision against the reduction of the magnetic power of the main battery as the length of the conductor increased., By means of a local battery and local magnet, any quantity of power could be obtained, according to the size of said local magnet or local battery. 1 This article in the Mechanic's Magazine to which I refer, was copied without alteration from Sitliman's Journal of Science of October, 1837.

Page  355 REFUSED A PATENT IN ENGLAND. 355 "The receiving magnet was a provision devised for an exigency which at that time I conceived only to be possible, but was to be used and would be effective in case the exigency occurred. This instrument was unnecessary in any of the then attempted systems of Electric Telegraphs, nor was it then necessary, nor is it now necessary, in the exhibition of my main instrument called the register, while confined to a few miles of conductors. But it is essential to the efficiency of my system when a circuit connects two points a great distance from each other. Although devised as long ago as 1836, and constructed in the spring of 1837, while providing against a possible exigency, it was not necessary to bring it into actual practical use till the first line of conductors for my Telegraph was prepared. This exigency occurred in trying the power of the register magnet through a circuit of one hundred and sixty miles of wire. The magnetism even from a powerful battery was found to be too feeble for the purpose of directly marking mechanically my characters, but the application of the receiving magnet which had been prepared, in reserve, and was at hand, effectually and immediately relieved the difficulty. " Now, under what pretence of justice was I denied a patent for this receiving magnet? It was secured to me in France but a few weeks after the rejection of my application in England. " This is the statement of the case. The refusal to grant me a patent was at that period very disastrous. It was especially discouraging to have made a long voyage across the Atlantic in vain, incurring great expenditure, and loss of time, which in their consequence also produced years of delay in the prosecution of my enterprise in the United States. "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "NEW YORK, April 2, 1847." At the time of preparing this statement, I lacked one item of evidence which it was desirable to have, aside from my own assertion, viz., evidence that the refusal of the Attorney-General was on the ground'that a publication of the invention had been made.' I deemed it advisable rather to suffer from the delay, and endure the taunts which my unscrupulous opponents have not been slow to lavish upon me in consequence, if I could but obtain this evidence in proper shape. I accordingly wrote to my brother, then in London, to procure, if possible, from Lord Campbell or his secretary, an acknowledgment of the ground on which he refused my application for a patent in 1838, since no public report or record in such cases

Page  356 356 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. is made. My brother, in connection with Mr. Carpmael, one of the most distinguished patent agents in England, addressed a note to Mr. H. Cooper, the Attorney-General's secretary at the time, and the only official person besides Lord Campbell connected with the matter. The following is Mr. Cooper's reply: "' WILMINGTON SQUARE, lMay 23, 1843. "'GENTLEMEN: In answer to yours of the 20th inst., I beg to state that I have a distinct recollection of Professor Morse's application for a patent, strengthened by the fact of his not having paid the fees for the hearing, etc., and their being now owing. I understood at the time that the patent was stopped on the ground that a publication of the invention had been made, but I cannot procure Lord Campbell's certificate of that fact.' I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, "'H. COOPER.' " I thus have obtained the evidence I desired in the most authentic form, but accompanied with as gross an insult as could well be conceived. On the receipt of this letter, I immediately wrote to F. O. J. Smith, Esq., at Portland, who accompanied me to England, and at whose. sole expense, according to agreement, all proceedings in taking out patents in Europe were to be borne, to know if this charge of the Attorney-General's secretary could possibly be true, not knowing but, through some inadvertence on his (Mr. Smith's) part, this bill might have been overlooked. Mr. Smith writes me in answer, sending me a copy verbatim of the following receipt, which he holds and which speaks for itself: "'Mr. Morse to the Attorney-General, Dr. ~ s. d. Hearing on a patent................................. 3 10 0 Giving notice on the same............................. 1 1 0 ~4 11 0 Settled the 13th of August, 1838. (Signed) H. COOPER.': This receipt is signed, as will be perceived, by the same individual H. Cooper, who, nearly ten years after his acknowledgment of the money, has the impudence to charge me with leaving my fees unpaid. I now leave the public to make their own comments both on the character of the whole transaction in England, and on the character and motives of those in this country who have espoused

Page  357 CORONATION OF THE QUEEN. 357 Lord Campbell's course, making it an occasion to charge me with having'invented nothing.' "( SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. " POUGHKEEPSIE, December 11, 1848." This refusal of a patent in England is a fact of such great importance in the history of Telegraphs, that the letters referred to from Mr. Smith and Mr. Sidney E. Morse, showing clearly the gross wrong that was done, are carefully preserved to substantiate the statements made by Professor Morse. June 19, 1838, Professor Morse wrote to his daughter, Mrs. Lind: " London is filling fast with crowds of all characters, from ambassadors and princes to pickpockets and beggars, all brought together by the coronation of the queen, which takes place in a few days (the 28th of June). Every thing in London now is colored by the coming pageant. In the shop-windows are the robes of the nobility, the crimson and ermine, dresses, coronets, etc. Preparations for illuminations are making all over the city. " I have scarcely entered upon the business of the Telegraph, but have examined (tell Dr. Gale) the specification of Wheatstone at the Patent-Office, and, except the alarum part, he has nothing which interferes with mine. His invention is ingenious and beautiful, but very complicated, and he must use twelve wires where I use but four. I have seen also a Telegraph exhibiting at Exeter Hall, invented by Davy, something like Wheatstone's, but still complicated. I find mine is yet the simplest, and hope to accomplish something, but always keep myself prepared for disappointment. Your affectionate father, "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE." While attending the ceremoities of the coronation, to which Professor Morse was invited by the courtesy of the American Minister, the Hon. Andrew Stevenson, he learned a pleasing incident illustrating the beautiful character of the maiden queen. He related it in these words: "I was in London in 1838, and was present with my excellent friend the late Charles R. Leslie, R. A., at the imposing ceremonies of the coronation of the queen in Westminster Abbey. He then related to me the following incident, which I think may truly be said to have been the first act of her Majesty's reign: When her predecessor, William IV., died, a messenger was immediately dis

Page  358 358 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. patched by his queen (then become by his death queen-dowager) to Victoria, apprising her of the event. She immediately called for paper, and indicted a letter of condolence to the widow. Folding it, she directed it'To the Queen of England.' Her maid of honor in attendance, noticing the inscription, said,' Your Majesty, you are Queen of England.''Yes,' she replied,'but the widowed queen is not to be reminded of that fact first by me.'" Although the exhibition of the Telegraph must have carried conviction to the minds of all who saw its actual operation, the inventor gained nothing by remaining in London. He determined to " seek his fortune " in Paris. Writing to his daughter on his way thither, he says: "HATRE, IN FRANCE, July 26, 1838. "After having been delayed seven weeks in England, endeavoring to obtain a patent, and having had two hearings before the Attorney-General, he decided against us, and (as we can make to appear) most unjustly. The ground of objection was not that my invention was not original, and better than others, but that it had been published in England from the American journals, and therefore belonged to the public. The whole matter will be laid before the world in due time, and, so far as most gross injustice is charged on his decision, the charge will be made out. We have, however, by this act of the Attorney-General, been shut out from any expectation of pecuniary advantage in Great Britain, and yet the history of the whole transaction clearly proves me the original inventor of the first practicable and the simplest Electric Telegraph, and I am persuaded that eventually the English themselves will do me that justice.:Professor Wheatstone and Mr. Davy were my opposers. They have each very ingenious* inventions of their own, particularly the former, who is a man of genius, and one with whom I was personally much pleased; he has invented his, I believe, without knowing that I was engaged in an invention to produce a similar result, for, although he dates back into 1832, yet, as no publication of our thoughts was made by either, we are evidently independent of each other. My time has not been lost, however, for I have ascertained with certainty that the Telegraph of a single circuit and a recording apparatus is mine, and I learned from the AttorneyGeneral that Professor Steinheil, of Munich, who has invented his, of a single circuit, subsequent to mine, has, as he observed,'without doubt taken it from mine.' I found, also, that both Mr. Wheat

Page  359 PATENT IN FRANCE. 359 stone and Mr. Davy were endeavoring to simplify theirs by adding a recording apparatus and reducing theirs to a single circuit. The latter showed to the Attorney-General a drawing, which I obtained sight of, of a method by which he proposed a bungling imitation of my first characters, those that were printed in our journals, and one, however plausible on paper, and sufficiently so to deceive the Attorney-General, was perfectly impracticable. Partiality, from national or other motives, aside from the justice of the case, I am persuaded, influenced the decision against me. "We are now on our way to Paris, to try what we can do with the French Government. I confess I am not sanguine as to any favorable pecuniary result in Europe, but we shall try; and at any rate we have seen enough to know that the matter is viewed with great interest here, and the plan of such telegraphs will be adopted, and of course the United States is secured to us, and I do hope something from them. Be economical, my dear child, and keep your wants within bounds, for I am preparing myself for an unsuccessful result here, yet every proper effort will be made. I am in excellent health and spirits, and leave to-morrow morning for Paris." "PARIS, August 29, 1838. "I have obtained a patent here, and it is exciting some attention. The prospects of future benefit from the invention are good, but I shall not probably realize much or even any thing immediately. I saw by the papers, before I got your letter, that Congress had not passed the appropriation bill for the Telegraph; on some accounts I regret it, but it is only delayed, and it will probably be passed early in the winter. You will be glad to learn, my dear daughter, that your father's health was never so good, and, probably before this reaches you, he will be on the ocean on his return. I think of leaving Paris in a very few days. i I am only waiting to show the Telegraph to the king, from whom I expect a message hourly. The birth of a prince occupies the whole attention just now of the royal family and the court; he was born or the 24th inst., the son of the Duke and Duchess of Orleans. My rooms are as delightfully situated, perhaps, as any in Paris; they are close to the palace of the Tuileries, and overlook the gardens, and are within half a stone's-throw of the rooms of the Duke and Duchess of Orleans. From my balcony I look directly into their rooms. I saw the company that were there assembled on the birthday of the little prince, and saw him in his nurse's arms at the win

Page  360 360 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. dow the next day after his birth. He looked very much like any other baby, and not half so handsome as little Hugh Peters. I received from the Minister of War, General Bernard, who has been very polite to me, a ticket to be present at the Te Deum performed yesterday in the great cathedral of Paris, Notre-Dame, on account of the birth of the prince. The king and all the royal family and the court, with all the officers of state, were present. The cathedral was crowded with all the fashion of Paris. Along the ways, and around the church, were soldiers without number, almost-a proof that some danger was apprehended to the king; and yet he ought to be popular, for he is the best ruler they have had for years. The ceremonies were imposing, appealing to the senses and the imagination, and not at all to the reason or the heart." "PARIS, September 29, 1838. "Since my last, matters have assumed a totally different aspect. At the request of Monsieur Arago, the most distinguished astronoiner of the day, I submitted the Telegraph to the Institute at one of their meetings, at which some of the most celebrated philosophers of France and of Germany, and of other countries, were present. Its reception was in the highest degree flattering, and the interest which they manifested, by the questions they asked, and the exclamations they used, showed to me then that the invention had obtained their favorable regard. The papers of Paris immediately announced the Telegraph in the most favorable terms, and it has literally been the topic of the day ever since. The Baron Humboldt, the celebrated traveler, a member of the Institute, and who saw its operation before that body, told Mr. Wheaton, our Minister to Prussia, that my Telegraph was the best of all the plans. that had been devised. I received a call from the administrator-in-chief of all the Telegraphs of France, Monsieur Alphonse Foy; I explained it to him. He was highly delighted with it, and told me that the Government were about to try an experiment with the view of testing the practicability of the Electric Telegraph, and that he had been requested to see mine and to report upon it; that he should report that'mine was the best that had been submitted to him,' and he added that I had better forthwith get an introduction to the Minister of the Interior, Monsieur the Count Montalivet; I procured a letter from our Minister, and am now waiting the decision of the Government. Every thing looks promising thus far, as much so as I could expect; but it involves the possibility not to say the probability of my remaining in Paris

Page  361 LETTER TO A DAUGHTER. 361 during the winter. If I should be delayed till December, it would be prudent to remain until April. If it be possible without detriment to my affairs to make such arrangements that I may return this autumn, I shall certainly do it; but, if I should not, you must console yourselves that it is in consequence of meeting with success that I am detained, and that I shall be more likely to return with advantage to you all, on account of the delay. I ought to say that the directors of the St. Germain Railroad have seen my Telegraph, and that there is some talk (as yet vague) of establishing a line of my Telegraph upon that road. I mention these, my dear child, to show you that I cannot at this moment leave Paris without detriment to my principal object." "PARIS, October 10, 1838. "MY DEAR DAUGHTER: You are at an age when a parent's care, and particularly a mother's care, is most needed. You cannot know the depth of the wound that was inflicted when I was deprived of your dear mother, nor in how many ways that wound has been kept open. Yet I know it is all well; I look to God to take care of you; it is his will that you should be almost truly an orphan, for, with all my efforts to have a home for you and to be near you, I have met hitherto only with disappointment. But there are now indications of a change, and, while I prepare for disappointment and wish you to prepare for disappointment, we ought to acknowledge the kind hand of our heavenly Father, in so far prospering me as to put me in the honorable light before the world which is now my lot. With this eminence is connected the prospect of pecuniary prosperity, yet this is not consummated, but only in prospect; it may be a long time before any thing is realized. Study, therefore, prudence and economy in all things; make your wants as few as possible, for the habit thus acquired will be of advantage to you, whether you have much or little." The Rev. Dr. Kirk, who died in Boston, March 27, 1874, was residing in Paris at the time of Professor Morse's visit, and the two gentlemen, being old friends, took apartments in common for the sake of economy. Dr. Kirk, in a letter written in 1851, alludes to the Telegraph and its inventor: "On my return to Paris, in the autumn'of 1838, I met your brother, and we took rooms at the H6tel No. 9 Rue Neuve des

Page  362 362 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Mathurins. Our apartments consisted of a parlor, a bedchamber, and an intervening passage. He put up a table in the bedroom, and placed his galvanic battery upon it. The wires were extended through the passage into the parlor, where the writing apparatus was set up. I remember rallying my friend frequently about the experience of great inventors, who are generally permitted to starve when living, and are canonized after death. "When the model telegraph had been set up in our rooms, Mr. Morse desired to exhibit it to the savants of Paris. But, as he had less of the talking propensity than myself, I was made the grand exhibitor. Our levee-day was -Tuesday, and for weeks we received the visits of distinguished citizens and strangers, to whom I explained the principles and operation'of the Telegraph. The visitors would agree upon a word among themselves, which I was not to hear. Then the Professor would receive it at the writing end of the wires; while it devolved upon me to interpret the characters which recorded it at the other end. As I explained the hieroglyphics, the announcement of the word, which they saw could have come to me only through the wire, would often create a deep sensation of delighted wonder. And much do I now regret that I did not take notes of those interviews; for it would be an interesting record of distinguished names, and of valuable remarks. As it is, I must merely speak of what memory retains. And what is of chief importance I do distinctly remember. "1. Men distinguished for their science as well as their social position, and eminent literary men and women, were among the interested spectators of the great invention. They were from England, Spain, Russia, Italy, and America, besides the Parisians and other Frenchmen. I doubt not there were representatives from other nations, because our rooms were full on each exhibition, but I retain no definite recollections beyond what I state. Our own countryman, Robert Walsh, Esq., gave the word'Immortality,' to be written by the Telegraph. " 2. The impression left on my mind is complete, that, while a few chemists or physicists were familiar with the two great laws of the magnetic fluid which the Telegraph employs (I mean the instantaneousness, or immeasurable rapidity of the current, when the circuit is complete, and the power of making iron attractive), yet I never heard a remark which indicated that the result obtained by Mr. Morse was not NEW, wonderful, and promising immense practical results."

Page  363 ARAGO'S EXAMINATION. 363 On the 4th day of September, 1838, Professor Morse had the honor and the'intense satisfaction of meeting M. ARAGO, the most eminent scientist in France, and of exhibiting to him in private the operation of his Telegraph. Arago was the man of all men then living to comprehend and appreciate the wonderful invention. He gave it a thorough examination, questioned the inventor with great minuteness, and declared himself satisfied with the results, and its capacity to do all that was claimed for it. He instantly proposed to introduce it to the Academy of Science, at their very next meeting, which was to be held on the following Monday. The Telegraph had never been subjected to such an inquisition as it would then undergo. The diffident and anxious inventor prepared himself for the trial with the greatest care. In one of his little note-books of that day are written in a few hints which he jotted down to aid him in the presentation of the case: "L My present instrument is very imperfect in its mechanism, and is only designed to illustrate the principle of my invention. The recording part-all in the box that holds the pen-is made strong and clumsy, for the purpose of safety in traveling. It is all reducible to one-third of the compass here exhibited and without at all impairing its efficiency. It may be made into an ornamental piece of furniture, like a time-piece. My invention was matured by me in 1832, though not announced until the spring of 1837. I have indubitable proof from Mr. Rives, late Minister of the United States to the French Government, as also from other persons of the date of my discovery. My invention differs from that of all others of more recent origin". In that it requires but a single circuit of wire by which to communicate all the letters of the alphabet, while the others require several circuits. "2. In that I make no use of magnetic needles in conveying intelligence, while the others rely upon numerous needles for that purpose. " 3. In that mine writes one or any desired copies, simultaneously, of all intelligence sent by it, in permanent characters, while all others carry only momentary signs by motion of needle or by sound, and can furnish no duplicates of them. " 4. Mine requires no attendance constantly at the place of delivery of intelligence, to render the communications made available

Page  364 364 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. -while others can be operated only by having one or more persons ready at all times to take down every sign transmitted at the time and in the order of their transmission. "5. The whole of my invention is worked by mechanism, including type, thereby insuring regularity and precision; others are worked only by hand as an organ or piano is played. "6. By my invention I can communicate letters and words in writing more rapidly than any other invention can communicate signs which reach the eye alone. " The expense of constructing my method of Telegraph, readyfor zse, to and fro, over any given distance, will not exceed thirty-five hundred francs per English mile-and the mechanism at each point will not exceed fifteen hundred. The type will not exceed the expense of one franc per pound. To regulate the passage of the type, a small train of wheels, acted upon by a spring or weight, will be used instead of the hand-crank used for convenience of transportation in the model now presented. " A small apparatus also belongs to the register, but is not now exhibited, by which the person transmitting intelligence from one point can both set in motion and stop at pleasure the register or recording pen, at any distant point, without the intervention of any person there. This secures to a single individual entire control over the Telegraph at each extremity. To the recording pen now exhibited also belongs a reservoir, sufficiently large to supply the the pen with ink for an indefinite period. My invention, I may add, allows the intelligence sent on any single circuit of wire to be written at any number of intermediate places between any two distant points, and simultaneously with its reception at the most distant points. The other inventions require an entire set of wires for every distinct point of communication." The anxiously-anticipated day arrived, September 10, 1838. Full of fears of his own ability to do justice to the work, and knowing that he labored under the great disadvantage of speaking through an interpreter, his heart was ready to fail him. He was invited by the secretary to a seat within the pale of the assembled members; around him were gathered all the chiefs of science in that illustrious body to which kings and emperors have sought admission in vain. But near to the unknown American sat one whose fame had already filled the world of science, and at this day is more illustrious as a naturalist than

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Page  [unnumbered] I' ~' l l J /!Lt ll ll llllr L ll t HUMBOLD, AO1, IA lMRE HUMBOLDT, ARAGO, AND MORSE.

Page  365 BARON HUMBOLDT'S CONGRATULATIONS. 365 any other of the age. This was Baron Humboldt. The secretary, Arago, explained the Telegraph, while Morse stood by to operate upon the instrument, in the presence of this distinguished company. At the conclusion of the explanation by Arago, and in the midst of the plaudits of the Academy, Baron Humboldt arose, and, taking Mr. Morse by the hand, expressed, in strong and hearty terms, his thanks and congratulations. This was the proudest triumph thus far in Morse's life. Still greater triumphs were in store. To his brother Professor Morse wrote: "At the request of M. Arago I consented to exhibit it to the Institute at one of their sittings. I found myself in the midst of the most celebrated scientific men of the world. M. Arago explained in the most lucid manner the details and actions of the instrument, and I perceived by the expression of face and the exclamations of surprise and gratification which were uttered by the members, as they crowded around the table, that the Telegraph had won their regard." To Mr. Vail he wrote: "I exhibited the Telegraph to the Institute, and the sensation produced was as striking as at Washington. It was evident that hitherto the assembled science of Europe had considered the plan of an electric telegraph as ingenious, but visionary, and, like aeronautic navigation, practicable in little more,than theory, and destined to be useless. "I cannot describe to you the scene at the Institute when your box with the registering-machine, just as it left Speedwell, was placed upon the table, and surrounded by the most distinguished men of all Europe, celebrated in the various arts and sciencesArago, Baron Humboldt, Gay-Lussac, and a host of others whose names are stars that shine in both hemispheres. Arago described it t6 them, and I showed its action. A buzz of admiration and approbation filled the whole hall, and the exclamations,'Extraordinaire!'' Tres-bien! /'.Trs admirable!' I heard on all sides. The sentiment was universal." The Comptes Rendus, the weekly journal of the Academy, gave the following notice:

Page  366 366 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "Applied Physics-E-lectro-lffagnetic Telegrcph of MXr. orse, Professor in the University of AVew York. The instrument has been put in operation under the eyes of the Academy; the following is a literal translation of a large portion of the notice delivered by Mr. Morse to the perpetual secretaries: " Mr. Morse conceives that his instrument is the first practicable application which has been made of electricity to the construction of a telegraph. "This instrument was invented in October, 1832, while the author was on his way from Europe to America, in the packet-ship Sully. The fact is attested by the captain of the ship and several of the passengers. Among the number of the latter was Mr. Rives, the Minister of the United States near the French Government." (Here is given the account of Mr. Rives and Captain Pell, after which the account proceeds:) "The idea of applying galvanism to the construction of telegraphs is not new: Dr. Cone, a distinguished citizen of Philadelphia, makes mention of it in a note inserted by him in February, 1816, in the'Annals of Dr. Thompson,' page 162, first series; but he did not give any means of effecting it. "' Since the period to which the invention of Mr. Morse's Telegraph goes back, other arrangements, founded on the same principles, have been announced, of which the most celebrated are those of Mr. Steinheil, of Munich, and of Mr. Wheatstone, of London, "They differ very much in mechanism. The American Telegraph employs but one circuit;' the following is an abridged description: " At the extremity of the circuit, where the news is to be received, is an apparatus called the register. It consists of an electro-magnet, the wire covering of which forms the prolongation of the wire of the circuit. The armature of this magnet is attached to the end of a small lever, which at its opposite extremity holds a pen; under this pen is a ribbon of paper, which moves forward, as required, by means of a certain number of wheels. At the other extremity of the circuit, that is to say, at the station from which I " Suppose the places to be put in communication with each other occupy the three angles of a triangle, the four angles of a quadrilateral, or certain points of a line inclosing a space, a single wire passing through all those points would be sufficient, at least according to the theory."

Page  367 THE INSTRUMENT DESCRIBED. 367 the news is to be sent out, is another apparatus called the portrule; it consists of a battery, or generator of galvanism, at the two poles of which the circuit ends; near the battery a portion of this circuit is broken; the two extremities, disjoined, are plunged into two cups of mercury near each other. By the aid of a bent wire attached to the extremity of a little lever, the two cups may be, at will, placed in connection with each other, or left separated; thus the circuit is completed and interrupted at pleasure. The movement of the mechanism is as follows: When the circuit is complete, the magnet is charged; it attracts the armature, the movement of which brihgs the pen into contact with the paper. When the circuit is interrupted, the magnetism of the horseshoe ceases, the armature returns to its first position, and the pen is withdrawn from the paper. When the circuit is completed, and broken rapidly in succession, mere dots are produced upon the moving paper; if, on the contrary, the circuit remain complete for a certain length of time, the pen marks a line, the length of which is in proportion to the time during which the circuit remains complete. This paper presents a long interval of blank if the circuit remain interrupted during some considerable time. These points, lines, and blanks, lead to a great variety of combinations. By means of these elements Professor Morse has constructed an alphabet and the signs of the ciphers. The letters may be written with great rapidity by means of certain types, which the machine causes to move with exactness, and which give the proper movements to the lever bearing the pen. Forty-five of these characters may be traced in one minute. " The register is under the control of the person who sends the news. In fact, from the extremity called the portrule, the mechanism of the register may be set in motion, and stopped, at will. The presence of a person to receive the news is, therefore, not necessary, though the sound of a bell, which is rung by the machine, announces that the writing is about to be begun. " The distance at which the American telegraph has been tried, is ten miles English, or four post leagues of France. The experiments have been witnessed by a committee appointed by the Congress of the United States. The reports of the committee, which we have not copied, are extremely favorable. The committee of Congress recommended the appropriation of thirty thousand dollars." Two days after the exhibition, the Hon. H. L. Ellsworth, one of our most intelligent citizens, being at that time in

Page  368 368 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. Paris, wrote the following letter to a friend in the United States: "I am sure you will be glad to learn that our American friend, Professor Morse, is producing a very great sensation among the learned men of this kingdom, by his ingenious and wonderful Magnetic Telegraph. He submitted it to the examination of the Academy of Sciences of the Royal Institute of France, at their sitting on Monday last, and the deepest interest was excited among the members of that learned body on the subject. Its novelty, beauty, simplicity, and power, were highly commended. "M. Arago, the learned and eminent principal in the Astronomical Observatory of the French Government, has manifested a very lively interest in relation to it. He addressed the Academy in regard to our countryman's invention in terms that could not but have been most pleasing, as they were certainly most creditable to Mr. Morse. It is understood that a report of the exhibitions will be submitted by M. Arago in the forthcoming number of the published proceedings of the Institute. The favorable consideration and opinion of a man and philosopher so eminent in the scientific world as M. Arago, and so intimately associated with the learned institutions of the French Government, will be in itself a rich reward for American ingenuity to attain in the field of science. ( Other projects for the establishment of a magnetic telegraph have been broached here, especially from Professor Wheatstone, of London, and Professor Steinheil, of Munich. It is said, however, to be very manifest that our Yankee Professor is ahead of them all in the essential requisitions of such an invention, and that he is in the way to bear off the palm. In simplicity of design, cheapness of construction, and efficiency, Professor Marse's Telegraph transcends all yet made known. In each of these qualities, it is admitted, by those who have inspected it closely, there seems to be little else to desire. It is certain, moreover, that in priority of discovery he antedates all others. "In being abroad, among strangers and foreigners, one's nationality of feeling may be somewhat more excusable than at home. Be this as it may, one cannot but feel gratified, as an American, that our countryman, like Fulton in the practical science of steam, is thus in advance of the learned men of the Old World in this triumphant adaptation to every-day use of the elder sister of Steam-power, Electricity. The result of his ingenuity will in a few years impart to

Page  369 PREDICTIONS. 369,the intercourse of man, at points distant from each other, an aspect no less wonderful, free, and influential, than that which the use of steam-power has already imparted to it. In this respect, another revolution is at hand, even more wonderful than its predecessor. I do not doubt that, within the next ten years, you will see this electric power adopted, between all commercial points of magnitude on both sides of the Atlantic, for purposes of correspondence, and men enabled to send their orders or news of events from one point to another with the speed of lightning itself, superseding thereby all the old modes of'express mails' and of postboy correspondence, in all matters of moment to government and trade. The extremities of nations will be literally wired together, and brought, for all purposes of written correspondence, within the compactness of a common centre. In the United States, for instance, you may expect to find, at no very distant day, the Executive messages, and the daily votes of each House of Congress, made known at Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Portland-at New Orleans, Cincinnati, etc., as soon as they can be known at Baltimore, or even at the opposite extremity of Pennsylvania Avenue! The merchant at Boston, or New York, will yet be able to correspond with his ship-master at New Orleans, on the subject of freights, prices of cotton, sugar, etc., in every hour of the day, and give orders and receive return answers between the same distant points in one and the same hour, and by night as well as by day, amid storms as readily as amid sunshine! To predict this much seems now like a fairy tale; and it is, indeed, overwhelming to contemplate the realities which science and practical skill are pouring in upon our age. It is no longer a proverb, but the saying has risen to the solemnity of a mathematical truth, that'truth is stranger than fiction.' Abstract imagination is no longer a match for reality in the race that science has instituted on both sides of the Atlantic." In a letter to one of his brothers, Professor Morse wrote: "M. Foy appointed an hour to come and examine my instrument. He examined it minutely, asking many questions, and proposing many' objections; after he had seen it sufficiently,-he said to me:'I have been requested by the Minister of the Interior to examine your Telegraph among others, and to report to him; I shall report that it is the best I have seen.' He then advised me to obtain a letter of introduction to the Minister of the Interior, the Count Montalivet, for that the Government intended trying an experinent 24

Page  370 370 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. with the Electric Telegraph, and I should probably be requested to try mine. Our excellent Minister, General Cass, gave me a most flattering letter to the Count Montalivet, which I have presented, and am now waiting further orders. I have also received a call from the directors of the St.-Germain Railroad, which is a course of about twelve miles out of Paris. They were much pleased, but they did not wish so complete a telegraph; one circuit and a few signals were all they wished, but were desirous to know if there could be any means devised by which they could know at any time where the cars were on the road." The services of the distinguished M. Antoine Perpigna were secured, and under his direction a brevet d'invention was promptly obtained; but no sooner had it been obtained, says Mr. Morse, "than an unforeseen obstacle was interposed which has rendered my patent in France of no avail to me. By the French patent law at the time, one who obtains a patent was obliged to put into operation his invention within two years from the issue of his patent, under the penalty of forfeiture if he does not comply with the law. In pursuance of this requisition of the law, I negotiated with the president (Turneysen) of the St.-Germain Railroad Company to construct a line of my Telegraph on their road from Paris to St.-Germain, a distance of about seven English miles. The company were favorably disposed toward the project, but upon application (as was necessary) to the Government for permission to have the Telegraph on their road, they received for answer that telegraphs were a Government monopoly, and could not therefore be used for private purpose. I thus found myself crushed between the conflicting forces of two opposing laws." His partner, Hon. F. O. J. Smith, who came with him to the Continent, to aid in securing patents, having returned to London, on his way to the United States, Mr. Morse wrote to him frequently and with the greatest freedom, detailing the minutest incidents in his negotiations, and describing his own feelings as they were alternately elevated or depressed by the progress he made. Dating at Paris, September 29, 1838, he says:'On Monday I received a very flattering letter from our excellent Minister, Governor Cass, introducing me to the Count Monta

Page  371 TRIALS AT THE CUSTOM-HOUSE. 371 livet, and I accordingly called the next day. I did not see him, but had an interview with the secretary, who told me that the Administrator of the Telegraphs had not yet reported to the Minister; but that he would see him the next day, and that, if I would call on Friday, he would inform me of the result. I called on Friday. The secretary informed me that he had seen Monsieur Foy, and that he had more than confirmed the flattering accounts in the American Minister's letter respecting the Telegraph, but was not yet prepared with his report to the Minister-he wished to make a detailed account of the differences in favor of nmine over all, others that had been presented to him, or words' to that effect, and the secretary assured me that the report would be all I could wish. This is certainly flattering, and I am to call on Monday to learn further." On the 24th of October, 1838, he again wrote from Paris: "I can only add, in a few words, that every thing here is as encouraging as could be expected. The report of the Administrator of Telegraphs has been made to the Minister of the Interior, and I have been told that I should be notified of the intentions of Government in a few days. I have also shown the railroad Telegraph to the St.-Germain directors, who are delighted with it, and from them I expect a proposition within a few days." The following letter illustrates the ludicrous manner in which the Professor's patience and temper were tried by the red-tape formalities of officials with whom he was brought into contact in Paris: "PARIS, November 22, 1838. "Hon. F. O. J. SMITH: "MY DEAR SIR: I intend sending this letter by the packet of the 24th inst., and am in hopes of sending with it some intelligence from those from whom I have been so long expecting something. Every thing movbs at a snail's pace here. I find delay in all things; at least, so it appears to me, who have too strong a development of the American organ of'go-a-head-ativeness' to feel easy under its tantalizing effects. A Frenchman ought to have as many lives as a cat, to bring to pass, on his dilatory plan of procedure, the same results that a Yankee (a gen-oo-wine Yankee) would accomplish in his single life. Below, I must tell you what has occurred under my own eyes, and, although the matter is small,

Page  372 372 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. yet it is but one of thousands in the experience of others, and well illustrates the system of business here, expede Herculem. "You will remember that when Mr. Chamberlain went with you to England, he was commissioned by me to obtain some of the clock machinery of the Telegraph, so that by having part executed in England, and part here, the whole machine intended for him to take to the east of Europe, could be completed in less time than-if all were done in one place. The object was simply to avoid delayto expedite matters. Well, you know Mr. Chamberlain procured a common brass clock-movement in London; from this he took out all but the wheels of the train, and put in place of thembour boxwood rollers, which he got turned for one shilling and sixpence sterling. The instrument thus fitted cost about twelve francs. When Mr. Chamberlain arrived at Boulogne, upon searching his trunk this piece of a clock was discovered, and he was told that it must be sent to the administrator at Paris, by the Douane at Boulogne, and for the transportation, etc., he was charged and paid at Boulogne eight francs. On his arrival at Paris he called on the administrator, but the little box had not arrived. He called daily for a week, and at length he was told the box had come, but could not be delivered except by order of a certain officer, and some other formalities. This was well enough, but now came the action of the system. A day Was consumed in finding the officer, who referred him to a second officer, in another part of the city, who again referred him to a third, and he again to a fourth. It was then discovered that the box was for me. I therefore must make my appearance, to state what the ominous machinery was for. I accordingly, with Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Lovering, spent a whole day in being sent from office to office, waiting in each to have my turn to speak to the official, and all to no purpose. Another day was spent in like manner, and a third produced this result-I was required to furnish an accurate colored drawing of the machinery, and a minute description with reference to the drawing. I ought to say that two or three times we told them to take the box, that the whole object for which we wanted it was defeated by their vexatious delay, and that I wished no further trouble about it; but this was not allowed. I then went home and spent half a day in drawing accurately the rollers of box-wood, coloring the drawing, and giving a description of these rollers. I did not dream that it was necessary to give them a drawing of a common clock-train. I spent another day in waiting at the Administration of Douanes

Page  373 VEXATIOUS DELAYS. 374 with the drawing. This at length was cempared, with all formality, before four or five officers, with the machinery, and, because the clock-train was not drawn, pronounced incomplete, and the box retained. Again the attempt was made to give them the box, but no, a proper drawing must be made. Mr. Lovering, Mr. Chamber lain, and myself, passed a forenoon in first finding and then explaining to the Chef des Douanes the object of the machine, and the nature of the loss I should suffer by the continuance of this extraordinary procrastination. The chef then wrote a letter, on my promise to furnish the requisite drawing in a month, ordering the box to be delivered to me. We were then sume we were at the end of the matter. Again we went to the Administrator of Douanes; there I was kept two or three hours, while the papers necessary were drawn up-obligations, receipts, etc. Not less, in printed and written forms, than a quire of foolscap paper was during this affair consumed' The security of a resident in Paris was required for the fulfillment of my engagement. Mr. Lovering was my surety. I was then handed over to an officer, who would give me another paper for another officer, upon paying over again the charge of eight francs to the commissionnaire at Boulogne, whose charge came from the Douane at Boulogne in the official paper. It was in vain they were told that the charge had been paid at Boulogne. Mr. Chamberlain had not the receipt, and it was thought best to pay it, to avoid a fortnight's more delay and loss of time to rectify it. So the money was paid, and with a new paper we went to another officer, who told us there were five francs duties to pay. These were paid, and we then got another. paper, which was delivered to another officer, and the box was put into our hands, upon paying a few sous for signing my name to a receipt for the same. I was by no means sure I had got it, until I had put it under my arm, and had run as if I had stolen it, round two or three corners, and even then I fancied that the whole Douane was in commotion to call me back to complete every thing regular. This was all done that every thing should be according to rule. " Well, I got the box home, the original cost of which was twelve francs, having paid to the customs here for it no less than twentyone francs! But I am by no means sure thatthe matter is ended yet. I spent a whole day in making the promised new drawing, with all the wheels of the clock-train, and description, and have given it to Mr. Lovering to deposit, to release him from his security. But the object of the drawing is, that it may be presented to the

Page  374 374 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. investigation of a court, vwho are to decide whether or not more duty is to be paid, and I am obligated myself to pay any additional duty they may fix. These are the particulars thus far. You will exclaim,'This must be a solitary case.' By no means. At this moment our secretary of legation is waiting this same dilatory,'regular manner of doing business.' He is entitled by law, in consequence of his official station, to have his parcels from abroad duty free. He has had a trunk of apparel from America two or three weeks at Havre, waiting the regular course of a permit for him to receive it, and after dancing attendance on various officials, and notes and letters passing between the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Marine, the secretary has about made up his mind to send to Havre and pay the regular duties, and have it sent to him. But even this will cost him another fortnight, or it may be a month. This execrable mode of doing things resolves itself into the want of one simple principle: there is no such thing here as conscience. This being the case, no confidence, no discretionarypower, can be given to any sub-agent, for he will abuse it; and consequently the regular military muster-roll mode must supply the place of conscience, and all its circumlocutory, cumbrous powers, etc., etc. But I am not going to moralize, though there is a fine field for it both morally and socially. Happy, thrice happy America! "Afternoon, November 22d.-Called on the Ministre de l'Int6rieur, no one at home; left card, and will call again to-morrow, and hope to be in time yet for the packet. November 23d.-I have again called, but do not find at home the chief secretary, M. Merlin. I went with Mr. Clark, who gave me a most amusing account of a case of his, with the Douane, quite equal to mine. He says that these delays are proverbial here, every one having to tell of some such case. If regularity is a good, verily one may have too much of a good thing. I shall miss the packet of the 24th, but I am told she is a slow ship, and that I shall probably find the letters reach home quite as soon by the next. I will leave this open to add, if any thing occurs between this and next patent-day. " November 30th.-I have been called off from this letter until the last moment by stirring about and endeavoring to expedite matters with the Government. I have been to see General Cass since my last date. I talked over matters with him. He complains much of their dilatoriness, but sees no way of quickening them. I have also seen Mr. Anderson, the secretary, and he called with a

Page  375 ENTHUSIASTIC ADMIRATION. 375 M. Ravenant (I think the name is) and another gentleman who had approaches to the Minister of the Interior. They were enthusiastic in their praises of the Telegraph; it excited their wonder at its simplicity and practicability. They will talk about it where it will do service, so I am told. I wait the effects. I called again this morning at the Minister's, and, as usual, the secretary was absent, at the palace, they said. If I could once get them to look at it, I should be sure of them, for I have never shown it to any one who did not seem in raptures. I showed it a few days ago to M. Fremel, the Director of Light-Houses, who came with Mr. Vail and Captain Perry. He was cautious, at first, but afterward became as enthusiastic as any. " The railroad directors are as dilatory as the Government. But I know they are discussing the matter seriously at their meetings, and I was told that the most influential man among them said they'must have it.' The railroad directors in England favor the plan of the Telegraph. There is nothing in the least discouraging that has occurred, but, on the contrary, every thing to confirm the practicability of the plan, both on the score of science and expense." "PARIs, January 21, 1839. " I have shown the Telegraph to a great'number of savants, and I still find the same effect produced on all-that of enthusiastic admiration. An officer in the Telegraph-office, M. Moran, after examining the whole operation for some time with apparent incredulity, broke out with an exclamation of his astonishment, and holding up the little fork, with which I closed and broke the circuit, he exclaimed to the company:'Behold the fork more potent than that of Neptune, destined to greater triumph, although it has one tooth less than his!' and then, addressing me in broken English"' Are you not GLORIOUS, sair, to be the author of this wonderful discovery?' " I will give you the names of several who called last week: M. Pazerat, Engineer and Director of Asphalt Operations; 1.; Jormaid, member of the Institute and Librarian of the King; M. Clement des Ormes, Professor of Chemistry, etc., etc.; General Charenon, formerly Governor of Poland; Baron de Franc, son of the Prince de Salins. There have been many others of the Institute and Chamber of Deputies, whose names I have not recorded. There is some allowance, perhaps, to be made for French manner; but I think I can discover in the most polished manner when there is real or only pretended feeling, for I have now seen all kinds, and

Page  376 376 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. found that often in the commencement there were distrust and caution, and guarded expression of satisfaction, until the operation was completed, and then all reserve seemed at once broken down, and the exclamations of' ~to2nnant!'' T cs ccadnirable and similar expressions showed that the feeling was sincere. I send you the Compte Bencdu of the Societe Plilotechneique a committee of which society, with their president, Baron la Doucette, member of the Chamber of Deputies, at their head, came to examine it. You see their report on the tenth and eleventh pages. I learn that the Telegraph is much talked of in all society, and I learn that the Thaltre des Variites, which is a sort of mirror of the popular topics, has a piece in which persons are made to converse by means of this Telex graph, some hundreds of miles off. This is a straw which shows the way of the wind; and, although matters move too slow for my impatient spirit, yet the Telegraph is evidently gaining on the popular notice, and in time will demand the attention of governments. I have the promise of a visit from the Count Bondy, Chief of the Household of the King, and who, I understand, has great influence with the king, and can induce him to adopt the Telegraph between some of his palaces. Hopes, you perceive, continue bright, but they are somewhat unsubstantial to an empty purse. I look for the first fruits in America. My confidence increases every day in the certainty of the eventual adoption of this means of communication throughout the civilized world. Its practicability, hitherto doubted by savants here, is completely established, and they do not hesitate to give me the credit of having established it. I rejoice quite as much for my country's sake as for my own, that both priority and superiority are awarded to my invention." In a letter dated Paris, January 28, 1839, the Professor wrote to Mr. Smith: I wrote by the Great Western a few days ago. The event then anticipated in regard to the ministry has occurred. The ministers have resigned, and it is expected that the new cabinet will be formed this day, with Marshal Soult at its head. Thus you perceive new causes of delay in obtaining any answer from the Government. As soon as I can learn the name of the new Minister of the Interior, I will address a note to him, or see him, as I may be advised, and see if I can possibly obtain an answer, or at least the report of the administration of the Telegraphs. Nothing has occurred in other respects but what is agreeable. Every exhibition of the Telegraph calls forth increased admiration. I have nothing to complain of on the score of approbation; its simplicity, and su

Page  377 THE CORRESPONDENT. 377 periority to all other proposed telegraphs are constantly adverted to by all the savants. The Count Remberteau, the Prefect of the Seine, whom I mentioned in a former letter as having been to see me, speaks in terms of admiration of the Telegraph on all occasions. He has doubtless spoken of it to the king, as he said he should; but the king, besides his troubles just now in the formation of a new cabinet, has a domestic affliction which he feels strongly. His daughter, the Duchess of Wurtemberg, whose death has been announced for some time, was buried yesterday, the body having arrived from Italy. This has probably caused some delay. I have need of much patience... I am looking with great interest for intelligence from America, in regard to Telegraph operations there; for I hope more from my own country than from any other. There is more of the'go-ahead' character with us, suited to the idea of an electric-magnetic Telegraph. Here there are old systems long established to interfere, and at least to make them cautious before adopting a new project, however promising. Their railroad operations are a proof in point. We, on the contrary, have a clear field, and I cannot but hope something from our Government, or our companies, in a speedy establishment of the system. All my leisure (if that may be called leisure which employs nearly all my time) is devoted to perfecting the whole matter. The invention of the correspondent, I think you will all say, is a more essential improvement. It has been my winter's labor, and, to avoid expense, I have been compelled to make it entirely with my own hands. I can now give you its exact dimensions-twelve and a half inches long, six and a half wide, and six and a half deep. It dispenses entirely with boxes of type (one set alone being necessary), and dispenses, also, with the rules, and with all machinery for moving the rules. There is no winding up, and it is ready at all times. You touch the letter, and the letter is written immediately at the other extremity. The instrument will be in operation this week. Before closing, I ought to advert to the most singular winter we have thus far had in Paris. It has been, with the exception of a day or two, like spring. I doubt if it has frozen to the depth of two inches, until yesterday, anywhere in Paris. It is now cold but fine. " P. S.-I have this moment received official notice from the Academy of Industry, under the presidency of the Duke de Montmorency, that a committee of that society had been appointed to examine my Telegraph; and that to-morrow at three o'clock they will come to

Page  378 378 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. see it. Thus progress is slowly made toward the end desired, for the opinion of these societies has great weight with the Government, and the more they can be accumulated the better. I sent you by the last packet the report (favorable) of the committee of the Philotechnique Society. In my next I hope to send you reports of my further progress. One thing seems certain, my Telegraph has driven out of the field all the other plans on the magnetic principle. I hear nothing of them in public or private. No society notices them." Under date of February 2d he wrote again: I can compare the state of things here to an April day, at one moment sunshine, at the next cloudy. The Telegraph is evidently growing in favor; testimonials of approbation and compliments multiply; and yesterday I was advised by the secretary of the Academie Industrielle to interest moneyed men in the matter, if I intended to profit by it; and he observed that now was the precise time to do it, in the interval of the Chambers. I am at a loss how to act. I am not a business man, and fear every movement which suggests itself to me. I am thinking of proposing a company on the same plan you last proposed in your letter from Liverpool, and which you intend to create in case.the Government shall choose to do nothing; that is to say, a company taking the right at one thousand francs per mile, paying the proprietors fifty per cent. in stocks, and fifty per cent. in cash, raising about fifty thousand francs for a trial some distance. I shall take advice, and let you know the result. I wish you were here; I am sure something could be done by an energetic and business man like yourself. As for poor me, I feel that I am a child in business matters. I can invent and perfect the invention, and demonstrate its uses and practicability; but'further the deponent saith not.' Perhaps I underrate myself in this case, but that is not a usual fault in human nature. " I had the committee of the Acad6mie Industrielle to examine the Telegraph last Wednesday, according to appointment. The same effect was produced upon them as usual-skepticism giving way by degrees, and changing to enthusiastic feeling and expression. The Academy will publish their report soon, a copy of which I wfil send you. It is one of the most distinguished and numerous bodies of savants in Europe, numbering between three and four thousand members, in various countries, so that whatever they say will be widely diffused, and I think it will be altogether favorable. I learned, from one of the directors, that my Telegraph is

Page  379 CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES. 379 commented on with approbation throughout all Europe, in the scientific and political journals of all the capitals. M. Jobart, the editor of the Courrier Belge, of Brussels, particularly, who some time since asserted the possibility of an electric telegraph, has, I understand, commented with enthusiasm on mine. "With the committee of the Academy came several members of the Chamber of Deputies, one of whom observed to me:'The Government should by all means own this invention; it is of vastly more importance than the daguerreotype, which is proposed to the Chambers. Why has it not been offered to the Government?' I replied that it had been submitted for several months to the Government, and that my patience had been severely tried in waiting for an answer from the Minister of the Interior. He observed that, if ministers choose to be so dilatory, the Chambers must take it up; and, says he, I will expedite it. Would you have any objection to show the Telegraph in operation before the Chambers?''None at all,' I replied;'on the contrary, I shall be ready at any moment to wait upon them.''I will see the questor,' he said,'and give you notice. M. Arago spoke in the highest commendation of your invention, as being superior to the German invention, but his representations fall short of the reality. I am delighted in the highest degree. The value and importance of this Telegraph are incalculable.' " This is the substance and nearly the words of the conversation with this member of the Chambers, who spoke English perfectly well. This is the sunshine, but the clouds are obscuring it, for the cabinet this moment is dissolved by the king (a perilous step), and a new election and assembling will consume two months of time. You will perceive that, in all the disappointments and delays to which the enterprise here has been subjected, there is not one that affects the character of the invention. Every repeated examination of it, by savants and committees of scientific societies, only confirms the soundness of its principles and its intrinsic value. "The labors on the instruments-the correspondent and register, bringing them into one box, in a portable form-you will find are to produce a most interesting change in the whole affair-a change which is not perhaps at first obvious. If madeportable, as the improvement I have completed accomplishes, a person traveling, with a box not so large as a writing-desk, can converse on any part of an extended line of thousands of miles with his friends at any other part.

Page  380 380 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. "But its importance, in a military point of view, is incalculable, a hint of which I gave you in a former letter. I have little time and space to add-I expect much from my own' go-ahead countrymen. I have received with your letter Dr. Gale's, and am glad he visits Washington with you. Give my respects to him and your lady, whom congratulate from me on your safe return after so many perils. Next Tuesday I have another exhibition of the Telegraph to a room full of savanzts and nobles, the Prince of Rouen (not ruin) at their head, with the Duke de Montmorency, etc., and others,'too numerous to mention.' I have but two or three weeks here, and hope I shall receive such instructions from you that I can leave matters properly. I must return in the Great Western, on the 25th of Marcho My family requires my presence, and I cannot neglect them." The Professor experienced the greatest elevation of hope, followed by the deepest depression of disappointment that at any time befell him, in a negotiation for the invention, and for his own services, that was assumed in the name of the Russian Government by the Baron Meyendorf. His letters will give a correct idea of his feelings. He wrote to Mr. Smith, under date of Paris, July 13, 1839: " I have been wholly occupied for the last week in copying out the correspondence and other documents, to defend myself against the infamous attack of Dr. Jackson, notice of which my brother sent me. I have sent it this day by Dr. Mitchell, who sails in the Ville de Lyon, on the 16th-the same packet that takes this. I have sent a letter to Dr. Jackson, calling on him to save his character' by a total disclaimer of his presumptuous claim, within one week from the receipt of the letter, and giving him the plea of a Gmistake' and misconception of my invention,' by which he may' retreat. If he fails to do this, I have requested my brother to publish immediately my defense, in which I give a history of the invention, the correspondence between Dr. Jackson and myself, and close with the letters of Hon. Mr. Rives, Mr. Fisher, of Philadelphia, and Captain Pell. I cannot conceive of such infatuation as has possessed this man. He can scarcely be deceived. It must be his consummate self-conceit that deceives him, if he is deceived. But this cannot be; he knows he has no title whatever to a single hint of any kind in the matter. "I received your second letter, authorizing me to draw on you

Page  381 REV. MR. KIRK'S AID. 381 for such moneys as I may want; a closer calculation will oblige me to draw for two hundred pounds, instead of one hundred and fifty, as I told you I should in my last, for it is possible that I shall be compelled to stay a little longer than I anticipated, in consequence of some prospects favorable from Russia. The Baron Meyendorf, the Russian Government agent for reporting to the Emperor all important discoveries, has been to see the Telegraph. He is very much pleased with it, and says he shall report it to his Government. He introduced to me M. Amyot, who has proposed also an Electric Telegraph, but upon peeing mine he could not restrain his gratification, and with his whole soul he is at work to forward it with all who have influence. He is the right-hand man of the Baron Meyendorf, and he is exerting all his powers to have the Russian Government adopt my Telegraph. To the objections of the various savants who were present yesterday at the experiment, that the great difficulty was with the wires, to prevent their being destroyed by malevolence, he replied that even this, which was the only plausible objection which would be urged, was in reality nothing-that, placed beneath a railroad, they were perfectly secure, for the men that watched the rails would also watch the wires. I go with him to-morrow, to search for the drawings of SOmmering's and Steinheil's Telegraph, with a description of them, at the Institute. He is really a noble-minded man. The baron told me he had a large soul, and I find he has. I have no claim on him, and yet he seems to take as much interest in my invention as if it were his own. How different a conduct from Jackson's! In mentioning obligations, I ought to speak of my room-mate, Rev. M. Kirk; I am indebted to him mediately for all the success I have had among the savants here. His acquaintance with M. Julien de Paris, and others, has been of great service, and his knowledge of the language, of which I am ignorant, enabling him to explain the whole process at my various experiments, has made him invaluable to me. Indeed, I don't know what I should have done without him. You will have learned how the dissolution of the Chambers has created further delay in my business. I was on the very point of having a call to exhibit it to the Chambers at the moment they were dissolved. I learned through M. Amyot, that the Government were seriously thinking of establishing a telegraphic line on the electric principle between Paris and Havre, but that, such was the political state of affairs, nothing would certainly be done this year. But he thought it would

Page  382 382 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. eventually be done, and that mine (if I understood him right) would be the one adopted, or ought to be the one adopted. As to forming a company to take it, I find it impracticable, for this reason: the Telegraph is a Government monopoly, and therefore I am dependent wholly on them. The Government allows no commercial or social use of the Telegraph; and the reason why the railroads have not taken hold is, that Government have not decided whether they can allow it. I get no answer yet from the Minister of the Interior. Do you think your patience would hold out as long? I begin to doubt whether I shall obtain any. Indeed, but for the aspect of things North, the sooner I return home the better. I do not see that I can further benefit the concern at present, here, except by making it known to the various learned men; this obtains honor, to be sure, and spreads its merits; and profit may be a consequence at some future time. I shall, if possible, make this sort of arrangement with the baron, if he should propose any thing from Russia, viz., that I should return to America immediately, and visit Russia, or send an agent, in the summer, for I must return and arrange my affairs for the change which this Telegraph has compelled me to make.- He may require an answer from St. Petersburg, and that would delay me; but I had better return and come out again, if necessary, with a more perfected and compact instrument, which I cannot get here, situated as I am. " I give you a piece of good news in the following article from the Journal des -Debats of Sunday, February 10th:' They wrote from Munich the 3d of February, that the Bavarian Government has ordered that the Galvanic Telegraph of the invention of M. de Steinhell, Professor of Chemistry in the University Royal of Munich, will be established on the railroad from Furth to Wurtemberg, and that direction of these telegraphs will be confided to this learned professor.' 4 I wish our Government had been the first to adopt the Telegraph; but now the Bavarians have the credit of being the first to establish an Electric Telegraph; but this first adoption gives assurance of their final universal adoption, and if mine is best, as all continue to affirm, mine must supplant all,. unless a better (Dr. Jackson's, perhaps) should be found. " I yesterday paid the balance of patent account, eight hundred and fifty francs, and have the receipt and the patent for the railroad improvement. If I get my correspondence in action satisfactorily, which will no doubt be the case if I can apply myself a few days

Page  383 BARON MEYENDORF. 383 longer to its completion (having been interrupted so continually, and never allowing the other business of the Telegraph to suffer' from any attention to these mechanical improvements, I have been constantly prevented from giving it the finishing touch), I shall venture to add it to the improvements. This will incur an additional expense to you of one hundred and eighty-seven francs. I have these two days past tried the sustaining power of the little batteries, three in number, on Daniel's principle, and to my gratification I find that by simply supplying the top that holds the crystals with them as fast as they dissolve-and this has been but three times in the last forty-eight hours! and of the amount altogether in size of a couple of eggs-the action has been kept up undiminished the whole time, day and night. I intend letting the batteries act themselves out, and will report to you the result.1 It is a fact of very important bearing, as you see, on the Telegraph. Every day is clearing away all the difficulties.that prevent its adoption; the only difficulty that remains, it is universally said, is the protection of the wires from malevolent attack, and this can be prevented by proper police, and secret and deep interment. I have no doubt of its universal adoption; it may take time, but it is certain. T have not yet received the reports in Congress that you say you have sent, but have heard there are packages for me at Havre. I am anxious to know the progress made at home. When is income to take the place of outgo? I wish you could see my brother on the subject of Jackson, and arrange with him. Perhaps you could yourself see Jackson, and see what his design is in this infamous attack' of his." On the 22d of the same month he wrote Mr. Smith from Paris the subjoined exultant letter: " I have a moment to write to be in time for the packet of the 24th by estafet, and to give you at length a dish of good news respecting the Telegraph. A few days ago at my usual exhibition of the Telegraph on Tuesdays, which I have had for two months past, Monsieur Julien de Paris brought the Baron Meyendorf, the agent of the Emperor of Russia for reporting useful discoveries to the Russian Government. The baron was much struck with the Telegraph, and, learning from me that the administrator-in-chief of Telegraphs in Paris had reported favorably, he wished to know I let the batteries remain fifty-four hours, and they were still powerful enough, but a little enfeebled. There is no difficulty on that score.

Page  384 384 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. if I could procure the report for him, and he would at once transmit it to his Government and recommend the adoption of my Telegraph. I called on the administrator, M. Foy, with your request, as a member of Congress, to have the report. I did not find him in, but I left a note requesting a copy of his report. I have just received an answer from M. Foy, which, although not complying (from very proper reasons which he assigns) with my request for a copy of the report, yet gives me all we could wish; I give you a translation of the letter entire: "' PARIS, February 20, 1839. "' CABINET OF THE ADMINISTRATOR-IN-CHIEF. "MY DEAR SIR: I regret sincerely that I was not at home when you did me the honor to call. I would have fully explained to you the impossibility of communicating to you my observations addressed to the Minister of the Interior upon Electric Telegraphs. These observations make part of my administrative correspondence with the minister, and I cannot detach them from it with propriety. I believe, too, my dear sir, that you exaggerate to yourself the importance and extent of it. I had only to submit a summary notice upon many electric and electro-magnetic Telegraphs which had been successively put under the eyes of the minister, and my observations were relative only to the projects announced for M. Montalivet to make some essays upon this new kind of telegraphic communication. You will not then find, my dear sir, as you think,'a detailed and mature report upon your beautiful invention, and the note that I might address to you would be altogether unworthy the attention of Congress. If, however, I do not believe it of use to you, sir, nor possible for me to give you a copy of an administrative letter which relates to many personal matters, I take a true pleasure in confirming to you in writing that which I have already had the honor to say to you viva voce, that I have signalized to monsieur, the Minister of the Interior, your Electro-magnetic Telegraph, as being the system which presents the best chance of a practical application, and that'I had declared that, if some trials are to be made with electric Telegraphs, I hesitate not to propose that they should be made with your apparatus. I thank you, my dear sir, for the kind offer you have had the goodness to make, of permitting me to come and see your admirable experiments, of which I shall avail myself as soon as the recent domestic affliction which now occupies my mind will allow. Accept, my dear sir,

Page  385 M. AMYOT. 385 the assurance of the distinguished consideration of your devoted servant, ALPHONSE FOY.' "This, you perceive, is all that is necessary; it could not be more flattering or more favorable. The deficiencies of detail in a comparison of mine with others will be fully made up in the'Report of the Academie Industrielle,' which I heard read last evening at a grand meeting of the Academy at the Place Vend6me; and in which both the.priority of my invention and its superiority to all others are fully declared. It was received with acclamation, and I had the Telegraph there to talk to them. There is truly a liberality in the French scientific classes that I think reflects the greatest credit upon the nation. This report will be published in a few days, and I will bring a copy, or rather many copies, with me. But the tidbit of the dish now comes. The Baron Meyendorf did not write for this note (for I have but this moment received it, and havemnot yet shown it to him). He intimated to me that he had for a long time been in treaty with M. Amyot, who has for some time been engaged in electric Telegraphs, to establish one in Russia; that if M. Amyot and I could agree to unite our labors he would immediately put matters in train for the establishment of- a line of twenty miles from St. Petersburg. I had an interview with M. Amyot, a noble-hearted, liberal man, and our union was easily formed. He wished much to accompany me-to take, in fact, exactly that part in which I needed most the assistance of an experienced scientific man-to make the experiments on the effects of temperature on the passage of electricity, the size of batteries necessary, etc. He has philological researches in which he feels also a deep interest, and on account of which he desires to go to Russia. He wished me merely to state to the baron that I should be glad to have him (M. Amyot) accompany me. With this understanding I yesterday called on the baron, and so far as he (the baron) is concerned the whole matter is nearly arranged. I gave him the estimate of probable expense of establishing a line of twenty miles, exclusive of ditching, asphalt, and some -smaller items, putting the whole at seven hundred and ninety-four pounds sterling. He at once said eight hundred pounds, and, add extras, two hundred pounds more, say one thousand pounds; and, says he,'You have omitted the price of your passage from America and back again,' which he calculated and added.'Now,' says he,'what will you expect of it if it is successful?'. I said, whatever the emper6r 25

Page  386 386 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. may think just. He answered: No, this is not the way we do business; will you put it on this basis, to receive for five years half the saving to the Government of your plan over that of the old plan? I said yes, if in calculating this saving these points shall be taken into the account: "First, the time in which the two Telegraphs are available. Second, the quantity of information in a given time that each can transmit under the most favorable circumstances. He said:' Well, this I will immediately submit to my Government. You wish to return to the United States. Can you return to Paris by the 1st of July, so as to be in St. Petersburg by the 15th of July?' I told him I thought I could.' Well,' said he, you will return, then, I suppose, by the Great Western to New York, on the 23d of March; arrive, say 10th of April. You will receive the answer of the Russian Government through its minister in the United States about the 10th of May. You will embark from New York about 1st of June, be in Paris 1st of July, and St. Petersburg 15th of July, In fifteen days the trench can be dug, for we have eighty thousand men at command; and these can be sufficient to dig the trench in seven days'if you desire it. The emperor will then be in St. Petersburg, which will be favorable to you.' " Other:items I must tell you when I see you in America, for I feel- now that something is likely to be effected; but our whole energies must be directed to having this first adoption of our system a successful' one; all hands must go to work. What I shall wish immediately on my return is a clock mechanician, who can devote himself wholly to making, say six or eight of each of the machines, the correspondent and the register, with the simplification that a winter's thought and experience have led me to form. The' compensation I have proposed to Mo Amyot is one-seventh of what is received from the Russian Government when the experiment is proved successful. I hope this will be approved by you. HIe appears satisfied with it, and, taking into the account that he relinquishes his own schemes with the Russian Government, and strongly advocates with the baron the adoption of mine-that, in fact, without this arrangement nothing probably would have been done, for the baron made it conditional; and, moreover, the. responsibility he assumes of precisely that part which has not been actu~ ally proved by-experiment-I think the terms just. We have nothing to, do: with his persona] expenses; the Russian Government pay these'as well as mine. I have to close this immediately or I

Page  387 FAVORABLE PROSPECTS. 387 shall lose the estafet. I have engaged my passage in the Great Western on the 23d of March, and hope to be in New York before 10th of April, perhaps even before this reaches you. I wish I could see you in New York when I arrive. I have just made a proposition to the baron, through M. Amyot, to advance three thousand francs to me in New York so soon as the Government have determined to adopt the system-if it is accepted, well; if not, it will be worth a little risk to seize the present motive to give impulse to the whole business; and funds must be advanced by the company. I have written to Mr. Chamberlain to make new terms in consideration of the change which matters have assumed, and the necessity I am under of personal superintendence in Russia. I hope you will at home also consider this, and arrange justly my proper compensation. On this point I have no fears from those engaged in the enterprise. " Iwill write you again, but think I shall probably see you before another letter can reach you by the packet." "PARIS, March 2, 1839. "By my last letter I informed you of the more favorable prospects of the telegraphic enterprise. These prospects still continue, and I shall return with the gratifying reflection that, after all my anxieties and labors and privations, and yours and my other associates' expenditures and risks, we are all in a fair way of reaping the fruits of our toil. The political troubles of France have been a hinderance hitherto to the attention of the Government to the Telegraph, but in the mean time I have gradually pushed forward the invention into. the notice of the most influential individuals of France. I had Colonel Lasalle, aide-de-camp to the king, and his lady, to see the Telegraph a few days ago; he promised that without fail it should be mentioned to the king. You will be surprised to learn, after all the promises hitherto made by the prefect of the Seine, Count Remberteau, and by various other officers of the Government, and after General Cass's letter to the aide on service, four or five months since, requesting it might be brought to the notice of the king, that the king has not yet heard of it. But so things go here. Such dereliction would destroy a man with us in a moment, but here there is a different standard (this, of course, entre nous). "I have just had a visit from the Count de Noe, a peer of France, who brought with him the Duc de Cazes and the Duchess,

Page  388 388 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. and the Baron Pasquier, the chancellor of France, with the baroness, to see the Telegraph. The duke was surprised to learn that the Government had had the subject so long under consideration, especially after the administrator of the Telegraphs had reported in its favor, and promised me that he would see immediately the Count de Montalivet on the subject. I told him if any thing was to be done, it was necessary to move quick. I had been in attendance on the Government for an answer the whole winter; that I should leave France in a few days; that Russia had seen the advantage of the invention to her empire, and that I was in treaty to go to St. Petersburg. This seemed to have some effect, and he said there should be no delay. Among the numerous visitors that have thronged to see the Telegraph, there have been a great many of the principal English nobility. Among them, the Lord and Lady Aylmer, formerly Governor of Canada, Lord Elgin and son, the celebrated preserver, not depredator, as he has been most slanderously called, of the Phidian Marbles. Lord Elgin has been twice, and expressed a great interest in the invention. He brought with him yesterday the Earl of Lincoln, a young man of unassuming manners; he was delighted, and gave me his card, with a pressing invitation to call on him when I came to London. I have not failed to let the English know how I was treated in regard to my application for a patent in England, and contrasted the conduct of the French in this respect with theirs. I believe they felt it, and I think it was Lord Aylmer, but am not quite sure, who advised that the subject be brought up in Parliament by some member and made the object of special legislation, which he said might be done, the attorney-general to the contrary notwithstanding. I really believe, if matters were rightly managed in England, something yet might be done there, if not by patent, yet by a parliamentary grant of a proper compensation. It is remarkable that they have not yet made any thing like mine in' England. It is evident that neither Wheatstone nor Davy comprehended my mode, after all their assertions that mine was published. If matters move slower here than with us, yet they gain surely. I am told every hour that the two great wonders of Paris just now, about which everybody is conversing, are, Daguerre's wonderful results in fixing permanently the image of the camera obscura and Morse's Electro-Magnetic Telegraph; and they do not hesitate to add that, beautiful as are the results of Daguerre's experiments, the invention.of the ElectroMagnetic Telegraph is that which will surpass, in the greatness of

Page  389 DR. JACKSON'S PRETENSIONS. 389 the revolution to be effected, all other inventions. Robert Walsh, Esq., who has just left me, is beyond measure delighted. I was writing a word from one room to another; he came to me and said,'The next word you may write is, " IMMORTALITY," for the sublimity of this invention is of surpassing grandeur. I see now that all physical obstacles which may for a while hinder, will inevitably be overcome; the problem is solved; MAN MAY INSTANTLY CONVERSE WITH HIS FELLOW-MAN IN ANY PART OF THE WORLD.' " I have sent in to the Baron Meyendorf the details of the engagement between the Russian Government and myself, formed on the basis agreed on in conversation with him, and which I mentioned in my last letter to you. I am anxiously waiting his reply and approval, in order to take my departure from Paris. I have taken my passage in the Great Western, and will give you, when I see you, all the information on this matter which is too long to write. I am glad I had the letters of the captain and passengers of the Sully with me. Jackson's impudent assertion of a claim to my invention was talked about much here, and, although disbelieved by my friends without any evidence, but simply from knowing me, it made for a little time an unpleasant state of things. I read these letters to General Cass, to M. Anderson, and to many others, and the antidote has been effectual, and a pretty strong tide of indignation raised against Jackson.... Providentially, I have proof at every point of the futility and baseness of his claim, and, where others could not be witnesses, he is made to witness against himself. I am anxious to see you and concert measures for pushing matters, for the iron is hot all over Europe and we must strike now. A Telegraph Company ought to be formed at once for operations all over the world. Depend upon it, fifty or a hundred fortunes might be made out of it. It wants only a proper management, and a little capital. Hoping soon to see you, I remain, as ever, truly yours, "SAMUEL F. B. MORSE." MORSE AND DAG'UERRE. While in Paris, Professor Morse could not fail to hear of the brilliant and astonishing experiments of M. Daguerre, whose genius and perseverance were then bringing to the birth one of the most beautiful discoveries of this or any age. Professor Morse invited him to examine his Telegraph, and also requested permission to see the results of Daguerre's experiments in the art of painting with sunbeams. As an artist and painter, Morse

Page  390 390 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. was naturally anxious to know the meaning of this new art. IM. Daguerre promptly acceded to the invitation, and the remarkable results that followed the instructions which Mr. Morse received from the discoverer, the introduction by Mr. Morse of the art into the United States of America, and the identification of his name with Photography as well as with the Telegraph, will be seen in subsequent pages. Professor Morse alludes, in his letters from Paris, to the interest which some of the British nobility were taking in the Telegraph. Among them were Lord Lincoln (afterward the Duke of Newcastle) and Lord Elgin. Lord Elgin wrote to him:' PARIS, MVarchl 5, 1839. "You would oblige me greatly if you could allow me to bring my family and some particular friends to have the pleasure of seeing your admirable discovery of the Electric Telegraph, under the great advantage of your exhibition of it, on Thursday next, the 7th inst., at two o'clock-or any other day and hour that would better suit you. I venture to name a private day, because we shall be numerous enough to fill your apartment. Lord Lincoln was extremely sorry that, the departure being quite necessarily fixed for Saturday, he could not have a second opportunity of admiring the beauty and simplicity of your brilliant discovery. I have the honor to be, dear sir, your obedient servant, "ELGIN." The visit was made, and a few days afterward Lord Elgin wrote to Professor Morse again: "I cannot help expressing a very strong desire that, instead of delaying till your return from America your wish to take out a patent in England for your highly scientific and simple mode of communicating intelligence by an Electric Telegraph, you would take measures to that effect at this moment, and for that purpose take your model now with you to London. Your discovery is now much known as well as appreciated, and the ingenuity now afloat is too extensive for one not to apprehend that individuals, even in good faith, may make some addition to qualify them to take out a first patent for the principle; whereas, if you brought it at once, now, before the competent authorities, especially under the advantage of an introduction such as Mr. Drummond can give you to Lord Brougham, a short delay in your proceeding to America may se

Page  391 INVITATION TO LONDON. 391 cure this desirable object immediately. With every sincere good wish for your success and the credit you so richly deserve, I am, dear sir, yours faithfully, ELGIN. "Mr. PRESIDENT MORSE." To Sir Henry Ellis, Lord Elgin wrote DEAR SIR HENRY: I beg leave to make you acquainted with Mr. President Morse, of the National Academy of Design at New York. He has on a former occasion studied the Elgin Marbles; still, if he should wish again to see them, on his present passage through London, I am sure you will have the kindness to give him every facility in your power. He is engaged in perfecting an Electrio Telegraph of the highest possible interest; he may possibly not have it with him at this moment, but the beauty and simplicity of his invention, and the ability and clearness with which he explains it, argue much talent and intelligence on his part." His work in Paris being completed, and nothing more being gained than the positive approbation of his invention by the greatest authorities in the scientific world, Professor Morse went to London, and was immediately invited by Lord Lincoln to make his house the theatre for the exhibition of the Telegraph. "At the request of the Earl of Lincoln," Professor Morse wrote, " I exhibited at his house my Telegraph to a large company assembled for the purpose; members of the Houses of Parliament, the Lords of the Admiralty, and members of the Royal Society. As a counterpoise to the injustice done me in England in regard to my patent application, I ought to mention the kind interest taken by Lord Elgin, the Earl of Lincoln, Hon. Henry Drummond, and others, in my invention, and their offers of service in procuring for me a patent by a special act of Parliament, which, under other circumstances, might have been procured." Professor Morse endeavored to secure the attention of Lord Brougham to his invention, and, in reply to his letter requesting an interview, received the following characteristic note: "Lord Brougham's compliments, and is extremely sorry he is not able to make an appointment to see Mr. Morse; he is engaged every day this week, at the House of Lords, from ten o'clock to dinner-time, and on some days to a later hour. However, if Mr. M.

Page  392 392 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. can come to the House any morning before three, Lord B. will be able to come out to him for a few minutes." Mr. Morse replied to his lordship: "Mr. Morse's respects to Lord Brougham, and would say to him that, through the kindness of the Earl of Lincoln, the Telegraph apparatus of Mr. M.'s invention is, for a single day only, at Lord Lincoln's house, 25 Park Lane, where Mr. M. has engaged to show its operation to-morrow (Wednesday), from eleven o'clock until five. Mr. M. scarcely dares hope for the pleasure of Lord Brougham's presence, absorbed as he must be in public affairs; but, if Lord B. could by any means spare a moment. for that purpose, Mr. M. need not say how gratified he should be to exhibit his invention to Lord Brougham. Mr, M. will avail himself of Lord B.'s invitation to see him a moment, on Thursday, between ten and eleven, at the House of Lords." The kindness and consideration shown to Professor Morse by these distinguished men in London made a lasting impression upon his heart. In after years, when the Prince of Wales visited the United States, Professor Morse was invited to address him at the University of the City of New York, and in his remarks recognized the fact that the Duke of Newcastle, who was with the Prince of Wales, was no other than the Earl of Lincoln of 1839. Mr. Morse said: " An allusion in most flattering terms to me, rendered doubly so in such presence, has been made by our respected Chancellor, which seems to call for at least the expression of my thanks. At the same time it suggests the relation of an incident in the early history of the Telegraph, which may not be inappropriate to this occasion. The infant Telegraph, born and nursed within these walls, had scarcely attained a feeble existence, ere it essayed to make its voice heard on the other side of the Atlantic. I carried it to Paris in 1838. It attracted the warm interest not only of the Continental philosophers, but also of the intelligent and appreciative among the eminent nobles of Britain, then on a, visit to the French capital. Foremost among these was the late Marquis of Northampton, then President of the Royal Society, the late distinguished Earl of Elgin, and in a marked degree the noble Earl of Lincoln. The last-named nobleman, in a special manner, gave it his favor; he comprehended

Page  393 EXPRESSIONS OF GRATITUDE. 393 its important future, and, in the midst of the skepticism that clouded its cradle, he risked his character for sound judgment in venturing to stand godfather to the friendless child. He took it under his roof in London, invited the statesmen and the philosophers of Britain to see it, and urged forward with kindly words and generous attentions those who had the infant in charge. It is with no ordinary feelings, therefore, that after the lapse of twenty years I have the singular honor this morning of greeting with hearty welcome, in such presence, before such an assemblage, and in the cradle of the Telegraph, this noble Earl of Lincoln, in the person of the present Duke of Newcastle."

Page  394 CHAPTER X. 1839-1843. RETURN TO NEW YORK —RUSSIAN CONTRACT-DISAPPOINTMENT AT INACTION OF CONGRESS-MR. SMITH'S VIEWS OF THE STATE OF THINGS-THE DAGUERREOTYPE-INTRODUCED EXPERIMENTS-SUCCESS-TEACHES OTHERSSULLY AND ALLSTON-RU1SSIA FAILS-DEEP DEPRESSION-LETTER TO HIS PARTNERS MR. A. VAIL AND HON. F. O. J. SMITH-CONSULTATION WITH PROFESSOR HENRY-LETTERS OF PROFESSOR HENRY-STRUGGLES OF MORSE UNDER POVERTY-LETTERS TO MR. VAIL-AN AGENT EMPLOYED AT WASHINGTCN-FAILURE-AN OLD SORROW-HON. W. W. BOARDMAN, M. C.LETTER TO HON. F. O. J. SMITH ON PROFESSOR HENRY'S ENOOURAGEMENT-FIRST SUBMARINE CABLE LAID BY PROFESSOR MORSE-REPORT OF AMERICAN INSTITUTE-HON. 0. G. FERRIS-LETTER TO HIM-PROFESSOR MORSE IN WASHINGTON-FAVORABLE REPORT IN CONGRESS-DEBATEPASSAGE OF BILL IN THE HOUSE AND THE SENATE-APPROPRIATING THIRTY THOUSAND DOLLARS FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL LINE OF TELEGRAPH-DEATH OF ALLSTON. P ROFESSOR MORSE arrived in New York by the steamship Great Western, on his return from England, April 15, 1839. The next day he wrote to his partner, Hon. F. O. J. Smith: " I take the first hour of rest, after the fatigues of my boisterous voyage, to apprise you of my arrival yesterday in the Great Western. The day before I left Paris, I concluded the arrangements with the Russian Government, through the Baron Meyendorf, so far as he had power, and shall expect, through the Russian Minister, the answer of the Government at St. Petersburg by the 10th of May. There are some points different from those which I believe I sketched in my letter to you of February 22d. In the second interview, the baron believes he had limited the com

Page  395 DISAPPOINTMENT AT HOME. 395 pensation-' half the economy'-to three years instead of five, as both M. Amyot and myself understood him to say. He seemed a little troubled at this, and reproached himself for not putting it down in writing at the time, for he had written three years to his Government, and it was too late to rectify the matter; but he observed that, if I were successful, I might rely on the liberal disposition of the emperor. It is limited also to the route from St. Petersburg to Warsaw, eight hundred miles. I wish much to see you, and with as little delay as possible, for the time is very limited, on account of the season of the year in which it is necessary to be in St. Petersburg, in order to labor at all. I was so unfortunate as to miss Dr. Gale by a single day; he left for the South on Saturday, and I arrrived on Sunday night. I regret this extremely, for I wished much conversation with him on points connected with the scientific parts of the matter... " I am quite disappointed in finding nothing done by Congress, and nothing accomplished by way of Company. I had hoped to find, on my return home, funds ready for prosecuting with vigor the enterprise which I fear will suffer for this want. "Think for a moment of my situation! I left New York for Europe to be gone three months, but have been gone eleven months. My only means of support are in my profession, which I have been compelled to abandon entirely for the present, giving my undivided time and efforts to this enterprise. I return without a farthing in my pocket, and have to borrow even for my meals, and, even worse than this, I have incurred a debt of rent by my absence, which I should have avoided had I been at home, or rather if I had been aware that I should have been obliged to stay so long abroad. I do not mention this in the way of complaint, but merely to show that I have also been compelled to make great sacrifices for the common good, and am willing yet to make more, if necessary. If the enterprise is to be pursued, we must all in our various ways put the shoulder to the wheel. I wish much to see you and talk over all matters, for it seems to me that the present state of the enterprise in regard to Russia affects vitally the whole concern." In communicating these letters from Professor Morse, Mr. Smith makes some observations upon the hesitation of governments and individuals to perceive the splendid capabilities of the invention: "In the days of the first consulship of Napoleon I., the car of

Page  396 396 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. sovereignty was not so barricaded against all knowledge of reverberating acclamations of distinguished scientists and inventors over the advances of their respective pursuits for the benefit of mankind, as it seems to have been in the days of Louis Philippe, liberal as he was reputed to be, when Professor Morse was visiting Paris, to make known the wonders of the Electro-Magnetic Telegraph. On the 20th of March, A. D. 1800, the philosopher named Volta, in a little village of the Milanese, announced to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society of England, by letter, his beautiful discovery and invention of utilizing the previously misconceived discovery of Galvani, regardless on his part of any special application, but as the agent of analyzing the laws of matter and Nature in general. To the discovery he added a description of his device for collecting the electric force in greater quantities than ever before accomplished, and of securing to it all the intensity of frictional electricity, and also of retaining its action for a longer time-this by what he designated La Co2uronne de Tasses, or crown of cups. No sooner had this announcement reached France, than Napoleon, the First Consul, instead of waiting for Volta to voluntarily visit Paris, if ever, as a scientist and inventor of eminence, as did Professor Morse in 1838, most flatteringly invited Volta to make a visit to Paris, and at the Institute explain personally his great invention to the elite of European philosophers. Accordingly, in 1801, Volta attended three meetings of the Academy of Science, where he explained his theory, and the VToltaic, or, as he called it, electro-motive action of different metals. Napoleon attended in person these meetings; and, when the report of the committee on the subject was read, Napoleon proposed to suspend the rules of the Academy, in the formalities required in conferring honors, and that the gold medal be immediately awarded to Volta, as a testimony of the gratitude of the philosophers of France for his discovery; and the proposition was carried by acclamation; and on the same day Napoleon ordered to be sent to Volta two thousand crowns from the public treasury, to defray the expenses of his journey. He also founded an annual medal of the value of two thousand francs to him who should give electricity, or magnetism, by his researches, an impulse comparable to that which it received from the discoveries of Franklin and Volta. " The long stride which Volta laid the foundation for, though not dreamed of for the purpose by him at the time, in the use of electricity for telegraphic purposes in after-years, forms an interest

Page  397 LOUIS PHILIPPE AND THE FIRST CONSUL. 397 ing epoch in the history of the Telegraph, though not particularly germane to the biography of Professor Morse. The contrast, however, presented in this experience of the liberality of Napoleon toward Volta, and in the eight months' ignorance by King Louis Philippe of both the invention of the Electromagnetic Telegraph and of Professor Morse's stay in Paris, under illusory promises of the king's cabinet ministers, and his other many and immediate official attendants, to bring the invention to the knowledge of the king, is not without its moral to the American mind. Had the scientists of France in the latter era been as near Louis Philippe as those of France were to the First Consul, and had the former been endowed with the same impulses as was the latter, in the advancement of his government and people to the zenith of national glory and greatness, who can doubt that Professor Morse's visit to Paris in 1838 would have been signaled by the prompt construction of an Electro-magnetic Telegrapb upon his plan, through hundreds of miles of French territory, and even to every commercial city within the confines of the nation? In such a case, who can doubt that France would have been foremost and the first of governments to adopt the great invention, and to utilize it in advance of every other people? And, then, what years of anxious and even agonizing suspense would have been saved to Professor Morse in particular, and to his associates, in the struggle to advance the invention beyond its swaddling-clothes! " It is foremost among the incomprehensible fatuities of mankind, and of their varied industrial ambitions and interests, that an invention so patent to every understanding, in its wonders and ubiquitous powers, should have lingered on, year after year, upon the impoverished hands of the acknowledged inventor, without inspiring the cupidity of either capitalists or speculators, and especially in a land of enterprise like the United States. But so it was, as the sequel of Professor Morse's authenticated experience shows." Mr. Smith wrote to Professor Morse, April 28, 1839: " I see nothing yet of your expose of Jackson. It is a shame that such malignant envy and groundless pretensions should be suffered to fatten, in any character or capacity, upon the credulity of the people. I could, with your means, ram him into a tenpounder, then discharge the wad against the first mud-wall I could find! I am devoting my time wholly with reference to bringing my loose and unsettled interests and business here to such control

Page  398 398 LIFE OF SAMUEL B. F. MORSE. -winding up all that are susceptible of it-as will enable me in a few months at farthest to take hold of the telegraph business in good earnest, and make a business of it. I esteem it far better to suffer it to rest, sub silentio, for a season, than to have it move in a halting, hobbling pace. I promise myself success in a little while, in thus putting myself in a shape to'go ahead.' I pray God that, in the mean time, there may be'no mistake' about the Russian embassy." Professor forse to iXr. Smith. "NEW YORK May 24, 1839. "My affairs, in consequence of my protracted absence, and the stagnant state of the Telegraph here at home, have caused me great embarrassment, and my whole energies have been called upon to extricate myself from the confusion in which I have been unhappily placed. You may judge a little of this when I tell you that my absence has deprived me of my usual source of income by my profession; that the state of the University is such that I shall probably leave, and shall have to remove into new quarters; that my family are dispersed, requiring my care and anxieties, under every disadvantage; that my engagements were such with Russia, that every moment of my time was necessary to complete my arrangements, to fulfil the contract in season; and, instead of finding my associates ready to sustain me with counsel and means, I find them all dispersed, leaving me without the opportunity to consult, or a cent of means, and consequently bringing every thing in relation to the Telegraph to a dead stand. - In the midst of this, I am called upon by the state of public opinion to defend myself against the outrageous attempt of Dr. Jackson to pirate from me my invention. The words would be harsh that are properly applicable to this man's conduct. He can no longer be under mistake; he knows that he has not the shadow of a claim to a single suggestion that belongs to the invention. I send you my letter in the Boston Post, and republished in the Observer. Besides the evidence of Captain Pell, Mr. Rives, and Mr. Fisher, I have the written testimony of several others of the passengers, which I have obtained since I saw you, and they are all unanimous in recognizing me, and me only, in the invention on board the Sully. They none of them could guess the individual who pretends to the invention, and expressed utter astonishment when informed that Dr. Jackson pretended to it. "I have given you the darker side of objects first. This dark

Page  399 LETTER TO MR. SMITH. 399 ness enshrouds the inventor only, not the invention. Want of time prevents me from copying out the papers relating to the Russian contract. It may suffice perhaps to say that I engaged to leave Europe in the Great Western on the 23d of March, was expected to arrive by.the 5th of April, to commence the apparatus for a line of twenty miles of telegraph, if not already commenced by my associates; I was to receive my advices from St. Petersburg by the' 10th of May,' officially recognizing the principles of the contract and negotiating the particulars with the Russian Minister; I engaged then to leave America so as to reach Paris by the 1st of July, and St. Petersburg by the 15th of July, with my French companion, M. Amyot. This was the farthest date that could be allowed, if the Telegraph was to be put in operation this season. You see, therefore, in what a condition I found myself when I returned. I was delayed several days beyond the computed time of my arrival by the long passage of the steamer. Instead of finding funds raised by a vote of Congress, or by a company, and my associates ready to back me, I find not a cent for the purpose, and my associates scattered to the four winds. You can easily conceive that I gave all up as it regarded Russia, and considered the whole enterprise as seriously injured if not completely destroyed. In this state of things I was hourly dreading to hear from the Russian Minister, and devising how I should save myself and the enterprise without implicating my associates in a charge of neglect; and, as it has most fortunately happened for us all, the 10th of May has passed without the receipt of the promised advices, and I took advantage of this, and, by the Liverpool steamer on the 18th, wrote to the Baron Meyendorff and to M. Amyot, that it was impossible to fulfill the engagement this season, since I had not received the promised advices in time to prepare. I have requested immediate advices, and promised to be in St. Petersburg by the beginning of May, next year, to fulfill the contract. This is the state of things in relation to Russia, in brief. I have much to communicate, but cannot by letter. I would come on to see you if I had the means, but I have not a copper. Now, what are immediately wanted are two complete sets at least of the apparatus, the register and correspondent, and if possible twenty miles of wire, so that every thing may be tested here at home, before I embark. I have a most excellent workman at command, who would execute them.well and reasonably. It is at once seen how important it is to have matters immediately under way, if it is intended to take advantage of this Russian engagement. I wish to have every thing

Page  400 400 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. in prime order, so as to surprise the czar, and for the purpose the sooner I have the apparatus complete, the better; indeed, if I had five hundred dollars of my own (and it must cost much more), I would commence operations immediately. We have ten miles of wire already; ten more would cost about three hundred and fifty dollars; and I think the other apparatus cannot cost more than one hundred and fifty dollars. Do think of this matter, and see if means cannot be raised to keep ahead with the American Telegraph. I sometimes am astonished when I reflect how I have been able to take the stand with my Telegraph in competition with my European rivals, backed as they are with the purses of the kings, and the wealth of their countries, while our own Government leaves me to fight the battles for the honor of this invention, fettered hand and foot. Thanks will be to you, not to them, if I am able to maintain the ground occupied by the American Telegraph." THEE DAGUERREOTYPE. After the interview between Professor Morse and M. Daguerre, mentioned in the previous chapter, the Professor wrote to his brothers under date of March 9, 1839: " You have perhaps heard of the Daguerreotype, so called from the discoverer, M. Daguerre. It is one of the most beautiful discoveries of the age. I don't know if you recollect some experiments of mine in New Haven, many years ago, when I had my paintingroom next to Professor Silliman's-experiments to ascertain if it were possible to fix the image of the ccanzera obscura. I was able to produce different degrees of shade on paper, dipped into a solution of nitrate of silver, by means of different degrees of light; but, finding that light produced dark, and dark light, I presumed the production of a true image to be impracticable, and gave up the attempt. M. Daguerre has realized in the most exquisite manner this idea. "A few days ago I addressed a note to Mr. D., requesting as a stranger the favor to see his results, and inviting him in turn to see my Telegraph. I was politely invited to see them under these circumstances, for he had determined not to show them until the:Chambers had passed definitely on a proposition for the Government to purchase the secret of the discovery, and make it public. The day before yesterday, the 17th, I called on M. Daguerre at his rooms in the Diorama, to see these admirable results. They are produced on

Page  401 THE DAGUERREOTYPE. 401 a metallic surface, the principal pieces, about seven inches by five, and they resemble aquatint engravings, for they are in simple chiaro-oscuro and not in colors. But the exquisite minuteness of the delineation cannot be conceived. No painting or engraving ever approached it. For example: in a view up the street a distant sign would be perceived, and the eye could just discern that there were lines of letters upon it, but so minute as not to be read with the naked eye. By the assistance of a powerful lens, which magnified fifty times, applied to the delineation, every letter was clearly and distinctly legible, and so also were the minutest breaks and lines in the walls of the buildings and the pavements of the street. The effect of the lens upon the picture was in a great degree like that of the telescope in Nature. Objects moving are not impressed. The boulevard, so constantly filled with a moving throng of pedestrians and carriages, was perfectly solitary, except an individualwho was having his boots brushed, His feet were of course compelled to be stationary for some time, one being on the box of the bootblack, and the other on the ground. Consequently his boots and legs are well defined, but he is without body or head, because these were in motion. "The impressions of interior views are Rembrandt perfected. One of Mr. D.'s plates is an impression of a spider. The spider was not bigger than the head of a large pin, but the image, magnified by the solar microscope to the size of the palm of the hand, having been impressed on the plate, and examined through a lens, was further magnified, and showed a minuteness of organization hitherto not seen to exist. You perceive how this discovery is, therefore, about to open a new field of research in the depths of microscopic Nature. We are soon to see if the minute has discoverable limits. The naturalist is to have a new kingdom to explore, as much beyond the microscope as the microscope is beyond the naked eye. But I am near the end of my paper, and I have unhappily to give a melancholy close to my account of this ingenious discovery. M. Daguerre appointed yesterday at noon to see my Telegraph. He came, and passed more than an hour with me, expressing himself highly gratified at its operation. But, while he was thus employed, the great building of the Diorama, with his own house, all hisbeautiful works, his valuable notes and papers, the labor of years of experiment, were, unknown to him, at that moment the prey of the flames. His secret indeed is still safe with him, but the steps of his progress in the discovery, and his valuable researches in science, are lost to the 26

Page  402 402 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. scientific world. I learn that his Diorama was insured, but to what extent I know not. I am sure all friends of science and improvement will unite in expressing the deepest sympathy in M. Daguerre's loss, and the sincere hope that such a liberal sum will be awarded him by his Government as shall enable him in some degree at least to recover from his loss." In the same vessel which brought this letter the writer himself arrived in this country, and the letter was published in the New York Observer, April 20, 1839. In the month of June of the same year, within four months of the date of this letter, the French Government, Louis Philippe being the king, completed its negotiations with M. Daguerre for the purchase of his secret, that the beautiful discovery might be given to the world for its use and enjoyment. Arago was a member of the Chamber of Deputies, and chairman of the committee to whom was referred the subject. He made an elaborate report, in which the value of the discovery was set forth, and the indebtedness of the world to the discoverer. The report concluded with a recommendation that the discoverer be rewarded by the Govurement on his making public the process by which the results were reached. Many years before, a Frenchman named Niepce had discovered the art of obtaining the outline of images, but he could not succeed in permanently fixing them. Daguerre had received from him the information which he had availed himself of in making the next great step, the more important one, of permanently impressing them on the plate. Niepce and Daguerre executed an agreement binding each other to divide between them the advantages that might result from their discoveries. Before any advantages were reached, Niepce died, but Daguerre recognized the continued validity of the contract, and was ready to share with the son of Niepce the fruits of the perfected discovery. It was by mutual consent agreed that a pension of ten thousand francs should be paid to them, six thousand to M. Daguerre and four thousand to M. Niepce, and that the widows of both should receive half of the pension that their husbands had enjoyed. This arrangement being concluded, the process was made public. M. Daguerre hastened to put Professor Morse in pos

Page  403 EXPERIMENTS. 403 session of all the knowledge necessary to the immediate manipulation of the delicate process, and the Professor without delay proceeded to put the art into practical use. His brothers, Sidney E. and Richard C. Morse, caused to be erected on the roof of their new building, the northeast corner of Nassau and Beekman Streets, New York, "a palace for the sun," as Mr. S. E. Morse was pleased to name it, a room with a glass roof, in which Professor Morse experimented with the new and beautiful art. While this building was in progress, he had pursued his experiments with great success in his rooms at the New York City University on Washington Square. He says in a letter dated February 10, 1855: "As soon as the necessary apparatus was made, I commenced experimenting with it. The greatest obstacle I had to encounter was in the quality of the plates. I obtained the common plated copper in coils at the hardware-shops, which of course was very thinly coated with silver, and that impure. Still I was enabled to verify the truth of Daguerre's revelations. The first experiment crowned with any success was a view of the Unitarian Church, from the window on the staircase from the third story of the New York City University. This, of course, was before the building of the New York Hotel. It was in September, 1839. The time, if I recollect, in which the plate was exposed to the action of light in the camera was about fifteen minutes. The instruments, chemicals, etc., were strictly in accordance with the directions in Daguerre's first book. An English gentleman, whose name at present escapes me, obtained a copy of Daguerre's book about the same time with myself. He commenced experimenting also. But an American, of the name of Walcott, was very successful with a modification of Daguerre's apparatus, substituting a metallic reflector for the lens. Previous, however, to Walcott's experiments, or rather results, my friend and colleague, Professor John W. Draper, of the New York City University, was very successful in his investigations, and with him I was engaged, for a time, in attempting portraits. " In my intercourse with Daguerre, I specially conversed with him in regard to the practicability of taking portraits of living persons. He expressed himself somewhat skeptical as to its practicability, only in consequence of the time necessary for the person to remain immovable. The time for taking an out-door view was

Page  404 404 LIFE OF SAMUEL F. B. MORSE. from fifteen to twenty minutes, and this he considered too long a time for any one to remain sufficiently still for a successful result. No sooner, however, had I mastered the process of Daguerre, than I commenced to experiment, with a view to accomplish this desirable result. I have now the results of these experiments taken in September, or beginning of October, 1839. They are fulllength portraits of my daughter, single and also in group with some of her young friends. They were taken out-of-doors, on the roof of a building, in the full sunlight, and with the eyes closed. The time was from ten to twenty minutes. About the same time Professor Draper was successful in taking portraits, though whether he or myself took the first portrait successfully I cannot say.1 Soon after we commenced together to take portraits, causing a glass building to be constructed for that purpose on the roof of the University. As our experiments had caused us considerable expense, we made a charge to those who sat for us to defray this expense. Professor Draper's other duties calling him away from the experiments, except as to their bearing on some philosophical investigations which he pursued with great ingenuity and success, I was left to pursue the artistic r