Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean:
United States. War Dept., Henry, Joseph, 1797-1878., Baird, Spencer Fullerton, 1823-1887., United States. Army.


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Page  D IN SENATE-FnBRUARY 24, 1855. Resolzved, That there be printed, for the use of the Senate, ten thousand copies of the several reports.of surveys for a railroad to the Pacific, made under the direction of the Secretary of War; and also of the report of F. NV. Lander, civil engineer, of a survey of a railroad route from Puget's Sound, by Fort Ilall and the Great Salt lake, to the Mississippi river; and the report of John C.'Frmont, of a route for a railroad from the head-waters of the Arkansas river into the State of California; together with the maps and plates accompanying said reports, necessary to illustrate the same; and that five hundred copies be printed for the use of the Secretary of War, and fifty copies for each of the commanding officers engaged in said service. THIRTY-SECOND CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION1 — C' 98. SECT. 10. And be it further eacted, That the Secretary of War be, and he is hereby authorized, under the direction of the President of the United States, to employ such portion of the Corps of Topographical Engineers, and such other persons as he may deem necessary, to make such explorations and surveys as he may deem advisable, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean, and that the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, be, and the samne is hereby, appropriated out of any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, to defray the expense of such explorations and surveys. Approved March 3, 1853. THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION —CHIAPTER 60. Appropriation: For deficiencies for the railroad surveys between the Mississippi river and the Iacific ocean, forty thou rand dollars. Approved May 31, 1854. THIRTY-THIRD CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION-CHArTz 267. Appropriation: For continuing the explorations and surveys to ascertain the best route for a railway to the Pacifc, ad for completing the reports of surveys already made, the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollarI Approvd Augst 5, 1854. Attest: ASB'URY DICKINS,-:ecretary. 0 I


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Page  3 INTRODUCTORY iLETTER. WASHINGTON, D.C., November 25, 1854. SIR: In submitting to the department the accompanying report of the explorations for a Pacific railroad, conducted, up to the time of his death, (at the hands of the Indians,) by the late Captain J. W. Gunnison, Topographical Engineers, it is proper that I shall state that I have preferred the journal form in which to embody the labors of the party and the minute and general descriptions of the country, required by the specific object of the survey, as affording greater facilities for introducing the observations and conclusions of Captain Gunnison, in his own language, than could have been secured in any other form. I have intentionally adhered to details and repetitions, however monotonous, by which alone a faithful description of this great interior country can be presented; for, monotonous as it is in itself, and far removed from genera] fertility, no general description not made up of facts constantly repeated can convey a true picture of the country explored-an object deemed of the -first importance in this report, in which Ihave endeavored to exhaust the material obtained for it, for which too much credit cannot be given to Captain Gunnison. The report was written, in great haste, at Great Salt Lake, immediately after reaching that city, and forwarded to you on the 1st of February, 1854, but has been revised and materially improved since my return to this city. The computation of altitudes has been conducted since my arrival in Washington under the superintendence of Mr. Lorin Blodget, and the barometrical observations discussed by him with great care and superior intelligence, which will be apparent by a reference to his notes and the tables in this report. I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant, E.G. BECKWITH, First Lieutenant 3d Artillery. Hon. J EFFERsrON DAVIS, Secretary of War.

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Page  5 CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. From Fort Leavenworth, via Westport, Fort riley, and Smoky Hill Fork, to Pawee Fork; also, viSanta Fe road to Council Grove and Walnut Creek-Juine 15th to July 13, 1853. Page. Allusion to the death of Captain Gunnison and his assistants.-Extract from instructions from the War Department to Captain Gunnison.-Arrival at St. Louis, Kansas, and Fort Leavenworth.-Country from Fort Leavenworth to Westport.-Camp at Shawnee Mission, near Westport: its altitude above the Gulf of Mexico.-Arrival of the escort under Captain Morris.-Teamsters and mules.-First march.-Gentlemen composing the party.-Instru ments provided.-The train: why used.-Cedar creek: its timber.-Bull creek.-McClannahan and party, with stock for California.-Emigrants.-Division of party.-Route via Kansas river and Smoky Hill Fork.-Wahkarrussi bot tom.-Timber.-Inviting appearance of the Kansas bottom: its fertility and railroad practicability.-Indian houses and grain fields.-Delaware guides.-Uniontown.-Rocky hills.-Storm.-Country approaching Fort Riley. —Cross ing the Kansas.-Fort Riley.-Crossing the Republican Fork or Pawnee river.-Valley of the Smoky Hill Fork: its fertility and timber.-Sycamore creek.-Wagon road route from Fort Riley west.-Sand-hills.-Crossing Nepe holla or Solomon's Fork.-Short grass begins to appear.-Practicability of a wagon road to the Saline Fork. Stream swollen: its passage and character.-First appearance of buffalo-grass.-Meadows of the Saline and Kansas rivers.-Smoky Hill.-Buffalo sign.-Lone Oak ford of the Kansas.-Railroad line thence to the Huerfano.-Sand stone ridges or bluffs.-Character of the soil.-Chalybeate spring.-First buffalo.-Passing from the waters of the Smoky Hill to those of the Arkansas river.-Sand-banks on the Little Arkansas.-Large fields of helianthus. Indicated line for a wagon road west from Fort Riley.-Walnut creek.-Military parties and encampments. Guides discharged.-Character of the country for roads of any kind.-Bridges.-Change in climate and character of the country.-Journal of the party following the Santa Fe, road from Bull creek.-Black Jack creek.-Timber. Bituminous coal.-Willow spring.-Stampede of emigrant horses.-Rock creeks.-One Hundred and Ten Mile creek.-Indian houses and fields.-Dwissler's, Dragoon, and Prairie Chicken creeks.-Elm, Bluff, and Big Rock creeks.-Council Grove.-Timber and fields of corn.-Civil and military parties en route for New Mexico.-Incident in Governor Merriwether's life.-Diamond spring.-Lost spring.-Scarcity of timber and monotonous character of the country.-Snipe.-Cottonwood creek.-Annoyance from flies. and mosquitoes.-Turkey creek.-Miserable water. Little Arkansas.-View of the Arkansas river bottom.-Owl and Cow creeks.-Change in the character of the soil and vegetation of the country.-Dog towvns.-Sand-hills.-Arkansas river.-Kansas, Osage, and Sac Indians.-Walnut creek.-Suffering from mosquitoes.-Site for a military post.-Timber on Walnut creek.-Pawnee Rock.-Ferru ginous sandstone.-Ash creek.-Grass and soil.- Pawnee Fork.-Timber.-Altitude of camp on Pawnee Fork above, and distance from, that near Westport.-Osage and Kansas Indians. - -.. — 9 CHAPTER II. From Pawnee Fork to the crossing of the Arkansas river at the mnouth of the Apishpa -Jly 14 to August 2, 1853. Forks of the Santa F6 road.-Coon creek: bad water.-Indian hunting grounIds.-Dryness of the country.-Bois de vache.-Wolf in pursuit of a rabbit.-Return to the Arkansas river.-Comanche Indians.-Fort Atkinson.-Dryness of the Arkansas river at times.-Kioway camp.-Indian war party against the Pawnees.-Shaved-Head, a Comanche chief: his leave-taking.-Captives among Indians.-Ascent from Pawnee Fork.-Grass of the country.-Bluffs and rolling prairie.-Islands in the river.-Cimmaron route ford.-Line of proposed road from Fort Riley to this ford. Sandy road.-Plains of the river bottom.-Scarcity of fuel.-Dull monotony of the Arkansas.-Winds.-Altitude above Fort Atkinson and distance from it: altitude above the Gulf of Mexico.-Unsuccessful sportsmen.-Prairie dogs in great numbers.-Incrustations of salt.-Iron ore.-Big Timber.-Bent's trading station.-Sandstone bluffs. Scarcity of grass-Purgatory creek.-Bent's Fort.-Game.-Fords.-Advantageous position for a military post. Timpas creek.-Railroad route indicated.-Smoky atmosphere.-View of the Spanish peaks.-Artemisia.-Game. Crossing the Arkansas at the mouth of the Apishpa.-The river easily bridged.-Hills and bluffs.-Grades for thirty four miles.-View of the mountains and peaks.............................................................. 9 24

Page  6 CONTENTS. CHAPTER III. From the mouth7 of the Apislhpa, via the Sangre de Cristo, to -Roubideau's Pass —August 2 to 25, 1853. Page. Valley of the Apishpa.-Rocks and soil of the hills and valley.-Small canlon.-Examination of the canion.-Indian writings.-Cacti.-Small pines.-Route of the wagon train.-Rocks and grass.-Game.-Appearance of the mount ains.-Fossils.-Flowers.-Wild horses.-Timber on the Arkansas in sight.-Rains, dews, winds.-Course of the Apishpa, and broken character of the country.-Discovered that we were not on the Huerfano.-Road to Raton Pass.-Cuchara river.-Fine view.-Trip to the Greenhorn. settlement.-Clay and shale banks of the Cuchara. Dog towns.-Wild horses.-Huerfano river and butte.-Huerfano cation -Apache creek.-Trail from Taos.-Trader's camp.-Granaros.-Greenhorn settlement: its population and productions -Massalino, the guide.-Sleeping apart ments in Greenhorn. —Huerfano butte.-Direct line from the Arkansas to the upper Huerfano, leaving the former above the mouth of the Apishpa: its railroad character.-Size of the Huerfano river.-Soil.-Building-stone. Ascent of the Huerfano.-Taos trail, via El Sangre de Cristo Pass.-Approach to the Sangre de Cristo Pass. Sand and limestone.-Railroad route.-Timber.-Flowers.-Gamine.-Difficulties in the approach.-The passage of the Sangre de Cristo Pass.-Seenery.-Game.-Distances, altitudes, grades.-Railroad'line through the pass and its western descent to Fort Massachusetts.-Examination of the mountains to the south of the Spanish peaks.-Hunters from Taos.-Snow in and about the Sangre de Cristo Pass.-Trip to Taos.-San Luis valley: its streams and settle ments.-Indian signals and robbery.-Red river of the Rio Grande del Norte.-Valley of Taos: its settlements and cultivation.-Return to Fort Massachusetts.-Antoine Leroux, guide.-Men discharged. Mr. Taplin.-WVhite Mountain spring.-Sage in San Luis valley.-Roubideau's Pass: its rocks, character, grades, elevation.-San Luis valley, and mountain chains e closing it.......X........................................................... CHAPTER IV. From Roubideau's Pass, via the Coochetopa Pass and Grand Rtver valley, to the Xah-un-kah-rea, or Blue river-August 25 to September 20, 1853. Gigantic sand-hills.-Williams' Pass.-Stanmpede.-Sand and sage.-Chatillon, Trois Teton, and Leroux creeks. Game.-Scene of Colonel Fremont's disaster of 1848-'49.-Vegetation and soil.-Homans' creek.-Currants. Sahwatch spring and butte.-Coochetopa Pass gate.-Sinking of Sahwatch creek.-Sahwatch valley.-Light dusty soil.-General character of San Luis valley.-Favorable character for a railroad of the lower part of the Sahwatch valley.-Deer, grouse, and trout.-Captain Gunnison's examination of Homans' park: its fertility.-Gunnison's Pass: its position and railroad practicability. -Puncha creek and country east of the pass.-Indicated lines for roads. Mountain sheep,-Approach to the Coochetopa Pass.-Carnero Pass.-Leaving Sahwatch creek.-Mountain forms, timber, rocks.-Passage and character of the summit of the Coochetopa Pass: altitudes and grades in approaching it, &c.-Method of levelling.-Grades and tunnel.-Existence of a pass north of the Coochetopa Pass.-Valley of Pass creek.-Valley leading to Carnero Pass.-Grades.-Indicated railroad line from the Coochetopa Pass.-Arte misia.-Coochetopa creek.-Pass Creek caiiones.-Character of mountain storms.-Grand river: its character, valley, and adjacent mountains.-Confusion of names.-Character of and passage around the first canfon of Grand river.-Tables or lmesas.-Brief general description of Grand River valley and cafones.-Fall of the river.-Ice. Indian smokes and method of hunting.-Captain Gunnison's description of Grand River valley repeated.-Railroad difficulties.-Scarcity of timber.-The guide's dilemma.-Difficulties, character, and passage of Lake Fork.-Delu sive basin appearance, exhibiting the broken character of the country.-Effects of mountain air.-View of the Sierra de la Plata'.-Utah Indians on Cebolla creek.-Indian presents.-Mountain reconnoissance.-Fine view of distant mountain peaks and adjacent valleys and streams.-Position of the Spanish trail.-Ascent and passage of the mountain.-Ascending and descending grades.-Valley of the Uncompahgra: its cacti, sage, soil, &c.-Utah Indians.-Women of great age.-Domestic scene.-Descent of the Uncompahgra valley.-Utah Indian parties: great numbers in camp.-Indian " talk" and presents.-Roubideau's old fort.-Crossing Grand river.-Difficulties to be encountered in constructing a railroad along the canion portion of Grand river.-Character of the country below Roubideau's old fort.-Una-weep canlon and creek.-Kah-nah creek.-Nah-un-kah-rea or Blue river.-Steep eastern bank.-River crossiiig.-River entrance into this valley; its size and character..........ala.................... CHEIAPTER V. From Blue river crossing to rees, White, and San Rafael rivers and the eastern foot of the Wah8atch P(,,s-September 20 to October 13, 1853. Purchase of Indian horses.-Indian veracity.-Soil.-Salt creek.-Indian trails to the Uintas.-Coal bed.-Caiones of Grand river.-Rocks.-Coal.-Daily change of temperature.-Aqueous deposits and barrenness of the valleys. Climate.-Scarcity of cultivable lands.-Leroux returns to New Mexico.-Details of the country between Grand and Green rivers.-Best position for railroad indicated: grades, &c.-Fanciful forms of mountains.-Reach the noted Spanish trail.-Disheartening view.-Ash-heap character of the soil.-Scarcity of water.-Difficulty in the construc tion of a railroad from Grand to Green river.-Crossing Green river.-Utah Indians.-Character of Roan mountains 6 3t 43

Page  7 CONTENTS. on Green river.-Spanish trail followed to Alianaquint spring.-Grades.-From Akanaquint spring to White river: rocks, soil, water, and grades.-Ascent of the valley of White river to Clever creek.-Return to White river -San Rafael river.-Return to the Spanish trail.-Course of this trail, and character of the country traversed by it from Akanaquint spring.-Indicated line via the San Rafael.-Improved soil.-Indians subsist on buffalo-berries.-The country between Green river and the Wahsatch mountains: valleys, hills, and rocks. Oak springs.-Indian guide.Weak condition of our animals.-Grades...-........................................ ~-.. CHAPTER VI. From the eastern base of the Wah8atch mnountains, via the Wahsatch Pass and Sevier river, to near the Sevier lake, the most western point of exploration, and back to Cedar Springs, after the death of Captain Gunnison October 13 to 28, 1853. Akanaquint creek.-Rude figures drawn on rocks.-The Wahsatch Pass.-Character of the hills to the east and west of the pass.-Grades.-Tunnel.-Salt creek.-Swambah creek.-Spanish trail.-Un-got-tah-bi-kin creek.-Colonel Burwell and Mr. Ross.-Tewip Narrienta.-Course of the Spanish trail to the west.-Wahsatch mountain reconnois sance.-Salt Creek canion: its length, character, and grades for a railroad.-Wagon trail.-Entering Sevier River valley.-Moot-se-ne-ah Peak.-Mountains surrounding the Sevier River valley.-Mormon settlements.-Vegetation of the valley.-Sevier river.-Captain Gunnison's statement of the result of his explorations, for mail and military roads and for railroads.-Manner in which their duties were performed by the gentlemen of his party.-San Pete creek.-Road from Great Salt Lake to California.-Captain Gunnison's visits to Manti.-Cross the Sevier river. Lake valley.-Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains.-Fillmore.-Sevier Lake valley.-Rabbit fences.-Return to the Sevier river. —Departure of Captain Gunnison and party to explore the Sevier lake.-Extract from his journal.-Party ascending the Sevier river.-Sand-hills.-River course.-Sage.-Cafnon of the Sevier river.-Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains terminate.-First intelligence of the disaster to Captain Gunnison's party.-Departure of Captain Morris to the scene of the attack.-Stragglers.-Movement of the train and party to Cedar springs.-Return of Captain Morris. Scene of the disaster.-Bodies of the slain.-False charges against the Mormons.-......i.. CHAPTER VII. From Cedar Spring, by way of Nephi, Payson, Palmyra, Sprinyville, Provo, Pleasant Grove, Lake City, Lehi, Willow Creek, and Cottonwood settlements, to Great Salt Lake City-October 28 to No vember 8, 1853. I Pioneer creek.-Citizens of Fillmore.-Messrs. Call and Richards.-Express to Great Salt Lake City.-Courtesy and assistance from Mr. Call and Governor Young.-Papers and property recovered.-Kenosh's account of the murder. Excitement of our men.-Course from the Coochetopa Pass to the Wahsatch Pass.-Character of the country firom the Wahsatch Pass to Little Salt lake and Vegas de Santa Clara: its impracticability for a railroad.-Railroad fol lowing the Sevier river.-Western limit of the explorations of 1853.-Unobstructed passage from Sevier lake to Great Salt lake.-Return to Sevier river.-Appearance of Sevier River cafion.-Village of Nephi.-Payson.-Spanish fork.-Palmyra.-Provo.-Timpanogos river.-Western range of the Wahsatch mountains.-Line of Mormon settle ments.-Supplies purchased.-Lake Utah.-Reference to Stansbury's Report.-Winter camp.-Condition of animals crossing the Plains.-Winter quarters at Great Salt lake.............,........................................ 5 CHAPTER VIII. General S-t'mary of the line explored for the Pacific railroad near the thirty-eighth parallel of north latitude, fromn Fort Leavenworth (Kansas) to the Sevier lake, (Utah.) Character and fertility of the Plains: timber, grass, rain.-Approach to El Sangre de Cristo Pass of the Rocky mountains.-Soil, cultivation, grazing, and water.-Mountain valleys.-Valley of San Luis.-Coochetopa Pass and surrounding country. — rand River valley lands.-Roan mountains, and the country between Grand and Green rivers.-From Green river to the Wtahsatch mountains.-Summit of the Wahsatch mountains. -Valley of the Sevier river and Sevier lake: its sterility.-Ingredients in the soil injurious to vegetation over large spaces.-Aqueous depositions unfavorably distributed and very limited.-Capacity of the country to contribute to the support of a rail road.-Railroad stations and posts;-Permanent water on the line.-Great scarcity of timber on the line.-Coal, where found.-Building stone.-Railroad practicability of the line.-Elevations, grades, sections, passes.-San Luis valley.-Coochetopa Pass and tunnel.-Altitudes and grades.-Pass and Coochetopa creeks.-Grand river section. Blue to Green river.-Miry soil.-Stone for sub-structure.-Grades and bridges.-Rocky district west of Green river.-Grades from Green river to Akanaquint spring, White river, Clever creek, San Rafael river, &c., to the Wahsatch Pass.-Wahsatch Pass and tunnel.-Salt Creek canion, grades, and character. —Sevier River valley, and passage through the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains to Sevier Lake valley.-Further surveys, and existence of other lines near this.-Duties performed by scientific gentlemen of the party.-Climate.-Indian hostilities in Utah.-Further surveys will be made..............-.................................................................... 7 P-,ige. 58 66 .75 79

Page  8 CONTENTS. CHAPTER IX. -)iscussion of barometric observations and tables of altitudes and distances of the line explored from West port, Mo., to Great Salt Lake City, Utah Territory; also, tables of simultaneous observations in, and data forprofiles of, the moutntain passes of the line -1853. Page. I.-Introduction to, and corrections applied in, barometric computations.-Table for horary corrections of obser vations.-Corrections for extreme air temperatures.-Comparison of field barometers with Dr. Engelmann's barometer at St. Louis, Missouri, both before and subsequent to the surveys.-Table of monthly mean obser vations at St. Louis, by Dr. Engelmann.........,.................i.................................. II.-Barometric and meteorological observations, and table of altitudes and distances, for the profile of the line of survey from Westport to Great Salt Lake City................ ——.. —....... ——. ------------................... —......... — II.-Data for profile of Roubideau's Pass................................... —---------------------------------------------—.. —----------—...... IV.-Simultaneous meteorological observations at Coochetopa Pass. ------------------------------------------— 8 V.-Observations for a tunnel or deep cut in the Coochetopa Pass, allowing fifty yards as the width of the ridge at top IV.-Table IV resumed................................................................................. VI.-Data for the profile of the Coochetopa Pass, and declivities near its summit................................ VII.-Simultaneous meteorological observations at the pass and on the route followed across the Wahsatch range - VIII.-Data for the profile of the route followed across the Wahsatch mountains................................. CHAPTER X. Geograptical positions and distances travelled on the line of eploration from estport, 1o, to teat Salt Lake City- 1853. I.-Letter from Mr. S. Homans, in charge of astronomical department..................... —-------------------------—. II;-Table of geographical positions from Westport, Missouri, to Great Salt Lake City, Utah........... —------------------ III.-Table of distances travelled, including those from point to point at which barometrical observations were made, on the route from Westport, Missouri, to Great Salt Lake City.............. IV.-Table of distances travelled on the line followed from Westport, Missouri, via Fort Riley, Kansas Territory, to Walnut creekas.................-.......a..................................................... APPENDIX A. Letters relating to the progress of the survey of tie route near tle 38th and 39t parallels, in charye of Captain Gunrisonz. I.-Letter dated June 20, 1853, Camp, Shawnee Reservation, from Captain Gunnison to the Secretary of War, indicating the line which will be followed in crossing the Plains......................................... II.-Letter dated August 22, 1853, Camp, Utah creek, near Fort Massachusetts, from Captain Gunnison to the Secretary of War, reporting the progress of the survey................................................. III.-Letter dated August 22, 1853, Camp, Utah creek, near Fort Massachusetts, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey...................................................... IV.-Letter dated September 20, 1853, Camp 70, Grand river, Utah Territory, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey.........-.......................... V.-Letter dated September 23, 1853, Camp 72, Bitter creek, Utah Territory, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, forwarding a rude copy of the field-work of the survey...................................... VI.-Letter dated October 29, 1853, Camp, near Fillmore, Utah Territory, from Lieutenant Beckwith to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey, requesting instructions, and indicating future operations... -.. APPENDIX B. Lists and explanations of the maps, sections, and illustrations of the reports of the explorations of Captain Gunnison in 1853, and of Lieutenant Beckwith in 1854-....................................... 8 89 94 108 108 108 108 109 110 III 113 113 115 118 119 119 J20 121 123 123 125

Page  9 REPORT. CHAPTER I. From Fort Leavenworth, via Westvort, Fort tiley, and Smoky Hill Fork, to Pawnee .ork; also, via Santa Fe Road to Council Grove and Walnut Creek.-,June 15 to July 13, 1853. Allusion to the death of Captain Gunnison and his assistants.-Extract from instructions from the War Department to Captain Gunnison.-Arrival at St. Louis, Kansas, and Fort Leavenworth.-Country from Fort Leavenworth to Westport.-Camp at Shawnee Mission, near Westport: its altitude above the Gulf of Mexico.-Arrival of the escort under Captain Morris. Teamsters and mules.-First march.-Gentlemen composing the party.-Instruments provided.-The train: why used Cedar creek: its timber.-Bull creek.-McClannahan and party, with stock for California.-Emigrants.-Division of party. Route via Kansas river and Smoky Hill Fork.-Wahkarrussi bottom.-Timber.-Inviting appearance of the Kansas bottom: its fertility and railroad practicability.-Indian houses and grain fields.-Delaware guides.-Uniontown.-Rocky hills. Storm.-Country approaching Fort Riley.-Crossing the Kansas.-Fort Riley.-Crossing the Republican Fork or Pawnee river.-Valley of the Smoky Hill Fork: its fertility and timber.-Sycamore creek.-Wagon road route from Fort Riley west.-Sand-hills.-Crossing Nepeholla or Solomon's Fork.-Short grass begins to appear.-Practicability of a wagon road to the Saline Fork.-Stream swollen: its passage and character.-First appearance of buffalo-grass.-Meadows of the Saline and Kansas rivers.-Smoky Hill.-Buffalo sign.-Lone Oak ford of the Kansas.-Railroad line thence to the Huerfano. Sandstone ridges or bluffs.-Character of the soil.-Chalybeate spring.-First buffalo.-Passing from the waters of the Smoky Hill to those of the Arkansas river.-Sand-banks on the Little Arkansas.-Large fields of helianthus.-Indicated line for a wagon road west from Fort Riley.-Walnut creek.-Military parties and encampments.-Guides discharged.-Charater of the country for roads of any kind.-Bridges.-Change in climate and character of the country.-Journal of the party following the Santa Fe, road from Bull creek.-Black Jack creek.-Timber.-Bituminous coal.-Willow spring.-Stampede of emigrant horses.-Rock creeks.-One Hundred and Ten Mile creek.-Indian houses and fields.-Dwissler's, Dragoon, and Prairie Chicken creeks.-Elm, Bluff, and Big Rock creeks.-Council Grove.-Timber and fields of corn.-Civil and military parties en route for New Mexico.-Incident in Governor Merriwether's life.-Diamond spring.-Lost spring.-Scarcity of timber and monotonous character of the country.-Snipe.-Cottonwood creek.-Annoyance from flies and mosquitoes.-Turkey creek. Miserable water.-Little Arkansas.-View of the Arkansas river bottom.-Owl and Cow creeks.-Change in the character of the soil and vegetation of the country.-Dog towns.-Sand-hills.-Arkansas river.-Kansas, Osage, and Sac Indians.-Walnut creek.-SiSuffering from mosquitoes.-Site for a military post.-Timber on Walnut creek.-Pawnee Rock.-Ferruginous sand stone.-Ash creek.-Grass and soil.-Pawnee Fork.-Timber.-Altitude of camp on Pawnee Fork above, and distance from that near Westport.-Osage and Kansas Indians. SIR: In order that you may be put in possession, at as early a day as practicable, of the result of the investigations of the exploring party organized under your order of the 20th of May, 1853, by the lamented Captain J. W. Gunnison, of the corps of Topographical Engineers, who was barbarously massacred by the Pah Utah Indians, on the 26th of October, on the Sevier river, and near the lake of that name, in the Territory of Utah, while in the performance of the duty assigned to him, I deem it my duty, as his assistant, to report the same-a duty upon which I enter with unusual diffidence; the more so as it is not contemplated, by the instructions referred to, that this duty should devolve upon me. There being with the party, however, no other person upon whom it can be devolved, and the importance of its being submitted within a specified time, seems to render this report necessary. But I should neither do justice to the memory of the dead, nor to my own feelings, in entering upon a report of the labors performed in their respective departments by those who fell in the fatal affair referred to above, (which has been before, however, officially communicated to you,) were I thus to pass it by. With Captain Gunnison 2g

Page  10 INSTRUCTIONS PROM THE WAR DEPARTMENT. also fell, of the scientific gentlemen of the party, Mr. R. H. Kern, an accomplished topographer and artist, and Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, botanist. Of the performance of his duties by my late commander, associate, and friend, it may not be proper that I should speak; yet I take pleasure in giving expression to the. admiration of all their associates commanded by each of these gentlemen, in his respective department, up to the time of his death, by the active, faithful, and energetic performance of his duty. And we were in a position, encountering together as we had for so long a period, the labors, fatigues, privations, and exposures incident to an undertaking in which, from day to day, every quality of the mind and heart of one's associates is thoroughly developed, in which you, Sir, are well aware that the strongest ties of esteem and friendship are formed and cemented; and in severing the ties thus formed, not only has this exploring party, and the department of science to which each was attached, suffered a severe loss, but the country itself has reason to mourn the loss of such experienced and energetic officers and citizens Besides these, Mr. Wm. Potter, a citizen of Utah Territory, a resolute and determined man, who had joined the party as guide but a few days before the disaster, was killed, together. with one employe, John Bellows, and three private soldiers of the escort, belonging to the regiment of Mounted Riflemen. The following extracts from your orders and instructions, above referred to, will explain the duties assigned to this party: "Under the 10th and 11th sections of the military appropriation act of March 3, 1853, directing such explorations and surveys as to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Pacific ocean, the War Department directs a survey of the pass through the Rocky mountains, in the vicintiy of the headwaters of the Rio del Norte, by way of the Hiuerfano river and Coo-che-to-pa, or some other eligible pass, into the region of Grand and Green rivers, and westwardly to the Vegas de Santa Clara and Nicollet river of the Great Basin, and thence northward to the vicinity of Lake Utah on a return route, to explore the most available passes and canones of the Wahsatch range and South Pass to Fort Laramie. "The following instructions relative thereto are issued for the government of the different branches of the public service: "I. The party for this exploration will be commanded by Captain J. W. Gunnison, Topo graphical Engineers, who will be assisted by First Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith, Third Artillery, and such civil assistants as the Secretary of War may approve. * * -* * * - * * * "VI. The party being organized, will collect the necessary instruments and equipments. It will then repair with the utmost despatch to Fort Leavenworth, and with the escort proceed to the Huerfano river, making such reconnoissances from the Missouri river as will develop the general features of the country, and determine the practicability of a railroad across the plains, and its connexion with the eastern lines of commerce. "The more minute reconnoissance will continue up the Huerfano into the San Luis valley, and thence through the most eligible pass to the valley of Grand river, and westwardly to the vicinity of the Vegas de Santa Clara, and thence, on the most advisable route, either along the Nicollet river, or to the west of the ranges of mountains bordering that stream, into the basin upon the route to the Great Salt lake; thence to Utah lake, and through the Timpanagos canon or other passes, and across the Weber and Bear rivers, by the Coal basin, to Fort Laramie. "Competent persons will be selected to make researches in those collateral branches of science which affect the solution of the question of location, construction, and support of a railway communication across the continent, viz: the nature of rocks and soils-the products of the country, animal, mineral, and vegetable-the resources for supplies of material for construction, and means requisite for the operation of a railway, with a notice of the population, agricultural products, and the habits and languages of the Indian tribes. Meteorological and magnetic observations, the hygrometrical and electrical states of the atmosphere, and astronomical observations for deter 10

Page  11 FITTING-OUT CAMP. mining geographical -points, shall be made, in order to develop the character of the country through which the party may pass. "On or before the first Monday of February next, Captain Gunnison will report, the result of his investigations." Agreeably to these instructions, Captain Gunnison arrived at St. Louis on the 4th of June, and proceeded immediately to procure the necessary supplies and outfit for the party, in which he was greatly aided by Colonel Robert Campbell, of that city, whose well known courtesy, though severely taxed, was freely extended to us. These were shipped on the 9th, and landed on the 15th of June, at Kansas, which is near the western border of the State of Missouri, and about a mile and a quarter below the junction of the Kansas river with the Missouri, in charge of Mr. Kern, who was to transport them to some point suitable for a "fitting out camp," while Captain Gunnison, whom I accompanied, proceeded to Fort Leavenworth on duty relating to the escort of mounted riflemen which was to accompany the party. We were surprised, on our arrival in the afternoon, to find that no orders had been received at the fort, relating to the escort, for it was known that they had been issued some time previous. The opportune presence, however, at the post, of General Clark, commanding the department, obviated any delay on this account, as, after proper statements and explanations, he gave the necessary instructions for the escort to be equipped and fitted out in anticipation of the receipt of the orders referred to. At an early hour on the following morning we left Fort Leavenworth, which is situated on the right bank of the Missouri river, in the Indian territory immediately west of that State. The day was fine, and the high, beautiful rolling prairie from Fort Leavenworth to the Kansas river, a distance of twenty-two miles, was covered with luxuriant grass, and profusely sprinkled with flowers. We passed some fine Indian farms of the Delaware nation, and respectable herds of stock grazing near the road. The creeks and rivulets were lined with timber, in which oak largely predominated, extending back from the Kansas river, by our road, three or four miles. The descent to this river is abrupt at Delaware, a trading post among this people, where we crossed by a ferry, kept on the north side by themselves and on the opposite by the Shawnees, to whom the territory belongs. Crossing a timbered, sandy bottom of half a mile in width, our road led up a steep hill, finely timbered, and again through fine Indian farms to the open prairie, in all respects like that of the morning. Arriving near Westport we fell in with our camp, and with pleasure alighted from the wretched stage to begin our arduous march. Our encampment was some five miles from Westport and the western line of the State of Missouri, selected by Mr. Kern in a fine grove near a spring, and surrounded by fine grass and an open prairie, and in the midst of the various Shawnee missions, which appeared well. - The approximate elevation of this point above the Gulf of Mexico, as indicated by our barometers, is 990 feet, or 615 feet above low-water mark at St. Louis, as deduced from Dr. Geo. Engelmann's valuable observations at that place, kindly furnished to aid the meteorological discussions in this report. The purchase of mules and horses and employing men suitable for the expedition occupied several days at this camp, and the breaking in of the teams and teamsters as many more, durin which our camp was only moved to s'ecure grass when the animals head fed it down near us. On the 20th, Brevet Captain R. M. Morris, first lieutenant, and~ Seconld Lieutenant L. S. Baker, with some thirty non-commissionled officers and men of the regiment of M~ounted Riflemenl, with the necessary subsistence train,- joined us as escort. The 21st' of June was spent,- as the previous two or three days had been, in breaking in wild mules; no others could be obtained on short notice, so large had been the demand by emigrants going west of the mountains. Nor were we more fortunate in procuring capable teamsters, the large trains which annually cross the plains having preceded us; but by industrious drilling, and replacing incompetent men by the trial of the skill of others, we deemed ourselves at evening in a condition to move forward the following morning. But at an early hour it began to rain in torrents, and continued during the day, so that it was impossible to do mnore than to harness up a few of the wildest mules to habituate them to their labors. On 11

Page  12 CAPTAIN GUNNISON'S PARTY. the 23d the creeks and branches were still swollen by the rain of the previous day, and the roads slippery and soft. The advance, however, was ordered, and we pursued the usual Santa Fe road for eight miles, and encamped for the night on Indian creek, a small timbered stream; the character of the country being that already described-as beautiful and fertile rolling prairies as the eye ever rested upon. The party, (the escort having been already mentioned,) which this day made its first marching essay for the exploration of the Central Pacific Railroad route, was composed of Captain J. W. Gunnison, Topographical Engineers, commander; First Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith, Third Artillery, assistant; Mr. R. H. Kern, topographer and artist; Mr. Sheppard Homans, astronomer; Dr. Janies Schiel, surgeon, geologist, &c.; Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, botanist; Mr. J. A. Snyder, assistant topographer, &c.; and Mr. Charles Taplin, wagon-master; besides the necessary teamsters and employ6s for the performance of the labors of the route. The party was provided with the following instruments, viz: two sextants, two artificial horizQns, one theodolite, two Schmalcalder's compasses, two spy-glasses, two surveyors' chains, two Bunten's barometers, two aneroid barometers, two thermo-barometers, one hygrometer, one box chronometer, one compensating balance watch, two viameters, and one grade instrument, besides thermometers and small pocket-compasses. Of these one Of the Schmalcalder's compasses proved imperfect and worthless, as did the thermo-barometer which was graduated to high altitudes; and we were soon above the scale of the other, so that these instruments were of no use to us. The civil engineer, whose services had been engaged by Captain Gunnison for the exploration, fell sick on the road before reaching St. Louis; and two barometers which he had in charge were necessarily-left behind, as the season was already too considerably advanced to admit of further delay, especially as we were already well supplied with these instruments, should they prove good and no accident befall them. The train consisted,,for the party and escort, of eighteen wagons; sixteen of which were sixmule wagons; an instrument carriage drawn by four mules, and an ambulance by two horses, which were, however, changed for four mules before we had reached the mountains, the horses being broken down. This method of transportation was determined upon in order, should the train pass successfully over the route, to demonstrate its practicability, at least for a wagon road. The road to-day followed the general level of the country, leaving the Kansas river bottom (a favorable route for a railroad from the Missouri river) to our right. Nine miles from Westport we passed a finely wooded creek, near which was observed a fine spring of cool water, and near it a small cultivated field. June 24.-A cool bright morning, with the thermometer at sunrise at 520 Fahrenheit. We were at an early hour again on the Santa Fe road, and arrived at 10 a. m. (not without several accidents to our loaded wagons, resulting in nothing serious, however,) at Cedar creek, which has more water than Indian creek of our last camp, but is skirted with less timber. This creek has worn for itself a small ravine in the limestone which underlies this section of country, and which is here left in escarpments on either side of the stream. In this narrow ravine is the timber of the border, which can therefore be seen only at a short distance on the prairie. I observed among it oak and walnut, and cedar is said to appear a few miles below and continue to its mouth. The marked feature of the country to-day, as heretofore, is the graceful grassy swells which extend as far as the eye can compass, and are lost in the blue line of the horizon. The latitude of this camp, as determined by Mr. Ilomans, is 38~ 52' 41". June 25.- Following the Santa Fe road, we encamped this morning, at 10 o'clock, on Bull creek, the counterpart of that at our preceding camp. The road has thus far been very fine, following the general level of the country between the waters of the Kansas and Osage rivers. The country to-day was more than usually level, and the timber less abundant-if, indeed, 12

Page  13 SMOKY IIILL FORK ROUTE. abundant can be properly applied to so scarce an article. Quite far to the north and west, twenty or twenty-five miles, we at one time had a view of the Kansas valley, which appeared well timbered. Mr. McClannahan, (a gentleman whom we had met on the steamer in coming up the Missouri river,) who had been favorably impressed with the reputed character and direction of the route we were to explore, and who was on his way by the Platte and Sweetwater route to California with a large flock of sheep, which had already reached the Missouri at St. Joseph when we met him, changed his route and here came up with us. He was accompanied by his partner, Mr. Crockett, and by two brothers, Messrs. Burwell, with a fine herd of cattle, also for the California market. Besides these, he was soon joined by two gentlemen, Messrs. Ross, with their families, destined for the land of gold. The lateness of the season, and the vast amount of stock which had'passed up the Platte, sweeping away all the grass, had determined these gentlemen to follow our trail; believing that it would not only be found practicable, but shorter and more abundantly supplied with grass than any of the usually followed routes, and that they could easily keep near us, rendering their passage comparatively safe through the various Indian tribes to be passed to the east of the Great Basin. It had been Captain Gunnison's intention, till last night, to turn off here with his party from the Santa Fe, and follow for a short distance the emigrant road to Salt lake and Oregon, and thence up the Kansas on its south side, beyond the Big Bend of the Arkansas river, taking nearly a direct course for the mouth of the Huerfano. But after much inquiry about the country, of Indians and others who know something of it, and a long conversation with Major Fitzpatrick and Mr. Wm. Bent, whom we met here, he determined to divide his party at this point, and with a few men, an instrument wagon and a few pack-mules, to proceed himself partly by this route, directing me to proceed with the train and balance of the party' by the usual Santa Fe road to Walnut creek, and there await his arrival. Near our camp were the dwellings and farms of a few Christianized Indians. June 26.-Captain Gunnison and party, consisting of Mr. Kern and Mr. Homans, also a teamster and a packer, with Captain Morris and a few of his men as an escort, moved off at the usual hour, 7 o'clock, by the Kansas river and Smoky Hill Fork route. The journal relating to this part of the survey is taken from Captain Gunnison's notes, and much of it is an extract from them: "Contrary to the general rule, (it being Sunday,) we leave for Wahkarrussi this morning, having learned that the Indians are assembled there for church service or meeting, and start early to witness the occasion, never having been at one of their missionary gatherings. Lieutenant Beckwith also moves off on the Santa Fe road-our men and animals having had nearly all the week to rest. "At eight miles we came to a house and field, and descended a hill half a mile farther on, where we crossed a fine creek which we had been nearing on our left for two miles. This creek is fringed by a dense growth of oak, elm and poplar. Passing over a fine plain for four miles, we crossed another stream which has beautiful groves along its sides, of red and white oak, sycamore and locust. Young hickory is also springing up along its banks, and it is to be hoped that fires will be kept off until it can contend successfully for existence, and add to the beauty and usefulness of this fertile country. After a ride of 14.89 miles, we encamped on the southern side of the Wahkarrussi, a tributary of the Kansas river. Half a mile above the crossing, which is a ferry at high water, a sandstone several feet thick, in horizontal layers, is cut through by the creek. " June 27.-At'7 o'clock we were crossing the rich, alluvial bottom of the Wahkarrussi. It is one and a half miles wide, covered with rich grasses. To our left, and on the other side of the creek, is the Wahkarrussi mound, a hill that is a conspicuous land-mark for a great distance. Yesterday we were all day steering to the right of it. On the north side it is wooded from the brow to the stream. Five miles out we ascended the limestone ridge between the Kansas and 13

Page  14 INDIAN GUIDES.-UNIONTOWN. Wahkarrussi, and had a grand panoramic view of the adjacent country. The forest at the junetion of the streams, and on both sides, will furnish oak, hickory, walnut, and other timber, for many miles of railroad; and the level bottom of the Kansas appears to advantage, inviting the theodolite and level of the engineer on its E.N.E. and W.S.W. course, for the track of the Central Pacific railroad. The fertility of these valleys, on either side, capable of supporting great numbers of people, is too obvious to mention. "At a mile from the escarpment of limestone rock, on the left-hand side of the road, there issues a fine, cool spring, a curiosity on the top of this narrow ridge, one hundred feet above the bed of the stream. At sixteen miles from camp we came to a wooded dell, called Coon Point, the proper place to take wood for a march to Big spring. Twenty-one miles along the ridge brought us to this spring, which is on the north side of the road, and two hundred yards from the main track. It is situated in a hollow, and there are several small jets from the bank. Indeed, in all the ravines we entered, a short distance from the brows on either side, water can be had by clearing out the oozy mud at the edge of the thin strata of limestone which crop out. Some portions of the road to-day were covered with loose stones. "At 11 a.m., barometer 28.80; thermometer 81. At sundown, barometer 28.70; thermometer 77~; dew-point 70~. "June 28.-The water of Big spring seems to have affected badly more than one of the party. The wind blew a gale all night, and this morning we had a little rain, and it remianed cold and cloudy all day, with lightning in the south. The country was very rolling on the higher tableland, from which we descended shortly after leaving the Big spring, and steered our course towards a hill fifteen miles from camp, and made, opposite to it, Stinson's trading-house, on Shunga Munga creek. Here the road to California branches off to the middle ferry, which is three miles to the northwest. The valley of the Kansas was visible a part of the way; or rather the Kansas bottom, for people in this region make a difference in this matter. The level meadow, or prairie, in which the river winds from hilt to hill, is called the' bottom;' and all the land, hill and meadow, drained by the stream, is called' the valley.' The river is said to impinge frequently against the bluff hills on the south, in this part of its course. We nooned for half an hour at a small creek, heavily wooded, by a fringe one hundred yards wide, with the usual varieties of timber. On the west side are boulders of granite, serpentine, and red quartz rock. At 3 o'clock p. m. we arrived at Mission creek, where there are all the requisites of wood, water, and grass, for encampments, for a long time to come. Day's march twenty-three miles. Some Indian log-houses were passed at a distance to the right; and fine fields of corn, wheat, and potatoes, on Shunga Munga creek, give promise of what can be expected when these rich lands are cultivated'in the sweat of the brow,' according to the dispensation of the order of nature. Just at our supper-dinner, Entho-kipe and Wah-hone, the guide and hunter of the Smoky Hill Fork trip, came to camp. They have been waiting two days on a creek two miles ahead, and were starting to look us up. The guide speaks a little English, but it is difficult for him to understand us; he has therefore brought another Delaware with him, who speaks English well. As soon as they had satisfied their appetites and taken a stock for to-morrow, they returned to their camp to await our arrival. I have this evening a severe attack of my old illness on the Plains. "Juue 29. —Very cloudy and warm. Themometer at 6 a. m., 62~. I passed a bad night. At Uniontown, to which we came after a ride of 7~ miles, there is a street of a dozen houses, where the traders reap their harvests at the time of the national-payments. We could get no information about our route here. At Six Mile creek we stopped a few minutes only, as it began to rain. We have here an abundance of wood. At fourteen miles we crossed a fine, swift stream from southwest, 100 feet across, and averaging one foot in depth; timber and grass abundant. Il-a-heek-con-a-sa is the Indian name of the creek. Thence for three miles we travelled westwardly on a beautiful bottom which borders the stream. The prairie is purple with rich flowers, 14

Page  15 STORMS ON THE PLAINS'. variegated with yellow. We made but 184a miles to-day; leaving the road at Uniontown, and deflecting from the Kansas a little to the left, following a trail. The Indians, viz: Jno. Moses, guide; Wahhone, hunter; and James Sanders, interpreter, joined us, and began theirfncin of guides when we left the road. It is necessary to take three, in order that they may be strong enough to return safely. Our camp is on a branch of Il-a-heek-con-a-sa. "June 30.-It rained all night, making the roads heavy; the prairie giving under the carriagewheels. In about 38 miles we came to another branch of the Il-a-heek-con-a-sa, and had an hbour's delay in cutting a crossing; and two miles fa~rther on we bad another delay or asiia character. There is the usual strip of woods on these branches. We had at one time a view of the Kansas valley, four miles distant. Crossing another branch, which is at times a torrent, but now a mere rill, we ascended a ridge by gentle ascents at 12.68 miles from camp, where we had a magnificent view of the Kansas valley to the northeast. We then descended quite abrupt hills to creek, which is about twenty feet wide, and well wooded along its margin. Here we were, detained an hour, and then began another ascent, which soon brought u gi -to the vision of the beautiful Kansas valley, and the hills, with clumps and rows of trees,slpn up on the north side of the river. We experienced much difficulty in crossing gullies on our route, for if is without a trail, and Ent-ho-ki-pe takes his' bee-lines' across the country. This has been a hard day's work for the carriage mules; the ground soft and yielding, andthe hills, though gentle of ascent, are long, and in many places rocky. It looks very inviting to descend to the Kansas bottom; but the streams cut deep chasms in the alluvion, rendering it almost impossible, without bridges, to cross them. "July I.-This morning displayed a sorry-looking camp. There was a storm of three hours' duration during the night, such as the Plains only can exhibit. We are without tents, having only three tent-flies for sixteen men. These flies, stretched over poles, leave the ends open, affording but little protection against driving rains. The thunder-storm burst at midnight in fury upon unprepared, or, at least, unprotected individuals. One fly fell prostrate over three men, and in the darkness, lighted by fitful flashes of intense lightning, which was as blinding as the darkness itself, they could not re-erect their frail tenement, but quietly endured their drenching. We ascended the ridge again for 21 miles, when a band of half a dozen antelope,foth first time, greeted our sight on a distant summit. -We then began a long descent, and i he miles'were in the valley of White Oak creek, which is formed by several branches to at the junction of the two principal of which we crossed. These little branches are difficult to cross, and they occur frequently. We then ascended, perhaps 300 feet, to a dividing ridge, which we followed for seven miles; and then, descending to a branch of the last creek, encamped at 4 o'clock p. m. Water is found in pools, and a spring issues from under an escarpment of white limestone 100 yards from camp; but we are nearly without wood. The road on the hills has been bard for the cattle, on account of the sharp, pebbly limestone scattered thickly oe h ground. The rock splits into fragments by the effects of the sun and rain, and having no attrition, these fragments are sharp and flinty in appearance. We have unintentionally left the Kansas far on the right, probably striking across the bend opposite the mouth of the Blue river. ",July 2. —We had another rainy night. This morning we travelled northwest for 4~ miles, and encamped. Captain Morris left for the Republican fork of the Kansas, northeast; but after four hours' travelling, returned, the guide having mistaken Blue river for that stream. We again moved forward, and crossed No-Nome creek, as Ent-ho-ki-pe calls it —an operation of no small labor. The escort, in endeavoring to follow, mired one horse and injured another, by water.Throdwnduthhihhlstthtoofadvdnrigbewe twcres afiluents of the Kansas, and we had a flue view of the groves on that river, and soon came in view of the lonJg-desired fort on the Republican. But we had a frightful hill to descend, and just

Page  16 FORT RILEY. at dark arrived on the brow of the bluf, where trees whose tops are nearly on a level with us are growing in the valley of the creek. Here we encamped, or rather laid down. "July 3.-The escort came in at sunrise, and we crossed the Mahungasa creek, which is 100 feet wide and 3 deep, with a swift current, and is the largest creek we have yet crossed. It is rightly named Big Stone, for at the ford we found its bed covered with boulders. In two and a half miles we arrived on the bluff opposite the new fort on the Pawnee river, (or Republican fork,) and prepared for the rest of Sunday. We communicated with our friends at Fort Riley. The fort is to be built of white limestone, quarried or lifted from the escarpment of the bluff; and the soldiers' barracks, in a half-finished state, already make a fine appearance from a distance. "July 4.-We were notified by a rifle report, at daylight, of the arrival of the national anniver sary. After numerous discharges of fire-arms, we started for the Kansas river for the purpose of crossing to the opposite side. This was determined upon because the north side of the Smoky Hill fork had not been examined, while there have been several surveys made of the south side. An India Rubber ponton, procured from Fort Riley by the kindness of Major Ogden and Lieut. Sergeant, acting assistant quartermaster, was~placed too low for our light vehicle, and it upset while floating across-a small incident for the 4th of July. Our horses were crossed by swimming, and we arrived about noon at the fort. This is placed at the junction of the Pawnee river with the Kansas, and not in the forks of the Smoky Hill and Pawnee, as we were before informed. There is a noble spring near the site, which appears to be well chosen at the head of navigation on the Kansas, from whence supplies can be sent to the posts in the Indian country and to New Mexico. A ferry across the Pawnee river (as the officers call the Republican fork) conveyed our wagon over; which was a difficult operation, however, but safely accomplished under the direction of Mr. Homans, while I was indulgent enough to myself to accept the invitation of Captain Lovell, commanding, to dine at the officers' mess. Lieut. Sergeant, acting assistant quartermaster, &c., did all that he could to supply our wants, and started us with fresh supplies. After a short nooning, I proceeded 7.59 miles to a spring in the bottom, near the Smoky Hill, passing one of delicious cool water, out from the bottom and under the bluff a half mnile back, but where there is, unfortunately, no wood. After having crossed Pawnee river we entered upon the bottom in the forks, which is a mile and a half in width, and of rich alluvial soil. In seasons when not overflowed-and-it is believed it rarely is covered with flood-it would produce fine fields of hemp. For two miles from this bottom, the ascent is so gentle as hardly to be discernible. At the junction of the two forks there is a body of large cotton-wood, with elms intermixed; and the ravines on the hill-sides are also well filled with small oaks, which are useful for fuel, but few are suitable for building purposes. The valley of the Smoky Hill fork is on our left, and is from one to two miles wide, with the circuitous river-bed in it fringed with poplars, presenting a lovely picture, and is very favorable for the construction of a railroad. "July 5.-Leaving the beautiful spring at which we had encamped, we crossed the bottom and skirted along the hills S. 750 W. for 2.26 miles, and then, continuing the same course, ascended the slight undulation which slopes up from the bottom, until we came to Deep or Sycamore creek. Here we found the water too deep to cross, and turned north two and a quarter miles to the first ripple, where, with a little cutting and aiding down the wagon, we crossed safely; and after ascending for four miles, we passed again S. 72~ W. to the bottom, where we found the slope of the hills very fine sand and heavy pulling. Deflecting to S. 80~ W., we struck off along the beautiful flat, which reminded us of the Nebraska. It is here about five miles wide, the Smoky Hill fork skirting the south side. Wagons from Fort Riley should keep on the brow of the slope from Pawnee river to Sycamore creek; then passing over the point to cut off a bend, they should follow the bottom land, near the foot of the slope, for seven miles, to the creek upon which we are encamped. These creeks can be easily bridged. Coming to a creek with little water, but a deep eastern bank, we lowered the wagon down it and made camp just before dark. Distance by route, 22.50 miles. 16 I

Page  17 VALLEY OF SMOKY HILL FORK. "July 6.-Thermometer at sunrise 701 Fahrenheit; barometer 28.91. We continued our course S. 700 W. along the flat. The hills are composed of fine sand, and would become heavy roads for loaded wagons. A ride of ten miles brought us to Nepeholla or Solomon's fork:the road along the base of the sand-hills is good, the hills themselves being of too loose sand for wagons. The river we found swollen by a flood at least eight feet above low water. There was no alternative but to look around for material with which to construct a raft-a matter of some account, as we were only provided with two dull axes. But with two dead trees, already water-soaked, we laid the basis of timbers, and bound on these such dry small willows as we could find; and by making some twenty trips we got safely over. The carriage body being tight, floated across easily. The Delawares rendered great service, swimming about, carrying ropes, and towing horses over all the afternoon. They seemed to delight in the watery element. The grass is becoming shorter, and the timber less in quantity and varieties, the cotton-wood being the prevailing tree, and this is confined in patches to the margins of the creeks. "July 7.-A cool, delicious morning, the river still rising. We travelled S. 70~ W. across the level plain, between the Kansasand Nepeholla, for fiour miles, to the foot of a dividing slope, opposite which, on the south side of the Kansas, is a square butte. A wagon road could be well maintained on this meadow all the year. After riding seven miles we struck the Saline fork in the meadow. This stream is also swollen by a flood, and looks like the boiling Missouri. Continuing our course for two miles, we halted on one of the bends of this stream and cut two dry cottonwood logs, which we lashed to the sides of our wagon wheels, and thus made a ferry-boat of our carriage. With this we ferried over the stream, which is 150 feet wide and 9 feet deep, with a rapid current. The guide represents it as being usually 20 feet wide and 2 feet deep. It is surprising to see such a freshet without any visible cause. Stretching away to the west for some hundreds of miles, the river has no doubt received the product of heavy rains. The Nepeholla rose six inches yesterday, and this river as much during the seven hours we were most laboriously engaged in crossing it. Without our Delawares, we could not have effected this work. They plunged into the boiling current with the ropes on their necks, and stretched them across the streams for us, and then passed along the same to slip the noose over the knots-for we have only our picket-ropes for this purpose, which being tied together, were long enough to pull back and forth, which greatly facilitated operations, and without which we could have done nothing to advantage. Our hunter killed a noble fat buck, which, with a cup of black tea for supper, soon refreshed us from one of the most fatiguing days we have yet experienced. Plats of buffalo-grass appear occasionally, and we soon expect to be on the trail of these animals. "July 8.-We started this morning over the grand meadow of Saline and Kansas rivers, bearing S. 45~ W. between the two streams, which at this point diverge rapidly. The Kansas has a trend as you go up its stream, to the southward, passing around the famous Smoky Hill, which was full in sight, with its azure hue, onl the east of it. This hill has given the name to this part of the Kansas, but our guides do not know it by the name of the Smoky Hill fork. The hill may be 100 feet in elevation above the plain. We kept our course up a branch of the Saline, southwest, on a plain so gently rising that the ascent was scarcely perceptible, and nooned on its banks, 13.50 miles from our last night's camp. Signs of buffalo are very numerous, and their trails quite fresh. A party of Pottawatomies has preceded us, and probably driven them farther into the buffalo ranges. In fifteen miles we came to ferruginous sandstone ridges on either side of our course, which is remarkably direct, following a plain valley in which a creek meanders. "July 9.-Gradually ascending this branch, it soon brought us near the main stream; and by passing a low divide we came into the main valley, where there is quite a large quantity of wood, and, at this season, water. Water in pools continued nearly to the summit of the next divide; beyond which, in the distance, are oak and cotton-wood trees of small growth, on a stream running southeast into the Kansas. At half-past 10 o'clock we reached this river, which we found to be falling, having been eight feet higher than at piesent within two or three days. We came to a 3g 17

Page  18 DIVIDE BETWEEN THE SMOKY HILL AND ARKANSAS RIVERS. good ford, in a low stage of the water, which we call the Lone Oak ford, as there is here a re-markable solitary oak tree in the bottom. We remained here till 1 o'clock, and then passed over, the wagon body just clearing the water, and ascended the slope for a mile, but turned down again to cross a creek near the bottom. From the top of the ridge we discovered a lone butte, S. 330~ W., and another S. 25~ W. Our course bore thence over the heads of a creek well wooded with a stunted growth of ash, walnut, oak and cotton-wood. Here we found the choke-cherry ripe. Keeping up the ridge for some time on the right of this creek, we found no signs of passing over to Walnut creek, as promised by our guides, and therefore we turned a little more westwardly and down the slope to a nearly dry creek. On the way we passed a small spring coming from under a sandstone bluff, but preferred to go a half mile farther to the creek, on which the walnut tree prevails, interspersed with oak, elm and cotton-wood. At the place where we crossed the Kansas the valley is not more than a quarter of a mile wide; and though it widens in places above, as we could see from the hills, the course of the plain is more winding than below, and probablv it will be found advisable in the construction of a railroad to deflect to the mouth of the Huerfano from near this point of the river. It will, however, require minute exploration to find the best point and to obtain the best grade for a railroad, as the creeks coming in from the south make deep indentations in the rolling prairie. The rise from the Kansas is not abrupt; the hills sweep down gracefully, and no serious difficulties are in the way of a good track. But the timber has become more scarce and dwarfish. The hills are composed of a hard red clay, with occasional beds of gray or white clay. They are sometimes covered with fragmentary sandstone; and escarpments at other places show the stone in situ and stratified. We here discovered a very cool spring, the water appeaT-i'g chalybeate, from which we hope for some happy effect upon several persons of the party who are slightly ill. The spring bursts up in considerable volume near the dry bed of a creek. " July 10.-Remained in camp to rest man and beast. In the afternoon we were visited by one of those violent rain and wind storms which are well known to travellers of the Plains. The ground was soon covered an inch deep with water. The dry bed of the creek flowed with a strong muddy current, which continued till we left on the following morning. We gathered wild cherries, (choke,) currants, and gooseberries, and the wild grape-vines were loaded with green fruit. "July 11.-Starting at 6.30 a.m., we had awet, foggy morning till 7. In a few miles we came to the summit of the ridge between the waters of the Kansas and Arkansas rivers. Here we had a broad, level country before us, and in the distance a ribbon of trees was visible on Cow creek, to which we gently descended. The creek is swollen by yesterday's rain to twelve feet in width and two in depth in the centre. Barometer's reading at 9 a. m., before passing thesummit, 28.237; thermometer 80~; and on the plain, at 11 o'clock, after passing, 28.276, thermometer 89~. IHere we saw the first buffalo, which the hunter killed. It proved to be a bull feeding alone, but as he was pretty fat we had some of it cooked for dinner. At 12 m. we arrived at the ' Sand-Banks,' which border the northwest branch of the Little Arkansas. This stream is very muddy and swollen by recent rains, being now forty feet wide and two feet deep in the centre. We had now traversed, for fifteen miles, a plain with gullies cut deep by the branches of Cow creek-our general course having been S. 50~ W. The rise from camp to the summit was very gentle, and it was so slightly marked that it was not observed till we had passed it some distance. The 9 o'clock barometrical reading given above will determine the altitude of this summit-level with accuracy. After nooning we crossed the creek below the drifting sands, which are on the south side, and extend one mile in length and a half mile in breadth; we then crossed them diagonally, and continued on uneven sand-knolls, which are fixed by vegetation, for a mile. A variety of shrubs grow on these sand-hills, among which is the wild plum, very much dwarfed, but loaded with unripe fruit. We then descended slightly to a fiat, which is clayey and too low fbr a road for wagons. At a short distance from the base of the knolls the helianthus grows densely, 18:

Page  19 ROAD FROM FORT RILEY TO WALNUT CREEK. extending northwest over a field of several square miles in extent, with grass and saline plants intermixed. We attempted to cross this sun-flower field, but were very soon forced back to the high ground, for the water was rushing over it, being backed up by the rise of a creek five miles before us, showing the extent of yesterday's rain. After travelling twenty-nine miles we came upon a torrent of muddy water, running in banks too deep and sharp for crossing without labor, and, in our vicinity, too deep also to ford, and we therefore encamped much fatigued by the day's work. The quartermaster's road from Fort Riley should strike higher up the Kansas, and cross the ridge to the west of our line. "July 12.- The Arroyo creek had fallen so much that we passed safely over it this morning and afterwards met two Indians hunting buffalo. From them we could only learn, by signs, that their people were encamped over the next ridge, on Walnut creek. Crossing Mosquito creek in two and a half miles, which is a branch of Cow creek, and is dotted here and there with ash, elm and cotton-wood trees, we came in a short time in sight of the elms and ash of Walnut creek. It is difficult to cross this creek with wagons above the ford for the Santa e road, which is near its mouth. We crossed over, however, and followed down the west side, and found the party under Lieutenant Beckwith in camp, waiting for us since the ninth instant. Here we also found Brevet Major Johnson, sixth infantry, in command of a camp, being about to build a fort upon the creek; the fort on the Arkansas, 100 miles west, from whence his present stores are received, being about to be abandoned. In the night Colonel Sumner, Majors Morris and Hagner, returning from New Mexico with an escort, arrived at camp. Our Delaware guides were here discharged. I furnished for Major Ogden, A. Q. M., a description of the country his guides had shown me from Fort Riley, with the distances travelled, and advised him that with proper bridges a fine and remarkably level track could be found thus far on our route for the location of any kind of a road. Of course, the relative merits of the two sides of the Kansas I cannot discuss. The four bridges on the main streams would be an item of cost; but if Fort Riley, on the Kansas, is at the head of the steamboat navigation, then this is the proper way for a route to New Mexico south or north, for wagons or for a railroad. The character of the country changes materially in soil, climate and productions at the ridge between the Kansas and Arkansas rivers. Some buffalo-grass, scattered in patches, was noticed after crossing the Saline; now it is the prevailing grass." ITINERARY OF LIEUTENANT BECKWVITH'S PARTY, WHICH FOLLOWED THE SANTA FE ROAD. The following extracts from my own journal descriptive of the country which I traversed on the Santa Fe road, on a line some 20 or 30 miles distant, and nearly parallel with that followed by Captain Gunnison, are added, to show that the fertility he has described along the valley of the Kansas river and its main tributaries, extends far back over the rolling prairies towards the sources of the small streams and rivulets of the country, and that its general character is such that a railroad may be carried over it in any desired direction. June 26.-As stated by Captain Gunnison, we moved out of camp as his party set ofon the route of the Kansas river and Smoky Hill fork, and nine miles out passed Black Jack creek, in which there was but little running water, and, skirting its banks near the crossing, a few scattered trees; and generally in the early part of the day timber was very scarce, but afterwards became more abundant a few miles frotm the road, and at times extended quite up to it. We had at one time a beautiful view of a finely-wooded valley to the south; and later, of one to the north, opening and extending far to the west. This valley we judged to be that of the Wahkarrussi, a tributary of the Kansas river. Major Emory, in his report, says: " On a branch of the Wahkarrussi, where the Oregon trail strikes it, a seam of bituminous coal crops out. This is worked by the Indians, one of whom we met driving an ox-cart loaded with coal, to Westport." In the early morning the prairie was quite level, but later became finely rolling and was all abundantly covered with grass. After a ride of 203 miles we encamped at Willow

Page  20 LINE OF THE SANTA FE ROAD. spring, where we had fine cool water, but the nearest wood was distant a mile. Mr. Ross with his family encamped about fifty yards from us, and at half-past 9 o'clock was seated with his party around his fire, with his horses picketed between his tent and mine, when, without any apparent cause, six of them pulling up their picket-pins, dashed off at a frightful speed, and in a moment were far away over the prairie, and out of sight. One of them, however, trembling with fright, fortunately ran into a neighboring camp, and was secured. June 27.-The country continued of the same character as heretofore, with less wood and water, and we only passed a little of the latter in pools two or three times during the day, during which we were often elevated on the rolling prairies high above the surrounding country, of which, to the south and north, we had extended and beautiful views. Little timber was, however, visible. The road was fine, there having been no rain recently, and the grass luxuriant. Nine and twelve miles out we passed Rock creeks, but they were nearly dry, having no running water, and were without wood. We encamped, after travelling 24 miles, on what is known as the 110-mile creek, which is lined with an unusual amount of timber; and there is in it, at present, running water, with holes large enough for bathing, as there was also four years ago, when I passed it. Near our camp are a few Indian houses and cultivated fields. June 28. -Eight miles from camp we crossed Dwissler's creek, a fine little branch, with steep and well wooded banks; four miles then brought us to the first Dragoon creek, quite like the last, but with low banks. One mile from the last is the second Dragoon creek, with less wood and water. At 1 o'clock we arrived at Prairie Chicken creek, where there is an abundance of wood, water and grass. Distance marched, 21 miles. June 29.-To-day, a mile from camp, we passed a little branch in which there was water, but the line of timber on its banks was thin. Three or four miles farther on we crossed Elm creek, with fine wood and running water; and still another, called the 142-mile creek, about six or eight miles out; and after a ride of thirteen miles, we crossed Bluff creek, where there are fine and abundant water and wood. At 3 o'clock we encamped on Big Rock creek, which is well timbered. As usual, the grass to-day was everywhere luxuriant. Distance 20 miles. June 30.-It rained heavily during the entire night, and continued to do so until 8 o'clock this morning, accompanied by heavy thunder. At 10 o'clock we left camp, and without halting at Big John spring, famous on this part of the route, and of which I have cooling and refreshing recollections, passed on seven miles to Council Grove, and encamped on Elm creek, three-fourths of a mile beyond. The roads were very slippery and the mud deep. The Neosho creek, upon which Council Grove is situated, is a fine. little stream, with timber more abundant than on any stream we have seen since we left the Kansas river, of which the timber is similar, and the fields of corn are remarkably luxuriant and fine. We here came up with a large number of government officers, both civil and military, on their way to their respective posts of duty. Among them was the Hon. D. Merriwether, governor of New Mexico, in whose life occurs a singular incident connected with the political changes which have transpired between this country and Mexico. In 1819 he was, as he informed me, an Indian trader, and accompanied a war party of the Pawnees too far into New Mexico. The Pawnees were nearly all slain in fair fight; but himself and servant were made prisoners and taken to Santa Fe, where he was for some time confined a prisoner in the "palace" of the Territory to which he now goes as governor, and will soon again occupy the same palace. Judges and Indian agents for New Mexico were also of the party, and General Garland was in command of the military camp, of recruits for the 9th military department, in charge of a number of officers, and a large military train. Jully 1.-To-day at the usual hour we moved on again over heavy roads from the excessive rains of the previous day or twO. The country differs in nothing from that east of Council Grove, except that the soil is more firm and less miry in the gullies. Eight miles out we crossed Elm creek, (on which we had encamped last night,) its waters having subsided several feet since the previous evening, when wagons could not have crossed it; and at 2 o'clock, having ridden but 20

Page  21 FROM COUNCIL GROVE TO BIG COW CREEK. sixteen miles, the train was well encamped at Diamond spring, where we enjoyed the luxury oI cool water in abundance, but the supply of fuel was limited. Jutly 2.-The threatening state of the weather detained us iri camp this morning until 8 o'clock; but as the heavy showers in sight and the distant thunder at that hour receded, we started again over heavy roads. We passed a branch of water dotted with trees on its banks, a mile from camp, and then saw nothing more of wood or water, except the rain-water of the previous day, until we arrived at Lost spring, after riding sixteen miles. The water is quite good, but not cool like that of last night. Not a tree or a bush is here anywhere to be seen; but we encamped, our previous knowledge of the place having caused us to bring a sufficiency of fuel for cooking. The country to-day was more level than heretofore, and the roads consequently not so well drained, and, as I have already said, not so well watered and timbered; but in all things else this wide, wide world of prairie is always the same-ever green and luxuriant with grass, and dotted with flowers, gently swelling here and sinking away there in soft lines and rounded figures, which it needs not the fancy of man to shape into lovely landscapes. Snipe literally swarmed on our path, and two or three fine dogs which belonged to our party were "pointing and setting" at every turn. July 3.-At half-past 6 o'clock our train was on the road, which had been dried, and consequently greatly improved, by the hot sun of the previous afternoon. Passing over a country destitute of timber, but from the recent rains covered with abundant pools of water, and sensibly rising as we travelled forward, we selected our camp on Cottonwood creek, seventeen miles from Lost spring, and at 12~ o'clock our animals were grazing- at least those of them that could endure the bites of the innumerable flies and mosquitoes without losing their appetites. This creek is but slightly timbered, chiefly by trees which its name indicates. The day is oppressively hot, with scarcely a breeze. The thermometer in the shade of a wagon, but not well situated, indicates 1.00~ Fahrenheit. July 5.-We yesterday remained in camp for the benefit of our animals, one of which, however, at the usual hour of marching, took matters into his own head, and, pulling up his picketpin, took the road, and encamped at the next usual camping ground with a train he found there. To-day we continue to ascend even more perceptibly than on our last day's march, and only passing a few pools of water and Little Turkey creek, eighteen miles out, encamped, after a ride of twenty-two miles, on one of the Turkey creeks, of which, at times, there are three. At this camp we have no wood, and the water is miserable, stagnant, and green. July 6.-Starting at 6 o'clock, and travelling, generally, over a very level country, we arrived in twenty-three miles at a fine camp on the Little Arkansas, where, however, we are seriously annoyed by flies and mosquitoes. We passed Big Turkey creek an hour out this morning, and during the day many stagnant pools. These pools do not usually exist during the summer, but are caused by recent rains. The road over which we are now passing would be very heavy during damp, rainy seasons, and we therefore congratulate ourselves on passing over it just after it is well dried from the recent heavy rains. All day to the south, the sand-hills and shrubbery of the Arkansas river bottom or vicinity have been visible. On the Little Arkansas there is but little fuel, and I can see that near the road it has perceptibly diminished since I was here in 1849. July 7.-Moving over a level country for ten miles, brought us to a bushy gully ill the prairie, honored with the name of Charez creek; for what reason, however, no one can tell, unless it be because it never has water in it. It is also sometimes called Owl creek. Six miles from this we came to Little Cow creek, another bushy stream, with an occasional tree to ornament its banks. There is, at the road-crossing, no water; but turning to the left, towards a fine clump of bushes and trees, I observed General Garland's large camp, with many animals, and doubtless an abundance of water. We, however, continued our march for three miles, to Big Cow creek, which crosses the road at the bottom of a deep gully, with banks twenty feet in height —firm and 21

Page  22 FPROM BIG COW CREEK TO WALNUT CREEK. easily ascended-in a little rivulet of warm dirty water. A few bushes and fewer trees mark its course to the north and south of us. It soon unites with Little Cow creek. The grass is now thickly interspersed with plats of buffalo-grass, and the whole vegetable growth is smaller and less luxuriant than we have heretofore passed. The days are oppressively hot, and the dews very heavy every night. Prairie-dog towns of large extent begin to make their appearance, with their various inhabitants- dogs, snakes, and owls. The country passed to-day is very level, with but one or two small rises. From our last camp to the present-both off the roadthe distance is 20 miles. July 8.-We left camp at half-past 6 o'clock this morning, and were more forcibly struck with the change in the character of the soil and vegetation than on any previous day; the former being more dry and sandy, the latter smaller, finer, and very short-not the grass only, but most kinds of plants, which have a wide range of prairie on which they flourish. The sand-hills of the Arkansas come into the road about twelve miles west from Big Cow creek; but they were soon passed, and we struck the level bottom of that river, which we had observed to the south of us all the morning, marked in its course by a few scattered cotton-woods along its shores and on its islands. It is a broad stream where the road first approaches it, divided by islands into two or three channels. Its current is rapid, its waters yellow, and its bed full of quick-sands; so that it is not always easy to ford it. It varies'in depth. At present its waters are unusually high, being from one to six feet in various places as it is crossed. The road travelled is generally very dry at this season of the year, but to-day water filled every hole and l)lffalo wallow; but the road is finely dried from the recent rains. The cotton-wood on the northern bank of the Arkansas, at our camp, has been nearly all consumed for fuel by the caravans and: travellers who annually pass here. We occasionally see a few Kansas Indians, who, at this season, frequent this part of' their hunting grounds to hunt the buffalo, which are usually found here in large numbers. We have as yet, lowever, seen but a few scattered bulls, and have no hunters ambitious enough to pursue them. Distance from Big Cow creek to the Arkansas, 18 miles; to camp, 20 miles. July 9.-Just as we were leaving camp this morning our train took fright at a rabbit pursued by a dog, and took to the prairie in every (direction, at full speed, and, however serious to us, it was an amusing sight. The teams were, however, quieted in a few moments, and brought back to the road, which, in a couple of hours, brought us to Walnut creek, where we encamped iust after 8 o'clock in the morning, among a motley host of Kansas, Osage, and Sac Indians, of all ages, sexes, and conditions. Walnut creek this morning is three feet deep, and some ten yards or more in width. There are fine cool springs in the banks, which, after so much pool and stagnant water, we enjoy very greatly. General Garland's command passed our camp at 11 o'clock, all in fine health; and we also parted here with Governor Merriwether and party, in equally fine condition. Our morning's march was only seven miles. While remaining in this camnp we have suffered from mosquitoes beyond anything we have ever before experienced, or of which we have ever read; and, although our sentinels were doubled in number, we had repeatedly to turn out and quiet our animals to Prevent their running off to escape the agony of the bites. Fortunately, during the last evening that we remained, a fresh wind sprung up, and we experienced no further trouble from these insects. Our camp, of all points in the neighborhood, was the most free from this curse. In the middle of the day, in riding into Major Johnson's camp on the opposite bank of the creek, our horses whould become frantic; and sulch was the case for miles around. The land is low on the creek, and subject to be overflowed, as is evident from the drift-wood scattered upon the prairies. MAIN JOURNAL RESUMED. aJuly 13.-As we moved forward this morning, Captain Gunnison rode up Walnut creek with Major Johnsob to see the site selected by this officer for building a military post. It is on the 22

Page  23 PAWNEE FORK.-DISTANCES AND RAILROAD GRADES. ridge between Walnut and Cow creeks, raised considerably above the level flat which borders Walnut creek, extending to the Arkansas river, which overflows far above the point near the road which, it is said, was first selected for this post. The site chosen by Major Johnson, five miles from the road, has the advantage also of being nearer the proposed road from the month of the Republican to New Mexico; but if water can be obtained still higher up, this latter road might be made still more direct. There is on Walnut creek no timber suitable for building purposes, but an abundance for present uses for fuel. The elm, ash, and cotton-wood trees are here frequently two feet in diameter at the base, but, four or six feet above, branch off into crooked gnarly trunks. The section passed to-day is generally very level. We passed Pawnee Rock, a noted topographical feature in this part of the country, during the morning. It is to the right of the road, about two miles from the Arkansas river, and terminates a ridge from the north in a bluff escarpment of highly ferruginous sandstone, twenty feet in height, on which many names of passers-by are inscribed. Shortly after leaving Pawnee Rock we crossed Ash creek-a dry bed, lined with the usual amount of timber-and encamped on Pawnee fork, after a march of twenty-eight miles. The grasses during the day became hourly poorer until we came upon this creek, where they are more fresh. The soil is also less fertile. Its surface is composed of fine sand mixed with vegetable mould, which, by the rains, becomes soft mud, and turning up in ruts, hardens, but is easily crushed again by the wheels. The water in Pawnee fork is twenty feet in width by from one to two in depth, with a fair current. During the day we passed water only in a few pools. The timber on this creek, like that of all the streams hereabouts, is small, scattered and ugly-more of bushes than trees-looking in its tortuous lines not unlike the lining to the fences of some thriftless New England farmer, who gives a wide margin to blackberry and elder bushes, interspersing them with an occasional elm. This camp, 293 miles by the Santa Fe road and 322 miles by the Smoky Hill route from our camp near Westport, is 972 feet above that camp, giving, besides the usual inequalities of a rolling prairie country, which have been duly noted, an average grade or ascent to the mile of about three feet three inches, and three feet, respectively, for these distances. Large numbers of Kansas and Osage Indians, on their usual buffalo hunts, are encamped to the southeast two or three miles on the Arkansas river, and their large herds of horses are scattered over the plains for miles. They are filthy, dirty beings, and quite as impudent and pilfering as their wilder brethren to the west. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~Thy This morning they visited the party of officers spoken of as returning from New Mexico, a few miles from our camp on Walnut creek, and helped themselves to several light articles before the men who were sleeping in the wagons could be gol out to disperse them. 23

Page  24 CHAPTER II. From Pawnee Fork to the crossing of the Arkansas r,ver at the mouth of the Apshpa. July 14 to August 2, 1853. Forks of the Santa F6 road.-Coon creek: bad water.-Indian hunting grounds.-Dryness of the country.-Bois devache. Wolf in pursuit of a rabbit.-Return to the Arkansas river.-Comanche Indians.-Fort Atkinson.-Dryness of the Arkansas river at times.-Kioway camp.-Ilndian war party against the Pawnees.-Shaved-Head, a Comanche chief: his leave-taking. Captives among Indians.-Ascent from Pawnee Fork.-Grass of the country.-Bluffs and rolling prairie.-Islands in the river.-Ciminmaron route ford.-Line of proposed road from Fort Riley to this ford.-Sandy road.-Plains of the river bottom.-Scarcity of fuel.-Dull monotony of the Arkansas.-Winds.-Altitude above Fort Atkinson and distance from it: altitude above the Gulf of Mexico.-Unsuccessful sportsmen.-Prairie dogs in great numbers.-Incrustations of salt.-Iron ore.-Big Timber.-Bent's trading station.-Sandstone bluffs.-Scarcity of grass-Purgatory creek.-Bent's Fort.-Game. Fords.-Advantageous position for a military post.-Timpas creek.-Railroad route indicated.-Smoky atmosphere.-View of the Spanish peaks.-Artemisia.-Game.-Crossing the Arkansas at the mouth of the Apishpa.-The river easily bridged. Hills and bluffs.-Grades for thirty-four miles.-View of the mountains and peaks. July 14.-Five miles from camp the road forks, (we are still upon the Santa Fe road,) and one branch follows nearly the windings of the Arkansas, to secure grass and water, while the other appears to push off for a "short cut" and "dry route" to Fort Atkinson, near which they again unite on the Arkansas river; but this appearance is deceptive; for after going a few miles it abruptly turns southward, and follows but a few miles from, and parallel with, the other road, keeping it generally in sight, as it does also the trees and sand-hills upon the banks of the Arkansas river, and is, except in the rainy season, without good grass and badly watered. We followed the cut-off route, and having made 21 miles, searching diligently for the last five or six for water, yielded to our fortunes, and encamped on the headwaters of Coon creek, on buffalograss and buffalo-wallow water, where we are surrounded by immense herds of these animals, which afford us a happy relief from our salt meat diet. We passed the Sacs, Osages, and Kansas Indians, on the extreme verge of their territory at Pawnee fork; and here intervenes a tract of undefined dimensions, the Neutral or Hunting Ground, which separates them from their Comanche and Kioway neighbors. The buffalo are this season more than usually crowded on this tract, which causes the Indians to extend their camps to their extreme border creeks-an unmistakable evidence that the buffalo, hunted by all, is rapidly disappearing. The country rises gently on this route for ten miles, and then gradually descends to our present camp. The short, dry buffalo-grass alone grows over the whole surface of the country, with here and there a few scattered weeds and flowers; but nature has here lost all her freshness and sweetness, and at this season only wears a gray, sterile, and forbidding aspect. On this route we see no wood, which, for fuel, is supplied, in dry weather, by the bois de vache, which was in 1849 an article of important local traffic among the Zunfi Indians, in the western part of New Mexico, as I passed through their pueblo. A thunder-storm swept over us, and heavy showers of rain during the night prevented the use of the transit theodolite, which we had set up in the evening. July 15.-A fine badger was killed near camp this morning, but it was too much injured for preservation. Soon after leaving camp we were enlivened by the sight of a wolf in hot pursuit of a rabbit. It was an animating sight, which quite aroused the sympathy of the party, as the intended victim, panting with exertion, and straining every nerve for life, pursued by his rapacious enemy, snapping at him at almost every jump, crossed and re-crossed the road a few yards in front of us; but by his skilful angular turns he avoided these deadly bites until he had nearly

Page  25 INDIANS.-FORT ATKINSON. arrived at his burrow; but here the pursuer had posted an accomplice, and the rabbit was forced to make another long turn, which he accomplished successfully, darting into his burrow heartily cheered by the party, while his pursuers resumed their characteristic look of meanness, sneaking away to their covers. The day has been very sultry and cloudy, the scorching sun-rays, how ever, occasionally pouring down upon us oppressively. The country over which we rode is undu lating, the arid buffalo fields wearing the same uninteresting aspect as yesterday, unrelieved by a single tree, except on the distant banks of the Arkansas; and the water collected in pools is barely drinkable, either on the road or at our camp. Day's march, 18 miles. July 16.-A ride of 18 miles, over a country in all respects like that of yesterday, brought us to the Arkansas river, where we found two hundred and eighty lodges of Comanches encamped, their horses an(d mules in large droves grazing far and wide over the river bottom. Hosts of men, women, and children immediately surrounded us, as we passed their female sentinels, upon the bluff near the river. Some of their chief men accompanied us to camp, out of courtesy and respect to the party and government, liberal presents being expected in return. Camp was pitched a mile west of Fort Atkinson, where we found an abundance of grass, but were indebted to Major Chilton, 1st Dragoons, commanding at the fort, for a supply of fuel for cooking our bacon and coffee, the river bank here being even destitute of drift-wood for many miles above and below. The river is unusually high, being from one hundred and fifty to two hundred yards wide; and the Indians, in crossing it, are occasionally seen swimming; while two years ago, at this season, I am told by officers of the army and others who were then here, that it was necessary to dig in the bed of the river for water to drink. This sinking of the stream during low stages of water is not peculiar to the Arkansas, as is well known, and it is believed that water can be found always in abundance by digging in the bed of this stream. Opposite to our camp, on the southern bank of the river, the old men and the women and children of the Kioways are encamped, their warriors having joined the Cheyennes, the Arrapahoes, and the Jicarilla Apaches, with a few Comanches and others, in a war party, which it is boasted is to' wipe out the Pawnees." The Comanches are anxiously awaiting the arrival of Major Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, from whom they expect large presents, after having made a treaty. Our camp is constantly thronged with them, and though anxious to purchase horses, we have entirely failed in persuading them to sell us even a half-dozen. Shaved Head, with some of his principal men, paid us a visit just as Captain Gunnison and myself were dining. Blankets were spread for them in front of the Captain's tent, and they did ample justice to the fare spread before them-carrying off, as usual, what they could not eat at the time. After the usual amount of talk, smoking and ceremony, they took their leave, which, with Shaved Head the principal chief of the Comanches of the Plains-is a peculiar ceremony which he extends to all whom he esteems or deems of importance. He assumes an air of gravity and solemnity of features I have never seen equalled by more civilized performers, and taking you by the right hand, gives three shakes as slow and deliberate as the ti me to a fu neral dirge, pressing your hand with a firm grasp, and looking steadily in your eye; releasing your hand, he passess his arm through yours to the elbow, and thus facing in opposite directions he presses your arm firmly to his side; then the left arms perform the same measured fnctions; an d during the whole of this leave-taking he repeats, "bueno," "mucho bueno," wiuh a grave accent. Among those who came to camp we observed two or three Mexicans and others, who at some early period of their lives have been captured and are now slaves of these bands. Among them were a brother and sitter, of perhaps ten years of age, but I think much younger. These children are said to have been left destitute upon the Plains by the death of their parents, and to have been several years with these bands, who found them in their destitute condition and have since provided for their wants. However much our sympathy must be diminished by the knowledge that these children have not, from early childhood, perhaps, known the mild, gentle, and improving kindness and instruction of civilized parents and society, and that now they are little ess savage than their masters, it is not the less humiliating to see that the arm which this en 4g 25

Page  26 VALLEY OF THE ARKANSAS. lightened and powerful nation extends to redress such wrongs, and to protect its exposed citizens, is impotent. From Pawnee fork to this camp, 68 miles by our path, the ascent is 418 feet, or about six feet and two inches to the mile. By following the river the distance would be increased slightly, and the grade thereby diminished; or by taking a more direct line the distance would be lessened, slightly increasing the grade. Our camp is under a bluff of sedimentary pebbles, deposited in layers of a few inches in thickness, interspersed with a coarse sand, and the whole cemented into a single mass. A short distance above the fort a coarse limestone crops out. The short and fine, but rich and nutritious buffalo-grass covers the hills, while tall and rank grasses spread over the bottom on the river. July 19.-After remaining two days in camp to recruit our animals, make repairs, and procure necessary supplies, we this morning took leave of our hospitable friends at the, fort, and very reluctantly parted with two young gentlemen from St. Louis, Messrs. Collier and O'Fallon, who have accompanied us for several weeks on the Plains for the recreation and the sports of the chase. Four and a half miles above camp we ascended the bluff, and passed for two miles over a ridge, which extends to the river at a single point, where a road can easilv be cut in the aggregated pebbly deposit, by which the distance would be shortened, and the ascent of a hill of half a mile in length be avoided. These ridges which approach the river are of a whitish sand and clay, overlying the coarse friable sandstone of the bluffs. These bluffs are generally from one hundred yards to halt a mile back from the river, rising from ten to forty or fifty feet above it, and extending back in a high, dry, and uninteresting prairie, covered with a thick mat of buffalograss, too fine and short for grazing draught animals, but excellent grazing for sheep and buffalo. On the river bottom heavy grasses of the blue-joint and wheat kinds grow luxuriantly, mingled with various weeds and herbs. The stream is filled with low islands covered with grass an rushes, and nearly submerged. Seventeen miles from the fort there is a ford, sometimes used by trains and parties going to and from New Mexico by the Cimmaron route; but the principal fold for that route is eight miles above this t, and to reach it the road leaves the river bottom, passing over the high bluff or prairie land. We encamped about two miles above this ford on a fine field of bottom grass, which our horses eat with avidity. ilad it not been necessary for us to procure supplies at Fort Atkinson, we could harve arrived at this point by a shorter route than the one followed, if the appearance of the country and our recent Delaware guides, who have been frequently over it. may be relied upon, by folowing on and in the vicinity of Walnut creek and Pawnee fork, which rise to the north of our present camp, the latter at a distance of not more than five or seven miles. If this route is practicable-and there seems to be no reason to doubt itthe proposed road from the fort at the mouth of the hRepublican fork should follow it. But as a large portion, if not the whole of this route, was understood to have been examined by officers of the Topographical Corps, and already reported upon, Captain Gunnison did not deem it advisable to delay the mountain exploration to examine it. Jumly 20.- This was a cool morning, the clouds, which last night prevented astronomica observations, still lowering above the hills. The road was heavy for fourteen rmiiles with loose coarse sand, and we crossed a few beds which were deep, but of small] extent. Beyond: this, our road became firm for five miles to our camp. July 21.-The bottom here, as it is generally called, or land on the borders of the river below the bluffs, has two distinctly-definled plaiiis. The lower is sub~ject to overflow, but; is at presentt about eighteen inches above the water, which has, however. receded from it within tire last two or three wveeks. The second plain is dry, and about three feet above the first at the edge, rising slightly back to the low sloping iilts. On this the artemisia is now the characteristic plant, but we also observed two or three varieties of the helianthus, thistle, and geranium. Eleven miles from camp the river has cut away for a mile nearly the whole second bottom, back to the roiling plain. which on this part of the river is but slightly elevated, rising gently back fromn the bottom. On its southern bank the country is more than usually sandy. Resturnling 26

Page  27 VALLEY OF THE ARKANSAS. again to the bottom land, we encamped on the soft damp soil, after a march of twenty-two miles. Our men are obliged to cross to the islands and opposite bank of the river for fuel. With our tents pitched a few feet from the river, we enjoy the luxury of bathing. The river bed is very uneven, the whole of which is a shifting sand., Nothing can exceed the dull monotony of a journey along the Arkansas. Neither in the character of the country nor in any department of science, do we find a variety in a day's march of twenty miles. A gradual change is going on, however, of which we feel sensible; the vegetation of the rolling prairie being already parched and dry, and the earth of the hills is so compact and hard that it rings under our horses' feet, and it is often impossible to drive a tent-pin of wood into it. To-day, for the first time, we have felt the southeast wind, which travellers on this route have so often noticed in summer, and the remembrance of which is still agreeable to me; and to-day it is intermixed with hot, enervating gusts, which remind us of descriptions given of the winds of arid deserts. July 22.-The wind blew a gale during the night, and, flying clouds partially obscuring the sun, a fresh breeze made the morning march pleasant; but before noon the wind subsided, and the day became oppressively hot. We travelled all day on a fine road, crossing several dry beds of creeks, along which, here and there, might be seen a few scattered trees. We encamped, after a march of twenty-two miles, near the river, on a dry creek, where we found a few trees, and evidences of large Indian encampments of a very recent date. This point, eighty-nine miles from our camp near Fort Atkinson, is four hundred and seventy-two feet above it-an average ascent of five feet three inches to the mile. Altitude above the Gulf, 2,852 feet. July 23.-Our journey to-day of twenty-four miles has been on a barren plain, at the foot of the main plateau; and, although commenced with a cool, cloudy morning, was the most oppressive from heat we have yet experienced, which was greatly increased by the reflected rays of the sun fi om the smooth, clayey surface, almost bare; and for much of the distance quite destitute of vegetation, except a few scattered weeds and sun-flowers. Near our present camp we passed two dry creeks, on which there are a few scattered clumps of cotton-wood, with a few trees of large diameter, but crooked and short, with large, unsound branches. On the river banks, also, there is more than the usual amount of this timber, while the sand-hills on the southern bank come close in to the stream, and, like the rolling prairie hills to the north, increase in height. July 24.-Captain Gunnison made an unsuccessful effort to procure specimens of prairie dogs for preservation, by pouring water into their holes, in a village near camp; nor was he more successful in digging for them, as they easily eluded his search, (although he had a large number of men at work,) in their burrows, which are formed of numerous passages, which they extend rapidly when pursued beneath the surface of the ground. The amateur hunters of the camp were equally unsuccessful, and after scouring the neighborhood for game, returned to their coffee, bacon and bread, only with good appetites. July 25.-Yesterday we were oppressed with heat, and to-day, with the same clothing, should shiver with the cold. Prairie dogs, which are the most abundant live creatures along the road, are, to-day, torpid. The road followed the base of the hills from our last camp, at a distance of from one to three miles from the river. At fifteen miles from camp we found salt efflorescing on the surface of the ground, and salicornia growing abundantly on the bottom. At the base of the hills, which are here gentle and sloping, "in the tertiary drift, are cylinders and rounded nodules of iron ore, similar to those larger ones found on the Chugwater, at the base of the Black Hills." Day's travel, 2 1 miles. July 26.-The night was cool, with a slight fall of rain at daylight; and, although the thermometer in the early morning stood at 59C Fahrenheit, it was so material a change from 96~ in thirty-six hours, as to be uncomfortable. Seven miles from camp we reached what is called the Big Timber, a section of the river of about twenty-four miles in length, on the islands and banks of which more than the usual amount of cotton-wood grows. It deserved the name, however, 27

Page  28 BIG TIMBERS,-BENT' S FORT. only when compared with this river as I have described it a few days back. The trees are scattered over the bottom, in numbers, not unlike those of the new cotton-fields of Georgia and Alabama, with inviting shades; but they are not thick enough to obstruct the view, and the opposite bank of the river discovers the same dry hills as heretofore. Three miles of heavy sand, and six in the rain, over very slippery clay, added greatly to the labor of the day's travel, and we encamped at the end of twenty miles. In the afternoon the sun came out, but as yet we have had no glimpse of the mountains. Altitudes of Jupiter and Antares were obtained here for latitude; but the early hour of the day, and misty state of the atmosphere, prevented taking occultations or eclipses of Jupiter's satellites. July 27.-A dense fog hanging over the valley until 10 o'clock, concealed the sterile hills of the opposite side of the river, and, leaving in view only the line of timber as we rode near it, awakened remembrances of the beautiful forests which sometimes skirt the western prairies. A mile firom camp we passed two or three log-houses, occupied as a trading station by Mr. Wm. Bent, during the past winter, but now left vacant, and, as yet, undestroyed by the Indians. Here the bluff lands for a short distance come quite in to the river, and disclose sandstone in horizontal strata, of a reddish, argillaceous character, which we observed during the remainder of the day on both banks of the river. Thirteen miles brought us to the termination of the Big Timber, where the argillaceous sandstone hills again approach the river, and the road passes quite frequently over these small spurs. The bottom of the river at times quite disappeared, and was lightly covered with grass, or destitute of it entirely, after leaving the timber. Our camp is on a very coarse grass, under a sandstone escarpment, in a large meadow bottomby far the poorest camp we have yet made. Mr. Creutzfeldt found to-day the skin of a snake seven feet in length, which it had cast, leaving the eye and every scale perfect. July 28.-Three miles from camp we passed opposite to the mouth of Purgatory creek, an affluent to the Arkansas, and timber appeared more abundant upon it than upon the river, which it enters in quite a large bottom, which, from a distance, is apparently well wooded, and grass is abundant. We encainmped, after a march of fifteen miles, three miles below Bent's Fort. Latitude by meridian observation to-day, 38~ 03' 27". Mr. Homans, who has been suffering seriously from being poisoned with ivy, has very nearly recovered. He was too ill for many days to mount his horse, and could only ride in a carriage with the greatest difficulty. Deer, antelope and turkeys were seen along the river to-day, and near camp a cow was found which had been abandoned by its owners, her feet being too sore to travel. Our elevation at this camp is 3,671 feet above the Gulf, and our average ascent for the last 105 miles, from our camp of the 22d, has been 7 43- feet to the mile. Jiuy 29.-Between camp and Bent's Fort, grass was very abundant. We spent an hour in examining the river at the fort for a practicable ford, but the excellent one which formerly existed here it was found impracticable to cross, in the present stage of the water. Mr. Bent abandoned his fort about four years ago, but not until he had destroyed it. Its adobe walls still stand in part only, with here and there a tower and chimney. Here, beyond all question, would be one of the most favorable points for a military post which is anywhere presented on the Plains. There is an abundance of pasturage, fuel, and building material in the neighborhood, for the use and building of the post. It is of easy access from its central position, fiom the east, from Santa Fe, from Taos through the Sangre de Cristo Pass, and from Fort Laramie. It is on an emigrant road fromn southern Missouri and Arkansas, either by the North Park or Coochetopa Pass; and it is in the heart of the Indian country, accessible to the resorts of the Comanches, Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kioways, some bands of Apaches, and even occasionally of the Utahs of New Mexico. We moved on at half-past 8 o'clock and encamped, having marched twenty-four miles, on rniserable grass-not being able, after hours of searching, to find better. Indeed, during the day, after leaving the fort, we saw no good grass for this country even, on cither bank of the 28

Page  29 CROSSING THE ARKANSAS. river. A few miles above the fort we passed the mouth of-Timpas creek, marked on the southern bank by a break in the hills and a tree or two only. It is small and often dry, or nearly so. Most of the day the road led over the higher land, which is here considerably broken. "Still it is easy to grade a railroad along the edge of the bottom." "On the southern side of the river a broader flat is seen, which, in the event of a railroad being made here, should be its site, crossing the river a few miles above Bent's Fort, and passing over the angle between the Huerfano and the Arkansas rivers." The atmosphere for many days has been so cloudy that we have seldom had a distant view; and for the last two or three, smoke has quite obscured the whole country, so that we could see but a very few miles. A small opening in the clouds and smoke, however, an hour ago, gave us a first but not very distinct view of the Spanish peaks, bearing nearly southwest; but it was only a momentary view, and we were again left to gaze on barrenness and a circumscribed horizon. The bluffs above the fort, for several miles, are underlaid by nearly horizontal strata of a whitish, argillaceous, friable sandstone, which crumbles easily; the whole base of the hill being covered upwards for several feet with fallen fragments. Our camp is in the midst of fields of artemisia of several varieties, the principal of which are known as sage and greasewood; and, to add to our discomfort, it began to rain at sundown, softening the clay and rendering it so slippery as to make walking very uncomfortable. July 30.-To give time for the rain of last night to dry up to some extent, our departure was delayed an hour, which Captain Gunnison and myself, with a number of men, spent in search of a ford, but without any favorable result, the depth of water and rapidity of the current being too great, although the bed of the river was firm, being of water-worn stones of a small size. Our route again followed the high prairie for seven miles, and then descended to the river bottom, where we soon came to fine fields of coarse grass; but we were anxious to reach the Huerfano, that astronomical observations might be taken while we found the means of recruiting our animals and of crossing the Arkansas. According to the maps we had with us, and in the opinion of several men of the party who had passed here before, the Huerfano was believed to Be already in sight, and, after ascending two or three high hills ill the vicinity and obtaining a distant view of a broken line of trees in the direction in which this stream was believed to be, we turned in towards the river and encamped after travelling only eleven miles. A few deer were frightened from the coarse, rank grass as we entered it near the river, but, as usual, they escaped ollr marksmen. Captain Gunnison, whom I accompanied, went in search of the mouth of the river, which we found in a bend of the Arkansas immediately south of the camp, and of a ford by which to cross the latter stream: in this, however, we were unsuccessful, and it was not until the following day that Captain Gunnison found one, on the northern bend of the river, half a mile west of our camp. The river at this point was 300 yards wide, varying in depth from one to three feet, with a strong current and sandy bed. The 31st of July was passed in camp, and on the following morning the banks of the river were cut down, and Captain Morris' wagons, with large wheels and broad tires, crossed successfully. The remainder of the wagons were not so favorably constructed for crossing fords, and Captain Gunnison, deeming it unsafe to attempt to cross them with their loads, built a raft of logs at a point on the river where it was fifty yards in width, a short distance above the ford. It was only by the greatest labor and difficulty that a rope could be carried across the stream, the current of which was very rapid at this point, but was accomplished, after one or two failures, by ascending the stream some distance and stationing men at short intervals along the rope, who entered the water in succession; the leading man pushing rapidly for the opposite shore, which he was barely able to reach, securing the rope by the aid of a man stationed there to assist him. One of the men —the second in his desire and determination to succeed in crossing successfully, had lashed the rope with his handkerchief to his arm, from which he narrowly escaped a serious accident as his companions dropped the rope, the current sweeping him under with such force as to deprive him of all power in his bound arm; but he was rescued by the leading man returning to his 29

Page  30 ASCENDING GRADES. assistance. The raft once in successful operation, lightened the wagons of half their loads or more, which were safely landed on the opposite bank at sundown, and the wagons thus laden were crossed at the ford before the twilight rendered it unsafe. The Arkansas could be easily bridged at the point where this raft was operated, the banks being several feet above high water in times of freshets, and approaching unusually near each other. Opposite to our camp of July 30th, and to the east of the stream which here enters the Arkansas from the south, are three hills, two conical and one oblong, rising some 250 feet above the river, and 100 above the general level, distinguishing land-marks for the stranger. The bluffs to the northwest of that camp rise still higher above the adjacent hills. Our average ascent for the last thirty-four miles, has been twenty feet and seven inches per mile. August 1.-We were gratified this evening by a clear and beautiful view of the Spanish peaks and of the Greenhorn mountains, with others just rising above the horizon to the north and south. From the summit of the bluffs on the north bank of the river, James' peak is distinctly seen; and upon all the high ranges the snow is visible, accounting for the high water in the streams which rise in them. 30

Page  31 CHAPTER III. From the mouth of the Aph5pa, via the Sangre de Ci5sto, to Rouideau's Pa. August 2 to 25, 1853. Valley of the Apishpa.-Rocks and soil of the hills and valley.-Small canon -Examination of the canon.-Indian writings. Cacti.-Small pines.-Route of the wagon train.-Rocks and grass.-Game.-Appearance of the mountains.-Fossils. Flowers. Wild horses.-Timber on the Arkansas in sight.-Rains, dews, winds.-Course of the Apishpa, and broken character of the country.-Discovered that we were not on the Huerfano.-Road to Raton Pass.-Cuchara river.-Fine view.-Trip to the Greenhorn settlement.-Clay and shale banks of the Cuchara.-Dog towns.-Wild horses.-Huerfano river and butte.-Huerfano canon -Apache creek.-Trail from Taos.-Trader's camp.-Granaros.-Greenhorn settlement: its population and productions -Massalino, the guide.-Sleeping apartments in Greenhorn.-Huerfano butte.-Direct line from the Arkansas to the upper Huerfano, leaving the former above the mouth of the Apishpa: its railroad character. Size of the Huerfano river.-Soil.-Building-stone.-Ascent of the Huerfano.-Taos trail, via E1 Sangre de Cristo Pass. Approach to the Sangre de Cristo Pass.-Sand and limestone. Railroad route.-Timber.-Flowers.-Game —Difficulties in the approach.-The passage of the Sangre de Cristo Pass.-Scenery.-Game.-Distances, altitudes, grades.-Railroad line through the pass and its western descent to Fort Massachusetts. Examination of the mountains to the south of the Span ish peaks.-Hunters from Taos.-Snow in and about the Sangre de Cristo Pass.-Trip to Taos.-San Luis valley: its streams and settlements.-lndian signals and robbery.-Red river of the Rio Grande del Norte.-Valley of Taos: its settlements and cultivation -Return to Fort Massachusetts.-Antoine Leroux, guide.-Men discharged.-Mr. Taplin. —Vhite Mountain sprg.-Sage in San Luis valley.-Roubideau' Pass: its rocks, character, grades, elevation.-San Luis valley, and mount ain chains enclosing it. Augu?st 2.-Our route, following the creek, lay up a plain valley for five miles, ascending more rapidly than that of the Arkansas; then for 8- miles about the same, with a far wider and better grassed plain than on that river. There are no bottom lands on this stream, which flows in a deep, narrow passage, with precipitous banks, cut in the argillaceous soil of the plain. Such water channels, with steep earthy banks, are styled arroyos by the New Mexicans, in contradistinction to canones, which are walled with rocks. At a few yards distance in the plain, one would not here expect to find water, even though acquainted with the character of the country, much less a cool mountain stream. The banks, twenty feet in depth, are green with grass, the arroyo at top being twenty-five or thirty feet in width; but we only found one point during the day's march at which we could descend to the water, which is at a point where the plain is underlaid by a stratum of shale. This creek, in this part of its course, hugs the base of a line of hills sloping down from the east; the valley at our camp being about a mile in width, sweeping up gently to the west and southwest for several miles, where it appears terminated by elevated hills. Thermometer in the shade during the warmest part of the day, 104~ Fahrenheit.' August 3.-The survey was continued along the valley of the creek, rising gradually for 2~ miles over a gentle swell, extending n towards the stream, to a nearly level prairie, from two to three miles in width, extending for nine miles in a course S. 23~ W. We encamped at the mouth of a small canon on the creek at the foot of the hills terminating this plain. The party being without a guide, it was found necessary very ofien to make distant excursions to the summits of the most elevated bluffs and hills, from which extensive views could be obtained and the courses of the streams and main depressions of the country followed by the eye. These bluffs and hills passed to-day, as also the banks of dry ravines and creeks, were sometimes composed of a red sandstone and of strata of shale, and at others of a sandstone of a yellowish shade, fiom the disintegrations of which the soil of the hills and valley is formed, being light and fiable, in which the fell)es of the wagon wheels sink deep and cast up clouds of dust, from the pungency of which we judged the cement of the sandstone to be carbonate of lime.

Page  32 VALLEY OF THE APISHPA. August 4.-Captain Gunnison, with a small escort, proceeded to examine the cafion this morning. He found the water at its mouth running over a sandstone ledge for 500 feet, with falls of 11 feet, occurring at pretty regular distances of about 100 feet. "This," he remarks, "' is the first sound which has given me notice of a water-fall since leaving the mountains in New York." Above this he entered a gorge, in which the current is sluggish, running in a deep gully, which he followed for a mile, coming to a high perpendicular escarp ment of rocks on the right, on which are numerous hieroglyphics or Indian writings, "which appear to have been made at various times, but are mostly of a recent date." A mnile and a half from this inscribed rock, large masses of fallen rocks blocked up the way, or bench, six feet in width on one side of the creek, the bed of which is fifty feet below with nearly perpendicular banks; the passage on the opposite side was even worse than this a few yards above, the creek washing under the bluff, preventing the passage of horse or footman. The rocks are soft sandstone, easily cut. He then ascended to the second table, or inclined bench, which he found covered with broken fragments of prismatic stones with sharp edges; the crevices and open parts of the rocks were filled with gigantic cacti, some of which were five feet in height, with lobes in whorls around the main stem, the branches themselves standing off like radii from the centre of a circle. They had flowered and, the corolla having fallen, had left the top like a small cup. Ascending eighty feet above this table, "we came to some pines of a stunted growth, but a few of them a foot in diameter. They are of the three-leaved or pitch-pine species of the east. Dwarf cedar also growsin these rocky precipices." "Near this point a canon comes in from the south, extending several mniles to some high lands. Above this the canon of the main creek widens, and could be followed by wagons, but would require working at various points. In following along the canfon, or near it, several rocky gullies were passed, and were followed by cafiones perpendicular in their course to that of the creek, with sides nearly one hundred feet in height. The main course of one of them was slightly north of west, towards the Greenhorn mountains, for six miles; then diminishing in size, spread out into several smaller ones." Following this cafion, Captain Gunnison came upon the trail of the wagons, and soon after arrived at camp. In the mean time the remainder of the party, with the wagon train, finding it impossible to follow the course of the creek, in consequence of the si(le cafiones and deep chasms, with abrupt and often vertical walls, of fifty and a hundred feet in height, had followed up one of them by a long up-hilf march, turning ravines, first in one direction and then in another, until we at length came to a practicable pass over the first canfon, where we resumed our course for the creek, but were alnost immediately intercepted by another no less formidable canfon, up which we followed until we were fortunate enough to find water remaining in pools from a recent shower, and also a not difficult crossing to the canon. We encamped here, having travelled but fifteen miles; but as we were without a guide, and had not been able to get water for our animals during the march, it was necessary to halt, not knowing where we should again meet with it. We have all day passed limited but luxuriant fields of grass in the canones; grass is also finely scattered over the hills. The rocks of the hills and canfones are red sandstone. We have been forced, in searching for a passage, nearly to the summit of the divide between thf waters of the creek at our morning camp, and of the Arkansas river; and it is becoming more than doubtful if we are not following some other than the Huerfano river. I rode forward several miles before dismounting to ascertain something of the nature of the country, and the proper direction for the following march, and returned to camp through large herds of antelope. August 5.-We pursued our course to-day, from the observations made after our arrival in camp yesterday, without difficulty. Passing the head of several dry canl ones, and branches of them to the south, we descended, about three miles from camp, into a broad valley, in which are standing two yellow sandstone buttes on a base of soft shale, some hundred feet in height above the surrounding country. I- ascended one of these with considerable difficulty to its narrow summit, and obtained an extensive view of the adjacent country. From one side of this butte 32

Page  33 FROM THE APISIIPA TO THIE CUCHARA. the water descends in a broad valley to the south, and from the others it runs off to the west and north, to branches of the Arkansas; and we were evidently on the divide between these streams where their side valleys meet, and their lateral and perpendicular caiones necessarily terminate. In every direction were bluffs and knobs, and ledges of rocks whose sides and tops were covered with the short, crooked, wide-spreading cedar of'the country, with here and there a stunted pine. Grass was everywhere abundant, and game in every hollow and valley, and, save the light, argillaceous soil and want of water, our course was evidently easy for the day. The mountains before us looked grand and formidable, our proximity and elevation for the first time giving us a fair and full view of them from their summnits, streaked with drifts of snow, to their base. The summit of this butte, however, so swarmed with winged ants that I was driven from it in haste, literally covered with them, and it seemed their especial delight to get into my eyes, either on foot or by the wing. A few fossils were hastily gathered from it. A few yards from its base a fine field of flowers tempted my curiosity, and searching for the finest cluster, I rode to it, and stooped from my horse to gather it, when the warning rattle of a large snake coiled under it caused me to withdraw my hand from danger in time, and, selecting other flowers, I left him undisturbed in his flowery retreat. A few wild horses coursed around us, and excited the spirits of our horsemen, but it was not deemed prudent to break down good horses in their pursuit for the chances of capturing wild ones, and they were left unmolested to pursue their course, and enjoy their natural freedom. The timber on the Arkansas was visible during some part of the morning march, and it was evident that the route we had pursued was not the proper one for a road after crossing that river, as this point can be easily reached, if necessary, by a nearly direct course from that crossing. In our search for water, Captain Morris and myself ascended a small butte, and discovered pools with large herds of antelope and a few deer feeding near them, a short distance to the west; and through an opening in the hills, a few miles to the W. N. W., were seen the green leaves of the cottonwood. Leaving the party to encamp at the pools, we proceeded at once to the cotton-wood and found, as we anticipated, a fine stream, larger than that we had been attempting to explore; and it was at once evident, from the position and course of this, and the great southern bend of the former that it could not be the Huerfano. During this ride we were drenched with a heavy shower, the third which we. who travelled by the Santa Fe road to Walnut creek, have actually encountered on this long journey, although we have been every day in sight of them, and often surrounded by thunder-showers within a stone's throw. The dews, which are said generally to be uncommon west of Walnut creek, have been as heavy and constant with us this year, west as east of that creek. This, I think it not improbable, may be accounted for by the almost entire absence this season, on this route, of the prevalent southeasterly winds of the day, which are changed to westerly winds at night; for we have seldom enjoyed a pleasant breeze at any time on this march to this point; and I remarked in crossing from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe in 1849, that the dews were regulated almost entirely by the prevalence or absence of winds at night. Sinlce leaving the Arkansas river we have seen nothing of flies and mosquitoes) which were there a severe daily and nightly torment to men and animals. Captain Gunnison, with a small party, left camp early in the morning to continue the exploration of the canjon of the main creek; but after riding in anearly southern course over acountry intersected bycaijones, ravines and rocky cliffs, rejoined us at a late hour in the evening, not having succeeded in reaching the Apishpa, which we afterwards learned was the name of the stream we had been following. It rises to the south of the Spanish Peaks, and is not unfrequently dry; indeed no water entered the Arkansas. from it a few days after we passed it. August 6.-After travelling two miles in the direction of the Spanish Peaks, we were obliged to cut timber and fill up a small branch over which we crossed, and bearing thence more to the west, struck a wagon trail leading from the Raton Pass to the Pueblo on the Arkansas river, arid Fort Laramie on the Platte. This we followed to the Cuchara, which is forty feet wide and -two} 5g 33

Page  34 VISIT TO TlIE GREENHORN SETTLEMENT. deep at the ford which we crossed. Encamping two miles above the ford, Captain Gunniso ascended a neighboring butte, and thus describes the view: "Pike's Peak to the north, the Spanish Peaks to the south, the Sierra Mojada to the west, and the plains from the Arkansas-undulating with hills along the route we have come, but sweeping up in a gentle rise where we should have come-with the valleys of the Cuchara and Huerfano,, make the finest prospect it has ever fallen to my lot to have seen." Accompanied by five men, I started at an early hour of the morning in search of the Greenhorn settlement, on a stream of the same name rising in a range of mountains to the east of the Wet river valley, to obtain information of the country, and, if possible, procure a guide well acquainted with it and with the mountain passes we were about to explore. Our course from camp was W. N. W., in a direct line for the Wet mountains, crossing the Cuchara at the point at which we had visited it the previous evening. The banks were here vertical walls of clay, twenty feet in depth, resting on a stratum of shale. We descended through a break in the bank, and following the bed of the stream for some distance, ascended the opposite bank through a similar opening. The borders of the river are here entirely destitute of grass. A few miles below us, plainly in sight, the river enters a canon; the hills about it, and an unusual extent of rolling country, being covered with a thick growth of low cedar. On the table-land beyond this river we passed innumerable prairie-dog towns, herds of deer and antelope, and several bands of beautiful wild horses, which came circling round us in all the pride of their native freedom, at a distance of fifty or eighty yards, and at the report of a rifle dashing wildly away over prairie, hill, and valley, ( xciting our admiration. On this tableland we also passed basins of rain-water some hundreds of yards in diameter, which in dry seasons are themselves doubtless dry. Ten miles from the Cuch,tra we descended from the table-land to the valley of a stream evidently rising ill the position laid down on some maps for the Huerfano, and on whose southern bank we had an hour before had a fine view of an isolated butte in its bottom-a feature of this valley marked and unmistakable. It is from this butte, from it~ isolation known as the Huerfano or Orphan butte, that this river derives its name. This stream we crossed as we had the Cuchara; its volume of water being less than that of the latter stream, and its clay banks, overlying the shale of the bed, of less height. The Huerfano between this point and the head of its canon, seen a few miles distant to the east, and which is said to be the longest in this part of the country, has but little timber on its banks. The Cuchara enters the Huerfano in this long canon, and the river for eighteen miles between the mouth of its canon and the Arkansas, it is said, has a large border of cotton-wood. We next came to the Apache creek, whose sources in the Wet mountains had been visible during our morningride It is a small mountain stream, with water at this time only in pools. Willow, plum, thorn, and cherry bushes, with a few cotton-wood trees, grow densely thick on its borders, and we were detained an hour in making a passage through them. Beyond this creek we entered upon a wide open valley of weeds, p ickly-pears, and sand, and I changed my course a little more to tile north, hoping to strike the trail from Taos to the Greenhorn pear the base of the mountains, which we reached after a ride of four miles, finding the trail as anticipated. Following this trail we rose over a hill and descended into a rough narrow ravine, which we followed in a northeast direction for a mile and a half, and then passed over a high ridge-a spur of the Wet mountainscovered with oak bushes, to another ravine, on the sides of which we were gladdened by the sight of a herd of cattle and horses feeding, and were soon in the camp of a trader from New Mexico returning from Fort Laramie. From him we learned that the two streams and ravines are called the Granaros, by the Spaniards. Passing over another sharp ridge, we descended in two mniles to the fine little valley of the Greenhorn, a stream of two feet in width and three or four inches in depth, which is now entirely diverted fiom its natural channel and employed in irrigating the lands of the six New Mexican families who reside at and constitute the present population of the place. They plant a few acres of corn and of wheat, of beans and of water-melons-in all, an area equal to that of the farm of a small eastern farmer, who cultivates his own fields. Two hun 34

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Page  35 HUERFANO BUTTE. dred fanegas of wheat and fifty of corn, with the requisite amount of beans and melons, constitute the largest total crop of this valley. They have a few cattle and horses-the latter very poor. The houses are built of adobe or sun-dried brick, without windows or other openings than a single door, in entering which a man of six feet in stature must bow very low. In front of each house is enclosed a small space of ground, twenty yards in width, by poles planted in the earth and lashed to horizontal strips by rawhide thongs. These picketed yards are intended as a protection against Indians-the Utahs having killed some of their cattle last year, destroyed their grain, and stolen their horses. Corrals are attached to the backs of their houses, built in all respects like the front enclosures. With one exception all the houses of this settlement are joined, and a tall man can reach to the roof, on which the whole population, not absent in the fields, assembled on the approach of ly party, not knowing whether to expect fiiends or foes. I enjoyed the hospitality of the smaller mnansion, being invited to a seat on the only article of furniture in the room, a bench against the wall, spread with a blanket and furnished with a pillow. On the earthen floor, at the sides of the room, were two or three narrow beds on wool mattresses. I soon found the guide I wanted, and engaged his services hence to Fort Massachusetts, in the San Luis valley of New Mexico. Massalino is, by birth, of the Spanish New Mexican race, of about forty-five years of age; and having spent it entire in the wild life of a mountaineer-by turns a hunter, a trapper, a trader, a voyageur, a fighter, a farmer, and a guide-he is familiar with the country westward to the Pacific. Last year he lived at this place with his Pawnee squaw; but his losses by the Utahs were considerable, and he removed to the Pueblo, on the Arkansas, where he is, with his family, the sole occupant of the place. He planted a little corn there, but the high water of the river destroyed it, and he has no crop now growing. "I have lived nine years on meat alone, at one time," said he, "in these mountains, without tasting bread or salt; and I can now live well enough for me with coffee and the little meat I can kil." He is reputed a fine hunter. " I never see a grizzly bear but I give him a shot. I try to hit in the right spot; but if I miss it, I have to run. We will have," alluding to our trip, "a fine chance for fun;" and his dark liquid eyes flashed as he looked towards the mountains, and visions of his grizzly friends appeared to his imagination. But few men of experience are bold enough to attempt to shoot these animals unless accompanied by a friend well armed. The mistress of the house very courteously inquired where I would have my bed prepared, which I preferred leaving to her own convenience. I should, however, have been a little surprised, had this been my first visit to a New Mexican residence, at the place selected-in the yard, just in front of the door, under the broad, bright, blue canopy of heaven, brilliant with stars. I enjoyed the matronly grace and dignity of the mistress as she brought forth the pallet and spread the necessary blankets to exclude the chilly night winds from the mountains. There, too, were spread the beds for the family, the open air being preferred to the house during pleasant weather. I could, of course, procure no supplies at this place at this season of the year. Au,gust 7.-I returned this morning by a route somewhat to the west of that followed yesterday; and after passing the Granaros, crossed the Huerfano at the butte, and soon after reached camp, which had remained on the Cuchara. August 8.-We crossed immediately over to the iluerfano butte by the route which I had followed the previous day. This butte is one hundred and fifty teet in height, as determined by Mr. Homans, standing in the river bottom quite detached fiom the adjacent hills. Its diameter at the base is equal to twice its altitude, sloping up to its summit, which is about twenty-five by forty feet across. Its base is strewn around with prismatical blocks of granite rocks, of from one to six feet across, and its surface is also covered waith these prisms, which are very dark-containing iron, perhaps, as a coloring matter. A narrow way, leading over the summit from the southeast, is nearly destitute of these rocks, on either side of which they are arranged in regular order, presenting a trap-like appearance. Latitude of this butte, 37~ 45! 04". Captain Gunnison remarks in) his journal, that our line of travel since leaving the Arkansas should not be followed; "but, 35

Page  36 APPROACH TO EL SANGRE DE CRISTO PASS. striking up a valley or plain ten miles from the mouth of the Apishpa, in a course for the Spanish Peaks, cross the Cuchara near our camp of August 5th, and continue over to the Huerfuno, which gives a direct line of travel on a fine plain. But if we undertake to ascend the Apishpa, or the Huerfano, by following their valleys, we meet with canones on the former, as we have described, and on the latter, as we are informed, eighteen miles above its junction with the Arkansas. And the whole country having been under our eye as we travelled on the higher land to the south of this indicated route, we can say that no obstruction of any magnitude exists, thus far, to the successful construction of a railroad." August 9.-The river here is eighteen feet wide, by one deep, with a rapid current. The soil is light, but would produce, if irrigated, fine crops. Stone of a superior quality for bridges and building purposes may be readily had. We moved up the river for several miles on its southern bank, and then crossed to the north side, and a mile above recrossed by the ford on the Taos trail to the southern shore, but only to recross again and again, five or six times, the river here coming through a narrow passage formed by the Greenhorn mountains, or Sierra Mojada, on the north, and spurs from the Sierra Blanca on the south, of some six hundred feet in width in its narrowest part, but still good for a wagon or a rail road, with a little labor. The Taos trail of which I have spoken leaves the river at this gorge, leading directly to El Sangre de Cristo Pass. Captain Gunnison finding a better route, however, kept up the river, encamping on its northern bank, where the hills are covered by small cedars and pines. Day's march, 14.54 miles. August 10.-We crossed the Huerfano this morning, and pursued a fine valley between two spurs from the main chain of the Sierra Blanca, luxuriant with grass, from one-half to one mile in width, to the base of the mountains five miles to the south; and then turned east by a low depression into an adjacent valley, and encamped at its head, as it began to rain, after a march of seven miles. Narrow ridges of sand and limestone of considerable height, covered with wide branching cedars, suitable only for fuel, and a few dwarfed pines, extend from the base of the mountains north to the Huerfano, along the summits of which a road could easily be constructed, diminishing the ascent to the pass. Ours was to-day literally a pathway of flowers, among which the helianthus, a verbena, a lupine, and the blue flowering flax, were brilliant and showy. Magpies flew around us, but escaped our shots uninjured. Bears were seen on the HIuerfano and our hunters supplied us abundantly with venison. Autgust 11.-We left the valley of our camp by ascending a giant mountain spur, along the top of which we followed to the south for some distance, ascending as we approached the main mountain, and then descended into the next eastern ravine or valley, through which flows a little rill entering the Huerfano at the gorge which we passed two days ago. This descent was difficult, and so sideling that we were obliged to hold the wagons by hand-ropes to prevent their being overturned. By following the rivulet from the river this difficulty would be avoided. We ascended it for some distance through waving fields of grass quite up to our saddle-girths; and, cutting a road for a short distance through a forest of quaking-asp as we turned to our left, encamped, in a shower of rain, amidst luxuriant fields of blue grass (of the mountain men) and flowers. Quaking-asp covers the mountains around us, interspersed with small pines. Fire, however, swept over these mountains two years ago, destroying much of the tiniber. Sandstone, an impure limestone, and porphyritic rocks, are among the most common of this part of the mountains. Distance marched, 5.12 miles. August 12.-A working party was engaged during yesterday afternoon in opening a road through the forest to the summit of the pass, and much of to-day has been spent in the same manner and in working on the opposite side-hill, along which it is necessary to descend from the pass. The teams, too, were engaged all day in making the ascent as the road advanced, and at dark the most of them had reached the summit, and a few had descended to E1 Sangre de Cristo creek; and all were obliged to encamp where night overtook them, on a line of two or three miles, on the summit and either side of the pass. The examination of the various 36

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Page  37 EL SANGRE DE CRISTO PASS. depressions in the mountains also went on to-day, to ascertain their elevations and practicability for roads. The scenery around us is very fine-the views from various points extending far back over the plains, buttes, ridges, and streams, on which we have for so many days laboriously pursued our march. The bold, rocky mountain pealks tower loftily above us-whi tened here and there with lines of snow-around which, at mid-day, dark masses of clouds gather and the lightning plays, while torrents of rain pour down their sides with irresistible fury. The mountain valleys are small, but unsurpassed in luxuriant grass; and the mountain sides are plentifully supplied with aspen and small pine, and all around us, and under our feet, covered with exquisitely beautiful flowers. Here, too, the geologist finds an interesting field, and sports men's spirits are excited by grouse and pheasants, deer and grizzly bear, in every valley and glen, and the streams are alive with the finest mountain trout. August 13.-The labor of crossing the ridge was completed this morning, and just in advance of the 1 o'clock shower we encamped in, but near; the head of the southern descent of the pass, on the Sangre de Cristo, which is a small stream of clear, cold water, in a beautiful little park or valley. The labor of crossing this summit has been very considerable, which is partly owing, however, to the rarified atmosphere at so great an elevation. Both men and animals were soon exhausted and obliged constantly to stop and rest, where at a lower altitude no rest would have been required. Our teams were all doubled, without being then able to do the ordinary work of a single one, and the strongest men sat down out of breath after a few moments' exertion. Astronomical observations gave us for the latitude of this camp, which is 2 miles from the summit passed by the wagons, 37~ 36' 52" N. From the Arkansas river, at the mouth of the Apishpa, it is eighty miles by the route we travelled to the Huerfano butte; but this distance is at least one-fourth greater than is necessary in the construction of a railroad between these points. Taking the shorter distance our ascent was 28 feet 10 inches, in whole numbers, to the mile, the elevation of the butte being 6,099 feet above the sea. We ascended the Huerfano river 14A miles above this point, ascending nearly 52 feet 10 inc(hes per mile. The ascent during the first day's march from the Huerfano river to the base of the Sierra Blanca, 7.59 miles, was 603 feet, or 79 feet 5 inches per mile. On the following day we advanced 5.12 miles, ascending in that distance 1,289 feet, or over 251 feet per mile; and from thence to the summit of E1 Sangre de Cristo Pass, seven tenths of a mile, the ascent was 647 feet, developing a line entirely itmpracticable for a railroad. But the Huerfano river, west of the gorge through which we passed on the 9th instant, drains a large circular amphitheatre, surrounded on the north, west, and south, and partly on the east, by elevated mountain ranges, with large, irregular spurs extending into this valley, and sending down numerous tributaries to the river. Twelve miles above this gorge stands the Black butte, an immense mass of rocks with irregular points shooting up 100 and 200 feet. Here comes in a fine stream from the northwest, two miles beyond which another enters from the west from near Williams' Pass. At this point the HIuerfano, whose genera] course from the gorge is N. 70~ W., bends towards Roubideau's Pass on a curve for some three miles, where it receives the waters of Gunnison's5 creek, a small stream from the south, but which towards its source descends more from the east. This little creek continues the curve, until it reaches the point whence it issues from the mountains at the foot of the declining uidge, near which, but on the opposite side, our wagons passed, at the head of a small valley on leaving the Hluerfano. Following this stream above this point, it is, by chain, five and one-fourth miles to the summit, the water descending on an inclined plane without falls, with an equable, swift current. Four miles and a half from the summit the creek flows through a narrow passage in the rocks, which slope up to the top at a small angle from the vertical, the width at bottom being one hundred and fifty feet, affording abundant room for the stream and a road. Above this gorge or canon there is a small park, such as are found on the heads of many of the-streams in this part of the country, abounding in deer, elk, and bear, and affording luxuriant pasturage for thousands of head of cattle: indeed, few more inviting spots for 87

Page  38 EL S.kNGRE DE CRISTO PASS. grazing can anywhere be found. Two miles and a half from the summit is Turret rock, a pillowlike cone of stone, divided in the centre from the apex, with one face a plane, against the base of which the stream strikes and is deflected a little to the left. Above this, numerous small streams join the main one from the southeast, and that from the summit descends at the foot of the grassy slopes which extend up to the base of the crowning peaks.of the Sierra Blanca. A railroad or any judiciously chosen wagon road would cross the summit-level near the base of these peaks, and, taking advantage of the winding slopes, pass down the right of the creek to Turret rock, to where the park becomes a gorge, and thence be confined to the little valley, from one hundred and fifty to three hundred feet in width, where it could be constructed along the foot of the hills with great ease, and issue with the stream from the mountains upon a broader valley, and, swinging around the base of the hills that set off from the great mountain masses reaching to within a short distance of the Huerfano river, pass through the gorge of that stream, and, taking choice of the great Plains, to and( along the Arkansas and Kansas rivers to the Missouri. The supposed distance (f)r it was not measured) from our last camp, of August 9, on the Huerfano, to the summit of the Sargre de Cristo Pass, by the circuit just indicated, is from twenty-four to twenty-six miles, and the ascent to be overcome, two thousand three hundred and fifty-four feet-an average of ninety-eight feet and one inch to the mile for twenty-four miles, or of ninety feet six inches per mile for the longer distance. On the 13th of August the day was bright and clear, and the mean of five hourly barometrical observations gave us an altitude for this pass, above the sea, of nine thousand two hundred and nineteen feet, which 1 have used in the estimated elevation to be overcome. "A single grade," says Captain Gunnison, from whose notes I have derived the data for the description of this pass, "could easily be carried from the summit to the gorge of the Huerfano river; but two, one along Gunnison's creek and one on the river, would probably be preferable. Spruce-pine in abundance is at hand on the mountain sides, to supply ties for hundreds of miles of railroad, especiallyifthat which the great fire of 1851 swept over and left standing, killed and blackened, be not left to decay." The small stream called El Sangre de Cristo rises near the summit of the pass, and runs in a general southwestern direction to the valley of San Luis. The valley of this stream is narrow, the stream being lined with thickets of willow bushes, and, winding from side to side, impinges against the base of the hills, forcing us frequently to cross it, or, where it was practicable, to pass over the foot of the hills. The labor of preparing the road for twelve miles was considerable, employing a large force, of which Captain Morris took charge, for f)ur days. We descended from the summit of the pass during the first mile and three-fourths, 178Sfeet, or about 101 feet per mile; and 549 feet in the next 5.34 miles, or nearly 103 feet per mile. Six miles from this point we left the Sangre de Cristo, and rose to a plain extending along the base of the mountain spurs,'which we followed for 4.57 niles, encamping on Utah creek, a short distance below Fort Massachusetts, having descended during the march of 10.57 miles, one hundred and twenty-seven feet, or about twelve feet per mile. By desc, ding from the summit of the pass along the side of the mountains on the right of the Sangrt,e Cristo, a railroad can be constructed throwing a larger proportion of the descent upon the lower part, where it should curve around a mass of low hills in a bend of the mountains, to the plain just indicated, which subsides gently into the valley of San Luis in the direction of the Coochetopa Pass. The entire descent from the summit of Sangre de Cristo Pass to our present camp, is 854 feet in a distance of seventeen miles. A meridian altitude of the sun, gave us for Fort Massachusetts a latitude of 37~ 31' 59". After completing the examination of the Sangre de Cristo Pass, Captain Gunnison made an examination of the mountains to the south of the Spanish Peaks, by ascending Gold branch from its junction with E1 Sangre de Cristo, to near its head. It is a very crooked stream, coming into the Sangre de Cristo from north 550 east for three miles, then east for orie mile, thence winding from the southeast near the mountains beyond Indian and Culfebra creeks, and near one of the head branches of the Cuchara. Becoming satisfied, after a long ride, of the exaggeration 38

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Page  39 SNOW IN THE PASS. of the guide, who had represented this route as " without a hill," the party ascended a high peak and looked down upon the extensive plains, over which, for a month, we had wound our way. The view was majestically beautiful, with the Huerfano, Cuchara and Apishpa at their feet, and towering mountains to the north and south, with the valley of San Luis to the west. Descending again to the stream they had left, and finding that about te miles from its head they were, by barometer, higher than on the Sangpre de Cristo Pass, and that the gorge was very winding and narrow, they turned back fiom their southern course for two miles, and then rode up hill for two hours, m.uch of the way steep and stony, and arrived at the summit of the ridge, "where one could look almost vertically down on the heads of creeks of the Cuchara- one of which winds under Bald mountain, considerably to the south of the Spanish Peaks, where there is a not inviting depression, entirely impracticable for a road." The party passed over fine grassed slopes, and through groves of branchin pin ie and aspen. l descending they came upon a fresh trail, " which had been made by a party of hunters from Taos, who had crossed by the Culebra Pass to the head of the o Cuchara, and obtained pack-loads of venison. These men travel a hun dred miles, kill the game and pack it on asses, taking from ten to twelve days to procure the load, and four to return to market. They use no salt, and only cover the meat to keep it from the flies. At nigth they spread out the quarters and saddles on the ground, and lie down among them to protect them fromi the dogs and wolves. And notwithstanding the daily occurrence of showers about the highest peaks of the mountains, the dryness of the atmosphere is such that the meat is well preserved." At a late hour, after a fourteen hours' ride, the party arrived at Mr. Williams' herd-grounds on the Sangre de Cristo, Captain Gunnison being quite ill. w They dined with the master of the rancho on milk and tole, or parched corn-meal pudding, and slept under his awining on buffalo-robes. Captain Gunt ison was quite restored by the kind attentions of Mr. Taplin and his host, from a severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism, which had been greatly aggravated by sleeping out at night with the gentlemen of his party, in exploring the Sangre de Cristo Pass. The information gained in regard to the snow which falls in Et Sangre de Cristo Pass and valley of San Luis, is conflicting. Massalino, our guide through the pass, states that he crossed it in February last, a winter of unprecedented severity and great fall of snow; that he was seven or eight days in making the crossing, which is usually made in two-the dry snow hbeing ten feet deep in the ravines, while the ridges were nearly bare. Antoine Leroux, on the contrary, represents it generally as unusually free from snow for a mountain pass, which can be crossed with facility during the severest storms. The officers of the army stationed at Fort Massachusetts, which is situated just under the Sierra Blanca, in a sheltered valley on Utah creek, about seventeen miles from the summit of the pass, represent the snow, which is usually very dry, to have been in the valley about them, during the past winter, about two feet in depth. Once during our stay in this vicinity, during a thunder-storm on thie lower peaks, those more elevated were covered with a beautiful mantle of white. There are no evidences of snow-slides or avalanches about the pass. Our recent experience in exploring a wild mountainous country without guides, was such as to show the necessity of profiting by the practical lessons in geography gained in the school of the trapper and hunter, by that useful class of mountaineers who have spent many years of their lives in encountering the hardships and imminent dangers hourly incident to their occupation in these fields of savage barbarity, short-lived gratitude and native grandeur, which are annually stained by the sacrifice of some of their number as victims to unbridled ferocity. Accompanied by Lieutenant Baker, I accordingly started on the 15th instant from our camp at the head of El Sangre de Cristo valley, for Taos, in New Mexico, the headquarters of many of the most reliable and experienced of these mountain men. Leaving camp, we passed rapidly down the Sangre de Cristo for ten miles, and entering the broad and extensive valley of San Luis, hemmed in on either side by high mountains, and traversed by the Rio Grande del Norte and its mountain 39 il

Page  40 JOURNEY TO TAOS. tributaries, skirted with bushes and a little timber, soon reached the Trenchara, which comes in from the mountains to the east, and is joined a few miles to the west by the Sangre de Cristo, whence it flows on to the Rio Grande. A ride of twenty miles further brought us to the Cu]ebra, or Snake creek. There is a small settlement five miles to the east of the point where we crossed this stream, near the mountains; but without visiting it we continued our journey, and arrived a little after dark, after a ride of sixty-five miles, at the Costilla, a stream similar to the last, on which a new settlement is opened and a few fields are already covered with crops of corn, wheat, oats, and the other usual crops of a New Mexican farm. But the settlement contained no grass, and our Indian bred mules, not knowing the taste of corn, disdained it, much to our regret, for we deemed so long a ride inhuman enough to our animals, without consigning them to a night of abstinence, with a fifty-mile ride before us for the following day. We therefore negotiated for the corner of a wheat-field, the kernel being still soft, and were gratified with the avidity which our Comanches exhibited in feeding on this grain. During the day's ride we had occasionally seen the smokes from the signal-fires of the Indians in the mountains; but they did not molest us, although we subsequently learned that a party of New Mexicans had been robbed by them, near where we saw their smokes, just as we were passing them. The night was lovely and beautiful, succeeded by a bright, clear day. Resuming our way southward in the early morning, at 10 o'clock we passed settlements on streams near the base of the mountains, and at noon arrived at the Rio Colorado, or Red River of the Rio Grande del Norte, where there is a considerable settlement, surrounded by fields of grain. At 3 o'clock we crossed this stream a short distance from the village, and ascended the low, stony, mountain range, which here extends across the broad valley of the Rio Grande, separating the valley of San Luis from that of Taos. The Rio Grande passes this low range in one of the most formidable cafiones existing in this part of the country. Our pathway was thickly shaded by a forest of pines; and the landscape views of the valleys and near and distant mountains, during our afternoon's ride, were among the finest I have ever seen. Fifteen miles from the Rio Colorado we crossed the Arroyo Hondo, or Deep arroyo, from one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet in depth, with fine streams carried in irrigating trenches along its sides to the cultivated fields of the valley, which, from the crest in all directions, appeared, by twilight, covered with fields of grain; and, to shorten our evening ride, we followed on the banks of the irrigating ditches for some distance, until we reached the road leading to Taos, where we arrived at 10 o'clock at night. The valley of Taos is large, and, for New Mexico, extensively cultivated, containing several small villages, of which the principal is San Fernando de Taos, and many farms. It is on all sides surrounded by high mountains, the Rio Grande entering it through a gigantic canfon, and also leaving it through one The water of the river is but little if at all used for irrigation, the mountain streams being large and more favorably situated. In our ride of over a hundred miles from E1 Sangre de Cristo to this place, we saw no grass in the valleys worth naming; the vegetation being confined almost exclusively to artemisia and a few varieties of cacti, but chiefly the prickly pear-the' pines of the mountains at times extending well down to the plains. In the high small valleys of the mountains the grass is luxuriant and the flowers beautiful. Here, too, showers are of daily occurrence, whilst in the broad valley but little rain falls and nothing can be cultivated except by irrigation. Procuring what information we could of the country westward over which we were to pass, and the services of a guide, we returned in thirty hours to our camp, (which in our absence had been moved but fifteen miles,) by nearly the same route we had followed in leaving it, arriving at noon on the 19th of August. On the following day we were joined by the experienced and well-known guide, Antoine Leroux. Here some half-dozen men came to ask for their discharge, refusing to perform further duty. One who had refused to guard the animals, while grazing in the early part of the day, was discharged, forfeiting arrearages of pay for a violation of his contract. Two others preferred their discharge on the same terms, which was granted; the others returning to their duty. The labors devolving upon Mr. Taplin were too great for his strength, and a due 40

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Page  41 ROUBIDEAU'S PASS. regard for his health compelled us reluctantly to part with him here, hoping that the pure air and quiet life of New Mexico would restore him to health. .August 23.-We were detained in nliaking necessary repairs, and in obtaining supplies at Fort Massachusetts, until this morning, when we took leave of the officers of the post, from whom e had received much courteous hospitality; and, following down Utah creek for three miles and a half, crossed it, and passed along the base of the gravelly hills which lie directly at the foot of the Sierra Blanca, southwest and opposite the sharpest peak of which we encamped, at White Mount ain spring, seven miles from Utah creek, and, in a direct line over the gravel hills, not more than that from Fort Massachusetts. These gravel hills are a confused set of elevations from fifty to one hundred feet in height, resulting from the washing away of a former deposit and the crumb ling of the higher mountain masses. The mountain torrents have washed among them deep channels, and occasional dykes, like vertical walls laid up in regular masses many feet thick, are left exposed. These hills are covered with branching cedars and pines, seldom exceeding twenty feet in height. A few wild hops were observed growing luxuriantly at the crossing of Utah creek. August 24.-Following the base of the Sierra Blanca on our right, with the broad valley of San Luis on our left, we encamped, after travelling fourteen miles, on a small stream from the mountain, which soon sinks in the plain. The grass along our path was scattered, and we expe rienced considerable difficulty in driving over the thick masses of sage which cover almost the entire surface of this immense valley. We were here nearly opposite to Roubideau's or Musca Pass. Captain Gunnison immediately proceeded to examine it. It was found impracticable to ascend it with horses, in consequence of one of those great mountain torrents, to which all mountain countries are subject, having swept down it, depositing trees and rocks in every direction, and tearing the bed of the creek, over which two light wagons crossing from the Greenhorn settlement to Taos had descended-but a few days before, into holes and gullies ten and twelve feet in depth. For two hours the party toiled up the canon, sometimes on one side of the creek (which is known as Musca or Fly creek) and then on the other, to the summit, through the upper opening of which they could look down upon the San Luis valley. The course of this ravine from the summit is due west for two and a half miles; then north, 800 west, into the valley. It is 100 feet wide at bottom, with points of the rocky sides jutting into it, making the bed quite crooked. The sides are about 500 feet high, rocky and precipitous, but can be ascended by a footman from the stream at the bottom of the ravine as easily as most lofty mountains can be climbed. The rocks of this pass are chiefly a coarse altered mica slate. The elevation of our present camp above the sea is 7,638 feet, and the difference of level between it and the base of the Sierra Blanca, 6.25 miles distant, 51S feet. From this point to the foot of the pass where it opens into the valley of San Luis, and thence to its summit, there is, unfortunately, a want of clearness in the record of the estimated distances from point to point where observations were made for differences of level. I have therefore taken the largest possible distances which could intervene between these points, presenting the pass in its most favorable aspect. By the direct path which we followed, this distance, between the foot-hills of the mountain anid the narrow mouth of the pass, is 1.60 mile- -the ascent being 450 feet, or a little over 281 feet per mile. But as these foot-hills are open rolling slopes, the pass could be approached by a much longer path from the south, distributing this elevation over several miles, bringing the grade {or a railroad within 100 feet to the mile. But above this point this pass is entirely impracticable for a railroad, and but little better for a wagon road, the ascent being in the next mile and a quarter, 373 feet, and in the following seven-tenths of a mile, 377 feet, while in the succeeding threefourths of a mile, to the summit of the pass, it is 416 feet; thle whole difference of level from the mouth of the ravine to its summit, 2.70 miles, being 1,166 feet, the summit of the pass being 9,772 feet above the sea. No apparent obstacle presents itself from the summit to descending with facility from this pass to the Iluerfano river to the north and east; but 6g 41

Page  42 SAN LUIS VALLEY. the western descent having- proved so difficult, no further examination of it was made. O'e guide informs us that to the west of our trail, along the banks of the Rio del Norte to where it enters a plain through a caion from the San Juan mountains, bearing west from our present camp, and thence above on its tributaries, the valley of San Luis, which in this part is known to many as the valley of San Juan, is rich and fertile, covered with extensive meadows of grass, and abounding in game and wild horses. The narrow line of timber, thirty-five miles distant upon the Rio del Norte, is plainly seen from our trail; but it is represented to be difficult to cross the valley with wagons, on account of the marshes along the river and the miry banks of the sunken creeks, and we have therefore followed the base of the Sierra Blanca, which extends from the Sangre de Cristo to Gunnison's Pass. To the north of this range, but partially connected with it, a broken range of mountains extends towards the Arkansas river, called the Sierra Mojada or Wet mountain, from the constant rains which fall upon it. The Indian name of the range on the west of the San Luis valley is Sahwatch, but it is more generally known Ly the Spanish name of San Juan. The San Luis valley is from 40 to 70 miles in width, and still more in length, and so level that trees are seen in any direction, growing on the streams, as far as the eye can discern them. 42

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Page  43 CHAPTER IV. From Roubideau'8, Pass, via te Cooc7tetopa Pass and Grand River valley, to teNah un-kah-rea or Blue river.-August 25 to September 20, 1853. Gigantic sand-hills.-Williams' Pass.-Stampede.-Sand and sage.-Chatillon, Trois Teton, and Leroux creeks.-Game. Scene of Colonel Frc'mont's disaster of 1848-'49.-Vegetation and soil.-Homans' creek.-Currants.-Sahwatch spring and butte.-Coochetopa Pass gate.-Sinking of Sahwatch creek.-Sahwatch valley.-Light dusty soil.-General character of San Luis valley.-Favorable character for a railroad of the lower part of the Sahwatch valley.-Deer, grouse, and trout.Captai Gunnison's examination of Homans' park: its fertility.-Gunnison's Pass: its position and railroad practicability.-Puncha creek and country east of the pass.-Indicated lines for roads.-Mountain sheep.-Approach to the Coochetopa Pass.-Car nero Pass.-Leaving Sahwatch creek.-Mountain forms, timber, rocks.-Passage and character of the summit of the Cooche topa Pass: altitudes and grades in approaching it, &c.-Method of levelling.-Grades and tunnel.-Existence of a pass north of the Coochetopa Pass.-Valley of Pass creek.-Valley leading to Carnero Pass.-Grades.-Indicated railroad line from the Coochetopa Pass.-Artemisia.-Coochetopa creek.-Pass Creek cationes.-Character of mountain storms.-Grand river: its character, valley, and adjacent mountains.-Conftision of names.-Character of and passage around the first caion of Grand river.-Tables or mesas.-Brief general description of Grand River valley and caiiones.-Fall of the river.-Ice.-Indian smokes and method of hunting.-Captain Gunnison's description of Grand River valley repeated.-Railroad difficulties. Scarcity of timber.-The guide's dilemma.-Difficulties, character, and passage of Lake Fork.-Delusive basin appearance, exhibiting the broken character of the country.-Effects of mountain air.-View of the Sierra de la Plata.-Utah Indians on Cebolla creek.-Indian presents.-Mountain reconnoissance.-Fine view of distant mountain peaks and adjacent valleys and streams.-Position of the Spanish trail.-Ascent and passage of the mountain.-Ascending and descending grades.-Valley of the Uncompahgra: its cacti, sage, soil, &c.-Utah Indians.-Women of great age.-Domestic scene.-Descent of the Uncompahgra valley.-Utah Indian parties: great numbers in camp.-Indian;' talk" and presents.-Roubideau's old fort. Crossing Grand river.-Difficulties to be encountered in constructing a railroad along the cainon portion of Grand river. Character of the country below Roubideau's old fort.-Una-weep cainon and creek.-17ah-nah creek.-Nah-un-kah-rea or Blue river.-Steep eastern bank.-River crossing.-River entrance into this valley; its size and character. August 25.-The examination of Roubideau's Pass being completed this morning, the main body of the party proceeded up the valley, under the command of Lieutenant Baker, while Captain Gunnison, Captain Morris and myself, after leaving this pass, rode to Williams' Pass, the approach to which from the San Luis valley is through a grove of pitch-pine, behind most gigantic sand-hills, rising above the plain to half the height (apparently, at least, 700 or 800 feet,) of the adjacent mountain, and shaped by the winds into beautiful and fanciful forms with waving outlines, for within certain limits this sand drifts about like snow. These immense hills are from eight to ten miles in length, lying along the base of the mountains, and four or five in wvidth, and therefore constitute a great barrier to the western approach to Williams' Pass, directly before which they stand. The stream which flows from it is turned immediately southward, and soon sinks in the sand plain. These hills are so steep and smooth on the side towards this creek, that the smallest pebbles started at their summits roll uninterruptedly into the creek, leaving their paths distinctly marked from the summits to the bases. High up on the sides are seen, at half a dozen points, single bushes of artemisia-the only vegetation seen upon them, and the only change discoverable since they were visited by Captain Pike, fifty years ago, when they were entirely destitute of vegetation, and "appeared exactlv like the sea in a storm, except in color." The course of Williams' Pass as we entered it is N. 5S~ E., but it soon bends to the left to N. 27~ E. We passed up it only about three-fourths of a mile. Its width is about two hundred and fifty yards, rising gradually as far as we could see. Its walls of rock rise on either side to a height of some hunldreds of feet, and are nearly vertical. O)ur guides represent it as continuing for fourteen miles, both in ch;lracter and direction, as herie described; beyond that it is l re

Page  44 WILLIAMS' PASS.-SAND-HILLS. abrupt, terminating at its summit less favorably for a road than Roubideau's Pass. It is followed by a large Indian trail. Captain Gunnison did not deem it necessary to pursue the exploration further, and we left this pass having only made our entrance and exit at its western portal. Turning the southern base of the sand-hills, over the lowest of which we rode for a short distance, our horses half burying their hoofs only on ihe windward slopes, but sinking to their knees on the opposite, we for some distance followed the bed of the stream from the pass, now sunk in the sand, and then struck off across the sandy plain, which here extends far into the valley, and is very uneven, the clumps of artemisia fixing in place large heaps of sand, while the intermediate spaces are swept out by the wind. As we rose a sand-knoll a few miles from camp, we were made aware of its position on Sand creek, by a light cloud of dust raised by the furious charge of frightened horses dashing over the plain; and before we reached it, at dark, we came up with Lieutenant Baker, who had succeeded in recovering all his stampeded horses. Distance 10 miles. August 26.-Our route lay over the sandy plain to the north of Sand creek, which flows around the north base of the sand-hills, sinking in the plain near our camp. The sand was so heavy that we were six hours and a half in making ten miles-the sand being succeeded, on the last two miles, by a light, friable soil, and heavy growth of artemisia. We encamped on Chatillon's creek, in which we could only obtain water by digging in its sandy bed. A few scattered cotton-woods are the only trees upon these streams, on which willow bushes also flourish. The mountain sides and ravines are dark with low-branching cedar and pine; but they are generally of too small a size to be of any use except for fuel. August 27.-In our course to-day we approached nearer the base of the mountains on the eastern line of the valley, the soil being stilt sandy, but much less so than for the last two days. The sage, however, being no less luxuriant, forced us constantly to wind about to avoid the thickest patches. A few small spots of prairie-grass were passed, and marsh-grass grew luxuriantly for a few hundred yards on either side of two small creeks which we crossed, one of which, Trois Tetons, deriving its name from the peaks whence it descends, was so miry that it turned us a mile directly towards the mountains before we could effect a crossing. To our left we could see fine prairie-grass fields, directly in the course to the Coochetopa Pass, for which we were travelling around the valley; but the guide warned us of marshes, and the attempt was not made to cross them. Thirteen miles from camp we reached a fine meadow of bottom-grass a mile in width, extending from the base of the mountains far out into the plain, through the centre of which winds a fine stream of mountain water, named, after our guide, Leroux creek. A few grouse and sand-hill cranes were frightened from their retreat as we came to camp. Deer also were seen here and on the mountain bases a few miles distant. Our hunter supplies us with venison; but while pursuing a wounded buck, an hour ago, was driven in by a bear, which disputed the passage to the prey. The sharp edges and needle forms of the summits of the Sierra Blanca, rising 3,000 feet above the valley, attract much admiration at our camp to-night; and the promising opening ili the Sierra San Juan, to the southwest, which allured Colonel Fremont to the disaster of 1848-'49, attracts its full share of attention and comment, some of the gentlemen of our party having participated in that misfortune. The pea-vine and barley-grass grow here, thinly scattered on favorite spots; but the surface of the ground, over large spaces, is often covered with effloresced salts. Aulflusi 29.-Our course bsore strongly to the west to-day in nearly a direct limec for the entrance to the Coochletopa Pass-keeping, however, somewhat to the north to secure a good crossing at Homans' creek, on which we are encamped-there being large marshes further to the south, and the dams of the beaver, which are numerous, flowing the water back to some extent. Our march was only six miles to this fine little stream, with a meadow of grass on each side, of a mile in width. Two varieties of currants, a black and a beautiful yellow, grow in and around our camp in great abundance, and are thought very delicious by the party. 44

Page  45 LEAVING SAN LUIS VALLEY. August 30.-Leaving camp we reached Sahwatch spring and butte, by a very direct course across the valley, in ten miles and a half. This spring of pure cold water bursts from the base of the granitic butte which is immediately west of it, but detached from the Sahwatch mountains, to which it properly pertains. Captain Gunnison observed, on the 31st of August, large volumes of air at intervals escaping with the water of this spring. This butte is not high, but its isolation makes it a prominent feature, standing as it does at the puerta or gate of the Coochetopa Pass. It is formed of coarse, gray granite rocks. The spring sends out a fine little stream, winding south and east alone grassy fields until it joins the Sahwatch creek, which we reached five miles from the butte in the broad opening leading to the Coochetopa Pass. This stream, which is said to sink before reaching the Rio Grande, flows past our camp over a pebbly bed. It is one foot in depth and eighteen in width, with a rapid current. Its valley at this point is five or seven miles in width, growing narrow towards the west; and there are several isolated buttes standing in it, but none of them of considerable height. A few cotton-wood trees and a margin of willow bushes line the stream. The soil passed over to-day was unusually light and dusty, our horses sinking hoof-deep in it over large spaces. We here leave the immense valley of San Luis, which is one of the finest in New Mexico, although it contains so large a proportion of worthless land-worthless because destitute of water to such an extent where irrigation alone can produce a crop, and because of the ingredients of the soil in those parts where salts effloresce upon the surface. Its lower portion is adapted to the cultivation of grain, as we have seen at the Costilla and Rio Colorado; and, if its upper part should prove too cold for cereals, its fine fields of grass on and above the Rio Grande del Norte, must make it valuable for grazing. Elevation above the sea 7,567 feet. 31.-Five miles from camp the valley narrowed to a few hundred yards in width, and continued so for most of the day's travel of twelve miles. At our camp this evening it is half a mile wide, covered with fine grass, fine bottoms of which we passed several times during the day. We passed, also, a fine grove of cotton-wood half a mile in length, in which deer were bounding about in every direction, even passing between our wagons, which were separated by but a few yards. When ten miles from our morning camp the sand-hills in front of Williams' Pass lay plainly in sight, directly down the valley. We then changed our direction, taking a course for a short distance south of west, on which we are encamped. The hills and mountains enclosing this thus far beautiful valley, vary in height from two or three hundred to twelve or fifteen hundred feet, covered with a scanty growth of small pine. No mountain pass ever opened more favorably for a railroad than this. The grouse at camp are abundant and fine, as are also the trout in the creek, several having been caught this evening weighing each two pounds. On the morning of the 29th instant Captain Gunnison, and Mr. Homans, accompanied by a guide and four or five men, left the main body of the party and continued up the San Luis valley for four teen miles to its head, where a small park, into which several small streams flow and unite, forming a single creek, is nearly separated from the main valley by low hills extending from the mountains on either side, into the plain. To this park, which is ten miles in width by fourteen in length, as well as to the creek flowing fiom it, Captain Gunnison gave the name of his assistant, Mr. Homans, who located them. In this park the party crossed a narrow strip of alkaline earth, sparsely covered w~ith grease-wood, to the most luxuriant fields of grass seen on the trip. This grass covers an area of ten miles by four. Captain Gunnison says, "this is the prettiest, best watered and grassed valley, with wood convenient for fuel, that I have seen in this section. Much hay could be cut, and fine grazing farms opened; and it is also probable that wheat and flax, and perhaps other grains, could be raised." From this park the party proceeded over a pathway of coarse, angular gravel, formed by the crumbling of the quartzose rocks of the hills, by an inclined plane, to the summit of the pass-the object of its present examinationswhich here divides the waters of the Arkansas river from those of the Rio Grande del Norte. At 1.45 p m., August 30th, on this summit 45

Page  46 GUNNISON'S PASS. level, the aneroid barometrical record is 22.26, thermometer 81~ Fahrenheit; and at 2.40 p.m. 22.23, thermometer 73~; the mean of which referred to our camp of August 27th, 2Sth, and 29th, the altitude of which is well determined, gives for the altitude of this pass above the sea 8,603 feet. Six miles west from the summit, at 4.30 p. m., the aneroid record is 22.50, thermometer 72~; giving an average descent of fifty-six feet per mile for six miles. Three miles west from this point, at 9 p. m. August 30th, and 6 a. m. August 31st, the records are 22.70, thermometer 50~, and 22.60, thermometer 37~, respectively; giving an average descent of between sixty-seven and sixty-eight feet per mile for three miles, to the centre of Homans' park, from which a railroad can be carried in any direction over the valley of San Luis. The eastern descent for three-fourths of a mile, was by a steeper path than that by which the party had ascended to the summit, to a spring branch of the Puncha creek, an affluent of the Arkansas, where they encamped, in latitude, by astronomical observation, 38~ 25' 04". Beirig without tents, the party found their limited supply of blankets too cool, and rose early, the grass being covered with a white frost-the thermometer standing at 320, aneroid 22.23; and at 10 o'clock a. m. at this point, thermometer 80~, aneroid 22.35; giving a descent from the summit of the pass of 85 feet, or 113 feet to the mile. One mile and a half from camp Captain Gunnison came to the south branch of the Puncha creek, which is a bold mountain stream; aneroid at 7 a. m. at this point reading 22.50, thermometer 420; and at 12 m. at the same point 22.64, thermometer 83~; giving an average descent of over 228 feet per mile. But notwithstanding this, the character of the ground is such-broad, open and rolling-that it was deemed practicable by Captain Gunnison to so extend the distance in descending, as to bring the grade within that upon which railroads operate successfully. He descended without diffic(ulty from this point through a canon four miles in length to the beautiful plains of the Arkansas, ten miles in width, which lie above its canfon, bearing N. 61- E., magnetic. The aneroid record at this point at 9 a. im., August 30th, is 23.17, thermometer 660, giving for the four miles an average descent of 1851 feet per mile. Half a mile below this canon, the north or main branch of the Puncha, descending from high, snowy peaks to the north and west, is joined by that of his path, and thence gradually approaches the Arkansas. Heavy Indian trails attest the frequent use they make of this pass in going to the South Park, and to the Wet Mountain valley, and Hardscrabble, now deserted and back to the Rio del Norte and Coochetopa regions. And Captain Gunnison gives it as his opinion upon the ground, before any computations were made for grades, that "it affords an excellent wagon and railroad route; the former by Hardscrabble creek, passing around the canon, or up the Huerfano river; and the latter following the Arkansas river through its canon." As a testimonial of respect to the memory of the officer who explored it, I have given his name to this pass. On the night of the 30th of August the party returned and slept in Homans' park, and rejoined the main body of the party late this evening, during a slight fall of rain. September 1.-On the crest of the mountains at day-light-some six or eight hundred feet above us-were a fine band of mountain sheep, some of them large, majestic fellows; but they did not tempt the spirit of the sportsmen among us. We continued on the southern course, on which we encamped last evening, for about two miles, and then turned west, following the Sahwatch creek for six miles, where we crossed it for the last time, and left the main Indian trail which still follows that creek, which rises considerably to the south. This main trail is said to lead through thick forests of timber, through which it would require much labor to open a wagon road to Carnero Pass, equal if not superior to that of our route. We pursued for three miles a fine branch of the Sahwatch, coming in from the north, when we left it, and, turning west, followed a branch of this creek, and after a march of fifteen miles, encamped where a low opening in the mountains afforded a small supply of grass, and enabled us to enter and encamp with our train. The valley of the Sahwatc thoiday continhed narrow, as at our camp last evening and the travelling in it very fine,X at this dry sea~son. Th-e valley of the next branch mTas still narrower, varying from 130 yards two 150 feet, and the travrelling equally fine; and ill the succeeding valley, 46

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Page  47 COOCHETOPA PASS. often narrowed until the huge, fallen rocks from either side had passed each other and lay scatI tered over the bottom, the road was still good, although we had constantly to wind around these rocks, and to cross and re-cross the creek, here, as almost always under similar circumstances with soft, springy banks. The pines are confined to the mountain tops and sides, and but few are of respectable size. Surrounding our camp they are small but numerous, extending from our camp-fires quite to the mountain tops. The rocks of the cliffs on all these creeks were porphyritic trapp and igneous rocks of various kinds. The precipitous escarpments of the narrow ravines are of the former stone, very porous, and of a red cast, not unlike, but a shade lighter than the common red sandstone, in formations of from twenty to sixty and eighty feet in thickness. The crests of these bluffs are covered with earth a few feet in thickness, some terminating in larger or smaller plains of table-land, while others are rounded off into points and ridges. In the dry bed of a stream near camp we passed over a sedimentary stratum of coarse sandstone, much waterworn. September 2.-Captain Morris and myself went forward with working parties, to make practicable crossings for the wagons at the various points where, from the winding of the streams and narrowness of the pass, it should be necessary, and to cut out the timber which at various points quite filled the pass as it covered the ridges, which at this point divide the waters of the continent those of the eastern slope flowing by the channels up which we have travelled for several days, to the Rio Grande del Norte, and thence to the Gulf of Mexico; while those from the western slope flow into the Rio Grande, or Grand river, one of the main branches of the Colorado of the West, reaching the Pacific through the Gulf of California. We found little difficulty on the banks of the creek, but were detained some hours by the dense growth of quaking-asp, from the size of saplings to a foot in diameter, among which, fallen ill every direction, was an equally large growth of dead aspens. At 11 o'clock, however, we were progressing rapidly towards the summit of the pass, which we soon reached, and, as we enjoyed the prospect before us, a slight thunder-shower was not a disagreeable accompaniment. The elevation of this pass is not enough to give an extensive view, but the numerous small, grassy valleys, and pine and aspen groves of the mountain sides to the west, afforded us a pleasant prospect, the more so as it gave hope of an easy prosecution of our future labors, at least for a time. After cutting away trees for a quarter of a mile down the western slope, we entered an open prairie, at a spring which sends out a fine little creek, which we followed for a mile, without obstruction, and encamped, at half-past 1 o'clock p. m., in a fine field of grass, where two or three mountain rills, coming from as many small valleys, unite. Distance, five miles and a quarter. Latitude, by observation, 3S8~ 12' 35". The width of this pass at the summit does not exceed six hundred yards, but-the slopes to the low peaks rising above it are not abrupt. The ascent from the valley of San Luis, by which wve reached the summit, was very gradual, increasing with considerable uniformity until we approached it within a short distance, where the ravine of the stream was narrow and thickly timbered; and we left it with the wagons, making an abrupt ascent to the right to the level of the summit, "which we could have reached by an easier grade," Captain Gunnison says in his notes, "by keeping to the left of our track, where the ravine winds gently round to the summit-level." The approximate elevation above the sea of our camp at the Puerta, as we left the valley of San Luis, was 7,567 feet. To our next camp, twelve miles and twenty-seven hundredths above the Puerta, on the Saliwatch creek, we ascended slightly over thirty-nine feet to the mile; and in the next fifteen miles, to our camp 3.83 miles east of the summit, we ascended 913 feet, or nearly sixty-one feet to the mile; our altitude at this camp being 8,960 feet, while the indicated height of the summit itself is 10,032 feet, giving an ascent of 279 feet 9 inches per mile for 3.83 miles; and of our camp on Pass creek, one mile and thirty-three hundredths west of the summit, 9,540 feet-a descent of 492 feet in that distance, or, in whole numbers, 370 feet per mile. Captain Gunnison describes the system of barometric levelling which he employed on several 47

Page  48 COOCHETOPA PASS. sections of the route explored, as follows: "1 The instruments are kept one hour's distance apart, and record simultaneous readings at the differelnt points of the route. The barometers being first read in camp for comparison, say at 7 o'clock a. m., the party which goes in advance moves forward at once for one hour. At 8 o'clock the barometers are read for altitudes, and the odometers for distances, and the necessary bearings by compass are taken. A small flag is then numbered and planted at this point, when the advance party again moves forward, and at 9 o'lock performs like operations; while the rear readings are made in camp at 8 o'clock, and at 9 at station No. 1, and so on at 10, &c." By this method of levelling we ascended from our camp east of the summit, 154 feet 4 inches per mile for the first mile and sixty-two hundredths; 215 feet, 9 inches per mile for the next mile and thirty-nine hundredths; 396 feet 6 inches per mile for the following fifty-eight hundredths of a mile; and 292 feet on the last twenty-four hundredths of a mile at the summit, or nearly 1,200 feet to the mile. Observations taken for the purpose of ascertaining what extent of deep cutting could be easily effected, gave a descent of 102 feet in the first 350 feet on the eastern slope; and, allowing fifty yards for the length of the summit, an equal distance gave a descent on the western slope of 82 feet. But in constructing a railroad, the level of our camps and path would be disregarded wherever it could be best effected by ascending the hill-sides along the pass, distributing the elevation to be overcome over a longer and more uniform grade. The ravine character of the pass is such, however, narrow and direct, (with sides broken by numerous lateral ravines,) rising to no considerable height above the stream, that the elevation to be thus gained would be thrown entirely upon the last few miles preceding our camp, 3.83 miles below the summit, and could not probably exceed 200 feet. If, therefore, this pass be deemed desirable for a railroad, it will be necessary, after having gained this elevation at this camp, to pass the summit with a grade of 124 feet to the mile, which will require a tunnel, including a deep approach from the west, of not less than two miles in length, entering the hill three-fourths of a mile below the summit on the east, and a short distance above our camp 1.33 mile west of the summit-diminishing the elevation to be overcome by 490 feet. Below this camp the natural grade again becomes practicable for a railroad; for a wagon road this pass is already practicable. In the Sahwatch mountains, to the north of this pass, another pass exists, leading from one of the numerous little branches which we passed after leaving the Sahwatch spring, to the head of the Coochetopa creek, but it is not favorably represented. Captain Gunnison concludes his notes upon this pass by the remark, "that it occupied five hours to cut the road and make the passage of this ridge-the men working hard; and Captain Morris deserves great credit for the manner of executing the labor and selecting the route." September 3.-We proceeded down the valley of Pass creek in a westerly course, the hills on each side being cut by small rills, deep back towards their summits, which will render a winding route and much cutting and filling necessary in constructing a railroad, for which the southern side of the creek is the most favorable. Four miles from camp we passed a broad val ley extending several miles to the south towards the Sierra San Juan, whose northern slopes are still covered with large fields of snow. Opposite this valley that of Pass creek widens considerably, and we passed easily down it for six miles further to where another valley sweeps off to the south, through which a fine creek descends, and, uniting with that of our path, enters a broken canon. The valley from this point extends to the south towards the snowy peaks of the Sierra San Juan, near which the Sahwvatch creek is said to rise, flowing north and east along the base of the mountain to the east of this and the preceding valleys, where its waters approach nearer those flowing into the Pacific than at any other point. The Carnero Pass leads from that creek over this ridge, and its summit does not appear more elevated than that of the Coochetopa, and its western descent much more favorable for a road. Our guide, Leroux, represented its approach firom theeast, however, as more abrupt than that of the Coochetopa Pass, and did not think it practicable for our wagons to pass through the rocks and timber which 48

Page  49 COOCHETOPA PASS. obstruct it, without more labor than our limited time and the season of the year would warrant us in stopping to bestow upon them; and for the same reasons, no delay was made to examine it. The descent from our morning camp for the first 2.24 miles was (in whole numbers) 108 feet to the mile; 68 feet per mile for the next 2.15 miles; 93 feet per mile for the following 2.05 miles, and 42 feet per mile for the succeeding 3.47 miles. Captain Gunnison says, "the disposition of the mountains indicates that a line can be carried from the Coochetopa Pass southwesterly for some distance, passing behind the hills which divide the two southern valleys described above, and descending the most western one, securing a bet ter grade than by following Pass creek." This creek here inclines more to the north, and enters a small canfon which sends out several side branches, and we were forced, in turning it, to cross a ridge to the N. N. E. to another branch of the Coochetopa creek. This ridge was rough and thickly covered with several varieties of artemisia,-the sage so large and stiff that our animals were very reluctant to pass through it. Distance marched, 20 miles. Sei)3ebecr 5.-Following for three miles the narrow valley of the little creek on which we had encamped, either side of which is lined with ledges of sandstone, through which nuumerous small rivulets have cut deep channels, it is joined by other valleys and spreads out a mile or two in width, and is, whether wide or narrow, covered with abundant grass. Onl our right we passed a very large, elevated, and remarkably round butte, standing quite detached from the mountain beyond it. Eight miles brought us to the Coochetopa creek, a fine, rapid little stream of twenty feet in width, which we were repeatedly obliged to cross and recross as the valley narrowed into gorges, and the stream impinged against its banks, while to avoid this at other points we passed over the artemisia bluffs. A few cotton-woods were scattered along the creek, but it was generally lined only with willow bushes. At one point where we crossed it, ledges of coarse and crumbling feldspathic granite were observed; but the rocks were generally sandstone, the lightcolored argillaceous frequently over-lying the red ferruginous. Conglomerate rocks, but slightly cemented, also prevailed, and a few trap-rocks were seen. Captain Gunnison ascended a hill one mile W. N. W. from our morning camp, from which he had a fin e view of the snow-clad range of mountains from which the Puncha and Coochetopa cree ks descend. This mountain extends round by the north to northwest (magnetic,) where Grand river passes between it and the Elk mountains. From this point also he had a view of a snowy peak of the mountains at the head of the Arkansas river, distant in a course N. N. W. perhaps one hundred miles. From this hill he passed over the broken, barren and slightly elevated country along Pass creek, which receives many small cafiones from the west, over which it would require considerable labor to construct a road; "but it could be carried over this eevation by rising below gradually for some distance." Numerous elk-horns and buffalo-skulls lay scattered whitening on the hills, attesing the former range of the latter anirnmals to these pastures, where the small variety of artemisia with a camomile odor, of which they are said to be more fond in winter than of any of the grasses, flourishes. Reaching the mouth of Pass creek, we encamped in a meadow of half a mile in diameter, having travelled 15.SS miles. Several times during the day we experienced very sensibly the sudden changes of temperature to which high altitudes in mountain regions are subject firomi a passing storma or a change of winld- our thick coats being at one moment necessary to our comfort, and the next oppressive. At this season of the year, rain-storms are here always accomnpanied by thunder and follow the mounztainl ranges, or gather about their summits, which act, by their icy coldness, as natural condensers. And while I am writing this evening it is snowing on the higher peaks in sight, and a slight shower of rains, accompanied by violent thunder, is falling on the lower ranges. At this camp our altitude was 7,681 feet above the sea-a descent of 1,1-34 feet from the head of the canon on Pass creek, sixteen miles distant, or of seventy-one feet per mile. Sep2tember 6.-Seven miles from camp the valley of the Coochetopa, which we experienced the same difficulty in following to-day as yesterday, and which was here and there lined with bluffs 49 7 g

Page  50 GRAND RIVER. of coarse pebbles and boulders, slightly (emenited and crumbling, opened into that of Grand river, on the opposite side of which are high ledges of red sandstone-the base of the Elk mountains. This valley, for eight miles after we entered it, is from one-half to one mile and a quarter wide, covered abundantly with grass, the stream being lined with willow and cotton-wood. The bottom is very level, and is evidently annually overflowed at the season of the melting of the mountain snows, the drift of the present season lying scattered in the grass to the base of the hills. The Elk mountains tower high above us to the west, the hills immediately along the valley being high and more or less of a table character, or what the mountain men, of Spanish descent, term mesas-elevated level spaces of land, terminated on one or more sides by precipices and lower levels. Grand river is at present a fine, clear stream of cold water, one hundred feet wide and lhree feet deep, flowing rapidly over a paving-stone bed. Our guide states that its main branch rises in the Elk mountains to the northwest. This is joined by a large branch from the north which rises in the range of mountains to the west of the headwaters of the Arkansas river, and drains the western slope of that range, and of the Sahwatch mountains. Following the eastern slope of the Elk mountains to their termination, Gra,nd river passes to the south and west of them, where it joins the Nah-un-kah-rea, or Blue river of the Indians and mountain men, which rises in the Middle Park, and is erroneously called Grand river on some of the most correct maps. We encamped in the valley on the west bank of the river, having marched but 14.75 miles, with an average descent of over seventeen feet per mile. This fine little valley is terminated a short distance below our camp, by the close proximity of the hills on either side, and a deep canon presents its giant mouth to receive the river. September 7.-We recrossed the river at our camp, and proceeded down its southern bank 1.80 mile to the head of the canon, where a small creek enters, which we crossed, and immediately began the ascent of the hills to pass around the deep ravines which enter the canon in deep chasms. The hills were very rocky, but we found little difficulty in ascending and passing them with our wagons, except from the everlasting sage, which was large and rank, and the only vegetation on them, although we approached quite close to the base of the tables or mesas, which are elevated from 300 to 400 feet above our path, and are separated by deep ravines from a few hundred feet to a quarter of a mile in width. The perpendicular rocks at the head of the cafon are some eighty feet in height, the canon itself increasing to twice that altitude where a creek enters it fi'om the northwest half a mile below its head. The course of the river in the canfon, for the first mile, is south-southwest (magnetic) and south. It'then turns abruptly west, and continues on broken courses towards the southwestern point of the Elk mountains. The rocks are granitic, containing large masses of crystallized quartz, glistening brightly in the sun. After making 3.25 miles over the hills, passing the heads of ravines, we came upon a precipitous descent, the first canon having terminated, antd an open grassy valley succeeding for two miles. We had ascended, in this short distance, 735 feet above the head of the canon, or 715 feet above our morning camp. We had, therefore, to make, in a few hundred yards, a descent nearly equal to this ascent, on a natural grade of about one foot in five, full of igneous rocks of all sizes, from fragments and projecting masses, to mighty ledges. The loose surface stones removed, we attached ropes to thle first; wlagon, which, to prevent accidents, was held by a number of men. It arrived safely at the bottom of the hill, 547 feet below, and half a mile distant; and we dispensed with ropes, and descended with the remainder of the wagons, separated by a few yards, and soon reached and again crossed the river. This valley was succeeded by another canon, and we ascended the opposite bank of the river for a similar purpose for which we had labored in the early part of the day. For five miles the ascent was easy, but here we were obliged to cross a deep ravine, and for this purpose were forced close to the base of the msountailn to find a practicable descent, which at best, was very precipitous, as was also the ascent, although not exceeding a hundred yards in length. A mile further on, we again descended to the river, where a narrow strip of grass afforded a night's pasture for our jaded 50

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Page  51 TABLES OF GRAND RIVER VALLEY. animals, which had been eleven hours in making fourteen miles. One of our wagons had broken an axletree in the passage of the first hill in the morning, and did not arrive at camp until late in the evening. On each side of the river to-day, and, as we can see, for some days ahead, the banks rise rapidly towards the precipitous sides of the mesas, which extend back from fifteen to thirty miles to the mountains. These elevated tables are in classes, each class preserving the same level, though on opposite sides of the river, and consisting of the same formations-all of them terminated at the top by a capping of greater or less thickness of igneous rocks, overlaid by a few feet of soil, on which, occasionally, small groves of trees may be seen. They were formed, doubtless, by the upheaval of large plains at the same time; and the immense cracks and crevices of those convulsions have been enlarged, in time, by the elements, and now form the caniones, gorges, ravines, gullies, and passes, which in every direction surround us. While the current of the river is rapid, and the descent very considerable, these tables seem to preserve the same absolute level, and consequently become more elevated above the river as it descends. They are judged to be, to-day, 1,200 feet above it, and not less than 1,500 twenty miles west of us. Sage alone flourished along our path. Captain Gunnison rode into the canones several times during the day. He says of the first} "that it would require blasting one-third of the distance for the construction of a road, and solid masonry, with many arches for culverts on the whole line-a stupendous work for an engineer. The second is less formidable, the rocks being more friable, and the curves of larger radius, while the cliffs are but 100 feet in height." The river, at high water, he judged to cover the bottoms in places to the depth of six and eight feet; and from a neighboring hill, he esteemed the country "the roughest, most hilly, and most' cut up,' he had ever seen. Hills with flat tops, hills with rounded tops, and hills with knife edges and points, and deep chasms, are on every side." Gray and brown-headed ducks are numerous on the river; the cock of the plains and blue grouse are common, and also deer, antelope, and elk. The average descent of the river from camp to camp to-day was less than ten feet per mile. September 8.-Last night was clear and cold, ice of some thickness forming in our watervessels; and the thermometer half an hour before sunrise this morning indicated 230 of Fahrenheit, but the sensation of cold is much less than at a much higher temperature in a moist climate. We were obliged to cross the river twice at this camp to pass around a bluff from a spur of the Elk mountains, and to avoid ravines on the south, which enter the river at a gorge a short distance below. Leroux had gone in advance, leaving a man who had been over the road with him the previous day to point it out to us, but he wandered off in search of mountain sheep. and our pilots, after crossing a spur, descended to the river again, where we lost much time in searching for a ford, the river being narrow and too deep for our wagons; and we were eventually obliged to return to the hills, and follow them for a short distance, when we again crossed to the rn bank of the river, and proceeded immediately from it towards the base of the high tables on that side. We ascended rapidly, having, however, but one sharp ravine to cross, the opposite bank of which we ascended only by dint of hard labor, and descending into another ravine, where we found a small spring of cool waters encamped, with abundant grass on the hills for our animals, having travelled but four miles, our camp being 346 feet above that of the morning, although 200 feet below the crest of the ravine. A large smoke ascending from our last camp, from the grass taking fire after wre left it, a larger counter-smoke was seen during the day directly on our route ahead, made doubtless by the Utah indians, in the heart of whose country we have been travelling for several weeks, and whom we expect daily to meet, as we are approaching their summer hunting-grounds-the elk, which they fiollow both north and south in the winter, migrating here at this season. Antelope are also abundant, and are taken by the Utahs by building a pen, or rather two sides of a triangle, and driving a large district of country, narrowing in until they themselves form the third side, when they bag the game; and a whipping betides the unfort-unate women, says our gouides if one happens to escape where they are stationed. 51

Page  52 GRAND RIVER VALLEY.-LAKE FORK. As the train left the river, Captain Gunnison ascended a spur on the north side, whence "a small part of the Arkansas mountains could be seen through the gorge of the river, N. S0~ E.; the river itself passing him between square-capped hills, which characterize the spurs on either side, S. 75~ W., for perhaps twenty miles. From this position, the reason was apparent why the guides pronounced the further progress of the wagons along the river impracticable." "The stream is imbedded in narrow and sinuous canones, the dark top outline of which resembles a huge snake in motion, as the wavy atmosphere conveys the light to the eye. And the little spurs appear merged into one great connecting ridge, from the mountains at the head of the Rio del Norte to the great Elk mountains on the north. These spurs have their lowest depressions at the bed of Grand river, a chasm in the porphyritic and crystalline rocks opened for its passage. The red sandstone that has at one time overlaid it, has been washed away. The side creeks from the mountains have cut deep valleys, with perpendicular sides, in the softer rocks; and there are left standing many hills of sandstone, which are protected from decay by what appears to have been lava, cooled under water after spreading over the sediment, which is hardened into argillaceous sandstone in some places, and sand cemented with a ferruginous cement iii others. In some parts the capping is removed over great areas, and the stone is found i the bottoms of the streams rounded into pebbles. To look down over the tangent plane to the canon below, it seems easy to construct a railroad; but immense amounts of cutting, filling, and masonry would be required. There is no timber to speak of nearer than the mnountains, and that difficult of access for such a work. Cotton-wood in clumps on the rivers, and dwarf cedar and pine scattered on the cliffs and hills, will furnish fuel for wagoners." September 9.-For the second time our guide returned to camp last night ill at ease, and it was evident that his two morning's examination of the route ahead had not only proved less successful than he desired, but had quite surprised his memory. But we were too close upon his trail to admit of longer delay in informing us that we had a serious obstacle before us in the passage of the Rio de la Laguna, or Lake fork, coming into Grand river from the south, through almost one continuous canon from the mountains to the river, and that he had failed to find an easy crossing. This morning, therefore, large working parties of soldiers and employes started forward, under their respective commanders, to prepare the crossing of the creek; and at 2 o'clock p.m. we received orders to move on with the train. Ascending from the ravine on which we had encatmped, we were forced high up on the mesas, to avoid numerous deep ravines, which we succeeded in turning successfully, when a short, steep ascent around the rocky wall of the table to our left, brought us, four miles from our morning camp, to the top of the difficult passage-a rapid descent of 4,055 feet in length, and 935 in perpendicular height above the stream, covered with stones of all sizes, from pebbles to tons in weight, with small ledges of rocks croppingout at various points. Some of the stones had been removed in the proposed road; but the wagons, with locked wheels, thumped, jarred, and grated over the greater portion, especially those too large and deeply imbedded in the soil to be remnoved, until their noise quite equalled that of the foaming torrent creek below. At one point, as they passed obliquely over a ridge, it was necessary to attach ropes to the wagons, and employ a number of men to prevent their overturning. Two hours were thus employed in descending with our eighteen wagons, and in twice crossing the creek, in the bed of which we had to descend for a quarter of a mile, before we could gain a permanent footing on the west side. The creek is sixty feet wide by from one to two deep, with an impetuous current falling with a loud noise over a bed of rocks and large stones. Just above its mouth two fine streams, half a mile apart, enter Grand river from the Elk mountains. Day's march five miles, through a heavy growth of sage. September 10.-After considerable labor in removing surface-stones and digging down a few yards of the opposite hill, too sideling for our wagons, we doubled our teams, and with ten mules, but not without severe labor-detaining us, however, but six hours-pulled up the load of six to the crest of the western bank of Lake fork, ascending 480 feet in forty-one hundredths of a 52

Page  53 CEBOLLA CREEK. mile. By the line followed by our wagons, it is 1.50 mile from crest to crest of the banks of this creek, but in a right line it is only 2,639 feet, or about half a mile, while the perpendicular descent from the east, as already given, is 935 feet. The most practicable means by which this immense ravine can be passed by a road, will be by. ascending one of its banks by a heavy grade into the mountains, crossing it by a bridge, and descending the opposite bank-a stu pendous labor, for it will be necessary to cut through miles of rocks and to cross large sideravines. But it becomes narrower below the crossing, and proportionally steeper; and Captain Gunnison, after examining it, thought it, perhaps, not impossible, but very difficult to bridge it. Leaving Lake fork we continued along under high bluffs, over very rocky hills with deep intervening gullies, which forced us southward into a valley gorge, which we reached by a steep ascent, and encamped, after a march of 4.69 miles, under a vertical wall of igneous rocks 100 feet in height, at a beautiful spring of cold water in a fine grassy meadow, through which a creek descends to the river, distant two miles. This little valley is part of a depression some four miles in diameter, like a basin in the high table-land among the mesas, which on all sides enclose it to the eye, although Grand river passes through it, and small streams enter it through deep, wide gorges in all directions. The agreeable and exhilarating effect of the pure mountain air of these elevated regions, ever a fruitful theme of eloquence among trappers and voyageurs, exhibits itself among our men in almost constant boisterous mirth. But violent physical exertion soon puts them out of breath; and our animals, in climbing the hills, unless often halted to breathe, soon become exhausted, and stop from the weight of their loads, but after a few moments' rest move on with renewed vigor and strength. September 12. Crossing the creek, we followed the ravine valley of our camp southward to the top of the mesa, and turning westward, passed for two miles along its summit, and descended with difficulty to a creek two hundred feet below, only to ascend again, by an equally abrupt path, to the same level, and again immediately descended, by a similar path, to another creek, difficult to cross only because of the dense thicket of willow bushes which line its banks, and again ascended to nearly the same level as before, and then wound more gradually down a long descent to a larger creek, coming through a deep gorge to the south, from snow-peaks, plainly in sight, of the Sierra de la Plata. We left this creek by a more gentle ascent than we had climbed for a week before, through luxuriant fields of grass, in which, indeed, we had travelled during most of the morning, in rear of the mesa adjacent to Grand river, and passing one or two small ponds of water on the way, descended for five miles to the first branch of Cebolla or Onion creek, the last two miles through a level artemisia field, in which we encamped, on a small grassy space near the creek, having travelled 13.18 miles. While Captain Morris and myself were out in search of a suitable camp, a few Tah-bah-was-chi Utahs exhibited themselves on their war steeds, near enough to call out to us. We advanced to meet them, and a crowd of men, women, and children soon gathered at our camp. September 13.-Captain Gunnison, this morning, made presents to the Indians; first providing the chief with the articles which he was to distribute to his people, and then a package for himself. They were very importunate for powder and lead, everything else appearing of little value to them. We were anxious to purchase horses, but they would sell them only for arms and ammunition. We crossed the creek a short distance above our camp, where a practicable ravine afforded us a descent, the bank being forty feet high and very steep, and passing down it ascended the other bank by a similar ravine, opposite our camp, to the rolling sage plain which we crossed to the main branch of Cebolla creek, which we forded, and encamped, after a ride of only 3.75 miles, on a grass field near by, at the base of a connecting mountain range, which here crosses the valley of Grand river from the Elk mountains towards themSier de Sadela Plata it being necessary to find a path for our wagons before attempting the passage. Captain Morris and myself; therefore, with Leroux as guide, and a partay of men, rode forward by one of the 53

Page  54 VALLEY OF THE UNCOMPAHGRA. two routes followed by Indians and hunters in passing this range, and reached the summit in two hours;. the scenery becoming more beautiful as we ascended, especially through the gorge of Onion creek to the south, where vertical columns of rocks stood out high and clear against the sky, being part of the Sierra de la Plata-a range of mountains to the west of the Sahwatch and Sierra San Juan-whose sharp summits are broken into a thousand points and angular forms, and its sides streaked with banks of snow. Our route far behind us lay clear and distinct at our feet to the mountains about the Coochetopa Pass; and the course of Grand river, with the Elk mountains to the north extending round to the northwest with a level summit for many miles, terminating with a vertical descent of a few hundred feet, and then apparently subsiding into a plain. At our feet to the west lay the Uncompahgra river, rising in the Sierra de la Plata, and flowing northwest through a valley of considerable width, beyond which a range of high land was overlooked by more distant mountains, among which the Salt and Abajo peaks were pointed out to us. The former is directly upon the noted Spanish trail leading from California to Abiquiu, New Mexico, and is a favorite resort for the Utah and Navajo Indians for trade; while the latter is near the junction of Grand and Green rivers, considerably below the fords for this trail, or, as Leroux says, below any ford on Grand river known to the New Mexicans, and hence its name. But we had little time to enjoy this majestic scenery, and hastened to examine the descent to the west, which we found very difficult, and at various places, as on the ascent, thickly covered with scrubby oak bushes and aspens. The soil is light, but covered with luxuriant grass. We thought it possible to pass this route with wagons; but the other route, followed by the Indians from our camp to the Uncompahgra, lay directly below us whie ascending the mountain, and appeared much preferable to the one we had examined; and a small party, sent out to examine it a short distance, reported it passable. September 14.-It was 3.80 miles by this route to the top of the steep ascent of the ridge, and three hours were occupied in its ascent; our barometers giving a difference of level of fourteen hundred feet. The top of the mountain was broad, and near the summit we fortunately found a small basin of water, in our circuitous path to avoid ravines, at which our animals were watered; but it was too stagnant for the men. From the western slope the valley of the Uncompahgra could be seen in the distance; and, striking the dry head of Cedar creek, we commenced our descent to it. This creek was too narrow and ravine-like to allow us to descend its bed, and we accordingly circled round on the hillsides, sometimes in grass fields, at others in dense masses of sage, from which we escaped only to encounter the stiff scrubby branches of oak bushes, and at length, through a mass of them, to make a precipitous desceut to the creek, which was itself lined with them. Just befobre sundown we reached a point where Leroux had, under a rock in a deep thickly-bushed ravine, discovered a little cool and refreshing water, with which our animals were watered from buckets, and ourselves supplied for the night, which now overtook us, and we encamped a mile below on a very little coarse grass, having travelled thirteen miles. Two miles west of this camp our elevation above the sea was 6,962 feet, while it was 8,765 feet at the top of the sharp ascent nine miles east of camp. The average ascent per mile to this point, for the 3.80 miles from our morning camp, is a few inches over 368 feet, and the average descent for the succeeding eleven miles is 163 feet per mile. Some additional dlistance can be gained by a winding path in the ascent of this ridge, but not sufficeienlt to make it practicable for a railroad, which, if at all, can only be carried on this part of Grand river immediately along its banks. September 15. —We were still forced to cross Cedar creek several times, each passage requiring considerable labor in cutting down the banks, before it became wide enough for our wagons to pass freely down it, which it did two miles below camp, where we found water in pools. To this point the cacti and sage. were troublesome, but were scarcely seen again until we reached the borders of the Uncompahgra; the hills and valley alike, onl each side of our route, being a light-eolored, friable, and clayey soil, almost destitute of vegetation. The valley of the 54

Page  55 UTAH INDIANS. Uncompahgra, efflorescing with salts in many places, is several miles in width, and the stream is lined with cotton-wood trees, willow, and buffalo-berry bushes, and, by crossing it where it was thirty feet wide by one deep, we found an abundance of grass and, encamped, having marched 12.30 miles, descending 87.7 feet to the mile for the last ten miles. This river rises, as I have already stated, in the Sierra de la Plata, which appears to set off from the Sierra San Juan, and lie nearly parallel with our path, and from fifty to sixty miles distant. Near us are two or three Indian lodges, the occupants of which were greatly frightened at our sudden appearance. Their young men being absent on the hills hunting; were too timid to return and warn their lodges of our approach, for they had seen us, as we- had them, long before reaching these lodges. Those of the women who could, fled to the thickets with their children; but two were too old to run, and were soon assured of their safety. They, however, experienced considerable difficulty in calling the young women from their hiding-places, until their men returned and they no longer feared treachery. The two old women bear unmistakable evidence of having seen the snows of a hundred winters pass away. They are of small stature, and bent forward with years; wearing their coarse hair, still as abundant as in their youth, after the manler of the women of their nation: cut short across the forehead, and, passing below the ears, across the nape of the neck. It is a little thinned on the edges, and stands off hideously ugly, but gray only in a few locks. Their features are dried and shrunken to a mummy-like appearance, with bleared eyes, and sunken lips covering teeth worn to the gums. The joints of some of their fingers are stiff and distorted, and all are enlarged to ugliness. These poor objects of humanity are clothed in ragged, filthy deer-skins, and, on learning that their lives were not in danger, sang and jumped with joy at their escape from what they had supposed inevitable death. The most domestic scene witnessed was that of a mother who visited our camp with her four little children-the five riding the same horse, and all as much at home as mothers and children in a nursery. One sat in front of the mother, and one was swung on her back on a frame covered with skins, and two rode behind her, leaving no place unoccupied from the horse's tail to his neck. Presents were made to these people by Captain Gunnison. Sepiember 16.-We travelled 1.8.25 miles down the Uncompahgra to-day, crossing the stream four miles below our morning camp, and again a few miles before encamping this evening, a short distance above its junction with Grand river; the descent tfrom camp to camp slightly exceeding forty-one feet to the mile. The country is in all respects like that passed yesterday-cotton-wood, willow, and grass in the narrow bottom, and near it heavy sage; but the great mass of the valley land is nearly destitute of vegetation-light, clayey, and arid to such an extent that it is disagreeable to ride over it, as it sends up clouds of dust at every step. We met several small parties of Indians during the day, all of whom followed us to camp; and others continued to arrive until a late hour at night, filling the air as they approached with yells and calls, which were answered by their friends in or near camp-consisting of inquiries and directions as to how and where they were to pass-until we were heartily tired of them. The most of them were sent out of camp, but they built their fires only a few yards from ours, and their noise was little abated by the change, and our safety but little increased. They had, much to his regret, recognised our guide; but he neither showed fear nor want of confidence in them, although he had once shot one of their chiefs, who was attempting to rob him of his horse; and he shared his fire, pipe, andi blankets with the chiefs who remained all night with him. September 17.-Si-ree-chi-wap, the principal chief of the band, who is now so old that he exercises but little authority directly-intrusting it to his son, who accompanies him-arrived during the night, and, followed by his subchiefs and warriors, this morning repaired to Captain Gunnison'o tent to talk and smoke. The CSaptain informed them that " the President had sent him to look for a good road by which his people, who live towards the rising sun, can visit those who live upon the great water where it sets; that the President was their friend, and had authorized 55

Page  56 CANON SECTION OF GRAND RIVER. him to make them a few presents in his name." The son of Si-ree-ehi-wap replied: "This is your land, and yQu can go over it at any time. There are bad Indians over the mountains, who kill white men, but the Utahs are good, and glad to see the Americans." Presents were then distributed, pipes smoked, and the party moved on, accompanied for several miles by the chiefs. We crossed the point of land lying between the Uncompahgra and Grand rivers, reaching the latter at Roubidean's old trading fbrt, now entirely fallen to ruins. The i'iver is much larger than where we left it a week ago; and its water has here a greenish shade, while there it was colorless. The Uncompahgra, however, is remarkable for this color of its water, and for a peagreen moss, two or three inches long, covering the stones in its bed, even where the stream is shallow and very rapid. A mile below the fort we crossed the river at an excellent ford; the bottom being a mile in width, and covered with abundant grass. The canfon which we have been so many days passing around, terminates several miles above the junction of the Uncompahgra with Grand river, where the latter receives a large affluent from the Elk mountains, known as Smith's fork. The high ridge, varying from 500 to 1,500 feet in height above our path, back of which we passed from Lake fork in avoiding this canlon, and which is itself cut with deep caflones by the Cebolla and other streams, terminates, towards the valley of the Uncompahgra, in buttes and clay hills, of which there are two ridges; the first and lowest, of gray, and the second of red clay, bordering the river. Alkali is seen in these hills, as it is also in the plain, and is doubtless the chief cause of the barrenness of the soil. From our camp below thle mouth of the Cooehetopa creek, to the junction of Smith's fork with Grand river, there is nothing deserving the name of valley. Now and then there is a small open bottom, from a few yards to a mile or two in length, but at the season of high water the river sweeps over these spaces, and the stream is never followed even by an Indian trail. The difference of elevation between the head of this canon section- and our camp, a few miles below its termination, on the Uncompahgra, separated from Grand river by a level bottom only, is 2,077 feet; and as the distance between these points by the river does not exceed seventy miles-of which, perhaps, sixty preserves its canon character-the average descent will vary but slightly from thirty feet to the mile. But from the continuance, for so great a distance, of vertical rocky walls along the river, ranging from 80 to 1,000 feet and more in height, upon which the road must be carried, and which can be cut only by blasting, and, from the deep side-chasms to be passed (as described by Captain Gunnison on the 7th instant) only by the heaviest masonry, it is evident that a railroad, although possible, can only be constructed in the vicinity of this section of Grand river, at an enormous expense-for the accurate estimate of which, situated as the work is at so great a distance from civilization, where not only laborers, but their subsistence, must be transported by land carriage nearly 1,000 miles, and where scarcely a stick of timber has been seen for the last 100 miles on the route, nor will be for the succeeding 150 miles, suitable for a string-piece for a small temporary bridge, or even a railroad tie, it is not too much to say, no data exists, nor will until such a labor shall be undertaken. And it would be a waste of labor to add even a rude estimate of the cost of so impracticable an undertaking. Ascending from the river bottom,'our route passed, parallel with it, over a-district of pulverulent clay, the surface occasionally incrusted with salt, with small broken crystals of gypsum scattered freely about. This soil is formed from the wash of the impure clay-slate bluffs, our animals sinking in it to their fetlocks. These bluffs rise one above another until they attain an altitude of 1,000 feet, their summits presenting the appearance, as we descended Grand river, of an unbroken plain; but as we pass in front of them they are seen to be cut into deep ravines by the small streams which descend from them during rains. In a few miles, however, we passed from this soil to a hard one, covered with small fragments of black vesicular volcanic rocks scattered over the surface. The men sent forward to select a camp, failed to find access to the river; and having travell satred ovr miles that dk e mped witout ater, and on so limited a supply of -grass, scattered over the hills, that the most of our animals wrere tied 56

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Page  57 NAH-UN-KAH-REA OR BLUE RIVER. up to secure their presence in the morning. Our elevation was perhaps 160 feet above the river, and during the afternoon we had repeatedly to cross deep ravines entering the river in canones, in trap-rock or in sandstone and clay-slate, where they overlie the trap. The land rises from our camp to the river, distant half a mile, and beyond it is soon elevated into a mountain: the stream flowing, consequently, in an immense chasm along the mountain side, made; doubtless, by volcanic action. Much "cutting and filling" would be required in constructing a railroad near this canon, which the Utahs call Una-weep, or Red cainon. It extends from a short distance below Roubideau's old fort to near the junction of Grand river with the Blue or Nah-un-kah rea of the Indians. The Utahs also give the name of Una-weep to a small stream which enters Grand river from the south, in this caion. September 18.-At break of day we moved forward for 8.45 miles, over a country like that of yesterday, but less broken, and encamped on a small stream tfrom the west end of the Elk mount ains, which are on our right, our course being northwest. This little stream the Indians who visit us call Kah-nah. The grass, though not abundant, is sufficient for our stock. Descent from the Uncompahgra, twenty-nine feet per mile, in round numbers. September 19.-Four miles and a quarter from camp we came to a small creek, running between clay banks twelve feet in depth, which detained us an hour in crossing. The canon of Grand river disappears at this point on this bank, and the bottom is covered with a small field of cotton-wood; hut we saw no grass either on the creek or river, which is again soon walled in by rocks of sandstone, numerous bluffs of which we passed. The light friable soil of the last two days continued to the Nah-un-kah-rea river, which we reached in a march of 12.32 miles. The eastern bank of this stream, for miles above and belo where we struck it, is perpendicular, and from forty to eighty feet in height-the top of clay and the base of shale. A small gully afforded us the means of cutting a very steep path for our wagons to the river, which we crossed a few hundred yards below, at a point where it was but a little over two feet deep and a hundred yards wide, with a clear and very rapid current-the volume of water being twice that of Grand river. The opposite bank, although but six feet high, the moment it was cut down and moistened by the water thrown up by the leading horses, became so mirv that we were occupied three hours in crossing, and encamped near the ford-the grass being coarse, and gritty from a recent overflow. This river enters this valley through a canon or immense gorge, which separates the Elk mountains on the east from the Roan or Book mountains to the west, and, bending from its southern course, unites with Grand river just below us. Roan mountain, which derives its name from the color of its sides of red, gray, white and blue clay, in horizontal strata, destitute of vegetation and washed into many deep gorges and fancifiul forms, sweeps round to the west, following a course some miles from the river. The west end of the Elk mountains is terminated with a similar formation; and that to the southwest of Grand river, before its junction with the Blue, resembles it, although more rocky, and some of its bluffs are scantily dotted with small cedars and pines. The valley, twenty miles in diameter, enclosed by these mountains, is quite level and very barren, except scattered fields of the greasewood and sage varieties of artemisia-the margins of Grand and Blue rivers affording but a meagre supply of grass, cotton-wood and willow. The latter stream at the season of melting snows is greatly swollen, and at every step we see evidences of the great volumes of water which at such times roll forward in its channel or spread out over its bottom, in the deep channels, now dry, and island now part of the main land, covered with huge trees cast up and left by the angry stream. Average descent during the day, nineteen feet per mile. 82g 57

Page  58 CHAPTER V. From Bte river crosin to Green, White, and San Ra.-el river and the eastern foot of the Wahsatch Pass.-September 20 to October 13, 1853. Purchase of Indian horses-Indian veracity.-Soil.-Salt creek.-IIndian trails to the Uintas.-Coal bed.-Canones of Grand river.-Rocks.-Coal -Daily charge of temperature.-Aqueous deposits and barrenness of the valleys.-Climate.-Scarcity of cultivable lands.-Leroux returns to New Mexico.-Details of the country between Grand and Green rivers.-Best position for railroad indicated: grades, &c.-Fanciful forms of mountains.-Reach the noted Spanish trail.-Disheartening view. Ash-heap character of the soil.-Scarcity of water.-Difficulty in the construction of a railroad from Grand to Green river. Crossing Green river.-Utah Indians.-Character of Roan mountain on Green river.-Spanish trail followed to Akaaquint spring.-Grades.-From Akanaquint spring to White river: rocks, soil, water, and grades.-Ascent of the valley of White river to Clever creek.-Return to White river -San Rafael river.-Return to the Spanish trail.-Course of this trail, and character of the country traversed by it from Akanaquint spring.-Indicated line via the San Rafael.-Improved soil.-Indians subsist on buffalo-berries.-The country between Green river and the Wahsatch mountains: valleys, hills, and rocks. Oak springs.-Indian guide.-Weak condition of our animals.-Grades. September 20.-Captain Gunnison, For the first time, succeeded in purchasing horses from the Indians with the public goods which had been brought for that purpose. The horses were small, but hardy, and we were much in want of them. Our camp was moved down the river but 9.10 miles, as the Indians informed us that we could not reach grass beyond that point before night-an artifice to retain good customers; for there was better grass two hours' march ahead, and our animals fared badly on the gritty blue-grass at our camp. Latitude, 39~ 07' 24"; descent, 4 feet 4 inches per mile. Septemn?ber 21.-The clay soil yesterday and this morning was often very smooth and dry, and so hard that our shod horses scarcely left a mark on it. Seven miles below camp the river again enters a canon, near which we filled our canteens for the night, and continued on for 7.30 miles over the same greasewood plain to Salt creek, which we found a mere rivulet of miserably brackish water, the sands of the bed being covered with incrustations of salt, which also effloresces widely over the plain. Near this creek the plain is washed into little valleys, leaving small knolls and ridges standing, which give it a rolling appearance; and our men find much labor in cutting down the banks of gullies for the passage of our wagons. Bunch-grass is scattered over the hills towards the river, and our animals drink the creek water freely. Many trails lead utip this creek, and the Indians inform us that they are used in visiting their neighboring band, the Uintas. Latitude, 390 13' 12"; average descent per mile during the day, 9 feet 7 inches. Se.ptember 22.-Captain Gunnison found a bed of coal on a ridge bearing north-northwest from Salt creek canon, and a mile from it, which he describes as being "100 feet long by 20 broad, and about one foot thick. It is exposed to the weather, but appears to be a good bituminous specimen." Evidences of coal, by the burrows of animals and blackened clay banks, are firequent. Latitude by noon observation, 39~ 14' 15". We left Salt creek without a guide-Leroux having gone forward some four days since to examine the route, and show those who accompany him the best road to the Spanish trail, and not yet returned. We determined, therefore, to keep up the broad, rolling valley between Roan mountain on our right, and the canon bluffs of the river on the left. The day was very hot and oppressive, and the soil fliable, with the usual amount of sage and an increase of cacti, with numerous gullies to cut and fill. We found no point at which we could approach the river until too late an hour in the afternoon to reach it with our train, for it was impossible to travel

Page  59 GRAND RIVER VALLEY, SOIL AND CLIMATE. at night with wagons without a road. We encamped, therefore, without grass, near the dry bed of what proved to be a small intermitting creek of bitter water. Streams of this kind during the day time, in the dry season, contain no water, but small rivulets break out and flowduring the night, and again disappear as the sun becomes hot. So many of our animals gave out, that several of the wagons did not reach camp during the night. We were here about four miles from the river, which, by following the rayine cut through the canon wall by the creek, was easily reached on horseback, (and only obstructed for wagonsby a dry channel cut deep in the clay,) at a narrow bottom of fine grass two or three miles in length, with shady groves of cotton-wood on the banks of the stream. The red sandstone canon walls are nearly vertical, and two hundred feet high; beyond which smaller ledges rise above each other, terrace-like, for some miles towards Salt mountain, which bears south from our camp, some twenty miles beyond the river. The canon narrows to the width of the river below the groves of cotton-wood. In a ravine by which Captain Gunnison approached the river, four miles below Salt creek, and nearly opposite the mouth of the San Miguel, he says, "sandstone and clayey deposits alternate one above the other, one layer of which is altered by heat, and much of the argillaceous rock is )lack with the appearance of coal having burnt under it. Coal is found in the canon near our camp, and can be gathered in place, and there can be no doubt of this being a part of the Green river coal basin formation; at least, the formation has the same appearance there as here, and the water from the red sandstone and clay deposits similar crystallizations." We observe the greatest contrast between the heat of the days and nights in these mountain valleys; the thermometer from noon to 3 o'clock p. m. ranging, for the last several days, from 870 to 92~ Fahrenheit, and at night falling below the freezing-point. Yet we find a cactus here which flourishes generally in Texas and warm climates. The barrenness of these valleys is greatly influenced by the alkaline and saline ingredients of the soil, while their dryness is easily understood by observing the distribution of the aqueous vapors. The moment a cloud begins to form, it rushes towards a mountain chain, is poured in torrents upon its highest peaks, and rushes down its rocky sides into the chasms and gutters in which the beds of streams lie in the valleys, too deep and confined to irrigate the adjacent lands to any distance. The higher mountains are also protected by the clouds to a great extent from the powerful rays of the sun, which scorch the valleys; and hence, in inaccessible places to man, grass and herbage flourish. It is not intended to say that no rain falls upon the valleys and plains, but only a very small proportion is deposited there during the warm season, when the rain comes in showers of sudden formation; but in the colder parts of the year more is diffused over the general surface. We have seen rain falling in showers usually in the afternoon, on the mountain-tops, almost every day since we first came in sight of the Rocky mountains, two months since; whilst in this valley for two weeks we have been scorched at midday by a tro])ical sun, and in the whole distance scarcely moistened, except once or twice, near the summits of passes, by rain. The formation of the valleys is against a system of artificial irrigation; their absorbing power being so great that the mountain streams, during the summer, seldom reach far into the plains. It is therefore only at the foot of the mountains which are not too elevated and cold for vegetation to flourish, where the small streams descend, that irrigation can be employed. No part of the route thus far from San Luis valley, therefore, offers a spot of any considerable extent suitable for settlement. Sufficient grass flourishes in the mountain valleys of Grand river, east of the junction of the Blue, for grazing purposes; but it is a significant fact, bearing upon the climate, that elk frequent them only in the summer, migrating both to the north and south in autumn, where they remain during the winter, and again return in the summer. Leroux, with three companions, left us at this camp to return to New Mexico, hlaving completed his engagement as guide. He expects to travel much at night, and trusts to his tact and knowledge 59

Page  60 FROM GRAND TO GREEN RIVER. of the country for passing safely through the Indian bands along his route. Day's mnarch, 21.74 miles; ascent, 9 feet 9 inches per mile. September 26.-Having passed three days in camp, keeping our animals at the river to graze, we this morning resumed our march and determined to continue our course back of the river hills. We were not without hope that the fine rain of the previous night (falling freely for two or three hours) would furnish a supply of water in pools or in creeks from the mountains. At break of day, therefore, I started, accompanied by one man, armed, as I observed after riding stone titne, only with a spade and hatchet-a gross neglect-to find water, if possible, antid grass for a camp; and, if successful, a smoke was to guide the party to the point selected. The first two or three creeks passed within a short distance poured down small muddy streams; but as the sun rose hot and drying, a few hours drained off the surface water, and the beds of creeks soon contained but a few holes of water, and by 10 o'clock even these were fast disappearing. As soon as I had ridden far enough for the day's march, I began my search for grass and water-indispensable items for the camp of a party of exploration, with jaded and weak animals, and months of labor before them. So fruitless was the search, however, that it was not deemed possible to find water; but an extensive view from an elevate(l position convinced me of the error of deviating from this course, and I theief)re made the concerted signal of a camp, trusting to the fortune of a more diligent search; in which threatening showers promised to aid us, and eventually swelled the rain-water creek on which we encamped to the size of a respectable stream, on which and the adjacent hills we found a little bunch-grass. The train arrived, after a march of 16.28 miles, a little before sundown, having passed during the day but one or two small hills and a few gullies. As night closed in, clouds gathered around us; and, as I write, occasional flashes of lightning and steady falling rain threaten us with a comfortless night. Average descent during the day about two feet per mile. September 27.-It continued to rain most of the npght, and increased in violence until 10 o'clock in the morning, when it ceased, and we moved slowly forward over a very slippery and miry soil-all the beds of creeks, recently dry, pouring down torrents of water, and water filling every little depression on the surface of the ground; yet the earth was not moistened more than two inches deep, the wagon-wheels turning up the dry earth onto the brick soft clay of the surface. At 12 o'clock a passing shower sent down such a torrent from the mountain, that, although the leading wagons had crossed it without difficulty, the others were unable to follow for some hours; and we therefore encamped just west of this stream, on a hill finely dotted with bunch-grass, after a march of 5.66 miles. Our route here lies but two or three miles from the base of Roan mountain, and is much more direct from Salt creek than by following the river to the Spanish trail, and thence crossing to the ford oni Green river, and is less interrupted by deep gullies; but in wet weather it would be impossible to follow us with heavy loads, and in the dry season no water is known to exist on this path, between Grand and Green rivers. Captain Gunnison indicates the choice of localities for a railroad track as lying still nearer the base. of the mountain, where, however, " much cutting and filling would be required, and many large culverts necessary.".The thunder-showers of the morning covered Salt mountain with snow, the effects of which we feel as the wind sweeps round from that quarter, for we can get no woo(l, and only sage enough to cook our coffee. Ascent, 71 feet per mile. September 28.-We delayed our march until 8 o'clock, to derive as much benefit from the sun and morning drainage as possible, and it was difficult, even at that hour, to make any progressmules miring and wagons stalling even on the descent of the hills, which were destitute of a turf or sward, the whole surface to a considerable depth being of the character of stiff brick-yard clay; but after going two or three miles, the soil became more shaly and gravelly on the ridges, and eventually over the whole surface. We descended a steep bluff in the morning, and passed over two gentle swells during the day, the last of which was the divide between the waters of Grand and G-reen rivers, and after a march of 16.71 miles, in which we descended 12 feet 10 inches 60

Page  61 FROM GRAND TO GREEN RIVER. per mile, encamped, just at sundown, on the remnants of a rain-water creek, and a thin supply of grass on the hills. Deep narrow gullies cut in the clay soil, with perpendicular sides, obstructed our progress more than usual to-day, as they were from four to sixteen feet deep, and from one to twelve feet wide. The mountain on Grand river is very broken, and during the day presented many beautiful rocks standing high above the adjacent ledges and ridges. From one position a majestic shaft stood out clear against the sky; and chimney rocks were almost hourly presented as we rode along, with piles occasionally resembling ruins of immense churches and dwellings, and one or two on eminences, resembling the ruins of mighty cities of adobe buildings. Septenfber 29.-For a mile, in the morning, we continued our course of yesterday, W. S. W., and then changed to S. W. for seven miles, when we came upon the noted Spanish trail which passes the foot Of Salt mountain. We then turned W. N. W., following this trail, and encamped, afiter a march of 14.07 miles, in which we descended 12 feet 3 inhess per mile, at a rain-water pool, a neighboring ravine furnishing a limited supply of grass; but, for once, sage was even more scarce than grass, the country being entirely destitute of wood, and presenting only a picture of aridity and barrenness. From an elevated bluff near camp, Captain Gunnison describes the view as desolate and disheartening in the extreme. " Except three or four small cotton-wood trees in the ravine near us, there is not a tree to be seen by the unassisted eye on any part of the horizon. The plain lying between us and the Wahsatch range, a hundred miles to the west, is a series of rocky, parallel chasms, and fantastic sandstone ridges. Oni the north, Roan mountain, ten miles from us, presents bare masses of sandstone, and on the higher ridges, twenty miles back, a few scattering cedars may be distinguished with the glass; Salt mountain, to the east, is covered half down its sides with snow; and to the south, mass after mass of coarse conglomerate is broken in fragments, or piled in turret-shaped heaps, colored by ferruginous cement from a deep black to a brilliant red, whilst in some rocks there are argillaceous layers, varying to gray or glistening with white. The surface around us is whitened with fields of alkali, precisely resembling fields of snow. The soft clayey earth in many places glistens with selenite, and gypsum appears in masses along the sharp sides of the bluffs, while fragments of obsidian are scattered over the ground." Seplteiber 30.-Our course for six miles this morning was the same as that of last evening, following the direction of the hills and dry beds of creeks. We then passed through the range of hills on our right, and again resumed our course along the base of Roan mountain; these hills presenting precisely the appearance of immense beds and fields of ashes, being more saline and friable even than those of previous days, and even more destitute of vegetation, the undulating descent being relieved near the Akanaquint or Green river by scattered tufts of grass. Groves of cotton-wood lined the stream, and a narrow bottom afforded grass for our animals for the night, after a march of 14 miles. The distance from Grand river to this ford, by a very direct course, is 70 miles, and from Bitter creek, 67 miles by our route, which, except during rains, is entirely without. water. By following Grand river, however, some miles below Bitter creek, until the Spanish trail is reached, and, following it, crossing a more broken and gullied country, a spring is said to be passed; but its locality is not known to me. This entire section is, however, not only crossed with great labor and difficulty, but is utterly valueless for occupation and settlement by civilized man. The greatest difficulty to be overcome in the construction of a railroad on this part of the route, would be in obtaining a firm bed for the superstructure in wet weather; and for this purpose it would be necessary to Macadamize the road very extensively. Average descent, 121 feet per mile. Many Akaaquint or Green river Utahs were on the opposite bank as we encamped, and soon crossed it to beg tob)acco, and, if possible, to trade; (iressed deer-skins being the only article they offer for this purpose. 61

Page  62 NEAR VIEW OF BOOK MOUNTAIN. Our latitude at this camp was 38~ 57' 26", and our elevation above the sea 3,873 feet; average descent from camp to camp, 42~ feet per mile. October 1.-We crossed the river by an excellent ford, which we had observed the Indians crossing, from a few yards below our camp (on the Spanish trail) to an island opposite, and fiom its upper end to the shore. The river is 300 yards wide, with a pebbly bottom, as we forded it, but with quicksands on either side of our path. The water, rising just above the axletrees of our common wagons, flows with a strong current, and is colored by the red sandstone of the country through which it passes, having here the same red muddy character which the Colorado has far below, where it enters the Gulf of California. A fine field of blue-grass, in a grove of cotton-wood just above the ford, and the lateness of the hour, determined us to encamp for the benefit of our animals; but a recent overflow had left a fine deposit of sand on the grass, which made it unpalatable to them. Indians thronged our camp for several hours. They are the merriest of their race I have ever seen, except the Yumas-constantly laughing and talking, and appearing grateful for the trifling presents they receive. A wrinkled, hard-faced old savage, with whom I shared my luncheon of bread and bacon, quite laughed aloud with joy at his good fortune. They confirmed the report we had before heard, of a war between the Mormons and Wah-ka-ra's (Walker's) band of Utahs, and his absence in New Mexico to dispose of a herd of cattle which he had stolen from them. The Roan mountain, along which we have travelled for more than a week, extends quite to Green river, and forms one side of the canon through which it descends a few miles to the north of our present camp. Three miles to the north, if our recent guide is not mistaken, White river cuts the opposite side of this canion, passing, itself in a canon, through the southern point of Litt]e mountain, which lies chiefly between White and Green rivers, and forms the western side of the canon of the latter stream. But in reality Little mountain, which is united to the Wahsatch range on the west, is merely a continuation of the Roan, whose character and appearanceat a distance I have described at Blue river. Here, however, we are but a mile or two from its base, and its stratified rocks, nearly horizontal, are distinctly visible, extending on each side of the river on the same level. The mountain itself, as we see it here, is but a few hundred feet high, generally level on its summit; yet there are a few peaks and ridges rising above this common level, but their character is the same as the lower mountain, which has the appearance on the side towards us of recently-broken earth, as though the valley had just been sunken or the mountain thrust up, leaving its sides almost vertical-indeed, quite so with the higher strata, the talus having only accumulated at the base. This mountain wall, however, is very irregular; deep ravines and gorges extend back into it, giving it, with its regular strata presented to us, where no sign of vegetation exists, the appearance of an unfinished fortification, on a scale which is pleasing to the imagination, and contrasts the works of men strongly with those of nature. These walls may be in height from 300 to 500 feet; and its strata, in color, are red, blue, gray, and white. Desolate as is the country over which we have just passed, and around us, the view is still one of the most beautiful and pleasing I remember to have seen. As we approached the river yesterday, the ridges on either of its banks to the west appeared broken into a thousand forms-columns, shafts, temples, buildings, and ruined cities could be seen, or imagined, from the high points along our route. Fifty miles apparently below us on the river, the high snow-peaks of the Sierra Abajo are visible. Efforts were made to obtain a guide from among the Indians, but no one could be induced by a display of the trinkets, cloths, paints, and blankets they so much covet, to accompany us even to the Wahsatch Pass. October 2.-Our course this morning, for two hours, was a little south of west, gradually leavig the river. It then gently changed to northwest-our march being 16.76 miles, following the Spanish trail, generally over the same friable soil so often noted; but towards the latter part of the day, along the borders of a creek, in which we found a little standing water, over sandstone 62

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Page  63 FROM GREEN TO WHITE RIVER. hills, the upper strata of which were red, and the lower resembling the yellow argillaceous sandstonlle of the Aikansas river near Bent's Fort: a few slate ledges also crop out. We passed but very little grass, and but few cotton-wood trees were seen along the dry streams, sage covering the bottoms. At our camp to-night, on the hills, we have bunch-grass, and a fine cool spring of water, called Akanaquint by the Utahs. Average ascent per mile, 35 feet. October 3. —-Travelling sometimes in the bed of the creek, (dry above the spring,) and at others over the rocky, friable soil of the hills, we made but slow progress this morning-about six miles in as many hours-on the Spanish trail. Its course then bore off more strongly to the west, over very rocky, broken hills-and we left it, taking a northwest and a north-northwest course by compass, leaving these rocky hills to the left, and skirting along others to the right, as rocky but perhaps less broken and cut up transversely by can.ones. Following for some miles the bed of a dry creek which lies at the base of one of these innumerable bluffs, we eventually came upon the divide between the waters of White and Green rivers, and then, for four miles, descended the bed of another dry creek, running, as before, at the base of immense bluffs of sandstone, and very winding in its course, so that we travelled west, north and east, alternately, and once or twice a little south-encampingjust as the sun went down, after a march of 15.77 miles, on a little bunch-grass, where a small supply of saltish water leaks from the strata into the bed of the stream. These bluff ridges were apparently formed by the upheaval of the strata of sandstone, giving a long gradual ascent on one side, while they are broken off on the other nearly perpendicularly; and they succeed each other like rows of bricks laid in a receding manner, with the front ends tilted up and the opposite covered with earth. In a few instances the strata of red, yellow, gray, and white sandstone were observed bent; but they were generally in right lines, with a dip to the east-northeast. We passed occasional masses of conglomerate rocks, and on the hills scattering cedar trees and some fine fields of bunch-grass. The day was oppressively hot as we moved along the bluffs, the sun's rays being reflected with great force until he ceased to shine above the horizon. Ascent per mile, for 4.6 miles, 119 feet, and for 1.14 mile to where we left the Spanish trail, 165.7 feet per mile; but this last distance can be greatly increased. From this point, for 6.08 miles, the grade is upon the summit-level to the south of White river, succeeded by a descent, for 3.96 miles, of 111.3 feet per mile. October 4.-We followed the dry bed of the creek in which we had encamped for five miles, turning northwest as we approached White river, which we crossed nine miles from camp. This is a small stream, of cool muddy water, eight inches in depth by twenty-five feet in width, with a moderate current. Coarse dry cane-grass covered the bottom, where we came to the river among a grove of cotton-wood and willows; and dense fields of sage formed the border between it and the nearly barren hills. We encamped a mile above the crossing, on the thin bunchgrass of the hills. Average descent per mile, 16.4 feet. October 5.-Our course for five miles lay along the base of the mountain, with inclined benches intervening some four miles in width, cut transversely by dry mountain streams. White river winds very much among high hills, fiequently impinging against their bases, and at various points passing through narrow canones, rendering it quite impracticable to follow near it. Turning more westerly, we descended a dry creek for two miles and came upon Clever creek, a small branch of White river from the northwest, winding between high hills and bluffs, and encamped after a march of 8.72 miles-being timid about leaving the grass, which was here more than usually abundant. The soil to-day was less friable than heretofore; and the artemisia, except for a half mile just below camp, did not interfere with our progress. The night was cool and the morning chilly, making fires desirable; but before noon the sun was very hot. Average ascent, 41.85 feet to the mile. October 6.-Our northwest course was continued for four mniles and a half, when we left the branch on which we had encamped, turning to the west up a narrow valley, which we followed for some three miles, and then took an Indian trail leading W. S. W., crossing a low ridge to 63

Page  64 FROM WHITE RIVER TO THE SAN RAFAEL. another creek, which the trail descended for a couple of miles, and then ascended a hill towards White river, until we overlooked that stream just at our feet. But the descent was so steep that we were forced to turn from our southwest course directly north; and were then occupie two hours in descending the half mile of bluff to the river bank, crossing the stream and encamping on the opposite hill, having travelled by an unnecessarily serpentine path, 11.11 miles. The bunch-grass was thin on the hills and in the ravines, and the river-bottom only afforded willowbushes and dry cane-grass. Buffalo-berries grow in great abundance at our camp, and are esteemed very edible by the party, and are a fine relish when stewed. Latitude, by noon observation, 39~ 271 00".4. Average ascent, 23 feet per mnile. The Little mountain, sometimes from the regular appearance and variegated color of its strata, like the Roan, called the Book mountain, lay during to-day's march plainly in view from Green river north and west, to where it apparently joins the first range of the Wahsatch-a low mountain, resembling the former in all respects, which extends around to the west and southwest, \White river coming from a low depression in it nearly north of our present camp. Latitude 390 26' 48". October 7.-The thermometer at sunrise indicated 310, and at noon in the shade 820 Fahrenheit. Passing from the bluff on which we encamped last night, over rolling barren hills, we entered a small valley coming from the southwest, in which we again came upon the trail we were forced by the hills to leave yesterday, and followed it during the day in a very direct course, passing small pools of water occasionally, and fields of bunch and gramra grasses. Our camp, after a march of 13.26 miles, without reaching the summit of the hills drained by White river, is at one of these pools, in the bed of a creek, and the valley and hills promise favorably for our animals to-night. Ascent, 38 feet per mile. October 8.-Two miles from camp we passed the divide between the waters of the White and San Rafael rivers; and in eleven miles reached and crossed the latter stream, which at present, without the appearance of being swollen, is twice the size of the former, its waters deriving a milky appearance from the clay of its banks. There is not a tree at the point where we crossed this stream; a narrow bottom is covered with dry grass and willow-bushes, intermixed with the buffalo-beiry bush thickly covered with fruit. Two miles and a halt' from the San Rafael we came upon a branch of that river of half its size, with dry grass covering bottom-lands a half mile in width, with the usual bushes and a few cotton-wood trees on the margins of the creek. Captain Gunnison, who was in advance as we approached camp, observed an Indian ascending the opposite side of the valley, and, discharging his pistol, made signs for him to approach, which he did after some hesitation, galloping at a rapid rate with his rifle held ready for action, fearing we were Mormons, with whom he informed us his people were at war, boasting of their feats of prowess. At this camp the cochineal insect was observed on the prickly pear. Day's march, 13.17 miles. At sunrise the following morning the thermometer stood at 2t)~, and ice formed, in basins of water, a quarter of an inch thick; but before noon the thermometer was again above sumtnner heat. Average descent, 22 feet to the mile. October 10.-Two miles from camp, in a nearly southern course, we came again upon the Spanish trail, which we left a week ago to avoid the rocky hills which lay in front of us, passing to the north by a route which, from a want of knowledge of what route exactly to pursue to secure the best road and a supply of grass and water, may have been extended too far. We struck lower down on White river than it would be necessary to do if the march from Akanaquint spring to that river could be made in one day, or if water could be found at some intermediate point. The distance from the spring to the river, at a point near the northwest end of the Rock hills, can probably not exceed twenty-five miles. The Spanish trail itself; however, if it can be followed with wagons, is much shorter than the route here indicated; and 1 see no reason to apprehend any insurmountable obstacle from the appearance of the country, much of which was in view as we passed around it. But the distance from the Akanaquint spring to the Sanl 64

Page  65 EASTERN BASE OF THE WAHSATCH RANGE. Rafael by this trail may reach thirty miles; and although there was water on it at a point ten miles from the spring when we passed it, I did not see it, and am not informed as to its permanence. But, as the country is very broken and generally arid, only actual exploration can determine its practicability, which, however, I cannot think more difficult than the route we have followed, and it would certainly not be one-half the distance. The San Rafael also deserves an examination; for if it is practicable to ascend it, a better route might possibly be found to Grand river, from the confluence of the former with Green river, than the one we followed. The soil became more gravelly and firm to- day, while the hills are less difficult of ascent on their bluf sides; but they are equally barren-a few small cedars on the summit of the Wahsatch range, dry grass, willow and berry bushes, with a few cotton-wood trees along the streams, and a few small bunches of sage, being the only vegetation seen on a march of 11.40 miles. The third branch of the San Rafael, called Garambulla by the Indians, of the size of the second, we reached six miles from the morning camp and crossed at our present one. The few Utah Indians who live here seem to subsist almost entirely on the buffalo-berry, the bushes growing on the banks of the creeks in abundance. These berries, which are of the size of currants, grow in great profusion upon the smallest bushes, and are rattled off into skins spread under the bushes. The juice, which is very considerable, is expressed by the hands, and the residue eaten. These Indians are, however, many of them mounted, and we succeeded in purchasing horses from them. Ascent, 25.61 feet per mile. October 11.-The Spanish trail, though but seldom used of late years, is still very distinct where the soil washes but slightly. On some such spaces to-day we counted from fourteen to twenty parallel trails, of the ordinary size of Indian trails or horsepaths, on a way of barely fifty feet in width. Specimens of coal were brought in from the hills near camp, Captain Gunnison and Dr. Schiel differing in opinion as to its quality. A small variety of artemisia-and we have often seen it on the route-grows here in small quantities, of which our mules are quite as fond as of grass. We encamped on Big Rock creek, after a march of 13.46 miles. It is a small stream, destitute of timber. Ascent, 17 feet per mile. October 12.-Thermometer at sunrise 21~, and 720 Fahrenheit only during the day. The broken valley between the Rock hills, which occupy nearly the whole space between the Wahsatch mountains and Green river, is two miles in width at our last camp, six miles from which we descended a steep bluff, and crossed a small creek as it enters a canon in these hills. Four miles from this canon, we reached the foot of a small valley, on the eastern border of which a creek descends from the south from a spur of the Wahsatch range, which sets off to the southeast from the Wahsatch Pass. A series of sandstone spurs, rising one above another, sets down from this southern range, joining the Rock hills to the east, whilst numerous small lateral valleys branch off to the west towards the gorges, among sandstone peaks and tables overlying clay, which form the eastern range of the Wahsatch mountains. These bluish clay cliffs, from two hundred to three hundred feet high, are capped with red and argillaceous sandstone a hundred feet thick, and thence sweep gently up to the summits of the mountains.- The soil of the valleys varies from ashy friability, whitened more or less with effloresced salt, to hard clay sprinkled with pebbles-the whole country being utterly worthless. We encamped, having m-arched 15.65 miles, at Oak spring, which furnished us with an abundance of cool water; and a few acres of dry grass was found on a small stream near by, to which Captain Gunnison gave the name of the commander of his escort, Morris. Tewip Narrienta, or Powerful Earth, one of our Utah acquaintances of four days' standing, came up with us to-day, having overcome his fear of the Mormons so far as to determine him to accompany us three or four days as a guide. Many of our mules came into camp quite broken down, and, although appearing in good condition, are so weak and leg-weary from months of incessant labor, that it is with great difficulty they can haul our light wagons even a few miles a day. Average ascent, 53 feet to the mile. 9 g 65

Page  66 CHAPTER VI. From he eastrn bae of the eWahatch mountains, via the IVahsatch Pass and Sevier river, to near the Sevier lakce, the most qe,tern point of explorations, and back t Cedar springs, after the death of Captain Gunnison.- October 13 to 28, 1853. Akanaquint creek.-Rude figures drawn on rocks.-The Wahsatch Pass.-Character of the hills to the east and west of the pass.-Grades.-Tunnel.-Salt creek.-Swambah creek.-Spanish trail.-Un-got-tah-bi-kin creek.-Col. Burwell and Mr. Ross.-Tewip Narrienta.-Course of the Spanish trail to the west.-Wahsatch mountain reconnoissance.-Salt Creek canon: its length, character, and grades for a railroad.-Wagon trail.-Entering Sevier River valley.-Moot-se-ne-ah Peak.-Mountains surrounding the Sevier River valley.-Mormon settlements.-Vegetation of the valley.-Sevier river.-Captain Gunnison's statement of the result of his explorations for mail and military roads and for railroads.-Manner in which their duties were performed by the gentlemen of his party.-San Pete creek.-Road from Great Salt Lake to California.-Captain Gunnison's visits to Manti.-Cross the Sevier river.-Lake valley.-Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains.-Fillmore.-Sevier Lake valley.-Rabbit fences.-Return to the Sevier river.-Departure of Captain Gunnison and party to explore the Sevier lake.-Extract from his journal.-Party ascending the Sevier river.-Sand-hills.-River course.-Sage.-Caon of the Sevier river.-Un kuk-oap mountains terminate.-First intelligence of the disaster to Captain Gunnison's party.-Departure of Captain Morris to the scene of the attack.-Stragglers.-Movement of the train and party to Cedar springs.-Return of Captain Morris.-Scene of the disaster.-Bodies of the slain.-False charges against the Mormons. October 13.-Passing a low break in a ridge of hills to the south of our camp, after a ride of a mile we reached the Akanaquint, a small mountain brook of two feet in width, running over a stony bed, well skirted with bushes, but without grass. We turned up this creek nearly due west, following its narrow gorge, averaging in width from one hundred to two hundred yards, walled in on either side by high hills of nearly perpendicular sandstones, often water-worn into holes, from which, our Indian guide informed us, the stream received its name. He also told us that a circle in red, high up on a sheltered rock on the face of one of the hills, where some rude human figures are seen, also sketched in red lines, was called Akanaquint. These rude figures, in the place in which they are seen, were a great wonder to him, and he had often attempted to describe them to us during the previous day, telling us that they had been made by an American captain-all chief men of parties are captains with these Indians-who had passed here on his way to California, which the Indians know by the name of Monterey; and, in pointing them out to us, he seemed to think he was showing a remarkable sight. This gorge is cut into deep gullies by streams which pour down from the mountains during storms, which gave us some labor to cross; and a small stream coming in from the south also detained us a short time. But, after following it for two miles and a half, the Spanish trail branches; the southern branch, fbllowing the stream, passes over a higher elevation and soon rejoins the northern branch, which though longer, crosses the mountain at a lower depression. We followed this branch, the hills becoming less high above us, more open and smooth, and covered with dry grass and bushes, and, by a quite gentle and uniform ascent over a fine road, reached the summit of the Wahsatch Pass, the eastern rim of the Great Basin, three miles from the Akanaquint creek. The hills in the immediate vicinity of the summit scarcely rise above the pass, while the country, both to the north and south, as far as the eye can reach, is exceedingly rough. A large range, through which no pass is known to exist, bears off from this pass southeast towards the Sierra Abajo. To the west, but little can be seen over the intervening peaks, except the summits of the mountains, thirty miles distant, on the western border of the valley of the Sevier river. For two hundred yards the descent of the opposite slope is steep, but was passed with the same

Page  67 WAHSATCH PASS. ease as the ascent; and wve thence followed a small ravine of dry grass, varying in width from one hundred to three hundred yards, from the summit to our camp. Salt creek issues from springs in this ravine, half a mile from the summit of the pass, and flows into the Sevier (Nicollet) river. It derives its name from the crystallized salt found in the red-clay bluffs of the mountains, its waters being cool and fresh. A few grouse started up as we rode forward, and a large number of sand-hill cranes circled high above the mountains, uttering their peculiar note-pleasant sights to travellers over barren wastes, enlivened by animate nature only here and there, by a pigmy rabbit or a hungry raven. The hills, ravines, and peaks differ materially to the west or the summit from those to the east. Here, although vegetation is entirely withered by frost, it covers the whole face of the country and gives it a pleasant, cheerful aspect; whilst thereit is dreary and desolate indeed, relieved only at intervals by scattered sage, the grass of the river bottoms, and more rarely of the hill-tops. A keen northwest wind whistled about us during the day, sharpened by a few drops of rain, icy cold; but our camp-fires to-night burn brightly and pleasantly, the wind having subsided, while our animals have, for the first time for days, entirely ceased their disagreeable cry to feast on the abundant grass. The narrow sandstone ridge, passed just above our morning camp, can easily be cut for the passage of a railroad. Its summit is 129 feet above that camp, which is distant, in a direct line, sixty hundredths of a mile, which, however, can be considerably increased by taking advantage of the natural formation of the approach. On Akanaquint creek, one mile and eight hundredths above this point, we had ascended but 44 feet. In the next mile and sixty-six hundredths, the ascent is 232 feet, or 140 feet to the mile; and 253 feet in the following one and thirty-four hundredths ni'les, or 189 feet per mile, while it is 186 feet per mile for the next mile and seventy-four hundredths. From this point to the summit of the pass, it is twenty-two hundredths of a mile; the ascent being 49 feet, or 223 feet per mile. The altitude of this pass is 7,820 feet above the sea. From the summit, the descent westward is 218 feet per mile for the first mile and nine-tenths; and 137 feet per mile for the next mile and seven-tenths; and 202 feet per mile for the following ninety-seven hundredths of a mile to our camp. The defile character of this pass is such, that it must be approached by the line we followed without material extension, by which, however, a heavy uniform grade of 125 feet per mile can be carried, by a side location on the steep, rocky approach, after reaching the Akanaquint creek, to within one-third of a mile of the summit, where a short tunnel, with deep approaches, will be required-the whole not exceeding three fourths of a mile in length-diminishing the elevation to be overcome by from 175 to 200 feet, and giving a grade of 131 feet per mile for 3.6 miles west of the summit, and thence to the vicinity of our camp, or even less than this, by keeping on the side of the ravine above Salt creek. Latitude, by noon observations, a few hundred yards east of the summit, 38~ 45'37"., Salt creek, our Indian guide says, (as well as we can understand him, and the appearance of the mountains confirm his statement,) enters a large canion two miles below our camp, in a very direct course to the Sevier river. Through this canon, he says, there is a horse-trail, but that it is impossible for wagons to pass through it without removing the rocks. The stream, to where it enters this gorge, continues its easy descent. October 14.-Leaving the little valley of Salt creek, while a dense cloud enveloped the mountains, which, however, was soon dissipated by the sun, we passed over a small hill to the south, and almost immediately struck a fine little stream, which we ascended for half a mile, and then crossing another divide to the southwest, reached the Swam-bah, an ice-cold creek, two or three feet wide, falling over a rocky bed. This stream rises to the south in one of the highest ranges in the vicinity, on which are large banks of snow, and flows in a narrow ravine, in a nearly direct line for ten or fifteen miles, as seen from the summit of a high peak ascended during the day. It is densely lined, throughout its entire length, with willow-bushes, interspersed with aspens and a few spruce and pines. The Spanish trail, leading for a short distance up this creek, the guide repre 67 4

Page  68 CROSSING THE WAHSATCH MOUNTAINS. sented to be much more practicable than any other for wagons; and we therefore followed it for two miles and three-quarters, to where the trail leaves it. The labor on this short space was very considerable, occupying a large party the whole day in cutting willows and digging down the banks to allow us repeatedly to cross and recross the creek, and to pass along the narrow ravine; two wagons having overturned after the road was deemed practicable. Our progress was five miles during the day, encamping at sundown at the mouth of a beautiful ravine of abundant grass, with fine groves of aspen on the hill-sides-almost the only timber visible in this parl of the mountains-for our camp-fires; and the loveliness of our camp, in this mountain vale, is increased by a clear sky and bright moon. Barometers give us an elevation of 679 feet above our morning camp October 15.-Rising rapidlv for half a mile, the little ravine in which we had encamped terminated, and we ascended its eastern slope by a steep path through a small aspen grove; and then following the ridge, rising still more rapidly for the next half mile, we passed over its summit which divides the waters of the two little creeks of our last and present camps, the Swam-bah and Un-got-tah-bi-kin-an elevation considerably higher than that of the Wahsatch Gap. We then descended into the valley of the last-named creek, which we followed during the remainder of the day, encamping just before sundown at the junction of this with another small creek from the southeast. Here the valley opens to the width of half a mile, and the surrounding hills are much lower than those over which we have been passing. The hills and valleys in every direction sustain the character of those of the last two days, in beauty and in the luxuriance of the grass, and absence of large trees. The labor of preparing the road, though considerable in removing scrubby oaks, pines, cedars and rocks, was much less than that of the preceding day; but we only made eight and a fourth miles from early morning to late evening, having passed a high mountain and descended 1,100 feet below the level of our morning camp. Colonel Burwell and Mr. Ross, from the party emigrating to California and driving stock for that market, who have continued to follow our route during the summer, from a week to ten days behind us, came into our camp just after dark, with their horses quite broken down from hard riding, having left their party at Green river and taken six days to make the distance which has occupied us for two weeks. Having exhausted their supply of provisions, they have come to us for relief, and will return to-morrow to meet their friends with the small amount we are able to furnish them. I have already noticed their loss of fine horses by a stampede, as we were starting out. A similar misfortune overtook them above Fort Atkinson, on the Arkansas river, attended with the loss of several of their riding-animals. Some of their sheep fell sore-footed while on that part of the route, also, and were unable to travel; and recently, near Green river, they were forty hours without water, and a few of their cattle, coming to water in a miry pool, crowded over each other with such violence that some of t hem were never recoveredfo e mire. The Indians on the Uncompahgra had threatened to fight them if they persisted in coss ing their country, but, finding they could not intimidate them, did not attempt to execute the through the lowern settlements in this aTerritory, they were so repre senteda fact which bearse directly upon the grass on this route. Timber upon the mountains, near our camp, alone is wanting to make the evening scenery, iu the clear full moon, as delightful as mountain travellers can desire. October 17.-Our Utah guide, Tewip Narrienta, left us this morning to return to his squaw andl papoose, for whom he expressed much fear lest in his absence they might suffier for want of food; but, as they were subsisting when he left them or] the still abundant en-carpe, or buffalo-berries, gathered by the squaw, there was no doubt that his anxiety was attributable to our proximity to the Mormon settlements. He repeatedly warned us against these people. His services for the few days that he was with us were valuable; for he was one of the best guides I have ever seen, 68 .

Page  69 SALT CREEK CANON AND SEVIER RIVER VALLEY. and was as good a judge of natural wagon roads as any one, and was of course familiar with his own hunting-grounds. Crossing the creek near our camp in the morning, we ascended a low depression in a high ridge to the northwest, and descended by a good road for two or three miles, to a narrow ravine. Near the head of this ravine, the Spanish trail turns to the west up another small ravine, and passes over two series of hills, divided by large depressions and creeks, and then crosses the Sevier river, as we are informed, below the junction of its main forks; thence it ascends the San Pasqual, and passes over the west range of the Wahsatch mountains to the vicinity of Little Salt lake "on a route," Captain Gunnison says, and a large section of it was plainly in sight, " entirely unsuitable for a railroad." We continued to follow the Indian trail down the first ravine, which was very narrow and rocky, with a deep channel winding from side to side, which had constantly to be cut to allow the wagons to pass, and for which, rocks, small cedars, and pines had also to be removed. White, red, and blue clays, and coarse sandstone, formed the sides of the ravine; and it was apparent that, in passing from the district of igneous rocks, we were descending from the fine grazing regions of the mountains to the arid districts of the plains. Eight and a half miles from camp we again crossed Salt creek, which has united with the other small branches we have passed on this slope of the mountains, and is here a fine stream, twenty feet in width, with a strong current. "I have reconnoitred," says Captain Gunnison, "much of this mountain and hilly region while the party has been engaged in its passage. From a high ridge which I ascended on the 14th instant, the valleys of the San Pasqual and Sevier rivers were plainly marked out, and to the northwest a broad opening in the mountains, the passage of the Sevier river, presented itself. On all sides were mountains, peaks, and ridges, abrupt bluffs with white cliffs capping the summits; and the deep canon, which has driven us over a mountain much higher than the summit of the pass itself, lay three miles to the north. Through this a railroad track might be made, but, owing to the cutting of rock, at a very great expense." The cauon which we thus passed around, by a circuit of twenty miles, cannot exceed sixteen miles in length; but its walls must be often broken by the entrance of lateral streams, and are not generally perpendicular. The altitude of our camp of the 13th instant, two miles above the head of this canon, is 6,975 feet, to which seventy-five feet should be added to connect at that point with the estimated grade for a road, which will require an average descent of ninety-five feet per mile for the eighteen miles intervening between that camp and our present position, 1,706 feet below it. A pleasant sight to us, in crossing this creek, was a few wagon-tracks, after months of toiling without a road, and frequently without trails even, in an unexplored and wild country. These wagons had been here, as we subsequently learned, to procure salt, which is shovelled from the red clay hills, where it is found in the mountains, and is itself red. Following the creek for 2.65 miles, with a descent of ninety-one feet per mile, we entered the broad valley of the Sevier river, leaving the high mountains we have crossed to the east, a beautiful high peak of which, capped with white sandstone or clay, the Indians call Moot-se-ne-ah. To the south, perhaps fifty miles, the valley is terminated by a high cross range, from each end of which a main branch of the Sevier river descends-the eastern being known as the Se-ki-ber, the Indian name of the mountain; on the west a range of the Wahsatch mountains, Un-kuk-oo-ap, extends to the north, until broken by the passage of the river, beyond which, in a low range, it still extends to the north; to the east of this range, and north of our present camp, a fine valley sets off from that of the river, and is watered by several fine mountain streams, tributaries of the Sevier, on which there are considerable Mormon settlements. The width of the Sevier River valley is from four to seven miles, and its length from fifty to sixty, without a tree, and with but little vegetation of any kind, even the sage-bushes being thin and scattered. As we entered it, we bore down the river to the north in search of grass, which is very limited, even in the river bottom, and is confined almost exclusively to its western bank. We encamped, however, on its 69

Page  70 RESULTS OF THE SURVEY. eastern bank, on a small field of dry scattered grass, after a march of 14.27 miles, descending twenty-seven feet per mile for the last 3.13 miles, from the foot of the mountain, to the river. The altitude of this camp is 5,019 feet. The river winds from side to side of an immense ditch, with banks cut perpendicularly in the clay soil, from six to ten feet above the surface of the water. This channel, which may be a hundred yards wide, encloses also the bottom lands and all the grass of this immense valley. The stream is thirty-five yards wide by one deep, with a moderate current; and it winds so constantly in this narrow passage that it is very difficult, standing on its banks, to follow its course with the eye. The bottom lands are but a few inches above the surface of the water, and are annually overflowed. In entering this valley, Captain Gunnison, with two or three men, rode forward, in advance of his party, ",and enjoyed the scene extremely. On reaching this plain a stage is attained," he says, "which I have so long desired to accomplish: the great mountains have been passed and a new wagon road open across the continent-a work which was almost unanimously pronounced impossible, by the men who know the mountains and this route over them. " The result is, a new mail and military road to Taos, in New Mexico, by way of Fort Massachusetts; which, with a little work on Gunnison's creek and a hill near Taos, will be very direct and easy, with excellent feed and water all the way. c; 2d. A road for the southern States to California, and for emigrants who are late in starting from the States. " 3d. A military road to, and command of, the Utah country, passing into the centre of the territory of that people at Grand river, from whence radiate trails to all points of the compass. " 4th. It is demonstrated that, for a railroad route, it is far inferior to the Middle Central, by Medicine Bow river, and Laramie plains. It passes some thousands of feet higher, and also lower, and is much longer from St. Louis. " To the energy, zeal, and ability of Lieutenant Beckwith, and Brevet Captain Morris, in superintending the working parties and conducting the train, the expedition is greatly indebted. That a road for nearly seven hundred miles should have been made over an untrodden track, (except in some places by pack-mules and footmen,) through a wilderness all the way, and across five mountain ranges, (the Sierra Blanca, San Juan, Uncompahgra, Sandstone, and Wahsatch,) and a dry desert of seventy miles between Grand and Green rivers, without deserting one of our nineteen wagons, and leaving but one animal from sickness and one from straying, and this in two and a half months, must be my excuse for speaking highly of all the assistants on this survey." October 18.-Through the negligence of the men in charge of the mules, they were allowed to wander entirely away from the camp, and some of them were found thirteen miles back on the road near our previous camp. It was half-past 12 o'clock, therefore, before we started on our course down the Sevier river, following the wagon track for eight miles, in the course of which we crossed a small creek coming in from towards the Moot-se-ne-ah Peak, which stands out high and clear against the eastern sky. The wagon track here leading to the northeast, we left it, following the course Of the river, and encamped a short distance from it in a fine field of grass on San Pete creek, which flows from the valley containing the settlements to which I have before alluded. Captain Gunnison, who had been out during the day in search of a settlement, returned to camp without having succeeded in his object. Our progress was 11.82 miles; the themometer at sunrise standing at 28~, and in the shade, at noon, at 81~ Fahrenheit. October 19.-After proceeding a mile and a half, we came upon another wagon trail more beaten than the previous one, leading from the San Pete valley directly down the river. Six miles from camp we crossed a small stream with miry banks, the bed of which was lined with a plant emitting a strong pole-cat odor. Four miles from this creek the valley of the Sevier river is terninated by the close proximity of the hills on either side, leaving but little bottom land, and no natural road-way except on the hills, where one can easily be carried. Passing along the hills near the -river, among sage and scattered cedar-bushes, we again come to its banks 70

Page  71 FROM THE SEVIER RIVER TO FILLMORE. nineteen miles from our last camp, where we have abundant grass on the right bank of the stream, but it has a strong taste of salt. October 20.-Two miles and a half from camp we came upon the road leading from the Great Salt lake to California, by the way of Fillmore and Parawan, (Mormon settlements,) the Vegas de Santa Clara, and Walker's Pass, and encamped perhaps a mile above Fremont's point of crossing the Sevier river in 1844. This was a very pleasant autumnal day, for we had not to record a change of temperature from sunrise to mid-day of from forty to sixty degrees, to which we have become so accustomed in these valleys. Captain Gunnison left us at our camp of yesterday morning, and proceeded up the valley of San Pete, or the northeastern extension of the valley of the Sevier river, to the settlement at Manti City, eighteen miles from that camp. He found the settlers, a hundred families, all gathered into a village for mutual protection against the Utah Indians, who have killed several of the citizens, destroyed their mills, and driven off some of their stock; but this has been accomplished by no means with impunity. A strong guard was posted at this settlement at night. Having procured some necessary supplies and guides (two brothers, G. G. and William Potter) to accompany him to the Sevier lake, Captain Gunnison rejoined us this evening at a late hour. October 21.-The thermometer at sunrise stood at 14~. The country from our camp to the canon of the river being broken, and the guides never having passed through it, we crossed the river and followed the California road, passing a low range of bills, within a short distance, into a small valley in the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains-the Indian name of the range lying in the bend of the Sevier river. This valley, from a small pond which stands several miles to the south of the road, is called Lake valley. To the south of this pond there is said to be an easy pass descending by a creek to the Sevier river. This, if practicable, would lessen the distance considerably from the point where we first came upon the river, westward to this point. Sage grows luxuriantly in this mountain valley, which we followed for ten miles, and passed easily over the mountain lying west of it to the valley of the Sevier lake. The range is finely covered with grass quite down to the sage plains, and is dotted with a growth of small cedar and oak, and is a fine pastoral district. The Sevier valley below the canon, opens broad to the west and south. We encamped, after a march of 24.18 miles, at Cedar springs, 10.21 miles from the settlement of Fillmore, which is situated on Chalk creek, at the base of the mountains, on a scarcely perceptibje slope that descends into the Sevier valley. On the following morning Captain Gunnison visited Fillmore, and returned to camp in the evening. In crossing almost any of the Basin mountains, long lines of sage-bushes are seen pulled up and thrown on the ground-a single bush in a place, at intervals of a few feet. These lines partially enclose considerable spaces, and are said to be used by the Indians in catching rabbits; but as we never saw them used, it is impossible to understand of what service they can be, for at least nine-tenths of the lines are left open and unobstructed. October 23.-Yesterday morning, at sunrise, the thermometer stood at 140; this morning it stood at 15~, and the cold northwest wind which prevailed during the day, gave us a foretaste of winter. Between eleven and twelve o'clock we moved in a northwest direction across the valley towards the Sevier river, our guides thinking it possible that we might find water after travelling seven or eight miles; there being at that point, in the spring, a small mountain stream. We, however, found no water, and continued on towards the river until eight o'clock, when, the night being dark and very cold, we halted, and tied up our animals without water or grass; but their hardship was relieved by a small allowance of corn to each, which Captain Morris had fortunately procured for his animals at Fillmore. October 24.-As early as we could see, the thermometer standing at 12~, we moved forward, and at ten o'clock reached the Sevier river at a point well supplied with dry grass, which our animals required after a march of 25.43 miles, on which we were engaged for twenty-two hours, over large, rank sage-bushes and a friable soil, occasionally sandy. Indeed, this whole valley, some 71

Page  72 GUNNISON'S TRIP TO THE SEVIER LAKE. fifty or sixty miles in diameter, is one vast artemisia plain surrounded by grassy mountains. Geese and ducks were numerous on the river, and a large herd of antelope were seen yesterdaythe first for many weeks. Latitude, 39~ 20' 57"; altitude, 4,692 feet above the sea. October 25.-Captain Gunnison, with Mr. R. H. Kern, Mr. F. Creutzfeldt, and Mr. Wm. Potter, (guide,) with John Bellows, and a corporal and six men from the escort, left camp at a late hour this morning to explore the vicinity of Sevier lake, supposed to be distant some fifteen or eighteen miles. From Captain Gunnison's journal I extract the description of the country and operations of the party during the day, written after they had encamped for the night: "I came down the river southwest for nine miles, and then, bearing more west for two miles, concluded to encamp, as the water below might prove too salt. The route was through heavy artemisia for five miles, when we came upon more open plains to the nine-mile point, where we met with sloughs alive with geese, ducks, brant, pelicans, and gulls. A few hawks were careering in the high wind, and the black-eared and black-tailed rabbits were very numerous in the large artemisia "The mountains wore all day their white night mantle of snow, and we had squalls from the north, with snow falling on the high mountains on all sides of us. Towards sunset it brightened up a little, and our hunters brought in four ducks of as many different varieties." The remainder of the surveying party left under my charge, with the escort under Captain Morris, crossed the river at an excellent ford at the point of our encampment, immediately after the departure of Captain Gunnison, and, agreeably to his request, proceeded up the river in a northeast direction, encamping at a late hour on the river bottom where it is unusually wide. The river at this point makes a long bend in the plain to the south, passing through drifting sand-hills partially covered with artemisia. We had passed southward to avoid these hills in crossing from Cedar spring to the river, and to-day we passed to the west of the largest of them, yet our route was very heavy and the labor severe on our animals. The day, too, was cold and blustering, with occasional slight squalls of snow in the plains, while in the mountains it fell during the greater part of the day. Those of us who were mounted halted frequently-the wagons coming on very slowly-and built fires of sage, which being resinous burnt very freely, with a large flame for the moment, giving out abundant heat. With the setting sun the wind went down, and the night was clear and cold; and at a late hour the pure mountain snows reflected beautifully the clear light of the waning moon, while all around was quietness and repose. The gap by which the -Sevier river passes the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains is called a canon; but at this distance-six miles directly in front of us to the northeast —it appears like anything but a cafion passage, although the river may wind from side to side, striking against the foot of the mountains, preventing an easy passage for wagons in its natural state. A large Indian trail, however, passes directly up the river into it. This range of mountains, as seen from our preent and last camps, seems to terminate a few miles to the north, leaving a broad, open passage of several miles between it and the succeeding range to the west, in which the waters of the Sevier and Great Salt lakes are divided only by gentle slopes. Distance, 14.27 miles. October 26.-The morning was clear and cold, and Mount Nebo, seen through the Sevier river gap, with its pure mantle of snow, half enveloped in floating misty clouds, mildly reflecting the rays of the rising sun, presented one of the most beautiful mountain scenes I have ever witnessed. Our animals were kept out to graze until a late hour. At 11 o'clock, however, a party was despatehed to ascertain the practicability of the passage around the mountain and thence north to the Great Salt lake; and, without moving camp again until the return of Captain Gunnison, it was intended to examnine thre passage of the Sevier river the following day. But the first party had scarcely proceeded a hundred yards from camp, when it was met by a man, weak and exhausted, reeling breathless into camp, barely able to comlmunicate, by a few broken sentences, as he sank into a seat, the painful intelligence that Captain Gunnison's party had been surprised in their camp by a large party of Indians, and, he thought, all but himself massacred. Orders were instantly given by Captain Morris, and promptly obeyed by all the men remain 72

Page  73 DEATH OF CAPTAIN GUNNISON AND COMRADES. ing with him of his escort, to replenish their ammunition; and having brought up and saddled their horses, in thirty minutes they were moving rapidly towards the scene of that fatal disaster, hoping to rescue all who might yet survive and perform the last mournful duties of humanity to those who were known to have fallen. The man who first reached camp was the corporal of the escort, who had made his escape on his horse, and had ridden him until he could go no ftrther, leaving him at our camp of the previous day, whence he ran on foot fourteen miles-twenty-five in all-arriving, without arms, in the condition I have described. Another of the escort reached camp on horseback, l)efore Captain Morris' departure; and two others were met by him in the course of the after noon, making their way towards camp. The horses of Dr. Schiel, who had accompanied Cap tain Morris, and of his sergeant and several of his men, gave out during their rapid march, and their riders were left straggling behind; but eventually all arrived safely in camp-the sergeant and some of the men, from their own folly, in a poor plight. Before Captain Morris' departure the train animals were driven in, with the intention at first of removing the train to a more secure place, with the two young gentlemen, Homans and Sny der, and the teamster force, some of whom were unarmed, to guard it. But it was subsequently determined to break up the camp altogether, and move towards a convenient point, where Cap tain Morris and myself could meet on the following or succeeding (lay, and take such measures for future operations as circumstances might require, with better means within our reach than we could command at any other point. Crossing the river at the camp, we took the shortest line to escape from the sand, which proved far heavier than that of the previous day, but it was 7.44 miles in a southeast course, beyond a border of small cedars a mile wide, among which the sand was so drifted that it was only by innumerable windings and contortions of teams and wagons, that we at last escaped from it and reached the plain of grass a mile or two wide, which here lies on the gradual slope of the mountain. Here we encamped. In crossing the sand-hills numerous fresh Indian tracks were seen, notwithstanding the prevalence of a high wind; but the night passed quietly, and at sunrise we travelled southward along the base of the mountain, hoping to escape a continuation of the sand of the previous day, in which we were only partially successful, however, as it continued heavy for ten miles. We then passed a spur of the mountain and changed our course from south to southeast, and struck the trail we had made in going from Cedar spring to the Sevier river, six miles from the spring, at which we found a large camp of Mormons, onl their way to settle at Parawan, near Little Salt lake. Here we encamped and turned our animals out to graze on the hills; the 20.93 miles of to-day being the severest day's labor performed by them, although the day was cool, during the whole course of our long summer journeyings. The last of our animals were not out of harness when Captain Morris arrived, confirming our worst fears for the fate of our late comrades. Captain Gunnison had encamped early in the afternoon, while the wind and storm were yet fresh, and doubtless feeling the security which men come to indulge after passing long periods of time surrounded by savages without actually encountering them. The abundant grass and fuel of a little nook in the river bottom, sheltered by the high second bank of the river on one side, and thick willows, distant scarcely thirty yards, on two of the others, with the river in front, offered a tempting place of comfort and utility, which was perhaps accepted without even a thought of danger. It was known to the party that a band of Indians was near them, for we had seen their fires daily since entering the valley; but an unusual feeling of security against them was felt, as Captain Gunnison had learned that a recent quarrel, resulting in several deaths, which they had had with emigrants, had terminated, and that notwithstanding this difficulty they had remained at peace with the neighboring settlers, which had been confirmed and guarantied for the future in a "talk" held with some of the Indians of this band, by an agent of the governor of the Territory, during our stay near Fillmore. This information, Cap lo t 73

Page  74 DEATH OF CAPTAIN GUNNISON AND COMRADES. tain Gunnison told me before leaving, relieved him from any apprehension he might otherwise have felt regarding this band, and was the reason for his having asked for so small an escort to accompany him, which he as well as his guide, an experienced citizen of the Territory, deemed sufficient. The usual precaution of a camp guard had been taken, each of the party (including the commander) in turn having performed that duty during the night. At the break of day all arose and at once engaged in the usual duties of a camp preparatory to an early start, to reach that day the most distant point of exploration for the present season. The sun had not yet risen, most of the party being at breakfast, when the surrounding quietness and silence of this vast plain was broken by the discharge of a volley of rifles and a shower of arrows through that devoted camp, mingled with the savage yells of a large band of Pah-Utah Indians almost in the midst of the camp; for, under cover of the thick bushes, they had approached undiscovered to within twenty-five yards of the camp-fires. The surprise was complete. At the first discharge, the call to "seize your arms" had little effect. All was confusion. Captain Gunnison, stepping from his tent, called to his savage murderers that be was their friend; but this had no effect. They rushed into camp, and only those escaped who succeeded in mounting oin horseback, and even then they were pursued for many miles. The horse of one fell near camp, tumbling his rider under a bush, where he lay for six or seven hours, while the Indians were passing him on every side, until finally he could no longer hear them near him or in the camp, when he left, and was met soon afterwards by Capt. Mormis' party, which reached the fatal spot just before night. Two Indians were seen a mile or two from camp by Lieutenant Baker and Mr. Potter, brother of the guide, but they were not able to come up with them before night enabled them to escape. The bodies of the slain were not all found at dark, and hope still lingered as a bright fire was built to assure any survivor of safety. But the long weary night, rendered hideous by the howling of wolves, wore away, as this little bandl of armed men, barely larger than that which had already been sacrificed, lay near the fatal spot, and day dawned only to discover the mutilated remains of their recent comrades, none of them being scalped-a barbarity which some of the tribes on this part of the continent seldom indulge. Some of their arms were, however cut off at the elbows, and their entrails cut open; and, the wolves having had access to them during the day and to those exposed during the night, their bodies were in such a condition that it was not deemed possible to bring them away-not even that of Captain Gunnison, who had fallen pierced with fifteen arrows. The statement which has from time to time appeared (or been copied) in various newspapers of the country since the occurrence of these sad events, charging the Mormons or Mormon authorities with instigating the Indians to, if not actually aiding them in, the murder of Captain Gunnison and his associates, is, I believe, not only entirely false, but there is no accidental circumstance connected with it affording the slightest foundation for such a charge. 74

Page  75 CHAPTER VII. From Cedar Spring, by way of Xephi, Payson, Palmyra, Springville, Provo, Pleasant Grove, Lake City, Lehi, Willow creek, and Cottonwood settlements, to Great Salt Lake City.-October 28 to November 8, 1853. Pioneer creek.-Citizens of Fillmore.-Messrs. Call and Richards -Express to Great Salt Lake City.-Courtesy and assistance from Mr. Call and Governor Young.-Papers and property recovered.-Kenosh's account of the murder.-Excitement of our men.-Course from the Coochetopa Pass to the Wahsatch Pass.-Character of the country firom the Wahsatch Pass to Little Salt lake and Vegas de Santa Clara: its impracticability for a railroad.-Railroad following the Sevier river.-Western limit of the explorations of 1853.-Unobstructed passage from Sevier lake to Great Salt lake.-Return to Sevier river.-Appearance of Sevier River canon.-Village of Nephi.-Payson.-Spanish fork.-Palmyra.-Provo.-Timpanogos river.-Western range of the Wahsatch mountains.-Line of Mormon settlements.-Supplies purchased.-Lake Utah.-Reference to Stansbury's Report.-Winter camp.-Condition of animals crossing the Plains.-Winter quarters at Great Salt lake. October 2S.-We moved our camip to Pioneer creek, three miles southeast of Cedar spring, to obtain better grazing for our stock. Messrs. Snow and Richards, from Great Salt Lake City, travelling on a mission to the lower settlements in the Territory, called at our camp. October 29.- A party of the citizens of Fillmore, headed by their president, Mr. Anson Call, and accompanied by Mr. Richards from Great Salt Lake City, came to our camp to request Captain Morris to furnish the particulars of the disaster of the 26th instant, to be forwarded by express to the governor of the Territory of UItah, which express could also take dispatches, for the War Department, to Great Salt Lake City, in time for the mail of the 1st of Novemberwhich would be the last that could be depended upon to reach the States before the next springprovided these dispatches could be furnished within two or three hours. Hasty notes were accordingly written, without time to take copies for future reference, and reached Great Salt Lake City, at a reasonable expense to the government, just in time for the mail. President Call and Mr. Richards, taking an interest in the survey, tendered us all the aid within their power, and the former voluntarily took upon himself the task of recovering from the Indians the papers and instruments they had captured; for which I furnished presents to reward the exertions of the friendly Indians who were to be employed. These efforts of Mr. Call proved entirely successful, and we had the pleasure, a few days subsequent to our arrival at Great Salt Lake City, of receiving at the hands of the agents of the governor of the Territory, Brigham Young, who had received them from Mr. Call, all the notes, most of the instruments, and several of' the arms lost —the latter muchII injured, but the former in good condition. Several mules and horses were also recovered, some of them at a later day by Indian agents, acting under the Governor's instructions. Governor Young, immediately on the receipt of the intelligence of the mnassacre, dispatched a party to the scene of the tragedy to bury the dead, and, if possible, remove the remains of Captain Gunnison and others, and recover the property captured in the camp. In the last object, however, as I have stated, he had been anticipated; and in the kindly office of the first, unfortunately, the wolves had left but the slightest traces of the remains of the dead to receive the solemn rite of burial. October 30.-Kenosh, the chief of the band of murderers, arrived at Fillmnore, having been sent for by Mr. Call, accompanied by fifteen or twenty of his people. He brought with him one of the public horses lost by Captain Gunnison's escort, "which," he said, "he had taken from the fellow who came to him with the intelligence of their successful operation, and hastened to return it, meeting Mr. Call's messenger (who had been sent for him) on the way; that he deeply regretted

Page  76 RAILROAD LINE WEST FROM THE WAHSATCH PASS. the tragedy; that it was done without authority, by the young men-boys, as he called them of the band, who had no chief with them, or it would not have happened." He subsequently informed the Governor's agent that there were thirty of his people in the party, two of whom were its instigators, seeking revenge for the death of their father, who, they said, had been killed by emigrants but a few days before. A few of our men were in Fillmore on the arrival of Kenosh, and caused'the authorities some apprehension-Captain Morris receiving a note from them, deprecating the indignation of our men against the Indians, and hoping we would restrain it within killing limits-fearing that they would retaliate upon the exposed settlers after our departure. It will be observed that we have been forced much further north in our course west from the Coochetopa Pass than had been anticipated when the instructions were issued fixing the vicinity of the Vegas de Santa Clara as the western limit of the survey. The pass in the Wahsatch mountains was also found considerably to the north of its anticipated locality, and the broken and mountainous character (given by our recent guides, and confirmed by observations from the summit of the Wahsatch mountains) of the country intervening between this pass and the Little Salt lake and Vegas de Santa Clara was such that Captain Gunnison deemed it impracticable for a railroad, but, if practicable, by no means desirable, as, in his opinion, it would necessarily increase the distance from the Wabsatch Pass to any known pass in the Sierra Nevada beyond what it would be by passing down the Sevier river and north of the lake of that name. ie determined therefore to descend this river to the vicinity of the Sevier lake-a point considerably to the north of the Vegas de Santa Clara, but in nearly the same longitude; and thence turn northward, on a return route by the way of Lake Utah. In our course down the Sevier or Nicollet river, as has been seen, we crossed it on its northern bend, and thence passed over the range of mountains which it partially encloses, to the broad open plain of the Sevier lake, and again crossed to the right bank of the river. No other than the most ordinary obstructions exist to the construction of a railroad from the foot of the Wahsatch Pass to the western point of our explorations, passing the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains through the gorge of the Sevier river; for, although we did not pass through this canon, as it is called, we could see entirely through it at either end as we passed it. It is apparently without walls, but the mountains rise abruptly from the river bank. Twenty miles perhaps to the west of this point mountains are again seen, apparently in detached broken masses. To the north, as before stated, no obstruction could be seen to an easy passage to the Great Salt lake. October 31.-We re-crossed the Sevier river, encamping half a mile north of our camp of the 20th instant. Distance, 28.24 miles. November the road in a general course a little to the east of north, at a short distance from the river, a broken range of hills intervening for three or four miles, we came opposite the upper end of the Sevier River canion, which appears no more difficult of passage from this than the opposite end. Nine miles from camp we passed a small creek, spreading out in some places into little sheets of water, covered with ducks and lined with grass. It breaks through the high hills to our left in its course to the river. We travelled up its valley, along the course of the mountains on our right, for ten or twelve miles; and, by an almost imperceptible change of level, came upon the slope towards Salt creek, which we reached, after a ride of 24.85 miles, at the small settlement of Nephi. Seventy men with their families constitute this settlement, which, on account of Indianl depredations, is concentrated at present in a little villageeach settler bringing in with him, not only his ricks of corn and hay, but his little log-house. Salt creek, which runs into Utah lake, descends from a canon of the mountain just to the east of the village, directly at the southern base of a high peak called Mount Nebo. The creek takes its name from salt springs on its banks. November 3. —Passing northward down Salt creek at the base of the mountains, we crossed Willow creek eight miles from Nephi, and three or four finle springs eleven and a half miles from 6

Page  77 MORMON SETTLEMENTS. that place, one of which sends out a fine bold stream of cold water. Just below these springs Salt creek finds a passage through the small ridge to the west, and the road ascends a low divide, from which we bad the first view of Utah lake; and a little distance from the divide we came upon Summit creek, nineteen miles from Nephi, where a small settlement has been broken up by the Indian difficulties. Three miles from this we passed another fine creek, with cultivated fields to the left of the road, and encamped at Payson, a fine little village on a stream called Peteet nete, 25.1S miles from our morning camp. November 4.-Five miles and a half from Payson we crossed the Spanish fork, where it was twenty feet wide and two feet deep; a mile and a quarter from which we passed throughPalmyra a fine settlement irrigated by the waters of this stream. The road was very tortuous, winding around fields, irrigating ditches, and spring places in the level valley of Utah lake, which was just on our left. Thirteen miles from Payson we passed through Springville, on Hobble creek an older and finer settlement than we had before seen, with some good adobe houses, a few of which were of two stories. The road then followed close along the base of the mountains for 6.37 miles, to the settlement of Provo, on the Timpanogos river. This river, at the present low stage of water, runs in several small stony channels, so divided that it is not easy to give its dimensions; but its current is deep and rapid, with at least double the volume of the Spanish fork. The canon of this stream is two or three miles northeastof this settlement. It is narrow at the bottom, but appears favorable for the construction of a road hence to Kamas prairie. The western range of the Wabsatch mountains, (at the western base of which we have been travelling for several days,) standing on the eastern border of the Great Basin, is continuous, extending north and south over five degrees of latitude, from the vicinity of Little Salt lake to north of Bear river, broken only by the passage of the Sevier, Timpanogos, Weher, and Bear rivers. Their altitude, at 3,000 feet above the general level of the country, is quite uniform; but it occasionally falls down to 2,000, and at a few points rises to 4,000 and 4,500 feet. Their western slope is very steep-often inaccessible-presenting generally a formidable barrier to the entrance of a railroad into the Basin from the east. Many small streams descend from them; and as far as their disintegrations have teen deposited at their base upon the alkaline plains of the Basin, it forms a rich soil. This line of deposit is narrow, and not continuous, but varying in width where it is found, from two or three miles to ten or twelve at a few points, as opposite Utah and Great Salt lakes, where it occupies the entire space from the mountains to the lake shores. It is to this narrow belt of land that the Mormon settlements are almost exclusively confined, the isolated settlements being upon similar deposits in small valleys at the bases of other mountains, the small mountain streams upon which, of course, these deposits are the richest, and chiefly exist, being used for irrigation. Respectable crops of wheat and oats are produced, and barley has been cultivated to some extent; but corn does not flourish well. The grass of this district and of the higher mountain valleys is excellent; and potatoes and other roots are produced in abundance, and of a superior quality. Supplies were freely furnished to us by the authorities of the settlements through which we passed, at reasonable rates. November 5.-Leaving the Timpanogos river, we ascended a high bluff to a table extending along the base of the mountains. The road for eight miles was very fine, and the view of Utah lake the best we had had, reminding us of those of western New York. It is twenty-five miles in length, north and south, by twelve in width, with fine, irrigable lands on the east, and pasture lands on the west; the whole enclosed by high-mountains, with low passages to the south and north, through the latter of which its outlet, the river Jordan of the Mormons, dlescend3s to Great Salt lake. Coming opposite the ravine from which Battle creek descends, we again passed to the lower level, passing through the village of~ Pleasant Grove to that of Lake City, on the Amrerican fork, which is a few miles nearly east from the foot of the lake. Altitude, 4,596 feet above the sea. 77

Page  78 TERMINATION OF THE FIELD WORK OF 1853. November 6. We passed Lehi settlement on Dry creek, and, eight miles from Lake City, ascended a small ridge, along the side of which, towards the river Jordan, the road is cut in gravel banks, passing from the valley of Utah lake to that of Great Salt lake. For the description of this valley I beg to refer you to the survey and able report of Captain Howard Stansbury, of the corps of Topographical Engineers, made in the years 1849 and 1850. On the Sth of November our party arrived in Great Salt Lake City, and on the 12th the animals were sent to graze for the wvinter, in charge of a strong guard, in Cedar valley, a few miles west of Utah lake. The season of the year was so tmuch advanced, and the condition of our animals-especially of the American grain-fed horses, upon which the escort was mounted-was such, after our long summer's labor, that it was Captain Gunnison's intention, had he survived, to have terminated his field operations for the present season by the examination he was engaged upon at his death, and by a reconnoissance, more or less minute, of the canon of the Timpanogos river. He would then have taken up quarters for the winter, a[ld have prepared and submitted a report of the explorations of the summer. The expediency of this course will be manifest, and its necessity evident, from the fact that our train animals for subsistence transportation were unfit to leave this valley without a rest of several weeks on fine pasturage, and that several snow-storms had already occurred in the Wahsatch mountains directly on our course east, and that it is impossible to cross these mountains, where there is no road, with wagons, while they are covered with a heavy fall of snow. To avoid the loss of time, therefore, in recruiting the animals, and the risk of crossing the mountains with our train in winter, Captain Gunnison had determined upon the course I have indicated. The severe labor performed immediately after the disaster resulted in the loss of several of the escort horses, and further reduced the condition of all of our animals; and in this connexion it may be proper that I should add, that, in my opinion, (formed upon observation,) the service which horses, which for any considerable time have been accustomed to feeding on grain, are capable of performing west of the Plains, soon after crossing them, is trifling. Such horses require several months' rest, and grain forage, to recover from their weak and emaciated condition. The horses of Captain Morris' command entered this valley in fine condition for the service they had performed; but a forced march of twenty-five miles only, succeeded by one of thirty or thirty-five miles, was more than many of them were capable of performing, and was equal to the endurance of the best of them. It was too evident after our loss that the hostile condition of the various Indian bands, in and about this Territory, was such that it was necessary to be fully informed of its extent and of their numbers before prosecuting further explorations. I therefore determined to go into winter quarters at once, that no time might be lost in submitting a report of the explorations to this point. 78

Page  79 CHEAPTER VIII. General summary of the line explored for the Pacific railroad near the thirt-eiyhUh parallel of north latitude, from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, to the Sevier lake, Utak. Character and fertility of the Plains: timber, grass, rain.-Approach to El Sangre de Cristo Pass of the Rocky mountains. Soil, cultivation, grazing, and water.-Mountain valleys.-Valley of San Luis.-Coochetopa Pass and surrounding country. Grand River valley lands.-Roan mountains, and the country between Grand and Green rivers.-From Green river to the Wahsatch mountains.-Summit of the Wabsatch mountains.-Valley of the Sevier river and Sevier lake: its steility. Ingredients in the soil injurious to vegetation over large spaces.-Aqueous depositions unfavorably distributed and very limited.-Capacity of the country to contribute to the support of a railroad.-Railroad stations and posts.-Permanent water on the line.-Great scarcity of timber on the line.-Coal, whei'e found.-Building stone.-Railroad practicability of the line. Elevations, grades, sections, passes.-San Luis valley.-Coochetopa Pass and tunnel.-Altitudes and grades.-Pass and Coochetopa creeks.-Grand river section.-Blue to Green river.-Miry soil.-Stone for sub-struieture.-Grades and bridges Rocky district west of Green river.-Grades from Green river to Akanaquint spring, White river, Clever creek, San Rafael river, &c., to the Wahsatch Pass.-Wahsatch Pass and tunnel.-Salt Creek cafion, grades, and character. —Sevier River valley, and passage through the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains to Sevier Lake valley.-Further surveys, and existence of other lines near this.-Duties performed by scientific gentlemen of the party.-Climate.-Indian hostilities in Utah.-Further surveys will be made. The general character of the country traversed and explored, briefly recapitulated, is as follows: For six hundred miles west of the western line of the State of Missouri the country is a rolling prairie, gradually rising towards the Rocky mountains. For two hundred miles it is very closely assimilated to the soil and character of that State. West of that point it gradually changes its character, becomes more arid and sandy, and much less fertile; and at a point between Walnut creek and Pawnee fork it has entirely changed. Timber almost entirely disappears-it is very scarce east of this-and the short, curly bu-ffalo-grass takes the place of the coarse tall grass of the east; the soil is hard and dry clay intermixed with sand, with a surface sheet of an inch or two in thickness, intermixed with vegetable mould. Rain falls but seldom, and the cool mountain wind sweeps down at night, affording in summer an agreeable relief from the shadeless heat of the day. The country preserves this character west to the Cimmaron crossing of the Arkansas river. Beyond this the variety of artemisia known as sage, first begins to appear in quantity; and grass and water, away from the main water-courses, become scarce. In July, or early in August, the buffalo-grass of the Plains becomes entirely dry, although it is still very nutritious, and is fine grazing for buffalo and sheep; but in this short, curly form, this grass is not large enough for draught cattle. They will subsist on it for some time, but invariably fall away when marching and feeding on it. West of the Big Timbers of the Arkansas river, it becomes an important inquiry early in the day, at what point grass can be found for a camp; and the march must be lengthened or shortened to suit the locality of this important plant, which is found alone on the narrow river bottom, the hills being very dry and barren. Leaving the Arkansas river for E1 Sangre de Cristo Pass of the Sierra Blanca-the eastern range of the Rocky mountains-the country becomes more broken and rises more rapidly' its soil is very light, formed from sandstone. shales and slate; but it is much more abundantly supplied with grass than the preceding hundred miles of the Arkansas bottom, and of a superior quality but it is still scattered and thin. And no part of the surrounding country will compare favorably with the inhabited parts of any of the States. It is alone suited for grazing ranges-not farms, unless they are so extensive as to embrace several miles. It is true, the cultivation of grains and of roots, to some extent, on the narrow borders of the streams where water can be com

Page  80 CHARACTER AND FERTILITY OF THE COUNTRY. manded, will reward the efforts of labor; but the amount of water is so small that it never can supply more than the limited wants of a sparse pastoral population. Entering the mountains, the small valleys and paiks abound in the most luxuriant grass, furnishing abundant pasturage for a given amount of stock; but these fields are very limited in extent, and generally too cold for cultivation. Rains are, however, not wanting in these lovely mountain retreats. The extensive valley of San Luis, lying between the Sierra Blanca on the east and the Sierra San Juan on the west, and watered by the Rio Grande del Norte and its numerous small tributaries, is in general one vast sage plain from the Rio Colorado to Gunnison's Pass. The grass on the lower tributaries of the Rio del Norte, in this valley, is very limited indeed; it is more abundant on the upper affluents, where a few fields of prairie grass, a mile or two in width, were observed, and the authority of our guide given for extensive grass prairies ol the Rio del Norte itself. But all these grass fields, with the greatest amount of cultivation which can be supplied with water ..E~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~u fiom the fine little streams of this valley, can, under the most favorable circumstances, only support a meagre population. The margins of the mountain streams about the Coochetopa Pass furnish some fine grass, which extends down to Grand river; hut the hills on either side ofthis route are barren and naked, and no land can be found among them capable of sustaining even small settlements other than for grazing purposes. The immense valley depression, from thirty to fifty miles in width, between the Elk mountains and the Sierra de la Plata, filled with rocky and broken hills, mesas and connecting mountain ranges, through which Grand river flows in canones, is almost destitute of land which can be cultivated. The hills are often densely covered with sage; and some of the most luxuriant and extensive fields of grass seen on the route were traversed among these hills and tables. The small spaces of bottom land on Grand river, at the junction of the Coochetopa and at Roubideau's old fort, are the only ones on that stream, in the long distance which we followed it, which can be called bottom lands; and these are not only very small for settlements, but are frequently, if not annually, overflowed. The Roan or Book mountains fill a large space between Grand and Green rivers, and leave to the south of them only an arid, sterile, pulverulent waste, with bunch-grass enough on the hills for passing droves and herds of stock. And from Green river to the Wahsatch mountains, the miserable soil maintains the same ash-heap friability. The country is very rocky sandstone, broken, upheaved, and intersected in every direction by ravines, chasms, and beds of creeks. A little bunch-grass is scattered over the hills, but they are generally barren or covered, as on the margins of the streams, with sage. Such, also, is the character of the country from the foot of Book mountaini)s to the Sierra Abaijo, near the junction of Grand and Green rivers. This section is, therefore, not only crossed with great labor and difficulty, but is entirely valueless for the wants of civilized man. The summit of the Wahsatch mountains is a finely-grassed region, but entirely unfit for cultivation. The extensive valleys of the upper Sevier river and of the Sevier lake, divided by the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains, are vast artemisia plains, with a dry, friable, or sandy soil, quite uninhabitable, except on the grassy bases of the mountains, where an occasional mountain stream affords a limited supply of water for irrigation. In these plains, as in all those west from the vicinity of Bent's Fort, on the Arkansas, to the Barin, and in a few instances in the mountains also, the soil is more or less impregnated with alkali, which is very destructive to vegetation; and salt is often seen efflorescing upon the surface. And as the amount which is annually carried off by lixiviation and drainage-from the very limited amounts of rain and snow which are precipitated upon this extensive district in proportion to its area, and the very great inequality in their distribution over it, for the great body of the rain and snow annually falls upon the higher peaks and ranges, and is-carried down to the main streamsn ththeep cilones and in the plains parched and dry-is constantly renewed from the decomposition of sedimentary rocks, it is impossible to anticipate the period when the supply will be exhausted; and if the progress of science should develop the means of 80

Page  81 OBSTRUCTIONS FROM SNOW IN MOUNTAIN PASSES. neutralizing its injurious effects, a material change of climate, providing a greatly increased amount of aqueous vapor, would be requisite to bring any considerable extent of this arid territory under cultivation. It is not too much, therefore, to say, that, unless this interior country possesses undiscovered mineral wealth of great value, it can contribute but the merest trifle towards the maintenance of a railroad through it, after it shall have been constructed. But for the support of small points and stations, at suitable intervals for protecting and operating a railroad, there are sufficient lands on this line capable of cultivation at poinis already indicated. The positive evidence existing with regard to the depth of snow which annually falls upon this line, is very limited. The number of small parties, however, which annually cross the Plains during the winter months, transacting business, and carrying the mails to and from New Mexico and Utah, would seem to leave no doubt as to the practicability of crossing them successfully in winter by railroad. Our guide in the Sangre de Cristo Pass crossed it in February, 1S53, a winter of great severity, and more than usual fall of snow. He represents it to have been, at that time, ten feet deep in the small ravines of the pass, while the ridges were nearly bare; and that he was occupied seven or eight days in making the crossing, which, in slumnmer, is easily made in two. Mounted troops, in pursuit of Indians, have occasionally crossed this pass in midwinter and early spring; but this is a hazardous undertaking. During the winter of 1852-'53, the snow at Fort Massachusetts, which is situated in a sheltered valley under the Sierra Blanca, about seventeen miles from the summit of this pass, is represented, by the armv officers stationed there, to have been very dry, and about two feet deep. The vegetation and timber in the passes upon this line, offer no discoverable snow marks in summer, indicating its winter depth. But from the information which I have gained from trappers and other persons, more or less familiar in winter with the country west from Fort Massachusetts, I have little doubt that the depths of snow in the valleys, generally, may be safely estimated not to exceed that of the Plains, as the mountains are approached from the east. And its depth in the Sangre de Cristo Pass, from its altitude and similar position, may undoubtedly be taken as a very near approximation to that of the other passes of the Sierra Blanca range, of the Coochetopa and Wahsatch passes, and of the entire canon section of Grand river above the Uncompahgra, and it must to the same extent be regarded as formidable in these localities as in that pass. There is danger, however, of over-estimating the obstructions arising from snow in mountain passes, where its fall over the general surface of the country is not sufficiently great to offer a general obstruction to the operation of railroa(s. It is well known that in snowy countries, where roads are worked over rolling prairies, or among ordinary hills, small cuts are greatly more liable to obstruction from snow-drifts ihan deep cuts, (artificial passes,) the snow accumulating in, and filling up the former, while in the latter the drifts are deposited just below the crests of the excavations, or the cuts are kept clear of snow by the currents of wind which sweep through them. It is usual, therefore, to erect snow fences eight or ten feet high, a few feet without the crests of small cuts in such localities, to secure the tracks from snow. In mountain passes, therefore, if the same causes operate upon a large as well as upon a small scale, where the crests of the gorges are hundreds, and frequently thousands of feet above the passes through which powerful storms and currents of wind sweep, there would seem to be little danger of obstructions arising from drifts of snow only; and did not the passes themselves contain numerous small ravines in which diifts accumulate, it is perhaps doubtful whether they would not be even less obstructed by snow than the more open valleys. The statements of all the persons with whom I have conversed, who have had experience ill the mountains of our great interior territories, under widely different localities and latitudes, confirm, or rather have suggested to me, this view of the action of the winlds uponi snows in mountain passes. They represent the main difficulty which they have encountered in passing them, to have been in crossing the small side or lateral ravines which extend high up the sides of the passes, and cannot be turned by their heads, and are obstructed below by other causes. The ridges and deep ravines extending into passes, are usually but slightly obstructed, depending, however, in this respect, 11g 81

Page  82 WATER. —TIMBER -COAL.-BUILDIING-STONE. greatly upon their direction relative to the currents of wind sweeping through the passes. And it does not seem a serious objection to these statements, that the greatest amounts of snow in mountain districts are accumulated towards their summits, and on the lee-sides of peaks and ridges, and that the deep ravines and chasms, extending high up the mountain sides, along the faces of which heavy storms sweep, receive and retain vast amounts of snow, for in these ravines there can be no through-currents of wind. And it is imporfant to state, for the proper understanding of this subject, that the enormous depths of snow which were encountered, both in the Rocky mountains and in the Sierra Nevada, leading to those terrible disasters with which the country is familiar, were not encountered in a position, in any instance known to me, deserving the name of a mountain pass, however alluring the approach to it may have been; but, on the contrary, they were encountered in attempts to cross high ranges at points more or less broken by chasms and ravines like those last referred to. If it be true, therefore, as our present information indicates, that the annual amount of snow, as well as of rain, falling in these interior mountain regions, is comparatively small, and not sufficient in its general depth to seriously obstruct the working of roads, its accumulation in mountain passes cannot be regarded as fatal to railroad lines which are otherwise available. Permanent water is found-for we were upon the route during the dryest part of the yearat suitable intervals for the wants of a road, both in its construction and operation, at all points of the line explored, except between Grand and Green rivers, a distance of seventy miles, on which none except rain-water, which fell while we were passing it, was seen. A spring is said, however, to exist on the Spanish trail, east of the point where we first struck it between these rivers; but, as already stated, its position and size are unknown to me. But if it exists, it will be easily found; and much more extensive explorations of this section than have yet been made, will be required before the quantity of water upon it can be determined. For one hundred and fifty miles west from the State of Missouri, timber is found in sufficient quantities for the construction of a road, to the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican forks of the Kansas river, provided the entire amount suitable for its construction, now growing upon the water-courses, be applied to it, but not otherwise. Settlers upon these lands will find the quantity of timber upon them too limited for their necessities; and in the construction of a railroad, therefore, subsequent to their occupation, the requisite amount of timber will no longer be found upon them. From the junction of these streams west to the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Pass, a distance of five hundred miles, no timber whatever exists that can be used in the superstructure of a railroad. In and about this pass, Captain Gunnison says, "spruce-pine in abundance is at hand to supply ties for hundreds of miles of railroad, especially if that which the great fire of 1851 swept over and left standing be not left to decay." In ascending the valley of San Luis but little timber was seen in the mountains; and none exists in the valley which could be used in building roads. From Fort Massachusetts southward the mountains will, however, furnish an abundant supply of excellent pine. In the mountains about the Coochetopa Pass, one hundred miles from Fort Massachusetts, pine is the only timber, (the quaking asp being only suitable for fuel after it has been seasoned;) and it is generally small, but, it is believed, sufficient for the purposes contemplated. From the vicinity of this pass west to the Sevier lake, a distance of five hundred and fifty miles, scarcely a tree was seen, except a few low-branching cedars among the Rock hills west of Green river, which could be used in the construction of a railroad; but it is probable, although very di.~cu1t of access, that a limited supply can be drawn from high up on the heads of numerous streams, which enter Grand river from the mountains above, and for a short distance below, the junction of Blue river. And again, in the mountain between Green and White rivers, and in the WAabsatch mountains, in similar localities, it is probable that more or less timber can be obtained; but if sufficient in quantity, it will necessarily require to be transported to such distances as to make its expense enormous, which will render the substitution of stone necessary wherever it can be used. Coal is found at three points 82

Page  83 RAILROAD SUMM &RY OF THIIE ROUTE. upon the line: on the Wahkarrussi, an affluent of Kansas river; on Grand river, at Salt and Bitter creeks; and near our camp of the 11th of October, on Big Rock creek, at the eastern base of the Wahsatch mountains. That on the Wahkarrussi has been more or less used, and is doubtless abundant and good; and if the supply should not prove abundant upon working the other localities observed, the formation is such, at least on Grand river, as to render it highly probable that an inexhaustible supply of coal exists in the immediate vicinity. The great scarcity and unequal distribution of timber upon this line renders the character of its rocks an important subject of inquiry. The great body of those underlying the Plains are sandstone, more or less argillaceous, the strength and durability of which in superstructures can only be estimated from their appearance, the soil formed from their disintegrations, and the apparent rapid decay of most of the ledges exposed to the weather, which indicate inferior stones. Captain Gunnison says that the barracks at Fort Riley are being built of the white limestone of the vicinity; and a superior quality of limestone is found on the Arkansas, below Bent's Fort, and various localities of it are indicated in Dr. Schiel's geological report, appended to my report of subsequent explorations. A more minute and extensive examination of the Plains would probably discover the existence of limestone and other rocks in various localities; but as no heavy masonry will be required in carrying a road over the Plains,- in the absence of other rocks those already known will be sufficient. At the Huerfano butte, where they exist in abundance for building purposes, the first granitic rocks were seen. Thence westward to Sevier lake, soft disintegrating sandstones underlie the plains, and form many of the lower mountain ranges and hills, but the higher ranges of mountains will furnish superior qualities of stones for railroad structures. On Grand river, granite forms the head of the first canon, overlaid by sandstone, with a thini stratum of igneous rock capping the high tables. Granite is also found in the Sangre de Cristo Pass and at Sahwatch butte. In the Sangre de Cristo Pass, the gray rocks have a crystalline porphyritic structure; in the approach to the Coochetopa Pass, they are red and more vesicular; and in the Wahsatch Pass, approach the basaltic character. From the vicinity of the mouth of the Kansas river to the foot of E1 Sangre de Cristo Pass, in the eastern range of the Rocky mountains, the features of the country are very favorable for the construction of a railroad. By the line we followed, it is generally an open rolling prairie to where we crossed the Arkansas river, with a very gradual but uniformly increasing elevation to the west. West from the mouth of the Apishpa, on the north side of the Arkansas, the prairie hills begin to rise abruptly, and extend closer in to the river; but on the south side rise more gradually, sweeping up in gentle swells to the divide between the small ravines which descend to the Apishpa on the south, and the Arkansas and iuerfano rivers on the north. Preserving the elevation thus gained, the line is easily extended west to the Cuchara and Huerfano rivers above their canones; entering the valley of the latter stream a few miles below its butte, and ascending it to our camtp of August 9th, which may be regarded as the foot of the Sangre de Cristo Pass, whose summit is, by our trail, fourteen miles above this point. In constructing a railroad across the Plains to the foot of this pass, the only obstacle to be overcome not encountered by similar constructions in all open, rolling prairie countries, is in the gradual western ascent from the Mississippi river to the foot of the Rocky mountains; and this ascent, as has been already stated, by ascending the main water-courses, (the Kansas and Arkansas rivers and their tributaries,) is very gradual, increasing with a general uniformity as we approach the mountains. The elevation of our camp near Westport, on the western border of the State of Missouri, was 990 feet above the Gulf of Mexico, and 615 above low-water mark at St. Louis. On Pawnee fork, an affluent of the Arkansas, 293 miles by the Santa Fe road, and 322 miles by the Smoky Hill route, from that camp, our elevation was 1,962 feet above the Gulf; giving an average ascent per mile (independent of the ordinary inequalities of the ground, which were noted from day to day) of three feet three inches, and three feet, respectively. By the path which we followed, 83

Page  84 EL SANGRE DE CRISTO PASS AND SAN LUIS VALLEY. it is 68 miles from this point to our camp of July 16th, above Fort Atkinson; and the ascent 418 feet, or six feet two inches to the mile. But if the river be followed between these points, the distonce will be increased and the ascent correspondingly diminished; or, by taking a more direct course, the distance would be lessened, slightly increasing the grade, which will be best seen by a reference to the section of this part of our route. For eighty-nine miles west from this camp, following the banks of the river, we ascended five feet'four inches to the mile; and in the stucceeding 105 miles, to a short distance below Bent's Fort, the average ascent per mile was seven and three-fourths feet; and twenty feet seven inches per mile for the next thirty-four miles to the mouth of the Apishpa. The general section which accompanies this report, from this point to the iuerfano butte, is that of the line followed by our wagons, and the distance, eighty miles, given on it, exceeds by one-fourth the length of the line necessary for the construction of a railroad between these points. The general ascent to be gained by the shorter line, is twenty eight feet ten inches to the mile. T'he natural grade for fourteen and a half miles above this point, following the river, is fifty-two feet ten inches per mile, which brings us slightly within the eastern spurs of the Rocky mountains. The summit (so to speak) of the great interior trunk of the continent, upon which nearly all its mountain ranges, masses, and peaks are elevated, is reached, upon this line, at the iuerfano butte, which is 6,099 feet above the sea, and 5,109 feet (nearly a mile) above our camp near Westport; and the whole of this remarkable ascent-which has its counterpart, more or less approaching the same elevation, by whatever line the mountains are approached from the east is gained by the easy grades given, over a continuous plain, without once passing a remarkable hill or making at any point a considerable descent. The estimated distance from our camp, of August 9th, on the Huerfano river, by the circuit indicated for a railroad, ascending the stream through the large amphitheatre drained by the rive and its branches, to the Black butte, (twelve miles,) to Williams' Pass fork, (two miles,) and Gunnison's creek, (three miles,) and thence ascending the latter stream to the summit of El Sangre de Cristo Pass, is froin twenty-four to twenty-six miles, and the difference of elevation 2,354 feet-an average of ninety-eiglht feet and one inch to the r7mile for the shorter, and ninety feet six inches for the longer distance. The altitude of the summtit of this pass is 9,219 feet above the sea; and of the highest point passed by our wagons, 9,358 feet; the altitude of the lowest and nearest peak to the pa-s.s beingo 9,852 feet. Captain Gunnison says, "a single grade can easily be carried from the summit of this pass to the gorge of the Huerfano river, (just belon ou camp of August 9th), but two-one along Gunnison's creek, and one oil the river-would piobably be preferable." The Sangre de Cristo creek rises near the summit of the pass, and descends in a general southwestern direction, through a narrow ravine, for 7.09 miles, which thence gradually opens for six miles towards the valley of San Luis. The mountains on either side rise several hundred feet above the stream. The descent of the stream from the summit of the pass, is 101 feet per mile for the first mile and three-fourths, and 103 feet per mile for the succeeding mile and thirty-four hundredths. Six miles below this point we left the creek, and rose to a plain extending along the base of the mountain spurs, which we followed for 4.57 mniles, to Utah creek, near Fort Massachusetts, having descended twelve feet to the mile for the entire distance, 10.57 miles. By descending fromt the summit of the pass a~lonlg the side of the mountain on the right of the creek, a road cani be constructed, throwing a larger proportion of the descent upon the lower part, where it should be carried on a mass of low hills to the plain indicated above, which subsides gently into the valley of the Rio Grande del Norte. The broad open valley of San Luis, enclosed on the east by the mountains just crossed, and on the west by the chain of the Sierra San Juan, andl drained by the Rio Grande del Norte and its tributaries, is so level that a railroad can be carried over it in ally desired direction. From Utah creek we descended 49 feet per mile for 10.93 miles, to Whlite Mountain spling; and 14 feet per mile for the following 1t3.4=6 miles, to near Roubideau's Pass. This pass was 84

Page  85 COOCHETOPA PASS AND TUNNEL. examined and deemed entirely impracticable for a railroad; the grade to the west being, for the first 1.25 mile, at the foot of the ravine, 298 feet to the mile, and 490 feet to the mile for the succeeding seven-tenths of a mile, and 554 feet per mile for the last three-fourths of a mile at the summit, with a broad slope extending thence north and east to the Huerfano river. Continuing up the valley of San Luis, the grades from camp to camp are, respectively, as follows: An ascent of nine feet eight inches for 9.78 miles; a descent of 24 feet per mile for 9.06 miles; an ascent of 8.7 feet per mile for 11.72 miles; a descent of 9.5 feet for 5.96 miles, with an ascent of but 19 feet in 15.20 miles, to the camp on Sahwatch creek at its entrance into the valley-of San Luis. Gunnison's Pass lies immediately to the northwest of the Sierra Mojada, between the head waters of the Rio Grande del Norte, in this direction, and the Puncha creek, an affluent of the Arkansas above its caion. Captain Gunnison deemed it practicable for a railroad which should ascend the Arkansas river through its canon, and across the plains which lie above it, ascend ing a branch, of the Puncha creek to the summit of the pass, and descending through iomans' park to the valley of San Luis. The altitude of this pass, 8,603 feet, and the grades in its vicinity, are derived from aneroid observations, referred to our camp of August 27th, 28th, and 29th, in the San Luis valley; but are not relied upon with great confidence for actual altitudes above the sea, although the relative differences of level indicated by them are more satisfactory. They give grades of 185.5 feet per mile fo)r four miles, ascending the pass from the east; then 228 feet per mile for one mile and a half, followed by a grade of 1.13 feet to the mile for three fourths of a mile, to the summit. Descending to the west, the difference of level is 56 feet per mile for six miles; then 68 feet to the mile for three miles, to the centre of HIomans' park, from which a road can be carried in any direction across the San Luis valley. The approach to the Coochetopa Pass, by the Sahwatch creek, opens very favorably for the construction of a railroad. The mouth of the valley of this stream is from five to seven miles in width, but soon narrows in ascending it to a few hundred yards, and seldom again exceeds half a mile in width to its head. For twelve miles we ascended slightly over 39 feet to the mile; and for the following fifteen miles nearly 61 feet to the mile-having, during the day, left the Sahwatch creek and ascended its branches, occasionally overhung by walls of igneous rocks, giving this part of the pass a defile character. But, in the construction of a railroad, it will be necessary to carry it on the side of the ravine considerably above the stream, gaining an elevation of at least 200 feet at the fifteen-mile station referred to; which, from the formation of the hills, must be done upon the last few miles below that point, the elevation of which is 8,960 feet above the sea, while the summit of the pass, 3.83 miles distant, is 10,032 feet, which will require for its passage a grade of 124 feet per mile for 3.07 miles above this point, followed by a tunnel, entering the mountain from the east three-fourths of a mile below the summit, diminishing the elevation to be overcome by 490 feet, and terminating to the west, with a deep approach, (near our camp of September 2d), 1.33 mile below the summit-the length of the tunnel, which must be cut entirely in rock, including the approach, being two miles. The altitude above the sea, ten thousand feet, indicated by our barometers in this pass, is that to which all the depressions in the vicinity will approximate. It is possible, however, that the summit of the Carnero Pass, just south of the Coochetopa, may be more easily passed by a railroad than the latter; but this can only be determined by a minute survey. In any future exploration, examination should be made for a passage in these mountains by ascending any small stream entering ilomans' park from the northwest, and passing over to the head of the Coochetopa creeks, and thence descend:ing to Grand river -the formation of the country indicating a pass in that direction. Below our station, 1.33 mile west of the summit of the Coochetopa Pass, the grade again becomes practicable, being, by the valley of Pass creek for 2.24 miles, 108 feet to the mile; 68 feet to the mile for the next 2.15 miles; 93 feet per mile for the following 2.05 miles; 85

Page  86 FROM GRAND RIVER TO THE WAHSATCII PASS. and 42 feet per mile for the succeeding 3.47 miles. In this descent much cutting and filling will be necessary, the hills on each side of the creek being cut by small ravines deep back towards their summits. Pass creek enters a broken canon at this point, which extends to its junction with the Coochetopa, sixteen miles below. Lateral canones enter the main one at several points, but principally from the left, and broken hills rise somewhat above the general level of the descending plain; "but a railroad can be carried over them by rising below for some distance." The descent of the stream in the sixteen miles, is 71 feet per mile. Seven miles below this point the Coochetopa creek enters Grand river in a bottom, eight or nine miles in length by from one-half to one mile and a quarter wide, which is frequently overflowed. From this point until we reached the Uncompahgra river, our route followed a very rough and broken country, for the description of which reference should be made to the accompanying section, daily journal, and map, from September 6th to September 20th, as it is by far the most difficult and expensive section upon the route for the construction of a road. From the crossing of the Nahunkahrea or Blue to Green river, the greatest difficulty to be overcome in the construction of a road will be to secure a firm bed for it to rest upon; the friable, ash-heap character of the soil being such that, in wet weather, for many miles at a time over the whole surface, it forms mirv beds of a brick-clay consistency, in which animals sink half-leg deep in crossing. Fortunately an inexhaustible supply of stone is at hand at various points along the route, for the construction of a suitable foundation. The heaviest grade upon this section, from camp to camp, is an ascent of 71 feet per mile, on the 27th of September, for.5.66 miles; the other grades varying from 2 to 13 feet per mile between these rivers, a distance of 100 miles from the junction of Grand and Blue rivers. Numerous bridges and culverts will be necessary on this section. The rocky district west of Green river is of the same ravine and chasm-like character (but upon a much smaller scale) with the section on Grand river; but the soft sandstone is here easily cut, and the water-courses more easily passed, the streams not being so torrent-like. But the number of bridges which will be required will be so large that great expense will attend the construction of a railroad on this part of the line explored. The grades upon it are heavy and very variable, besides the ordinary inequalities of hills and ravines. They are from day to day as follows, on the line traversed, and by the shorter one indicated in the journal, will not differ materially: From Green river to Akanaquint spring, 16.76 miles, ascent 35 feet per mile; and for the succeeding 4.6 miles, 119 feet per mile; and for the next 1.14 mile, 165.7 feet to the mile, to where we left the Spanish trail; but this distance can be increased, bringing the grade down to, perhaps, 100 feet to the mile. Continuing from this point for 6.08 miles upon the sumnmit-level between Green and White rivers, we next descended, for 3.96 miles, 111.3 feet per mile, and 16.41 feet per mile for 9.82 miles, to camp on White river. Ascent to Clever creek, 8.72 miles, 41.85 feet per mile; for the succeeding 11.11 miles, returning to White river, ascent 23 feet per mile; and 38 feet per mile for 13.26 miles, with a descent of 22 feet to the mile for the succeeding 13.17 miles. For the next 11.40 miles we ascended 25.61 feet per mile, and 17.6 feet per mile for the next 13.46 miles; and for the succeeding 15.65 miles, the ascent was 53.16 feet to the mile to the foot of the Wahsatch Pass. This pass is entered by crossing a small ridge between our camp of October 12th and Akanaquint creek, and ascending that stream through a narrow defile, from 100 to 200 yards in width for some distance, and then leaving it by a ravine which rises between open grassy hills to the summit of the pass; the descent to the west being of the same character. For- the passage of this mountain by a railroad, it will he necessary to approach it from the east by a heavy grade of 125 feet to the mile, after reaching the Akanaquint creek, to within one-third of a mile of the summit, where a tunnel with deep approaches will be required-the whole in rock, but not exceeding three-fourths of a mile in length-diminishing the elevation to 86

Page  87 THE LINE UNWORTHY OF FURTHER EXPLORATIONS. be overcome by from 175 to 200 feet, and giving a grade of 131 feet per mile for 3.6 miles west of the summit, and thence to the vicinity of our camp of September 13, or even less than this, by keeping on the side of the ravine above Salt creek. Altitude of the pass, 7,820 feet. Two miles from this point, towards the valley of the Sevier river, Salt creek, (by following which a railroad can alone be carried), enters a rocky canon, more or less broken by lateral streams, which it follows for sixteen miles. "Through this canon a railroad may be carried, but, owing to rock cutting, only at a very heavy expense." The altitude of our camp, two miles above its head, on Salt creek, was 6,976 feet, to which seventy-five feet must be added, to connect with the estimated grade for a road at that point, which will give a descent of ninety-five feet per mile for the eighteen miles intervening between that point and the foot of the canon, 1,706 feet below it. For 2.65 miles below the canon, to the foot of the mountains, we descended 91 feet per mile; and from the foot of the mountain to our first camp on the Sevier river, 3.13 miles, the descent was 27 feet to the mile. No other than the most ordinary obstructions exist to the construction of a railroad from this camp to the most western point of our explorations, near the Sevier lake. It should follow the river, passing with it through its gorge in the Un-kuk-oo-ap mountains; and thence take its course to the west. The average fall of the river for thirty-one miles, upon which observations were taken for three days, is but four feet to the mile; and it continues this easy descent to the lake. For crossing the four main streams upon this line, heavy and expensive bridges will be required; especially those over Grand, Blue, and Green rivers, whose currents are very powerful and rapid, and annually subject to enormous freshets-the Arkansas being, comparatively, a gentle stream. And, besides these, after approaching Grand river, the ordinary side ravines and canones requiring bridges are very numerous, while the passage of each of the more formidable ones can only be accomplished by great labor and at an enormous expense, to say nothing of their aggregate cost. If more minute surveys shall at any time be made upon this general line, alterations and improvements will doubtless be made in it to some extent, but its general character cannot be improved. A pass may be found, as suggested, at the head of the Coochetopa creek, in the Sierra San Juan, which may be superior to the Coochetopa Pass itself, and a more direct line from Green river to the Wahsateh Pass be secured, by following the Spanish trail across the Rock Hills, or even by ascending the San Rafael river, but, if found more favorable or direct, will not alter the general character of' the route; for the line followed is not only the best, that could be discovered in the vicinity, but was pointed out to us, as such, by the most reliable and experienced guides we could obtain, and who had recommended the route as very superior, and may reasonably be supposed to have done all they could to establish the correctness of their judgment, and by the Indians who inhabit the country, and are as familiar with every fastness and mountain pass in it as with the use of the arms with which they procure their daily subsistence. And after the most careful observation and study I have been able to bestow upon the various chains of mountains and water-courses upon the route, seen at least during parts of every day, in the clear atmosphere of the elevated mountain regions, with a distinctness of outline and clear ness of detail at distances difficult to be realized by persons who are only familiar with the extent, beauty, and grandeur of landscape views in the comparatively moist and clouded atmosphere of the more civilized portions of our country, I hazard nothing in saying that no other line exists, in the immediate vicinity of this, worthy of any attention in connexion with the construction of a railroad from the Mississippi river to the Great Basin. For the geographical positions (latitudes) laid down from astronomical observations in this report and accompanying map, I am entirely indebted to my accomplished assistant, Mr. S. Homans, astronomer for the expedition, by whom the observations were taken and the computations made. Our entire failure to obtain suitable observations for longitudes, is explained in 87

Page  88 DUTIES PERFORMED BY THE GENTLEMEN OF THE PARTY. the report accompanying the table of latitudes The longitudes used in the construction of the accompanying map, are derived from a comparison of those given by Nicollet and Fremont for St. Louis, and the public surveys carried westward from that place to the western boundary of Missouri, and thence to Fort Riley, in determining the boundaries to Indian lands; and of Fremont and Emory at Bent's Fort; and Fremont at Great Salt lake. I am also indebted to Mr. Homans for the construction of a map of the route, which he made from the topographical sketches taken by our late comrade, Mr. Kern, and from those taken by himself subsequent to the barbarous massacre of that gentleman; buit the more elaborate map, which accompanies the report, has been made from the same notes and from that map by Mr. F. W. Egloffstein, my very able assistant in the topographical department of the explorations prosecuted during the year 1854. Want of time in which to prepare the geological report of this line, to be submitted with this report, compels me, reluctantly, to defer it until the completion of my report upon the explorations of the present year. Respectable collections in botany and natural history were made during the exploration; but, owing to the unfortunate death of Mr. Creutzfeldt, the description of them has been necessarily delayed, but will accompany the report referred to above. The meteorological tables and tables of distances were kept by my young assistant, Mr. James A. Snyder. Until within a few days, I had intended to resume the explorations required by your instructions, immediately after completing and forwarding this report, by proceeding through the Timpanogos canon to the Kamas prairie, and thence east as far as Bear river; and, in returning, have descended the Weber river to this valley, which, if practicable, would greatly facilitate our spring operations. But, unfortunately, the winter has within the last two weeks become unprecedentedly cold, the thermometer falling to 10~, 15~, and 20~ below zero; while the depth of snow in the valley is considerable, and greater in the mountains, forbidding our ascending them until the winter moderates. Indian hostilities still continue; but few depredations have, however, been committed on the inhabitants of the territory within the last two months, and hopes are entertained by the civil authorities of effecting a peace, which, if it could be maintained, would promote the prosperity of new settlements. We shall make the examination above referred to, as soon as the winter will permit our animals to subsist in the mountains. I am, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant, E.G. BECKWITH, First Lieutenant 3d Artillery. GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, U. T., January 31, 1854. 88

Page  89 CHAPTER IX. Discu8ssion of Baro.metrc Observations, and Tables of Altitdes and Distancs, of he ne exploredftom Westport, No., to Great Salt Lake City, Ultah Territory; also Tables of Simultaneous Observations in, aced D)ata for Profiles of, the mountain passes of the line. 1853. I.-Introduction to, and corrections applied in, barometric computations.-Table for borary corrections of observations. Corrections for extreme air temperatures.-Comparison of field barometers with Dr. Engelmnann's barometer at St. Louis, Missouri, both before and subsequent to the surveys.-Table of monthly mean observations at St. Louis, by Dr. Engelmann. II.-Barometric and meteorological observations, and table of altitudes and distances, for the profile of the line of survey from Westport to Great Salt Lake City. I1I.-Data for profile of Roubideau's Pass. IV.-Simultaneous meteorological observations at Coochetopa Pass. V.-Observations for a tunnel or deep cut in the Coochetopa Pass, allowing fifty yards as the width of the ridge at top. IV.-Table IV resumed. VI.-Data for the profile of the Coochetopa Pass, and declivities near its summit. VII.-Simultaneous meteorological observations at the pass and on the route followed across the Wahsatch range. VIII.-Data for the profile of the route followed across the Wahsatch mountains. I.-Introduction to, and corrections applied in, barometric computations.- Table for horary corrections of observations.- Corrections for extreme air temperalures.-Comparison of field barometers with Dr. Engelmann's barometer at St. Louis, Mio., both before and subsequent to the surveys.- Table of monthly mean observations at St. Louis, by Dr. Engelmann. The Bunten barometers (Nos. 496 and 551) are exclusively relied upon for the determinatio of altitudes of the entire line. The readings of the aneroid barometers exhibit variable errors; and as the mercurial barometers retain their reliable and uniform character throughout, no necessitcy exists for the use of the aneroids, the records of which are, therefore, not given. The zero errors found by Doctor Engelmann, in his comparison at St. lAouise to apply to the Bunten barometers before the commencement of the work, did not remain as between the two instruments, even at the first considerable camps of the survey. They were, therefore, rejected in all the computations, and no zero error was at any time applied. For mean readings the two barometers usually agreed very nearly-the difference between them being that No.496 was too slow in its movement when considerable changes of altitude occurred, and required correction or the substitution of the other in such cases. For mean readings at stations where several observations were taken, the results of both are believed to be a very near approximation to standard accuracy, and the instruments appear to have been but slightly deranged at the te- mination of the survey. The zero errors found in them by Doctor Engelmann, on their retur-i, were obviously introduced after the close of the work, and do not require to be applied to it. In the discussion of the observations, the readings were first corrected for temperature to the height of the mercurial column at 3!~ Fahrenheit. A minor error of non-adaptation of the common formula, to the temperature expansion determined by Shumacher for barometers ot this construction, is thus avoided, and the greater advantage gained of combining all the observations at a station in a correct mean reading, to be used in a single computation of the altitude. 12'

Page  90 BAROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS. The mean of the observed air temperatures is used in these cases also, as avoiding, to some extent, a source of error in extremes of' surface temperature; for which, in single observations, a table of corrections is appended. All the observations were also corrected for ]torary variation of atmospheric pressure through the day, thus bringing each to the true mean position for the day. The accompanying scale of horary corrections gives the values employed for each hour. They are derived primarily from well-determined curves of daily variation of pressure for the eastern United States, but with material and important modifications and additions established by the observations of other surveys in the interior of the continent, principally by that of Lieutenant Whipple. By the observations through the winter months at Great Salt Lake City, the measures of this horary scale are shown to be less for that season, and to conform then more nearly than in summer to those observed in the eastern United States and in Europe. For the months occupied in the field-work of this survey, however, and for the districts traversed, the measure of the correction here employed is fully confirmed. At the sea-level, or so near it, as both extremities of the line are, the measures of horary variation again fall off to those belonging to well-known districts; yet, as no determinations of importance occur at these extremities, it is not necessary to give the scale belonging to them. A correction previously found to be required for extremes of air temperature has been so well determined by the comparison of survey by levels, and with the barometer at the passes of the Sierra Nevada, surveyed by Lieutenant Williamson, that a scale of corrections sufficiently precise for practical use has been constructed. Where the error from this cause could not be eliminated by the use of mean temperatures, this scale has been employed in the determinations here made. The measures given for this correction belong to extremely arid climates, and to elevated districts, requiring modification in the position of the point where no correction is required; also in different seasons. As it affects great elevations in these arid districts by an extreme amount of at least 150 feet, it is too important to be neglected, notwithstanding a discretionary use of the values is usually necessary. The reduced observations at stations on the Plains, from Pawnee fork to camp 33, (the first camp after crossing the Arkansas river), were referred to the mean barometric reading noted by Dr. Engelmann at St. Louis for July, 1853-the month in which they were made. The altitude of his station above the Gulf of Mexico, as determined by him from a long series of observations, was added to make up the entire altitude. For these stations and dates, the results thus obtained are very nearly identical with those computed by direct reference to the barometric mean at the level of the sea for the latitude. For altitudes beyond this point direct comparisons of each camp are made to an assumed mean barometric reading at the level of the sea, in this latitude, of 30,000 inches-the barometer corrected to 32~ Fahrenheit, and a mean air temperature taken of 570. The constant belonging to the latitude and climate of the Gulf is 30.050 inches of the barometer, and 64~ of air temperature, which would add unduly to the altitudes. The principle is assumed that the constants of pressure and temperature employed belong to the latitude, and that the resulting determninations of elevation belong correctly and alike to both the Gulf and the Atlantic and the Pacific. There are no well-determined mean readings of the barometer on the Pacific coast, yet the most of those recently made in California give the impression that a slightly greater mean atmospheric pressure exists there than in the same latitudes of the Atlantic. The constant has not, however, been altered for any portion of this line. The discussion of observations at the principal passes has been in part upon simultaneous observations at an hour's interval in time and distance. The slower movement of one barometer, however, rendered it necessary in many cases to take successive readings of the best one, corrected for horary variation, for determinations of successive differences. The termini of these lines of ascent and descent were also checked by comparison of preferred results, as of the 90

Page  91 HORARY AND AIR TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS. mean of several at the summit, or elsewhere, with the nearer camps. The coincidence of results, by single and by successive steps, has been so satisfactory as to warrant the conclusion that the grades and altitudes of these passes are quite accurately determined. The correct use of such data, in the joining of intermediate with main lines, and in the correspondence of single observations with the means of observation, is the severest test of barometric survey; and discrepancies cannot be wholly removed. The principal cause of these discrepancies is in the non-periodic variation of atmospheric pressure, for which no constant or correction can be given except by reference to continued readings for a month or more at some station near. Mean results best eliminate this error, and they are therefore preferred in the order of their number, or of the number of days they cover. In the ascent of the Arkansas, the uniform grade of the stream permits the use of four or five successive camps as a mean result, and two or three non-periodic variations are thus eliminated. Subsequently, to Great Salt lake, a less error frorn this cause is likely to occur, as this variation is least in August and September. The observations generally sustain the checking and criticism which rank the results as a determinate survey, with a near approximation to absolute accuracy, and, as among themselves, sufficiently conclusive of grades and points of comparison. Horary corrections of barometer. Inches. 3 p.m....................... 4 p. m................. 5 p. m —-------------------- 5 p.m....................... 6 p. m...................... 7 p. m...................... 05 8 p.m......... —-----—. -------------.. 9p.m........... 10p. m...................... 11p. m......... —-------------------- '2pm.-.015 ~~~~~~11 P. m. —-.. —------ Scale of corrections for extreme air temperatures. Low temperatures. High temperatures. At 35~ add 25~ At 95~ subtract 15~ At 40~ add 23~ At 930 subtract 13~ At 45~ add 21~ At 90~ subtract 11~ At 47~ add 20~ At 88~ subtract 10~ At 50~ add 18~ At 850 subtract 8~ At 53~ add 15~ At 83~ subtract 7~ At 55~ add 130 At 80~ subtract 5~ At 57~ add 100 At 78~ subtract 3~ At 60~ add 5~ At 75~ subtract 2~ (See note.) NOTE.-The measures of this correction are variable, to some extent, with the season, and apply nearly to departures from the mean of the month in which observations are made. It is here given as required for summer months, in which most of the observations in field surveys have been taken. 91 Hour. Hour. lncbes. -. 030 -. 045 -. 050 -. 030 -. 020 -. 005 -.000 +. oto +. 020 6 a. m ----------------------- 7 a. m....................... 8 a. m ----------------------- 9 a. m ----------------------- 10 a. m ----------------------- 11 a. m ----------------------- 12 m -------------------------- I P. m ----------------------- .2 P. m....................... +. 007 +. 020 +. 030 +. 040 +. 050 +. 055 +. 025 +. 005 -. 015

Page  92 COMPARISON OF BAROMETERS. Captain Gnnnison's barometers compared witIh the standard barometer of Dr. G. Engelmann, St. Lois, June 4 to 9, 1853. Ten observations were made Range of standard barometer in that period, from 29."505 to 29."748, range 0."243. Mean differences of standard and compared barometers. Bunten, No. 551=E+0."006. Aneroid, No. 9SS889=E-0."015. Extreme differences of range of standard and compared barometers. Bunten, No..551=E-O."021, Bunten, No. 561=E-0."021'=0."048, difference of range. Bunten, No. 551=E+0."027 Bunten, No. 496=E+0 "046 ), Bunten, No. 496=E+0."046 =0."063, difference of range. Bunten, No. 496=E+0."109 Aneroid, No. 9889=E+-0."055 =0."090, difference of range. Aneroid, No. 9293=E+-0."005) Aneroid, No. 9293=E-O0.'"045 - 0."040, difference of range. Aneroid,:No. 9293=E —0."045 E. represents Engelmann's standard barometer. Both of Bunten's barometers are very slow in their movements. B. 551 gives a very dull sound when the tube is reversed, indicating air in the tube; 496 gives a clearer sound, and is probably free of air. The station of Dr. Engelmann's barometer is above low-water mark of the Mississippi 106.5 feet, and above the Gulf of Mexico 482 feet. Barometer Engelmann was, in June, 1853, equal to Bunten, No. 551-0."006 Bunten, No. 496-0."080 The Aneroids were both set to correspond exactly with barometer E. After the voyage to California and back, barometer Engelman was found, in September, 1854, equal to Bunten, No. 551-0."072 Bunten, No. 496+0."116 Aneroid, No. 7SS9-0."448 Aneroid, No. 9293+0."263 Therefore, as barometer E. has remained unaltered Barometer Bunten, 551, is now higher by 0."066 than " 496, is now lower by 0.196 Aneroid, 7889, is now higher by 0."448 s" 9293, is now lower by 0."263 Bunten, 551, is by far the best instrument of the whole set; but both barometers have the inside of the tubes at the lower as well as the upper levels so much soiled and darkened by oxydized mercury, that at a certain elevation of the barometer, at least, the reading off becomes very difficult if not impossible. 92 Bunten, No. 496=E+0."080. Aneroid, No. 9293=E-0."025. 14 months ago. 66 i.66 i 6 466 6s 4 i6

Page  93 MONTHLY BAROMETRIC MEANS AT ST. LOUIS. The aneroids are certainly very unreliable; but within the limited range of my observations, (between twenty-nine and thirty inches,) they performed well and -corresponded pretty accurately with the fluctuations of my own barometer. In calculating elevations from barometrical data, it seems best not to compare isolated observations made on the same day, or at the same hour, but to refer the observations made in the field (or the mean of several if they can be had) to the monthly means of the stationary barometer. I add, therefore, my monthly means for the last fourteen months. But the observations made west of the Rocky mountains cannot be referred to my barometer at all. It is hardly necessary to add-what everybody who is in the habit of observing the barometer knows-that observations made in the forenoon, principally from 8 to 10 o'clock a. m., are generally higher, and those in the afternoon, principally between 2 and 4 o'clock, are mostly lower than the average of the day. The noon observations come nearest the mean of the day. The barometer-at least in the Mississippi valley-is usually highest with westerly and northwesterly winds, and lowest with southerly and southeasterly winds. It is mostly higher, but much more irregular, in winter, and lower but more regular in summer. BAROMETRICAL ELEVATION OF BAROMETER E., AT ST. LOUIS, 482 FEET ABOVE THE GULF. Table of monthly barometrical means at St. Louis, correctedfor temperature. June........1853........................... 29.466 —---- 29.483 —------- 29.431 September... do................29.474 29.538 November............................................ 29.601 December.. —--- do..2....................... 29.508 January......1854...............- 29.577 29.507 April...... do..........29.444 Mayd........... do.....-.-.. — 29.334 June —.. do........................................ 29.418 June. d o........~~~~~~~~29.491 July.. -.d.. -....-.o........D.................. 29.491 DR. GEO. ENGELMANN. ST. Louis, September, 1854. 93

Page  94 II.-Barometric and Meteorological Observations and Table of Altitudes and Distances for the Profile of the ine of survey from Westort to Great Salt Lake City. ED .,.e a) 'o 0 D4 '5'5 — ~~~~, Station. Day. Hour.?~~.8~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Remarks. 0 C) T a),gq It .4 - ' 0 c) 9 .4 ED . 0 ,It ;q -~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ a. NOTE.-The arrangement of the re sults of the corrected barometric readings, computed in means at camps or stations, is, to place them opposite the last observa tions made at the locality; those of barometer No. 496 being en tered first or above in the column. The altitudes are entered oppo site thefirst readings at the camp or station. Inches. Inches. Inches. Feet. .............. 6...................... 11 a. m... 2 p. m 3.30 p. m.. 6.30 p. m. 9 a. m..... 12.30 p. m. 3.30 p. m. 8 P. mn 6.30 a.m. 9 a.m... I1.m... 3 p. m.... 81).m.. 6 a.m.m.. 5 p. m... 91).m..... 6 a.m..m.. 743 741.2 742. 7 742. 6 742 740.6 740. 5 740. 6 740'.6 739.5 739.8 739. 9 740. 4 739. 4 738.7 736. 7 738.6 735.6 712. 8 713.9 715 715.2 716 704.9 706. 3 707. 4 712.6 700.2 706.7 699. 5 705. 9 700. 6 706. 1 704. 3 C) v cq (27 35. 77 2 —--— 3.65 3 2 cap 7. _, 23 ......... ...3;..... 30 27 22 35. 5 28. 5 32 27.5 23 21. 5 25. 5 26. 5 23 21 27. 5 32. 5 31. 5 Cloudy in northwest; light south west wind. Do do. Cloudy; wind southwest. Cloudy, with rain; strong northwest wind. Do do. Cloudy. Light southeast wind; clouds in southwest. Hazy. Light clouds. Clear; light breeze from southeast. Do do. Light clouds in east; wind southeast. Clear; wind southeast. Do. Camp 20, second Coon creek. 71).m.... 9 p. m.... 6 a.m..... 3p. m..... 6 a.m..... 31).m... 61).m.. 91.m.P... 6 a.m..... 4.30 p. m.. 6 p. m... 9 P.m..... 6 a.m.m. 9 a.m..-.. 12 m...... 3 p. m..... Camp 21, n ea r Fort Atkin son, Arkansas river. ........... Clear. ........ Stormy, with thunder. 0 .,I) ,gc5 0) I v le 0 CD 0 S P, a) lb 0 ;. C, It 'M 't 0 0 a) 0 lb 0,4 It 16 IV C) 0 0 C) 9 It a) C) pq 14 0 -9 Remarks. Station. Day. Hour. 9 m P-3 t'i 0 tt 0 tlq 0 ql ci Pt-, 0 bd rJ2 t-I 0 p1-3 0 !4 m I ci m U2 1 1 m pg n m 1853. June 17 17 17 17 is 18 18 is 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 Miles. 3 ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ Camp No. 1, 3 miles west of Westport. 744.4 744.7 738.7 742 742.4 742.6 740. 9 739. 6 739. 3 739. 8 739. 3 738. 9 737.7 738. 2 738.2 737.4 736.7 737.2 735. 6 714.6 713.6 715. 8 717.5 714. 3 703.2 705.6 706. 8 709.5 698.4 704.9 708.2 705.5 701 708.5 705.5 7-) 0. n m 4) ,v El ID 'a) Id la 0 12) ....... 84 87.5 .89.5 77 74.5 83. & 90 93 80 74 94 78 28.959 28. 016 27. 973 28. 076 28.117 27.985 27. 574 27.688 27.725 27.832 27' 427 27. 664 27.780 27.674 27.433 27.723 27.664 28.975 27. 945 27.984 28. 044 2 8. O'-) 6 28. 052 27. 644 27.715 27. 774 27. 94 27.502 27.731 27.438 27. 690 27.417 27.633 27. 617. 28.967 - - - - - - - - 28.020 27. 992 28. 050 28. 040 ........ ........ 27.702 27.765 ........ ........ ---- ---- ---- ---- ........ ........ ........ 990. 6 1962 ....... 30 27 22 36 28.5 31 28 23.5 21.5 25.5 27.5 23 21 27.5 33 31.5 ........ 84 80 69 77 72 87 81 73 72 88 75 74 .70 83 93 88 Camp 18, Pawnee fork.... July 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 - 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 297.50 ---- ---- ........ 318-21 ........ ........ 2004 Camp 19, first Coon creek. ........ 336.71 ........ ........ 2244. 6 ........ ........ ........ 365.-33 ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ -------- ........ 2330. 7 ........ ........ ........ .......

Page  95 6 p.m.... 96.m.. 6 a.m m.. 9 a. mn 12 m... 3 p.I. 6 p.m.. 9p.m m.... 6 a. In 3.30 p. m 6 p.m... 9 p.m.... 6 a..... 1.30 p.m... 3 p...... 6 p.m..... 9 p.m..... 6 a.m'... 2.30 p.m 3 p.m 6 p.m.. 9 p.m... 6 a.m. 2 p.m. 3 p.m 6 p.... 9 p.m... 6 a.m. 2.30 p.m... 6 p.m. 9 p.m.... 6 a.m..... 9 a.m.... 12 m....... 3 p.m. 6p m. 9 p.m. 6 a.m 2 p.m. 6 p.m Do. Cloudy, strongwindfrom northeast. Cloudy in southeast. Cloudy in north; wind from south east. Light clouds in southeast; wind northeast. Cloudy; strongwind from northeast. Rain; strong wind from northeast. Cloudy; light northeast breeze. Cloudy in northwest; light south east breeze. Do do. Do do. 0 0 td ad 0 t4 t-l ql 0 0 To ~ I I ci Q ml Cloudy in northeast; light north east wind. Cloudy in northeast; light south west wind. Cloudy in northwest; light north east wind. Light clouds; light northeast wind. Light clouds in southwest. Do do. Do do. Do do. Cloudy in west; light northwest wind. Light clouds; wind southeast. Do do. Cloudy in west; wind southeast. Cloudy; wind southeast. Do do. Cloudy; light southeast breeze. Cloudy in southwest; southeast breeze. Do do. Clear. Light clouds in northwest. Light clouds; strong northeast wind. Cloudy; strong northeast wind. Rain. Cloudy; light northeast wind. Cloudy in north. Clear; light breeze from northeast. Cloudy in west; light breeze from northeast. NOTE.-It is to be noted that in the entries in the column headed "barometric means" the first entry is the mean of barometer No. 496; the second is the mean of barometer No. u51. This note applies to the entire table. 703.6 694. 8 701.6 704. 5 705.9 706. 1 706. 1 706.4 703.9 702. 8 704. 1 703 706. 5 702. 3 698. 9 701. 5 699.2 697.7 697.8 696. 8 696.1 695.6 694. 4 695.2 694.7 691. 6 687. 5 689.1 684.6 680. 3 685. 0 685.6 687.6 684. 8 683.1 683.4 687.1 688.2 684. 3 687.3 28.5 28 22 27. 5 31.5 30.5 23 21 20 28.5 25 23 21 30 30.5 7. 5 23. 5 21.5 32.5 33 29 24.5 20. 5 29 30 27 23 20 36. 5 26. 5 23 21 26.5 29 25.5 21.5 18.5 15 22 20 702. 6 697. 3 704. 6 703. 6 704. 1 705.1 704. 7 705. 1 704 703. 5 703.2 704. 3 705. 5 703 696.4 700.4 699 698 698.4 696.6 696. 9 695.1 698.4 696.7 693.1 692.5 691 690. 8 685.4 685.4 685.7 684. 6 683.4 682.8 682.6 686. 6 683. 1 687 683. 5 683.7 28. 5 28 22 28 31.5 30.5 23 21 20 29 24.5 23. 5 21 30 30.5 27. 5 23-5 21. 5 33 33 29 24. 5 20. 5 29.5 30.5 27 23 20 36. 5 26. 5 23 21 28 30.5 25. 5 21.5 19 15.5 22 20 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 83 83 71 84 92 86 72 70 68 84 77 75 69 87 88 82 76 72 91 91 85 78 69 79 86 81 73 68 94 80 75 72 84 88 79 71 67 61 72 68 0,7. 605 27.233 27. 517 27. 574 27. 625 27. 692 27. 79-7 27.717 27.615 27. 574 27.640 27. 575 27.714 27.526 27. 412 27.527 27. 426 27. 368 27. 354 27. 318 27. 310 27.280 27.242 27.260 27. 247 27.180 26. 969 27. 037 26. 870 26.895 26.917 26. 810 26. 814 26.841 26. 973 27. 021 '26. 973 27. 035 26. 862 27. 003 27. 566 27. 331 27. 635 27. 535 27. 554 27. 652 27. 672 27. 666 27. 619 27.597 27. 605 27. 622 27. 674 27.554 27. 314 27.483 27. 418 27. 379 27. 3C6 27. 310 27. 342 27.264 27. 399 27-315 27.184 27.176 27.107 27.104 26. 898 26. 856 26.744 !26. 723 26. 794 26.967 26.811 26. 974 26.969 26. 988 26. 830 26. 861 Do. ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ....... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ....... ....... ........ ........ ........ -------- 390. 65 ........ 27.624 27.596 ........ ........ ........ ........ 2431.2 Camp 22, on Arkansas river. ........ -------- ---- ---- 410.55 ........ 27. 623 27. 623 ..;...... ........ ........ 2556.2 Camp 23, Arkansas river. - - - ....... ........ ........ ........ 27.451 27. 431 ........ --- - - - - - - - - 27.298 27. 337 ........ ........ ........ 432. 60 ........ ........ ........ ........ 454. 33 ........ ........ ........ ........ 478. 71 ........ ---- ---- 2692.2 ........ ........ ........ 2852 ........ ........ ........ - - - - - - - - 3047. 3 ........ Camp 24, Arkansas river.... Camp 25, Arkansas river... - ........ ........ ---- ---- 27.129 27.176 ........ Camp 26, ArkaDsas river.... ........ ........ ........ ........ ---- ---- ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ 478.71 ........ 500. 58 ........ ........ ........ 26. 890 26. 845 ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ 3166.2 ........ Camp 27, Big Timbers of Arkansas river. co VA

Page  96 II.-Barometric and Meteorological Observations and Data for Profile-Continued. ED ;, 4 'v~ e 0H a), O 0o It 0 - e zi c; As lu C) 0o u v ,= v v K v =q d Inches. 26. 961 26. 985 26. 712 26.782 26. 609 26.796 26. 738 26. 500 26.487 26. 532 26. 521 26. 441 26.385 26. 306 26. 355 26.261 25. 952 25.926 25.962 25. 925 25.'40 25.851 25. 831 25.925 25.793 25. 783 25.662 25.70' 25. 638 25. 634 25. 495 25.622 25. 651 Cloudy; light breeze from north east. Do do. Broken clouds; light southwest breeze. Do do. Do do. Clear; light southwest breeze. Light clouds in the east. Clear; light breeze from northeast. Dark clouds in west. Cloudy; light northeast wind. Clear; light northeast wind. Light clouds; southeast wind. Do do. Clear; southeast wind Cloudy; southeast wind. Do do. Cloudy; strong southwest wind. Stormy; light southwest wind. Clear. Camp 28, Timber s of Arkan sas river. Camp 30, Arkansas river, near Bent's Fort. 9 p.m... 6 a.m... 2.15 p.m 3.15 p.m. 6 p.m.... 9 p.m. 6 a.m... 3.30 p.m.. 6p.m.... 9p. m..... 6 a.m..... 2 p.m.... 3 p.m.... 6p m.... 9 p.m.... 6 a.m... 5 p.m. 9 p.m.... 6 a.m..... 2 p.m... 5 p.m.... 7 p.m... 9 p.m... 11lp. m.. 6 a.m.... 9 a.m..... 11 a.m..... 6 a.m m..... 9 a.m...... 11 a. m..... 1 p.m..... 3 p.m...... 6 a.m...... Camp 32, ford of Arkansas. Light clouds; breeze from south east. Light clouds; breeze from north east. Cloudy in southwest; breeze from northeast. Do do. Cloudy and foggy. Light clouds; light southwest wind. Do do. Do do. Light clouds; light southeast wind. Cloudy; light southeast wind. Dark clouds in west; light south east wind. I to 4 4) 0 o, ID Q 9 .41 p a 4) C, 0 12)4 0 'a A IL) 0 a 0 a) - lb 0 d 6 Q C) w 0 9 14 0 0 't pq ID Q Po -9 ID Station. Day. Hour. Remarks. )9 td t4 0 0 r, 0 0 P. t-, 0 w &a t-d P. 1-3 0 t4 CA I ol Oa ci t:$ t-d m I D2 Pi t4 0 m 1853. July 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 . 29 29 9 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 .31 31 Aug. I 1 1 1 1 2 Miles. ...... Inch,s. 26.965 26.954 26. 582 6. 696 26.688 26. 678 26.643 26.434 26.550 26. 410 26.549 26.441 26.468 26.402 26.442 25. 987 2D. 977 25.990 25.945 25. 948 25. 820 25. 800 25. 803 25. 867 25.756 25. 658 25.789 25.618 25. 587 25.570 25.452 25.801 Inches. 26. 950 26. 899 ........ Feet. ....... Caw-p 27-Continued.. - - - 686. 8 687.2 680.5 682 677. 3 682. 4 6SO. 6 676. 4 674.7 676.2 675. 9 674. 6 672.7 670. 3 670.5 668.5 660. 6 660. 5 661.2 66t 660. 3 658. 3 658. 3 660.8 656. 9 657. 7 656 654. 5 655.6 656. t 651. 2 653. 9 653 18 15 21.5 22.5 24.5 16.5 12 30 25 21 19 31 30 26.5 19.5 12.5 25.5 19 15.5 27 25. 5 21 21 17 15 26.5 27 14 32..1; 34. 5 33.5 33.5 12 6,36. 7 686.4 677. 2 680. 8 679. 3 67). 4 678. 3 674. 8 676. 3 673. 1 676.6 674.6 672.5 674.4 672. 8 673.1 661. 5 661. 8 661. 9 661. 5 660. 5' 657.5 657.5 657.7 658.8 658.1 656 655 655. 1 653.1 649.6 656. 8 is 15 22 22.5 20.5 16. 5 12.5 3.1 25 21 19 31 29. 5 27 2i) 12. 5 25. 5 19 15. 5 27. 5 25.5 21 21 17 15 27. 5 27.5 11. 5 31 36 33.5 33.5 12 66 59 70 73 69 63 55 82 78 71 57 87 87 81 70 55 78 63 50 8i 77 71 67 63 60 69 81 53 77 91 93 89 55 ........ 520.86 ........ 3328.5 ........ ........ ........ ........ 544.12 ---- ---- ........ ---- ---- 559.20 ........ ........ ........ ........ 58,. 20 ........ ........ 593.20 ........ ........ ........ 26.727 26.656 ........ - - - - - - - - 26.512 26. 489 ........ ........ ---- ---- 26. 348 26.428 ---- ---- 25. 948 25. 983 - - - - - - - - ........ ........ ........ ........ ---- ---- 3536. 6 ........ - - - - - - - - ---- ---- 3671. 5 ........ ........ ........ ........ 4091.2 ---- ---- ........ 4370. 6 ........ Camp 29, Arkansas river.. - Cauap 31, Arkansas river... ....... ............... ...... ....... ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ -------- ---- ---- ........ -------- ........ ........ ........ 25.746 25.742 ........ ........ ---- ---- ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........

Page  97 Cloudy; light southwest winld. 2.6 2.25-Do do. Dark clouds in the northwest. Light hovering clouds. Cloudy; light southwest wind. Rain; fresh southeast breeze. Light hovering clouds. Clear. Light clouds in the southeast. Light clouds; light breeze from southeast. Cloudy; light breeze firom south east. Do do. 4.30 p.m... 6 p.m....... 9 p....... 6 a....... 2 p.m...... 3 p. m...... 6 p....... 9 6 a. m..... 3.30 p. m... 6 p.m..... 9p.m... 6 a. m.. 6 p.m..... 9 p...... 6 a.m...... 3.40 p. m... 6 p. m...... 9 p. m..... 6 a. m...... 9 a.m.. 12 m.... 3 p.m.-.... 6 pm...... 9 p.m..... 6 a..-.... 2 p.m.-... 3 p.m.. 6 p.m..... 9 p. m..... 6 a.m. 3.30 p.m.. 6 p.m...... 9 p.m.... 12 m.. 3 a.. 6 a.m.... — 2.30 p. m.. 3 p.m..... 6 p.m.... 9 p... 6 a.m. 9 a.m. 10 a. m..... 10.30 a. m.. 11 a. m..... 12 m....... 2p.m..... Camp 35, plain near Apishpa river. Dark clouds; strong wind from northeast. Do do. Clear; light breeze from northeast. Light clouds; light southeast wind. Do do. Clear; strong southeast wind. Do do. Do do. Do do. Light clouds in southwest; light southwest wind. Light clouds in southwest; light northeast wind. Do do. Light clouds; strong southwestwind Dark clouds; light southwest breeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Light clouds; light southwest wind. Light clouds. Clear. Clear; light northeast breeze. Do do. Dark clouds. Stormy. Rain; light southwest Mind. Light clouds. Do. Lightclouds; strong northwest wind. o 0 0t To 0 c: 0 Pw TJ2 I ~r V,o U2 o 'U2 !4 Camp 36, plai n near Cuchara river. Camp 40, base of the Sierra Blanea. Camp 41, in Sangre de Cris Pass. Camp 33, Apishpa river. - -.. 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 607. 84 ........ ........ ........ 620.82 ........ ........ ---- ---- ........ 636. 08 648. 5 647.8 647. 3 645. 6 643. 5 643. 6 642.2 642. 2 642. 7 625 623. 4 624. 3 623. 1 618 617. 8 618. 9 615. 5 616. 6 616 617.4 617. 5 616. 9 615. 8 614.7 615. 8 614.7 3 616. 615 616 617. 2 600. 4 600. 1 599. 3 598. 9 599. 6 599'' 3 584. 4 584. 1 582. 9 583. 4 583. 4 569. 3 566. 5 570.1 566. 8 560 552. 4 33.5 29. 5 20.5 20 33 25 25 is 12 30. 5 20. 5 20.5 15 20 18 .12. 5 32.5 27 22 16 26 33 32 25. 5 22. 5 20 33. 5 31 '29. 5 21 18 32. 5 31 20. 5 20 20 1 8 19. 5 18 16 15 15. 5 20 22. 5 24 12. 7 24 20 645. 8 648. 3 64,Q-. 4 645. 8 643. 7 644. 2 643. 1 642. 4 642. 9 625. 5 623. 3 622. 8 623. 5 620. 3 619. 8 620. 5 615. 9 615. 9 616. 4 617. 8 616. 4 616. 3 612. 8 613.7 615.2 615 618. 6 615.5 614 615. 7 615. 4 6f)O. 2 599. 9 599. 4 598. 8 599. 5 599.1 5S3. 6 583.2 582.7 583. 3 583. 9 569. 2 567. 2 570.1 566. 4 559. 6 5 pa'2. 2 33. 5 30 21 20. 5 33.5 27. 5 25.5 is 12 31. 5 20.5 20. 5 15 20 is 12. 5 30. 5 27 22 16 32 26 22.5 21 31 29. 5 21 is 32 31 l 20 20 18 19. 5 18 16 15 16. 5 20' 22. 5 24 27 23. 5 20 92 85 68 69 91 78 78 67 53 86 69 70 60 71 69 56 St 80 68 60 75 89 91 79 76 72 96 85 84 71 65 93 88 69 72 69 65 67 65 62 60 60 65 68 74 75 57 25. 439 25.412 25.-402 25. 328 25. 216 25. 267 25. 211 25.213 25. 249 24. 520 24. 491 24. 496 24' 466 24.282 24. 252 24. 312 24. 138 24. 200 24. 170 24. 237 24.169 24.129 24. 145 24.129 24. 154 24. 115 24. 189 24. 168 24.125 24. 170 24.222 23. 543 23. 534 23. 516 23. 474 23. 539 23. 553 22. 954 22. 999 22. 956 22. 947 22. 9P,7 21. 728 21. 684 21.633 22. 315 22.187 22. 312 25. 333 25. 432 25. 441 25. 336 25.220 25. 282 25.247 25. 221 25. 257 4. 535 24. 487 24. 437 24. 482 24. 373 24. 363 24. 375 24. 161 24. 172 24. 142 24.253 24. 130 24. 105 24. 026 24. 030 24. 130 24. 123 24. 240 24. 141 24. 086 24. 158 24. 151 23. 535 23.526 23.520 23. 470 23. 535 23. 545 22. 923 22. 964 22. 948 22. 943 2.2. 946 21.720 21. 680 21. 649 22. 313 22.183 22. 312 4723.1 ........ ........ ........ 4860 - - - - - - - - ---- ---- ........ . —,.... 5702 ........ ........ 25. 395 25. 384 ........ - - - - - - - - ........ 25.232 25.248 ---- ---- Camp 34, Apishpa river..-.. ........ ........ 24. 492 24. 484 ........ 24.284 2,4. 371 ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ---- ---- ........ ........ ........ 653.15 - ........ 5851.2 ........ ........ 663. 54 ........ - - - - - - - - ........ ........ ---- ---- ........ ........ ---- ---- 6109 ---- ---- ........ - - - - - - - - ........ ........ ........ Camp 37, Cuchara river.... 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 I I 11 24.159 24. 135 - - - - - - - - ........ ---- ---- 24. 176 24. 156 ........ ........ - - - - - - - - ---- ---- 23. 528 23. 520 22. 953 22. 945 ...... ....... 673. 63 688. 17 695.76 700. 88 ........ -------- 6099. 1 ........ ........ ---- ---- ---- ---- 6976.1 ---- ---- ........ ........ ........ ........ 7463. 3 8757.1 Camp 38, Huerfano river, Hear butte. Camp 39, Huerfano river. - co -7

Page  98 II.-Barometric and Meteorological Observations and Data for Profile-Continued. v I-)Q cI I, Of c 0 0 0 .) 0 vQ .5 Q Miles 701o 58 705.38 9 tt td 0 To 0 0 oQ ql I I TJ2 t' Pd q ul I w n .t Camp 41-Continued...... Cloudy;light breeze fiom soutlhwest. Do do. Cloudy; strong southwest wind. Rain in the distance. Dark clouds. Rain, with thunder. Rain. Light clouds; light southeast breeze. Dark clouds; light southeast breeze. Do do. Rain. Do. Cloudy. Light clouds; light northwest wind. Do do. Do do. Top of mountain --- ---- First summit of El Sangre de Cristo Pass. 21.65 7........ 21. 6.)7 —--- .-. —-- 9852 9358 21. 4081... 21 4..4 .,..........9.9 I.... 9219. $ Second summit of Pass..... 3 p. 132p.m.......4. 14 54. 4 5 148 2.1............o 6 p.m...... 9 p.m 6 a.m....... 9 a....... 10 a. m.. 2 p.... 3 p.m...... 4 p.m....... 10 a. mt.... 11 a. m..... 12 m.... — IP.m M...-... 2 p.m ------ 3 p. m..... 4 p.m...... 5 P. Mn. 6 p. m.. 9 a.. 10 a. m. 11 a. m...n. 12 m.-. —-- 1P.m...... 6 a.. 9 a.. 11 a. m...... 1p.m.. 3 p. m 6 p.m.. 9 p.m..... 6 a. m...... 9 a. m ----- 11 a. m. l p.m.... 3 pu. 6 p.m 9 p.m ------ 6 a.m...... 10 a. On summit................ Clear; light northeast breeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. Light clouds; northeast breeze. Clear; light southeast breeze. Light clouds; light southeast breeze. Cloudy; light southeast breeze. Do do. Do do. Do, ih} Light clouds; light southeast breeze. Clear; light southeast breeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. Camp 42, Sangre de Cristo Valley. I 00 w 0 - 1. 'D 0 9 .41 p ti ,v6 ;. C, I 'D C, ;A tn t 'D -: ;.'n .2 In 6 0 2 0 ,4 pq C) 0 El C) e lb -4 11It 10 0 a) ID C) 0 Iz 0 a) 11 w 0 14 a) 0 Po It Remarks. Station. Day. Hour. I-tiches. 22. 174 21. 940 21' 6,)3 2i. 580 21. 039 21. 053 21. 5! 1 21. 526 21. 541 21. 678 21. 705 21. 73.-) 21. 416 21. 448 21.459 21. 474 21. 479 21. 459 21. 51', 21. 502 21. 465 21. 49 t 21. 508 21. 643 21. 626 21. 591 21. 649 21. 685 21. 708 21. 650 21. 698 21. 665 21. 642 21. 70() 21. 735 21. 716 21. 666 21. 746 21. 707 l,n c it e s. 22. 158 21. 925 21. 591 21. 580 21. 040 21. 058 21. 508 21. 518 21. 53.5 21. 540 21. 580 21. 560 21. 487 21. 515 21. 534 21. 526 21. 531 21. 511 21. 464 21. 450 21. 426 21. 436 21. 453 21. 667 21.,594 21. 544 21. 570 21. 605 21. 696 21. 662 21. 663 21. 598 21. 559 21. 605 21. 640 21. 640 21. 646 21. 722 21. 643 Inches. Feet. 1853. Aug. 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 17 17 17 17 17 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 551 549. 7 549. 8 549. 5 536 545. 2 546. 9 546. 9 546. 7 552. 1 552. 3 552. 3 545. 5 545. 5 545. 5 )45. 4 545. 4 545. 4 548. 9 548. 9 548. 6 548. 6 548. 6 550. 5' 551. 3 551. 6 552 552 ,552. 1 550. 9 552. 3 552. 8 553. 1 553. 6 553. 6 552. 3 551. 2 553.1 554. 6 13. 5 13. 5 13 12 17 14. 5 .17 17 13. 5 19 is 20 16.5 14 13.5 14 14 12 17. 5 19.-5 21 23 2.5 7 15 19. 5 21 21 19 11. 5 11. 5 17. 5 21 24 24 18 9 6 22 550. 9 550. 1 549. 6 549. 5 536.1 544. 546. 7 546. 7 546 548. 8 549. 1 548. 7 547. 3 547. 3 547. 3 546. 7 546. 7 546. 7 547. 7 547. 7 547.7 547.2 547. 551. 1 550. 5 550. 4 550 550 551. 8 551.2 551. 4 551.1 551 ,,51. 2 551.2 550. 4 550. 7 552.4 553 13. 5 13. 5 14 12 17 14. 5 17 17 13. 5 1.9 is 21. 5 17 14 14 .14 14 12 18 20 21 23 25 7 15 19. 5 21 21 19 11. 5 11. 5 17. 5 21 24 24 18 9 6 2 57 58 63 55 60 58 60 60 56 63 61 66 58 56 55 56 55 53 65 68 70 75 76 43 58 66 70 70 45 53 52 63 69 66 6 a 65 49 4-), 71 Nea,r Camp 42............. — I ........ 21. 457 21. 517 -------- I ---- ---- - - - - - - - - 9396. 21. 488 21. 446 ........ 9041. 1 ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ---- ---- ---- ---- - - - - - - - - ........ ........ ---- ---- ---- ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Page  99 Do do Do do. 6)o do. Do do. Clear; light breeze from southeast. Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Cloudy, with thunder. Rain in distance. Stormy. Cloudy; lightbreezefrom southeast. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Dark clouds; light breeze firom southeast. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Camp 43, Sangre de Cristo valley. 21.724 21.664 21.779 21.719 21.739 21.723 21. 701 21. 6S2 22.214 22.202 22.192 22. 188 22.174 22.158 22.194: 22. 233 12 m..... 3 p.m......... 6 p.m....... 9 p.m...... 5.30 p.... 6p. m...... 9 p...... 6 a. in..... 7 a.m.. 10.30 a..m.. 11.30 a.m-. 12.30 p.m 1.30 p.m. 2.30 p.a 3.30 p.mIn 4.30 p.m.. 6p. m-.... 9 a. m 11 a. m.... 12 m ------ 2 p. m. 4p. m-.... 6p.m.. 9p.m. 6p.m.. 9p. m... 6 a. m —. — 9 a. m 12 m. —--- 3p. m. 6p.m.... 9p.m..... 6 a. m 11 a.m. 2p.m.. 4p.m.. 6p... 9p. m.... 6a.m-.... 5.30 p. m. 6p. m.... 6.30 p. m.. 6a.m.... 7.30 a. m.. 8 a. m... 8.30 a. m. 9 a.m.. 4p. m. 6p.m... 9p m... 6 a.m..... Camp 44, Utah creek, San Luis valley, near Fort Massachusetts. 22. 266 22. 250 22. 6t)3 22. 560 22. 675 22. 652 2'2. 473 22. 832 Crossing Utah creek...... Camp 45, White Mountain spring. Light clouds; slight northeast wind. Light clouds; strong northeastwind. Do do. Clear; strong northeast wind. Light clouds; light northeast breeze. Not used in general profile. Light clouds; light southeastbhreeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Dark clouds. Do. Do. Do. Camp 46, near Roubideau's Pass. Camp 47, near Williams' Pass. ........ 22.801 22.781........ I 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 is 18 18 is 18 18 1.8 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21. 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 554. 4 553.6 55-2. 7 552 56t. 7 565.2 564. 3 564. 6 564. 4 569. 9 569 568. 7 568. 6 568. 6 568. 3 566. 7 566. 3 569. 3 569. 4 568. 6 567.1 567. 2 566. 8 566. 8 566. 4 566 566 56'7. 3 567.6 567. 2 566. 8 566. 9 567 577.8 578 576. 8 576. 8 577. 3 577 581. 4 581. 3 22 22 15 8 26.5 25 13.5 7 13.5 23. 5 25 27.5 28. 5 30 31. 5 31 26 20. 5 30 25 18. 5 22. 5 19 15 20 14 23 25 23 15. 5 13 13 24 25 21 is 15 14 17 16 552. 9 552. 9 552. 3 551. 5 565.2 565. 1 563. 9 565. 6 563. 5 568. 7 568. 3 567.1 567 567. 5 566. 3 566. 2 565. 7 568. 4 567. 5 567. 4 566. 4 566. 2 566. 3 566. 7 566.2 566. 6 565 566. 9 567.1 567.2 567. 4 567. 7 568.1 576. 5 577. 4 575. 9 575. 9 576. 8 577. 1 572. 6 572.6 572.4 581.2 581. 3 582 582. 7 582.7 579.4 579. 8 580. 4 580. 7, 22 22 15 8 24. 5 25 13. 5 7 13. 5 23 25 27. 5 28.5 3t 31. 5 3f). 5 26 20 3f) 25 19 2Q. 5 19 15. 5 20 10 10 22 25. 5 23 i-5. 5 13 13 23. 5 26 21 18 15 14 1 5 1 5 14 1 1 13 18.5 19 19. 5 25 24 16.5 16. 5 71 71 59 52 82 77 59 42 57 73 76 so 83 86 88 86 79 67 88 79 66 73 67 61 68 62 49 77 82 77 60 56 61 83 76 70 64 58 57 58 56 54 57 60 70 74 75 77 75 64 710. 72 721. 29 21. 64 21. 645 22. 183 22. 179 2). 275 22. 232 8412.1 8365. 1 22. 150 22. 297 22. 269 22. 273 22.281 22. 308 22. 291 2). 246 22. 235 2. 299 2'?. 245 2-2.271 22. 283 2-2.297 22. 282 2). 268 2). 270 2.2.240 22.245 2,2. 212 22.233 22.263 22.294 22. 276 22. 273 22. 603 22.681 2. 675 22. 680 22. 678 22. 667 22. 114 2!),. 2 5 8 22. 241. 22. 249 22. 217 22. 264 22. 213 22. 217 22. 202 22. 260 22. 170 22. 223 22. 25-? 2-.-,). 258 22. 263 22. 260 22. 63 22. 68 22. 198 22. 197 22..215 22. 263 2. 318 22. 308 22. 316 22 560 22. 653 22. 640 22. 645 22.658 22. 671 22. 549 22.539 22. 526 2. 836 22. 814 22. 821 22. 804 22.795 22.766 22.767 22.796 9 td L-1 0 0 0 n p 0 w rJ2 Lt 0 !4 w I e Pi Pi td rJ2 I t= ?'J2 pt4 (n bd ?2 725.25 732. 04 745. 50 755.28 ........ -------- -------- -------- 8079. 1 7829. 1 - - - - - - - - ---- ---- ........ ---- ---- - - - - - - - - Foot of Roubidean's Pass.. 7638 ........ ........ ........ - - - - - - - - 7723. 1 ........ ........ 60 cm

Page  100 II.-Barometric and Meteorological Observations and Data for P'ofle-Cofitinued. 6 O -: 4. a IV I 4g r.) D . v 0 ;. C, o. E> pc 0 ID ., a) S 'o 1> pq .- 0 0 Inch es. Feet. ........ 7503. 2 22.910........ 22. 906. —......... 7608. 2 ................. ........i. —----- ..... | * * — Dark clouds. Do. Rain. Dark clouds; light breeze from southeast. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. o o So I —t o q I 0 0 P. T td w $' Q Light clouds; light breeze firom southeast. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Light clouds; light southeast breeze. Dark clouds; light southeast breeze. Do do. Clear; light southeast breeze. 22. 868 22. 856 292. 919 22. 930 22. 938 22. 842 29. 856 29. 872 ...... 22. 477 22. 443 Sahwatch spring and Butte. Camp 51, Sahwatch creek. 6p.m. 9p.m m.... 6 a. m —-.... 3p.m.. 6p. m..... 9p.. —... 6 a.m..... 9 a.m.... 11 a.m..... lp. m..... 3p. m.... 6p. m..... 9p. m..... lp. m.... 3 p... 6p. m... 6 am n.... 16.30 p.m 3p.m.. 6 p. m 9p.'m.... 6 a. m.. 12.30 p. m. 3p.. 6p. m 6 a. m.-. — 4.30 p.m. 6 p.m. 9p.m..p.. 6 a. m... Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Light clouds; light southeast wind. lRain and hail; strong southwest wind. Dark clouds. Rain. Light clouds; light southwest breeze. Do do. Clear; light southeast breeze. Do do. Camp 53, foot of Coocehetopa Pass. Coochetopa Pass 1st station2.............. 2d station............... 2 10.55 a.m.. 826.11................ I ,,: I C) C) 00 IV t4 v.4 0 o ID 14 .4 A Miles. 764. 34 ........ ---- ---- 776. (6 't ;. 14 .2 n 'S 0 0 I pq 0 ,v d a) _,o -5 w a, C, 5 P, 11) 6 E 0,4 11m 10 ,z O 0 a) ID 0 C) Station. Day. Hour. Reiiiar'k-,s. 1853. Aug. 26 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 Sept. I I I 1. 2 Inches. 22. 937 211). 910 2. 935 22. 933 22. 893 22. 871 22. 876 22. 867 22. 852 22. 890 22. 861 22. 846 22. 820 22. 898 2-2. 901 22. 893 22. 978 22. 938 22. 873 22. 869 22. 879 22. 805 22. 422 22. 4t3 22. 460 2,2. 502 21. 754 21.735 21. 674 21. 690 Inches. 22. 921 22. 922 22. 923 22. 921 22. 901 22. 879 2-2.896 22.863 22. 788 22. 826 22. 814 22. 865 22. 839 22,933 2. 885 22. 929 22. 978 22. 842 !22. 873 22.881 22. 903 22. 832 22. 387 22.421 22.444 22. 529 21. 738 21.708 21.717 21. 710 21. 817 21. 627 Canip 48, Chatillon's creek. 583. 8 583.2 583. 8 583. 8 582. 2 582.2 582. 3 583.1 583. 8 583. 8 582.4 581 581 584. 1 533. 4 ,982. 4 584. 9 585. 5 582.7 582.1 582.4 580 5 7'-). 3 570 571. 1 572. 8 552. 9 553 551.7 .551. 6 21 15 10, 23 is 15.5 11 15 21. 5 25 27 18 17 25.5 27 20 12 27 27 22 16 6 27 18 17 11 is 20 12 5 583.4 583. 5 583. 5 583.5 582.4 582. 4 582. 8 582.7 582. 2 582. 2 581. 2 581. 5 581. 5 584. 9 583 583. 3 584. 9 582. 8 582. 7 582. 4 583 580. 7 571. 4 570. 2 570. 7 573. 5 552. 5 552. 3 552. 8 552.1 555. 6 550. 3 21 15 12 23 18 15.5 11 15 22 25 27 18 17 2 27a 20 12 27 27 22 16 6 27 is 17 12 17 20 12 5 22 23 .69 60 55 72 65 6t 52 61 76 81 82 67 65 74 82 69 54 81 76 72 6t 43 75 61 60 50 64 60 5 r) 36 65 68 Cam-P 49, Leroux's creek.,. ........ ........ ........ 776.06 ...... ---- ---- -------- ........ ---- ---- 782. 02 - - - - - - - - ........ ........ 792. 56 797. 2-2 - - - - - - - - ........ ........ 809. 49 ---- ---- ........ 7548. 3 7676.2 7,li67. I 8047 Ca-nip 50, Homans' creek. Camp 52, approach to Coo chetopa Pass. ---- ---- -------- 824. 49 8960. 2 ........ -------- ........ 21. 680 21. 684 21. 817 21. 627 ---- ---- 8898 9210 2 9.55 a. m. - - --- ---- ........ ........ ------ --

Page  101 3d station.............. 4th station............. 5th on summit of pass... Do... ------.. —----. ----.. Camp 54, west of pass.... Dark clouds; strong wind fi-om W. Light clouds; light southeast breeze. Do do. Clear. Cloudy; light breeze from west. Clear and calm. Do. Light clouds; light southeastbreeze. Dark clouds in the northwest. Rain; light southwest breeze. Do do. Dark clouds. Do. Clear. Dark clouds. Do. Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Clear; light southwest breeze. Light clouds; southwest breeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. 21. 340 9510 21. 195 9740. 3 20. 935 2 10032. 0 20. 905 1 0(032 0 ....... 9540 21.289........ 21. 281........ ..... 8515 ........... 11.55 a.m.. 12.55 p.m. 1.15 p. m... 2p.m..... 3p.m...... 6 p.n... 9p.m.... 6a.m... 6 p.m... 9p.m.... 6a. m..... 9 a. m...... 11 a. m.... 3 p. m 3 p.m 6p.m m.... 9p..... 6 a.m.i... 4 p. m...... 6p. m...... 8.30 p.m. 6 a.m.. 5 p. m 6 p.m.... 9 p.m...6 a. m.... 6 p. m..... 9p.m.. 5.30 p.m. 9 P. r 6 a.m...... 8 a. m.. 3 p.m... 4 p.m.... 5.30 p. m. 6 a.m...... 8 a...... 9 a.m...... 10 a.m.. —. 1.20 p. m. 2.15 p. m. 2.30 7p.m... 9 p. m 6 a. m ---- 9 a. m... 12 m...-. — 3 p. m... 6 p.m... t4 0 to ~ Q 0 ci Up To Z:02 tt Up 0 L4 02 1 li tU2 1o ul Camp 56, Coochetopa creek. Camnp 57, Grand river..... Camp 58, Grand river..... Summit of right bank of Lake Fork. Camp 60, Lake Fork, (on stream.) Summit of left bank of Lake Fork. 22.793 7716.2 29. 796 ........ 8054. 3 Camp 61, Mountain creek... Dark clouds; northeast. Do Do Rain; light breeze froma southeast. Dark clouds; light breeze fir om northeast. Do do. Do do. I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 1.1 11 11 11 827. 50 828. 08 828. 32 829. 65 849. 65 865. 53 880. 28 894.28 898. 28 902.28 544. 1 540 532. 9 53). 8 542.1 541. 9 541. 7 540. 7 564. 2 i)62. 5 563. 4 563. 3 563. 4 563. 4 563. 7 564. 7 558. 1 563. 2 577. 6 578. 9 578.2 577. 9 584. 5 584. 4 584.2 584. 9 587. 8 588.5 579. 6 579. 4 579. 4 580. 4 577. 7 571. 7 589. 4 589. 4 592.2 59,'). 2 590. 2 581. 5 580.9 580. 6 573. 1 572.2 572. 3 572.3 571. 3 570. 8 570. 1 25 23 15 13 20 19 15 11 23 13. 5 9 19 22 24 21.5 13. 5 13. 5 8 20 15 15 4 22 19. 5 13 4 25 10 23. 5 18 2 10 25 25 22 10 12. 5 19 20 23. 5 24. 5 24. 5 16 12 10 12 18 18. 5 15. 5 65 64 59 58 61 66 62 55 68 59 49 65 71 78 71 59 60 40 68 61 56 36 72 67 57 36 65 61 75 6S 35 55 60 76 72 56 60 62 70 71 71 73 62 60 46 60 70 67 67 21. 340 21. 195 20. 935 20. 905 21. 306 21. 302 21. 280 21. 234 22.160 22.103 22.143 22. 065 2-2. 044 22. 040 22.145 22. 212 21. 922 22. 135 22. 719 22. 767 22. 711 22. 730 22. 968 22. 972 22. 95,"3 23. 006 23. 082 23.127 22. 782 22. 752 22. 797 22. 782 22. 686 22. 463 23. 163 23.159 23. 238 23.130 23.155 22. 806 22.795 22.788 22. 533 22. 481 22. 4S6 2. 445 22.405 22. 436 22. 407 532. 3 542. 3 541. 8 541.8 541. 4 563. 6 562. 2 562. 4 564 564 564. 3 563. 9 563. 3 558.4 562. 7 577. 3 577.5 577. 6 577.5 583.5 583.2 582. 6 582. 4 587.5 587.4 579.7 579 578. 4 580.4 577. 3 571. 6 588. 9 587.7 588.1 591. 1 591. 1 581. 4 580. 9 580.4 572 571. 3 571. 2 571. 3 571. 7 570 569. 8 ........ ........ 15 ........ 20 19 15 11 24 13 9 19 22 22 21 13 13 8 .20 15 15 4 22 19.5 13 4 25 10.5 23.5 is 2 10 25. 5 25. 5 22.5 10 12.5 19 20 23.5 23.5 24 16 12 10 12 18 18.5 15.5 21.314 21.298 I. 684 21. 265 22.133 22. 091 -22.104 22. 102 22. 067 22. l9 22.152 2,-). 1 5 0 21. 93S 22.115 22. 7(,)7 22. 710 22. 688 22. 714 22. 941 22. 925 22. 891 22. 907 23. 070 23. 083 22. 786 22. 737 22.757 22. 782 22. 668 22. 459 23. 143 23. 092 3. 077 23. 165 23. 151 22. 802 22. 799 22. 780 22. 489 22. 445 22. 442 22. 405 22. 420 22. 405 22. 405 Camp 55, near Camp Rock 22. 091 2-),. 703 22.731 22. 917 22. 975 23. 079 23. 102 22. 766 22. 778 7681.2 7428 7293.1 7639. 1 8171. 2 7236. 2 Camp 59, ravine near Grand river. Do Do Do Do Do do. do. do. do. do. ........ -------- -------- 23.126 23.161 ........ 906. 98 light breeze- from do. do. -------- ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ -------- ........ ........ ........ ........ --- --- ...............

Page  102 II. -Barometric and Bleteorological Observations and Datafor Profle —Colltinlled. - a), 'o Pa) o P- V e. C3 V) 6 0s . n -~~~ -.- 0 0 0 0 ovc C)^ 4 6 0 4I. Vg z 16 0 .. C) 02 $ 0 - ;,' It ,= Miles. 910. 02 911.10 911.79 913.81 920. 16 923. 91 927. 71 936. 91 938. 91 949. ~0 967. 43 987. 76. 996.21 1000. 43 1003, 211-004. 93 1006. 07 Dark clouds; light northeast breeze. Do do. On succeeding creek -. —...... —-- On summit of mesa........ On small creek............ On second small creek...... C amp 62, Cebolla creek, first branch. Light clouds; light southeast breeze. Do do. Do do. Dark clouds; light southwestbreeze. Do do. 10 59 4 35 15 67 17 60 17. 5 6 9 19. 5 73 13 55 11 51 9 47 22. 5 66 2 3 78 17 64 12 60 18. 5 68 21.5 76 27. 5 82 27.5 81 25 79 21 71 12 64 14 59 26. 5 [ 79 25 1 77 25 73 15 61 5 37 -- - - - - - - -- 21. 5 66 20 66 23 69 20. 5 67 12 51 3 35 27 63 24 87 24 87 27. 5 89 Summit of mountain........ Camp 64, Cedar creek...... No barometric observations at this camp. Crossing, Cedar creek...... Camp 65, Uncompahgra river Clear; fresh breeze fi-om southeast. Do. do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Light clouds. Cloudy; strong southwest wind. Do do. Do do. Do do. Clear; light southwest breeze. No barometric observations. Clear; light southeast breeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Creek.................. Small ridge............. Second ridge.............. Foot of ridge.............. I I I I I 4 q) 0 ,) 0 .22 - p .a ,4 a)6 ;_ C, 11 e E 0 14 C) 0 0 ,z oi Station. Day. Hour. Remarks. x t4 tt 0 pi 0 t7l 0 n 0 w 'rJ2 pi p1-3 0 t4 &02 1 -3 ci t-i m I rn x n t4 1853. Sept. 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 1 3 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 17 is 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 inches. 22. 363 22. 388 22. 305 22. 267 22. 260 22.124 23. 221 23. 158 2 3. 1 3' —) 23. 078 23. 070 23. 962 22. 997 21. 920 23. 454 24. 238 24. 243 24. 180 24. 159 24. 174 24. 143 24. 822 24. 826 24. 806 24. 796 24. 793 25. 292 25. 314 25. 338 25.286 25. 304 21-3. 265 25. 500 25. 421 25.285 25.454 Inches. 22. 402 22. 446 22. 293 22. 254 22.247 22. 144 23. 528 23. 213 23. 171 23. 086 23. 066 23. 101 23. 044 21. 970 23. 4.'35 24. 156 24. 161 24. 141 24. 127 24. 099 24. 131 24. 802 24. 759 24. 739 24. 717 24. 769 25. 308 25. 314 2.5. 353 25. 341 25. 363 25. 387 25. 523 25. 378 25.277 25. 438 Inch,ps 22. 4t 22. 449 23. 170 23. 304 23. 052 23. C,77 21. 945 23. 444 24. 190 24. 135 24. 809 24. 757 25. 295 25. 346 Teet. -------- - - - - - - - - 8297. 2 886. 2 8373 8559 7026. 4 ---- ---- - - - - - - - - 7355. 1 ---- ---- Camp 61-Continued.. -. -. 9 P.M. ——. 6 a. 8 a,. m...... 9.30 a. m-.10.20 a. m 1.30 p. m7 p. 9 P. 6 a. m.. 12 m. — 3 p. 6 p, 9 P.m...... 10 a. m.-..Night. -.. - -. Morning. IO a. m.... 4 p.m..-. 5 p M'-. —. 6 p. m - -—. 8 P. M. 9 P.m - 6 a. m ----- 3 p.m..-.5 P.M 6 p. 9 P.M. —-- 6 a. m Night.. 11 a. m ---- I P.m 3 p. m 6 p. m 9 P. 6 a. m. —.. 10.30 a. m — 11.30 a. m 12.30 a. m 12.45 p. ni.. 569 569. 2 568. 7 558.2 568.2 563. 7 590. 6 589. 3 588. 6 588. 9 587. 3 586. 4 58-5. 3 560 599. 1 617. 3 617. 3 616 615. 7 615.2 614. 8 6 3 "). 4 631. 9 631. 9 631. 3 63'). 4 646 645. 2 645. 2 643. 6 643. 9 642. 2 651. 8 649. 2 645. 1 649. 7 10 4 16 17 17.5 20 13 1 t 9 2-2,. 5 23 17 12 18. 5 - - - - - - - - 21. 5 27.5 27.5 25 21 .1.2 14 26. 5 25 25 15 5 - - - - - - - - 21. 5 20 23 20. 5 12 3 27 24 24 27. 5 570 570. 7 568. 4 558. 4 568. 4 564. 1 598. 4 590. 7 589. 6 589. 1 587.2 587. 4 586. 5 561. 2 598. 6 615. 2 615.2 615 614. 9 613. 3 614. 5 631. 9 630. 2 630. 2 629. 3 629. 8 646. 4 645. 6 645. 6 645 645. 4 645. 3 652. 4 648. 1 644. 9 649. 3 Rain. Camp 63, Cebolla creek, second branch. 8755 6962 6085 5331. 9 4703. 6 4514. 6 4754. 2 4886. 4 4710. 5 Camp 66, Uncompahgi-a rive Caiiip 67, on bill........... Camp 68, Kab-nah ere ek.. - -

Page  103 25. 594 25. 602 -........ 4449 Clear; light breeze from southeast. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Rain; light breeze from southwest. 2665.Do do. Cloudy; light breeze firom south west. 26145Do do. Camp 70, Blue river........ Camp 71, Little Salt creek.. Noon halt................ Camp 72, Bitter Water creek ~ m [q '4 t-I c> 02 t4 'y2 Q 02 ?2 Camp 74, on hill........... 19 2p.m..... 19 2.30 p. 19 6 p.m 19 9p.m..... 20 6a. n..... 20 7.15 a.m20 lp.m..... 20 3p.m ----- 20 5 p.m 20 9 P.M 21 6a.m..... 21 4 p. mn..... 21 9 p. In 22 6 a.m.... 22 12 in....... 23 6 a. m 23 9 a. m 23 12m....... 23 3p.m 23 6 p.m 21 6a. m... 24 6 p.m 24 9p. m 25 6 a. m 26 7 a.m..... 26 6.30 p.m 27 6 a. m 27 5p.m.. 27 8 p. m.n. 28 6a.m 28 7p. m 28 9 p. m 29 6a.m..... 29 8 a... 29 12 m ------ 29 4.30p. m. 29 6p.m 2 9p.9 m... 30 6 a. I. 31 8 a. m 30 12 m.. 30 3 p.m 30 4 p.m 30 6 p.m 30 9 p.m 1 6a.m 1 8 a... 1 12m. —---- I 3p.m..... Rain. Cloudy. Rain; light southwest breeze. Clear; light southeast breeze. Do do. Do do. Do do. 25. 498 25. 166 25. 170 25. 351 25. 367 25. 558 25. 448 ...... ...... 25. 552 25. 520 25. 822 25. 755 ....... Camp 76, water in holes in dry creeks. Onridge................ Camp 77, Green river. -..-. 4231.5 Do. 3873.3 Light clouds; light breeze from southeast. ........ Light clouds. ........ Do. ........ Do. ........ Clear. ........ Do. 3828. 3 Do. ........ Do. Camp 78, west bank of Green river. I i I Camp 69, Blue river....... 1009. 61 652.1 652.1 651 649. 9 650. 5 651.2 655. 9 655. 6 654 6.2.5 653. 3 656.6 653. 8 654. 2 646, 1 655.2 655. 5 655. 7 654. 4 652. 7 651. 3 648. 9 647. 7 649. 4 651.5 648. 3 651. 8 640. 8 640. 5 639. 9 645. 3 645. 3 644. 4 646. 4 651. 2 649. 9 649. 3 649.2 651. 4 651. 4 658. 5 664. 3 664.2 663. 7 663.7 663. 5 664. 5 667. 6 666. 8 23. 5 652. 3 652. 3 650. 5 650. 4 651. 9 652. 6 655. 8 653. 4 651.2 650. 6 652. 9 654. 7 653 653. 9 646. 2 653.2 653. 8 653. 7 652 651. 1 651. 1 646. 4 647 648. 2 651. 6 647. 6 649. 6 642. 1 639. 6 639. 7 644. 5 644. 5 644. 4 649. 4 649. 4 650. 1 649. 3 649 649. 8 650. 1 656. 8 664. 6 663.7 663. 2 663. 2 664. 1 665. 6 667. 3 665 23. 5 87 23. 5 21 10. 5 10. 5 13 32 33 26. 5 10 10 20. 5 15 5 27 2 19 33. 5 36. 5 26 6 19 15. 5 13 i6 18 4 19 19 9 16 16 6. 5 13 23 20 18 14. 5 12. 5 14 19. 5 20 20 17 15 7 14 22 26 23. 5 21 10.5 10. 5 13 32, 33 26. 5 10 10 20. 5 15 5 7 2 19 3,1. 5 36. 5 24 6 19 15. 5 13 16 18 4 19 19 9 16 16 6. 5 13 23 20 18 14. 5 12. 5 14 19. 5 20 20 17 15 7 14 22 26 87 68 50 50 57 92 95 83 54 43 87 63 3t 86 32 56 91 90 78 32 76 60 58 58 64 45 62 56 50 64 56 46 54 74 67 65 59 49 56 67 69 67 62 60 44 58 68 80 25. 604 25. 574 25. 544 25. 560 25. 567 25. 688 25. 684 25. 688 25. 650 25. 675 25. 813 25. 678 25.730 25. 3.)2 25. 78 t 25. 689 25. 6,53 25. 644 25. 621 25. 611 25. 503 25. 437 25. 509 25. 563 25. 44 25. 612 25. 554 25. 563 25. 615 25. 622 25. 684 25. 617 25. 62-3 25. 575 25. 659 25. 738 25. 646 25.718 25. 306 25. 702 25. 62 25. 574 25. 550 25. 566 25. 604 2i-). 404 25. 410 25. 462 25. 567 25. 447 1018. 71 1033. 00 1042. 11 1054. 75 107I.- 03 25. 574 25. 594 25. 679 25. 624 25. 742 25. 698 25. 575 25. 524 25. 557 4410. 3 4274. 1 4855. 6 4486. 4 4454. 3 -Camp 73, Rain Water creek - 25. 639 25. 204 25. 147 25.151. 25. 363 25. 343 25. 336 25. 368 25. 558 25. 549 25. 519 25. 540 25. 584 25. 561 25. 822 26. 101 26.112 26. 089 26. 067 26. 092 26. 073 26. 164 26. 172 25. 552 25.251 25. 112 25. 143 25. 331 25. 311 25. 336 25. 486 25.448 25. 557 25. 519 25. 492 25. 525 25. 510 2'). 7526. 1130 26. 089 26. 070 26. 126 26. 112 26.116 26. 153 26.101 -------- 1076. 70 - - - - - - - - -------- i 1093. 42 - - - - - - - - ---- ---- ........ 1100. 52 1107. 52' ---- ---- ........ - - - - - - - - ........ 1115. 51 1121. 52 -------- 4856. 2 ........ - - - - - - - - 4641. 9 ........ - - - - - - - - ........ 4575.5 4468. E. - - - - - - - - ........ - - - - - - - - 4231. 5 3873. 3 Camp 75, creek.. -. -. - - - - Do Cloudy. Do. Do. Do. Do. do. ........ ........ ........ -------- 1122.60 ........ ........ ---- ---- 26. 086 26. 102 ........ ........ Oct.

Page  104 II.-Barometric and Meteorological Observations and Data for Profle-Continued. lb I i 0 wH w I-) C)' c c*e 0o I, ID C.) I ~ Remarks. -i e0 4 , O pi a) ^ s) w a)v u Is C, I I? C Inches. 26. 152 26. 136 25. 999 25. 983 25. 526 25. 542 25.172 25. 224 25. 090 24. 976 25.256 25. 243 25. 435 25. 435 25. 104 25. 108 24. 899 24. 835 24. 825 '24. 856 24. 696 24. 633 24. 382 24. 375 24. 534 Camp 78-Continued...... 6 p. m 9 p.m.... 6 a. m..... 12m....... 6 p. m 9p.m... 6 a.m... 8 a. m.... 12m m...... Ip.m.. 7 p.m. 9 p. m e a.m.m. 10.30 a. m. 12m ------- 3 p.m. 6p.m m.... 9p.m. 6 a. m 3 p.. 6 p.m.. 9p.m.... 6 a. m 11 a. m.... 12 m...... 4.30 p.m. 6 p.n.. 9p.m m.. 6 a.m. —-- 12m.. 6p. m 9p. m 6a. m Station on ridge........... Camp 79, Spanish trail, Akanaquint spring. Station, bed of creek....... Leaving Spanish trail...... Camp 80, Dry creek....... Leaving Dry creek......... Station near White river.. Camp 81, White river...... Do. Do. Do. Do. Clear; light breeze from north. Do do. Do do. Do do. Light clouds; light southeast wind. Do do. Do do. Do do. Do do. Leaving Clever creek..... Noon halt................. Camp 83, hi ll overlooking White river. Clear; light breeze from northeast. Do do. Do do. Do do. Station................... Camp 84, Standing Water creek. I i miles. 1130.81 1139. 35 1143. 95 1145. 09 1155.13 1159.92 1162.02 1164. 95 1173.65 11.78.15 1180. 67 1184.77 1191. 35 1198. 03 zz 4) "I .2 ;, 6 0 It 0 E 'D j a) S v It CZ .Fi ,L) _; ;.'O . 10 'S 0 0 p 14 a) C) PC 't -1 0 Station. Day. Hour. x t4 )-3 0 tz 0 0 ql (71 t-I 0 tz m t4 w 0 x TJ2 I pti 09 ci t7-j rj2 I rJ2 n t-I 92 1853. Oct. Inches. 26.1.64 26.134 26. 131 25. 999 25. 558 25. 548 25..521 25. 490 25. 172 25. 090 25. 265 25. 233 25. 277 25. 395 25. 511 25. 460 25. 440 25. 426 25. 423 25. 133 25. 137 25. Cj79 25. 072 24. 899 24. 771 24. 849 24. 838 24. 815 24. 804 24. 696 24. 3,q9 24. 394 24. 371 Inches. 26. 113 26. 12 26.186 25. 983 25. 574 25. 567 25. 533 25. 482 25.224 24. 976 25. 312 25. 241 25. 19S 5. 372 25. 408 25. 460 25. 397 25. 426 25. 466 25.141 25.137 25. 067 25. 100 24. 835 24. 692 24. 876 24. 818 24. 855 24. 883 24. 633 24. 353 24. 394 24. 3S3 Feet. 4062 4457 5005. 5 5194. 5 4753. 5 4747. 5 4667. 3 4592. 5 4957. 8 5221. 2 5436 5213.4 5564 5718. 7 I 1 2 .2 2 3 3 665. 8 665.2 664. 5 663.6 650. 9 649. 9 649.1 650 642.5 639. 9 642.7 642. 3 642.9 648. 6 651. 1 648. 9 647.4 647. 3 646. 6 640.2 639. 9 638. 4 637. 5 635.2 632 632. 3 632.1 631.5 630.7 630.2 620' 8 620.7 619.7 19 13.5 6 24 24 10 7 17 25 25 16 14 7 22 25 29 21 15 7 26.5 23 14 6 19. 5 23.5 25 21 13 5 25.5 23 it 5 664. 5 .664. 9 665. 9 663.2 651. 3 650.4 649. 4 649. 8 643. 8 637 643. 9 642. 5 640. 9 648 648. 5 648. 9 646. 3 647. 3 647. 7 640. 4 1639. 9 638. 1 63S. 2 633.7 630 633 631. 6 632. 5 632.7 628. 6 619. 9 620. 7 620. 19 13. 5 6 24 24 10 7 17 25 25 16 14 7 22 25 29 21 15 7 26.5 23 14 5 19.5 23. 5 25 21 13 5 ,). 5 23 11 5 67 60 37 79 72 55 43 54 92 92 65 60 38 82 83 81 69 59 38 78 77 60 34 64 73 77 69 56 31 82 75 51 34 Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 Camp 82, Clever creek.... Do Cloudy. Do. Do.. do.

Page  105 24. 534 24.444 24.444 5718.4 Station near San Rafael, first branch. Camp 85, San Rafael, sec ond branch. 6p.m.. 9p. m..... 6 a. m..... 9 a.m.... 12 m...... 3p.m..... 6p. m6..... 9p. m..... 6 a.m. 12 m...... 3.30 p.m.. 6 a.m..... 12 m.... 3.30 p.m... 9p.m. 6 a. m..... 11.45 a. m. 12 m...... 6 p.m.... 9 p.m..... 6 a. m.... 8 a.m..... 10 a. m... 2.15 & 1.15 p. m. 5 p.m..... 6 p.m.... 9 p.m.... 6 a.m..-.. 6p.m..... 9p.m.... 6 a.m... 8.30 a. m. 5 p. m.... 6 p.m. 9 p.m..-. 6 a.m..... 9 a.m... 12 m...... 3p.m..m. 6p.m. 9p. m.... 6 a.m..... 5.30 p.m.. 6.30 p.m.. 9 p.m..... L ight clouds. Do. Clear. Do. Cloudy; light northeast breeze. Cloudy. Do. Do. Do. 4. 675 24. 631 24.436 24. 357 24. 386 24. 378 24. 027 23. 987 24. 193 24. 110 24. 178 24. 123 23. 444 3. 467 Spanish trail.............. Camp 86, Garambulla river. Clear; light breeze from southwest. Do do. Do do. Do do. Dividing ridge............. Camp 87, Big Rock creek.. Noon halt................ Crossing of stream......... Camp 88, Oak springs...... Dark clouds; light northwest wind - Do do. Do do. Cloudy; strong northwest wind. Summit of Wahsatch Pass. Camp 89, Salt creek-west ern slope of Wahsatch mountains. Camp 90, Swambah creek. Cloudy. Do. Do. Clear. ~ Do. Do. Do. Light clouds. Do. Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Clear; light breeze from northwest, Do do. Do do. Camp 91, Ungottahbikin creek. 5 I 8 12 m...... 1205.75 626.2 26 624 26.0. 74 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 1211.23 1222.63 1230. 4:8 1236. 09 1243. 30 1251. 74 1258. 39 1262.96 1267. 96 1276 46 1290.71 629. 3 635.4 626.5 627.4 628.7 627.7 626. 3 626. 3 625.7 623.6 620.8 620.5 620.5 619.4 613.1 616. 4 615.7 614.8 613.5 617. 3 617 597.1 596.9 596.2 596. 6 574. 5 24 14 4 13 4 22 17 14 12 25 24 18 11 3 24.5 22.5 17 6 0 24 21 17 16 9 9 ....... 14.7 626.6 635. 3 66 626.8 627.4 625.5 624. 9 624. 9 626.7 621. 6 619. 3 620 620 621.2 612.1 614 613.2 612.9 612 615. 9 615.6 597. 9 598. 1 595. 8 597.2 595.8 574.4 591 589.5 590.9 590. 7 576. 7 577 576.9 577. 3 60q 602.1 603 603 603.2 603.2 603. 2 602. 8 603.1 603.2 636.1 636.1 636.6 24 14 4 13 24 2 17 14 12 25 24 18 11 3 24.5 22.5 17 6 0 24 24 17 16 9 9 12 9 13 14 11 7 8 11 2, 12 15 13 10 8 19 20 21 16 9 7 22 16 10 77 58 26 44 66 73 59 50 50 76 74 60 48 32 69 74 61 45 21 74 70 62 58 48 50 50 8&48 50 47 38 35 47 53 35 48 56 55 53 48 65 69 70 65 - 49 44 69 60 54 24.719 24. 973 24-643 24. 614 24. 641 24. 660 24. 633 24. 607 24. 580 24.436 24.'390 24.401 24. 386 24. 367 24. 027 24.224 24.215 24. 182 24. 147 24.168 24.188 23. 484 23. 446 23. 431 23.424 22.619 24. 613 24. 969 24. 623 24. 590 24.590 24. 574 24. 578 24. 552 24. 619 24. 357 24. 331 24.381 24. 367 24. 438 23.987 24. 130 24.117 24. 107 24.088 24.113 24.133 23.515 23. 493 23.415 23. 447 'M. 360 22.615 23.271 23.192 23.221 23.222 22. 704 22.674 22.696 22.644 23. 692 23. 684 23. 701 23.698 23. 638 23. 641 23. 771 23' 700 23.709 23. 714 24. 998 25.006 25.024 5428.9 5837. 5 5728, 8 6246.1 5957. 8 6098.2 6789.7 7820 6976.6 7623.1 6551. 2 5019.1 41 x t?d 01 td 0 vu 0 0 n . P. 0 w U2 t4 0 0 t4 TA I 9 U2 I La !4 n m ?2 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 1.7 17 17 Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. ........ -------- 590.2 590.5 590.1 577.1 582.7 575.5 577.7 ........ 602 602 602.7 603 603.7 603.7 602. 8 599.2 601.8 ........ 637. 3 636.8 ....... 14 11 7 8 11 2 12 ....... 13 10 8 18 20 21 16 9 7 ....... 16 10 ........ 23. 229 23. 205 23.198 22.720 22. 899 22. 643 22.663 - - - - - - - - 23. 680 .23. 663 23.686 23. 630 23.660 23.712 23. 700 23. 556 23.659 - - - - - - - - 25. 053 25. 032 23.205 23.213 22. 730 22.679 23.659 23. 694 Camp 92, Sevier rivor - - - - - - CA

Page  106 II.-Barometric and JIeteorological Observations and Data for Profile-Continued. ED Cd e;t .4 1. Z;4 ) 0 0 C) (D O *u ti - - _~~~~~~~.. 00 10 r's pq: Staton. ay. our ~. —. Remrks n3 lb $ 0 la v c) .4a G, -. 0 P. ,cZ p; a, a,.- 0 0 a, 0 Q 1853 ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~..lls. In.s nhs nhs et Remarks. Feet. ......... Clear; light breeze from northwest. ........ Do do. -7Z o ~~~~~~do. ..4.6... Do do. 4960. 5 Clear. ........ Do. ........ Do. 5128. 3 4869. 1 Broken clouds. .. ------— Cloudy. ...... ------ Do. 4782. 7 Do. ........ Do. ........ Do. ........ Do. ........ Do. ...... -------- Do. 5376. 1 5237. 5 5871.2 5131.1 Light floating clouds. . 9...... Do. ........ Do. 2....... Do. ........ Do. Do. ........ Do. 22 3p~m. —---------— 632 6 62.9 6 45 24.88 24.924 —------------- Do. ........ Do. .m.....6.. Do. ........ Do. ......... Do. 4692.7 Clear. light breeze from southwest. 264........ Do do. ..... 5 Light clouds. ........ Dark clouds; snow fell during the night. ........ Snow in mountains. Station above Sevier river -.. Camp 94, Sevier river...... Camp 95, on north bend of Sevier river, one mile above bridge. Summit of ridge north of Lake valley. In Lake valley.. -.......... Summit of ridge south of Lake valley. Camp 96, Cedar Springs. — Camp 98, Sevier river...... —-- I i 0 I ci ,a) ,O - ID a) ,gw -8 s 0 .9 ,v Cb Fi 0 4 Id ,= o 6 a) C) C).2 0 u .6 ,e0 ID El .2 ,v 0 t Station. Day. Hour. t4 t4 0 0 L-4 0 ql t-i 0 w 02 t4 ti 0pg 0 t4 Z)2 I (7i m I &02 t4 0 td ?2 1853. Oct. 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 l9 20 . 20 20 20 20 20 2t 21 Miles. 1302. 53 1312. 62 1321. 63 1324. 08 1328. 57 1335. 96 1339. 48 1348.28 1373. 71 Inches. ........ 25. 018 25. 002 ........ 25.032 25. 056 25. 066 . 24. 968 ........ 25. 158 25. 134 ........ ---- ---- ........ ---- ---- 25. 222 25.210 Inches. 25. 021 25. 006 24. 992 25. 062 25. 012 25. 021 25. 066 25.180 25. 099 25.202 25. 164 25.176 25. 215 25.259 25.268 25. 245 24. 733 24. 861 24.267 24. 931 24.867 24. 871 24. 842 24' 810 24. 889 24. 889 24. 859 24. 899 24. 901 ,?4. 853 25. 314 25. 227 25.082 25. 052 Inches. 25. 037 24. 974 24. 960 25. 054, 25. 032 25. 088. 24. 968 '25. 152 25. 052 25.194 25. 140 25. 152 25. 168 25. 247 25. 256 25. 304 24. 666 24. 826 24. 212 24. 888 24. 859 24. 801 24' 807 24. 845 24. 924 24. 924 24. 874 24. 915 24. 874 24. 802 25. 507 25. 416 25.227 25. 355 Camp 92-Continued...... 6 a. m 8 a. rn 9 a. iu 6 p. 9 P. 6 a. m 12 M.... --- 6 p. 9 P. 6 a. m 9.30 a. m12 m ------- 3 P. 6 p. 9 P. m 6 a. 11 a. m 12 m....... 3 p. m. 6.30 p. 9 P. in...... 6 a. m...... 9 a. 12 M... - -.. 3 p.m...... 6 p. m.9 P. M. 6 a. 9 a. 12 12 m ------- 3 p. 6 p. 9 P.m 635. 9 637 4 637. 4 637. 7 636. 5 635. 8 639. 7 64(). 6 639 640. 4 642. 2 642. 2 641. 9 642.5 642. 5 640. 8 631.1 633. 8 616. 9 633. 9 632. 7 632. 6 632.8 631. 7 632 632 632 631. 8 634. 5 63. 9 645 642.2 637' 5 637. 5 2 15 16 19 1.2 1 23 .18 15 1 19 20 21 17 7 - 6 15 17 13 13 11 7 8 9 6 6 6 - 8 10 10 14 21 12 12 636. 3 636. 6 636. 6 637.5 637 637.5 6.7. 2 639. 9 637. 8 640. 2 641. 6 641. 6 640. 7 642. 2 642.2 642. 3 629. 4 632.9 615.5 632. 8 632.5 630. 8 631. 9 632.6 632. 9 632. 9 632.4 632. 2 633. 8 631. 6 649. 9 647 641. 2 645.2 2 15 . 16 19 12 1 23 18 15 1 19 20 2t 17 7 - 6 15 17 13 13 11 7 8 9 6 1 6 6 - 8 10 10 14 21 12 12 33 63 63 60 58 34 - 76 65 64 :31-1) 61 69 70 60 47 20 56 60 52 54 57 40 52 59 45 45 44 15 49 52 52 71 56 20 Camp 93, San Pete creek... .......... ---------- 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 ........ ........ 24. 873 24. 865 ---- ---- ........ ........ 25. 176 25 6 a. m.............. 641 3 641.6 3 20 25. 218 25. 242 25. 349

Page  107 Camp 102, Pioneer creek... 6 a.m.. 9 a.... 12 m....... 3 p... 6 p...... 6a. m.......... 6 a.. 9 a. m.. 12 m.. 3 p.m..... 6 p. m..... 6 a...m.... 6 p. m 9 p.... 6 a.m...... 6 p.m.... 9 p. m.... 6 a.. 3 p. m 6 p. an 9P.m...... 6 a. m.. 3 p. m 6 p.. 9 p. m 6 a. m.. 3 p. m.. 6 p. m.. 9 p.. 6 a. m Camp 103, Sevier river, N near former camp 95.2 Camp 104, Nephi.......... Clear; light northwest breeze. Clear. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Light clouds. Light clouds; light breeze from northwest. Light clouds. Do. Do. Cloudy; strong northwest wind. Cloudy. Do. Do. Cloudy; strong northwest wind. Do do. Clear; light northwestwind; snow storm at night. Do do. Altitude determined from all the observations taken at this place, from November, 1853, to May, 1854. Tables will accompany sub sequent report. Camp 105, Payson........ 0 W. 0 0 tq 0 [ 0~ To tbd w TJ2 )3 tit Camp 106, Provo......... Carmp 109, Cottonwood, near Great Salt Lake City I I 1 I I i 30 . 30 30 30 30 Nov. I .......... 2 .2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 . 7 7 7 8 1419. 80 1448. 04 1472. 89 1498. 07 1517. 30 1531. 30 639 640. 3 64(). 2 640. 2 638. 5 634. 3 636. 7 638 637. 6 636. 9 635. 5 634.1 646. 9 646. 5 640. 7 650. 3 649. 8 .649. 5 647.5 646 646 645.7 643. 9 642. 8 642. 8 642. 6 650. 6 650.5 650. 8 650. 8 0 14 19 20 12 - 2 - - - - - - -10 8 15 17 5 - 1 9 7 - 1 18 0 19 12 9 6 16 12 12 11 5 .3 2 0 639. 3 4639. 2 637. 6 637.6 634. 2 633. 3 636 636. 1 636. 3 635. 4 634. 6 633. 6 646. 7 646. 3 641.7 649. 8 649. 6 6-i 647 644. 4 644. 4 644. 6 642. 9 642 642 642 650. 7 651. 3 651-. 6 651.6 20 58 66 66 49 is ...... . 15 44 56 56 38 28 49 42 24 56 42 26 68 52 48 42 56 52 50 50 39 36 30 25 0 14 19 20 12 - 2 ........ -10 8 15 17 5 - 1 9 7 - 1 18 9 - 0 19 12 9 6 16 12 12' 11 5 3 2 0 25.151 25.114 25.105 25.152 25. 12 i 24. 974 25.100 25. 047 25.019 25. 038 25. 030 24. 962 25. 463 25. 426 25. 222 25. 562 25. 548 25. 564 25. 448 25. 416 25.398 25. 391 25. 318 25. 290 25.260 25.249 25. 625 25. 629 25. 614 25. 662 25.163 25. 071 25. 003 25. 050 4. 9 5,-) 24. 934 25. 07. 24. 972 24. 968 24. 979 24. 995 24. 942 25. 456 25. 418 25,261 25. 503 25. 540 25. 623 25. 428 25. 353 25. 335 25. 348 25. 279 25. 259 5. 229 25. 2.26 25. 629 25. 660 25. 646 25.647 4921. 6 4887. 5 4938. 4 - - - - - - - - ........ ....... I....... 4540. 7 - - - - - - - - ........ 43,62. 6 ........ - - - - - - - - 4596. 1 Not used in profile. Clear. Do. Do. Do. ........ ........ ........ 25. 128 25. ()50 24. 974 24. 934 ---- ---- ........ ........ ........ 25. 033 24. 990 -------!. 25. 371 25. 379 - - - - - - - - 25. 556 25. 556 ........ Camp 107, American Fork.. ........ ........ 1546. 70 ........ ........ ---- ---- 1558.15 ........ 25.411 25. 364 ........ ........ 25' 277 25.246 ........ ........ 25.620 25.643 ........ ........ ........ ........ 4733. 4, 4241. 1, ........ ;........ Cdmp 108, Willow ereek... 1567. 95 ........ 4351. 0 Great Salt Lake City - - - - - - ......... ............ ...... ....... .............. ...... ........ T

Page  108 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS —ALTITUDES-DISTANCES. III.-Datafor Profile of Roubideau's Pass-Altitudes above Camp 46, (Creek.) Barometer, Attached Corrected Det'd ther- Height above!Entire Station. Hour. in inches, ther., (F.) barometer, moometer. camp 46. tud No. 496. in inches. Feet. Fee Camp 46.......................................................... —---------- ------------ 7638 Level of base of mountain... 3.30 p. m... 22.496 85.1 22.420 73 517. 86 8155 Outlet of pass.............. 2.30 p. in... 22. 390 82.4 22.225 76 968.12 8606 Two miles from summit.....10.40 a. m.. 21. 855 59. 9 21.764 65 Two miles from summit... 2 p. m..... 21.855 64.4 21.778 62.5 1341.00 8979 One mile from summit......1.30 p. m. 21. 551 84.2 21. 449 72 1718.15 9356 Summit station............. - ig. m.. 21.272 78.8 21.163 62 2134.11 9772 IV.-Simultaneous Me'teorological Observations at the Coochetoya Pass. ADVANCE PARTY. REAR PARTY. Date. Hour. Station. Station. Hour. Sept. 2 9 a. m.... Station 1... 536 20* 21.890 68 10 a. m... Station 2.. 550.5 22.5 21.634 72.5 Station I1. 10 a. m... 555.6 22 11 a.m... Station3... 544.7 24.5 21.445 76.1 Station 2' 11 a. in... 550.3 23 12 m..... Station 4... 539.2 20 21.229 68 Station 3.- 12 m..... 544.1 25 1 p. m.... Summit.... 532.4 17 20.961 62.6 Station 4 1 Ip. m.... 540 23 1.30 p. m.. d()........ 532.3 15 20..957 59 Summit ---- 1.30 p. 532.9 15 Do....... 2p.m.... 532.8 13 V. —Observations for a Deep Cut or Tunnel, allowing fifty yards as width of the Coochetova Pass. Sept. 2 12.45 p. m Summit.... 532.4 17' 20.961 62.6.................................... 1p.m.... *350 ft. east 534.4 17.5 21.240 63.5...................... 1.15 p. m. Summit.... 532.5 17.5 20.965 63.5. 1.20 p. m. *350 ft. west 533 16.5 20.985 61.7 1.30 p. m. Summit.... 532.3 15.5 20.957 59.9....................... Besiles 150 feet, the width of ridge at suinmit level. IV.-Simultaneous Meteorological Observations at the Coochetopa Pass-Continu Sept. 3 6a.m.... Camp54.. 541.4 11' 21.316 51.8 Camp54.. 6a.m.... 540.7 11 2.28 5. 8 a. m.... Station 1..547. 4 21 21.552 69. 8 Do..... 8 a. m.... 541.5 18 2130 6. 9an.m.... StationS.2 550.3 23.7 21.666 74.6 Station 1.. 9 a. m.... 546.8 23 2.5~7. 10 a. m -. Station 3.. 554 25 21.811 77 Station 2.. 10 a. m..-. 549 23 2164 7. 11 a. m... Station 4.. 556.4 22.2 21.906 71.9 Station 3.. 11 a. m... 553.5'25 2172 7 1 p.m.... StationS5. 554. 1 25 21. 815 77 Station4.. 1 p. m.... 560 24 2208 7. 2 p.m.... Station 6.. 548 22.8 21.575 73 Station S.. 2 p.m.... 554.1 26 2185 7. 3 p. m.... Station 7.. 555. 4 26 21. 867 77' Station 6.. 3 p. m.... 545. 8 25 2.49 7 4 p. m.... Station 8.. 559 25.5 22. 009 77.9 Station 7.. 4 p. m.... 554.5 24 2131 7. 5p.m.... CampS5.. 564.4 27 ~22. 221 80.6 StationS8. 5p.m.... 557.5 24 2190 7. 6 p. m....... do...... 564.4 24 2'2. 221 75.2 Camp 55.. 6 p. m.... 564. 2 23.52223 7. 562. 2 13 22. 134 55. 4 Do..... 9p. m.... 562.5 13 2.16 5. I For air temperature, at corresponding hours, see Table VI. 108 21. 874 71.6 21. 666 73. 4 21. 421 77 21. 260 73. 4 20. 981 59 20. 977 55. 4 ridge, in the

Page  109 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS-ALTITUDES-DISTANCES. VI.-Datafor Profile of the Coochetopa Pass. 0~~~~~~ Date. Hour. Station. a 1853. o 0 Feet. Feet. Miles. (Miles fron camp 53.) Sept. 2 9 a.m... Station 1... 21.812 70*' Camp 53... 21.682t 4* -4 62 8898 10 a. m.. Station 2... 21.550 66 Station 1... 21 790 65 312 9210 1.62 1.62 11 a... Station 3... 21.354 71 Station 2... 21. 581 68 300 951'0 1.39 3.01 12 m.... Station 4... 21.154 60 Station 3... 21. 328 65 230. 3 9740. 3.58 3.59 1 p. m. -. Station 5, 20. 897 64 Station 4... 21.174 64 291. 7t 10032.24 3.83 summit. 1.30 p.m. Station 5, 20. 900 59 Station 5, 20.924 59 summit. summit. Station 5, 20.936 58 summit. Means at. Camp 54... 21.289 61 Camp 54... 21.281 61 -492 9540 1.33 5.16 VI.-Declivities near summit. Sept. 2 12.45 p. m Summit.... 20.897 64~ 1 p. m.... Station east. 20.974 59.......................... -102. 3.........350 ft. east. of summit. 1.15 p.m. Summit.... 20.899 59 1.20 p.m. Station west. 20.962 58.......................... — 82.5........ 350 ft. west. of summit. 1.30 p.m. Summit.... 20. 898 58 VI. —Datafor Profile of the Coochetopa Pass —Continued. 1853. 0 0 Feet. Feet. Miles. from camp 54. ) Sept. 3 6 a.m... Camp 54... 21.271 55* Camp 54... 21.244 55 -......... 9540 8 a. m... Station I- -. 21. 472 21. 2)1 58 -243 9297 2.24 2.24 9 a. m... Station 2.. 21.578 66 Station I... 21.442 64 -147 9150 2.15 4.39 10 a. m.. Station 3. 21. 716 70 Station 2... 21.582 69 -191 8959 2. 05 6.44 ll a. m.. Station 4. 21. 821 68 Station 3... 21. 697 74 -144 8815 3. 47 9.91 1 p. m... Station 5. 21.720 66 Station 4... 21. 957 73 195 9010 1.28 11.19 2 p. m... Station 6.- 21. 490 71 Station 5... 21. 716 76 232 9342 1.74 12.93 3 p. m... Station 7.- 21.772 74 Station 6... 21. 396 72 -353 8989 2.14 15.17 4 p. m... Station 8. 21. 912 74 Station 7... 21.740 75 -277 8712 2.20 17.27 5 p.m... Camp 55.. 22. 118 74 Station 8... 21.859 73 6 p.'2. 130 68 Camp 55... 22. 123 68 — 197 8515 2. 73 20 9 p. 082 22. 094 59 - For instrument temperatures, at corresponding hours, see Table IV. t Station I compared with camp 53 and corrected. *+ The altitude of station 5, at summit, determined by comparison of all the observations made there with the mean at camp 54. ~ For instrument temperatures, at corresponding hours, see Table V. 109

Page  110 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS-ALTITUDES-DISTANCES. V I.-Simultaneous Meteorological Observations at the pass and on the route followed across the Wiahsatch range.-Camp 88 to Camp 89. range.- Caiyq 88 to Camp 89. ADVANCE PARTY. C-~~~~~~~~~' ~ . hID sH 4 0 v ;4 a) w 9:, 12 11 1t 11 11 9 12.5 12 13 14 pq c) C C ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_ 0 C ~~~~~~~~ 0 C ~~~~~~~~ C~* Date. Hour. 0 .5 23. 512 23. 456 23. 390 23. 217 22. 997 229.721 22. 615 22. 957 23. 119 23. 268 23. 225 Camp 88... Station 1... Station 2... Station 3... Station 4. -.. Station 5... Summit.... Station 6... Station 7... Camp 89... .... do...... Camp 88... Station 1.. Station 2... Station 3.. Station 4. Station 5... Summit ---- Station 6.. Station 7.. Camp 89.. VII.-Simultaneous Meteorological Observations at the pass and on the route followed across the Wlahsatch range.-Camp 89 to Camp 90. Camp 89... Station 1 1... Station 2.. Station 3... Station 4... Station 5.. Station 6... Station 7.. - Station 8... Camp 90... .... do...... Camp 89.. Station 1 Station 2... Station 3. Station 4... Station 5... Station 6..Station 7... Station 8... VII.-Simultaneous Meteorological Ob)servations at the pass and on the route followed across the Walsatch range.-Camp 90 to Camp 91. Oct. 15 8.30 a.m. Camp 90... 577.3 129 22.729 53.6 9 a.... Station 1. 577 14 22.717 57.2 Camnp 90t. 8.30 a. m 577.3 12. 22.729 53. 6 10 a. m.. Station 2.. 570.6 20 22. 465 68 Station 1... 9 a. in... 577 14 22.717 57.2 11 a. mi.. Station 3.. 566. 7 20 22. 312 68 Station 2... 10 a. i..n 570. 6 20 22. 465 68 11.45 a. m Station 4.. 556.3 18 21.902 64.4 Station 3... 11 a. in.. 566.7 20 22.312 68 1 p.m... Station 5. 569.8 19 22.434 66.2 Station 4... 1 p. in... 555.6 22.6 21.875 72.7 2 p. m... Station 6. 579 20 22. 796 6, Station 5... 2 p.m... 568. 8 17.9 22. 395 64.2 3 p. mn... Station 7 587.4 20 23.127 68 Station 6... 3p.m... 577.2 17 22.725 62.6 4 Station 8 590.7 19 23.257 66.2 Station 7... 4 p. m... 586.6 20.4 23.107 68.7 5 p. m... Camnp 91. 602 15 23.7()1 59 Station 8... 5 p. m... 590.3 20.3 23.241 68.5 6 p. m..- -do...... 602.1 15 23. 705 59 * For air temperatures, at corresponding hours, see Tables VIII. t The first four observations recorded for the rear party are taken from barometer No. 551, as observed the previous hour. I Ito REAR PARTY. 14 In 10 6 ID -9 0 It 597. 2 595. 8 594. 1 589. 7 584. 1 577.1 574. 4 583.1 587.2 591 589. 9 a,;4 0 48. 2 53. 6 51. 8 51. 8 51. 8 51. 8 48. 2 54. 5 53.6 55.4 57. 2 u aIz Id,v %4 a) 'D -1 It Station. Station. Hour. Oct. 13 8 a. m. — 9 a. m -.. 10 a. m -- 11 a. n-i -- 12 M. —-. I p.m,.-. 1.15 p. m2 P.m... 3 p. m... 4 p. m. -. 5 p.m.-. 9 a. m... 10 a,. m -. It a. m.. 12 1 P. m -. 2 P. m - -- 2.15 p. m - 3 p. ni. -. 4 p. m... 5 p. in.. 598.4 595.2 594. 3 588. 6 582. 9 575. 5 r,)74. 5 582. 3 586. 9 590.2 9. 8* 11.7 11. 4 10. 3 12. 3 13.1 14. 7 12.7 13 13 23. 560 .23. 432 23. 398 23.174 22.952 22. 658 22. 619 22.926 23.107 23.237 49. 6 53 52. 5 50. 5 54.1 55. 6 58. 4 54. 8 55. 4 55. 4 Oct, 14 6 a. m.''9 a. m - -- 10 a. m " lt a. in -, 12 ni. — " 1 P. M. " 2 p. m - " 3 p. m - -' 4 p. m. " 5 p. n-i --- 6 p. in... 590. 7 592. 2 591. 4 584. 1 585 7 584. 1 584. 8 582. 3 581 576.7 576.7 7 8 1.4 21 21 2 1 20 20 20 8 s 23.257 23.316 23.284 22.997 23. 060 22. 997 23. 025 22. 926 22. 875 22.706 2-2.706 44. 6 46.4 57.2 69. 8 69. 8 69. 8 68 68 68 46. 4 46. 4 9 a. m. — 10 a. in.. 11 a. m.12 M.. - -. I P. m -.. 2 P. m —. .3 p. m. — 4 p. m..5 p. m.-. 591. 4 592.2 590. 6 584. 1 585. 9 583. 8 582. 3 581 576.7 8* 15' 16. 3 21 24. 5 25.4 20 20 8 23. 284 23. 316 23. 253 22. 997 23. 068 22. 985 22. 926 22. 875 122.706 46. 4 59 61. 34 69. 8 76. 1 77.72 68 68 46. 4

Page  111 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS-ALTITUDES-DISTANCES. VIII.-Data fox Profile of the pass and the route followed across the Wahsatch range.- Camp 88 to Camp 89. 'A C) 0 0 aD cD 1 C) a a; s9 0 0 t~ a oa o. - .= _ cd -1 a c: o ~ 6 ,I<" Qo 0 Date. Hour. ~ li c) a, M cD Miles. .61 1.08 1.66 1.34 1.74 .22 1.90 1.70 .97 ----- Camp 88...... Station 1..... Station 2.... Station 3... Station 4... Station 5.... Summit....... Station 6. ............. Station 7...... Camnp 89...... .. do......... Camp 88...... Station I..... Station 2.... Station 3....... Station 4....... Station 5.. Summit........ Station 6....... Station 7....... Camp89....... VIII.-Data for Profile of the pass and the route followed across the Wahsatch range.- Camp 89 to Camp 90. Mie. Miles C) rUo 4.1 .4.. Miles. . 84 1.25 ~ 99 .60 .31 .11 ~ 20 .58 a ) w 8 q5 Miles~ .84 2. 09 3.(08 3. 68 3.99 4. 10 4. 30 4.42 5 d l. o,.. r_1 p s) a. a,., a; ~ m 10 q: c,< T 6 0 a. soTJ ax m rQ t . C) r.. <. q3 ., t Camp 89...... Station I...... Station 2...... Station 3-..... Station 4...... Station 5...... Station 6-.... Station 7-..... Station 8...... Camp 90.... — Camp 89....... Station 1....... Station 2....... Station 3... -... Station 4....... Station 5....... Station 6....... Station 7....... Station 8....... * For temperature of instrument at corresponding hours, see Tables VII. t The next determination is used for the difference between stations 5 and 6-in effect using the previous barometric reading at station 5, instead of that of barometer No. 496. From station 2 to the summit the successive readings of barometer 496 are used, with a horary correction-those of No. 551 being in error. The summit not being a station, the first barometer arriving there at lh. 15'n. p. m. had no corresponding observation of the second barometer; at 2 p. m. the observations were simultaneous on opposite sides of the summit; at 2h. 15m p. m. the second barometer, at the summit, was alone observed. t The three following observations are taken from the readings of barometer 551 at the previous hours. III 06 00 0 0 0 -5 4 Miles. '61 1.69 3.35 4.69 6. 43 6. 65 8.55 ...... 10. 25 II. 22 ------ a) El 0 0) !5 w ;_ zo It - 6 11 0 r-) a) a) IE 0 I Station. Station. Oct. 13 8 a. m...... 9 a. I() a. m. - -.. 11 a.m..-.. 12 m....... I P. 1. 15 p. m- -. 2 p.m ------ 2.-15 p. in - -. 3 P. Ill. -.. - - 4 p.m...... 5 p.m...... 23. 471 23. 403 23. 342 23.169 22.. 949 22. 674 22. 576 22. 904 ......... 23. 067 23. 212 23.180 50* 46 50 50 50 49 47 54 ...... 50 50 47. 0 23.516 23. 380 23. 348 23.130 22. 898 ........ 22. 605 22. 559 22. 871 2,'3. 0 5 1 23.193 48* 49 48 50 49 ...... 49 50 52 49 47 129.7 43. 9 231. 9 250.2 327. 1 48.9 -359. 8t -415. 6 -232. 8 -190. 1 ........ 129.7 173. 6 405. 5 655. 7 982. 8 1031. 7 6-23 616. 1 383. 3 193. 2 ........ 4) a c IL) Date. Hour. Station. Station. Oct. 14 6 a,. iin...... 9 a. 10 a. m. -.. - 11 a.m.. —. 12 m... - - -. I P. -nl. - - - - - 2 p.m ------ 3 p. ni. -. -. - 4 p.m 5 p.m ------ 6 p.m.-.-.. 23. 244 23. 275 23. 26 22. 934 22. 995 22. 928 22. 960 22. 861 22. 814 22. 669 22. 669 35* 48 56 59 60 62 60 60 58 47 47 23. 254 2:3. 273 23. 19 22. 934 23. 007 22. 918 22. 960-t 22. 861 22. 814 43* 49 58 60 58 61 60 60 58 - 24. 9 +313 +342 291 386. 5 336. 4 431. 9 488. 8 663. 7 - 24. 9 + 56. 2 +310. 7 - 51 + 95. 5 - 50. 1 + 95. 5 + 56. 9 +174. 9

Page  112 METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS-ALTITUDES-DISTANCES. VIII.-Data for Profile of the pass and the route followed across the Wahsatch range.-Camp 90 to Camp? 91. C. X. s, D o S tat io Date. Hour. Station. eStation. 2 9 a. im...... Station 1 —---- 22.676 49 Camp 90t.... 22.690 58 28.8 10 a. m. -.. Station 2.... —. 22.404 59 Station 1 ----— 22.676 49 355. 9 384.7.54.87 11 a.m.... Station 3...... 22. 225 72 Station 2...... 22.404 59 251.7 636.4.16 1.03 11.45 a. m. Station 4...... 21. 828 66 Station 3. ---- 22.225 72 485. 5 1121. 9.60 1.63 1 p.m..... Station 5...... 22. 357 67 Station 4 21.807 63 -700.4 421.5 2.24 3.87 2 p. in.... Station 6...... 22.709 71 Station 5..... 22. 330 61 -475. 3 - 53. 8.78 4.65 3 p. Station 7 -.. —.. 23.052 65 Station 6. - 22.685 60 -449. 3 - 503.1 1.60 6.25 4 p. Station 8..... —.. 23.186 63 Station 7 ---— 23.040 61 -176.4 - 679.5.51) 6.75 5 p. m Camp 91...... 23. 643 56 Station 8.. 23.174 61 -556.2 -1235.7 1.75 8.50 6 23. 649 55 . ~ ~~~~~~~~~..v ~ * See Tables VII for temperature of instruments at corresponding hours. t The first four observations entered, as at the rear stations, are taken from the readings of barometer 551 the previous hours. 112

Page  113 CHAPTER X. Geographicl Positions, and itances travelled, on the line of exploration from We8or No., to Great Salt Lake City. 1853. I.-Letter from Mr. S. Homans, in charge of astronomical department. II.-Table of geographical positions from Westport, Missouri, to Great Salt Lake City, Utah. III.-Table of distances travelled, including those from point to point at which barometrical observations were made, on the route from Westport, Missouri, to Great Salt Lake City. IV.-Table of distances travelled on the line followed from Westport, Missouri, via Fort Riley, Kansas Territory, to Walnut creek. I.-Letter from Mr. S. Homans, n charge of Astronomical Department. SIR: In the following table of geographical positions the latitudes only are given. Lunar distances and culminations were also observed; but, from imperfections in the instruments, the results were deemed useless. The selection of astronomical instruments for this expedition was most unfortunate; they have all proved defective, and some entirely unfit for use. In the duty of constructing the map, which devolved upon me by the death of Mr. Richard IHI. Kern, I have adopted the method of "course and distance," corrected by latitudes found by meridional observations, as being more reliable than the chronometric determinations. The accuracy of positions on the map, referred to the assumed longitudes, attests the fidelity and skill of the topographical notes and sketches by that gentleman. I am, very respectfully, SHEPPARD HOMANS, In Charge of Astronomical Department. Lieut. E. G. BECKWITH, United States Army, Commanding Expedition. 1I.- Geographical Positionsfrom Westvort to Salt Lake City. Date. Locality. Observation. Declination. Index Double obs'd Corr. alt. Latitude. error. alt. 0 I 11 ...*........ ...........o... ............ - ................ .............. ..................... ............... -296 06 11 -296 06 11 2 —2 1 5 25 -26 06 11 26 Whkarusi frry —-------— do —- -26 —----- 1506 —-------— 3 5511 27 Paire srin —----------— do —- -22 —----- 10 —---------— 3 25 3 July 1 Nar Knsa rier..- -------— do —- ---------- 10 11 —------— 3 42 Camp near Westport........... Indian creek..............-... Cedar creek..-...-........ —Wahkarrussi ferry............. Prairie spring................. Near Kansas river............. Opposite Fort Riley..-. —------ Solomon's fork................ Saline fork................... .............................. ....-...*................ Cow creek.................... Walnut creek................. Pawnee fork.-..... —--------- Coon creek................... 15g 1853. June 16 23 24 26 27 July 1 3 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 15 I 1/ 1 40.5 l 49.2 2 15 2 15 2 10 2 10 2 10 2 10 2 05 2 05 2 05 .... -..... 1 45 1 45 1 45 1 45 0 I il ............ ..... o..... .............. ................ ........... 50 42 45 51 03 40 59 08 30 59 11 30 0,,, ............ .......... ........... ............ ............ .............. 25 20 20 25 30 54 29 33 32 26 04 49 0 I i/ 39 01 34 38 55 56 38 52 41 38 55 15 39 00 38 39 04 29 39 03 19 38 59 30 38 55 29 38 53 03 38 44 51 38 37 38 38 33 29 38 A'S 55 38 11 03 37 49 00 Polaris.... .... do. —--- .... do. —--- .. do..-... .... do. —--- .... do...... .... do. —--- .... do..... .... do...... .... do...-.Antares... Jupiter..... Antares....

Page  114 GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS. II.-Geographical Positions-Continued. Observation. Do uble obs'd alt. Arkansas river........... —------------—. ........ do..................5 . do........ dO. — ----- ---- — 3 ........ do....-noon halt -----—. ........ do.................... halt.. —----- Crossing Arkansas river........ ........ Apishpa river, noon halt........ -------- do.. - - - - - - - - - - - - ..-... do..noon halt........ ........ do —----------------- - ........ do...noon halt........ —-. 6 In canon........ —------—. -—... Cuchara river —--------------. ........ do................... ........ do.: 14 Huerfano butte............... —------------—. Near Iuerfano river-....... ........ do........ noon halt.... ........ do......... camp.... Valley, noon halt...... —----------—. In Sangre de Cristo Pass —------ d ......... do.......... noon halt. Pass, on creek —--........... Utah creek.................. —---------------—. Fort Massachusetts........ —-------—.. White Mountain spring......... ........................ Leroux creek................. 28Leroux creek -- - --------------— do93 4 2O 2 35 13 9 3 21 Homans' creek............. —-------------- Branch Puncha creek.......... Homans' creek................ Sahwatch creek, noon halt...... Coochetopa Pass.......211 3 —----— do —-------------------— o82 1 20 2 30 00 6 3 20 *............... X... Noon halt........ —--------------------. Coochetopa creek............. Noon halt.............. —------------------. Grand river......... ----------------- .. —--— do..... —-------------------- . —-- ------ ------ -------------- ..........................~.... Cebolla creek................ —--------------. Noon halt.................... 14Noonhalt-.. —--------— d... 3.. 142.-..0 S50 5 926 3 45 Cedar creek.......... —------------- Noon halt................. —------------------ Uncompahgra river...... —---------- *on al........................ ............................... *........ - *-.............. Noon halt --------------------- 20-.. do... —----------- --—. — Nah-un-kah-rea river... —-------—. Noon halt... —------------------ Little Salt creek...... —------------ Noon halt... —----------------—. Bitter creek..... —----------------- Noon halt...1 1..9...48456 35 Noon halt.......-233 15 932. 833 3 Noon halt, Spanish trail....- 5943 Green riverA......21 2O 1. 4 534 3 Noon halt..................391 114 Index error. Corr. alt. Latitude. Declination. Date. Locality. 0 I ii -22 1 115 26 06 11 -26 06 11 19 08 10 18 54 19 18 25 37 829 17 -22 12 05 17 55 40 -22 12 04 17 24 37 -22 12 05 17 ()8 39 -22 12 07 16 35 54 8 29 08 16 19 08 16 02 05 8 29 09 15 44 47 8 29 09 15 27 14 14 14 28 13 17 41 12 58 14 11 58 58 11 38 53 8 29 11 10 16 19 9 55 16 9 34 04 9 12 43 8 29 1l 8 29 11 8 07 46 8 29 11 8 29 11 7 01 31 6 39 15 8 29 11 6 16 51 8 29 11 8 29 11 4 46 18 4 23 27 8 29 12 3 37 32 3 14 22 8 29 12 2 28 05 8 29 12 2 04 52 1 41 36 8 29 12 1 18 18 54 58 8 29 12 31 36 8 29 12 8 13 1- 5 11 — 38 35 -2 12 14 8 29 13 — 2 35 37 8 29 ]3 — 2 58 59 829 13 — 3 45 36 / 11 l 43.5 1 43..5 1 43.5 1 40 1 40 2 06 2 06 2 06 2 06 2 06 2 11 2 11 1 37.5 1 37.5 1 37.5 1 37.5 1 37.5 l 37.5 1 37.5 1 37.5 l 37.5 137. 5 30 200 200 200 200 205 205 205 205 205 205 2C5 200 200 200 20( 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 138 138 138 138 138 138 138 l 38 1 38 1 38 1 38 l 38 1 55 1 55 1 55 1 55 2 05 2 05 2 05 0 I /I 29 49 11 25 51 54 25 40 31 70 59 57 70 50 52 70 16 32 60 21 25 29 40 24 69 51 57 29 51 24 69 26 34 30 01 20 69 24 34 30 01 44 68 57 25 60 50 24 68 40 17 68 17 01 60 44 16 68 01 37 60 45 00 67 44 49 66 38 35 65 42 36 65 27 03 64 29 54 64 06 54 60 58 45 62 29 57 61 57 22 61 31 49 60 58 01 60 04 07 60 10 38 59 59 59 60 16 37 60 07 06 58 39 40 58 11 21 59 58 30 57 44 43 59 58 34 60 00 10 56 19 45 55 58 20 60 05 47 55 14 47 54 49 26 59 59 55 53 51 58 59 46 34 53 21 20 52 45 46 59 33 20 52 16 43 51 48 22 59 21 48 51 21 48 59 16 01 50 54 09 50 38 52 50 11 38 48 49 56 59 36 32 48 33 35 59 38 22 48 05 16 59 31 46 47 15 19 0 I'11 37 57 34 38 01 56 38 13 18 38 08 13 38 03 27 38 09 05 38 07 52 38 07 30 38 03 43 37 56 42 37 48 03 37 46 35 37 44 06 37 46 09 37 38 30 37 38 44 37 38 51 37 45 04 37 44 52 37 43 10 37 44 09 37 42 25 37 36 52 37 35 05 37 31 10 37 29 04 37 31 59 37 30 26 37 47 22 37 57 24 38 02 15 38 14 42 38 25 04 38 18 33 38 07 46 38 12 35 38 22 06 38 21 50 38 27 53 38 30 41 38 32 08 38 30 38 38 29 02 38 26 33 38 25 07 38 23 26 38 22 44 38 24 56 38 29 17 38 36 07 38 42 38 38 43 21 38 55 50 38 55 52 39 01 35 39 06 36 39 07 24 39 09 49 39 13 12 39 14 15 39 05 57 39 09 47 38 57 50 38 52 40 38 50 48 28 5(} 5() 38 55 45 38 57 26 38 59 05 1853. July 21 2:3 26 27 28 30 30 31 Aug. 1 2 3 3 4 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 14 17 18 21 22 23 26 27 28 29 29 30 Sept. 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 14 16 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 24 28 28 29 29 30 30 Oct. 2 0 I /I. 59 39 40 51 45 35 51 22 50 141 27 10 141 09 00 140 O0 00 120 41 40 59 21 30 139 10 40 59 43 20 138 39 45 60 03 10 138 16 20 60 04 25 137 22 00 121 40 00 136 47 45 137 04 30 121 27 45 135 30 25 121 29 10 134 56 50 132 46 30 130 52 00 130 20 55 128 26 35 128 43 55 121 56 10 124 26 40 123 21 30 123 33 50 121 22 50 120 07 00 120 20 00 119 26 50 120 30 00 120 13 00 116 46 15 115 49 20 119 55 50 114 56 20 119 56 00 119 59 10 112 06 25 III 23 35 120 10 10 109 56 30 109 05 50 119 58 40 107 11 20 119 32 25 106 10 05 104 59 00 119 06 O0 104 01 50 103 04 10 118 42 55 102 11 00 118 31 20 101 15 40 100 45 10 99 58 25 97 07 O)5 119 12 05 96 34 25 119 15 45 95 37 35 119 02 45 93 57 40 Jupiter... Antares... .... do... — Sun....... .... do. —--- .... do. —--- Altair..... Jupiter.... Sun ------- Jupiter.... Sun....... Jupiter..... Sun ------- Jupiter. Sun.... Altair Sun..... .... do..... Altair.... Sun.-. —-- Altair..... Sun..... — .... do..-. —--- .... do...... .... do. —--- .... do ------ Altair.... Sun t. (o.. ---- Altair.... .... do...... Sun ------- Altair. ... do Sun .... do...... Altair Su n ------- Altair.... .... do. —--- Sun. —---- .... do. —--- Altair... Sun....... .... ado.... Altair. Sun... Altair ----- Sun ...- do. —-- Altair.... Sun ------- .-. do..... Altair.. Sun....... Altair... Sun....... ... dO...... .... do... Altair... Sun.... Altair.... Sun..... Altair.... Sun,.....

Page  115 GEOGRAPHICAL POSITIONS-TABLE OF DISTANCES. II. — Geographical Positions-,Continued. Date. Locality. Observation. Declination. Index Double obs'd Corr. alt. Latitude. error. alt. 1853. 0 0 0 Oct. 3 Noon halt --------------------- Sun -.4 08 51 2 05 92 55 45 46 44 22 39 06 47 3..............................Altair 8 29 13 2 05 118 30 00 59 15 35 39 13 38 4 Noon halt..................... Sun.......- 4 32 03 2 05 91 48 05 46 10 31 39 17 26 4 White river...,................ Enif - ------ 9 12 27 2 05 119 45 50 59 53 30 39 18 57 5 Clever - -—. 9 12 27 2 05 119 35 20 59 48 15 39 24 12 6 Noon halt..................... Sun..-.5 18 17 2 05 89 56 30 45 1442 392700 6 White river ------------------- Altair 8 29 13 2 05 118 03 40 59 02 25 39 26 48 7 Noon halt Sun - 5 41 19 2 05 89 17 35 44 55 15 39 23 26 -----------------------— do...... - 6 04 17 2 05 88 51 00 44 41 57 39 13 46 8 Branch San Rafael river........ Altair 8 29 13 2 05 118 34 15 59 17 43 39 11 30 10 Garambulla creek, noon halt.... Sun.......- 6 49 58 1 57.5 89 34 35 44 03 41 39 06 21 --—. —-— do........ Altair 8 29 13 1 57.5 118 48 00 59 24 31 39 0442 11 Noon halt --------------------- Sun -.-.7 12 39 1 57.5 87 05 30 43 49 0 38 58 13 12..- do........................o... do —---- - 7 35 13 1 57. 5 86 35 10 43 33 58 38 50 49 13 Summit of Wahsatch ------- 7 57 42 1 57.5 86 00 30 43 16 42 38 45 37 13 Camp ------------------------- Enif...... 9 12 27 1 57.5 120 45 10 60 23 08 3S 49 19 14 Noon halt..................... Sun. - 8 20 03 1 57.5 85 06 50 42 49 50 3850 7 15. —.- do. —--------------------— do........- 8 42 23 1 57.5 84 25 15 42 38 57 38 48 40 16 Wahsatch Pass. —-----------— ------ -- 9 04 25 1 57.5 83 37 33 42 OS 69 38 50 27 17 Noon — 9 26 26 1 32.5 82 48 35 41 40 26 38 53 O8 17 Sevier river................... Enif 9 12 27 1 32.5 120 24 40 60 12 39 3859 48 18 San Pete creek --------—. —--—. —do... 9 12 27 1 32.5 120 04 20 60 02 29 39 69 58 -10 10 02 1 32.5 80 45 50 40 39 02 39 10 56 20 Sevier ——. — 10 31 36 1 32.5 79 40 10 40 06 01 39 2223 21 Noon halt, California road —-....- do ----—. -10 52 00 1 32.5 79 05 15 39 48 42 39 19 18 22 Cedar springs................. Markab.... 14 25 14 1 32. 5 130 37 20 65 19 05 39 66 69 23.-do-....................Sun.-.......- 11 35 19 1 32.5 78 04 40 39 18I2 39 66 18 24 Sevier ----—.-11 56 13 1 32.5 76 53 35 38 42 50 39 20 57 29 California road. ——... — -— 13 37 51 1 25.5 74 06 15 37 19 07 39 63 62 -----— 13 57 34 1 25.5 73 27 05 36 59 33 39 0253 Nov. 2 Nephi ----------------------—. —-do ------ — 14 55 23 1 25.5 70 13 30 3522 41 56 Dec. 6 Salt Lake — 22 34 32 1 37 52 49 00 26 39 51 40 45 37 III.- Table of Distances travelled, including those from point to point at which barometrical observa tions were made, on the route from Westport, Missouri, to Great Salt Lake City. Distance from Intermediate distances. Miles. 22 ---------------- 23 —--- - 2 —---------------— 87136 Inincek 24.-......... 25 --------------—.. 26................ 27................ 29... —------------—.. 30.......30.Em.ceek I................ 2................ 5................ 9................ 6. —----— 14 ----------------— 23122.4 LtlArass 7..... —------------—. 19................ 13,4 —--- 1...................2.9 27 O Pwe ok In dian creek. Cedar creek. Bull creek. Willow springs. 110 mile creek. Prairie Heni creek. Rock creek. Elmn creek. Diamond spring. Lost spring. Cotton-wood creek. Turkey creek. Little Arkansas. Big Cow creek. Big Bend of the Arkansas. Walnut creek. Pawnee fork. Cooni creek —first fork. Do. second fork. Arkansas river, near Fort Atkinson. Do. near Cimmeron ford. 115' Date. Number ot camp. Day's travel. Localities. Westport. 1853. Mviles. Males. 4. 92 13. 62 229.04 31.44 51. 69 75.53 96. 09 117. 11 125. 30 141. 85 157. 55 175. 37 197. 96 221.14 241.58 261l. 68 268. 91 297. 50 31,8.21 336. 7 t 365. 33 390. 65 June 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10~ 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1.8 19 20 21 ..,............. ....,,..... ~.... 8. 70 8. 42 9. 40 20. 25 23. 84 20. 56 21. 02 8.19 16. 55 15.70 .17. 82 229.59 23. 18 20. 44 20. l0 7. 23 28. 59 20. 71 18. 50 28. 62 25. 32 July

Page  116

Page  117 TABLE OF DISTANCES. III.- Table of Distances travelled, 4,c.-Continued. Date. Number of Intermediate Day's travel. Distance from Localities. camp., distances. Westport. Miles. 14 4 4 4.70 13.18 3.75 13. 00 12. 29 18.23 20. 33 8.45 13. 40 9.10 14.29 21.75 16.28 5.67 16.72 14.10 14 1. 08 16. 75 15. 78 9. 82 8.70 .......:...... .... e.......,.. 13.246 .............., 13.20 11.40 .... o.......... .........../,.. 156 8.5...... 10................ 13................ 14.. —------------—.. 14................ 15................ 16................ 18................ 19................ 229 —--------------— 9 —------— 1.0 10.1 Burvr 20................ 21................ 28................ 26................ --------------- 47 —----- 7 —---------------— 56 1067 Hil 28. —---- 7 —--------------— 167 1034 Creicnn 60 —----— 7.-. —-----------— 1412.2 Geuvr ............. —--------------. 73 —--------------— 0 —------— 1.8 15.3 Dycek 28.................. ---------------- 9. --------------— 8 —-------— 87 1136 Clvrcek --------------—.... 1.. —---------- -.2 ----------------------— Sain 13 —-------------— 8.5132 1212 SaRaalrvr 9. —---------— 2139 —--------------------— Saihtal 3. —---------—.... 13................ 1 --------------—........ 142 —--------------— 898 56 217 a pig 143 —------------------—.6 —-----------— SttoNo1 63....................108........... - o,,..o,,. 1 --------------—............ 14 --------------—...... 13.9............17 -....................SttoNo5 13 —---------- -190 ---------—.....,,.........6 113..... —--------— 1.70 —-----------— tt~.7..,... 13...............89.97 1.2 16.6 Seek 14. --------------—................ 14................ 143 —-----------— 9........................tto o3 14. —-----------— 3.......................Saino5 14. - - 1........................tto o6 134........................2...............Saino7 14........................2...............tto o8 14..................0.8516.6 Sabhre 15...............33.................... SttoNo1 13........................4..............SttoNo2 14........................6...............tto o3 14........................4...............tto o5 14.......................16...............Saino7 14........................0..............SttoNo8 Grand river. Mountain ravine. East summit of Lake Fork bank. Lake fork. Summit of bank west of Lake fork. Mountain valley. Cebolla creek-first branch. Do. second branch. Summit of mountain. Cedar creek. Crossing of Cedar creek. Uncompahgra river. Do. Hill. Blue river. Do. Little Salt creek. Bitter creek. Rain-water creek. Hill. Creek in cation. Junction of creeks. Green river. Do. Akanaquint spring. Dry creek. White river. Clever creek. Station on White river. Hill. Station. Standing Water creek. Near San Rafael river. San Rafael river. Spanish trail. Garaimbulla river. Dividing ridge. Big Rock creek. Crossing stream. Oak spring. Station No. 1. Station No. 2. Station No. 3. Station No. 4. Station NTo. 5. Summit of )Vahsatch Pass. Station No. 6. Station No. 7. Salt creek. Station No. 1. Station No. 2. Station No. 3. Station No. 4. Station No. 5. Station No. 6. Station No. 7. Station No. 8. Swaimbah creek Station No. 1. Station No. 2. Station No. 3. Station No. 4 —summit. Station No. 5. Station No. 6. Station No. 7. Station No. 8. Ungottahbikin creek. Miles. 894. 28 898. 28 ~~~~~~.6.....................Saino4 902.728 906. 98 920. 16 923. 91 936. 91 949.290 967. 43 987.76 996. 21 1009. 61 1018. 71 1033 1054.75 1071. 03 1076.70 1093. 42 1107.52 1121. 52 1122. 60 1139. 35 1155. 13 1164.95 1173. 65 1184.77 "iL......... ........ .............., 1236. 09 1251.74 o............,.., 1267. 96 16.... 4 6... 117 1853. Miles. Sept. 58 59 ........... 60 .......... 61 62 63 .......... 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 - - - - - - - - - - 83 .......... 84 .......... 85 .......... 86 .......... 87 .......... 88 .......... .......... .......... ------ ---- .......... .......... .......... ------ ---- 89 ------ ---- .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... 90 .......... .......... .............. .............. 2.92 1. 08 ' 54 4. 16 .............. .............. 3.78 9. 22 2.03 10.26 .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. .............. -------------- -------------- .............. .............. ............ -------------- .............. .............. .............. .............. 10.86 '26 352 974 761 5.59 219 921 785 561 582 9.83 .61 J.08 1.66 1.34 1.74 .22 1.90 1.70 .97 .84 1.25 .99 .60 .31 .11 .20 .12 .58 .33 .54 Oct.

Page  118 TABLE OF DISTANCES. III.-Table of Distances travelled, Sc.-Continued. Date. Number of Intermediate Day's travel. Distance from Localities. camp. distances. Westport. 1853. Miles. Miles. Miles. Oct. 17. —-- 1.20...........20................- -.. Station No. 1. 17...........................65............ —----------—........... —----------—.. Station No. 2. 17........................ X.. 2.25............................ Station No. 3. 17.......................... 1.56............................ Station No. 4. 17....... —-------------- ----------.84.... —------------ -------------- Station No. 5. 17...........................84............................ Station No. 6. 17. —-................. ]. 15............................ Station No. 7-Salt creek. 17.. —a — ace —- -....`2.63............................ Station No. 8. 17................ 92 3.13 14.25 1290.71 Sevier river. 18................ 93.............. 11.82 1302. 53 San Pete creek. 19................ 94............ 19 10 1321.63 Sevier river. 20................ 95........... a 2.45 1324.08 Do. 21.......................... 4.51............................ Summit of ridge north of Lake valley. 21............e..............7.39............................ In Lake valley. 21.......................... 3.52........................... Ridge south of Lake valley. 21................ 96 8.78 24.20 1348.28 Cedar springs. 23................ 97.............. 18.13 1366.41 Sevier River valley. 24.............98 —------------ 7.30 1373.71 Sevier river. `25. e~ A c e Ad99............. 14.25 1387.96 Do. 26................ 100.............. 7.45 1395.41 Foot of mountain. 27 ---------------- 101.............. 20.93 1416.34 Cedar springs. 28 ---------------- 102.............. 3.46 1419.80 Pioneer creek. 31................ 103.............. 28.24 1448.04 Sevier river. Nov. 1................ 104.............. 24.85 1472.89 Cityof Nephi. 3................ 105.............. 25.18 1498.07 City of Payson. 4.........106.............. 19.23 1517.30 City of Provo. 5................107.............. 14 1531.30 American fork. 6............... 108.............. 15.40 1546.70 Willow creek. 7. 109.............. -11.45 1558.15 Cotton-wood creek. 8................110.............. 7.80 1565.95 Great Salt Lake City. IV.- Table of Distances travelled on the line followed from Westport, Missouri, via FortRiley, Kansas Territory, to Walnut Creek. Distance from Westport. 1853. 22.... —--------—.. 23.... —--------—.. 24.... —--------—.. `25........ 26............ 27........... 28....... 29... —--------—. 30.-.-.-.- - --- I7 —---------— 6892 257 Saieok 2........... 3.-.... —---- 4........... 5............ 7......o..... 8............ 9....... 11.-. —------- 12............ Indian creek. Cedar creek. Bull creek. Wahikarrussi river. Big spring. Branch of Mission creek. Branch of Il-a-heek-cou-a-sa creek. Small creek, three miles from K. river. Rivulet, nine miles from K. river. 1Mahungasa creek, Bluffs opposite Fort Riley. Spring between the Smoky Hill and Republican forks. Creek in Smoky Hill Fork valley. Nepeholla river. Saline fork. Branch of Saline. Oak Spring creek. Arroyo creek. Walnut creek, at Santa F6 crossing. 118 No. of camp. Day's travel. Localities. Date. Miles. 4. 92 8.,70 8.42 9. 40 15.32 20.92 23. 40 18.75 18. 46 15.75 12. 09 2.50 13.13 24. 46 10. 58 8.92 23.09 22.76 29. 00 15. 62 Miles. 4. 92 13.62 22.04 31. 44 46.76 67. 68 91.08 109. 83 128.29 144. 04 156.13 158.63 171. 76 196.22 206. 80 215. 72 238. 81 261.57 290.57 306.19 June 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 July

Page  119 APPENDIX A. Letters relating to the Progress of the Survey of the Route near te 38th an 39 parallels, in charge of Captain Gunnison. I.-Letter dated June 20, 1853, Camp, Shawnee reservation, from Captain Gunnison to the Secretary of War, indicating the line which will be followed in crossing the Plains. II.-Letter dated August 22, 1853, Camp, Utah creek, near Fort Massachusetts, from Captain Gunnison to the Secretary of War, reporting the progress of the survey. III.-Letter dated August 22, 1853, Camp, Utah creek, near Fort Massachusetts, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey. IV.-Letter dated September 20, 1853, Camp No. 70, Grand river, Utah Territory, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey. V.-Letter dated September 23, 1853, Camp 72, Bitter creek, Utah Territory, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, forwarding a rude copy of the field-work of the survey. VI.-Letter dated October 29, 1853, Camp, near Fillmore, Utah Territory, from Lieutenant Beckwith to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey, requesting instructions, and indicating future operations. I.-Letter dated June 20, 1853, Camp, Shawnee Reservation, from Captain Gunnison to the Sec retary of War, indicating the line which will be followed in crossing the Plains. CAMP, SHAWNEE RESERVATION, June 20, 1853. SIR: I have the honor to say that I have organized my party for the survey assigned to my command, and, with the escort under Brevet Captain Morris, propose to proceed along the Smoky Hill, until necessary to deflect from it, nearly as possible in a direct line, to the mouth of the Huerfano. This will give a new exploration a part of the way, and very desirable to meet the views of those advocating the route, and, I hope, it will not much delay me. It will also be useful for the new fort on the Republican, in order to know whether a short route to Santa Fe may be taken across to the Arkansas. I submit the following names as assistants on the survey: Dr. James Schiel, surgeon and naturalist. Sheppard Homans, astronomer. The gentleman engaged as civil engineer was taken ill at Elmira, New York, and has not yet joined; but I hope he will yet be able to reach us, as our marches, for a few days, will be short. I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant, J. W. GUNNISON, Captain Topographical Engineers. Hon. JEFFERSON DAvIs, Secretary of War. IT.-Letter dated August 22, 1853, Camp, Utah Creek, near Fort Massachusetts, from Captain Gunnison to the Secretary of War, reporting the progress of the survey. CAMP, UTAH CREE., NEAR FORT MASSACHUSETTS, August 22, 1853. SIR: Availing myself of your permission to keep you acquainted with my progress on the survey, I have the honor to say that my party has crossed the first great range of the Rocky mountains safely and easily to the valley of San Luis.

Page  120 APPENDIX A.-PROGRESS. OF THE SURVEY. My exploration on the west side of the Kansas was eminently successful, in developing the existence of a plain, slightly inclined, which cuts off the eastern bend of that river at the Smoky Hill. Thence I came, in the same course, to Walnut creek, and descended to its lower part, and afterwards reconnoitred above. The result would be that a road should take this more direct line from Fort Riley to Walnut creek, and cross to Pawnee fork, following it and branches to within five or six miles of the Arkansas; thus cutting off the "Big Bend," and strike the latter river near "Aubrey's crossing." I beg leave to refer to Captain (Lieutenant) Woodruff's map of the Pawnee fork in explanation-a manuscript copy of which I saw at Fort Atkinson. Those in my command who had been in this country in winter, could not recognise places and streams in a different season. Misled by the maps of the Upper Arkansas, I took the Apishpa for the Huerfano, and thoroughly explored the country below, and have added to the geography of that region at the expense of much personal labor. An intelligent man, of thirty years' mountain experience, was procured at the Greenhorn ranch, for a guide to the "Sangre de Cristo" Pass. By a circuitous route we were led to the mulepath crossing over a high mountain or ridge, which the guide declared the only way. But I reconnoitred the dividing ridge from near the Sierra Blanca to the Spanish peaks, while the train was cutting through bushes and working a road, under my able assistant officer, down the Sangre de Cristo creek to this valley. My efforts were rewarded by finding a summit level, very low, and over which a road can easily be made, with almost a single grade of a few feet to the mile, to the Arkansas plains. As an obstacle to a railroad, it deserves not the name; and the pass can be made without going up what could be called a hill-a mere slope. The work bestowed on the Muleteer mountain track would have opened a feasible road for supplies to this post from the States, and, perhaps, ultimately the route to Santa Fe. There is a good wagon-track now made, where we have come with heavily loaded teams. A large flock and herd are closely following us. The owner has been to one of my camps, and returned to the Arkansas to bring on his stock, as the grass is extremely good, and this route will not require wintering in the Basin. My'observations on the east side lead me to think there is a pass to the north, more direct and as feasible, which I shall soon examine. We are to start early to-morrow morning for the north and Coochetopa. I have secured the services of A. Leroux to the Spanish trail, whence he will return to guide Lieutenant Whipple. All accounts agree in presenting greater difficulties ahead; but I hope to report in a few weeks from the Great Basin. Great press of business, and a severe headache, must plead my apology for the style of this letter. I have the honor to be, your most obedient servant, J. W. GUNNISON, Captain Top. Engs., Commanding Central Pacific Railroad Survey. Hon. JEFFERSON DAvIS, Secretary of War. III.-Letter dated August 22, 1853, Camp, Utah Creek, near Fort Massachusetts, from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey. CAMP, UTAH CREEK, NEAR FORT MASSACHUSETTS, August 22, 1&53. SIR: I have honor to report my arrival in the -San Luis valley, having crossed the Rocky mountain eastern range without accident. We have had much labor in removing trees and bushes, and cutting down banks, to work up the east side of a high ridge, over which my guide 120

Page  121 APPENDIX A.-PROGRESS OF THE SURVEY. carried me, assuring me that it was the only practicable wagon route to the Sangre de Cristo. But I have discovered, in searching along the summit level, a very low depression, by which we can pass through, instead of over, the hills, where the muleteer paths usually go. This new pass, to a branch of the Huerfano, presents no real obstruction to any kind of a road. The route is well grassed, and our animals are in fine condition, having recruited, while our labors in road-making and exploring the mountains have been more onerous than in the plains. The character and place of my duties have prevented the usual reports on the 1st of the month. Should our exertions be favored, as thus far, I hope to make the September report, and forward by the California mail, from some place in Utah. But all representations concur in presenting a difficult region to traverse to the Great Basin. I beg leave to enclose a communication to the honorable Secretary of War, with the request that it be presented to him. It was my desire to make a more detailed account, but illness prevents my writing more tonight, and the train has received orders, and is prepared for an early departure towards the north to-mnorrow morning. I will only add that I followed the Kansas River valley to the new fort (Riley) on Pawnee river, and crossing, took a very level and direct route on the northerly side; crossed the Nepeholla (Solomon's fork) and Saline rivers by-ferrying on rafts of logs, as they were swollen by recent rains; and then, cutting off the southern bend of the Kansas at the Smoky Hill, passed in the same direction to the Walnut creek and Pawnee forks of the Arkansas. Availing myself of Captain Woodruffs sketches, and the reconnaissance I made, the true route for a military road would be by way of those creeks, to a point on the Arkansas, above Fort Atkinson, which would subserve both the Santa F6 and Fort Massachusetts or Taos directions. I now proceed to the north, to the Coochetopa Pass, intending to survey the Robideau Pass on the way, which, I think, must present a more direct route to California than the one I have discovered, the latter being on the Taos course, and too far south, if any place of crossing the mountains feasible for a road can be had further north. Then, under guidance of Watkin Leroux, we are to go to the Spanish trail, from which place he is to return, in order to join Lieutenant Whipple. I have the honor to be, Colonel, your obedient servant, J. W. GUNNISON, Captain Top. Engs., Commanding Central Pacific Railroad Survey. Colonel J. J. ABERT, Chief Topographical Engineers. IV.-Letter, dated September 20, 1853, Camp No. 70, Grand river, Utah Territory,from Captain Gunnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, reporting the progress of the survey. CAMP No. 70, GRAND RIVER, UTAH TERRITORY, September 20, 1853 SIR: I have the honor to report the operations upon the Central Pacific Railroad Survey since it was placed under my direction, in May. The party for the survey was organized and directed to St. Louis, where the requisite purchases were made. By the aid of Colonel R. Campbell, the business of fitting out was much expedited. The teams were bought and rendezvoused near Westport, and I proceeded to Fort Leavenworth for the escort, which has proved very efficient in many respects of guat d and for labor, under the command of Brevet Captain Morris, and Lieutenant Baker, of the Mounted Rifles. In the march, and other duties, I have been greatly assisted by an experienced officer, Lieutenant E. G. Beckwith, of the Artillery. 16g 121

Page  122 APPENDIX A.-PROGRESS OF THE SURVEY. I considered it necessary to demonstrate practically the character of the route, by taking a wagon train for the supplies. The main part was sent, under charge of Lieutenant Beckwith, on the Arkansas road, and, with one team, I proceeded by the Kansas to the Smoky Hill valley, and nearly direct in a westerly course to Walnut creek, on new ground much of the way, where I found a very eligible site for any description of road. Thence my route was along and in the vicinity of the Arkansas to the Apishpa creek, where I crossed the river, and explored the Hluerfano country up to the pass of El Sangre de Cristo. The train passed over the usual mountain track, but, after a careful reconnaissance, I found a very low depression in the mountain ridge, by way of a small creek of the Hiuerfano valleys which makes the crossing very easy into the valley of San Luis, provided a little labor is bestowed to cut the small bushes and level the banlks on the creek. It requires much labor on the higher pass, and also to cut the road out on the Sangre de Cristo creek. And on the unbroken track generally, the work has been severe in the mountain region, particularly for sixty miles along Grand river, where we were forced over a connecting mountain between the Elk and San Juan mountains. The Musca (Robideau) and Williams' passes were reconnoitred, and found very inadmissible for roads. I heard of and explored one, however, at the head of San Luis valley of the Del Norte, which led down the Puncha creek to the Arkansas plains, above its first canon, or defile. The approach to it would be either by way of the Wet Mountain valley and Hardscrabble creek, or, if found practicable, through the defile along the Arkansas. It is far superior to either the Musca or Williams' passes for crossing the dividing ridge. The Coochetopa Pass was not very difficult for our teams, and thence to Grand river the descent was easy. That river runs in deep gorges, with only now and then a small valley, which forced us upon the rocky hills, cut through transversely by creeks, whose gullies were difficult to cross without much labor. This delayed us considerably on sixty miles to the Uncompahgra, since arriving at which our route has been easier, but we have lost the fine grass that kept our animals in good condition up to that point. The Grand and Nah-un-karea rivers are large, rapid streams, and only at low stages can they be easily forded. A summary result may be thus stated of the operations: One thousand and fifty (1,050) miles en route travelled with 18 wagons; 520 miles of new road made on unbroken ground; 4 rivers (besides smaller streams as difficult) ferried or forded; 79 new or rare varieties in the botanical department in the plains, and 48 in the mountains; 27 varieties of mammals and birds; 26 of reptiles and fishes; 50 or 60 of insects; 213 observations for astronomical stations. The topography of the line, and all the prominent hills in sight, are taken and daily plotted with approximate accuracy. The geology of the route has also been carefully noted, and specimens collected. The Utah Indians have appeared friendly, and the health of the party has been pretty good. I secured the services of A. Leroux and Michael, two of the most competent men in the mountains, who are to take us to the Spanish trail; from thence I shall be without a guide. They areto return in a few days to Taos, and by them I expect to forward my dispatches. Most respectfully submitted: J. W. GUNNISON, ,in To~. Egnesinc~harge of C..P. R. R. Survey. Colonel J. J. ABERT, Chief Topographical Engineers. 122

Page  123 APPENDIX A.-PROGRESS OF THE SURVEY. V.-Letter, dated September 23, 1853, Camp 72, Bitter Creek, Utah Territory, jrom Captain Gtnnison to Colonel J. J. Abert, forwarding a rude copy of thefield-work of the survey. CAMP 72, BITTER CREEK, UTAH TERRITORY, September 23, 1853. Sin': I have the honor to submit a succinct report of our operations to the 20th instant. Amid the bustle of camp duties it is necessarily a mere abstract, for a strong necessity urges us forward. We have had miserable grass and water for much of the last one hundred miles, neithervery accessible, and it is growing late for crossing the Wahsatch range, and any great delay might be injurious. I have caused a copy of the field-work map to be made, which I am sorry to send in such a rough dress, but the guide is about to leave for Taos. In three weeks I hope to reach the Mormon settlements. From thence it will be requisite to our subsistence that funds be estimated for, to be placed in the hands of Colonel R. Campbell, at St. Louis, which will be available in the mountains. I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant, J. W. GUNNISON, Captain Topographical Engineers. Col. J. J. ABERT, Chief Top. Engineers. V.-Leter, dated Octoer 29, 1853, Camp near Fillmore, ltah Territory, from Lieunt. Beckwith to Col. J. J. Alert, reporting the progress of the survey, requestin i,nstrtctions, and indicating future operations. CAMP NEAR FILLMORE, UTAH TERRITORY, October 29, 1853. COLONEL: The death of the late Captain J. W. G unnison, Topographical Engineers, in charge of the Central Pacific Railroad Survey, whose death, with the particulars, is being communicated by Captain R. M. Morris, Mounted Rifles, officially to the Adjutant General, devolves upon me the duty of requesting instructions from the Hon. Secretary of War for my future guidance. The short time allowed me before the departure of the express, which goes hence in time to reach Great Salt Lake City before the departure of the mail from that place, on the first proximo, for the States, does not admit of my making any detailed statement, even of the operations of the surveying party during the season, which is closing so disastrously and painfu]ly to us. Besides, the report which the late Captain made on, I think, the 20th of September last, of his operations up to that date, (an annual statement of operations as an officer of Topographical Engineers, in charge of public duties,) and forwarded through New Mexico, and which, it is presumed, came safely to hand, makes any statement as to the preceding part of his survey unnecessary. On that date we were on or near Grand river, travelling towards the Spanish trail, which we struck between that river and the Greeno; following it but a few miles beyond the latter stream, we left it, passing north and west to White river, (a small branch of Green river,) which we followed up a few days, and then skirted along the base of the Wahsatch mountains, crossing the St. Rafae, also a small stream, with its numerous branches, to the pass in those mountains kLow as the Wahsatch Gap. After leaving it to examine White river, travelling by a very circuitous route for seventy or seventy-five miles, we again returned to the Spanish trail, soon after passing the St. Rafael. This trail, as is well known to you, passes through the Wahsatch Pass. a few miles beyond which we left it and struck off directly for the Sevier river, distant from the pass about thirty miles, and then followed down that stream to where it is crossed by the road leading from Great Salt Lake City to California, via Vegas de Santa Clara. We here crossed the Sevier and the range of mountains lying to the south and west of that stream, probably at the point at which Fremont crossed them in 1844, into the valley of the Sevier lake. Leaving this range of mountains, we passed northwest to the Sevier river again, a few miiiles above 123

Page  124 APPENDIX A.-PROGRESS OF THE SURVEY. where it enters the lake, which Captain Gunnison was about to explore, with the country to the west of it, when he was killed. This survey, it was supposed, would not detain him beyond two or three days. Thence he proposed to go north, if possible turning the range of mountains through which the Sevier passes; but if not practicable, then to go through the pass of that river north to Utah lake and Salt Lake City, examining, if possible, the Timpanogos Pass, when opposite it. You will see, therefore, that but a trifle of labor remained to be accomplished in the field, when operations were so suddenly terminated, for it is rio longer deemed safe to explore these districts until better informed of the numbers and present hostile condition of nearly all of the Indians of the Territory, did not the condition of our supplies and the advanced state of the season forbid it. A few of Captain Gunnison's notes, those since October 8th, when we were on the St. Rafael, he had with him, and they were carried off by the Indians; also, some of the topographical notes and sketches of his assistant, Mr. Kern; but I have not yet been able to ascertain to what precise point, but hope the loss will not be great. I have, through Mr. Call, the president of the settlement, now here, who extends to us all the assistance in his power, sent an express to the chief of the band which was engaged in the massacre, and entertain a faint hope that I may recover these papers and books,* and also the instruments, with which we can ill dispense. I shall keep the assistants left of the party busily employed during the winter in bringing up their observations and notes, and, if possible, employ a draughtsman to supply the vacancy occasioned by Mr. Kern's death. Should no other instructions be received, intended for Captain Gunnison, than those furnished him before commencing the survey, and should I receive none myself before the proper season arrives for commencing spring operations, I shall, if I am able to get the means, continue the survey, in conformity with those instructions. Captain Gunnisons party was employed for the trip, and cannot, therefore, be discharged until we again arrive in the States. As all the funds for this survey were in Captain Gunnison's name, I am left without the means of paying assistants and employes, as I am without those for subsisting them during the winter, &c., &c. I have, therefore, the honor to request that I may be furnished with authority to draw upon the proper department for the amount necessary to meet the demands against the survey, present and prospective. Could this arrangement be effected, it would relieve me from the risk and responsibility of transporting money with me over vast districts of uncivilized territory, loss by mails in coming to me, &c. If this may not be done, however, I have then the honor to request that drafts for small amounts may be sent to me without delay, to be used from time to time, as the mails cannot be depended upon to arrive with any regularity. I am not able to estimate accurately the amount of money expended by Captain Gunnison in this survey up to the time of his death, but believe it will not vary materially from eighteen thousand dollars, and I estim ate the expense of the party, including wages and subsistence of men, and wear and tear of transportation, at ten or twelve hundred dollars per month. It may be necessary that I should be furnished with an order, directing me to pay the dues against the survey previous to the death of Captain Gunnison. If so, I have to request that it may be furnished to meet the unpaid amounts due the men of the party, and one thousand dollars, in addition to the monthly estimate above, furnished me to meet these amounts. The public accounts of Captain Gunnison will be forwarded to the bureau of Topographical E~ngineers, as soon after arrivring in Salt Lake City as it is possible to select them from his other papers. nt servant, BECKWITH, 'irst Lieutenant 3d Artillery. Colonel J. J. ABERT, Chie of the Corps of Trop. Engs., Washington City, D. C. *The notes and sketches were all thus recovered. 124

Page  125 APPENDIX B. Exllianations of Idap and Illusttratons. The astronomical instruments taken by us into the field proved so imperfect that the longitudes deduced from observations made with them were very unreliable, and the longitudes for the map which accompanies this report, reckoned from the meridian of Greenwich, were, therefore, mainly derived from the published maps and reports of' previous government explorations and ey by Nicollet and Fremont, for Saint Louis; Choutean's trading-house, on the Kansas river; ort Leavenworth, on the Missouri river; and Antelope island, in the Great Salt Lake; and rofessor D. W. Goebel and Messrs. J. C. Brown and A. M. Lea for various points in the Missouri, as given by the land office surveys of that State, which were kindly furnished t purpose by the Commissioner of the General Land Office; and for the Pacific coast,sfom the Coast Survey and Fremont's reports. The latitudes were deduced from observations maeb Mr. hlontans. The scale of the map is twelve miles to one inch, or I to 760,320 of natu The various systems of shading generally applied in drawing topographical maps arerunfounately, to a great extent, arbitrary, and will be freque.tly influenced, therefore, in maps o reconnaissantces and rapid explorations of extensive territories, by the varied impressions w same landscape produces, depending upon whether it is seen duiinogthe morning or evenini of the day, under a clear or clouded sky, in a dry or wet atmosphere, &c.-impression can only be reconciled to a certain degree by repeated examinations and careful measurmns still leaving unreconciled t he different sentiments of the scientific as to the character of best adapted to express the features of the country surveyed. The value of maps depen ever, who lly upon the acc uracy, extent, andc sufficiency of their details, which cannot b o the imagination without entirely misleading the reader, and conveying to him- an errolleousve of the country delineated; and Mr. Egloffstein has, therefore, endeavored to give such acter to his topography as to present a distinct representation of the country as it appred him when taking his notes in the field. The altitude above the sea of the great interiorpata upon which these mounta ins are elevated, materially diminishes their apparent altitu r whatever direction they are approached; and as it is their actual appearance to teieye which is attempted to be represented, it equally influences the character of their delineation. Thes of these elevated plains, and of the vallys intermediate to the mountains, may, threfre, be regarded as planes of reference to which the mountain elevations are referred. In tha the uap embraced within the fully-shaded topography, the actual proportions of thetertory occupied by plains and valleys, and by mountains, are given, necessarily defining theliiso each. The character of the slopes of the mountains and of their outlines ill full, whethrpe cipitous or gentle, and of the deep mountain chasms of the water-courses wherever theyocr and also the character of the summits of the mountains, whether rolling masses, sharppek,o serrated edges, is taken from nature, and if successful, will convey to the reader a correct dao the country as seeni by the observer. The scale of shading used by Mr. E~gloffstein for the full topography is one to eight, wihi simply an expression for the proportions of the map which are occupied by shading lines,anwa determ~inebytkn the sum of the extreme angles of elevation and depression of theconr

Page  126 APPENDIX B.-EXPLANATIONS OF MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS. while the eighth division is entirely occupied by the shading lines, and is black. Much character is, however, given to topography by the length of the lines-long lines giving the appearance of long slopes, and broken and short lines short and broken slopes. In the skeleton topography, the scale of shading used on this map does not exceed one to three. The extent of the fully shaded topography of the country traversed in 1854 is only limited by the field of observation, which frequently exceeds in extent one hundred miles of latitude, within which every object in sight during field operations was located with as much care as it was possible to attain, not only to enable us to present a clear and correct representation of the country, but to facilitate future explorations by an easy connexion with the present work, the correctness of which may be readily tested fromt- the elevated stations to which our direct and side trails frequently lead. That portion of the map embracing the explorations of 1853 is also very extensive in its topographical delineations, and all the field notes taken have been exhausted in its construction. The topography adjacent to the trails is, in all cases, executed with accuracy of detail, and in its general features the same accuracy has been preserved within the field of observation. Where its character was known, but the information not derived from personal observation, the topography is given in skeleton, and is indicative of the general character of the country covered by it. a The materials for that portion of the map lying between the State of Missouri and Bridger's Pass of the Rocky mountains, and north of Forts Leavenworth an(] Riley, including the Plains, the Cheyenne and South Passes, and the Parks; and further west, the northern portion of the Great Salt Lake and of Bear river, were taken from Fremont's and Stansbury's reports and maps; and portions of the Humboldt river and valley were also taken from Colonel Fremont's explorations. The portion embracing the States of Missouri and Illinois was taken from lithographed and manuscript maps of the land office surveys of those States, forwarded for that purpose by Mr. John Loughborough, the surveyor general at St. Louis, and kindly furnished to us by Messrs. Wilson and Hendricks, successively Commissioners of the General Land Office. In unexplored portions of the country a few details have been derived from the descriptions of mountaineers, where a strong probability supported their statements. The landscape views are presented with no purpose of representing the beauties of the scenery of the country, but to illustrate its general character, and to exhibit on a small scale the character of its mountains and canfones, and of its plains and valleys, in their respective positions and extents, as seen in nature, together with such passes as it was possible to represent without unduly increasing the number of views. Those of the country westward from the Great Salt Lake have, intimately connected as they are with the map of that portion of the country, a still greater value, as the same passes, mountains, and plains which are given on the one are preseiited in full on the other; and the positions on the map are also given from which the views were taken. The most valuable of them are very extensive, and an explanation of one will be sufficient for the understanding of the whole. They are taken, as will be seen at once, fom elevated positions, and consequently partake somewhat of a panoramic character, and being of great extent, the ordinary inequalities of the surfaces of plains and slopes are not perceptible. But little attention has been paid to the beautiful execution of foregrounds, as it is only the general view of the country which it is desired to present. The smokes seen here and there indicate points at which we encamped. The bearings of the extremes of the views, and the names of their principal features, are given on the margin of each respective picture, the name of the object designated being directly under it, and the names nearest to the edge of the picture indicating the most distant objects; and as the same names are also given on the map, the two may be readily compared, and will serve to elucidate each other. The first view west of the Great Salt Lake was taken from a peak near Antelope Butte, and presents on the extreme left the western slope of, and the passage (to the south of Pilot Peak) leading through, the first mountain range west of the desert which borders the lake on that side; immediately south of this passage, and extending considerably to the west, is art agglomeration 126

Page  127 APPENDIX B.-EXPLANATIONS OF MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS. of mountain masses, the nearest of which is designated by its Indian name, Don-don, followed to the west by the Wa-cho-i, the northern end of which only is plainly seen; to the west of this range, but more distant, are considerable mountains, surmounted in May by a few snow-peaks, the most conspicuous of which bears the Indian name of Mo-ko-ga-ri; westward from this peak, passing the considerable valley of Goshoot lake, the considerable north and south range, called Wa-ro-ja, rises, the eastern slope and northern end of which are alone visible; to the west of this range Franklin valley opens, and is followed by the Humboldt River mountains, terminating the view in that direction. Intermediate to the ranges named are more or less considerable valleys extending parallel with them, the views of which are obstructed by the mountains themselves; but by a course somewhat winding from the pass on the east, a succession of plains and valleys, broken by the ordinary inequalities of such surfaces, is seen, by which the most practicable railroad route in the vicinity extends as far west as the eastern slope of the Humboldt mountains. Other views succeed this, showing more of Franklin valley and the pass by which it is proposed to cross the Humboldt mountains to the valley of the river of the same name; and similar views are given of the country where the proposed line of railroad leaves the Humboldt river, and where it ascends and crosses the Sierra Nevada. To show to what extent our topographical work. may be depended upon as correct, I deem it proper to explain the manner of its execution, when it was immediately under my charge, after the experience of the first year's field-work under Captain Gunnison, assisted by Mr. Eglofstein, both in the field and in the office. Proper astronomical observations for the determination of geographical positions, and of the variation of the needle, were, of course, frequently made; the distances traversed were measured by odometers, two being used upon the same trail wherever it was practicable, for comparison, and barometric observations made at regular hours daily, as well as at all considerable changes of level, for altitudes. The party daily proceeded on its duties in such order as circumstances required, it being frequently necessary to locate our trail with accuracy, for a portion of it to keep a greater or less distance in advance of the topographer to enable him to take accurate bearings upon their success ve positions on extensive plains, where no trees or prominent objects afford natural marks for this purpose; and to facilitate the taking of back-sights, if possible to discover any local attraction, or other source of error, smokes and camp-fires left behind were often found useful. In connection with the trail the topography adjacent to it was constantly laid down with great care, and the first favorable locality near it assumed for making observations of the country to a greater or less extent, and as accurate profile or outline sketches of it made as our skill enabled us to execute, on which every prominent feature and landmark was noted with especial care, together with their magnetic bearings; and if distant snowy peaks were visible, angles of elevation were taken to the lower lines of snow, the general altitude of this line for the section of country and season of the year being once determined, affording great assistance in estimating the height of all other mountains in the vicinity, and were subsequently used for determining their distances from the point of observation, and the adjacent and middle ground portions were laid down with fidelity. Proceeding, then, for two, three, or four miles upon the trail, the distance, of course, varying with the formation of the country, the topographer again assumed the most favorable position in. the vicinity for his purposes, and repeated the labors of the previous hour. In addition to this constant labor along the trail, it frequently, almost daily, became necessary to leave it and make distant side trips, ascending elevated mountain peaks and ridges to obtain correct and distant views of the country, and I cannot speak too highly of the fidelity, zeal, and ability with which Mr. Egloffstein always performed these onerous labors. In starting for such points, forward bearings were, of course, taken, and verified on his arrival by backsights, and barometers read for altitude, both on his arrival and departure. It is not necessary here to describe the beauty, extent, and grandeur of the scenes which from these positions, in the pure atmosphere of this portion of our country, greeted him, frequently embracing an area equal to that of some of our Atlantic States, and presenting a multitude of plain and mountain outlines, 127

Page  128 APPENDIX B. EXPLANATIONS OF MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS. with snow-capped peaks rising just on the verge of the horizon, and frequently remaining in sight for days, serving as points of reference, and all of which were carefully traced and noted for the delineation of the country. This labor done, those on the trail were resumed and( continued to camp, where the mountain curves were filled up with shading lines, and every item of importance to the correct construction of the map recorded; for, in prosecuting for months labors of this kind in a mountainous country, it will not do to trust to the memory for its character on successive days. For field use a continuous map of the country was daily kept up, and the field-wok, as here described for a day, was continued to its completion. In entering upon the final construction of the map, in order to eliminate all possible errors in the field-notes, the trail was again laid down continuously from the place of beginning to the terminus of the work, on the same scale (three miles to one inch) with the original sketches, without reference to the true meridian; and separate constructions of all the knots of principal bearings to prominent features of the country were made on tissue paper, which, from its transparency, affords great facility for the comparison of the different constructions of overlapping sheets, and from these the whole was projected on the trail sheet, reconciling as far as possible all discrepancies. Upon the map thus constructed, all reliable latitudes were entered at their respective places, and connecting lines of latitude drawn through the whole work, thereby detecting by these variable curves any remaining inaccuraies in the work itself. Lines of longitude were then drawn, without regard to the singularity of their appearance, as nearly perpendicular to these irregular curves of latitude as possible, great regard being paid, however, in case of too great deviation of lines of longitude from north and south, to the influential bearings towards those portions of the map. This system of detecting the deficiencies of the field-work was carried to divisions of ve minutes of latitude and five minutes of longitude. The topographical outline or profile sketches extending to the horizon, heretofore mentioned as taken from elevated positions, and forming circular views, of which the centres are occupied by the observer, were then corrected by all the discovered errors applicable to them, and formed a system of plain table work, which, when the sheets were properly placed on the projected map, overlapped large sections of the same co ntry, and, being on transparent paper, greatly facilitated the construction of the map from their centres, and had the advantage by their profiles of keeping constantly before the draughtsman vivid pictures of the country. This method was followed by Mr. Egloffstein; but these views were subjected by him not only to the bearings and his judgment in their construction, but where the extent of the valleys, the altitudes and distances of the mountains were not determined by traversing and actually measuring them, angles of elevation were taken to the lowest line of snow at the time, and, with the assistance of Mr. J. de la Camp, formulas prepared and tables calculated for determining their distances from the points of observation. Formulas were also prepared by these gentlemen for determining the horizontal distortion of distances in perspective from such altitudes, tables calculated, and the resulting orrections applied not only to the map but to the views. These tables once prepared, a simple reference for a given angle and bearing furnished its locality with great accuracy. Thus, by the first table, if the observer in the Basin be at an altitude of 5,250 feet above the sea, and the observed lowest line of snow at an elevation of 7,500 feet above the sea, and is seen at an angle of 2~ 36' 30", its distance exceeds nine miles by a small fraction; and, by the second table, if an observed horizontal distance of three miles, of which the nearest point is six miles distant, and the farthest nine miles, be seen from an elevation 2,750 feet above it, it equals 0.02840 of a unit of the scale of the drawing. Scales were also prepared to facilitate the use of these tables. The table for the mathematical projection of the map, giving the unlits in statute miles, was calculated to half degrees by the formulas published by the Superintenldent of the United States Coast Survey in his annual report for 1853. As before stated, the most accurate portion of the topography of the map is, undoubtedly, that adjacent to the trails for four or five miles on either side, and which, in its final, as in its preliminary construction, furnished the basis for the difficult construction of the more distant portions. 128