The first six books of Homer's Iliad;
Homer., Boise, James Robinson, ed. 1815-1895.

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Page  II Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by S. C. GRIGG'S, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Northern District of Illinois. THE TROW & SMITH BOOK MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 46, 48, 50 GREENE STREET, N. Y.


Page  IV

Page  V PREFACE. THIs work was undertaken at the suggestion and request of several eminent teachers in different parts of the country. It is on the same general plan with the " First Three Books of the Anabasis of Xenophon," published some years ago. The wants of beginners in the Epic dialect have been kept constantly in view. It has however been my aim, not so much to solve all difficulties for the learner, as to direct him how to solve difficulties for himself. Hence, the very frequent references to Lexicon and Grammar. Of Hadley's Greek. Grammar, I cannot adequately express my high appreciation. For several years it has been constantly at my elbow, and I have consulted it many times each working day; always with satisfaction; always, in fact, with a growing sense of its value. Kiihner's Larger Greek Grammar has been much longer before the public. Its thorough and critical character is universally acknowledged. It is a work which I could by no means afford to lay aside.

Page  VI Vi PREFACE. Professor Goodwin, in his Greek Moods and Tenses, enters a special and very important field. The subjects which he discusses are handled with thoroughness and originality. Many valuable points are presented, which could not find a place in a general grammar of the language. Should any learner aspire to the highest and most critical scholarship-and I am confident there must be many such, who will study this book-my advice is, that he furnish himself with all three of the abovementioned grammatical works, and then use them, patiently and perseveringly, in searching out the numerous references which will be found among the following notes. The value of such a course of critical study cannot be overrated. The text of this edition is intended to be a faithful reprint of that of W. Dindorf, as published by B. G. Teubner, in his critical and deservedly popular series of Greek and Latin classics. The text of Wolf, hitherto extensively used in this country, is no longer followed in the most critical German editions for schools. I have attempted no emendations of the text whatever -beyond the correction of a few plain typographical errors-thinking it would be more satisfactory to scholars generally to feel assured that they had the exact results of Dindorf's critical researches in this special field of labor. In the use of capital letters; in the absence of breathings over pp; and in some peculiarities of punctuation, as well as of accentuation, which

Page  VII PREFACE. Vii the careful scholar cannot fail to notice, I have simply followed the German edition. It would be impossible to enumerate the various helps of which I have availed myself in the preparation of this work. The commentaries which have afforded the most valuable assistance are those of Stadelmaun, Crusius, Naegelsbach (dritte Auflage, bearbeitet von Dr. Georg Autenrieth. Niirnberg, 1864), Faesi, and Diintzer. The work of Ameis and that of Koch did not reach me until a considerable part of my notes was completed. The American editions of Homer, by Felton, Anthon, and Owen, have been frequently consulted, and valuable aid has been obtained from them. The recent version of the Iliad by Lord Derby has also been frequently consulted, not indeed for critical purposes, but to obtain some fitting expression, and is often cited in the following notes. In regard to the English form of Greek proper names, every editor of a Greek classic must find himself in some perplexity. Without going quite to the same length with Grote, in his somewhat daring orthographical innovations, I have aimed to present the most recent and approved critical usage. I cannot but think that the custom, still retained by some English and American scholars, though rejected by the Germans, of confounding Grecian and Roman mythological names, as Zeus and Jupiter, Hera (or fhere) and Juno, Hermes and Mercury, is, on many accounts, objectionable; and must soon be abandoned altogether. The

Page  VIII Viii PREF A CE. influence of a standard work, like that of Grote, will be likely in the end to settle this question. If, in a field so perplexing, I have been guilty of some inconsistencies-as, for example, of writing Ajax instead of Aias, or Ajas; Atrides instead of Atreides; and other instances which might easily be found-it has generally resulted from my unwillingness to venture on the extreme of innovation. References are occasionally made to the Dictionary of Antiquities, by Dr. William Smith, and to the map of the Troad. It is taken for granted that every classical student will provide himself with an ancient Atlas, and also with the work of Dr. Smith. The well-known Summaria, by F. A. Wolf, of the six books here published, have been prefixed to the text, and may be often consulted with great advantage. For " the Homeric question," and various other learned topics, the discussion of which would be out of place in an elementary school-book, the student is referred to Smith's History of Greece, Book First, chap. 5th; to the extended work of Grote, and to various reviews, English and American, such as will be found-in all public libraries. I have already had too much experience in bookmaking, to flatter myself that all mistakes and errors have been avoided. Any person who uses this work, whether teacher or pupil, will lay me under great obligations, by calling my attention to such errors. ]My special thanks are due to Professor Martin L.

Page  IX PREFACE. iX D'Ooge, of the University of Michigan, who has read most of the notes in manuscript, for the correction of errors, and for valuable suggestions. I offer this work to the public with much greater confidence, from the fact that so much of it has already passed under his critical eye. JAMES R. BOISE. UNIVERSITY OF OHIOAGO, Dec. 1868.

Page  X

Page  XI F. A. WOLFI SUMMARIA. Rogatur ab initio Musa ut cantum praecipiat de cladibus ad Ilium Achillis iram consequutis (1-7). Yenit in concionem Achivorum Chryses, sacerdos Apollinis, filiam suam redempturus bello nuper captam et honoris claussa datamr Agamemnoni (8-21). Illo cum ignominia repulso funestam luem Apollo per exercitum spargit (22-52). Habet concionem Achilles ob placandum deum, in qua Calchas vates calamitate eos levatum iri reducenda Chryseide censet, auctore imprimis Achille (53-129). Ita irritatus Agamemno atrocia iurgia nectit cum Achille, et Chrysae quidem filiam reddere non recusat, sed illi, quod praemium virtutis retulerat, Briseidem eripit, quamvis obnitente Nestore (130-311 et 818-347). Hac incensus iniuria statuit acer iuvenis se cum Myrmidonibus a belli societate seiungere: quod propositum a matre eius Tethide confirinatur, quae et supplicanti ultionem promittit (348 427). Interea publice lustratur exercitus et sacra fiunt Apollini (312-317): tumrn Chr; ses domum reducitur una cum hostiis piacularibus, quibus mactatis scelus expiatur (428-487). Thetidi iam Olympum adeunti Iuppiter occulte annuit, victores in proeliis fore Troianos, donec Achilli ab Achivis satisfactuln fuerit (488-533). Iunonem, infestam Troianis, pungunt haec clandestina consilia; inde rixatur cum love super coenam (534-567). Ea re contristatur omnis consessus deorum, quos tandem ad hilaritatem revocat Vulcanus (568-611).

Page  XII xii S U MM A R I A. II. Iuppiter, illatam Achilli iniuriam ulturus, speciem nocturnam mittit ad Agatnemnonem, quae eum ad committendum proelium spe victoriae incitet (1-40). Sub lucem Agamemno rem et impetum suum aperit primoribus Achivorum; mox concionem habet universorum (41-100). Placuerat ei, ad tentandam populi,fidem, cui diffidebat, consilium repetendae patriae simulare: eo audito, statim multitudo bello fessa tumultuari et navigationem parare coepit (101-154). Seditionem de compacto et Minervae monitu comprinlit Ulysses, ad singulos precibus, minis, opprobriis usus ita ut concionem restituat (155-210). Thersiten, turpern et maledicum hominem, qui discessum urgere non desinit, gravius castigat ad terrorem ceterorem (211-277). Sic cohibitum vulgus flectitur tandem compositis ad persuadendum orationibus Ulyssis ac Nestoris, qui et vetera promissa expetunt, et ostentis utuntur ad spem Ilii cito expugnandi: Agamemno autem indicit proelium, et ardore pugnandi onmnium animos implet (278-393). Iam arlnatur exercitus; prirnores apud Agamemnonem, mactata maiore hostia. epulantur; ceteri passim per tentoria cibum sumunt sacraque faciunt, et a suis quaeque natio ducibus instructa in aciem prodeunt (394-484). Inseritur hoc loco accurata enumeratio navium, populorutn, diculn, qui Agamemnonem ad bellum Troianum sequluti erant (485-785). Item Troiani, comperto quid minentur Achivi, duce Hectore in campum egrediuntur et ipsi et socii, quournm brevior recensus adiicitur (786-877). III. Primo concursu proelii Paris seu Alexander fortissimum quemque Achivorum ad pugnam provocat; sed ut Menelaum conspexit de curru suo desilientem, abiecto animo refugit (1-37). Paullo post ideln, Hectoris voce correptus, offert se certamini singulari cum Menelao de summa belli ineundo; qua conditione accepta poscit Menelaus ut sponsio interponatur, praesente Priamo sancienda (38-100). Igitur arma deponunt exercitus; sacrificia ab utraque parte parantur: interim Helena ex turri Priamo et senioribus Troianis demoustrat duces Achivorum in campo subiacente (111-244). Vocatus supervenit Priamus, comite Antenore, foe

Page  XIII S UMM AR I A. Xiii dusque ictum antiquo ritu hisce legibus, ut, uter alterum vicisset, Helenam eiusque opes haberet, Troiani autem inferiores Achivis gravemr multam penderent (245-301). Post Priami discessum arma capiunt Menelaus et Paris, et in spatium certamini dimensum procedunt: at superatum Paridem clam surripit Venus et incolumem in ipsius cubiculum asportat (302-382). In eundem locumn adducit illa Helenam, quae primum reluctans novo marito ignaviam exprobat, mox tamen eum in gratiam recipit (383-448). Ita praemiis deae fruentem adversarium frustra quaerit Menelaus, duln Agamemno publice repetit pactumn pretium victoriae (449-461). IV. Quurn ex foedere Helena Achivis reddenda infestaeque acies dirimendae essent superato Paride, Iuno in concilio deorum indignabunda ita non expleri odium suum in Troianos, Iovi extorquet ut ipsi concedat Ilii excidium (1-49). Minerva, ipsa quoque Troianis inimica, Iunonis hortatu ad terramin missa, persuadet Pandaro Lycio ut iacta in Menelaum sagitta pactionem conturbet ac novam bellandi caussam serat (50-104): at non letali vulnere percussum Menelaum arcessitus medicus curat Machao (105-219). Interea rursus armati ad pugnandum se referunt Troiani, dum Agamemno catervas Achivorum obit, nonnullorum, at Idomnenei, Aiacum, Nestoris, qui iam in procinctu stabant, alacritatem laudans, aliorum, ut Menesthei, Ulyssis, Diomedis, qui recentem impetum nondumn senserant, cunctationem reprehendens (220-421). Quo facto proelium instauratur, in quo Troianis Mars et Apollo, Achivis praeter alia numina Minerva animos addit; caedesque fiunt mutuae (422-544). V. Stragem Troianorum continuant Achivi; ante omnes insignis Diomedes, Minervae, Martem ab acie seducentis, praesidio ferocissimus (1-94). Sed ipse a Pandaro vulneratus etiam vehernentius saevit in hostes (95-166): Pandarum, antea peditem, nunc ex Aeneae curru pugnantem, interficit (167-296); Aenean, arnici corpus tegentem, saxo sanciat (297-310); Veneri, filium ex pugn, efferenti, plagam in manu infligit (311-351). Venus ab Iride educta curru Martis revehitur ad Olympum, ubi eam mater Dione sinu fovet, alii dii leniter irrident ((352-431). Aeneam, a Venere

Page  XIV iv SUMM AR IA. destitutum, Diomedis furori eripit Apollo et in arce Troiana recreandum curat, simul Martem in aciem revocat (432-460). Mars ad rem fortiter gerendam hortatur Troianos, quibus statim Aeneas integer subvenit (461-518). Nec segnius pugnant Achivi, caedunturque ex utrisque multi, in his Tlepolemus ab Sarpedone: tandem pellunttir paullatim Achivi (519-710). His ita laborantibus ex Olytlmpo opitulatum veniunt Iuno et Minerva (711-777): ac voce Iunonis denuo incenditur turba, Minervae autem monitu et ductu Diomedes ipsum Martem vulnerat (778-863), qui ex campo repente ad Olympum redit, ibique sanatur, sequentibus etiam deabus (864-909). VI. Troianorum acie in fugam inclinante Helenus vates Hectorem hortatur ut publicam obsecrationem Minervae in arce habendam indicat (1-101). Ergo is, celeriter restituto proelio, pergit in urbem: in eo proelio Diomedes et Glaucus, dux Lyciorum, ad certamen progressi, priusquam manus consererent, paterna inter se hospitia recordati, facta armorum permutatione, dextras iungunt (102-236). Hecuba et ceterae matronae, de Hectoris et procerum Troianorum consilio, peplum in aedem Minervae infetunt votaque pro salute patriae nuncupant (237-311.) Interim Hector domi desidentein Paridem obiurgando in aciem reducit (312-368): uxorein Andromachen, in aedibus suis frustra quswesitam, tandem urbe egrediens ad portam Scaeam una cum puero Astyanacte obviam habet atque ultimum alloquitur (369-502). Mox fratrem in via armatus consequitur Paris (503-529).

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Page  101 CI APTER IV. T I E SECOND COLONY OF ROAN OKE, ARRIVAL OF THE EXPECTED RE-ENFORCEMENTS. A VERY few days after the first colony of Roanoke abandoned their settlement for the purpose of returning to England; as related in the last chapter, a ship which Sir Walter Raleigh sent out to relieve them, with provisions and stores; arrived. and within a fortnight three more ships, under the command of Sir Richard Grenville himself. appeared, with a larger supply of stores, and a considerable reinforcement of men. When this last squadron arrived, and found that the island had been abandoned, the commander was for a time quite at a loss to know what. to do. HTe concluded at length to leave a small party on the island, to keep possession of the ground until he could return to England and make arrangements for the reestablishing the colony on a more extended scale. So he repaired the fort, and detached a small body of men to garrison it. It is said that the number was fifteen, He also left a sufficient quantity of 10O

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Page  110 Torv 8' aV3e 7rpoGreTt7rCv'AVXav3po9 SeoceL37'I "'EICrop, eWreL( e KaT artoav eveLceuoaS ov3 v7rep aloav, TOivEKa TOt EpECO 0' 8bE TaVVOeoo Kal lEV a&Kovaor, 335 oiv7rot EY TpoWCv T60ov 6or P, ov 8e Velo' o /rtlqv v ~v %aXcap, EOeXoV 8' 6aXEi 7rpoTpavrer Oat. vvv 8e ue 7rapet7rovT" aXoxoq PaXaKcos 7 E7rEEYoLtv ept'rWes 6rXeaor oov oceE /ot l6 K tc a\ a t ~ XC0tov eo'oeoOat' VPtfCr 8e 7ra/et'l eTat a'v3pas. 340 aXX' a7ye vvv retLEtvov,'Aprita re;Vea w'0 tL'0', E7(o (36 /e1L/t/L' Kt.XjcOeaOat 8c & 3w." "'2s caCbro,'bv 8''oVi7L 7rpooE'rl KopvOaioXo "EzKTWp' T0v (8''EXevr IzV;Oott 7rpocnaqpe /IELXLtXOLCtLV "Jcp E ELo, KVV O? KaKOII poXaVOV, ovP ElT 345 c a',u beX' /xart 7O ore e / rpT&,oJv Tre1e,rCEW)7p ot'XecOat rpogepovua KaE?) aveloto $SvEXea et' opos 7 ec Klva 7roXvkXotc/3oto.vaXdao'rs, 6vAa KtE K/Jc alr6opoe 7rapo9 7Ta(e epya yeveaOaL. avTap e7rEL Tfa8ye Cyb8e seoL aEca EKa c TeKrpavro, 350 4vsp e7reLT beXXov a/JECvoaov eta al coLMS', oS 78( VELEOSiv Te lcal at'oXea 7r6XX' avOpp7rov. ToVrT 8 ovrT ap vvv Ope'Em pew re(8o oVi acp' owrlca e00-OVTaL T(fO lcat uLt Ee7ravpro-eOat Otco. aXX a'ye vvv EEEXOES lEca\ Efeo -rO' )r (37p\p, 355 8a&p, e7rdl oe FuaXtcfa 7ro6vos cpevas a/lztcL/3E/1KEV ELVEKE e/lo KcvrO' lcai'AXe r pov:/c aVT?77S, (Tc(JV e7Tl ZES\ S1X;?)E alEoC aK i opovi P cKal 07rl K\'C tvoptvroV L 7rEXcL/O' aOILLLOL ECO O/lEVOLLOV. W" T jv 8' rtEIP E3ter e7reTLa Ape7yas KopvOagoXo s "EErwTp 360 ", t e GEa0Lt''EXErY, OtXeovaa 7rep ov6& /Ee ve7taeL,. 8 raydp,uob vLu3o\ E'7rEovraO op' r6rawtvco Tp)XeCO, Ot -L' ELY/ EAE 7orod7v a7reoVTro'aOVOalV. aiXXa 0viy opvV6t TOVTOV, eT7rELr(eOC) 8& Kalt avTro,

Page  111 IAIAAOx VI. 111 W ICEP re' evTro~OEv 7r 6Xto9 caTrapLapfr7 Eovra. Icat yap ery7v ojOc6vo' aeEXevoJoaL,'0Qpa ['$wuat& 365 oticas' cXoX6v TE oLf)tXV Kcal l)7t0ov VlOV. o0 yap T' ol &t oTbw lV i6rpo7roS 7:ovat aTTi7, i~;78j7 /' Vbr0 xepot Sseot 8attoav v'AXat'v." "2Qs apa qbwvroaa a7rE/rl KcopvOaioXoS "E'EICp. at#a 8' e7rELO' tkav e o'LovS evvatEao'VTa, 370 o3'ep''A v popjaxrqv XEVKcwXevov EV etryapoUtt'7, aXX' 77le:vv 7rat&L KaLt a2uyL,7r6 eV7rE7TrXo 7rpfy qc0e6TTKEtL yo7o6ad Te!Lvpo WLVi) Te.'Ecrw7p o8' Co o0)C E1r8ov a.vWtvova Trc-ev E aCOLTLV, EV cr'ov8o7 v i6C, pLETa& 8E 8oLCO'aLt eELrrev 375 "El 8' a6iy pO 3powal, lrMqepr7a pvOqr)'aaoOe 7rw g3p,'AvSpoluayX, XwevKcdXevos /eC c/eyapoto lE 7rrv. dE ryaXwrov, i7 etvarTEpcv eEV57r&Xr v, 9 E9'AMyvaL'%, cotxerat, gvOa 7rep`XXat Tpwa Eoai ev7rXo/'a/i0 (8ELVv Ye1v IXacEcowra&;" 380 Tov' aS'' aTpr7pcl TapL7r 7vrpkt pV0Oov 6ee67re " "EIcrop, 7re- pTdX' Lavwya a'XqOeca wvOr-caoaOat, ovure 7Tfr Cd eyaX6oW ovT' elvaTrepwo e'v7rE7rXV oVT Ei'A4iYvais e oLXETaat,, evOa 7rep, aiXXa Tpwai ri)rk6ocaLpo 8etw)v 4eoZv Xac-t'ovTat, 385 aXX' c7rt 7rvpyov ~]3y /ueyav'ILov, ovreKc a/covoreV -TeLpe-Oat Tp6oa%,,u-tya 8\ cpa'ro etvcat'AXat&v. q 11E V8\ 7rp09 76EXOS' eWreC7OlleVP7 OabL/Ce uaLvouLEv') E/cia y a pe, $'L a 3 rai sa' 7aa))."'H'a ryvv) Traurdy, o6 (3'VrorvTro 3a0'aro9 "EKcrtop 390 Trvv avTrv o6ov avir ev/CTteLva? lcat aTvtag. evTe wriXag'cave 8tepxd6LevoS yErya aarv, t/catad —ry ryp eleXXhe (3et[elevat -re6t1ov(e&vO' aXoxos 7roXtvtopo? Evavrrt7 qXWOe 1C3ovo-a'Av8poudXi,, vy7adTqp eE/yaXr7Topos'Herl7wves, 395

Page  112 112 IAIAAO Z.'HETv, os vatev v7ro. IHXa'cIo ~X q'p, i,,8p, CTro7rXaci':t,, KxI'ceoo' avpeo-tv rov. Tou7rep?b'svyaTT17P EXeG' "EKTop, T aXKoKcopvo7T7. ) oL e7retb7?71VTer, aua 8' FaCAL7roXoq ItCe avTr 400 7raES' 7r' K0X77-) eXov' aVaX apova, vYrTov aorws,"'EEKTop[rlV aya7rrrTov, aXY7Ktov arTEpL KKaX),'roy p'ECTcp KaXe erEKce'Kcauaiv8ptov, a'ra\p o0 aXXot'AarvTvaa- ~ olos ya tp EpVETO "IXLoV tEKrtop. rTrot 0 uv [eLGtOlOev LO VE 7\ rav a e wo7r' y 405'Av8poyatXr 8 o[' a'tXt raptoTa7to caicpvXeovuoa, ev T apa. o[ U XeLP Ev Ov 77' EfaT EK t7 vo av "Z.aeLopLe,, (OlOec 0e 7TO erov Juevo 0' ov8 eXEatpet 7raa6 TE vpr7rtaxov Kat e~' a/k/opoo, I, TaXa Xrprl ae'v eo-ouaL raxa y7ap Te KcaTaacTaveov(wv'AXaLo 410 7raCvreT efop0LOevre,' e/oL 8& Kce 8 KEp8LoV e~l oev asap/aproOv'7 X'ova U/epvaL oU 7ap T" aXXyI earat CraX7roopJ, e7rel av ovyE 7rWoroWv E7rWt7rP, aXX' aXe * OV8E ol ErT 7TratT1p Kcal 7rOTVtLa /rrq)p. 7T0oL 7ap 7rep a/ov aWeKraVE a Lov' aAXLX'ba, 415 eK 8E qrOwXv 7rEpae KltXitow evvateroTwcav, Or.'/3V vtri7rvXov' Kcara 8' ecTavev'HerTiova, OV86 /Lv etevaptLe, Ee/3w8oaTo 7ap 707ye 6v/U6, aXX apa pLLV KaTEK)Ce O-Vv EvTeor atL8aXEoLo-tv' 7Tl 0T17' eXeEv 7rEpt 86E 7TEXrre'as E"VrevOav 420 vvLjat opee7-Tea8e, Kcovpat zli3o aTlytoXoo. ol 8oe LOL erT'a caaLYV7PTOL e6cLav erv yuerapoL-w, oL /IEP 7rTV7re9 co KLOV;.zaTrL "AiLOo e0r'c?r'avTas 7yap KcaTrref/Eve 7ro8dpKc7 80oS AXLXXevi% /povrotv e7r elXLTOrEeocL at ap7yEvP s (ptvP'. 425 1rWqrEpat', 8, /3aoiXevev v7ro IIXaK {vXrleao', T/L'7 E ~TEL ap &Evp rya7 ai' a-IXXol-L KTEaTEfbo-V, ayr oyE TV a'7rE'XvaE Xa/cov ( rEpa7eplEtl a7rooa,

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Page  114 114 IAIA 01 Z. 460' "EiTropov'8e 7yvv, S Jp-f TEVdeoYe K XeoOa6 Tpwov ltr'ro0&t/Lov, oTe "IXtOV a1jzetaXoVro.' c wrore 7Lpe9F'e' oi e o av ve'ov eoe'ra& aXeyog XrTEo 7TOlv' av poS, apvvewv &Xtov 7,r Luap. XX ea v1 OiSev rWTa XvrT icara rya-a IcaXVT7rot, 465 7rplr I'/, a6'T Oe TE /3o0 s oo 3' XiCKOl, oo 7rv0lo'Oat." "2vS eC7r1t, oV 7ratos o$pe:aro p a'tcupoo "EIC(TP. ayr 8'o rais 7rpo KOrc67V rov (oV'o0oo LO6lrV7 Ecltcv6r iXov, 7,ra'rpo OliXov iOr*tv aTvxOeO, Tap/,8j'a XaXc'vTre ] i& X64ov i[7r7rtoxa/T7ZV, 470 8etVo ro' a7tcpoTa7Tl~S KOcpvOOS revorVTa vroo'a7. EK 8' eEeXaer7e 7raTr p Te kXos?:caL 7a0TVtLa /r]Tlp. aUTic' a7ro KlparTo ICOpvO' EJX'eo Oai&,uos'EKCTOP,'cKa Ti7V ILEV caTErlOKEV dTr. XOovL 7rajctavooo-vav avTap o'ry ov tLc OV icer l VE e Te X7EpLy. 475 eewev e7revAaCpevos aL' A Xoalt'v -e e.O.LtV " Zev a"XXoL r7e 9eoo, 86're 8 \c Kal rTOV86 ryEveTOa 7raEo' 6Lov, W9 Kca E'yo' 7rep, ap7rpE7rea TpOCO-wlV, (oJ$E /[t3v'r yaO\v Kata'IXtov 24I, advao-etv ~.Kat ror0 TLv'r7ryct' 7rarp09 e/' 5oe roX.Xv'a'elvv 480 eKc woXeHov v'PtvTaa' pot 8' e'vapa ipoTroevTa KTrevav o'iov a(vopa Xapelh7 o8 pe'va ap17'r1p." "(29 elI7rOWv X6ZXOo itnrX l ev XepiV 68OK6cev',rati8' cov O 8' apa pw KiC)oEe (SEaro K0Xw7' T aKcpvoev yeXcaoaa 7r00oLa o' Aeqoe voek e as, 485 Xetpl T7 Ntv KarTpe:ev e7Tro0 T EaT EK Tc OV Ov6Laev "ZlatLovl'7, TMj pOI t XtLv acKa0lo S9v,/,j. ov q/ap 719 ui 7rep atcav av7p "AiL wrpoa6#eu Lpopav oi rGval CruL 7r'efvryEvov v Levat avspav, OV KaKov, ovSe p/ev eao-Xov, e7r 7v Ta 7rp Ta yEvl7Ta&. 490 aXX' els oltKov lovoa Ta ao aVTr71 epmya Ko/tCeu, CTTO) T7 T)XaKaC 7v TE, Kat a'jbtWroXoGLUt KEXEVE

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Page  116 116 IAIAAO2X Z. cxv'at 6,~9vuc, O'''p oe'Oev a"'' Xvval ev rSVa ts' eVvreap co v ale aovto 525 rpos Tpc'cov, o't e'XOovt V 7roXVv'rodvov chveca odeo. aXX' opLEV' & S O'7rt0ev apecrolEO', a'ce 7roOt ZevT sop E7rovpavt'oto-t SEo aleLryev7crT v KpnT-npa oTrT)cao-Oat ev keEyapoto'tv, eX Tpoic eXaoaVTa ePvK cvtpa'A~ aovi."

Page  117 NOTE S.

Page  118 EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE FOLLOWING NOTES. Butt..-. Buttman, Large Greek Grammar. commrn...... common, or commonly. const........ construction. Cr.... Crusius. D......... Derby. deriv....... derivation, or derived. Die. Antiqq.... Dictionary of Antiquities. dif......... differ, difference. Dind........ Dindorf. Doed.... Doederlein. Diinlz....... Dintzer. editt.... editions. enclit... enclitic. F......... Faesi. f......... following. fr......... from. geanr........ general, generally. KTe.......... aT T'a'repa = et cetera. L. & Sc...... Lexicon of Liddell & Scott. Lex......... " " c lit......... literal, literally. meton....... metonymy. Naeg.... Naegelsbach. perh........ perhaps. pred........ predicate. sc........ scilicet, understood, understand. Sp. or Spitz.... Spitzner. St......... Stadelmann. st......... stead, instead of. subj........ subject. subst....... substantive. usu........ usual, usually. v. vv..,.. verse, verses. w... with.

Page  119 NOTES. BOOK FIRST. 1, Miyla...'AXLMjos, The wrath of Achilles, in its origin and consequences, the theme of the entire Iliad. (Cf. Smith's History of Greece, chap. II. ~ 7. p. 23.) -- ed. "According to the scholiasts, Calliope, the muse of heroic poetry, is meant; but Hom. nowhere mentions either the number, or the names, of the muses. These ideas belong probably to a later age. The passage in the Odys. 24, 60, where nine muses are mentioned, is not considered the true reading." Cr. -hin7iWEow. For the formation of patronymics, see H. 466; K. ~ 233, 2, (b). For the ending eco (pronounced in scanning as one syllable by synizesis. i. 37; K. ~ 12), see H. 136 D, b, 2; K.~ 211, 2. -'AXLXhos: one X, metrigratia, for'AxLAXrios: for the ending iios, Att. e'ws, see H. 189 D; K. ~ 213, 13. 2, 3. tuvpfa and tyspta differ how in meaning? See Lex. -'Axaois, the Achaeans, the leading tribe in Peloponnesus and in Thessaly, in the heroic age: hence, the name is often put for the Greeks as a whole; since oL "EAAqres, the usual name in the historic period, was not yet thus used. The other usual names for the Greeks in Hom. are'ApyeZoL and Aacaot. - Ai't: see Lex. "ALt7s, ols: to Hades, meaning in Hom., not the underworld, but the god of the underworld. Notice the dat. here, with the comp. verb'rpozta*ev. H.'605; K. ~ 284, R. 2. Cf. Aen. 2, 398, multos.Danaum demittitmus Orco. 4, 5. avro6s, them themselves (i. e. their bodies), obj. of'frXe, imperf. w. augment omitted, as often in Hom. H. 307 D; K. ~ 219.- Kuceooaat ( = Att. KVatuv, fr. K6(O): ending, H. 154 D, b; K. ~ 213, 3. - olwvyoo't: H. 140 D, b; K. ~ 212, 5. cramrL, to all (as many as came), F.; Cr. and some others say = 7rav'rofors, to all kinds.- Abs... BovAh7, the will of Zeus, that the injured Achilles should be avenged by disasters to the

Page  120 120 NOTES. Greeks. - e' is thought to have in Horn. sometimes a causal force (see Lex.), and is often rendered for; but this meaning is not acknowledged by all critics. - ETXdENETO (TreXe): H. 370 D, b; K. ~ 222, B. (2). 6, 8. et o8, ever since the time when; connect in thought w. the above ~... *~IKcel,... 7rpoaoIev Ic Kre. La — 8a'7r1v = &ieo-'r~'- v: cf. N. on revXe, v. 4.- irs Tr' &p ( = -e 6p, not 0ol &p): -E' copulat. conjunc., and &p inferential, join this sentence w. the preceding, as coordinate. For the exact meaning of &pa, &p, pd, see H. 865, 1; K. ~ 324, 3. The meaning of this word, so frequent in Homrn. and so often left untranslated, should be definitely fixed in the mind of the student. - ae&i, limits iis. — p JvE'7Kce (aSv, ~gi): H. 403 D, 1; K. ~ 230, 77,u,. 9-12. 6 ydp, for this one, for he, i. e. the son of Ltot and Zeus. Meaning of o, Ij, Jd, in Hornm.? H. 524; K. ~ 247, 2. -- Baca'ij, the king, i. e. Agamemnon ('Arpdeor, dvq avsp&v, v. 7): for this form, see H. 189 D; K. ~ 213, 13. —- aod: H. 636, a; K. ~ 290,1, (1), b. -- apoe, 6pvvuL. —— T,: force here? H. 530, a; K. ~ 244, 7. Faesi suggests that the slow, spondaic movement of this verse is adapted to call attention to the thought. Chryses was priest of Apollo in Chryse, a small town between the foot of Mt. Ida and the coast, S. of Troy. -- 6 ycp, v. 12; i. e. Xpirv7s. — aro&s Irl vias, to the swift ships. These were drawn up on the shore, so as to form the encampment of the Greeks. vyas, declens.? H. 189 D; K. 214, 5. 13, 14. Avo4eteyvs re rTyaTpa, both to ransom his daughter, etc., i. e. Chrysbis, the only name given her in Hom.: ava'ya'pa, H. 173 D; K. ~ 213, 10. --- e o-a'a....'Air6XAovos, a wreath of Apollo, i. e. a wreath sacred to Apollo. According to Eustathius, it was of laurel twined with woollen yarn. The plur. ao-r',uaTa is used on the same principle as 4'Ja, v. 45:,BaCAXeia, Anab. i, 2, 7. The sing. would also be proper. Cf. v. 28. 15-19. Xpvouae: two syllables by synizesis. (Cf. N. on rI7X8i'd6cew, v. 1. The first foot is Xpvoaef a-, a dactyl. For the shortening of a long vowel or diphthong, in the end of a word, before another vowel, in the thesis, see H. 86 D; K. ~ 209, 7. Cf. ~e'70SdXov, v. 14; Kca and AxAoi, v. 17. a- v w. dat. only in epic and lyric poetry. --'A'pde&a 8cw (Att. Vdo), the two Atridae, i. e. Agamemnon and Menelaus. Where the sing. is used (v.'7), Agamemnon, the older of the two and the superior in authority, is comm. meant. - onevY: optat. without &r, expressing a wish. H. 721, 1; K. ~ 259, 3, (b); G. ~ 82: may the god... grant, etc. - InpIdolo:'declens.? H. 140 D; K. ~ 212, 2.- ei5, well, i. e. in safety. 20-25. AXaai, 8EXEaoat: infin. as imperat. H. 784; K. ~ 306, R, 11; G. ~ 101: &CJyeroi, v. 21, agrees w. their 6pAeTs, do ye both release. etc. H- r (cf. Note on 6, v. 9) 7rowva, this ransom (which I bring),

Page  121 ILIAD I. 121 -'AirdXAcrcwa. Notice the frequent recurrence of spondaic verses in Hom. Cf. vv. 11, 14. -- Erevr'pt-rlorav: 7rrevpr7i/ew (ivrl, en, rpnrl[). iep7a (iepeds): for the form, cf.'AXLxos5, v. 1, N. - 8e4XaL: H. 408 D, 36; K. ~ 227, B.- oVc... {,v8avze, it (to reverence the king, etc.) did not please, etc.- vvjuw, in mind: const.? H. 609; K. ~ 285, 3, (d). K- CaKWs &aqtel, dismissed (him, i. e. the priest) rudely. - KcpaTefpbv Vpiov: obj. of eirl....TEXXev (er7rEAAc). Tmesis is frequent in Hom. H. 477, 616; K. ~ 300, 2. 26-31. 14} oe... KCLXELW (KLXd,@W): subjunct. 1st pers., prohibition, H.'720, a, b; K. ~ 259, 1, (a); G. ~ 86, N. 1: let me not Jind you, etc. - KotXv.orv: endings of dat. plur. 1st declens. in Hom.? H. 129 D; K. ~ 211, 5. -- vrvor (two syllables), fr. vav^s: declens. in Hom.? H. 189 D; K. ~ 214, 5. r- 8t,'orTa, zrvTa agree w. ae'. -- -—.... ov... lest... not, etc. —' (enclit.): mark well the forms and meaning of this word, Lex. viP, II. - Tot (enclit.) is used in Hornm., either for oot, dat. sing. (as here); or else as a particle, illative, or intensive: rot (orthotone) = ol (or ol), and is either demonst. or relative. -- orTe/c a raeo3o (gen. H. 140 D; K. ~ 212, 2); cf. Apollinis infula, Aen. 2, 430. - r1v: cf. N. on 6, v. 9. - 7rpiv, adv., sooner shall old age come, etc. ~- lvy (pron. 3d pers. H. 233 D; K. ~.217), obj. of elrs in compos. (hretaOrw). lv'Apyei'. Agamemnon resided at Mycenae, a few miles N. E. of the city Argos. Hence, Argos is to be taken here in a wider sense than the city alone, including also the surrounding country. Cf. 2, 108.- iorTdv, loom: other meanings? See Lex. - E'-OLXOIEYr7l, (i7rotXotz), &vr1Ldwo-ra (a&vrT&w, H. 370 D; K. ~ 222, 1, (3), both agree w. utir, v. 29. AeXos, ace.; obj. of motion; H. 551; K. ~ 277: a rare const. w. avrTtdc. 32-36. Cs being followed here by the enclit. Ki ( = Ke = Att. &v) may in form stand for &cs, as final conj., in order that; or for U5s, adv. thus. The former is preferred: Gty or ice, after &s, final conj. is rare. H. 739, 741; K. ~ 330, 4; G. ~ 44, N. 2.- --— ylat: for the ending, see HI. 363 D; K. ~ 220, 10. - "Ins, v. 33. Dif. in meaning between (Zs and &s. Cf. N. v. 32. -- tfparo (qrlvnt): H. 404 D; K. ~ 178. Mid. -- eiorJEev: H. 409 D, 5; K. ~ 230: notice the v movable here; added to make the final syllable long by position. -- yE'pwv = 6 yepao's (v. 35): with the use of the article here, cf. Td T' o'dyTa, Td T' E'orocd/eYa (v. 70): an approximation towards the Att. use of the article; F., also K. ~ 247, 2; H. 524. -,B (= eBY): cf. TErXE, v. 3, N. - Ending -oLo, cf. v. 28, N.7roXAd, adv. earnestly: join w. hpaFro (&pd'ojat). -- Tdv, as relat., whom, H. 243 D; K. ~ 247, 4. 37-41. KcXIN: H. 426 D, 8; K. ~ 230, KAcw. -pE(: H. 233 D; K. 6

Page  122 122 NOTES. ~ 217. -- XptScv: the city (Chryse); not the priest (Chryses). K[ikav, Cilla, or, as Grote would write, Killa, probably near Chryse. Cf. v. 11, N. TEvY;oLo: Tenedos. Cf. Aen. 2, 21. Est in conspectu Tenedos, notissima fama Insula, dives opum, Priami dum regna manebant, Nuno tantum sinus et statio male fida carinis. S- jULY'JeV, voc., emphat. posit. Imitate in rendering, as nearly as you can, the Greek order in presenting the idea. --'otl (enclit.): cf. v. 28, N. - Xapiera, adv. Some, however, take it as fem. w. vyqv. --- E'r.. Epeia (tmesis), if ever I have gracedully roofed over, etc. The roofing over was the finishing act in the erection of a temple. — ~ 1: note carefully the force of this word in Hornm. H. 851; K. ~ 315.- iKaTa.... &K7a: KaT-aKaL o.- 1' = 7E' (oxytone): not to be confounded w. J18- (paroxytone). - KpIpOYo: IKpaviw. Notice the ground of this petition-services rendered. How different the prayer of the Christian! 42-45. rtLcave (Tcvw)): cf. bo0EV, v. 18, N., may the )Danai atone for, etc. Aavwaol: cf.'AXaLos, v. 2, N. -- 3eo'XEAoa: what are the three forms in the dat. plur.? H. 176 D. ---— o, this one, him; obj. of xcAue.. 4o?,Bos, Phoebus: an epithet denoting the radiant beauty of youth. L. & Sc. In Homer, and for some centuries after his time, Apollo and Helios are thought to be quite distinct. -.Ka&... Kapvowv: H. 631, a; K. ~ 292, I. (1). - Kicp: acc. of specif. -- T'ta, his bow: composed of several parts; hence, plur. Cf: oTre'UaTa, v. 14, N. - &/,uoy'v: declens.? Cf. olwvoiz7, v. 5, N. Const.? Dat. of place. H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1. au(p-qpepq)a: final a becomes long here under the rhythmic accent. H. 88 D; 1K. ~ 209, 9. 46-52. E'caytav (KAdYo). Critics find here an instance of onomatopoea, -adaptation of sound to sense. So also in 7roXv(pXotio-oo, v. 34. Xoo[Evoio, sc.'ArdAAwvos. -- avTroi K1JfVn'fTOS (mid. in meaning), as he moved. —- i'e: H. 405 D; K. ~ 226. -- vvKrl EOKLCS, like night. This is in keeping with the conception of the angry god. —,uea&....'Ke (tmesis: fr. yeSaui'm), he let fly, etc. -- -- oo limits Kxayry: differs how in meaning fr. Bioio? See Lex. &dus and [oos. -- oipijas (obpess): declens.? iH. 189 D; K. ~ 214, 5.: e'7~XeO:' roiXopas. - awuo?' depends on 6pIC[S (in1, G/ALL): H. 605; K. ~ 296, II., hurling... at the men themselves, he smote (them). 53-58. Ki3Aa, subj. of,xet'o. -- -.: notice its use here. Cf. note on y',pwv, v. 33. -- beccp-, Sc. Ugpc. -- -yopioe (&yopc): force of the ending -e? Other local endings? H. 203; K. ~ 235, 3. Notice here- X

Page  123 ILIAD I. 123 (-plvae, Ionic) for a. H. 24 D, a; K. ~ 211. -KCaXroraTo = Att. &icaXAea'ro. — ~.r... )K~E ( = [E~1Ke): lit. put (the thought) in mind to him: r -, const.? H. 595; K. ~ 284. - iarl peoat: prep. and dat. w. verb of motion. Force of the const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3. -- K2SETO, 6paTo: subj.? "Hpl.- - yo'iaKorras, se. abirros, i.e. Aa'ao's. -.fyepre, (a'yetpw): notice the ending. H. 355 D, c; K. ~ 220, 14. - 6w,1-yepe'es "' yiE',ov'ro appears tautological. It denotes perh. the completion of the act affirmed in?jyepaev. Derby renders it, " when all were met and closely thronged around." -roo-a belongs logically both with aiWLacOdevos and with iUET7E-1q: rising up among them (H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10), addressed them, lit. spoke among them, the dat. depending on eErd in comp. - e, v. 58: notice its use here, connecting the principal to the subordinate clause; a rare use in Att. but more frequent in Hom. H. 862, b; K. ~ 322, Rem. 8 if. It may perh. be rendered, then. - ror'as: ace. of specif. w. WKVcS. 59-67.'A~'pei'S: cf. N. on'A'rpetia 68w, v. 16. -- &//AE: H. 233 D; K. ~ 217. -- 7rAayXaE'vas (7rxdyw): stem? H. 328, b, N; K. ~ 143, 8. Cf. icAkacav, v. 46. -- vv....arosoor''aorew, now I think we, driven back (or having wandered back), will return (home) again. - Notice Kier ( = Att. &v) w. the optat. in a condition. H. 748, 4; K. ~ 340, 6; G. ~ 50, 2, N. 2. -- ei 5... 8acy KiE'.: another condition of different form, added to the same principal clause. Notice the force of ox. H. 851; K. ~ 315, 1 and 2: aIucA, fut. H. 3174, 375; K. ~ 117: if, Imean, both war, etc. shall continue to subdue, etc.; the probability of their continuance being implied. -- pefo/uev (epde): H. 347 D, 370, b; K. ~ 220, 16, ~ 222, B. (2): let us inquire of, etc. -- ieproa (iepezs): declens.? Cf. obpijas, v. 50. - yadp sIe: notice the use of Tr here, and in many similar instances in Hom. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, R. 4: Lex.'T, VII. 1. -- o's K' EYator: poten. optat. tH. 722; K. ~ 260, 4; G. ~ 39, who might tell: 5 alT, adv. ace. H. 552, a: K. ~ 279, 7, on what account, why. - dEre... elre, whether... or: 8?ye, he, i. e. Apollo. Cf. N. on 6?ydp, v. 9: ye' is often added to pronouns for emphasis. -- e rXWXiOs, eiKaTd,4Jgs: const.? H. 577, a; K. ~ 274: on account of a vow, etc., i. e. because of any failure in that respect. - KIKLosrr depends on arndTaoas: H. 574; K. ~ 273, 3, (b). —— BodXerai: subjunc. Cf. pEfop~uev, v. 62, N. --- y Zu' arb (tmesis)... auVvai, to avert (in relation to, i. e.) from us, etc. H. 601; K. ~ 284, (10). The conditional sent. da KE V... a&ivai is connected w.?pe[Oo/zV KTi. as principal sent., let us inquire of some prophet, etc. if perchance, havingpartaken of, etc., he (Apollo) may consent, etc. 68-77. KaT'... [E',ro: Kaaioulai. --'TOoL, dat. w. acrET71: H. 601; K. ~ 284, (10); cf. v. 58. -iX' = dXa. -— 78X: H. 409, 6: K. ~ 195,

Page  124 124 NOTES. 1. -- Tid' e"Vra (Att. &vTa), both the present, etc. L- y L& /zLuart-, by means of his, etc. What would be the Att. word here instead of Ov? H. 527, d; K. ~ 244, 4. ~- TKv: cf. N. on Tr4v, v. 36; of (enclit.) = Att. avbrt, to him. How is or used in Att.? H. 671, a; K. ~ 302, R. 3. If on, the article, stood here, how would the preceding word be written? oW (article) is proclit.; oT (pers. pron.), enclit.; oY (relat. pron.), orthotone. 6 (written 5, because followed by apiy, enclit.): cf. N. on 6 ydp, v. 9.- K- XeaLc: cf. v'r7al, V. 32, N. -. EKcaj8eA e'vao: H. 136 D. b; K. ~ 211, 2. -- ep'cw, Att. ep (used as fut. of p7ymTP). Not to be confounded w. ipFo, I inquire, which has the same form. Cf.?peioipev, V. 62. Notice in Hornm. everywhere a fondness for the confluence of vowels; hence, the frequency of uncontracted forms, e. g. iy0rEo, Att. o6varov (oUvvT7rl1zt), do thou give heed. - g lIooroov, wv,.ut. - 7rpoq'ppcv agrees w. the subj. of ap4Seiv, that you will freely, etc. Nom. w. the infin. when? H. 775; K. ~ 307, 4. 78-83. XoXwoaEourv, that Ishall enrage a man, etc. Endings of infin. act. in Hornom.? H. 359 D; K. ~ 220, 18. -./'ya, adv. w. Kpa[iLer. Kai oz, dat. enclit. shown by the accent of KaL; pers. pron. H. 818, R. d; K. ~ 334.'Axaton, as distinguished from'ApyeZoi, is thought by Gladstone to be a more aristocratic word; to denote, in fact, particularly the aristocracy. - v. 80, a general truth: for a king is superior, when he is enraged, etc.; Xc6aeTat, aor. subjunc. w. short mode-sign; cf. Zpefto/er, v. 62, N. Instead of Tre before X6&0EaTr, what would be the usual word? H. 759;:K. ~ 337, 5, also R. 3. " The sense is apparently the same as when 4y is used." G. ~ 63, 1..e rep: 7rp is intensive.?- ydp E.... d Tare: cf. N. on Tr, v. 63. Here rTe binds the condition and conclusion together more closely. It cannot easily be rendered into English. - oppa srextcrp., sc. Ko'rov, until he has satisfied (it). Notice the omission of &v (Ke, or Kei') W. O6ppa: cf. N. (and references) on 8re, v. 80. io-srz, his: H. 238 D; K. ~ 217, 3. Att. word for such a connection? Cf. N. on vr, v. 72. ~- ppdaat': imperat. mid., consider. Dif. in meaning between the act. and mid. of cpdaw? See Lex. 85-91. fere: imperat.; notice the accent. Indic. eire. Other imperatives like esIre? H. 366, b; K. ~ 118, 3, (a). o ob P&... 0TLS... &roloe (Edrt, qpepw): emphat. denial. For, no! by Apollo... no one... shall lay, etc. - Tre (cf. N. on rE', v. 63); join w. eviX4EJvos: lit. by praying to whom, i. e. through whose aid, you make known, etc. - 4.i: H. 233; K. ~ 217; gen. abs. while I live, etc. Different relations of the circumstantial particip. to the action of the principal verb? H. 788 if.; K. ~ 312, 4.- Ko[{Aps differs how from gen. sing. fem.? Endings of dat. plur. 1st

Page  125 ILIAD I. 125 declens. in Homrn.? N. v. 26. - Aavacv limits ot Trs. - ob8' fv, not even if, etc. - lpiaotos: const.? cf. N. on rp6ipopv, v. 77, boasts that he is far the best. 92-100. -t4a (avSco): imperf. 3d sing.; pronounced in two syllables. -- &pa (not to be confounded with apa, interrog.): cf. N. v. 8; also Lex. II. -'ye, se. Apollo. ~- V'ya'rpa: Att. form? See Gram. - -rplv.... irpv: expressed in the principal, and also in the subordinate, clause; both are rendered into English by one word, until, in the latter (the subordinate) clause. Cf. Lex. 7rplv, III.- ov'o... a&rcIoeL (A&7rwog ), nor will he avert froln the -Danai, etc. Do not overlook the force in the Greek of the particle y?, in both clauses (aye, 7rpfv ye): not easily rendered into English. - 7rpt y' V&rb... diVpEvat (Att. a&roboivac. H. 359 D; K. ~ 220, 18), until (we) give back, etc. For 7rpiv w. infin., see H. 769; K. ~ 337, 9. The-subj. of airoadupEvai and of 7iycLv is intentionally left indefinite, although Agamemnon is distinctly implied.- &rpidr7Tu, &vd&ro'vovY, Unbought, without a ransom; are usu. considered as advs. here: yet F. remarks, "they appear to be adjs. here." Notice the asyndeton, giving liveliness to the expression: &tyelv (same const. w. &arosdMevaL), and lead, etc. - is Xpon77v (the town): H. 620; K. ~ 290, 2. - ifv, him, i. e. Apollo; obj. of ixaaaeoodpvo. - werleouev (Greogw): H. 425 D, 8; K. ~ 230. 101-105. KT'....'fero (tmesis), Karf'o.oyat. - sy'eos, gen. w. wri/ (wtrh[wXuru), was greatly filled with rage. o- (enclit.). It is sometimes uncertain whether the dat. is better viewed as dat. of interest, or dat. of possessor. In general, the former view is to be preferred; except with El'u., ytyVoluaL and similar verbs. H. 597 ff.; K. ~ 284, 3, (9), and (10). So here, I think oT is strictly (as a Greek would view it), " dat. of interest in looser relations," depending on E'tK'-,v. It is here, as often, nearly akin to the Ethical dat. The fact that it is awkward to render this dat. into English, is no argument against this explanation. We may render the sentence freely, his two eyes resembled, etc. If o' were not expressed here, we might still render it, his two eyes, etc.; just as we say above, his dark soul, though or is not expressed w. (pgpves. In many similar instances, his, her, etc. is implied in the connection; as in Latin. In Att. the art. denotes this idea usu., as is well known. - aAaU'rerodvi' (Aacere.rdovrO): contraction? H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, 1, (3). - e't-rv: H. 409 D, 7; K. ~ 230, EIKn. - KdXXapTa, join w. rpo6eE1rEv ( = rpo~eZwrev). Notice the asyndeton. - KdKc' -=- Kcad: obj. of.otrolUeos. 106-108. of r6n7roTe, not yet at any time, never yet: ot7rw and obicRTtdiffer how in meaning?- Tb IKpiyvov, Ta& KcaKd. Notice the use of the

Page  126 126 NOT E S. article here. Cf. N. on 6?yIpwr, v. 33.- r&A KaKd subj. of ioaf, i[xa pred.,,uareveoraa epexegetical of 4fx:a (H. 767; K. ~ 306, 1, d.), lit. the (things which are) evil are always pleasant to thee in mind to foretell. Notice the form KdC'. What oxytones lose their accent by elision? H. 100; K. ~ 31, III. -- lr (written Tr because followed by the enclit. 7r6) may be taken as adv. acc., or as qualifying piros: rc6 is taken by Cr. in this and some other passages as equal to 7rcs,-a use not recognized by L. & Sc. nor by Pape: again some editt. have obire... oib4, instead of ogre... otTe. We may render the verse, and thou hast neither spoken any noble word hitherto, nor brought (it) to pass; or, according to another view, thou hast not at all, in any way, spoken, etc. erEeo'o-as (eX.eW) is an emphatic addition to ehras, something as Iom. joins'ros Tre'pryov re. 110-115. &cs 8 KTr., that really on this account, etc; spoken in irony. - o06,eKa, because, relates to Trov''reVeKa. - oKvpr7s: the thing valued (gen. of cause). II. 578, R. c; K. ~ 275, 3, to receive for the maiden, etc. — Bo00ocUaL is comm. rendered here, I prefer, malo, /laXXor BovXAouai; but the simple and exact meaning of rroAb BovXo/zai is equally natural, I desire earnestly, i. e. my heart is set on having her (emphat.; her in distinction fr. the ransom) at home. - KXvTavYuirso-pns depends on Irpo-. -- ia: H. 233 D; K. ~ 217, Att. aitris, her, i. e. Clytemnestra: loXr} Xepe coa, sc. Xpvarts. — V. 115, accs. of specif., not in, stature, nor yet in form; neither in mind, nor in any accomplishments (lit. nor in works in any respect). 116-120. rs. Observe always the dif. between this and'cs: H. 112; K. ~ 342, R. 2. Kal Us, even thus. - Tr&ye, sc. Eai-'v, if this at least is better, i. e. t4Lervat (sc. abvr'v) 7rdAiX. v- ov: Lex. crss. --— BoXAopa... a, I wish... (rather) than: l4,uevai: H. 406 D; K. ~ 225. ~-5 pa... {co (cf. repperaL and references), that I may not be, etc. olos differs how in meaning fr. oTos? ~ — rye... 5 ( = g5v) zOL (cf. N. on oT, v. 104) iEpay, this at least, that my reward, etc. A.Xp, adv. See Lex. 123-129.?cdp refers to the demand of Agamemnon, and implies something like this: —In your greed of gain, you demand what is unreasonable, and even impossible; for how will, etc. - obai... Y.. ey (H. 409 D, 6; K. ~ 228, ola), lit. we do not even at all anywhere know of; etc. With ob4 ir, cf. the frequent Att. expression obbtfv Tr. Notice the force of vrot. Lex. Irod, 2. r&... Td: the former, relat. (H. 243 D; K. ~ 247); the latter, demonst.; those things have been divided which, etc. 7roALo, (Att. wrJAEuv) e: H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (b). 8iaBral, Lex. aldw (B). - Xao6s, subj. of iirayetpea. The verb repeats with emphasis the idea of collecting, first expressed in wraA1AAoya (adj. or adv.): that the people collect these

Page  127 ILIAD I. 127 things together, over again. -- ant, to the god, i. e. to Apollo, of whom Chryses was priest;-a more pointed appeal than though he had said to her father. irpdes, Wrpo1l&UL. — a &roTtoo0z,uEV: notice the force of &rro-: we Achaeans will repay (thee), etc. - a Kai 7roJt = Att. iUv Trou, if perchance. For this use of 7rod (Epic -roW'), see Lex. troi, II. 2; cf. 7ro', v. 124. — 4o': H. 361 D; K. ~ 220, 4. 131-134. / P' o' r0s = Au ) 8 o'irws, a rare elision. H. 70 D; K. ~ 13. Force of Sh? H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2. - &yat36s rep 6ev: 7rep is intens., as usual. i&cv is taken here by some as concessive; but by most critics as causal: since you are very brave; or more briefly, brave as you are. In what ways may the circumstance denoted by the particip. be related to the action of the principal verb? H. 788 if.; K. ~ 312, 4. -- KAe7rT'E O'&P: connect w. t- KiCre. Do not now in this way (ogroos) play the thief in mind. - rapeAeIorea (irape'pXooca), you will not get beyond, lit. along by, etc. -3 e44AiEls, do you wish, etc. Notice the form of J. So Cr., St., Spitz., Diibner; but Diintz., F., Naeg. write J, the usual form of the intcrrog. See Lex.', II. and 4, IL --- q pa: temporal here, while: aTOds, and abTr~&p f'i (- lae') are antithetical: while you yourself hold your prize, that I, o07 the contrary. - a —T-ros... 8evo evov (eiosua, Att. boefat, to want) agrees w. e'.E: thus (as you propose) destitute. K iAea: cf. v. 74. 135-139. ei iV, c'rei.: simple supposition. H. 745; K. ~ 389, 2, 1, (a); G. ~ 50, 1, N. 1. -- poavT-es (apapioKw) KaTc& avalbd, having suited it ({ypas) to my mind. — fo-ao, subj.? se. yCfpas, that it may be an equivalent (to the maiden). - The conclusion (KaAhis'Ei, it will be well) is omitted. H. 753, a; K. ~ 340, 2, (c); G. ~ 53, N. 1. -- ei e Kce = ie-s e'. — 8woLvty: H. 370 D, c; K. ~ 222, C. -- in the apodosis (eZy H.: H. 862, b; K. ~ 322, R. 8). It continues here the opposition (first expressed in ei S Kce) to the preceding supposition ei /ehv crei. In the apodosis, be' is variously rendered, or often not translated at all. iyB 8E, yet I, or, then I.- Notice K'Pv....x.oecua (aor. subjunc.) instead of the usual fut. indic.; showing some caution on the part of Agamem. H. 270, c; K. ~ 260, 3, (b); G. ~ 38, 2. I myself will, or Imyself may, etc. ic& agrees w. subj. of'AeocAal; lit. going take, i. e. go and take thy, etc. — - co (sc. ye'pas) falls into the usual const. of fut. indic. The rage and folly of Agamemnon are shown by his unnecessary provocation of Ajax the bravest (after Achilles), and of Odysseus the shrewdest of the Greeks. -g K, w. fut. indic. H. 710, b; K. ~ 260, 2, (1); G. ~ 37, 2. - S v KEv'IkOmLaL, whom I shall approach.,YKC, tKVWIW, iKVElo,.LC (three forms in Hom.) often w. ace. H. 544, a, 140-147. ce'rapapa 4boara, 4pz5aou'oev, iyelpo1eE, rioucEzX, 08'OjOL-eyV:

Page  128 128 NO T ES. subjunct. w. short mode-sign. Cf. gpeto/per, v. 62, N.: -/eeaa, Att. -/ueba, H. 355 D. d; K. ~ 220, 12. let us consider... let us draw, etc. 1&e, interjec. See Lex. Cf. Lat.age. - -s... e EpopEv:: s... elo/uev, sc.,va: let us collect into (it): let us place on board, etc. e'TrVLrs, adv. - &y (= va&) sc. vzja.. bro-opEy (1st aor. subjunc.), and let us embark upon (it) the, etc. abrv, intens. pron. w. Xpvr?7ta. What parts of atlvw are causative? II. 416, 2; K. ~ 158, 1, R. - es Trs, subj.; IpXds, pred. w.'a'o: &aip Bovu-, appos. w. eTs is.?,, - 7,v, for us. H. 59'7; K. ~ 284, R. 4. - iXcraeaL: subjunc. w. short mode-sign: PSe'as, S'oe. 149-160. a&vaiLerlqv: const.? H. 553; K. ~ 280, 3, (f). -- 7re irTar: force of the subjunc. here? H. 720, c; K. ~ 259, R. 4; G. ~ 88, N. 1. b- 6 E' AXeu'feyvaL (Att. seoyv): see Lex. o6&s, II.: $6b6 is cogn. ace. -- a.X durwv (H. 128 D; K. ~ 211, 4), appos. w. Tpcwcor. - 5epo, join w. XAvaov, I came not hither, etc. - o6 rs, not at all. Cf. oib6' T1, v. 124. const.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, (10); " guilty towards me." Felton. - o.. 7rc&ror0e, not at any time (wroe) yet (var), i. e. never yet. Difference in meaning between rmis, 7rCs (enclit.), vr6 (enclit.)? and between 7rdve and roe' (enclit.)? - obVS 5 ( = ( A- ), nor in truth. H. 852, 13; K. ~ 316, R. —la qitaavro: distinguish carefully between 8-Ixffoga& and 8l7AJoar.. o - &X&W'aof (why orthotone here? H. 111, b; K. ~ 35, 3, (b): connect w. /zua, but with you, etc. i7r4Jue3a,'7ro0/ac. - rpbs Tpwev: see Lex. rpJs, A. H. H- -iv otTL, these things you do not at all, etc. Notice the asyndeton, denoting passionate utterance. 161-171. abvs: join w. the infin.: and now you threaten that you will yourself take away, etc. Cf. N. on 7rp~Jppwv, v. 77. - o 6ri (notice the accent. H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, iv), for which. — J&acr, Att. ZGoaoav, gave (it, the reward).-aof depends on loaov; lit. equal with three: a brief expression for ad?yEpa;, equal with thy reward. - 05rwoT''AXaOlO KI-i., whenever the Achaeans have sacked, etc. This had often happened during the nine years of the war already nearly passed. Force of the aor. subjune. eiCr-Epawar-? H. 716; K. ~ 257; G. ~ 20, N. 1. Notice the omission of &v. H. 759; K. ~ 337, R. 3; G. ~ 63. - aCol, dat. of interest: sc. a-r'i. -- r w.?Ye'pas approaches very near the Attic article in force: the reward is much greater for thee. - oAtyov, 4P[Aov, sc. ye'pas, obj. of -XWOv.. ir ce K/E KA (Kcd'gvw), when I have become weary. Some editt. have'ir)V KceKdoW, same idea. -- eTlz, I am going. The pres. is often thus used in a lively manner, instead of the fut., in Eng. and in some other modern languages, as well as in Greek. - 4It71vrye: different local endings, with their meanings? H. 203; K. ~ 235, 3. - /e~v, Att. ~eac. -a = aod. H. 70 D; K. ~ 206, 5, (f): nor do I think that I,

Page  129 ILIAD 1. 129 being in dishonor, shall amass...for you. Thus a-of depends, as dat. of interest, on &p44ELv. This construction is now very generally preferred, though the elision of or, in a-of, is very rare; perh. only found here. Some, however, take a' for a-', and make it subj. of &qvfeLv (&`p6aaw): that you will amass, etc. 173-187. 4q)eye!AdA', flee certainly! -- ywye differs how in meaning from?yc? See Lex. - 7 XAoi, se. elaiv. - Ki w. fut. indic. to mark the fut. event as contingent: who will honor me (if an opportunity shall occur). Cf. ce'i, v. 137, N. -,urTiefTa: declens.? H. 136 D; K. ~ 211, 1, (c). - epLs, sc. ia-Ti: pix-q, pred., strife is dear, etc. With w7dXeroL and /zdXaL understand the same pred.,- ecs wro, doubtless some god, etc., i. e. no credit is due to you. Cf. croft, v. 128, N.'rdye refers to the clause el... iati, if you are very strong. - a-4ev. H. 233 D; K. ~ 217. Cf. ['5ev, v. 114: depends on &aeyi(w. -KoToor-os, SC. a-e'rev. - c, causal, as, since: rrjV A,'y... vrF'Uw and e~y?, E IcTr., are the principal sentences, I will send her (away) with, etc. So Cr. and St. understand the sentence. Yet Naeg., and following him F. and Diintz., takes &s as denoting a comparison, and iy&... &yw. as equal to oiTws eyB& -ie.; as Phoebus Apollo takes..., so I, etc. With this const., r~ phle'....ri/zow is made quite subordinate. I prefer the first explanation.W&a~peTar w. two aces., takes from me Chryseis. HI. 553; K. ~ 280, 3. Force of the mid.? takes away, sc. in his own interest, selfishly.' &parpelo-aa w. two accs. only in the Il." Naeg. -- ly E'V iy.&..., 4eyui be Ice., I will indeed send her..., but 1, going in person, etc. Ki' &yw less positive than the preceding fut. indic. reuiAw. Cf. N. on eel' e'XwMza, v. 137. Notice the emphat. position of?yd before 8f, where we might expect Bpi'7-t8a /i, as correl. w. Tr-;!e`v. -'b abm -yc'pas, emphat. appos. w. Bpla-qtGa: Td, demons. that reward of thine. - ccal &AXos, another also (as well as you). - Iaov qpda-aat, to affirm an equality with me, or to fancy himself equal (with me): pci-ra,, H. 404 D; K. ~ 178. - o,w3(Apevat (aor. infin. pass. as mid. fr. d/otdo) &Tsr7v, to compare himself (with me): lit. to make himself similar face to face (with me). 188-200. IXf.towvI: patronym. H. 466, a.- of (enclit.): cf. N. v. 104; depends on /ep/Cp ipev, dat. of interest: xa-1eoCiv- depends on 4.: his heart within his shaggy breast, etc. -.... j., whether... or. -'robs u..... IC ri., should disperse these (the companions of Agamemnon), whi e he (Achilles), etc. One might expect here the antithesis Trobs AE,...'ATpeil8sv se: but 6o 8 gives more prominence to Achilles-the principal figure in the mind of the poet; who is here, as ever, an artist.- eJos, while. Many editt. have {'-s. -GA e e', then came: cf. N. on 64, v. 58. 6*

Page  130 130 NOTES. - lrpb... Kc, sc. av'Srrv, sent (her) forth. --- Aopwo, obj. of jcXfovoa: understood (in the gen.) w. ictKnoeriV: loving and caring for both, etc. Ja0,rs Kict7rs, by his blonde hair, or as many render, by his golden hair. Const.? H. 574; K. ~ 273, 3, (b), (8). - okcp, sc. oi, to him alone. - era... r&p&7reTo: ueaCrpe'7rwo. Notice the frequency of tmesis in Hom. ~-.EivI... 4pdavSeyz (H. 396 D; K. ~ 230), and her two eyes appeared terrible, or shone terribly. In this way Achilles recognized her. The epithet yAavKcl&rLS (v. 206) has reference to the peculiar and fearful brilliancy of her eyes: of Goae, cf. v. 104, N. on oT: lit. appeared in respect to her. The rendering, appeared to h'lm, is not considered admissible. 201-214. jufv depends on vrpoa-,'rea on -Viva (abtdcw), having lifted up his voice (cvov-oas) he addressed to her, etc. -'a.... 2p (2d pers.): is it that thou mayest behold, etc.? i. e. hast thou indeed come that, etc. --'r, this, it, i. e. what he is about to say. TveX EGaaL, fut. that it will be accomplished also. -- v reporr\pa: meaning of abstract nouns in plur.? H. 518, c; K. ~ 243, 3, (3): by his insolent acts. v -- & 3XeNa-p: cf. N. on ec' &tyw, v. 184. c al Kice; cf. v. 66: rtrlal, 7rfAco.. - a~' JTo Kcrei., but truly in words hold up before him (the future) just as it shall come to pass. So this line is understood by Naeg., Cr., St., F., and others; the best commentators on Hom. Yet Diintz., Koeppen and some others think this meaning of v'e[8Ioov (ireEitCw, in the sense, to cast before, hold -up before) inadmissible; and render the verse, but truly with words reproach (him), as opportunity shall occur; or as much as you please. - Trb a KTE'., cf. v. 204. - Ka, intens., join w. TrpLs: at some time even thrice as many, etc. -- S3pros... rI-ase: i. e. the insult offered by Agamemnon. - Wysv, to us, i. e. Athena and Hera. 216-222. epvtroaorat: H. 405 D, b; K. ~ 239. 1st aor. mid. For ao, see H. 344 D; K. ~ 223, 2, to keep the word of you both. - al... KCEX0oXwEuvov (sc. 44z, subj. of edpcrVaaaL), even though very greatly enraged in heart. S- is KE: why is Ke expressed? H. 757; K. ~ 333, 3, and 4; G. ~ 60, 3. d —ucXa se: notice the use of re' here. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, R. 4. -- cXAvov (KXtco): used as gnomic aor. H. 707; K. ~ 256, 4, (b); G. ~ 30: whoever obeys, etc., him do they certainly hear. -'H, he spoke: H. 404, 1; K. ~ 178, R. 3. It forms a sentence by itself, and hence is easily distinguished fr. i, intens. - &ae, cotecz. -,Be3e3KCL (Baivwc) "' has in the epic language the sense of the imperf. or aor." Butt. Yet Cr., Naeg., St., and others take it as strictly pluperf.; was gone (that very instant),-the pluperf. denoting the suddenness of her departure. - cOla'T7a depends on Is, which by the rule (H. 104, a) would be writ

Page  131 ILIA D I. 131 ten 9s. Kiih., ~ 32, limits this rule to?' and the adv. &s. - — rca: force w. the ace.? H. 645; K. ~ 294, II. 224-230. otircw: composition? Differs how in meaning fr. obtceTL? - XKvAs Ap- eXcvO: cf. Kvv.ira, v. 159. - Oi'e 7ro0'e, neither at any time. Dif. in meaning between 7roT4, vr, and &eL? -- 7rd6XEuo: prevailing meaning in Hornm.? See Lex. p- pr' r7emav (&pwred's): H. 189 D; K. ~ 213, 3. -- TK.qas is taken by F. and Diintz. as pres. in meaning. I see no good reason for not understanding it as perf.: neither at any timre hast thou had the daring (lit. hast thou endured in heart), etc. Forms in use fr. this stem? See Lex. TAAl. - b ne... efMETaL, for th/is seems, etc. The causal meaning of 4e inthe epic language is questioned by some critics; yet it seems more natural to render it for, in this, and many other passages. KHip, fate, death., Lex. II. Differs how fr. iKp? EYMeTai, Lex. EIMl. A. II. Cf. in sound and meaning, Lat. videtur...- Up' a&roatpe7aaa = Att. &paLpesTacr L (sc. roiTiov, cf. v. 182), to take away the giftsfrom him, who, etc. -- S ars... e'irp: notice the omission of &v. I.'757, 159; K. ~ 333, 3, R. 3; G. ~ 63. o-E ev a&vrtov: Lex. &rJTos, III., in opposition to thee. 231-239. 6s/ofB. BSao-aLXEs: nom. for voc. H. 541; K. ~ 269, 2. - l yap,v... xo,8aato: condit. omitted. H. 752; K. ~ 340, 1; G. 5 52, 2. A condition of the 2d form is readily supplied by the mind; ei n of T,6avoZsry *fraaoes: for (were this not so, i. e. did you not rule over worthless men) you would surely now for the last time, etc.-'I OL ipe'w: v. 204. -- erl... b..,uoipa: Lex. e7r4Lv/u/L: ipfcov v. 233, is used in the primary sense,-an object, sign, or witness, of an oath: in v. 239, it is used in the secondary sense,-an oath. In v. 233, render, I will swear by a great sign (of an oath); yes, by this sceptre, which, etc. val peta: H. 545; K. ~ 316, 4.-!uv =,uhv: H. 852, 13; K. ~ 316, Rem.- rb... EvpaeL (Evo),.....XAoorev. The mind readily supplies a clause in reading this sentence,-which shall never put forth, etc. (and has never put them forth) since the time when it has first left, etc. e — xAEer, XsrWo: for around it the bronze has peeled off, etc. Xaxcos, as often, the material for the thing made (metonymy). We may translate it, the knife; or may retain the figure and render it, the bronze. The oath of Latinus, Aeneid, 12, 206 if. is very similar, plainly an imitation of Homer. Ut sceptrum hoc (dextra sceptrum nam forte gerebat) Nunquam fronde levi fundet virgulta neque umbras, Quum semel in silvis imo de stirpe recisum Matre caret, posuitque comas et brachia ferro, etc.

Page  132 132 NOTES. - fi,, it, denotes the same object as e', v. 236, i. e. the sceptre. e'ErLTas: dif. forms of the gen. of a4Ls? See Lex. - o'Te, H. 856; K. ~ 321, R. 4. - EipdparaL: Lex. Ipdw, IV. -arat: H. 355 D, e; K. 220, 13. - rpbs A1ds, by the authority of Zeus. - 6, subj.; e'yas OpKos, predicate. 240-253.'AXiXAAXos (gen. of cause) 7rofr, a longing for Achilles.vTas, obj. of 9lerai, shall come upon, etc. Cf. N. on &v...'lKo uat, v. 139. Different forms of viJs in the oblique cases? See Lex. aXv- 6evos, concessive, though, etc.: -rdp, intens. f-aer' vy = Att. o-av. - at', because. The critics are agreed as to the meaning of or'; but not as to the letter elided. Cr., F., Diintz. and others take it for T-L (H. 70 D): Naeg., and others, for bore. The greater number of critics are of the former opinion, that 3T' here, and in some other passages, stands for o?6T. rol....BdAe, 7rpoaodXaw: yafy, const.? H. 605; K. ~ 300, 3, (a). - Treirap.diYo, (irEtpw), agrees w. oaK'Fcrpov. - TrooL: const.? dat. w. avopovae (ava, opocw): H. 601; K. ~ 284, (10). Cf. vv. 58 and 68. — roe... aba{: ex ejus lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio. Cic. de Senec. 10: 31. -- eEY (e'W), imperf. without augment. - -,c$: const.? Cf. Trona, v. 47; join w. ep~;arL' ( = 6eiiaqro, fr. i'v-w; Cf: edpvaraT, v. 239, N.): from before him, had passed away, etc. 86o yeeai, two generations. Herod., II. 142, says, yeveal.-rpes &vSBp&v Ka'rabv &'ed E''TrLv. This would make Nestor somewhere between 67 and 100 yrs. old. -- Notice the dif. between od ol: the former is a relat. (,eveaf, anteced.), subj. of -pdie, and ye'voT-o: the latter is a pers. pron., depending on &i/a, together with him. -- rpd)ev (Att. &pd7Cpoav) i )8' e'y-ovo'o: lit. were brought up and born. Our idiom would invert the order; were born and brought up. " In a hysteron proteron, the more important thought usually precedes: the second appears as a less essential complement of the idea. Hence TpdPEv, as denoting a more intimate relation among men than E'ye'ovTo, is placed first;" F. "In the retrospect, the period of one's education appears nearer and more important than the year of one's birth; and hence, is mentioned first." Naeg.- ier& w. dat. H. 643; K. ~ 294, R.- a1Ptv: cf. v. 73. 254-258. In: notice the accent; an exclamation of astonishment: before the vocative, it is written*,n (perispomenon): ird7rom, see Lex. Here it seems to denote the various emotions of surprise, shame, and grief; but especially the last: 0, woe is me / truly, great sorrow, etc.. y?-V~-at: notice the accent, showing that it is optat. H. 367, R. e; K. ~ 118, R. 3.,- KeXapolaTro (Xapop), Urv0oalrot (7rvvydvouar): for the ending, cf. cp~afro, v. 251; eipiaraT, v. 239. Force of this form of cond. sent.? H. 748; K.

Page  133 ILIAD I. 133 ~ 339, II., (a). Truly, Priam, etc., would rejoice. -.- ao&v....LapYva tuzEvoLLv, should learn all these things respecting you two wrangling; or, as F. renders, respecting you two, how you wrangle, understanding the particip. as denoting manner. Const. of aps'~v? H. 582; K. ~ 273, R. 20.- o'l, plur. relates to pici'v, dual. Such interchange of number is frequent. H. 517; K. ~ 241, R. 8. -- rEpl... arE' (7repEt~yl): who are superior to the Danai in counsel, and are superior infighting: /,dXEoaa'L, same const. as peovuxv, acc. of specif. H. 762; K. ~ 305; G. ~ 93, Note 3. 259-272. perw ie Kei., for ye are both, etc. Cf. N. on O, v. 228. y lCp (ye, apa), denotes confirmation (ye), and an inference (&pa). K. ~ 324, 2. We may perh. express the idea here, in this way: consider now, that Ihave once associated with men even braver, etc. - i74irep Vpyv, than you: grammatically in the same const. as avspdav; but logically = 4e/'rep 6Ees.o2re, than you are. In a similar way, v. 263, orov HIeLplfoov Kce-. = oTos!Ielpptoos Jiv, such as Pirithous was. - o'ye, Lex. o`ye: cf. v. 190. dycp, v. 262: the confirmative idea seems here again to be more prominent: be assured, I have not yet seen, etc. Notice here Miov, (Att. eiov), and above &Oyautoa, aor., where we more naturally use the perf.;-a frequent difference of idiom between the two languages. H. 706; G. ~ 19, N. 4.- o-bb 6 wlcuat, nearly like the fut. indic., but less positive. H. 720, e; K. ~ 259, R. 4; G. ~ 87. - Kdp'T-LOTO 8J: notice this use of o7j. H. 665; K. ~ 315, 2. -- uEv (vv. 267, 269) = -prv. H. 852, 13; K. ~ 316, R. - Notice the emphatic repetition Kdpi-croro... Kdpl —TOi... Kap-.Io'oLs. - prqpo-rV, appos. w. Kap'rtoroLs.- &rdEooraav (a&rrdAv/ul), trans. destroyed (them). -- KaS' ge' avr', (Hom. does not use the Att. forms ilav-To;, (acc. euav'rdv), oeravTro, etc.), by myself alone, or for myself alone. Thus it could be seen what service he, as a single man, rendered. Wolff, however, understands the phrase thus, according to myself, like my. self, i. e. worthily of myself; or, as we sometimes say, according to the best of umy ability. So St. and Diintz. - Notice the emphat. posit. of'ydi: also in juxtaposition and contrast w. KEYOLOL, them, the heroes above named; same as the subj. of &7ro'Xe~o'oa and caXe'araro. - &G, join w. zaXeo'rro, poten. optat. and with those (heroes), no one of those who, etc. would fight. 273-284. Bovae'ov (HI. 128 D, b; K. g 211, 4), depends on rlruv ( = Att. avvleo-a;, fr. avviptus. H. 355 D, c; K. ~ 220, 14), they heeded my counsels. - - &elov (accent: H. 175, a; K. ~ 65, 5, (b). ), sc. ri. —v. cri: Agamemnon: or-s&, remote obj.; icoprw,, direct obj. of a7roafpeo. Cf. vv. 182, 230, Note. Observe the irreg. form &aroafpeo, for a&roartp4o, with an e elided and the accent drawn back. - &yadas srp icv: in the same

Page  134 134 NOTES. sense as in v. 131. Cr., Naeg. and others. -- ra (echw): &s (followed by the enclit. oT, hence in the text, us), as: but leave (the maiden to him), as the sons of the Achaeans first gave (her) to him for a prize. &s is usually understood here as denoting manner, rather than cause. So Naeg., St., Diintz. and others. Cr. allows either interpretation. ye'pas is in appos. w. the obj. of &aoav. -- eope, pue(pouai. - cre (06Te): H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, R. 4. -?yE'iaTo: distinguish carefully between yeftvojat and?[yyoluac. See Lex. - aAAx' Eye, yet he, begins the apodosis. What words (like &'AA) lose their accent by elision? H. 100; K. ~ 31, III. -'ATpe[6rO: notice the emphat. posit. of this vocat. Cf. v. 277.- abira&p ywye (emphatic) KiE'., moreover I myself (companion of ancient heroes) beseech you to lay aside your anger against Achilles.'AxlXXi~', iemote obj., depending on /,AeaUev (= Att. /j.teEctya, fr. /IEaytflt): H. 597; K. ~ 284, (10). — roA4`/Aoso depends on 1'ipos, as objec. gen., a defence to all.. against, etc. 286-291. val... Wrdv7Ta, yes, surely, all this at least (-ye' imparts emphasis to the preceding word). All that Nestor had said was fitly spoken; but (a&A', v. 287) something more was to be considered. -- tcKaTa&!opawv: see Lex.!zoipa, III. 5. - repl... tpEjaL (Att. weprseZsa), cpaTEELV,, a&dlrrew, al7C/a[eLvY: the repetition of the idea, in words so nearly synonymous, finely presents Agamemnon's emotion, and his idea of the grasping ambition of Achilles:-to be above all, to have power over all, to be king over all, to dictate to all. - a, ace. of specif.: Trvld (Lex. lrs, II.), subj. of reiaeo-ra (7reiaoual), -in, which, I think here and there one (meaning particularly himself) will not obey. - e... eaeoav....7rpoaeovlrl IcTEr. Force of this const.? H. 745; K. ~ 339, 2, 1, (a); G. ~ 49, 1: if the immortal gods have made him...., do they therefore permit him, etc. arpo3Eovotv (from the simple stem OEM) -= rportareoatv. So it is usu. understood. 292-303. v'roBM7Mj{, adv. (fr. vroSd'xAw), interrupting, interposing. -- ] yp....rtre[o/Aai, No! for surely I should be called... ij' now I shall yield, etc. See Lex. ycap, I. 2. Notice the mixed form of cond. sent. H. 748, 745; K. ~ 339, 3; G. ~ 54, 2. Force of 8~. H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2. 7ra, [pyov, in every thing, adv. acc. - Vv. included in brackets do not, in the opinion of Dindorf, belong to the text (see vv. 265, 296); and hence are often omitted in translating. Omitting v. 296, we may repeat with xju... e.oLye,'raiT' e7rTeAMEo, on oWhers indeed charge these things, for not on me at least (may you charge them). The idea is more pointed thus. - e il... BdAxeo (?yL46dxAw): force of the const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3, lay it up in thy heart, or take it to thy

Page  135 ILIAD I. 135 heart. - Different forms of the fut. of juXouatL in Hom.? Att. form? - o-re aoo: why orthotone here? H. 232; K. ~ 35, R. 2. - ou;-e T-r (enclit.) &xxw: difference between the dat. of'Is and the dat. of the article? o-of and gxxw depend on axio-oltat. -' 7re[ i.Ae aEpd EoA-ee (&qaLpieo) cTre., since ye who gave (her), etc. He speaks of the event as if already past. - T-COv ACOWV (repeated and emphasized in TCv-, v. 301) limits Til: but of the other things, which, etc., of these, you may take and bear aeay nothing, etc.: aoq, adj. fr. aods: OVtK z T-1 epEpots, poten. optat. H. 722, b; K. ~ 259, 3; G. ~ 52, Note. el 3' &ye (see Lex. under this phrase), but, if you please, come! iv (II. 852, 13; K. ~ 316, 1), a confirlmative word, arresting the attention and fixing it on the preceding thought. Its force may perh. be conveyed best in Eng. by emphasizing the word come. -,wyvcIrl (yLyso'i-cw): cf. ci6aW6o, v. 137, N: cal oi'8e, these also: ol'Fe differs how, in form, fr. 3d sing. of okra? - ouvps: dif. forms of gen. of 8dpv? 305-321. aV-TTsIv- = &aVET'eirr.v: H. 73 D; 307 D; K. ~ 207, 7. Xoa-av, Lex. Xvow, III. Notice the change in number.- i': H. 405 D; K. ~ 226: ois, possessive pron. =- Att. ro7s. --- 7rpoEpuvao'ra, rpoepVwC. --... es.. a.d, SC. Vya: he selected for (it, the ship), etc.- BPae, he caused to go, he drove. What tenses of fBafco are trans. in the act.? H. 416, 2; K. ~ 158, 1, R. - era-ev: H. 431 D, 6; K. ~ 230, Ea-a: he led and placed on board, etc. --- e.... l, and in (it) went, etc. - Or kEy, v. 312, they, Odysseus and his men. - IE'XEvaa: colst.? HI. 547, b; K. ~ 279, 6. & dceyev, arowya. o- of Vi, and they, the people who were left after Odysseus and his companions had set sail. - opavbv f[KEv: cf. N. on oV &'K&ouaL, v. 139. #t- iEl~Xao-A eV Ki-re., lit. whirligig around the smoke, " wreathed in snoke." D. -'-Td, these labors, v. 314 if. -- e7r17reiXar-', 7ra7reLXEo. -- — ca, relat.: on, dat. of interest. 322-332. KAtc-iV: const.? H. 551; K. ~ 277. - Xetpos, gen. part. by the hand. - &.yeEv: infin. as imperat. Cf. Xa-rat, v. 20, N. vd7ao-v: 11. 400 D, i; 361 D; K. ~ 220, 4; 224, 7. - yW....Eioo/ aL: cf. v. 137, N. Observe again 6E' (after eycl) in the apodosis. H. 862, b; K. ~ 322, R. 8.- -v' 7rxeEaae-l, with greater numbers. See Lex. rXelcv, end. What is the Att. dat. plur.? —-so, cf, v. 228. - j'yiov, adj. here: more dreadful. Deriv.? See Lex. -- KpaTfepb, Kte'. Cf. v. 25. -- r be, and these two, i. e. the two heralds. -- dPr7v: H. 408 D, 1; K. ~ 230, BalvoW. - E'rli Te KALailas... f. hKEiar~,: KcVE'OlaL often takes the ace. without a preposit. Cf. v. 240; v. 362. - Tdv, this one, him, i. e. Achilles. — ov3' &pa: notice the force of dpa here: nor, as might be imagined, did Achil. rejoice, etc. - Tapf,3rar'eE, aor., denoting the effect, at the first sight of Achilles: a16oye'vCo (aaSojaa4, poetic = aaefoeam), pres.,

Page  136 136 NO TE S. denoting continued emotion: the two, confused and reverencing the king (Achilles) stood still. Diintz. calls attention to the fact that -only the 1st aor., not the pres. particip., of'rap[SE'w is used in HIom. It seems unnatural to refer /3a~ataa here to Agamemnon. Very few critics understand it thus. oBaLXElvs is often spoken of others, besides the commander in chief. - oi'e' 1,uL KIcTE., nor did they speak to him at all, nor interrogate (him). A natural and graphic description throughout. The passage, a little below, is illustrated by Flaxman, in one of his best sketches. 334-344. XacpeTre, the usu. salutation, Hail / heralds / etc. --- raovy: how compared? Lex. 6&yxL. -iaoov yTe, a familiar and courteous address, come nearer. The Germans often say, Treten Sie ndher I where we should say, Walk in I 4- tL/.LES (= Att. iue7s), sc. olre'. Do words beginning with v ever take -the smooth breathing in the Att. dialect? 6 (notice the accent, distinguishing it fr. 6 the article), who. H. 243 D; K. ~ 217, 5. ac~ii, 2d pers. you two, obj. of 7rpoteL (7rpot i). - narpdcXeLs: see Lex. rl&TpoKAos.- Ka- l apwuv (enclit. 3d pers.) 68's, and give (her) to them, etc. - mT& aCi'T6, these two themselves, subj. of Io'wOV:.AdpTvpoL, pred. What does avbr'S, in all its forms, w. the article before it, mean in the Att. dialect? - rpds re KTi., in the presence of the gods, etc.; a solemn form of oath. - eIroT'e 0' a'Te: 8' =- 84i; cf. A/ 8' o'TrWS, v. 131, N. Thus 8' here is now usu. understood(cf. Spitz., Cr., St., Naeg, F., Diintz. and others): and this clause is taken as protasis, with the preceding as apodosis. Thus, let these two themselves be witnesses, etc., if ever again indeed. Yet we may understand the sentence differently, taking S' for E', and this clause as a protasis, with a following apodosis suppressed. So H. 883; K. ~ 340, 2, (b). - a'/LvaL depends on the combined idea XpeLB& ijE'o, need of me to avert, etc. What Achilles would do in such a case is not declared, but is clearly enough implied; and is really more significant, when left thus unexpressed. - -ye, this man, Agamemnon. - El, intrans. Lex. Sww (B), or 6vCw. - irpJ0o —w Kal ior7o1f —. Critics are not agreed in the interpretation of these words. Some understand them to mean the immediate and the remote future: others (Cr., St., D.) understand the sentence thus, nor does he know how at all to take into view at once the future and the past. Perh. the latter interpretation of these words in Hom. is more generally preferred..-'r7rws... JuaXEoltTo: the general rule (H. 739; K. ~ 380, 2; G. ~ 44) would require here the subjune.; as olae, the verb of the principal clause, is pres. in meaning. Yet see H. 730; K. ~ 330, R. 2;. G. ~ 44, N. 2. The ending -otvTo, st. -ocaero, is thought to occur only here in Hom. - oi rapp& zrval...'AXaio[: lit. those by the ships, Achaeans: Eng. idiom, the Achaeans by the ships.

Page  137 ILIAD I. 137 345-351. 4BRXA: notice the frequent and peculiar use of ftxos (Lex. 3.4 in Hom.,-nearly equivalent to a possessive pron.- E'r7rElrlETo, 7rL7reAopuaL. - $Ke' & yeLV, and gave (her to them) to conduct (away). Const. of &yewl? H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1, (d); G. ~ 97. Is the infin. in Latin thus used? - -2T1v: H. 405 D, 1; K. ~ 226. -- yvv: defin. appos. w. i: H. 500, d; K. ~ 247, 2: lit. but she, the woman, etc. Cf. N. on of 7rap& PvW}rvl Ki'., v. 344; also N. on v. 382. It is easier and sufficiently accurate to say, but the woman reluctantly went, etc. - EtcdpwV depends on vio'qt: iY? e+' (anastrophe, H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, iv.), connect w. ECEEoo: having immediately withdrawn apart from... he sat down on the beach of, etc. - bpJawv (bpcdw): explain the form. H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, (3).- r' &rretpova rdvTov,, upon the boundless deep. The reading &7retpova, st. oov o7ra, wine-faced, dark, is adopted by Dind. in his latest editt.; also by F.; and was preferred by Aristarchus. Faesi suggests that a view of the boundless deep would impress Achilles with a keener sense of his helpless condition. -- 7roXAd, adv. H. 226; K. ~ 278, R. 1, he earnestly prayed to, etc. 352-361. TeicK's -ye: force of ye'? H. 850; K. ~ 317, 2. Force of vrep? H. 850, 3; K. ~ 317, 1. Since you even bore me (i. e. even at my birth it was determined) being very short-lived, etc. iLdYv rep, honor certainly. - -gqexxev: 64peXoW, II. Dif. in meaning between o'pelXw and -Oipxa? See Lex.- ovb....rvrtali&, not even a little. Zeus had failed to fulfil his promise, as Achilles viewed the case, in permitting Agamemnon to treat him with dishonor. - avrTb a&rodpas, having himself, etc., repeats and strengthens the idea fxan, thus expressing more fully the emotion of Achilles. - yepornr, in appos. w. 7ratpi. They may be rendered, her aged father. His name was Nereus: hence, Thetis his daughter, mother of Achilles, was called a Nereid nymph. — & aYv, &vasolaL. - saKpvxeoyroS; relation of time: as he wept. - XELpl... cKaT'epeev (KaTapifw), caressed him with her hand. The latter half of v. 361, is a somewhat frequent formula in Hom. See Lex. 4'0vo.,o&Cw. 362-369. cppfvas, partit. appos. w. oe'. H. 500, b; K. ~ 266, R. 4, why has sadness come upon you, your mind? more freely,-upon your mind? e- e fopye (oiaa); subjunc. w. short mode-sign: that we both may know. - fvnp (the reading of Dind. last edit. and of F.; H. 409 ID, 6; K. ~ 228, ola) agrees w. Tor:'raVa 7rdyTa, obj. both of ayopeow and of is8v1: why do I rehearse all these things to thee knowing (them all)? Still he proceeds with the story, thus unburthening his heart to his sympathizing mother. It is well to consider in this whole description-both the inter

Page  138 138 NOTES. view with his mother and that with the heralds-whether the verse of Horace, describing Achilles, Impiger, iracundus, inexorabilis, acer, (De artepoetica, v. 121,) presents a full and truthful picture, according to the Homeric conception. - Js O9iB0v, to Thebe, mentioned again 6, 397, as the home of Andromache, wife of Hector.- aBLe7rpciopev, SLavrpoC.:- -d, these things, the spoils from Thebe (expressed above in 7radvTa, all things); obj. of droav0To (8adopat, H. 434 D, 4; K. ~ 230).- oK... xov,?aLpe~':'Avpe8tp, dat. of interest, for Atrides, i. e. Agamemnon. 370-388. a' (= anTe) is here, as often, simply a particle of transition: and after that, and then..-Vv. 372-376: cf. vv. 13-16; 22-25. - e7re.... ev,, since he (6 pye'pwv) was very dear to him (Apollo). - PBE'Xos, obj. of'Kce ('77u,): he (Apol.) sent, etc. -- ol 8... Aaot, and they, the people; a frequent const. in Hornm. Cf. 7 5... u yvh, v. 348, Note: also, v. 383, ra 8'... i.XAa aeoio. As' a literal rendering is awkward, we usually say, and the people, etc.; and the shafts of the god, etc.; and so of other instances, where this idiom occurs in Hornm. - &, uls: H. 233, iyc?; K. ~ 217; depends on yJpevue: iKcdToo, epithet of Apol., rendered by D., the Archer-god: cf. icKdep7oy, v. 147. --- rpwsos: cf. Lat.primus, used in the same way. -'Arpelouva: patronymic. H. 466. -. avaafds, sc.'A'TpSel: Jtme.lroae (a&reAE'w) oDaov. The slow, and even labored, movement of these words (read metrically) is well fitted to call attention to the thought. - 3 (relat. masc.): cf. 3, v. 336, N. Force of 5? H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2, which now in fact has been carried into execution. Notice TETEAEO`LVoVS &eriV, a longer and more emphatic expression than -eTe'Xea'TaL. 389-395. Trjv,, this one, her, i. e. Chryse'is, emphatic posit.-'s XptaYov: cf. N. v. 100. ---— 71ro vwav,, &yovuo: notice the juxtaposition of the two verbs;-not an unfrequent arrangement, making both emphatic. H. 885 end; K. ~ 348, 10, are sending, etc., and they are actually on their way with gifts for the king, i. e. Apollo, cf. v. 36. -- rv A}... KOtpv BpLoijos: cf. N. on ol 5... Aaol, v. 382: the daughter of Briseus. 4vOr, adv. just now. -oi6, emphat. position: repia'Xeo, 7repeXco, III. eios, see Lex.; in many editt. written ijos: defend thy brave son. Some critics, however, think e'ios here has nearly the force of a possess. pron. like 4ixos, and render it simply, thy son. - MAlaaL, imperat., AXtaouaL. -- eWoT're7 (cf. v. 40, N.) 7T, if ever already in any thing. - vas oprtv7iL,. t- ) grel (fr. iSros: dif. fr. refQ)... i cal (intens.) Ep7y, either by word, or even by actual service.

Page  139 ILIAD I. 139 396-406. aoE (Att. ouV, depends on 6Kovoa)... ebVXotV77s, Ihave heard you boasting in the palace of my father.'- OTr' = TE, when. - oft agrees w. the subj. of &ii'vaz. Why nom.? H. 774, 775; K. ~ 307, 4: that you alone among, etc., averted, etc. -'OXWtxrLot: subst. here: when others, Olympian divinities, both Hera, etc. The mother of Achilles (Thetis) was not an Olympian divinity herself; so, we cannot say, when other Olymp. divinities. - Tz-4ye, even him, i. e. Zeus. -- vtreXAvtao: VroXAcw, II. ~- X', cKa. -'Iv relates to eKarT'XeIpov (used as subst.); and is the obj. of KcaXdovao. Briareos is tsually thought to be an ancient name, and hence, called by the poet, the name used among the gods: while Aegaeon was the name used by the contemporaries of Homer. - e TIe: H. 856; K. ~ 321, R. 4. & — vspes 7rav'es, sc. KaX'ovoLv. ---— yap introduces the reason for summoning the " hundred-handed": aihe, in turn, on his part. As Poseidon was mightier (at least, in conjunction with Hera and Athena,) than Zeus; so in turn, Aegaeon was mightier than his father (Poseidon): lit. was better in might. -- -dv, this one, him, the hundred-handed. -oME' TIre: cf. Ve Ire, v. 403: nor did they bind (Zeus). 407-412. Tcv... lv o'aaoa( const.? H. 554, 576; K. ~ 273, 5, (e): now reminding him of these things. 7o-y ovv (yovv): const.? H. 574, b; K. ~ 273, 3, (b): take (him) by the knees. D. " clasp his knees." - a... IEbX1o'tv (cf. 8pOvlY, v. 324, N.), if perchance he may in any way consent, etc. -- irl..... apa, lrwaplyw. - ro-os O....'AxaLo5s: cf. o i.... Xaot, v. 382, N.- eXoaar (infin. depends on expav), see Lex. etxAw: a&p.' aXa, see Lex. aupt w. ace. -i7racapwv'rac: Lex. iravpoo'Kot/al, B, 1.- ~v (cf. v. 72) Tvr, obj. of?yvs': Ir', cf. v. 244, N., his mischievous folly, in that he, etc. 414-418. alvA (adv.)'eKaioia (TKrCow), having borne you to a terrible fate. - al' rfpeXes (Obetx[w)... Haao a (~e/a,), O that you were sitting, etc. Force of this form of wish? H. 721, b; K. ~ 259, R. 6; G. ~ 83, 2; cf. &eXEe e/'v Kvpos Civ, 0 that Cyrus were living! An. 2, 1, 4: oa-ai is what tense in form, and what, in meaning? H. 406, 2; K. ~ 190.7irel KTi.: the idea is expressed first positively; then, negatively,-a frequent idiom: alra, period of life determined b y fate, destined life: ItlYvvaa, 8jv, adverbs in the pred., may be rendered as adjs.: since now your destined life is very brief; certainly, not very long. -- repl rdcivTov, surpassing all, above all. H. 650, b; K. ~ 295, 3, 1, (d). -brhXeo (7reAop/am): imperf., usu. pres. in meaning. H. 424 D, 35. -- T, by reason of this fact, therefore. 419-427. ToOVo... 6ros, but indeed, to announce this word (which Achilles had above suggested): eipovaa, fut. of q4jnl, agrees w. the subj.

Page  140 140 NOTES. of elt: distinguish carefully fr. pres. 9p4E. = erposuai. - e1I t aviu', I will go myself. - at Ke 7rrtlTaL, Sc. ZevS. m-'? ( = uvie, imperat. pres., u/nvl7w), continue your anger at, etc. - Zews y,&p KTi. How Homer came by such an idea is worthy of reflection. t- Aed w. ace. Force? H. 645, a; K. ~ 294, II. (1), (a). - X-ads (const.? H. 488, R. c; K. ~ 264, 3, b,) eggEI, went yesterday. - Icatd: force? H. 632, a; K. ~ 292, II. (3), (a). - SWeCvP, SC. SC. PA. -- Xe5crevai, sc. ZevS. Notice, in v. below, eTJg as fut. - Anis limits &Oi.!xfdv, subj. of iredla-EaE, that he will yield. Cf. v. 289. Dif. in nteaning between the act. and mid. of 7retaw? 428-435. &7reBaeTo, St. a&re,8ai'aTo, is now found in the most critical editt. H. 349 D; 435 D, 1; K. ~ 230, $BaSwc. [- acioi, adv. -~?ioYdvoto. Why this epithet? " Because the girdle about the breast gave a graceful form to the robe." Cr. Hence it was nearly equivalent to well-clad. For a different explanation, see Dic. Antiqq. p. 1173, b. —?yvzvauKc: const.? H. 577; K. ~ 274, 1. - &e'covros, sc. a'droi. Critics are not agreed respecting the const. The gen. is now usu. taken w.,31p, and the clause read, whom they took away in spite of him unwilling. Others understand it as gen. abs.; still others, especially the earlier critics, as depending on a7rrlqpwv (a&ravpdcw). The last interpretation is now genr. abandoned. - ol Ei, i. e. Odysseus and his men.- AtIuevos depends on E'rrdS. ~reLAavTo: oa7C'TA, IV. - E'aOav E'v w. dat. Force of this const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3. —7 —riaaav,: Lex. Irekxd'C, B, 1. - - 6'Tes (ipipju) has the same obj. as 7re'Aaocav: they neared the mast to the holder, having lowered (it), etc.- r1i, this, it, i. e. zja. - 7rpoepfEaoav (rpoepeaow), st. 7rpoepvoaoavz (7rpoepiw), is now adopted in all the most critical editions. 436-441. Elc, in the four successive vv. is to be taken with the following verb. -- evb'ds: Lex. eir*', II. L Mar&... ar. a..: Lex. KaTacew (A). -- Bav, trans. cf. N. on Bioae, v. 310. - v. 439. It has been suggested, that the slow, spondaic movement of this verse is well adapted to express the cautious steps of the maiden in leaving the ship. ---- r: obj. both of &ywv and of T'arEL (= — Tiei), conducting her to the altar, placed her, etc., — ue'v=/uz: H. 852, 13; K. ~ 316, R. -- rarpl: const.? H. 597; K. ~ 284, (10): lit. for, etc.; freely rendered, placed her in her father's hands.'v Xepar: force of the const.? Cf. N. on eV Ynt, v. 433. 442-449. 7rpo'... e'wreA*tev: 7rpoure'urw'. - crol: const.? Cf. 7racrpf, v. 441. - a'ye'ev ( = &yer,), pSE'ga (ASe'Cw, II.): force of the infin. here? H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1; G. ~ 97. Is the infin. in Lat. thus used? — Xaoo'eo'a (i.doarcoua) may be taken as fut. indic., or as aor. subjunc. G. ~ 44,

Page  141 ILIAD I. 141 N. 1; yet the aor. subjunc. is far more comm. For short mode-sign, see H. 847 D; K. ~ 220, 16. For ending -/ueaEa, see H. 355 D, d; K. ~ 220, 12. e- 9 vjicKy,?irt,'Lpt.-?v Xep~Xl 7rL3EL: a brief expression for Trv.... pra'p wrpi'v Xepal'treL. - T'ol 8, but they, i. e. Odysseus and his men.- e-Tracat, 1st aor. What tenses of this verb are trans. and what intrans. in the act.? H. 416, 1; K. ~ 173, R. 2. - ovXox4Tras avEXoYTo (&vaLpw), they took up, etc. They all thus participated in the sacred ceremony. After the prayer, these bruised barley-corns were thrown forward on the victims and the altar (v. 458). The whole description is interesting, as being the earliest account in Grecian literature of a sacrifice. 450-456. -roi'ov, for them; dat. of interest. -- e-yadXa, adv., cf. sroxAd, v. 351; also Lex. /E'yas, V. -- pas aiaoxc6i (ave'xw). It appearsthat the priest, extending his hands, prayed to an invisible divinity; as there was probably no image or shrine of Apollo before him, except the altar. -Vv. 451, 452; cf. vv. 37, 38. -- iaev $8 troVe (a reading now adopted in the most critical editt.)... Irdpos, surely, already once formerly, you heard me, etc. -- u/raoas ( = -Testraoas) differs how fr. the particip.? H. 36'7, b; K. ~ 118, R. 2. -- 4C:/ao, YVroplaz. - oJS' Lc Kical vPP, and still now also. -- -rtcKpOz7,vo/: cf. v. 41.- 8r/7 vrOY, already now, now at once: &uvwvor (&,U'co), imperat. How would the particip. neut. nom. be accented? K. ~ 75, 2. 458-466. OVAOXTl-as 7rpoj8dXovPo (Vrpol&dxxo): cf. N. v. 449.- ee'ta-!ov0, E KifVWw. - aa... Kah&vIacY (Kai'aKakxr'Tr ): sc. Aqpots, enveloped (them). -- 6[7rvXa ror'aav'res, sc. KIvoaav, having made it (the fat caul) double: fn7rTvxa (as if fr. a form Lwr'vuT, -vXos), ace. sing. agreeing w. Kicav understood. So Cr., St., Naeg. et al. Some, however, take it as adv. -- er' ab'Trcv, upon them, i. e. the thighs thus enveloped in the caul. -- care, sc. abvoVs. --, dat. plur. Notice the L subscript, distinguishing it fr. the gen. sing. - f... (.r..eEow), and poured out in addition (e7ri) sparkling wine; or as some say, dark wine: perh. it suggests both ideas, dark and sparkling wine. KaTa.... Kicdq (KaraKaiw), the thighs were consumed: lit. were burned down. Notice the three words, apparently in the same sense, /i~pa, uA7pta (v. 40), and u,7poi (7flpo's, v. 460). -— 7rdo'aa'Tro, 7rar'EozaL. ---- uaGrvXXPdv'' &pa, then they both cut in pieces, etc. -- tr&XAa ( = -ra Xa); thus Dind. writes: usu. written r~aXAa. H. 99; K. ~ 31, II. --- a&u' 6B. ErfeLpav (refpo), they pierced (the pieces) with spits on both sides, i. e. so that the spits appeared on both sides: = they pierced the pieces through with spits. Naeg. For another, and, as I think, a less natural explanation, see Lex. rwEpow. -- epo6'avrd re 7rdyvTa, and drew them all off, i. e. from the spits.

Page  142 142 NOTES. 467-474.'reTr&ovro: IH. 425 D, 15; K. ~ 230, TerXoX. - T', adv. ace. ---- t/... C'VTo (ei`L'L), had banished the desire of, etc. -- icpjr-paS, the mixers. Distinguish carefully between KcpT/T7p and biiras. See Lex. Also Dic. Antiqq. 367, b. ---— rere4icavTo (rLWT.fIcw)Troroo (const.? H. 575; K. ~ 273, 5, (b); filled... brimful of drink. - erap~dueyvoi &erdosstY. The interpretations of this phrase (which occurs several times in Hoem.) are various. The verse is now usu. rendered, and then they distributed (it, i. e. the drink, the wine and water already prepared in the mixer) to all, after pouring the first into the goblets (for a libation). The youths (Koijpo,), who acted as cup-bearers, bore the wine around to the guests in pitchers (filled by dipping into the mixer), and poured it into the cups, which were already in the hands of the guests. Each guest poured on the ground as a libation his first cup-full. The entire transaction is here briefly indicated in v. 471. evrdeoo-rv depends perh. on the comp. verb i7rapdteVo.L I. H. 65. " The prep. fhri may denote the slight forward motion of the full pitcher." St. - 7ravryppiot: cf. N. on X.ri(4s, v. 424, and they all day long: not to be taken too strictly, as a large part of the day was already gone. COpoLt'AXaLvV, in appos. w. o Of: cf. N. on 47 /e... yvv, v. 348. It will be observed that all this took place after they had satisfied the desire of eating and drinking (Ehrel... E'ro). It was therefore a symposium (oav7rooawv), which followed the banquet (eb7rvov), and was regularly distinct from it. For a full account of the symposium, see Die. Antiqq. p. 1082. 47.5-487.'H/os a... 8..J Tre, But when... then indeed. - icvcpas, subj. of erl... j;Aev. - Jos Lb... Kal.rJr' E'reo-a, but when... even then immediately. What Att. word -= jos? See Lex. -- &adyovro. (avd, b&yw) UeTr KTe.. they started for, etc.- o'roaavr'o (here, as often, trans.), they set up (for themselves). - aA... 7raaaavo: ava7reTadv,vu. v.... 3 rpoe, (eArp4a,0)!'Gov toveITov ( = Att. fo'ov'rb torT'ov, IH. 536; K. ~ 245, R. 5), the wind filled the midst of the sail. - pw. vei.pp: tciita, subj. of IaXe: peydXa, adv. -'prbS iovio-s: force of the particip. here? H. 788, a; K. ~ 312, 4, (a); G. ~ 109, 1; ~ 110, N. 1, as the ship moved on. - geey (afw) is properly spoklien of a thing having life. The metaphor here is striking; and she ran along, etc. i-'loyro, here used w. a prep.; often takes the ace. as direct obj.: but when they arrived at, etc. Observe that, as avd is used of embarking on the sea (v. 478), so Kcard is spoken of coming to land. The army was encamped close by the ships, which were drawn up on the land, and supported by props. - 64oP firl hIaudacois is added to erv'?relpoto, to define it more exactly, and at the same time making the description more picturesque; upon the land,

Page  143 ILIAD 1. 143 high upon the sand: aidr w. the gen. denotes tendency; w. the dat., rest. H. 640, 641; K. ~ 296, 1, (b); II. 1, (a):-a distinction more easily perceived than expressed here.- ivrb KTE., under (it, i. e. the ship). - ab'rol V, contrasted w. vja Ie'v, while they themselves, etc. 488-497. Avb&p 6... vibs....'AXXXEvLs: cf. j... yuvJ, v. 348, N.:- /vYLE: observe the force of the imperf. continued his anger.7rWXEoIKETO (rwX'o0AiaL), LVrlvrEaaKcE (4&vvacw, 4plavW, 4P9Wt), WroUEKce (vrob3lC): for the iterative formation, see H. 410 D; K. ~ 221. Remember the peculiar meaning of TrdXepAov in Hom.; also, of t[Xov: cf N. v. 345. - Kp (ace. of specif.) differs how in meaning from K'ip, v. 228?'AAA' ore 8 "'... ical 6Tre oh: notice the force of oj. H. 851, a, b; K. ~ 315, 2: also, the force of pd, not usu. rendered, for want of a corresponding Eng. word equally brief. H. 865; K. ~ 324, 3. But when already... even then, I say, etc. ~- CK oo70, after this (time): 8vu08EKaIT ~&s, the twelfth morning, from the time, expressed in round numbers, when he began to be angry (v. 488); or from the time of his interview with Thetis (vv. 421 ff.). —Rlau: H. 405 D; K. ~ 226. -- pXe (&pXw), went first, took the lead. X-it&e-ro, Lex. xavarcvw, II. mid. - epTLfE'WV (pe'rStI): endings of gen. plur.? H. 128 D, b; K. ~ 211, 4. &wEaOreTo (cf. N. on a&rwef8oeTo, v. 428) Kila KTir., rose up from a wave of the sea. Perh. the full idea is, she rose upward, leaving behind her the surging sea. Const. of Kciua? H. 544, a. Obj. of avEa6erTo. For another const. w. this verb, see v. 359. - 7?ept-:7 for the const., cf. N. on XhzCSds, v. 424. Notice the confluence of vowel-sounds in this word,-a peculiarity of the Ionic dialect. - obpavbv OAvtu~7rv Tre: const.? IH. 551; K. ~ 277: or perh. it may be taken as obj. of avie,/3, like Kicva w. a&veOrETo. So St. 498-510. TEEP, w. KAXwv. I- cKOpVcp., on the, etc. Const.? H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1.- --- BSe (differs how fr. the imperat.? Cf. v. 407), sc. ab$VT: yodvov, const.? Cf. v. 407, N. - 6r'... CXoioa, sc. abviv, lit. having taken hold of (him) under the chin. Notice here 67rd w. gen. denoting situation,-a rare const. H. 656; K. ~ 299, 1, (1), (b). - Ze6 rdaTp: the resemblance in sound to the Lat. Jupiter will not escape notice. - eYro-e geTK. Cf. v. 394; T65e KTEc. Cf. v. 41. - TtU/orbv (imperat.), differs how in form fr. the fut. particip. nom. sing. neut.? (particip. r-u~tiAov). Cf. &!zvvov, v. 456, N. - /Aot, dat. of interest. &- Wc(vuop&6'raos &AAouv, most short-lived beyond (all) others. Cf. in v. 417, &cOKtzopos 7repI 7rdvTwv, which expresses nearly the same idea. -- &'rXero: cf. N. on 2rXeo, v. 418. - 76ro.V: not quite synon. w. Trf'qGaov, v. 505: TrIudcw is the generic word to honor: trco, to honor in view of some wrong done, to recompense. Marl.... rl. eL (imperat. fr. e:nricrnul), impart to, etc.- T-dPpa~... 000pa

Page  144 144 NOTES. may be rendered by the one word until: lit. 8so long a time... until: $ 5p' By... roaMV: hypothet. relat. sent. of time. H.'57, 758; K. ~ 337, 5, and 6; G. ~ 66, 2. - O pEAArwrv; iope'AXw: distinguish carefully fr. o(petA. See Lex. 511-521. oi-Lt (fr. ob, Tis, = Att. ob8'4v, or oirbey T), adv. ace. -- 5Tro, uAai. - d s i5+aso (A&rwCO)... &s ex' eT streevuZa (Juqnw), as she grasped his knees, thus she continued clinging (to them); lit. having grown (in them),-a very expressive metaphor, deioting the tenacity of her grasp. e- epe'ro (epotxaL) denotes here the notion of petition, not less than that of inquiry, and may, I think, be rendered besought (him). - N7lgsepT's.uev ( =!udv) h now, indeed, surely, etc. Deriv. of s,~u/epTe's?- 6v7r- xeo (SrsXvYe'otuaL) and KaTr&evyov are not entirely synon. See Lex. KaTaye6ow. -.ErL = gTrecrv. H. 102, a; K. ~ 31, R. 3, since there is not to thee, etc.- gqo"pa, final conj. in order that. N. B. It takes the subjunc. to express pres. or fut. purpose, without G,. H. 739; K. ~ 330, 1, 2; G. ~ 44. Yet GY is sometimes expressed. H. 741; K. ~ 330, 4; G. ~ 44, N. 2. Above (v. 509) q5ppa, w. dv, is an adv., denoting time, not purpose. -!lerd, w. dat. among. Is this const. Att.? H. 643; K. ~ 294, R. (Att. dv). -- Xotyia p'ya, sc. sOr' EaaeraC, these will be, etc. Cf. v. a573. ore... e6'p9iers (iE'tAul), since you will incite me, etc. ore in this clause is usu. taken as causal: Cr., Naeg., F. St. Cf. v. 244, N. In v. 519, b-' &v is, as.usual, temporal; when she shall irritate me, etc. The easy transition from a temporal to a causal meaning is oftenest seen in Erred, lereis;, and in the Lat. quum. The causal force of oTe is rare, and by some critics is denied entirely. lpe'.pa-r, H. 361 D; K. ~ 220, 4. -- Kal aGfws, even thus, i. e. even as the case now stanrds; he implies, much more would she taunt me, if I were now to grant your request. - 4e. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, R. 4. 522-527. ar-v eV...,Uol Se': antithetical. Notice the value of the particles, tLEr... e'. - 7r- &T-TXe: &aroaTet'Xo. - h, Lex. B, I., lest, for fear that. - voio'p, voaE, II. -... AEXoel esat: cf. N. on Kbe xceXo0A6oe'at, v. 139. The form p/eAXa-erai, st.,eatsreL, is said to occur only here. -5&pa, before TreXe'rco, is usu. understood as a temporal adv., until; before 7re7roips, it is plainly a final conj., in order that. -- e 6' &1ye: cf. v. 302. - ie'LAErE, H. 233 D; K. ~ 217.- ovi yap AtyV (any thing belonging to me, or proceeding from me, my promise; subj., sc. a-Tl)... t'.... Kaavevd'w, for any promise of mine, whatever I shall confirm with a nod of the head, is not to be taken back, nor, etc. — ov' &reAev-'rqTov, nor can it fa il offufilment. Force of the verb. adj. ending -Tos? H. 398, 1; K. ~ 234, 1, (i). 528-535.'H, cf. v. 219, N. - -- rr'... eVoae (srre6w), nodded to (her)

Page  145 ILIAD I. 145 with, etc. -- &reppcocavwro, erppcocual. - These three vv. (528-530) are said to have given Phidias his sublime conception of Olympian Zeus. (Straho, 2, p. 137, ed. Kram. cited by F.) But the inquiry might arise, was not Phidias as capable of a conception entirely original, as Homer. Each, in his own sphere, was a master. - Kparo's, gen. w. &ir' (does not suffer anastrophe here, but loses its accent by elision): distinguish KparTds carefully fr. KpdTroS: a&ray'Toio, by its position, is most naturally joined w. KparTos, although it makes good sense joined w. tyaKTor. D. renders, " Waved on the immortal head th' ambrosial locks." Naeg. cites Virgil's imitation, Aen. 9, 106, Adnuit et totum nutu tremefecit Olympum.8isETyLayev ($8aT'ujywO, v for gaay, H. 355 D, c; K. ~ 220, 14), were separated, parted. Notice again dual subj. w. plur. verb. -- axTo. H. 408 D, 33, and 432, 3; K. ~ 227, B. - Ze's, sc. EBV, or some similar word, suggested by a'Xro; an instance of zeugma. H. 882; K. ~ 346, 3. — a&veraav (v for a-an, cf. Bste'awyev), stood up, rose up. It is interesting to notice this token of respect existing among the Greeks at this early period: for what Homer here says of the gods indicates without doubt a custom of his time. -'IrX: tenses in use? Lex. TAAr2. - Jevat, (sc. aTrbv) Trepxl4eevov, lit. to await (him) approaching. D. " to wait his coming." - a&lT rore-Tav, rose (and went) to meet (him): a&rToL, lit. opposite to (him). The preceding clause suggests the rendering of &'Erav, rose (and went). 536-543. obE... o'-r KTrE. The critics are not agreed in regard to the exact structure of this sentence. F. and Diintz. take Liti in close logical connection with i-yvo'71-ev, was not ignorant in regard to him: Naeg. and St. take ti, as the obj. of Ioo-ra. Again, Naeg., F., and St. connect,tL KTE. with h-yzoyto-av, was not ignorant in regard to him, that, etc.; while Diintz. connects o'-i with Ioio-ra, having seen that, etc. Perh. we may best render the sentence thus (connecting /upv, in idea, both with the verb and the particip.), nor did Hera fail to perceive in regard to him, at a glance (lit. having seen hint), that the silver-footed, etc. Thus, the particip. isova denotes manner or means: 7yvoLeqavE, &-?yuo40. - or (enclit.) ouvpupdaraT-ro (avgpcpdCo1AaL) $BovUas, had concerted plans with him. KEpTOSIotOL (deriv.? See Lex.), se. &e'7mav which is often expressed: with heart-cutting (words). -- rpor-qvSa (se. "Hp-l subj..), wrpoauavdco. Notice, uv is a diphthong, and pronounced in one syllable. Cf. a7r-rqpcov, v. 430. Tts 8' ( = -f) aJ KiTE. Who of the gods now again, or, Who of the gods, I pray, has again, etc. $8, IH. 851; K. ~ 315, 2. For the elision, cf. vv. 131, 340. Yet Diintz. takes 8' for e' here, and in v. 131. He suggests also that, in v. 340,' may be for e', in the sense of 6Q,-a weaker form; 7

Page  146 146 NOTES. as /u& often= - -) rv. oL, dat. join w. ov/UP~pdooaro. - ptXoy, pred.; 8icKaEteY (LicCELY) with its adjuncts, subj. of the sentence: ov'-Ta and epoveov`ra agree w. the implied subj. of LIKaCcue'v; though they might have been in the dat. agreeing w.'ot. H. 776; K. ~ 307, 2, (b.) Always is it pleasant to thee, being apart from me,?meditating, to decide upon, secret measures. Ipv7rrcTdLa is obj. both of cppove'ovra and of 8LKa/CE'lve.irpo(pcowv, pred. w. eire-v, HI. 775; K. ~ 307, 4: nor hast thou yet, in any degree, had the courage to declare to me freely any plan (ghros), etc. 545-554. "Hpr7: notice the prominent position of this word, and the abruptness of the address. -j d... EirLe'xreo (irl, AfXro!uai).. ~ eIooewr (oT3a), do not, Ipray (36), hope to know, etc.: t,3ucous, plans, cf. t&ros above. aA- Xae7ro, sc. IuVAot. - -rep, intens. as usu. The concessive idea, though, belongs to the particip.- bo'v, sc. IAiov, whatever plan. E7rIEtICs, sc.., it may be suitable (for thee) to listen to. ----- Irea, then, after that, i. e. after the point is once settled that the plan is suitable for your hearing. -7rpSrepos, sc. 4~ aSu, sooner (than thou)..- rJ'.,ye repeats with emphasis the idea already expressed in o'v. -- E'i'aeat, oa. - &eAwIAc, H. 361 D; K. ~ 220, 1. Force of T1' in tk'rl? Do not thou at all, etc. H. 848, a; 683, a; K. ~ 303, 4. Cf. oavT, ob'4a Ts.-.ra'ra'`ao-ra, these things severally, referring to tv A.Ev, sv e', used collectively. &elpeo, ictl, ei'po/uai. - oow7rts: D. renders it, stag-eyed. Yet see Lex. - roov Tbv Oaov': a condensed and very pointed expression. Lit. what that word you spoke! i. e. what (was) that word (which) you spoke! Cf. H. 556; 826, a; K. ~ 344, R. 3. Difference in meaning between 7rowos and is? See Lex. roos. - icat and AXg'v (Att. MAlay) are both intens. even surely, or in one word, surely: aC', obj. of eyoucaL and UE'raXX.&. Above, v. 550, these verbs take ra'Ta, ace. of thing, for their obj. The present tense, qualified by wrcpos, or any similar word, may be rendered by our perf. Surely, I heve not been wont formerly to either questi( n or examine you. - evrKc7Xos agrees w. the subj. of cpdCeac, but with vry li tle concern (for ne) you tell, etc. ra... aoaa (H. 246 D; K. ~ 217, 6), the things which, whatever things.- -ei'Apaa: H. 357 D; K. ~ 220, 2. Cf. above, v. 549, E'?ag;eAXW. 555-559. aiv&is, Lex. aivds. 7rapeb1rp differs how in meaning fr. re4cow? See Lex. 7rape?7rov. e- pl: cf. v. 497; also, N. on XAiCs, v. 424. - roI'ye depends on'rap-: notice the emnphat. force of -y, by you even, indicating the earnestness and directness, with which Hera charges the fact home on Zeus.-,T-., to this one, to her (Thetis). Notice the asyndeton denoting haste and emotion. H. 854; K. ~ 325, 1, (a). - s...'/rAu'aps, otd'ps. Force of the subjunc.? H. 728; K. ~ 345, 5; G.

Page  147 ILIAD I. 147 ~ 44, N. 1. I think you (have) surely promised her that you will honor... and destroy, etc. 7- roxeas (roxvs), Att. ace. plur.? Differs how fr. ace. plur. of rAXLs? -Aeas, synizesis. H. 37 D; K. ~ 206, 4. 560-567. repeAXrlyEpe'ra: declens.? H. 134 D; K. ~ 211, 1, (c). aiLLovSl, and the masc. 8al/yvLe are oftener used in reproachful address, but sometimes with respect. The connection, and especially the tone of voice, would indicate which was intended. It is variously rendered here. Some translate it, strange one! or presumptuous one I Others take it as ironical, and render it, with less propriety, I think, in this connection, admirable one I Perhaps the simple address, goddess I! would be suitable here. - alel....oteaL (oi'oAats), you are always suspecting (something), you are always suspicious. Notice the accumulation of vowel-soullds in the first half of this verse. H. 32 D; K. ~ 205, 4. -xaco, pres. indic. =:Aava&,vo. -i in compos. w. ob, obj. of rpctaL. -- rb avguov: see Lex. avulJz, II. 3. - PLyoy, cf. v. 325. - et...o'Trl, but if this is so, i. e. if I have in fact made a promise to Thetis. So Koeppen and Cr. understand it: St. refers the supposition to what immediately precedes; if this is so, i. e. if the fact is as I have just stated.-?/Aol... fcptov, it wi:l be agreeable to me;-the haughty language of a sovereign; tel est notre bon plaisir. --, cf. v. 28. bO'oo aeof: anteced. incorporated in relat. clause. H. 809; K. ~ 332, 8: lest all the gods, as many as are, etc., may not avert me from thee, when I approach nearer: iavr' = IMv'ra, sc.?s, obj. of xpao'ucvlcov..- Eoeiw (Att.?p7i, ~rT, and co, fr. logs): H. 400 D, i; K. ~ 222, I, B: when I lay, etc. 569-583. pip.ov, cf. N. v. 345. - Obpacwires, appos. w. aeol: in form, a patronymic. H. 466, a: descendants of Uranus. -— oon': const.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10): in thefr presence, before them. The following comic scene has a strange effect, in contrast with the preceding wrangle; and was perhaps deemed necessary to restore the gods to their accustomed good-humor. -- irilpa, obj. of epE'wuv, agreeable things, " soothing words," D. c- ropc, you two, Hera and Zeus. - KoXwbv e'Xauverov, lit. drive on a wrangle, i. e. if &ou continue a wrangle. - gal... osoveoo (concessive), though she is even herself very prudent, very intelligent; and hence, does not really need my suggestion. -- q4pepv depends on 7rapdrpltsz. reLKE[cP, VELKE0: H. 370 D, b; 361 D; K. ~ 222, B, (2); ~ 220, 4. - abv....rapdcp, oaWrapdaaro; ptv, dat. of interest. - EYep... O.TvU4Exflar (infin. sc. jpas), for if the Olympian, who hurls the lightning, wish to cast us down from our seats:-a condition, with the conclusion suppressed. H. 883; K. ~ 340, 2, (b); G. ~ 53, N. 1. Cf. v. 340, dro-E K7wr. N. Also v. 135. The conclusion is readily supplied by the mind,-a slight pause

Page  148 148 NOTES. being made after the condition,-and the thought is more impressive than though the sentence were filled out in regular form. ---- &p IKr. gives the reason for the foregoing implied apodosis. - KIcad7rTeora, as imperat.; cf. AX~at, v. 20, N. -- VAaos, pred.,'OXA5u/r-, subj. 585-593. iu17vpi, dat. of interest: lit. for, etc.; the clause may be rendered freely, placed... in the hand of, etc. ev XElpI TrieL:Z peculiarity and force of this const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3. -- adaXeo, Lex. a&vCw, B, mid.- K27;Oou.&f, and Dioaa,: concessive; though greatly (7rp) troutbled; though very dear, or perh., dear as you are. p~- /: cf. v. 566. —.- o.,p ahAoL~Lv, in my sight, before my eyes, strengthens the idea of 2wcouaz. - ot'rL: cf. 4JuTL, v. 550, N. - & aTr'rp-era, depends on apyeaVXos. H. 767; K. ~ 396, 1, (d); G. ~ 93, 2, (is) hard to be opposed. —Kal 9AAoT-e... reac'Ta (agrees w. tl, obj. of 57^e), when on another occasion also I desired to defend (you). -- 7oObs Te=yraysc (H. 384 D; K. ~ 230, TArn.), having seized (me) by the foot. —7 —?ral icap: force of ace. of time? The same idea is conveyed, v. 472, by an adj. ol be wravqjuepiot, and they all day long. -- idrreEaov = icKarere'rov fr. Icaamrralrrw. H. 73 D; K. ~ 207,'. -', A~/uCL: cf. N. on v XEpi, v. 585. Where was Lemnos? See map. It was thought to be a favorite place of resort for Hephaestus (Vulcan), probably on account of the volcano Mosychlus in that island; yet his work-shop, according to Homer, was on Olympus. - ---- yos, little, in the sense, only a little. -- -iev (?v, e1ar) sc. euo[. It appears from Il. 18, 395 if. that he had on a previous occasion been cast down from Olympus by Hera herself, who was ashamed of him, and wished to conceal him on account of his lameness. In speaking of this act, he uses the not very filial expression, /fTpbs IADs &T771T Kucv7rtaOs, by the will of my dog-faced mother. 596-611. rarss... Xeipi, received from her son with her hand. (r., Naeg., F., Diintz., St., and others. 8'XojuaL takes either the dat. or the gen. of a person from whom any thing is received. W. gen. 14, 203; 24, 305, and other passages, where a gen. possess. is inadmissible. W. dat. 2, 186. -- Vv. 497, 498; cf. vv. 470 if. N. — dBe-&Eos.... yeAws, irrepressible laughter. Why was this? The answer is partly given in the next verse, when they saw Hephaestus puffing, etc. His grotesque appearance in the office of cup-bearer (in place of Ganymedes, most beautiful of youths, or of Hebe, goddess of youth and beauty) was the ludicrous thing. r- wpro, Ev', OpfVV/IL. - user = y.- 7rp-JravU, 7rpdIras. 0 (p/mLLyyos, MovudcoP, same const. w. BafJrs, depending on iseeSro. Movoavdw, cf. N. on eda, v. 1. apeLJeSuevat, replying to one another, responsive. — Dif. in meaning between 4i and &6i? - jfeioLo: notice the confluence

Page  149 ILIAD I. 149 of vowel sounds. Cf. all.....tea, v. 561, N. ---— KaKefor'es (Kadt, Kefw: cf. Kd7rlrEoYO, v. 593, N.), desiring to rest: a desiderative verb fr. Kcetiua. Usual formation of desid. verbs in Greek? H. 472, j; K. ~ 232, R. 3.- eicaboros: partit. appos. w. of p'E. H. 500, b; K. ~ 266, 3. 4KdcoP, dat. of interest w. 7roloev, had made for each, etc. - a- apLry-v'eLs, lame in both feet. So understood usu.; but F., after Goebel, suggests the somewhat doubtful meaning, utrinque validis artubus, i. e. brachiis instructus. -i viufOL (st. elsvfpat, particip. l&rls, fr. oIa) wrpa7rLeoarv; dat. of manner or means; with intelligent mind, with cunning skill. —s,, possess. pron. -- byi, Bie, el/t. - KOL/aIY, EKO'ICAO. -- 5Sre... lKdyvot: force of the optat. here? H. 729, b; K. ~ 327 b- 2; G. ~ 62. - Ka"EgI', he slept, began to sleep, or simply, fell asleep. This is not contradicted in the next book, v. 2. 7raapd, sc. avbr7 icaev8e, and by him slept, etc. The reflecting student will not fail to compare and contrast these low conceptions with those which we derive from the sacred scriptures.

Page  150 150 NOTES. BOOK SECOND. 1-10. AXXot... eol, the other gods, i. e. in distinction from Zeus. This contrast is made plainer, by the particles pv... -- -Ad: cf. note 1, 8. This book stands in the closest logical connection with the preceding. - raYvv'XLoL: cf. 7rarIe'prLo1, 1, 472; also note on XreLCs, 1, 424. --- obic Xe, lit. did not hold, did not continue to possess. Zeus may have fallen asleep and continued asleep for a while, so far as this statement is concerned. Cf. 1, 611. D. renders it, but the eyes of Jove sweet slumber held not. - $ bixeo'a: optat.: vroxAas, cf. 1, 559, note.- -i oe....BovuX, this, as a plan; or simply, this plan. For the arrangement, cf... yvvh, 1, 348, note. a- 8' ol (dat.): how would 8e' be accented if ol were the art. nom. plur.? Cf. note, 1, 72..wre/u aT KicTE: in apposition with Bovuhx. H. 766; K. ~ 305, 1. - oXAov: the meaning given by L. & Sc. (see Lex. obAos, 2) is not generally preferred; rather, per. nicious, deluding: fr..ZAvyu. - icKal /lv (='OveLpo,) Kcr: cf. note, 1, 201. Bdoa': Lex. Baodce. - In v. 9, notice the asyndeton, imparting liveliness to the narration. H. 854; K. ~ 325. -- &yopevEu'ev: infin. as imperat. Cf. XAaar, 1, 20. announce very accurately, etc. 11-19. a', him (i. e. Agamemnon): obj. of KCXeve. Corresponding Attic word? How is this word used in the Attic dialect? Latin word akin to this? H. 668, 671, a, b; K. ~ 302, R. 3. — Ke'y f'o: poten. optat. - cptls.. pdCi'ovTaL: Lex. ppdow, II. 1. ire'ycAqev:'r-,yvdtzrrw. - Xtoo'o/lEVf,: denotes here the means. H.'789, b; K. ~ 312, 4, (e), by entreating.,- dprra: cdf'drrwc. -'Ticave... 7r[: cKa,'co oftener takes the ace. without a prep. It then directs the mind rather to the end of the going or coming, to the terminus; and is rendered to attain, to reach. With a prep. the mind is directed more to the progress of the going or coming: he went towards the swift ships, he approached the swift ships. ---— rept, sc. i or avbrT&: KeXV;Y', Lex. Xiso, III. 2. 21-27. To n....yepdv7cw, whom of the elders, etc. yepdV'rw;, limits.Jr, not!C1axroTa.? —' = -E-Lev, fr. T'iW.o -..T... rLo.. Le,1evYOs: Lex. EIAht, II. 2, c. dat. - lil depends on rpooreqpvee. -. &atppovos differs how in meaning in the II. and Odys.? See Lex. n- rL'eT'pdq(carat: 9Ln.'rpe7rw. H. 355 D, e, 392, Rem. a; K. ~18, 1, ~220, 13.,- jves (or4, es): oVJdrnyLL, II.- eiv: why accented here? H. 111, b; K. ~ 35, 3, b. Depends on Kc6e'rcu.,- &veev5es: adv. -.ealpes, SC. sa.

Page  151 ILIAD II. 151 33-40. EXe, sc.'raTra, keep these things, etc. & —,ip: Lex. aviuL, III. H. 400 D, i; K. ~ 224, 9. Resolved forms. - a7repBEiG ero: 1,428, note. Cf. -rpoCeo,34e-Eo, v. 48. -- rod, him, i. e. Agamemnon: airos, adv. p- pove'ovTa agrees with r'dv. - a-, those things, obj. of ppoEoorTa, and anteced. of a. cpa: observe how often this little word occurs. Try always to perceive its meaning. Cf. note 1, 8.-&....eeA XoV: plur. verb. w. neut. plur. subj. If. 515, b; K. ~ 241, 4, Rlem. 5 (e). (pi; iEtq: see Lex. O-uq, I. - boye, i. e. Agamemnon. -- 1'art ({~ap) KEftVo. Express the idea on that day in Att. What additional word is required? H. 538; K. ~ 246, 3.- -viros (emphatic position), qualifies -oye.' 7; ola. -- pya, as labors, toils, in apposit. w. a-d, those things. I. 500, d: cf. note on yuv4, 1, 348. We may render, the labors, which, etc. - V &XyEd -rS oroCaXdrs sIe: obj. of 4h5eiv. — ear', join w. Tpcro... Aavaoart: to bring (lit. to place) sorrows and groans upon, etc. 41-4_6. iEypeTo: without augment, fr. 7ypd4UlXv, o, o, s: fr. yepceO. Ii. 432. 5; K. ~ 223, 11. — ai Xu)'Xr'; &,pLXo'W: ef. 7repl... EXU'o, v. 19: was poured, was dffuscd around him. - (ero S' Op?5waels (OpbCcd), and he sat elect. -srepl... BcAXTEro (7rspL,$AAo): force of the mid.? H. 688 if; K. ~ 250: he cast around himself, etc. - For a full acconut of the X(TRev, and of the epipor, see Die. Antiqq. pp. 851, 852, 1171. aptp.... Lpos. The sword was attached to a belt, and thus it might be said that he cast it around his shoulders. - &.aLTrov aEedl, always imperishable, "because it was the work of Hephaestus," Cr.; " because it always remained in the family," F. and others. Both reasons are good, but the latter was probably the idea in the mind of RIom. Cf. vv. 101'108. 49-58. ipiovoa (0>7yf): fut. denoting purpose, to announce the light, etc.- 6, i. e. Agamemnon: icEeuAVE,, here w. dat. of a pers.; usu. w. ace. - o i,v CTE': explanatory, and hence the asyndeton. HI. 854; K. ~ 325 (b).- so} eI, i. e.'AXaiot. -,ovuXv, st. /ovuXj, the reading of the most critical recent editt.: obj. of T'e. Cf. Lex. isw, I. -- aeotAixos: in appos. w. NE'rvopos, implied in NeoropEp. EH. 523 b; K. ~ 266, 2: by the ship of Nestor, Pylus-born king. — Ne`'Gopt depends on iCICKEL (eolak): eJbos le-. ace. of specification,'yesyrEos, stature: Qeuir, perh. form:?yXIGTa (how compared? H. 229 D; Lex. 9&yXi.) an emphatic repetition of the idea /CAihOr-a, and especially, he?most nearly resembled, etc. --- srpoaeewiress often takes ace. Iuzsov, and ace. of pers., lit. he spoke a word to me; more freely, he addressed me. 71-82. CX'V? &a1ro7rr'd/Evos (&vroire'roLat), lit,. was gone having flown away; more freely, he took flight and was gone. &vrejc, &v crL: of. &v1ph,

Page  152 152 NOTES. v. 34. -- YTE: cf. 1, 302, note. - --— TrsEprota, # AElti5 &ofTv, will try (them), which (thing) is right; relat. pron. agreeing w. predicate noun. Some critical editt. read here I, st. 4, in what way, etc., as is right, or perh. as is cus'omary. a- AXoarEv &Aos, one from one place, another from another. &Aos in partitive appos. w.,/5Efs. Ii. 500, b; K. ~ 266, 3. - EpwIeITY: cf. note on Avoa, 1, 20. -bTo0on 8' a&E'ErTr7. H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3 (10).- El...,rTrvy: supposition contrary to reality: *I68os CT-., conclusion expressing more possibility. H. 746, 748, 750; K. ~ 339. I. (b), II. (a), we should affirm (that it was) a falsehood: /AakAov, rather, i. e. we should rather turn away (from it, than be drawn towards it, and influenced by it.) - Antecedent of os, the subj. of hez,, but now he has seen (it), who, etc. 84-93. J4: why not accented here, according to H. 104, a; K. ~ 32. (b)? Because Z? is taken with vEer:at: and BovAus depends on et in compos., or, as Kiih. thinks, on the compound verb. K. ~ 300, 2. (b); H. 616.- E raveo'T7r oav: iravt-Tor-,i. -- ol 8..a. ~aA es: cf. note on oL Se...Aaot, 1, 382.- -ireooefov'o: 7rw'EVW. - V5TE (= &s TrE)... s, v. 91: as when... so, etc. -- Tr&prjs q c 7yaupvpijs belongs in idea both with EhTl and with?pXoAevdwv, as swarms of thronging bees issue from a hollow rock, coming forth (from it) ever afresh, etc.: e'c is separated from?pXolu. by tnesis, and wErTpqS depends on the compound verb, or on the prep. in compos. Cf.?Z, v. 84. 2re~ro'rac' prt w. dat. Peculiarity and force of the const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3. -- rf after as V, and at sU. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, Rem. 4. - ireroTaria-a': f7rot/at. For the ending, see H. 355 D, e; K. ~ 220, 13. - Dif. in meaning between 4s and cs? See Lex. What word in Att. prose is comm. used instead of Us? oV'as. -- rciv, of these, i. e. Xaav. ~- Pro: why accented thus? What four prepositions do not suffer anastrophe? Dif. between poetry and prose in the use of anastrophe? H. 102, 102 D, b; K. ~ 32, IV.- ieETLXLCw/,o (aTtXdc0): explain the ending -dovro. H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, A. (3).- IXaeds: cf. Borpvodv, v. 89. Notice the beautiful metaphor in Bo.rpv6dv (lit. like clusters of grapes: fr. BTdpvs).:- O'Ora: as a personification. Cf'Ovetpos, v. 6. Rumor. Lat. Fama. BEft, Lex. 8alw (A). Notice the expressive metaphor in this word: lit. burned: perh. we may render it, spread like fire. 94-109. aye'po'ro: ayEpvW. - eTrpXet: Trapdowoe, II.,- xaci, depends on brb... 0~TeVaX;CtSo. H. 583, groaned beneath the people while they were sitting down. -- piruvov: peculiarity in its use here? H. 702; K. ~ 256, 4 (a), (vy). /- eroT'....oXola'" ( =- oXovro, fr. EXw. Cf. note on 7rE7ro'raTat, v. 90): if ever they would desist from their outcry. -

Page  153 ILIAD II. 153 rsrouv, vix tandem. See Lex. oirovuh, II. as adv.- K icrrwpov: cf. v. 46. What was the usual form of a sceptre? See Diet. of Antiqq. p. 1011. The following account of the sceptre indicates the divine origin of Agamemnon's authority. - KdicE TIEfXV,: Lex. Ktc4uv, II. ----- Ke, sc. o'ci9Trpov. u- 8LaK7dp9): the opinions of critics are about equally divided between the three meanings messenger, conductor, servant. Perh. the meaning messenger is usu. preferred. For the supposed etymology, see Lex. - TroX6apvt: metaplastic (H. 199; K. ~ 67, (c): see Lex. 7roxaFvpos. -- eOuo'T', OuerTa, OuEo-TfrS. H. 136 D, a; K. ~ 211, 1 (c): emphat. appos. w. 6. So also, rle'Ao4, v. 105, cf. a...?yuvp, 1, 348.- q1op11vau, vdao-aeLv: const.? H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1. What would be the Latin idiom? A —rt (i. e. or-K7rTp)... 4pelidevos: Lex.?pet8. B. pass. and mid.,- tevT6a: efT-d, absdw. 111-115. IeE'a, adv. qualifies &vfale: has exceedingly entangled me in, etc. - orXE'TXos: emphat. position. Cf. v7rios, v. 38. - 5s: recollect that a relat. pron. has the force of a personal or demonst. pron. combined with a conj.; here, with a causal force, since he. H. 853, b; K. ~ 334, 2. - rplv v6....v. V: formerly... but now. - & icre'poa"v', i. e. Kire'poaara, se. 4ef, that I having sacked, etc. Cf. note oal izra, 1, 541. Notice further, that the chief point in the promise of Zeus - the destruction of Troy — lies in the participle. - u.oCKAE'a (8uoaKxeis): agrees w. uf, which is subj. of iK'roaat. For the peculiarity in declens. see H. 180; K. ~ 213, 15. -- Const. of'Ap'yos? H. 551; K. ~ 277. What would be the prose const.? Notice here the meaning of'Apyos; also in v. 108, and often; -not simply the city Argos (since Agamemnon was from Mycenae, not from Argos); but the city and a wide area of country around it. Cf. note on'AXaZoLs, 1, 2. Where were the cities Argos and Mycenae? 116-128. Force of wrod? Lex. roO, II. 2. --— For the meaning of tXiov here, cf. 1, 5664: AexEt, impers.-bs Aj: force of 8i? H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2. o- To icpd'os, the power of this one (Zeus), his power. - aioXpbv Pycp Ktr.:?yp resumes the thought in vv. 114, 115, and introduces a fuller expression of it, Lex. ydp, II., yes, this indeed is shameful, etc. - t Kal ro/le,'oisr, in the view of future generations also (not simply in the view of those now living): rvuaEo-l, to hear of, depends on acrdOpdv. H. 767; K. ~ 306, 1 (d). —- Vv. 120-123, are in definitive appos. w. r76e v. 119, this.. the fact that, etc. - p&* oSTwo, thus vainly, i. e. vain as it would turn out to be if the Greeks should now return home. - aJ'v, subj. and 7roxeuLv, obj. of wroXefyLtV. H. 547; K. ~ 278, 1. ---— rvcvraL: pahvw. - erep?ydp introduces a confirmation 7*

Page  154 154 NOTES. of the statement c.dXEatL. ~r..cvposepoLrt, and carries out more filly the thought aioXpbv icre, v. 119. - kc' eXotLpevy: notice the use of Ke here, with the optat. in the protasis; making this the apodosis of a suppressed protasis. Thus, if we should wish (were it possible). Cf. 1, 60, note and references. - --— Lex. re4Uvw,, II. 2. —-— pLal4,utEvaL depends on eadAogLejv: endings infin. aor. pass.? H. 359 D; K. ~ 220, 18. &/Acow, appos. w. subj. of lgEXoLpuev. - Tp6ias r' AXe'ao~at: supply errEp K' E'IXtoLteV, if we should wish to collect the Trojans, as many as, etc. Cr. and some others understand xe'tao-aa here in the sense to select. fipeao —oi, pred. w. eiaov (edpi, H. 406 D; K. ~ 226). - u/ezs... 8alKtoclqaeluev... eXoireaa: a condition, sc. el, and if we Achaeans should be divided, etc. iXotfesa, aipfco, aor. mid. and should choose, etc. - 8evoaTro: 86o (B), also e6ow, Lex.: -ola-ro, st. -owro, as usu. in Hom. 129-138. vl'as, subj. of ulipevai; rxAeas (Att. rAe'oas or 7rAelovas, see Lex. 7rAees), predicate adj., qualifies vtas: Tpckov; peculiarity in accent? H. 160, c; K. ~ 65, 2 (a): depends on 7rx'as. - TroXXEwv (two syllables by synizesis): for the ending eo'v, see H. 128 D, b; K. ~ 211, 4. What other endings occur in Hornm. in the gen. plur. 1st declens.? - 7rxdaovo-t, thwart, hinder. ~- iciaot: ddfw, Att. idew. - The number of the Trojan forces, including both native Trojans (pq4o-trot) and allies (ErftlKovpoi), was 50,000, according to Il. 8, 562 if; that of the Greeks from 120,000 to 14(,000, according to various estimates. -- vve'a 8... ic.a 84: Lex. &i, I. -,BeBdaoCt: Balvw..- zbs.... rav'ro[, years of great Zeus. Zeus is elsewhere also spoken of as presiding over periods of time; also over objects in nature, cf. v. 146. This line is important as fixing the time in the war, when the events described in the Il. took place. — Bogpa, 86pv: vew~v, vaos. The thought in this line is not particularly encouraging in view of a sea-voyage.- at' rov re'i.: force of 7ro6? Lex. rou, II. 2; cf. v. 116. And, I suppose, etc., or And, no doubt, etc. E- MaT ( ETra(t = vrTaL), fr. {uat. - OTLBE'yLeva, 7rpoaobEX0,uaaL. - nust =' utZ, H. 233 D; K. ~ 217. - aSirws, thus; cf. 1, 133, 520. They could all see how far their work appeared to be from its accomplishment. 139-146. Wrs &v...e7rco: const. of hypothet. relat. sentences? H. 757; K. ~ 333, 3, and 4; G. ~ 61, 3. 7reL&rcpeaa: use of the subjunct. here? H. 720, a; K. ~ 259, 1, (a); G. ~ 85, as I may propose, let us all obey, i. e. let us all yield to that which I may propose. - irt, hereafter, Lex. Tt, II. - Uvxdv, emotion, vehement passion. *- raot: appos. w. Tro7a~; anteced. of ootL. — e —- ed: Lex. /AeTd c. accus. V. - Sovxiss: the plan of Agam. as unfolded in the council of chiefs.?TrdKovoa,: esraocotw. - )4: see Lex.; the reading of Dind., F., and some others;

Page  155 ILIAD II. 155 st. &s. Notice the accent: different from 0pf, v. 37. - ~aAaXdras, the generic word: wrdTov, the open, deep sea: like the long waves of the sea, of the Icarian deep. See map, S. E. part of the Aegean. - Td; obj. of eopopE (tpvuvl): on what principle is the aor. here translated as pres.? Cf. bcuoy, 1, 218, note and references. - -air qreAdcow: cf. A0bs CvLavrol, v. 134. Notice lpope and i7rattas agreeing w. the nearest subj. H. 511, h; K. ~ 242, 1 (b). 147-154. &s 8' 6,re ilao-7: hypothet. rel. sent. Notice the omission of &v. H. 759; K. ~ 333, Rem. 3; G. ~ 62, N. 3. A — i'ov: obj. of KlY/oph. - f7racSyiwv: force of el i? rushing upon (it, XZ'ov). Cf. e7ra' asr, v. 146, rushing upon (them, the waves). - E7r1''"1IEL (Lex. E'7ruVw ): sc. Ai'ov: and it bends downward (lrti towards the ground) with its ears. The sentence changes from a dependent const. (s... KLvTo-p) to an independent (?/irei). - - Tyv, of these, the persons mentioned, vv. 142, 143. — 9r': why accented thus? H. 102, b; K. ~ 31. IV. 7- roSZv rle'epae: notice the force of -e -= -4bey: from beneath their feet:'l-TaTo, stood (in clouds).:- ic'KeyE (-eCMvac, -EL,), sc. PYas. - - obpovs: ohipJs, Lex.; distinguish carefully fr. oepos. ~- vrb 8' }peovp (vipatpEo), they took away... from under, etc. Cf. oSozv v7r-, v. 150. 155-165. E.... e'TVdX7 (7TEXW), would have been effected, etc. Force of this const.? H. 746; K. ~ 339, 2, 1 (b); G. ~ 49, 2.- - rpbs... gereRv ( = vrporeiirev), unless... had addressed a word to, etc. Cf. 1, 201. "~.rJdroL: cf. note, 1, 254. Derby renders it here, 0 heaven -- o09 o 8.: mark the emphatic force of A. - vc'Ta: Lex. vCd-os and v&)-TOV, II.,- K&8 (H. 73 D; K. ~ 207, 7)....A-lroev: Ka'raAXeiroa. - EUXwxAv, appos. w.'Ex4E'vv: would leave behind, as a boast to Priam, etc. - and, I. 2. Lex. -- Most editors place an interrogation point after aft/s; but the reading of Dind. (as a direct statement) expresses the indignation of Hera quite as forcibly...- -ard: cf. 1, 487. - ~ oo7s KTi. Notice the asyndeton, denoting haste. --,u78e' a (dcW)... 6xcE'AEV,v nor suffer (them) to launch, etc. The subj. of.ki4esAv (sc. airods) is suggested by the distributive phrase pqiTa'Kcaarovy. H. 514, b, c. 169-179. EvpeY: asynd., cf. v. 164. &rvadv'a (i'oTsa4lT), standing,an indication that he was not carried along with the general current. He was perhaps thinking of the direction of Agamemnon, v. 75. -- tIv, obj. of ctavrev: IpaS7qYv and 5vpudv, acc. of specif. -- 7rpooE4'p, sc. abrdv. ~- Iv...rrEsOvrnES: peculiarity and force of this const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3, (a). -- /zo35'i' tp;ELt: notice the use of'i here. H. 856; K. ~ 321, Rcm. 4; nor hesitate. Sp. and Cr. read here ujn8' T"' lpc&e%, nor longer, etc.

Page  156 156 NOTES. 182-187. tUvE'7KE: Lex. ovvit717, II. - d 8'ffEIY: Lex. Balcvo, I. 2. - rb... /dde: a7roSdwAcX. - Xxaiav, Lat. laena. For a description of this garment, see Die. Antiqq. p. 665. - oT (enclit.), him, i. e. Odysseus. --'A'pefeWO (H. 136 D, 2; K. ~ 211, 2)'AyapcplvOYos: depends on &vrlos, an adj. qualifying avb'rs; takes the gen., as it contains the idea &,vi. - 5eiard ol, received from him: VeXoyuaZ takes either the dat. or gen. of the pers. With gen. 1, 596. -- ncpr'rpov. The sceptre of Ag. was a symbol of the highest authority. - ry Ti: cf. v. 47. 188-197. 6v7lva a... KILX61 (K1XdCv): const. of hypoth. rel. sentences? IH. 757, 760, c; K. ~ 333, 3 and 4; G. ~ 62. -AalqAdre: here used with respect, though introducing a rebuke. Admirable one I or perh. My good sir! Derby translates it here O gallant friend I Cr. renders it (verv improperly, I think), Fool l Cf. note on 1, 561. -- Ep7TVaa=ce: Ep7OWT0 w. iterative ending. H. 410 D; K. ~ 221.- o4', subj. of ee0o0,rcal: KaKbh (s, like a coward: why is &s accented here? H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (c). - ooor d0os r CT., what (is) the mind of, etc. -- JeTra: cf. 1, 454. -- Bovx., join w. efererv: what he said in the Council, i. e. in the Council of chiefs, v. 53 ff.f —- S'....: I fear that he, etc. H.'720, d; K. ~ 318, R. 6. p.vp (E'wco) takes two accusatives (KaKb, v1as), may in.fict some harm on the sons of, etc. H. 555; K. ~ 280. 2.- ~v/zbo B Kc'. appears to be intended as a general truth: uAeyas is pred.: for the wrath of a... is mighty. - TrqY (sc. &orpepeos Baw-), his honor, etc. 198-206. fo... oc KiTE. H. 757, examples; K. ~ 337, 7:?AdaaoaKe (iXaaw), 5ooKAhoaoKe (puoKAdos), iterative ending: but on the other hand whatever man of the common people he saw, etc., this one he restrained, etc.: e-... re (V. 198) connect the two subordinate clauses, tv...'Mo and 8owvwTa... i.qpe6poL. The former re' is not easily rendered. Aaspbr&,e, admirable man/ here used ironically and contemptuously: perh. we may render it, Sirrahl - Tao, laCL. - 4'pTepoi: Lex. fpepTaTos, II. - d, sc. el, or ioot. What forms of the copula are oftenest omitted? H. 508, a; K. ~ 238. RR. 6 and 7. — BaXedoaoVOe: observe the person, we shall not, etc. -- ayadJv, pred. adj. neut. (sc. os'&'). H. 522; K. ~ 241, 2. examp. - wcoKe, sc. $BaclOdXEde, implied in the foregoing. - V. 206 is rejected by the best critics as an interpolation here (it occurs with a slight variation in 9, 99), and need not be translated. 208-216. eireaaeovro: e'rLaeOv.. - adysaXy: const.? H. 612; K. ~ 283, l. -& dAaoaoa and r,'Tros differ how? Cf. vv. 144, 145. - ilcohXa: oAjordw. Cf. 1, 575. - U'rea: obj. of 7877 (oSla), lit. who knew in his mind words, etc. e- ppr',uE'ac depends on the idea {'rea &ioo'pa

Page  157 ILIAD II. 1157 H~, and denotes the result; so as to contend, etc.- &xAA introduces a thought opposed to the idea KaIT Kc*doov. Repeat after &Axx the idea (somewhat modified) of v. 213, but he had in mind (and uttered) whatever seemed to him to be, etc. Eoatro (Lex. EIMA): force of the optat.? H. 729, b; K. ~ 327 b. 2; G. ~ 62. yeaoOi'ov, likely to provoke laughter:'Apyedoioiv, on the part of, etc. H. 601; K. ~ 284, (10), (a). af- afrXLO'os a&vp: pred., lit. he came under (the walls of) Troy the ugliest man; i. e. he was the ugliest man who, etc. 217-224. oAKcos: the definition of Butt. (see Lex.) is generally preferred. This word introduces a more particular description, after the general statement; hence, the asyndeton. The whole passage has been condemned by some fastidious critics; but it exhibits perhaps better than any other the position of the common people in the heroic age. The ugliness of Thersites' person and the coarseness of his language were only a natural set-off to his indecorum (according to the Homeric idea) in speaking at all in the assembly of the people. Cf. above v. 202. -' &Epo;, one, strictly one of two. See Lex.; a frequent use of &ETEpos in Hom. ---- oauVoVxWKJE: see Lex. ov'dXowKaC. - hrEprrEv is often rendered, as here, simply above. Does, then, the ending -bEf lose its force? I think not. It may be explained thus, hrep- above, -dEv from the chest, the part just mentioned. Cf. wrpo7rdpoie, v. 92, in front of the deep shore, viewedfrom a point (imagined by the poet) still more remote from the shore. And so, of similar instances; the connection suggesting how the relation from is to be understood. - &revvolE: Lex. sub voce. - EXraTos...,UdAotTa: notice the double superlative: most hateful especially to, etc. Cf. v. 58. -- EEICEIEIKE: t'IKEO w. iterative ending. - a're: Lex. II. 2, then however. - 4e4a, adv., shrilly, join w. KiFAl7YCc S (wadew): the manner of speaking was suited to the coarseness of the language and the ugliness of his person. ----.... KO:TEOTo: were angry at him, i. e. at Thersites. Some, I think improperly, understand Tip to mean Agamemnon. audrdp, yet, disregarding the indignation of the Achaeans. - paKcp& 8oiv: Lex. yuacpds, 4. 225-234.'r'o: H. 244 D; K. ~ 217, 6, (b); joined w.?rteu'pueaL, as gen. of cause; and with XaTIChes, a verb of want. H. 575, 577; K. ~ 273, 5, (b); ~ 274. Cf. 1, 65. 8': cf. 1, 540, Tls 8', note: on what account, l Fray, do you again find fault, and of what, etc. -CX KAlai, sc. elft. -- B$LSOfIEY: notice the pers., we Achaeans give. The arrogance of Thersites, in speaking for the whole army, is not to be overlooked. - Kal belongs regularly with the word or clause following it: are you still in want even of gold, or perh. thus, are you still in want of gold also, which, etc. --

Page  158 158 NOTES. KC w. fut. indic. Cf. 1, 1'75. - vTos: gen. See Lex. vlJs. Notice the dif. in accent. - S KeYv g-yc KTe.: here again the vanity and arrogance of Tllersites appear. - he -yvvaica e7rlv, or are you in want of a new concubine, etc. Two have already been mentioned, Chryseis and Briseis. Instead of yvvaitca, we should expect here the gen. in the same const. w. Xpvioo, depending on erLseveeaL: but'yvvaitca is so far removed from its verb, that the exact word is not thought of, and only the general idea of desiring, longing for (perh. wrobaw) is kept in mind, and this naturally takes the acc. *-i a.... -Xo'T7IsL,, "to gratify thy lust." Derby. - dfolyeaL, KaTr'oXeai (KaTiaXw, to keep): subjunc. H. 347 D; K. ~ 220, 16. a &pXbv &Tra, sc. he', subj. of?rBaoK'l ev (infin., Lex. rBda'oOKw): Kacctz, depends on erri in compos. denoting motion towards. H. 641, a, 583; K. ~ 296, (1), (b). Cf. 4, 99. 235-242.,elyXXea: dif. between Tib eleyXos and 6 eeryXos in meaning? See Lex. -'AXade''$s KTrE. Achaean women, no longer Achaean men I the most provoking taunt, as addressed to warriors. - TdSe, this one, i. e. Agamemnon. - acvoO, adv. - 7reaoez'v: Lex. fro~~ow, III. -... he': a double indirect question: Att. e..... See Lex. 5, II. Notice X' = -c-, which belongs probably w. 1. G. ~ 36, 2. Thus Kce... 4e' Att. eav... h, whether... or: an indirect double question depending on a verb of seeing, knowing, or inquiring. Notice the succession of enclitics f pd i- odl X': Ad... X', whether now: IH. 865; K. ~ 324, 3:.d (indef.), adv. ace.: ot (dat. enclit., receives the accent of X' = Ke'; hence, written oi), him, i. e. Agamemnon: 7rpooa/itrvoevP, subjunc. ~- Kai before OwKm intens., whether now we... or in fact (do) not (aid him). -- bs, since he. H. 822; K. ~ 334, 2: introduces one reason why the Greeks should now leave Agam. alone. -— o (= o$) depends on &A.Eelvova. - A&y K-ri. Cf. 1, 356, 507. - X,{xos, sc. i6'ri. - cppeoiv: const.? H. 609; K. ~ 285, 1, (3), (b). e —- tweraov, pred.: but he is, etc. -- i y&p &v... AwfooB31ao: condition omitted. H. 752.; K. ~ 340, 1; G. ~ 52, 2, for, (were it not so, i. e. were Achilles not of yielding disposition), you would surely now, etc. Cf. 1, 232. 245-251. viWrare: lTr-rrw. - re'p, intens., qualifies xAys: icZv, concess. Cf. 1, 131, note. --— Xeo: cf. 1, 214: force of the mid. voice? H. 687 ff; K. ~ 250. -- olos differs how fr. oTos in meaning? Lex.o... pjqtC: see Lex. (p7,A, III. for I deny that there is, etc. -- As anteced. of goaot, understand -riv or 7rac'VTWo: of all, as many as, etc. — rc-... a&opev0os: cond. omitted. Cf. v. 242: were it not thus (as I have affirmed), thlen (Trs) you would not, etc. This is the interpretation of Faesi and Naeg. Cr., however, and some others understand the optat. here as

Page  159 ILIAD II. 159 a rild imperat., and render it, wherefore do not, etc. The neg. obKi seems opposed to this explanation. vs& o'ar-da cXwv, see Lex. ar.,-4a, special phrases. BaoALXas, obj. of gXowv. - rpoe'pols.....vdoodaoLs: the force of obVK ty extends to the end of the sentence. 252-264.'1, cf.,l, v. 238. Recollect that the indef. Tls has the acute accent only when followed by an enclitic. - t YBAev: Attic form? H. 409, 6; K. ~ 195, ~ 228, (b), oi$a. - vres: appos. w. the subj. of voo'r'aoorev, sc. lAeis. - Vv. 254-256 probably do not belong here, as is indicated by the brackets. - TyC, by reason of this, wherefore. - v. 257. Cf. 1, 212.- icLX5rolcaL (KCLXdcO) is usually considered fut. indic. here. For KIC, Kev, or & w. fut. indic. see H. 710, b; K. ~ 260, 2, (1); G ~ 37, 2. Cf. 1, 139. Faesi and a few others consider it aor. subjunc. w. short mood-vowel. C- le: cf. Lex. WSe, II. as just now here;. or, if the local meaning of kUE in Hom. is denied, we may render the phrase lit. as just now, in this way. I incline to the opinion of Butt., Cr., and others, who in a few passages admit the local signification in Homrn. — /lcEyTL i7relTa..7. 7re[7 (E7r[, eiL[), then may, etc.: optat. of wishing. H. 721; K. ~ 259, 3, (b); G.. 82.-'OvariY,, emphatic, st. xotf: dat. of interest: lit. on the shoulders for Odysseus, or more freely, on the shoulders of Od.: &loLOZv depends on 7rlM in compos. - ard: join w. 8o:vo.- qi'Xa ei/taTra, thy garments. Cf. 1, 345, note. —T —d r': see Lex. rei, VI. which cover tly nakedness. -- avi'r, sc. aE, thee thyself. -- re rmxrycs: 7rXrooawr. - ayopiOev (&ayopd -&E): H. 203; K. ~ 235, 3. 266-27 1. o ie, but he, i. e. Thersites. - oT, from him. Const.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). -- v'rave'rTr: EK out from, 6rrd (repeated w. ao.7rrpoV) frorm under, a',d'up, r'7T1-TL (in what tenses intrans. in the act.? I1. 416, 1; K. ~ 173, Rem. 4). See Lex. ituvravcTar7l7/. {- ro: why accented thus? H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31. IV. - f- IeTo: up to this time, it appears, he had been standing;-an additional evidence that v. 255 (*orat iTE. you sit, etc.) is supposititious. - &XpeZov l&5v: Lex. Xpe7os, II. Cf. iKat Wyv v7rd8pa lc&v, v. 245. Here however (inv. 269) ~'l&v is used without any definite obj., i. e. absolutely. For the explanation of aXpeior, see IH. 547, c; K. ~ 278, 3, (c). - ol 8E, and they, i. e. the Greeks who were looking on. -.aXv'AievoL, concess.; 7rep, intens. even though exceedingly grieved, probably because of their disappointment in respect to the return home. -- Er'...?yeAaooa'av: iryEeXdciw. 7jbi implies that they enjoyed the laugh, and may be rendered, heartily. -- ce, thus (denoting, as in Att. usually, what follows). -- rls, in the fullest sense indefinite, and implying more than one, one and another. H. 683, b. - e2freglceyv: iterative ending.

Page  160 160 NOTES. 212-277. *i: rswrot denotes here astonishment: Heavens or 0 ye gods l Cf. v. 157, also 1, 254. -- opdoy-wv: the rendering for this passage in the Lex. is not quite suitable. Cr. renders it better, to raise, excite. --- ey' &prLa-ov, predicate-adj., qualifying Tod', obj. of fpeiteY: he has done this, the very best (deed): or more fully, this (is) the very best (deed which) he has done, etc. - 5s, in that he, since he, etc. Cf. 239, note: eoX' (= e*Xe fr. rXw) has restrained this.. from, etc. &yopdwv: Lex. &yopd, III. - 7rdxrv a3'ls: Lex. irdXiv, 3: o... &asvrei (a'&'[7hs), will not move him, etc.: a&'yvwp, insolent. 279-283. wrapd, sc. aVT.i. - soltvi: Lex. EIu, II. 2, c. dat. Ws... FrL(ppaooCafaTO (Ei7ruppdw): const. of final sentences? H. 739; K. ~ 330, 1, and 2; G. ~ 44. Remember that a&c6ye, is imperf. in meaning, though pluperf. in form. Lex. Avwoya. -- &aza' (= re) at the same time: ire seems to be used here, as often in the epic language after Kai', Te`V,?ydp, rrwos, O&L, etc. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, Rem. 4. o....voa'oi, both the first and the last, i. e. both the nearest and th/e most distant. -- pv KTe'. cf. 1, 73. 284-290. vvi 8 4: notice the force of o8f, giving point and animation to the statement, just now. -- AtegyX'rTov qualifies e' obj. of Lperevat, to render thee the most disgraced. wr1aoLv,pLpde'oraeo /poT0o7ov, in the view of, or among, etc. H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). r- VirEr'av = rE',rcav. Lex. bp6or'wLi, B. II. - rTE[XOvT-es agrees w. the subj. of v'riOaTav, while still on their way hither. -"IAwov 16re'paavTa (sc. TO) KTe. explains Vr5crxeor,, that you having sacked, etc. --- SaTe, like, as. Cf..T here with the re' after aqua, v. 281. —---,... re seems to be a union of two constructions, 1... f, and AT... T4. We cannot say in Eng. either... and. We may, therefore, omit the I in translating; unless, as F. suggests, we read X intens.;;for indeed, like, etc. - a'XXXonraw...,eo-aaL: lit. they lament to one another to return, etc. obvpovrTa implies the notion of longing, and hence takes the illfin. 291-300. The thought which follows is apologetic of the feeling just manifested by the Greeks; anld may be presented thus:-" truly, ours is even a hard lot (7rdos, lit. a labor): the mariner who is tossed a single month on the sea bears it ill (a'oXaAXd is distressed): we have suffered misfortune here nearly nine years; wherefore, I am not indignant that the Achaeans are sad; but it is also wholly disgraceful, you know (rot), that one remain a long time and return empty." These thoughts prepare the way for the abrupt and animating exhortation, bear up, m~y friends, etc. - J div: IT. 852, 10; K. ~ 316, 1, (a.) -- v,1r iTaa (&,vido) ECeraoal, subj. of 4o-riv, that one return in misfortune is, etc. - s A', indef. any one; re appears to be

Page  161 ILIAD II. 161 joined here to rhs, as often to Us,;orts, etc. Cf. note on &ua Te, v. 293. Faesi joins TI w. ydp, but its position is against such an explanation. - 5vprep relates to -ls. -?Iv.... zurEMd/Teot: const.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). - a- EYToS...?VLavTOs, the ninth revolving year is passing. The discrepancy between these words and those of Agamemnon (v. 134), is not important. my- T r: cf. v. 254. a- Xaxcdaw (&oXaAdwo): H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, 3. &- vpo.O Tre... VeE aL, sc. TrLV(, that one remain a long titne, etc., subj. of iaorty understood. rot, force? H. 852, 11; K. ~ 317, 3. 301-304. oTre' differs how in meaning fr. eae? The former is indic., the latter imperat. -- pdprvpot, witnesses, i. e. of what occurred at Aulis,the prodigy about to be related. - oVs ~ Kgcr.; a hyp. rel. clause, w. neg. AS and the indic. H. 761. -- aavdcoLo limits KipEs, the fates of death, the deadlyfates: m0av cpepovuao, lit. went bearing off: freely rendered, zohom the deadly fates did not bear away. - Xad e Kal 7rpc5i'Sa: lit. yesterday and the day before, is often used of events somewhat remote, yet vividly remembered, and hence seeming but as yesterday. Cf. XOfs Ka}.rpdc7)v in Herod. and nujper in Latin. Some modern critics connect this phrase with the preceding sentence; but ancient scholars and also the most recent critical editt. place a colon or period after q4'povaat, v. 302, and join this with the following; thus, but lately, when the ships... and when we were offering... then appeared (v. 308), etc. s AVbt&a: see map, eastern Boeotia. KaKcd, obj. of e'peovorai, which agrees w. Pres. 305-310. &up.l rept: so we can say round about. apcpt is considered as adv., rwept as prep. -— 7r wAararltp, plane-tree; still common in Greece; nearly the same as the tree often called in this country "button-wood;" called also improperly "sycamine "or "rsycamore." This latter name (fr. OKUov a fig and /zApos foolish) is still given by the Greeks to the mulberry, whose fruit resembles in taste a very poor fig before it is dried. The traveller Pausanias visited Aulis (2d cent. A. D., i. e. about 1,000 years after the time of Hom.), and saw the remnant of an old plane-tree and also a spring, which the inhabitants told him were the same as those mentioned in this passage of Hom. (Pausan. IX. 19.) - pdKKoev, subj. of 6povoev. - ro'v pa, wrpds pa: " the particle pAd, denoting the idea accordingly, of course, you know, refers back to e3... Mes, v. 301." FaesiL -..ce: ~tpaz. What would JKic fr. 5Kc mean? 811-320.,nrja re`Kva, "callow nestlings." Derby.- lbororrwrrTjTEs: orjoxcrsxw.-T. -reKCe: here spoken of a bird: that hatched the young. 8-ye, i. e. 8pdiKcv. - --- f1eevd, piteously, neut. plur. of'Aeevwo's, used as adv., w.'re'prY/ras ('-plOw). -.e'eAldClAevos: l.exSiw is spoken of a

Page  162 162 NOTES. serpent when it coils itself up and raises its head to seize on something. Butt. -- 7rTtpv-yos: const.? H. 574, b; K. ~ 273, 3, (b), (B), coiling up, he seized her by the wing, as she screamed round about: aucpaXUvav (a4puptcXw) agrees w. Tilv. - KaT&....qpaye: KaTEO'TCw. - &p~iC1Xov, adj. qualifying Tr6v, lit. very clear, significant; i. e. the god made him a sign, a prodigy. - 3o'7rep: notice the force of -rep, the very one who: rcplver, causative. Difference in meaning between the act. and pass. of #pacvo? -- xav... *,tce, lit. made him a stone, i. e. turned himn to stone. -- oFov T'jXa1 (TeEXWc), lit. at such a thing as had been done, i. e. at what had happened. 321-332. &s oiv... KdAXas' abvlhc' &ArELTa, as therefore (or when therefore)... then Calchas immediately thereupon, etc. 8' = 8': cf. 1, 68, note. - e &vew, adv. st. veqp, adj. is found in most editt., why were you in silence, etc. - — qzqor, 04drt~e'Xeorov: the latter adj. repeats the idea, and makes it more definite: late, late in its fulfilment. Cf. arpudrqrv, avd7rotvor, 1, 99. boov = o KXeors, the fame of which.-'s ovros....&s j/ue-is, as this (serpent)... so we, etc. Notice the dif. between &s and ls ( = ov'ows).,- a, there, i. e. near Troy. - - tl E-KdCT (SC. tEL): definite time when: on the tenth: or, as F. renders, then, on the tenth, giving Trt a more demonstrative force. — e Kivos, i. e. Calchas:.6r = &S, obicos. - m 8- X, just these things, i. e. the things predicted by Calchas at Aulis. r'AeZX7at is either pres. or fut. in form: here, pres. in meaning, are being fulfilled. -- ye has the form of the sing. verb: hence, must be regarded as interjec.; see Lex.?-ye. -- avbTo, adv. here, on the spot, i. e. in front of Troy..- dro'Kev (e9ds, i, Kcev)... AEev, until we have taken, etc. 333-343. a&u/zp, adv. round about, join w. Kovd,8'l'oav. - Ayopdaofae (a&opadoacl): for the duplication of the vowel, see H. 370 D; K. ~ 222 A. (3).- -vvrLdXols: adj. qualifying rarlsv'. Its position makes it emphatic and also shows more clearly to what oJs refers. -u - J.....i 7rvpl $i: mark the animating effect of 6, which we cannot adequately render into Eng.; whither nowo... in the fire now would fall (lit. would become), etc. ityzp: const.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). It may be rendered w. ovv'oveaa and 8picia our agreements, etc. sv wrvpl... /yevroaTo: force of the const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3, (a). - C s: dat. plur.: differs how in form fr. the gen. sing. fem.? eCrerlapev (7reifrw): H. 425 D, 8; K. ~ 228, (b). - ca~crws. The meaning in vain is questioned by some critics (Lex. III.), yet Pape, Cr. and others admit this signification for a few passages. So here,-for we wrangle in vain, etc. ----- Xo, device, expedient, i. e. for the attainment of our object.

Page  163 ILIAD II. 163 344-349. 9' (tr,) &J srpar, still as formerly; join w. tpXeve. - a, imperat. fr. Jdw. -'cva Kal 86o: appos. w. rovao-e: spoken contempt. uously. - s-ot, who. H. 239 D; 243 D; K. ~ 217, 4 and 5. What are the distinct uses of Tot in Horn.? Cf. 1, 28, Note. E-&-vans... avbTcov, parenthetical: avb'iv appears to be active gen., or gen. from which something proceeds. H. 579, c; K. ~ 273, lit. there will not be an accomplishment (of their plans) proceeding from them: freely rendered, and they will accomplish nothing. - rpv... E.. a, 7rplv...,yv&c,ueva, lit. sooner to go... before knowing, etc. A similar repetition of irply is not rare (cf. 1, 98). The former 7rptr may be omitted in translating: 1'Val depends directly on.,ovAev6ot, advise to go to Argos, before knowing, etc. For the const. rplhv... yJ&slErva, see H. 769; K. ~ 2~37, 9. - nts by prolepsis is connected directly w. ywjsuevaL (cf. 4, 357), and must be repeated in idea w. dbroaXEms: before knowing even the aegis-bearing Zeus, whether his promise (is), etc. qei8os: predicate. Notice the force of Kad before obKt, even not; i. e. the promise of Zeus may even prove to be true, slow as we now are to believe it. 350-356. 7y&p (Lex. II. epexegetic) o~l (Lex. II.), for accordingly. Both words refer to u7rdXeoasr. - icaravea'aL, used absolutely, made a promise: Kpov~owva, subj. a-o-rpdrsco, pda[rvwv: nom. st. acc. (ra-rpdwrroir-a, 4aivovra), as though the sentence had begun cKae'YEvOe Kpovp'ov IcTr., —an instance of anacoluthon. H. 886; K. ~ 347, 5. Force of the particip. here? The means: by flashing his lightning on the right, etc. The next clause is explanatory of this. -- T7,, by reason of this, therefore. - rpl... 7rpv: cf. v. 348: also 1, 97 and 98, before each one has lain with a wife of the Trojans and avenged, etc. -'EAer's may be viewed as subjective gen., the longings and groans of Helen; or as objective gen., the longings and groans (of the Greeks) for Helen, or on account of Helen. Critics are about equally divided between these two views. 358-367. yrdJs depends on &arT,4ow (let him touch). H. 574, b; K. ~ 273, 3, (b), (a). - rlarirp: Lex. Jc-o~w, III.- p-1 eo, /A&opuas: areeod' A&XXA, and yield to another. - obroe KTic. Notice the asyndeton in this and the following verse, denoting haste and animation: g'ros, pred. whatever I shall say will be a word, etc. Ka- c, distrib. Lex. B. II. -'Ayd/uelgeo,: accent. H. 172, b; K. ~ 65, 5. -- cs, final, in order that. - -4p1*prvp77: for the epic case-ending -,q(v), see IH. 206 D; K. ~ 210.- pqAx, sc. api7.. U- fs: differs how in meaning fr. &r? Cf. 326, note: eptps, ep'8a. - WS' jye/owyvw (sc.'atri) IKc., both who of the leaders is cowardly, etc., —definite and positive: fi' os K'... Epore (= -, fr, e4l/l, H. 406 D; K. ~ 225), and who perchance may be brave,-hypothetical,

Page  164 164 N OTES. - Kanc& or'pas: by themselves, or perh. according to themselves, i. e. ac. cording to their various characters. Cf. Kaze' e' av'r-v,, 1, 271. I.aXEovVTaL (Att.,Aaxovvat), fut. - Notice the two forms'yvopr and cjo6&ea. The latter is more frequent in Hom. H. 363 D; K. ~ 220, 10. -- Pereoip: Lex. &eaorg os, II. 1, by the divine purpose. 370-376. &aop.- vricKs, you surpass in debate.- at yap... ey, would I had, etc. Force of this form of wish? H. 721; K. ~ 259, 3; G. ~ 82. - TMe;, then, introduces the apod. Cf. v. 250. - Ayv/el: *#V/W. Cf the comp. 4FrqnUsw, v. 148. ~ouoa (&AtoarnaL), agrees w. r.dALs: observe that even the act. and mid. forms of this verb are pass. in meaning. Observe also the difference between the aor. (aXoVa-a) and pres. particip. (TepJoAEJ',vl): lit. having been taken, while being sacked, the city would totter. -~ — uer'... E'pL&as, into the midst of, etc. 37'7-380. uaX-Owrdera a: why first pers.? H. 511, c; K. ~ 242, 2. ziveKa Ko'psos. The mention of so unimportant an occasion of a quarrel so serious is in keeping with the acknowledgment a)Z? 3' 7]pXov, I began, I took the lead. That he said this artfully, to conciliate to himself the disaffected army, seems less natural than to take it as a frank expression of the repentance which he was now beginning to feel. - /... Aov.Aedoey, appears to be a more animated and hopeful form of supposition than e',&,.. BovXevorwev. G. ~ 50, Note 1. Cs -ye uxa,, sc. 8ovAX,, suggested by 3ovxeivo-otz,, if we shall ever be at one. - ob' ilaidv emphasizes the preceding sentence: not evenfor a little. 381-385. [poxEce....vvdsyowev,: a similar change of person is not unusual.'Ap-oa, Ares, the god of battle, by meton. for battle: that we may join battle. --— rls, each one. Cf. v. 2'71. - e....a'ow, let each one prepare well (lit. place well) his shield, so that it may be ready at any moment. - aptis,' usu. an adv. here a prep. = a&u/t with a movable s. H. 80 D. What prepositions do not suffer anastrophe? H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, Rem. 2: let each, having looked well on both sides of his chariot, etc. -'s (proclit.) receives the accent of Kie (enclit.): it is to be taken here as causal, since. As a final conj. that, in order that, it takes the subjunc. usu. without KEd or &v. H. 739; K. ~ 330; G. ~ 44. c-... icpwv&,eAa: nearly equivalent to the fut. indic., yet less positive: we shall contend (lit. decide among ourselves) in hateful battle. Cf. K... if;cal, 1, 137: 7rarlzeI'pLo, cf. 1, 472, N. 386-393. Notice the emphatic force of y' after 7ravacoXh: also of eArcTd in compos. (Whatever else shall occur) there will not be any inlterval of rest at least. - TreV = 7o0 =- rIs. H. 244 D; K. ~ 217, 6: both rev and aori'os limit TeXajcu6v. As the idea of Teu must also be supplied

Page  165 ILIAD II. 165 w. a-T1Eeoa, it is easier to render the clause thus, the belt of the mawn encircling shield will reek with sweat around the breast of each one. cKa/LeTraL, sc.'rls, suggested by rev: lit. each one will grow weary in hand: more freely, the hand of each will grow weary. Notice the use of a&1tu and rept w. dat. H. 637, 649; K. ~ 295, 2, II. and 3, II. - z lty.djefLy depends on &4E'Xovwa. -- -puyeELv KC. subj. of o'wre'aL (for this form, see H:. 406 D; K. ~ 225), after that, to him an escape from dogs and birds of prey will not be sure. 394-399. KOIca: Cr. supplies idXel, suggested by Yfaxov. The same verb occurs 1, 482.- if re KItvo1p, sc. aieW, i. e. KOica. Notice the omission of &v in this hyp. rel. sent. H. 759; K. ~ 337, 5, also Rem. 3; G. ~ 63. Cf. 1, 80.- crKo7rlEt': appos. w. aKT7-,-a more specific description;-on a lofty beach,... on a projecting cliff. -- r6v, i. e. acKr'xrAv. cKvta~a... a&vs'cov: gen. of cause. II. 566; K. ~ 273; waves raised by, etc. 5i' &s (sc. VeUOI).... yye'vvYaL:-a more definite description of Trarrocuv: for Ev'ra' vbla, see Lex. Evaa, 2.- aVrdrvTdes =- a&raoTdrres. H. 73 D; K. ~ 207, 7. -- — KdrvoLraa (iKarviScw): the exact meaning of this word when translated does not sound very poetical; yet, in a picture, the smoke, curling up at a thousand points among the tents, would be a conspicuous and beautiful feature. Hom. viewed every thing with the eye of an artist. - ae77rvOv. It must have been nearly morning as they partook of this meal. 400-411. TAXos WVAG: a familiar idiom both in Greek and in Latin: one sacrificed to one; another, to another, etc. -...'Aya/uEuv4vw: cf. note on yvvh, 1, 348. Aziavyre V6,o, the two Ajaxes, i. e. Ajax son of Telamon (mentioned 1, 145), and Ajax son of Oileus, leader of the Locrians, less in stature than the son of Telamon, but greatly distinguished in the use of the spear. - TueSos vid', son of Tydeus, i. e. Diomed, ruler of Argos, one of the bravest of the heroes. His exploits are celebrated especially in the 5th book. — of: const.? H. 597; K. ~ 284, 3, (10), camne to assist him. How may we at sight know, that this is dat., and not the nom. pl. masc. of the article? By the accent of the preceding word. M- -ee.... AeXqebv &s &7roveZTo: an instance of prolepsis. H. 726; K. ~ 347, 3, lit. for he knew in mind his brother how he was toiling, i. e. he knew how his brother was toiling. — — reptoTrwac = Wrepcaorwc/a,, 2d aor. they s'ood around. --— obXoxras aveXos'ro: cf. 1, 449. —-- -roov depends on j/eTd in compos. Cf. 1, 58. 413-418. I1Z... GSva KTie. let not the sun go down, etc. or may not, etc. Infin. for imperat. in the 3d pers. H. 784; K. ~ 306, Rem. 11; G. ~ 102. This const. is sometimes explained by supposing the ellipsis of FeiXo/zat, I

Page  166 166 NOTES. pray that, etc. - 7rplv... 7rp[v: cf. 348. -- r'... Sivai, 7rLSw: irl... ev, E7rfpXo/AaL. iE'Aov, subj. of,r5ivaL: iKcvpas, subj. of EfA,3e-iv. - rphv ue... BaXeelv, before I cast down, etc. Const.? 11. 769; K. ~ 337, 9; G. ~ 106. Cf. v. 348. — arpaL 8- ICT. and burn, etc. (Lex. 7fr/lrpt7LL,), same const. w. icar&... aTxELV. So also Ut~aiL (aa'"co).irupbs 8nLoio, with, etc. The gen. is here used, like the Lat. ablative, to denote the means or instrument; a rare const., for which the dat. is comm. employed. See H. 579, 582; K. ~ 272. --- owyahov, adj. qualifying X&vcrwa: repeats and strengthens the idea of ataz. --— romfees (7roxas): observe it is not 7ro'EES: cf. vroKxas, v. 4. o- 0 I AahoaTao?yaZar, may many, etc. Somewhat similar is the idea of Bor. 0. 2, 7, 12, turpe solum tetigere mento. 419-433. or'... Kpovlwv, nor did the son of Kronos in any way grant (it) to him. 7rc is taken for wr&s in this and many other passages of Hm., by Cr., F., Diintz. and others. But Pape, St., L. & Sc., and others regard it as a Doric form for 7ro'. Naeg. (revised by Autenrieth) takes it in its usu. sense, and lenders the phrase aber noch nicht sogleich, but not yet forthwith. The learner may follow his own judgment in choosing between these views. ---- bKc, G8Xopai.a — SQeAXev, ipOtew (B): to be carefully distinguished fr. q(pExw in the sense of QfCpeixw. — 421 if., cf. 1, 458 if. -- a-X[paly, dat. of means or instrument. In 1, 462, we find?7rl L Xps, upon, etc. —-&parelpa Tes, &varerpw.c —'HpalcaoToo: the name of the god of fire, by meton. for fire. Cf. "Ap7la, 381, note. -- Tos... JpXe, lit. began words to them, i. e. began to address them. Const. of ro0s? H. 597; K. ~ 284. 435-440. 8h' = 871ad = =v = bqrpo'v: let us not now discourse here still a long time, or let us not longer now discourse here much time. Force of 86 after i? H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2. -- yeipo'rTrwv: imperat. 3d pl., let heralds, etc. -- iaes... b8e, and let us, assembled as we are, go, etc. Recollect that the local signification of k6e (here) is very rare in Hm. Cf. 258, note. The local meaning is not necessary in the verse before us. loerv, a&yeipope,, subjunc. w. short mode-sign. HI. 347 D; K. ~ 220, 16. -- ioppa Ke 1cT.r: notice here the particle ice' in a final sentence. H. 741; K. ~ 330, 4; G. ~ 44. Note 2. 442-449. CEpdcea0a..... KCXEVv ircptvaev: notice KEe~,iw here w. dat. and infin. Cf. v. 151. Usu. w. ace. and inlfin., he commanded clear-voiced heralds to summon, etc. ~-rol Te', Att. oi 81, and they, referring to the obj. of Kripvaarov, sc.'AXatods. - i- lyepovT'o: ay&'?pow differs how in meaning fr. d yeipc (v. 440). -- o aEp"''ATpefcora: force of this const.? H. 639, Phrases; K. ~ 263, d. [$aLrcaes, definitive appos. w. ol Be'. H. 500, d;

Page  167 ILIAD II. 167 K. ~ 266. Cf. 1, 348, note. The son of Atreus with his attendants, the Zeus-nurturcd kings. -- KpvovPres, ordering (the forces); probably according to the advice of Nestor, v. 362 if. -- eAT& se, sc. -ros, or av'Toss, and among them the bright-eyed Athena, etc.; but probably, according to the conception of the poet, invisible. - aleyla: for a full account of the aegis, and also a view of it, as represented by ancient artists, see Dic. Antiqq. art. Aegis.- ~ri s depends on ~epe'&ovTat, from this float, etc. H. 579; K. ~ 271, 2. - iKa7d4l8loLoT as itcao'ros, and each worth a hundred oxen. Coined money is not mentioned in Hrm. 450-458. obv aj, with this, i. e. the aegis. -- aE-aav-To, lcaorEco: iv... &paeOv,?,'pvri: o-rE'Os, obj. of SpoEf,. - 7roXeoixelv and.adXEOraLa: infin. denoting purpose; to war and fight: H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1; G. ~ 97. - ve~raeL Kre. in const. is a subst. in the nom., was sweeter to them than to go, etc. 0- eVe... as: cf. note v. 87. --' re: H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, Rem. 4. uis T pXoircVOw is usu. considered gen. abs., while these were advancing. Would it not be simpler to make it limit XaXKoD? thus, from the divine armor of these while advancing, the splendor, etc. 459-468. Ty, repeated v. 464, limits Yvea in v. 464. - Xrn'rv KrE. defin. appos. w. 3opvylov. -'Aroni v AeCXjcvws; in the Asian meadow, called afterwards Kava-Tpov re8lovy: not however the same as that mentioned in Xen. Anab. 1, 2, 11. What was the original application of the name Asia? See Lex.'Asoa, II. - 7ror&3sac: plur. verb w. neut. plur. subj.'avea. H. 515, Exc. b; K. ~ 241, Rem. 5, (c). - ~ rpoKaatL4SvT ov agrees w. X%7qvcv KKl., while they alight, etc.; 7rpo- seems to denote the forward movement of these birds in the act of alighting. -- wFa: the same word, spoken of birds (v. 459), and here of men: we should use different words, many flocks of birds, v~ea denoting perh. also the different species, geese, etc.; many nations of these from ships, etc. Why is a&r6 here written P&ro? H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, iv. - 7rpoxE'ov'ro: cf. note on ~roTcvTra9. -?roSUv depends on 67rd, separated fr. KovdcSCe by tmesis: under the feet both of the men themselves, etc. -- puptoL: notice the accent, denoting an indefinite number; myriads, as many as, etc. 7y/yre at M5pp, come forth in their season. Difference in meaning between y(Yvo1AaL and feai? 469-473. Z*Yea must here be rendered by still another Eng. word, swarms. Cf. v. 87. The verb of this clause (sc. iaro or elao) is not expressed. It is easier to render 7'TE KTei. here, like many, etc. - OTE re, when. Attention has often been called to this use of 7'I in Hm. H. 856; K. ~ 321, R. 4. -'6ovaoo, so many. We might expect here us as correlative with /ire, cf. v. 457; but TrdJoro directs the mind more distinctly

Page  168 168 NOTES. to the idea of number. - Arl TpceoOr, over against, etc., a rare meaning in prose. - Bappara& (Biappahiw), sc. Tpceas:,teAaw'res, Lex. MAL. 474-479. Tro$s: repeated after Ms, v. 476; obj., of 8se&icdrjeov. — - ao8 e... Ms, as... so: cf. vv. 459, 464...rAasTa, wrxaTrs, wide-spread, extensive. - ahirXoL &Otpes, goat-herds: attrib. appos. H. 500, a; K. ~ 266: an idiom more comm. in Hm. than in Att. (f. BoOs Traipos, a bull, v. 480, 481: 7ra'Tpfa?yaha, father-land, v. 454. Similar to these is the phrase ahbrdZAa ai'ycv, herds of goats. In Att. ah7rgXa alone would express the idea; so also, ahirgdAo,'ra~pos, Grampis would stand without the appositive. -- vo uo: dif between vopo's and 4wors in meaning? /uLwy - WOLr, j/lyPv/.L, SC. ali7roda alTyciy as subj., when they (the herds of goats) have been mingled, etc. -- rods, these, i. e. the Grecial forces. --,erma depends on LeKco'/ueov as an indirect obj. to denote purpose. H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1, (d); G. ~ 97: arranged... to go, etc. /-u ETd, cf. pETa v. 446, note. o- iuar'a, Kce aAvr, accus. of specif. - &vr/Y, here, not the girdle, but, as the connection requires, that part of the body around which the girdle passes, i. e. the waist. Lex. II. 480-483. Sois... rTapos: cf. note on alr4XAot 4svpes, v. 474. —--- dayeAkqqn: cf. (pp4Tp*lqjpv, note v. 363. — r be'ro: cf. note on brXeo, 1, 418. -- 7rac'Tov, join w.'EoXos. H. 584, g; K. ~ 273, 3. - TroZov KiT., such did Zeus render Atrides, etc. ieKrpe7r'a, eoxorv, qualify'ATpEfIar, conspicuous among many, and eminent among heroes. With the const. eGXOo?7pCjeoaot,, Cr. compares E'eyXEr7Xrov,.....po0'oZow,, v. 285: &pLr'perea Tpcerawv, 6, 477. Some, however, prefer to take vroAAoi'~ as an adj. w. 484-493.'ErreEre, imperat. = eYra're. Lex. efro,. Moo-as: cf. note on aea, 1, 1.- raiped'E TIe, sc. 7raltv, are present with all things. - - o-ov differs how in meaning fr. o'ov? — o'rTves Tri., connect in thought w.'Ea7re're Pvv iUo. - oViK V dyB c, vSnro-olxal (subjunct. w. short mode-sign) oi8' bvotrkovw (fr. bvoxalCow): for this form of apod. w. the protasis oiv' eY got....eve, see G. ~ 38, 2, and note. Cf. also 1, 137, 1 could not mention nor name, etc., not even if I had, etc.: XdAKEOv... evel (i', Atqu) and ij' there were within me, etc.: es!x3... u a71raalS' (= LyvlafCaTo, fr. pIrUP1oCKW) Kir. unless, etc., a second protasis (required to complete the thought) with the same apod., I could not mention, etc. With vv. 489, 490, cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 625, Non, mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, Ferrea vox, etc. &E4Ka and centum are used in about the same sense for a large number.

Page  169 ILIAD II. 169 The so-called Catalogue of the ships, called also BoLoW,-ta (fr. the word BoLWcoiJv with which it commences), was intended by the poet as a sort of grand review of the forces before the battle. It was highly interesting and valuable to the Greeks of the historic period as a geographical compendium; and was referred to in the settlement of boundary questions between different cities. It is, however, of less interest to us, and is not generally read in American schools. For this reason, it is omitted in this work, a single paragraph only being given as a specimen of the general character of the whole. The poet begins with the Boeotians, perhaps because the place of rendezvous for all the Grecian forces before embarking for Troy was at Aulis in Boeotia. 760-778. O0i-oL &pa, these then, or such then. rts'r' tp: see 1, 8, note. 6X' = 6Xa. - Movera: cf. note on ed, 11.- aivriv I8' 1'r7rwv: partitive appos. w. r,&v, far the best of these, of the men themselves and of the horses. -- &plbxas, ~3p: rapaqXv p, notice the accent. Differs how in meaning fr. aTpuKvx? -- &!ow rl7Xefas, both mares. The mares were considered fleeter. - ofppa, temporal, while. -'- Errol A', sc. roXb ~pe'pTaTo& Ho-av, and his horses were far the best. (popeEoKocv; cop4E w. iterative ending. - gKET' = IKELro: Lex. KeZiam, I. 2. 86IKoLorLv K7T'. amused themselves with quoits, and in casting javelins, and with bows and arrows; or, if we take To401Tv in the same const. w. ailyavEt'ov, then we must understand it in the sense of arrows alone: we may also take'EVTres w. each dat. and render, amused themselves in casting quoits, and javelins, and arrows. For'lIu.L w. dat. cf. Anab. 1, 5, 12.- Ei'Kaoros: cf. 1, 606, note. - ro''Tarav: pluperf. in form, imperf. in meaning. H. 305; K. ~ 193. - es e 7rrtvKaote'va, well covered, i. e. with robes, which were thrown over them for protection when not in use. - o0 se', i. e. &vaKraes. 780-785. O 01' &p' firav': the poet here takes a glance at the whole body of Achaeans above enumerated, before proceeding to the array of Trojan forces. - &-edl Te: Epic use of TrE. H. 856; K. ~ 321, Rem. 4. reso~-o: Lex. vruc, B, as if a whole land should be consumed by fire. Those who have seen the advance of fire on a prairie will have a vivid conception of the force of this comparison. v- 7 reG'eydXXLe, sc. avToss, or perh. r&v, v7rb 7roa-o- (v. 784), and the earth groaned under (them): ALl &s (='Ws Al. H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (c) ), as (it groans under) Zeus. - 9Tie Ire (Epic use of T)... iltdoa-: hyp. rel. sent. without &v. H. 759; K. ~ 337, R. 3; G. ~ 63, when he lashes, etc. i. e. by means of his thunderbolts (Kepavvols). - &s (demonst.), so, thus, etc. - a8E'rploaaov (sc. Ke'evaUoV, cf. Odys. 2, 213, 429) 7re6Iolo, they accomplished (their march) 8

Page  170 170 i NOTES. through, etc., they passed through the plain. 7re0LroL depends on 8Ld in compos. H. 583; K. ~ 291, 1. 786-795. wroeqtuos cHe'a, swift-footed as the wind. - a~-b &yyEXlp a&eyElv., with sad tidings, viz. that the Greeks were advancing.ayopas (cogn. acc.) f&ypevoy, entered into deliberations. - Ei~aao: Lex. EIAf'. A. II. 2. poryir, acc. of specif. v — BtS ie' &aKpoTdTr~, on the highest part of, etc., on the top of the tomb of, etc. Cf. summus in Lat.?- Ey!zez'os: E'Xo/yaL, II. 3.' Yvapiy: gen. plur. H. 206 D; K. ~ 210, depends on &p- (a&ro in compos.). --,T depends on ieieaawe77c, having made herself like to this one, i. e. Polites: Ilev depends on /zuETe'+l (a rare const.; as a substitute for which srpoorEgs has been suggested, but not generally adopted); addressed him (flETa perh. suggesting the idea, among other speakers in the assembly). 796-806. /udaoL &KpITOI (cf. &aKCpLrVafe, v. 246), subj.; cptXot, pred. - os, relat. adv. as; receives here the accent of rOTE', hence written Us. E-rl w. gen. often means as here in time of. opwpeY: i$pvvp,. - MudXa 7roxxd, adv., very many times, very often. -- or7ra: Lex. Jpdco. - 7reBi'oLo: const.? H. 590, a; K. ~ 271, over the p'ain, or from the plain. - roxxol... irtlcovpoL, sc. eoSAV4. - kAXs7 &AAowv KTE., one language belongs to one, another to another of the men widely dispersed, i. e. freely rendered, the languages of the men widely dispersed are various. Cf. xAAos $Axxw, v. 400. - og70iv....odad Wrep dpXeL, those whom he commands. - IroA4ras, men of the same city, his own citizens. 807-815. o6tr.... 7yzohoezv, did not fail to recognize, etc., i. e. he knew it was the goddess, and not Polites. 4- Opopet: what tense in form, and what in meaning? Cf. opwpev, v. 797. -- rALxos: -XLos forms here one long syllable,-a very rare synizesis. -- arravevae, at a distance (from the city): - repr~poyos tiAza ial E4aua, detached on all sides, lit. that may be run around, etc. - aiv ToTl &sPpes IKC., which men indeed call, etc. Cf. note on Briareos, 1, 403. —s e' Te: Epic use of re-. e — 1KpsPLev: were separated and arranged, i. e. were drawn up in order of battle. Cf. BlaKp'vwo'v, v. 475: KPVOVYTes, v. 446. The remainder of this book is occupied with an enumeration of the Trojan forces.

Page  171 ILIAD III. 171 BOOK THIRD. 1-9. AVbT&p Erel Kcdo7,reSv leads the mind back to &s -TOs?yseo'Vse 81EKO'doEov KTi., 2, 476. -- atcao''oL, they severally, i. e. the several divisions of both armies. -- Tf-e irEp, just as, etc., is to be connected with what precedes; since no sentence follows introduced by a correlative ais, so; as in 2, 455, 457. — obpadm'uL (H. 203, a; K. ~ 235, 3) Irpd, heaven-ward. - ate: subj. of pt-yov. For the arrangement, cf. 1, 57. E- firel Ov, whenever: o,,v appears to be used here as a suffix of erefi, with the same force as after io-,ts, etc. Cf. H. 251; K. ~ 95, (b.) - cpv-yov: gnomic aor. H. 707; K. ~ 256, 4, (b); G. ~ 30. As a general truth is expressed in Eng. by the pres. tense, the gnomic aor. must consequently be translated into Eng. by the pres.; whenever theyflee from, etc. Cf. note on E'KXvo,, 1, 218. --'aye repeats the idea of a'ie; these, i. e. the cranes. For the Homeric idea of'nKaceas, see Lex.: podwv depends on irn, towards. - lnv-uaoto-iL: derivation and meaning? See Lex. For some further speculations respecting this curious myth, see Class. Dic. art. Pygmaei. - 4pippouvar agrees w.'raiye.- VeplaL: cf. XaLSos, note, 1, 424: Epp'-, 1, 497. -- of...'AXaol: cf. note oln 7 8....yvvh', 1, 348. -- Udvea 7rvYefoVrES: Lex. rveo'w, V. u-!eplacTes: Lex. MAt. 10-20. Eve.....s (v. 13), as when... so. Cf. 2, 455, 457. KaT-XEEVEV (KaTaX4co), pours, spreads: gnomic aor.: cf. cpdyov, v. 4. xplrlv, &utevce, agree w. OXhXl'v. - c KXe'7rp: dat. of interest, better than night to a thief. -- roTaov KTc., and one sees as far as, etc., indicates the density of the mist.,- Tls (indef.) receives the accent of Te' (enclit.), and hence appears in the form Tis. - io-ov Tre: Epic use of e'. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, Rem. 4.- erl... 77oIv: [*71,ul. ~-', 6'rb'rorol....?pove'Vwv,: cf. 2, 784. -- &erprlov, 1re$8oio: cf. note 2, 785. -- O''SeT l8 KTE.: notice the lively force of M8, and just when they were almost, etc. -- Tpwoalv: dat. of interest: e'V, correl. $V, v. 21.- &/zo,;ov: coust? Cf. 1, 45, note. -.rda: cf. 1, 45, note. - Boupe Sew: notice the numeral V6w (Att. 86o) with the dual; not unusual. Observe also that he bore two spears; as was often the case with the Homeric he oes, so that, when one was hurled, another was still left. In the historic period, the spear was not hurled; and only one consequently was needed. - KcKopvfaueVa: Kopi6oiow. -'Apyetwv depends on a&pfa-rovs as partit. gen. 21-29. Tov: emphat. position: &s, temporal, when. —-'Ap7t1ApXos

Page  172 172 NOTES. occurs very often in this book as an epithet of Menelaus. In other books it occurs but seldom. - caKp& 1 B,3IavTa (H. 435 D, 1; K. ~ 230, $BaYwo, taking long strides.- a'e.... Bs (v. 27): cf. 2, 459, 464. --- EXdp (Xatpwc): gnomic aor.: cf. efvIyov, v. 4, note. i- Kmpaas: Kvpec. - VreLvdWo, placed last of the adjuncts of XACwv, because it is the most important particular in the description, and also to make the connection with the following clearer. A faithful translation must present the thought as nearly as possible in the order of the original. - ycdp Te: Epic use of e'. - pd-ro: meaning here? Cf. ~ip, 2, 37, note. - friaeerai: Lex. rtWco, II. Force of the fut. infin. as distinguished from the pres. or aor. infin. w. ay? G. ~ 73, 1, for he said to himself, Ishall take vengeance on the villain. —'I X4opW: plur. on the same principle as Trda, cf. 1, 45, note: axTo, H. 408 D, 33; K. ~ 230, aXAXouat: he leaped from his chariot, etc. Paris was already on foot (v. 22). 31-40. IcaTe7r7Apr, KaTawxrAiaoo: p[Axov, cf. 1, 345, note. =- &'s 8'?re...&s (v. 36), and as when... so, etc. Tls (indef.) receives the accent of T'i, hence written ish: " TIE may be taken either w. c&s or w. o"fe." F. Epic use: H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, R. 4. - a&7re'ar, XXaa93e, aeXcip7lo'ev, eT.e: cf. note on ep6'yov, v. 4.-,36iaaps differs how in form fr. the gen. sing.? virb....&AaBe,,broxacSdrc. - ds, obj. of EhAe, irapeusr, acc. of specif. With this passage, cf. Virg. Aen. 2; 379, ff. -- ru: what tenses of Fico are intrans. in the act. voice? See Lex. - eos: acc. of specif. aYt' 6aeXEs... a&7roAieraa (a7rdAAvyz). H. 721, b; K. ~ 259, R. 6; G. ~ 83. "Would thou hadst ne'er been born, or died at least unwedded." D. Lit. would thou hadst both been unborn and hadst perished unwedded. The former part of the wish includes of course the latter; but both thoughts were in the mind of Hector, and he utters both at the same breath, placing the more important of the two first, with little concern for logical exactness. Cf. 1, 251, note. 41-53. ial... BovAol~l7p, I could even wish this: poten. optat. IT. 722; K. ~ 259, 3, (a); G. ~ 52, 2. —- Kv....evr: force of this const.? H. 746; K. ~ 260, 2, (2); G. ~ 37, 3. - eirevat, sc. ae' as subj. than that you should be thus both a dishonor and a scorn of others (i. e. for having as a coward retreated at the sight of Menelaus): veirdirov may be taken as an adj. in the ace. sing. masc. agreeing w. the subj. of e/lcvai, or perh. in the neut. as subst., a thing scorned, a scorn. I prefer the latter, as the const. is then uniform with that of x/3Vrqp. - wotd, force? Lex. vor, II. 2. -- KayXaXAwoT: KayXacXdw. -- eltecvat, se. ao', that you are, etc. --'= e- rr7reo'. Cf. 1, 515. H. 102, a; K. ~ 31, R. 3.- roIsIe Krf., did you, being such a man, having sailed, etc... bring back, etc. Several

Page  173 ILIAD III. 173 critical editt. read here X st. J. See Lex. j, II. 2. Yvvv, a kinswoman. - ra, Xdppa, KaTr1cPe[v: appos. w. the idea yvvaic'.. v. vyes. H. 501; K. ~ 266, R. 2. obK Iv B 6 Kir., could you not then (after having exhibited in your wild adventures so much daring) await, etc. - yotrls X' (= Kec), you might in, that case know, etc.; protasis omitted. H. 752; K. ~ 340, 1; G. ~ 52, 2. -- o7ov....wapdKcoLrv, lit. the blooming wife of what sort of a man you possess, i. e. whose (emphasize this word) blooming woife you possess. 54-57. oabK Y& -ro Xpa[toLp. For vY w. the subjunc., cf. 1, 137, note. - Te... Lmyeirls presents the case as a mere possibility, not as a probability. Cf. H. 748, 747; K. ~ 339, II., (a), and (b); G. ~ 61, 4. Had it been oTwrav.. I./y.s (which olK hv Xpa&fas would suggest), then the case would be presented more distinctly and vividly, as something that might occur in the future. The sentence may be rendered freely, your lyre, etc. would not aid you, when you should be mingled woith the dust. Td, A/, rd, demonst., those gifts, etc., that hair of yours, that fine appearance. Cf. note on 6, a, Td, 1, 9. ----- e KEY... fonro (.evvilI) XLT-va: condition omitted. Cf. 2, 242, note. And truly (were it not so, i. e. were the Trojans not very cowardly) you would already have put on a tunic of stone. See Lex. Adsivos. - op'yas, Epo. 69-70. eiredt e... a-oavy: a subordinate sentence with no principal sentence immediately expressed; as is often the case in hurried conversation. We shall best represent the original, by translating it just as it stands, without supplying any thing. The proper apodosis, as Dr. Owen suggests, appears below, v. 67 ff. —— tai' adoav, ow' brvEp aforav, with propriety, and not beyond propriety, a frequent formula in Hm., the thought being expressed first positively, and then for increased emphasis, negatively. --— aetps: F. joins this w. r'XeeKus, like a hard axe: but it is more natural, from the arrangement, to join it w. KpaSq, always is your heart unyielding, like an axe, which, etc. Why is c&s accented here? H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (c). Also because it is here followed by the enclit earT. - e-roa, 3d pers., sing. fr. eTlu. Differs how in form fr. the 3d pers., plur. of edC? - SouvpS: Lex. 84pv, I. f- bi' &avpos: gen. of agency, by a man, i. e. moved by the strength of a man. - --— vov, se. 84pv. ---— bq dEAet is not connected by be to eKIcTd/prLIV (which is subjunc.) but to dayw: and it (i. e. the axe) increases, etc.- fu... rpo'pepe: do not bring before me (as a reproach) the lovely gifts, etc. Cf. 2, 251. Notice the asyndeton; denoting (as well as the structure of the preceding sentence) the confusion and excitement of the speaker's mind. e- Eov - KrE., one could not at will (i. e. whenever he pleases), etc. —-- c Kdov (Kai1(CO), causative. —--

Page  174 174 NOTES. avTap....... uCuxeoarat, moreover place me, etc., in the midst to fight, etc. A similar const. occurs 1, 8. uvve'7Kce K'CT. Notice ovu,8dAeT-e, plur., KcLa0orv, sing. The interchange of sing. and plur. 2d pers. is very frequent. In using the plur. he includes in idea as subj. not only Hector, but all others who would have any thing to do with what he proposes.'71-81. Ki vlKcop.... 7 yel,7raL: force here of the aor. subj. w. Ki? H. 760, a; K. ~ 255, R. 9; G. ~ 20, N. 1. e3 7rdvrTa: see Lex. e3, IIIL o-' &AXoL... vaLoLTe KCre., and may ye, the others, etc.; optat. of wishing. H. 721, 1; K. ~ 259, 3, (d); G. ~ 82. - oo BE KiE., but let these (the Greeks), etc. -'AXaLa, in form an adj. sc. ya-iav. Argos, as here used, denotes the southern part of Greece; the Achaean land, the northern part; particularly the dominions of Achilles, called also in the Iliad, Hellas. Thus, Argos and the Achaean land, as used in this verse, denote the whole of Greece. -- E'alo-ov..., having grasped his spear by the middle, so that by presenting the whole length, instead of the point, he might the more easily thrust back the phalanxes of the Trojans. Const. of 8oups? 1. 574; K. ~ 2'73, 3, (b). - re'7ro/acor-o... BaX\Xov: bent their bows at him,... aiming, they began to cast (at hint) with, etc. AaKpd4Y: cf. 2, 224, N. 82-96. "Io'Xerre: cf. Th-Xeo, 1, 214. u-,p BdXAeTE: notice the asyndeton, denoting the haste of Agamemnon. -- dXns: const.? H. 579, a; K. ~ 271, 2. - - liew: cf. 2, 323, note. -- e'KXvIE4 eV... piov,, hear from me the word, etc. Const. of Ape? H. 582; K. ~ 273, R. 19, (d). - Tro: relat. H. 243 D; K. ~ 247, 4. - abrbv... Meve'Xaov olovs... LdXLeorat, that he himse{f, etc., fight alone, etc., depends on Kf eXTal.- ol 8' A&Xo0... Trdwpe', let us, the others, etc. Is the subjune. often used in exhortations except in the 1st pers.? H. 720, a; K. ~ 259, 1, (a); G. ~ 85. &aK~, (see Lex.)....acowr.: a frequent pleonasm in Hm., they became profoundly silent. -.. Kal A!ETe'nlEre... MEviAaos. Hector had already spoken, and now Menelaus... also spoke, etc. 98-104. cppovsio Tcv., I think the Argives and Trojans are at length separated. With this meaning of &aKptvluyeval, cf. &taKpicpvwav, 2, 475..-,7rt, temp.: jrvroaar, irdoiXo: now that you have suffered, etc., or more freely, after having suffered, etc. r- deem'... apXigs. Naeg. and F. regard this verse as an instance of hendiadys (,v && 8voiv, in which two ideas are made coordinate, the latter of which is logically subordinate): and render thus, on account of my strife with Alexander, which he began. The more usual and literal rendering is as follows: on account of miy strife and of Alexander's beginning (of strife); or more freely, on account of the strife which I began, and of Alexander's provocation. -- T7r'VKia (Te6VXW),

Page  175 ILIAD III. 175 has been prepared. - Teava7L, &acKpLvtsTe: optat. of wishing, may he die, etc. Above (v. 98) he speaks of the separation as already in his own opinion accomplished: here, he alludes to it as a wish, to be accomplished in the future. - oYoe —re, 4e.'e (v. 105): 1st aor. imperat. H. 349 D; K. ~ 223, 10. - 6pve: 4&v&s, irreg. --'Tepov, lrEp-7lv: observe the difference in gend.: one, a white male lamb; the other, a black ewe-lamb. ra,'HeAXtp, for, etc., dat. of interest. The white lamb was no doubt for Helius; the other, for Gaea. The Greeks were to bring but one lamb, and this was to be sacrificed to Zeus. Cf. v. 276. 105-110. Ilpidpoto BS',r, lit. the' might of Priam = the mighty Priam. d- erFi ol: how does the accent of ires indicate at sight that the following word is the dat. of the pers. pron.? H. 1Q1, 107, a; K. ~ 34, 1. Recollect that the article (6, 77, ol, ac) is proclit. In what Menelaus here says of the sons of Priam, he no doubt has in mind especially Paris.,u1, lest. The preceding words imply the notion of fear.- ALbs OtpKta: H. 563; K. ~ 275, R. 5. 1fepdeoJ/TaL: the striking metaphor appears by comparing this with 2, 448. ors IKC. The implied antecedent depends on Aseoares: but among whom the aged man is present, (for these) he beholds, etc. It is nearly equivalent to &Av 8' 6 y'poWu /PeTEepLa (ialov), but if the aged man is present among (any), etc. - rrpdrow Kal 07rLo0w: cf. 1, 343, note. - &pr6soa, subj. of evrTal. - PET' Iaq4 oTs'poOL (masc.) between both (parties). 111-120.'AXaLOL'e TpiE's re: appos. w. oL 84: cf.?yvv', 1, 348, note. -- pvav,: EpKW. - aboL. Recollect that aivTr in the nom. is intens., they themselves, i. e. in distinction fr.'ir7rovs, went forth, dismounted (EK 8' m'8av, sc. &pUd-rwv). - &xatIs, between lit. round about (each army): i. e. they were so near one another that there was little space between (the two armies). The latter rendering is usu. adopted. -- qpelv, cahX'oa ai. What use of the infin. is frequent in Greek, but seldom occurs in Latin? H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1, (d); G. ~ 97. --'Ayaloovwv, appos. w. 6. - rvias err: what preps. do not suffer anastrophe? H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, IV. Rem. 2.- olio'esrac, aor. infin. H. 450 D, 6; 349 D; K. ~ 230, pe'pc. 121-128.'Ipts: the usual messenger of the gods in the II.; mentioned before, 2, 786. The first appearance of Helen in the I. is deemed an occasion of sufficient importance for the intervention of a goddess.-'eo/LV?: Lex. EIfZ, A, II. 2, making herself like to, resembling. -- Aao8lc7qv: we should expect here logically the dat. in appos. w.?yax4G; but the intervention of the relat. TJyV leads to the ace. - eiJos, acc. of specif. - br-ev 8, j 86: i. e. Helen. eJpe, sc.'Ips. —. -irJv, a web. In

Page  176 176 NOTES. what other senses has this word occurred? 1, 31, 434, 480.- ie'iraooev (E/za0rw ) KCT. This passage has a historic value; as the weaving of designs, such as are here mentioned, indicates considerable advancement in the arts. Notice the accent of arom'as (fr. iroxAs), distinguishing it fr. acc. pl. of 7rXLrs. i- Qrev (enclit. = oe: H. 233 D; K. ~ 217) e'lvIKa, on her (i. e. Helen's) account. 132-138. ot irpv,, those who before, those who just now.- ol oj: force of b8? H. 851, a; K. ~ 315, 2, these indeed, these r say. Notice the difference between oi relat. and ol demonst. -..aTaL: H. 406 D, 2; K. ~ 230, ual. - rap&, sc. avT'ros, near them, by them. - 7re'irwyev (7rAyvuL), are fixed, are planted. H. 417; K. ~ 187, 8. Cf. Virg. Aen. 6, 652. Slant terra defixae hastae. ---' be Ke rsKiOav'L... KeKItco KTE. In this sentence, ie' does not, it is thought, qualify vru4harvT, (G. ~ 41, N. 2); but stands before it as the emphatic word (G. ~ 42, 2, and N. 1), and belongs really to iceKxhop. H. 710, b; K. ~ 260, 2, (1); G. ~ 37. Yet St. and Cr. join it with the particip. St. says, it imparts the idea of uncertainty which of the two would conquer. Cr. says, it points to the condition implied in the particip. The pf. KbKX7ytlaL, am called, am named, is pres. in meaning, and corresponding to it the fut. pf. iceicKtooat is a simple fut. in meaning. G. ~ 29, Note 5, you shall be called the dear wife of him who may have conquered (lit. of the one having conquered). 140-155. vCApds, etc., obj. gen., limits'[epov. - TOtIeCh,, TOteEs. - pev, BaKcpv, " tender tears." D. The sing. is often thus used in Hm., where our idiom requires the plur. Cf. &aXepbv 8daKpv, 2, 266. - IcaTd, join w. XefovUa. -olq: notice the breathing. It differs how in meaning fr. oh? See Lex. olos and olos. - iua Tye, together with her, i. e. Helen, the subj. of &ipyuao. - icaala?rl6AaL, the Scaean gate. Cf. Lex. aiao's, II. -.01 a/ul} KTe'. H. 639, Phrases; K. ~ 263, d. — Oincake~y/wv...'Arhvcop: notice the change in const. here, from acc. to nom., thus giving more prominence to these two persons. - ella'o: cf. eaTai, v. 134, note. - b oyepov'Tes: descriptive appos. w. the preceding nominatives. - rl... r6Aptrhw, upon, or over, etc., i. e. upon the tower (cf. v. 153), beneath and through which the gate-way passed; as is very common in the old walled towns of Europe at the present day. -,ypai, dat. of cause, by reason of old age. ----- Cet7lyeoW 01dT(es: see Lex.'&eTst. The point of the comparison is simply the clear and sustained tone of voice, which was remarkable in the cicadae.- roLo0 Kitei., such then the leaders of the Trojans sat, etc., or more freely, such then were the leaders of the Trojans who sat, etc. - JiKa, adv.: differs how fr. the aor. of'lnu? 156-170. Oh vle/eows, sc.?-l', there is no occasion for indignation, that

Page  177 ILIAD III. 177 the Trojans, etc. — alvwrs: greatly, exceedingly. Cf. 1, 555.- els Hra, in countenance, in looks. So it is usu. rendered. Yet Passow, and after him Faesi, understand the phrase as meaning eye to eye; i. e. shte resembles at a near view (beim genauesten Ansehen). —-- Kal s: cf. note 1, 116. --'rp, joined w. o0rl7, intens.; ioiaa, concess., though she is really such.!zA6.... xAroLTo: optat. of wishing:'rir,ua, appos. w. subj. of AhtrolTo, nor may she be left as, etc. -- R/edo depends on irdpoLre: H. 589; K. ~ 273, 3, (b), (8): sit down before me. - i p: 2d pets. -- s... tovoLLVvps: same const. w. ~ppa $py, the three intervening lines being parenthetical: that you may name, etc.- Soars LKeT. develops more fully the idea of rd4V 8' Wvbpa; who is that, etc. - KeoamX Ka' -eiSovrs, even taller by a head, even a head taller. Const. of KerbaX? H. 610; K. ~ 285, (3), (c). Such, I think, is the usu. rendering of this expression; which, certainly, is not to be taken with mathematical exactness. Yet Wolf, and after him Cr. and F., understand KepaAgX, like the Lat. statura. The expression would then mean, even larger in stature, even taller. - KaXAdv and yepapdv qualify the obj. (understood) of lolv: one so fine-looking, etc., "a form so noble, nor so august." D.,- SaaraXii' avsp: cf. note on al'r4Xot &vspes, 2, 474. 171-180. $8a: notice the accent, distinguishing it fr. Std. -- yuvauLc6v, const.? H. 559; K. ~ 273, Rem. 4, (b).- a-so&s'e... SeLvds Te, both reverenced and feared: yol, on mypart: const.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). -- c- te iUcvp. Observe, the final syllable in each of these words receives the rhythmic accent, i. e. takes the place of a long syllable. Faesi supposes the digamma to have occurred at the beginning of EitVpE; but Diiltzer affirms, it is certain Hm. did not pronounce itcvpe' with a digamma. So the doctors often disagree. &-~ s 6cpeAev KITe. Cf. note on all' ~pe)es, 1, 415, would that an evil death had pleased me. &&eZv, &vadvo. -- 7ramLa, i. e. Hermi6ne. - -dy' (= 7-dye), these things, neut. plur., subj. of a verb in the plur. H. 515, b; K. ~ 241, R. 5. — — d, wherefore. Const.? HI. 552, a; K. ~ 279,'7. — T-wKca, intrans. Notice the force of the perf. am (until this day) dissolved in tears. -- p ye. Two aces. w. one verb. H. 553; K. ~ 280, 3. - -au-&rTepo/... -... -.E, at once, both... and. --'atce, impf. iterative. H. 406 D; K. ~ 225. -- Kcuv&Sr8os agrees w.?zuoD implied in 4eu/d. H. 523, b; K. ~ 266, 2. e2l'troT' EMqv ye, if ever he was indeed! expressive of the emotion of Helen. She seems almost to question the past reality; as if she had said, can it be that he ever was a brother-in-law of me I 183-198. J Ad,l ios KTi-. Truly, as I now see (Ad vv), many sons of the Achaeans were subject to you. Beo8/laTo (acuqdco), H. 355 D, e; K. o *

Page  178 178 NOTES. ~ 220, 13 -, upvylh7v: Phrygia, as understood by lHm., lay E. of the Troad; and must not be confounded with the Phrygia of a later age. -.E'XEvX77, was counted, was enrolled. - 6rTe Tre: Epic use of Tre.- oiv' o0, noot even these, i. e. the Phrygian warriors. - etr' (= ebre), imperat., come, name to me this one also. - c KEoap: const.? Cf. v. 168, N., by a head, or as some understand it, simply, less in stature. &SpotoraLv, are-T~Po, LwV: dat. of respect. H. 609; K. ~ 285, (3), (b). ~ — is4ea' depends on e'bpd'epos, lit. broader to look upon. H. 767; K. ~ 306, (d). ~revXea Aev... abvTs e', antithetical: his arms... but he himself, etc. ol (before KeTa,), ethical dat. H. 599: K. ~ 284, (10), (d). So St. considers it, and citing from Bernhardy remarks: "This idiom, which contributes greatly to the liveliness of Grecian speech, continued from the classic authors down to the later poets." Cf. 1, 104, N. ~- icTriXos ts: why is &s accented in this sentence? H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (c): E'7rLrwXehiaL combines the two ideas of moving to and fro, and of inspecting: render, he moves to and fro, inspecting, etc.- &cov apyevvdowv limits wrci), which depends on Bi- in compos. 199-208. e'cye-yavZa: Lex. icy4Eyaa. -oros r' a3: antithetical to oVVTds ye. 178: a', used here as a particle of transition. - Kpavair rep eovO7.s, lit. being very rugged: wrep, intens.; Jorros denotes simply a relation of time.- 7rVKVd; Lex. 7rvKvos, V. - Thv,... avT'Jov 16Sa (abSadl), addressed her.- oev is usually understood as objective gen. limiting &TyyeXl7s, with emphatic position and accent; on an embassy respecting you. Yet some eminent critics, from Aristarchus to the present day, have taken ayyekAfIs as nom. masc. = &-yyeov, and read, came as a messenger ~respecting you. - ors....(piAxr a, "I lodged them in my house and loved them both." D. - guivy: cf. 1, 115; 2, 58. 210-215. o-daWvrw, sc. abve'i, while they stood, gen. abs. -- v7repeXIe, (5IrepE'Xw)... &uovs, rose above with broad shoulders: &Sxovs (observe the accent, distinguishing it from annus, raw) is acc. of specif. -- 6ppwo a' C'Col&VW, but when both were seated; nom. of the whole (nom. abs ) followed by a nom. of the part,'OvoedVs, in appos.; the remaining part (perh. Mev'kaos Bre.rTrov Yepapos) was too obvious to need expression. Cf. H. 500, b; K.. 266, 3. Diintz. less naturally, I think, regards &/upqo as acc. of specif. -- Kal..... er: a very doubtful clause. I have retained the reading of Dind., Faesi, and others, who follow the manuscripts. The sense appears to be, truly, Menelau7s spoke cursorily, few things indeed, but very clearly, since he was not a wordy, nor rambling speaker, or also (since) he was younger by birth;-the last clause being in the same const. w. the two preceding and assigning the reason of raspa... XryE'ws. He spoke

Page  179 ILIAD III. 179 few things, because he was not naturally verbose and rambling, or perhaps also because he was younger. Diintzer writes i{ Kai... iev, with a colon before this clause; thus making it an independent statement: truly he was also younger by birth. Cr., Doederlein, Sp., and many others read el ical... iev, although, etc. It should be borne in mind that the so-called itacism (the pronouncing of /, el, oi, V1, v and ~ alike), often led to the confounding of these vowels and diphthongs in the manuscripts. If the student is a little perplexed by this passage, he may take some comfort in remembering that he is no worse off than the critics. 216-224. Te 68J: notice the emphatic and lively force of 8i. - ardoKEv, seoKce, X eoXKEY: >rf'y fL EOvy, oEX;, with iterative ending. - KcaTa Xrosvs, join w. the following words; a repetition of the idea Loral t'Eo-Ce, he used to look downward.- &'vua, vwjodo, he did not brandish backwards or forwards, etc. — palrs ice: potent. optat., you would say that he was, etc.; diceres. -- 9ppovd r' a6tsro, and thus foolish; i. e. foolish, and lacking in self-possession, as a man filled with rage. -- 8TE.... EcL (i'/At, imperf. indic.); continued action: cf. i5Te 8... {V5awYov, v. 212. But in v. 216, or'e......avatleev, optat. expressing indefinite frequency of past action. H.'729, b; K. ~ 327b. 2; G. ~ 62. E- v... ep[oYoeLe, could vie with. - ob TO'r... s.,.res, not then at least did we so much wonder in looking at the appearance of Ulysses. His strange looks were almost forgotten in the charm of his wonderful eloquence. On this whole passage, cf. Quintil. XII. 10, 64. 227-233.'Apyecav, depends on goxos. H. 584, g; K. ~ 275, 2, towering above the Argives, etc.: Kceqpalw, &tuovs, acc. of specif. - Cipicos: cf. 1, 284, where it is spoken of Achilles. - epcraev means strictly from another point, —the ending -aev denoting direction from the point, where Idomeneus stood, towards the observers. The Eng. idiom would be, at another point. &Ebs As: cf. note on iKcr(os MS, v. 196.-'a —'rKce: peculiarity in tense and meaning? - MeEXCaos. No inquiry had been put to her respecting Menelaus: but she now alludes to him with apparent composure. In the following passage, v. 235 if. the allusion to her two brothers, whom she misses on the battle-field, is exceedingly natural and affecting. --- 67r- e.... 7coI'o: force of the optat.? Cf. o"e... ctvat~eev, v. 216, N. 235-244. ovs....yvolvv. Obseive the force of Kev. H. 873; K. ~ 260, 1; G. ~ 36, 2, whom I might know, and whose name I might mention (if I were asked). -~ uol depends on ua: lit. one to me, or the same to me: rendered freely, whom one mother bore, the same who bore me. o-rvrearo-v (guro/uai, 2d aor., 3d, dual. H. 384),'WrovTo. Notice the frequent inter

Page  180 180 NOTES. change of dual and plur. —-- KtcaTaoueva, to go into, to ent:r, KaraaVw. --'ros, them (i. e. her brothers), obj. of KCdTeXeI. -- E... arLt, away in Lacedaemon. These two lines are thrown in by the poet, to inform the reader of their death; which Helen seems to be ignorant of. 245-258. A resumption of the narrative, which was broken off at vv. 116-120.- ~eciiv limits gpica, oferings of the gods. - Kpnqrr'pa, a mixing-vessel, a flagon (D.), in which the wine and water were mixed: KsCrexAa, the cups from which they drank. Cf. 1, 470, 471. -'Opcreo, ipvvzuL. H. 349 D; K. ~ 223, 10, rise!-i-caX4eovoLv, sc. Wo. t'-'r/~rre, TEAW,. vv. 253-258. Cf. 136-138, 73-75.- ice' (v. 255) is usually considered as qualifying E7roo0, and as understood also with Yaiotl/e, (v. 257); potent. optat. See note, v. 138. St. and Cr., joining Ke w. the particip., would read the following optatives as expressing a wish. May Tor perh. let) the woman and the treasures follow, etc., and may we, the rest... dwell in, etc. o- vovT-aL, subjunc. w. short mode-sign. H. 347 D; K. ~ 220, 16, these may go, or let these go, etc. The imperat. is used in v. 74 (veo-av) to convey the same general thought. So also vatorLe (v. 74) is without &v or cKf and is to be taken as optat. of wishing, not as potential. A comparison of vv. 73-75 with vv. 255-258 would, I think, favor the view of St. and Cr., that ce' belongs w. vK'+alavTs, and that'VroITo and vacdoqzev are to be understood as optat. of wishing. 259-263. pljV7er. He was alarmed at the thought of the contest in which his son was about to engage. - iKcAveua-e''Erapots: notice here the dat. w. tceXecow, which usu. takes the ace. See Lex. Cf. 2, 50, and 151.- -, (= a&,d), join w. gi$: And then Pr. mounted (his chariot). No mention is made of Priam's descent from the tower, nor of other circumstances; but the poet hastens on to the main event in his mind,-the impending contest. -- cKa&... re7zeV: see Lex. KIaTaTe-Yvco: brtCrw, back, i. e. towards himself. -- oT depends on 7rdp (= wrapd, cf. &, sup.) and by his side. ----,8haro: cf. note 1, 428.- 8kppo,, object of motion after R91-ero. H. 551; K. ~ 277. dis 8tqppo, would be more usual: mounted the beautiful chariot. ---- SKaciv: cf. v. 145. EXov, guided. 265-274.?t'7lrrwv &7ro/JdVTES. We learn from what precedes that they had mounted a chariot; hence, we render here, having dismounted from their chariot. The warrior and his charioteer, being elevated and leaning somewhat forward, seemed to project over their horses; thus, their descent from the chariot was often spoken of in this way, et Ir7rrow. -- oaiXo - ovro: ar-tXdoJ. H. 370 D; K. ~ 222, (3), they went into the space between, etc. -,v (cf. v. 261), sc. pvvTro. K- P77TIptL: dat. of place. H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1. -o oov o [o-yov, they mixed the wine, not with water, since

Page  181 ILIAD III. 181 unmixed wine was used in making treaties, cf. 2, 341, &KPqTroL; but they mixed the wine of the two parties. 4- XFvav, X&o.'. oT: cf. 1, 104, note: rp... Kovuedv, by, etc.- &wpro: efpco. H. 432 D, 2; K. ~ 230, hung. — ticeaAeov,: peculiarity in the form? H. 128 D, b; K. ~ 211,4. -- Tpciov,'AXaLoCV limit &pisToLs: veZsav (,vCeo), distributed (it, i. e. the wool from the heads of the lambs). Thus all participated in the transaction. 275-287. T-oZov, for them, dat. of interest. -'HEAos, used as voc. H. 141; K. ~ 46, Rem. 3.- o'... rivvZov, ye who punish, etc., i. e. Hades and Persephone; as is indicated by the dual. In IL. 19: 259-260, the Erinnyes are spoken of as punishing perjurers in the Under-world.6res ='oases. -- CE-e, imperat., be ye. How distinguished in form fr. the indic.? u-, let us go, or we will go. - Tpias.... a&rosoovaL... a'r0oLvE,,UEV, then let the Trojans give back, etc., and pay, etc. Cf the const. 2, 413, where Cr. remarks, "the infin. stands sometimes, w. the acc., in the expression of a wish or prayer, as quite independent." Yet it is usu. to supply here eVXo/pai, or better a6m. Cf. v. 322, where os4 is expressed. H. 784; K. ~ 306, R. 11; G. ~ 101 ff.- i -LYv' orLKev, sC. caroTLVEuev, which it is fitting (to pay). - re.....reA7ral, which shall be (held in remembrance) even among future generations. So the verse is usu. understood. Naeg., F., Diintz., and others. Notice here the subjunc..rferral. Force? H. 728; K. ~259; G. ~ 12, (b). 288-294. ed... obK'a&EA'Xcav: notice the negative obic in a cond. sentence. H. 842; K. ~ 318, Rem. 1; G. ~ 47, 3, N., but if Priam, etc., shall refuse, etc. Lat. si nolint.-'AAedvtpov reo'Vros: gen. abs. denoting time and condition. H. 789, Rem. g; K. ~ 312; G. ~ 109 if. - abrcdp (continuative and adversative) denotes the sudden transition to a different course of action: ical C'reLTa serves to emphasize that possible action. St., then on the contrary, after that, 1I etc.- ~rTos 7romoto, an end of war, i. e. in the fall of Troy. Cf. 2, 122. —'H: cf. 1, 528. &7rb... dre (a7rorETlvw): he cut open the throats, etc. Some, however, understand it in the sense, he cut off, or, he cut out,.etc., which does not seem quite natural. Diintz. reads, hrl... MrIAe, he cut into, etc., a reading rejected by Aristarchus, and not generally received nlow. - roVs, i. e. 6pvas. -- rvjog, life: 8evopEivovs (8douat), pres. particip., denoting continuance. —--- efios: obj. of arb... eTAETo (&atlpe'O). 296-301. tKXeov (etc, XE'), they poured it out (as a libation). - aLezyeverpo'L: aLeL7yerersCTr, adj. of one ending, 1st declens.- Tly, each one: cf. 2, 382.- iVrep... 7r7u/AyvLeav, shall do injury contrary to the oaths. The optat. denotes mere possibility. The subjunct. would have

Page  182 182 NOTES. denoted some degree of probability,-an idea unsuitable here. H. 719, if. This distinction, between sulbunct. and optat., is not made by all Grammarians. Cf. K. ~ 258; G. ~~ 3, 4. &iE' 0 a+4' (= oa-t = oa's))... fo0L, thus may their brain flow, etc. iEOi, optat. of wishing (without &v). a — vari, TEKEW'WV (Te'os), limit ytKqpaXos, (the brain) of themselves and of their children; instead of dat. in apposition w. o-,p. 302-309. o68' &pa erw... Kpovywv: cf. 2, 419, note. -, eTd, separated fr. CeLlrev by tmesis, and governing T'ooa as a prep. in compos., and among them... spoke a word. Aapcavi8pVs, descendant of Dardanus. Priam was not a son of Dardanus, but a remote descendant. I. 20, 215 If. - ogreo (v. 306), not in any way; or as Naeg. and some others understand it, not yet, not at present. Cf. note on 7r4, 2, 419. -,V O0-,3aAuoT7o: cf. note, 1, 587. -. Zebs pe', (= -#fv) aroy KTi., Zeus no doubt knows this, etc. (but I do not know), to which of the two, etc. Notice the use of wrod here. Lex. wrov, II. 2. Cf. 1, 178. - &awdToLo'irAos, a fatal end: avd-ToLo, gen. of cause; or perh. of characteristic. I. 566, 568; K. ~273. 310-323.'H, cf. v. 292. Vv. 311, 312. Cf. vv. 261, 262.&+oppoL, pred. adj. qualifying Tc-. H. 488, Rem. c; K. ~ 264, 3. Notice the interchange of dual and plur., 0-6, 9&oppoL. -- rdAxov. Though only one (cf. v. 324) actually shook the lots, yet both authorized the act; and hence, may be said to have performed it. Some editt. have here $Bh6xov, cast the lots into, etc. - 5 0rrT*epoS...&4)es, (to determine) which of the two should, etc.: &4e[17, optat. without &V in an indirect sentence, dependent on a past tense. H. 736, 737; K. ~ 345, 4; G. ~ 69, A. -p oIJp7:avT0: apdopIaL. - Srade fpya.. fKIEvY, has caused these deeds, i. e. the war between Greeks and Trojans. - 8puo, may be governed grammatically either by 80uva', which is often used transitively in Hm., or by ea-w, which may also take the ace. in Hm. The position connects it immediately w.,'vai, and escwa seems to be added for. greater fulness of expression; thus, grant that this one, having perished, may enter the abode of Hades (far) within, or more simply, may enter within thle abode of Hades. This prayer of both parties points directly to Paris. - sue? Ve: antithetical to idY (notice the omission of use' after TJv), but to us (grant), etc. 325-333. &i* 6po'wn, looking back, thus showing his impartiality. iK, join w. ipouvOEV: ndpros, gen. limiting Kcxipos. -'sr'ro.... T'IEXE' aEetTro: a verb w. two different subjects, but appropriate in idea to only one of them;-a construction called zeugma (H. 882; K. ~ 346, 3). The verb here agtees w. the latter subj.: where (were) the light-footed horses of each, and where lay their glittering arms. -- iCevUTo, cf. note 1, 428, put on.

Page  183 ILIAD III. 183 Notice the force of the mid. voice. - Kaa'ds, apapztas (&paptoKco) agree w. icvrlyni8as. - &p7tca'.. oTo KT,., the breast-plate of his brother Lycaon. He had not expected a single combat with Menelaus, and hence had come from the city with light armor, in part at least. Cf. v. 17. -- jpoare (&pASwC) 8' abv'c, and it (the breast-plate)fitted him. 335-345. aciKos: same const. w. ~tpos, obj. of,dX.eTo. - S 7rrovpw, with horsehair plume (D), adj. qualifying KVCyr7v. Derivation? See Lex. xo'qos, the crest. Cf. Virg. Aen. 10, 869, Aere caput fulgens cristaque hirsutus equina. - raXAdA1qylv: =radxpcn w. Epic case-ending -p. H. 206 D; K. ~ 210. - &p)7peL: cf. apapvas, v. 331. - &s W' av'ws (C&arz-Tws 4), and thus in like manner.'ApiYios, adj. = Apetov. ~- 6ALAov depends on dcaKdeparv, adv. of place. H. 589; K. ~ 273, Rem. 4, (c).- is... aTrsxo'cLO' o: cf. v. 266. -- betvby 8epKedYevoI, casting fearful g'ances (at each other), eying (each other) terribly. -- ToirTY... KOTEOve: notice the transition firom the plur. (ETLX0WYTV O... epKoAeYvoL) to the dual: and then the two stood, etc. 346-350. arpdaoe: cf. v. 317. —, B&de... Ka~rd, struck fair in tihe midst (D). — ova'... xaxtcov, nor did it (the spear) break the bronze (of the shield, i. e. with which the shield was plated). F., Diintz., Naeg. and some others read here XaAKcsv, nor did the bronze (i. e. the bronze point of the spear) break (it, i. e. the shield). -- ot: dat. of interest w. aePyevdjAsa4 (a&vay?/zurTcw). Cf. 1, 104, N. -- 6 a...'ArpefBs: cf. 7 ale... YVY, 1, 348, note. -- XaXtP, perh. dat. of accompan. H. 604; K. ~ 285, R. 2, hastened on with his spear: xaXAct, material for thing made; metonymy. 351-354. dva: Lex. &vas'.- bs...'AAXiavSpov, grant that I may avenge myself upon, etc. --—, H. 243 D; K. ~ 217, 5. op-yev, tpcow: for the two accusatives, ye and icaKd, depending on Eop'yev, see H. 555; K. ~ 280, 2, who first has done me harm. daorooov (baadw), sc. caxT'v, do thou subdue (him), etc. -- ipp-ypar (pt5yw), H. 361 D; K. ~ 220, 4. ---- avtpcirwov limits tls (used in.collective signif. Lex. lSs, II.)~ELrvo6CKov KCaKc& peSa (Pd5Ce): cf. for the const. e'... KdIc eopye;v, v. 351. ---- (cf. 8, v. 351) relates to ZELvo6dKov. -- rapdaoXp, rapeXw. 355-363. a&g7re'raZAv, a&'vaardAXw. For reduplication in 2d aor. see H. 384 D; K. ~ 219, 7. -- d: perh. the only instance in Hmn. where the first syllable of Sid stands in the arsis. The tribrach (8&& jEP) instead of a dactyl or spondee, the omission of connectives (asyndeton), and the order of the words, all indicate the rapidity of the motion. So also, in the next verse, the pluperf. ~pipeiLro (epecow) it had been pressed, implies that it was done in an instant. -h 8a47yr7e, c/tadr: e-yXos, subj. - aVrTLpd, right on. Lex. I 2. -- 6 84, and he, i. e. Paris. -- avaaoX4jeos (avi'Xw),

Page  184 184 N O TE S. raising himself up, that he might strike with more force. So Diintz., Cru., St., Naeg. and others. Some, however, following the Schol., supply Xepa or [tCpov, raising (it) on high. -- pdAcov, obj. of iwvr ev. ---- a... auTy (epdxy)... tarpvq)Ze (8La0lp6lrxco), sc. /ipos, the sword being shivered, etc., fell, etc. -- rpXad Tre ItT., lit. three and four pieces; a common idiom in Greek. Cf. 1, 128. In our idiom, three or four pieces. Notice the adaptation of sound to sense in this verse. 364-376. 0,Atowev, olu/cw. - eto depends on the compar. Aoc&-repos:.ecev, on o0tiTr &AAos. -- — riYeOat, fut. infin., that I should avenge myself on, etc.: KaLKtrcfTOF, gen. of cause..- ioi, dat. of interest; cf. note on or, v. 348. &yrn, &wyvL,, my sword has been broken, etc. ltc, join w. r'tXar/ (&'taow). -- raAdXu7pvY: cf. 338, note. To be taken here as gen. — e7ra/'~as (eris, a&taow), sc.'AXerdvySpy: Kcopvaos ABeyv, he seized him by, etc., gen. part. H. 574, b; K. ~ 273, 3.- iducs, subj. of iy-Xe (&/yXw).bs (relating to iUd.s)... raro (ervCo) KTE., which, as a fastening of his helmet, extended, etc.- oT, dat. of interest, depending on T'CCaTo. Cf. 1, 104, note. -- Kal... e.'pvo'ea... Ed fix KIr., and now he would have dragged him away... had not Aphrodite, etc. Force of this form of cond. sent.? H. 746; K. ~ 339, 2, 1, (b); G. ~ 49, 2. —-oT: cf ot, v. 372, who broke for him, etc. --- 1idvra... Tauidvoio (KTE1VW, cf. 5, 21, note), lit. the strap (made) from an ox slain by violence: " the strap of tough bull's hide " (D). -- KEIVI = KcerI, fr. tKeds; not to be confounded w. KeIvy, fr. KEios- = ceKVOS. 377-384. Td-s (i. e. TpvepdXelav), this then, etc. - ab'arp 6, but he, i. e. Menelaus. -- Ka'aK~c'd/evat (ca7raKTeryvW), to slay (him, i. e. Paris). — eyXei': had he recovered the spear already cast, or had he entered the combat with two spears? It is not quite certain; but the former seems probable. -- -- o'v, him, i. e. Paris. E'hpvrate, l4apircdw. -- Kai (-= Kard) /' Eo'e: Kaeiaa: Ie: ahd aU5, in his chamber (in the city); eb&Vcei' KcrlceTL. The former means simply, sweet-scented: the latter (fr. Kcaio, to burn), suggests the manner of diffusing the perfume. The two words may be rendered, fragrant with burning incense. -- caAeovaa, fut., denoting purpose. ie, e>iL. H. 405 D; K. ~ 226. ---- y, i. e. Helen. 385-389. Xeptl, dat. of means or instrument: iavov, gen. of part taken hold of, join w. Aalovitra, sc.'Appolr7l. -- 7p-t(7pac0)....raharyevi' depends on eKcvia (Eo1Ka). -- Avly (before ebKvi'a), her, i. e. Helen, obj. of IrpooeeL7rev. For a similar arrangement, cf. 1, 8, #weCe: 2, 795, xr[S, note. -, appos. w. 7prl' -- of, for her, i. e. Helen.- AaK4eail0ovL, dat. of place. H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1. - yaLeTac&.p, agrees w. oz, whie living at, etc. -- oewev (a3oKc'w) = aoKeev, imperf. 3d sing. --- pa'

Page  185 ILIAD Ill. 185 eoce': notice the change of subj., and she (i. e. Helen) used to love her (i. e. Tr'v ypCaiV). - p[V, obj. of wrpooeqcvSee, addressed her (i. e. Helen). JeoIaxaEJr7, cf. 2, 795. 390-394. KtceZos... baacqxup, yonder (is) he, in his chamber. For this use of KEwvos, see H. 488, Rem. c; K. ~ 264, 3. - AXXE'Xeov, dat. of place. H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1. $1vwroo0rL, turned (with a lathe), can be properly spoken only of the bedstead. The plur. denotes that it was made of several parts. Cf. ro'a, 1, 45; also v. 448. D. renders the phrase freely, " resting on luxurious couch." - Kcdati' Kfe., glistening both with beauty and in attire. - ovbe KCE... Eiv.... pXEoeaL, nor would you say he had come... but that he was going, etc. For the force of the infin., cf. G. ~ 15, 1; ~ 23, 2. - Poy, adv. just ceasing from, etc. Preparation for the dance then, as now, suggests the idea of great attention to the person. 395-492. T.... iOpVEVF: cf. 2, 142. r.y (Helen), dat. of interest. H. 596 if; K. ~ 284, 1, lit. to her, in (her) breast, etc.: freely rendered, she excited emotion in her breast. - &s.....77(E.....etpI. ICT., when therefore she perceived the beautiful neck, etc. Cf. Virg. Aen. 1, 402, Dixit, et avertens rosea cervice refulsit, etc. Cr. suggests that the goddess had laid aside her disguise; but this is not probable. Helen perceived these features through the disguise. - bros... bz'ya'ev: cf. 1, 361. -.raura: acc. of specif. ~- rpore'pw: join w. /e/ss: will you lead m e farther on, etc. 7rokfov depe Ads on?r*. H. 589; K. ~ 2'73, Rem. 4, (c), to some one of the populous cities of, etc. - rotf (enclit. = o0ot) limits pgX.os: (is) dear to thee there also. 403-412. ob'vEtCa'veca 8X rTi., because, etc., did you on this account now come (lit. stand near), etc. Notice the lively and emphatic force of ok. H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2. o-riuyep'~, He, me, hateful one: obj. of &-yeoa;r. Compare the terms in which Helen speaks of herself in v. 180. - jo (imperat. of tuai)....ovoaa, go I sit by his side (lit. going sit, etc.). Most contemptuous words; at which, it is not strange that the goddess was enraged. - aro'euce icsXcE'aov, withdraw from the way of, etc., i. e. renounce (all) intercourse with the gods. asjw'...~ ~rooarpef*leas, nor may you, etc. Optat. of wish. H. 721; K. ~ 259, 3, (d); G. ~ 82. --'OAvXrov: const.? H. 551; K. ~ 277. - o-ye recalls the subj. to mind with emphasis, and with contempt: or even he; or even such a man as he shall make you, etc. Notice the repetition of pronouns, evidently with contempt; rap' air'dv, repi icezvoz, e', OYE, KceIou. - ceKoe, thither, i. e. to the chamber of Paris.-',EeyEWOr bY... efl: apod. w. protasis suppressed. How would the protasis be expressed in Greek? H.

Page  186 186 NOTES. 748; K. ~ 339, II. (a); G. ~ 50, 2. -- ropo'vveovxra: force of the fut. particip.? - Tpwal....uwuclaroVTaL: more positive than if she had said,O4Uw/Oatlv'ro Gv: here again the prot. is omitted: will scof at me (if I go to prepare that manl's couch). Helen, it seems, like many other beautiful women, could be, when occasion required, slightly spirited. 414-425. o-XeTArx: two syllables, in scanning: synizesis. --.... IEaelow (pUeA'rlut): cf. EIqEoW, 1, 567, note: lest enraged I abandon you. -'rvs (= otrc7s)...'&s, to such, a degree as. - a..7re.rxpo (a&7rEXapo): aor. subjunc., same const. w. xeeiEco. W- rXv, just now. -,ue dooQ (dat. of place. H. 612; K. ~ 283,.1.)'povu, between both parties. - /71T7l0o/uat, aor. subjunc., same const. w. IxeaEgW --- o?'ov: const.? H. 547; K. ~ 278, i. XAlal: same const. w. AE~aeiw, sc. /, and lest you, etc. --- Karaxolvlv (KaT'XwO), having covered hersef. — ory]: join w. 1B (3d sing. 2d aor. indic. without augment, fr. SBatso). J-,pXe e 5afaoy,7 and the goddess took the lead. Cf. 1, 495. - Al, subj. of i'Koryo, is made more prominent in the sentence by standing before oiIe, which it would regularly follow. X- 4 N'... a uyvvalack: cf. 1, 348. p- cpiAo'L/es is comm. rendered laughter-loving; yet IeELocw, as distinguished fr. yeXdW, means to smile, gently and sweetly. Hence, Cr. more properly renders it, sweetly-smiling. This seems more suited to the idea of Aphrodite than the somewhat coarse epithet, laughter-loving. T..... KaT e'ce, placedfor her: dat. of interest. -- Ged, appos. w.'A 0po0itrTV: EXoeaa, pe'povaoa, KaT'4VKFe, all have the same obj. 8&'ppov: a very circumstantial description. 426-436. iKaKZ', impf. indic. Why accented on the penult? H. 368, b; K. ~ 118, 2, (c). - oaar... Kvara, averting her eyes: exceedingly natural, and in keeping with Helen's unwillingness to return to the chamber of Paris. Cf. Virgil's description of Dido, Aen. 4, 362, Talia dicentem... aversa tuetur. - s &tr pExE... oXEbCat': a very amiable wish! Force of the const.? Cf. 1, 415, note, would you had perished there! Bageels (8atc&co) agrees w. subj. of a&pexes. a — pl, dat. of agent. H. 600; K. ~ 284, 3, (11). -- i tev (-= -I/v) 8... yE: notice the number of intensive particles. The taunt is made as bitter as possible. 7rprv 7' e6Xe' (= eSXEo = evXov, fr. e6XoLa,)... ez'vai, you fornerly boasted that you were, etc. MeveAdov depends on pe'pT-epOS. Why nom.? H. 775; K. ~ 307, 4. A-'..rpoKdtcXaaat, but go now, challenge, etc. The taunt is intensified by the epithet &p7i'paxov given to Menelaus; and is finally pointed by the cool advice following, I for my part advise you, etc. -- tavwri, blondehaired. D. renders it.fair-haired. - gI, lest, for fear that. lar' avro souvps: Diintz. and Naeg. understand this, beneath his spear, taking brd w. 8oupl: Cr., by him, with the spear, taking ubrd w. auT'ro as agent,

Page  187 ILIAD III. 187 and sovpf as instrument. It is hard to say which is better. U-JAJps (Ba/uAw), 2d aor., subjunct., pass.: uncontracted, and vowel lengthened. Cf. H. 400 D, i; K. ~ 224, 9. 438-446. yvvac: a familiar and entirely respectful mode of address. -,- vluv, partitive appos. w. sue. H. 500, b; K. ~ 266, Rem. 4, me, my courage: or me, in respect to my courage. - a-dy, with the help of. aesTL, at another time. - -yo6, sc. YVKicow. -- 7rapd, separated fr. elat by tmesis, and governing jijv'v as a prep. in compos. H. 605: or ijU'~xr may be viewed as depending on the compound verb rdcpeiaO. K. ~ 300, 2, (b), for with us also are, etc., or, we also have, etc. -- TpawrdojEv (,rp7rwc), 2d aor. subjunc. pass. 1st pers. plur. H. 397 D; K. ~ 230.-_ du... p,oevas: cf. note on Avudv, v. 438. - o ff' re,, not even when, etc. - 4i, obj. of &prdlas. -- &s, correl. of IOSE, v. 442, for never yet did love so. as now I love thee, etc. 447-459...,pXE': cf. 420. - XfXoar8e (XEXos, and -E. H. 203; K. ~235, 3), to his couch. - lKaccvraf'uV (= Karevvdo~aoav, fr. Karevd'Cw)o, plur. verb w. dual subj.'rc5. -- e pv rprroort XAeXee'rsv, " upon the richlyinlaid couch." D. Cf. 8vw-oo'T0z1 A'Xeo-ror, v. 391, note.-~ eY rTOo ora~ap/ojesev (is, aeap~d), (to see) if perchance he might anywhere espy. — O K... Eicaavov,,' Trs 0Torro: a rare const.: usually explained as an instance of brachylogy (abbreviated expression): thus, for not out offriendship certainly did they conceal (him), (nor would they conceal him), if any one should see (him). The first clause, o... e.. i-e6avov, is not considered an apodosis of E TI'rs o01T0, but suggests such apodosis, as in the above rendering. So Naeg. and F. The reading of Diintz., reuK.aov &v, st. icr;uav'ov, seems not improbable. The optat. B8o-ro (st. indic. Ed$se) suig gests the possibility that some one might yet discover Jim. -- a&rXaer-o, Lex. arreXadvola. -.- iaorv... tcnpl, equally with, etc. -- -pater' - 2atvercu. H. 70 D; K. ~ 206, 5 (e). -- MePXAdov: predicate gen. appears on the side of, etc. - a'roTe/efv (= a&rot(veirv, fr. a&rotvw), infin. as imperat. Notice the force of &wro-, do ye pay off, pay in full, etc. Cf vv. 286, 287.

Page  188 188 NOTES. BOOK FOURTH. The events of this book are closely connected with those of the preceding. The first part of it was called, in ancient times,'OpKctwv v7YXvOrs, the breaking of the oaths: the second part,'Acya/zvwovos emrirwknoss, Agamemnon's review, or inspection (of the forces.) -' gopZwvo, &-yop&opaL. - d qoexdeL, olioxoew. Notice the double augment. For another form, cf. 1, 598. -- ol.... 8eLScXavo (Sehcvvul. H. 442 D. 3, and 392, D; K. ~ 230, and 220, 13), they pledged one another in golden cups. 8eawrdeolv, dat. of manner or instrument. - rapafx v: on the meaning of this, critics have never been agreed. F., and some others, take the phrase to mean, speaking with comparison; because a comparison with Aphrodite, unfavorable to Hera and Athena, is instituted in what follows. Diintz. renders it sich einmischend, i. e. intrusively. Many others understand it, speaking with irony, or with innuendo. 7-19.'AXaxKco1ertis, an epithet derived probably fr. Alalcomenae, the name of a town in Boeotia where Athena was worshipped; yet with an evident allusion, in this passage ironical, to XaxaKE'i to defend. a- sla... cacs4&evat, these two sitting apart, i. e. from Menelaus. -? A, depends on Nrap-, but by the side of this one (Paris) on the other hand (aTre): tze`zSl],u,,Acicro.. — o epeLAojIEL2s: cf. 3, 424, note. -- e'eadawoaev (sc. aCVrJv) oWieevor, has rescued (him) when thinking, etc. - vl'K, sc. &Tiav: MevekdOV, predicate gen., victory belongs to, etc. - qppag6er6Aa: H. 720, a; K. ~ 259, 1, a; G. ~ 85; let us consider, etc.... ~, whether... or, etc. 5p~aoley, subjunc. = tproCwpe,. - el 8' a? Vrws Te...'..fTol v KiTE, and if again in some way this, etc., then indeed, etc. a6 often denotes, as here, simply a transition from one thought to another. TrdJe points here, as usual, to what follows. - ocidoL'roT: notice the omission of &v in this apod. H. 748; K. ~ 260, Rem. 7; G. ~ 50, note 1. The optat. thus seems to convey the notion of a wish. H. 721; K. ~ 259, 3, (b); G. ~ 82, then may the city, etc. 20-29. J7riuvtav (irjuCVow): notice the derivation and peculiar force of Fbw. See Lex. - vrmXaoat (sc. &AAhaSArs).....e8E&nv: parenthetical. -- &aKcV: usu. adv.; yet it occurs also as adj. Cf. 1, 565. Its meaning is here repeated and emphasized by obe' s- firesv. - ~'Hpp: not to be viewed, I think, as dat. for gen.; but as the one in whose case something is true. H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10), but on the part of Htera, (her) breast

Page  189 ILIAD IV. 189 did not contain, etc. 9Xae, Xavvw. - Cf. 1, 552, note. - xtox, re'XeaoTov:'pred. adjs. w. irdvov, to render my labor vain, etc. - ip& (what is the usu. ace.?) same const. w. 7rdvov; gv depends on'lpwoa, as cognate ace. ~- Kcahe`rflv: transition to a direct statement: and my horses have grown weary, etc., "in the recent preparation for a general engagement." F. "In rousing the Greeks to the war against Troy. The encouragement to battle is not to be thought of." DUntz. The student can judge as well perhaps as either of these critics which is the true idea. - KaKcd: descriptive appos. w. xa4&, combined perhaps w. the idea of ayeLpoaOp. Cf. note on 7riua, 3, 50, in collecting the people (bringing) evils, etc. - #po', do it (i. e. render my labor vain, etc.). This little word brings out with dramatic effect the temper of Hera. - ~dv'res areol B&ot: emphatic appos. w. the subj. of i'ravefoelV, (pres.: Cr. says fut.; incorrectly, I think), but we, all the other gods, do not indeed sanction (it). Notice the emphatic position of ou: Tot is to be taken here, I think, as an intens. particle. 30-42. Cf. 1, 517. ~- Ti, in what respect, etc., adv. accus. -- o4 and KaKd depend on P;SE'voOv. H. 555; K. ~ 280, 2, inflict on you so many evils. (Tr' =- gTi. H. 70 D, that you, etc. Some, however, take 9T' for -re w. causal force. Cf. 1, 244, N. &- t c z,'4: pred. adj. w. rlnpiaor, Tra?~as, Tpwas. For the agreement, see H. 511, h; K. ~ 242, 1 (b), if you, having entered, etc., could devour Priam, etc., alive (lit. raw). -,-u....yerTa, lest this quarrel become, etc.; or, let ntot this quarrel become, etc. epo-ua, pred., a cause of strife. (D.)- V. 39. Cf. 1, 297. -- al,Ey, I also. - uea&s... e&E'o, lit. desiring... wish, i. e. earnestly desire. g)v... Ubr, that city... where. — a Bsarpt,8elv, ao-at: imperat. H. 784; K. ~ 306, R. 11; G. ~ 101. -- do'r, demonst. (as usu. in Hm.), that my wrath, or that wrath of mine. Cf. rd, 1, 185. - a&Md' aouat, but let me alone. 43-49.?i? aot: notice the juxtaposition of these two words, thus making the contrast more striking; also, the accentuation of aoo. 3&Jca (= t6wKa): absol. have granted (it, i. e. permission to sack Troy). For this use of the aor. see H. 706; G. ~ 19, Note 4. - c&n' &eaicov'r-: the antithesis is made more pointed by the juxtaposition of these words. Cf. Ey& oolt, note. iec v, voluntarily (opposed to the idea,avd6yrp by constraint), (yet) with reluctant heart. l-a relates to dWao (v. 46) as anteced.: WrOXf7es, incorporated in relat. sent. H. 809; K. i 332, 8, for of (all) the cities of earthly men, which, etc., of these (rtAws,), etc. - 7rEpt: notice the accent: adv. join w.-'loiCfErTo (TItc, w. iterative ending). Kqpls: peculiarity in accent? H. 160, d; K. 65, 2, (b): was exceedingly honored of me in heart, or was exceedingly precious to me in heart. By using the imperf.

Page  190 190 NOTES. LEI-KETO, he speaks as though the destruction of the city were already ac complished..- iiu/exi, EiivueXhls: not to be confounded w. ev/uEX1S. - SEeeTO... it~or: cf. 1, 468. - AoB]r8s, Klsro7S: partitive appos. w. - Tb... beoEs: general truth: hence, the aor. AdXoyev (- e'AXopev, fr. XacXCvwo) is rendered by the pres. H. 707; K. ~ 256, 4, (b); G. ~ 30, for this do we (gods) obtain, (as our) honor. 50-61. Cf. 1, 551; also 1, 121, 172, 413.- cSar'poal, infin. as imperat., these destroy, when they shall, etc.-'irepl (prep.) Kcpt (lit. about the heart, i. e.) at heart, heartily. Cf. v. 46, and notice the difference. Cr., F., Diintz., Spitz., Doed. write 7repl Kcpt in both places. Diibner writes 7rEpl lcpL in both. -'-rdCv depends on vrp4Se. Notice the asyndeton of this verse, indicating the emotion of Zeus. H. 854; K. ~ 325.oua e- yatpw (akin to u/-yas), nor do I account (th em) too great (a sacrifice); nor do I grudge (them). -- Bsare'poaa, sc. oe as subj., Tds as obj., and do not consent that you destroy them. - (paove'ovoaa: the means. HF. 789, b; K. ~ 312, 4, (e); G. ~ 109, 2, by grudging (them). Kal ic Abv'rvov,.my labor also. The labor of Hera, as well as that of Zeus, should be allowed to have a successful termination. Nt/e'a... obK a'iXeAsr-or, to render... not unfinished, not fruitless. -? yrvos, sc. oa-Tr: sefv 5ires, lit. thence whence: freely rendered, my descent is the same as thine. - srpEOju6da'T77.... &pqUdrepos' (cf. 3, 179) K'zi., most venerable, in two respects, both in birth, and because, etc. 62-69. b7roeitofrey, subjunc., let us, etc. - aa-oro, very quickly. H. 662; K. ~ 323, R. 7. - 7riTfeXal: infin. as imperat, charge. How would the imperat. be accented? H. 367, R. e; K. ~ 118, R. 3.fAE`,,V, 7reLpav, depend on SIrTE'ieAa. -- s ice: notice here Ke after &s in a final clause. Force? H. 739, 741; K. ~ 330, 4; G. ~ 43, ~ 44, Note 2. - rp pca: cf. 3, 299. 3, 299. - qrao-a aa (7AxEw, not to be confounded w. 81xdcw), depends on dpWcoa, takes'AXatovs as obj. - The address of Hera is conciliatory and persuasive. Zeus could not gracefully do otherwise, if he had desired, than yield to such words. ab- Vt[Ka: notice the asyndeton, making the narrative more lively. 70-77'. If4: notice the peculiarity of accent. H. 366, b; K. ~ 118, 3, (a). -'reLpas: here used as imperat. - rdpo,juevavzad, previously desiring (it), i. e. to go on this errand. Cf. v. 20 if. -?jie (7i'r1), sent (her) like a star, etc.: TrEpas, appos. w. &arfpa: AayArpdJ. Tro KTri., a bright (star), from which, etc. In translating, follow here the order in which the idea is presented by Hm., as nearly as the English idiom will admit of it: thus, the thought contained in Aaz7qrp&v (which qualifies a'repa) should stand just before the expression for To~... erdTa. This same principle

Page  191 ILIAD IV. 191 -to conform the order in which the idea is presented in the translation to that of the original, as nearly as the different idioms of the two languages will admit of-is often important. - &-rc', separated fr. Evruat by tmesis: takes the gen. roD, as a prep. in compos. Considered as a simple prep., following Tov, it would suffer anastrophe. H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, iv. 78-92. T'r, i. e. &oAe'pl. -- K&8 Lope, KcaTa'apc6KoC. ~- cse KTi'. Cf. 2, 271, notes. A-H...., Truly... or, etc. Notice the different accent of these particles. -- &vPpcnrwv depends on Trqlac 7roXluAoLo as a single idea (F.); arbiter of war to men (lit. men's war-arbiter). - Notice the dif. between 6is (accented, = ov'rcos), denoting what precedes; and &8e (v. 81), denoting what follows. - — X B, but she, i. e. Athena. - nIc/vsapov av'Trfeov: 2, 827. rIdv&apos, K ical Trov'Ar.XXwv avbT's WKCEV,. - ~tju4'vI agrees w.. E- pe: explanatory of what precedes, hence the asyndeton. H. 854; K. ~ 325, 1, (b). - di ol': notice the dif. in form; who followed him, etc. - &yXo, i. e. near to Pandarus. 93-103. rXalaLs KEVy ic'. serves as apod. to v. 93: would you yield, etc. = if you would yield, etc.; then would you dare, etc. ei'rrpo4elzy, fr.?rv,?rpO', L'EV = edval fr. Y7lzt. - Burla... Tpear-orz, on the part of all, etc., or from all, etc. Const. of this dat.? H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). lpoto, agpw. ~- -i rcav'corv, above all. 9BarLXA'q, same const. w. roawt. -- ToO... arp'... teppolo, from him, I say (oh), you would receive, etc. Tro depends on irdp' (thus written by Dind., Diintz., and Spitz. Yet Cr., St., Doed. and some others write rap'). a- e KIEV p, if he shall see, etc., protasis: KfV E... poio (v. 97), apod. Mixed form. H. 750; K. ~ 260; G. ~ 54, 1, (b). r- wvp~s depends on fad in compos., having gone upon, having ascended. Cf. 2, 234. -~ iOtorevoov MEvaEdou: gen. part. H. 574, c; K. ~ 273, 3, (b), (). — E XeO....eeivy, VOW... that you will sacrifice, etc. voorTias agrees w. subj. of /flety. Why nom.? H. 775; K. ~ 307, 4. 104-111. Tr4... &ppovL: H. 597; K. ~ 284, 3; the mindof himfoolish one, his foolish mind. - E'aiAa (orvXdo). Critics are not agreed on the meaning. F., Cr., and others, following the Schol., understand it, stript off the covering from, etc. L. & Sc., St., Diintz. render, took down (i. e. from his shoulder). Diintz. says, " the taking out from the case or covering, which used to be left at home, is not to be thought of." This seems reasonable. -- aIyes, gen. of material: his wel polished bow, made of (the horns of), etc. -- v pa... vvXUaa.....se87tyfos... TBe.AKei KTi., which... having hit... having awaited... smote, etc. -- brb orE'pVoto, beneath the breast, indicating that the goat, as he came forth from a rock (OrpT1s?K,8alVOyTa), was somewhere above the archer, so that the arrow

Page  192 192 NOTES. was aimed upward. 6 Si, i. e. the goat. -- pape (Apapfoaiw), fitted them together. -- XpvEr..... Kopyz, placed upon (it) a golden hook (or ring); in which to fasten the bow-string. 112-126. ev Ka&rItcqKe, he (Pandarus) laid it carefully down, after having s:retched (the bow), (while he took his quiver, and selected an arrow, v. 116). r- ol....ayKh[vas (a'CaKxYVw), having leaned on the ground (that he might have a convenient position in stretching the bow).- rpgaoev, sc. abrroD, before (him). - /~ zrplv... 7rphlv Xfai, lest, etc.... before Menelaus... was hit. Notice the repetition of 7rpLv (cf. 1, 98); also the infin. after 7rpiv. H. 769; K. ~ 337, 9; G. ~ 106. BA4aal, 11. 408 D, 20; K. ~ 227. ~-'T-aXa, Avaoui. -,LeAavE'CovY. H. 128 D, b; K. ~ 211, 4. eppua, Lex. II.: appos. w. lov. - 6uoi3, at the same time: the drawing of the bow and the grasping of the end of the arrow and of the bow-string took place at the same instant. -yAXvqp'a&s: usu. explained as " the notch of the arrow which fits on the string." F. with more probability says, the grooves or notches, made lengthwise at the end of the arrow for receiving the feathers or wings; and cites in confirmation Td4Jwv 1rTEPWTrS yxAvupias. Eurip. Orest. 268. Cf. Herod. 8: 128. ar- oT8pov, the ironpoint of the arrow.- X1'yE. e.. laXev: cited by Quinctilian, 1, 15, as an instance of onomatopoeia.,8Js: notice the accent, distinguishing it from Btos. 127-140. a'eE (= -oO), depends on XeXa.ovrro. - 7rpCT77.. &.YAehA, i. e. Athena. The same goddess who had moved Pandarus to discharge the arrow, now especially, first of all (lrpcir7l) protected Menelaus; her object being to renew the hostilities, and thus prevent the return of the Greeks. --— rppoaie ra a: cf. v. 54.- Trdoov.... &cs V-e, just as when: lit. so much as when. gepyev, kept it (the arrow) of.' — i' (= $oe)... Aef'eaL, sc. 7rar. -- aVrT, i. e.'Ai~v7. —aire denotes here, as often, not repetition, but transition. See Lex. -- *vvev o'er, guided (it to the point) where. v —aVeXov, intrans., came together. Cr. --,7reTo: Lex. &v,-o'ua. - 4,v Cwo'r-p &prlpdrT (&pap'oaKw), in the snugfitting girdle. Notice &, w. dat. after verb of motion. H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3.- uL'prps a', and through the belt; worn just above the hips, below the breast-plate; made of bronze, lined with wool; or perh. lined with leather and stuffed with wool. It most have been a broad band, extending up beneath the breast-plate, so that the arrow should pass through, first the girdle, then the breast-plate, then the belt, before it reached the body. --'pCos w. gen. Cf. 1, 285, note. --— pv-oo: Lex. ipVw, Mid.: I. 405 D, b; K. ~ 230. -- &arvrp: both parts halve their force; 7rpJ, forward; Sid, through; i. e. on through, Kai ris, even this, i. e. t4'rp-qs:

Page  193 ILIAD IV. 193 eo'aTro (Eijl. i. 405 D, 1; K. ~ 226), it, i. e. the arrow, passed. —-- &Kpo'TaTcov, adj. w. Xpda, the flesh on the surface. 141-147. ids Te, cf. note 3, 33. -— ur1p: (uLahcvw); const.? cf. 2, 147. -.rapi'ov eiaL'17r7rwr, pred. of eAfE`avYra.- 71ro4es (roX6s): dif. how in meaning fr. 7roxees? -ip'avPTo (apdolaL): gnomic aor. H. 707; K. ~ 256, 4, (b); G. ~ 30. & — &pr(epoYv: cf. 3, 179, two things at once, both a decoration... and, etc. -- -Too7L, in such a manner, thus: 1idA,7rlv, were stained; notice the form. Butt. and K. call it 3d pers. dual, aor. pass. indic.; others, 3d pers., plur. = uitav&ev (ending lengthened metri gratia). HI. 355 D, c. t — nrevepaer: deriv.? bvri, Ivep (see Lex. EvepoL), Ae(v). Cf. {'repaev, 2, 218, note: beneath from (the parts just mentioned), or simply, beneath. 151-162. 9ov'ras: join in idea w. vegpov, as well as 5yoKus. H. 511, h; BK. ~ 242, 1, (b). --— av s... &a7dpbr (7yeipw), courage returned (lit. was collected). Notice the omission of all connectives in this verse, imparting to it animation. —— ToS.... e.f'TP, spoke among them, i. e. those who stood round about. -- XeLpsS: for the const. cf. KOJpr7 1, 197, note. -- dva'arov, definitive appos. w. 5p~ra, oaths (which have proved) death to thee. -. olov, sc. oe; notice the breathing. Dif. how in meaning fr. o'or? having placed thee alone, etc. - &s (followed by e4, enclit.; hence, written Us), since, cf. 1, 276. Diintz., with less reason, understands W&s as exclamatory, how (shamefully) did the Trojans, etc.- aI'ov, see Lex. &Xios (B), by no means vain is, etc. — V. 159; cf. 2, 341. -- d Erep y&dp e....T: cf. note on f4, 1, 81, 82. -- &'XEoO'e, EKT'XEl (fut.), sc. 8pKLa or aorovsds: XeooAeae,, &arE'rlav, gnomic aor. H. 707; K. ~ 256, 4, (b); G. ~ 30. For if the Olympian does not even at once vindicate (the solemn covenant), he will, vindicate (it) thoroughly (fK) even at a late day, and they (the violators of the covenant) atone for their crime with a great penalty, with, etc. (Cond. sent. H. 745; K. ~ 339, 2, 1, (a); G. ~ 49, 1). Some understand this as a particular supposition, For if the Olympian did not, etc.; and then take &7reToav as spoken of a fut. event. 163-175. Cf. 6, 447 ff. oTW' &v 7ror' xo&Xp (oXXv1zi): &y with subjunc. in relat. sent. H. 757 ff.; K. ~ 260, 3, (c); G. ~ 62, when sacred Troy sha-l at length (Vroe) perish.- tquzeXAciwo: H. 1:6 D. b, 3; K. ~ 211, 2. Zerbs.. 6rcare1v7, (eirlaoeiw. H. 361 D, K. ~ 220, 4): same const. continued, sc. 9$T' &r, and when Zeus... shall himself shake, etc. rtavw qualifies opdd: a7rd7rsr, also gr5ev, gen. of cause. a- CY Ke ds.... avavrAaXps (a&avrtrA7rnXz); force of iv (Ep. Ke' or KEv) w. aor. subjunc.? H. 760; K. ~ 255, R. 9; G. ~ 20, N. 1. - a K ev..... iKotiClv: 9

Page  194 194 NOTES. force of the optat. w. G,? H. 722; K. ~ 259, 3, (a); ~ 260, (4); G. ~ 39. V. 173, cf. 2, 160.- bo7rea,: obj. of -rvoet (Ir-vaw). 176-187. Ka Kce... epel: cf. note 1, 175; KE w. f. indic.- ae'' KT., a wish: would that Agam. might thus, etc. - aLrov, adv. in vain. K- al 8: notice the enlivening force of 1h, " calling attention to an unquestioned fact." Diintz.: "marking the idea as immediately present to the mind." H. 851; K. ~ 315, 2, and in fact has gone, etc. - Eclalv,: KeIV,'s = Keo's (distinguish fr. Kceiros = KceiiVos): with empty, etc. -xXdvoL (XdcaKo): optat. without i&, denoting a wish: then would that, etc.; or, then may the wide earth yawn for me I --- r Tiot 7rcow: T-I (followed by?r&, enclit., hence written ft) indef. in any respect, at all: 7r& perh. =-7rs. Cf. 2, 419, note; 3, 302. eL~aa[oeo, trans. In 2, 190, it is intrans. nor alarm at all in any way the people, etc. - 7rdSyl, 7r?~yvv/it. -- rdpoiLelr.....7re'vepaev, on the outside,... underneath: eiptvrao'p: cf. eppvro, V. 138, note. - Qcua, properly the band at the bottom of the breast-plate, but sometimes by meton. for the breast-plate itself; so here. Cf. v. 136 w. this passage. -- XUKes 1v6pes, braziers. Cf. note on ahr$XoL gvSpes, 2, 474. 189-214. at?y&p... elf: cf. note 2, 371.- lsrtducarAouoat: Lex. r/LualouaL, II. L- ravopvo (racow): cf. lerlaoeltoLv,, v. 167. which shall relieve (you) from, etc. -'H: cf. 1, 219, N. - ep&cla.. vidf: descriptive appos.; perh. equivalent to, the noble son of, etc. - w-. pEr KXiEos, a glory to him (the archer): tXe'os and 7re'dos are epexegetical of the clause b,... Efaxev. -- B t' "'4aL: cf. 8~ Be; af, 2, 183, N. - Tphc7s: written either w. one K, or w. two, as the metre requires. -'Opo (i. e. "Opoo), imperat. 2d aor. mid. H. 408 D, 40; 442 D, 11; K. ~ 227, B. (hpv'6w, pvuyL).- l'' p (v. 195), 3d pers. B'Y, -., -.p, that he may see: but in v. 205, 2d pers. Goyal, Y6p, 57'rraL (cf. 1, 203; 3, 16.3), that you may see. -- Bdv (= 6B$oaza): H. 408 D, 1; 400 D, d; K. ~ 224, 4, they (i. e. Machaon and the herald) started to go among the throng, through the wide army, etc. — S3AXhevos: H. 408 D, 20; K. ~ 227, A, where the blonde-haired MI[ndlaus stood wounded. -- ayo-yepaY (= -aTO = -YTO, pluperf. 3d, plur. H. 355 D, e; K. ~ 220, 13), &ayepco. - o~roL pptoarToL, as many as (were) bravest, = all the bravest. e-6 Ve (Menelaus)... ro'. aEOs pcds: cf. X' b....yvvh, 1, 348, N.; but he, god-like man, etc. - appor-os: cf. a&p-pJTL, v. 134. - ToO (i. e. O'ro-To), gen. abs. w.'eTx. - &7yev (= — Vaa'), 67yvytw. H. 442, 1; 355 D, c; K. ~ 230. -- F. joins crdAzv w. 6&yev, were broken back: Diintz. w. E'EXK., while it was beinj drawn back. Cr. prefers the latter. Why not connect it in idea with both? Perh. it is best rendered, while it was being drawn out, the sharp barbs were broken back.

Page  195 ILIAD IV. 195 215-222. ot (enclit.), dat. of interest, loosed for him. - V. 216, cf. v. 187. -e E'reae, art[7'rw. - EKicuv~o~as (EKcvCdw), having sucked out; probably having applied his mouth to the wound; interesting as showing the customs of the time. - arl....rdao-e, sprinkled upon (it), etc. CpdpuaKa: obj. both of el&s and of 7rdaoe. -. or (throws back its accent on rd, receives the accent of o7roT; hence, written o'): ethical dat. closely joined w. ravpl, F.: dat. of possessor, Cr.: dat. of interest, Diintz. I prefer the last explanation. Cf. H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). It may be loosely rendered, to his father. ci[pxa'ppovEwv, thinking friendly things, being kindly disposed. Cf. eB (ppov'Cov, or?ioppovewv, 1, 73. Who was Chiron? See Clas. Dic. -- aiperefryo'ov: &lU(pire'voam.'Otpa....'rpa; while... meanwhile. Notice SE, after'rqppa, connecting a subordinate and principal sentence. Lex. $f, 4. Not rendered into English in such a connection. - f- ir, join w. hAvaov, advanced. -- ao $' artis, but these on the other hand, i. e. ol'AXaZoi. 223-233. obic &sV YoNS, poten. optat.: then would you not see, etc. - eaae, he left.- aror&vevv' iXE, held aside (i. e. from the ranks): pvaldcwrras (pvaidw. H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, I. (3)), "champing," Derby: "snorting," Cowper: i. e. from impatience at being held still. ---... 7re'EAhhe, very earnestly (pzdAa wroxAd, cf. 1, 35), charged him (Eutymedon). — 7raPL-aXEev (H. 359 D; K. ~ 220, 18), to hold them (the horses and chariot) near. -- yiv, direct obj. of AxdBp:.yvta, ace. of specif. - VroXeas (notice the accent) depends on Sid, which does not slffer anastrophe. H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, IV. R. 2. cotpavforrTa agrees w. /uin, while passing to andfro, as commander, throughTout the many (people).- 6 vrelbs fav, he being on foot: hrevrwoXero (E7rt7rwAioXoua), hence the word 7trlar6Xr1as, in the title of this book. - Vv. 232, 233, cf. 2, 188-9. 234-246. tt.rao vi, do not in any way at all, etc., cf. v. 184, u 17166r' rw, N.; also, 2, 419, N. eFl[eETe, Lex. Atzeij7, II. - V. 235. Notice the sentiment: for not to the false will, etc. v- 7rEp... l81AaavTo o: cf. vv. 67, 72.- c'v..... avbcr, of these themselves, these alone, limits Xpoa; is understood also w. axoXovs and TElca, their wives, etc. - ov,'rLvas... got~: hypothet. relat. sent.; past uncertainty. H. 757; K. ~ 333, 4; G. ~ 62, cf. 232, ovs... 8os.- /AealTas.... 7roXe'oLo: cf. /eAeTE... &..AKc, v. 234. - izowpot: "' wretched," D.: " dead marks for archers," Cowper: some, on the other hand, think it a respectful epithet. It is a word of very doubtful meaning. See Lex. -- o-/s71re, Att. i'aorae. -- Te77r&res: Lex. E,'rlra. - EiaCLov: gnomic aor., are weary. - oXok4os: notice the accent, distinguishing it fr. 7rdXeov, or ro'eXws. - 7resiolo: const.? H. 590, a; K. ~ 273, 4, (a). -,ris (receives the accent

Page  196 196 NOTES. of aopg, hence written i-s), join w. aAhK, any strength. U- s (accented = obwcos), thus, so. 247-256. aXeMv....E. a TE, near, where. Notice the use of re'. H. 856, a; K. ~ 321, R. 4.. eipdaraa t: H. 420 D, 12; K. ~ 230. -aTrai for -ve'al: are drawn up. -- V7re'poXP,, i7repEdXo. --'tLv (bzSv)s): dat. of interest: for your protection.- i'rl Kpi'-EOaL: notice here'7rl[ w. dat. after a verb of motion. Wherein is the const. unusual? H. 618; K. ~ 300, 3. What is the force of the const.? while going throughout, etc., he came to the Cretans (and halted). H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3, (a). Cf. 273. - avt..... XAKhvs. "Of courage stubborn as the forest boar." D. - oT: dat. of interest w. &'rpvve. -- uelXiXtolty: for the const., cf. KepTodU0oLwVj 1, 439. 257-264. irepl, separated fr. alow by tmesis. &avaai limits a': especially do I honor thee of (or among) the, etc. Some, however, make Aavacov depend on'rept. B- 8a[', &aar. -- 5'e Trep rE, whenever::rp; intens. (just, precisely when): TcI, Epic use..- K'pFCvT-a (repdvvv,uL): subjunc. pres. mid.: notice the peculiar accent. H. 439 D, 1; 401, k; K. ~ 230; ~ 176, 1. Notice also the omission of Ky in this clause. Cf. ferep... 7rtvwar,, v. 261. H. 757 and 759; K. ~ 337, 5, also Rem. 3; G. ~ 60, 3; and ~ 63, when they have mingled (for themselves). etc. - 7rAeZov (not comparative), fr. hErAZov = rXoAeo. 6 — rep 4col, elliptical, as mine for me. - rLerv ('rIvw): infin. denoting purpose. H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1, (d): depends on Ea'Tre. -- T'E... &V&yo7: notice here the optat. in connection w. a leading tense. H. 760, d, 730; K. ~ 259, 3; G. ~ 63, 4, (b), to drink, when the appetite prompts. --'p0eu -= ipoeo =; paoou (ipyvuL), H. 349 D; K. ~ 223, 10, haste to the battle, such as, etc. i- rpos w. pres. tense, cf. 1, 553. 265-282.'68a (pronounced in two syllables); adtdw, impf. rlv6aov -anv, -aer -as, -ae, -a. For the augment, see H. 310; K. ~ 121. — e =,tuJv, H. 852, 13; K. ~ 316, R. r- nro',77Y (VcpIorr'0T) Kal KaTi'veuaoa, Ipromised and confirmed with a nod. Cf. 1, 514. ovmb... EXevav (aryx4%), lit. poured together, i. e. violated, broke.- errEp... VX. ria'ro: cf. v. 67. irapxe'ro, 7'rapoiXoFta: Kp, ace. of specif.; notice the accent: not to be confounded w. Kp. -- V. 273. Cf. v. 251. -- Kopvoaa'aIr (KopcraoW): here, the putting on of the helmet denotes by meton. the whole process of arming for battle; above, v. 252, the putting on of the breast-plate denotes the same idea: and these two were arming themselves, etc. -- a& 8' boe: cf. 3, 33. - e6tev, beholds: gnomic aor. Cf. pdyor, 3, 4, Note. So also g[-rlaev and Xraawe, v. 279. - -.... dvi-, and to him (i. e. the goatherd) being afar off. z- peXdrepov: compar. used absolutely. H. 662;

Page  197 ILIAD I:V. 197 K. ~ 323, R. 7, it appears exceedingly black: 1Sv (elt), advancing. TroMat.. 7rvmcval... Aayyes, such (i. e. so dark) the dense phalanxes, etc. - iKvutea.... 7repLKvzaL (cplpcow): dark, bristling with, etc. 286-302. oa-cii: obj. of KExelv, and understood w. o'rpvv', es (infin.). - aviC, sc. iA/ets, subj. of &VS-yeToY, you yourselves rouse, etc.V. 288 if.: cf. 2, 371 fE. - TroVs, i. e. the two Ajaxes: acVTOi, adv. there. - ltbyiu... &yopirlzv: cf. 1, 248. o- obs (8s, I, by, possess. pron.: not the relat.'s, 1, o), his, Lat. suos. -- o-rijrev: what are the trans. and what the intrans. tenses of o'rtrxut? H. 416, 1; K. ~ 173, R 2. 2.- ferv (-= Evat): H. 406 D; K. ~ 225: infin. denoting purpose: in the van, he placed the horsemen, etc, and in the rear, the footmen... to be, etc. icaKois be', but the cowards, etc. The rhetoricians afterwards taught that the arguments in a discourse should be arranged, like the forces of Nestor for battle, with the weakest in the middle....o- ootps, their: cf. o5s, v. 294. - EX txEr (infin.), to hold, restrain. --!uz~....6z.x, and not, in the tumult of battle, to be thrown into disorder. 303-316. M78e' Tros, nor let any one, etc.; a transition to the oratio recta. -?vop7ept: w. Epic suffix -,t. H. 206 D; K. ~ 210. oos: observe the breathing. -- ued'rw@o: Lex. MAn. - &haaras;vrepot T'r., for (in either case) you will be more easily overcome. ~- ts oe e K., but whatever man, from his own chariot (in its proper place in the ranks) may reach the chariot of another (an enemy), let this one allonge with his spear. Such is the interpretation of this vexed sentence, preferred by F., Diintz., Cr., Koeppen, Wolf, and others. &- lretj... qe'p'epov, sc. 9E0ri, or e'oTa, since it will be, etc. -- ial ol wrp4repot, those of a forner day also. Homer cannot lose sight of this characteristic of old men, in describing Nestor, cf. 1, 260 if. - d e$&86s, used adjectively, well skilled in, w. gen. 7roxAuwv: as verb, to know, usu. w. acc. - eYe denotes a wish w. the optat. ero'ro and eh*, would that, etc.: Wos r&bvpu, sc. aion,... lUs.Tro, as there is courage. so, etc. -- youva&' eirotro, your knees might follow, might hold out. "The weakness of age exhibits itself especially in the knees. Cf. Horace, Epode, 13, 4, dum virent genua." Cr. -- rls i&xos, subj. of 6kpeev: o~i, sc. pheXes. See Lex. ofel'aw, 2. alpe, ele, or &s w. 2d aor. indic. in wishes that cannot be realized, O that some other one of men had this (old age), and that you shared with, etc. 318-325. ydAxa eC'y (= S1Uhv) ev rie., surely I could wish, myself also, to be (!ejv) so as when, etc. Notice the dif. between Us, demonst. so, i. e. so strong, and fs (proclit.), relat. as. - With the sentiment of v. 320, compare the words of Maharbal to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, non omnia nimirum eidem dii dedere. Liv. 22, 51. - a (= Att. Xv),

Page  198 198 NOTES. H. 406 D; K. ~ 225. - I7rCeSL, presses on~ me. - Ka! 6s, even thus: cf. note on us and c&s, v. 319.?ye'pas (distinguish fr. yipas), predicate; for this (7-o) is the prerogative of, etc. aidXusd, acc. of kindred formation w. alXI.XdaoovL. H. H547, a; K. ~ 278, 1. — orep... 7e-ydca (?yPvopyaL), who are more capable of bearing arms than I. 326-335. Cf. v. 272. e — Ep' (= eJpe, fr. EiVp[OKc): notice the asyndeton. H. 854; K. ~ 325.- fIeireco: Nom. HnEIEers: how declined? H. 146 D; K. ~ 212, 7.!- &IAl 8', sc. Jocav, and round about were, etc. O6..'O8uo~eveds: cf. N. on a... yvvh, 1, 348.- 7rap f.... a o...'Taav, and near (him) round about stood, etc. Distinguish ea'eao-av, Y7oTao'av, and E-TrlCav (as 1st, and as 2d aor.). H. 416, 1; K. ~ 173, R. 2. s- ohiv: dat. of interest in looser relations. H. 601; K. ~ 284, 3, (10). For not yet on their part, or so far as related to them (i. e. Odysseus and Menestheus), did their people hear, etc. - ol Vg, Odysseus and Menestheus. - 6rrM-e (till the time) when. -- nripyos, lit. a tower, or as we say in military language, a column. - Tpcocwv is to be joined both w. 97reXAc6v and w. 6pLabeie, advancing towards the Trojans should rush upon (them). -- d&peav, and they ('AXacol) should begin. 339-348. KeKagvE'Pe: Lex. KaivvmaL, II. Odysseus is designated by this verse with sufficient distinctness, without mentioning his name. -- apo-raTe (a7rd, -Trarae), addressed to both heroes; yet Odysseus, as the more eminent of the two, is no doubt chiefly meant; and hence, he alone replies, v. 349 if. &- oui(Zv: emphasized byuEY' = tulv: you especially does it become, being, etc. 9Jo'vas, same peouliarity of const. as Jo'T'a, 1, 541; cf. N. - r7Td uev (distinguished by the accent from the indic. 1st pers. plur. rTra-,uev): infin. = Att. e'ordvaL. H. 359 D; K. ~ 220, 18, to stand, i. e. to stand your ground, to stand firmly. s- rpd;Tw....-o:.. for ye twofirst hear from me of a banquet also: Jpe?o gen. of pers., and 8acTds gen. of thing, both depend on &couVderEov0Y. So it is usu. explained; but Diintz. understands ipeuto as limiting bawrTs, my banquet. --'AXazoi: appos. w. subj. of Jpowr-, we Achaeans. -- Kp'a and Kv7reXAa, sc. doT[: (p[Xa, pred.::E&uvaI (fr. ewO = Att. iaoi-o), and rtvE'/teva depend on (pXa. H. 767; K. ~ 306, 1, (d): roasted meats are pleasant to eat, and cups of honey-sweet wine, to drink, etc. Cf. r& Kacc& dpAa, 1, 107. --' before an aspirated vowel for Ice: bp5doTE, optat. H. 370 D; K. ~ 222, 1, (3): you would gladly see (it), even if, etc. - ibELhaCu, Att. bguy. 350-357. piKos (see Lex.): partitive appos. w. ae: lit. what manner of saying has escaped thee, the fence of thy teeth! H. 500, b; K. ~ 266, R. 4. ---- u. eeUeV (Att. ealE4vaL), sc. pIes, or vuar, that I withdraw from battle, or shrink from battle. -'AXatol, appos. with the subj. of Jyespoluey:

Page  199 ILIAD IV. 199 whenever we Achaeans, etc. --— al... sqeml1Xp (Lex. eaxho, III. 2): a biting sarcasm: anld if these things concern thee. -- -rar'pa, obj. of whEat. - yv&o (Att.?oyvw), w. gen., a rare const.: lit. when he knew (him) being angry: i. e., when he knew he was angry. -- rrdty.... 1rov, and he took back (7rdXAv XdCEo) his word, i. e. the word above spoken, which had given offence to Odysseus. This clause, in connection with rpoafrq7, would more naturally have been in the participial form: addressed him... retracting his word. 360-379. 3v"bss... oie, your mind knows pleasing counsels: frios, pleasing, good, cunning: opp. to Y7rtorS. - a'T' e'yc PrEp, sc. ~ppo4ow, which I think: notice the intens. force of 7rfp w. 4iyc. e — e~ev: optat. without &v, expressing a wish: may the gods make, etc. -- V. 364: cf. V. 392. - Kawrar4ios, adj. w. vids, lit. Capaneian son = son of Capaness. --- yepdpas: Lex. ye4pvpa, II. tdXeuX at depends, like 7rwoa~cuevlY, on 4pAov: not to Tydeus at least was it agreeable thus to shrink away; but (it was agreeable) to fight, etc. -- proav, subj. antecedent of ofi, as those affirmed, who, etc.- xrept w. gen., superior to. -- -yE'ea: aor. infin. denoting finished action or state, they say he was, etc. H. 716; K. ~ 257; G. ~ 23, 2. -- &vEp srOXl6ov, without war, is further explained by EZvos (= Att. Er4os), appos. w. subj. of eio-zAe, as a guest. Though his errand was warlike, yet he came as a friend.- &yEipwv, pres. particip., while engagel in collecting, etc. -- ol, who, etc. i. e. Polynices and his brother-in-law Tydeus. - e- oapacrdwvro (as if fr. a pres. rTrpacdwo, not in actual use. H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, 1, (3).). r. pbs r'eSXea: does not, I think, mean as the Lex. says (sub a'rpacrdu), they were encamped, etc.; since they were now at Mycenae and since the verb is followed here by rpo's w. the ace., not 7rpds w. the dat. It means, I think, were preparing an expedition against, etc. - X&ro-ovro, besought (those at Mycenae): 4sfev = Att. ~8ovai. So also &daeal, next verse. "The war of the seven Argive princes against Thebes," here alluded to, was the most celebrated event in Grecian legend before the Trojan war; and furnished many themes for the tragic muse. 380-384. ol s4, and they (those in Mycenae) consented, etc. fir,',reov Ws iCe'Xevor, approved (of doing) as they (their guests Polynices and Tydeus) urged. -- Erpe1Es, turned, diverted (those at Mycenae, from their purpose to furnish allies). -- of o'... 6XovTo, and when now they (i. e. Tydeus and Polynices) were gone (from Mycenae):.7/3....E'YEvoYTO, and were advanced on their way: 7rpb e6oi, cf. eppo0vos. -- AeXeroifYv (fr. Aexe7roh7rs 1st declens.), adj., as well as Bavo6-Xowtov: join w.'Aao7rd,, Asopus, having thick rushes and grassy banks. - rv'Y ads' introduces

Page  200 200 N OTE S. the principal member of the sentence, then again. - A'ry eMP. Some of the best critics, both ancient and modern, take &'ayet7iv here, and &77yeXls, 3, 206, as 1st declens. masc.; and render the clause, the Achaeans despatched (irti separated by tmesis fr. o, -eTXav) Tydeus as a messenger. Some others, equally critical, deny the existence in Hm. of such a word as &yyeXAls, 1st delens. mase.; but they are not agreed in their interpretations of this verse, or of 3, 206. Cr. and some others take caeyAXtl as ace. of design or purpose: Diintz. makes it depend on e'rt and writes e6rt (by anastrophe). Either explanation seems forced. F. adopts the rendering first given above, as a messenger. - Tv3i, st. Tvsia: H. 189 D; K. ~ 213, 13. 385-398. KaSt/elfoas, patronym., descendants of Cadmus, = KaWeeZot, v. 391. —, Bghs'ETeoCK1ceCLis, lit. of the Eteocltan might, i. e. of the mighty Eteocles. Cf. IplploLo BN7, 3, 105. -- rE'p intensifies JeZos, calling special attention to the position of Tydeus: idu,, concess., though he was. H. 789, f; K. ~ 314, 4, (d); G. ~ 109, 7. LE- ieaxEvEwv 7rpoicaXiaeTo, challenged (them) to contend (with him). This occurred no doubt after a banquet. - wrvra, adv. ace., in all respects. Some, however, understand aeAxa (acc. of cogn. meaning w. ViKrta), in all the contests. tzEropes Irrov. In driving, they probably used, instead of a whip, a pointed stick, such as is still common in the East; hence the phrase, goaders of horses. p- &k avepXojpev (for him) returning back (to the Achaeans). --- rvUKibv XAdXov, a compact ambush, or perh. a concealed ambush. Lex. rvtKc6s, III. -- Jrav, Lex. eTora. - KOpovs Wrev., appos. w. J4Xov. - Tvuebvs p' Kial T0LoLJv, Tydeus in fact... even to these. a- 7rvaS Kei.; notice the asyndeton. H. 854; K. ~ 325. --- i7reyle. Lex. 4ENnf. E'a... TeL (tVy), save one alone (whom) he sent, etc. - 7rLrocwas (7refwo), having trusted, agrees w. subj. of TpoIce. 399-410. rby vibV y7efaTro, he begat this (Trdv) son. — eo: H. 233; K. ~ 217: inferior in battle to himself. - 8TE: Epic use of. -- 1&yop... pEd'VC is perh. rather to be understood as a taunt. -- V. 401. Observe how differently the character of Diomed is sketched from that of Odysseus, v. 349 if. -- aleo-raeis, ashamed at the reproof, etc. aiS.o/xa, depon. w. aor. pass. or aor. mid. -- -Ieu8e'= 4,Seaso, Att. *oV'8oV, fr.,Veu8oluaL.- uels....uels: emphat. repetition. g- aic, intens. According to the mythical narrative, the seven-gated Thebes was taken ten years after the war of the seven Argive princes by their descendants (the Epigoni). We even captured (not merely made war upon it) the seat of, etc. -- &ayayo',' ='7aySPY-e (dual). Sthenelus and Diomed (it appears) were among the Epigoni. r- rero',LuevoL. Notice the sudden transition

Page  201 I LIAD IV. 201 to the plur. H. 517; K. ~ 241, R. 8. - iEZYOL t/i y (our fathers). - Ocerep'p oLJ &A'aoaaX'M.aAiv, by their foolish acts. (Cf. nrepo7rX[pa, 1, 205, N.). They did not heed the warnings of the gods.- ju...,'vaeo: notice here /uh w. the aor. imperat. (st. subj.), contrary to prose usage. H. 723, a; K. ~ 259, 5, R. 9; G. ~ 86. -- -olf: ethical dat.: wherefore, never, before me, place our fathers in like honor (with us). 412-421. oa-Ln7rf Joro (J/aL), lit. sit in silence: but Jaoo must not be taken too strictly, since Sthenelus was standing (v. 267). - V. 413 if. The heroic character of Diomed appears here more fully. -- 3OTp0vovTL, particip. denoting time and cause. H. 788, a; 789, c; K. ~ 312, 4, (a), (b); G. ~ 109, 1, and 4, while engaged in rousing, or because he rouses.roTrc, (Agamem.) depends on t/ua. - To0eTd... 7reY'os, sc. froTao, or Homeric aoerTae. --—'AXaLv $60aevYcowv: particip. denoting condition, if the Achaeans shall have been conquered. -- u!e8&5!eLra, exhortation, let us, etc. -- v5rd (separated by tmesis fr. JeAev), has in compos. very generally a diminutive force. H. 657. fear would have seized somewhat on one who was very stout-hearted. A few, however, by a rather forced construction, understand the idea of the preceding clause w. 65rd: by reason of this terrible clangor, fear would have seized, etc. 423-438. ipvvT' = opYvJvra. For this elision, see H. 70 D; K. ~ 206, 5, (e). i6raror6'epov qualifies Kic/a. - 67ro: anastrophe. H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 31, IV. lit. a surge of the sea in quick successi:n (after another) is raised by the west wind having moved (it). -- oporGoe-'Ta has the same subj. as 6pvvUrau: at first, it rises up, on the deep. tro'vrqo and Xe'paov, dat. of place. H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1. -- yueyaa, adv. greatly,. loudly.aEpl... o KOpvpovalt, and being bent around a lofty point, it rises to a crest: arorT'6et, spits forth,-a very expressive metaphor. -- oe-rtY EgKar-.ros, each one... his own (men). -- oi 8' &XXot, but they, the others, i. e. the men, in distinction fr. the leaders. -- aryq repeats the idea of &K-yv (v. 429): e1EL'rers agrees w. ol 5' &XAoL, in silence fearing, etc. HelzEJyOL (&,nv,'uI) iTX1W0JXTo (-LXdWo) in which being clad, they moved on in ranks. So rv-e, as: Epic use of TEE. - /LvptaL differs how fr. /ptmat: see Lex. -- a/EfXey4dAeva, ydxa XevKo'v: an idiom not easily rendered into Eng.:?ycXa is cogn. acc. H. 547; 555, a; K. ~ 278, 2, giving white m'lk. -,eplaKvtlal, l/71KdoZaL. - Tp&cwu a&XaX1TO's, so the shouting of the Trojans, etc. The idea of Tpoes (v. 433) is here repeated in the form Tpcxsv: an anacoluthon. H. 886; K. ~ 347, 5. bpcppeL, 6pvv/.L. -- ircOvr' limits apo'os, for the speech of all, etc. 439-456. par-e, gpvvu/L: what tenses of this verb are intrans. and what tenses trans.? See Lex.?- TObiS eE'V, these (i. e. the persons last men9*

Page  202 202 NOT E S. tioned, the Trojans),... Tobs ie', those (i. e. the Achaeans). — A euos...'EpLs, sc. Dpoaav auTrovs, roused them, i. e. roused both parties: 41oTroI CuzE/avoa (agrees w.'EpLs), insatiably longitng. -- obpasjp eoT~pLte (gnomic aor. fr. o-q7p.rCw) Kcdpa, rests her head on the sky. With this descripfion of Eris, compare Virgil's description of Fama, Aen. 4, 176 f. —-- oTWiv, dat. of interest: ue'act, depends on ev in compos. w. dhAe (tc$Bahe): she then also cast into the midst for them, etc. --- O, they, i. e. Trojans and Greeks. -- o-avvE'aXov, cast together, dashed together. -- ady, sc. /aXov, they dashed together spears and " the furious might of mail-clad warriors." -- f7rA7vro, 7reAXAo. b- XAAVirvrwv goes properly in idea w. eBvXwX4, and bAAvdUo'wv w. owl/zyiy; but it is better, in translating it, to follow nearly the Greek order, then arose at once both thegroaning and the exultant shouting of men, both slaying and slain.- IKaT"' pem4rq (Epic case-ending. H. 206 D; K. ~ 210), down from the mountains. -- vvcBdXXe'ro, dual, w. plur. subj. 7rotrauoL. H. 517; K. ~ 241, R. 9.- &cTv (in v. 455), of these, i. e. the two wintry torrents; limits oi7royv: hKave (used as gnomic aor.), hears. -- Tc-Z (v. 456), of these, i. e. the two armies; limits'aX*'e 7ro$0s'se. A more animated passage than this is seldom found. 457-469.'AvrTAoXos: Antilochus, was son of Nestor, and friend of Achilles. - &vpa KopVc'rjv: cf. note on atrXo Ao dvpes, 2, 474. 4dXov,: partifive appos. w. 7T&v. H. 500, b; K. ~ 266, R. 4, (cf. v. 350, N.), he first smote him (on) the forepiece of, etc. On the use of 7rpTros, cf. H. 488, R. c; K. ~ 264, 3. - re (7ri.yvvut), subj. a'ly*: stuck fast. Cf. rdcr, v. 185.- Boae, part. appos. Cf. pdcAov, v. 459, lit. covered him, his eyes: freely rendered, darkness covered his eyes. - jprIre, peL'ro, intrans. in 2d aor.'Ws OTE 7rpyos, as when a tower (falls), or simply, like a tower. -- 7roby, gen. of part, by the feet. Cf. Kc4t-qS, 1, 197. -,XKE, began to draw. H. 702; K. ~ 256, 4, (a), (a); G. ~ 11, N. 2. -- ul4vvra (adv.) 64 ol (dat. of interest in looser relations)....6puA, but the effort on his part was of short duration. - veKpbv..... &, having seen (him) dragging the dead body. - 7rAvpd, obj. of ovT7re. -- ra... 4Eqaa'va7 (?eMpatvw: aa for a. H. 370 D, a; K. ~ 222, A, (3),) lit. which to him stooping appeared by the side of his shield; more freely rendered, which as he stooped down appeared beyond his shield. u-:o-: same subj. as ovTn0ae, takes?yvZa as obj., relaxed his limbs. 470-487. &dv and au'Tr, Elephenor. - Wr' ab'rQ... eT'-X v (vE-XW), and over him arose (lit. was made) a sharp engagement, etc. AlKo1 ts (H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (c),), like wolves. - a&vp IKC., and man grappled man. - o'v, obj. of yeis'a'ro ('yeIvo/aw, not to be confounded w.?yfyvo/uao),

Page  203 ILIAD IV. 203 whom once his mother... bore. - Kacroitoa, Kart, iovea fr. l. --- 7rel... rT7rEo....18eau, when she followed... to see the flocks. - &7rabwice: notice the meaning of this compound, as distinguished fr. the simple verb. See Lex. - a.ulvErL (Sa/udw) agrees w. of (v. 478); but life was short to him subdued with the spear by, etc.: or Soupt may grammatically depend on irdf, under the spear of, etc. So F. understands it. --- 7rpTOv KT, for he (Ajax) smote him (Simoisius), advancing foremost, or more freely, as he advanced in the front rank. a'riaos, (part. appos. cf. pdaXov, v. 459, note,) on the chest. rapd, by or near. a- &'YrtCpi, Lex. 2. - rTEpKp, po.6, pf. subjunc. has grown. -- or (enelit., has thrown its accent on sre); dat. of interest in looser relations; depends on vreq6aorv (H. 386 D; K. ~ 193); rendered freely, branches have grown at its top. -- rjV, this (yteylpov), obj. of iie&axie (gnomic aor., cuts out, fells). - &ppLaro7r7ybs &ayvp: the chariot-maker. Cf. &vbpa Kcopvur'-ri, v. 457. alroAXoi VySpes, 2, 474, note. -- cppa... Kid/cfp: subjunct. after gnomic aor., that he may bend a felly, etc. -- &ote'Vr, drying, seasoning. 489-500.'ro, at him (Ajax), depends on &c4dvrTav, cast. -. auapw' = iapTE, fr. k&iap-ravov: he missed him, but he hit, or had hit, etc. With the plupf. ]e,8A&ices here; cf. BE8iKeL 1, 221, note. The finished action of the plupf. naturally denotes the suddenness of an action.!OouvS3cra: in the groin, part. appos. w. AetcKO,. - ipOv'ora agrees w. AEIKov; denotes time; while he was dragging away in another direction the dead body (of Simoisius). p- fjire: cf. v. 462. abvwT, it, i. e. the corpse. - f TO,0 (AC6Kov), gen. of cause: atroarcaye'voLo, 1st aor. mid. as pass. See Lex. K-CeLvw: lit. on account of this one having been slain, i. e. tn aetnrunt of his death. - KEKopv0!z/voS, Kopo~row. -- f, here reflex., though not usu. so in Hin. Why orthotone? H. 232 (" after prepositions "); K. ~ 35, 3, (a), having glanced around himself. ~- -ird, join w. icdKaSowTO (XdCo/lat): &vOpds, gen. w. a verb of separation. H. 580; K. ~ 271, 2. The reason is expressed by the particip. atcovrToOaYrTs. -- oT, to him, i. e. to Priam: dat. of interest..- rap'...KELOdCov. Two interpretations are proposed: from the care of swift steeds (notice the gender of CKEdov). This render. ing is explained by the supposition, that Priam had, at Abydus, stables, which Democoon had charge of. St. and D. understand the phrase, by swift steeds: " on a chariot drawn by speedy mares." D. The first rendering is usu. adopted. 501-511.'rdpoto = T'acpoto; not to be confounded w. -erpoto: gen. of cause, enraged on account of his companion. -idpno-v: part. appos. w. rdv: this one, or him (Democoon) on the temple. ----''... aiXlzl: cf. note on j 8'... 7yvv'j, 1, 348, and this, the brazen point of the, spear

Page  204 204 NO T E. passed, etc. -- WonrnOrer Kce., lit. he made a loud noise in having fallen; more freely, he fell with a loud crash. - X&cp'iay v' rP6: see Lex. VroXcprloav. - nepyidov tic (notice the accent. H. 104, a, " when placed after the words which they belong to." K. ~ 32, (b),), having looked down from Pergamus (the citadel of Troy). L- iK'KeT', Ke' OpvvO' (6pvvyup), imper. pres. mid. - Xcapu-s: gen. of separation w. eicere, nor give place from battle; more freely, nor yield in battle to the Argives. - aqd, dat. of interest: Adios and ~oi$rpos, pred.: Xpcs, subj., since their flesh (lit. the flesh to them) is not stone, etc. - &vaoXEa3ar (aveXoutas), infin. denoting purpose or result. H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1, (d); G. ~ 97. aAAo/ie'vrolutL agrees w. aopd, so as to endure, when hit, the flesh-cutting brazen weapon. 512-526. ob A&hv oiV' introduces here an additional consideration: the negative repeated for emphasis: nor indeed does Achilles... fight. XdhAo....rtesei: Lex. warolo, III. 2, cf. 1, 81. -- rdALos: 7rzTsxL = WAIs. - &POe, 0pu/rxu. - eae'VTaS (#eats[ir) refers to'AXalo1ds. Cf. v. 240 and 445. -- re47qo'ev, redaw..- bicpldEvs qualifies Xeppa1qC, with a rough stone (such as could be used for a missile): BA S.o... cKVyiqV: in the act., 6,daxw often takes an acc. of the direct obj. and an acc. in part. appos.; cf. AeiKoy....BovS3ova, v. 491, 492, p4l... o'T2.Zos, v. 480: in the pass., it retains the latter case. H. 553, a; K. ~ 281, 2, he was hit on the right leg, near the ankle. - Av'Adev, from Aenus, a town in Thrace, as is implied in the verse above. - i &XtLs, Lex. aXpi, III. 2.- - &7r7Ao6rev, arraXotda = &iraxodw. - o6 W... Kcdw7rreoev (KaTe'Veo'eY, Carawrrgro), and he (i. e. Diores)fell backward, etc. - okra (obTdw), 2d aor. act. 3d sing. The impf. 3d sing. would be oG6a, contracted fr. oS6ae. - ti... 4VTO. hKcXEfiO. 527-535. T~Y, this one, him, (i. e. Pirous,) obj. of BdAe: oreowa verov (krLo'edw), notice the recessive accent (H. 367 D, b): agrees w. Tbv, as he rushed on. F. and Diintz. read a7reotoiervov, as he rushed away. —- repFov.... ca6oo, on the chest above the breast..- crdyl,'rlyvvuzt -- eK... i.. rdaoao, drew out from; ptraoaTo, drew, i. e. unsheathed. - /eoz7v: pred. adj. w. yaoa'e'pa, with this he smote his body in the midst. ic afvvuro: see Lex.? ua[vvpLM. - WeplaoT-qav (rept, eo'rTqaav), stood around. - &aipol, the companions of the one just slain, i. e. of Pirous. - aKpJdKOol, "with tufted crowns." D. -~ ol, relates to &Eaipol; is subj. of $aca (&kWo~w): e, obj. of a-abv, who thrust him (i. e. Thoas) from themselves. - Xaaodoueros, Xdaoyat. 536-544. &s r'cy'... 6 Uv,...6 Si... iryepudves: thus these two leaders, the one of the Thracians (i. e. Pirous), the other of the brazen mailed

Page  205 ILIAD IV. 205O Epeans (i. e. Diores) uere stretched (erdcla'r, Lex. TrevrC, plupf. 3d dual). -- repi: adv. cf. 3, 384.- Evya... E. vdoacTo: Then no longer (whatever fault he might have found before) could a man find fault ith the engagement (so general and so well contested was it). -- arrlS... JcEOro describes more particularly &vhp: one who... should move about in the midst (as an observer, without taking part in the battle): &BA'lro, not hit by a missile (from a distance): &avo'raTros (a priv. oivTdwo) not pierced, not wounded (with a spear near at hand). o- &yoo Be' e: a transition from the foregoing relat. sent. to an independent const., and... should lead him. Only under such protection could he thus pass through the battle. — TrfavrTo, etEyW.

Page  206 206 NOTES. BOOK FIFTH. 1-13. This book describes the exploits of Diomed; and hence, is properly entitled Atop,48ovs &pLefrda. It is a natural continuation of the description begun in the preceding book. - ab: not denoting repetition here; but transition to a new topic, as often. - BaZ'f ol: note the asyndeton: she (Athena) kindledfor him: aiKauwaToY, untiring, unceasizg. - Xa,uorpv, adv. brightly. -- 7rapa[vpoLt, shines: subjunc., 3d, sing. IH. 361 D; K. ~ 220, 4. -'Iceavozo: gen. of place. H. 590; K. ~ 273, 4, (a), bathed in the ocean. The notion of part, and also of separation belong to this gen. For the Homeric idea of Oceanus, see Classical Dic. - TroZov, such (i e. like the autumnal star, when bathed in the ocean) did she kindle for him, etc. - Kpards, gen., not to be confounded w. KpadTS. - lOTflYv, ElLAL. - LdaX7s....rdoars, every (kind of ) battle. - rroKpLYarVT6E, a&OKprYW, having been separated from (their own ranks): o' limits Ivavr,[w, opposite to aim, to meet him. -— r& Aue', sc. wpPVrlv (gpvvu.t). - &pq' Y'7rroul: lit. from their horses, i. e. on their chariot: ar6b xaovr4, on the ground. Cf. the Att. expression ao''wr1rov IAdXeOerat, to fight on horseback. Yet the exact force of &ir6 must not be lost sight of in these expressions. - 6 8... reFo's: cf. 4, 419, where he is represented as leaping from his chariot to the ground. 14-24. or, subj. of ojaavc: standing before o'-e, it is more emphat., and when they, etc. - TvSe7Lew (cf. In?lh7xi'8ew, 1,1, N.) limits &uov. — 6b b... Tuve[1bs: cf. i be... 7yvvh, 1, 348, N. o — -o limits XElpds, from his (Atrides') hand. --,axe....erajudtiov, hit (him) on the chest between the breasts. -- day (k&6w) alp''7rrwv, thrtust (him) from his chariot. Cf. a)' hirrotv,, v. 13. - repLijai, to go around, to protect. -- KTapUYVoLo (Kre[vw), aor. 2d, part., mid., with pass. meaning, s7ain. Cf. 3, 375. - o5E.... obe'4. We may in a similar way repeat the negation in Eng.: for not even, not even would he himself have escaped, etc. Instead of the conditional sent., corresponding to KEv.... repvye, we have ax'....EpvTo (= el /X'"Ho. EvPwro), but Hephaestus protected (him). ~- Ws...irl: that the aged man (meaning his-father Dares, priest of Hephaestus, v. 10) migqht not be before him (oT, meaning Hephaestus, ethical dat.) altogether sad(from the loss of both his sons). aKaXhgevyos(notice the accent. Ii. 367 D, b; K. ~ 223, R. 4): Lex. AXfl. H. 442 D, 16; K. ~ 230, &KaX1CW.

Page  207 ILIAD V. 207 25-30. eXA~oasr, eXcatvw. - TpCes, subj. of Bov: placed before ofrfe, it is made more prominent in the thought. Cf. oi, v. 14. - TbV uC.... Tbe'e: partit. appos. w. vie. - hAevdcuePov (&XeouaL or aAeo,/ac, aor. iXeg4Sv~, and IAevdln), having fled: iKT'UEov, cf. itcraAevoLo, v. 21, N. -,rap' 6XEobLv (dat. here: 6Xos, 4u. H. 206 D; K. ~ 210, III.), by the side of his chariot. -- iramv Opfvrqr (opivw) ~Auses. This phrase denotes various ideas, according to the connection: here, the courage of all failed, or the hearts of all quailed. In 4, 208, it denotes pity or sympathy. e- i.o~a, sc.'Ap-/a, having taken by the hand, addressed, etc. 32-42. OUK Vy... EdoaUev... Yi' 8. XaCo6Lxeo-ra: at first, a modest and cautious question (H. 722, b; K. ~ 260, 4, (b); G. ~ 52, 2, N.); then, a direct exhortation: shall we not leave... but let us two withdraw. It must be borne in mind that Ares was on the side of the Trojans; Athena, on that of the Greeks. The goddess of wisdom, naturally enough, proved superior to the god of war. c- Kanreoev (cKad, ef'ra) Cri with. dat. Force of this const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 309, 3. -- cAkLzav: Ktrceo, trans. Irp&,Tn O6pepV' V L, to him (Odius) having first turned: " dat. of interest in looser relations." - eTaeppYVcp depends on Iv in compos. w. 7riBev: he (Agam.) planted a spear in the back. - Exao-arev, sc. 8dpv as obj.V. 42; cf. 4, 504. 43-57. ev4pa'o, gvytpw. -- M'jovos... BcSpov, son of the Maeonian Borus. Where was Maeonia? Lex. Mazovia. - Tdpvrs. Whether Tarne was an ancient name of Sardis, or a shorter form of Atarne, is not certain. -- v'6 (='vvue), v'oVw. - ~irwio'7 rBio'ol vevO,, while on the point of ascending his chariot. See Lex.'trros. For the const. of Ylrvwsrv, cf. note on KaKtiev, 2, 234...-. pp~s, - Ppa. - T're (fr. 6 and Te'), which, obj. of Tpicpet, relates to &-ypta, wild (beasts). - oupeav (ipos): const.? H. 612; K. ~ 283, 1. - Xpaa.c' (= eXpawao'/e), Lex. XpaLcOE'w (not used in pres.). Cf. 1, 28. -- cirloxa: force of abstract nouns in plur.? H. 518, c; K. ~ 243, 3, (3). - sKce`Ka'c'o: KcafvvaL.. -! v, obj. of oe~race. - eTrdrppePvov: partit. appos. w. ph/. - EXaoaCEV (EAaxvw), sc. 8dpu as obj. 60-83. is seems to relate to'epeicAo. Cf. v. 44 for a similar construction. p — EiXa-ro, psXiee. -- ec.. 87n (notice the ~ subscript, thus distinguishing it from {8n, already), gEoia. -- youov... eod4'v, "through his right flank." D. -- eavc, wife of Antenor. - laa, adv.: equally w:th her children. - a- &vrepb lp' aY(= ada), and right on through, etc. --'T~h~vopa 8;Zov: no verb is expressed to govern this ace., but the thought is resumed with -svr (i. e.'Tr4Svopa), this one, him, obj. of'Xar' (Aa6'wo, II.): &iov, on the shoulder. Const.? cf. epdsov, 4, 459,

Page  208 208 N O T ES. note. -- &7rb... eQeote: &TroE'w. - r.v, obj. of caur'.. cMae&E (Karaka/t0dvw): gaoe, partit. appos. w. ov. 85-94. TvutEi-ay, introduced as obj. of?yvotns, st. subj. of zse-rEL7. Object of prolepsis? H. 726. Eng. idiom, you would not know in which (army) Tydides was. - he... ~: the usu. expression in later Greek was 7r'orepov.. j, whether... or. /- Au = a&d, over. - 5a', which. Epic use of'. - KCE'Taaoae (KEdCoo = oKKEUoCW, oy'cedvlv/l), gnomic aor.-. ot'r ore; notice the repetition of r' in the first member: Te' after tp is the comm. Epic use. - ye'vpopa is usu. understood here in the earliest sense. See Lex.: and ye'pvpat e'epye'vac (epywo), strongly-built dams: Eprea may be rendered walls. --?Alo'v'ra agrees w. drv, when it (the full winter torrent) comes. - vroEr'rep drres, though very many. The concessive force (though) lies in the particip.; rip is intens. 95-105. Avecdoos... vids, i. e. Pandarus. Cf. 4, 88, 89. --— rp ifaev (= ou), before himself (Tydides). -- 7ratcaovora agrees w. the obj. of BdAe, sc. IuA, and smote (him) as he was rushing on.- ydaaov, partitive appos. w. the obj. of $dxAe: cf. note on (pdxov, 4, 459, on the swell of his breast-plate.- b'r acro, 7rETO/aL. ~-.LO.Xe (8if'Xw), intrans., it held (itself) through, it passed through (his shoulder, &tzov). - Tr, mase., depends on the comp. verb 4Tr....i.oe, shouted over him. So Diintz. and F. Several of the older commentators, however, take m- as neut., depending on airl, hereupon. -- -CT'opeS ITrr'cv: cf. 4, 391. - — a&'XPT0EfhaL (&vd, $XouaL), cf. avaoXrfe'oaL, 4, 511. - &rva, i. e. Apollo. — aropvvuolevov, (agrees w. S/es) in setting out from, etc. 106-120. To'v, this one, him, i. e. Diomed, obj. of 8dltaore... - pao, cf. note 4, 204. -- Karapo'eEo: 1st aor. imperat. H. 349 D; K. ~ 223, 10; cf. ipoeo, 3, 250. -- trdp (= 7rapd), by (him, i. e. Diomed). --,3ios...,ov, he drew the swift missile out from the shoulder, entirely through (it): since it was easier and less dangerous to draw the arrow through, than to draw it back. So the phrase is usu. understood. --?,ue pXat (cf. kpxcaro, v. 61), befriend me. --- V re: epic use of'Te. - v&pa, obj. of fiXev, that I may seize the man (Pandarus). -- Kal... eAeiv, and that he may come within reach of my spear. l- &dayevosr, pd;,w. 6o'b gDc 4w fm, and affirms that I will not, etc. Cf. ohSe' I vuE, v. 103. 121-143. evbxdeyvos. Notice the different connections in which this word is used. Here, it means praying: in v. 106, it is best rendered, boasting. --- rdas, XEpas: appos. w. yvua. -... AydXeaZat, infin. as imperat. - Jcia,?!zlM. — rflev, [rI and Rev fr. edb. - M'A, wherefore: -- 1replSevyos, sc. foo, tempting (thee). —, —-.dXeac and oirad

Page  209 ILIAD V. 209,uev (aor. infin. fr. orrdco), used as imperat. - wcuas... EhE. Jsos: a sudden change of const. (anacoluthon. H. 886; K. ~ 347, 5): lit. before (this), desiring earnestly in heart to fight with the Trojans, then, indeed, twice as much force possessed him. Cf. Virg. Aen. 1, 234-237. Certe... pollicitus, quae te, genitor, sententia vertit? - i6v, obj. of Xpatoaap (Xopavo = XP&d). a- vas Virepd~Aevov (br'p, oAAzoa,), when it (the lion) has leaped over (the wall of ) the court-yard (a space before the house, where the flocks were gathered at night. Cf. 4, 433). --- ro, sc. XE'orosr. - Zporev, irpoo-apA'ei: subj.? sc. 7roilzv, he does not defend (them, i. e. the flocks). -- icar&... ie'ar, he (the shepherd) sinks away into the stalls. Ta- ar, and these, referring in general to the flocks. H. 522; K. ~ 332, R. 2.- KeXvvrat, X4'. - aivr&p 6, but he (the lion). - Tp&eoat, connect w. z1i7d (= 4f/i7, i'yvvVIL), was mingled with the Trojans. The point of the comparison lies in the furious rage of the lion. 146-158. cKAqa, part. appos. w. rbv'Tepov, the other, he smote on the collar-bone. -'aaoe, left, i. e. without stripping them of their armor. — ~ ros obK... c.. Kplva' ovelpous, to whom, in setting out (from home), the old man did not interpret dreams (for had he done so, they would not have gone), but the brave Diomed, etc. So F., Diintz. and others. Yet the position of obi has led many to the following interpretation: as they did not return (home), the old man interpreted dreams, but (they could not return), the brave Diomed, etc. By this last interpretation, Trons is taken as dat. of time. St., Cr. I prefer the first explanation. -- 6 e', but he, i. e. 4~atsw*e (Phaenops).- 3grl... Xre'fatL, to leave over his treasures. Const. of the infin.? H. 765; K. ~ 306, 1; G. ~ 97. -- biye, Diomed...~- -dXuns cK. H. 104, a; K. ~ 32, (b). - % X-lpwoat, Lex. X-lpwo-TCs. The relations of Phaenops are here meant. -- - -&... aTie'orro, Lex. 161-170. v'y ouvl AopcSv (p6oLc6): verb of motion w.?v. H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3. Z- ~... & (Idrvv/zt): gnomic aor., breaks, etc. -- XAoXoxi Kcdra; anastrophe. H. 102; K. ~ 31, IV. - ] joIopCoeAdwv (B4oKo), plur. agreeing w. both the preceding genitives; while they are, etc. -- aoe: remember that P1ow and 907o-qa (fr. Ba[vw) are causative: forced them both to leave (lit. to go out of) their chariot, etc. - EXaveVr, to drive, etc. Const.? Cf. Are'o-rat, v. 154. - &v (= a&d) TE pudXXrv, both through the battle, etc. - ~epe: notice the asyndeton, for liveliness of narration. - air, aor. indic. without augment. -- -ros Tre ULV arrlov qt6a, and in his presence addressed him a word. przv, obj. of qfba; biros, cogn. acc. H. 555; K. ~ 280, 1. 172-187.; (relates naturally to the principal object going before, i. e.

Page  210 210 NOTES. Trd6oV), in which, or with which. -- Epes (e'ir, e's fr. IpuL) cast at, etc. -- 35E, this (here), may be rendered as adv. w. a0-Trl, the man who here, etc. H. 6'78; K. ~ 303, 2. —- El p.... fT: closely connected in thought w. tpes, cast, etc.... unless he is some god. I- ~pw^Y: gen. of cause. Cf. evxwhOXs, ecaTJp4[3r, 1, 65.-. irtl = &T'rErTl. H. 102, a; K. ~ 31, R. 3. Cf. 1, 515, and the wrath of a god towards (any one) is, etc...- 7rd'a, adv. ace. -- fOKW, cf. 3, 197. -- a'rT- yyv-, knowing (him) by, etc. - o', ola. - bye, sc. orivs: but if he is a man, whom, etc. -- virs, appos. w. a&vp..-.rde, adv. ace. thus. - arJvdrov limits Ti;. - TOVTov:.. ErpaCrey &Axx, turned from him in another direction.-,cIX%4EzVoY (KLXdyW), hitting the mark, sure. 188-205. iq~pKica, &l7'Il/u. --,ui,, obj. of vrpoi&dqew, that I should send him forward to, etc. Cf. 1, 3. ~- g'lrns iKT., I wholly failed to subdue him. Some, without good reason, I think, take ewrr/s here, and in 1, 562, as adversative. o- KOTerS, filled with anger (at me). &- Tiov Ke, which I might, etc.- rpCwOTorayeis seo'reuVXeES: nearly synonymous. Cf. arpLT -v, aiVdiLrwotV, 1, 99. -- 7rkAot, cf. 2, 777. r- la'rajtat,'reTdXP~vvLt. The covers were for the protection of the chariots from dust. - 8svu'yes'r7rrOL, horses yoked in pairs, i. e. spans of horses. -. pahAa IroXd, join-w. 7rE'TeAAX, very earnestly, in his well-built mansion, charged me, as I was setting out. =-,tSeBa5*ra (&i, Bfaiw) agrees w. EA.- oira&rJ/, i. e. did not mount his horses and chariot..-..... e, truly it werefar better, sc. if I had obeyed. - uoi, ethical dat., to my sorrow. a- sb. eioA04'wsv: in the Eng. order, render this clause after p4h, lest, while the men were shut up (i. e. in the city Troy, suffering a siege), they (the horses) should lack, etc. - bplEyaL (= be8EcE'VaL, c"eiv), obw, Att. go&-ai. -?bros, sc.'~7rlrovs. - - d, i. e. Td4a, subj. of keaXAov, neut. plur. w. plur. verb. H. 515, b; K. ~ 241, R. 5, (c). 208-220. TpeKe's is taken by some as adv., I really caused blood to flow; by others, as adj., real blood. I prefer the former. -- fyepa, sc. avTrd, the two chieftains. t- Trq ja, illative, wherefore. Ka9ci acrdaq. Cf. 1, 418: dat. of manner, under an evil fate. - jpa'r Tr-: notice the unusual, and hence, emphatic position of Trc, on that day, when, etc. - ei e' Ke KT.: for a similar const. cf. 2, 258 if. -- TdpOL, without Sy, optat. of wishing, may some foreign man sever from me my head.:- 7rne8, subj. sc.'dica. - dpos...'rpis: cf.'rply....rply, 2, 348. -- vc, subj. of?reLpr7 cyat: infin. after irpis, H. 769; K. ~ 337, 9; G. ~ 106: arpl[ depends on the comp. verb ru... eA'3dure (the prep. separated by tmesis), until we two, having advanced against this man, with, etc., try (him) with arms. &svrLS[qV, repeats and strengthens the idea of rwt; unless,

Page  211 ILIAD V. 211 indeed, we take it, as Cr. and some others, to mean, ay& KpdoS, with all our might. 221-228. i7rigl8oeo: H. 349 D; K. ~ 223, 10.' oLot Tp&SoL'r7Irot, what the horses of Tros are. TpoiotL here means, not Trojan in general, but of Tros, i. e. descended from the steeds of Tros, which Zeus presented to him in compensation for the loss of his son Ganymedes. Cf. vv. 265272. 7re& oto....owoc4er?17f epe,8eoaL, to pursue and to retreat in the plain, etc. H. 590, a; K. ~ 273, 4, (a).,dXca qualifies KpaL7rJd. - ~S (sc.'7rrwo), subj. of ocua-aeTrov, these will convey us also in safety to, etc.Tvoepny AioA-: dat. depending on the comp. erl... bpCE4.. Cf. rie4/aL ier''Aq'petbp, 2, 6. H. 605; K. ~ 284, R. 2.'r O'r&e, this one, him, i. e. Diomed. BE4efo (8E'Xo/aL), pf. imper.,230-242. rec, TeS. --! AaXXov... O.TETOPy, they will better convey, etc., under a customary driver. Aeneas had, no doubt, often driven them; though in battle he would generally fight with a driver by his side. - Ub.. /taTrrIaeoz (/uaTaro): elliptical. (I fear, if you do not take the reins,) lest they, aftrighted, shall loiter, and refuse, etc. Notice the change from fut. to pres. subjunc. (e'e'Ar/77ov). The force of tAz extends through vv. 235 and 236: and lest... shall both slay us ourselves (vYi' avibe), etc. -- re' = red. - TgSe: cf. v. 228. - yulupeuacire: notice the interchange of dual and plur.- TvSeiL.p: cf. v. 225: also earl oo'o, v. 244. - l$e, Att. eSe. 243-250. KeXaplto'Ae (xaptCoual, III. 2), vocative. - 7rl o.ol..,u~dXeoat: in Att. 7rqludXeoJata aoot. Cf. v. 225, note and reference. - Iv (= iva, fr. Ys, bds), obj. of eXor'ras, which refers to 6Epe, ace. dual. - ndvapos, se. E'Cr. c. — vigs, pred., boasts that he is, etc.: vibs....'~yeydFV (pf. infin.?c'ytyvoouaL), boasts that he has been born a son of, etc. H. 775; K. ~ 307, 4. - xaC4&pe' e'+''r., let us withdraw and mount, etc. -- A7red' puoL, dat. of interest in looser relations, and do not, (I ask it) as a favor to me, rush thus, etc. 252-264. p.lrT... &ydpeue, lit. do not at all talk tending towards fear (orfight); or simpler, do not exhort to fear. oa- freto'WeP, sc. epueF that you will persuade me. - ob... 7eyvaZov KT'., it is not natural to me to fight giving way, nor, etc. -- Kai a5vgws, even thus, i. e. without a warchariot. -- ia,, synizesis. T- oVw.... 1uAqxW, obj. of &7roio'OEro (&7r4, 4pdpw). - ie'Tpds ye, one of the two indeed. - K0o.....TewEaLv, the honor to slay both. a — b 8... U.. KaCueeV (infin. as imperat., fr. ipvoKcw), do you restrain these (our) fleet steeds here. Notice Se in the apod. of a cond. sent. H. 862, b; K. ~ 322, R. 8. - AVelao... 7r7rowv, rush forward mindful of the horses of Aeneas. i'rrrwvc may depend gram

Page  212 212 NTE S. matically either on ~iratraL, or on peppEa'yfVOS. It belongs logically with both words. eK O' &do-ral, and drive (them), etc. 265-270.'rs.....yeves, sc. fo-ty, for (they are) of that breed, (a pair) of which wide-seeing Zeus gave, etc. is may depend, as partitive gen., on IceX' (= icOKE). Some, however, understand it as the direct obj., attracted to gen. by anteced. which... Zeus gave, etc. - vtos, Epic gen. of vids. Notice the dif. in accent. -- ov"YeKa, because, introduces the reason why Zeus gave of this particular breed to Tros.' iiO KTi., under the morning-light and sun. -- Tris E;vEeS KCAe'eCV (KA7rTrw), stole from this breed. - of, dat. w. Eyifvoro. - -yEvPAq, appos. w. A, from these were produced for him six, as a stock, etc. 275-289. rc, BE, but these two, i. e. Aeneas and Pandarus. - - dv, i. e. Diomed. -- oS'atrds, arrow, appos. w. Be'Xos, missile, subj. of actzo'o-darTo. -- r6XCoYL. H. 361 D; K. ~ 220, 1. - $acrp4; usu. adv.; here takes the gen. (ers), right on through this (the shield), etc. -- ox,'' isri: cf. v. 101 if. -- 1.u8pores, &aaprTdvw. -- 7rplY ye... s-rp'v y': notice the emphatic form of the statement. For the const., cf. H. 769; K. ~ 33'7; G. ~ 106, N. 3. -- iTepov, one (of you), subj. of aoaL (&w, to satiate, w. acc. and gen.). 291-304. Ai'a: obj. of motion. H. 551; K. ~ 277, on the nose. Ere'p-naes, it (Bexos) passed. — I Troi (laU'adpov) 3y.oiwav, his tongue: srpuusiv, partit. appos., at the hindmost part, i. e. at the root. -- A&rb... TraUe, a&7rOT4vW. -- (teav'ar, eKev'co. -- x61 (= hXVrt), departed. a7rdpova-, rushed forward from (his chariot). -- ijx arms ol (dat. of interest), lest in any way, to his sorrow, etc. -- &uqpl avr'oC, around it, i. e. to defend it (the dead body). -- -rpdaoe, adv. As prep., it takes the gen.: of, dat. of interest: and in front, he held for its protection both his spear, etc. - TroVy' &VTIos, lit. in front of it, i. e. to seize upon it (the corpse). -. ocEpsaXffa, adv. -- 6 4... TvSef7ss: cf. 7 Be.. yvv, 1, 348, note. - Xepazltoy..... Ieya p-yov, i' a rocky fragment... a mighty mass." D. - pe'poevo: notice the poten. optat. without &v. H. 722, c; K. ~ 260, R. 7; G. ~ 50, N. 1. - olos: notice the breathing, but he, even alone, etc. 305-317. dp, dat. of instrument, with this. - 4SCa r.....BE T Epic use of re'. rpbs (adv.) sa, and in addition. -- &ae (eUrew) &ard = arWore. - iprts-oy,?pe-hrw. - -ya[7s depends on?pecaaTo (Epe18c0): leaned with, etc., on the ground. H. 5'74; K. ~ 273, 3, b, (B). -- akytxl i...KdXvJev = a& KEticdxv4te,, enveloped. -- Kai vS, Kce aT'JAoro... ei /A 671lae: for this unusual const., see H. 750 (end); K. ~ 339, 3, (a), (y); G. ~ 49, N. 6.- b.... vuio, her dear son. $~- f'XeaTo, XeC, she

Page  213 ILIAD V. 213 threw her white arms. - rpgaoe 84: cf. v. 299, note. - oT...CdXV4Iev, she wrapped a fold of... around him, to be (E!Aev = ehat), etc. - r/vUb, obj. of the comp. verb Kc... o'AoTLo (atpepfw). 319-333. orbb'... reAe-o (Aadwr)vcv).. &s, did not forget those injunctions, which, etc. Notice the unusual position of Tdwv =,c7v; just before the relat. Cf. 332. - V. 323, rushing forward, he drove the.. of Aeneasfrom, etc. Cr. takes Ahvetao as depending on 47rataT, and in v. 263, on eratat, but his view is not comm. taken. t- Nice, SC.'7rrovs. - rep{, superior to, above a l his companions: 6slAultnls; the abstract may be rendered as concrete. Cf. 3, 175. o- t.....17, lit. because he (Deipylus) knew in mind things suited to him (Sthenelus); i. e. because he was like-minded with himself. J- iXavrEv, infin. of purpose: depends on 8oyce, gave (them)... to drive to, etc.'- iy' opwos, i. e. Sthenelus. - 7,, his own, fr. Is, possess. pron., often used in Hm. where in Att. the article is used. -- ed5wre (etee'wro), with two accus.; the only instance of this const., he drove his strony-hoofed horses after (i. e. to overtake) Tydides. - 6 Oe, Tydides. -- — aes, pred., that she was an unwarlike goddess. -- aedoyr'rdcv, cf. dcowv, v. 320, note, nor of those goddesses, which, etc. -- Kd-a, notice the anastrophe. 334-347. citXaPve... $rdCwv (intrans.), pressing on, he overtook (her). - I7ropedaeVos (?rope'yo) and /erd/A~evos (ead4AAXXoAat) add much to the liveliness of the description, reaching forward, leaping in the pursuit, he wounded, etc. &Kcpv... Xepa....BAXXp4pv (emphat. position), the extreme part of her delicate hand. - Xpoos (gen.) depends on &,rr- in compos. w. dr'pno/er, ('ropEo). -- 7rpvpvLJ (subst.) icTi. added to describe more exactly icKpqv (above); connect w. &arTevTdp-o-ev, bored into theflesh, through, etc., above the hind part (i. e. the top) of the palm. tcd8-.SaAXe = -cavSraAhe. - Fe'r& Xeptpv, in his arms: denotes situation, not means or instrument: pVao-oaTo, Lex. Ip6Co. H. p6oIatL. -.r (i. e. Cypris = Aphrodite), depends on 4r....~ioe as comp. verb. 349-358. ) obr, synizesis. Notice here the accent of q. See Lex. 1, II. Diintz. and F. write here i], which accords with the comm. usage, Is it not enough that you, etc. -- irwCooeatr: the fut. is here used to denote repeated action. H. 696, a; G. ~ 25, N. 1, shall (again) enter, etc. Kal... rveaL, even if you shall hear of (it) elsewhere, i. e. away from the battle-field. - IeXaale'ro... icKaXAv, lit. she (Aphrodite) grew black in her beautiful skin, i. e. her beautiful skin grew black. -- idXrls rW' a&pla'epd, upon the left of the battle: on the bank of the Scamander, v. 36; hence, on the left of the Achaeans. -ip4, and in a mist lay his spear and his fleet horses. iKc'Arro (KthVO) is appropriate in sense only to EryXos. An

Page  214 214 NOTES. instance of zeugma. H. 832; K. ~ 346, 3. lptarov^a, ipEl7rw, II. - KayPyvT7to.... e. j.TrEE, begged of her brother: al'Tw often takes two ace.: also, the acc. and arapd w. gen.; here the ace. and gen. (without preposit.). F. suggests that Kaary. may possibly limit'hr7rovs, but does not prefer this const. 359-374. Kd4loSal (KOIdCW) rE' ye, both raise me up, etc. - 5.e.. o'raaoev, which a mortal man inflictd on me: 5, ace. of kindred meaning: Uf, direct obj. H. 555; K. ~ 280, 1. -- &K7lXE4E'rV, Lex. AX. —--- Uda'TLrEV, SC.?irTroVS: WXdav, (e'Xaavw, poet. EhAdc), infin. of purpose. For duplication of the vowel, see H. 370 D; K. ~ 222, 1, (3). -- wrea-40ry, f7rETopat. - 7rap&... d8Xev, sc. T7rwors. A:- c&tv?7s, gen. -- V. 372; cf. 1, 361. -- $pee w. two acc.; cf. 2, 195; 3, 351. -- Ovpa,'rwrv, gen. pl., limits TIS. E —' Sovuo-a agrees w. ae, as though you were openly (hence, without shame) doing, etc. 375-384. 4)iAxou/eArs, a standing epithet, used without regard to the connection, like many other epithets in Hm. On the meaning, cf. 3, 424, note. -- oT'a; notice the quantity of the ultima, and the accent; 2d aor., 3d sing. - V. 382: cf. 1, 586. WroXAol afi-e.,for many of us, who have Olympian mansions, endure (evils) from men, in bringing grievous pains on one another. Diomed was incited by Athena (cf. v. 41)5), to wound Aphrodite. Hence, in general, the idea, that men are only the instruments which the gods employ in seeking revenge on one another. So the passage is comm. understood. Diintz. questions the genuineness of v. 384. 385-394. To soothe Aphrodite, her mother relates some other instances in which the gods had suffered from mortals. - TX7 = g&x -. - euv, obj. of 83cra. -- Kal... a&rdAoLro... et lu... iYh.4 eAev: for the const. cf. vv. 311, 312, note. -- el' S OyrpvU, had not their step-mother, etc. 48dlzua, bayc'dw = -a&odw. This story is considered allegorical. The binding of Ares was the cessation of war. irats'Auusppdwvos, son of Amphitryon, i. e. Hercules. - C- cal /uAt, her also; implying, you, Aphrodite, are not the only one of the immortals who has suffered severe pain. 395-400. vy Total, among these (the gods who had suffered from mortals), mighty Hades, etc. - - CVbs (= b av'rbs. H. 68 D, end; K. ~ 206, 1) av4p, the same man, i. e. brats'AU1L'PV'oos. Amphitryon was his stepfather, according to the myth. --,v vEKIe0a0 is usu. joined w. $axcdv (cf. H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3, (a),), having cast him (and left him) among the dead at Pylue. Yet Diintz. with some plausibility joins it w. eV rINXO, having wounded hAm at Pylus amongythe shades; and explains it thus: one of the entrances to the under-world was thought to be at Pylus; as Hercules was once returning to the upper-world, perhaps after he had taken

Page  215 ILIAD V. 215 Cerberus, Hades followed and attacked him, but was wounded by Hercules. 0- 8o6vpow ewKev, gave him, or abandoned him to his pains. - rerap. tIEVOr,?rdEp. -- i&Gl evL...'A)XlaTO (eiXauvc): force of the const.? Cf. note on 4v vPEK&ea.-..-.jKbe (K8cw), subj.? oa6sr. 401-409. rc,, for him, dat. of inter. -- rl...?rdaomu, applying; cf. 4, 218. -- K&a-aTro (&Kefolat), healed (him). - E-Te'TvKKTO (V'rvYXMdw), for not at all mortal he had been hit. - axe'., oBpLM. sc.?y, was he (Hercules). --'KI4e, cf. Kice, v. 400.-?rl... 4 &iKce (rCardr/Lu), let this one loose upon thee, set this one upon thee.- vMrLos, sc. Eaor-, foolish one that he is. - oTrL..... vads, sc. anrif, that not very longlived is he, who, etc. ifAW'sra (agrees w. uir, obj. of 7rawrird.ovar), when he has come, etc. The expression, alluding to the most touching feature of the warrior's return, implies that such a man (ts &aardaToo'a /CdX71Tal) does not return from war. 410-420. Tt-, therefore. -- ppaCEao Iui Tar (for /uz here, see H. 743, b; K. ~ 318, 8), let Tydides consider that some one, etc.... that Aegialia.. lamenting may long rouse from sleep, etc. 8sv qualifies yocowaa and dyelpp: iu... /.udXurac and /ub... yeipp both depend on pqpaEaowo. a- ao rept/70v, sc. Xepalv which is readily suggested by the connection, with both hands: IXco (st. iX:pa, as if fr. a nom. iXods), obj. of o'odpyvv. o7- L... pe..: of. 2, 433. 421-430. X pa nearly = apa. H. 828, Rem. c; K. ~ 344, 5, (a), (b), will you be somewhat angry at me, on account of that which I shall say? ]- i 4aha 86: spoken with biting sarcasm: av&etaa (a&vrlLt), while inciting: oa7rEoaL, f'troyaa: TOtVs, relat., whom: Kappdeovua (= casap&eovoaa), while caressing: IcKaactaixaTo, KaTaarvia-owa. -- TaVTa, i. e. iroXeFAFcoa fpya. 433-442. ytryo'%Kwm O (cf. 1, 120), though he knew that, etc. - &?rb.....rat, a&rovwco. - 4ro'povaoe (v. 436), sc. Atlers. g- o-TrvezEXE, aTvuiexiow: a-7rifa (i. e. of Diomed). He smote the shield of Diomed to drive him back from Aeneas. -- E7rE'vrTo (erii, aeiw)... iohos, he. (i. e. Diomed) rushed on like a god: V6 in the apodosis. H. 862, b; K. ~ 322, R. 8, (b).. — tzv6.. ppovEetY, lit. nor consent to entertain thoughts on an equality with the gods; i. e. nor consent to think yourself equal with the gods. - )h.xovu, sc. aoTri: XaLal.. av'a., and of men who walk on the earth. 445-458. iscer... eliy (= E'): force of this const.? H. 618, a; K. ~ 300, 3, (a). -- b'i ol, i. e.'AirdXAAav: erTvicvro, TerXw. -- rOv, obj. of aKceovTo and KicVatvov (honored by investing him with beauty and by imparting strength to him). - EwoAxov, a phantom. - r- $ovy, cleft, broke: kAatio'a, targets. - V. 455; cf. v. 31. - oir'c &.....piacato KTre.

Page  216 216 NOTES. a comm. form of question; cf. v. 32, would you not, etc., or in an Eng. idiom, will you not draw from the battle, etc. - oxebvY o5roaore (standing) close by, wounded, etc. - Xelpa: partit. appos. w. KiTpL&a. - Kaplri: Lex. Kapro's (B). 465-474. es'Id grL, lit. to what longer, i. e. how long, etc.? --'AXaio&' is usu. joined w. KTIcELYVOaaL, as dat. of interest, or as dat. of agent, to be slain by, etc. Is it not more properly dat. w. efCEre? how long will you abandon the people... to the Achaeans to be slain (by them)? -- in a question. Cf. 1, 203. elidKCEP: cf. 2, 332. KeTraL, lies (il the dust). The Trojans were ignorant of the fact that Apollo had rescued him. - ofXeTaL is what tense in meaning? See Lex. -- EXeowces, XcoW w. iterative sign a'K. - ro. Notice the force here. Lex. iroP, II. 2. - Cp... oios, that you alone, apart from, etc., will hold the city. Const. of olo5.? H. 775; K. ~ 307, 4. 475-486. T7Jv (of these, i. e. yap~,poZal KCT.) limits or'va. - o'drep...eveJev (lev, ElJd = io'v), we, who are allies among (you):'T, Epic use.- tdvaw, not the same as the Xanthus in the Troad. -- Kg8 (= Kar&) Vi, and (I left) behind, etc. --— rf TdT'(', TC) K'C., which, whoever is needy, longs for; denoting the abundance of his possessions. — &AWX Kal is, but even thus, i. e. though my treasures are not here, but far away in Lycia. - - vapl; some understand this as indef., with a man, i. e. any man of the enemy who falls in my way: others understand it of Diomed, with the man: the omission of T,, not being considered an objection in Hm. to this latter rendering. -- &ap... oov, and Set (though I am willing thus to expose my life) I have nothing (lit there is nothing to me) here, such as, etc. qppoLEv spoken of things, which they might carry away; //yoLev, of animals, which they might lead away. -- arap ovbe 1(7r. intensifies the foregoing statement: thou standest still, nay more, thou dost not even exhort, etc. &petrov fr. &p = oap. 487-492. I~... yelvoaae: cf. 1, 26; 2, 195: aXo've (A&Xawo/ua), taken, caught: Butt. and some others understand the dual here as an abbreviated form of the plur., but it is now usu. explained as referring to the two parties implied above: beware lest you and the rest of the people (-r7in ial XAAoL Xaol) become, etc. 7ravaypov, adj. - ol 8, and they, i. e. tVbwspeS Buo'eveEs: buchv, fr. byos, h, dv. - ot, dat. w. uEx.eiv. - EXe.Eye depends on Xtoaoolyb, and is here intrans., entreating the leaders of... to hold out. aro~e'oat, sc. XP a'e, and it is necessary that you lay aside, etc. 493-511. dice, dNcvw: "Ecropt, dat. of interest in looser relations. V. 494; cf. 4, 419. -- ol S, the Trojans:,AeXXranaav, hAei'wC. -

Page  217 ILIAD V. 217 &AhWs, called iEpds, because sacred to Demeter. z- Kpu&SZvwY (Alitu), gen. abs. w. &vY8pF0. - Kp[rp, in its primary sense to separate. —irELy. a&regv y, while the winds hasten (the work, i. e. the separation of corn and chaff). - ai...c.Xvptaa: the point of the comparison is here; and the chaff-heaps whiten. -- obv, obj. of?reraryov (reduplicated aor. of vrxloaa).- roaSes rTrory, the feet of the (Trojan) horses: 24I rrl7y., mingling again (in the battle).- 6vrd1, O-TrpEwov: nroarrpc4wq.ijvLoxjess, the (Trojan) drivers. -- V. 506. ol Se, and they (the Trojans):!ros... cpfEpov, bore their stout hands (lit. strength of hands) straight against (the foe). - aJQ... ic.. XvE, spread (a veil of) night around: dXCP... *&p&oywv, aiding in battle. Cf. 1, 521. - T-oi... 4oi9oB K-'., cf...., 1, 348, note:'Kcpaawucv, icpahivw. 28e (se.'Asr4oAwy)... oi0XO/z7v. It appears from 418, that she had returned to Olympus; but the time of her departure from the battle is nowhere mentioned; ap7sRycv, subst. distinguished by the accent fr. &pi-ywv particip., v. 507. 512-528. AbrTs, he himself, i. e. Apollo. --- urar~aro, stood in the midst of. -- erdAXrXoav, AeroAa'ca,. -- o... ea (= eCa, fr. eado), did not allow them (to make inquiries). --- &pyvpdroos, here used as subst., cf. 1, 37, the god of the silver bow. --'Epcs... pepavta, cf. 4, 440. - Tobs.. Aavaovs: (cf. 7TO.... o.ov, v. 508), these, the Danai, obj. of &Tpvvoo. - o- 0qpa, temporal: when sleeps the force of, etc. &4'res, k&qp. -- V. 527, 528. Notice that Diomed has receded to the background. 529-540. AKrLov......eOxae, a rare expression, take to yourselves a strong Acart. AA- k. ale-?at cr K'T., respect one another, etc., so as not to bring disgrace on one another by cowardice. -- fdol, sc. eialv. w- kfavTat (Lex. T4ENn: stem 4ev- or ipa-), pres. in meaning.b6us (distinguish from wods, yet, still); equally with, etc. -'-KfE, i,,u, iterative ending.- obs... pd.XErat, swift to fight, etc. -', and this (the shield). g- pvro, Lex. ipow, III. -. &v... Acaaao-Ev, but he (Agam.) drove (it) through, etc., into, etc. Force of Tv w. a verb of motion? ---- Wor7av 7reoacv, sc. A73i,$ov. 544-560. aq'vrbs BLetroLo, rich in the means of subsistence. Cf. dives opum, Aen. 1, 14. - Us relates to'AXpezoo. - &,valfa w. the dat. (after the analogy of avdoaoa), a ruler of many men..- e. EOd'TE, cf. v. 11. -..r. t'ulv, obj. of a&pvpvE'V. Cf. 1, 159.-'TIEos &avdToo, cf. 3, 309. - drye: cf. H. 678, a; K. ~ 303, 2, as two lions yonder on the tops, etc. &paCfP'mV (TpE'P), gnomic aor. --- -ppa f'f., until they two themselves also (i. e. the young lions). - KaTE'KTragfV (iaTaICTryvW ), gnomic aor. ----- roco rc, thus these two, lit. such these two. ~- KarWrEbor Jv (cKaaSrior) = raco v.O 10

Page  218 218 NOTES. 563-575. ToV limits /e'vos, obj. of &Spvevy, roused his courage: &... &va, with the intent, that, etc.; lit. meditating these things, in order that. - 7repl... Wie (repL~tw), greatly feared for the, etc. -- Tdro,... &. iroo5AeLe, subj.? sc. 7roly/ hazav. -- ~e7ya KCT., and should lead them greatly astray from their labor; or more freely, and should deprive them of the fruits of their toil. If Menelaus should fall in battle, the chief end of the war —the restoration of Helen to Menelaus-would be impracticable; and hence, their labor would be lost. -- V. 568. TCr (Menelaus and Aeneas), subj. of?XE4v. -- V. 573. ol e', Menelaus and Antilochus. -- Yvepods, the dead bodies, and T& breA6 (obj. of BaAE'T-v), the two unfortunate men, both refer to the sons of Diocles (v. 548), just slain by Aeneas. - av'b& B6 a'rpeq4,'rTe, having themselves (Antilochus and Menelaus) turned about to, etc. Notice e' here, connecting a subordinate clause to the foregoing, and serving together with,ye' to make the contrast between -e and avbT? more marked. 578-589. d'v, obj. of vdte (vo-ow). irao'rTa, him, while standing (on his chariot, or, as Diintz. thinks, near his chariot). aicrd denotes here situation, having hit (him) on the collar-bone. - nreaorpecpe: when he saw the fate of his master, he turned to flee. - &ylccoya: situation denoted here without Kard (cf. v. 579): having hit (him) in the midst of the elbow. -- Aec' hAe'PavTs, white with ivory, i. e. being in some way ornamented, probably studded, with ivory. - ~jAacre KdprJqv; cf. v. 80: smote (him) on the temple. - rd& Eha, a very long time, i. e. very long for so strange a posture, as he was standing on his head. -- zX5e KTE'., for he struck in deep sand. - ppa, until, connect w. aorT4Kel. - ltao-' (iudoaow), lashed them. 590-600. Tobs fe', Menelaus and Antilochus. - KEKAIc&YSS, KAdfw. -'Evv&: cf. 333..-, VcUsa, vwsciuw: cf. 3, 218. -- &Ao're!bv'... 6AAXoTe (notice the omission of be here), now in front of, now behind, etc. - Tog, this one, him, i. e. Ares. irohlos wreolio, gen. of place. H. 590, a; K. ~ 273, 4, (a), passing over a large plain; A3rdXaAayos...-.,, stands helpless. - ard' icpaue (avaTpe'Xw), gnomic aor., and he retreats back. 601-606. otoy Ah, how now, or why now do we wonder that the divine Hector is, etc..- T... irdepa (notice the anastrophe), always by his side is, etc. -- Kal viv oW Irdpa Scervos, and now by his side (is) yonder Ares. Diomed had received from Athena the power of distinguishing between gods and men. Cf. vv. 127 128. - pbs... ale', always turned towards the Trojans, i. e. with your faces always towards the Trojans. seveaivE'sev, infin. as imperat. nor desire, etc.

Page  219 ILIAD V. 219 614-626. rMKoupOoov'ra (agrees w. e' (enclit.), obj. of iye) Zter& KT'., lit. to render assistance after, i. e. to render assistance as a follower of Priam, etc. - tr... EXeuav (iXE'o),poured upon (him, i. e. upon Ajax). -- odKOS....roAad: and his shield received many (sc. aotpaTa). - irpoeodas (rpo's,,Sailv), stepping upon (him). -- &-xa, adv. acc., nor longer besides (i. e. besides the act of drawing out his own spear from the body) was he able, etc. -- ajup0Baalv Kpar., the powerful advance round about (him) of the, etc. 633-646. Bus roL Kie., lit. what necessity is there to thee to tremble here, being, etc. -- 7roXXbv... e'7rLeEaL, you fall far short of, etc. -- earl w. gen., in the time, among. - oTyv'Tva: Lex. oJos II. 5. oNs -lS: what sort of a man do they say was the mighty Hercules (lit. the Herculean might). - e o'p7s (notice the breathing) KT'., with;nly six ships and very few men. For this use of the comparative, see H. 662; K. ~ 323, R. 7. -- KaKrbs rutJds, sc. Je0ss. - obS' e... ioro'l, not even if you are, etc. This does not quite agree with the preceding; and the whole verse (645), as Diintz. observes, might well be spared. -- a &' rep1o-er', but that you wi'lpass, etc. 648-662. Keiov, that one, he, i. e. Hercules. -- papa&lgvp, dat. of manner or cause, w. a7rXeaerE. -- S EopSavt'a, havingp6rformed a service, i. e. having rescued Hesione, daughter of Laomedon, from the sea-monster. See Class. Die., Laomedon. - ao... e.TeaaEal, will happen to thee, will come upon thee. a- SaUe&'Ta, sc. TE, and that you subdued... will give, etc.; 4vxiw, same const. w. e6`Xos, obj. of U&aelv. -- KAUTUrCwpA, having famous steeds (with which he carries away men on his chariot to the under-world). - KaT' baXt&aAv, lit. down over his eyes: freely rendered, gloomy night falling over his eyes enveloped him. e- B1EXAKE1V, 3d pers. w. movable v; cf. 1aKEWL, 3, 388: pumcai&wcra (euaLdw), rushing: y?7Xp.>e&Eaa, y'-XpXpsirfW.. - 7ranip, the father of Sarpedon, i. e. Zeus. Cf. v. 635. 666-667. xKsctueYoY, being dragcgd along, agrees w. aopv, subj. of,B3apvve. f- o' is explained by Eiepc-rat, no one considered, nor bethought himself of thss, to draw out, etc. - in7rsaL-, that he might step forward. Cr. understands this word of mounting the chariot; but it is not usu. understood thus. - a7revd&vTWr, sc. aTr-iy, gen. abs. denoting both time and cause. Perh. the latter is more prominent; so we may render it, because they were in haste. - acpsie'rovres: this particip. may often be rendered as adv., for they were busily occupied with such toil. 669-683. rvdl-e, perceived (it-the fact that Tlepolemus was being carried from the field). - xaov, particip. denoting manner, with, etc.

Page  220 220 NOTES. - /ep/iiplteap...... 4: cf., 189. - rpofpw, adv. cf. 3, 400, whether (rushing)forwards he should pursue, etc. ~- i-ye: a " common repetition in the Epic style " (Cr.), with no special emphasis on -ye. Cf. 1, 190. - -Civ'rXercv AuvKoV, the multitude of the Lycians. Cf. zKaT vrAavbv AviKctv, v. 6'16. - oui'....ifv, but it was not fated, etc. &7rocrdtsE, aTrOKTevW. --....rp are ~vO/Av, lit. turned the mind in respect to him (,rw, dat. of interest): freely rendered, turned his mind among, etc. - KI... Ktde... aV. el A KT. supposition contrary to reality, would have slain, unless, etc. - Xadp.... ol lrpoo-io'TLi (dat. of cause, H. 611, a; K. ~ 285, 1, (1),), rejoiced at his coming. 684-698. tx, Kce., suffer me not to lie aprey, etc.; ldrauvvov,, imperat., Vira'vYco. -- llroy, optat. without W&, denoting a wish, then may life even leave me, etc. Unhappy as this lot-to die in a foreign city-might be, it was far preferable to falling into the hands of the enemy. e- eiVpave'Lv (etppal'vwo) depends on 4COeAmov. - ro-xdw (OroAxs), notice the accent distinguishing it from?rAXewv (fr. 7ro'As). arrJ, join w. fEOLTO, that he might take away, etc. - oav..... 7o^T, placed... under the beautiful oak of, etc. This was on'the way to the city, not far from the Scaean gate. - WS paCE (see Lex.) repeats and strengthens the idea of fiK. -- TV.. bvX4i is not spoken here of death, but simply of fainting. - a&z7rv6vJ), avairvoW. -- Connect vrepl w. 7rtrvveovora, breathing upon (him) round about: )vtcdv, obj. of C'4ypEl, revived, etc. KaKnWs KKca)o&Ta (Lex. IeiKaq&46S), hard panting or gasping. 700-718.?iri w. gen. towards. — avefpolrro yPdXeP, lit. were borne against (the Trojans) in battle. - lirr (v. 705), adv., in addition, besides. -- EYa.. / te/u7Acs (Ae'Xo), having great care for wealth. - — iKel/u4'os (KAivoW), lit. inclined, i. e. dwelling on the Cephisian lake.- ~ rtova, Lex. 7rLwv, II. - Tobs b, i. e. Hector and Ares. -'Apyflovs, obj. of oAEiovTav. - V.'14; cf. 2, 157. - nbt... T reTirvev, we promised that word, we made that promise. The promise here alluded to is nowhere mentioned in the Iliad. Kire'poravrTa, that he having sacked. --— Kal &i' se8&ole~Ya, let us also bethink ourselves of, etc. 720-730. i tr.... Hpn: cf. h Bi....yvv,, note, 1, 348. It was quite in keeping with the customs in the Homeric age that Hera should harness her own steeds. -a — t'... BAe nearly — = (KE, but denotes, I think, greater despatch: lit. quickly cast around the chariot, i. e. placed on the chariot. This indicates a custom of removing the wheels, when the chariot was not in use. - L..-...&.lpls, explanatory of the preceding, more general statement: around the steel axle. r- W, sc. c(VKAWv, limits rUvs, the imperishable felly of these (was), etc. -- Virep&ev, above, i. e. on

Page  221 ILIAD V. 221 the outer side, around the felly (were), etc. -- rAxjyvat, naves, or as we oftener say, hubs: &a)PoTe'pCJrerv, at both ends (of the axle). - ikppos... yJVEvcaUrcL (evreivw), the chariot-board (D.) was hung on, etc.; lit. has been hung: representing it as something present to the mind of the poet. So also elaL above. The straps, on which the body of the chariot was hung, seem to have been attached to braces resting partly on the axle and partly on the pole. o- TOO (sc. 8qtppov) o' ei.. r. erev, andfrom it extended, etc. --- iira8va, yoke-bands (D.). 734-744. 7ri7rAov ica7iXEvev, let fall, etc.; lit. poured her veil. It was so light and airy (iavJv) that it fell in waves: hence the metaphor KarlEXfvev. vraT7ps limits OtCEL T — E XCeolv.... wprao-e-o, equipped herself with (his) armor for, etc. -- ev s, and within (was), etc. This need not be repeated in rendering v. 740. - V.. 741, lit. and within teas a Gorgon head of a dread monster, i. e. the head of Gorgo, dread monster: notice etLY', although &eivoto stands just above. - atzplq)axov: the meaning is very doubtful; see L. & Sc. qdxAov. Perh. it may mean, uith shade on both sides, i. e. in front and behind; or, as it is often rendered, with studs round about. D. renders it, double-peaked. Some understand it, having a boss over each eye. I am inclined to the first meaning. rErTpaqctpMXpov (cpdapa) prob. means with four shields or plates, one for the forehead, one for each cheek, and one for the back of the neck. ~- laabr,....papuvav, fitted to, i. e. sufficient to protect the armed men of, etc. 746-763. t-, as relat. with which: so also, To7-iviTe (= T-o7 Te), with whom. - iEreAaleTu ( irigaloo1aL), touched....-!Kov,, /oVdao/uaL. -- rl' (= rahs), to whom. -- avaKAva.....7letiral depend on'TrlE'7palrTat: to roll aside and to draw the d'ense cloud. r T, adv. explained by be' aceTawv (i. e. 7rvAdowv), here then, through them.- Vv. 753, 754: cf. 1, 498, 499.- Ze6 7raT-ep: the common mode of addressing Zeus; hence, Hera, his wife and sister, uses the same language. -- o vtYEatlu: a question, anticipating an affirmative answer; are you not indignant, KYaprepa pPya: ace. of specif., respecting these or for these violent deeds. --- 6aatraov (= ioov) IKCi.: the relat. pron. is best rendered here, as often, by resolving it into a causal conj. and demonst., because he has destroyed so many and such, etc. - &vav-Tes (&v&d, TrA), having let loose this "madman" (D.): alM'/aTa, acc. sing. - V. 762; cf. v. 421. - a't Cev a.. ro&lwual (&ard, Kioai, see 681, It.), if having smitten... 1 shall drive, etc. Notice the accent of l' after I.cidX-s, the word governed by it. 765-777. 6ropaov (eri-, opvvicl), aor. imperat., rouse against him, set upon him.;- (refers to Ares), obj. of 7rEAa&'ev (Lex. B. trans. 1.). &rOov K-Ti. (v. 770), as far as a man beholds (Miev, gnom. aor.) the dim (dis

Page  222 222 NOTES. tance), etc.: &o'noov, so far. -- re...EXEEVf, poured around (them) a dense mist; no doubt, to conceal them from the eyes of mortals. IavyreIe, &a'Cvrh w: Ytze Calc to feed upon: infin. denoting purpose. It appears from this verse, that the horses of the gods, as well as the gods themselves, partook of immortal food. COf. v. 369. 778-791. TpwapT... 6..o7a, resembling in their s'eps ('LaT'a) timid wood-pigeons. The point of comparison is not in the word timid, but in the lightness, ease, and rapidity of their steps. - aq... E ElpevoL, drawn close around, etc. - AELovorL = hovat, fr. kcdCv. -- Tvol KcdirpoLrlv: cf. note on ablrgAot 6vsper, 2, 474.- atcnraaox'(=-abo-aacrfe); avbaw with iterative ending: TrAaoe.....o-ov, used to cry as loud as: Stentor, who is thought to have been a warrior, not a herald, is mentioned only here in Horn. -- AiSUcs: some supply ianT: oth rs, ErTnW. It may be rendered simply, Shame! Argives! etc. -- KCK' E'Ae7Xea; cf. 2, 235. - 7rpb... Aapavadywv, in front of the Dardanian gate: probably the same as the Scaean ga'e, 3, 145: the only gate mentioned in Horn. - icofAps E'n vnrvi, on the hollow ships; a great exaggeration, as the Trojans had not yet driven the Greeks nearly so far back. 793-807. urdpotoe (rf-, bpodw): not in hostile sense here; hastened towards. - Kcos &va-, cooling the wound, by raising the strap which passed over it: v. 798. - d ALLJ,BdXhe: two aces. w. one verb: T', cogn. ace.: FLdv, direct obj. H. 555; K. ~ 280, which Pandarers with an arrow inflicted on him...- i'ra, of place: under.- XeZpa, ace. of specif.: freely rendered, his hand grew weary. t — v (= &r&) 6' lXwcor, and holding up. -- io'Atov, adv. Surely Tydeus begat a son, little resembling him. Nearly the same is said by Again., 4, 400. -- -e/as, ace. specif. -;cat (v. 802), even. - ObK e'aoiKov (eiw, w. iterat. ending), I did not allow himn: 9-Te Te introduces a more definite explanation of the foregoing clause. 7rohaSs JeuT& KaY. is better, I think, taken in idea w. iK&raptdoa-oetv (cf. 2, 450), nor to rush madly forth, when he went as a messenger, etc., among many, etc. - dvwyov, I (referring to Athena) exhorted him, etc. - ab'T&p 6... ev KTEi., but he, having his (ov), etc. - W.s.. Yrep, just as previous'y: 7rpoKax[aETo, subj. 6 (v. 806): vrasa 8' ZV[Ka, cf. 4, 389. The entire sentence is somewhat loosely constructed. We shall best represent the original, by adopting, as nearly as possible, the same construction in English. 809-824. o[t depends on CrapdC in comp. w. rT-raucat: pvAda-a-o, se. a(E. - 9 a-e limits yv7a: your limbs. -- e'rerta, after this, hereafter.'T: illative. - ae'wv....?4e'ETe'v: by synizesis, pronounced in scanning, criv... iqw.eT-/vL; Istill rememberyour injunctions. -- Cf. v. 129 if.

Page  223 ILIAD V. 223 eras (Edco), 2d pers. sing. imperf. - ros &XXOLS, in distinction fr. Aphrodite. - ob'rdpAer (ov'rdw), aor. infin. depends on the idea suggested above in e'pe7u',wv, (you enjoined upon me) to wound, etc. --- a'xevat (efnR), aor. pass. infin. For the meaning, cf. elIxez'oi, v.'782.,- UdXv &ad: not iva. H. 102 D, b; K. ~ 81, R. 2. 826-834. texaptrevE, xap[tw. r- rJye, as far as relates to this, or on this account, do not thou fear, etc. Cf. Td, 3, 1'76. - r'.... eXe, direct... against, etc. - aXEGf-Yv: adv., near at hand. For the form, cf. aivToo6XeilV, &crTLBlr'v, XAiqv, &yT711'. -'VKITbY (TreXW) iaKdc, lit. a made or completed evil, i. e. a perfect, an unmitigated evil. - rTV SE Xe aNao-rat (Xavadvrc), and has forgotten these things, i. e. his assurances to Hera and Athena. 836-845. XEtp!... ipuaoaa, having drawn (him) back with (her) hand: 6b e, and he, referring to the obj. of ipvoaaa, i. e. Sthenelus. - be... uzlZue/auiva Aed, and she, the impetuous goddess. For the arrangement, cf..'.....yvj, 1, 348. - (phypvos, not to be rendered beechen. See Lex. -yyer, for it (the axle) bore, etc. -- V. 841: (cf. v. 829,) immediately she directed, etc. Notice the asyndeton, denoting haste. -'TOt 16 Aiv, he indeed, i. e. Ares. -- iv'... PcvEv'v, put on the helmet of Hades (the unseen one, or the invisible, fr. a priv. and iMeZv to see). How Athena came by the helmet of Hades, just at this moment, or what she had done with her own helmet, mentioned v, 743, are questions that have troubled modern critics much more than they did Homer.!- l, in order that not, or simply, lest: Aivr, fem. her. 850-861. aXEobn... 97'.....'res, abnost on the point of rushing on one another. eflw, in the indic. and particip., often fut. - Ap/s... brlp, Ares reached beyond, etc.'l1mwo, of the horses (of Diomed). Ares was on foot, having lent his horses to Aphrodite. Cf. v. 363. - T'rde, this, i. e. the spear (eyXos) of Ares. -- rev.... aispoio, thrust (it) away under the seat of the chariot. - &r-&tov aLO Xrvat, infin. denoting result, to be sped in vain. - 7re'peLa (frEpEdIw), sc. EyXos. - - OYYV6ocKE'ro (C;cvvvr,u, w. iterative ending) uZ'tpnv: lit. where it was girt in respect to the belt, i. e. where the belt was girt. --- T., adv. there. 8- t.... $a*e,, Lex. 81absdWrow. - e- i... 7rdaoev, has the same subj. as oura, sc. /Ao/x$rf75..- orov, as loud as. ieriaXov, gnomic aor. 862-876..ros 8E...'AxaLobs IrTE., these, the Achaeans, etc. Cf.? 86 y... yvv, 1, 348.- b?7rd, cf. 3, 34. - dooY, correlat. w. b'ooov, v. 860, so loudly did Ares, etc.- oi'r.... p, as the air appears black with clouds. a- tcaitzaros Q (notice the form of the prep. after its noun); as a result of the heat, or more freely, after a burning heat: &VeLuoLo iKv., gen.

Page  224 224 NOTES. abs. when, etc. - KapTep& epya: cf. v. 757. - reTrX71J'res eUe', a circumlocution for the pres. indic. which is not in use. Lex. TAAtn: we gods endure the most fearful things, etc. - 5e, v. 874, connects the two clauses of the verse: by one another's will, and in bearing a favor, etc. - ool....u aX4Aeoa, with thee do we all wrangle, or thee do we all blame..Tre relates to icoIpV (meaning Athena). 878-887. 7raTErdEovYTaL, 8eulleoaa: notice the change of person. - CeKaWTos, in appos. w. the subj. of 8eo- (fr. Uawdso), and we, each one, are subject to thee. rv,- T7a...7rpOT,6dXAAeat (7rpoodaXAcw, in the mid. to cast one's self against, hence, to oppose), this (goddess), thou dost not oppose either, etc. avtes, Lex. avzid/Lu, III. 2.- erde....7eYvao, since you yourself begat, etc. Homer seems to know nothing of the myth, that Athena sprang from the head of Zeus. - Vv. 883, 884: cf. vv. 458, 459. —- 6rr5et Kav (b'roepow)....'oes: an acknowledgment not very creditable to the god of war. - i Kc, join w. e'raXov. The protasis is readily supplied by the mind: (had it not been so, i. e. had not my swift feet borne me away), surely, I should long suffer woes there (catToV, i. e. on the battle-field) among, etc. X iE.....a (= iv, Att.), or, though alive, should be, etc. 889-898. aAXo7rpJ$aaAE: cf. v. 831, thou wavering turncoat (D.). - Vv. 890, 891; cf. 1, 176, 177. -- adaOXroz' -- &OXe'TO. H. 370 D; K. ~ 222, 1, (3), intolerable..-.r, illative. - KicetYs limits'yVeO(-vpLy (Lex. iveola). - V. 895. The sudden change in the tone of Zeus is occasioned by the recollection, that Ares is his son. eXovTa, supplementary particip., I will not endure that you much longer have, etc. H. 800; K. ~ 310, 4, (e). -- i/ol... JE/7n7p, and your mother bore you to me. - Ev (enclit.) = rIvos': ye'VE =?yEVov, but if you had been born from any other of the gods, etc.- vdep'repos Obpav-, lower than the gods (i. e. in the under-world). Such is the usu. meaning of Obpavfiwoes in Hom. It afterwards meant sons of Uranus; and some understand it so here: lower than the sons of Uranus, i. e. the Titans, who were chained in Tartarus. 899-905. avcySLv: plupf., 3d pers. w. movable v: cf. e9kIcKelv, v. 661; K. ~ 220, R. 1: impf. in meaning. -- Vv. 900, 901; cf. vv. 401, 402. - re4txpevos o avYvirqev, lit. hastening curdles, i. e. quickly curdles. - repla'rpEcpeTaL, s. dy&Aa: KVKcOwr (iKUKcd), dat. of agent: and it is stirred very rapidly by the one mixing (it). ael, ~'VVU/t.

Page  225 ILIAD VI. BOOK SIXTH. 1-11. -o06, teas left alone, i. e. was abandoned by the gods. Cf. v. 907 if. -- roAAhh, adv. much, furiously. - e,&a Kal fra... 7reio lo, here and there in the plain. H. 589; K. ~ 273, Rem. 4, (c). --;AhAAcv depends on bvsopdEwcov, while they aimed at one another, etc. H. 574, c; K. ~ 273, (b), (s). --— rpC&o, first (of all), i. e. after the withdrawal of the gods. ~- Jops (cavs, daos).... oKEY, brought (lit. placed) light, etc., a metaphor, which is as readily understood in Eng. as in Greek. drervKTo (Teixwo), had been made; or simply, was. - Vv. 9-11; cf. 4, 459-461. 14-19. &Pelbs B61JOLO: cf. 5, 544, N. --- QL(pahfd (lehlfw, iterat. ending), he used to treat all in a friendly way, i. e. he used to entertain all. - 0 bc f7rt: anastrophe. -- obda (a: oKd[a of declens. 1st has a), obj. of vaiwv. - oT, dat. of interest w. 1poce-e, avertedfrom himn (lit. for him). -- &4upw... Z&ir mpa (two accs. w. one vb.), he (i. e. Diomed) took away from both, etc. avTvb... KaX., appos. w. &Ap~cw, from him, etc.-yatav i8WrT7y, entered the earth: cf. ivaL d4uov'A'Sos efoo, 3, 322. 20-28. E'piuaXos: EuryAlus, a companion of Diomed.- B$i (='17) perd, he went in pursuit of. - VULpq vAqts, a naiad nymph, i. e. a nymph dwelling in fountains. ~-.T' (= &E-Et)... BoviKOA-, bore to, etc. - aroLatvov... pd.?y/ (= duiy'7q, fr. /?,dyvvi,), se. BovKoAhot: - K77i., had intercourse (with the nymph) in love, etc. Cf. 3, 445. - M7/-ffTra i'57, the son of Mecisteus, i. e. Euryalus. 32-50.'Ivpawro,,vaipw. vale, sc. EXawros. - ii)ppedrao, EiUppeL'Tr77 = eVbpE[rs = e= pe1s.-'' A = Ae, ar=pcw. -trIoio, gen. of place. - &taTE, t&7VI. - - b py CpT5 Avu, in the first (part of), i. e. in the fore part of the pole. -- aivr /fAy, in contrast w. abcrbs EJ; went themselves, went alone; but he himself, i. e. Adrastus. - f- eKvAhoI7, EKKUAvtW. -. NaB&v... yoivcvw: cf. 1, 407, N. - ZCy7pel (w7yplw), imperat., sc. JE'. - v....rarpo's, sc. Ud'p, in the house of, etc.; a common ellipsis. - XaXKds KTE., appos. w. Ket(IIAAC. - Trav, relat., limits &7rotya: Cf KEP 7reTrUo30T (7rvvdrvopat), of which my father would give thee..., if he should learn that I (was) alive, etc. 51-60. Cf. 2, 142; 3, 395. -,plv, obj. of MGeirv, was about to give

Page  226 NOTES. him, etc. -- Eirl Pas... KaTaEl/Aevl (fut. infin. H. 359 D; K. ~ 220, 18), infin. denoting purpose, to conduct (him) to the ships, etc..-'wv: f4w. Not to be confounded w. bicov, gen. pl. of 5o's. -- — fSZ rov: not, I think, in a good sense here. Cf. 2, 235. " Soft-hearted M~enelaus" (D.). --- ~ vaoL (dat. of interest) IKr., surely, the best things have been dse to thee in thy house by, etc. Bitterly ironical. - 7rcKmpV'yoL, optat. of wishing, without Gv: may no one of these, etc.- /AS' (v. 58), repeated and strengthened in v. 69: Koipov E'dvTa, agrees with S1v-rva, and is thrown in to show more emphatically the sex of the unborn infant: O's is here demonst. (H. 243 D; K. ~ 331, R. I): and may not he, whcm the mother bears in her womb, being a male child, may not even he escape; but may, etc. 62-71. alaqia 7rapelnrcv, advising what was fitting. So Cr. I am, however, inclined to take afaotLa here in the sense,fatal, deadly. So D.: " his counsel, fraught with death, his brother's purpose changed;" advising fatal (measures). -- 6 3E, i. e. Menelaus. XEfpi, dat. of inst., with his hand. - oiva (obTa'o) is aor. The imperf. is oi-Ta. Why? --,' 6' (v. 64), Adrastus: a-veTrpcireTo, fell backward. -- Evdaopwv ErtjaAA4.utvos, lit. casting himself upon, etc.; i. e. aiming at spoils. -, finalconj., so that, in order that: rAe0rTaT, sc. evapa. - T- a (sc. Evapa)... VEKpoS... UvA/UaeTe: two accs. w. one verb. H. 553; K. ~ 280, 3, (d): you will, undisturbed, strip these from the slain.'73-85. arte, onl the other hand.-.ev. Ei'oavf,87Taav el... sTurs: suppos. contrary to reality: would have gone up into Ilium (driven) by, etc., had not Helenus, etc. - wrivos, labor, toil (of war). --,dXeaa, PpovEELv, depend on 9pLa-o,, best for every purpose, both to fight, etc. - ariTT' aiToi;, stand here. - JrCivTr EVroLXeEvoL, going against (them, i. e. the people), resisting (them) at every point. - rpliv...reorev, before they, fleeing, fall, etc. 7rpiv w. infin. H. 769; K. ~ 337, 9; G. ~ 106: ab7e, cf. v. 73; yfviEaSl, same const. w. eoretelv, and become a rejoicing, etc. - T7oMpv-T0o, 2d pers. dual, subjunc. - ftueTs, we, i. e. all the Tiojans except Hector, who is directly addressed, v. 86. -erLpJ/esoLi, agrees w. f7LS, is concessive: cihxa and Trep strengthen the assertion; though very greatly oppressed. 86-96. "'EKTop: notice the prominence given to this word: &sap aSV antithetical to rAe7rs A4iY. ~- 8i4, subj. of eJyvaL (imperat. 3d pers.) let her, assembling, etc.... place, etc.: r7J4v, cec. as obj. of motion. In prose eir would regularly be expressed: Ev... cpp, in the highest part of the city, i. e. in the acropolis: rbrmAov, obj. of crTvat: g = 8s, as often in Hm., which seems to her to be, etc. oT... aVb-, to her herself: earl?yo'vayv is best rendered directly after ae7val, let her... place on the knees of, etc. the

Page  227 ILIAD VI. 227 robe, etc. -- Kda otf irofrx3aaL, also imperat., and let her promise to sacrifice to her (to the goddess): Ivs, ace. plur., agrees w. Bois (heifers). - c — a' eXEapy, if peradventure she will pity, etc. - aTrdoX, & reo X, if she wuill avertfrom, etc., the son of, etc. 99-115. ESELzLLEv: plupf. as impf. See Gram. UdboLKa or 5E3a: nor did we ever so fear, etc. - 1eas em: the proclit. et, after its case, accented. -- a3c, this one, i. e. Diomed. -.-,, the indef. pron. followed by of, enclit.: hence, written together, -Is ol: e.'Vos, ace. of specif. -- Vv. 103-100: cf. 5, 494-497. - -p&v (= Rpaoav)... Ka. r e iYEXP and they affirmed that some one of the immortal (gods) had come down, etc.: E;AEALXSEv = iAe-l Xirac, (fr.'XeAEXci). - eBco (= $&),,BaLvw, that I may go, etc. - yEpouOLV.....ouvExV,jat, attributive appos.: lit., to the aged men counsellors; i. e. to the ajed counsellors: or, if the first word is understood, not of age, but of rank, to the venerable counsellors. -&p-laaac at, fbroorXE'a~aa depend on dfrw, to pray to the gods, etc. 117-127. a&~QI, adv.: Audv, obj. and U'ptia, subj. of'TvSrre: arvpd, auxeva, partit. appos. w. zivS: and at both extremities, the black shield (lit. hide) smote him on, etc. &AvT-u, appos. w. 81ptua, the rim, which ran (around the) extreme (part of), etc. - Is Eo-ov acPeoTr., cf. 3, 77: rUVstrniV, arv, eil. o- rwora, sc. are. - T' -= TI, cf. 1, 244. Cr. takes ST' for TE), in both passages: EueLtas (pcoiv), trans., thou hast awaited, etc.- ucrrTVowv Ici., children of unfortunate (parents) meet, etc.: "unfortunate " because they must soon mourn the death of their children: Aeves, dat. fr. aldvos: arcTLewav, avTLa'. 128-140. -is, appos. w. the subj. of eXAAovuaas, SC. acr. Notice the mixed const. H. 750; K. ~ 339, 3; G. ~ 54. 1, (a). - ovbE?yap obse': cf. 5, 22, note. -- ae... Nvoiotv, sc. pohs routed... on the sacred Nyseian mount..- Svaoe' (= E-Eo = E —aTio)... aKa T sunk beneath, etc. 3- 8er8ldra, Sc. ab'rdv or yiv, obj. of tsroe'iaTo, received(him), etc. - t....'OWac'io (oobvao1ozaL), were angry at him (Lycurgus). - irel....&rixeTro, after he became odious to, etc. 141-149. ohv' &a ~iC., but Iwould not, etc. --- o... fiOUtLV, who eat the fruit of the earth; - a standing description of men, in distinction from the gods. - &a-rov aY' (= irE), c&S ic-., approach nearer, that, etc. -- O hAepov relpcara, the limits of destruction: cf. r;Aoos "FaadToo, 3, 309. - o1h... &vap&cv, as is the generation of leaves, such is that of men also. Notice the use of SC here, connecting a demonst. to a relat. clause; a rare usage; not easily translated. - & e..... AAa Be re: partitive appos. w. cV'AAa: (of) leaves, the wind scatters (lit. pours) one generation

Page  228 228 N OTES. (ma xdv cE) on the ground, but the forest, blooming, puts forth others. - Eapos limits ip-/. - q)fl (V. 149), intrans., very unusual in the pres.; but the comm. meaning in the 2d aor., and in the pf. system. 150-159. E... 8a.taevat: conclusion omitted, but readily supplied by the mind: but if you wish, etc., (I will rehearse to you the story), in order that, etc. r- iroAAol... YaaLv, and many men do know it; parenthetical. -- -aTrr: notice the asyndeton: there is, etc.'E46p~p, the ancient name of Corinth. -,vxi'JApyeos, in the interior of Argos (meaning here the whole of Peloponnesus; or possibly, the whole of Greece). - 5, relat. pron., masc. = O$s. - 2irvcpos, repeated, as often in poetic style. Follow, in translating, the order of the Greek clauses. Sisyphus is represented in Odys. XI. 593 if. as rolling an immense stone up a high hill in Hades. The line of Pope is celebrated for the adaptation of sound to:sense, " Up the high hill he heaves the huge round stone": and that of Heom. describing the descent of the stone is equally good:.~...rT' alrooapacC'Ke KpaeTa&t aerts ea rAet ovie KvArvSe70o aas &vatc8s. Read the last line metrically. - of, v. 157, against him. -- Upo?7os, king of Tiryns, whither Bellerophon had fled for refuge: juaa-ro, AzBolzat. -- s, in that hle. H. 882; K. ~ 334, 3: faaaoe, sc. Wa', drove (him, i. e. Bellerophon). -- EpTEpos jEv,, sc. nfpoTros.'- Ap-yicr, limits and explains 8,uovu. -- b'aacArayv, sc. acvTocv, them, i. e. the Argives. 160-170. Te, Bellerophon. r- i4rec*varo, ilrtlaaLvofLat.. - Kpllr. - ptX. /uAy'7n/evat (WdyvvuI), to enjoy his love secretly. -, ppoviovra agrees w. ads, she did not persuade him, purposing, etc. - BeAepoqflV0&7, defin. appos. w. TOv..- TEvaiis, optat. of wishing, may you die. - KaKTave = KaTacK'rave (cKaraKTcr'iEw), or do thou slay. - i fXodap agrees w.' = yotL: an instance of the elision of or. Cf. 1, 170, a' for aot. -oio, 4KOvTev, at what he heard, or in that he heard such a thing. Cf. sr, v. 158, note. - KfELvat, sc. BeAAcpopo'rv7Y. j — o'uara Avypd, baneful signs: not usu. thought to be alphabetic writing, but some kind of hieroglyphic. —. ypaadar, having engraved. Cf. 4, 139, E7r-ypa+e: $ lrlaKIL WrTuKTo, in a folded tablet. Cf. Die. Antiqq. art. Tabulae. - avwuow- wroAAd, sc. oal7aara. y- &tI4yetY, 3d pers. sing. plupf. w. movable V. H. 409 D, 11. Cf. 5, 899, N. 1'76-189. Kal drJ e Ki., then he both questioned him and demanded, etc. - -'reT = -r 7., indef. relat., which (whatever it might be) he brought, etc. - XLatLpav, proper name, Chimaera: in v. 181, as comm. noun.

Page  229 ILIAD VI. 229 jKXEFvov,, SC. UV,, commanded (him, i. e. Bellerophon). -?yvos, prep. w. ATv, abstract for concrete; a de cendant of gods and not of, etc. be7ov, adj. qualifying?yEvos. - aro-relovaa (&arorviwo) agrees w.,'j e': breathing out terribly the force of, etc. - iv tip, i. e. XtaltMpav. 2oAvAOLOl,q the Solymi, a warlike people in Lycia. - V. 185. lit., he affirmed that he entered this, the fiereest battle of men: or more freely, he said thies was the fiercest... which he had entered. Cf. 3, 1.53, note. - ryj, so. BeAAXpoOvTrp: M'patlvv; subj.? Gval AuK[ls, for him in returning, the king contrived, etc. -- KpI'vas, having selected. --- o'xov, an ambuscade; cf. 1, 227. 191-205. ovtra, supplement. particip.: sc. airTv, that he (Bellerophon) teas the brave descendant, etc. -. aivoi, adv. --- i, possess. pron. - cal;iv ol0 (dat., as appears from the accent of uiy), andfor him, etc. - reuvor... foXov &.xxov, a piece of land excelling others; icaAov, sc. CALYevos, a beautiful (field) of planted and qf arable land; 4vI-aAXi, a piece of land planted either with vines or with fruit-trees. - /' eCrKE, v. 196, andshe (the daughter of the king, v. 192) bore, etc..- Kal ICeros, he also, i. e. Bellerophon as well as others, especially Lycurgus; v. 140.v &vuAbv KaaTEiwv: Cic. Tusc. Quaes. 3, 26, renders this, ipse suum cor edens, eating his own heart. Derby renders it, wearing away, etc., not a very apt expression.- Trv a, sc. Aaodpaepilav. 208-221. ireipoXov agrees with the subj. of f.tLEvOL, se. iEA: always to be brave and to be eminent above others. t- 9yXos ~fPv KTi: Notice the asyndeton, rendering the narrative more lively: he planted his spear, etc.; thus indicating that he would not fight. - axil-rp 6, moreover he (Diomed). - tl;XXOlffl, sC. fireoa: Of. 4, 256. - f7vos....raAlaw', an ancient paternal guest: because his grandfather was the guest of Diomed's grandfather. Perhaps no more striking instance can be found of the strength of the ties of hospitality. -- eulvi'a, gifts offriendship. - a qoraAov: cf. 1, 584. - gica u/A,, i. e. Be7raV. - ti4p, fut., when Iwas about to set out, i. e. for the Trojan war. - iv Ubpi.; join w. iKare'XFlrov. 222-236. Tubsa, Tydeus, father of Diomed. Notice here the ace. w. tpwitunaL: KaA/XQ' - KaTAaXTe. - O' iV KCre., an allusion to the war of the seven Argive princes against Thebes.- i-, illat., therefore. - ab be, sc.,uot fo'orat 4vos, and you (to me) in, etc. -- Ti&v, i. e. AVKL'Cv, limits 8oO. -- Kal 6,' pIAxov, through the crowd also, as well as in single combat. -- vroxxo... Tpcves, sc. io.ev, KireLfelv, there are many...for me, to slay, etc. In some editt. a comma is placed after Kt,eitvfLe and that after etr[Kovpot is omitted. -- aS, obj. of KIXE'W, as well as of wrdpp. — tv Uhv bvmale, whomsoever you may be able (to slay). -- -iErapfqeoluev, sub

Page  230 230 NOTES. june., let us, etc. - a o'le, these also, i. e. the Greeks and Trojans. - raK... e.. Asio, took away from Glaucus, etc. 5s, in that he, etc. XaAKlcev, Ev'YeSfowv, gen. of value: golden for brazen (armor), that worth a hundred oxen for that worth nine. Observe that value is here denote 1 by a certain iumber of oxen. Coined money is not mentioned in Hem. Cf. 2, 449. 237-253. The narrative is hera resumed which was broken off at v. 118. qrVyo'v: the oak tree was without the Scaean gate; but not far away; and hence, the two are mentioned together, the more important first in order. -- aqp'.....aovt (notice the accent, distinguishing it fr. aedv, ace., a god), around him ran, etc., inquiring about, etc. -- iCjsr7'o,.p4dcrrW. - Iacavev, sc.'EEKTwp. - eo-'rS....TETV'7'VOV (TE'X w), made with polishedporticoes. - a- amUr, sc. dpu x: eveoav,, iV, eul'. - KOvpawv limits dXata/ot, twelve roofed chambers of polished stone belonging to his daughters. - ETpwae.... avbXAs, on the other side, opposite (the chambers ot' the sons), within the court-yard. - E'a, there, i. e. when he had reached Priam's beautiful house, v. 242.- oT depends on Evavrbl, his fond mother met him (lit. came opposite to him).- AraoSL[cv goiyIovUCa. Critics are about equally divided in their interpretation of this phrase; some taking the particip. as intrans., going to Laodice, i. e. to the house of, etc.; others render, leading (into the house of Priam) Laodice. The reading of Diintz., Aaollbcv?T' -yovaa does not seem to me probable. I prefer the rendering leading, etc. - iv... pU, gqnia. In what tenses intrans.? XELpi, partit. appos. w. of, clung to him, to his hand; or more freely, clung to his hand. - eros Krei.: cf. 1, 361. 255-262. reLpovort, sc. Tpcoas. -, join w. iAaovTa: a&vaoXJev (avEXW) depends on a&vKcev (avl'7,ui), has prompted you, having come hither, to raise... froim the highest part of, etc..- 0ppa d.. e'veLtKCo (qe'pw), till I bring, etc. crv arecrvps (orrEsV8O), that, in order that, etc. t- Ke (v. 260) w. fut. Cf. 1, 139, note: and then you yourself will receive benefit. Cr. makes the clause depend on's, and takes vzyhreat as subjunc. Faesi w-ites iKavrds, you yourself also. I prefer the first construction: irfwpa, 7rfvw. - a&tei, pres. /aiya, adv., increases strength greatly for, etc.&s, relat., as thou hast become weary in defending, etc. 264-285. /uz... deipe: something deprecated, do not, etc. -- /... Xdcctuat, lest, etc., or for fear that you... and that I forget, etc. TrseraXayuF'vov (raAdaawc), agrees w. the subj. of eSX1eTdaorat, that one smeared with... pray, etc., is not permitted. - Vv. 271-278: cf. vv. 9097. -- efrnvVos, sc. 4txou, to listen to me, etc. -- us K..... vot (XOlafv). Is this a wish, expressed by the optat. w. iK (= &v)? I find no authority

Page  231 ILIAD VI. 231 for viewing it thus, in H., K., or G. Yet the best commentators of Hom. take it as a wish; KeI denoting here, as usual, a condition, 0 that the earth would yawn for him on the spot (sc. if that were possible). I cannot adopt K.'s interpretation, ~ 260, R. 9. - g-pya: join w.'7r~/a. --— oTJ se'raLo-tv (blunderers have often confounded this w. ira~o-), and to his sons. oppbra is sometimes taken as subj. of KcXeXaaE'o-4al (aor. w. reduplicat. fr. Aavsrdi,), that my heart had forgotten, etc. Diintz., Faesi, and some others take it as acc. of specif., that I had forgotten in heart, etc. 286-296. 7) V, but she, the mother of Hector. - ~ Vrotri ueyapa (plur. because it contained many apartments), to her palace, i. e. to that part of the house of Priam, which belonged especially to herself. She had before been standing perhaps at the entrance, or in the court. Cf. vv. 242, 251. -i-Tat refers to &u4L7rJOLaLv (masc. or fem.). -'s adaouov, into her chamber: probably in a retired part of her palace: Krc6evra (Ic;7esL), join w. daXajuov. -- fV' S-av of (dat. of possession), where there were to LVer, where she had. ),- Trs 60bv,v: acc. of extent: on that voyage, on which, etc.-'i-rcy &va, one of these (robes). -- cpov, appos. w. the obj. of cfppe, bore (it) as a gift. -- O's, (that one) which: iromlKinAya0, in i's decorations; denoting, it is thought, both the embroidery and the variety of colors. -,s = k&, as, like: placed after the word, to which it belongs; hence, accented. a7reXaxcrmv, geKELTo; subj.?'rchrXos, the robe, which she had selected. --- veaaTos AXov, lit. the lowest of others,-a comm. form of solecism. We avoid the solecism by saying, the lowest of all. - ereoedozev'oo, /eiTaoeVtw. 298-317.'.ra3o... 6&'$e (oyzvrL), opened for them, etc. -- i e.. Oeavd&: cf. 1, 348, N. -- acoy, break: notice that the 1st aor. of A&yvvp is used: but the 2d aor. of &7yC. - Kai aUrb&,, that even he himself,'subj. of're0o''e. - 5ppa roi... pe6vOopev (subjune.), that we may, etc. &vi/evJe, aiaavemo. --- al Py, they, the Trojan matrons. -- rpbs 6&6ana... KaX&, r'd I' avr'ds KE'. is best rendered by following nearly the Greek order: to the house of Alexander, the beautiful house, which he himself, etc. Paris appears to have been in every respect the most stylish gentleman of the agx. -- o7' or: (notice the difference in form. How does the former word show that the latter is enclitic, and hence the dat.?) who had made for him, etc. -- -Xauoy... avbXv, a chamber, hall, and court. (D.) 318-331. Zela, there (v. 313). - X'-= ee, held: fsKercv7rxv, an enormous length, suited only to an Epic hero (Diintz.). & — rpore... 6ovpss, in front of the shaft: Xpvoeos, two syllables, by synizesis. — i-be, 6' efp', and he (Hector) found him (Paris): dcpiowTa, &acwd. --

Page  232 232 NOTE S. alrXpo7s, reproachful. - m alm6iAse: perh. the simple address, Sir I would suit this and many other connections, as well as any word we have in Eng. Cf. N. 1, 561. - Kaxd, adv.: Xd4ov, obj. of fyaeo (- -vetov, fr. ivr[.rl&1). Hector attributes the withdrawal of Paris from the army to ill. humor at the Trojans, occasioned, perhaps, by their undisguised dislike of him. -- Tb'... Kcal dAXR, and You (not less than I) would contend with another man also:!AzeaJrca.. 7. ro olo, wi/hdrawing from, avoiding, etc. /tz, for fear that, lest: irupbs rftoLo L fpr'nTat, burn with hostile fire: Cr. says, gen. of material. Is it not rather, gen. of source or of cause? 333-348. Cf. 3, 59; 1, 76.- oV'ro...,Veu 0a,, not so muchfrom anger and indignation at, etc. - arq3, join w. uol, to me myself also: E... I..f0Etfall, that it will be better thus. --- eraie,8e'Ta,, lit. changes itself towards, i. e. fluctuates among men. - $ rile,,vor,?7rqTLzV: UwV, aor. subjunc., let me put on, or I will put on, etc.- a-e'etLy (Aer'd, S ul), fut. Lex. II. -- or, obj. of KLX'ar-EJaal. - b, Vi (v. 342), Paris: -by 4f (v. 343), Hector. - V. 344: notice here again the reproaches which Helen casts on herself. Cf. 3, 180. Observe also here?4,ueo, while in 3, 180, the adj. pron. is used. -- El', obj. of rpope'povao-: o6EXe has for subj. aveXAa, and with &cs denotes, as often in Hom., a wish which cannot be realized. Cf. H. 721, b; K. ~ 259, R. 6; G. ~ 83, N. 2,N, that on that day when, etc., an evil blast of wind had borne me swiftly away (lit. had gone bearing me away), etc.: 7rp-ToJ, at first, at the dawn of life. - a&7rdpae, see Lex.: notice the omission of dv. H. 746, b; K. ~ 260, R. 3; G. ~ 49, 2, N. 2, where a wave had washed me away before, etc. 350-368. avLpos limits &CKo-LS: CireiTa, thereupon, or therefore would that, etc.- - s'an (fr. oTba), who knew, i. e. vwho felt, etc. -- ppE'es E.trE8ot, sc. 6o-tv. T-.- w,, illative: A[lv, subj. of e'ravup~feoaat. -- cppyva: partitive appos. w. o', has encompassed you especially, in mind, i. e. has encompassed especially YOUR mind. -'eSi' &Trns, on account of the mischief (i. e. the mschievous conduct) of, etc. - u- ed, obj. of Kd&ise (causative). - i7rarrasvE l, I'rew. - o~ ue~y' (adv.) K7iT., lit. who have greatly a lcnging, etc., i. e. who have a great longing for me, etc.- ~-ro- TO, Paris. ---... I, whether... or. 3871-379. Sp' = espe, epo.icw... - Eye (notice the accent and breathing, distinguishing it fr. i]ye), she, fr. bye. - r- 7pepywq isepso-tei, stood upon, etc.; cf. 3, 149, N. on ifrl 7rvdApo. ---- r' oi68v, join w. iyz (fut.), not w. eaCrs (which would take iri w. the dat.: cf. Wrtp yw iqp- v. 273), lhe stood, about to go towards, etc. - e' Lfye KEi., but if (you will), come! speak to me, etc.: &'ye, interjec. Cf. 1, 302. -- wr, interrog. Lex. II. 2: wrJ (enclit.), indef., whither went, etc.; has she gone at all, etc.:

Page  233 ILIAD VI. 233 es w. gen. always elliptical. Cf. f w. gen. v. 47, N.?- yaXdwv, sitersin-law: elvacepwoV, sisters-in-law of a husband. 382-398.,1dAa by its position naturally goes w. &wvyas, since you earnestly ezhort (me), etc. Supply after this clause the thought, Epci, I will speak. For a sirnilar ellipsis, cf. v. 150. -- Tpcas, subj. of'repeorai. -'H: cf. 1, 528. - 6bp, acc. of extent, by the same way, etc., along (Kava), etc. ~- i, adv. here, or by this. rtetaL, rat, S, v, a,. -o.'HerTw6Y, though an emphatic repetition of the preceding word, is yet made to agree in case with the following relat. "s. -- cOhp, dat. of place, poetic usage, for Jv w. dat. - Notice the resumptive force of Sh after TroiTrep, the daughter of this one, I say. H. 851, a; K. ~ 315. -'"EKrop~ is usu. explained as dat. of agent, was held (as wife) by, etc. 399-408. 1 ol....y oT' (a&Ydw), she then met him. -- 7raT'... aTraxdppoca, obj. of 4Xovaa, which agrees w. a4,.plroxos. r- zlro, acrwi, so young, calling marked attention to the youth of the child, who was borne in the arms of the nurse. - odos (notice the breathing)... wEKCWp, for Hector alone, etc. The people called Hector's little son, Astyanax (aor-v, dva~), in compliment to the father, as the defender of Troy. of &YXi 7raptOTa0o: is not of dependent on irap-? &yXL comm. takes the gen.: stood close by his side. - V. 406: cf. v. 253.- AaLJAJeL: " is here," says Dr. Owen, "a term of endearment." Cr. and F. render it, Boser Mann! base man! It appears to me here, as usu. elsewhere, simply a courteous form of address. Cf. v. 326, N. - ~, subj. of oropuaL, relates to fAe. 411-424. a.auap'Tour0 relates to ixot, takes o-ev as indirect obj., being deprived of you. -..rel....r.irrps (fciErw, III), after you (emphatic) shall have, etc. -- Xe' (&Xea, fr. aXos), sc. oeral IAo.. - dc, v. 415, join w. ire'pcrev (ire'pw). -, rl... XeefV ('rixlWO), se. aur,4, heaped a mound over (him). - crept, sc. avirdv. o- f... o0l IX (= EiyV): same const. as 3, 132-134; see N.: lit. those, who were to me in the palace seven brothers, all on one day, etc. Ai'Aov e-Yaw: cf. 3, 322 where 8duor is expressed. -?rl (v. 424) w. dat. denotes here situation, near, by, or among. 425-439. nJ7Tf'pa: emphatic position; obj. of arTEAvae: but my mother, who, etc., after he brought her hither, etc., her he released, etc.: Trv (v. 42'7) repeats for perspicuity the idea /r1TEp-a. -- Bdh', SC. ripv, smote (her). - "Erop, a&r&p 0t KiE. Cf. v. 86. Notice the abruptness of the transition, imparting great liveliness to the narration. - abtrov, adv. - - opqpavwco'v, and Xpqrv, pred., make not your child an orphan, etc. - iLjBa/A-ds (= &va]ards): Cr. and some others read 1IX8ea7os. —

Page  234 234, O T E S. irXe-o (rEAo), was Land has continued to be); may be rendered as pres., is. - r-ye, adv., here, at this point. - 1 ro Tis... vv, either some one perhaps... or (if this was not so) then even their courage, etc. evo'ire (H. 450 D, 8; K. ~ 230, EErcow: augment omitted, as is shown by the accent on the prep. boior-wE); told (it, the fact that the wall at this point was easily scaled) to them. 441-449. rdbe 7rdvTa, all these things, i. e. all that Andromache had said to him; especially v. 410 if. and v. 432. -- yrvaL: often used, as here, in the most respectful address. -- &oTWye (Tvwnya), sc. aAvUKaSEd'i,. -- &apzievos: &pYujvaL means 1st to win, acquire, cf. 1, 159; 2d to defend (what one has acquired), as here. - le'ov, sc. KAEos: aviTro, same const. as KUcvTrl&Os, 3, 180, cf. note: and my own (glory). -- Vv. 447-449: cf. 4, 163-165. Scipio is said to have repeated vv. 448, 449, among the ruins of Carthage, while standing at the side of his friend Polybius, and to have predicted in these words the fall of Rome. Appian, Lib. VIII. Cap. cxxxii. 450-465. Tpcwv, obj. gen. w. &Ayos, but grief lies not so much on my heart for the Trojans in future, nor for, etc. - iroXhes: notice the accent; fr. iroz5s.- obov o-eo (accented, emphat.), as for you. — &aKpudeo'o'av &'yl'rai, sc. oae'. EAevepov ijuap, day of freedom: cf. boviXor jiap, day of servitude, 463. - 7rpbs (denoting the agent) 4AAxxs, at the command of another. —. Ki... ivTbY bativrois, you would weave a web; cf. 3, 125. - Meav-,i#os,'T~repet'ls. "If Hom. intends to mention fountains in Greece, he only selects names of frequent occurrence. Fountains of these names afterwards existed in Thessalian Pherae. A fountain Messeis is mentioned by Pausanias at Therapne in Laconia." Diintz. - E7nrl eTat, sc. o'oL. T Irs (enclit.), one and another, or many a one shall hereafter (VroTr) say, etc. KaT&.... Xouvaav, sc. So, obj. of iSdv. i ~$e, that is, or yonder is, etc. - E, obj. of IcaT... itaXv7r'ro: optat. without Vr, a wish: may a mound of earth cover me, etc. 7rvucaraa w. xrplr: before, added to all the rest (e&i), Iperceive your cry (for help) and learn of, etc. 466-481. oA'raits, gen. w. verb of aiming, reached towards his boy. -- aTvX2ErEs (aTvlooal), w. direct obj., terri ed at; gives the reason for EhIctvX7 AdXwo. -- eLro'r, adv. w. reivorra (se. Xe4pov), having perceived it nodding terribly, etc. - iK' e-TyXaoaae, e'iyeaco. - abvbca: notice the asyndeton, giving liveliness to the narration, forthwith, from his head... took his helmet. - TrPY, i. e. Ko'pvaa. -- cfae, eKUvye': 7rihXe, 7rdhAAw: after he had kissed, etc. -- 8d-e 84: notice the force of 58, imparting emphasis to the prayer, grant, etc. The thought of the destruction of

Page  235 ILIAD VI. 235 Troy appears for the moment to have passed from Hector's mind. --- ial Trove... Kal ad?. It is not convenient to translate icKa in both clauses: that this, my son also may become just as I (also). --'i-s: cf. v. 459, N. a- &vda, sc. aV'J6v (indirect obj. of etrpal), and hereafter many a one shall say of him, as he returns, etc. Some editt. have efirot, instead of eth'r, denoting a wish: Xenpon, xape,, optat. of wishing, may he bring, etc. 484-493. 6aKpvdev (8atcpvdeLs), adv., tearfully, or through tears. —-- Ka'itpetev,, KcaTappdEw: caressed her with his hand, etc. - alcoov'tfl: Derby renders it here, dearest! -- A LoL (dat. of interest) KTf., do not grieve for me, etc. --- Tre'p adarv, beyond what is fated, i. e. contrary to fate. Cf. v. 333, for a sense somewhat different. --,Uo~pa obj. ovSLva subj. of erEvpyye',oY: oh... oa vor emphasizes the foregoing; not a coward, znot even a brave man, sc. has escaped, etc. -- e7rP... YE7',TaL, lit., since the first (things) have come into being, i. e. since the world began. -- T& ol- (= a-o) a'T7lis Ep-ya, thine own affairs. For the const. of avhTis, cf. ICVVCrio5, 3, 180, N. -- tiaov,, vhXaK-, appos. w. fpa. O — o, relat. 494-516. Kdpv A~' CATFo: he had just before placed it on the ground. Cf. v. 473. -- fBejBIeI: cf. 1, 221, N. -- ydov, obj. of &e'vpoev (v4dpvvurl). - alc fue'', i. e. ayr&p7roXoL. yo'ov (v. 500) a verb: Lex. yod. - 1ALV, subj. of'eo'aal: iriTdpo7roV,, irpo4pvy4vSra agree w. 1,lv. -- &rropphtas, aropyvrMLt: e p7, at': vcS-Oio, cf. v. 38, runs, stamping, over the plain. --- roTa/uoo, gen. of place. d- icdp-, obj. of EXEL, subj., sc. o-aibrs?lr-ros..- e, obj. of qpfpeL:?yova, ace. of specif.; lit., bears himself easily in respect to his knees: /eCds w. ace., into the midst of, etc. - i&s (accented), thus: a correlative of &s, as, v. 506. Few more spirited comparisons than the above can be found. i KaT-d w. gen., down from, connect w. EfEf81KEL. -— &,I relat. adv., where: A, join w.,yvvalcl, his wife. 518-529.'HaEZe: Derby renders it, good brother. -- bapo'ire, a respectful address, and should not, I think, be rendered strange one! Derby says, my gallant brother! -- pryov... zfdX-qs, would fail to honor your conduct in battle.-!erLE~Is (/leeWr/l), 2d pers. sing. pres. indic.: Att. speW71s: you are voluntarily remiss, and are unwilling (to fight). -- rWpd Tp&0ov, cf. 1, 160. -- onaeB,, subjunc., let us, etc. -- cp7T? pa....Xevaepov: a mixer (commemorative) of freedom. -- xdcaaTas agrees w. the subj. of o'-r' shall grant that we set up... after having driven, etc.

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